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Sample records for midge chironomus tentans

  1. Comparison of gene expression profiles in the aquatic midge (Chironomus tentans) larvae exposed to two major agricultural pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guanghui; Yao, Jianxiu; Zhang, Xin; Lu, Nanyan; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2018-03-01

    We developed a high-resolution expression microarray based on 2456 unique transcripts from a cDNA library of the aquatic midge (Chironomus tentans). By using the microarray, we detected that 146, 434 and 243 genes were differentially expressed after C. tentans larvae were exposed to chlorpyrifos (organophosphate insecticide) at 0.1 and 0.5 μg/L, and atrazine (triazine herbicide) at 1000 μg/L, respectively, for 48 h. The number of differentially expressed genes in the larvae exposed to chlorpyrifos at 0.5 μg/L was three times of that in the larvae exposed to chlorpyrifos at 0.1 μg/L. Among the differentially expressed genes in response to chlorpyrifos exposures, 76 genes showed significant Blast hits, and among them 42 were in common between the chlorpyrifos and atrazine exposures. In 19 differentially expressed xenobiotic detoxification genes, 16 were significantly up-regulated in the larvae exposed to chlorpyrifos and/or atrazine. Two cytochrome P450 genes (CtCYP6EV1 and CtCYP4DG2) were specifically up-regulated by chlorpyrifos, whereas three cytochrome P450 genes (CtCYP4DG1, CtCYP6EX3 and CtCYP6EV3) were specifically up-regulated by atrazine. Our results showed that chlorpyrifos exposures even at low concentrations can lead to significant changes in gene expression. The significant transcriptional responses are likely attributed to larval intoxication by the insecticide. These results not only support our previous studies in which candidate gene approaches were used, but also can potentially help develop specific molecular markers for monitoring pesticide exposures in non-target organisms in aquatic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cytochrome P450 genes from the aquatic midge Chironomus tentans: Atrazine-induced up-regulation of CtCYP6EX3 contributing to oxidative activation of chlorpyrifos

    Science.gov (United States)

    The open reading frames of 19 cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP) genes were sequenced from Chironomus tentans, a commonly used freshwater invertebrate model. Functional analysis of CtCYP6EX3 confirmed its atrazine-induced oxidative activation for chlorpyrifos by using a nanoparticle-based RNA inter...

  3. Extracellular electrical activity from the photoreceptors of midge

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    349. Keywords. Chironomus; electroretinogram; insect development; midge; photoreceptor ... ceran insects, only larval ocelli of mosquito (Family: Culi- cidae) have been ... and Ball (1995) studied the influence of light in Chiro- nomus tentans ...

  4. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF THE HERBICIDE DIURON ON FRESHWATER CLADOCERANS,AMPHIPODS,MIDGES,MINNOWS,WORMS, AND SNAILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and reproduction of Daphnia pulex, and survival and growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midge Chironomus tentans, juvenile and embro/larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, annelid worms, Lumbriculus variegatus,...

  5. Response of the nonbiting midge Chironomus riparius to multigeneration toxicant exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinković, M.; de Bruijn, K.; Asselman, M.; Bogaert, M.; Jonker, M.J.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.

    2012-01-01

    The ability of the nonbiting midge Chironomus riparius to withstand long-term toxicant exposure has been attributed to genetic adaptation. Recently, however, evidence has arisen that supports phenotypic plasticity. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate if Chironomus riparius indeed copes

  6. Examining the joint toxicity of chlorpyrifos and atrazine in the aquatic species: Lepomis macrochirus, Pimephales promelas and Chironomus tentans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler Mehler, W.; Schuler, Lance J.; Lydy, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The joint toxicity of chlorpyrifos and atrazine was compared to that of chlorpyrifos alone to discern any greater than additive response using both acute toxicity testing and whole-body residue analysis. In addition, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and biotransformation were investigated to evaluate the toxic mode of action of chlorpyrifos in the presence of atrazine. The joint toxicity of atrazine and chlorpyrifos exhibited no significant difference in Lepomis macrochirus compared to chlorpyrifos alone; while studies performed with Pimephales promelas and Chironomus tentans, did show significant differences. AChE activity and biotransformation showed no significant differences between the joint toxicity of atrazine and chlorpyrifos and that of chlorpyrifos alone. From the data collected, the combination of atrazine and chlorpyrifos pose little additional risk than that of chlorpyrifos alone to the tested fish species. - The joint toxicity between atrazine and chlorpyrifos caused greater than additive responses in invertebrates, but the interactions in vertebrates was less pronounced

  7. Examining the joint toxicity of chlorpyrifos and atrazine in the aquatic species: Lepomis macrochirus, Pimephales promelas and Chironomus tentans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Mehler, W.; Schuler, Lance J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901-6511 (United States); Lydy, Michael J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901-6511 (United States)], E-mail: mlydy@siu.edu

    2008-03-15

    The joint toxicity of chlorpyrifos and atrazine was compared to that of chlorpyrifos alone to discern any greater than additive response using both acute toxicity testing and whole-body residue analysis. In addition, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and biotransformation were investigated to evaluate the toxic mode of action of chlorpyrifos in the presence of atrazine. The joint toxicity of atrazine and chlorpyrifos exhibited no significant difference in Lepomis macrochirus compared to chlorpyrifos alone; while studies performed with Pimephales promelas and Chironomus tentans, did show significant differences. AChE activity and biotransformation showed no significant differences between the joint toxicity of atrazine and chlorpyrifos and that of chlorpyrifos alone. From the data collected, the combination of atrazine and chlorpyrifos pose little additional risk than that of chlorpyrifos alone to the tested fish species. - The joint toxicity between atrazine and chlorpyrifos caused greater than additive responses in invertebrates, but the interactions in vertebrates was less pronounced.

  8. Life cycle responses of the midge Chironomus riparius to polycyclic aromatic compound exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paumen, Miriam Leon [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 320, 1098 SM Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: mleon@science.uva.nl; Borgman, Eefje [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 320, 1098 SM Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kraak, Michiel H.S. [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 320, 1098 SM Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: castella@science.uva.nl; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Department of Animal Ecology, Institute of Ecological Sciences (IEW), Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, de Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: kees.van.gestel@falw.vu.nl; Admiraal, Wim [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 320, 1098 SM Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-03-15

    During acute exposure, polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) act mainly by narcosis, but during chronic exposure the same compounds may exert sublethal life cycle effects. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the chronic effects of sediment spiked PACs on the emergence of the midge Chironomus riparius. Three isomer pairs were selected, and 28-day LC{sub 50} values and 50% emergence times (EMt{sub 50}) were determined. Concentration-response relationships were observed for phenanthrene, acridine, phenanthridine and acridone. Anthracene and phenanthridone had no effect on total emergence, but did cause a delay in emergence. Calculated porewater LC{sub 50} values correlated well with logK{sub ow} values, suggesting narcosis as mode of action. In contrast, effect concentrations for delay in emergence (EMt{sub 50}) deviated from narcosis, suggesting a specific mode of action during chronic exposure. It is concluded that emergence is a powerful endpoint to detect life cycle effects of PACs on a key sediment inhabiting invertebrate. - Emergence of Chironomus riparius is a sensitive endpoint to detect life cycle effects of PACs.

  9. Effects of pH on the toxicity and uptake of [14C]lindane in the midge, Chironomus riparius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    The toxicity of the insecticide, lindane, was measured in the midge, Chironomus riparius, at pH 4, 6, and 8 with the finding that lindane is significantly more toxic at pH 6 than at pH 4 and 8. The higher toxicity of lindane at pH 6 is a product of two factors. First the penetration of the compound into the midge is lower at pH 4 than at pH 6 and 8. Second, a greater percentage of total radioactivity is contributed by parent compound at pH 6

  10. The effect of high and low dissolved oxygen on the toxicity of oil sands coke and its leachate to Chironomus tentans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squires, A.J.; Liber, K.

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of low dissolved oxygen on the long-term leaching potential of the toxic constituents found in coke. Coke is one of the waste products produced during the oil sand upgrading process used at Syncrude Canada Ltd. and Suncor Energy Inc. Coke is contaminated by metals and organic compounds which can leach into the environment. In this study, coke from both companies was exposed to reconstituted water and high dissolved oxygen for a period of 30 days, during which time the overlying water containing the leachate and the coke pore-water was chemically analyzed. The benthic macroinvertebrate, Chironomus tentans, was exposed to the aged coke and the overlying leachate after the 30 day period. The study did not reveal any major difference in the survival or growth between the dissolved oxygen treatments or any of the leachate treatments. The macroinvertebrate in the aged Syncrude grew significantly while the Suncor coke strongly inhibited both survival and growth of the macroinvertebrate. The study demonstrates that coke has the potential to negatively affect benthic organisms if it is used uncovered in an aquatic reclamation effort

  11. Hazard evaluation of ten organophosphorous insecticides against the midge, Chironomus riparius via QSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, Peter F.; Fisher, Susan W.; Hwang, Haejo; Hickey, James P.

    1999-01-01

    Toxicities of ten organophosphorus (OP) insecticides were measured against midge larvae (Chironomus riparius) under varying temperature (11, 18, and 25°C) and pH (6, 7, and 8) conditions and with and without sediment. Toxicity usually increased with increasing temperature and was greater in the absence of sediment. No trend was found with varying pH. A series of unidimensional parameters and multidimensional models were used to describe the changes in toxicity. Log Kow was able to explain about 40–60% of the variability in response data for aqueous exposures while molecular volume and aqueous solubility were less predictive. Likewise, the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) model only explained 40–70% of the response variability, suggesting that factors other than solubility were most important for producing the observed response. Molecular connectivity was the most useful for describing the variability in the response. In the absence of sediment, 1χv and 3κ were best able to describe the variation in response among all compounds at each pH (70–90%). In the presence of sediment, even molecular connectivity could not describe the variability until the partitioning potential to sediment was accounted for by assuming equilibrium partitioning. After correcting for partitioning, the same molecular connectivity terms as in the aqueous exposures described most of the variability, 61–87%, except for the 11°C data where correlations were not significant. Molecular connectivity was a better tool than LSER or the unidimensional variables to explain the steric fitness of OP insecticides which was crucial to the toxicity.

  12. A Determination of Metallothionein in Larvae of Freshwater Midges (Chironomus riparius Using Brdicka Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Among wide spectrum of biomolecules induced by various stress factors low molecular mass protein called metallothionein (MT is suitable for assessment of the heavy metal environmental pollution. The aim of this work was to determine the metallothionein and total thiols content in larvae of freshwater midges (Chironomus riparius sampled from laboratory exposure to cadmium(II ions and from field studies using differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. Unique electrochemical instrument, stationary electrochemical analyser Autolab coupled with autosampler, was utilized for the analysis of the samples. The detection limit for MT was evaluated as 5 nM. The larvae exposed to two doses (50 ng/g or 50 μg/g of cadmium(II ions for fifteen days under laboratory controlled conditions were at the end of the exposure killed, homogenized and analysed. MT content in control samples was 1.2 μM, in larvae exposed to 50 ng Cd/g it was 2.0 μM and in larvae exposed to 50 μg Cd/g 2.9 μM. Moreover at field study chironomid larvae as well as sediment samples have been collected from eight field sites with different levels of pollution by heavy. The metals content (chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, molybdenum, cadmium, tin and lead in the sediment and or MT content in the chironomid larvae were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or Brdicka reaction, respectively.

  13. Rate of sediment intake by midge larvae (Chironomus plumosus: diptera) using a 134Cs tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerking, S.D.; Berg, A.; Gerard, P.

    1976-01-01

    The food intake and assimilation of midge larvae (Chironomus plumosus) were determined by a 134 Cs technique which utilized the principle that the rate of excretion can be substituted for the rate of absorption when the larvae are in 134 Cs equilibrium with their environment. The larvae were introduced into contaminated sediments until they reached 134 Cs equilibrium. The time of reaching equilibrium and levels of radioactivity were the same at 10 and at 15 0 C (70 hr at a level of 1367 dpm/mg of larva) and were both significantly different from that at 20 0 C (40 hr at 1062 dpm/mg of larva). Cesium-134 elimination was followed on equilibrated larvae for as long as 330 hr. One egestion compartment (fast) and two excretion (medium and slow) compartments could be recognized at the three experimental temperatures. The loss rates from the second and third compartments at 10 0 C were slower and stretched out over longer time periods compared with those at 15 0 C, while the loss rate from the first compartment was much more comparable at the two temperatures. The first and second compartments merged at 20 0 C, while the slow compartment rose to almost three times that at 15 0 C. The food intake was nearly the same at the three temperatures (0.0986, 0.0893 and 0.0876 mg dry sediment/mg of larva/day). Thus, the larvae relied on an increase in assimilation to meet increased metabolic requirements at higher temperatures rather than depending upon a higher food intake. The gross growth efficiencies varied with temperature from 9.9 percent at 10 0 C to 15.1 percent at 15 0 C

  14. Redescription of Chironomus salinarius (Diptera: Chironomidae), nuisance midges that emerged in brackish water of Jinhae-man (Bay), Kyongsangnam-do, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Jin-Hwoa

    2006-01-01

    Huge numbers of non-biting midges emerged from brackish water which were made at the harbor construction field in Jinhae City, Kyongsangnam-do, Korea in late summer in 2005, and caused a serious nuisance to villagers. The midges were collected and identified as Chironomus salinarius (Kieffer, 1921). Although this species was recorded in Korea for the first time in 1998, the morphological descriptions were so brief and simple. A full redescription is made with detailed illustrations for ecological and control workers of this nuisance midge. PMID:16514284

  15. Contaminated sediments and bioassay responses of three macroinvertebrates, the midge larva Chironomus riparius, the water louse Asellus aquaticus and the mayfly nymph Ephoron virgo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de H.J.; Haas, de E.M.; Maas, H.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Bioassays are widely used to estimate ecological risks of contaminated sediments. We compared the results of three whole sediment bioassays, using the midge larva Chironomus riparius, the water louse Asellus aquaticus, and the mayfly nymph Ephoron virgo. We used sediments from sixteen locations in

  16. Toxicity of cadmium and lead on tropical midge larvae, Chironomus kiiensis Tokunaga and Chironomus javanus Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebau, Warrin; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Din, Zubir; Al-Shami, Salman Abdo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the acute toxicity of cadmium and lead on larvae of two tropical Chironomid species, Chironomus kiiensis (C. kiiensis) Tokunaga and Chironomus javanus (C. javanus) Kieffer. Methods Different larval instars (first-fourth) were exposed using a static non-replacement testing procedures to various concentrations of cadmium and lead. Results In general, younger larvae (first and second instars) of both species were more sensitive to both metals than older larvae (third and forth instars). The toxic effects of the metals on C. kiiensis and C. javanus were influenced by the age of the larvae (first to fourth instars), types of metals (cadmium or lead) and duration of larval exposure (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) to the metals. Conclusions Cadmium was more toxic to the chironomids than lead and C. javanus was significantly more sensitive to both metals than C. kiiensis (P<0.05). PMID:23569984

  17. Survival of Salmonella enterica in Freshwater and Sediments and Transmission by the Aquatic Midge Chironomus tentans (Chironomidae: Diptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Barry C.; Martinez, Edward; Gay, John M.; Rice, Daniel H.

    2003-01-01

    Survival of a nalidixic acid-resistant strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mr-DT-104 in water and sediments was tested using artificially contaminated aquaria. Water samples remained culture positive for salmonella for up to 54 days. Sediment samples were culture positive up to 119 days. In addition, potential mechanisms for spreading salmonella in the environments by chironomid larvae and adults were tested. We evaluated the acquisition of mr-DT-104 by chironomids from contaminated aquatic sediments and subsequent spread to uncontaminated sediments. Larval chironomids raised in contaminated sediments became culture positive, and the bacteria were carried over to adults after emergence. Contamination of clean sediments by chironomid larvae was not demonstrated. These findings clearly suggest that mr-DT-104 serovar organisms can survive in aquatic sediments for at least several months. Uptake of salmonellae by chironomid larvae and adults suggests that they are possible vectors of mr-DT-104 in both aquatic and terrestrial environments, although the role of larval defecation in movement of bacteria to new sediments was not demonstrated. PMID:12902242

  18. Effects of exposure to azaarenes on emergence and mouthpart development in the midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleeker, E.A.J.; Leslie, H.A.; Groenendijk, D.; Plans, M.; Admiraal, W.

    1999-08-01

    Adverse effects of azaarenes on emergence and mouthpart development of the midge Chironomus riparius were analyzed using six closely related three-ringed isomers and metabolites. Effects on growth rate were examined by comparing the average day of emergence of exposed midges with that of controls. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in the pecten epipharyngis was examined as a measure of developmental abnormality. Delayed emergence was found at concentrations as low as 2% of the acute LC50, so emergence day appears to be a useful sensitive parameter to quantity life cycle effects. No differences in FA were found between exposed and control larvae, although, in other studies, all compounds have been proven to be genotoxic. The differences in FA were found between exposed and control larvae, although, in other studies, all compounds have been proven to be genotoxic. The differences in the genotoxic and FA-inducing properties of these compounds indicate that different mechanisms are involved in expressing these adverse effects. This study also illustrates that the choice of the morphological parameter strongly influences the results of developmental disturbance analyses and thus the risk qualification of a potentially hazardous compound.

  19. New gnat-midge species chironomus degelenus i sp. n. (diptera chironomidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejsebaev, A.T.; Bakhtin, M.M.; Siirin, M.T.

    2001-01-01

    For the first time the morphology of larvae, pupae, imago and karyotype of Chironomus degelenus I Sp. n. collected from Water-Body D-3-3 of the Degelen Mountain Massif has been described. The larvae have a species-specific structure and color of the head capsule, ventral-mental blades, and mandibula hamuli. The male gnat is characterized for grid structure in IX tergite. The karyotype of C. degelenus I Sp. n. has the following combination of chromosome arms: AB, CD, EF, and G (thummi complex), which is typical for Chironomus species. It was concluded that the origin of the new species of Chironomus degelenus I Sp. N. is related to the long-term genetic processes of Chironomini adaptation to the elevated radiation background level. (author)

  20. Consequences of inbreeding and reduced genetic variation on tolerance to cadmium stress in the midge Chironomus riparius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Carsten; Jost, Daniel; Vogt, Christian; Oetken, Matthias; Schwenk, Klaus; Oehlmann, Joerg

    2007-01-01

    Inbreeding and loss of genetic variation are considered to be major threats to small and endangered populations. The reduction of fitness due to inbreeding is believed to be more severe under stressful environmental conditions. We generated nine strains of the ecotoxicological model organism Chironomus riparius of different inbreeding levels in order to test the hypothesis that the inbreeding level and thus the degree of genome-wide homozygosity influences the life-history under cadmium exposure. Therefore, midge populations were exposed to a gradient of sediment-bound cadmium. The level of genetic variation in the used strains was assessed using microsatellite markers. In the life-cycle tests, inbreeding reduced fitness within C. riparius populations both under control and stressed conditions. However, differences between genetically diverse and impoverished strains were greatest at high cadmium exposure. Overall, inbreeding effects were not only dependent on cadmium concentrations in the sediment, but also on the life-history trait investigated. While some parameters where only affected by inbreeding, others were altered by both, inbreeding and cadmium. For the larval developmental time, a significant interaction was found between inbreeding and cadmium stress. While all strains showed a similar developmental time under control conditions, high rates of inbreeding led to a significantly delayed emergence time under high cadmium concentrations, resulting in longer generation periods and reduced population growth rates as population-relevant effects. The results show, that bioassays with C. riparius are affected by the level of inbreeding within Chironomus test strains. Pollution stress is therefore likely to affect the survival of rare and endangered populations more severe than that of large and genetically diverse ones

  1. Life cycle responses of the midge Chironomus riparius to polycyclic aromatic compound exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    León Paumen, M.; Borgman, E.; Kraak, M.H.S.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Admiraal, W.

    2008-01-01

    During acute exposure, polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) act mainly by narcosis, but during chronic exposure the same compounds may exert sublethal life cycle effects. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the chronic effects of sediment spiked PACs on the emergence of the midge

  2. 60Co accumulation from sediment and planktonic algae by midge larvae (Chironomus luridus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, J.P.; Nucho, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports the results of several experiments carried out to evaluate uptake and retention by a limicolous midge larva of 60 Co retained in sediment, either adsorbed on mineral particles or bound to planktonic algae. In order to determine their relative contributions in radionuclide accumulation, the different vectors (water, algae and sediment) were first labelled individually and then simultaneously. 60 Co accumulation from water and from algae results in a maximum concentration factor of 30 and in a mean trophic transfer factor of 4·5 × 10 −3 . The level of contamination of midge larvae from sediment is markedly influenced by the presence of endogenous organic matter. Thus the radionuclide transfer factor is about twice as high for larvae placed in labelled raw sediment than for larvae placed in labelled incinerated sediment, in the presence as in the absence of contaminated planktonic algae. Irrespective of the contamination conditions, 60 Co depuration from midge larvae is a very rapid phenomenon that corresponds, in all cases, to a radionuclide half-life of only a few days

  3. 60Co accumulation from sediment and planktonic algae by midge larvae (Chironomus luridus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, J.P.; Nucho, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports the results of several experiments carried out to evaluate uptake and retention by a limicolous midge larva of 60 Co retained in sediment, either adsorbed on mineral particles or bound to planktonic algae. In order to determine their relative contributions in radionuclide accumulation, the different vectors (water, algae and sediment) were first labelled individually and then simultaneously. 60 Co accumulation from water and from algae results in a maximum concentration factor of 30 and in a mean trophic transfer factor of 4.5 x 10 -3 . The level of contamination of midge larvae from sediment is markedly influenced by the presence of endogenous organic matter. Thus the radionuclide transfer factor is about twice as high for larvae placed in labelled raw sediment than for larvae placed in labelled incinerated sediment, in the presence as in the absence of contaminated planktonic algae. Irrespective of the contamination conditions, 60 Co depuration from midge larvae is a very rapid phenomenon that corresponds, in all cases, to a radionuclide half-life of only a few days. (author)

  4. Calculation and evaluation of sediment effect concentrations for the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus riparius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Haverland, Pamela S.; Brunson, Eric L.; Canfield, Timothy J.; Dwyer, F. James; Henke, Chris; Kemble, Nile E.; Mount, David R.; Fox, Richard G.

    1996-01-01

    Procedures are described for calculating and evaluating sediment effect concentrations (SECs) using laboratory data on the toxicity of contaminants associated with field-collected sediment to the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus riparius. SECs are defined as the concentrations of individual contaminants in sediment below which toxicity is rarely observed and above which toxicity is frequently observed. The objective of the present study was to develop SECs to classify toxicity data for Great Lake sediment samples tested with Hyalella azteca and Chironomus riparius. This SEC database included samples from additional sites across the United States in order to make the database as robust as possible. Three types of SECs were calculated from these data: (1) Effect Range Low (ERL) and Effect Range Median (ERM), (2) Threshold Effect Level (TEL) and Probable Effect Level (PEL), and (3) No Effect Concentration (NEC). We were able to calculate SECs primarily for total metals, simultaneously extracted metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The ranges of concentrations in sediment were too narrow in our database to adequately evaluate SECs for butyltins, methyl mercury, polychlorinated dioxins and furans, or chlorinated pesticides. About 60 to 80% of the sediment samples in the database are correctly classified as toxic or not toxic depending on type of SEC evaluated. ERMs and ERLs are generally as reliable as paired PELs and TELs at classifying both toxic and non-toxic samples in our database. Reliability of the SECs in terms of correctly classifying sediment samples is similar between ERMs and NECs; however, ERMs minimize Type I error (false positives) relative to ERLs and minimize Type II error (false negatives) relative to NECs. Correct classification of samples can be improved by using only the most reliable individual SECs for chemicals (i.e., those with a higher percentage of correct classification). SECs

  5. The effects of binary UV filter mixtures on the midge Chironomus riparius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozáez, Irene; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2016-01-01

    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are used in a wide variety of products, including cosmetics, to prevent damage from UV light in tissues and industrial materials. Their extensive use has raised concerns about potential adverse effects in human health and aquatic ecosystems that accumulate these pollutants. To increase sun radiation protection, UV filters are commonly used in mixtures. Here, we studied the toxicity of binary mixtures of 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC), octyl-methoxycinnamate (OMC), and benzophenone-3 (BP-3), by evaluating the larval mortality of Chironomus riparius. Also molecular endpoints have been analyzed, including alterations in the expression levels of a gene related with the endocrine system (EcR, ecdysone receptor) and a gene related with the stress response (hsp70, heat shock protein 70). The results showed that the mortality caused by binary mixtures was similar to that observed for each compound alone; however, some differences in LC50 were observed between groups. Gene expression analysis showed that EcR mRNA levels increased in the presence of 0.1 mg/L 4MBC but returned to normal levels after exposure to mixtures of 4MBC with 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/L of BP-3 or OMC. In contrast, the hsp70 mRNA levels increased after exposure to the combinations tested of 4MBC and BP-3 or OMC mixtures. These data suggest that 4MBC, BP-3, and OMC may have antagonist effects on EcR gene transcription and a synergistic effect on hsp70 gene activation. This is the first experimental study to show the complex patterned effects of UV filter mixtures on invertebrates. The data suggest that the interactions within these chemicals mixtures are complex and show diverse effects on various endpoints. - Highlights: • Chironomus riparius is sensitive to UV filter binary mixtures. • UV filters binary mixtures show antagonism on survival of 4th instar larvae. • BP-3 and OMC antagonize the stimulatory effect of 4MBC on EcR gene. • 4MBC, OMC, and BP-3 induce hsp70

  6. The effects of binary UV filter mixtures on the midge Chironomus riparius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozáez, Irene; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis, E-mail: jlmartinez@ccia.uned.es

    2016-06-15

    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are used in a wide variety of products, including cosmetics, to prevent damage from UV light in tissues and industrial materials. Their extensive use has raised concerns about potential adverse effects in human health and aquatic ecosystems that accumulate these pollutants. To increase sun radiation protection, UV filters are commonly used in mixtures. Here, we studied the toxicity of binary mixtures of 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC), octyl-methoxycinnamate (OMC), and benzophenone-3 (BP-3), by evaluating the larval mortality of Chironomus riparius. Also molecular endpoints have been analyzed, including alterations in the expression levels of a gene related with the endocrine system (EcR, ecdysone receptor) and a gene related with the stress response (hsp70, heat shock protein 70). The results showed that the mortality caused by binary mixtures was similar to that observed for each compound alone; however, some differences in LC50 were observed between groups. Gene expression analysis showed that EcR mRNA levels increased in the presence of 0.1 mg/L 4MBC but returned to normal levels after exposure to mixtures of 4MBC with 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/L of BP-3 or OMC. In contrast, the hsp70 mRNA levels increased after exposure to the combinations tested of 4MBC and BP-3 or OMC mixtures. These data suggest that 4MBC, BP-3, and OMC may have antagonist effects on EcR gene transcription and a synergistic effect on hsp70 gene activation. This is the first experimental study to show the complex patterned effects of UV filter mixtures on invertebrates. The data suggest that the interactions within these chemicals mixtures are complex and show diverse effects on various endpoints. - Highlights: • Chironomus riparius is sensitive to UV filter binary mixtures. • UV filters binary mixtures show antagonism on survival of 4th instar larvae. • BP-3 and OMC antagonize the stimulatory effect of 4MBC on EcR gene. • 4MBC, OMC, and BP-3 induce hsp70

  7. Vinclozolin alters the expression of hormonal and stress genes in the midge Chironomus riparius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, Mónica; Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2016-05-01

    Vinclozolin is a fungicide used in agriculture that can reach aquatic ecosystems and affect the organisms living there. Its effects have been intensively studied in vertebrates, where it acts as an antiandrogen, but there is a lack of information about its mechanistic effects on invertebrates. In this work, we analyzed the response of genes related to the endocrine system, the stress response, and the detoxification mechanisms of Chironomus riparius fourth instar larvae after 24h and 48h exposures to 20 (69.9nM), 200 (699nM), and 2000μg/L (6.99μM) of Vinclozolin. Survival analysis showed that this compound has low toxicity, as it was not lethal for this organism at the concentrations used. However, this fungicide was shown to modify the transcriptional activity of the ecdysone response pathway genes EcR, E74, and Kr-h1 by increasing their mRNA levels. While no changes were observed in disembodied, a gene related with the ecdysone synthesis metabolic pathway, Cyp18A1, which is involved in the inactivation of the active form of ecdysone, was upregulated. Additionally, the expression of two genes related to other hormones, FOXO and MAPR, did not show any changes when Vinclozolin was present. The analysis of stress response genes showed significant changes in the mRNA levels of Hsp70, Hsp24, and Gp93, indicating that Vinclozolin activates the cellular stress mechanisms. Finally, the expressions of the genes Cyp4G and GstD3, which encode enzymes involved in phase I and phase II detoxification, respectively, were analyzed. It was found that their mRNA levels were altered by Vinclozolin, suggesting their involvement in the degradation of this compound. For the first time, these results show evidence that Vinclozolin can modulate gene expression, leading to possible significant endocrine alterations of the insect endocrine system. These results also offer new clues about the mode of action of this compound in invertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  8. The Use of the Developmental Rate of the Aquatic Midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae) in the Assessment of the Postsubmersion Interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Medina, Alejandro; Soriano Hernando, Óscar; Jiménez Ríos, Gilberto

    2015-05-01

    Nonbiting midges (Diptera, Chironomidae) are the most abundant members of the fauna associated with submerged carcasses, but their use in the medicolegal context is very restricted because of their complex ontogeny. In this case, the corpse of a woman was recovered in late spring from a river in Granada (Iberian Peninsula). It showed obvious signs of long permanence in the aquatic environment and, along with pulmonary and microscopical analyses, led to the conclusion that the cause of death was drowning. Several larvae-like specimens were sampled from the scalp and later identified by morphological external features as IV instar larvae of Chironomus riparius Meigen, 1804 (Diptera, Chironomidae). Sequencing of cytochrome oxidase subunit I was performed to confirm the identification. The knowledge of the biology of C. riparius at low temperatures was critical to assess a postsubmersion interval of 16-17 days. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Relative sensitivity of an amphipod Hyalella azteca, a midge Chironomus dilutus, and a unionid mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea to a toxic sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kunz, James L.; Hughes, Jamie P.; Wang, Ning; Ireland, D. Scott; Mount, David R.; Hockett, J. Russell; Valenti, Ted W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relative sensitivity of test organisms in exposures to dilutions of a highly toxic sediment contaminated with metals and organic compounds. One dilution series was prepared using control sand (low total organic carbon [TOC; TOC [∼10% TOC, higher binding capacity for contaminants]). Test organisms included an amphipod (Hyalella azteca; 10-d and 28-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 20-d and 48-d exposures started with <1-h-old larvae, and 13-d and 48-d exposures started with 7-d-old larvae), and a unionid mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea; 28-d exposures). Relative species sensitivity depended on the toxicity endpoint and the diluent. All 3 species were more sensitive in sand dilutions than in West Bearskin Lake sediment dilutions. The <1-h-old C. dilutus were more sensitive than 7-d-old C. dilutus, but replicate variability was high in exposures started with the younger midge larvae. Larval biomass and adult emergence endpoints of C. dilutus exhibited a similar sensitivity. Survival, weight, and biomass of H. azteca were more sensitive endpoints in 28-d exposures than in 10-d exposures. Weight and biomass of L. siliquoidea were sensitive endpoints in both sand and West Bearskin Lake sediment dilutions. Metals, ammonia, oil, and other organic contaminants may have contributed to the observed toxicity.

  10. Effects of clay minerals and organic matter in formulated sediments on the bioavailability of sediment-associated uranium to the freshwater midge, Chironomus dilutus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Sarah E., E-mail: sarah.crawford@usask.ca [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3 (Canada); Liber, Karsten, E-mail: karsten.liber@usask.ca [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3 (Canada); School of Environment and Sustainability, 117 Science Place, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5C8 (Canada); Institute of Loess Plateau, 92 Wucheng Road, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006 (China)

    2015-11-01

    examined the role of two common sediment physicochemical properties in altering uranium bioavailability to midge larvae, Chironomus dilutus, using formulated sediments. • Bioaccumulation of U in C. dilutus decreased significantly as clay (kaolin) and organic matter (peat) content in formulated sediment increased. • Uranium concentrations in dissolved fractions (overlying water and pore water) were better predictors of U bioavailability than U concentrations in whole sediment. • These results can help improve risk assessment of U contaminated sediments and aid in the development of U sediment quality guidelines.

  11. Contaminants in stream sediments from seven United States metropolitan areas: part II—sediment toxicity to the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus dilutus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemble, Nile E.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kunz, James L.; Sibley, Paul K.; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Nowell, Lisa H.; Moran, Patrick W.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between sediment toxicity and sediment chemistry were evaluated for 98 samples collected from seven metropolitan study areas across the United States. Sediment-toxicity tests were conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28 day exposures) and with the midge Chironomus dilutus (10 day exposures). Overall, 33 % of the samples were toxic to amphipods and 12 % of the samples were toxic to midge based on comparisons with reference conditions within each study area. Significant correlations were observed between toxicity end points and sediment concentrations of trace elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), or organochlorine (OC) pesticides; however, these correlations were typically weak, and contaminant concentrations were usually below sediment-toxicity thresholds. Concentrations of the pyrethroid bifenthrin exceeded an estimated threshold of 0.49 ng/g (at 1 % total organic carbon) in 14 % of the samples. Of the samples that exceeded this bifenthrin toxicity threshold, 79 % were toxic to amphipods compared with 25 % toxicity for the samples below this threshold. Application of mean probable effect concentration quotients (PECQs) based on measures of groups of contaminants (trace elements, total PAHs, total PCBs,OCpesticides, and pyrethroid pesticides [bifenthrin in particular]) improved the correct classification of samples as toxic or not toxic to amphipods compared with measures of individual groups of contaminants. Sediments are a repository for many contaminants released into surface waters. Because of this, organisms inhabiting sediments may be exposed to a wide range of contaminants (United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) United States Environmental Protection Agency 2000; American Society for Testing and Materials [ASTM] American Society for Testing and Materials International 2012). Contaminants of potential concern in sediments typically include trace elements (metals

  12. Overexpression of long non-coding RNAs following exposure to xenobiotics in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis; Planelló, Rosario; Morcillo, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) represent an important transcriptional output of eukaryotic genomes. In addition to their functional relevance as housekeeping and regulatory elements, recent studies have suggested their involvement in rather unexpected cellular functions. The aim of this work was to analyse the transcriptional behaviour of non-coding RNAs in the toxic response to pollutants in Chironomus riparius, a reference organism in aquatic toxicology. Three well-characterized long non-coding sequences were studied: telomeric repeats, Cla repetitive elements and the SINE CTRT1. Transcription levels were evaluated by RT-PCR after 24-h exposures to three current aquatic contaminants: bisphenol A (BPA), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) and the heavy metal cadmium (Cd). Upregulation of telomeric transcripts was found after BPA treatments. Moreover, BPA significantly activated Cla transcription, which also appeared to be increased by cadmium, whereas BBP did not affect the transcription levels of these sequences. Transcription of SINE CTRT1 was not altered by any of the chemicals tested. These data are discussed in the light of previous studies that have shown a response by long ncRNAS (lncRNAs) to cellular stressors, indicating a relationship with environmental stimuli. Our results demonstrated for the first time the ability of bisphenol A to activate non-coding sequences mainly located at telomeres and centromeres. Overall, this study provides evidence that xenobiotics can induce specific responses in ncRNAs derived from repetitive sequences that could be relevant in the toxic response, and also suggests that ncRNAs could represent a novel class of potential biomarkers in toxicological assessment.

  13. Overexpression of long non-coding RNAs following exposure to xenobiotics in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Guitarte, Jose-Luis, E-mail: jlmartinez@ccia.uned.es [Grupo de Biologia y Toxicologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Planello, Rosario; Morcillo, Gloria [Grupo de Biologia y Toxicologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) represent an important transcriptional output of eukaryotic genomes. In addition to their functional relevance as housekeeping and regulatory elements, recent studies have suggested their involvement in rather unexpected cellular functions. The aim of this work was to analyse the transcriptional behaviour of non-coding RNAs in the toxic response to pollutants in Chironomus riparius, a reference organism in aquatic toxicology. Three well-characterized long non-coding sequences were studied: telomeric repeats, Cla repetitive elements and the SINE CTRT1. Transcription levels were evaluated by RT-PCR after 24-h exposures to three current aquatic contaminants: bisphenol A (BPA), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) and the heavy metal cadmium (Cd). Upregulation of telomeric transcripts was found after BPA treatments. Moreover, BPA significantly activated Cla transcription, which also appeared to be increased by cadmium, whereas BBP did not affect the transcription levels of these sequences. Transcription of SINE CTRT1 was not altered by any of the chemicals tested. These data are discussed in the light of previous studies that have shown a response by long ncRNAS (lncRNAs) to cellular stressors, indicating a relationship with environmental stimuli. Our results demonstrated for the first time the ability of bisphenol A to activate non-coding sequences mainly located at telomeres and centromeres. Overall, this study provides evidence that xenobiotics can induce specific responses in ncRNAs derived from repetitive sequences that could be relevant in the toxic response, and also suggests that ncRNAs could represent a novel class of potential biomarkers in toxicological assessment.

  14. Developing acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios for lead, cadmium, and zinc using rainbow trout, a mayfly, and a midge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, C.A.; Hennessy, D.P.; Dillon, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    In order to estimate acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios (ACRs) relevant to a coldwater stream community, we exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in 96-h acute and 60+ day early-life stage (ELS) exposures. We also tested the acute and sublethal responses of a mayfly (Baetis tricaudatus) and a midge (Chironomus dilutus, formerly C. tentans) with Pb. We examine the statistical interpretation of test endpoints and the acute-to-chronic ratio concept. Increasing the number of control replicates by 2 to 3x decreased the minimum detectable differences by almost half. Pb ACR estimates mostly increased with increasing acute resistance of the organisms (rainbow trout ACRs Chironomus). The choice of test endpoint and statistical analysis influenced ACR estimates by up to a factor of four. When calculated using the geometric means of the no- and lowest-observed effect concentrations, ACRs with rainbow trout and Cd were 0.6 and 0.95; Zn about 1.0; and for Pb 3.3 and 11. The comparable Pb ACRs for the mayfly and Chironomus were 5.2 and 51 respectively. Our rainbow trout ACRs with Pb were about 5-20x lower than earlier reports with salmonids. We suggest discounting previous ACR results that used larger and older fish in their acute tests. ?? 2007 GovernmentEmployee: U.S. Geological Survey.

  15. Differential sensitivity of Chironomus and human hemoglobin to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaikwad, Pallavi S.; Panicker, Lata; Mohole, Madhura; Sawant, Sangeeta; Mukhopadhyaya, Rita; Nath, Bimalendu B.

    2016-01-01

    Chironomus ramosus is known to tolerate high doses of gamma radiation exposure. Larvae of this insect possess more than 95% of hemoglobin (Hb) in its circulatory hemolymph. This is a comparative study to see effect of gamma radiation on Hb of Chironomus and humans, two evolutionarily diverse organisms one having extracellular and the other intracellular Hb respectively. Stability and integrity of Chironomus and human Hb to gamma radiation was compared using biophysical techniques like Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectrometry and CD spectroscopy after exposure of whole larvae, larval hemolymph, human peripheral blood, purified Chironomus and human Hb. Sequence- and structure-based bioinformatics methods were used to analyze the sequence and structural similarities or differences in the heme pockets of respective Hbs. Resistivity of Chironomus Hb to gamma radiation is remarkably higher than human Hb. Human Hb exhibited loss of heme iron at a relatively low dose of gamma radiation exposure as compared to Chironomus Hb. Unlike human Hb, the heme pocket of Chironomus Hb is rich in aromatic amino acids. Higher hydophobicity around heme pocket confers stability of Chironomus Hb compared to human Hb. Previously reported gamma radiation tolerance of Chironomus can be largely attributed to its evolutionarily ancient form of extracellular Hb as evident from the present study. -- Highlights: •Comparison of radiation tolerant Chironomus Hb and radiation sensitive Human Hb. •Amino acid composition of midge and human heme confer differential hydrophobicity. •Heme pocket of evolutionarily ancient midge Hb provide gamma radiation resistivity.

  16. Differential sensitivity of Chironomus and human hemoglobin to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaikwad, Pallavi S. [Stress Biology Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Savitribai Phule University, Pune, 411007 (India); Molecular Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Panicker, Lata [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Mohole, Madhura; Sawant, Sangeeta [Bioinformatics Center, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, 411007 (India); Mukhopadhyaya, Rita [Molecular Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Nath, Bimalendu B., E-mail: bbnath@gmail.com [Stress Biology Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Savitribai Phule University, Pune, 411007 (India)

    2016-08-05

    Chironomus ramosus is known to tolerate high doses of gamma radiation exposure. Larvae of this insect possess more than 95% of hemoglobin (Hb) in its circulatory hemolymph. This is a comparative study to see effect of gamma radiation on Hb of Chironomus and humans, two evolutionarily diverse organisms one having extracellular and the other intracellular Hb respectively. Stability and integrity of Chironomus and human Hb to gamma radiation was compared using biophysical techniques like Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectrometry and CD spectroscopy after exposure of whole larvae, larval hemolymph, human peripheral blood, purified Chironomus and human Hb. Sequence- and structure-based bioinformatics methods were used to analyze the sequence and structural similarities or differences in the heme pockets of respective Hbs. Resistivity of Chironomus Hb to gamma radiation is remarkably higher than human Hb. Human Hb exhibited loss of heme iron at a relatively low dose of gamma radiation exposure as compared to Chironomus Hb. Unlike human Hb, the heme pocket of Chironomus Hb is rich in aromatic amino acids. Higher hydophobicity around heme pocket confers stability of Chironomus Hb compared to human Hb. Previously reported gamma radiation tolerance of Chironomus can be largely attributed to its evolutionarily ancient form of extracellular Hb as evident from the present study. -- Highlights: •Comparison of radiation tolerant Chironomus Hb and radiation sensitive Human Hb. •Amino acid composition of midge and human heme confer differential hydrophobicity. •Heme pocket of evolutionarily ancient midge Hb provide gamma radiation resistivity.

  17. Effect of acute exposure to cadmium on the expression of heat-shock and hormone-nuclear receptor genes in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planello, R.; Martinez-Guitarte, J.L.; Morcillo, G.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium is a widespread and highly toxic pollutant of particular ecotoxicological relevance for aquatic ecosystems where it accumulates. To identify biomarkers for ecotoxicity monitoring, the effect of cadmium on the expression of different genes related to the stress response as well as to the ecdysone hormone-signalling pathway was studied in the aquatic larvae of Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae), a standard test organism in aquatic toxicology testing. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the effects of acute and short-term cadmium exposures (10 mM CdCl 2 , 12 h and 24 h) on the expression of hsp70, hsc70, hsp90 and hsp40 genes, as well as on that of the ecdysone hormonal-receptor genes (EcR and usp). A significant 3-fold increase in the level of hsp70 gene transcripts was induced by the treatment, whereas neither the other stress genes tested (hsp90 and hsp40) nor the constitutive form of hsp70, hsc70, was affected in the larvae exposed to cadmium. These results show that hsp70 is differentially activated to other environmentally regulated heat-shock genes, and constitutes a biomarker of exposure to this toxic metal. In addition, we also found that cadmium is able to alter the expression of the ecdysone receptor gene (EcR), whose mRNA level is significantly increased whereas usp levels remained unaltered. This finding, evidenced for the first time in invertebrates, supports the view that cadmium has the ability to mimic the effect of the hormone by the activation of the ecdysone nuclear receptor, which may partly explain the endocrine disruption capability that has been previously suggested for this toxic metal. Our research adds to the growing evidence implicating heavy metals, and cadmium in particular, as potential endocrine disruptive agents and may have significant implications for ecological risk assessment of endocrine-disrupting compounds in invertebrates.

  18. Effect of acute exposure to cadmium on the expression of heat-shock and hormone-nuclear receptor genes in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planello, R.; Martinez-Guitarte, J.L. [Grupo de Biologia y Toxicologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Morcillo, G., E-mail: gmorcillo@ccia.uned.es [Grupo de Biologia y Toxicologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-03-01

    Cadmium is a widespread and highly toxic pollutant of particular ecotoxicological relevance for aquatic ecosystems where it accumulates. To identify biomarkers for ecotoxicity monitoring, the effect of cadmium on the expression of different genes related to the stress response as well as to the ecdysone hormone-signalling pathway was studied in the aquatic larvae of Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae), a standard test organism in aquatic toxicology testing. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the effects of acute and short-term cadmium exposures (10 mM CdCl{sub 2}, 12 h and 24 h) on the expression of hsp70, hsc70, hsp90 and hsp40 genes, as well as on that of the ecdysone hormonal-receptor genes (EcR and usp). A significant 3-fold increase in the level of hsp70 gene transcripts was induced by the treatment, whereas neither the other stress genes tested (hsp90 and hsp40) nor the constitutive form of hsp70, hsc70, was affected in the larvae exposed to cadmium. These results show that hsp70 is differentially activated to other environmentally regulated heat-shock genes, and constitutes a biomarker of exposure to this toxic metal. In addition, we also found that cadmium is able to alter the expression of the ecdysone receptor gene (EcR), whose mRNA level is significantly increased whereas usp levels remained unaltered. This finding, evidenced for the first time in invertebrates, supports the view that cadmium has the ability to mimic the effect of the hormone by the activation of the ecdysone nuclear receptor, which may partly explain the endocrine disruption capability that has been previously suggested for this toxic metal. Our research adds to the growing evidence implicating heavy metals, and cadmium in particular, as potential endocrine disruptive agents and may have significant implications for ecological risk assessment of endocrine-disrupting compounds in invertebrates.

  19. The BPA-substitute bisphenol S alters the transcription of genes related to endocrine, stress response and biotransformation pathways in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Herrero

    Full Text Available Bisphenol S (BPS is an industrial alternative to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA, and can be found in many products labeled "BPA-free". Its use has grown in recent years, and presently it is considered a ubiquitous emerging pollutant. To date there is a lack of information on the effects of BPS on invertebrates, although they represent more than 95% of known species in the animal kingdom and are crucial for the structure and proper function of ecosystems. In this study, real-time RT-PCR was used to determine the early detrimental effects of BPS on the transcriptional rate of genes in the model species Chironomus riparius, specifically those related to the ecdysone pathway (EcR, ERR, E74, Vtg, cyp18a1 crucial for insect development and metamorphosis, stress and biotransformation mechanisms (hsp70, hsp40, cyp4g, GPx, GSTd3 that regulate adaptive responses and determine survival, and ribosome biogenesis (its2, rpL4, rpL13 which is essential for protein synthesis and homeostasis. While 24-hour exposure to 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 μg/L BPS had no effect on larval survival, almost all the studied genes were upregulated following a non-monotonic dose-response curve. Genes with the greatest increases in transcriptional activity (fold change relative to control were EcR (3.8, ERR (2, E74 (2.4, cyp18a1 (2.5, hsp70 (1.7, hsp40 (2.5, cyp4g (6.4, GPx (1.8, and GST (2.1, while others including Vtg, GAPDH, and selected ribosomal genes remained stable. We also measured the transcriptional activity of these genes 24 hours after BPS withdrawal and a general downregulation compared to controls was observed, though not significant in most cases. Our findings showed that BPS exposure altered the transcriptional profile of these genes, which may have consequences for the hormone system and several metabolic pathways. Although further research is needed to elucidate its mode of action, these results raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives.

  20. The BPA-substitute bisphenol S alters the transcription of genes related to endocrine, stress response and biotransformation pathways in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Óscar; Aquilino, Mónica; Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Planelló, Rosario

    2018-01-01

    Bisphenol S (BPS) is an industrial alternative to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA), and can be found in many products labeled "BPA-free". Its use has grown in recent years, and presently it is considered a ubiquitous emerging pollutant. To date there is a lack of information on the effects of BPS on invertebrates, although they represent more than 95% of known species in the animal kingdom and are crucial for the structure and proper function of ecosystems. In this study, real-time RT-PCR was used to determine the early detrimental effects of BPS on the transcriptional rate of genes in the model species Chironomus riparius, specifically those related to the ecdysone pathway (EcR, ERR, E74, Vtg, cyp18a1) crucial for insect development and metamorphosis, stress and biotransformation mechanisms (hsp70, hsp40, cyp4g, GPx, GSTd3) that regulate adaptive responses and determine survival, and ribosome biogenesis (its2, rpL4, rpL13) which is essential for protein synthesis and homeostasis. While 24-hour exposure to 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 μg/L BPS had no effect on larval survival, almost all the studied genes were upregulated following a non-monotonic dose-response curve. Genes with the greatest increases in transcriptional activity (fold change relative to control) were EcR (3.8), ERR (2), E74 (2.4), cyp18a1 (2.5), hsp70 (1.7), hsp40 (2.5), cyp4g (6.4), GPx (1.8), and GST (2.1), while others including Vtg, GAPDH, and selected ribosomal genes remained stable. We also measured the transcriptional activity of these genes 24 hours after BPS withdrawal and a general downregulation compared to controls was observed, though not significant in most cases. Our findings showed that BPS exposure altered the transcriptional profile of these genes, which may have consequences for the hormone system and several metabolic pathways. Although further research is needed to elucidate its mode of action, these results raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives.

  1. Histone H1 heterogeneity in the midge, Chironomus thummi. Structural comparison of the H1 variants in an organism where their intrachromosomal localization is possible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer-Fender, S; Grossbach, U

    1988-09-01

    1. Seven subfractions of histone H1 have been isolated and purified from larvae of Chironomus thummi (Diptera). They have been denominated I-1, II-1, II-2, II-3, III-1, III-2, and III-3, according to the order of migration in two steps of preparative electrophoresis. 2. The amino acid compositions are similar to those of other H1 histones. Subfractions I-1 and II-1 were found to contain one methionine and two tyrosine residues, II-2 contained two methionine and three tyrosine residues, and III-1 one methionine and three tyrosine residues. The other subfractions contained one or two methionine and two or three tyrosine residues. For subfractions I-1 and II-1 a chain length of about 252 amino acids was estimated. 3. Peptide pattern analyses after chemical cleavage at the methionine and tyrosine residues, and enzymatic cleavage with thrombin and chymotrypsin, respectively, showed that all subfractions have different individual primary structures. A comparison of peptide sizes and of the positions in the peptide patterns of epitopes recognized by monoclonal antibodies was made to check whether some of the subfractions could arise by proteolytic degradation of others. This possibility can be excluded for five of the subfractions and is very improbable for the two others. Treatment of C. thummi H1 with alkaline phosphatase did not change the pattern of subfractions, while the phosphorylated subfraction of histone H2A disappeared after this treatment. Most and very probably all subfractions are thus H1 sequence variants. 4. Inbred strains and individual larvae of C. thummi were found to comprise all seven variants. The H1 heterogeneity can therefore not be due to allelic polymorphism. Salivary gland nuclei were found to contain variant I-1 and at least some of the other variants. 5. H1 from Drosophila melanogaster and from calf thymus were used as reference molecules in all cleavage experiments and yielded the peptide patterns expected from the sequence. The comparison

  2. What Food and Feeding Rates are Optimum for the Chironomus dilutus Sediment Toxicity Test Method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory tests with benthic macroinvertebrates are commonly used to assess the toxicity of both contaminated sediments and individual chemicals. Among the standard procedures for benthic macroinvertebrates are 10-d, 20-d, and life cycle exposures using the midge, Chironomus ...

  3. Evaluation of toxicity to the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and to the midge, Chironomus dilutus; and bioaccumulation by the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, with exposure to PCB-contaminated sediments from Anniston, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Steevens, Jeffery A.; MacDonald, Donald D.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Coady, Matthew R.; Farrar, J. Daniel; Lotufo, Guilherme R.; Kemble, Nile E.; Kunz, James L.; Stanley, Jacob K.; Sinclair, Jesse A.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Steevens, Jeffery A.; MacDonald, Donald D.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) requested that as part of the remedial investigation for the Anniston, Alabama Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Site (Anniston PCB Site), that Pharmacia Corporation and Solutia Inc. (P/S) perform long-term reproduction toxicity tests with the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and the midge, Chironomus dilutus, and bioaccumulation tests with the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, using sediment samples collected from reference locations and from Operable Unit 4 of the Anniston PCB Site. The sediment toxicity testing and sediment bioaccumulation results will be used by ARCADIS U.S., Inc. (ARCADIS) as part of a weight-of-evidence assessment to evaluate risks and establish sediment remediation goals for contaminants to sediment-dwelling organisms inhabiting the Anniston PCB Site. The goal of this study was to characterize relations between sediment chemistry and sediment toxicity and relations between sediment chemistry and sediment bioaccumulation in samples of sediments collected from the Anniston PCB Site. A total of 32 samples were evaluated from six test sites and one reference site to provide a wide range in concentrations of chemicals of potential concern (COPCs) including PCBs in samples of whole sediment. The goal of this study was not to determine the extent of sediment contamination across the Anniston PCB Site. Hence, the test sites or samples collected from within a test site were not selected to represent the spatial extent of sediment contamination across the Anniston PCB Site. Sediment chemistry, pore-water chemistry, and sediment toxicity data were generated for 26 sediment samples from the Anniston PCB Site. All of the samples were evaluated to determine if they qualified as reference sediment samples. Those samples that met the chemical selection criteria and biological selection criteria were identified as reference samples and used to develop the reference envelope for each toxicity test endpoint. Physical

  4. Application of Tritiated Compounds to the Midge Chironomus and some Aspects of the Metabolism of Salivary Gland Chromosomes; Emploi de Composes Trities pour l'Etude du Chironome et de Certains Aspects du Metabolisme des Chromosomes des Glandes Salivaires; 041f 0440 0438 043c 0414 ; Aplicacion de Compuestos Tritiados a la Mosca Cbironomus y Algunos Aspectos del Metabolismo en los Cromosomas de las Glandulas Salivares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelling, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biologie, Tuebingen, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1962-02-15

    The investigations were carried out on the salivary gland chromosomes of Chironomus tentons. Tritiated compounds (H{sup 3}-thymidine, H{sup 3}-uridine, H{sup 3}-amino-acids), injected into the haemolymph of the larvae should indicate the place of incorporation within the giant chromosomes. After fixation of the salivary glands autoradiographs of the squash-preparations were made. The autoradiographs show that giant chromosomes are most suitable to localize the activity at chromosomal structures with high resolution. DNA-synthesis (thymidine), RNA-synthesis (uridine) and protein-synthesis within the cell could be followed by determining the time and approximatively the quantity of incorporation: Contrary to the protein-synthesis, the DNA-synthesis and the RNA-synthesis are restricted to the chromosomes. The essential physiological activity of the chromosomes seems to be represented by RNA synthesis which takes place at certain distinct loci (nuceolar organizers, ''Balbiani-rings'', puffs, and other chromosomal bands). The report discusses some features of RNA synthesis. (author) [French] Les recherches ont porte sur les chromosomes des glandes salivaires du chironomus tentans. On a injecte les composes trities (thymidine, uridine, acides amines) dans l'hemolymphe de la larve en vue de determiner le lieu d'incorporation dans les chromosomes geants. Apres fixation par les glandes salivaires, on a procede a des autoradiographies de preparations broyees. Ces autoradiographies montrent que ce sont les chromosomes geants qui permettent le mieux de localiser,- avec une forte resolution, l'activite au niveau chromosomique. L'auteur a pu suivre la synthese de l'ADN (thymidine), la synthese de l'ARN (uridine) et la synthese des proteines a l'interieur de la cellule en determinant le temps et le taux approximatif d'incorporation. A l'inverse de la synthese des proteines, la synthese de l'ADN et celle de l'ARN sont limitees aux chromosomes. L'activite physiologique essentielle

  5. Ceriodaphnia and Chironomus in situ toxicity tests assessing the wastewater treatment efficacy of constructed wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barjaktarovic, L.; Nix, P.; Gulley, J.

    1995-01-01

    In situ toxicity tests were designed for Ceriodaphnia dubia and Chironomus tentans as part of a larger study designed to assess the effectiveness of constructed wetlands for the treatment of wastewater produced by oil production at Suncor OSG. The artificial wetlands were 50m long by 3m wide, with three replicates of the control and the treatment. Each wetland had four sample sites equidistant along its length, creating a gradient of treatment from site A being the most toxic to site D being the least toxic. Each test was conducted twice during the summer of 1994. Both the Ceriodaphnia and Chironomus test cages were a flow through design to allow for maximal exposure to the water within the wetlands. Mortality and reproduction were used as endpoints for Ceriodaphnia, whereas mortality and growth were used as endpoints for the Chironomus test. Test durations were fifteen and ten days respectively. Chironomus had very high mortality along the entire wetlands whereas Ceriodaphnia survival and fecundity increased along the length of the treatment wetlands. Both organisms had low mortality and high growth/fecundity in the control wetlands

  6. Karyotype and chromosomal polymorphism of Camptochironomous tentans (diptera, chironomidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejsebaev, A.T.; Bakhtin, M.M.; Rakhimbaeva, K.T.

    2000-01-01

    Particular features of chromosomal polymorphism and cytogenetic differentiations have been studied in three natural populations of Camptochironomous tentans affecting the Semipalatinsk test site. For the first time C. tentans population from water-bodies of the Degelen mountain massif was found to contain a unique rarely observed inverse sequence of chromosomal disks (p'ten B85, p'ten D3, p'ten Ck, p'ten FK) and a series of special homozygous (p'ten C1.1; p'ten D2.2) and heterozygous (p'ten B1.5; p'ten D1.2; p'ten D1.3; p'ten F1.3; p'ten F1K) inversions which could be the result of Chironomini adaptation to the radioactive environment. (author)

  7. Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Rebechi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests. Organophosphate compounds are used in agro-systems, and in programs to control pathogen vectors. Because they are continuously applied, organophosphates often reach water sources and may have an impact on aquatic life. The effects of acute and chronic exposure to the organophosphate insecticide malathion on the midge Chironomus sancticaroli are evaluated. To that end, three biochemical biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, alpha (EST-α and beta (EST-β esterase were used. Acute bioassays with five concentrations of malathion, and chronic bioassays with two concentrations of malathion were carried out. In the acute exposure test, AChE, EST-α and EST-β activities declined by 66, 40 and 37%, respectively, at 0.251 µg L-1 and more than 80% at 1.37, 1.96 and 2.51 µg L-1. In chronic exposure tests, AChE and EST-α activities declined by 28 and 15% at 0.251 µg L-1. Results of the present study show that low concentrations of malathion can influence larval metabolism, indicating high toxicity for Chironomus sancticaroli and environmental risk associated with the use of organophosphates.

  8. Joint toxicity of sediment-associated permethrin and cadmium to Chironomus dilutus: The role of bioavailability and enzymatic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xin; Li, Huizhen; You, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides and metals commonly co-occurred in sediment and caused toxicity to benthic organisms jointly. To improve accuracy in assessing risk of the sediments contaminated by insecticides and metals, it is of great importance to understand interaction between the contaminants and reasons for the interaction. In the current study, permethrin and cadmium were chosen as representative contaminants to study joint toxicity of pyrethroids and metals to a benthic invertebrate Chironomus dilutus. A median effect/combination index-isobologram was applied to evaluate the interaction between sediment-bound permethrin and cadmium at three dose ratios. Antagonistic interaction was observed in the midges for all treatments. Comparatively, cadmium-dominated group (the ratio of toxicity contribution from permethrin and cadmium was 1:3) showed stronger antagonism than equitoxicity (1:1) and permethrin-dominated groups (3:1). The reasons for the observed antagonism were elucidated from two aspects, including bioavailability and enzymatic activity. The bioavailability of permethrin, expressed as the freely dissolved concentrations in sediment porewater and measured by solid phase microextraction, was not altered by the addition of cadmium, suggesting the change in permethrin bioavailability was not the reason for the antagonism. On the other hand, the activities of metabolic enzymes, glutathione S-transferase and carboxylesterase in the midges which were exposed to mixtures of permethrin and cadmium were significantly higher than those in the midges exposed to permethrin solely. Cadmium considerably enhanced the detoxifying processes of permethrin in the midges, which largely explained the observed antagonistic interaction between permethrin and cadmium. - Highlights: • Sediment-bound permethrin and cadmium acted antagonistically to Chironomus dilutus. • Antagonism of permethrin and cadmium to the midges was noted at various dose ratios. • Addition of cadmium did

  9. A novel computational approach of image analysis to quantify behavioural response to heat shock in Chironomus Ramosus larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimalendu B. Nath

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available All living cells respond to temperature stress through coordinated cellular, biochemical and molecular events known as “heat shock response” and its genetic basis has been found to be evolutionarily conserved. Despite marked advances in stress research, this ubiquitous heat shock response has never been analysed quantitatively at the whole organismal level using behavioural correlates. We have investigated behavioural response to heat shock in a tropical midge Chironomus ramosus Chaudhuri, Das and Sublette. The filter-feeding aquatic Chironomus larvae exhibit characteristic undulatory movement. This innate pattern of movement was taken as a behavioural parameter in the present study. We have developed a novel computer-aided image analysis tool “Chiro” for the quantification of behavioural responses to heat shock. Behavioural responses were quantified by recording the number of undulations performed by each larva per unit time at a given ambient temperature. Quantitative analysis of undulation frequency was carried out and this innate behavioural pattern was found to be modulated as a function of ambient temperature. Midge larvae are known to be bioindicators of aquatic environments. Therefore, the “Chiro” technique can be tested using other potential biomonitoring organisms obtained from natural aquatic habitats using undulatory motion as a behavioural parameter.

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on larval longevity of Chironomus Riparius Meigen. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samira, A A [Dept. of Entomology, Univ. of Ain Shams., Cairo (Egypt); El-Halfawy, N [National Centre radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt); El-Ebiarie, A S [Dept. of Zoology, Fac. of Science, Univ. of Helwan., Cairi (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Whole body irradiation is known to shorten the life-span of insects. This is further investigated in aquatic insect larvae, as part of a programme concerned with stress responses on these larvae. The effect of gamma rays on the longevity of different larval instars of midge Chironomus Riparius was investigated by using five doses of 1, 9, 30, 200 and 1000 Gy of gamma rays. Lt{sub 50} (the time in days required for killing 50% of the population) was estimated using spss{sup x} programme. Data showed that irradiation decreased Lt{sub 50} in the second, third and fourth instars in comparison to their control, while in the first instar, irradiation increased Lt{sub 50} for all doses used. Shortening or increasing life was independent of the dose. Results were explained in terms of possibility of inhibition of enzymes. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on larval longevity of Chironomus Riparius Meigen. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samira, A.A.; El-Halfawy, N.; El-Ebiarie, A.S.

    1996-01-01

    Whole body irradiation is known to shorten the life-span of insects. This is further investigated in aquatic insect larvae, as part of a programme concerned with stress responses on these larvae. The effect of gamma rays on the longevity of different larval instars of midge Chironomus Riparius was investigated by using five doses of 1, 9, 30, 200 and 1000 Gy of gamma rays. Lt 50 (the time in days required for killing 50% of the population) was estimated using spss x programme. Data showed that irradiation decreased Lt 50 in the second, third and fourth instars in comparison to their control, while in the first instar, irradiation increased Lt 50 for all doses used. Shortening or increasing life was independent of the dose. Results were explained in terms of possibility of inhibition of enzymes. 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. Meadow-grass gall midge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Monrad

    The area with meadow-grass (Poa pratensis, L.) grown for seed production in Den-mark is a significant proportion of the entire seed production. The meadow-grass gall midge (Mayetiola schoberi, Barnes 1958) is of considerable economic importance since powerful attacks can reduce the yield...

  13. Occupational allergy to aquarium fish food: red midge larva, freshwater shrimp, and earthworm. A clinical and immunological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseguer Arce, J; Villajos, I M Sánchez-Guerrero; Iraola, V; Carnés, J; Fernández Caldas, E

    2013-01-01

    Chironomids seem to be the main cause of occupational allergy to aquarium fish food. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of occupational sensitization to 3 different arthropod species used as components of aquarium fish food. The study sample comprised 8 workers from a fish food packing department. The control group comprised 40 atopic patients (20 of whom were allergic to mites). We performed prick tests with extracts of red midge larva (Chironomus thummi), freshwater shrimp (Gammarus species), earthworm (Tubifex species), and other arthropod species and a battery of common inhalant allergens. We measured peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E and performed a methacholine challenge test, nasal challenge test, and immunoblotting. Cross-reactivity analyses were completed using immunoblotting and CAP inhibition. Prick test results were positive to red midge larvae in 7 patients (87.5%), Gammarus in 5 (62.5%), Tubifex in 3 (37.5%), and mites in 6 (75%). In the mite-allergic controls, 30% had positive prick test results to red midge larvae. PEFR decreased > or = 20% during the packing process in all patients, and in 1 patient it indicated a dual asthmatic response. Methacholine challenge test results were positive in all participants. Nasal challenge tests were performed in 4 patients, and the results were positive. Specific IgE to red midge larvae was detected in 62.5%, Gammarus in 50%, and Tubifex in 16%. Bands of approximately 14-15 kDa and 31 kDa were observed in Gammarus and red midge larvae extracts. Cross-reactivity assays demonstrated that Gammarus totally inhibited red midge larvae, while Tubifex did so partially. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus showed very low inhibitory capacity. Aquarium fish food arthropods are potent allergens with an elevated prevalence of sensitization and variable degree of crossreactivity. This is the first report of occupational allergy to Tubifex. More data are necessary to identify and

  14. Toxicity of sediment-associated pesticides to Chironomus dilutus and Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuping; Weston, Donald P; You, Jing; Rothert, Amanda K; Lydy, Michael J

    2011-07-01

    Two hundred sediment samples were collected and their toxicity evaluated to aquatic species in a previous study in the agriculturally dominated Central Valley of California, United States. Pyrethroid insecticides were the main contributors to the observed toxicity. However, mortality in approximately one third of the toxic samples could not be explained solely by the presence of pyrethroids in the matrices. Hundreds of pesticides are currently used in the Central Valley of California, but only a few dozen are analyzed in standard environmental monitoring. A significant amount of unexplained sediment toxicity may be due to pesticides that are in widespread use that but have not been routinely monitored in the environment, and even if some of them were, the concentrations harmful to aquatic organisms are unknown. In this study, toxicity thresholds for nine sediment-associated pesticides including abamectin, diazinon, dicofol, fenpropathrin, indoxacarb, methyl parathion, oxyfluorfen, propargite, and pyraclostrobin were established for two aquatic species, the midge Chironomus dilutus and the amphipod Hyalella azteca. For midges, the median lethal concentration (LC₅₀) of the pesticides ranged from 0.18 to 964 μg/g organic carbon (OC), with abamectin being the most toxic and propargite being the least toxic pesticide. A sublethal growth endpoint using average individual ash-free dry mass was also measured for the midges. The no-observable effect concentration values for growth ranged from 0.10 to 633 μg/g OC for the nine pesticides. For the amphipods, fenpropathrin was the most toxic, with an LC₅₀ of 1-2 μg/g OC. Abamectin, diazinon, and methyl parathion were all moderately toxic (LC₅₀s 2.8-26 μg/g OC). Dicofol, indoxacarb, oxyfluorfen, propargite, and pyraclostrobin were all relatively nontoxic, with LC₅₀s greater than the highest concentrations tested. The toxicity information collected in the present study will be helpful in decreasing the

  15. Life cycle responses of the midge Chironomus riparius to compounds with different modes of action.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinkovic, M.; Verweij, R.A.; Nummerdor, G.A.; Jonker, M.J.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.

    2011-01-01

    Compounds with different modes of action may affect life cycles of biota differently. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the impact of four chemicals with different modes of action, including the essential metal copper, the nonessential metal cadmium, the organometal

  16. Life cycle responses of the midge Chironomus riparius to compounds with different modes of action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinkovic, M.; Verweij, R.A.; Nummerdor, G.A.; Jonker, M.J.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.

    2011-01-01

    Compounds with different modes of action may affect life cycles of biota differently. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the impact of four chemicals with different modes of action, including the essential metal copper, the nonessential metal cadmium, the organometal

  17. Characterization of cholinesterases in Chironomus riparius and the effects of three herbicides on chlorpyrifos toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Joanne; Monteiro, Marta S; Quintaneiro, Carla; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2013-11-15

    In this study, the toxicities of four pesticides (the herbicides atrazine, terbuthylazine, metolachlor and the insecticide chlorpyrifos) previously detected in the Alqueva reservoir/dam (south of Portugal) were evaluated individually and in binary combinations of the herbicides and the insecticide using fourth-instar larvae of the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius. Chlorpyrifos induced toxicity to midges in all the 48 h toxicity bioassays performed. The swimming behaviour of the larvae was impaired, with EC50 values ranging from 0.15 to 0.17 μg/L. However, neither s-triazine (atrazine and terbuthylazine) herbicides nor metolachlor alone at concentrations up to 200 μg/L caused significant toxicity to C. riparius. When combined with both s-triazine herbicides, chlorpyrifos toxicity was enhanced by approximately 2-fold when tested in a binary mixture experimental setup, at the 50% effective concentration levels. To evaluate how chlorpyrifos toxicity was being increased, the cholinesterases (ChE) were characterized biochemically using different substrates and selective inhibitors. The results obtained suggested that the main enzyme present in this species is acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and therefore it was assayed upon C. riparius exposures to all pesticides individually and as binary mixtures. Although atrazine and terbuthylazine are not effective inhibitors of AChE, the potentiation of chlorpyrifos toxicity by the two s-triazine herbicides was associated with a potentiation in the inhibition of AChE in midges; both s-triazine herbicides at 200 μg/L increased the inhibition of the AChE activity by 7 and 8-fold, respectively. A strong correlation was observed between swimming behaviour disturbances of larvae and the inhibition of the AChE activity. In contrast, metolachlor did not affect chlorpyrifos toxicity at any of the concentrations tested. Therefore, the herbicides atrazine and terbuthylazine can act as synergists in the presence of chlorpyrifos, increasing

  18. Cadmium transport by the gut and Malpighian tubules of Chironomus riparius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, Erin M.; Pierce, Laura M.; Gillis, Patricia L.; Wood, Chris M.; O'Donnell, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Many aquatic insects are very insensitive to cadmium in short-term laboratory studies. LC50 values for larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius are over 25,000 times the Criterion Maximum Concentration in the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA (2000)) species sensitivity distribution (SSD). Excretion or sequestration of cadmium may contribute to insensitivity and we have therefore examined cadmium transport by isolated guts and renal tissues of C. riparius larvae. Regional differences of Cd transport along the gut were identified using a Cd 2+ -selective microelectrode in conjunction with the Scanning Ion-Selective Electrode Technique (SIET). Cd is transported into the anterior midgut (AMG) cells from the lumen and out of the cells into the hemolymph. The transport of Cd from the gut lumen to the hemolymph exposes other tissues such as the nervous system and muscles to Cd. The gut segments which remove Cd from the hemolymph at the highest rate are the posterior midgut (PMG) and the ileum. In addition, assays using an isolated Malpighian (renal) tubule preparation have shown that the Malpighian tubules (MT) both sequester and secrete Cd. For larvae bathed in 10 μmol l -1 Cd, the tubules can secrete the entire hemolymph burden of Cd in ∼15 h.

  19. Cumulative toxicity of neonicotinoid insecticide mixtures to Chironomus dilutus under acute exposure scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin M; Morrissey, Christy A; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Liber, Karsten

    2017-11-01

    Extensive agricultural use of neonicotinoid insecticide products has resulted in the presence of neonicotinoid mixtures in surface waters worldwide. Although many aquatic insect species are known to be sensitive to neonicotinoids, the impact of neonicotinoid mixtures is poorly understood. In the present study, the cumulative toxicities of binary and ternary mixtures of select neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam) were characterized under acute (96-h) exposure scenarios using the larval midge Chironomus dilutus as a representative aquatic insect species. Using the MIXTOX approach, predictive parametric models were fitted and statistically compared with observed toxicity in subsequent mixture tests. Single-compound toxicity tests yielded median lethal concentration (LC50) values of 4.63, 5.93, and 55.34 μg/L for imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam, respectively. Because of the similar modes of action of neonicotinoids, concentration-additive cumulative mixture toxicity was the predicted model. However, we found that imidacloprid-clothianidin mixtures demonstrated response-additive dose-level-dependent synergism, clothianidin-thiamethoxam mixtures demonstrated concentration-additive synergism, and imidacloprid-thiamethoxam mixtures demonstrated response-additive dose-ratio-dependent synergism, with toxicity shifting from antagonism to synergism as the relative concentration of thiamethoxam increased. Imidacloprid-clothianidin-thiamethoxam ternary mixtures demonstrated response-additive synergism. These results indicate that, under acute exposure scenarios, the toxicity of neonicotinoid mixtures to C. dilutus cannot be predicted using the common assumption of additive joint activity. Indeed, the overarching trend of synergistic deviation emphasizes the need for further research into the ecotoxicological effects of neonicotinoid insecticide mixtures in field settings, the development of better toxicity models for neonicotinoid mixture

  20. Chironomus alchichica sp. n. (Diptera: Chironomidae) from Lake Alchichica, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Raúl; Prat, Narcís; Ribera, Carles; Michailova, Paraskeva; Hernández-Fonseca, María Del Carmen; Alcocer, Javier

    2017-12-15

    Morphological analysis of all developmental stages (except female), mitochondrial DNA sequences from cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) and cytological analysis of the polytene chromosomes were used to describe a new species of Chironomus found in the littoral and profundal zones of an endorheic, warm-monomictic lake in Mexico. Male imago is distinguished by the shape of superior volsella and by an antennal and bristle ratio lower than two. The pupa is characterized by the spur morphology of abdominal segment VIII. There is also a continuous row of hooklets on abdominal segment II. The larva is distinguished by a combination of antenna, mentum, mandible, and pecten epipharyngis characteristics, and abdominal ventral tubules. Molecular and cytological analysis supported the morphological differences found. The maximum likelihood tree obtained shows that Chironomus alchichica sp. n. clusters together with Chironomus decorus-group sp. 2 Butler et al. (1995) (bootstrap support = 92%), but genetic p-distances within C. alchichica sp. n. (0.004) were lower than the p-distances between other species of the decorus-group (C. decorus-group sp. 2, Chironomus bifurcatus Wülker et al., 2009 and Chironomus maturus Johannsen, 1908) confirming that it is a different species. The new species belongs to thummi cytocomplex, (decorus-group), with chromosome set- 2n = 8 and chromosome arm combinations: AB CD EF G. Karyologically, the species is closest to Chironomus riihimaekiensis Wülker (1973). This species has very compact salivary gland chromosomes with well heterochromatinized centromere regions in chromosomes AB CD G. Several fixed homozygous inversions distinguish arm A of the species from that of C. riihimaekiensis. Arm E differs from that of C. riihimaekiensis by simple fixed homozygous inversion. Some similarities in band sequences of this arm were found with species from the decorus-group as Chironomus blaylocki Wülker et al., 2009 and C. bifurcatus (decorus

  1. Chironomus in the investigation of the genetic influence of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasyuk, A.N.; Kovalevich, N.F.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of γ-radiation in different doses on the structure and functional activity of polytene chromosomes of chironomus has been explored. There have been shown the increase of frequency and change of spectrum of chromosome aberrations, the induction of puffs formation. The description of the revealed chromosome aberrations is given. Possible reasons and mechanisms of the observable effects and the further research program are being discussed. (authors)

  2. A multi-platform metabolomics approach demonstrates changes in energy metabolism and the transsulfuration pathway in Chironomus tepperi following exposure to zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Sara M.; Tull, Dedreia L.; Jeppe, Katherine J.; De Souza, David P.; Dayalan, Saravanan; Pettigrove, Vincent J.; McConville, Malcolm J.; Hoffmann, Ary A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated metabolomics approach was applied to examine zinc exposure in midges. • Changes in carbohydrate and energy metabolism were observed using GC–MS. • Transsulfuration pathway is affected by zinc exposure. • Heavy metals other than zinc affect the transsulfuration pathways differently. - Abstract: Measuring biological responses in resident biota is a commonly used approach to monitoring polluted habitats. The challenge is to choose sensitive and, ideally, stressor-specific endpoints that reflect the responses of the ecosystem. Metabolomics is a potentially useful approach for identifying sensitive and consistent responses since it provides a holistic view to understanding the effects of exposure to chemicals upon the physiological functioning of organisms. In this study, we exposed the aquatic non-biting midge, Chironomus tepperi, to two concentrations of zinc chloride and measured global changes in polar metabolite levels using an untargeted gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis and a targeted liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) analysis of amine-containing metabolites. These data were correlated with changes in the expression of a number of target genes. Zinc exposure resulted in a reduction in levels of intermediates in carbohydrate metabolism (i.e., glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate and disaccharides) and an increase in a number of TCA cycle intermediates. Zinc exposure also resulted in decreases in concentrations of the amine containing metabolites, lanthionine, methionine and cystathionine, and an increase in metallothionein gene expression. Methionine and cystathionine are intermediates in the transsulfuration pathway which is involved in the conversion of methionine to cysteine. These responses provide an understanding of the pathways affected by zinc toxicity, and how these effects are different to other heavy metals such as cadmium and copper. The use of complementary

  3. A multi-platform metabolomics approach demonstrates changes in energy metabolism and the transsulfuration pathway in Chironomus tepperi following exposure to zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Sara M., E-mail: hoskins@unimelb.edu.au [Centre for Aquatic Pollution, Identification and Management (CAPIM), School of BioSciences, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, The University of Melbourne, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, 3052 (Australia); Tull, Dedreia L., E-mail: dedreia@unimelb.edu.au [Metabolomics Australia, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, 3052 (Australia); Jeppe, Katherine J., E-mail: k.jeppe@unimelb.edu.au [Centre for Aquatic Pollution, Identification and Management (CAPIM), School of BioSciences, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, The University of Melbourne, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, 3052 (Australia); Centre for Aquatic Pollution, Identification and Management (CAPIM), School of BioSciences, The University of Melbourne, 3010 (Australia); De Souza, David P., E-mail: desouzad@unimelb.edu.au [Metabolomics Australia, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, 3052 (Australia); Dayalan, Saravanan, E-mail: sdayalan@unimelb.edu.au [Metabolomics Australia, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, 3052 (Australia); Pettigrove, Vincent J., E-mail: vpet@unimelb.edu.au [Centre for Aquatic Pollution, Identification and Management (CAPIM), School of BioSciences, The University of Melbourne, 3010 (Australia); McConville, Malcolm J., E-mail: malcolmm@unimelb.edu.au [Metabolomics Australia, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, 3052 (Australia); Hoffmann, Ary A., E-mail: ary@unimelb.edu.au [Centre for Aquatic Pollution, Identification and Management (CAPIM), School of BioSciences, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, The University of Melbourne, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, 3052 (Australia); School of BioSciences, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, The University of Melbourne, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, 3052 (Australia)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • An integrated metabolomics approach was applied to examine zinc exposure in midges. • Changes in carbohydrate and energy metabolism were observed using GC–MS. • Transsulfuration pathway is affected by zinc exposure. • Heavy metals other than zinc affect the transsulfuration pathways differently. - Abstract: Measuring biological responses in resident biota is a commonly used approach to monitoring polluted habitats. The challenge is to choose sensitive and, ideally, stressor-specific endpoints that reflect the responses of the ecosystem. Metabolomics is a potentially useful approach for identifying sensitive and consistent responses since it provides a holistic view to understanding the effects of exposure to chemicals upon the physiological functioning of organisms. In this study, we exposed the aquatic non-biting midge, Chironomus tepperi, to two concentrations of zinc chloride and measured global changes in polar metabolite levels using an untargeted gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis and a targeted liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) analysis of amine-containing metabolites. These data were correlated with changes in the expression of a number of target genes. Zinc exposure resulted in a reduction in levels of intermediates in carbohydrate metabolism (i.e., glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate and disaccharides) and an increase in a number of TCA cycle intermediates. Zinc exposure also resulted in decreases in concentrations of the amine containing metabolites, lanthionine, methionine and cystathionine, and an increase in metallothionein gene expression. Methionine and cystathionine are intermediates in the transsulfuration pathway which is involved in the conversion of methionine to cysteine. These responses provide an understanding of the pathways affected by zinc toxicity, and how these effects are different to other heavy metals such as cadmium and copper. The use of complementary

  4. Genotoxic effects of environmental endocrine disruptors on the aquatic insect Chironomus riparius evaluated using the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Paz, Pedro; Morales, Mónica; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria

    2013-12-12

    Genotoxicity is one of the most important toxic endpoints in chemical toxicity testing and environmental risk assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of various environmental pollutants frequently found in aquatic environments and characterized by their endocrine disrupting activity. Monitoring of DNA damage was undertaken after in vivo exposures of the aquatic larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius, a model organism that represents an abundant and ecologically relevant macroinvertebrate, widely used in freshwater toxicology. DNA-induced damage, resulting in DNA fragmentation, was quantified by the comet assay after short (24 h) and long (96 h) exposures to different concentrations of the selected toxicants: bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), pentachlorophenol (PCP), tributyltin (TBT) and triclosan (TCS). All five compounds were found to have genotoxic activity as demonstrated by significant increases in all the comet parameters (%DNA in tail, tail length, tail moment and Olive tail moment) at all tested concentrations. Persistent exposure did not increase the extent of DNA damage, except for TCS at the highest concentration, but generally there was a reduction in DNA damage thought to be associated with the induction of the detoxification processes and repairing mechanisms. Comparative analysis showed differences in the genotoxic potential between the chemicals, as well as significant time and concentration-dependent variations, which most likely reflect differences in the ability to repair DNA damage under the different treatments. The present report demonstrates the sensitivity of the benthic larvae of C. riparius to these environmental genotoxins suggesting its potential as biomonitor organism in freshwater ecosystems. The results obtained about the DNA-damaging potential of these environmental pollutants reinforce the need for additional studies on the genotoxicity of endocrine active substances that, by linking genotoxic

  5. Nucleolar organizer (NO) size as a measure of instantaneous growth in Chironomus riparius larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) : a tool for monitoring individual and population responses to stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.P.; Ciborowski, J.J.; Wytrykush, C. [Windsor Univ., Windsor, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reported on 2 laboratory experiments that were conducted using Chironomus riparius larvae to relate nucleolar growth (NO) size to chironomid growth. In one experiment, 5 treatments varied in diet quality only, which was manipulated by providing midge larvae with 1.0 mg of food per individual per day, but varying the ratio of Tetramin to non-nutritious methyl-cellulose. A second experiment followed a 2 x 2 factorial design. The factors were growth period and diet quality. Diet quality and growth period were found to influence the individual biomass considerably. NO size was related to the quality of the diet provided at the end of the experiment, regardless of larval biomass. Therefore, NO size appears to be related to growth rate at time of collection rather than larval size. The authors proposed using NO size of larvae in natural populations as a measure of growth on which to base estimates of secondary production and as a new way to monitor individual and population responses to environmental stress. Preliminary field measurements of larval production and NO size from oil sands-affected and reference wetlands were found to be consistent with laboratory results.

  6. Nucleolar organizer (NO) size as a measure of instantaneous growth in Chironomus riparius larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) : a tool for monitoring individual and population responses to stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.P.; Ciborowski, J.J.; Wytrykush, C.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation reported on 2 laboratory experiments that were conducted using Chironomus riparius larvae to relate nucleolar growth (NO) size to chironomid growth. In one experiment, 5 treatments varied in diet quality only, which was manipulated by providing midge larvae with 1.0 mg of food per individual per day, but varying the ratio of Tetramin to non-nutritious methyl-cellulose. A second experiment followed a 2 x 2 factorial design. The factors were growth period and diet quality. Diet quality and growth period were found to influence the individual biomass considerably. NO size was related to the quality of the diet provided at the end of the experiment, regardless of larval biomass. Therefore, NO size appears to be related to growth rate at time of collection rather than larval size. The authors proposed using NO size of larvae in natural populations as a measure of growth on which to base estimates of secondary production and as a new way to monitor individual and population responses to environmental stress. Preliminary field measurements of larval production and NO size from oil sands-affected and reference wetlands were found to be consistent with laboratory results.

  7. Endophagy of biting midges attacking cavity-nesting birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votýpka, J; Synek, P; Svobodová, M

    2009-09-01

    Feeding behaviour, host preferences and the spectrum of available hosts determine the role of vectors in pathogen transmission. Feeding preferences of blood-feeding Diptera depend on, among others factors, the willingness of flies to attack their hosts either in the open (exophagy) or in enclosed places (endophagy). As far as ornithophilic blood-feeding Diptera are concerned, the biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are generally considered to be strictly exophagous. We determined which blood-sucking Diptera enter nest cavities and feed on birds by placing sticky foil traps inside artificial nest boxes. A total of 667 females of eight species of biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Latreille, 1809) were captured on traps during 2006-2007, with Culicoides truncorum (Edwards, 1939) being the dominant species. DNA blood analyses of blood-engorged females proved that midges actually fed on birds nesting in the boxes. Three species were identified as endophagous: Culicoides truncorum, Culicoides pictipennis (Staeger, 1839), and Culicoides minutissimus (Zetterstedt, 1855). Our study represents the first evidence that ornithophilic biting midges are endophagous. The fact that we caught no blackflies in the bird boxes supports the exophagy of blackflies. We believe that our findings are important for surveillance programmes focusing on Diptera that transmit various bird pathogens.

  8. Gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) new to the Danish fauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarder, Simon; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Harris, Keith M.

    2016-01-01

    First records of twenty-three gall midge species in Denmark are reported: Asphondylia ervi Rübsaamen, Contarinia acetosellae Rübsaamen, C. viburnorum Kieffer, Dasineura astragalorum (Kieffer), D. fructum (Rübsaamen), D. harrisoni (Bagnall), D. lotharingiae (Kieffer), D. papaveris (Winnertz), D...

  9. Effect of Different Medium on Survival Rate and Growth of Chironomus sp. Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Widanarni

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In the ornamental fish and fish for food culture, feeding by natural feed is very suitable since they are easy to digest and their size is suitable with  to larval mouth.  One of natural foods is blood worm Chironomus sp. larvae that has high protein content (till  65.2% of  protein. Until now, blood worm is obtained from nature and their stock depends on the weather.  That problem  may be overcome by culturing blood worm in appropriate culture medium.  Naturally, Chironomus sp. grows well in the water containing sago waste.  This study was carried out to examine the growth of Chironomus sp. reared in the medium containing mud, solid sago waste, solid tapioca wastes and water with no waste in depth of 0.5 cm. After 35-day rearing, survival rate of Chironomus sp was different among the treatments, while growth in length was similar. The best survival rate, 58.93% was obtained in the media containing solid sago waste.   Keywords: Chironomus, blood worm, sago waste, tapioca waste   ABSTRAK Dalam usaha budidaya ikan hias maupun ikan konsumsi, pemberian pakan alami sangat cocok karena mudah dicerna dan sesuai dengan bukaan mulut larva. Salah satu contoh pakan alami adalah Chironomus sp. (blood worm yang mempunyai kandungan protein mencapai 65,2%. Selama ini cacing darah diperoleh dari alam dan suplainya tergantung pada kondisi musim. Hal ini mungkin dapat diatasi dengan membudidayakan cacing darah dengan  media yang sesuai sebagai tempat hidupnya. Secara alami, Chironomus sp. dapat tumbuh dan berkembang dengan baik pada limbah sagu. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan Chironomus sp. yang dipelihara pada media berupa lumpur, limbah sagu padat, limbah tapioka padat dan air tanpa limbah dengan ketebalan media 0,5 cm. Setelah 35 hari masa pemeliharaan, diketahui bahwa penggunaan media limbah padat sagu, limbah padat tapioka, lumpur dan air tanpa limbah pada pemeliharaan Chironomus sp. masing-masing menghasilkan tingkat

  10. Using various lines of evidence to identify Chironomus species (Diptera: Chironomidae) in eastern Canadian lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Isabelle; Martin, Jon; Carew, Melissa; Hare, Landis

    2013-11-29

    Chironomus Meigen (Diptera, Chironomidae) larvae are usually the largest sediment-burrowing chironomids, and as such often constitute a major part of the freshwater infaunal biomass. However, use of this genus in ecological, environmental and paleoecological studies is hampered by the fact that Chironomus larvae are difficult to identify to species because the larvae of many species are morphologically similar. We used a combination of morphological, cytological and genetic techniques to distinguish Chironomus larvae collected from 31 water bodies located in eastern Canada, producing 17 distinguishable groupings. These groups of larvae were ultimately identified as belonging to 14 known species (C. anthracinus, C. bifurcatus, C. cucini, C. decorus-group sp. 2, C. dilutus, C. entis, C. frommeri, C. harpi, C. maturus, C. nr. atroviridis (sp. 2i), C. ochreatus, C. plumosus, C. staegeri and C. 'tigris') and three other species that remain unidentified (C. sp. NAI-III). No single approach served to delimit and identify larvae of all 17 Chironomus species that we collected. Although we expected that morphological criteria alone would be insufficient, our results suggest that DNA barcoding, using either the mitochondrial cox1 or the nuclear gb2β gene, was also inadequate for separating some Chironomus species. Thus we suggest that multiple approaches will often be needed to correctly identify Chironomus larvae to species.

  11. Chironomus polonicus sp. n. (Diptera: Chironomidae) from southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailova, Paraskeva; Kownacki, Andrzej; Langton, Peter H

    2013-01-10

    The paper describes larval, pupal and adult morphology as well as the karyotype of Chironomus polonicus sp. n. from southern Poland. The material has been obtained from reared egg masses collected in Bolesław pool, near Kraków. The species belongs to the pseudothummi cytocomplex with 2n = 8 and chromosome arm combinations AE, BF, CD, G. Several homozygous inversions distinguish arm A of the new species from that of C. pseudothummi Strenzke. Arm F is similar to that of C. aprilinus Meigen and differs from it by few steps of homozygous inversions. Few morphological differences in the pupa and adult are also presented.

  12. The development of a murine model for Forcipomyia taiwana (biting midge) allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mey-Fann; Yang, Kai-Jei; Wang, Nancy M; Chiu, Yung-Tsung; Chen, Pei-Chih; Chen, Yi-Hsing

    2014-01-01

    Forcipomyia taiwana (biting midge) allergy is the most prevalent biting insect allergy in Taiwan. An animal model corresponding to the human immuno-pathologic features of midge allergy is needed for investigating the mechanisms and therapies. This study successfully developed a murine model of Forcipomyia taiwana allergy. BALB/c mice were sensitized intra-peritoneally with midge extract on days 0, 7, 14, 21 then intra-dermally on days 28, 31 and 35. Serum midge-specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a were measured every 14 days by indirect ELISA. The mice were challenged intradermally with midge extract at day 40 and then sacrificed. Proliferation and cytokine production of splenocytes after stimulation with midge extract were determined by MTT assay and ELISA, respectively. The cytokine mRNA expression in response to midge stimulation was analyzed by RT-PCR. Serum IgE, total IgG, and IgG1 antibody levels against midge extract were significantly higher in the midge-sensitized mice than in the control mice. After the two-step sensitization, all mice in the midge-sensitized group displayed immediate itch and plasma extravasation reactions in response to challenge with midge extract. Skin histology from midge-sensitized mice showed marked eosinophil and lymphocyte infiltrations similar to that observed in humans. Stimulation of murine splenocytes with midge extract elicited significant proliferation, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13 and IFN-γ protein production, and up-regulation of mRNA in a dose-dependent manner in the midge-sensitized group, but not in the control group. A murine model of midge bite allergy has been successfully developed using a two-step sensitization protocol. The sensitized mice have very similar clinical and immunologic reactions to challenge with midge proteins as the reactions of human to midge bites. This murine model may be a useful platform for future research and the development of treatment strategies for insect bite allergy.

  13. Chromosomal organization of the ribosomal RNA genes in the genus Chironomus (Diptera, Chironomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Gunderina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal localization of ribosomal RNA coding genes has been studied by using FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization in 21 species from the genus Chironomus Meigen, 1803. Analysis of the data has shown intra- and interspecific variation in number and location of 5.8S rDNA hybridization sites in 17 species from the subgenus Chironomus and 4 species from the subgenus Camptochironomus Kieffer, 1914. In the majority of studied species the location of rDNA sites coincided with the sites where active NORs (nucleolus organizer regions were found. The number of hybridization sites in karyotypes of studied chironomids varied from 1 to 6. More than half of the species possessed only one NOR (12 out of 21. Two rDNA hybridization sites were found in karyotypes of five species, three – in two species, and five and six sites – in one species each. NORs were found in all chromosomal arms of species from the subgenus Chironomus with one of them always located on arm G. On the other hand, no hybridization sites were found on arm G in four studied species from the subgenus Camptochironomus. Two species from the subgenus Chironomus – Ch. balatonicus Devai, Wuelker & Scholl, 1983 and Ch. “annularius” sensu Strenzke, 1959 – showed intraspecific variability in the number of hybridization signals. Possible mechanisms of origin of variability in number and location of rRNA genes in the karyotypes of species from the genus Chironomus are discussed.

  14. Transcriptomic analyses of the secreted proteins from the salivary glands of the wheat midge larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both the wheat midge (Sitodiplosis mosellana) and the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) belong to a group of insects called gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) and both are destructive pests of wheat. From Hessian fly larvae, a large number of genes have been identified to encode Secreted Salivary...

  15. Micro x-ray absorption spectroscopic analysis of arsenic localization and biotransformation in Chironomus riparius Meigen (Diptera: Chironomidae) and Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Culicidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogren, Christina L.; Webb, Samuel M.; Walton, William E.; Trumble, John T.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution and speciation of arsenic (As) were analyzed in individuals of various life stages of a midge, Chironomus riparius, and the mosquito Culex tarsalis exposed to 1000 μg/l arsenate. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) revealed that C. riparius larvae accumulate As in their midgut, with inorganic arsenate [As(V)] being the predominant form, followed by arsenite [As(III)] and an As-thiol. Reduced concentrations of As in pupal and adult stages of C. riparius indicate excretion of As between the larval and pupal stages. In adults, As was limited to the thorax, and the predominant form was an As-thiol. In Cx. tarsalis, As was not found in high enough concentrations to determine As speciation, but the element was distributed throughout the larva. In adults, As was concentrated in the thorax and eyes of adults. These results have implications for understanding the biotransformation of As and its movement from aquatic to terrestrial environments. -- Highlights: •C. riparius larvae reduced arsenate to arsenite in the midgut. •C. riparius larvae accumulated As in the midgut, with 27% as a transformed As-thiol. •C. riparius adults retained As in the thorax, with 53% as As-thiol. •Larvae of Cx. tarsalis did not have a specific site of As accumulation. •Low concentrations of As in adults suggest reduced terrestrial transfer potential. -- Arsenic accumulation and biotransformation in aquatic insects is variable, but the location and speciation of As provides insight into the detoxification mechanisms of aquatic Diptera

  16. A new record of Chironomus (Chironomus) acidophilus Keyl (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Uzon volcanic caldera (Kronotsky Reserve, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia), its karyotype, ecology and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orel, Oksana V; Lobkova, Ludmila E; Zhirov, Sergey V; Petrova, Ninel A

    2015-07-03

    Morphology, cytology, ecology and biology of Holarctic Chironomus (Chironomus) acidophilus Keyl, 1960 (Diptera, Chironomidae) was examined from material collected in the geothermal Vosmerka Lake (pH=2.0-2.5). An illustrated redescription of C. acidophilus is given on the basis of adult males reared from field-collected pupae, and of simultaneously collected larvae. Additional larvae belonging to the pseudothummi-complex were identified as C. acidophilus on the basis of their karyotype. The karyotype of C. acidophilus (2n=8) and detailed mapping of the 4 chromosome arms A, E, D and F are provided. The population of C. acidophilus from Kamchatka was found to be karyologically monomorphic. Information on distribution and ecology of C. acidophilus from Vosmerka Lake (total mineralization 1583.5 mg/l) is also given. Chironomus acidophilus is the only species of aquatic insects recorded in this lake. Lack of competition and a richness of food resources contribute to the high abundance (35161 ind./m2) and biomass (11.342 g/m2) of the larvae of C. acidophilus in Vosmerka Lake.

  17. The salivary secretome of the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Lehiy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae are hematophagous insects with over 1400 species distributed throughout the world. Many of these species are of particular agricultural importance as primary vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses, yet little is known about Culicoides genomics and proteomics. Detailed studies of members from other blood-feeding Dipteran families, including those of mosquito (Culicidae and black fly (Simuliidae, have shown that protein components within the insect’s saliva facilitate the blood feeding process. To determine the protein components in Culicoides sonorensis midges, secreted saliva was collected for peptide sequencing by tandem mass spectrometry. Forty-five secreted proteins were identified, including members of the D7 odorant binding protein family, Kunitz-like serine protease inhibitors, maltase, trypsin, and six novel proteins unique to C. sonorensis. Identifying the complex myriad of proteins in saliva from blood-feeding Dipteran species is critical for understanding their role in blood feeding, arbovirus transmission, and possibly the resulting disease pathogenesis.

  18. Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae as vectors of orbiviruses in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Sarvašová

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, rapid spread of Culicoides-borne pathogens such as bluetongue (BT and Schmallenberg viruses have been reported in Europe. In this study we examined the Culicoides populations in farms with wild and domestic ruminants in Eastern Slovakia with the aim to confirm the presence of biting midges serving as potential vectors of important pathogens. The main vector complexes were the Obsoletus complex (54%; n=4,209 and the Pulicaris complex (23%; n=1,796. To estimate the relative abundance of the cryptic species of the Obsoletus complex (Culicoides obsoletus, Culicoides scoticus and Culicoides montanus, we performed the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR based on ITS-2 and ITS-1 segments, on 125 midges randomly sampled. The relative abundance of C. obsoletus ranged from 5.26% in the farm with wild ruminants to 85.71% in another farm with cattle and sheep. A total of 112 pools of parous and gravid females belonging to the Obsoletus and Pulicaris complexes were tested for virus detection by the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for BT virus, as well as for the Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV, with negative results.

  19. Cytological and cytochemical characterization of the polytene chromosomes of Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera: chironomidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, F. de; Leoncini, O.

    1985-01-01

    The chromosome complement of a Brazilian Chironomus Species, C. Sancticaroli, was analyzed cytochemically. The polytene Chromosomes were identified and characterized and the nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were located by a technique of in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence. Constitutive heterochromatin and its distribution in relation to the NORs were studied. (Author) [pt

  20. Cytological and cytochemical characterization of the polytene chromosomes of Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera: chironomidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, F. de; Leoncini, O.; Floeter-Winter, L.M.

    1985-03-01

    The chromosome complement of a Brazilian Chironomus Species, C. Sancticaroli, was analyzed cytochemically. The polytene Chromosomes were identified and characterized and the nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were located by a technique of in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence. Constitutive heterochromatin and its distribution in relation to the NORs were studied.

  1. Identity and diversity of blood meal hosts of biting midges (Dipterea: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Sandra; Nielsen, Søren Achim; Kristensen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    biting midges were sorted and head and wings were removed for morphological species identification. The thoraxes and abdomens including the blood meals of the individual females were subsequently subjected to DNA isolation. The molecular marker cytochrome oxidase I (COI barcode) was applied to identify......: Twenty-four species of biting midges were identified from the four study sites. A total of 111,356 Culicoides biting midges were collected, of which 2,164 were blood-fed. Specimens of twenty species were identified with blood in their abdomens. Blood meal sources were successfully identified by DNA...

  2. New gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Eugenia uniflora and Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maia,Valéria C; Nava,Dori E

    2011-01-01

    Two new species and a new genus of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) are described and illustrated. Both species induce leaf galls on Myrtaceae, the former on Eugenia uniflora and the latter on Psidium cattleianum.

  3. Peripheral non-viral MIDGE vector-driven delivery of β-endorphin in inflammatory pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busch Melanie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leukocytes infiltrating inflamed tissue produce and release opioid peptides such as β-endorphin, which activate opioid receptors on peripheral terminals of sensory nerves resulting in analgesia. Gene therapy is an attractive strategy to enhance continuous production of endogenous opioids. However, classical viral and plasmid vectors for gene delivery are hampered by immunogenicity, recombination, oncogene activation, anti-bacterial antibody production or changes in physiological gene expression. Non-viral, non-plasmid minimalistic, immunologically defined gene expression (MIDGE vectors may overcome these problems as they carry only elements needed for gene transfer. Here, we investigated the effects of a nuclear localization sequence (NLS-coupled MIDGE encoding the β-endorphin precursor proopiomelanocortin (POMC on complete Freund's adjuvant-induced inflammatory pain in rats. Results POMC-MIDGE-NLS injected into inflamed paws appeared to be taken up by leukocytes resulting in higher concentrations of β-endorphin in these cells. POMC-MIDGE-NLS treatment reversed enhanced mechanical sensitivity compared with control MIDGE-NLS. However, both effects were moderate, not always statistically significant or directly correlated with each other. Also, the anti-hyperalgesic actions could not be increased by enhancing β-endorphin secretion or by modifying POMC-MIDGE-NLS to code for multiple copies of β-endorphin. Conclusion Although MIDGE vectors circumvent side-effects associated with classical viral and plasmid vectors, the current POMC-MIDGE-NLS did not result in reliable analgesic effectiveness in our pain model. This was possibly associated with insufficient and variable efficacy in transfection and/or β-endorphin production. Our data point at the importance of the reproducibility of gene therapy strategies for the control of chronic pain.

  4. Chironomid midges (Diptera, chironomidae) show extremely small genome sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornette, Richard; Gusev, Oleg; Nakahara, Yuichi; Shimura, Sachiko; Kikawada, Takahiro; Okuda, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    Chironomid midges (Diptera; Chironomidae) are found in various environments from the high Arctic to the Antarctic, including temperate and tropical regions. In many freshwater habitats, members of this family are among the most abundant invertebrates. In the present study, the genome sizes of 25 chironomid species were determined by flow cytometry and the resulting C-values ranged from 0.07 to 0.20 pg DNA (i.e. from about 68 to 195 Mbp). These genome sizes were uniformly very small and included, to our knowledge, the smallest genome sizes recorded to date among insects. Small proportion of transposable elements and short intron sizes were suggested to contribute to the reduction of genome sizes in chironomids. We discuss about the possible developmental and physiological advantages of having a small genome size and about putative implications for the ecological success of the family Chironomidae.

  5. Algal food selection and digestion by larvae of the pestiferous chironomid Chironomus crassicaudatus under laboratory conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Ali, A.; Lobinske, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2004), s. 458-461 ISSN 8756-971X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : Chironomidae * nuisance midge * cyanobacteria Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.691, year: 2004

  6. /sup 3/H-UTP incorporation in polytene chromosomes of Chironomus permeabilized cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, J L; de la Torre, C [Consejo Superior de Investigacionis Cientificas, Madrid (Spain). Inst. Biologia Celular

    1979-01-01

    A method is described that allows the cytologic detection of the transcriptional activity of endogenous RNA polymerase in fixed Chironomus polytene chromosomes. /sup 3/H-UTP is preferentially incorporated onto nucleoli and Balbiani rings where transcription is specially high. The former incorporation was sensitive to actinomycin D while incorporation on Balbiani rings was sensitive to ..cap alpha..-amanitin. The label pattern and frequency resemble those detected by /sup 3/H-uridine incorporation in the living state.

  7. Community analysis of the abundance and diversity of biting midge species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in three European countries at different latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhlmann, Tim W R; Wennergren, Uno; Tälle, Malin; Favia, Guido; Damiani, Claudia; Bracchetti, Luca; Takken, Willem; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M

    2018-03-27

    The outbreaks of bluetongue and Schmallenberg disease in Europe have increased efforts to understand the ecology of Culicoides biting midges and their role in pathogen transmission. However, most studies have focused on a specific habitat, region, or country. To facilitate wider comparisons, and to obtain a better understanding of the spread of disease through Europe, the present study focused on monitoring biting midge species diversity in three different habitat types and three countries across Europe. Biting midges were trapped using Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute light traps at a total of 27 locations in Sweden, the Netherlands and Italy, comprising farm, peri-urban and wetland habitats. From July 2014 to June 2015 all locations were sampled monthly, except for during the winter months. Trapped midges were counted and identified morphologically. Indices on species richness, evenness and diversity were calculated. Community compositions were analysed using non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) techniques. A total of 50,085 female midges were trapped during 442 collection nights. More than 88% of these belonged to the Obsoletus group. The highest midge diversity was found in Sweden, while species richness was highest in the Netherlands, and most specimens were trapped in Italy. For habitats within countries, diversity of the trapped midges was lowest for farms in all countries. Differences in biting midge species communities were more distinct across the three countries than the three habitat types. A core midge community could be identified, in which the Obsoletus group was the most abundant. Variations in vector communities across countries imply different patterns of disease spread throughout Europe. How specific species and their associated communities affect disease risk is still unclear. Our results emphasize the importance of midge diversity data at community level, how this differs across large geographic range within Europe, and its implications

  8. Effects of cadmium on life-cycle parameters in a multi-generation study with Chironomus riparius following a pre-exposure of populations to two different tributyltin concentrations for several generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Christian; Hess, Maren; Nowak, Carsten; Diogo, João Barateiro; Oehlmann, Jörg; Oetken, Matthias

    2010-10-01

    So far only a few studies have been performed to assess the effects of dynamic pollutant exposure on life-history parameters of invertebrates. In a previous multi-generation approach with the midge Chironomus riparius we tested if a chronic tributyltin pre-exposure alters the ability of a population to cope with subsequent cadmium stress. In the experiment two separate chironomid populations were exposed via sediments to different TBT-concentrations (4.46 and 8.93 μg Sn/kg dw) for several generations, followed by subsequent cadmium exposure (1.2 mg Cd/kg dw) for three generations. While the TBT-exposure to 4.46 μg Sn/kg dw had only small effects on the development and reproduction of C. riparius the higher TBT-concentration of 8.93 μg Sn/kg dw led to negative effects on life-history traits. Therefore, a higher adverse effect of the higher TBT-concentration and thus a higher susceptibility to other stressors could be assumed. Within, this paper only the results of the second stressor experiment were presented; clear effects of Cd on development and reproduction of C. riparius were determined independent of the pre-exposure scenario. While no differences in Cd-sensitivity were found between the population without pre-exposure to TBT and the population pre-exposed to the low TBT-concentration (4.46 μg Sn/kg dw), the pre-exposure of midges to the higher TBT-concentration (8.93 μg Sn/kg dw) resulted in a significantly higher susceptibility to subsequent Cd-stress. These results document that the exposure history may influence the reaction to altered chemical stress. Our findings are relevant to understand and predict the evolutionary fate of populations in rapidly changing, human-impacted environments. However, the fact that chemical-induced reduced genetic diversity, which is not necessarily linked to genetic adaptation, leads to a reduced fitness under altered stress conditions, is to our knowledge a novel finding.

  9. Community analysis of biting midges (Culicoides Latr.) on livestock farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S. A.; Banta, G.; Rasmussen, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    This study presents descriptive statistics and community analysis of adult biting midges trapped at 16 livestock farms by means of light traps on Zealand and Lolland-Falster, Denmark. A total of 9,047 male and female Culicoides divided into 24 species, were caught. Biotic and abiotic factors...... ranging from presence of different host species (cattle or sheep/goats), presence of small woody areas or wetlands in the surrounding landscape, and agricultural practice (organic or conventional) were included in the community analysis. Only differences in the Culicoides communities between conventional...... and organic practices were tested significantly different. Total numbers of Culicoides individuals were higher on the organic farms than on the conventional farms. The larger loads of biting midges on the organic farms may be due to free-ranging animals that attracted the midges on pastures and carried them...

  10. Acute and chronic toxicity testing of bisphenol A with aquatic invertebrates and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaich, Ellen M; Friederich, Urs; Caspers, Norbert; Hall, A Tilghman; Klecka, Gary M; Dimond, Stephen S; Staples, Charles A; Ortego, Lisa S; Hentges, Steven G

    2009-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA, 4,4'-isopropylidine diphenol) is a commercially important chemical used primarily as an intermediate in the production of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. Extensive effect data are currently available, including long-term studies with BPA on fish, amphibians, crustaceans, and mollusks. The aim of this study was to perform additional tests with a number of aquatic invertebrates and an aquatic plant. These studies include acute tests with the midge (Chironomus tentans) and the snail (Marisa cornuarietis), and chronic studies with rotifers (Brachionus calyciflorus), amphipods (Hyalella azteca), and plants (Lemna gibba). The effect data on different aquatic invertebrate and plant species presented in this paper correspond well with the effect and no-effect concentrations (NOECs) available from invertebrate studies in the published literature and are within the range found for other aquatic species tested with BPA.

  11. Landing sites and diel activity in Culicoides midges attacking Fjord horses in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Heuvel, van den S.J.; Meiswinkel, R.

    2016-01-01

    In the Old World, African horse sickness (AHS) and equine encephalosis are transmitted to equids by Culicoides midges. AHS has a case-fatality-rate of 95% in horses. Though endemic to sub-Saharan Africa, AHS virus is able to incur northwards and to disseminate widely within Mediterranean countries.

  12. Effects of pH on the life cycle of the midge Tanytansus dissimilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, H L

    1970-01-01

    All stages of the life cycle of the midge Tanytarsus (paratanytarsus) dissimilis joh. were subjected to low pH and the exremes of tolerance were determined. The life cycle could not be completed below a pH of 5.5.

  13. Dehydration, rehydration and overhydration alter patterns of gene expression in the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated molecular responses elicited by three types of dehydration (fast, slow and cryoprotective), rehydration and overhydration in larvae of the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica. The larvae spend most the year encased in ice but during the austral summer are vulnerable to summer storms,...

  14. Movements of adult Culicoides midges around stables in KwaZulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The catches were identified to species level and regression analysis was performed on untransformed data which followed a negative binomial distribution with a log link function. Midges were found to frequent dung heaps and the interior of stable blocks significantly more than any other site. This occurs most markedly ...

  15. Celticecis, a Genus of Gall Midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), Newly Reported for the Western Palearctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond J. Gagné; John C. Moser

    1997-01-01

    Many Holarctic genera of trees and shrubs are host over much of their ranges to particular genera of Cecidomyiidae. As examples, willows host gall midges of Rabdophaga and Iteomyia, oaks host Macrodiplosis and Polystepha, and birches host Semudobia in both the Nearctic and...

  16. Molecular identification of bloodmeals from biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae; Culicoides Latreille) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Sandra Boline; Nielsen, Søren A; Skovgård, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    engorged biting midges, and hosts were identified in 115 of 125 analysed specimens (90%). Cow, roe deer, horse, mallard and wood pigeon were identified as hosts. The most abundant host species was cow, which constituted 73.9% of the total identified bloodmeals, but the common wood pigeon was found...

  17. A Single Swede Midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Larva Can Render Cauliflower Unmarketable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Chase A; Hodgdon, Elisabeth A; Zuckerman, Samuel G; Shelton, Anthony M; Chen, Yolanda H

    2018-05-01

    Swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii Kieffer (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is an invasive pest causing significant damage on Brassica crops in the Northeastern United States and Eastern Canada. Heading brassicas, like cauliflower, appear to be particularly susceptible. Swede midge is difficult to control because larvae feed concealed inside meristematic tissues of the plant. In order to develop damage and marketability thresholds necessary for integrated pest management, it is important to determine how many larvae render plants unmarketable and whether the timing of infestation affects the severity of damage. We manipulated larval density (0, 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20) per plant and the timing of infestation (30, 55, and 80 d after seeding) on cauliflower in the lab and field to answer the following questions: 1) What is the swede midge damage threshold? 2) How many swede midge larvae can render cauliflower crowns unmarketable? and 3) Does the age of cauliflower at infestation influence the severity of damage and marketability? We found that even a single larva can cause mild twisting and scarring in the crown rendering cauliflower unmarketable 52% of the time, with more larvae causing more severe damage and additional losses, regardless of cauliflower age at infestation.

  18. Genotoxic effect of copper on salivary gland polytene chromosomes of Chironomus riparius Meigen 1804 (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michailova, P. [Institute of Zoology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1 Tzar Osvoboditel boul., Sofia 1000 (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: michailova@zoology.bas.bg; Petrova, N. [Institute of Zoology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 199034, Universit. nab. 1, Russia (Russian Federation); Ilkova, J. [Institute of Zoology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1 Tzar Osvoboditel boul., Sofia 1000 (Bulgaria); Bovero, S. [Department of Animal Biology, University of Turin, via Albertina 13, Turin (Italy); Brunetti, S. [Department of Animal Biology, University of Turin, via Albertina 13, Turin (Italy); White, K. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); Sella, G. [Department of Animal Biology, University of Turin, via Albertina 13, Turin (Italy)

    2006-11-15

    The genotoxic action of copper (Cu) on the polytene chromosomes of Chironomus riparius was investigated by analysing structural and functional chromosome aberrations of fourth instars larvae hatched from eggs subject to acute (48 h) exposure with three environmentally relevant concentrations of aqueous Cu (0.005, 0.01, 0.05 mg/l). A dose dependent relationship was observed between Cu concentration and frequency of chromosomal aberrations. A significantly higher frequency of functional alterations, specifically decondensed centromeres and telomeres, and reduction in activity of Balbiani rings, was observed in treated material compared to control. A comparison of breakpoints resulting from treatment with chromium and lead from earlier studies with those Cu-induced identified a series of chromosomal weak points particularly vulnerable to trace metals. We also show that the appearance of structural and functional chromosome aberrations are more sensitive indicators of acute Cu toxicity in chironomid larvae than changes in external morphology. - Acute exposure of Chironomus eggs to copper resulted in changes in chromosome structure and function.

  19. Genotoxic effect of copper on salivary gland polytene chromosomes of Chironomus riparius Meigen 1804 (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michailova, P.; Petrova, N.; Ilkova, J.; Bovero, S.; Brunetti, S.; White, K.; Sella, G.

    2006-01-01

    The genotoxic action of copper (Cu) on the polytene chromosomes of Chironomus riparius was investigated by analysing structural and functional chromosome aberrations of fourth instars larvae hatched from eggs subject to acute (48 h) exposure with three environmentally relevant concentrations of aqueous Cu (0.005, 0.01, 0.05 mg/l). A dose dependent relationship was observed between Cu concentration and frequency of chromosomal aberrations. A significantly higher frequency of functional alterations, specifically decondensed centromeres and telomeres, and reduction in activity of Balbiani rings, was observed in treated material compared to control. A comparison of breakpoints resulting from treatment with chromium and lead from earlier studies with those Cu-induced identified a series of chromosomal weak points particularly vulnerable to trace metals. We also show that the appearance of structural and functional chromosome aberrations are more sensitive indicators of acute Cu toxicity in chironomid larvae than changes in external morphology. - Acute exposure of Chironomus eggs to copper resulted in changes in chromosome structure and function

  20. Cytogenetic characteristics of Chironomus balatonicus Devai, Wulker, Scholl (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Chernobyl region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michailova, P.; Petrova, N.

    1994-01-01

    A cytogenetic analysis was carried out on a population of Chironomus balatonicus (Chironomidae, Diptera) from Chernobyl, a highly radioactive area of the Kiev region. Several chromosomal aberrations were established unique to a population of Chironomus balatonicus living in an area contaminated by radioactive waste. Five new heterozygous inversions, deficiencies in arms C, D, E, F and chromatid breaks were found in the irradiated population but not in nonirradiated populations. A pericentric inversion in chromosome AB occurred at a relatively high frequency. Genome aberrations expressed by a heterochromatized 'B' chromosome were evident. In the irradiated and nonirradiated populations common inversions occurred showing variation in their frequency depending on specific environmental conditions. The somatic and also the germ cells were characterized by a number of heteropycnotic nuclei and vacuolized chromosomes. Both the somatic and germ cells showed changes in the structural and functional organization of heterochromatin and this was particularly marked in the telomeric sectors of the chromosomes. The heterochromatin which is extremely sensitive to radioactivity appears to protect euchromatin from adverse environmental conditions

  1. Identifying primary stressors impacting macroinvertebrates in the Salinas River (California, USA): Relative effects of pesticides and suspended particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.S.; Phillips, B.M.; Hunt, J.W.; Connor, V.; Richard, N.; Tjeerdema, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory dose-response experiments with organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides, and dose-response experiments with increasing particle loads were used to determine which of these stressors were likely responsible for the toxicity and macroinvertebrate impacts previously observed in the Salinas River. Experiments were conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the baetid mayfly Procloeon sp., and the midge Chironomus dilutus (Shobanov, formerly Chironomus tentans). The results indicate the primary stressor impacting H. azteca was pesticides, including chlorpyrifos and permethrin. The mayfly Procloeon sp. was sensitive to chlorpyrifos and permethrin within the range of concentrations of these pesticides measured in the river. Chironomus dilutus were sensitive to chlorpyrifos within the ranges of concentrations measured in the river. None of the species tested were affected by turbidity as high as 1000 NTUs. The current study shows that pesticides are more important acute stressors of macroinvertebrates than suspended sediments in the Salinas River. - Pesticides are the primary stressor impacting macroinvertebrates in sections of the lower Salinas River

  2. Identifying primary stressors impacting macroinvertebrates in the Salinas River (California, USA): Relative effects of pesticides and suspended particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, B.S. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: anderson@ucdavis.edu; Phillips, B.M. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Hunt, J.W. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Connor, V. [Division of Water Quality, State Water Resources Control Board, 1001 I. Street, Sacramento, CA 95814 (United States); Richard, N. [Division of Water Quality, State Water Resources Control Board, 1001 I. Street, Sacramento, CA 95814 (United States); Tjeerdema, R.S. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Laboratory dose-response experiments with organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides, and dose-response experiments with increasing particle loads were used to determine which of these stressors were likely responsible for the toxicity and macroinvertebrate impacts previously observed in the Salinas River. Experiments were conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the baetid mayfly Procloeon sp., and the midge Chironomus dilutus (Shobanov, formerly Chironomus tentans). The results indicate the primary stressor impacting H. azteca was pesticides, including chlorpyrifos and permethrin. The mayfly Procloeon sp. was sensitive to chlorpyrifos and permethrin within the range of concentrations of these pesticides measured in the river. Chironomus dilutus were sensitive to chlorpyrifos within the ranges of concentrations measured in the river. None of the species tested were affected by turbidity as high as 1000 NTUs. The current study shows that pesticides are more important acute stressors of macroinvertebrates than suspended sediments in the Salinas River. - Pesticides are the primary stressor impacting macroinvertebrates in sections of the lower Salinas River.

  3. Papular dermatitis induced in guinea pigs by the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, D; Pérez de León, A A; Hearne, C; McHolland, L; Yun, L; Tabachnick, W

    2003-01-01

    Histological, ultrastructural, and virological examinations were performed on abdominal skin from guinea pigs after a blood meal by colony-bred biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis. Small, superficial, cutaneous, crateriform ulcers with necrosis of superficial dermis developed at feeding sites and healed within 24-48 hours. Animals developed nonpruritic erythematous papules 5 days after feeding that persisted until the study ended at 12 days after feeding. Papules corresponded histologically to foci of epidermal hyperplasia and superficial interstitial dermatitis with intraepidermal micropustules and scattered intraepidermal polykaryons. The principal ultrastructural changes were spongiosis in germinal epithelium and neutrophilic-histiocytic exocytosis. No viral agents or broken mouthparts were identified in lesions. The dermatitis may represent a host reaction to persisting insect salivary secretion and should be considered as an additional consequence of blood feeding in future studies involving biting midges.

  4. The Evolution of SINEs and LINEs in the genus Chironomus (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papusheva, Ekaterina; Gruhl, Mary C; Berezikov, Eugene; Groudieva, Tatiana; Scherbik, Svetlana V; Martin, Jon; Blinov, Alexander; Bergtrom, Gerald

    2004-03-01

    Genomic DNA amplification from 51 species of the family Chironomidae shows that most contain relatives of NLRCth1 LINE and CTRT1 SINE retrotransposons first found in Chironomus thummi. More than 300 cloned PCR products were sequenced. The amplified region of the reverse transcriptase gene in the LINEs is intact and highly conserved, suggesting active elements. The SINEs are less conserved, consistent with minimal/no selection after transposition. A mitochondrial gene phylogeny resolves the Chironomus genus into six lineages (Guryev et al. 2001). LINE and SINE phylogenies resolve five of these lineages, indicating their monophyletic origin and vertical inheritance. However, both the LINE and the SINE tree topologies differ from the species phylogeny, resolving the elements into "clusters I-IV" and "cluster V" families. The data suggest a descent of all LINE and SINE subfamilies from two major families. Based on the species phylogeny, a few LINEs and a larger number of SINEs are cladisitically misplaced. Most misbranch with LINEs or SINEs from species with the same families of elements. From sequence comparisons, cladistically misplaced LINEs and several misplaced SINEs arose by convergent base substitutions. More diverged SINEs result from early transposition and some are derived from multiple source SINEs in the same species. SINEs from two species (C. dorsalis, C. pallidivittatus), expected to belong to the clusters I-IV family, branch instead with cluster V family SINEs; apparently both families predate separation of cluster V from clusters I-IV species. Correlation of the distribution of active SINEs and LINEs, as well as similar 3' sequence motifs in CTRT1 and NLRCth1, suggests coevolving retrotransposon pairs in which CTRT1 transposition depends on enzymes active during NLRCth1 LINE mobility.

  5. New records of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae from Mallorca, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Baranov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ten species of non-biting midges belonging to the subfamily Orthocladiinae were found in samples from predominantly madicolous habitats in Mallorca, Spain. One species, Bryophaenocladius nidorum (Edwards, 1929, has not previously been recorded from Spain, while Smittia pratorum (Goetghebuer, 1927, Bryophaenocladius inconstans (Brundin, 1947, Orthocladius (O. maius Goetghebuer, 1942, Paracladius conversus (Walker, 1856 and Paraphaenocladius impensus (Walker, 1856 are recorded for the first time from the Balearic Islands.

  6. New gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Eugenia uniflora and Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Valéria C; Nava, Dori E

    2011-01-01

    Two new species and a new genus of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) are described and illustrated. Both species induce leaf galls on Myrtaceae, the former on Eugenia uniflora and the latter on Psidium cattleianum. Duas novas espécies e um novo gênero de insetos galhadores (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) são descritos e ilustrados. Ambas espécies induzem galhas foliares em Myrtaceae, a primeira em Eugenia uniflora e a segunda em Psidium cattleianum.

  7. Chironomus larvae (Chironomidae: Diptera as water quality indicators along an environmental gradient in a neotropical urban stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Gomes Machado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic interference in urban lotic systems is a factor affecting the biota of waterbodies. Aquatic macro invertebrates are an important food source for fish and are valuable indicators of water quality. The objective of this work was to study Chironomus larvae (Chironomidae: Diptera distribution along an environmental gradient in Barbado Stream, Cuiabá, MT, Brazil. No individual Chironomus was found in the springs of Barbado Stream, which may indicate preservation of the area. During the study period, we found 40.3 and 94.4 individuals/m2 at points 3 and 4 (low course, respectively. There is eutrophication in these sites due to domestic sewage discharges, indicating low quality water. The Barbado Stream needs restoration projects that include an awareness of the residents of their neighborhood’s environmental importance, and investments in the sanitation sector to prioritize the collection and treatment of wastewater and solid waste collection.

  8. Patterns of Fluctuating Asymmetry and Shape Variation in Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae) Exposed to Nonylphenol or Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambourou, Hélène; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Branchu, Philippe; Debat, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Deformities and fluctuating asymmetry in chironomid larvae have been proposed as sensitive indicators of biological stress and are commonly used to assess the ecological impact of human activities. In particular, they have been associated in Chironomus riparius, the most commonly used species, with heavy metal and pesticide river pollution. In this study, the effect of lead and 4-nonylphenol on mouthpart morphological variation of Chironomus riparius larvae was investigated by traditional and geometric morphometrics. For this purpose, first to fourth instar larvae were exposed to sediment spiked with lead (from 3.0 to 456.9 mg/kg dry weight) or 4-NP (from 0.1 to 198.8 mg/kg dry weight). Mentum phenotypic response to pollutants was assessed by four parameters: (1) the frequency of deformities, (2) fluctuating asymmetry of mentum length, (3) fluctuating asymmetry of mentum shape and (4) the mentum mean shape changes. Despite the bioaccumulation of pollutants in the chironomid’s body, no significant differences between control and stressed groups were found for mouthpart deformities and fluctuating asymmetry of mentum length. Slight effects on mentum shape fluctuating asymmetry were observed for two stressed groups. Significant mean shape changes, consisting of tooth size increase and tooth closing, were detected for lead and 4-NP exposure respectively. Those variations, however, were negligible in comparison to mentum shape changes due to genetic effects. These results suggest that the use of mentum variation as an indicator of toxic stress in Chironomus riparius should be considered cautiously. PMID:23133660

  9. Assessment of potential biomarkers, metallothionein and vitellogenin mRNA expressions in various chemically exposed benthic Chironomus riparius larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kiyun; Kwak, Inn-Sil

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was conducted to identify the possibility of using Chironomus metallothionein (MT) and vitellogenin (VTG) as biomarkers of stress caused by endocrinedisrupting chemicals (EDCs), heavy metals, herbicides and veterinary antibiotics. We characterized the MT and VTG cDNA in Chironomus riparius and evaluated their mRNA expression profiles following exposure to different environmental pollutants. The gene expression analysis showed that the MT mRNA levels increased significantly after long-term exposure to cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Moreover, the VTG mRNA expression increased significantly in C. riparius larvae exposed to BPA, NP, DEHP, Cd, 2,4-D and fenbendazole. Evaluation of the long-term effects of environmental pollutants revealed up regulation of Chironomus MT mRNA in response to DEHP exposure among EDCs, and the level of the VTG mRNA was increased significantly following treatment with Cd and herbicide 2,4-D at all concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that VTG could be used as a potential biomarker of herbicide and Cd as well as EDCs, while MT was a potential biomarker of heavy metals such as Cd, Cu, and Pb in aquatic environments.

  10. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of sediment-associated contaminants using freshwater invertebrates: A review of methods and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Ankley, G.T.; Benoit, D.A.; Brunson, E.L.; Burton, G.A.; Dwyer, F.J.; Hoke, R.A.; Landrum, P.F.; Norberg-King, T. J.; Winger, P.V.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in methods for evaluating the toxicity and bioaccumulation of contaminants associated with freshwater sediments and summarizes example case studies demonstrating the application of these methods. Over the past decade, research has emphasized development of more specific testing procedures for conducting 10-d toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus tentans. Toxicity endpoints measured in these tests are survival for H. azteca and survival and growth for C. tentans. Guidance has also been developed for conducting 28-d bioaccumulation tests with the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, including determination of bioaccumulation kinetics for different compound classes. These methods have been applied to a variety of sediments to address issues ranging from site assessments to bioavailability of organic and inorganic contaminants using field-collected and laboratory-spiked samples. Survival and growth of controls routinely meet or exceed test acceptability criteria. Results of laboratory bioaccumulation studies with L. variegatus have been confirmed with comparisons to residues (PCBs, PAHs, DDT) present from synoptically collected field populations of oligochaetes. Additional method development is currently underway to develop chronic toxicity tests and to provide additional data-confirming responses observed in laboratory sediment tests with natural benthic populations.

  11. From Midges to Spiders: Mercury Biotransport in Riparian Zones Near the Buffalo River Area of Concern (AOC), USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennuto, C M; Smith, M

    2015-12-01

    Riparian communities can receive environmental contaminants from adjacent aquatic 'donor' habitats. We investigated mercury biotransport from aquatic to terrestrial habitats via aquatic insect emergence and uptake by riparian spiders at sites within and upstream of the Buffalo River Area of Concern (AOC), a site with known sediment Hg contamination. Mercury concentration in emerging midges was roughly 10× less than contaminated sediment levels with the AOC, but biomagnification factors from midges to spiders ranged from 2.0 to 2.65 between sites. There was a significantly negative body mass:total mercury relationship in spiders (p Spiders contained significantly more mercury than their midge prey and spiders upstream of the AOC had higher mercury concentrations than spiders from within the AOC. Collectively, these data indicate that riparian spiders can be good mercury sentinels in urban environments, and that riparian communities upstream from the AOC may be at greater risk to mercury than has been previously considered.

  12. Entomopathogenic Fungus as a Biological Control for an Important Vector of Livestock Disease: The Culicoides Biting Midge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Minshad Ali; Pope, Edward C.; Carpenter, Simon; Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Butt, Tariq M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The recent outbreak of bluetongue virus in northern Europe has led to an urgent need to identify control measures for the Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges that transmit it. Following successful use of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against larval stages of biting midge Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen, we investigated the efficacy of this strain and other fungi (Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea and Lecanicillium longisporum) as biocontrol agents against adult C. nubeculosus in laboratory and greenhouse studies. Methodology/Findings Exposure of midges to ‘dry’ conidia of all fungal isolates caused significant reductions in survival compared to untreated controls. Metarhizium anisopliae strain V275 was the most virulent, causing a significantly decrease in midge survival compared to all other fungal strains tested. The LT50 value for strain V275 was 1.42 days compared to 2.21–3.22 days for the other isolates. The virulence of this strain was then further evaluated by exposing C. nubeculosus to varying doses (108–1011 conidia m−2) using different substrates (horse manure, damp peat, leaf litter) as a resting site. All exposed adults were found to be infected with the strain V275 four days after exposure. A further study exposed C. nubeculosus adults to ‘dry’ conidia and ‘wet’ conidia (conidia suspended in 0.03% aq. Tween 80) of strain V275 applied to damp peat and leaf litter in cages within a greenhouse. ‘Dry’ conidia were more effective than ‘wet’ conidia, causing 100% mortality after 5 days. Conclusion/Significance This is the first study to demonstrate that entomopathogenic fungi are potential biocontrol agents against adult Culicoides, through the application of ‘dry’ conidia on surfaces (e.g., manure, leaf litter, livestock) where the midges tend to rest. Subsequent conidial transmission between males and females may cause an increased level of fungi-induced mortality in midges

  13. [Hemoglobins, XXXII. Analysis of the primary structure of the monomeric hemoglobin CTT VIIA (erythrocruorin) or Chironomus thummi thummi, Diptera (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, T; Braunitzer, G

    1980-01-01

    The dimeric hemoglobin CTT VIIA (erythrocruorin) was isolated from the hemolymph of the larva from Chironomus thummi thummi and purified by preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Peptides obtained by limited tryptical digestion were sequenced by automatic Edman degradation. For the elucidation of the sequence in the C-terminal region of the chain, additional cleavages with proteinase of Staphylococcus aureus and chymotrypsin were necessary. CTT VIIA is compared with human beta-chains and other hemoglobins of Chironomus. The amino acid residues in the pocket are especially discussed. Most of them are invariant in all Chironomus hemoglobins, independent of the size of the heme pocket, which is normal in some components and enlarged in others.

  14. Wing pattern variation in the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R. SPINELLI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of the type-series and non-type specimens of the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, revealed considerable variation in wing patterns of both sexes. One pattern includes several distinct light spot areas, whereas another pattern (e.g, in the holotype only features marginal light spots in cell r3, while other light spots are barely perceptible or absent. The cause(s of the differential lack of dark macrotrichia in certain areas of the wing membrane in specimens of some series could not be attributed either to their age, sex, or method of preservation.

  15. Studies on biting midges of the genus Culicoides in the Suez Canal Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, T A; Bebars, M A; Sabry, A H; Ahmed, M M; Abdel Fattah, S A

    1989-06-01

    The importance of the biting midges of the genus Culicoides being in their role as vector of non periodic filarial worms of the genus Mansonella and Dipetalonema to man and pathogenic virus to livestock. Besides, their painful bite may disappear within an hour or cause an appreciable systemic reaction. In this paper, the four species recorded in the Suez Canal Zone (C. schultzei, C. puncticollis, C. pallidipennis & C. distinctipennis) were redescribed. Also, the hours of activity of the most common and abundant species, C. schultzei was studied. C. neavei Austin, 1912, representing a new record in Egypt.

  16. Growth of Chironomus dilutus larvae exposed to ozone-treated and untreated oil sands process water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.; Wiseman, S.; Franz, E.; Jones, P.; Liber, K.; Giesy, J.; Gamal El-Din, M.; Marin, J.

    2010-01-01

    Oil sand processing operations require large quantities of freshwater and produce large volumes of oil sands process water (OSPW) which must be stored on-site. This presentation reviewed various treatment methods for remediating OSPW in order to eliminate downstream toxicity. Naphthenic acids are the most important target fractions for treatment because they are primarily responsible for the acute toxicity of OSPW. Although ozonation has shown promise for reducing OSPW toxicity, the effects of ozonation on aquatic invertebrates remain unknown. This study investigated the effects of exposure to untreated and ozonated OSPW in Chironomus dilutus larvae. OSPW was treated with either a 50 or 80 mg O 3 /L dose of ozonation. The effects of ozonation levels on C. dilutus survival and growth were examined. The study showed that after a 10-day exposure, there were pronounced effects on survival of larvae exposed to ozone-treated or untreated OSPW. Larvae exposed to OSPW were 64-77 percent smaller than their respective controls, but the mean wet mass of organisms exposed to 50 mg O 3 /L ozonated OSPW was not much different from that of the controls. Larvae exposed to 80 mg O 3 /L ozone-treated OSPW were 40 percent smaller than the freshwater controls, and the mean wet mass was also much larger than the untreated OSPW. It was concluded that the toxicity of OSPW to benthic invertebrates may be reduced by ozone treatment.

  17. Life-cycle effects of sediment-associated uranium on Chironomus riparius (diptera: chironomidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, V.; Ksas, B.; Camilleri, V.; Bonzom, J.M. [CEA Cadarache (DEI/SECRE/LRE), Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2004-07-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, sediments function as reservoir for many of the more persistent chemicals that are introduced into surface waters. Sediments provide a habitat for various benthic macro-invertebrates, which are exposed to sediment-associated chemicals both directly and via food intake. These chemicals may be directly toxic to benthic macro-invertebrates and can be integrated into food chain. Benthic macro-invertebrates play an important role in the ecosystem structure and functioning. In particular, they represent an important component of aquatic food chains. Among the non biologically essential metals, data concerning uranium fate and effects on freshwater benthic invertebrates are sparse. The present study aimed to estimate effects of a chronic uranium exposure on life-cycle traits of Chironomus riparius. To achieve this goal, (i) first instar larvae were exposed to a series of concentrations of uranium via the sediment, and (ii) a number of developmental (e.g. growth) and reproductive (e.g. emergence, fecundity, viability) endpoints, through parental and into F1 generations, were evaluated. Within the framework of ecological risk assessment, these data will help the derivation of a sediment guideline value for uranium that does not currently exist in France or elsewhere due to a lack of toxicity data. (author)

  18. Genotoxic effects of vinclozolin on the aquatic insect Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, Mónica; Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2018-01-01

    Vinclozolin (Vz) is a pollutant found in aquatic environments whose antiandrogenic effects in reproduction are well known in mammals. Although its reproductive effects have been less studied in invertebrates, other effects, including genotoxicity, have been described. Therefore, in this work, we studied the genotoxic effects of Vz in the freshwater benthic invertebrate Chironomus riparius. DNA damage was evaluated with the comet assay (tail area, olive moment, tail moment and % DNA in tail), and the transcriptional levels of different genes involved in DNA repair (ATM, NLK and XRCC1) and apoptosis (DECAY) were measured by RT-PCR. Fourth instar larvae of C. riparius, were exposed to Vz for 24 h at 20 and 200 μg/L. The Vz exposures affected the DNA integrity in this organism, since a dose-response relationship occurred, with DNA strand breaks significantly increased with increased dose for tail area, olive moment and tail moment parameters. Additionally, the lower concentration of Vz produced a significant induction of the transcripts of three genes under study (ATM, NLK and XRCC1) showing the activation of the cellular repair mechanism. In contrast, the expression of these genes with the highest concentration were downregulated, indicating failure of the cellular repair mechanism, which would explain the higher DNA damage. These data report for the first time the alterations of Vz on gene transcription of an insect and confirm the potential genotoxicity of this compound on freshwater invertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Life-cycle effects of sediment-associated uranium on Chironomus riparius (diptera: chironomidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, V.; Ksas, B.; Camilleri, V.; Bonzom, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, sediments function as reservoir for many of the more persistent chemicals that are introduced into surface waters. Sediments provide a habitat for various benthic macro-invertebrates, which are exposed to sediment-associated chemicals both directly and via food intake. These chemicals may be directly toxic to benthic macro-invertebrates and can be integrated into food chain. Benthic macro-invertebrates play an important role in the ecosystem structure and functioning. In particular, they represent an important component of aquatic food chains. Among the non biologically essential metals, data concerning uranium fate and effects on freshwater benthic invertebrates are sparse. The present study aimed to estimate effects of a chronic uranium exposure on life-cycle traits of Chironomus riparius. To achieve this goal, (i) first instar larvae were exposed to a series of concentrations of uranium via the sediment, and (ii) a number of developmental (e.g. growth) and reproductive (e.g. emergence, fecundity, viability) endpoints, through parental and into F1 generations, were evaluated. Within the framework of ecological risk assessment, these data will help the derivation of a sediment guideline value for uranium that does not currently exist in France or elsewhere due to a lack of toxicity data. (author)

  20. [Nuclear protein matrix from giant nuclei of Chironomus plumosus determinates polythene chromosome organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, M S; Chentsov, Iu S

    2010-01-01

    Giant nuclei from salivary glands of Chironomus plumosus were treated in situ with detergent, 2 M NaCl and nucleases in order to reveal residual nuclear matrix proteins (NMP). It was shown, that preceding stabilization of non-histone proteins with 2 mM CuCl2 allowed to visualize the structure of polythene chromosomes at every stage of the extraction of histones and DNA. Stabilized NPM of polythene chromosomes maintains their morphology and banding patterns, which is observed by light and electron microscopy, whereas internal fibril net or residual nucleoli are not found. In stabilized NPM of polythene chromosomes, topoisomerase IIalpha and SMC1 retain their localization that is typical of untreated chromosomes. NPM of polythene chromosomes also includes sites of DNA replication, visualized with BrDU incubation, and some RNA-components. So, we can conclude that structure of NPM from giant nuclei is equal to NPM from normal interphase nuclei, and that morphological features of polythene chromosomes depend on the presence of NMP.

  1. Ecotoxicological assessment of grey water treatment systems with Daphnia magna and Chironomus riparius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Leal, L; Soeter, A M; Kools, S A E; Kraak, M H S; Parsons, J R; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

    2012-03-15

    In order to meet environmental quality criteria, grey water was treated in four different ways: 1) aerobic 2) anaerobic+aerobic 3) aerobic+activated carbon 4) aerobic+ozone. Since each treatment has its own specific advantages and disadvantages, the aim of this study was to compare the ecotoxicity of differently treated grey water using Chironomus riparius (96 h test) and Daphnia magna (48 h and 21d test) as test organisms. Grey water exhibited acute toxicity to both test organisms. The aerobic and combined anaerobic+aerobic treatment eliminated mortality in the acute tests, but growth of C. riparius was still affected by these two effluents. Post-treatment by ozone and activated carbon completely removed the acute toxicity from grey water. In the chronic toxicity test the combined anaerobic+aerobic treatment strongly affected D. magna population growth rate (47%), while the aerobic treatment had a small (9%) but significant effect. Hence, aerobic treatment is the best option for biological treatment of grey water, removing most of the toxic effects of grey water. If advanced treatment is required, the treatment with either ozone or GAC were shown to be very effective in complete removal of toxicity from grey water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adaptive response of Chironomus riparius populations exposed to uranium contaminated sediments during consecutive generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, V.

    2010-01-01

    The intensity of selection on populations caused by polluted environment often exceeds which is caused by an unpolluted environment. Therefore, micro evolution can occur in response to this anthropic-directional force over a short period. In this context, this thesis focused on studying phenotypic changes in Chironomus riparius populations exposed during several consecutive generations to uranium-contaminated sediments. In laboratory-controlled conditions experiments were conducted with same origin populations exposed to a range of uranium concentration inducing toxic effects. Over eight-generations of exposure, life-history traits measures revealed micro evolution in exposed populations, including increase of adult reproductive success. Other experiments (acute toxicity test, common garden experiment) performed in parallel enabled to link these micro evolution with a tolerance induction, as a consequence of genetic adaptation. Nonetheless this adaptation also induced cost in terms of fitness and genetic diversity for pre-exposed populations. These results lead to the hypothesis of a selection by uranium that acted sequentially on populations. They also underline the need to better-understand the adaptive mechanisms to better assess the ecological consequences of chronic exposure of populations to a pollutant. (author)

  3. Histopathological effects of cypermethrin and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis on midgut of Chironomus calligraphus larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavarías, Sabrina; Arrighetti, Florencia; Siri, Augusto

    2017-06-01

    Pesticides are extensively used for the control of agricultural pests and disease vectors, but they also affect non-target organisms. Cypermethrin (CYP) is a synthetic pyrethroid used worldwide. Otherwise, bioinsecticides like Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) have received great attention as an environmentally benign and desirable alternative. In order to evaluate the toxicity of those pesticides, Chironomus calligraphus was selected due to its high sensitivity to some toxicants. Third and fourth instars larvae were exposed to serial dilutions of CYP and Bti to determine LC 50 values. In order to evaluate the potentially histopathological alterations as biomarkers, after 96-h of exposure, live larvae were fixed for histological analysis of the mid region of digestive tract. The 96-h LC 50 values were 0.52 and 1.506μg/L for CYP and Bti, respectively. Midgut histological structure of the control group showed a single layer of cubical cells with microvilli in their apical surface and a big central nucleus. The midgut epithelium of larvae exposed to a low concentration of CYP (0.037μg/L) showed secretion activity and vacuolization while at high concentration (0.3μg/L) cells showed a greater disorganization and a more developed fat body. On the other hand, Bti caused progressive histological damage in this tissue. Chironomus calligraphus is sensitive to Bti and CYP toxicity like other Chironomus species. The histopathological alterations could be a valuable tool to assess toxicity mechanism of different pesticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of Viral Communities of Biting Midges and Identification of Novel Thogotovirus Species and Rhabdovirus Genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Temmam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available More than two thirds of emerging viruses are of zoonotic origin, and among them RNA viruses represent the majority. Ceratopogonidae (genus Culicoides are well-known vectors of several viruses responsible for epizooties (bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, etc.. They are also vectors of the only known virus infecting humans: the Oropouche virus. Female midges usually feed on a variety of hosts, leading to possible transmission of emerging viruses from animals to humans. In this context, we report here the analysis of RNA viral communities of Senegalese biting midges using next-generation sequencing techniques as a preliminary step toward the identification of potential viral biohazards. Sequencing of the RNA virome of three pools of Culicoides revealed the presence of a significant diversity of viruses infecting plants, insects and mammals. Several novel viruses were detected, including a novel Thogotovirus species, related but genetically distant from previously described tick-borne thogotoviruses. Novel rhabdoviruses were also detected, possibly constituting a novel Rhabdoviridae genus, and putatively restricted to insects. Sequences related to the major viruses transmitted by Culicoides, i.e., African horse sickness, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses were also detected. This study highlights the interest in monitoring the emergence and circulation of zoonoses and epizooties using their arthropod vectors.

  5. Characterization of Viral Communities of Biting Midges and Identification of Novel Thogotovirus Species and Rhabdovirus Genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Robert, Catherine; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Labas, Noémie; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg; Desnues, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    More than two thirds of emerging viruses are of zoonotic origin, and among them RNA viruses represent the majority. Ceratopogonidae (genus Culicoides) are well-known vectors of several viruses responsible for epizooties (bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, etc.). They are also vectors of the only known virus infecting humans: the Oropouche virus. Female midges usually feed on a variety of hosts, leading to possible transmission of emerging viruses from animals to humans. In this context, we report here the analysis of RNA viral communities of Senegalese biting midges using next-generation sequencing techniques as a preliminary step toward the identification of potential viral biohazards. Sequencing of the RNA virome of three pools of Culicoides revealed the presence of a significant diversity of viruses infecting plants, insects and mammals. Several novel viruses were detected, including a novel Thogotovirus species, related but genetically distant from previously described tick-borne thogotoviruses. Novel rhabdoviruses were also detected, possibly constituting a novel Rhabdoviridae genus, and putatively restricted to insects. Sequences related to the major viruses transmitted by Culicoides, i.e., African horse sickness, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses were also detected. This study highlights the interest in monitoring the emergence and circulation of zoonoses and epizooties using their arthropod vectors. PMID:26978389

  6. Langevin dynamics encapsulate the microscopic and emergent macroscopic properties of midge swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    In contrast to bird flocks, fish schools and animal herds, midge swarms maintain cohesion but do not possess global order. High-speed imaging techniques are now revealing that these swarms have surprising properties. Here, I show that simple models found on the Langevin equation are consistent with this wealth of recent observations. The models predict correctly that large accelerations, exceeding 10 g, will be common and they predict correctly the coexistence of core condensed phases surrounded by dilute vapour phases. The models also provide new insights into the influence of environmental conditions on swarm dynamics. They predict that correlations between midges increase the strength of the effective force binding the swarm together. This may explain why such correlations are absent in laboratory swarms but present in natural swarms which contend with the wind and other disturbances. Finally, the models predict that swarms have fluid-like macroscopic mechanical properties and will slosh rather than slide back and forth after being abruptly displaced. This prediction offers a promising avenue for future experimentation that goes beyond current quasi-static testing which has revealed solid-like responses. PMID:29298958

  7. Biting rates and developmental substrates for biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Iquitos, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, David R; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B

    2003-11-01

    Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected at 16 periurban and rural sites around Iquitos, Peru, between 17 October 1996 and 26 May 1997. Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi), the principal vector of Oropouche virus, was the most commonly collected species (9,086 flies) with Culicoides insinuatus Wirth & Blanton second (7,229 flies). Although both species were collected at all sampling sites (linear (distance surveyed approximately 25 km), C. paraensis dominated at northern collection sites (> 90%), whereas C. insinuatus prevailed at southern collection sites (> 60%). C. paraensis were collected from human sentinels at a constant rate throughout daylight hours, at similar rates during wet and dry months, and regardless of rainfall. Larval developmental substrates for C. paraensis included decaying platano (Musa x paradisiaca L. [Musaceae]) stems, stumps, flowers, fruits, and debris beneath platano trees as well as from soil beneath a fruiting mamay (Syzygium malaccense Merr. & Perry [Myrtaceae] ) tree and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline. C. insinuatus adults likewise emerged from decaying platano and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline, but also from debris accumulated in the axils of aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa L. [Palmae]) fronds and decaying citrus fruit. Despite high numbers of biting adults near putative substrates, adults of neither species emerged from other decomposing plant material, soil, phytotelmata, or artificial containers. Because both species of biting midges emerged in high numbers from all parts of platano (ubiquitous in Iquitos), it will be challenging to control them through sanitation.

  8. Spatial and temporal variation in the abundance of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in nine European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuellar, Ana Carolina; Kjær, Lene Jung; Kirkeby, Carsten Thure

    2018-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus and Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Outbreaks of both BTV and SBV have affected large parts of Europe. The spread of these diseases depends largely on vector distributio...

  9. Wheat Mds-1 encodes a heat-shock protein and governs susceptibility towards the Hessian fly gall midge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant pests including insects must manipulate plants in order to utilize the nutrition and environment of the host. Here, we show that the heat-shock protein gene Mayetiola destructor susceptibility gene-1 (Mds-1) is a major susceptibility gene in wheat that allows the gall midge M. destructor, com...

  10. A comparison of sediment toxicity test methods at three Great Lake Areas of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, G. Allen; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Burnett, LouAnn C.; Henry, Mary; Hinman, Mark L.; Klaine, Stephen J.; Landrum, Peter F.; Ross, Phillipe; Tuchman, Marc

    1996-01-01

    The significance of sediment contamination is often evaluated using sediment toxicity (bioassay) testing. There are relatively few “standardized” test methods for evaluating sediments. Popular sediment toxicity methods examine the extractable water (elutriate), interstitial water, or whole (bulk) sediment phases using test species spanning the aquatic food chain from bacteria to fish. The current study was designed to evaluate which toxicity tests were most useful in evaluations of sediment contamination at three Great Lake Areas of Concern. Responses of 24 different organisms including fish, mayflies, amphipods, midges, cladocerans, rotifers, macrophytes, algae, and bacteria were compared using whole sediment or elutriate toxicity assays. Sediments from several sites in the Buffalo River, Calumet River (Indiana Harbor), and Saginaw River were tested, as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) Project. Results indicated several assays to be sensitive to sediment toxicity and able to discriminate between differing levels of toxicity. Many of the assay responses were significantly correlated to other toxicity responses and were similar based on factor analysis. For most applications, a test design consisting of two to three assays should adequately detect sediment toxicity, consisting of various groupings of the following species: Hyalella azteca, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Chironomus riparius, Chironomus tentans, Daphnia magna, Pimephales promelas, Hexagenia bilineata, Diporeia sp., Hydrilla verticillata, or Lemna minor.

  11. Factors that alter the biochemical biomarkers of environmental contamination in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Rebechi-Baggio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Changes in physiology of the nervous system and metabolism can be detected through the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, alpha esterase (EST-a and beta esterase (EST-ß in chironomids exposed to pollutants. However, to understand the real effect of xenobiotics on organisms, it is important to investigate how certain factors can interfere with enzyme activity. We investigated the effects of different temperatures, food stress and two steps of the enzymatic protocol on the activity of AChE, EST-a and EST-ß in Chironomus sancticaroli. In experiment of thermal stress individuals from the egg stage to the fourth larval instar were exposed to different temperatures (20, 25 and 30 °C. In food stress experiment, larvae were reared until IV instar in a standard setting (25 °C and 0.9 g weekly ration, but from fourth instar on they were divided into groups and offered different feeding regimes (24, 48 and 72 h with/without food. In sample freezing experiment, a group of samples was processed immediately after homogenization and another after freezing for 30 days. To test the effect of centrifugation on samples, enzyme activity was quantified from centrifuged and non-centrifuged samples. The activity of each enzyme reached an optimum at a different temperature. The absence of food triggered different changes in enzyme activity depending on the period of starvation. Freezing and centrifugation of the samples significantly reduced the activity of three enzymes. Based on these results we conclude that the four factors studied had an influence on AChE, EST-a and EST-ß and this influence should be considered in ecotoxicological approaches.

  12. UV filters induce transcriptional changes of different hormonal receptors in Chironomus riparius embryos and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozáez, Irene; Aquilino, Mónica; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2016-07-01

    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are emerging contaminants that are ubiquitous in fresh and marine aquatic systems due to their extensive use in cosmetics, plastics, paints, textiles, and many other industrial products. The estrogenic effects of organic UV filters have been long demonstrated in vertebrates, and other hormonal activities may be altered, according to more recent reports. The impact of UV filters on the endocrine system of invertebrates is largely unknown. We have previously reported that some UV filters may affect ecdysone-related genes in the aquatic insect Chironomus riparius, an ecotoxicologically important model organism. To further analyze other possible effects on endocrine pathways, we first characterized four pivotal genes related with hormonal pathways in insects; thereafter, these genes were assessed for alterations in transcriptional activity after exposure to 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) or benzophenone-3 (BP-3), two extensively used sunscreens. We found that both chemicals disturbed the expression of all four genes analyzed: hormonal receptor 38 (HR38), methoprene-tolerant (Met), membrane-associate progesterone receptor (MAPR) and insulin-like receptor (INSR), measured by changes in mRNA levels by real-time PCR. An upregulatory effect at the genomic level was detected in different developmental stages. Interestingly, embryos appeared to be more sensitive to the action of the UV filters than larvae. Our results suggest that the risk of disruption through different endocrine routes is not negligible, considering the significant effects of UV filters on key hormonal receptor and regulatory genes. Further effort is needed to develop environmental risk assessment studies on these pollutants, particularly for aquatic invertebrate model organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hypoxia and anoxia effects on alcohol dehydrogenase activity and hemoglobin content in Chironomus riparius Meigen, 1804

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Grazioli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic effects of low oxygen content on alcohol-dehydrogenase (ADH activity and hemoglobin (Hb concentration were investigated in IV-instar larvae of Chironomus riparius (Diptera: Chironomidae from an Italian stream. Two series of short-term (48 h experiments were carried out: exposure to (1 progressive hypoxia (95 to 5% of oxygen saturation and (2 anoxia (at <5% of oxygen saturation. In (1, Hb amount increased with increasing oxygen depletion up to a critical value of oxygenation (about 70% of oxygen saturation. Below this percentage, the Hb amount declined to values comparable with those present in the control. The respiration rate (R remained almost constant at oxygen saturation >50% and decreased significantly only after 48 h of treatment (= <5% of oxygen saturation reaching values <100 mmolO2 gAFDW-1 h-1. ADH activity showed two phases of growth, within the first 14 h and over 18 h of exposure. Overall, we inferred that i Hb might function as short-term oxygen storage, enabling animals to delay the on-set of anaerobiosis; and ii alcoholic fermentation co-occurs for a short time with aerobic respiration, becoming the prevalent metabolic pathway below 5% of oxygen saturation (<1 mg L-1. These considerations were supported also by results from anoxia exposure (2. In such condition, larvae were visibly stressed, becoming immobile after few minutes of incubation, and ADH reached higher values than in the hypoxia treatment (2.03±0.15 UADH mg prot-1. Overall, this study showed a shift from aerobic to anaerobic activity in C. riparius larvae exposed to poorly oxygenated water with an associated alteration of ADH activity and the Hb amount. Such metabolites might be valid candidate biomarkers for the environmental monitoring of running waters.

  14. Genome Instability of Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera, Chironomidae from Polluted Water Basins in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ilkova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of Chironomus riparius Mg. (Chironomidae, Diptera collected from two polluted water basins in Bulgaria, the Maritsa and Chaya Rivers (adjacent to Plovdiv and Asenovgrad respectively, a small pool (near Plovdiv plus controls reared in the laboratory were studied. High concentrations of the heavy metals Pb, Cu and Cd were recorded in the sediments of the polluted stations. Marked somatic structural chromosome aberrations were found in C. riparius salivary polytene chromosomes from the field stations and their frequency was significantly higher (p<0.01 compared to the control. The observed somatic chromosome changes are discussed as a response of the chironomid genome to aquatic pollution. A new cytogenetic index based on the number of aberrations found in larvae from polluted regions in comparison with the control was applied to the data to more easily evaluate the degree of heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Our study of a polluted site near the River Chaya showed that the somatic index was very high at 3.35 for 2010 and 11.66 for 2013 compared to 0.5 in the control. The cytogenetic index was effective in showing that all studied sites were highly polluted in comparison with the control. To determine the mechanism involved in the concentration of aberration breakpoints within specific regions of the chironomid polytene chromosome the FISH method was applied. The localization of a transposable element TFB1 along the polytene chromosomes of C. riparius was analyzed and the sites of localization were compared with breakpoints of chromosome aberrations. A significant correlation (p<0.05 was found which shows that most of the aberrations do not appear randomly but are concentrated in sites rich in transposable elements.

  15. Benthic communities in inland salinized waters with different salinities and nutrient concentrations and the ecology of Chironomus aprilinus (Diptera: Chironomidae) in the Czech Republic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matěna, Josef; Šímová, I.; Brom, J.; Novotná, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 113, January (2016), s. 122-129 E-ISSN 1802-8829 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Diptera * Chironomidae * Chironomus aprilinus * coal mining * hydric restoration * saline inland waters * fertilization Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2016

  16. Acute toxicity tests with Daphnia magna, Americamysis bahia, Chironomus riparius and Gammarus pulex and implications of new EU requirenments for the aquatic effect assessment of insecticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, T.C.M.; Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Threshold concentrations for treatment related effects of 31 insecticides, as derived from aquatic micro-/mesocosm tests, were used to calibrate the predictive value of the European Tier-1 acute effect assessment on basis of laboratory toxicity tests with Daphnia magna, Chironomus spp., Americamysis

  17. Study of the role of biotic and abiotic factors in modifying metal accumulation by Chironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantzberg, G.B.

    1987-01-01

    The author examined the variability in metal bioaccumulation by chironomids collected from sites that differed in the extent of metal and acid loadings. Bioaccumulation by Chironomus was related to both biotic and abiotic factors. Metal accumulation was age and weight dependent. Aluminum, Ca, and Fe concentrations increased with age, Cd and Ni decreased, and Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn remained constant with age. Calcium, Fe, and Ni concentration increased with weight, Cd decrease, and Cu, Mn, and Zn remained constant with weight. Age and weight effects on metal accumulation were identified as a potential source of spacial and temporal variability in tissue concentrations. Metal regulation differed between populations of Chironomus. Lead and Cd were not regulated, Zn was regulated, and larvae from a Cu and Ni contaminated system appeared to regulate Cu and Ni. X-ray probe microanalysis provided further support that metal metabolism differed between population, and results from laboratory experiments suggested that populations differed in relation to metal tolerance. There was evidence that pH modified metal accumulation.

  18. Functional validation of Apoptosis Genes IAP1 and DRONC in midgut tissue of the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) by RNAi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Culicoides biting midges transmit multiple ruminant viruses, including bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, causing significant economic burden worldwide due to trade restrictions and production loss. To limit the spread of these viruses, control strategies focus on ...

  19. To bite or not to bite! A questionnaire-based survey assessing why some people are bitten more than others by midges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weeks Emma NI

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Scottish biting midge, Culicoides impunctatus, responsible for more than 90% of biting attacks on human beings in Scotland, is known to demonstrate a preference for certain human hosts over others. Methods In this study we used a questionnaire-based survey to assess the association between people's perception of how badly they get bitten by midges and their demographic, lifestyle and health related characteristics. Results Most people (85.8% reported being bitten sometimes, often or always with only 14.2% reporting never being bitten by midges when in Scotland. There was no association between level of bites received and age, smoking, diet, exercise, medication, eating strongly flavoured foods or alcohol consumption. However, there was a strong association between the probability of being bitten and increasing height (in men and BMI (in women. A large proportion of participants (33.8% reported experiencing a bad/severe reaction to midge bites while 53.1% reported a minor reaction and 13.1% no reaction at all. Also, women tend to react more than men to midge bites. Additionally, the results indicated that the susceptibility to being bitten by midges is hereditary. Conclusions This study suggests that midges prefer to bite men that are tall and women that have a large BMI, and that the tendency for a child to be bitten or not could be inherited from their parent. The study is questionnaire-based; therefore, the interpretation of the results may be limited by the subjectivity of the answers given by the respondents. Although the results are relevant only to the Scottish biting midge, the approach used here could be useful for investigating human-insect interactions for other insects, particularly those which transmit pathogens that cause disease.

  20. New Genus and Species of Gall Midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Porricondylinae, Holoneurini from the Late Eocene Amber of Olevsk (Zhitomir Region, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedotova Z. A.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gall midges are reported for the first time in Late Eocene Rovno amber from the Olevsk, Zhitomir Region. This is the second amber locality to yield gall midges in the Zhitomir Region, after Gulyanka. Rovnoholoneurus gen. n. and two new species, Rovnoholoneurus davidi sp. n. and R. miyae sp. n. are described. Bryocrypta laqueata Fedotova, 2005 is transferred to the genus Rovnoholoneurus, and Rovnoholoneurus laqueatus (Fedotova, 2005, comb. n. is established. A key to the species of Rovnoholoneurus is provided.

  1. A Key to the Pupal Exuviae of the Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) of Everglades National Park, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    A key has been developed for identifying the pupal exuviae of 132 taxa of chironomid midges collected in Everglades National Park, as well as 18 additional species from freshwater habitats adjacent to the Park. Descriptions and illustrations are based upon voucher specimens from extensive collections of chironomid pupal exuviae for faunal surveys and biomonitoring research conducted in ENP and surrounding freshwater areas from 1998 to 2007. The key includes taxonomic comments for confirming identifications, as well as brief summaries of the distribution and ecology of each species in southern Florida waters. Information is also provided on the morphology of chironomid pupal exuviae, recommended references for identifying pupal exuviae, techniques for making slides, and methods to confirm proper identification.

  2. Biology and harmfulness of Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn. in winter oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draga Graora

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn. is an important pest in oilseed rape (Brasica napus L.. It develops two generations per year and overwinters in the larval stage in cocoons in soil. Immigration of the first generation adults lasted from the beginning of April until the end of May. Larvae developed in pods from mid-April to mid-June, causing pod deformation and cracking, which resulted in premature falling out of seeds and yield reduction. Pod damage amounted to 11.6%. The emergence of the second generation adults was detected at the end of May and in the first ten days of June. D. brassicae was found to lay eggs in healthy pods and no correlation was found with the cabbage seed weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis Paykull.

  3. Mosquitoes and Culicoides biting midges: vector range and the influence of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbers, A R W; Koenraadt, C J M; Meiswinkel, R

    2015-04-01

    Vector-borne animal diseases pose a continuous and substantial threat to livestock economies around the globe. Increasing international travel, the globalisation of trade, and climate change are likely to play a progressively more important role in the introduction, establishment and spread of arthropod-borne pathogens worldwide. A review of the literature reveals that many climatic variables, functioning singly or in combination, exert varying effects on the distribution and range of Culicoides vector midges and mosquitoes. For example, higher temperatures may be associated with increased insect abundance--thereby amplifying the risk of disease transmission--but there are no indications yet of dramatic shifts occurring in the geographic range of Culicoides midges. However, the same cannot be said for mosquitoes: over the last few decades, multiple Asian species have established themselves in Europe, spread and are unlikely to ever be eradicated. Research on how insects respond to changes in climate is still in its infancy. The authors argue that we need to grasp how other annectant changes, such as extremes in precipitation (drought and flooding), may affect the dispersal capability of mosquitoes. Models are useful for assessing the interplay between mosquito vectors expanding their range and the native flora and fauna; however, ecological studies employing classical mark-release-recapture techniques remain essential for addressing fundamental questions about the survival and dispersal of mosquito species, with the resulting parameters fed directly into new-generation disease transmission models. Studies on the eventual impact of mosquitoes on animal and human health should be tackled through large-scale integrated research programmes. Such an approach calls for more collaborative efforts, along the lines of the One Health Initiative.

  4. Moonlight receptor of the '1-h-midge' Clunio marinus studied by micro-XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkenberg, G; Wellenreuther, G; Alraun, P; Fleissner, Ge; Fleissner, Gue; Neumann, D

    2013-01-01

    Melanin is a pigment widely occurring in animals, plants, fungi and algae. It does not only colour skin, hair and eyes but serves mainly as photoprotectant and prevents overload with minerals induced by inflammations, infections and degenerative diseases. Therefore, the mechanisms underlying melanisation gained increasing interest in the field of biomedical research and clinic. So far, the processes of melanogenesis are only partly analysed, nearly nothing is known on a putative switch between melanins of different types. Here we offer a model organism to study these mechanisms as part of a naturally cycling change of transparency of the retinal shielding pigment. A marine midge, Clunio marinus, living in coastal regions, underlies a complex timing of its development by solar and lunar climatic periodicities, which synchronise biological clocks. The question was how the animals can discriminate changing sunlight from moonlight intensities. For the first time, we could show a 'moonlight window' in the larval ocelli of this midge, and propose a hypothesis on the underlying mechanisms. Driven by a lunar clock the image forming ocelli become transparent and convert during moonlit nights to a sensitive photometer, which can record the dynamics of environmental light. High resolution X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements of the distribution of trace minerals in single melanosomes combined with their fine structural details in various states of the lunar cycle provide a first insight into the enzymatic pathways for the generation of a dark melanin (like eumelanin) and a light coloured melanin (like phaeomelanin). Essential advantage of this approach is the spatial and temporal resolution of the metals associated with melanisation processes, which could never before be demonstrated in these details. The data may stimulate further research projects in biomedicine

  5. Ribosomal genes as early targets of cadmium-induced toxicity in Chironomus riparius larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planello, R.; Martinez-Guitarte, J.L.; Morcillo, G.

    2007-01-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant that causes severe impacts in organisms. Although the effects of cadmium on aquatic insects have been studied in terms of their toxicity and changes in developmental parameters, little is known about its molecular and genetic effects. We have investigated the alterations in the pattern of gene expression provoked by acute exposure to cadmium in Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera, Chironomidae), a sentinel organism widely used in aquatic toxicity testing. The early cytotoxic effects were evaluated using immunocytochemistry and specific fluorescent probes in fourth instar larvae after 12 h of 10 mM cadmium treatments; under these conditions no significant effect on larvae mortality was detected until after 36 h of exposure. The changes in the pattern of gene expression were analysed by means of DNA/RNA hybrid antibodies in the polytene chromosomes from salivary gland cells. A decrease in the activity of the nucleolus is especially remarkable, accompanied by a significant reduction in size and the modification in nucleolar architecture, as shown by FISH. The inhibition of rDNA transcription was further evaluated by Northern blot analysis, which showed a marked decrease in the level of preribosomal rRNA (54% 45S 12 h). However, the BR genes, whose products are the giant polypeptides that constitute the silk-like secretion for constructing housing tubes, remain active. Simultaneously, decondensation and activation take place at some chromosomal regions, especially at the centromeres. The changes observed in the pattern of gene expression do not resemble those found after heat shock or other cell stressors. These data provide the first evidence that cadmium interacts with ribosomal genes and results in a drastic impairment of the functional activity of the nucleolus, an essential organelle for cellular survival. Therefore, the depletion of ribosomes would be a long-term effect of Cd-induced cellular damage. These findings may

  6. Survival, reproduction, and arsenic body burdens in Chironomus riparius exposed to arsenate and phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogren, Christina L., E-mail: christina.mogren@email.ucr.edu [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Ave, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Kiparski, Guntram R. von; Parker, David R. [Department of Environmental Science, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Ave, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Trumble, John T. [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Ave, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Despite the increasing awareness of arsenic (As) contamination in surface waters worldwide, little is known about how As alone and in the presence of other chemicals affects aquatic insects. Larvae of Chironomus riparius were exposed in a laboratory investigation to factorial combinations of 0, 0.13, 2.0, 5.3, and 13 {mu}mol As l{sup -1} and 0, 0.15, and 15 {mu}mol PO{sub 4} l{sup -1} throughout development from first instar to pupal emergence. The time between male and female emergence increased from 1.8 {+-} 0.17 days to 2.9 {+-} 0.34 days with exposure at higher As levels. The highest As exposure also decreased the number of eggs per egg mass, which may affect population maintenance. For these parameters, there was no effect from PO{sub 4}, and no interaction between As and PO{sub 4}. Total As determination of larval and adult tissues was conducted using Hydride Generated Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (HGAAS) and revealed concentrations ranging from 2.48 {+-} 0.363 to 30.5 {+-} 0.473 {mu}g/g and 1.03 {+-} 0.286 to 8.97 {+-} 0.662 {mu}g/g, respectively, indicating elimination of approximately 72% of total As body burdens between the fourth instar and adult stages. There was no effect of PO{sub 4}, indicating PO{sub 4} does not alter uptake of As in C. riparius. The potential for movement of As to terrestrial systems exists, though trophic transfer may be more likely during the aquatic larval stage. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluate how sublethal concentrations of As and P affect C. riparius. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High As exposure significantly increased the time between male and female emergence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High As exposure significantly decreased the number of eggs per egg mass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fourth instar larvae eliminate 72% of As body burdens before the adult stage.

  7. Ribosomal genes as early targets of cadmium-induced toxicity in Chironomus riparius larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planello, R. [Biologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Guitarte, J.L. [Biologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Morcillo, G. [Biologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: gmorcillo@ccia.uned.es

    2007-02-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant that causes severe impacts in organisms. Although the effects of cadmium on aquatic insects have been studied in terms of their toxicity and changes in developmental parameters, little is known about its molecular and genetic effects. We have investigated the alterations in the pattern of gene expression provoked by acute exposure to cadmium in Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera, Chironomidae), a sentinel organism widely used in aquatic toxicity testing. The early cytotoxic effects were evaluated using immunocytochemistry and specific fluorescent probes in fourth instar larvae after 12 h of 10 mM cadmium treatments; under these conditions no significant effect on larvae mortality was detected until after 36 h of exposure. The changes in the pattern of gene expression were analysed by means of DNA/RNA hybrid antibodies in the polytene chromosomes from salivary gland cells. A decrease in the activity of the nucleolus is especially remarkable, accompanied by a significant reduction in size and the modification in nucleolar architecture, as shown by FISH. The inhibition of rDNA transcription was further evaluated by Northern blot analysis, which showed a marked decrease in the level of preribosomal rRNA (54% 45S 12 h). However, the BR genes, whose products are the giant polypeptides that constitute the silk-like secretion for constructing housing tubes, remain active. Simultaneously, decondensation and activation take place at some chromosomal regions, especially at the centromeres. The changes observed in the pattern of gene expression do not resemble those found after heat shock or other cell stressors. These data provide the first evidence that cadmium interacts with ribosomal genes and results in a drastic impairment of the functional activity of the nucleolus, an essential organelle for cellular survival. Therefore, the depletion of ribosomes would be a long-term effect of Cd-induced cellular damage. These findings may

  8. Setting the reference for the use of Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera: Chironomidae as bioindicator: Ontogenetic pattern of larval head structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Rebechi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Species of Chironomidae are widely used as bioindicators of water quality, since their larvae undergo morphological deformities when in contact with sediment contaminated with chemicals. In this work we endeavored to study the morphology of head structures (antennae, mandible, mentum, pecten epipharyngis, ventromental plate and premandible throughout the development of the four larval instars of Chironomus sancticaroli Strixino & Strixino, 1981, which can be used in environmental impact analyses. Our results show that it is possible to differentiate among larval instars by doing a quantitative analysis on the number of striae on the ventromental plates. The six structures analyzed changed during larval ontogeny. These changes are part of the ontogeny of the immature stages not exposed to xenobiotics. We believe that the morphological pattern defined in this work can be used for comparisons with ontogenetic changes observed in field studies conducted in polluted environments.

  9. [Chromosomal variation in Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) from populations of Bryansk region, Saratov region (Russia), and Gomel region (Belarus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyanina, S I

    2015-02-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was performed on samples of Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) taken from waterbodies of various types in Bryansk region (Russia) and Gomel region (Belarus). Karyotypes of specimens taken from stream pools of the Volga were used as reference samples. The populations of Bryansk and Gomel regions (except for a population of Lake Strativa in Starodubskii district, Bryansk region) exhibit broad structural variation, including somatic mosaicism for morphotypes of the salivary gland chromosome set, decondensation of telomeric sites, and the presence of small structural changes, as opposed to populations of Saratov region. As compared with Saratov and Bryansk regions, the Balbiani ring in the B-arm of chromosome I is repressed in populations of Gomel region. It is concluded that the chromosome set of Ch. plumosus in a range of waterbodies of Bryansk and Gomel regions is unstable.

  10. Chironomus plumosus' påvirkning af næringsstofflukse i restaurerede søer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, T. B.; Reitzel, K.; Andersen, F. Ø.

    Den interne næringsstofbelastning af en række danske søer har betydet at disse søer er forblevet i en uklar, algedomineret tilstand til trods for reduktioner i mængden af tilførte næringsstoffer. I mange tilfælde er der derfor efterfølgende lavet et eller flere restaureringsindgreb for at skabe e....... plumosus efter længere tid vil øge bindingen af fosfor.   Andersen,F.Ø.; Jørgensen,M.; Jensen, H.S. (2006). The influence of Chironomus plumosus larvae on nutrient fluxes and phosphorus fractions in aluminum treated lake sediment. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution: Focus....

  11. Size, age and composition: characteristics of plant taxa as diversity predictors of gall-midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter S Araújo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the diversity of gall-midge insects (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, some of them taking into account plant diversity. This study aims to test the importance of size, age and composition of host plant taxa in the diversity of Cecidomyiidae. For this we used inventories data on the diversity of galling and host plants in Brazil. We found that Asterales, Myrtales and Malpighiales, were the most important orders, with 34, 33 and 25, gall morphotypes, respectively. The most representative host families were Asteraceae (34 morphotypes, Myrtaceae (23 and Fabaceae (22. In general, the order size and the plant family were good predictors of the galling diversity, but not the taxon age. The most diverse host genera for gall-midges were Mikania, Eugenia and Styrax, with 15, 13 and nine galler species, respectively. The size of plant genera showed no significant relationship with the richness of Cecidomyiidae, contrary to the prediction of the plant taxon size hypothesis. The plant genera with the greatest diversity of galling insects are not necessarily those with the greatest number of species. These results indicate that some plant taxa have a high intrinsic richness of galling insects, suggesting that the plant species composition may be equally or more important for the diversity of gall-midges than the size or age of the host taxon. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1599- 1607. Epub 2011 December 01.

  12. Torix group Rickettsia are widespread in Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), reach high frequency and carry unique genomic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Jack; Ander, Mats; Garros, Claire; Baylis, Matthew; Hurst, Gregory D D; Siozios, Stefanos

    2017-10-01

    There is increasing interest in the heritable bacteria of invertebrate vectors of disease as they present novel targets for control initiatives. Previous studies on biting midges (Culicoides spp.), known to transmit several RNA viruses of veterinary importance, have revealed infections with the endosymbiotic bacteria, Wolbachia and Cardinium. However, rickettsial symbionts in these vectors are underexplored. Here, we present the genome of a previously uncharacterized Rickettsia endosymbiont from Culicoides newsteadi (RiCNE). This genome presents unique features potentially associated with host invasion and adaptation, including genes for the complete non-oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway, and others predicted to mediate lipopolysaccharides and cell wall modification. Screening of 414 Culicoides individuals from 29 Palearctic or Afrotropical species revealed that Rickettsia represent a widespread but previously overlooked association, reaching high frequencies in midge populations and present in 38% of the species tested. Sequence typing clusters the Rickettsia within the Torix group of the genus, a group known to infect several aquatic and hematophagous taxa. FISH analysis indicated the presence of Rickettsia bacteria in ovary tissue, indicating their maternal inheritance. Given the importance of biting midges as vectors, a key area of future research is to establish the impact of this endosymbiont on vector competence. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Karyotype characteristics and polymorphism peculiarities of Chironomus bernensis Wülker & Klötzli, 1973 (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Central Caucasus and Ciscaucasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmokov, Mukhamed Kh.; Polukonova, Natalia V.; Sinichkina, Olga V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Data about the karyotype characteristics, features of chromosomal polymorphism and larval morphology of populations of Chironomus bernensis Wülker & Klötzli, 1973 (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Central Caucasus (the northern macroslope) and Ciscaucasia are presented. The characteristics of the pericentromeric regions of the long chromosomes of this species from Caucasian populations were very similar to the ones from some European populations (from Poland and Italy), but differed from Swiss and Siberian populations. In the North Caucasian populations 10 banding sequences were found: two in arms A, C, and E, and one in arms B, D, F, and G. Nine of them were already known for this species, and one, berC2, is described for the first time. Cytogenetic distances between all the studied populations of Chironomus bernensis show that close geographical location of all studied populations from the Central Caucasus and Ciscaucasia is reflected in their similar cytogenetic structure, but on the other hand, that they are more closely related to populations from Europe than to populations from Western Siberia. At the same time, all studied larvae from Caucasian populations have a four-bladed premandible, instead of a two-bladed one, as in the description of Chironomus bernensis from Switzerland (Wülker and Klötzli 1973, Polukonova 2005c). These peculiarities may indicate the relative isolation of the Caucasus from the viewpoint of microevolution. Further research on karyological and morphological characteristics of Chironomus bernensis from geographically distant regions is necessary as there is a possibility that the presently known species is actually polytypic and consists of several sibling species. PMID:26312128

  14. The importance of excretion by Chironomus larvae on the internal loads of nitrogen and phosphorus in a small eutrophic urban reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Henry

    Full Text Available Measurements of ammonium and phosphate excretion by the Chironomus larvae were conducted in order to evaluate the importance of these chironomids for the internal loads of a small eutrophic urban reservoir. Ammonium and phosphate excretion rates by Chironomus larvae of small size (6-10 mm total length were significantly higher than those of the Chironomids having medium (9-11 mm and large (11-16 mm sizes. A dependence in relation to temperature was recorded for the ammonium and phosphate excretions that was significantly higher at 25 °C than at 20 and 15 °C. Through a linear relation between biomass (dry weight and total length and, between excretion and biomass and, data on chironomids densities, after an intense sampling in 33 sites distributed all along the reservoir bottom, the mean phosphate and ammonium excretion rates corresponded to 2,014 ± 5,134 µg.m-2/day and 1,643 ± 3,974 µg.m-2/day, respectively. Considering the mean biomass (34 mg.m-2 of Chironomus, the lake area (88,156 m² and the mean excretion rates, the contribution of benthic chironomids to the internal loads would be 181 KgP and 147 KgN. for the sampling months (October-November 1998. These values showed that the internal loads by excretion from Chironomus larvae correspond to approximately 33% of the external loads of phosphorus in the lake and, in the case of nitrogen, to only 5%.

  15. Seasonal and interseasonal dynamics of bluetongue virus infection of dairy cattle and Culicoides sonorensis midges in northern California--implications for virus overwintering in temperate zones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christie E Mayo

    Full Text Available Bluetongue virus (BTV is the cause of an economically important arboviral disease of domestic and wild ruminants. The occurrence of BTV infection of livestock is distinctly seasonal in temperate regions of the world, thus we determined the dynamics of BTV infection (using BTV-specific real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction among sentinel cattle and vector Culicoides sonorensis (C. sonorensis midges on a dairy farm in northern California throughout both the seasonal and interseasonal (overwintering periods of BTV activity from August 2012 until March 2014. The data confirmed widespread infection of both sentinel cattle and vector midges during the August-November period of seasonal BTV transmission, however BTV infection of parous female midges captured in traps set during daylight hours also was detected in February of both 2013 and 2014, during the interseasonal period. The finding of BTV-infected vector midges during mid-winter suggests that BTV may overwinter in northern California by infection of long-lived female C. sonorensis midges that were infected during the prior seasonal period of virus transmission, and reemerged sporadically during the overwintering period; however the data do not definitively preclude other potential mechanisms of BTV overwintering that are also discussed.

  16. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae from Martín García Island, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M Ronderos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 230 species of biting midges have been recorded or described from Argentina; 38 of them are known from the Buenos Aires province and only one is cited from Martín García Island. This paper presents the results raised from six collecting trips which took place on the island during spring 2005, summer 2006 and autumn 2009. Diverse sampling sites including permanent and temporary aquatic environments were chosen, most of the ten sampling sites were ponds of diverse origin, some of these environments were covered with floating vegetation as Lemna gibba, Lemna minuscule, Salvinia biloba, Salvinia minima, Azolla filiculoides, Limnobium laevigatum, Pistia stratiotes, Spirodela intermedia, Wolffiella oblonga and Wolffia columbiana. Other sites were placed in urban and suburban areas. Adults were collected with sweep nets at sunrise and sunset and with light traps at intervals of four to five hours at night, depending on electricity availability on the island. Larvae and pupae were collected with different implements depending on characteristics of each surveyed aquatic habitat. In free standing water, they were captured with small sieves or hand pipettes and micropipettes, flotation techniques were utilized for sampling vegetated areas, free and rooted floating hydrophytes were extracted for removing insects among them. Thirteen species of Ceratopogonidae were collected, three of Atrichopogon Kieffer, three of Forcipomyia Meigen, two of Dasyhelea Kieffer, four of Culicoides Latreille, and one of Bezzia Kieffer, all representing new records from the island. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1183-1194. Epub 2011 September 01.

  17. Factors affecting methylmercury biomagnification by a widespread aquatic invertebrate predator, the phantom midge larvae Chaoborus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Jeune, Anne-Hélène; Bourdiol, Floriane; Aldamman, Lama; Perron, Tania; Amyot, Marc; Pinel-Alloul, Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    MeHg biomagnification by the phantom midge Chaoborus in relation to MeHg concentrations in their prey and its migratory behavior was investigated in two Canadian Precambrian Shield lakes. Three Chaoborus species with contrasted migratory behavior were collected in a fishless and a fish-inhabited lake. All species accumulated MeHg through their ontogenic development. In the lake inhabited by fish, all instars of Chaoborus punctipennis displayed a marked migratory behavior and were unable to biomagnify MeHg, whereas in the fishless lake, Chaoborus americanus and Chaoborus trivittatus biomagnified MeHg. Reduced biomagnification capacity of C. trivittatus, the coexisting species living with C. americanus, was also ascribed to a progressive vertical segregation with age. Growth dilution, amount and type of prey items or trophic position could not explain the different patterns of biomagnification. Our findings demonstrate that the most common invertebrate predator of temperate planktonic food webs can biomagnify mercury, contrarily to previous reports. - Highlights: ► Chaoborids are key invertebrate predators of temperate freshwater food webs. ► We sampled three Chaoborus species with contrasted migratory behavior. ► All species accumulated MeHg through their development. ► We found that some species could biomagnify mercury. ► The best biomagnifiers were those who migrated the least. - Chaoborids, the most common invertebrate predator of temperate planktonic food webs, can biomagnify mercury, contrarily to previous reports.

  18. Metabolomic Profiles of a Midge (Procladius villosimanus, Kieffer Are Associated with Sediment Contamination in Urban Wetlands

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    Katherine J. Jeppe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomic techniques are powerful tools for investigating organism-environment interactions. Metabolite profiles have the potential to identify exposure or toxicity before populations are disrupted and can provide useful information for environmental assessment. However, under complex environmental scenarios, metabolomic responses to exposure can be distorted by background and/or organismal variation. In the current study, we use LC-MS (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure metabolites of the midge Procladius villosimanus inhabiting 21 urban wetlands. These metabolites were tested against common sediment contaminants using random forest models and metabolite enrichment analysis. Sediment contaminant concentrations in the field correlated with several P. villosimanus metabolites despite natural environmental and organismal variation. Furthermore, enrichment analysis indicated that metabolite sets implicated in stress responses were enriched, pointing to specific cellular functions affected by exposure. Methionine metabolism, sugar metabolism and glycerolipid metabolism associated with total petroleum hydrocarbon and metal concentrations, while mitochondrial electron transport and urea cycle sets associated only with bifenthrin. These results demonstrate the potential for metabolomics approaches to provide useful information in field-based environmental assessments.

  19. For t 2 DNA vaccine prevents Forcipomyia taiwana (biting midge) allergy in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M-F; Song, P-P; Lin, T-M; Chiu, Y-T; Chen, Y-H

    2016-04-01

    Forcipomyia taiwana (biting midge) is the most prevalent allergenic biting insect in Taiwan, and 60% of the exposed subjects develop allergic reactions. Subjects with insect allergy frequently limit their outdoor activities to avoid the annoyingly intense itchy allergic reactions, leading to significant worsening of their quality of life. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only known therapy that provides long-term host immune tolerance to the allergen, but is time-consuming and cumbersome. This study tested whether the For t 2 DNA vaccine can prevent allergic symptoms in For t 2-sensitized mice. Two consecutive shots of For t 2 DNA vaccine were given to mice with a 7-day interval before sensitization with recombinant For t 2 proteins, using the two-step sensitization protocol reported previously. The For t 2 DNA vaccine at 50 μg prevented the production of For t 2-specific IgE (P allergy in the future. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae from three restingas of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Valéria Cid Maia

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and eight species of Cecidomyiinae (Cecidomyiidae were found in association with 53 species of plant distributed among 42 genera and 32 families at restingas of Barra de Maricá, Itaipuaçu and Carapebus. Ninety four gall midge species were cecidogenous, four predaceous, five inquilinous of galls and five were free living. Galling species were associated with 47 plant species belonging to 36 genera and 28 families. The majority of the galls occurred on the leaves (N = 63; 13 on buds; nine on inflorescence, closed flower or flower peduncle; three on fruits and one on tendril. Myrtaceae were the richest plant family in number of galls followed by Burseraceae, Nyctaginaceae, Sapotaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Malpighiaceae and Solanaceae. New records of host plants and localities were recorded. Seventy nine Cecidomyiinae species were found at Restinga of Barra de Maricá, 64 at Carapebus and 41 at Itaipuaçu. Sorensen's index revealed that the restingas of Barra de Maricá and Itaipuaçu ate more similar in Cecidomyiinae fauna, confirming a positive relation between geographical proximity and fauna similarity.

  1. Interactions among the Predatory Midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, the Fungal Pathogen Metarhizium brunneum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales, and Maize-Infesting Aphids in Greenhouse Mesocosms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gorete Campos de Azevedo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The generalist entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium brunneum, has proved to have great potential as a versatile biological pest control agent. The gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza is a specialist predator that occurs naturally in Europe and has been successfully used for aphid suppression. However, the interaction between these two biological control organisms and how it may affect the biological control of aphids awaits further investigation. As part of the EU-supported project INBIOSOIL, this study was conducted in greenhouse conditions to assess the possible effects of combining both biological control agents. In a randomized complete block design, sweet corn (Zea mays var. saccharata plants were grown in large pots filled with natural soil or natural soil inoculated with M. brunneum. At the third leaf stage, before being individually caged, plants were infested with Rhopalosiphum padi and A. aphidimyza pupae were introduced in the soil. Aphidoletes aphidimyza midge emergence, number of living midges and number of aphids were recorded daily. The presence of conidia in the soil and on leaves was assessed during the experiment. At the conclusion of the experiment, the number of live aphids and their developmental stage, consumed aphids, and A. aphidimyza eggs was assessed under stereomicroscope. This study’s findings showed that the presence of M. brunneum did not affect A. aphidimyza midge emergence. However, longevity was significantly affected. As the study progressed, significantly fewer predatory midges were found in cages treated with M. brunneum compared to untreated cages. Furthermore, by the end of the study, the number of predatory midges found in the Metarhizium-treated cages was four times lower than in the untreated cages. Both daily and final count of aphids were significantly affected by treatment. Aphidoletes aphidimyza applied alone suppressed the aphid population more effectively than M. brunneum applied alone. Additionally

  2. New genera and species of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae from three restingas of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Five new genera and fourteen new species of gall midges from restingas of Rio de Janeiro State are described. The larva, pupa, male, female and gall are described for each species. The new genera are: Arrabidaeamyia, Epihormomyia, Manilkaramyia, Mayteniella and Parazalepidota. The new species are: Arrabidaeamyia serrata, Asphondylia peploniae, Clinodiplosis diodiae, Clinodiplosis profusa, Clusiamyia granulosa, Dasineura couepiae, Epihormomyia miconiae, Lopesia grandis, Lopesia marginalis, Lopesia singularis, Manilkaramyia notabilis, Mayteniella distincta, Parazalepidota clusiae and Paulliniamyia ampla. Also, the larva of a previously described species, Clusiamyia nitida Maia, 1996 is described and Asphondylia byrsonimae Maia & Couri is transferred to Bruggmaniella.

  3. Non-canonical dorsoventral patterning in the moth midge Clogmia albipunctata

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    Karl R. Wotton

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are of central importance for dorsal–ventral (DV axis specification. They are core components of a signalling cascade that includes the BMP ligand decapentaplegic (DPP and its antagonist short gastrulation (SOG in Drosophila melanogaster. These components are very ancient, with orthologs involved in DV patterning in both protostomes and deuterostomes. Despite such strong conservation, recent comparative work in insects has revealed interesting differences in the way the patterning function of the DV system is achieved in different species. Results In this paper, we characterise the expression patterns of the principal components of the BMP DV patterning system, as well as its signalling outputs and downstream targets, in the non-cyclorrhaphan moth midge Clogmia albipunctata (Diptera: Psychodidae. We previously reported ventral expression patterns of dpp in the pole regions of C. albipunctata blastoderm embryos. Strikingly, we also find ventral sog and posteriorly restricted tkv expression, as well as expanded polar activity of pMad. We use our results from gene knock-down by embryonic RNA interference to propose a mechanism of polar morphogen shuttling in C. albipunctata. We compare these results to available data from other species and discuss scenarios for the evolution of DV signalling in the holometabolan insects. Conclusions A comparison of gene expression patterns across hemipteran and holometabolan insects reveals that expression of upstream signalling factors in the DV system is very variable, while signalling output is highly conserved. This has two major implications: first, as long as ligand shuttling and other upstream regulatory mechanisms lead to an appropriately localised activation of BMP signalling at the dorsal midline, it is of less importance exactly where the upstream components of the DV system are expressed. This, in turn, explains why the early-acting components of

  4. Diversity of non-biting midge larvae assemblages in the Jacuí River basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floss, Elzira Cecília Serafini; Kotzian, Carla Bender; Spies, Márcia Regina; Secretti, Elisangela

    2012-01-01

    The richness and composition of a mountain-river chironomid larvae assemblage in the Jacuí River basin, Brazil were studied, and compared with other riverine non-biting midge larvae assemblages previously studied in the country. Additionally, the influence of some regional-scale environmental characteristics on the spatial distribution of these assemblages was tested. The specimens were collected at 12 sites in the middle course of the Jacuí River basin (in the state of Rio Grande do Sul) between April 2000 and May 2002. Around 100 taxa were recorded. The dominant taxa belonged to the genera Rheotanytarsus, Cricotopus, Polypedilum, and Pseudochironomus. Twenty-two rare taxa were found, representing 22% of the total of taxa inventoried. Fourteen genera (Aedokritus, Axarus, Endotribelos, Kiefferulus, Manoa, Oukuriella, Phaenopsectra, Stenochironomus, Xenochironomus, Xestochironomus, Cardiocladius, Metriocnemus, Paracladius, and Rheocricotopus) represent new occurrences in Rio Grande do Sul. The similarity analysis of the chironomid larvae assemblages inventoried in 32 regions of Brazil indicated five groups with similarity higher than 50%. The groups, when the effects of spatial autocorrelation were removed, displayed a weak positive correlation between the assemblage composition and the aquatic system or hydraulic conditions and the hydrographic basin, and a weak negative correlation in relation to the biome. The altitude showed no correlation with the composition of the assemblage. The relatively high richness of the region surveyed in relation to other Brazilian regions corroborates some tendencies already noted in other parts of the world, such as: i) lotic systems may constitute an exception to the rule that diversity is greater in tropical regions, ii) regions of transitional relief may contain the greatest richness of Chironomidae, and iii) in rivers, the group might have its spatial distribution influenced to a greater extent by local environmental

  5. The use of Chironomus riparius larvae to assess effects of pesticides from rice fields in adjacent freshwater ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Mafalda S; Nogueira, António J A; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2007-06-01

    A bioassay with Chironomus riparius larvae, using larval development and growth as endpoints, was carried out inside a rice field and in the adjacent wetland channel in Portugal, during pesticide treatments (molinate, endosulfan and propanil) to determine impact caused by pesticide contamination in freshwater ecosystems. The bioassay was also performed under laboratory conditions, to assess whether in situ and laboratory bioassays demonstrated comparable results. Growth was inhibited by concentrations of endosulfan (2.3 and 1.9 microgL(-1) averages) in water from rice field in both the field and laboratory, and by concentrations of endosulfan (0.55 and 0.76 microgL(-1) averages) in water from the wetland channel in the laboratory bioassay, while development was not affected. C. riparius larvae were not affected by molinate and propanil concentrations. The results indicate that endosulfan treatments in rice fields may cause an ecological impairment in adjacent freshwater ecosystems. The results also indicate that laboratory testing can be used to assess in situ toxicity caused by pesticide contamination.

  6. Chironomus riparius exposure to fullerene-contaminated sediment results in oxidative stress and may impact life cycle parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waissi, G.C.; Bold, S.; Pakarinen, K.; Akkanen, J.; Leppänen, M.T.; Petersen, E.J.; Kukkonen, J.V.K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • FullerenesC_6_0 were tested to C. riparius with acute and chronic exposures. • The rapid uptake of fullerenes by C. riparius observed after an acute experiment. • Oxidative stress was localized in tissues under microvilli layer. - Abstract: A key component of understanding the potential environmental risks of fullerenes (C_6_0) is their potential effects on benthic invertebrates. Using the sediment dwelling invertebrate Chironomus riparius we explored the effects of acute (12 h and 24 h) and chronic (10 d, 15 d, and 28 d) exposures of sediment associated fullerenes. The aims of this study were to assess the impact of exposure to C_6_0 in the sediment top layer ((0.025, 0.18 and 0.48) C_6_0 mg/cm"2) on larval growth, oxidative stress and emergence rates and to quantify larval body burdens in similarly exposed organisms. Oxidative stress localization was observed in the tissues next to the microvilli and exoskeleton through a method for identifying oxidative stress reactions generated by reactive oxygen species. Rapid intake of fullerenes was shown in acute experiments, whereas body residues decreased after chronic exposure. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed oxidative damage and structural changes in cells located between the lipid droplets and next to the microvilli layer in fullerene exposed samples. Fullerene associated sediments also caused changes in the emergence rate of males and females, suggesting that the cellular interactions described above or other effects from the fullerenes may influence reproduction rates.

  7. Chironomus riparius exposure to fullerene-contaminated sediment results in oxidative stress and may impact life cycle parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waissi, G.C., E-mail: greta.waissi@uef.fi [Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu (Finland); Bold, S. [GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre of Ocean for Research Kiel (Germany); Pakarinen, K.; Akkanen, J. [Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu (Finland); Leppänen, M.T. [Finnish Environment Institute, Jyväskylä (Finland); Petersen, E.J. [Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Kukkonen, J.V.K. [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • FullerenesC{sub 60} were tested to C. riparius with acute and chronic exposures. • The rapid uptake of fullerenes by C. riparius observed after an acute experiment. • Oxidative stress was localized in tissues under microvilli layer. - Abstract: A key component of understanding the potential environmental risks of fullerenes (C{sub 60}) is their potential effects on benthic invertebrates. Using the sediment dwelling invertebrate Chironomus riparius we explored the effects of acute (12 h and 24 h) and chronic (10 d, 15 d, and 28 d) exposures of sediment associated fullerenes. The aims of this study were to assess the impact of exposure to C{sub 60} in the sediment top layer ((0.025, 0.18 and 0.48) C{sub 60} mg/cm{sup 2}) on larval growth, oxidative stress and emergence rates and to quantify larval body burdens in similarly exposed organisms. Oxidative stress localization was observed in the tissues next to the microvilli and exoskeleton through a method for identifying oxidative stress reactions generated by reactive oxygen species. Rapid intake of fullerenes was shown in acute experiments, whereas body residues decreased after chronic exposure. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed oxidative damage and structural changes in cells located between the lipid droplets and next to the microvilli layer in fullerene exposed samples. Fullerene associated sediments also caused changes in the emergence rate of males and females, suggesting that the cellular interactions described above or other effects from the fullerenes may influence reproduction rates.

  8. Can mouth part deformities of Chironomus riparius serve as indicators for water and sediment pollution? A laboratory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer-Jaesrich, Miriam; Koehler, Heinz R. [Animal Physiological Ecology Dept., Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Gerhardt, Almut [LimCo International, Ibbenbueren (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The significance of chironomids mouthpart deformities as suitable indicators for pollutant contamination of natural waters and sediments has been investigated and discussed for several decades. Uncertainties still exist as further laboratory studies, with different pollutants and with the same experimental design are required. Materials and methods In this study, the effects of four substances (i.e., nickel chloride, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid and thiacloprid) were tested on the mouthpart deformity rates and patterns in Chironomus riparius. These compounds were investigated either individually or in mixtures. Results and discussion No significant increase in the frequency of mouthpart deformities was found using different single substance treatments when compared to the controls. Consequently no concentration-effect relationships between substance concentration and deformity frequency were detected. In mixture experiments an increase in mouthpart deformities of C. riparius exposed to imidacloprid-thiacloprid mixtures was detected. This indicated that the effects of single substances and mixtures on mouthpart deformity frequency may differ considerably. Conclusions The findings in this study from different laboratory approaches in combination with the published literature questions the reliability of chironomids mouthpart deformities as indicators of freshwater and sediment contamination by toxic substances. (orig.)

  9. Influence of Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae) and Tubifex tubifex (Annelida, Oligochaeta) on oxygen uptake by sediments. Consequences of uranium contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagauzere, S. [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache 186, BP 3, F-13115 Cedex, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)], E-mail: lagauzere@gmail.com; Pischedda, L.; Cuny, P. [Laboratoire de Microbiologie, Geochimie et Ecologie Marines, UMR 6117 CNRS/COM/Universite de la Mediterranee, Campus de Luminy, Case 901, F-13288 Cedex 09, Marseille (France); Gilbert, F. [EcoLab, Laboratoire d' Ecologie Fonctionnelle, UMR 5245 CNRS/INP/Universite Paul Sabatier, 29 Rue Jeanne Marvig, F-31055 Cedex 4, Toulouse (France); Stora, G. [Laboratoire de Microbiologie, Geochimie et Ecologie Marines, UMR 6117 CNRS/COM/Universite de la Mediterranee, Campus de Luminy, Case 901, F-13288 Cedex 09, Marseille (France); Bonzom, J.-M. [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache 186, BP 3, F-13115 Cedex, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2009-04-15

    The diffusive oxygen uptake (DOU) of sediments inhabited by Chironomus riparius and Tubifex tubifex was investigated using a planar oxygen optode device, and complemented by measurements of bioturbation activity. Additional experiments were performed within contaminated sediments to assess the impact of uranium on these processes. After 72 h, the two invertebrate species significantly increased the DOU of sediments (13-14%), and no temporal variation occurred afterwards. Within contaminated sediments, it was already 24% higher before the introduction of the organisms, suggesting that uranium modified the sediment biogeochemistry. Although the two species firstly reacted by avoidance of contaminated sediment, they finally colonized it. Their bioturbation activity was reduced but, for T. tubifex, it remained sufficient to induce a release of uranium to the water column and an increase of the DOU (53%). These results highlight the necessity of further investigations to take into account the interactions between bioturbation, microbial metabolism and pollutants. - This study highlights the ecological importance of bioturbation in metal-contaminated sediments.

  10. Influence of Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae) and Tubifex tubifex (Annelida, Oligochaeta) on oxygen uptake by sediments. Consequences of uranium contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagauzere, S.; Pischedda, L.; Cuny, P.; Gilbert, F.; Stora, G.; Bonzom, J.-M.

    2009-01-01

    The diffusive oxygen uptake (DOU) of sediments inhabited by Chironomus riparius and Tubifex tubifex was investigated using a planar oxygen optode device, and complemented by measurements of bioturbation activity. Additional experiments were performed within contaminated sediments to assess the impact of uranium on these processes. After 72 h, the two invertebrate species significantly increased the DOU of sediments (13-14%), and no temporal variation occurred afterwards. Within contaminated sediments, it was already 24% higher before the introduction of the organisms, suggesting that uranium modified the sediment biogeochemistry. Although the two species firstly reacted by avoidance of contaminated sediment, they finally colonized it. Their bioturbation activity was reduced but, for T. tubifex, it remained sufficient to induce a release of uranium to the water column and an increase of the DOU (53%). These results highlight the necessity of further investigations to take into account the interactions between bioturbation, microbial metabolism and pollutants. - This study highlights the ecological importance of bioturbation in metal-contaminated sediments

  11. DNA damage and transcriptional changes induced by tributyltin (TBT) after short in vivo exposures of Chironomus riparius (Diptera) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Mónica; Martínez-Paz, Pedro; Ozáez, Irene; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria

    2013-08-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a widespread environmental contaminant in aquatic systems whose adverse effects in development and reproduction are related to its well-known endocrine-disrupting activity. In this work, the early molecular effects of TBT in Chironomus riparius (Diptera) were evaluated by analyzing its DNA damaging potential and the transcriptional response of different endocrine-related genes. Twenty-four-hour in vivo exposures of the aquatic larvae, at environmentally relevant doses of TBT, revealed genotoxic activity as shown by significant increases in DNA strand breaks quantified with the comet assay. TBT was also able to induce significant increases in transcripts from the ecdysone receptor gene (EcR), the ultraspiracle gene (usp) (insect ortholog of the retinoid X receptor), the estrogen-related receptor (ERR) gene and the E74 early ecdysone-inducible gene, as measured by real-time RT-PCR. In contrast, the expression of the vitellogenin (vg) gene remained unaltered, while the hsp70 gene appeared to be down-regulated. The ability of TBT to up-regulate hormonal target genes provides the first evidence, at genomic level, of its endocrine disruptive effects and also suggests a mechanism of action that mimics ecdysteroid hormones in insects. These data reveal for the first time the early genomic effects of TBT on an insect genome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploring the utility of DNA barcoding in species delimitation of Polypedilum (Tripodura) non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chao; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Ruilei; Sun, Bingjiao; Wang, Xinhua

    2016-02-16

    In this study, we tested the utility of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) as the barcode region to deal with taxonomical problems of Polypedilum (Tripodura) non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae). The 114 DNA barcodes representing 27 morphospecies are divided into 33 well separated clusters based on both Neighbor Joining and Maximum Likelihood methods. DNA barcodes revealed an 82% success rate in matching with morphospecies. The selected DNA barcode data support 37-64 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on the methods of Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) and Poisson Tree Process (PTP). Furthermore, a priori species based on consistent phenotypic variations were attested by molecular analysis, and a taxonomical misidentification of barcode sequences from GenBank was found. We could not observe a distinct barcode gap but an overlap ranged from 9-12%. Our results supported DNA barcoding as an ideal method to detect cryptic species, delimit sibling species, and associate different life stages in non-biting midges.

  13. The Asian Rice Gall Midge (Orseolia oryzae Mitogenome Has Evolved Novel Gene Boundaries and Tandem Repeats That Distinguish Its Biotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha Atray

    Full Text Available The complete mitochondrial genome of the Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae (Diptera; Cecidomyiidae was sequenced, annotated and analysed in the present study. The circular genome is 15,286 bp with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and a 578 bp non-coding control region. All protein coding genes used conventional start codons and terminated with a complete stop codon. The genome presented many unusual features: (1 rearrangement in the order of tRNAs as well as protein coding genes; (2 truncation and unusual secondary structures of tRNAs; (3 presence of two different repeat elements in separate non-coding regions; (4 presence of one pseudo-tRNA gene; (5 inversion of the rRNA genes; (6 higher percentage of non-coding regions when compared with other insect mitogenomes. Rearrangements of the tRNAs and protein coding genes are explained on the basis of tandem duplication and random loss model and why intramitochondrial recombination is a better model for explaining rearrangements in the O. oryzae mitochondrial genome is discussed. Furthermore, we evaluated the number of iterations of the tandem repeat elements found in the mitogenome. This led to the identification of genetic markers capable of differentiating rice gall midge biotypes and the two Orseolia species investigated.

  14. CHANGES OF GLYCEROL CONTENT IN DIAPAUSE LARVAEOF THE ORANGE WHEAT BLOSSOM MIDGE, SITODIPLOSIS MOSELLANA (GEHIN) IN VARIOUS SEASONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-xiangWu; FengYuan

    2004-01-01

    The glycerol contents in diapause larvae of the orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Gehin), collected from various seasons, were measured. The results showed that there was less glycerol content in larvae during living on the wheat head. Content of glycerol began to increase significantly when the larvae left the wheat head and entered the soil. A change trend of upper- lower- upper- lower in larvae glycerol contents during diapause in soil was observed from June to April of next year. More glycerol could be examined in larvae collected in summer and winter than in spring and autumn. There was not more glycerol in cocooned larvae than that in non-cocooned larvae during various seasons from the point of statistics. Comparing the glycerol content of larvae being diapause in the first year with that of larvae in the second year, there was yet no obvious difference when larvae were collected in the same season belonged to different years. Therefore, it is shown that the content of glycerol in larvae of the wheat midge in diapause is affected mainly by the seasons or diapause intensity.

  15. Bringing gay and lesbian activism to the White House: Midge Costanza and the National Gay Task Force Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Doreen J; Boyd, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    In March 1977, President Carter's Assistant Margaret "Midge" Costanza made history by meeting with representatives from the National Gay Task Force (NGTF) to hear their grievances about discriminatory federal policies. The effects of the meeting were many, including changes in policies of the Bureau of Prisons and the Public Health Service. It also initiated policy discussions that would continue for decades and contributed to the incorporation of gay rights within the Democratic Party. Midge Costanza was fundamental to the process. It was her decision to hold the meeting and to advocate on behalf of the NGTF, and she bore many of the meeting's political costs. In this article we make use of Costanza's own papers and multiple interviews with her to closely analyze Costanza's role in the historic meeting. In addition to adding detail to its politics and policy impacts of the meeting, we also look at her complex motivations for holding such a controversial meeting. Costanza maintained until her death in 2010 that she was motivated by her feminism and overall commitment to social justice, rather than her own identity or experiences.

  16. Functional responses and prey-stage preferences of a predatory gall midge and two predacious mites wtih twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae as host

    Science.gov (United States)

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an important pest of vegetables and other crops. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the potential role of three commercially available predators, predatory gall midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot) (Diptera: Ceci...

  17. Pyrosequencing Reveals the Predominance of Pseudomonadaceae in Gut Microbiome of a Gall Midge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Bansal

    2014-06-01

    midge, and provides a foundation for future studies to elucidate the roles of gut microbes in Hessian fly virulence and biology.

  18. Ultraviolet filters and heat shock proteins: effects in Chironomus riparius by benzophenone-3 and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Folgar, Raquel; Aquilino, Mónica; Ozáez, Irene; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2018-01-01

    Benzophenone-3 (BP3) and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) are common ultraviolet filters (UV filters), compounds considered as emergent contaminants, used in different products like plastics and personal care products. The levels of these compounds are rising in the wild, but the effects they have on invertebrates are poorly understood. Chironomus riparius is a benthic insect widely used in toxicology, and several studies have been previously performed in our laboratory to determine the effects these compounds have on this organism at the molecular level. We have shown that UV filters can alter the mRNA levels of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), one of the most studied heat shock proteins. Although these proteins are crucial for the survival of organisms, little data is available on the effects these emergent contaminants have on them, especially in invertebrates. Here, we analyzed the transcriptional activity of 12 genes covering the different groups of heat shock protein [Hsp10, Hsp17, Hsp21, Hsp22, Hsp23, Hsp24, Hsp27, Hsp34, Hsp40, Hsp60, Hsc70 (3), and Hsc70 (4)] in response to 0.1 and 1 mg/L concentrations of BP3 and 4MBC at 8 and 24 h. The results showed that some small Hsp (sHsp) genes were altered by these compounds, while the genes of proteins present in mitochondria, Hsp10 and Hsp60, did not change. sHsps are also involved in developmental processes, so the observed variations could be due to the endocrine disruption activity described for these compounds rather than to a stress response.

  19. Can chronic exposure to imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam mixtures exert greater than additive toxicity in Chironomus dilutus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, E M; Morrissey, C A; Headley, J V; Peru, K M; Liber, K

    2018-07-30

    Widespread agricultural use of neonicotinoid insecticides has resulted in frequent detection of mixtures of these compounds in global surface waters. Recent evidence suggests that neonicotinoid mixtures can elicit synergistic toxicity in aquatic insects under acute exposure conditions, however this has not been validated for longer exposures more commonly encountered in the environment. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the chronic (28-day) toxicity of imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam mixtures under different doses and mixture ratios to determine if the assumption of synergistic toxicity would hold under more environmentally realistic exposure settings. The sensitive aquatic insect Chironomus dilutus was used as a representative test species, and successful emergence was used as a chronic endpoint. Applying the MIXTOX modeling approach, predictive parametric models were fitted using single-compound toxicity data and statistically compared to observed toxicity in subsequent mixture tests. Imidacloprid-clothianidin, clothianidin-thiamethoxam and imidacloprid-clothianidin-thiamethoxam mixtures did not significantly deviate from concentration-additive toxicity. However, the cumulative toxicity of the imidacloprid-thiamethoxam mixture deviated from the concentration-additive reference model, displaying dose-ratio dependent synergism and resulting in up to a 10% greater reduction in emergence from that predicted by concentration addition. Furthermore, exposure to select neonicotinoid mixtures above 1.0 toxic unit tended to shift sex-ratios toward more male-dominated populations. Results indicate that, similar to acute exposures, the general assumption of joint additivity cannot adequately describe chronic cumulative toxicity of all neonicotinoid mixtures. Indeed, our observations of weak synergism and sex-ratio shifts elicited by some mixture combinations should be considered in water quality guideline development and environmental risk assessment practices

  20. Ultraviolet filters differentially impact the expression of key endocrine and stress genes in embryos and larvae of Chironomus riparius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozáez, Irene; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2016-07-01

    Several organic UV filters have hormonal activity in vertebrates, as demonstrated in fishes, rodents and human cells. Despite the accumulation of filter contaminants in aquatic systems, research on their effects on the endocrine systems of freshwaters invertebrates is scarce. In this work, the effects of five frequently used UV filters were investigated in embryos and larvae of Chironomus riparius, which is a reference organism in ecotoxicology. LC50 values for larvae as well as the percentage of eclosion of eggs were determined following exposures to: octyl-p-methoxycinnamate (OMC) also known as 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC); 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC); 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4HB); octocrylene (OC); and octyldimethyl-p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA). To assess sublethal effects, expression levels of the genes coding for the ecdysone receptor (EcR) and heat shock protein HSP70 were investigated as biomarkers for endocrine and stress effects at the cellular level. Life-stage-dependent sensitivity was found. In embryos, all of the UV filters provoked a significant overexpression of EcR at 24h after exposure. OC, 4MBC and OD-PABA also triggered transcriptional activation of the hsp70 stress gene in embryos. In contrast, in larvae, only 4MBC and OMC/EHMC increased EcR and hsp70 mRNA levels and OD-PABA upregulated only the EcR gene. These results revealed that embryos are particularly sensitive to UV filters, which affect endocrine regulation during development. Most UV filters also triggered the cellular stress response, and thus exhibit proteotoxic effects. The differences observed between embryos and larvae and the higher sensitivity of embryos highlight the importance of considering different life stages when evaluating the environmental risks of pollutants, particularly when analyzing endocrine effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Alteration in the expression of antioxidant and detoxification genes in Chironomus riparius exposed to zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan Nair, Prakash M; Chung, Ill Min

    2015-12-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) are widely used in several commercial products due to their unique physicochemical properties. However, their release into the aquatic environments through various anthropogenic activities will lead to toxic effect in aquatic organisms. Although several investigations have been reported on the effect of ZnONPs in aquatic organisms using traditional end points such as survival, growth, and reproduction, the molecular level end points are faster and sensitive. In this study, the expression of different genes involved in oxidative stress response, detoxification, and cellular defense was studied in an ecotoxicologically important bio-monitoring organism Chironomus riparius in order to understand the subcellular effects of ZnONPs. The fourth instar larvae were exposed to 0, 0.2, 2, 10, and 20 mg/L of ZnONPs and Zn ions (in the form of ZnSO4.7H2O) for 24 and 48 h period. The expression of CuZn superoxide dismutase, manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase, phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase 1 and delta-3, sigma-4 and epsilon-1 classes of glutathione S-transferases, cytochrome p4509AT2, and heat shock protein 70 were studied using real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Gene expression results showed that the expression of genes related to oxidative stress response was more pronounced as a result of ZnONPs exposure as compared to Zn ions. The mRNA expression of genes involved in detoxification and cellular protection was also modulated. Significantly higher expression levels of oxidative stress-related genes shows that oxidative stress is an important mechanism of toxicity as a result of ZnONPs exposure in C. riparius. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluated fate and effects of atrazine and lambda-cyhalothrin in vegetated and unvegetated microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouldin, J L; Farris, J L; Moore, M T; Smith, S; Stephens, W W; Cooper, C M

    2005-10-01

    Contaminants such as nutrients, metals, and pesticides can interact with constructed wetlands and existing drainage ditches used as agricultural best-management practices. Our research has shown that the presence of macrophytes and a hydrologic regime aid in the transfer and transformation of pesticides associated with agricultural runoff. This study consisted of application of both atrazine (triazine herbicide) and lambda-cyhalothrin (pyrethroid insecticide) to vegetated and unvegetated microcosms in order to measure the fate and effects of pesticides applied at suggested field application rates. Exposures focused on monocultures of Ludwigia peploides (water primrose) and Juncus effusus (soft rush). Pesticide sorption was evident through concentrations of atrazine and lambda-cyhalothrin in plant tissue as high as 2461.4 and 86.50 microg/kg, respectively. Toxicity was measured in water from unvegetated microcosms for 28 days and in Chironomus tentans (midge larvae) exposed to sediment collected from 3 h to 56 days in microcosms receiving the pesticide combination. The comparative survival of test organisms in this study suggests that effective mitigation of pesticides from runoff can depend on the macrophyte contact and vegetative attributes associated with ditches. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. In situ bioassays with Chironomus riparius larvae to biomonitor metal pollution in rivers and to evaluate the efficiency of restoration measures in mine areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Mafalda S. [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)], E-mail: mafaldafaria@sapo.pt; Lopes, Ricardo J. [CIBIO, Centro de Investigacao em Biodiversidade e Recursos Geneticos, Campus Agrario de Vairao, 4485-661 Vairao (Portugal); Malcato, Joao; Nogueira, Antonio J.A.; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M. [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2008-01-15

    In this study we evaluate the ability of an in situ bioassay with Chironomus riparius larvae, using larval development and growth as endpoints, to biomonitor water quality and to assess the biological recovery of metal contaminated freshwater ecosystems of mine areas that are subject of restoration measures. The bioassay was carried out in streams located near an abandoned goldmine in North Portugal, throughout an environmental rehabilitation of the mine (2002-2004). During this period, a decrease in the inhibition of larval growth in the metal contaminated stream was observed. The bioassay was also performed in streams located near an active tungsten mine in Central Portugal. Larval growth and development were highly inhibited in the stream that receives acid drainage from the tungsten mine and treated water from the AMD treatment station. The results indicate that the bioassay can be used to evaluate the efficiency of environmental restoration measures in mining areas. - In situ bioassays with Chironomus riparius larvae can be a suitable tool to monitor restoration efficiency after a long time of metallic sediment contamination.

  4. In situ and laboratory bioassays with Chironomus riparius larvae to assess toxicity of metal contamination in rivers: the relative toxic effect of sediment versus water contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Mafalda S; Lopes, Ricardo J; Nogueira, António J A; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2007-09-01

    We used bioassays employing head capsule width and body length increase of Chironomus riparius larvae as end points to evaluate metal contamination in streams. Bioassays were performed in situ near an abandoned Portuguese goldmine in the spring of 2003 and 2004. Bioassays also were performed under laboratory conditions with water and sediment collected from each stream to verify if laboratory bioassays could detect in situ toxicity and to evaluate the relative contribution of sediment and water to overall toxicity. We used field sediments with control water and control sediments with field water to discriminate between metal contamination in water and sediment. Field water with dry and sieved, organic matter-free, and nontreated sediments was used to determine the toxicity of heavy metals that enter the organism through ingested material. In both in situ and laboratory bioassays, body length increase was significantly inhibited by metal contamination, whereas head capsule width was not affected. Body length increase was more affected by contaminated sediment compared to contaminated water. The lowest-effect level of heavy metals was observed in the dry and sieved sediment that prevented ingestion of sediment particles by larvae. These results suggest that body length increase of C. riparius larvae can be used to indicate the impact of metal contamination in rivers. Chironomus riparius larvae are more affected by heavy metals that enter the organism through ingested sediment than by heavy metals dissolved in the water column. Nevertheless, several factors, such as the particle size and organic matter of sediment, must be taken into account.

  5. In situ bioassays with Chironomus riparius larvae to biomonitor metal pollution in rivers and to evaluate the efficiency of restoration measures in mine areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Mafalda S.; Lopes, Ricardo J.; Malcato, Joao; Nogueira, Antonio J.A.; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study we evaluate the ability of an in situ bioassay with Chironomus riparius larvae, using larval development and growth as endpoints, to biomonitor water quality and to assess the biological recovery of metal contaminated freshwater ecosystems of mine areas that are subject of restoration measures. The bioassay was carried out in streams located near an abandoned goldmine in North Portugal, throughout an environmental rehabilitation of the mine (2002-2004). During this period, a decrease in the inhibition of larval growth in the metal contaminated stream was observed. The bioassay was also performed in streams located near an active tungsten mine in Central Portugal. Larval growth and development were highly inhibited in the stream that receives acid drainage from the tungsten mine and treated water from the AMD treatment station. The results indicate that the bioassay can be used to evaluate the efficiency of environmental restoration measures in mining areas. - In situ bioassays with Chironomus riparius larvae can be a suitable tool to monitor restoration efficiency after a long time of metallic sediment contamination

  6. A simulation approach to assessing sampling strategies for insect pests: an example with the balsam gall midge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Drew Carleton

    Full Text Available Estimation of pest density is a basic requirement for integrated pest management in agriculture and forestry, and efficiency in density estimation is a common goal. Sequential sampling techniques promise efficient sampling, but their application can involve cumbersome mathematics and/or intensive warm-up sampling when pests have complex within- or between-site distributions. We provide tools for assessing the efficiency of sequential sampling and of alternative, simpler sampling plans, using computer simulation with "pre-sampling" data. We illustrate our approach using data for balsam gall midge (Paradiplosis tumifex attack in Christmas tree farms. Paradiplosis tumifex proved recalcitrant to sequential sampling techniques. Midge distributions could not be fit by a common negative binomial distribution across sites. Local parameterization, using warm-up samples to estimate the clumping parameter k for each site, performed poorly: k estimates were unreliable even for samples of n ∼ 100 trees. These methods were further confounded by significant within-site spatial autocorrelation. Much simpler sampling schemes, involving random or belt-transect sampling to preset sample sizes, were effective and efficient for P. tumifex. Sampling via belt transects (through the longest dimension of a stand was the most efficient, with sample means converging on true mean density for sample sizes of n ∼ 25-40 trees. Pre-sampling and simulation techniques provide a simple method for assessing sampling strategies for estimating insect infestation. We suspect that many pests will resemble P. tumifex in challenging the assumptions of sequential sampling methods. Our software will allow practitioners to optimize sampling strategies before they are brought to real-world applications, while potentially avoiding the need for the cumbersome calculations required for sequential sampling methods.

  7. Comparison of single- and multi-scale models for the prediction of the Culicoides biting midge distribution in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renke Lühken

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed Culicoides presence-absence data from 46 sampling sites in Germany, where monitoring was carried out from April 2007 until May 2008. Culicoides presence-absence data were analysed in relation to land cover data, in order to study whether the prevalence of biting midges is correlated to land cover data with respect to the trapping sites. We differentiated eight scales, i.e. buffer zones with radii of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7.5 and 10 km, around each site, and chose several land cover variables. For each species, we built eight single-scale models (i.e. predictor variables from one of the eight scales for each model based on averaged, generalised linear models and two multiscale models (i.e. predictor variables from all of the eight scales based on averaged, generalised linear models and generalised linear models with random forest variable selection. There were no significant differences between performance indicators of models built with land cover data from different buffer zones around the trapping sites. However, the overall performance of multi-scale models was higher than the alternatives. Furthermore, these models mostly achieved the best performance for the different species using the index area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. However, as also presented in this study, the relevance of the different variables could significantly differ between various scales, including the number of species affected and the positive or negative direction. This is an even more severe problem if multi-scale models are concerned, in which one model can have the same variable at different scales but with different directions, i.e. negative and positive direction of the same variable at different scales. However, multi-scale modelling is a promising approach to model the distribution of Culicoides species, accounting much more for the ecology of biting midges, which uses different resources (breeding sites, hosts, etc. at

  8. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae from Martín García Island, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M Ronderos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 230 species of biting midges have been recorded or described from Argentina; 38 of them are known from the Buenos Aires province and only one is cited from Martín García Island. This paper presents the results raised from six collecting trips which took place on the island during spring 2005, summer 2006 and autumn 2009. Diverse sampling sites including permanent and temporary aquatic environments were chosen, most of the ten sampling sites were ponds of diverse origin, some of these environments were covered with floating vegetation as Lemna gibba, Lemna minuscule, Salvinia biloba, Salvinia minima, Azolla filiculoides, Limnobium laevigatum, Pistia stratiotes, Spirodela intermedia, Wolffiella oblonga and Wolffia columbiana. Other sites were placed in urban and suburban areas. Adults were collected with sweep nets at sunrise and sunset and with light traps at intervals of four to five hours at night, depending on electricity availability on the island. Larvae and pupae were collected with different implements depending on characteristics of each surveyed aquatic habitat. In free standing water, they were captured with small sieves or hand pipettes and micropipettes, flotation techniques were utilized for sampling vegetated areas, free and rooted floating hydrophytes were extracted for removing insects among them. Thirteen species of Ceratopogonidae were collected, three of Atrichopogon Kieffer, three of Forcipomyia Meigen, two of Dasyhelea Kieffer, four of Culicoides Latreille, and one of Bezzia Kieffer, all representing new records from the island. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1183-1194. Epub 2011 September 01.Alrededor de 230 especies de ceratopogónidos han sido registradas o descritas en Argentina, 38 de ellas son conocidas para la provincia de Buenos Aires y sólo una ha sido previamente citada para la Isla Martín García. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos a partir de muestreos realizados en seis viajes a la isla

  9. Spatial and temporal variability in midge (Nematocera) assemblages in shallow Finnish lakes (60-70 deg N) : community-based modelling of past environmental change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luoto, T.

    2010-07-01

    Multi- and intralake datasets of fossil midge assemblages in surface sediments of small shallow lakes in Finland were studied to determine the most important environmental factors explaining trends in midge distribution and abundance. The aim was to develop palaeoenvironmental calibration models for the most important environmental variables for the purpose of reconstructing past environmental conditions. The developed models were applied to three high-resolution fossil midge stratigraphies from southern and eastern Finland to interpret environmental variability over the past 2000 years, with special focus on the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), the Little Ice Age (LIA) and recent anthropogenic changes. The midge-based results were compared with physical properties of the sediment, historical evidence and environmental reconstructions based on diatoms (Bacillariophyta), cladocerans (Crustacea: Cladocera) and tree rings. The results showed that the most important environmental factor controlling midge distribution and abundance along a latitudinal gradient in Finland was the mean July air temperature (TJul). However, when the dataset was environmentally screened to include only pristine lakes, water depth at the sampling site became more important. Furthermore, when the dataset was geographically scaled to southern Finland, hypolimnetic oxygen conditions became the dominant environmental factor. The results from an intralake dataset from eastern Finland showed that the most important environmental factors controlling midge distribution within a lake basin were river contribution, water depth and submerged vegetation patterns. In addition, the results of the intralake dataset showed that the fossil midge assemblages represent fauna that lived in close proximity to the sampling sites, thus enabling the exploration of within-lake gradients in midge assemblages. Importantly, this within-lake heterogeneity in midge assemblages may have effects on midge-based temperature

  10. Comparative chronic toxicity of imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam to Chironomus dilutus and estimation of toxic equivalency factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, Michael C; Morrissey, Christy A; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Liber, Karsten

    2017-02-01

    Nontarget aquatic insects are susceptible to chronic neonicotinoid insecticide exposure during the early stages of development from repeated runoff events and prolonged persistence of these chemicals. Investigations on the chronic toxicity of neonicotinoids to aquatic invertebrates have been limited to a few species and under different laboratory conditions that often preclude direct comparisons of the relative toxicity of different compounds. In the present study, full life-cycle toxicity tests using Chironomus dilutus were performed to compare the toxicity of 3 commonly used neonicotinoids: imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam. Test conditions followed a static-renewal exposure protocol in which lethal and sublethal endpoints were assessed on days 14 and 40. Reduced emergence success, advanced emergence timing, and male-biased sex ratios were sensitive responses to low-level neonicotinoid exposure. The 14-d median lethal concentrations for imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam were 1.52 μg/L, 2.41 μg/L, and 23.60 μg/L, respectively. The 40-d median effect concentrations (emergence) for imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam were 0.39 μg/L, 0.28 μg/L, and 4.13 μg/L, respectively. Toxic equivalence relative to imidacloprid was estimated through a 3-point response average of equivalencies calculated at 20%, 50%, and 90% lethal and effect concentrations. Relative to imidacloprid (toxic equivalency factor [TEF] = 1.0), chronic (lethality) 14-d TEFs for clothianidin and thiamethoxam were 1.05 and 0.14, respectively, and chronic (emergence inhibition) 40-d TEFs were 1.62 and 0.11, respectively. These population-relevant endpoints and TEFs suggest that imidacloprid and clothianidin exert comparable chronic toxicity to C. dilutus, whereas thiamethoxam induced comparable effects only at concentrations an order of magnitude higher. However, the authors caution that under field conditions, thiamethoxam readily degrades to

  11. Genetic and biochemical basis of Gall Midge resistance in some cultivars of Indica Rice. Final report for the period 1 October 1980 - 30 November 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    The stability of high productivity of modern rice varieties is greatly affected by insect pests. Rice gall midge is a serious insect pest of rice that is prevalent in several south eastern asian countries. Gall midge resistance has been mainly attributed to antibiosis. No progress has so far been made in identifying the exact biochemical nature of resistance. In Indica subspecies the understanding of chemical nature of disease would be helpful in the control of the disease and also in breeding programme aimed at developing resistance varieties. Studies were undertaken to establish the biochemical basis of resistance. Biochemical characterization of resistant and susceptible varieties were carried out. The parameters considered were: total sugar and reducing sugar content, total phenol content, amino acid profile, post infectional changes in sugar and phenol, isozyme studies. 2 figs, 6 tabs

  12. Genetic and biochemical basis of Gall Midge resistance in some cultivars of Indica Rice. Final report for the period 1 October 1980 - 30 November 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, G M [Osmania Univ., Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Genetics

    1987-12-31

    The stability of high productivity of modern rice varieties is greatly affected by insect pests. Rice gall midge is a serious insect pest of rice that is prevalent in several south eastern asian countries. Gall midge resistance has been mainly attributed to antibiosis. No progress has so far been made in identifying the exact biochemical nature of resistance. In Indica subspecies the understanding of chemical nature of disease would be helpful in the control of the disease and also in breeding programme aimed at developing resistance varieties. Studies were undertaken to establish the biochemical basis of resistance. Biochemical characterization of resistant and susceptible varieties were carried out. The parameters considered were: total sugar and reducing sugar content, total phenol content, amino acid profile, post infectional changes in sugar and phenol, isozyme studies. 2 figs, 6 tabs.

  13. Multiple stressor effects on water quality in Poplar Bay, Lake of the Woods, Canada: a midge-based assessment of hypolimnetic oxygen conditions over the last two centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie C. Summers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chironomid and Chaoborus (midge remains preserved in a dated sediment core from Poplar Bay, Lake of the Woods (LOW, Ontario, Canada, were used to assess the effects of multiple stressors (e.g., recent warming and shoreline development on water quality over the past ~200 years. As monitoring data for LOW do not extend beyond recent decades, paleolimnological methods are used to reconstruct long-term limnological trends and to establish pre-disturbance conditions. The effects of recent warming and shoreline development on Poplar Bay water quality are examined using an index of hypolimnetic oxygen (O2 status based on the ratio of Chaoborus to chironomid remains (chaob:chir and a midge-inferred volume-weighted hypolimnetic oxygen (VWHO model. Our paleolimnological data indicate that hypolimnetic [O2] in Poplar Bay have been historically hypoxic (1-4 mg O2 L-1 but have declined further (generally <2 mg O2 L-1 over the last few decades. Significant relationships between air temperature and midge data indicate that substantial warming starting in the late-1970s has triggered a marked response in the midge assemblages that pre-dates the onset of cottage development (mid-1990s. These findings complement a diatom-based study on the same sediment core, likewise suggesting that recent warming has played a prominent role in structuring limnetic communities. However, it is likely that the full, compounded effects of recent warming and shoreline development have not yet been realized. Our study highlights the complexity of multiple stressor systems, such as Poplar Bay, and emphasizes the benefits of using multiple, independent lines of paleoenvironmental evidence in gaining a more complete understanding of historical water quality.

  14. Cryptic species in the nuisance midge Polypedilum nubifer (Skuse (Diptera: Chironomidae) and the status of Tripedilum Kieffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Peter S; Martin, Jon; Spies, Martin

    2016-02-15

    Polypedilum nubifer (Skuse, 1889), originally described from Australia, is an apparently widespread species of Chironomidae (Diptera) that can attain nuisance densities in some eutrophic water bodies. Appropriate management depends upon the identity and ability to distinguish from potential cryptic taxa. A morphological study of larvae, pupae and adults of both sexes confirmed P. nubifer as widely distributed and frequently abundant, but also revealed two previously cryptic species of limited distribution in northern Australia. These species are described as new and illustrated in all stages here. Polypedilum quasinubifer Cranston sp. n. is described from north-west Queensland, Australia and also from Thailand and Singapore. Polypedilum paranubifer Cranston sp. n. is known only from retention ponds of a uranium mine in Northern Territory, Australia. Unusual morphological features of P. nubifer including alternate Lauterborn organs on the larval antenna, cephalic tubules on the pupa and frontal tubercles on the adult head are present in both new species as well. Newly slide-mounted types of Polypedilum pelostolum Kieffer, 1912 (lectotype designated here) confirm synonymy to Chironomus nubifer Skuse, 1889, examined also as newly-slide mounted types. Reviewed plus new evidence does not support recognition of Tripedilum Kieffer, 1921 as a separate taxon; therefore, Tripedilum is returned to junior synonymy with Polypedilum s. str.

  15. Size, age and composition: characteristics of plant taxa as diversity predictors of gall-midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter S Araújo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the diversity of gall-midge insects (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, some of them taking into account plant diversity. This study aims to test the importance of size, age and composition of host plant taxa in the diversity of Cecidomyiidae. For this we used inventories data on the diversity of galling and host plants in Brazil. We found that Asterales, Myrtales and Malpighiales, were the most important orders, with 34, 33 and 25, gall morphotypes, respectively. The most representative host families were Asteraceae (34 morphotypes, Myrtaceae (23 and Fabaceae (22. In general, the order size and the plant family were good predictors of the galling diversity, but not the taxon age. The most diverse host genera for gall-midges were Mikania, Eugenia and Styrax, with 15, 13 and nine galler species, respectively. The size of plant genera showed no significant relationship with the richness of Cecidomyiidae, contrary to the prediction of the plant taxon size hypothesis. The plant genera with the greatest diversity of galling insects are not necessarily those with the greatest number of species. These results indicate that some plant taxa have a high intrinsic richness of galling insects, suggesting that the plant species composition may be equally or more important for the diversity of gall-midges than the size or age of the host taxon. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1599- 1607. Epub 2011 December 01.Muchas hipótesis se han propuesto para explicar la diversidad de dipteros de la familia Cecidomyiidae, algunos de ellos teniendo en cuenta la diversidad de las plantas. Este estudio tiene como objetivo probar la importancia del tamaño, la edad y la composición de las plantas en la diversidad de Cecidomyiidae, a través de los inventarios de las agallas y las plantas hospederas, en Brasil. Asterales, Malpighiales y Myrtales fueron los órdenes más importantes, con 34, 33 y 25 tipos de agallas, respectivamente. Las familias m

  16. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios analysis of food sources for Chironomus acerbiphilus larvae (Diptera Chironomidae) in strongly acidic lake Katanuma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Hideyuki [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Graduate School of Science; Kikuchi, Eisuke; Shikano, Shuichi

    2001-12-01

    The food sources for Chironomus acerbiphilus larvae (Diptera Chironomidae) were analyzed using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in Lake Katanuma. Lake Katanuma is a volcanic and strongly acidic lake (average pH 2.2). In Lake Katanuma, potential sources of diets for the chironomid larvae are limited including a benthic diatom (Pinnularia braunii), a phytoplankton (Chlamydomonas acidophila), sulfate oxidizing bacteria, and vascular plants supplied from vegetation surrounding the lake. Based on the average carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios among these potential sources and sediment, benthic diatoms were considered to be most probable food source of the chironomid larvae. {delta}{sup 13}C values of the chironomid were significantly different among seasons and habitat depths, suggesting that diet of C. acerbiphilus changed seasonally and with habitat depth. (author)

  17. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios analysis of food sources for Chironomus acerbiphilus larvae (Diptera Chironomidae) in strongly acidic lake Katanuma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Hideyuki; Kikuchi, Eisuke; Shikano, Shuichi

    2001-01-01

    The food sources for Chironomus acerbiphilus larvae (Diptera Chironomidae) were analyzed using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in Lake Katanuma. Lake Katanuma is a volcanic and strongly acidic lake (average pH 2.2). In Lake Katanuma, potential sources of diets for the chironomid larvae are limited including a benthic diatom (Pinnularia braunii), a phytoplankton (Chlamydomonas acidophila), sulfate oxidizing bacteria, and vascular plants supplied from vegetation surrounding the lake. Based on the average carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios among these potential sources and sediment, benthic diatoms were considered to be most probable food source of the chironomid larvae. δ 13 C values of the chironomid were significantly different among seasons and habitat depths, suggesting that diet of C. acerbiphilus changed seasonally and with habitat depth. (author)

  18. Karyotype characteristics and polymorphism peculiarities of Chironomus bernensis Wülker & Klötzli, 1973 (Diptera, Chironomidae from the Central Caucasus and Ciscaucasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhamed Kh. Karmokov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Data about the karyotype characteristics, features of chromosomal polymorphism and larval morphology of populations of Chironomus bernensis Wülker & Klötzli, 1973 (Diptera, Chironomidae from the Central Caucasus (the northern macroslope and Ciscaucasia are presented. The characteristics of the pericentromeric regions of the long chromosomes of this species from Caucasian populations were very similar to the ones from some European populations (from Poland and Italy, but differed from Swiss and Siberian populations. In the North Caucasian populations 10 banding sequences were found: two in arms A, C, and E, and one in arms B, D, F, and G. Nine of them were already known for this species, and one, berC2, is described for the first time. Cytogenetic distances between all the studied populations of Ch. bernensis show that close geographical location of all studied populations from the Central Caucasus and Ciscaucasia is reflected in their similar cytogenetic structure, but on the other hand, that they are more closely related to populations from Europe than to populations from Western Siberia. At the same time, all studied larvae from Caucasian populations have a four-bladed premandible, instead of a two-bladed one, as in the description of Ch. bernensis from Switzerland (Wülker and Klötzli 1973, Polukonova 2005c. These peculiarities may indicate the relative isolation of the Caucasus from the viewpoint of microevolution. Further research on karyological and morphological characteristics of Chironomus bernensis from geographically distant regions is necessary as there is a possibility that the presently known species is actually polytypic and consists of several sibling species.

  19. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Protective effects of sodium orthovanadate in diabetic reticu- locytes and ageing ... 235. Biomolecules. Physical aspect of microscopic behaviour of biomolecules ... Chironomus. Extracellular electrical activity from the photoreceptors of midge.

  20. Spatial uniformity in depth optima of midges: evidence from sedimentary archives of shallow Alpine and boreal lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi P. Luoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, water depth optima, i.e. habitat preferences within a depth gradient, were estimated for mutual midge (Diptera: Nematocera; Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae taxa in surface sediment intralake data sets from eastern Finland and Austrian Alps and in a regional data set across Finland. The aim was to investigate how the optima and tolerances differ in these data sets and to discuss whether the possible causal factor for deviance is related to local adaptation, taxa representativeness, or some other factor. A total of 20 mutual taxa were found from the data sets and the estimated optima and tolerances were highly similar, with the exception of three taxa, which had deviating optima in the Austrian lake. The reason for these differences was most likely that the optima were poorly estimated in the Austrian lake due to low abundances and number of occurrences of these taxa. No evidence for intraspecific niche separation or local habitat adaptation was found between the Austrian and Finnish sites, although, interspecific variation in habitats was evident. Therefore, water depth optima estimated from representative number of specimens may be applicable for various ecological, limnological, and paleolimnological purposes. However, when the optima are applied outside the data set’s coverage, the results should be interpreted with caution. In addition, the given optima are not applicable in sites deeper than the sites in the data sets.

  1. Biting Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Cambay Amber Indicate that the Eocene Fauna of the Indian Subcontinent Was Not Isolated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebner, Frauke; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Singh, Hukam; Gunkel, Simon; Rust, Jes

    2017-01-01

    India's unique and highly diverse biota combined with its unique geodynamical history has generated significant interest in the patterns and processes that have shaped the current distribution of India's flora and fauna and their biogeographical relationships. Fifty four million year old Cambay amber from northwestern India provides the opportunity to address questions relating to endemism and biogeographic history by studying fossil insects. Within the present study seven extant and three fossil genera of biting midges are recorded from Cambay amber and five new species are described: Eohelea indica Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp., Gedanohelea gerdesorum Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp., Meunierohelea cambayana Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp., Meunierohelea borkenti Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp., and Meunierohelea orientalis Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp. Fossils of species in the genera Leptoconops Skuse, 1889, Forcipomyia Meigen, 1818, Brachypogon Kieffer, 1899, Stilobezzia Kieffer, 1911, Serromyia Meigen, 1818, and Mantohelea Szadziewski, 1988 are recorded without formal description. Furthermore, one fossil belonging to the genus Camptopterohelea Wirth & Hubert, 1960 is included in the present study. Our study reveals faunal links among Ceratopogonidae from Cambay amber and contemporaneous amber from Fushun, China, Eocene Baltic amber from Europe, as well as the modern Australasian and the Oriental regions. These findings imply that faunal exchange between Europe, Asia and India took place before the formation of Cambay amber in the early Eocene.

  2. Identification and reassessment of the specific status of some tropical freshwater midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) using DNA barcode data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramual, Pairot; Simwisat, Kusumart; Martin, Jon

    2016-01-28

    Chironomidae are a highly diverse group of insects. Members of this family are often included in programs monitoring the health of freshwater ecosystems. However, a difficulty in morphological identification, particularly of larval stages is the major obstacle to this application. In this study, we tested the efficiency of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences as the DNA barcoding region for species identification of Chironomidae in Thailand. The results revealed 14 species with a high success rate (>90%) for the correct species identification, which suggests the potential usefulness of the technique. However, some morphological species possess high (>3%) intraspecific genetic divergence that suggests these species could be species complexes and need further morphological or cytological examination. Sequence-based species delimitation analyses indicated that most specimens identified as Chironomus kiiensis, Tokunaga 1936, in Japan are conspecific with C. striatipennis, Kieffer 1912, although a small number form a separate cluster. A review of the descriptions of Kiefferulus tainanus (Kieffer 1912) and its junior synonym, K. biroi (Kieffer 1918), following our results, suggests that this synonymy is probably not correct and that K. tainanus occurs in Japan, China and Singapore, while K. biroi occurs in India and Thailand. Our results therefore revealed the usefulness of DNA barcoding for correct species identification of Chironomidae, particularly the immature stages. In addition, DNA barcodes could also uncover hidden diversity that can guide further taxonomic study, and offer a more efficient way to identify species than morphological analysis where large numbers of specimens are involved, provided the identifications of DNA barcodes in the databases are correct. Our studies indicate that this is not the case, and we identify cases of misidentifications for C. flaviplumus, Tokunaga 1940 and K. tainanus.

  3. Quantitative Temperature Reconstructions from Holocene and Late Glacial Lake Sediments in the Tropical Andes using Chironomidae (non-biting midges)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews-Bird, F.; Gosling, W. D.; Brooks, S. J.; Montoya, E.; Coe, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Chironomidae (non-biting midges) is a family of two-winged aquatic insects of the order Diptera. They are globally distributed and one of the most diverse families within aquatic ecosystems. The insects are stenotopic, and the rapid turnover of species and their ability to colonise quickly favourable habitats means chironomids are extremely sensitive to environmental change, notably temperature. Through the development of quantitative temperature inference models chironomids have become important palaeoecological tools. Proxies capable of generating independent estimates of past climate are crucial to disentangling climate signals and ecosystem response in the palaeoecological record. This project has developed the first modern environmental calibration data set in order to use chironomids from the Tropical Andes as quantitative climate proxies. Using surface sediments from c. 60 lakes from Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador we have developed an inference model capable of reconstructing temperatures, with a prediction error of 1-2°C, from fossil assemblages. Here we present the first Lateglacial and Holocene chironomid-inferred temperature reconstructions from two sites in the tropical Andes. The first record, from a high elevation (4153 m asl) lake in the Bolivian Andes, shows persistently cool temperatures for the past 15 kyr, punctuated by warm episodes in the early Holocene (9-10 kyr BP). The chironomid-inferred Holocene temperature trends from a lake sediment record on the eastern Andean flank of Ecuador (1248 m asl) spanning the last 5 millennia are synchronous with temperature changes in the NGRIP ice core record. The temperature estimates suggest along the eastern flank of the Andes, at lower latitudes (~1°S), climate closely resemble the well-established fluctuations of the Northern Hemisphere for this time period. Late-glacial climate fluctuations across South America are still disputed with some palaeoecological records suggesting evidence for Younger Dryas

  4. Genetic architecture of local adaptation in lunar and diurnal emergence times of the marine midge Clunio marinus (Chironomidae, Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Tobias S; Heckel, David G

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythms pre-adapt the physiology of most organisms to predictable daily changes in the environment. Some marine organisms also show endogenous circalunar rhythms. The genetic basis of the circalunar clock and its interaction with the circadian clock is unknown. Both clocks can be studied in the marine midge Clunio marinus (Chironomidae, Diptera), as different populations have different local adaptations in their lunar and diurnal rhythms of adult emergence, which can be analyzed by crossing experiments. We investigated the genetic basis of population variation in clock properties by constructing the first genetic linkage map for this species, and performing quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis on variation in both lunar and diurnal timing. The genome has a genetic length of 167-193 centimorgans based on a linkage map using 344 markers, and a physical size of 95-140 megabases estimated by flow cytometry. Mapping the sex determining locus shows that females are the heterogametic sex, unlike most other Chironomidae. We identified two QTL each for lunar emergence time and diurnal emergence time. The distribution of QTL confirms a previously hypothesized genetic basis to a correlation of lunar and diurnal emergence times in natural populations. Mapping of clock genes and light receptors identified ciliary opsin 2 (cOps2) as a candidate to be involved in both lunar and diurnal timing; cryptochrome 1 (cry1) as a candidate gene for lunar timing; and two timeless (tim2, tim3) genes as candidate genes for diurnal timing. This QTL analysis of lunar rhythmicity, the first in any species, provides a unique entree into the molecular analysis of the lunar clock.

  5. Timing the tides: genetic control of diurnal and lunar emergence times is correlated in the marine midge Clunio marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Tobias S; Neumann, Dietrich; Heckel, David G

    2011-05-20

    The intertidal zone of seacoasts, being affected by the superimposed tidal, diurnal and lunar cycles, is temporally the most complex environment on earth. Many marine organisms exhibit lunar rhythms in reproductive behaviour and some show experimental evidence of endogenous control by a circalunar clock, the molecular and genetic basis of which is unexplored. We examined the genetic control of lunar and diurnal rhythmicity in the marine midge Clunio marinus (Chironomidae, Diptera), a species for which the correct timing of adult emergence is critical in natural populations. We crossed two strains of Clunio marinus that differ in the timing of the diurnal and lunar rhythms of emergence. The phenotype distribution of the segregating backcross progeny indicates polygenic control of the lunar emergence rhythm. Diurnal timing of emergence is also under genetic control, and is influenced by two unlinked genes with major effects. Furthermore, the lunar and diurnal timing of emergence is correlated in the backcross generation. We show that both the lunar emergence time and its correlation to the diurnal emergence time are adaptive for the species in its natural environment. The correlation implies that the unlinked genes affecting lunar timing and the two unlinked genes affecting diurnal timing could be the same, providing an unexpectedly close interaction of the two clocks. Alternatively, the genes could be genetically linked in a two-by-two fashion, suggesting that evolution has shaped the genetic architecture to stabilize adaptive combinations of lunar and diurnal emergence times by tightening linkage. Our results, the first on genetic control of lunar rhythms, offer a new perspective to explore their molecular clockwork.

  6. Widespread IgE-mediated hypersensitivity in the Sudan to the 'green nimitti' midge, Cladotanytarsus lewisi (Diptera: Chironomidae) II. Identification of a major allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad El Rab, M O; Thatcher, D R; Kay, A B

    1980-01-01

    A major allergen has been identified in an aqueous extract of the 'green nimitti' midge, Cladotanytarsus lewisi (Diptera: Chironomidae). Following chromatography on Sephadex G-100 allergenic activity, as assessed by skin ('prick') testing, eluted as two closely related peaks (pools I and II) at about 50% bed volume. When these pools were applied separately to columns of CM-cellulose, activity in each eluted with 0 . 05 M NaCl. Isoelectric focusing of the unfractionated allergen gave a single peak of activity at pI 4 . 3. By SDS--PAGE, biological activity in the whole 'green nimitti' extract and the material eluting from both pools I and II of the Sephadex G-100 column migrated to the same positions and were associated with a molecular size of 15,000--20,000 daltons. Skin test reactivity of the unfractionated material and the Sephadex G-100 pool I and II eluates were all destroyed following incubation with trypsin, chymotrypsin, thermolysin and neuraminidase. These experiments indicate that a major allergen derived from the 'green nimitti' midge, a cause of widespread and severe immediate-type allergy in the Sudan, is an acidic glycoprotein of 15,000--20,000 molecular weight. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7438559

  7. Serine Proteases-Like Genes in the Asian Rice Gall Midge Show Differential Expression in Compatible and Incompatible Interactions with Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Nair

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae (Wood-Mason, is a serious pest of rice. Investigations into the gall midge-rice interaction will unveil the underlying molecular mechanisms which, in turn, can be used as a tool to assist in developing suitable integrated pest management strategies. The insect gut is known to be involved in various physiological and biological processes including digestion, detoxification and interaction with the host. We have cloned and identified two genes, OoprotI and OoprotII, homologous to serine proteases with the conserved His87, Asp136 and Ser241 residues. OoProtI shared 52.26% identity with mosquito-type trypsin from Hessian fly whereas OoProtII showed 52.49% identity to complement component activated C1s from the Hessian fly. Quantitative real time PCR analysis revealed that both the genes were significantly upregulated in larvae feeding on resistant cultivar than in those feeding on susceptible cultivar. These results provide an opportunity to understand the gut physiology of the insect under compatible or incompatible interactions with the host. Phylogenetic analysis grouped these genes in the clade containing proteases of phytophagous insects away from hematophagous insects.

  8. Identification, characterization and expression profiles of Chironomus riparius glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes in response to cadmium and silver nanoparticles exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Prakash M. Gopalakrishnan [School of Environmental Engineering and Graduate School of Energy and Environmental System Engineering, University of Seoul, 90 Jeonnong-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jinhee, E-mail: jinhchoi@uos.ac.kr [School of Environmental Engineering and Graduate School of Energy and Environmental System Engineering, University of Seoul, 90 Jeonnong-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    In this study, we report the identification and characterization of 13 cytosolic GST genes in Chironomus riparius from Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) database generated using pyrosequencing. Comparative and phylogenetic analyses were undertaken with Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae GSTs and 3 Delta, 4 Sigma, 1 each in Omega, Epsilon, Theta, Zeta and 2 unclassified classes of GSTs were identified and characterized. The relative mRNA expression levels of all of the C. riparius GSTs (CrGSTs) genes under different developmental stages were varied with low expression in the larval stage. The antioxidant role of CrGSTs was studied by exposing fourth instar larvae to a known oxidative stress inducer Paraquat and the relative mRNA expression to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for various time intervals were also studied. All the CrGSTs showed up- or down regulation to varying levels based upon the concentration, and duration of exposure. The highest mRNA expression was noticed in Delta3, Sigma4 and Epsilon1 GST class in all treatments. These results show the role of CrGST genes in defense against oxidative stress and its potential as a biomarker to Cd and AgNPs exposure.

  9. Functional and structural rearrangements of salivary gland polytene chromosomes of Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera,Chironomidae) in response to freshly neutralized aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michailova, P.; Ilkova, J.; White, K.N

    2003-05-01

    Aluminium impacts on aquatic biota can be detected using polytene chromosomes as bio-markers - Although recent work has shown that environmentally relevant concentrations of freshly neutralized aluminium (AI) are bioavailable and toxic to freshwater invertebrates, the genotoxicity of Al has not been examined. Here we show that freshly neutralized Al affects structure and function of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes of the ubiquitous chironomid larva Chironomus riparius over three generations. Exposure to 500 {mu}g l{sup -1} added Al for 24-25 days resulted in a significantly higher frequency of numerous somatic aberrations, while no structural aberrations were found in F1 controls and few in the second and third generation. Aberrations also included deletions of sections of chromosome G of C. riparius larvae as well as deletions of one or more Balbiani rings. Changes in functional activity included decreased activity of the Balbiani rings (BR), and an increase in the number of decondensed centromeres. The activity of the nucleolar organizer (NOR) significantly decreased in F1 chironomids exposed to Al, while in the F2 and F3 generations the NOR showed normal (high) activity. First generation chironomids were generally more susceptible to Al although no clear evidence of tolerance was apparent over three generations. The possible use of alterations in chironomid polytene chromosomes as biomarkers of trace metal pollution is discussed.

  10. Functional and structural rearrangements of salivary gland polytene chromosomes of Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera,Chironomidae) in response to freshly neutralized aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michailova, P.; Ilkova, J.; White, K.N.

    2003-01-01

    Aluminium impacts on aquatic biota can be detected using polytene chromosomes as bio-markers - Although recent work has shown that environmentally relevant concentrations of freshly neutralized aluminium (AI) are bioavailable and toxic to freshwater invertebrates, the genotoxicity of Al has not been examined. Here we show that freshly neutralized Al affects structure and function of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes of the ubiquitous chironomid larva Chironomus riparius over three generations. Exposure to 500 μg l -1 added Al for 24-25 days resulted in a significantly higher frequency of numerous somatic aberrations, while no structural aberrations were found in F1 controls and few in the second and third generation. Aberrations also included deletions of sections of chromosome G of C. riparius larvae as well as deletions of one or more Balbiani rings. Changes in functional activity included decreased activity of the Balbiani rings (BR), and an increase in the number of decondensed centromeres. The activity of the nucleolar organizer (NOR) significantly decreased in F1 chironomids exposed to Al, while in the F2 and F3 generations the NOR showed normal (high) activity. First generation chironomids were generally more susceptible to Al although no clear evidence of tolerance was apparent over three generations. The possible use of alterations in chironomid polytene chromosomes as biomarkers of trace metal pollution is discussed

  11. Characterization of six small HSP genes from Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae): Differential expression under conditions of normal growth and heat-induced stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Folgar, Raquel; de la Fuente, Mercedes; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2015-10-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) comprise the most numerous, structurally diverse, and functionally uncharacterized family of heat shock proteins. Several Hsp genes (Hsp 90, 70, 40, and 27) from the insect Chironomus riparius are widely used in aquatic toxicology as biomarkers for environmental toxins. Here, we conducted a comparative study and characterized secondary structure of the six newly identified sHsp genes Hsp17, Hsp21, Hsp22, Hsp23, Hsp24, and Hsp34. A characteristic α-crystallin domain is predicted in all the new proteins. Phylogenetic analysis suggests a strong relation to other sHSPs from insects and interesting evidence regarding evolutionary origin and duplication events. Comparative analysis of transcription profiles for Hsp27, Hsp70, and the six newly identified genes revealed that Hsp17, Hsp21, and Hsp22 are constitutively expressed under normal conditions, while under two different heat shock conditions these genes are either not activated or are even repressed (Hsp22). In contrast, Hsp23, Hsp24, and Hsp34 are significantly activated along with Hsp27 and Hsp70 during heat stress. These results strongly suggest functional differentiation within the small HSP subfamily and provide new data to help understand the coping mechanisms induced by stressful environmental stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Two new species of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Erythroxylum ovalifolium Peyr. (Erythroxylaceae from the Barra de Maricá restinga, Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VC Maia

    Full Text Available Two new species of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae Dasineura ovalifoliae and Clinodiplosis maricaensis are described based on material from the Barra de Maricá restinga, Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Both species are associated with Erythroxylum ovalifolium Peyr. (Erythroxylaceae. The former is the gall inducer and the latter an inquiline.

  13. Two new species of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Erythroxylum ovalifolium Peyr. (Erythroxylaceae) from the Barra de Maricá restinga, Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, V C; Fernandes, S P C

    2011-05-01

    Two new species of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) Dasineura ovalifoliae and Clinodiplosis maricaensis are described based on material from the Barra de Maricá restinga, Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Both species are associated with Erythroxylum ovalifolium Peyr. (Erythroxylaceae). The former is the gall inducer and the latter an inquiline.

  14. Are gall midge species (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae host-plant specialists? Espécies de moscas galhadoras (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae são especialistas em plantas hospedeiras?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio A. Carneiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the speciose fauna of gall-inducing insects in the Neotropical region, little is known about their taxonomy. On the other hand, gall morphotypes associated with host species have been extensively used as a surrogate of the inducer species worldwide. This study reviewed the described gall midges and their galls to test the generalization on the use of gall morphotypes as surrogates of gall midge species in the Brazilian fauna. We compiled taxonomic and biological data for 196 gall midge species recorded on 128 host plant species. Ninety two percent of those species were monophagous, inducing galls on a single host plant species, whereas only 5.6% species were oligophagous, inducing galls on more than one congeneric host plant species. Only four species induced galls on more than one host plant genus. We conclude that gall morphotypes associated with information on the host plant species and attacked organs are reliable surrogates of the gall-inducing species.Apesar do elevado número de espécies da fauna de insetos indutores de galhas na região Neotropical, muito pouco espécies foram descritas. Por outro lado, o morfotipo da galha associado com a espécie da planta hospedeira é em todo o mundo amplamente utilizado como um indicador da espécie de inseto indutor. Este estudo revê as espécies de cecidommídeos descritos e suas galhas para verificar a generalização do uso da morfologia da galha como indicador da espécie de cecidomíideo na fauna brasileira. Nós compilamos dados biológicos e taxonômicos de 196 espécies de cecidomiídeos em 128 espécies de plantas no Brasil. Noventa e dois porcento destas espécies foram monófagas, induzindo galhas em uma única espécie de planta hospedeira, enquanto somente 5,6% das espécies foram oligófagas, induzindo galhas em mais de uma espécie de planta do mesmo gênero. Somente quatro espécies induzem galhas em espécies de plantas de gêneros diferentes. Nós concluímos que o morfo

  15. Assessing the effects of fluoxetine on Physa acuta (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) and Chironomus riparius (Insecta, Diptera) using a two-species water-sediment test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Argueello, Paloma [Laboratory for Ecotoxicology, Department of the Environment, INIA, Crta, A Coruna km 7, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: arguello@inia.es; Fernandez, Carlos; Tarazona, Jose V. [Laboratory for Ecotoxicology, Department of the Environment, INIA, Crta, A Coruna km 7, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-03-01

    Fluoxetine has been tested in a two-species water-sediment system, which allowed a two-generation study with Chironomus riparius and a partial life-cycle with the freshwater snail Physa acuta to be performed at the same time. The design considered the continuous application of fluoxetine to overlaying water for nominal concentrations of 31.25, 62.5, 125 and 250 {mu}g/L. A fifth treatment (87.5 {mu}g/L) level consisted of pulse applications once a week. Measures of water and sediment concentrations were determined once a week and at the end of experiment (day 44), respectively. The fate study demonstrated that water dissipation can be explained by partitioning of fluoxetine to sediment. At the end of experiment, the percentage of detected fluoxetine was up to 10-fold higher in sediment than in overlaying water. The employed two-species test allowed distinguishing, in the same exposure conditions, effects due to waterborne exposure together ingestion at the sediment surface (freshwater grazing snail P. acuta) and exposure by burrowing activities (sediment-dwelling insect larvae C. riparius). The effect assessment showed a stimulation of P. acuta reproduction at lower concentrations (31.25 and 62.5 {mu}g/L), while the opposite effect was observed at the highest treatment (250 {mu}g/L). Additional studies should be conducted to establish if the statistically significant differences observed in F0 sex ratio at the 62.5 {mu}g/L and F1 adult emergence at 31.25 {mu}g/L of C. riparius have a toxicological significance. This study showed that fluoxetine can affect reproduction of freshwater molluscs. The results of the present study may contribute to knowledge on ecotoxicology of pharmaceuticals, about which little data is available. The possible consequences and implications for targeting the environmental risk assessment of fluoxetine are discussed.

  16. Assessing the effects of fluoxetine on Physa acuta (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) and Chironomus riparius (Insecta, Diptera) using a two-species water-sediment test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Argueello, Paloma; Fernandez, Carlos; Tarazona, Jose V.

    2009-01-01

    Fluoxetine has been tested in a two-species water-sediment system, which allowed a two-generation study with Chironomus riparius and a partial life-cycle with the freshwater snail Physa acuta to be performed at the same time. The design considered the continuous application of fluoxetine to overlaying water for nominal concentrations of 31.25, 62.5, 125 and 250 μg/L. A fifth treatment (87.5 μg/L) level consisted of pulse applications once a week. Measures of water and sediment concentrations were determined once a week and at the end of experiment (day 44), respectively. The fate study demonstrated that water dissipation can be explained by partitioning of fluoxetine to sediment. At the end of experiment, the percentage of detected fluoxetine was up to 10-fold higher in sediment than in overlaying water. The employed two-species test allowed distinguishing, in the same exposure conditions, effects due to waterborne exposure together ingestion at the sediment surface (freshwater grazing snail P. acuta) and exposure by burrowing activities (sediment-dwelling insect larvae C. riparius). The effect assessment showed a stimulation of P. acuta reproduction at lower concentrations (31.25 and 62.5 μg/L), while the opposite effect was observed at the highest treatment (250 μg/L). Additional studies should be conducted to establish if the statistically significant differences observed in F0 sex ratio at the 62.5 μg/L and F1 adult emergence at 31.25 μg/L of C. riparius have a toxicological significance. This study showed that fluoxetine can affect reproduction of freshwater molluscs. The results of the present study may contribute to knowledge on ecotoxicology of pharmaceuticals, about which little data is available. The possible consequences and implications for targeting the environmental risk assessment of fluoxetine are discussed

  17. Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) midges, the vectors of African horse sickness virus--a host/vector contact study in the Niayes area of Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Moussa; Diarra, Maryam; Fall, Assane G; Balenghien, Thomas; Seck, Momar T; Bouyer, Jérémy; Garros, Claire; Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Allène, Xavier; Mall, Iba; Delécolle, Jean-Claude; Rakotoarivony, Ignace; Bakhoum, Mame T; Dusom, Ange M; Ndao, Massouka; Konaté, Lassana; Faye, Ousmane; Baldet, Thierry

    2015-01-21

    African horse sickness (AHS) is an equine disease endemic to Senegal. The African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is transmitted to the mammalian hosts by midges of the Culicoides Latreille genus. During the last epizootic outbreak of AHS in Senegal in 2007, 1,169 horses died from this disease entailing an estimated cost of 1.4 million euros. In spite of the serious animal health and economic implications of AHS, very little is known about determinants involved in transmission such as contact between horses and the Culicoides species suspected of being its vectors. The monthly variation in host/vector contact was determined in the Niayes area, Senegal, an area which was severely affected by the 2007 outbreak of AHS. A horse-baited trap and two suction light traps (OVI type) were set up at each of five sites for three consecutive nights every month for one year. Of 254,338 Culicoides midges collected 209,543 (82.4%) were female and 44,795 (17.6%) male. Nineteen of the 41 species collected were new distribution records for Senegal. This increased the number of described Culicoides species found in Senegal to 53. Only 19 species, of the 41 species found in light trap, were collected in the horse-baited trap (23,669 specimens) largely dominated by Culicoides oxystoma (22,300 specimens, i.e. 94.2%) followed by Culicoides imicola (482 specimens, i.e. 2.0%) and Culicoides kingi (446 specimens, i.e. 1.9%). Culicoides oxystoma should be considered as a potential vector of AHSV in the Niayes area of Senegal due to its abundance on horses and its role in the transmission of other Culicoides-borne viruses.

  18. Field evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a deltamethrin pour on formulation (Butox® 7.5 mg/ml pour on) for the control of Culicoides midges in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Weiher, Wiebke

    2014-01-01

    Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are the main vectors of Bluetongue and Schmallenberg virus disease, which are infectious diseases of ruminants. Recently, both viral diseases occurred for the first time in Germany and caused substantial suffering and large economic losses, primarily in sheep flocks. None of the currently available insecticides is registered to control infestations with Culicoides midges in ruminants. This study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of a pour on fo...

  19. Effects of in vivo exposure to UV filters (4-MBC, OMC, BP-3, 4-HB, OC, OD-PABA) on endocrine signaling genes in the insect Chironomus riparius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozáez, Irene; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria

    2013-07-01

    There is increasing evidence indicating that several UV filters might have endocrine disruptive effects. Numerous studies have evaluated hormonal effects in vertebrates, mainly reporting estrogenic and androgenic activities in mammals and fishes. There is only limited knowledge about potential endocrine activity in invertebrate hormonal systems. In this work, the effects on endocrine signaling genes of six frequently used UV filters were investigated in Chironomus riparius, a reference organism in aquatic toxicology. The UV filters studied were: octyl-p-methoxycinnamate (OMC) also called 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC); 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC); benzophenone-3 (BP-3); 4-hidroxybenzophenone (4-HB); octocrylene (OC); and octyldimethyl-p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA). After in vivo exposure at different dosages, expression levels of the genes coding for the ecdysone receptor (EcR), the ultraspiracle (usp, ortholog of the RXR) and the estrogen-related receptor (ERR) were quantified by Real Time PCR. The EcR gene was significantly upregulated by 4-MBC, OMC/EHMC and OD-PABA, with a dose-related response following 24h exposure. In contrast, the benzophenones, BP-3 and 4-HB, as well as OC did not alter this gene at the same exposure conditions. The transcription profiles of the usp and ERR genes were not significantly affected, except for BP-3 that inhibited the usp gene at the highest concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence in invertebrates of a direct effect of UV filters on endocrine-related genes, and is consistent with the known effects on vertebrate hormonal receptor genes. The capability of 4-MBC, OMC/EHMC and OD-PABA to stimulate the expression of the ecdysone receptor, a key transcription factor for the ecdysone-genomic response in arthropods, suggests the possibility of a broad and long-term effect on this hormonal pathway. These findings strengthen the need for further research about the ecotoxicological implications

  20. Cationic lipid-formulated DNA vaccine against hepatitis B virus: immunogenicity of MIDGE-Th1 vectors encoding small and large surface antigen in comparison to a licensed protein vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Endmann

    Full Text Available Currently marketed vaccines against hepatitis B virus (HBV based on the small (S hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg fail to induce a protective immune response in about 10% of vaccinees. DNA vaccination and the inclusion of PreS1 and PreS2 domains of HBsAg have been reported to represent feasible strategies to improve the efficacy of HBV vaccines. Here, we evaluated the immunogenicity of SAINT-18-formulated MIDGE-Th1 vectors encoding the S or the large (L protein of HBsAg in mice and pigs. In both animal models, vectors encoding the secretion-competent S protein induced stronger humoral responses than vectors encoding the L protein, which was shown to be retained mainly intracellularly despite the presence of a heterologous secretion signal. In pigs, SAINT-18-formulated MIDGE-Th1 vectors encoding the S protein elicited an immune response of the same magnitude as the licensed protein vaccine Engerix-B, with S protein-specific antibody levels significantly higher than those considered protective in humans, and lasting for at least six months after the third immunization. Thus, our results provide not only the proof of concept for the SAINT-18-formulated MIDGE-Th1 vector approach but also confirm that with a cationic-lipid formulation, a DNA vaccine at a relatively low dose can elicit an immune response similar to a human dose of an aluminum hydroxide-adjuvanted protein vaccine in large animals.

  1. Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis and spinosad on adult emergence of the non-biting midges Polypedilum nubifer (Skuse) and Tanytarsus curticornis Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae) in coastal wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchet, Claire; Franquet, Evelyne; Lagadic, Laurent; Lagneau, Christophe

    2015-05-01

    To optimize their efficacy, some insecticides used for mosquito control are introduced into aquatic ecosystems where mosquito larvae develop (marshes, ponds, sanitation devices) and cannot escape from the treated water. However, this raises the question of possible effects of mosquito larvicides on non-target aquatic species. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti), which is well-known for its selectivity for Nematocera dipterans, is widely used for mosquito control all over the world. Spinosad, a mixture of spinosyns A and D known as fermentation products of a soil actinomycete (Saccharopolyspora spinosa), is a biological neurotoxic insecticide with a broader action spectrum. It is a candidate larvicide for mosquito control, but some studies showed that it may be toxic to beneficial or non-target species, including non-biting midges. The present study was therefore undertaken to assess the impact of Bti and spinosad on natural populations of Polypedilum nubifer (Skuse) and Tanytarsus curticornis Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae) in field enclosures implemented in Mediterranean coastal wetlands. Unlike Bti, spinosad had a strong lethal effect on P. nubifer and seems to affect T. curticornis at presumed recommended rates for field application. Differences in the sensitivity of these two species to spinosad confirm that population dynamics need to be known for a proper assessment of the risk encountered by chironomids in wetlands where larvicide-based mosquito control occurs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The protective effect of rapid cold-hardening develops more quickly in frozen versus supercooled larvae of the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawarasaki, Yuta; Teets, Nicholas M; Denlinger, David L; Lee, Richard E

    2013-10-15

    During the austral summer, larvae of the terrestrial midge Belgica antarctica (Diptera: Chironomidae) experience highly variable and often unpredictable thermal conditions. In addition to remaining freeze tolerant year-round, larvae are capable of swiftly increasing their cold tolerance through the rapid cold-hardening (RCH) response. The present study compared the induction of RCH in frozen versus supercooled larvae. At the same induction temperature, RCH occurred more rapidly and conferred a greater level of cryoprotection in frozen versus supercooled larvae. Furthermore, RCH in frozen larvae could be induced at temperatures as low as -12°C, which is the lowest temperature reported to induce RCH. Remarkably, as little as 15 min at -5°C significantly enhanced larval cold tolerance. Not only is protection from RCH acquired swiftly, but it is also quickly lost after thawing for 2 h at 2°C. Because the primary difference between frozen and supercooled larvae is cellular dehydration caused by freeze concentration of body fluids, we also compared the effects of acclimation in dehydrated versus frozen larvae. Because slow dehydration without chilling significantly increased larval survival to a subsequent cold exposure, we hypothesize that cellular dehydration caused by freeze concentration promotes the rapid acquisition of cold tolerance in frozen larvae.

  3. Expression of genes involved in energy mobilization and osmoprotectant synthesis during thermal and dehydration stress in the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Nicholas M; Kawarasaki, Yuta; Lee, Richard E; Denlinger, David L

    2013-02-01

    The Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica, experiences sub-zero temperatures and desiccating conditions for much of the year, and in response to these environmental insults, larvae undergo rapid shifts in metabolism, mobilizing carbohydrate energy reserves to promote synthesis of low-molecular-mass osmoprotectants. In this study, we measured the expression of 11 metabolic genes in response to thermal and dehydration stress. During both heat and cold stress, we observed upregulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and glycogen phosphorylase (gp) to support rapid glucose mobilization. In contrast, there was a general downregulation of pathways related to polyol, trehalose, and proline synthesis during both high- and low-temperature stress. Pepck was likewise upregulated in response to different types of dehydration stress; however, for many of the other genes, expression patterns depended on the nature of dehydration stress. Following fast dehydration, expression patterns were similar to those observed during thermal stress, i.e., upregulation of gp accompanied by downregulation of trehalose and proline synthetic genes. In contrast, gradual, prolonged dehydration (both at a constant temperature and in conjunction with chilling) promoted marked upregulation of genes responsible for trehalose and proline synthesis. On the whole, our data agree with known metabolic adaptations to stress in B. antarctica, although a few discrepancies between gene expression patterns and downstream metabolite contents point to fluxes that are not controlled at the level of transcription.

  4. Farms, pastures and woodlands: the fine-scale distribution of Palearctic Culicoides spp. biting midges along an agro-ecological gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigot, T; Drubbel, M Vercauteren; Delécolle, J-C; Gilbert, M

    2013-03-01

    The spatial epidemiology of Bluetongue virus (BTV) at the landscape level relates to the fine-scale distribution and dispersal capacities of its vectors, midges belonging to the genus Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Although many previous researches have carried out Culicoides sampling on farms, little is known of the fine-scale distribution of Culicoides in the landscape immediately surrounding farms. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of Culicoides populations at increasing distances from typical dairy farms in north-west Europe, through the use of eight Onderstepoort-type black-light traps positioned along linear transects departing from farms, going through pastures and entering woodlands. A total of 16 902 Culicoides were collected in autumn 2008 and spring 2009. The majority were females, of which more than 97% were recognized as potential vectors. In pastures, we found decreasing numbers of female Culicoides as a function of the distance to the farm. This pattern was modelled by leptokurtic models, with parameters depending on season and species. By contrast, the low number of male Culicoides caught were homogeneously distributed along the transects. When transects entered woodlands, we found a higher abundance of Culicoides than expected considering the distance of the sampling sites to the farm, although this varied according to species. © 2012 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  5. Biochemistry and physiology of overwintering in the mature larva of the pine needle gall midge, Thecodiplosis japonensis (Diptera: cecidomyiidae) in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Gong, H; Park, H

    2000-01-01

    The pine needle gall midge, Thecodiplosis japonensis, overwinters in the soil as a third instar mature larva. The metabolic and physiological compensations and adjustments during its overwintering and acclimation were studied. Field-sampled larvae in 1997/98 winter showed a significant increase in whole-body trehalose by January (5.71 +/- 0.09 vs. 9.41 +/- 0.42 mg/g wet weight) along with a more significant decrease in whole-body glycogen (16.25 +/- 0.18 vs. 5.65 +/- 0.45 mg/g wet weight). Afterwards, there was a partial reconversion of trehalose to glycogen. Moreover, trace amounts of glycerol and steady content of glucose as potential cryoprotectants were found during the overwintering period. Temperature acclimation of field-sampled larvae affects interconversion between trehalose and glycogen. Trehalose accumulation does not affect the larval supercooling capacity. The mean supercooling point of the larvae remained nearly constant at about -20 degree he winter and was unchanged after temperature acclimation. Low temperature survival experiment suggested that the larvae adopt a freeze-avoiding strategy for overwintering.

  6. CONFIRMATION OF PRESENCE OF A PREDATORY GALL MIDGE, Feltiella acarisuga, (Vallot, 1827 AND STAPHYLINID PREDATOR Oligota oviformis Casey, 1893 OF A TWO SPOTTED SPIDER MITE (Tetranychus urticae, Koch, 1836 IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina KOS

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae C. L. Koch, 1836 is one of the most important pests of greenhouse crops worldwide. Due to its polyphagic range of hosts and rapid development it forms great populations and as such represents a suitable host/prey for lots of natural enemies usable in biological control. Most commonly used predators of Tetranychid mites are predatory mites (Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, 1957, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot, 1962 ,…, but among most voracious predators is the larva of a predatory gall midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot, 1827 that was found also in greenhouses of the Biotechnical Faculty in Ljubljana on eggplant leaves in 2017. Besides the predatory gall midge also another predator, staphylinid Oligota oviformis Casey, 1893 beetles and larvae were found in great numbers. After positive identification of F. acarisuga found naturally in Slovenia, it can be added to the list of indigenous species of natural enemies and thus can be used in biological control programs in greenhouse crop protection against spider mites.

  7. Sellers’ Revisited: A Big Data Reassessment of Historical Outbreaks of Bluetongue and African Horse Sickness due to the Long-Distance Wind Dispersion of Culicoides Midges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Durr

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The possibility that outbreaks of bluetongue (BT and African horse sickness (AHS might occur via long-distance wind dispersion (LDWD of their insect vector (Culicoides spp. was proposed by R. F. Sellers in a series of papers published between 1977 and 1991. These investigated the role of LDWD by means of visual examination of the wind direction of synoptic weather charts. Based on the hypothesis that simple wind direction analysis, which does not allow for wind speed, might have led to spurious conclusions, we reanalyzed six of the outbreak scenarios described in Sellers’ papers. For this reanalysis, we used a custom-built Big Data application (“TAPPAS” which couples a user-friendly web-interface with an established atmospheric dispersal model (“HYSPLIT”, thus enabling more sophisticated modeling than was possible when Sellers undertook his analyzes. For the two AHS outbreaks, there was strong support from our reanalysis of the role of LDWD for that in Spain (1966, and to a lesser degree, for the outbreak in Cyprus (1960. However, for the BT outbreaks, the reassessments were more complex, and for one of these (western Turkey, 1977 we could discount LDWD as the means of direct introduction of the virus. By contrast, while the outbreak in Cyprus (1977 showed LDWD was a possible means of introduction, there is an apparent inconsistency in that the outbreaks were localized while the dispersion events covered much of the island. For Portugal (1956, LDWD from Morocco on the dates suggested by Sellers is very unlikely to have been the pathway for introduction, and for the detection of serotype 2 in Florida (1982, LDWD from Cuba would require an assumption of a lengthy survival time of the midges in the air column. Except for western Turkey, the BT reanalyses show the limitation of LDWD modeling when used by itself, and indicates the need to integrate susceptible host population distribution (and other covariate data into the modeling process

  8. Sellers' Revisited: A Big Data Reassessment of Historical Outbreaks of Bluetongue and African Horse Sickness due to the Long-Distance Wind Dispersion of Culicoides Midges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durr, Peter A; Graham, Kerryne; van Klinken, Rieks D

    2017-01-01

    The possibility that outbreaks of bluetongue (BT) and African horse sickness (AHS) might occur via long-distance wind dispersion (LDWD) of their insect vector ( Culicoides spp.) was proposed by R. F. Sellers in a series of papers published between 1977 and 1991. These investigated the role of LDWD by means of visual examination of the wind direction of synoptic weather charts. Based on the hypothesis that simple wind direction analysis, which does not allow for wind speed, might have led to spurious conclusions, we reanalyzed six of the outbreak scenarios described in Sellers' papers. For this reanalysis, we used a custom-built Big Data application (" TAPPAS ") which couples a user-friendly web-interface with an established atmospheric dispersal model (" HYSPLIT "), thus enabling more sophisticated modeling than was possible when Sellers undertook his analyzes. For the two AHS outbreaks, there was strong support from our reanalysis of the role of LDWD for that in Spain (1966), and to a lesser degree, for the outbreak in Cyprus (1960). However, for the BT outbreaks, the reassessments were more complex, and for one of these (western Turkey, 1977) we could discount LDWD as the means of direct introduction of the virus. By contrast, while the outbreak in Cyprus (1977) showed LDWD was a possible means of introduction, there is an apparent inconsistency in that the outbreaks were localized while the dispersion events covered much of the island. For Portugal (1956), LDWD from Morocco on the dates suggested by Sellers is very unlikely to have been the pathway for introduction, and for the detection of serotype 2 in Florida (1982), LDWD from Cuba would require an assumption of a lengthy survival time of the midges in the air column. Except for western Turkey, the BT reanalyses show the limitation of LDWD modeling when used by itself, and indicates the need to integrate susceptible host population distribution (and other covariate) data into the modeling process. A further

  9. A key, based on wing patterns of biting midges (genus Culicoides Latreille - Diptera: Ceratopogonidae in the Iberian Peninsula, for use in epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawlings, Peter

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The identity of vectors of disease are often required speedily in epidemiological studies but with a precision which excludes as many other species as possible. Identification keys usually require the examination of many different parts of the suspected vector to pinpoint the species. This consumes considerable time and resources, so epidemiologists tend to ignore them. Asimplified approach to identification is proposed, using the characteristics of a single part of the body (the wings of biting midges of the genus Culicoides. The level of differentiation was epidemiologically valuable. The monoclave could not differentiate all the species from each other but more than one third (20/58 of identifications were for single species, and a further 12/58 identifications gave only two possibilities, making 55.2% of identifications to an accuracy of at most one of two species. The diagnosis of vector species was reached in a maximum of six decision points. The only notable exception to valuable differentiation was the four species in the Culicoides obsoletus group which had almost identical female wing patterns. The ready availability of simple keys, which can be used by anyone without formal training in taxonomy, for all the species of a group in a region should encourage greater standardisation of identifications in all studies, including those not primarily aimed at systematics. These monoclaves can also serve as the primary tools to build computerised image-recognition systems for genera, families and orders of insects.Con frequencia en los estudios epidemiológicos hace falta conocer con rapidez, pero también con precisión, la identidad de los vectores. Por lo general los procedimientos de identificación y las claves exigen el examen de un elevado número de partes diferentes del vector sospechoso. Este enfoque consume mucho tiempo y recursos por lo que tiende a ser evitado por los epidemiólogos. Se propone un sistema simplificado para la

  10. Habitat selection by chironomid larvae: fast growth requires fast food.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, E.M.; Wagner, C.; Koelmans, A.A.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.

    2006-01-01

    1. Sediments have been considered as a habitat, a cover from predators and a source of food, but also as a source of potential toxic compounds. Therefore, the choice of a suitable substrate is essential for the development of chironomids. 2. For the midge Chironomus riparius (Meigen 1804) the growth

  11. Comparative effects of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on the aquatic larvae of Chironomus riparius based on gene expression assays related to the endocrine system, the stress response and ribosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planelló, Rosario; Herrero, Oscar; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria

    2011-09-01

    In this work, the effects of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), two of the most extensively used phthalates, were studied in Chironomus riparius under acute short-term treatments, to compare their relative toxicities and identify genes sensitive to exposure. The ecotoxicity of these phthalates was assessed by analysis of the alterations in gene expression profiles of selected inducible and constitutive genes related to the endocrine system, the cellular stress response and the ribosomal machinery. Fourth instar larvae, a model system in aquatic toxicology, were experimentally exposed to five increasing concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100mg/L) of DEHP and BBP for 24h. Gene expression was analysed by the changes in levels of transcripts, using RT-PCR techniques with specific gene probes. The exposures to DEHP or BBP were able to rapidly induce the hsp70 gene in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the cognate form hsc70 was not altered by either of these chemicals. Transcription of ribosomal RNA as a measure of cell viability, quantified by the levels of ITS2, was not affected by DEHP, but was slightly, yet significantly, downregulated by BBP at the highest concentrations tested. Finally, as these phthalates are classified as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), their potential effect on the ecdysone endocrine system was studied by analysing the two genes, EcR and usp, of the heterodimeric ecdysone receptor complex. It was found that BBP provoked the overexpression of the EcR gene, with significant increases from exposures of 0.1mg/L and above, while DEHP significantly decreased the activity of this gene at the highest concentration. These data are relevant as they show for the first time the ability of phthalates to interfere with endocrine marker genes in invertebrates, demonstrating their potential capacity to alter the ecdysone signalling pathway. Overall, the study clearly shows a differential gene-toxin interaction

  12. Two genes in Balbiani ring 2 with metabolically different 75S transcripts

    OpenAIRE

    Galler, R.; Saiga, H.; Widmer, R. M.; Lezzi, M.; Edström, J.-E.

    1985-01-01

    Balbiani ring 2 (BR2) in salivary glands of Chironomus pallidivittatus and C. tentans (two sibling species of the subgenus Camptochironomus) is a favoured model system for studies of gene organization and transcript formation. Here we show that BR2 is more complex than hitherto believed, containing two 75S RNA-producing genes, BR2a and BR2b, present in different 35–40 kb blocks of DNA. The transcripts hybridizing to two different repeat units originating in BR2 differ in size. Further support...

  13. Evaluation of Metal Toxicity in Streams Affected by Abandoned Mine Lands, Upper Animas River Watershed, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Allert, Ann L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; May, Thomas W.; Wang, Ning; Leib, Kenneth J.

    2001-01-01

    water; (3) to develop site-specific thresholds for toxicity of Zn and Cu in stream water; and (4) to develop models of the contributions of Cu and Zn to toxicity of stream water, which may be used to characterize toxicity before and after planned remediation efforts. We evaluated the toxicity of metal-contaminated sediments by conducting sediment toxicity tests with two species of benthic invertebrates, the midge, Chironomus tentans. and the amphipod, Hyalella azteca. Laboratory toxicity tests with both taxa, exposed to fine stream-bed sediments collected in September 1997, showed some evidence of sediment toxicity, as survival of midge larvae in sediments from Cement Creek (C48) and lower Mineral Creek (M34), and growth of amphipods in sediments from these sites and three Animas River sites (A68, Animas at Silverton; A72, Animas below Silverton, and A73, Animas at Elk Park) were significantly reduced compared to a reference site, South Mineral Creek (SMC) . Amphipods were also exposed to site water and fine stream-bed sediment, separately and in combination, during the late summer low flow period (August-September) of 1998. In these studies, stream water, with no sediment present, from all five sites tested (same sites as above, except C48) caused 90% to 100% mortality of amphipods. In contrast, significant reductions in survival of amphipods occurred at two sites (A72 and SMC) in exposures with field-collected sediment plus stream water, and at only one site (A72) in exposures with sediments and clean overlying water. Concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd were high in both sediment and pore water (interstitial water) from most sites tested, but greatest sediment toxicity was apparently associated with greater concentrations of Fe and/or Al in sediments. These results suggest that fine stream-bed sediments of the more contaminated stream reaches of the upper Animas River watershed are toxic to benthic invertebrates, but that these impacts are less serious than tox

  14. Effects of low-level chronic irradiation on aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etoh, H. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1980-10-01

    Effects of continual irradiation for a long term on fishes and aquatic invertebrates were outlined. Effects of low-level chronic irradiation on aquatic organisms were less than acute effects induced when the same dose was irradiated once. The radiosensitivity of the genital organ to continual irradiation was high. There was a difference in radiosensitivity of the genital organ between female and male, and the degree of the difference varied according to kinds of animals. In an experiment on continual irradiation of adult killifishes, ova recovered from radiation damage, but spermatozoa did not recover. Incubation rates of eggs obtained from aquatic organisms which lived in water where radioactive sewage flowed into decreased significantly, and the frequency of reverse position of salivary gland chromosomes which were peculiar to exposed organisms increased in larvae of Chironomus tentans.

  15. Assessing effects of a mining and municipal sewage effluent mixture on fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) reproduction using a novel, field-based trophic-transfer artificial stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickwood, Carrie J; Dubé, Monique G; Weber, Lynn P; Lux, Sarah; Janz, David M

    2008-01-31

    The Junction Creek watershed, located in Sudbury, ON, Canada receives effluent from three metal mine wastewater treatment plants, as well as a municipal wastewater (MWW) discharge. Effects on fish have been documented within the creek (decreased egg size and increased metal body burdens). It has been difficult to identify the cause of the effects observed due to the confounded nature of the creek. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the: (1) effects of a mine effluent and municipal wastewater (CCMWW) mixture on fathead minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas) reproduction in an on-site artificial stream and (2) importance of food (Chironomus tentans) as a source of exposure using a trophic-transfer system. Exposures to CCMWW through the water significantly decreased egg production and spawning events. Exposure through food and water using the trophic-transfer system significantly increased egg production and spawning events. Embryos produced in the trophic-transfer system showed similar hatching success but increased incidence and severity of deformities after CCMWW exposure. We concluded that effects of CCMWW on FHM were more apparent when exposed through the water. Exposure through food and water may have reduced effluent toxicity, possibly due to increased nutrients and organic matter, which may have reduced metal bioavailability. More detailed examination of metal concentrations in the sediment, water column, prey (C. tentans) and FHM tissues is recommended to better understand the toxicokinetics of potential causative compounds within the different aquatic compartments when conducting exposures through different pathways.

  16. Discontinuous movement of mRNP particles in nucleoplasmic regions devoid of chromatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebrasse, Jan Peter; Veith, Roman; Dobay, Akos; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Daneholt, Bertil; Kubitscheck, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) move randomly within nucleoplasm before they exit from the nucleus. To further understand mRNP trafficking, we have studied the intranuclear movement of a specific mRNP, the BR2 mRNP, in salivary gland cells in Chironomus tentans. Their polytene nuclei harbor giant chromosomes separated by vast regions of nucleoplasm, which allows us to study mRNP mobility without interference of chromatin. The particles were fluorescently labeled with microinjected oligonucleotides (DNA or RNA) complementary to BR2 mRNA or with the RNA-binding protein hrp36, the C. tentans homologue of hnRNP A1. Using high-speed laser microscopy, we followed the intranuclear trajectories of single mRNPs and characterized their motion within the nucleoplasm. The Balbiani ring (BR) mRNPs moved randomly, but unexpectedly, in a discontinuous manner. When mobile, they diffused with a diffusion coefficient corresponding to their size. Between mobile phases, the mRNPs were slowed down 10-to 250-fold but were never completely immobile. Earlier electron microscopy work has indicated that BR particles can attach to thin nonchromatin fibers, which are sometimes connected to discrete fibrogranular clusters. We propose that the observed discontinuous movement reflects transient interactions between freely diffusing BR particles and these submicroscopic structures. PMID:19074261

  17. The bloodsucking biting midges of Argentina (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R Spinelli

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A key is presented for the identification of the adults of 54 species of bloodsucking ceratopogonids, 51 of which are known inhabitants of Argentina, and Culicoides uruguayensis Ronderos, C. pifanoi Ortiz, and C. trilineatus Fox, which are known to occur in bordering Uruguay and Paraguay. Wing photographs are provided of females of the 45 species of Culicoides. Three new species of Culicoides Latreille from Northeastern Argentina are described and illustrated: C. austroparaensis Spinelli, C. bachmanni Spinelli, and C. williamsi Spinelli. The following six species are recorded for the first time from Argentina and/or bordering localities in Paraguay: Leptoconops brasiliensis (Lutz, C. gabaldoni Ortiz, C. ginesi Ortiz, C. pifanoi Ortiz, C. pseudocrescentis Tavares and Luna Dias, and C. trilineatus; and C. estevezae Ronderos and Spinelli is newly recorded from Misiones province of Argentina. C. lopesi Barretto is excluded from the Argentinean ceratopogonid fauna.

  18. Integrated Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding of Alpine Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Matteo; Mereghetti, Valeria; Lencioni, Valeria; Rossaro, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient DNA-based tools are recommended for the evaluation of the insect biodiversity of high-altitude streams. In the present study, focused principally on larvae of the genus Diamesa Meigen 1835 (Diptera: Chironomidae), the congruence between morphological/molecular delimitation of species as well as performances in taxonomic assignments were evaluated. A fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was obtained from 112 larvae, pupae and adults (Diamesinae, Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae) that were collected in different mountain regions of the Alps and Apennines. On the basis of morphological characters 102 specimens were attributed to 16 species, and the remaining ten specimens were identified to the genus level. Molecular species delimitation was performed using: i) distance-based Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), with no a priori assumptions on species identification; and ii) coalescent tree-based approaches as the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model, its Bayesian implementation and Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes. The ABGD analysis, estimating an optimal intra/interspecific nucleotide distance threshold of 0.7%-1.4%, identified 23 putative species; the tree-based approaches, identified between 25-26 entities, provided nearly identical results. All species belonging to zernyi, steinboecki, latitarsis, bertrami, dampfi and incallida groups, as well as outgroup species, are recovered as separate entities, perfectly matching the identified morphospecies. In contrast, within the cinerella group, cases of discrepancy arose: i) the two morphologically separate species D. cinerella and D. tonsa are neither monophyletic nor diagnosable exhibiting low values of between-taxa nucleotide mean divergence (0.94%); ii) few cases of larvae morphological misidentification were observed. Head capsule color is confirmed to be a valid character able to discriminate larvae of D. zernyi, D. tonsa and D. cinerella, but it is here better defined as a color gradient between the setae submenti and genal setae. DNA barcodes performances were high: average accuracy was ~89% and precision of ~99%. On the basis of the present data, we can thus conclude that molecular identification represents a promising tool that could be effectively adopted in evaluating biodiversity of high-altitude streams.

  19. New gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) from Papua New Guinea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolesik, P.; Butterill, Philip T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2015), s. 79-86 ISSN 2052-1758 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-10486S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 669609 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : barcoding * COI * insect taxonomy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.114, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/aen.12095/abstract

  20. Biting Midges (Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) Recorded from Farms in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S. A.; Nielsen, B.O.; Chirico, J.

    2009-01-01

    In light of the emergence of bluetongue in Northern Europe, populations of Culicoides species were monitored in and around several Swedish livestock farms (surveillance in 2007 and 2008). The position of the sampling sites ranged from about latitude 55° N to about 68° N. Thirty-three Culicoides s...

  1. Spatial feeding preferences of ornithophilic mosquitoes, blackflies and biting midges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, O.; Votýpka, Jan; Svobodová, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2011), 104-108 ISSN 0269-283X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Culex * Culicoides * Eusimulium * Trypanosoma * height preferences * ornithophilic Diptera Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.910, year: 2011

  2. inheritance of resistance to sesame gall midge in uganda abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Ngetta Zonal Agricultural Research development Institute (ZARDI) in ... African Crop Science Journal by African Crop Science Society is licensed ..... Journal of Applied Biosciences 18:967-975. ... International Journal of Plant Breeding 7.

  3. Endophagy of biting midges attacking cavity-nesting birds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votýpka, Jan; Synek, P.; Svobodová, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 3 (2009), s. 277-280 ISSN 0269-283X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Culicoides pictipennis * Culicoides truncorum * endophagy * nest box * population dynamics * transmission * vectors * Moravia Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.092, year: 2009

  4. Midges as palaeoindicators of lake productivity, eutrophication and hypolimnetic oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, K. P.; Quinlan, R.

    2006-01-01

    , stratification patterns, water level change, sediment conditions, submerged vegetation and ecological thresholds are all important for interpretation of palaeolimnological trajectories. We use previously published and new data to document how these factors determine, change or preserve the "lake identity" over...

  5. Specifically Designed Constructed Wetlands: A Novel Treatment Approach for Scrubber Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Rodgers Jr; James W. Castle; Chris Arrington: Derek Eggert; Meg Iannacone

    2005-09-01

    A pilot-scale wetland treatment system was specifically designed and constructed at Clemson University to evaluate removal of mercury, selenium, and other constituents from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater. Specific objectives of this research were: (1) to measure performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system in terms of decreases in targeted constituents (Hg, Se and As) in the FGD wastewater from inflow to outflow; (2) to determine how the observed performance is achieved (both reactions and rates); and (3) to measure performance in terms of decreased bioavailability of these elements (i.e. toxicity of sediments in constructed wetlands and toxicity of outflow waters from the treatment system). Performance of the pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment systems was assessed using two criteria: anticipated NPDES permit levels and toxicity evaluations using two sentinel toxicity-testing organisms (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas). These systems performed efficiently with varied inflow simulations of FGD wastewaters removing As, Hg, and Se concentrations below NPDES permit levels and reducing the toxicity of simulated FGD wastewater after treatment with the constructed wetland treatment systems. Sequential extraction procedures indicated that these elements (As, Hg, and Se) were bound to residual phases within sediments of these systems, which should limit their bioavailability to aquatic biota. Sediments collected from constructed wetland treatment systems were tested to observe toxicity to Hyalella azteca or Chironomus tetans. Complete survival (100%) was observed for H. azteca in all cells of the constructed wetland treatment system and C. tentans had an average of 91% survival over the three treatment cells containing sediments. Survival and growth of H. azteca and C. tentans did not differ significantly between sediments from the constructed wetland treatment system and controls. Since the sediments of the constructed

  6. Exclusion of mRNPs and ribosomal particles from a thin zone beneath the nuclear envelope revealed upon inhibition of transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kylberg, Karin; Bjoerk, Petra; Fomproix, Nathalie; Ivarsson, Birgitta; Wieslander, Lars; Daneholt, Bertil

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the nucleocytoplasmic transport of a specific messenger RNP (mRNP) particle, named Balbiani ring (BR) granule, and ribosomal RNP (rRNP) particles in the salivary glands of the dipteran Chironomus tentans. The passage of the RNPs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) was inhibited with the nucleoporin-binding wheat germ agglutinin, and the effects were examined by electron microscopy. BR mRNPs bound to the nuclear basket increased in number, while BR mRNPs translocating through the central channel decreased, suggesting that the initiation of translocation proper had been inhibited. The rRNPs accumulated heavily in nucleoplasm, while no or very few rRNPs were recorded within nuclear baskets. Thus, the transport of rRNPs had been blocked prior to the entry into the baskets. Remarkably, the rRNPs had been excluded both from baskets and the space in between the baskets. We propose that normally basket fibrils move freely and repel RNPs from the exclusion zone unless the particles have affinity for and bind to nucleoporins within the baskets.

  7. Isonychia spp. and macroinvertebrate community responses to stressors in streams utilizing the benthic in situ toxicity identification evaluation (BiTIE) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custer, Kevin W. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Wright State University, 127 Allyn Hall, 3640 Colonel Glenn Highway, Dayton, OH 45435 (United States)], E-mail: custer.4@wright.edu; Burton, G. Allen [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Wright State University, 127 Allyn Hall, 3640 Colonel Glenn Highway, Dayton, OH 45435 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Exposures of caged organisms in situ have proven to be a useful way to improve exposure realism and link to stressor effects in aquatic assessments of hazard or risk. A novel cage system, the benthic in situ toxicity identification evaluation (BiTIE), was developed for benthic macroinvertebrates (surrogate species, resident populations and communities) to separate low and high flow effects, and major chemical classes of stressors in streams. Three resin types were used to separate the chemical stressors in the streams Honey Creek and Little Beavercreek, Ohio, USA: Dowex{sup TM} Optipore{sup TM} (non-polar organics), zeolite (ammonia), and polywool (control). Isonychia spp. sensitivity was compared to Chironomus tentans, and no significant differences were found (p > 0.05). Isonychia spp. growth (length) showed a stressor response in the zeolite treatments, and community testing revealed improved metric responses in the Dowex{sup TM} treatments. The BiTIE chamber system demonstrated stressor-response relationships using sublethal and multimetric endpoints. - Use of an indigenous aquatic insect and benthic macroinvertebrate communities allows for discerning the stressors in low and high flows with an in situ TIE approach.

  8. Isonychia spp. and macroinvertebrate community responses to stressors in streams utilizing the benthic in situ toxicity identification evaluation (BiTIE) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custer, Kevin W.; Burton, G. Allen

    2008-01-01

    Exposures of caged organisms in situ have proven to be a useful way to improve exposure realism and link to stressor effects in aquatic assessments of hazard or risk. A novel cage system, the benthic in situ toxicity identification evaluation (BiTIE), was developed for benthic macroinvertebrates (surrogate species, resident populations and communities) to separate low and high flow effects, and major chemical classes of stressors in streams. Three resin types were used to separate the chemical stressors in the streams Honey Creek and Little Beavercreek, Ohio, USA: Dowex TM Optipore TM (non-polar organics), zeolite (ammonia), and polywool (control). Isonychia spp. sensitivity was compared to Chironomus tentans, and no significant differences were found (p > 0.05). Isonychia spp. growth (length) showed a stressor response in the zeolite treatments, and community testing revealed improved metric responses in the Dowex TM treatments. The BiTIE chamber system demonstrated stressor-response relationships using sublethal and multimetric endpoints. - Use of an indigenous aquatic insect and benthic macroinvertebrate communities allows for discerning the stressors in low and high flows with an in situ TIE approach

  9. Assessment of sediment quality in dredged and undredged areas of the Trenton Channel of the Detroit River, Michigan USA, using the sediment quality triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Giesy, John P.; Kubitz, Jody A.; Verbrugge, David A.; Coon, Thomas G.; Braselton, W. Emmett

    1996-01-01

    The “sediment quality triad” approach was used to assess the effects of dredging on the sediment quality of a new marina in the Trenton Channel of the Detroit River, and to evaluate spatial and temporal variation in sediment quality in the Trenton Channel. Samples were collected in November of 1993 (10 months after dredging) and characterized by chemical analysis, sediment bioassays, and assessment of benthic invertebrate communities. The three study components indicated little difference in sediment quality at dredged sites in the marina relative to nearby areas in the Trenton Channel, and little change in sediment quality of Trenton Channel sites relative to conditions reported in the mid-1980s. These results suggest that improvement in sediment quality in the Trenton Channel, due to dredging or natural processes, will depend on elimination of sediment “hot spots” and other upstream contaminant sources. Concentrations of chemical contaminants, especially metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, exceeded concentrations associated with effects on biota and were significantly correlated with results of sediment bioassays and characteristics of benthic communities. Laboratory sediment bioassays with Hyalella azteca andChironomus tentans produced better discrimination among sites with differing degrees of contamination than did characterization of benthic communities, which were dominated by oligochaetes at all sites in the marina and the Trenton Channel.

  10. Site-specific sediment clean-up objectives developed by the sediment quality triad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redman, S.; Janisch, T.

    1995-01-01

    Sediment chemistry, sediment toxicity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community data were collected and evaluated in concert (1) to characterize adverse effects of hydrocarbon and metal contaminants in the sediments of a small inlet of Superior Bay, Lake Superior and a tributary creek and (2) to derive numeric objectives for the clean up of this system. Sediments from reference locations and eight study sites were analyzed for a range of contaminants, including hydrocarbons (measured both as diesel range organics (DRO) and oil and grease), lead, chromium, and ammonia. A range of sediment toxicity was observed across the eight study sites using a variety of tests and endpoints: Hyalella azteca (10 day survival and growth), Chironomus tentans (10 day survival and growth), Ceriodaphnia dubia (48 hour survival), and Daphnia magna (48 hour survival and 10 day survival and reproduction). A range of alterations of the benthic macroinvertebrate community compared with communities from reference locations were observed. Benthic community alterations were summarized quantitatively by taxa richness and Shannon-Weiner mean diversity. Lowest effect levels determined through this study included 150 microg/g dry sediment for DRO (as measured in this study) and 40 microg/g dry sediment for lead. Effects thresholds determined through this study included 1,500 microg/g dry sediment for DRO and 90 microg/g dry sediment for lead. These levels and concentrations measured in relevant reference locations are being used to define objectives for sediment clean up in the inlet and creek

  11. The effect of {sup 210}Pb and stable lead on the induction of mouthpart deformities in chironomid larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, G A; Schwartz, W J; Hoffman, D [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1995-07-01

    To determine whether mouthpart deformities in chironomid larvae from Port Hope Harbour, Ontario, are the result of exposure to ionizing radiation or heavy metals in the sediment, Chironomus tentans larvae were exposed in the laboratory to concentrations of {sup 210}Pb and stable lead representative of contaminant levels in the harbour. Exposure to 100, 1000, and 2000 Bq {sup 210}Pb{center_dot}g{sup -1} dry sediment had no effect on the survival, growth of the larvae or frequency of deformities. Likewise, exposure to 0.5 and 5.0 mg lead{center_dot}g{sup -1} dry sediment had no effect on the larvae, but exposure to 35.0 mg lead{center_dot}g{sup -1} dry sediment resulted in 100% mortality of the larvae. These results indicate that the observed mouthpart deformities in chironomid larvae in Port Hope Harbour are not the result of radiation exposure. They also indicate that heavy metals (lead) may be having an impact on the population. (author). 28 refs., 9 tabs., 4 figs.

  12. In situ exposures using caged organisms: a multi-compartment approach to detect aquatic toxicity and bioaccumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, G. Allen; Greenberg, Marc S.; Rowland, Carolyn D.; Irvine, Cameron A.; Lavoie, Daniel R.; Brooker, John A.; Moore, Laurie; Raymer, Delia F.N.; McWilliam, Ruth A.

    2005-01-01

    An in situ toxicity and bioaccumulation assessment approach is described to assess stressor exposure and effects in surface waters (low and high flow), the sediment-water interface, surficial sediments and pore waters (including groundwater upwellings). This approach can be used for exposing species, representing major functional and taxonomic groups. Pimephales promelas, Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Hyalella azteca, Hyalella sp., Chironomus tentans, Lumbriculus variegatus, Hydra attenuatta, Hexagenia sp. and Baetis tibialis were successfully used to measure effects on survival, growth, feeding, and/or uptake. Stressors identified included chemical toxicants, suspended solids, photo-induced toxicity, indigenous predators, and flow. Responses varied between laboratory and in situ exposures in many cases and were attributed to differing exposure dynamics and sample-processing artifacts. These in situ exposure approaches provide unique assessment information that is complementary to traditional laboratory-based toxicity and bioaccumulation testing and reduce the uncertainties of extrapolating from the laboratory to field responses. - In situ exposures provide unique information that is complementary to traditional lab-based toxicity results

  13. The effect of 210Pb and stable lead on the induction of mouthpart deformities in chironomid larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, G.A.; Schwartz, W.J.; Hoffman, D.

    1995-07-01

    To determine whether mouthpart deformities in chironomid larvae from Port Hope Harbour, Ontario, are the result of exposure to ionizing radiation or heavy metals in the sediment, Chironomus tentans larvae were exposed in the laboratory to concentrations of 210 Pb and stable lead representative of contaminant levels in the harbour. Exposure to 100, 1000, and 2000 Bq 210 Pb·g -1 dry sediment had no effect on the survival, growth of the larvae or frequency of deformities. Likewise, exposure to 0.5 and 5.0 mg lead·g -1 dry sediment had no effect on the larvae, but exposure to 35.0 mg lead·g -1 dry sediment resulted in 100% mortality of the larvae. These results indicate that the observed mouthpart deformities in chironomid larvae in Port Hope Harbour are not the result of radiation exposure. They also indicate that heavy metals (lead) may be having an impact on the population. (author). 28 refs., 9 tabs., 4 figs

  14. Acute toxicity of metals and reference toxicants to a freshwater ostracod, Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 and correlation to EC{sub 50} values of other test models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangarot, B.S., E-mail: bkhangarot@hotmail.com [Ecotoxicology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (Formerly: Industrial Toxicology Research Centre), Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India); Das, Sangita [Ecotoxicology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (Formerly: Industrial Toxicology Research Centre), Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India)

    2009-12-30

    The ostracod Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 static bioassay test on the basis of a 48 h of 50% of immobilization (EC{sub 50}) has been used to measure the toxicity of 36 metals and metalloids and 12 reference toxicants. Among the 36 metals and metalloids, osmium (Os) was found to be the most toxic in the test while boron (B), the least toxic. The EC{sub 50} values of this study revealed positive linear relationship with the established test models of cladoceran (Daphnia magna), sludge worm (Tubifex tubifex), chironomid larvae (Chironomus tentans), protozoan (Tetrahymena pyriformis), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and aquatic macrophyte duckweed (Lemna minor). Correlation coefficients (r{sup 2}) for 17 physicochemical properties of metals or metal ions and EC{sub 50}s (as pM) were examined by linear regression analysis. The electronegativity, ionization potential, melting point, solubility product of metal sulfides (pK{sub sp}), softness parameter and some other physicochemical characteristics were significantly correlated with EC{sub 50}s of metals to C. subglobosa. The reproducibility of toxicity test was determined using 12 reference toxicants. The coefficient of variability of the EC{sub 50}s ranged from 6.95% to 55.37% and variability was comparable to that noticed for D. magna and other aquatic test models. The study demonstrated the need to include crustacean ostracods in a battery of biotests to detect the presence of hazardous chemicals in soils, sewage sludges, sediments and aquatic systems.

  15. Acute toxicity of metals and reference toxicants to a freshwater ostracod, Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 and correlation to EC50 values of other test models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khangarot, B.S.; Das, Sangita

    2009-01-01

    The ostracod Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 static bioassay test on the basis of a 48 h of 50% of immobilization (EC 50 ) has been used to measure the toxicity of 36 metals and metalloids and 12 reference toxicants. Among the 36 metals and metalloids, osmium (Os) was found to be the most toxic in the test while boron (B), the least toxic. The EC 50 values of this study revealed positive linear relationship with the established test models of cladoceran (Daphnia magna), sludge worm (Tubifex tubifex), chironomid larvae (Chironomus tentans), protozoan (Tetrahymena pyriformis), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and aquatic macrophyte duckweed (Lemna minor). Correlation coefficients (r 2 ) for 17 physicochemical properties of metals or metal ions and EC 50 s (as pM) were examined by linear regression analysis. The electronegativity, ionization potential, melting point, solubility product of metal sulfides (pK sp ), softness parameter and some other physicochemical characteristics were significantly correlated with EC 50 s of metals to C. subglobosa. The reproducibility of toxicity test was determined using 12 reference toxicants. The coefficient of variability of the EC 50 s ranged from 6.95% to 55.37% and variability was comparable to that noticed for D. magna and other aquatic test models. The study demonstrated the need to include crustacean ostracods in a battery of biotests to detect the presence of hazardous chemicals in soils, sewage sludges, sediments and aquatic systems.

  16. Velocity correlations in laboratory insect swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, R.; Ouellette, N. T.

    2015-12-01

    In contrast to animal groups such as bird flocks or migratory herds that display net, directed motion, insect swarms do not possess global order. Without such order, it is difficult to define and characterize the transition to collective behavior in swarms; nevertheless, visual observation of swarms strongly suggests that swarming insects do behave collectively. It has recently been suggested that correlation rather than order is the hallmark of emergent collective behavior. Here, we report measurements of spatial velocity correlation functions in laboratory mating swarms of the non-biting midge Chironomus riparius. Although we find some correlation at short distances, our swarms are in general only weakly correlated, in contrast to what has been observed in field studies. Our results hint at the potentially important role of environmental conditions on collective behavior, and suggest that general indicators of the collective nature of swarming are still needed.

  17. The interaction of actinide and lanthanide ions with hemoglobin and its relevance to human and environmental toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Amit, E-mail: amitk@barc.gov.in [Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Ali, Manjoor [Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Ningthoujam, Raghumani S. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Gaikwad, Pallavi [Department of Zoology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411 007, Mumbai (India); Kumar, Mukesh [Solid State, Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Nath, Bimalendu B. [Department of Zoology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411 007, Mumbai (India); Pandey, Badri N. [Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • The sites of Ln and An interaction in Hb depend upon their charge-to-ionic-radii ratio. • Th(IV), Ce(IV) and U(VI) altered structure and oxygen-binding of Hb. • Spectroscopic studies determined binding characteristics of actinides. • Metal–Hb interaction was tested in an environmentally-important aquatic midge, Chironomus. - Abstract: Due to increasing use of lanthanides/actinides in nuclear and civil applications, understanding the impact of these metal ions on human health and environment is a growing concern. Hemoglobin (Hb), which occurs in all the kingdom of living organism, is the most abundant protein in human blood. In present study, effect of lanthanides and actinides [thorium: Th(IV), uranium: U(VI), lanthanum: La(III), cerium: Ce(III) and (IV)] on the structure and function of Hb has been investigated. Results showed that these metal ions, except Ce(IV) interacted with carbonyl and amide groups of Hb, which resulted in the loss of its alpha-helix conformation. However, beyond 75 μM, these ions affected heme moiety. Metal–heme interaction was found to affect oxygen-binding of Hb, which seems to be governed by their closeness with the charge-to-ionic-radius ratio of iron(III). Consistently, Ce(IV) being closest to iron(III), exhibited a greater effect on heme. Binding constant and binding stoichiometry of Th(IV) were higher than that of U(VI). Experiments using aquatic midge Chironomus (possessing human homologous Hb) and human blood, further validated metal–Hb interaction and associated toxicity. Thus, present study provides a biochemical basis to understand the actinide/lanthanide-induced interference in heme, which may have significant implications for the medical and environmental management of lanthanides/actinides toxicity.

  18. The interaction of actinide and lanthanide ions with hemoglobin and its relevance to human and environmental toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Amit; Ali, Manjoor; Ningthoujam, Raghumani S.; Gaikwad, Pallavi; Kumar, Mukesh; Nath, Bimalendu B.; Pandey, Badri N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The sites of Ln and An interaction in Hb depend upon their charge-to-ionic-radii ratio. • Th(IV), Ce(IV) and U(VI) altered structure and oxygen-binding of Hb. • Spectroscopic studies determined binding characteristics of actinides. • Metal–Hb interaction was tested in an environmentally-important aquatic midge, Chironomus. - Abstract: Due to increasing use of lanthanides/actinides in nuclear and civil applications, understanding the impact of these metal ions on human health and environment is a growing concern. Hemoglobin (Hb), which occurs in all the kingdom of living organism, is the most abundant protein in human blood. In present study, effect of lanthanides and actinides [thorium: Th(IV), uranium: U(VI), lanthanum: La(III), cerium: Ce(III) and (IV)] on the structure and function of Hb has been investigated. Results showed that these metal ions, except Ce(IV) interacted with carbonyl and amide groups of Hb, which resulted in the loss of its alpha-helix conformation. However, beyond 75 μM, these ions affected heme moiety. Metal–heme interaction was found to affect oxygen-binding of Hb, which seems to be governed by their closeness with the charge-to-ionic-radius ratio of iron(III). Consistently, Ce(IV) being closest to iron(III), exhibited a greater effect on heme. Binding constant and binding stoichiometry of Th(IV) were higher than that of U(VI). Experiments using aquatic midge Chironomus (possessing human homologous Hb) and human blood, further validated metal–Hb interaction and associated toxicity. Thus, present study provides a biochemical basis to understand the actinide/lanthanide-induced interference in heme, which may have significant implications for the medical and environmental management of lanthanides/actinides toxicity.

  19. Control of nitrous oxide emission from Chironomus plumosus larvae by nitrate and temperatur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Polerecky, Lubos; Poulsen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Aquatic invertebrates that ingest large numbers of bacteria produce substantial amounts of the greenhouse gas N2O because of incomplete denitrification in their anoxic gut. We investigated the influence of two key environmental factors, temperature and NO3- availability, on N2O emission from larv...

  20. Ecotoxicological assessment of grey water treatment systems with Daphnia magna and Chironomus riparius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernádez Leal, L.; Soeter, A.M.; Kools, S.A.E.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Parsons, J.R.; Temmink, H.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet environmental quality criteria, grey water was treated in four different ways: 1) aerobic 2) anaerobic + aerobic 3) aerobic + activated carbon 4) aerobic + ozone. Since each treatment has its own specific advantages and disadvantages, the aim of this study was to compare the

  1. Bioconcentration and acute toxicity of polycyclic musks in two benthic organisms (Chironomus riparius and Lumbriculus variegatus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artola-Garicano, E.; Sinnige, T.L.; Holsteijn, I. van; Vaes, W.H.J.; Hermens, J.L.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, the bioconcentration behavior and acute toxicity of two polycyclic musks, Tonalide® 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6,-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4,-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) and Galaxolide® 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexa-methyl-cyclopenta[γ]-2- benzopyran (HHCB), were studied in two

  2. Rapid genetic erosion in pollutant-exposed experimental chironomid populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Carsten [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: cnowak@senckenberg.de; Vogt, Christian [Abteilung Aquatische Okotoxikologie, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: vogt@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Pfenninger, Markus [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: pfenninger@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Schwenk, Klaus [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: k.schwenk@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Oehlmann, Joerg [Abteilung Aquatische Okotoxikologie, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: oehlmann@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Streit, Bruno [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: streit@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Oetken, Matthias [Abteilung Aquatische Okotoxikologie, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: oetken@bio.uni-frankfurt.de

    2009-03-15

    Few studies have evaluated how effectively environmental contamination may reduce genetic diversity of a population. Here, we chose a laboratory approach in order to test if tributyltin (TBT) exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations leads to reduced genetic variation in the midge Chironomus riparius. Two TBT-exposed and two unexposed experimental populations were reared simultaneously in the laboratory for 12 generations. We recorded several life-history traits in each generation and monitored genetic variation over time using five variable microsatellite markers. TBT-exposed strains showed increased larval mortality (treatments: 43.8%; controls: 27.8%), slightly reduced reproductive output, and delayed larval development. Reduction of genetic variation was strongest and only significant in the TBT-exposed strains (treatments: -45.9%, controls: -24.4% of initial heterozygosity) after 12 generations. Our findings document that chemical pollution may lead to a rapid decrease in genetic diversity, which has important implications for conservation strategies and ecological management in polluted environments. - Chronic TBT exposure reduces allelic variation at five variable microsatellite loci in experimental populations of Chironomus riparius.

  3. Rapid genetic erosion in pollutant-exposed experimental chironomid populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Carsten; Vogt, Christian; Pfenninger, Markus; Schwenk, Klaus; Oehlmann, Joerg; Streit, Bruno; Oetken, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated how effectively environmental contamination may reduce genetic diversity of a population. Here, we chose a laboratory approach in order to test if tributyltin (TBT) exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations leads to reduced genetic variation in the midge Chironomus riparius. Two TBT-exposed and two unexposed experimental populations were reared simultaneously in the laboratory for 12 generations. We recorded several life-history traits in each generation and monitored genetic variation over time using five variable microsatellite markers. TBT-exposed strains showed increased larval mortality (treatments: 43.8%; controls: 27.8%), slightly reduced reproductive output, and delayed larval development. Reduction of genetic variation was strongest and only significant in the TBT-exposed strains (treatments: -45.9%, controls: -24.4% of initial heterozygosity) after 12 generations. Our findings document that chemical pollution may lead to a rapid decrease in genetic diversity, which has important implications for conservation strategies and ecological management in polluted environments. - Chronic TBT exposure reduces allelic variation at five variable microsatellite loci in experimental populations of Chironomus riparius

  4. ELISA detection of multixenobiotic resistance transporter induction in indigenous freshwater Chironomidae larvae (Diptera): A biomarker calibration step for in situ monitoring of xenobiotic exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, X.; Saez, G.; Thiery, A. [Equipe ' Biomarqueurs and Bioindicateurs Environnementaux' , UMR-CNRS 6116 IMEP, Universite de Provence, 3 Place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille cedex 3 (France); Clot-Faybesse, O.; Guiraudie-Capraz, G. [' Neurobiologie Integrative et Adaptative' -UMR 6149, Universite de Provence, 3 Place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille cedex 3 (France); Bienboire-Frosini, C. [' Neurobiologie Integrative et Adaptative' -UMR 6149, Universite de Provence, 3 Place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille cedex 3 (France); Pherosynthese, Le Rieu Neuf, 84490 St Saturnin d' Apt (France); Martin, C. [Equipe ' Biomarqueurs and Bioindicateurs Environnementaux' , UMR-CNRS 6116 IMEP, UAPV, 33 rue Louis Pasteur, 84000 Avignon (France); De Jong, L. [Equipe ' Biomarqueurs and Bioindicateurs Environnementaux' , UMR-CNRS 6116 IMEP, Universite de Provence, 3 Place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: laetitia.moreau@univ-provence.fr

    2008-06-15

    A new simple and sensitive method to distinguish chemically polluted from unpolluted situations in freshwater ecosystems is reported. For this purpose, Chironomus gr thumni larvae were collected from a polluted urban river downstream a sewage treatment plant. For the first time, ELISA assay was used to semi-quantify the multixenobiotic resistance transporters (MXR) in these small pertinent bioindicators. The use of samples immediately fixed in the field gives a delay to isolate larvae and allows multi-sampling along a longitudinal transect in a river at a given time. Results exhibit an induction of MXR proteins in larvae from the polluted river and a deinduction in larvae maintained 11 days in unpolluted water. They show new evidences to use midge larvae in biomonitoring environmental programs. They answer to first biomarker calibration steps for the ongoing development of MXR transporters as a detection tool of xenobiotic impacts on bioindicator invertebrates in their freshwater habitats. - Semi-quantification of midge larval MXR transporters by ELISA is a simple and sensitive method to detect chemically polluted situations in running freshwaters.

  5. ELISA detection of multixenobiotic resistance transporter induction in indigenous freshwater Chironomidae larvae (Diptera): A biomarker calibration step for in situ monitoring of xenobiotic exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, X.; Saez, G.; Thiery, A.; Clot-Faybesse, O.; Guiraudie-Capraz, G.; Bienboire-Frosini, C.; Martin, C.; De Jong, L.

    2008-01-01

    A new simple and sensitive method to distinguish chemically polluted from unpolluted situations in freshwater ecosystems is reported. For this purpose, Chironomus gr thumni larvae were collected from a polluted urban river downstream a sewage treatment plant. For the first time, ELISA assay was used to semi-quantify the multixenobiotic resistance transporters (MXR) in these small pertinent bioindicators. The use of samples immediately fixed in the field gives a delay to isolate larvae and allows multi-sampling along a longitudinal transect in a river at a given time. Results exhibit an induction of MXR proteins in larvae from the polluted river and a deinduction in larvae maintained 11 days in unpolluted water. They show new evidences to use midge larvae in biomonitoring environmental programs. They answer to first biomarker calibration steps for the ongoing development of MXR transporters as a detection tool of xenobiotic impacts on bioindicator invertebrates in their freshwater habitats. - Semi-quantification of midge larval MXR transporters by ELISA is a simple and sensitive method to detect chemically polluted situations in running freshwaters

  6. Assimilation efficiencies of Cd and Zn in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio): Effects of metal concentration, temperature and prey type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campenhout, K. van [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Bervoets, L. [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: lieven.bervoets@ua.ac.be; Blust, R. [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2007-02-15

    The impact of several factors on the assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cd and Zn from food in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. Tested prey species were midge larvae (Chironomus riparius), zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and oligochaetes (Tubifex tubifex). The Cd load of the larvae did not affect the Cd AE in the carp. The Zn AE however, was negatively related to the Zn load of the prey. Food quantity and starvation of the carp did not significantly affect the Cd AE. For Zn, a significant decrease in AE was found when carp were fed ad libitum. Decreasing the temperature from 25 {sup o}C to 15 {sup o}C did not influence the Cd AE, while for Zn a significant decrease of the AE was measured. Carp assimilated Cd from both zebra mussels and oligochaetes with a significantly lower efficiency in comparison to the midge larvae, although Zn AEs was prey independent. - Assimilation efficiency of Cd and Zn in food of carp is affected by metal load, prey type and temperature.

  7. Assimilation efficiencies of Cd and Zn in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio): Effects of metal concentration, temperature and prey type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campenhout, K. van; Bervoets, L.; Blust, R.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of several factors on the assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cd and Zn from food in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. Tested prey species were midge larvae (Chironomus riparius), zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and oligochaetes (Tubifex tubifex). The Cd load of the larvae did not affect the Cd AE in the carp. The Zn AE however, was negatively related to the Zn load of the prey. Food quantity and starvation of the carp did not significantly affect the Cd AE. For Zn, a significant decrease in AE was found when carp were fed ad libitum. Decreasing the temperature from 25 o C to 15 o C did not influence the Cd AE, while for Zn a significant decrease of the AE was measured. Carp assimilated Cd from both zebra mussels and oligochaetes with a significantly lower efficiency in comparison to the midge larvae, although Zn AEs was prey independent. - Assimilation efficiency of Cd and Zn in food of carp is affected by metal load, prey type and temperature

  8. Impact of a flood disaster on sediment toxicity in a major river system - the Elbe flood 2002 as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oetken, Matthias; Stachel, Burkhard; Pfenninger, Markus; Oehlmann, Joerg

    2005-01-01

    The ecotoxicological implications of a flooding disaster were investigated with the exceptional Elbe flood in August 2002 as an example. Sediment samples were taken shortly after the flood at 37 sites. For toxicity assessment the midge Chironomus riparius (Insecta) and the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gastropoda) were exposed to the sediment samples for 28 days. For a subset of 19 sampling sites, the contamination level and the biological response of both species were also recorded before the flood in 2000. The direct comparison of biological responses at identical sites revealed significant differences for samples taken before and immediately after the flood. After flood sediments of the river Elbe caused both higher emergence rates in the midge and higher numbers of embryos in the mudsnail. Contrary to expectations the toxicity of the sediments decreased after the flood, probably because of a dilution of toxic substances along the river Elbe and a reduction in bioavailability of pollutants as a result of increasing TOC values after the flood. - The extraordinary Elbe flood in August 2002 did not result in an overall increase of environmental contamination

  9. Toxicity of silicon carbide nanowires to sediment-dwelling invertebrates in water or sediment exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Joseph N.; Wang, Ning; Ritts, Andrew; Kunz, James L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Li, Hao; Deng, Baolin

    2011-01-01

    Silicon carbide nanowires (SiCNW) are insoluble in water. When released into an aquatic environment, SiCNW would likely accumulate in sediment. The objective of this study was to assess the toxicity of SiCNW to four freshwater sediment-dwelling organisms: amphipods (Hyalella azteca), midges (Chironomus dilutus), oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), and mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea). Amphipods were exposed to either sonicated or nonsonicated SiCNW in water (1.0 g/L) for 48 h. Midges, mussels, and oligochaetes were exposed only to sonicated SiCNW in water for 96 h. In addition, amphipods were exposed to sonicated SiCNW in whole sediment for 10 d (44% SiCNW on dry wt basis). Mean 48-h survival of amphipods exposed to nonsonicated SiCNW in water was not significantly different from the control, whereas mean survival of amphipods exposed to sonicated SiCNW in two 48-h exposures (0 or 15% survival) was significantly different from the control (90 or 98% survival). In contrast, no effect of sonicated SiCNW was observed on survival of midges, mussels, or oligochaetes. Survival of amphipods was not significantly reduced in 10-d exposures to sonicated SiCNW either mixed in the sediment or layered on the sediment surface. However, significant reduction in amphipod biomass was observed with the SiCNW either mixed in sediment or layered on the sediment surface, and the reduction was more pronounced for SiCNW layered on the sediment. These results indicated that, under the experimental conditions, nonsonicated SiCNW in water were not acutely toxic to amphipods, sonicated SiCNW in water were acutely toxic to the amphipods, but not to other organisms tested, and sonicated SiCNW in sediment affected the growth but not the survival of amphipods.

  10. Biting Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latr.) associated with livestock farms in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Holm, Høgni; Overgaard Nielsen, Boy

    2017-01-01

    ) pseudoheliophilus Callot & Kremer, 1961, new to the Faroese fauna. C. impunctatus was common at most of the farms, females contributing >95% of the catch. Apparently C. pseudoheliophilus has a more limited distribution in the Faroe Islands and was only recorded from nine byres. The relative distribution of female C...

  11. Diel activity and preferred landing sites in Culicoides biting midges attacking Fjord horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Heuvel, van den S.J.; Meiswinkel, R.

    2016-01-01

    In the summer of 2014, in the central part of The Netherlands, Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) attack rates, biting rates, and preferred landing sites were determined for a pair of Fjord horses maintained permanently at pasture in an area devoid of cattle. Eleven body regions of the

  12. A new species of predaceous midge of the genus Monohelea Kieffer from Mexico (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felippe-Bauer, M L; Huerta, H; Bernal, S I

    2000-01-01

    A description and illustrations of Monohelea maya, new species, based on male and female characteristics are provided. The specimens were collected in the special biosphere Reserves of Ria Lagartos and Ria Celestun, Yucatan State, Mexico.

  13. Habitat preference and reproductive traits in the Antarctic midge Parochlus steinenii (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, S.M.; Reinhardt, K.

    2006-01-01

    We provide the first comprehensive account of habitat preference, mating, oviposition and developmental stages of Parochlus steinenii. There are eight records from the South Shetland Islands. On King George Island, none out of 40 temporary ponds and 9% out of 44 lakes with variable water levels were

  14. Midges (Diptera:Chironomidae) as indicators of wetland viability in the Alberta Oil Sands region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciborowski, J. J. H.; Whelly, M. P.; Leonhardt, C.; Laing, D. [Windsor Univ., Dept. of Biological Sciences, ON (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Thirty-three wetlands northeast of Fort McMurray, Alberta, ten of which are receiving oil sands mine process-affected water (OSPW), have been examined to assess their biological integrity. Physico-chemical and environmental attributes were measured, sediment, zoobenthic, plankton and chlorophyll samples were analyzed. Results of principal component analysis indicated that the wetlands could be categorized into three classes on the basis of three independent combinations of environmental features, namely pH/size/dissolved oxygen; conductivity; and sediment composition. Cluster analysis identified four groups of wetlands. High conductivity wetlands were found to support greater density but reduced richness of benthic population, irrespective of the presence of OSPW. To evaluate OSPW wetland ability to support and maintain benthic populations chironomid larval morphology, density, adult emergence, flight activity, egg-laying behaviour and the ability of eggs to hatch in OSPW were monitored. Results indicated no inhibition of adult chironomid flight activity, egg-laying or hatching by OSPW, although there was some evidence of OSPW reducing chironomid density, diversity and secondary production.

  15. Effects of bioirrigation of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) on lake sediment respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, Viktor; Lewandowski, Jörg; Romeijn, Paul; Singer, Gabriel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    Bioirrigation or the transport of fluids into the sediment matrix due to the activities of organisms such as bloodworms (larvae of Diptera, Chironomidae), has substantial impacts on sediment respiration in lakes. However, previous quantifications of bioirrigation impacts of Chironomidae have been limited by technical challenges such as the difficulty to separate faunal and bacterial respiration. This paper describes a novel method based on the bioreactive tracer resazurin for measuring respiration in-situ in non-sealed systems with constant oxygen supply. Applying this new method in microcosm experiments revealed that bioirrigation enhanced sediment respiration by up to 2.5 times. The new method is yielding lower oxygen consumption than previously reported, as it is only sensitive to aerobic heterotrophous respiration and not to other processes causing oxygen decrease. Hence it decouples the quantification of respiration of animals and inorganic oxygen consumption from microbe respiration in sediment.

  16. Big data - modelling of midges in Europa using machine learning techniques and satellite imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuellar, Ana Carolina; Kjær, Lene Jung; Skovgaard, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    coordinates of each trap, start and end dates of trapping. We used 120 environmental predictor variables together with Random Forest machine learning algorithms to predict the overall species distribution (probability of occurrence) and monthly abundance in Europe. We generated maps for every month...... and the Obsoletus group, although abundance was generally higher for a longer period of time for C. imicula than for the Obsoletus group. Using machine learning techniques, we were able to model the spatial distribution in Europe for C. imicola and the Obsoletus group in terms of abundance and suitability...

  17. The role of gut bacteria in Schmallenberg virus transmission by Culicoides biting midges

    Science.gov (United States)

    When an arbo-virus enters a vector it will first enter the gut system of this insect before entering cells of the insect body. Once in the gut-system, arbo-viruses and gut microbiota can interact with each other. We wondered if different gut bacterial communities could influence virus infection of b...

  18. Low species richness of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Neotropical artificial urban water bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamerlik, Ladislav; Jacobsen, Dean; Brodersen, Klaus Peter

    2011-01-01

    Chironomid assemblages of 22 artificial water bodies, mainly fountains, in two South American cities were surveyed. We found surprisingly low diversities, with a total of 11 taxa, averaging two taxa per site. The typical fountain assemblages mainly consisted of common species that have a wide...... distribution pattern and are tolerant to organic pollution. Also taxa independent of the natural aquatic sources, such as tap-water and semi-terrestrial species were represented. There was no significant difference between the taxa richness of the two S. American regions, however, the assemblage structures...

  19. Breeding sites of Culicoides midges in KwaZulu-Natal | Jenkins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catch numbers were correlated to site properties using the generalised linear modelling procedure on untransformed data with a negative binomial distribution and a log link function. Sites with increasing ground moisture, increasing incident radiation and increasing wetness duration were found to positively increase the ...

  20. The range of attraction for light traps catching Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Græsbøll, Kaare; Stockmarr, Anders; Christiansen, Lasse E; Bødker, René

    2013-03-15

    Culicoides are vectors of e.g. bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus in northern Europe. Light trapping is an important tool for detecting the presence and quantifying the abundance of vectors in the field. Until now, few studies have investigated the range of attraction of light traps. Here we test a previously described mathematical model (Model I) and two novel models for the attraction of vectors to light traps (Model II and III). In Model I, Culicoides fly to the nearest trap from within a fixed range of attraction. In Model II Culicoides fly towards areas with greater light intensity, and in Model III Culicoides evaluate light sources in the field of view and fly towards the strongest. Model II and III incorporated the directionally dependent light field created around light traps with fluorescent light tubes. All three models were fitted to light trap collections obtained from two novel experimental setups in the field where traps were placed in different configurations. Results showed that overlapping ranges of attraction of neighboring traps extended the shared range of attraction. Model I did not fit data from any of the experimental setups. Model II could only fit data from one of the setups, while Model III fitted data from both experimental setups. The model with the best fit, Model III, indicates that Culicoides continuously evaluate the light source direction and intensity. The maximum range of attraction of a single 4W CDC light trap was estimated to be approximately 15.25 meters. The attraction towards light traps is different from the attraction to host animals and thus light trap catches may not represent the vector species and numbers attracted to hosts.

  1. Mosquitoes and Culicoides biting midges: vector range and the influence of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Meiswinkel, R.

    2015-01-01

    Vector-borne animal diseases pose a continuous and substantial threat to livestock economies around the globe. Increasing international travel, the globalisation of trade, and climate change are likely to play a progressively more important role in the introduction, establishment and spread of

  2. Update on the Culicoides sonorensis transcriptome project: a peek into the molecular biology of the midge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Next Generation Sequencing is transforming the way scientists collect and measure an organism’s genetic background and gene dynamics, while bioinformatics and super-computing are merging to facilitate parallel sample computation and interpretation at unprecedented speeds. Analyzing the complete gene...

  3. Complex interactions envolving a gall midge Myrciamyia maricaensis Maia (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, phytophagous modifiers and parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fortunato Faria Ferraz

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Myrciamyia maricaensis Maia, 1995 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae induces a gall in lateral and apical shoots in the plant Myrcia lundiana Kiaersk (Myrtaceae which is used and modified by two eulophid wasps species. In both cases the gall former species suffer high rate of attack exceeding the importance of parasitoid species as mortality factors. In this study these interactions are described and their effects as mortality of gall former. The intensity of occurrence of the two eulophid species as modifiers and of microhymenopteran parasitoids, and the relative importance of these species as mortality agents of the M. maricaensis larvae is compared. This comparison reveals that two modifiers species found in the gall tissue modification causing the death of the M. maricaensis larva and it is a more important factor of mortality than the cecidomyiid larva parasitism. The fluctuation of the number of each type of gall along the year was monitored in the research field and confirmed in numerical and in synchronic terms of occurrence of the galls; the importance of the species of the gall modifier eulophids, particularly one of these species, as factors of mortality of the M. maricaensis larvae and justified our comparing the relationship between these species and M. maricaensis as similar to the parasitoid-host relationship. The gall shape modification by one of the eulophids allows the occurrence of other inquiline insect species, what means that this gall modification becomes it more heterogeneous and allows the increase of the species richness to the system.

  4. Pyrosequencing reveals the predominance of Pseudomonadaceae in gut microbiome of a Gall Midge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut microbes are known to play various roles in insects such as digestion of inaccessible nutrients, synthesis of deficient amino acids, and interaction with ecological environments, including host plants. Here, we analyzed the gut microbiome in Hessian fly, a serious pest of wheat. A total of 3,654...

  5. The range of attraction for light traps catching Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Græsbøll, Kaare; Stockmarr, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Background Culicoides are vectors of e.g. bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus in northern Europe. Light trapping is an important tool for detecting the presence and quantifying the abundance of vectors in the field. Until now, few studies have investigated the range of attraction of light tr...... light trap was estimated to be approximately 15.25 meters. The attraction towards light traps is different from the attraction to host animals and thus light trap catches may not represent the vector species and numbers attracted to hosts.......Background Culicoides are vectors of e.g. bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus in northern Europe. Light trapping is an important tool for detecting the presence and quantifying the abundance of vectors in the field. Until now, few studies have investigated the range of attraction of light...... traps. Methods Here we test a previously described mathematical model (Model I) and two novel models for the attraction of vectors to light traps (Model II and III). In Model I, Culicoides fly to the nearest trap from within a fixed range of attraction. In Model II Culicoides fly towards areas...

  6. Polypedilum nubifer, a Chironomid Midge (Diptera: Chironomidae) new to Florida that has nuisance potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, R.E.; Perry, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    We document the first record of Polypedilum nubifer in Pan-America. This eurytopic species often reaches severe nuisance population sizes in Australia, Asia, and Hawaii in warm, shallow, eutrophic waters subject to drying. A large population was discovered in newly-constructed infiltration basins and neighboring marshes along the eastern boundary of Everglades National Park. Presently, this population appears minimally invasive to Park marshes and is far removed from urban areas. However, we anticipate this species could disperse and attain nuisance population sizes in suitable urban and agricultural habitats in south Florida. (author)

  7. A new species of predaceous midge of the genus Monohelea Kieffer from Mexico (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Felippe-Bauer

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A description and illustrations of Monohelea maya, new species, based on male and female characteristics are provided. The specimens were collected in the special biosphere Reserves of Ria Lagartos and Ria Celestun, Yucatan State, Mexico.

  8. Effects of dietary esfenvalerate exposures on three aquatic insect species representing different functional feeding groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Katherine R; Jenkins, Jeffrey J; Jepson, Paul C

    2008-08-01

    Given the chemical properties of synthetic pyrethroids, it is probable that compounds, including esfenvalerate, that enter surface waters may become incorporated into aquatic insect food sources. We examined the effect of dietary esfenvalerate uptake in aquatic insects representing different functional feeding groups. We used three field-collected aquatic insect species: A grazing scraper, Cinygmula reticulata McDunnough (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae); an omnivorous filter feeder, Brachycentrus americanus Banks (Trichoptera: Brachycentridae); and a predator, Hesperoperla pacifica Banks (Plecoptera: Perlidae). Laboratory-cultured algae were preexposed for 24 h to esfenvalerate concentrations of 0, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 microg/L and provided to two C. reticulata age classes (small and final-instar nymphs). Reduction in small nymph growth was observed following three weeks of feeding on algae exposed to 0.05 and 0.1 microg/L of esfenvalerate, and the highest dietary exposure reduced egg production in final-instar nymphs. The diet for B. americanus and H. pacifica consisted of dead third-instar Chironomus tentans larvae preexposed for 24 h to esfenvalerate concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 1.0 microg/L. Consumption of larvae exposed to 0.5 to 1.0 microg/L of esfenvalerate caused case abandonment and mortality in B. americanus caddisfly larvae. Although H. pacifica nymphs readily consumed esfenvalerate-exposed larvae, no adverse effects were observed during the present study. Furthermore, no evidence of esfenvalerate-induced feeding deterrence was found in any of the species tested, suggesting that aquatic insects may not be able to distinguish between pyrethroid-contaminated and uncontaminated food sources. These findings indicate that feeding deterrence is not a factor in regulating aquatic insect dietary exposures to synthetic pyrethroids.

  9. Chironomus plumosus larvae increase fluxes of denitrification products and diversity of nitrate-reducing bacteria in freshwater sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; W. V. Kofoed, Michael; H. Larsen, Lone

    2014-01-01

    , respectively, which was mostly due to stimulation of sedimentary denitrification; incomplete denitrification in the guts accounted for up to 20% of the N2O efflux. Phylotype richness of the nitrate reductase gene narG was significantly higher in sediment with than without larvae. In the gut, 47 narG phylotypes...... were found expressed, which may contribute to higher phylotype richness in colonized sediment. In contrast, phylotype richness of the nitrous oxide reductase gene nosZ was unaffected by the presence of larvae and very few nosZ phylotypes were expressed in the gut. Gene abundance of neither narG, nor...... nosZ wasdifferent in sediments with and without larvae. Hence, C. plumosus increases activity and diversity, but not overall abundance of nitrate-reducing bacteria, probably by providing additional ecological niches in its burrow and gut....

  10. Persistence of aquatic insects across managed landscapes: effects of landscape permeability on re-colonization and population recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nika Galic

    Full Text Available Human practices in managed landscapes may often adversely affect aquatic biota, such as aquatic insects. Dispersal is often the limiting factor for successful re-colonization and recovery of stressed habitats. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effects of landscape permeability, assuming a combination of riparian vegetation (edge permeability and other vegetation (landscape matrix permeability, and distance between waterbodies on the colonization and recovery potential of weakly flying insects. For this purpose, we developed two models, a movement and a population model of the non-biting midge, Chironomus riparius, an aquatic insect with weak flying abilities. With the movement model we predicted the outcome of dispersal in a landscape with several linear water bodies (ditches under different assumptions regarding landscape-dependent movement. Output from the movement model constituted the probabilities of encountering another ditch and of staying in the natal ditch or perishing in the landscape matrix, and was used in the second model. With this individual-based model of midge populations, we assessed the implications for population persistence and for recovery potential after an extreme stress event. We showed that a combination of landscape attributes from the movement model determines the fate of dispersing individuals and, once extrapolated to the population level, has a big impact on the persistence and recovery of populations. Population persistence benefited from low edge permeability as it reduced the dispersal mortality which was the main factor determining population persistence and viability. However, population recovery benefited from higher edge permeability, but this was conditional on the low effective distance that ensured fewer losses in the landscape matrix. We discuss these findings with respect to possible landscape management scenarios.

  11. Development and application of freshwater sediment-toxicity benchmarks for currently used pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Moran, Patrick W.

    2016-01-01

    Sediment-toxicity benchmarks are needed to interpret the biological significance of currently used pesticides detected in whole sediments. Two types of freshwater sediment benchmarks for pesticides were developed using spiked-sediment bioassay (SSB) data from the literature. These benchmarks can be used to interpret sediment-toxicity data or to assess the potential toxicity of pesticides in whole sediment. The Likely Effect Benchmark (LEB) defines a pesticide concentration in whole sediment above which there is a high probability of adverse effects on benthic invertebrates, and the Threshold Effect Benchmark (TEB) defines a concentration below which adverse effects are unlikely. For compounds without available SSBs, benchmarks were estimated using equilibrium partitioning (EqP). When a sediment sample contains a pesticide mixture, benchmark quotients can be summed for all detected pesticides to produce an indicator of potential toxicity for that mixture. Benchmarks were developed for 48 pesticide compounds using SSB data and 81 compounds using the EqP approach. In an example application, data for pesticides measured in sediment from 197 streams across the United States were evaluated using these benchmarks, and compared to measured toxicity from whole-sediment toxicity tests conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28-d exposures) and the midge Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposures). Amphipod survival, weight, and biomass were significantly and inversely related to summed benchmark quotients, whereas midge survival, weight, and biomass showed no relationship to benchmarks. Samples with LEB exceedances were rare (n = 3), but all were toxic to amphipods (i.e., significantly different from control). Significant toxicity to amphipods was observed for 72% of samples exceeding one or more TEBs, compared to 18% of samples below all TEBs. Factors affecting toxicity below TEBs may include the presence of contaminants other than pesticides, physical

  12. Toxicity of sediments potentially contaminated by coal mining and natural gas extraction to unionid mussels and commonly tested benthic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kunz, James L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kane, Cindy M.; Evans, R. Brian; Alexander, Steven; Walker, Craig; Bakaletz, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Sediment toxicity tests were conducted to assess potential effects of contaminants associated with coal mining or natural gas extraction activities in the upper Tennessee River basin and eastern Cumberland River basin in the United States. Test species included two unionid mussels (rainbow mussel, Villosa iris, and wavy-rayed lampmussel, Lampsilis fasciola, 28-d exposures), and the commonly tested amphipod, Hyalella azteca (28-d exposure) and midge, Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposure). Sediments were collected from seven test sites with mussel communities classified as impacted and in proximity to coal mining or gas extraction activities, and from five reference sites with mussel communities classified as not impacted and no or limited coal mining or gas extraction activities. Additional samples were collected from six test sites potentially with high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and from a test site contaminated by a coal ash spill. Mean survival, length, or biomass of one or more test species was reduced in 10 of 14 test samples (71%) from impacted areas relative to the response of organisms in the five reference samples. A higher proportion of samples was classified as toxic to mussels (63% for rainbow mussels, 50% for wavy-rayed lampmussels) compared with amphipods (38%) or midge (38%). Concentrations of total recoverable metals and total PAHs in sediments did not exceed effects-based probable effect concentrations (PECs). However, the survival, length, or biomasses of the mussels were reduced significantly with increasing PEC quotients for metals and for total PAHs, or with increasing sum equilibrium-partitioning sediment benchmark toxic units for PAHs. The growth of the rainbow mussel also significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of a major anion (chloride) and major cations (calcium and magnesium) in sediment pore water. Results of the present study indicated that (1) the findings from laboratory tests were generally

  13. Effect of a genetically modified potato on aphids and their predatory gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rond.) (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hussein, Hany; Havelka, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2005), s. 123-127 ISSN 1110-1768 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS5007102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : aphid-predator-interactions * GNA * Macrosiphum eubhorbiae Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  14. Monopelopia mongpuense sp. n., a phytotelmata midge from sub-Himalayan region of India (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Nilotpol; Hazra, Niladri; Mazumdar, Abhijit

    2014-05-23

    Immature and adult stages of Monopelopia mongpuense sp. n. from phytotelmata of Cedrus deodara (Lamb.) in Darjeeling are described along with biological notes. Key to the adult males of all species of the genus Monopelopia Fittkau is also presented. This genus is recorded for the first from Indian subcontinent.

  15. Respiration of midges (Diptera; Chironomidae) in British Columbian lakes: oxy-regulation, temperature and their role as palaeo-indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Klaus Peter; Pedersen, Ole; Walker, Ian R.

    2008-01-01

    1. The specific respiration rate of 13 chironomid taxa and Chaoborus were measured to test the hypothesis of the relation between a species' ability to regulate their oxygen uptake and their distributional patterns among nine study lakes in British Columbia, Canada. 2. Respiration patterns of ind...

  16. Identification of Anhydrobiosis-related Genes from an Expressed Sequence Tag Database in the Cryptobiotic Midge Polypedilum vanderplanki (Diptera; Chironomidae)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornette, Richard; Kanamori, Yasushi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Nakahara, Yuichi; Gusev, Oleg; Mitsumasu, Kanako; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Shimomura, Michihiko; Mita, Kazuei; Kikawada, Takahiro; Okuda, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Some organisms are able to survive the loss of almost all their body water content, entering a latent state known as anhydrobiosis. The sleeping chironomid (Polypedilum vanderplanki) lives in the semi-arid regions of Africa, and its larvae can survive desiccation in an anhydrobiotic form during the dry season. To unveil the molecular mechanisms of this resistance to desiccation, an anhydrobiosis-related Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) database was obtained from the sequences of three cDNA libraries constructed from P. vanderplanki larvae after 0, 12, and 36 h of desiccation. The database contained 15,056 ESTs distributed into 4,807 UniGene clusters. ESTs were classified according to gene ontology categories, and putative expression patterns were deduced for all clusters on the basis of the number of clones in each library; expression patterns were confirmed by real-time PCR for selected genes. Among up-regulated genes, antioxidants, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, and heat shock proteins (Hsps) were identified as important groups for anhydrobiosis. Genes related to trehalose metabolism and various transporters were also strongly induced by desiccation. Those results suggest that the oxidative stress response plays a central role in successful anhydrobiosis. Similarly, protein denaturation and aggregation may be prevented by marked up-regulation of Hsps and the anhydrobiosis-specific LEA proteins. A third major feature is the predicted increase in trehalose synthesis and in the expression of various transporter proteins allowing the distribution of trehalose and other solutes to all tissues. PMID:20833722

  17. Transmission of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus to cattle by the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez de Leon, Adalberto A; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2006-03-01

    Laboratory-reared Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones were infected with vesicular stomatitis virus serotype New Jersey (family Rhabdoviridae, genus Vesiculovirus, VSNJV) through intrathoracic inoculation. After 10-d incubation at 25 degrees C, these insects were allowed to blood feed on four steers. Two other steers were exposed to VSNJV through intralingual inoculation with 10(8) tissue culture infective dose50 VSNJV. All six steers became seropositive for VSNJV. The results demonstrate the ability of C. sonorensis to transmit VSNJV to livestock. Only the animals intralingually inoculated with VSNJV showed clinical signs in the form of vesicles at the site of inoculation. Uninfected C. sonorensis allowed to feed on the exposed animals did not become infected with VSNJV. Animals infected by C. sonorensis showed a slower antibody response compared with intralingually inoculated animals. This is probably because of different amounts of virus received via insect transmission and syringe inoculation. A significant difference was found in the serum acute-phase protein alpha-1-acid glycoprotein in animals that received VSNJV through C. sonorensis transmission. These animals had previously been exposed to insect attack in the field compared with intralingually inoculated animals and C. sonorensis-infected animals that had been protected from insect attack. The failure to observe clinical signs of vesicular stomatitis through transmission of VSNJV by C. sonorensis may explain widespread subclinical infections during vesicular stomatitis epidemics.

  18. Cytogenetic comparison of chironomid midge Glyptotendipes glaucus (Meigen, 1818 (Diptera, Chironomidae populations from Northwest Russia and Ukraine (Chernobyl zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - -

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional characters of polythene chromosomes and chromosomal rearrangements in salivary glands of 177 larvae of Glyptotendipes glaucus (Diptera, Chironomidae from reservoirs of Russia and Ukraine (Chernobyl have been analysed. Similarity of the populations studied based on a pool of chromosomal reorganizations has been established. The general types of inversions in chromosomal arms A, B, D and E have been detected. Influence of radioactive pollution (Chernobyl on functional changes of a nucleus, Balbiani rings, puffs, morphology of disks and interdisks is revealed.

  19. Laboratory evaluation of six algal species for larval nutritional suitability of the pestiferous midge Glyptotendipes paripes (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Ali, A.; Lobinske, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 6 (2004), s. 1884-1890 ISSN 0022-0493 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : Chironomidae * algal food * larval development Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.283, year: 2004

  20. Phenotypic differentiation and phylogenetic signal of wing shape in western European biting midges, Culicoides spp., of the subgenus Avaritia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz-Muñoz, F.; Talavera, S.; Carpenter, S.

    2014-01-01

    of cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequencing and geometric morphometric analyses to investigate wing shape as a means to infer species identification within this subgenus. In addition the congruence of morphological data with different phylogenetic hypotheses is tested. Five different species...

  1. Inconsistency in the analysis of morphological deformities in chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmelin, Johanna; Vuori, Kari-Matti; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2015-08-01

    The incidence of morphological deformities of chironomid larvae as an indicator of sediment toxicity has been studied for decades. However, standards for deformity analysis are lacking. The authors evaluated whether 25 experts diagnosed larval deformities in a similar manner. Based on high-quality digital images, the experts rated 211 menta of Chironomus spp. larvae as normal or deformed. The larvae were from a site with polluted sediments or from a reference site. The authors revealed this to a random half of the experts, and the rest conducted the assessment blind. The authors quantified the interrater agreement by kappa coefficient, tested whether open and blind assessments differed in deformity incidence and in differentiation between the sites, and identified those deformity types rated most consistently or inconsistently. The total deformity incidence varied greatly, from 10.9% to 66.4% among experts. Kappa coefficient across rater pairs averaged 0.52, indicating insufficient agreement. The deformity types rated most consistently were those missing teeth or with extra teeth. The open and blind assessments did not differ, but differentiation between sites was clearest for raters who counted primarily absolute deformities such as missing and extra teeth and excluded apparent mechanical aberrations or deviations in tooth size or symmetry. The highly differing criteria in deformity assignment have likely led to inconsistent results in midge larval deformity studies and indicate an urgent need for standardization of the analysis. © 2015 SETAC.

  2. The environmental state of Lake Ladoga sediments, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellinen, J.; Ristola, T.; Kukkonen, J.; Leppaenen, M.; Hoof, P.L. van; Robbins, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The authors collected sediments in the summer 1993 from Lake Ladoga for chemical analyses and toxicity tests to assess the state of the lake. The sediments were analyzed for heavy metals, fluorides, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and certain radionuclides related to the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. In general, the concentrations of toxic chemicals were low. Most chemicals were below the limit of detection. The range of the total concentration of 17 PCB congeners was from 6 to 30 ng/kg dw; the highest value was at the pulp and paper mill located in the northeastern shore of the lake (Pitkaeranta). The highest concentrations of Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb were 10, 42, 46, 36, 188, and 143 μg/g dw, respectively. Arsene was not detected at all and Cd only at one out of 12 sites studied. The toxicological testing with larvae of a midge, Chironomus riparius, and Daphnia magna resulted in only slight effects which may in part be related to different physical characteristics of the sediments rather than to toxic effects. The highest mortality was 75% at the deepest part of the lake (close to Valamo Island) which was believed to be the least polluted. The highest heavy metal concentrations and slow development of the larvae were observed for the same site. In the south of the lake at the Volhov Bay which receives effluents from forest and aluminum industry, the mortality was 10--50%

  3. Toxicity of carbon nanotubes to freshwater aquatic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Joseph N.; Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Brunson, Eric L.; Li, Hao; Deng, Baolin

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are hydrophobic in nature and thus tend to accumulate in sediments if released into aquatic environments. As part of our overall effort to examine the toxicity of carbon-based nanomaterials to sediment-dwelling invertebrates, we have evaluated the toxicity of different types of CNTs in 14-d water-only exposures to an amphipod (Hyalella azteca), a midge (Chironomus dilutus), an oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus), and a mussel (Villosa iris) in advance of conducting whole-sediment toxicity tests with CNTs. The results of these toxicity tests conducted with CNTs added to water showed that 1.00g/L (dry wt) of commercial sources of CNTs significantly reduced the survival or growth of the invertebrates. Toxicity was influenced by the type and source of the CNTs, by whether the materials were precleaned by acid, by whether sonication was used to disperse the materials, and by species of the test organisms. Light and electron microscope imaging of the surviving test organisms showed the presence of CNTs in the gut as well as on the outer surface of the test organisms, although no evidence was observed to show penetration of CNTs through cell membranes. The present study demonstrated that both the metals solubilized from CNTs such as nickel and the "metal-free" CNTs contributed to the toxicity.

  4. Toxicity on aquatic organisms exposed to secondary effluent disinfected with chlorine, peracetic acid, ozone and UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Juliana Berninger; Rodgher, Suzelei; Daniel, Luiz Antonio; Espíndola, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta

    2014-11-01

    The toxic potential of four disinfectant agents (chlorine, ozone, peracetic acid and UV radiation), used in the disinfection of urban wastewater, was evaluated with respect to four aquatic organisms. Disinfection assays were carried out with wastewater from the city of Araraquara (São Paulo State, Brazil), and subsequently, toxicity bioassays were applied in order to verify possible adverse effects to the cladocerans (Ceriodaphnia silvestrii and Daphnia similis), midge larvae Chironomus xanthus and fish (Danio rerio). Under the experimental conditions tested, all the disinfectants were capable of producing harmful effects on the test organisms, except for C. xanthus. The toxicity of the effluent to C. silvestrii was observed to increase significantly as a result of disinfection using 2.5 mg L(-1) chlorine and 29.9 mg L(-1) ozone. Ozonation and chlorination significantly affected the survival of D. similis and D. rerio, causing mortality of 60 to 100 % in comparison to the non-disinfected effluent. In experiments with effluent treated with peracetic acid (PAA) and UV radiation, a statistically significant decrease in survival was only detected for D. rerio. This investigation suggested that the study of the ideal concentrations of disinfectants is a research need for ecologically safe options for the treatment of wastewater.

  5. A persistent homology approach to collective behavior in insect swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinhuber, Michael; Ouellette, Nicholas T.

    Various animals from birds and fish to insects tend to form aggregates, displaying self-organized collective swarming behavior. Due to their frequent occurrence in nature and their implications for engineered, collective systems, these systems have been investigated and modeled thoroughly for decades. Common approaches range from modeling them with coupled differential equations on the individual level up to continuum approaches. We present an alternative, topology-based approach for describing swarming behavior at the macroscale rather than the microscale. We study laboratory swarms of Chironomus riparius, a flying, non-biting midge. To obtain the time-resolved three-dimensional trajectories of individual insects, we use a multi-camera stereoimaging and particle-tracking setup. To investigate the swarming behavior in a topological sense, we employ a persistent homology approach to identify persisting structures and features in the insect swarm that elude a direct, ensemble-averaging approach. We are able to identify features of sub-clusters in the swarm that show behavior distinct from that of the remaining swarm members. The coexistence of sub-swarms with different features resembles some non-biological systems such as active colloids or even thermodynamic systems.

  6. Ecotoxicological impact of Zequanox®, a novel biocide, on selected non-target Irish aquatic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Sara; Shannon, Adam; Gruber, Bridget; Rackl, Sarahann M; Lucy, Frances E

    2014-09-01

    Effective, species-specific zebra mussel control is needed urgently for Ireland׳s freshwater bodies, which became infested with non-native zebra mussels in the 1990s. Zequanox®, a newly commercialized product for zebra and quagga mussel control, is composed of dead Pseudomonas fluorescens CL 145A cells. This paper describes ecotoxicology tests on three representative native Irish freshwater species: Anodonta (duck mussel), Chironomus plumosus (non-biting midge), and Austropotamobius pallipes (white-clawed crayfish). The species were exposed to Zequanox in a 72-h static renewal toxicity test at concentrations of 100-750mg active ingredient per liter (mga.i./L). Water quality parameters were measured every 12-24h before and after water and product renewal. After 72h, endpoints were reported as LC10, LC50, and LC100. The LC50 values derived were (1) Anodonta: ≥500mga.i./L (2) C. plumosus: 1075mga.i./L, and (3) A. pallipes: ≥750mga.i./L. These results demonstrate that Zequanox does not negatively affect these organisms at the concentration required for >80percent zebra mussel mortality (150mg a.i/L) and the maximum allowable treatment concentration in the United Sates (200mga.i./L). They also show the overall species-specificity of Zequanox, and support its use in commercial facilities and open waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Multi-scale approach to the environmental factors effects on spatio-temporal variability of Chironomus salinarius (Diptera: Chironomidae) in a French coastal lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, V.; Claret, C.; Garnier, R.; Fayolle, S.; Franquet, E.

    2010-03-01

    The complexity of the relationships between environmental factors and organisms can be revealed by sampling designs which consider the contribution to variability of different temporal and spatial scales, compared to total variability. From a management perspective, a multi-scale approach can lead to time-saving. Identifying environmental patterns that help maintain patchy distribution is fundamental in studying coastal lagoons, transition zones between continental and marine waters characterised by great environmental variability on spatial and temporal scales. They often present organic enrichment inducing decreased species richness and increased densities of opportunist species like C hironomus salinarius, a common species that tends to swarm and thus constitutes a nuisance for human populations. This species is dominant in the Bolmon lagoon, a French Mediterranean coastal lagoon under eutrophication. Our objective was to quantify variability due to both spatial and temporal scales and identify the contribution of different environmental factors to this variability. The population of C. salinarius was sampled from June 2007 to June 2008 every two months at 12 sites located in two areas of the Bolmon lagoon, at two different depths, with three sites per area-depth combination. Environmental factors (temperature, dissolved oxygen both in sediment and under water surface, sediment organic matter content and grain size) and microbial activities (i.e. hydrolase activities) were also considered as explanatory factors of chironomid densities and distribution. ANOVA analysis reveals significant spatial differences regarding the distribution of chironomid larvae for the area and the depth scales and their interaction. The spatial effect is also revealed for dissolved oxygen (water), salinity and fine particles (area scale), and for water column depth. All factors but water column depth show a temporal effect. Spearman's correlations highlight the seasonal effect (temperature, dissolved oxygen in sediment and water) as well as the effect of microbial activities on chironomid larvae. Our results show that a multi-scale approach identifies patchy distribution, even when there is relative environmental homogeneity.

  8. Estimation of vanadium water quality benchmarks for the protection of aquatic life with relevance to the Athabasca Oil Sands region using species sensitivity distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Stephanie; Liber, Karsten

    2017-11-01

    Elevated vanadium (V) concentrations in oil sands coke, which is produced and stored on site of some major Athabasca Oil Sands companies, could pose a risk to aquatic ecosystems in northern Alberta, Canada, depending on its future storage and utilization. In the present study, V toxicity was determined in reconstituted Athabasca River water to various freshwater organisms, including 2 midge species (Chironomus dilutus and Chironomus riparius; 4-d and 30-d to 40-d exposures) and 2 freshwater fish species (Oncorhynchus mykiss and Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 28-d exposures) to facilitate estimation of water quality benchmarks. The acute toxicity of V was 52.0 and 63.2 mg/L for C. dilutus and C. riparius, respectively, and 4.0 and 14.8 mg V/L for P. promelas and O. mykiss, respectively. Vanadium exposure significantly impaired adult emergence of C. dilutus and C. riparius at concentrations ≥16.7 (31.6% reduction) and 8.3 (18.0% reduction) mg/L, respectively. Chronic toxicity in fish presented as lethality, with chronic 28-d LC50s of 0.5 and 4.3 mg/L for P. promelas and O. mykiss, respectively. These data were combined with data from the peer-reviewed literature, and separate acute and chronic species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were constructed. The acute and chronic hazardous concentrations endangering only 5% of species (HC5) were estimated as 0.64 and 0.05 mg V/L, respectively. These new data for V toxicity to aquatic organisms ensure that there are now adequate data available for regulatory agencies to develop appropriate water quality guidelines for use in the Athabasca Oil Sands region and elsewhere. Until then, the HC5 values presented in the present study could serve as interim benchmarks for the protection of aquatic life from exposure to hazardous levels of V in local aquatic environments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3034-3044. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  9. Ecotoxicological sediment survey of large German rivers; Oekotoxikologische Sedimentkartierung der grossen Fluesse Deutschlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duft, M.; Tillmann, M. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau (Germany); Oehlmann, J. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Zoologisches Inst., Abt. Oekologie und Evolution

    2003-05-01

    In this project, a nation-wide, ecotoxicologically-based sediment survey was carried out. For this purpose, a total of about 200 sediment samples from 12 selected large German rivers (Danube, Elbe, Ems, Main, Mosel, Neckar, Neisse, Odra, Rhine, Ruhr, Saar and Weser) were analysed with regard to abiotic parameters (heavy metals, PAH, organic carbon content, particle size) and also by means of two biological test systems with benthic invertebrates (nematode test with the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans and chironomid test with the non-biting midge Chironomus riparius). Subsequently, this comprehensive data set was analysed statistically. By means of an iterative method, a five-stage, statistically-derived assessment concept which is founded on the results of the biological tests, was developed following the EU water framework directive. In general, the classification with the nematode test turned out to be the more sensitive method. A principal component analysis and correlations showed that the parameters of both biotests provide different information which suggests a combined use of both tests. Correlations also indicate a connection of biotest results and abiotic parameters (organic carbon content, particle size and heavy metal contamination). (orig.) [German] Im Projekt wurde eine bundesweite oekotoxikologische Sedimentkartierung grosser Fliessgewaesser durchgefuehrt. Dazu wurden insgesamt etwa 200 Sedimentproben aus 12 ausgewaehlten grossen Fluessen Deutschlands (Donau, Elbe, Ems, Main, Mosel, Neckar, Neisse, Oder, Rhein, Ruhr, Saar und Weser) auf ihre abiotischen Parameter (Schwermetalle, PAK, organischer Kohlenstoffgehalt, Korngroesse) hin analysiert sowie mit zwei biologischen Testverfahren mit benthischen Invertebraten (Nematodentest mit dem Fadenwurm Caenorhabditis elegans und Chironomidentest mit der Zuckmuecke Chironomus riparius) untersucht. Dieses umfangreiche Datenmaterial wurde anschliessend statistisch ausgewertet und mit Hilfe eines iterativen

  10. Development and application of freshwater sediment-toxicity benchmarks for currently used pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowell, Lisa H., E-mail: lhnowell@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, California Water Science Center, Placer Hall, 6000 J Street, Sacramento, CA 95819 (United States); Norman, Julia E., E-mail: jnorman@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Oregon Water Science Center, 2130 SW 5" t" h Avenue, Portland, OR 97201 (United States); Ingersoll, Christopher G., E-mail: cingersoll@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, 4200 New Haven Road, Columbia, MO 65021 (United States); Moran, Patrick W., E-mail: pwmoran@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Washington Water Science Center, 934 Broadway, Suite 300, Tacoma, WA 98402 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Sediment-toxicity benchmarks are needed to interpret the biological significance of currently used pesticides detected in whole sediments. Two types of freshwater sediment benchmarks for pesticides were developed using spiked-sediment bioassay (SSB) data from the literature. These benchmarks can be used to interpret sediment-toxicity data or to assess the potential toxicity of pesticides in whole sediment. The Likely Effect Benchmark (LEB) defines a pesticide concentration in whole sediment above which there is a high probability of adverse effects on benthic invertebrates, and the Threshold Effect Benchmark (TEB) defines a concentration below which adverse effects are unlikely. For compounds without available SSBs, benchmarks were estimated using equilibrium partitioning (EqP). When a sediment sample contains a pesticide mixture, benchmark quotients can be summed for all detected pesticides to produce an indicator of potential toxicity for that mixture. Benchmarks were developed for 48 pesticide compounds using SSB data and 81 compounds using the EqP approach. In an example application, data for pesticides measured in sediment from 197 streams across the United States were evaluated using these benchmarks, and compared to measured toxicity from whole-sediment toxicity tests conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28-d exposures) and the midge Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposures). Amphipod survival, weight, and biomass were significantly and inversely related to summed benchmark quotients, whereas midge survival, weight, and biomass showed no relationship to benchmarks. Samples with LEB exceedances were rare (n = 3), but all were toxic to amphipods (i.e., significantly different from control). Significant toxicity to amphipods was observed for 72% of samples exceeding one or more TEBs, compared to 18% of samples below all TEBs. Factors affecting toxicity below TEBs may include the presence of contaminants other than pesticides, physical/chemical characteristics

  11. Development and application of freshwater sediment-toxicity benchmarks for currently used pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Moran, Patrick W.

    2016-01-01

    Sediment-toxicity benchmarks are needed to interpret the biological significance of currently used pesticides detected in whole sediments. Two types of freshwater sediment benchmarks for pesticides were developed using spiked-sediment bioassay (SSB) data from the literature. These benchmarks can be used to interpret sediment-toxicity data or to assess the potential toxicity of pesticides in whole sediment. The Likely Effect Benchmark (LEB) defines a pesticide concentration in whole sediment above which there is a high probability of adverse effects on benthic invertebrates, and the Threshold Effect Benchmark (TEB) defines a concentration below which adverse effects are unlikely. For compounds without available SSBs, benchmarks were estimated using equilibrium partitioning (EqP). When a sediment sample contains a pesticide mixture, benchmark quotients can be summed for all detected pesticides to produce an indicator of potential toxicity for that mixture. Benchmarks were developed for 48 pesticide compounds using SSB data and 81 compounds using the EqP approach. In an example application, data for pesticides measured in sediment from 197 streams across the United States were evaluated using these benchmarks, and compared to measured toxicity from whole-sediment toxicity tests conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28-d exposures) and the midge Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposures). Amphipod survival, weight, and biomass were significantly and inversely related to summed benchmark quotients, whereas midge survival, weight, and biomass showed no relationship to benchmarks. Samples with LEB exceedances were rare (n = 3), but all were toxic to amphipods (i.e., significantly different from control). Significant toxicity to amphipods was observed for 72% of samples exceeding one or more TEBs, compared to 18% of samples below all TEBs. Factors affecting toxicity below TEBs may include the presence of contaminants other than pesticides, physical/chemical characteristics

  12. Fear and loathing in the benthos: Responses of aquatic insect larvae to the pesticide imidacloprid in the presence of chemical signals of predation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, João L T; Loureiro, Susana; Baird, Donald J; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2009-06-28

    The influence of interactions between pesticide exposure and perceived predation risk on the lethal and sub-lethal responses of two aquatic insects was investigated using the pesticide imidacloprid, and a combination of predator-release kairomones from trout and alarm substances from conspecifics. Laboratory experiments examined feeding and respiration rates of the caddisfly Sericostoma vittatum as well as the growth, emergence and respiration rates of the midge Chironomus riparius, exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of imidacloprid. The effects of the two stressors on burrowing behaviour of both species were also assessed. The results show significant effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of imidacloprid on all endpoints studied. Perceived predation risk also elicited sub-lethal effects in C. riparius and S. vittatum, the latter species being less responsive to predation cues. The effects of simultaneous exposure to both types of stressors were assessed using two different approaches: analysis of variance and conceptual models [concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA)] normally used for the evaluation of contaminant mixture exposure. Both statistical approaches showed no significant interactions on responses in simultaneous exposures in the majority of parameters assessed with only a signification deviation from the reference CA and IA models being found for C. riparius respiration data contrary to the ANOVA results. Exposure to imidacloprid also compromised antipredator behavioural responses of both insect species, with potential negative consequences in terms of mortality from predation in the field. The results obtained demonstrate that natural and anthropogenic stressors can be treated within the same framework providing compatible data for modelling. For an improved interpretation of ecological effects it will be important to expand the mechanistic study of effects of combined exposure to pesticides and perceived predation risk

  13. Changing patterns in water toxicity associated with current use pesticides in three California agriculture regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian S; Phillips, Bryn M; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Deng, Xin; Geraci, Jeff; Worcester, Karen; Tjeerdema, Ron S

    2018-03-01

    Regulation of agriculture irrigation water discharges in California, USA, is assessed and controlled by its 9 Regional Water Quality Control Boards under the jurisdiction of the California State Water Resources Control Board. Each Regional Water Board has developed programs to control pesticides in runoff as part of the waste discharge requirements implemented through each region's Irrigated Lands Regulatory Program. The present study assessed how pesticide use patterns differ in the Imperial (Imperial County) and the Salinas and Santa Maria (Monterey County) valleys, which host 3 of California's prime agriculture areas. Surface-water toxicity associated with current use pesticides was monitored at several sites in these areas in 2014 and 2015, and results were linked to changes in pesticide use patterns in these areas. Pesticide use patterns appeared to coincide with differences in the way agriculture programs were implemented by the 2 respective Regional Water Quality Control Boards, and these programs differed in the 2 Water Board Regions. Different pesticide use patterns affected the occurrence of pesticides in agriculture runoff, and this influenced toxicity test results. Greater detection frequency and higher concentrations of the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos were detected in agriculture runoff in Imperial County compared to Monterey County, likely due to more rigorous monitoring requirements for growers using this pesticide in Monterey County. Monterey County agriculture runoff contained toxic concentrations of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid pesticides, which impacted amphipods (Hyalella azteca) and midge larvae (Chironomus dilutus) in toxicity tests. Study results illustrate how monitoring strategies need to evolve as regulatory actions affect change in pesticide use and demonstrate the importance of using toxicity test indicator species appropriate for the suite of contaminants in runoff in order to accurately assess environmental risk. Integr

  14. Suitability of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based assay to assess the toxicity of pyrimethanil sprayed soils via surface runoff: comparison with standard aquatic and soil toxicity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Fátima N; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Chelinho, Sónia; Pereira, Carla; Feliciano, Joana R; Leitão, Jorge H; Sousa, José P; Ribeiro, Rui; Viegas, Cristina A

    2015-02-01

    The present study is aimed at evaluating whether a gene expression assay with the microbial eukaryotic model Saccharomyces cerevisiae could be used as a suitable warning tool for the rapid preliminary screening of potential toxic effects on organisms due to scenarios of soil and water contamination with pyrimethanil. The assay consisted of measuring changes in the expression of the selected pyrimethanil-responsive genes ARG3 and ARG5,6 in a standardized yeast population. Evaluation was held by assessing the toxicity of surface runoff, a major route of pesticide exposure in aquatic systems due to non-point-source pollution, which was simulated with a pyrimethanil formulation at a semifield scale mimicking worst-case scenarios of soil contamination (e.g. accident or improper disposal). Yeast cells 2-h exposure to the runoff samples led to a significant 2-fold increase in the expression of both indicator genes. These results were compared with those from assays with organisms relevant for the aquatic and soil compartments, namely the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (reproduction), the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna (survival and reproduction), the benthic midge Chironomus riparius (growth), and the soil invertebrates Folsomia candida and Enchytraeus crypticus (survival and reproduction). Under the experimental conditions used to simulate accidental discharges into soil, runoff waters were highly toxic to the standard test organisms, except for C. elegans. Overall, results point out the usefulness of the yeast assay to provide a rapid preview of the toxicity level in preliminary screenings of environmental samples in situations of inadvertent high pesticide contamination. Advantages and limitations of this novel method are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Biological and chemical characterization of metal bioavailability in sediments from Lake Roosevelt, Columbia River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Moran, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the bioavailability and toxicity of copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, and lead in sediments from Lake Roosevelt (LR), a reservoir on the Columbia River in Washington, USA that receives inputs of metals from an upstream smelter facility. We characterized chronic sediment toxicity, metal bioaccumulation, and metal concentrations in sediment and pore water from eight study sites: one site upstream in the Columbia River, six sites in the reservoir, and a reference site in an uncontaminated tributary. Total recoverable metal concentrations in LR sediments generally decreased from upstream to downstream in the study area, but sediments from two sites in the reservoir had metal concentrations much lower than adjacent reservoir sites and similar to the reference site, apparently due to erosion of uncontaminated bank soils. Concentrations of acid-volatile sulfide in LR sediments were too low to provide strong controls on metal bioavailability, and selective sediment extractions indicated that metals in most LR sediments were primarily associated with iron and manganese oxides. Oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) accumulated greatest concentrations of copper from the river sediment, and greatest concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, and lead from reservoir sediments. Chronic toxic effects on amphipods (Hyalella azteca; reduced survival) and midge larvae (Chironomus dilutus; reduced growth) in whole-sediment exposures were generally consistent with predictions of metal toxicity based on empirical and equilibrium partitioning-based sediment quality guidelines. Elevated metal concentrations in pore waters of some LR sediments suggested that metals released from iron and manganese oxides under anoxic conditions contributed to metal bioaccumulation and toxicity. Results of both chemical and biological assays indicate that metals in sediments from both riverine and reservoir habitats of Lake Roosevelt are available to benthic invertebrates. These findings will be used as

  16. A flower in fruit's clothing: Pollination of jackfruit Artocarpus heterophyllus, Moraceae) by a new species of gall midge, Clinodiplosis ultracrepidata sp. nov. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premise of the Research: Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Moraceae) is an emerging but underutilized crop whose pollination is poorly understood. We present a multidimensional investigation of the reproductive biology and chemical ecology of jackfruit and a putative pollinator, Clinodiplosis ult...

  17. Molecular differentiation of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from the subgenus Culicoides Latreille in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, S. B.; Nielsen, S. Achim; Skovgård, H.

    2012-01-01

    complexes are hard to distinguish. We evaluated the use of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) barcode region in the identification of species within the subgenus Culicoides. COI barcode sequence divergence within species was ... impunctatus, and Culicoides grisescens. Additionally, this study confirms the existence of Culicoides halophilus as a valid taxon and presents the first Culicoides deltus barcode sequences. Three additional groups of specimens were identified: Culicoides dk1 with a COI barcode diverging by 14.3% to 17.2% from...... other subgenus Culicoides species and Culicoides Kalix and Culicoides dk3, which diverged by 5.9% from each other and showed 12.5% to 17.6% divergence in COI barcode to subgenus Culicoides specimens....

  18. [Inversion polymorphism of the nonbiting midges Camptochironomus pallidivittatus Edwards, 1929 (Diptera, Chironomidae) from populations of the Lower Volga region and Central Caucasus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polukonova, N V; Karmokov, M Kh; Shaternikov, A N

    2015-02-01

    The karyotype of Camptochironomus pallidivittatus Edwards, 1929 (Diptera, Chironomidae) from five populations of the Lower Volga region and Central Caucasus (the northern macroslope) has been studied. In populations of S. pallidivittatus from the Central Caucasus, 11 banding sequences (BS) were found; one sequence, pal B10, was new to the species. In the Saratov population, 11 BS were also found, three of which were new for the species-pal A3, pal B11, and pal B12. The banding sequences detected for the first time have not yet been found in other parts of the habitat of this species and may be endemic to these regions. In the studied populations ofS. pallidivittatus, banding sequences were found that were nonstandard but fixed in the karyotype. This is indicative of some degree of chromosomal divergence. These banding sequences include pal A2.2 in arm A and pal B10.10 in arm B in the Central Caucasus region, as well as pal B2.2 and pal G2.2 in the Lower Volga region. Arms A, B, D, and G in the Central Caucasian populations and A, B, and D in the Saratov oblast were polymorphic. The composition of heterozygous sequences between populations from different regions coincided only in arm D (pal D 1.2). In arms A and B, the set of heterozygous BS was different: pal A1.2 and pal B1.10 sequences were found in the Central Caucasian populations, and pal A1.3 and B11.12 were found in Saratov oblast. The number of genotypic combinations of S. pallidivittatus was higher in the Central Caucasus region, whereas the number of zygotic combinations was higher in the Saratov population. The percentage of heterozygous larvae in the Central Caucasian populations varied from 20 to 80, whereas all individuals in the Saratov population had heterozygous inversions. Zygotic combinations of larvae in all the studied populations were different.

  19. Monitoring of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) on farms in Sweden during the emergence of the 2008 epidemic of bluetongue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Nielsen, Boy Overgaard; Chirico, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In light of the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe, populations of Culicoides species were monitored in 2007-2008 by means of Onderstepoort blacklight suction traps operating at livestock farms in Sweden. The location of the 22 sampling sites ranged from about latitude 55°N to about 68°N....... A total of 61,669 male and female Culicoides were captured, of which, 52,319 were trapped outside the farms and 9,350 in byres or livestock sheds. Thirty-three Culicoides species were recorded, of which, 30 were new to Sweden. The species and their relative abundance and spatial distribution on sites...... are presented. Two species incriminated as vectors of bluetongue virus, viz. Culicoides obsoletus (about 38%) and Culicoides scoticus (about 36%), were predominant and common in the environment of livestock farms practically all over the Swedish mainland, penetrating far north to at least 65°N. The two species...

  20. Interactions among the predatory midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), the fungal pathogen Metarhizium brunneum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales), and maize-infesting aphids in greenhouse mesocosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos de Azevedo, Ana Gorete; Steinwender, Bernhardt Michael; Eilenberg, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    , the interaction between these two biological control organisms and how it may affect the biological control of aphids awaits further investigation. As part of the EU-supported project INBIOSOIL, this study was conducted in greenhouse conditions to assess the possible effects of combining both biological control...... by treatment. Aphidoletes aphidimyza applied alone suppressed the aphid population more effectively than M. brunneum applied alone. Additionally, the aphid population was most suppressed when both agents were combined, though the suppression was less than additive....

  1. First Record of Culicoides oxystoma Kieffer and Diversity of Species within the Schultzei Group of Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Biting Midges in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhoum, Mame T.; Fall, Moussa; Fall, Assane G.; Bellis, Glenn A.; Gottlieb, Yuval; Labuschagne, Karien; Venter, Gert J.; Diop, Mariame; Mall, Iba; Seck, Momar T.; Allène, Xavier; Diarra, Maryam; Gardès, Laëtitia; Bouyer, Jérémy; Delécolle, Jean-Claude; Balenghien, Thomas; Garros, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The Schultzei group of Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is distributed throughout Africa to northern Asia and Australasia and includes several potential vector species of livestock pathogens. The taxonomy of the species belonging to this species group is confounded by the wide geographical distribution and morphological variation exhibited by many species. In this work, morphological and molecular approaches were combined to assess the taxonomic validity of the species and morphological variants of the Schultzei group found in Senegal by comparing their genetic diversity with that of specimens from other geographical regions. The species list for Senegal was updated with four species: Culicoides kingi, C. oxystoma, C. enderleini and C. nevilli being recorded. This is the first record of C. oxystoma from Africa south of Sahara, and its genetic relationship with samples from Israel, Japan and Australia is presented. This work provides a basis for ecological studies of the seasonal and spatial dynamics of species of this species group that will contribute to better understanding of the epidemiology of the viruses they transmit. PMID:24386366

  2. Laboratory toxicity and benthic invertebrate field colonization of Upper Columbia River sediments: finding adverse effects using multiple lines of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, J F; Kemble, N E; Allert, A L; Brumbaugh, W G; Ingersoll, C G; Dowling, B; Gruenenfelder, C; Roland, J L

    2012-07-01

    From 1930 to 1995, the Upper Columbia River (UCR) of northeast Washington State received approximately 12 million metric tons of smelter slag and associated effluents from a large smelter facility located in Trail, British Columbia, approximately 10 km north of the United States-Canadian border. Studies conducted during the past two decades have demonstrated the presence of toxic concentrations of heavy metals in slag-based sandy sediments, including cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead in the UCR area as well as the downstream reservoir portion of Lake Roosevelt. We conducted standardized whole-sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28-day) and the midge Chironomus dilutus (10-day) on 11 samples, including both UCR and study-specific reference sediments. Metal concentrations in sediments were modeled for potential toxicity using three approaches: (1) probable effects quotients (PEQs) based on total recoverable metals (TRMs) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEMs); (2) SEMs corrected for acid-volatile sulfides (AVS; i.e., ∑SEM - AVS); and (3) ∑SEM - AVS normalized to the fractional organic carbon (f(oc)) (i.e., ∑SEM - AVS/f(oc)). The most highly metal-contaminated sample (∑PEQ(TRM) = 132; ∑PEQ(SEM) = 54; ∑SEM - AVS = 323; and ∑SEM - AVS/(foc) = 64,600 umol/g) from the UCR was dominated by weathered slag sediment particles and resulted in 80% mortality and 94% decrease in biomass of amphipods; in addition, this sample significantly decreased growth of midge by 10%. The traditional ∑AVS - SEM, uncorrected for organic carbon, was the most accurate approach for estimating the effects of metals in the UCR. Treatment of the toxic slag sediment with 20% Resinex SIR-300 metal-chelating resin significantly decreased the toxicity of the sample. Samples ∑SEM - AVS > 244 was not toxic to amphipods or midge in laboratory testing, indicating that this value may be an approximate threshold for effects in the UCR. In situ benthic invertebrate

  3. Dasineura odoratae new to Denmark and new records of the rare Mayetiola hellwigi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Skuhravá, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    We report the first documented records of the gall midge Dasineura odoratae Stelter, based on adults reared from galls on the single host plant of the species, Viola odorata. We also report Aphanogmus abdominalis (Thomson) (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae) as a parasitoid of this gall midge. In addition......, we report some recent Danish finds of the rare gall midge Mayetiola hellwigi (Rübsamen)....

  4. Weight-of-evidence approach in assessment of ecotoxicological risks of acid sulphate soils in the Baltic Sea river estuaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallin, Jaana, E-mail: jaana.wallin@jyu.fi [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland); Karjalainen, Anna K. [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland); Schultz, Eija [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Hakuninmaantie 6, FI-00430 Helsinki (Finland); Järvistö, Johanna; Leppänen, Matti; Vuori, Kari-Matti [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2015-03-01

    Acidity and leaching of metals from acid sulphate soils (ASSs) impair the water quality of receiving surface waters. The largest ASS areas in Europe are found in the coasts of the northern Baltic Sea. We used weight-of-evidence (WoE) approach to assess potential risks in 14 estuary sites affected by ASS in the Gulf of Finland, northern Baltic Sea. The assessment was based on exposure and effect profiles utilizing sediment and water metal concentrations and concurrent pH variation, sediment toxicity tests using the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the midge Chironomus riparius, and the ecological status of benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Sediment metal concentrations were compared to national sediment quality criteria/guidelines, and water metal concentrations to environmental quality standards (EQSs). Hazard quotients (HQs) were established for maximum aluminium, cadmium and zinc concentrations at low pH based on applicable US EPA toxicity database. Sediment metal concentrations were clearly elevated in most of the studied estuaries. The EQS of cadmium (0.1 μg/l) was exceeded in 3 estuaries out of 14. The pH-minima were below the national threshold value (5.5) between good and satisfactory water quality in 10 estuaries. V. fischeri bioluminescence indicated toxicity of the sediments but toxic response was not observed in the C. riparius emergence test. Benthic invertebrate communities were deteriorated in 6 out of 14 sites based on the benthic invertebrate quality index. The overall ecotoxicological risk was assessed as low in five, moderate in three and high in five of the estuary sites. The risk assessment utilizing the WoE approach indicated that harmful effects of ASSs are likely to occur in the Baltic Sea river estuaries located at the ASS hotspot area. - Highlights: • Acid sulphate soils release high amounts of metals and acidity. • Metals and acidity are transported to estuary sites. • Acid sulphate soils impair the ecological status

  5. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to freshwater organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Schamphelaere, K.A.C., E-mail: karel.deschamphelaere@Ugent.be [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University (Belgium); Stubblefield, W. [Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 421 Weniger Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Rodriguez, P. [Centro de Investigacion Minera y Metalurgica (CIMM), Santiago (Chile); Vleminckx, K. [Department for Molecular Biomedical Research, Ghent University (Belgium); Janssen, C.R. [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University (Belgium)

    2010-10-15

    The European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) (EC, 2006) requires the characterization of the chronic toxicity of many chemicals in the aquatic environment, including molybdate (MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-}). Our literature review on the ecotoxicity of molybdate revealed that a limited amount of reliable chronic no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) for the derivation of a predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) existed. This paper presents the results of additional ecotoxicity experiments that were conducted in order to fulfill the requirements for the derivation of a PNEC by means of the scientifically most robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Ten test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O) according to internationally accepted standard testing guidelines or equivalent. The 10% effective concentrations (EC10, expressed as measured dissolved molybdenum) for the most sensitive endpoint per species were 62.8-105.6 (mg Mo)/L for Daphnia magna (21 day-reproduction), 78.2 (mg Mo)/L for Ceriodaphnia dubia (7 day-reproduction), 61.2-366.2 (mg Mo)/L for the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (72 h-growth rate), 193.6 (mg Mo)/L for the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (48 h-population growth rate), 121.4 (mg Mo)/L for the midge Chironomus riparius (14 day-growth), 211.3 (mg Mo)/L for the snail Lymnaea stagnalis (28 day-growth rate), 115.9 (mg Mo)/L for the frog Xenopus laevis (4 day-larval development), 241.5 (mg Mo)/L for the higher plant Lemna minor (7 day-growth rate), 39.3 (mg Mo)/L for the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (34 day-dry weight/biomass), and 43.2 (mg Mo)/L for the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (78 day-biomass). These effect concentrations are in line with the few reliable data currently available in the open literature. The data

  6. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to freshwater organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Schamphelaere, K.A.C.; Stubblefield, W.; Rodriguez, P.; Vleminckx, K.; Janssen, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    The European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) (EC, 2006) requires the characterization of the chronic toxicity of many chemicals in the aquatic environment, including molybdate (MoO 4 2- ). Our literature review on the ecotoxicity of molybdate revealed that a limited amount of reliable chronic no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) for the derivation of a predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) existed. This paper presents the results of additional ecotoxicity experiments that were conducted in order to fulfill the requirements for the derivation of a PNEC by means of the scientifically most robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Ten test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na 2 MoO 4 .2H 2 O) according to internationally accepted standard testing guidelines or equivalent. The 10% effective concentrations (EC10, expressed as measured dissolved molybdenum) for the most sensitive endpoint per species were 62.8-105.6 (mg Mo)/L for Daphnia magna (21 day-reproduction), 78.2 (mg Mo)/L for Ceriodaphnia dubia (7 day-reproduction), 61.2-366.2 (mg Mo)/L for the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (72 h-growth rate), 193.6 (mg Mo)/L for the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (48 h-population growth rate), 121.4 (mg Mo)/L for the midge Chironomus riparius (14 day-growth), 211.3 (mg Mo)/L for the snail Lymnaea stagnalis (28 day-growth rate), 115.9 (mg Mo)/L for the frog Xenopus laevis (4 day-larval development), 241.5 (mg Mo)/L for the higher plant Lemna minor (7 day-growth rate), 39.3 (mg Mo)/L for the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (34 day-dry weight/biomass), and 43.2 (mg Mo)/L for the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (78 day-biomass). These effect concentrations are in line with the few reliable data currently available in the open literature. The data presented in this

  7. ¿Alcoholismo en Galicia: un camiño sen esperanza?

    OpenAIRE

    Folgar de la Calle, José María; Martín Sánchez, Rita

    2012-01-01

    O alcoholismo en Galicia é un mal endémico, polo que os enfermos non son considerados marxi­ nados. Os dous filmes que comentamos tentan chamar a atención e concienciar á sociedade sobre o carácter atípico deste problema.

  8. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone coding for a glutathione S-transferase class delta enzyme from the biting midge Culicoides variipennis sonorensis Wirth and Jones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, M A; Pollenz, R S; Droog, F N; Nunamaker, R A; Tabachnick, W J; Murphy, K E

    2000-12-01

    Culicoides variipennis sonorensis is the primary vector of bluetongue viruses in North America. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are enzymes that catalyze nucleophilic substitutions, converting reactive lipophilic molecules into soluble conjugates. Increased GST activity is associated with development of insecticide resistance. Described here is the isolation of the first cDNA encoding a C. variipennis GST. The clone consists of 720 translated bases encoding a protein with a M(r) of approximately 24,800 composed of 219 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence is similar (64%-74%) to class Delta (previously named Theta) GSTs from the dipteran genera Musca, Drosophila, Lucilia and Anopheles. The cDNA was subcloned into pET-11b, expressed in Epicurian coli BL21 (DE3) and has a specific activity of approximately 28,000 units/mg for the substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene.

  9. New genera and species of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae Novos gêneros e espécies de mosquitos galhadores (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associados com Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Three distinct leaf galls are recorded on Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae. The galling species were identified as Neolasioptera sp., Guareamyia purpura gen. nov. and sp. nov.; Sphaeramyia flava gen. nov. and sp.nov. The new genera and species are described and illustrated based on material collected at restinga areas in Bertioga (São Paulo, Brazil.Três galhas foliares distintas são registradas em Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae. As espécies galhadoras foram identificadas como Neolasioptera sp., Guareamyia purpura gen. nov. e sp. nov..; Sphaeramyia flava gen. nov. e sp. nov. Os gêneros e espécies novas são descritos e ilustrados com base em material coletado em áreas de restinga em Bertioga (São Paulo, Brasil.

  10. Impact of a gall midge Parkiamyia paraensis (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae on the Amazonian plant Parkia pendula (Fabaceae Impacto do galhador Parkiamyia paraensis (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae sobre a planta da Amazônia Parkia pendula Benth. ex Walp. (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wilson Fernandes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We observed the occurrence of large numbers of galls induced by Parkiamyia paraensis (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae on the leaflets of Parkia pendula (Fabaceae in northern Para, Brazil. We addressed two questions in this study: i what is the proportion of attacked plants in the field, and nursery conditions?; and ii what is the impact of galls on the host plant? An average of 86% of the plants were galled in the field. Galled P. pendula were distinct from healthy individuals due to their prostrated architecture and death of terminal shoots. Approximately 50% of the total available leaves and 35% leaflets were attacked by P. paraensis on saplings under nursery conditions. Each one-year old plant supported an average of 1,300 galls, and an average of 60g allocated to galled tissue. Otherwise, attacked individuals were taller and heavier than healthy plants. Attacked plants weighed five times more than healthy plants. When the weight of the galls was removed, the total weight (aerial part without galls of attacked plants was drastically reduced, indicating that most of the biomass of attacked plants was due to the attack by P. paraensis galls. Although the data indicate a paradox, as young plants attacked by the galling herbivore appear to develop more vigorously than unattacked plants, we suggest that P. paraensis negatively affect P. pendula development.Observou-se a ocorrência de um grande número de galhas induzidas por Parkiamyia paraensis (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae nos folíolos de Parkia pendula (Fabaceae no norte do Pará, Brasil. Este estudo foi direcionado para responder duas perguntas: i qual é a proporção de plantas atacadas no campo e em condições de estufa? e ii qual é o impacto das galhas na planta hospedeira? Uma média de 86% das plantas apresentaram galhas no campo. Indivíduos com galhas de P. pendula eram distintos dos indivíduos saudáveis devido à arquitetura curvada e pela morte dos ramos terminais. Aproximadamente 50% do total de folhas e 35% dos folíolos de plantas jovens foram atacados por P. paraensis em condições de estufa. Para cada ano de idade, a planta apresentou uma média de 1.300 galhas e uma média de 60g alocadas para o tecido galhado. Indivíduos atacados eram mais altos e mais pesados que plantas saudáveis. Plantas atacadas possuíam cinco vezes mais biomassa que plantas saudáveis. Quando o peso das galhas foi removido, o peso das plantas atacadas (parte aérea sem galhas foi drasticamente reduzido, indicando que a maior parte da biomassa de plantas atacadas foi tomada pelas galhas de P. paraensis. Embora possa existir um paradoxo, onde plantas jovens atacadas por herbívoros galhadores desenvolvam mais vigorosamente do que plantas não atacadas, sugere-se que P. paraensis afetem negativamente o desenvolvimento de P. pendula.

  11. A new genus and species of gall midge (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Myrcia retorta (Myrtaceae Um novo gênero e espécie de mosquito galhador (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associados com Myrcia retorta (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Brethesia Maia, new genus and Brethesia myrciae Maia, new species of Cecidomyiidae are described and illustrated (male, female, pupa and gall based on material collected in Minas Gerais (Brazil. This new species induces leaf galls on Myrcia retorta (Myrtaceae.Brethesia myrciae, um novo gênero e espécie de Cecidomyiidae que induz galhas em Myrcia retorta (Myrtaceae são descritos e ilustrados (macho, fêmea, pupa e galha baseados em material coletado em Minas Gerais (Brazil.

  12. A new genus and species of gall midge (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Parkia pendula (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae Um novo gênero e espécie de mosquito galhador (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae associado com Parkia pendula (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Parkiamyia paraensis, a new genus and species of Cecidomyiidae that induces galls on Parkia pendula is described (larva, pupa, male,female and gall based on material from Pará (Brazil.Parkiamyia paraensis, um novo gênero e espécie de Cecidomyiidae é descrita (larva, pupa, macho e fêmea com base em material do Pará (Brasil.

  13. Temporal Analyses of Select Macroinvertebrates in the Upper Mississippi River System, 1992-1995

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sauer, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    The annual variability in mayflies (Ephemeroptera), fingernail clams (Sphaeriidae), and midges (chironomidae) in six study areas of the Upper Mississippi River System from 1992 to 1995 was examined...

  14. Reed canary grass observations of effects on crop stand and fibre quality caused by infestation of Epicalamus phalaridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. HELLQVIST

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A severe infestation of the gall midge Epicalamus phalaridis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidaeoccurred in a field of reed canary grass, Phalaris arundinacea in northern Sweden. The midge species has potential to become a serious pest on Phalaris grown for bioenergy or fibre production. Larvae of the midge feed beneath leaf sheaths and the crop lodges in late summer. Details are given on the biology of the midge. In the infested field, population densities of the midge were very high during three consecutive years. The crop was weakened and the occurrence of weeds increased. The dry matter yields declined markedly and were after three years of midge-attack about 50% of the average yield in the preceding years. The yield dropped comparatively more when the crop was harvested in the spring as opposed to harvest in late autumn and more at a nitrogen fertilisation at 100 kg compared to 200 kg N ha–1 per year. The effect of midge attack on fibre quality was studied. The fibre properties of midge-infested parts of internodes were poor, but as midge-damaged parts are brittle, they could probably be sorted out in a fractionation process. Undamaged parts of infested internodes had the same fibre properties as those from an uninfested crop.;

  15. A simple trapping method to estimate abundances of blood-sucking flying insects in avian nests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomás, G.; Merino, S.; Martínez-de la Puente, J.; Moreno, J.; Morales, J.; Lobato, E.

    2008-01-01

    [KEYWORDS: birds; biting midges; blackflies; blood parasite-insect vector-vertebrate host relationships; Ceratopogonidae; Culicoides; distance to water sources; insecticide treatment; sampling methods; Simuliidae

  16. Summaries of Research, 1 July - 31 December 1965

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watten, R

    1965-01-01

    ...: Intestinal parasites of aborigines (Yami) of Lan Yu (Orchid Island), NOTES ON SOME MALLOPHAGA FROM FORMOSAN MAMMALS, OBSERVATIONS ON THE BIONOMICS OF THE BITING MIDGE CULICOIDES ARAKAWAE (ARKAKAWA...

  17. Chromatin Structure in Bands and Interbands of Polytene Chromosomes Imaged by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Grauw, C.J.; de Grauw, C.J.; Avogadro, A.; van den Heuvel, D.J.; van den Heuvel, D.J.; van der Werf, Kees; Otto, Cornelis; Kraan, Yvonne M.; van Hulst, N.F.; Greve, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Polytene chromosomes from Drosophila melanogaster, observed from squash preparations, and chromosomes from Chironomus thummi thummi, investigated under physiological conditions, are imaged using an Atomic Force Microscope. Various chromatin fiber structures can be observed with high detail in fixed

  18. Culicoides-virus interactions: infection barriers and possible factors underlying vector competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States, Culicoides midges vector arboviruses of economic importance such as Bluetongue Virus and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus. A limited number of studies have demonstrated the complexities of midge-virus interactions, including dynamic changes in virus titer and prevalence over...

  19. Possible over-wintering of bluetongue virus in Culicoides populations in the Onderstepoort area, Gauteng, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumari Steyn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated the ability of certain viruses to overwinter in arthropod vectors. The over-wintering mechanism of bluetongue virus (BTV is unknown. One hypothesis is over-wintering within adult Culicoides midges (Diptera; Ceratopogonidae that survive mild winters where temperatures seldom drop below 10 °C. The reduced activity of midges and the absence of outbreaks during winter may create the impression that the virus has disappeared from an area. Light traps were used in close association with horses to collect Culicoides midges from July 2010 to September 2011 in the Onderstepoort area, in Gauteng Province, South Africa. More than 500 000 Culicoides midges were collected from 88 collections and sorted to species level, revealing 26 different Culicoides species. Culicoides midges were present throughout the 15 month study. Nine Culicoides species potentially capable of transmitting BTV were present during the winter months. Midges were screened for the presence of BTV ribonucleic acid (RNA with the aid of a real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR assay. In total 91.2% of midge pools tested positive for BTV RNA. PCR results were compared with previous virus isolation results (VI that demonstrated the presence of viruses in summer and autumn months. The results indicate that BTV-infected Culicoides vectors are present throughout the year in the study area. Viral RNA-positive midges were also found throughout the year with VI positive midge pools only in summer and early autumn. Midges that survive mild winter temperatures could therefore harbour BTV but with a decreased vector capacity. When the population size, biting rate and viral replication decrease, it could stop BTV transmission. Over-wintering of BTV in the Onderstepoort region could therefore result in re-emergence because of increased vector activity rather than reintroduction from outside the region.

  20. Dyes removal of textile wastewater onto surfactant modified zeolite from coal ash and evaluation of the toxic effects; Remocao de corantes de efluente textil por zeolita de cinzas de carvao modificada por surfactante e avaliacao dos efeitos toxicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Patricia Cunico

    2015-07-01

    Zeolites synthesized from fly and bottom ashes and modified with hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) were used as adsorbent to remove dyes - Solophenyl Navy (SN) and Solophenyl Turquoise (ST) and their hydrolysed forms Solophenyl Navy Hydrolysed (SNH) and Solophenyl Turquoise Hydrolysed (STH), from simulated textile wastewater. The HDTMA-modified fly zeolite (ZMF) and HDTMA-modified bottom zeolite (ZMB) were characterized by different techniques, as X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, etc. The ZMF and ZMB presented negative charge probably due to the formation of a partial bilayer of HDTMA on exchangeable active sites on the external surface of unmodified zeolite. Initial dye concentration, contact time and equilibrium adsorption were evaluated. The adsorption kinetic for SN, ST, SNH and STH onto the zeolites followed the pseudo second-order model. The equilibrium time was 20 min for SN and ST and 30 min for SNH and STH, respectively. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models were applied to describe the adsorption isotherms. Adsorption of the dyes were best described by the Langmuir model, with exception to SN/ZPM, SNH/ZPM and SNH/ZLM systems that followed Freundlich model. The maximum adsorption capacities were 3,64; 3,57; 2,91 e 4,93 for SN, ST, SNH e STH by ZLM, respectively and 0,235; 0,492; 1,26 e 1,86 by ZPM, in this order. The best performance for hydrolyzed dyes has been attributed to reduction of the size of dyes molecules during the hydrolysis process. Acute toxicity of the dyes to a different organism were evaluated by different test-organisms. Waterflea, Ceriodaphnia dubia showed EC50 value of 1,25; 54,5; 0,78 and 2,56 mgL{sup -1} for SN, ST, SNH and STH, respectively. The plant Lemna minor showed EC50 values of 18,9; 69,4; 10,9 and 70,9 mgL{sup -1} for SN, ST, SNH and STH, respectively. Midges larvae of Chironomus tepperi showed EC50 values of 119 and 440 mgL{sup -1} for SN and ST, respectively. Regarding

  1. Dyes removal of textile wastewater onto surfactant modified zeolite from coal ash and evaluation of the toxic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Patricia Cunico

    2015-01-01

    Zeolites synthesized from fly and bottom ashes and modified with hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) were used as adsorbent to remove dyes - Solophenyl Navy (SN) and Solophenyl Turquoise (ST) and their hydrolysed forms Solophenyl Navy Hydrolysed (SNH) and Solophenyl Turquoise Hydrolysed (STH), from simulated textile wastewater. The HDTMA-modified fly zeolite (ZMF) and HDTMA-modified bottom zeolite (ZMB) were characterized by different techniques, as X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, etc. The ZMF and ZMB presented negative charge probably due to the formation of a partial bilayer of HDTMA on exchangeable active sites on the external surface of unmodified zeolite. Initial dye concentration, contact time and equilibrium adsorption were evaluated. The adsorption kinetic for SN, ST, SNH and STH onto the zeolites followed the pseudo second-order model. The equilibrium time was 20 min for SN and ST and 30 min for SNH and STH, respectively. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models were applied to describe the adsorption isotherms. Adsorption of the dyes were best described by the Langmuir model, with exception to SN/ZPM, SNH/ZPM and SNH/ZLM systems that followed Freundlich model. The maximum adsorption capacities were 3,64; 3,57; 2,91 e 4,93 for SN, ST, SNH e STH by ZLM, respectively and 0,235; 0,492; 1,26 e 1,86 by ZPM, in this order. The best performance for hydrolyzed dyes has been attributed to reduction of the size of dyes molecules during the hydrolysis process. Acute toxicity of the dyes to a different organism were evaluated by different test-organisms. Waterflea, Ceriodaphnia dubia showed EC50 value of 1,25; 54,5; 0,78 and 2,56 mgL -1 for SN, ST, SNH and STH, respectively. The plant Lemna minor showed EC50 values of 18,9; 69,4; 10,9 and 70,9 mgL -1 for SN, ST, SNH and STH, respectively. Midges larvae of Chironomus tepperi showed EC50 values of 119 and 440 mgL -1 for SN and ST, respectively. Regarding the adsorption

  2. The effect of high frequency sound on Culicoides numbers collected with suction light traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Venter

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, are involved in the transmission of various pathogens that cause important diseases of livestock worldwide. The use of insect repellents to reduce the attack rate of these insects on livestock could play an important role as part of an integrated control programme against diseases transmitted by these midges. The objective of this study was to determine whether high frequency sound has any repellent effect on Culicoides midges. The number of midges collected with 220 V Onderstepoort white light traps fitted with electronic mosquito repellents (EMRs, emitting 5-20 KHz multi-frequency sound waves, was compared with that of two untreated traps. Treatments were rotated in two replicates of a 4 x 4 randomised Latin square design. Although fewer midges were collected in the two traps fitted with EMRs, the average number collected over eight consecutive nights was not significantly different. The EMRs also had no influence on any of the physiological groups of Culicoides imicola Kieffer or the species composition of the Culicoides population as determined with light traps. The results indicate that high frequency sound has no repellent effect on Culicoides midges. There is therefore no evidence to support their promotion or use in the protection of animals against pathogens transmitted by Culicoides midges.

  3. Larval gut pH profile in pestiferous .i.Chironomus crassicaudatus./i. and .i.Glyptotendipes paripes./i. (Chironomidae: Diptera) in reference to the toxicity potential of .i.Bacillus thuringiensis./i. serovar .i.israelensis./i

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Lobinske, R.J.; Yaqub, A.; Ali, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 3 (2007), s. 355-358 ISSN 8756-971X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : chironomidae larvae * gut pH * Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.706, year: 2007

  4. Disease: H01550 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ver 150 viruses that infect humans and are transmitted by mosquitoes, midges and ticks from reservoir animals like rodents and livest...ock. Orthobunyaviruses were generally not associated with haemorrhagic symptoms unt

  5. Parasites of mammals species abundance near zone Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pen'kevich, V.A.

    2014-01-01

    In wildlife reserve parasitize various types of parasites: arachnids (mites) parasitic insects (horseflies, keds, mosquitoes, gnats, midges), helminths (trematodes, cestodes, nematodes and acanthocephalans) and parasitic protozoa. In quantity: 3 (beaver) to 25 species (wolf). (authors)

  6. Bluetongue, Schmallenberg - what is next? Culicoides-borne viral diseases in the 21st Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Balenghien, T.; Carpenter, S.; Ducheyne, E.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Fife, M.; Garros, C.; Ibanez-Justicia, A.; Kampen, H.; Kormelink, R.J.M.; Losson, B.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Regge, de N.; Rijn, van P.A.; Sanders, C.; Schaffner, F.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.; Takken, W.; Werner, D.; Seelig, F.

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, two pathogens transmitted by Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus, have caused serious economic losses to the European livestock industry, most notably affecting sheep and cattle. These outbreaks of arboviral disease have

  7. Bluetongue, Schmallenberg - what is next? : Culicoides-borne viral diseases in the 21st Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraadt, Constantianus Jm; Balenghien, Thomas; Carpenter, Simon; Ducheyne, Els; Elbers, Armin Rw; Fife, Mark; Garros, Claire; Ibáñez-Justicia, Adolfo; Kampen, Helge; Kormelink, Richard Jm; Losson, Bertrand; van der Poel, Wim Hm; De Regge, Nick; van Rijn, Piet A; Sanders, Christopher; Schaffner, Francis; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075234394; Takken, Willem; Werner, Doreen; Seelig, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, two pathogens transmitted by Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus, have caused serious economic losses to the European livestock industry, most notably affecting sheep and cattle. These outbreaks of arboviral disease have

  8. Impact of phenolic compounds and related enzymes in Sorghum varieties for resistance and susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stresses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Barro, C.; Traore, A.S.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Contents of phenolic compounds and related enzymes before and after sorghum grain germination were compared between varieties either resistant or susceptible to biotic (sooty stripe, sorghum midge, leaf anthracnose, striga, and grain molds) and abiotic (lodging, drought resistance, and photoperiod

  9. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology - Vol 5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hymn: Platygasteridae) an egg-larval parasitoid of african rice gall midge Orseolia oryzivora Harris and Gagné (Diptera: Cecidoymiidae) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  10. Optimal vaccination strategies against vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Enøe, Claes; Bødker, Rene

    2014-01-01

    Using a process oriented semi-agent based model, we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus by Culicoides, biting midges, between cattle in Denmark. We evaluated the minimum vaccination cover and minimum cost for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model ...... results when index cases were in the vaccinated areas. However, given that the long-range spread of midge borne disease is still poorly quantified, more robust national vaccination schemes seem preferable....

  11. Quantifying aquatic insect deposition from lake to land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Jamin; Townsend, Philip A; Hook, James C; Hoekman, David; Vander Zanden, M Jake; Gratton, Claudio

    2015-02-01

    Adjacent ecosystems are influenced by organisms that move across boundaries, such as insects with aquatic larval stages and terrestrial adult stages, which transport energy and nutrients from water to land. However, the ecosystem-level effect of aquatic insects on land has generally been ignored, perhaps because the organisms themselves are individually small. At the naturally productive Lake Mývatn, Iceland, we used two readily measured quantities: total insect emergence from water and relative insect density on land, to demonstrate an approach for estimating aquatic insect deposition (e.g., kg N x m(-2) x yr(-1)) to shore. Estimates from emergence traps between 2008 and 20.11 indicated a range of 0.15-3.7 g x m(-2) x yr(-1), or a whole-lake emergence of 3.1-76 Mg/yr; all masses are given as dry mass. Using aerial infall trap measurements of midge relative abundance over land, we developed a local-maximum decay function model to predict proportional midge deposition with distance from the lake. The dispersal model predicted midge abundance with R2 = 0.89, a pattern consistent among years, with peak midge deposition occurring 20-25 m inland and 70% of midges deposited within 100 m of shore. During a high-midge year (2008), we estimate midge deposition within the first 50 m of shoreline to be 100 kg xha(-1) x yr(-1), corresponding to inputs of 10 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1) and 1 kg P x ha(-1) x yr(-1), or about three to five times above background terrestrial N deposition rates. Consistent with elevated N input where midges are most dense, we observed that soil available nitrate in resin bags decreases with increasing distance from the lake. Our approach, generalizable to other systems, shows that aquatic insects can be a major source of nutrients to terrestrial ecosystems and have the capacity to significantly affect ecosystem processes.

  12. Culicoides (Diptera, Heleidae na cidade de Recife capturados com isca luminosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico S. Barbosa

    1968-02-01

    Full Text Available Eleven species of the genus Culicoides (Diptera, Heleidae were recorded frorn a mangrove area in the town of Recife, Brazil. The midges were collected by 6 light traps during the period of a whole year, 1954-1955. The predominant species were C. maruim, C. guyanensis and C. insignis. The first one represented 73.7% of the total collected. Seasonal variations were markedly observed, with higher number of midges appearing during the period of March to July.

  13. Exploration for Natural Enemies of Hydrilla verticillata in Eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    mandibles and heads than the scavengers. Bill Beck of Florida A&M University, who identified the hydrilla midge as a species of Polypedilum, feels...that the head and mandibles of this midge resemble those of the scavenger section instead of the herbivore section of the genus, as the types occur in...Lakshmanan, K. K. 1965. " Embryological Studies in the Hydrocharitaceae. IV. Post-Fertilization Development in Hydrilla verticillata Royle," Phyton Rev

  14. Distribution and phenology of Dasineura oxycoccana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Michigan blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Noel G; Isaacs, Rufus

    2012-06-01

    The blueberry gall midge, Dasineura oxycoccana Johnson, is a serious pest of rabbiteye blueberries in Florida, Georgia, and Mississippi, and a potential pest of southern and northern highbush blueberries. Its damage has been observed with increasing frequency in highbush blueberry plantings in the Great Lakes region, including in Wisconsin and in Michigan. Unlike in rabbiteye blueberry plantings, where blueberry gall midge primarily damages flowering buds, it is found to damage only the vegetative shoots of northern highbush blueberry. In this study, farms throughout Michigan were surveyed for the presence of blueberry gall midge and it was found in 43 of 46 sampled farms in 11 counties. From 2009-2011, several monitoring techniques, including yellow sticky traps, emergence traps, observational sampling, and vegetative shoot dissections were used to determine the ecology of this species in blueberry fields in southwest Michigan. Emergence traps were most useful in early detection of blueberry gall midge in April, and observational sampling for damage symptoms and vegetative shoot dissections revealed multiple population peaks throughout July and August. Infestation was detected in vegetative shoot tips in all parts of the bushes, with initial infestation greatest at the base of bushes. Degree day accumulations until first midge detection and peak infestation suggest some potential for predicting key events in the pest's phenology. This information about the distribution and timing of infestation will be useful in developing management strategies for blueberry gall midge infestation.

  15. An Asiatic Chironomid in Brazil: morphology, DNA barcode and bionomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizelle Amora

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In most freshwater ecosystems, aquatic insects are dominant in terms of diversity; however, there is a disproportionately low number of records of alien species when compared to other freshwater organisms. The Chironomidae is one aquatic insect family that includes some examples of alien species around the world. During a study on aquatic insects in Amazonas state (Brazil, we collected specimens of Chironomidae that are similar, at the morphological level, to Chironomus kiiensis Tokunaga and Chironomus striatipennis Kieffer, both with distributions restricted to Asia. The objectives of this study were to provide morphological information on this Chironomus population, to investigate its identity using DNA barcoding and, to provide bionomic information about this species. Chironomus DNA barcode data were obtained from GenBank and Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD and, together with our data, were analyzed using the neighbor-joining method with 1000 bootstrap replicates and the genetic distances were estimated using the Kimura-2-parameter. At the morphological level, the Brazilian population cannot be distinguished either from C. striatipennis or C. kiiensis, configuring a species complex but, at the molecular level our studied population is placed in a clade together with C. striatipennis, from South Korea. Bionomic characteristics of the Brazilian Chironomus population differ from the ones of C. kiiensis from Japan, the only species in this species complex with bionomic information available. The Brazilian Chironomus population has a smaller size, the double of the number of eggs and inhabits oligotrophic water, in artificial container. In the molecular analysis, populations of C. striatipennis and C. kiiensis are placed in a clade, formed by two groups: Group A (which includes populations from both named species, from different Asiatic regions and our Brazilian population and Group B (with populations of C. kiiensis from Japan and South Korea

  16. Culicoides species abundance and potential over-wintering of African horse sickness virus in the Onderstepoort area, Gauteng, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Venter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, outbreaks of African horse sickness (AHS occur in summer; no cases are reported in winter, from July to September. The AHS virus (AHSV is transmitted almost exclusively by Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, of which Culicoides imicola is considered to be the most important vector. The over-wintering mechanism of AHSV is unknown. In this study, more than 500 000 Culicoides midges belonging to at least 26 species were collected in 88 light traps at weekly intervals between July 2010 and September 2011 near horses in the Onderstepoort area of South Africa. The dominant species was C. imicola. Despite relatively low temperatures and frost, at least 17 species, including C. imicola, were collected throughout winter (June–August. Although the mean number of midges per night fell from > 50 000 (March to < 100 (July and August, no midge-free periods were found. This study, using virus isolation on cell cultures and a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay, confirmed low infection prevalence in field midges and that the detection of virus correlated to high numbers. Although no virus was detected during this winter period, continuous adult activity indicated that transmission can potentially occur. The absence of AHSV in the midges during winter can be ascribed to the relatively low numbers collected coupled to low infection prevalence, low virus replication rates and low virus titres in the potentially infected midges. Cases of AHS in susceptible animals are likely to start as soon as Culicoides populations reach a critical level.

  17. Fate and effects of esfenvalerate in agricultural ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samsøe-Petersen, L.; Gutavson, K.; Madsen, T.

    2001-01-01

    in enclosures in a natural lake and in the laboratory on surface (Cymatia coleoptrata) and sediment (Chironomus riparius) insects. The latter were used in sediment-plus-water and in water-only tests, measuring effects on emergence and mortality. The measurements in the artificial pond indicated exposure...

  18. Diversity of the chironomidae (diptera) of river Niger related to water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organic pollution and nutrients loading were the main factors explaining the differences in spatial distribution. Some taxa, e.g. Chironomus gr. plumosus and Microchironomus sp. are positively correlated to those factors, while others as Tanytarsini, Nilodosis sp., Micropelopinae and Procladius sp. are negatively correlated.

  19. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sibling species are widespread among the dipteran insects and as such are well studied because some species are important medically (mosquitoes), genetically (Drosophila) and cytologically(Sciara and Chironomus). The well-studied classical pairs of sibling species in Drosophila are: D. pseudoobscura and D. persimilis ...

  20. Zoobenthic fauna and seasonal changes of mamasin dam lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... Psammoryctides deserticula (Grimm, 1877). 14. Procladius (Holotanypus) sp. 15. Chironomus plumosus (Linnaeus, 1758). 16. C. anthracinus (Zetterstedt, 1860). Insecta. Chironomidae. 17. Polypedilum nubeculosum (Meigen, 1804). Figure 2. Average numbers (BS/m2) of chironomidae, oligochaeta and ...

  1. Consumption, indigeneous knowledge and cultural values of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the edible insects, lakeflies (Chaoborus and Chironomus sp) are least documented as items of human consumption. They are eaten by the Luo communities living within the Lake Victoria basin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the importance of lake flies as a source of food and its role in cultural practices.

  2. Laboratory survival and blood feeding response of wild-caught Culicoides obsoletus Complex (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) through natural and artificial membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredo, M; Romeo, G; Monaco, F; Di Gennaro, A; Savini, G

    2004-01-01

    In late summer 2002, live wild-caught midges of the Obsoletus Complex were collected using blacklight traps placed at a horse stable in Teramo (Abruzzo, Italy). For the survival study under laboratory conditions, 1,500 Obsoletus Complex midges were kept at 17 degrees C-25 degrees C and provided only with a sucrose solution. Of these, 150 (10%) survived for at least 40 days and 3 midges were still alive after 92 days. In addition, 10 midges survived 10 days at 4 degrees C. For the feeding trials, 40 blood-meals (9,440 midges) were administered, 27 of which were successful (67.5%); the feeding rate ranged from 0.3% to 16.7%, with a total of 592 engorged midges. Similar feeding rates (U Mann-Whitney test=129.5 p>0.05) were obtained when natural (day-old chicken skin) and artificial (stretched parafilm) membranes were used. To infect the insects, a field strain of bluetongue (BT) virus (BTV) serotype 2 isolated from the spleen of a sheep during the 2000 Italian outbreak was added to the blood-meal. Two different viral solutions, with titres of 10(6)TCID(50)/ml and 10(7)TCID(50)/ml, were prepared. Uninfected blood was significantly more appetising (U Mann-Whitney test=88.5 pdays. During the incubation period, the dead insects were collected daily and analysed for evidence of virus infection. Of the 251 engorged midges, 54 (21.5%) died in the feeding chambers or during sorting on the chill table, 136 died within the first 10 days and 61 survived longer. BTV was isolated only from those which died just after feeding (52.6%; 10/19) or 24 h later (47.8%; 11/23). Considering the small number of midges tested after 10 days of incubation, the prevalence of infection detected in this study (95% probability) would have been higher than 4.74%. These preliminary results appear very promising as this is the first time that midges of the Obsoletus Complex have been successfully fed under laboratory conditions.

  3. Seasonality of dipteran-mediated methylmercury flux from ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W; Hall, MacGregor N; Polk, D Kirkland; Williams, Edward B; Ortega-Rodriguez, Celeste L; Kennedy, James H

    2018-03-12

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an aquatic contaminant that can be transferred to terrestrial predators by emergent aquatic insects. We assessed the effects of month and pond permanence on dipteran-mediated MeHg flux (calculated as emergent dipteran biomass × dipteran MeHg concentration) in 10 experimental ponds. Emergent dipterans were collected weekly from permanent ponds with bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus; n = 5) and semipermanent ponds without fish (n = 5) over a 7-mo period (February-August, 2015). We detected a significant effect of month on MeHg flux from 6 dipteran taxa and aggregate MeHg flux, with the highest MeHg flux from herbivorous/detritivorous chironomid midges and predatory midges in March; biting midges, phantom midges and herbivorous/detritivorous orthoclad midges in April; and mosquitoes in August. Aggregate dipteran-mediated MeHg flux peaked in April and then declined throughout the remainder of the summer. We did not detect a significant main effect of pond permanence or a significant month × pond permanence interaction effect on MeHg flux for any of the taxa examined in the present study or for aggregate MeHg flux. Given their ubiquity in aquatic systems and their importance in food webs at the land-water interface, dipterans are important taxa that should not be overlooked as a part of the Hg cycle. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;9999:1-6. © 2018 SETAC. © 2018 SETAC.

  4. Light and noise pollution interact to disrupt interspecific interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Taegan A; Rohr, Jason R; Bernal, Ximena E

    2017-05-01

    Studies on the consequences of urbanization often examine the effects of light, noise, and heat pollution independently on isolated species providing a limited understanding of how these combined stressors affect species interactions. Here, we investigate how these factors interact to affect parasitic frog-biting midges (Corethrella spp.) and their túngara frog (Engystomops pustulosus) hosts. A survey of túngara frog calling sites revealed that frog abundance was not significantly correlated with urbanization, light, noise, or temperature. In contrast, frog-biting midges were sensitive to light pollution and noise pollution. Increased light intensity significantly reduced midge abundance at low noise levels. At high noise intensity, there were no midges regardless of light level. Two field experiments controlling light and noise levels to examine attraction of the midges to their host and their feeding behavior confirmed the causality of these field patterns. These findings demonstrate that both light and noise pollution disrupt this host-parasite interaction and highlight the importance of considering interactions among species and types of pollutants to accurately assess the impacts of urbanization on ecological communities. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  5. Dynamics of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus infection within the vector, Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary K Mills

    Full Text Available Culicoides sonorensis biting midges are confirmed vectors of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV, which causes mortality in white-tailed deer and ruminant populations. Currently, of the seven EHDV serotypes, only 1, 2, and 6 are detected in the USA, and very few studies have focused on the infection time course of these serotypes within the midge. The objective of this current research was to characterize EHDV-2 infection within the midge by measuring infection prevalence, virus dissemination, and viral load over the course of infection. Midges were fed a blood meal containing 106.9 PFU/ml EHDV-2, collected every 12 h from 0-2 days post feeding (dpf and daily from 3-10 dpf, and cohorts of 20 C. sonorensis were processed using techniques that assessed EHDV infection and dissemination. Cytopathic effect assays and quantitative (qPCR were used to determine infection prevalence, revealing a 50% infection rate by 10 dpf using both methods. Using immunohistochemistry, EHDV-2 infection was detectable at 5 dpf, and shown to disseminate from the midgut to other tissues, including fat body, eyes, and salivary glands by 5 dpf. Stain intensity increased from 5-8 dpf, indicating replication of EHDV-2 in secondary infection sites after dissemination. This finding is also supported by trends in viral load over time as determined by plaque assays and qPCR. An increase in titer between 4-5 dpf correlated with viral replication in the midgut as seen with staining at day 5, while the subsequent gradual increase in viral load from 8-10 dpf suggested viral replication in midges with disseminated infection. Overall, the data presented herein suggest that EHDV-2 disseminates via the hemolymph to secondary infection sites throughout the midge and demonstrate a high potential for transmission at five days at 25°C after an infective blood-meal.

  6. An early warning system for incursions of Bluetongue disease to the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgin, Laura; Sanders, Christopher; Carpenter, Simon; Mellor, Philip; Gloster, John

    2010-05-01

    Since 2006 northern Europe has been in the midst of an extensive epidemic of the animal disease, Bluetongue, which has cost the European economy hundreds of millions of euros due to death, sickness and movement restrictions of livestock. Bluetongue is spread by biting midges which can be carried for hundreds of kilometers on the wind. A scheme within the UK Met Office's dispersion model, the Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME), has been developed to reflect the effects of meteorology on the long-distance transport of these midge vectors. The scheme is based on data from field and laboratory experiments carried out at the Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright. From these experiments, certain threshold values which define when midges do not become airborne have been obtained for several meteorological variables. Within NAME, particles representing midges are removed from the model atmosphere if these thresholds are exceeded. Following outbreaks of the disease in Belgium and the Netherlands in 2006, an early-warning website was developed based on the model, to provide the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) advance knowledge of potential disease incursions by infected midges carried on the wind across the English Channel. The service has been in daily operation since April 2007 and correctly warned of the high risk of an incursion of infected midges causing the first UK outbreak in Suffolk on 4 August 2007. The website has since been expanded to predict potential incursions of disease into the Channel Islands and Northern Ireland and was used to inform on vaccination policy decisions by Defra and the Scottish government.

  7. Aquatic assessment of the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund site, Corinth, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Argue, Denise M.; Seal, Robert R.; Kiah, Richard G.; Besser, John M.; Coles, James F.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Levitan, Denise M.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    -based criteria are commonly lower values than the hardness-based criteria and thus suggest a greater degree or magnitude of impairment at the sampling locations. The riffle-habitat benthic invertebrate richness and abundance data correlate strongly with the extent of impact based on water quality for both brooks. Similarly, the fish community assessments document degraded conditions throughout most of Pike Hill Brook, whereas the data for the tributary to Cookville Brook suggest less degradation to this brook. The sediment environment shows similar extents of impairment to the surface-water environment, with most sampling locations in Pike Hill Brook, including the wetland areas, and the tributary to Cookville Brook affected. Sediment impairment is caused by elevated copper concentrations, although localized degradation due to elevated cadmium and zinc concentrations was documented on the basis of exceedances of probable effects concentrations (PECs). In contrast to impairment determined by exceedances of PECs, equilibrium-partitioning sediment benchmarks (based on simultaneously extracted metals, acid volatile sulfides, and total organic carbon) predict no toxic effects in sediments at the background locations and uncertain toxic effects throughout Pike Hill Brook and the tributary to Cookville Brook, with the exception of the most downstream Cookville Brook location, which indicated no toxic effects. Acute laboratory toxicity testing using the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus dilutus on pore waters extracted from sediment in situ indicate impairment (based on tests with H. azteca) at only one location in Pike Hill Brook and no impairment in the tributary to Cookville Brook. Chronic laboratory sediment toxicity testing using H. azteca and C. dilutus indicated toxicity in Pike Hill Brook at several locations in the lower reach and two locations in the tributary to Cookville Brook. Toxicity was not indicated for either species in sediment from the most acidic

  8. Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruder Mark G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these viruses are well-known pathogens of white-tailed deer (WTD and other wild ruminants. Although historically rare, reports of clinical EHDV infection in cattle have increased in some parts of the world over the past decade. In 2006, an EHDV-7 epizootic in cattle resulted in economic loss for the Israeli dairy industry. White-tailed deer are susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and disease; however, this serotype is exotic to the US and the susceptibility of C. sonorensis to this cattle-virulent EHDV is not known. The objective of the study was to determine if C. sonorensis is susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and is a competent vector. Methods To evaluate the susceptibility of C. sonorensis, midges were fed on EHDV-7 infected WTD, held at 22 ± 1°C, and processed individually for virus isolation and titration on 4–16 days post feeding (dpf. Midges with a virus titer of ≥102.7 median tissue culture infective doses (TCID50/midge were considered potentially competent. To determine if infected C. sonorensis were capable of transmitting EHDV-7 to a host, a susceptible WTD was then fed on by a group of 14–16 dpf midges. Results From 4–16 dpf, 45% (156/350 of midges that fed on WTD with high titer viremia (>107 TCID50/ml were virus isolation-positive, and starting from 10–16 dpf, 32% (35/109 of these virus isolation-positive midges were potentially competent (≥102.7 TCID50/midge. Midges that fed on infected deer transmitted the virus to a susceptible WTD at 14–16 dpf. The WTD developed viremia and severe clinical disease. Conclusion This study demonstrates that C. sonorensis is susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and can transmit the virus to susceptible WTD, thus, C. sonorensis should be considered a potential vector of EHDV-7. Together with previous work, this study demonstrates

  9. Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Mark G; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Stallknecht, David E; Allison, Andrew B; Carter, Deborah L; Drolet, Barbara S; Klement, Eyal; Mead, Daniel G

    2012-10-17

    Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these viruses are well-known pathogens of white-tailed deer (WTD) and other wild ruminants. Although historically rare, reports of clinical EHDV infection in cattle have increased in some parts of the world over the past decade. In 2006, an EHDV-7 epizootic in cattle resulted in economic loss for the Israeli dairy industry. White-tailed deer are susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and disease; however, this serotype is exotic to the US and the susceptibility of C. sonorensis to this cattle-virulent EHDV is not known. The objective of the study was to determine if C. sonorensis is susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and is a competent vector. To evaluate the susceptibility of C. sonorensis, midges were fed on EHDV-7 infected WTD, held at 22 ± 1°C, and processed individually for virus isolation and titration on 4-16 days post feeding (dpf). Midges with a virus titer of ≥ 10(2.7) median tissue culture infective doses (TCID(50))/midge were considered potentially competent. To determine if infected C. sonorensis were capable of transmitting EHDV-7 to a host, a susceptible WTD was then fed on by a group of 14-16 dpf midges. From 4-16 dpf, 45% (156/350) of midges that fed on WTD with high titer viremia (>10(7) TCID(50)/ml) were virus isolation-positive, and starting from 10-16 dpf, 32% (35/109) of these virus isolation-positive midges were potentially competent (≥ 10(2.7) TCID(50)/midge). Midges that fed on infected deer transmitted the virus to a susceptible WTD at 14-16 dpf. The WTD developed viremia and severe clinical disease. This study demonstrates that C. sonorensis is susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and can transmit the virus to susceptible WTD, thus, C. sonorensis should be considered a potential vector of EHDV-7. Together with previous work, this study demonstrates that North America has a susceptible ruminant and

  10. Standing crops and ecology of aquatic invertebrates in agricultural drainwater ponds in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, N.H.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    We examined standing crops and ecology of aquatic invertebrates in agricultural drainwater evaporation ponds in California from October 1982 to March 1983 and September 1983 to March 1984. Evaporation ponds supported low diversities but high standing crops of aquatic invertebrates. A water boatman (Trichocorixa reticulata) and a midge (Tanypus grodhausi) were the most abundant invertebrates, constituting 44.9% and 51.4% of total macroinvertebrate biomass. Regression models indicated that of 6 environmental variables measured, only electrical conductivity (EC) and Julian date affected biomass and density of water boatmen. EC was the only significant correlate of midge biomass in evaporation ponds.

  11. Clarification of Einfeldia Kieffer, 1922 (Diptera: Chironomidae) with E. australiensis (Freeman, 1961), comb. n. based on immature stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Peter S; Martin, Jon; Mulder, Monica; Spies, Martin

    2016-08-31

    The immature stages are described for the first time for Chironomus (Xenochironomus) australiensis Freeman (Diptera: Chironomidae) and the adult male is redescribed including from type specimens. The species does not belong to Chironomus Meigen or Xenochironomus Kieffer, but is best placed in a modestly expanded Einfeldia Kieffer. Application of this genus name is clarified, including by a lectotype fixation for its type species, E. pectoralis Kieffer, 1924. Einfeldia australiensis (Freeman) comb. n. provides the first record of the genus from Australia; otherwise the genus is reported confidently only from North America, Central America and western Europe to Japan. The immature stages of E. australiensis occur in relatively shallow mesotrophic to eutrophic dune lakes and maars with circum-neutral pH and high conductivity, from southeastern Queensland to southern Australia. The cytology is described briefly from larval salivary glands. Alternative genus placements for the species are discussed, and problems with Einfeldia and connected systematics in the tribe Chironomini are addressed.

  12. Attraction of Mosquitoes to Diethyl Methylbenzamide and Ethyl Hexanediol

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    tant to the biting midges Culicoides pulicaris that 8% ethyl acetate was attractant to the Linn. and Culicoides puncticoUis Becker (Cera- vinegar fly...Drosoph- finding by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culcidae): a review. ila melanogaster Meigen to the products of ferment - Bull. Entomol. Res. 70:525-532. ing banana

  13. Foraging at wastewater treatment works increases the potential for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater treatment works (WWTWs) are known to provide profitable foraging areas for insectivorous bats in Europe and the New World because of their association with high abundance of pollution-tolerant midges (Diptera). However, bats that feed on these insects may also accumulate metal pollutants such as cadmium ...

  14. Optimal vaccination scenarios against vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Enøe, Claes; Bødker, Rene

    that would increase distance between infectious and susceptible hosts. This can be done very efficiently on a regional scale if the incursion route is well specified. However as the long-range spread of midge borne disease is still poorly quantified, more robust national vaccination schemes seems preferable...

  15. Economics of vaccinating extensively managed sheep flocks against Bluetongue disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluetongue is a serious and recurring threat to sheep producers throughout the world. In the western United States, bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted by biting midges in late summer and early autumn, just before lambs are sent to market. No vaccine is currently sold for the most common serotype ...

  16. Repellence of the red bud borer (Resseliella oculiperda) to grafted apple trees by impregnation of budding tape with essential oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Linden, van der A.; Swarts, H.J.; Visser, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    The red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda (Rübs.) is a pest insect of apple trees when rootstocks are grafted with scion buds by shield budding. The female midges are attracted to the wounds of the grafted buds where they lay their eggs. The larvae feed on the cambium and destroy the buds completely

  17. 76 FR 52008 - Keālia Pond National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) and Kakahai'a NWR, Maui County, HI; Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... control the most aggressive invasive species. Reduce midge swarms, wind-blown dust, and foul-smelling... the main pond recedes due to evaporation, trade winds disperse dust from the pond to the south... well, installing a water pump and distribution line, and repairing the electric panel. This alternative...

  18. Sobre um novo gênero neotrópico da subfamília Tanypodinae (Diptera, Chironomidae On a new neotropical genus of the subfamily Tanypodinae (Diptera, Chironomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião José de Oliveira

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A new neotropical genus and a new species of a non-biting midge for the subfamily Tanypodinae from Brazil are described. The new genus is near Tanypus Meigen, 1803 and Procladius Skuse, 1889, but differs of both by wings and male terminalia.

  19. Larvae of North American Eukiefferiella and Tvetenia (Diptera: Chironomidae). Bulletin No. 452.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Robert W.

    "Eukiefferiella" and "Tvetenia" are closely related genera belonging to the subfamily Orthocladiinae within the Chironomidae, a family of non-biting midges. All known larvae in these genera are aquatic, being found predominantly in running water. Most species prefer cold, swift-flowing, well-oxygenated streams. Although larvae…

  20. Screening for deformed teeth; Screening for saere taender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, A.; Dall, P.C.; Hansen, F.G.

    1996-04-01

    Water pollution by pesticides and heavy metals causes sublethal effects in larvae of the Chironomidae midges. These effects are particularly noticeable in the deformities of the oral parts and antennae. Possibilities of using these deformities for the purpose of water/sediment biomonitoring are very promising. Here the first results of screening in a Danish stream are presented. (EG) 9 refs.

  1. Investigation of Culicoides spp. preference for light colour and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catches from white and green light were not found to differ significantly and the interaction between light colour and source was not found to be significant. Possible trap development and action thresholds are discussed. Keywords: Culicoides midge vector, African Horse Sickness, light colour, light emitting diodes ...

  2. Modulation of nonessential amino acid biosynthetic pathways in virulent Hessian fly larvae (Mayetiola destructor), feeding on susceptible host wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor), an obligate plant-parasitic gall midge, is an important dipteran pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum). The insect employs an effector-based feeding strategy to reprogram the host plant to be nutritionally beneficial for the developing larva by inducing formation of p...

  3. Chironomid distribution along a pollution gradient in Ethiopian rivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water pollution resulting from the rapidly intensifying use of freshwater resources in Ethiopia is increasing the need for continuous follow-up and monitoring of the country's aquatic ecosystems, in order to maintain their biological diversity and water quality. Chironomids (non-biting dipteran midges) are often used for ...

  4. Interactions between predator kairomone and food level complicate the ecological interpretation of Daphnia laboratory results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, A.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of food concentration on the phenotypic response of life history traits to two predator kairomones war investigated in Daphnia. For the experiment, one clone of Daphnia galeata war used as the prey organism and solutions containing infochemicals (kairomones) of Chaoborus (phantom midge)

  5. Recombinant culicoides obsoletus complex allergens stimulate antigen-specific T cells on insect bite hypersensitive Shetland ponies in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroeks, C.; Meide, van der N.M.A.; Willemse, T.; Rutten, V.; Tijhaar, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ponies may suffer from Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH), an allergic IgE-mediated pruritic skin disorder, induced by allergens from biting midges of the Culicoides spp. Hypothesis/Objectives To determine whether recombinant Culicoides obsoletus allergens are able to activate T cells of

  6. Cloning and expression of candidate allergens from Culicoides obsoletus for diagnosis of insect bite hypersensitivity in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meide, van der N.M.A.; Roders, N.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.; Schaap, P.J.; Oers, van M.M.; Leibold, W.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Tijhaar, E.

    2013-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an IgE-mediated (Type I) hypersensitivity reaction induced by allergens from biting midges of the Culicoides spp. The aim of the present study was to identify, clone and express recombinant allergens from C. obsoletus, the main species found feeding on horses in

  7. Bluetongue virus without NS3/NS3a expression is not virulent and protects against virulent bluetongue virus challenge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, F.; Gennip, van H.G.P.; Maris-Veldhuis, M.A.; Verheij, E.; Rijn, van P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Bluetongue is a disease in ruminants caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV), and is spread by Culicoides biting midges. Bluetongue outbreaks cause huge economic losses and death in sheep in several parts of the world. The most effective measure to control BTV is vaccination. However, both commercially

  8. Financial Evaluation of Different Vaccination Strategies for Controlling the Bluetongue Virus Serotype 8 Epidemic in the Netherlands in 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, A.G.J.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Saatkamp, H.W.; Koeijer, de A.; Elbers, A.R.W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Bluetongue (BT) is a vector-borne disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus that is transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp.). In 2006, the introduction of BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8) caused a severe epidemic in Western and Central Europe. The principal effective veterinary measure

  9. Nest ectoparasites increase physiological stress in breeding birds: an experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Merino, Santiago; Tomás, Gustavo; Moreno, Juan; Morales, Judith; Lobato, Elisa; Martínez, Javier

    2011-02-01

    Parasites are undoubtedly a biotic factor that produces stress. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are important molecules buffering cellular damage under adverse conditions. During the breeding season, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus (L.) adults are affected by blood parasites, nest-dwelling parasites and biting flies, potentially affecting their HSP-mediated responses. Here, we treated females with primaquine to reduce blood parasites and fumigated nests with permethrin to reduce nest-dwelling parasites to test whether these treatments affect HSP60 level during the breeding season. Medicated females, but not controls, had a significant reduction of the intensity of infection by Haemoproteus spp. blood parasites. However, final intensity of infection did not differ significantly between groups, and we did not find an effect of medication on change in HSP60 level. Fumigation reduced the abundance of nest-dwelling parasites (mites, fleas and blowfly larvae) and engorged biting midges in nests. Females breeding in non-fumigated nests increased HSP60 levels during the season more than those breeding in fumigated nests. Furthermore, the change in HSP60 level was positively correlated with the abundance of biting midges. These results show how infections by nest ectoparasites during the breeding period can increase the level of HSPs and suggest that biting midges impose physiological costs on breeding female blue tits. Although plausible, the alternative that biting midges prefer to feed on more stressed birds is poorly supported by previous studies.

  10. Determinants of abundance and effects of blood-sucking flying insects in the nest of a hole-nesting bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomás, G.; Merino, S.; Martínez-de la Puente, J.; Moreno, J.; Morales, J.; Lobato, E.

    2008-01-01

    Compared to non-flying nest-dwelling ectoparasites, the biology of most species of flying ectoparasites and its potential impact on avian hosts is poorly known and rarely, if ever, reported. In this study we explore for the first time the factors that may affect biting midge (Diptera:

  11. Determinants of abundance and effects of blood-sucking flying insects in the nest of a hole-nesting bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, Gustavo; Merino, Santiago; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Moreno, Juan; Morales, Judith; Lobato, Elisa

    2008-05-01

    Compared to non-flying nest-dwelling ectoparasites, the biology of most species of flying ectoparasites and its potential impact on avian hosts is poorly known and rarely, if ever, reported. In this study we explore for the first time the factors that may affect biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) abundances in the nest cavity of a bird, the hole-nesting blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus, and report their effects on adults and nestlings during reproduction. The abundance of biting midges was positively associated with nest mass, parental provisioning effort and abundance of blowflies and black flies, while negatively associated with nestling condition. Furthermore, a medication treatment to reduce blood parasitaemias in adult birds revealed that biting midges were more abundant in nests of females whose blood parasitaemias were experimentally reduced. This finding would be in accordance with these insect vectors attacking preferentially uninfected or less infected hosts to increase their own survival. The abundance of black flies in the population was lower than that of biting midges and increased in nests with later hatching dates. No significant effect of black fly abundance on adult or nestling condition was detected. Blood-sucking flying insects may impose specific, particular selection pressures on their hosts and more research is needed to better understand these host-parasite associations.

  12. Susceptibility of North American white-tailed deer to the Netherlands strain of BTV serotype 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    World-wide there are at least 24 serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV), a complex non-enveloped virus in the family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus. Bluetongue (BT) is an arthropod-borne disease of cattle, sheep, goats, and deer and is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. In 2006, bluetongue serotype ...

  13. Genome-wide association study of insect bite hypersensitivity in swedish-born icelandic horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, M.; Eriksson, S.; Schurink, A.; Andersson, L.S.; Sundquist, M.; Frey, R.; Brostrom, H.; Bergstrom, T.; Ducro, B.J.; lindgren, G.

    2015-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is the most common allergic skin disease in horses and is caused by biting midges, mainly of the genus Culicoides. The disease predominantly comprises a type I hypersensitivity reaction, causing severe itching and discomfort that reduce the welfare and commercial

  14. Bluetongue Disabled Infectious Single Animal (DISA) vaccine: Studies on the optimal route and dose in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van P.A.; Daus, F.J.; Maris-Veldhuis, M.A.; Feenstra, Femke; Gennip, van H.G.P.

    2016-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV) transmitted by biting midges of the Culicoides genus. Outbreaks have been controlled successfully by vaccination, however, currently available BT vaccines have several shortcomings. Recently, we have developed BT Disabled

  15. EVALUATION OF SOME RICE GENOTYPES FOR INCIDENCE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African rice gall midge (AfRGM), Orseolia oryzivora Harris and Gagne, is one of the major ... TOG 7106 a induit le niveau le plus élevé de résistance parmi toutes les ..... Percentage tiller infestation. Field test. 0. No damage. 1. Less than 1 %. 3.

  16. Innate Mammalian Immune Response to Culicoides Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hematophagous Culicoides spp. biting midges are of great agricultural importance as livestock and wildlife pests and as vectors of orbiviruses such as bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, and African horse sickness viruses, as well as vesicular stomatitis, bovine ephemeral fever and Schmallenb...

  17. Role of mammalian immune responses in vector-enhanced orbiviral transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culicoides sonorensis biting midges are vectors of several emerging and re-emerging orbiviruses including bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, and African horse sickness viruses. They feed primarily on domestic sheep and cattle, but opportunistically feed on a variety of wildlife and on humans...

  18. Novel bluetongue vaccine platform : NS3/NS3a knockout virus as Disabled Infectious Single Animal (DISA) vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, F.

    2016-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a disease of ruminants caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV) transmitted by bites of Culicoides midges. Bluetongue has a worldwide prevalence and mortality in sheep varies from 0 to 30%. There are at least 27 BTV serotypes showing no or little cross protection. In 2006, BTV has

  19. Identification and characterization of serovar-independent immunogens in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antenucci, Fabio; Fougeroux, Cyrielle; Bosse, Janine T.

    2017-01-01

    and further characterized, both in silico and in vitro. Additionally, we analysed outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of A. pleuropneumoniae MIDG2331 as potential immunogens, and compared deletions in degS and nlpI for increasing yields of OMVs compared to the parental strain. Our results indicated that Apf...

  20. Agro-Science - Vol 4, No 2 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of N-fertilization and spacing on african rice gall midge Orseolia oryzivora harris and gagné i a sub-humid area of southeastern Nigeria. E O Ogah, B C Echezona, E-D N Umeh. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/as.v4i2.1531 ...

  1. Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria - Vol 11, No 1 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect Of Transplanting Dates, Plant Spacing And Nitrogen Levels On The Incidence Of African Rice Gall Midge Harris And Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) In Southeastern Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. EO Ogah, E-D Umeh, MC Mbah, 7-16.

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Umeh, EDN. Vol 3, No 2 (2005) - Articles Management of african rice gall midge Orseolia oryzivora Harris and Gagné with reference to time planting and natural enemies in southeastern Nigeria Abstract. ISSN: 1597-0906. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  3. Mbah, MC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect Of Dates Of Transplanting, Plant Spacing And Nitrogen Levels On The Incidence Of African Rice Gall Midge Harris And Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) In Southeastern Nigeria Abstract · Vol 11, No 1 (2006) - Articles Effect Of Transplanting Dates, Plant Spacing And Nitrogen Levels On The Incidence Of African Rice ...

  4. Transmission of Microsporidian Parasites of Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    spiders, beetle larvae, and phantom midges. 2) Feeding spores to crayfish, dragonfly larvae, damselfly larvae, water scorpions, beetles , Anopheles...use of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect baculovirus in larvae and adults of Oryctes rhinoceros from Tonga J. Gen. Virol., 47

  5. Climate change and the spread of vector-borne diseases: using approximate Bayesian computation to compare invasion scenarios for the bluetongue virus vector Culicoides imicola in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mardulyn, P.; Goffredo, M.; Conte, A.; Hendrickx, G.; Meiswinkel, R.; Balenghien, T.; Sghaier, S.; Lohr, Y.; Gilbert, M.

    2013-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a commonly cited example of a disease with a distribution believed to have recently expanded in response to global warming. The BT virus is transmitted to ruminants by biting midges of the genus Culicoides, and it has been hypothesized that the emergence of BT in Mediterranean

  6. Environmental statistical modelling of mosquito vectors at different geographical scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cianci, D.

    2015-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases are infections transmitted by the bite of infected arthropod vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, midges and flies. Vector-borne diseases pose an increasingly wider threat to global public health, both in terms of people affected and their geographical spread. Mosquitoes

  7. European bluetongue serotype 8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drolet, Barbara S.; Reister-Hendricks, Lindsey M.; Podell, Brendan K.; Breitenbach, Jonathan E.; Mcvey, D.S.; Rijn, van Piet A.; Bowen, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an orbivirus transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp.) that can result in moderate to high morbidity and mortality primarily in sheep and white-tailed deer. Although only 5 serotypes of BTV are considered endemic to the United States, as many as 11 incursive

  8. Avaliação ecológica da qualidade da água utilizando ensaios in situ com C. riparius

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, Ana Mafalda Sá de

    2005-01-01

    This thesis deals with the use of in situ bioassays with Chironomus riparius larvae to assess water quality and the risk of contaminants on freshwater ecosystems. These bioassays were seasonally deployed in selected sites on contaminated and reference rivers of North and Central Portugal, to evaluate their performance in assessing water quality in lotic ecosystems. Several biological responses (development, growth, survival and post-exposure feeding rate) were determined and the biotic, ph...

  9. Fate of ethinylestradiol in the aquatic environment and the associated effects on organisms of different trophic levels

    OpenAIRE

    Maes, Hanna

    2011-01-01

    The accumulation kinetics of an important, highly effective, and persistent xeno-estrogen, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2), in the aquatic environment were investigated in indicator species representing the different trophic levels of an ecosystem: a primary producer (Desmodesmus suspicatus), a primary consumer of the water phase (Daphnia magna) and one of the sediment (Chironomus riparius), and a secondary consumer (Danio rerio). Algae highly concentrated 14C-EE2 (72 h Calgae/Cwater: 2200 L/k...

  10. Naturally Occurring Culturable Aerobic Gut Flora of Adult Phlebotomus papatasi, Vector of Leishmania major in the Old World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    bioremediation [80,81] Lysinibacillus boronitolerans1 soil [82] Oceanobacillus sp.1 Chironomus sp. [83] fermented food [84] Terribacillus saccharophilus1 soil [85...traditional Korean fermented food. J Microbiol 48: 862–866. 85. An S-Y, Asahara M, Goto K, Kasai H, Yokota A (2007) Terribacillus saccharophilus gen. nov...wild strains of Psoroptes ovis infesting sheep. Parasitology 123: 441–446. 111. Cousin FJ, Mater DDG, Foligne B, Jan G (2011) Dairy Propionibacteria

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16031-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available iella... 54 4e-09 2 ( EX122338 ) BR106168 mature green leaf cDNA library KHLM Bra...a napus Root library Brassica napu... 50 7e-08 3 ( DV185277 ) CT047_B04_CT047_3700_91.ab1 C. tentans tissue cul... 3 ( EH423460 ) OL6023R Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra leaf cD... 54 3e-09 3 ( EX128986 ) BR112816 ovule and silique cDNA library..... 44 6e-07 3 ( EC773501 ) EST 9997 Guarana fruits cDNA library Paullinia cu... 58 6e-07 3 ( EV830362 ) TTSA...visiae chromosome IV reading frame ORF YDR025w. 52 1e-09 3 ( EX054146 ) BR038790 floral buds cDNA library

  12. Comparing the impacts of sediment-bound bifenthrin on aquatic macroinvertebrates in laboratory bioassays and field microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Rhianna L; Hoak, Molly N; Pettigrove, Vincent J; Hoffmann, Ary A; Long, Sara M

    2016-11-01

    We conducted two laboratory bioassays and two field microcosm exposures with bifenthrin (a synthetic pyrethroid) in order to evaluate the capacity of single-species laboratory bioassays to predict lethal and sublethal impacts on aquatic invertebrates in microcosms. For the laboratory species, Chironomus tepperi, larval survival was reduced by 24% at 53.66µg/g OC, while adult emergence was reduced at concentrations of 33.33µg/g OC and higher, with a 61% decrease at 77.78µg/g OC and no emergence at 126.67µg/g OC. The abundance of several other microcosm taxa was reduced in the microcosms at a similar concentration range (33.33µg/g OC and above), however there was no impact on the abundance of the congeneric species, Chironomus oppositus. The differences in impacts between test systems were potentially due to both differing species sensitivity and the interaction of ambient temperature with bifenthrin toxicity. Bifenthrin also was associated with early emergence of Chironomus sp. in both test systems, at concentrations of 10µg/g OC and higher (laboratory) and 43.90µg/g OC (microcosm), and with a significant decrease in the proportion of C. oppositus males in a microcosm. These findings indicate that while laboratory bioassays accurately predict many impacts in the field, there are some limitations to the predictive capacity of these tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mouthpart deformities in Chironomidae (Diptera) as bioindicators of heavy metals pollution in Shiroro Lake, Niger State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimoro, Francis O; Auta, Yohanna I; Odume, Oghenekaro N; Keke, Unique N; Mohammed, Adamu Z

    2018-03-01

    In this study, mouthpart deformities in Chironomid larvae (Diptera) were investigated in relation to sediment contamination in the Shiroro Lake in Nigeria. Metals and chironomids were sampled monthly at three stations (A-C) between August 2013 and January 2014. Across the stations, zinc ranged (3.9-75mg/g), manganese (1.29-1.65mg/g), lead (0.00-0.10mg/g), iron (101-168mg/g) and copper (0.13-0.17mg/g). The metal ions did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) between the sampling stations. However, zinc and iron ions were significantly different between the sampling seasons (P < 0.05). Thirteen chironomid species were recorded, with Chironomus sp., Polypedilum sp. and Ablabesmyia sp. dominating the assemblage structure. Mouthpart deformities were significantly higher at Station A compared with Station C, and seasonally significantly higher during dry season compared with wet season. Elevated incidences of deformity were recorded in Chironomus spp larvae as compared to other genera therefore for further studies in this region assessments should be based solely on Chironomus species and ignoring the rest. Strategies need to be developed to reduce the contaminations and the biological effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A spatial simulation model for the dispersal of the bluetongue vector Culicoides brevitarsis in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel K Kelso

    Full Text Available The spread of Bluetongue virus (BTV among ruminants is caused by movement of infected host animals or by movement of infected Culicoides midges, the vector of BTV. Biologically plausible models of Culicoides dispersal are necessary for predicting the spread of BTV and are important for planning control and eradication strategies.A spatially-explicit simulation model which captures the two underlying population mechanisms, population dynamics and movement, was developed using extensive data from a trapping program for C. brevitarsis on the east coast of Australia. A realistic midge flight sub-model was developed and the annual incursion and population establishment of C. brevitarsis was simulated. Data from the literature was used to parameterise the model.The model was shown to reproduce the spread of C. brevitarsis southwards along the east Australian coastline in spring, from an endemic population to the north. Such incursions were shown to be reliant on wind-dispersal; Culicoides midge active flight on its own was not capable of achieving known rates of southern spread, nor was re-emergence of southern populations due to overwintering larvae. Data from midge trapping programmes were used to qualitatively validate the resulting simulation model.The model described in this paper is intended to form the vector component of an extended model that will also include BTV transmission. A model of midge movement and population dynamics has been developed in sufficient detail such that the extended model may be used to evaluate the timing and extent of BTV outbreaks. This extended model could then be used as a platform for addressing the effectiveness of spatially targeted vaccination strategies or animal movement bans as BTV spread mitigation measures, or the impact of climate change on the risk and extent of outbreaks. These questions involving incursive Culicoides spread cannot be simply addressed with non-spatial models.

  15. Phototaxis of Propsilocerus akamusi (Diptera: Chironomidae) From a Shallow Eutrophic Lake in Response to Led Lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Kimio; Nagai, Yoshinari; Mushya, Tetsuya; Higashino, Makoto; Taniguchi, Yoshio

    2017-06-01

    A study on the attraction of adult Propsilocerus akamusi midges to different-colored light traps was carried out from October 21 to November 15, 2013. The 6 colored lights used in light-emitting diode (LED) lamps were white, green, red, blue, amber, and ultraviolet (UV). The UV lamp attracted the most P. akamusi, followed by green, white, blue, amber, and red. A white pulsed LED light attracted only half the number of midges as did a continuous-emission white LED light. The result indicated that manipulation of light color, considering that the red LED light and/or pulsed LED light are not as attractive as the other colors, may be appropriate for the development of an overall integrated strategy to control nuisance P. akamusi in the Lake Suwa area.

  16. Patterning of a compound eye on an extinct dipteran wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinwiddie, April; Rachootin, Stan

    2011-04-23

    We have discovered unexpected similarities between a novel and characteristic wing organ in an extinct biting midge from Baltic amber, Eohelea petrunkevitchi, and the surface of a dipteran's compound eye. Scanning electron microscope images now reveal vestigial mechanoreceptors between the facets of the organ. We interpret Eohelea's wing organ as the blending of these two developmental systems: the formation and patterning of the cuticle in the eye and of the wing. Typically, only females in the genus carry this distinctive, highly organized structure. Two species were studied (E. petrunkevitchi and E. sinuosa), and the structure differs in form between them. We examine Eohelea's wing structures for modes of fabrication, material properties and biological functions, and the effective ecological environment in which these midges lived. We argue that the current view of the wing organ's function in stridulation has been misconstrued since it was described half a century ago.

  17. A new genus and species of Lasiopteridi (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of gall midge, Haplopappusmyia gregaria, is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, and female. This species induces apical galls on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae, an endemic shrub from central Chile. The specimens were collected at La Ligua Municipality, Petorca Province, Valparaiso region, Chile, during spring of 2011–2014. This area corresponds to one of the fifth Mediterranean Matorral biome, considered among Earth's biodiversity hotspots. The new genus is characterized by presenting lateral margin of antennal scape with a mesal reentrance; four-segmented palpus, one-toothed tarsal claws, R5 straight, reaching C anterior to wing apex; male seventh and eighth tergites lacking sclerotization mesally, beyond proximal margin; presence of trichoid sensilla on the abdominal terga and sterna of both sexes, protrusible ovipositor with elongate fused cerci, and larva with 4 pairs of setose terminal papillae. Keywords: Gall midge, Morphology, Neotropical, Taxonomy

  18. Evidence for Culicoides obsoletus group as vector for Schmallenberg virus in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lasse Dam; Kristensen, Birgit; Kirkeby, Carsten

    , in the south-west of Denmark (close to the German border), were sorted into pools and tested for the presence of Schmallenberg virus RNA by RT-qPCR. From 18 pools of 5 midges from the C. obsoletus group, 2 pools were both found positive in two separate assays, targeting the L- and S- segments of the SBV RNA....... However, 4 pools of C. punctatus s.str were negative. The sequence of 80bp (excluding the primer sequences) from the amplicons (ca. 145bp) was identical to that published for the expected region of the SBV L-segment. The levels of SBV RNA detected in the biting midges were much higher than could...

  19. Dynamics of insect pollinators as influenced by cocoa production systems in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon, Ian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa is strictly entomophilous but studies on the influence of the ecosystem on insect pollinators in cocoa production systems are limited. The abundance of cocoa pollinators and pod-set of cocoa as influenced by a gradient of farm distances from natural forest and proportion of plantain/banana clusters in or adjacent to cocoa farms were therefore investigated. Cocoa pollinators trapped were predominantly ceratopogonid midges hence, analyses were based on their population. Variation in farm distance to forest did neither influence ceratopogonid midge abundance nor cocoa pod-set. However, we found a positive relationship between pollinator abundance and fruit set and the proportion of plantain/banana intercropped with cocoa. The results suggest appropriate cocoa intercrop can enhance cocoa pollination, and the current farming system in Ghana can conveniently accommodate such interventions without significant changes in farm practices.

  20. Gene-specific characterization of human histone H2B by electron capture dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siuti, Nertila; Roth, Michael J; Mizzen, Craig A; Kelleher, Neil L; Pesavento, James J

    2006-02-01

    The basis set of protein forms expressed by human cells from the H2B gene family was determined by Top Down Mass Spectrometry. Using Electron Capture Dissociation for MS/MS of H2B isoforms, direct evidence for the expression of unmodified H2B.Q, H2B.A, H2B.K/T, H2B.J, H2B.E, H2B.B, H2B.F, and monoacetylated H2B.A was obtained from asynchronous HeLa cells. H2B.A was the most abundant form, with the overall expression profile not changing significantly in cells arrested in mitosis by colchicine or during mid-S, mid-G2, G2/M, and mid-G1 phases of the cell cycle. Modest hyperacetylation of H2B family members was observed after sodium butyrate treatment.

  1. Feeding ecology of waterfowl wintering on evaporation ponds in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, N.H.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    We examined the feeding ecology of Northern Pintails (Anas acuta), Northern Shovelers (A. clypeata), and Ruddy Ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) wintering on drainwater evaporation ponds in California from 1982 through 1984. Pintails primarily consumed midges (Chironomidae) (39.3%) and widegeongrass (Ruppia maritima) nutlets (34.6%). Shovelers and Ruddy Ducks consumed 92.5% and 90.1% animal matter, respectively. Water boatmen (Corixidae) (51.6%), rotifers (Rotatoria) (20.4%), and copepods (Copepoda) (15.2%) were the most important Shoveler foods, and midges (49.7%) and water boatmen (36.0%) were the most important foods of Ruddy Ducks. All three species were opportunistic foragers, shifting their diets seasonally to the most abundant foods given their behavioral and morphological attributes.

  2. Patterning of a compound eye on an extinct dipteran wing

    OpenAIRE

    Dinwiddie, April; Rachootin, Stan

    2010-01-01

    We have discovered unexpected similarities between a novel and characteristic wing organ in an extinct biting midge from Baltic amber, Eohelea petrunkevitchi, and the surface of a dipteran's compound eye. Scanning electron microscope images now reveal vestigial mechanoreceptors between the facets of the organ. We interpret Eohelea's wing organ as the blending of these two developmental systems: the formation and patterning of the cuticle in the eye and of the wing.

  3. Neolasioptera pantaneira, a new species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) associated with Aeschynomene denticulata (Fabaceae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, V C; Catian, G; Leme, F M

    2017-03-01

    A new species of gall midge that induces stem galls on Aeschynomene denticulata (Fabaceae) is described based on material collected in Pantanal (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). This species is unique among the Brazilian congeners in having spatula with three convex teeth, cruciate, with defined anterolateral extensions, four lateral papillae on each side of the spatula, and three pairs of terminal papillae (larva), four-segmented palpi (adult), 17 flagellomeres (female), ovipositor about 11 times length of seventh tergite.

  4. Sobre uma nova espécie do gênero Aedokritus Roback, 1958 (Diptera: Chironomidae On a new species of the genus Aedokritus Roback, 1958 (Diptera: Chironomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião José de Oliveira

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a new species of a non-biting midge of the genus Aedokritus Roback, 1958 (Chironominae, Chironomidae from Brazil and Bolívia. That is the fifth species of this genus. The other species of the genus are: A. penicilligerus (Edwards, 1931, from Argentina and Peru; A. pruinescens (Edwards, 1931, from Argentina; A. platycnemis (Edwards, 1931, from Argentina; and A. sartis Roback, 1960, from Brazil.

  5. Niakha virus: A novel member of the family Rhabdoviridae isolated from phlebotomine sandflies in Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilakis, Nikos; Widen, Steven; Mayer, Sandra V.; Seymour, Robert; Wood, Thomas G.; Popov, Vsevolov; Guzman, Hilda; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.A.; Ghedin, Elodie; Holmes, Edward C.; Walker, Peter J.; Tesh, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae have been assigned to eight genera but many remain unassigned. Rhabdoviruses have a remarkably diverse host range that includes terrestrial and marine animals, invertebrates and plants. Transmission of some rhabdoviruses often requires an arthropod vector, such as mosquitoes, midges, sandflies, ticks, aphids and leafhoppers, in which they replicate. Herein we characterize Niakha virus (NIAV), a previously uncharacterized rhabdovirus isolated from phebotomin...

  6. The Impact of Bluetongue on Rumminants Mortality. (Bovine and Ovine)

    OpenAIRE

    NZUONKWELLE, Nzumenang

    2008-01-01

    Bluetongue is a disease of sheep, but cattle are the principal vertebrate reservoirs of the virus. Once established, "it is impossible to actively eradicate bluetongue virus". The virus will circulate, generally subclinically, in cattle and other ruminants, and in midges. The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between the bluetongue incidence data(2006) and the mortality data(2006). To achieve the main objective of this report, the difference in the 2006 mortality and mean...

  7. Combining dispersion modelling with synoptic patterns to understand the wind-borne transport into the UK of the bluetongue disease vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgin, Laura; Ekström, Marie; Dessai, Suraje

    2017-07-01

    Bluetongue, an economically important animal disease, can be spread over long distances by carriage of insect vectors (Culicoides biting midges) on the wind. The weather conditions which influence the midge's flight are controlled by synoptic scale atmospheric circulations. A method is proposed that links wind-borne dispersion of the insects to synoptic circulation through the use of a dispersion model in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. We illustrate how to identify the main synoptic situations present during times of midge incursions into the UK from the European continent. A PCA was conducted on high-pass-filtered mean sea-level pressure data for a domain centred over north-west Europe from 2005 to 2007. A clustering algorithm applied to the PCA scores indicated the data should be divided into five classes for which averages were calculated, providing a classification of the main synoptic types present. Midge incursion events were found to mainly occur in two synoptic categories; 64.8% were associated with a pattern displaying a pressure gradient over the North Atlantic leading to moderate south-westerly flow over the UK and 17.9% of the events occurred when high pressure dominated the region leading to south-easterly or easterly winds. The winds indicated by the pressure maps generally compared well against observations from a surface station and analysis charts. This technique could be used to assess frequency and timings of incursions of virus into new areas on seasonal and decadal timescales, currently not possible with other dispersion or biological modelling methods.

  8. Fungal biological control agents for integrated management of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae of livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Narladkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana had wide host range against insects and hence these are being exploited as fungal bio-pesticide on a large scale. Both fungi are proved pesticides against many crop pests and farmers are well acquainted with their use on the field. Thus, research was aimed to explore the potency of these fungal spores against larval and adult Culicoides midges, a pest of livestock. Materials and Methods: In-vitro testing of both fungal biological control agents was undertaken in Petri dishes against field collected Culicoides larvae, while in plastic beakers against field collected blood-engorged female Culicoides midges. In-vivo testing was undertaken by spraying requisite concentration of fungal spores on the drainage channel against larvae and resting sites of adult Culicoides midges in the cattle shed. Lethal concentration 50 (LC50 values and regression equations were drawn by following probit analysis using SPSS statistical computerized program. Results: The results of this study revealed LC50 values of 2692 mg and 3837 mg (108 cfu/g for B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, respectively, against Culicoides spp. larvae. Death of Culicoides larvae due to B. bassiana showed greenish coloration in the middle of the body with head and tail showed intense blackish changes, while infection of M. anisopliae resulted in death of Culicoides larvae with greenish and blackish coloration of body along with total destruction, followed by desquamation of intestinal channel. The death of adult Culicoides midges were caused by both the fungi and after death growth of fungus were very well observed on the dead cadavers proving the efficacy of the fungus. Conclusion: Preliminary trials with both funguses (M. anisopliae, B. bassiana showed encouraging results against larvae and adults of Culicoides spp. Hence, it was ascertained that, these two fungal molecules can form a part of biological control and

  9. Trypanosoma culicavium sp nov., an avian trypanosome transmitted by Culex mosquitoes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votýpka, Jan; Szabová, J.; Rádrová, J.; Zídková, J.; Svobodová, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 62, MAR (2012), s. 745-754 ISSN 1466-5026 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR GD206/09/H026 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ORNITHOMYIA-AVICULARIA * BITING MIDGES * RIBOSOMAL-RNA * BLACK FLIES * AVIUM * TRANSMISSION * KINETOPLASTIDA * PARASITE * DIPTERA * VECTOR Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.112, year: 2012

  10. Sexual differences in prevalence of a new species of trypanosome infecting t?ngara frogs

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, Ximena E.; Pinto, C. Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosomes are a diverse group of protozoan parasites of vertebrates transmitted by a variety of hematophagous invertebrate vectors. Anuran trypanosomes and their vectors have received relatively little attention even though these parasites have been reported from frog and toad species worldwide. Blood samples collected from túngara frogs (Engystomops pustulosus), a Neotropical anuran species heavily preyed upon by eavesdropping frog-biting midges (Corethrella spp.), were examined for trypa...

  11. New species of Lopesia (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Urso-Guimarães

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of gall midge, Lopesia eichhorniae sp. nov. (Cecidomyiidae, Diptera, associated with rhizomes of Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth (Pontederiaceae is described. This is the first record of Lopesia galls in this species of macrophyte, quite common in natural and artificial lakes in Southeast Brazil. Illustrations of the adults (male and female, pupa, larva, and gall of the new species are presented.

  12. Taxonomic problems in the subgenus Meloehelea Wirth of the genus Atrichopogon Kieffer (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) inferred from both morphological and molecular characters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tóthová, A.; Knoz, J.; Sonnek, R.; Bryja, Josef; Vaňhara, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2008), s. 1-12 ISSN 0785-8760 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD524/05/H536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : taxonomy * biting midges * 16S rDNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.410, year: 2008 http://www.entomologicafennica.org/Volume19/abstracts19_1.htm

  13. Breeding sites and species association of the main Bluetongue and Schmallenberg virus vectors, the Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), in northern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Losson, Bertrand; Saegerman, Claude; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges are biological vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) and, as recently discovered, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe. Since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases that affect domestic and wild ruminants have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. The substrates that are suitable for larval development of the main vector species are still relatively unknow...

  14. New species of Lopesia Rübsaamen (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae associated with Andira humilis Mart. ex Benth. (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Almeida Garcia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Lopesia Rübsaamen, 1908 induces leaf galls on Andira humilis (Fabaceae in the Cerrado biome (Brazilian savanna of Bahia, Mato Grosso and São Paulo states, Brazil. Larva, pupa, female, and male of this new species of gall midge are described and illustrated in this paper. Keywords: Cerrado, Gall maker, Insect–plant interaction, Neotropical region, Taxonomy

  15. Survival strategies of chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae) living in temporary habitats: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Matěna, Josef; Ali, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 100, - (2003), s. 459-465 ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/98/P156; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911; CEZ:AV0Z6017912; CEZ:MSM 124100001 Keywords : insect ecology * midges * colonization Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.741, year: 2003

  16. Seroepidemiology of bluetongue in South Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkendu Halder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: With the aim of revealing the epidemiological intricacies of bluetongue (BT in the southern part of West Bengal state, the present study was undertaken to assess seroprevalence of BT along with identification of the vector of the disease, i.e., Culicoides midges available in the region in their breeding season with conducive environmental factors, if any. Materials and Methods: A total of 1509 (sheep-504, goat-1005 samples were collected from three different agroclimatic zones of South Bengal viz. new alluvial, red laterite and coastal saline. To detect anti-BT antibodies in the collected serum samples, indirect-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA was performed. Culicoides midges were collected from those agro-climatic zones of South Bengal for species identification. The meteorological parameters, viz. temperature (maximum and minimum, rainfall and relative humidity of three agro-climatic zones of South Bengal were analyzed for the months of July to December during 2010-2013. Results: The overall seropositivity was 33.13% and 30.24% in sheep and goat, respectively as assessed by i-ELISA. In South Bengal, the predominant species of Culicoides found were Culicoides schultzei, Culicoides palpifer and Culicoides definitus. Conclusion: Since virus transmitting species of Culicoides midges could be detected in South Bengal, besides high seropositivity in ruminants, the possibility of circulating BT virus in South Bengal is quite imminent.

  17. Assessing the Economic Importance of Dasineura oxycoccana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Northern Highbush Blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Noel G; Isaacs, Rufus

    2015-08-01

    Infestation by blueberry gall midge, Dasineura oxycoccana Johnson, is common in northern highbush blueberries, but its effects on crop productivity are unknown. We examined whether infestation by blueberry gall midge reduces flower bud production when compared with uninfested shoots, and how infestation at different times affects the crop response. From the fall of 2009 to the spring of 2011, the number of flower buds on infested and uninfested shoots of blueberry bushes was counted and compared. Despite causing branching of vegetative growth, there was no significant effect of infestation on flower bud production. During the summer of 2010, damaged shoots were marked throughout the growing season in June, July, or August. The number of flower buds set per shoot declined with later infestation dates, and shoots damaged in August had significantly fewer buds than those damaged in June and July. We discuss the implications of these findings for management of blueberry gall midge in northern highbush blueberry. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Detection of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis in Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário; Rodrigues, Bruno Leite; Bandeira, Maria da Conceição Abreu; Moraes, Jorge Luiz Pinto; Fonteles, Raquel Silva; Pereira, Silma Regina Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    Biting midges in the genus Culicoides act as vectors of arboviruses throughout the world and as vectors of filariasis in Latin America, the Caribbean, and parts of Africa. Although Culicoides spp. are currently not considered to be vectors of Leishmania protozoa, the high abundance of biting midges in areas with active cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission points to the possibility of Culicoides infection by these pathogens. We used PCR to test captured Culicoides species for natural infection with Leishmania spp. We tested 450 Culicoides females, divided into 30 pools of 15 individuals each, as follows: nine pools of C. foxi (135 specimens), seven pools of C. filariferus (105), seven pools of C. insignis (105), five pools of C. ignacioi (75), and two pools of C. flavivenula (30). PCR confirmed the presence of Leishmania braziliensis DNA in C. ignacioi (0.14%), C. insignis (0.14%), and C. foxi (0.11); and Le. amazonensis DNA in C. filariferus (0.14%) and C. flavivenula (0.50%). We conclude that these Culicoides species can be naturally infected, but vector competence and transmission capability must be confirmed in future studies. Our results warrant further investigation into the role of these biting midge species in the leishmaniasis epidemiological cycle. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  19. In vitro expression of erythropoietin by transfected human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, P-L; Cheong, S-K; Leong, C-F; Othman, A

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are pluripotent progenitor cells that can be found in human bone marrow (BM). These cells have low immunogenicity and could suppress alloreactive T-cell responses. In the current study, MSC were tested for their capacity to carry and deliver the erythropoietin (EPO) gene in vitro. Expanded BM MSC was transfected with EPO-encoded plasmid pMCV1.2 and EPO-encoded MIDGE (minimalistic immunologically defined gene expression) vector by electroporation. The expressed EPO was used to induce hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) into erythroid colonies. The results showed that the MIDGE vector was more effective and stable than the plasmid (pMCV1.2) in delivering EPO gene into MSC. The supernatants containing EPO obtained from the transfected cell culture were able to induce the differentiation of HSC into erythroid colonies. MSC hold promise as a cell factory for the production of biologic molecules, and MIDGE vector is more effective and stable than the plasmid in nucleofection involving the EPO gene.

  20. Les porcheries : réservoirs des Culicoides (Diptera : Ceratopogonidae, vecteurs des virus de la Maladie de la Langue bleue et de Schmallenberg ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmer, JY.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pig farms: reservoirs of vectors of Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses?. Bluetongue (BT is a vector-borne disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. Since its recent outbreak in northern Europe, this viral disease has caused considerable economic losses. The biological vectors of the bluetongue virus are biting midges belonging to the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae. Several light trapping campaigns targeting these adult midges have been previously conducted in Belgium within cattle and sheep farms, but none have been performed inside pig farms. This study therefore aims to assess, using light traps, the levels of Culicoides populations that may have been present inside two Belgian pig farms during the fall and winter of 2008. The presence of (potential Culicoides vector species was demonstrated inside the pig buildings during the fall: 8 and 749 specimens belonging to 2 and 7 species were respectively trapped inside the pigsties, with the majority being Obsoletus complex females. The opening up of the buildings seemed to strongly influence their presence. Observation of the females' nutritional status suggests that these midges were likely to have fed or to have laid eggs inside the pig farms, despite the fact that pig's blood could not be identified in the abdomen of engorged females and that pig manure did not reveal the presence of larvae. Pigs could thus be involved in the maintenance of potential vector species populations of the BT virus, or of the new Schmallenberg virus.

  1. Radiosensitizing and toxic effects of the 2-nitroimidazole Ro-07-0582 in different phases of the cell cycle of extremely hypoxic human cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petterson, E.O.

    1978-01-01

    The radiosensitizing effect of 5 and 30 mM of Ro-07-0582 (misonidazole) has been studied at different stages of the cell cycle of mitotically selected NHIK 3025 cells under aerobic and extremely hypoxic conditions. For cells irradiated under aerobic conditions no sensitizing effect was seen at any stage of the cell cycle. For cells irradiated under extremely hypoxic conditions there was a lower sensitizing effect in mid-G1 than in mid-S for low radiation doses (in the initial region of the dose-response curves). For high radiation doses, however, no significant difference in sensitizing effect on cells in mid-G1 and in mid-S was seen. For cells in mid-G1 the sensitizing effect increased with increasing radiation dose. The toxic effect of 30 mM Ro-07-0582 as measured by loss of reproductive capacity was studied at room temperature for contact times up to 6 hours under aerobic conditions and 3 hours under extremely hypoxic conditions. While no effect was seen under aerobic conditions there was a toxic effect for contact intervals above 1 hour under extremely hypoxic conditions. Cells in S were more sensitive to the toxic effect of Ro-07-0582 than cells in G1. Implications for clinical use are discussed

  2. Evaluation of long term effects of thermal effluents on stream biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sublette, J.E.

    1980-10-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of energy related developments in aquatic ecosystems, a normal water data base must be established. One approach used is the selection of indicator communities on species with fairly well known environmental tolerances and requirements. The Chironomidae (Order Diptera) dominate the macrobenthic assemblages of many streams. The group offers great potential for water quality assessment. The studies in this report determine the species composition of Chironomidae at stream sites in New Mexico, across the relationship of species composition to water quality parameters, and map karyotypes for the chironomus decorus group

  3. Taxonomic notes on Chironomidae (Diptera from Okinawa Island, Japan, with the description of three new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Yamamoto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Three new species: Ionthosmittia cuneipenne sp. nov., Orthocladius (Euorthocladius okinawanus sp. nov. and Parakiefferiella semiovata sp. nov., are described from Okinawa Island, Ryukyus, Japan. In addition to these species, twelve species are newly recorded from this island. Diagnostic characters of Tokyobrillia tamamegaseta (Kobayashi et Sasa are emended. Pentapedilum yakuabeum Sasa et Suzuki syn. nov. and Polypedilum yakucedeum Sasa et Suizuki syn. nov. are junior synonyms of Ainuyusurika tuberculatum (Tokunaga. Einfeldia kanazawai (Yamamoto is transferred to the genus Chironomus Meigen and its systematic position is discussed.

  4. SELECTIVIDAD DEL INSECTICIDA CARTAP EMPLEANDO BIOENSAYOS CON ORGANISMOS NO DESTINATARIOS

    OpenAIRE

    Iannacone, José; Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (Perú).; Alvariño, Lorena; Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (Perú).

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar la ecotoxicidad del cartap (Bala® 50 PS) sobre ocho organismos animales no destinatarios: 1) Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774) (Mollusca), 2) Emerita analoga (Stimpson, 1857) (Crustácea), 3) Chironomus calligraphus Goeldi, 1805 (Diptera), 4) Cyprinus carpio (Linné, 1758) (Osteichyties), 5) Eisenia foetida (Savigny, 1826) (Annelida), 6) Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851) (Hemiptera), 7) Trichogramma fuentesi Torre, 1980 (Hymenoptera) y 8...

  5. Seasonal variation and impact of waste-water lagoons as larval habitat on the population dynamics of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera:Ceratpogonidae at two dairy farms in northern California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christie E Mayo

    Full Text Available The Sacramento (northern Central Valley of California (CA has a hot Mediterranean climate and a diverse ecological landscape that is impacted extensively by human activities, which include the intensive farming of crops and livestock. Waste-water ponds, marshes, and irrigated fields associated with these agricultural activities provide abundant larval habitats for C. sonorensis midges, in addition to those sites that exist in the natural environment. Within this region, C. sonorensis is an important vector of bluetongue (BTV and related viruses that adversely affect the international trade and movement of livestock, the economics of livestock production, and animal welfare. To characterize the seasonal dynamics of immature and adult C. sonorensis populations, abundance was monitored intensively on two dairy farms in the Sacramento Valley from August 2012- to July 2013. Adults were sampled every two weeks for 52 weeks by trapping (CDC style traps without light and baited with dry-ice along N-S and E-W transects on each farm. One farm had large operational waste-water lagoons, whereas the lagoon on the other farm was drained and remained dry during the study. Spring emergence and seasonal abundance of adult C. sonorensis on both farms coincided with rising vernal temperature. Paradoxically, the abundance of midges on the farm without a functioning waste-water lagoon was increased as compared to abundance on the farm with a waste-water lagoon system, indicating that this infrastructure may not serve as the sole, or even the primary larval habitat. Adult midges disappeared from both farms from late November until May; however, low numbers of parous female midges were detected in traps set during daylight in the inter-seasonal winter period. This latter finding is especially critical as it provides a potential mechanism for the "overwintering" of BTV in temperate regions such as northern CA. Precise documentation of temporal changes in the annual

  6. Impact of heavy metals on macro-invertebrate fauna of the thaddo stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazneen, S.; Begum, F.; Sharmeen, R.; Ahmed, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Impact of some heavy metals like zinc, lead, copper, chromium and cadmium were studied at four spots on the macro-invertebrate fauna of the Thaddo stream, a tributary of Malir River. This was in correlation with an earlier study on the physico-chemical aspects of water which showed a severe pollution in this stream. Present data for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of macro-invertebrates and the ranges of heavy metals (Zn 0.5-3.5, Pb 0.90-1.42, Cu 0.35-0.93, Cr 0.0-0.08 and Cd 0.003-0.01 ppm) in the water samples also indicate high level of pollution in the stream. Macro-invertebrate fauna comprises only of aquatic insects which include larvae of Chironomus spp., adults of the Notonectus sp., and nymphs of Gomphus sp. (dragon fly) belonging to the order Diptera , Hemiptera and Odonata, respectively. Quantitatively Notonectus sp. predominated and followed by Chironomus larvae. The maximum concentrations of all heavy metals were recorded at spot 3. A general trend of increase was observed from up stream to down stream regions particularly in the level of zinc. However, a reverse trend was observed in the abundance of macro-invertebrates with a great reduction at spot 4. The statistical analysis of the data generally indicates a negative correlation between the values of the studied heavy metals and the abundance of macro-invertebrates throughout this study. (author)

  7. Taxonomic and numeric structure of Chironomidae (Diptera in different habitats of a Neotropical floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Márcia de Menezes Butakka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We characterized the local benthic Chironomidae by analyzing the numerical density, biomass, diversity index of Shannon-Wiener and dominance of larvae in the main channel of the Ivinhema River, in a secondary channel, in five lakes connected to the main channel and in five lakes without connection. Of the 68 taxa identified, Aedokritus sp., Tanytarsus sp., Chironomus strenzkei Fittkau, 1968 and Procladius sp.1 were found in all sampling sites and were considered morphospecies with greater of greatest ecological plasticity. Chironomus strenzkei Fittkau, 1968, contributed with the greatest biomass in the central region of lakes without connection, whereas Aedokritus sp. dominated in the littoral of lakes. The greater values of diversity indices in the littoral region of channels were due to the greater water flow and to the higher food availability in these areas. The dominance indices, by contrast, were greater on the central region of these environments. The littoral region has exclusive characteristics, representing habitats that could play important controlling in the numerical density and index diversity on the ecosystem, whereas that the biomass of benthic invertebrates in the central region in some biotopes would have different spatial probably according organisms drift.

  8. Food preference of red devil (Amphilophus labiatus) in the Sermo Reservoir, Kulon Progo Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariasari, A.; Helmiati, S.; Setyobudi, E.

    2018-03-01

    Food preference is one of the important information that can be used to know the food chain in order to manage fisheries resources. This study aims to determine the food habits and preference of red devil (Amphilophus labiatus) in the Sermo Reservoir, Kulon Progo Regency. Samples were collected randomly each month from September 2013 to February 2014. Each sample collected was measured its total length, body weight, and determined sex, then dissected to measure the gut length and to observe gut contents. Results showed that red devil is omnivorous (relative gut length = 3.83) with food composition consisted of fish, crustaceans, detritus, phytoplankton, zooplankton, plants, insects, insect’s larvae, Chironomus sp., and annelids. A change occurred in the food preference of red devil, i.e. the young fish prefers to feed Chironomus sp. larvae (86.02 %) whereas the adult fish prefers fish/fish chunk (81.82 %). Trophic level status of red devil showed as carnivorous and niche overlapping between male and female of the adult.

  9. Cytogenetic study of natural chironomini (diptera, chiromedae) populations from open water bodies of former Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seysebaev, A.T.; Rakhimbaeva, K. T.; Bakhtin, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the paper genetic variability of natural population of chironomidae inhabiting in waters on the territory of Semipalatinsk test site (STS) is studied. Ten Chironomini species of Chironomidae subfamily and one species of Tanypodinae subfamily were identified using cyto-taxonomic methods of analysis. Cytophotomap of polythene chromosomes of salivary glands were established for four species: Glyptotendipes salinus, Captochironomus setivalva, Camptochriomonus tentas and Chironomus plumosus. For the first time a new previously unknown species of Chironomus gender, and namely C, genelenus 1. sp. n. was described and a cytophotomap of its polythene chromosomes was established. A detailed quantative and qualitative analysis of chromosome polymorphism was carried out and the spectrum and frequency of the disk sequences and genotypic combination were identified. New evidence on change in the polythene chromosomes structure were revealed in certain Chironomini species dwelling in the radioactively contaminated water bodies of STS: rare, unique disk sequences of chromosomes were found, a series of specific homo zygote and heterozygote inversions were observed, which evidently resulted from long-term adaptive selection under conditions of the chronic ionizing radiation. Increase of in frequency of structural mutations of chromosomes was found in mitotic cells of imago disk of Chironomini larvae is revealed. This increase indicates that at the STS many population of benthos organisms are directly affected by the ionizing radiation

  10. Induction of mouthpart deformities in chironomid larvae exposed to contaminated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Veroli, Alessandra [Dipartimento di Biologia Cellulare e Ambientale, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Via Elce Di Sotto, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Goretti, Enzo [Dipartimento di Biologia Cellulare e Ambientale, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Via Elce Di Sotto, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Paumen, Miriam Leon; Kraak, Michiel H.S.; Admiraal, Wim [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam, Sciencepark 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-07-15

    The aim of the present study was to improve the cause-effect relationship between toxicant exposure and chironomid mouthpart deformities, by linking induction of mouthpart deformities to contaminated field sediments, metal mixtures and a mutagenic polycyclic aromatic compound metabolite (acridone). Mouthpart deformities in Chironomus riparius larvae were induced by both the heavy metal mixture and by acridone. A clear correlation between metal concentrations in the sediment and deformities incidence was only observed when the contaminated field sediments were left out of the analysis, probably because these natural sediments contained other toxic compounds, which could be responsible for a higher incidence of deformities than predicted by the measured metal concentrations only. The present study clearly improved the cause-effect relationship between toxicant exposure and the induction of mouthpart deformities. It is concluded that the incidence of mouthpart deformities may better reflect the potential toxicity of contaminated sediments than chemical analysis. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested the induction of deformities in C. riparius in laboratory toxicity experiments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We used field sediments and spiked sediments with heavy metals and mutagenic PAC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mouthpart deformities were induced both by heavy metal mixtures and by acridone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A correlation between metal concentrations in the sediment and deformities was found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mouthpart deformities better reflect the toxicity of sediments than chemical analysis. - Mouthpart deformities of Chironomus riparius larvae better reflect the toxicity of sediments than chemical analysis.

  11. RNA interference targets arbovirus replication in Culicoides cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Esther; Ratinier, Maxime; Watson, Mick; Shaw, Andrew E; McFarlane, Melanie; Varela, Mariana; Elliott, Richard M; Palmarini, Massimo; Kohl, Alain

    2013-03-01

    Arboviruses are transmitted to vertebrate hosts by biting arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, and midges. These viruses replicate in both arthropods and vertebrates and are thus exposed to different antiviral responses in these organisms. RNA interference (RNAi) is a sequence-specific RNA degradation mechanism that has been shown to play a major role in the antiviral response against arboviruses in mosquitoes. Culicoides midges are important vectors of arboviruses, known to transmit pathogens of humans and livestock such as bluetongue virus (BTV) (Reoviridae), Oropouche virus (Bunyaviridae), and likely the recently discovered Schmallenberg virus (Bunyaviridae). In this study, we investigated whether Culicoides cells possess an antiviral RNAi response and whether this is effective against arboviruses, including those with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomes, such as BTV. Using reporter gene-based assays, we established the presence of a functional RNAi response in Culicoides sonorensis-derived KC cells which is effective in inhibiting BTV infection. Sequencing of small RNAs from KC and Aedes aegypti-derived Aag2 cells infected with BTV or the unrelated Schmallenberg virus resulted in the production of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (viRNAs) of 21 nucleotides, similar to the viRNAs produced during arbovirus infections of mosquitoes. In addition, viRNA profiles strongly suggest that the BTV dsRNA genome is accessible to a Dicer-type nuclease. Thus, we show for the first time that midge cells target arbovirus replication by mounting an antiviral RNAi response mainly resembling that of other insect vectors of arboviruses.

  12. Water Quality Criteria for Colored Smokes: Solvent Yellow 33

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    Wr e. a benthic crustacean (e.g, ostracod, isopod, or amphipod): f. an insect (e.g., mayfly, midge, stonefly)- g. a family in a phylum other than...Arthropoda or Chordata (e.g, Annelida or Mollusca): and h, a family in any order of insect or any phylum not represented. 2. Acute-chronic ratios (see...acute toxicity to freshwater acuatic animals should be used: a. Tests with daphnids and other cladocerans should be started with organisms < 24 hr old

  13. Bunyavirus-Vector Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate McElroy Horne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae family is comprised of more than 350 viruses, of which many within the Hantavirus, Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Tospovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are significant human or agricultural pathogens. The viruses within the Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods, such as mosquitoes, midges, flies, and ticks, and their associated arthropods not only serve as vectors but also as virus reservoirs in many cases. This review presents an overview of several important emerging or re-emerging bunyaviruses and describes what is known about bunyavirus-vector interactions based on epidemiological, ultrastructural, and genetic studies of members of this virus family.

  14. Assessing the consequences of an incursion of a vector-borne disease. II. Spread of bluetongue in Scotland and impact of vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Szmaragd

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Bluetongue is a viral disease of ruminants transmitted by Culicoides biting midges, which has spread across Europe over the past decade. The disease arrived in south-east England in 2007, raising the possibility that it could pose a risk to the valuable Scottish livestock industry. As part of an assessment of the economic consequences of a bluetongue virus incursion into Scotland commissioned by Scottish Government, we investigated a defined set of feasible incursion scenarios under different vaccination strategies. Our epidemiological simulations, based on expert knowledge, highlighted that infection will rarely spread in Scotland after the initial incursion and will be efficiently controlled by vaccination. Keywords: Epidemiology, modelling, disease control

  15. Genetic variation in laboratory and field populations of the vector of bluetongue virus, Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, W J

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory colonies and several natural populations of the biting midge Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett) were analyzed for genetic variation at 21 electrophoretic loci. The laboratory colonies maintained high levels of genetic variation measured by average expected heterozygosities (He = 0.142 +/- 0.008), although levels were lower than those observed in field collections (He = 0.198 +/- 0.009). A field population from Colorado, analyzed five times over a 1-yr period, showed a consistent trend in the change in gene frequencies at two loci. Genetic comparisons between natural populations were consistent with the existence of two subspecies. C. variipennis variipennis and C. variipennis sonorensis Wirth & Jones.

  16. Seasonal dynamics of three insect pests in the cabbage field in central Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trdan, Stanislav; Vidrih, Matej; Bobnar, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    From the beginning of April until the beginning of November 2006, a seasonal dynamics of three harmful insect species--Swede midge (Contarinia nasturtii [Kieffer], Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), flea beetles (Phyllotreta spp., Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae), and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella [L.], Lepidoptera, Plutellidae)--was investigated at the Laboratory Field of the Biotechnical Faculty in Ljubljana (Slovenia). The males were monitored with pheromone traps; the males of Swede midge were trapped with the traps of Swiss producer (Agroscope FAW, Wädenswill), while the adult flea beetles (trap type KLP+) and diamondback moths (trap type RAG) were trapped with the Hungarian traps (Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences). The pheromone capsules were changed in 4-week intervals, while the males were counted on about every 7th day. The first massive occurrence of diamondback moth (1.6 males/trap/day) was established in the second 10 days period of April, and the pest remained active until the 2nd 10 days period of September. The adults were the most numerous in the period between the end of May until the middle of June, but even then their number did not exceed three males caught per day. In the first 10 days period of May, the first adult flea beetles were recorded in the pheromone traps, while their notable number (0.8 males/trap/day) was stated in the third 10 days period of May. Absolutely the highest number of the beetles was recorded in the second (19 adults/trap/day) and in the third (25 adults/trap/day) 10 days of July, and the pest occurred until the beginning of October. The first massive occurrence of Swede midge (0.4 males/trap/day) was established in the second 10 days period of May, while the highest number of males (8/trap/day) were caught in the second 10 days period of July. In the third 10 days period of October, the last adults were found in the traps. Based on the results of monitoring of three cabbage insect pests we ascertained

  17. Insect galls of Restinga de Marambaia (Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, V C; Silva, L O

    2016-04-19

    Thirty-one morphotypes of insect galls and two flower damages were found on 16 families, 22 genera and 24 plant species in Restinga de Marambaia (Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ). Fabaceae and Myrtaceae were the plant families with the greatest richness of insect galls (4 and 6 morphotypes, respectively), and the greatest number of galled plants (four and three species, respectively). Galls were mostly found on leaves and stems (77% and 10%, respectively). The galling insects are represented by Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hemiptera. The majority of the galls (81%) were induced by gall midges (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera).

  18. Forest insects and diseases in Fundy National Park in 1992. Technical note No. 276. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cormier, J.R.; McPhee, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Personnel of the Forest Insect and Disease Survey regularly survey national parks for forest insect and disease conditions. This document discusses briefly some of the conditions encountered in Fundy National Park in 1992, including insects and diseases found throughout the Park that are likely to recur: Balsam gall midge, balsam twig aphid, birch casebearer, gypsy moth, porcupines, sirococcus shoot blight, white pine weevil, whitespotted sawyer beetle, yellowheaded spruce sawfly, leaf blister of yellow birch, snow damage, yellow witches' broom of balsam fir, and fall webworm.

  19. Nitrous Oxide Emission by Aquatic Macrofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    -term metabolic induction of gut denitrification is the preferential production of nitrous oxide rather than dinitrogen. These observations were made in detailed studies on the larvae of the freshwater insects Chironomus plumosus and Ephemera danica which both can be very abundant in lake and stream sediments......, respectively. Aside from these case studies, we screened more than 20 macrofauna species in various aquatic habitats for nitrous oxide production. Filter- and deposit-feeders that ingest large quantities of microorganisms were the most important emitters of nitrous oxide. In contrast, predatory species that do...... not ingest large quantities of microorganisms produced insignificant amounts of nitrous oxide. With increasing eutrophication, filter- and deposit-feeders often become the dominant feeding guilds of benthic communities. Thus, with increasing nitrate pollution, aquatic macrofauna has the potential to further...

  20. Selenium assimilation and loss by an insect predator and its relationship to Se subcellular partitioning in two prey types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, Maitee [Institut national de la recherche scientifique - Eau, Terre et Environnement, Universite du Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Hare, Landis [Institut national de la recherche scientifique - Eau, Terre et Environnement, Universite du Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, G1K 9A9 (Canada)], E-mail: landis@ete.inrs.ca

    2009-03-15

    Subcellular selenium (Se) distributions in the oligochaete Tubifex tubifex and in the insect Chironomus riparius did not vary with Se exposure duration, which was consistent with the observations that the duration of prey Se exposure had little influence on either Se assimilation or loss by a predatory insect (the alderfly Sialis velata). However, these two prey types differed in how Se was distributed in their cells. Overall, the predator assimilated a mean of 66% of the Se present in its prey, which was similar to the mean percentage of Se in prey cells (62%) that was theoretically available for uptake (that is, Se in the protein and organelle fractions). Likewise, data for cadmium, nickel and thallium suggest that predictions of trace element transfer between prey and predator are facilitated by considering the subcellular partitioning of these contaminants in prey cells. - Selenium assimilation by a predatory aquatic insect depends on Se availability in the cells of its prey.

  1. THE CHIRONOMIDAE ASSEMBLAGES IN SOMESUL MIC RIVER (ROMANIA DURING 1996 AND 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Monica Tudorancea

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The communities of Chironomidae larvae in the Gilau – Gherla sector of the Somesul Mic River (Transylvania, Romania were studied during 1996 and 1997 in order to compare their species composition and to see if their component species could be good indicators for water quality deterioration. A total of 102 species were recorded, out of which 12 are new records for the Romanian fauna. Four of these species are known only from East Asia and from the North America. Some species such as Chironomus thumi, Microcricotopus bicolor, Dicrotendipes nervosus and Dicrotendipes notatus occurred in organically enriched waters. Other species, such as Cricotopus algarum, Cricotopus bicinctus, Cricotopus tremulus and Cricotopus trifasciatus occurred in both clean and organically polluted water which indicate they are not good bioindicators for water quality deterioration.

  2. Benthic fauna of 41 acid sensitive headwater lakes in north central Ontario. [Chironomidae salinarius; Chironomidae anthracinus; Tanytarsini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dermott, R.; Kelso, J.R.M.; Douglas, A.

    1986-01-01

    The benthic fauna of 41 nonhumic, soft water lakes situated north of lakes Superior and Huron were sampled during 1980. The pH range of the lakes sampled was 4.6 to 7.7. The benthic infauna displayed regional differences in abundance and composition, with large variation with each district. Total abundance, biomass, and number of taxa were not correlated with lake pH or alkalinity. The Chironomidae displayed a slight change in percent composition of the major species with lower pH. The Tanytarsini and Chironomus Salinarius group decreased, while C. anthracinus group increased in relative abundance in those lakes with lower pH. Other factors appear to control the distribution of the various invertebrate orders, with depth and sediment nature being important variables.

  3. Common antigenic determinants of haemoglobin as basis of immunological cross-reactivity between chironomid species (Diptera, Chironomidae): studies with human and animal sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X; Dewair, M; Haegele, K; Prelicz, H; Scholl, A; Tichy, H

    1983-01-01

    Chironomids, of which approximately 10,000 species exist, are reported to cause severe immediate type allergic diseases in man. In the present study, immunological cross-reactivity between 14 chironomid species from different continents was proven by RAST inhibition, double immunodiffusion and a new allergoprint technique, based upon PAGE separation of insect crude extracts. Using isolated chironomid haemoglobins and sera of sensitized persons, as well as rabbit antibodies against larval crude extract or against the haemoglobin fraction of Chironomus thummi, it could be proven that cross-reactivity derives at least predominantly from haemoglobin components with common antigenic determinants in the different species. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:6197219

  4. Nitrous Oxide Production by Abundant Benthic Macrofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    of the short-term metabolic induction of gut denitrification is the preferential production of nitrous oxide rather than dinitrogen. On a large scale, gut denitrification in, for instance, Chironomus plumosus larvae can increase the overall nitrous oxide emission of lake sediment by a factor of eight. We...... screened more than 20 macrofauna species for nitrous oxide production and identified filter-feeders and deposit-feeders that occur ubiquitously and at high abundance (e.g., chironomids, ephemeropterans, snails, and mussels) as the most important emitters of nitrous oxide. In contrast, predatory species...... that do not ingest large quantities of microorganisms produced insignificant amounts of nitrous oxide. Ephemera danica, a very abundant mayfly larva, was monitored monthly in a nitrate-polluted stream. Nitrous oxide production by this filter-feeder was highly dependent on nitrate availability...

  5. Toxicity of fluoride to aquatic species and evaluation of toxicity modifying factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearcy, Krysta; Elphick, James; Burnett-Seidel, Charlene

    2015-07-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the toxicity of fluoride to a variety of freshwater aquatic organisms and to establish whether water quality variables contribute substantively to modifying its toxicity. Water hardness, chloride, and alkalinity were tested as possible toxicity modifying factors for fluoride using acute toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca and Oncorhynchus mykiss. Chloride appeared to be the major toxicity modifying factor for fluoride in these acute toxicity tests. The chronic toxicity of fluoride was evaluated with a variety of species, including 3 fish (Pimephales promelas, O. mykiss, and Salvelinus namaycush), 3 invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia, H. azteca, and Chironomus dilutus), 1 plant (Lemna minor), and 1 alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). Hyalella azteca was the most sensitive species overall, and O. mykiss was the most sensitive species of fish. The role of chloride as a toxicity modifying factor was inconsistent between species in the chronic toxicity tests. © 2015 SETAC.

  6. Leaf litter as a possible food source for chironomids (Diptera in Brazilian and Portuguese headwater streams Detritos foliares como possível fonte de alimento para Chironomidae (Diptera em riachos de cabeceira brasileiros e portugueses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Callisto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the potential use of leaf detritus by chironomid larvae. Field and laboratory experiments were performed using leaves and chironomid species collected in Portugal and Brazil. Laboratory experiments under controlled conditions were done using microbial conditioned senescent leaves of Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn, Neriumoleander L., Protium heptaphilum (Aubl. March, Protium brasiliense (Spreng Engl., Myrcia guyanensis(Aubl. DC and Miconia chartacea Triana. Laboratory experiments were performed using specimens collected from leaf litter in local streams. Whenever possible, after the experiments, chironomids were allowed to emerge as adults and identified. In Portugal the following taxa were identified: Micropsectra apposita (Walker, 1856, Polypedilum albicorne (Meigen, 1838,Eukiefferiella claripennis Lundbeck (1898, Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus atripes Rempel (1937 and Ablabesmyia Johannsen (1905 (Diptera, Chironomidae. Consumption rates ranged from 0.15 ± 0.10 mg (AFDM of leaf animal-1 day-1 (Micropsectra apposita feeding on Alnus glutinosa up to 0.85 ± 0.33 mg (AFDM of leaf animal-1 day-1 (Polypedilum albicorne feeding on Miconia chartacea. In Brazil, the following taxa were identified from leaves: Phaenopsectra sp., Chironomus spp. and Polypedilum sp. and maximum consumption rates reached 0.47 ± 0.28 (AFDM of leaf mg.animal-1.day-1 (Chironomus Meigen (1803 feeding on Protium heptaphilum. Feeding experiments with laboratory cultured specimens, revealed that some chironomids were unable to feed on decomposing leaves (e.g., C. xanthus Rempel (1939 on P.brasiliensis and M.guyanensis. Our results suggest that some stream chironomids (not typical shredders can use leaf litter of riparian vegetation as a complementary food source.O objetivo foi avaliar o potencial uso de detritos foliares por larvas de Chironomidae. Foram realizados experimentos em campo e em laboratório utilizando folhas e larvas de Chironomidae

  7. Effects of nitrate addition on phosphorus retention in an eutrophic reservoir : laboratory experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T.; Janke, H.; Colzato, M.; Beraldo, D.; Mozeto, A.; Botta, C.; Nascimento, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Ibrite reservoir in southeast Brazil is polluted with effluents from an oil refinery as well as domestic untreated sewage from cities in the region. In this study, calcium nitrate was used as a sediment remediation technology in order to reduce phosphorus availability. Experiments were conducted in microcosms incubated for up to 135 days. Ceriodaphnia silvestrii and Vibrio fisheri were used to conduct an acute toxicity assessment of the water column and pore water of the sediments. Chironomus xanthus was used to assess bulk sediments. Results of the chemical analyses showed that high values of acid volatile sulfide in the sediments decreased by 99 per cent after 135 days of incubation. Approximately 50 per cent of the soluble reactive phosphorus was removed from the water column. The toxicity of the tested organisms was attributed to high nitrate concentrations in pore water sediments. Results indicated that calcium nitrate is not suitable as a sediment remediation technology.

  8. Invasive alien species water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes as abode for macroinvertebrates in hypertrophic Ramsar Site, Lake Xochimilco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Ramirez, A; Robles-Valderrama, E; Ramirez-Flores, E

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents information on the density, diversity and functional feeding groups of macroinvertebrate assemblages associated with water hyacinth in Antiguo Canal Cuemanco, part of Lake Xochimilco in Mexico City. Rare (low frequency and density) and dominant (high frequency and density) taxa prevailed in the assemblages, with the most predominant being Hyalella azteca, Chironomus plumosus and Ischnura denticollis. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling confirmed two climatic seasons: warm-rainy and cold-dry; the former with the highest diversity and density of taxa. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed that conductivity, nitrates and turbidity explained the density variations of taxa. Antiguo Canal Cuemanco waters are spatially homogeneous with the characteristics of hypertrophic shallow lakes, inhabited by scrapers and gathering-collectors. The species found were tolerant to organic pollution.

  9. Selenium assimilation and loss by an insect predator and its relationship to Se subcellular partitioning in two prey types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, Maitee; Hare, Landis

    2009-01-01

    Subcellular selenium (Se) distributions in the oligochaete Tubifex tubifex and in the insect Chironomus riparius did not vary with Se exposure duration, which was consistent with the observations that the duration of prey Se exposure had little influence on either Se assimilation or loss by a predatory insect (the alderfly Sialis velata). However, these two prey types differed in how Se was distributed in their cells. Overall, the predator assimilated a mean of 66% of the Se present in its prey, which was similar to the mean percentage of Se in prey cells (62%) that was theoretically available for uptake (that is, Se in the protein and organelle fractions). Likewise, data for cadmium, nickel and thallium suggest that predictions of trace element transfer between prey and predator are facilitated by considering the subcellular partitioning of these contaminants in prey cells. - Selenium assimilation by a predatory aquatic insect depends on Se availability in the cells of its prey

  10. Obolodiplosis robiniae (Haldeman (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae: A new invasive insect pest on black locust in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Ljubodrag

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Locust gall midge Obolodiplosis robiniae (Haldeman originates from Pennsylvania, USA. It was introduced to Europe in 2003, to Italy, Veneto. Its spreading was very fast and in the following year it was identified from the Check Republic and Slovenia. In 2005, it was recorded from South Tyrol and in 2006 from Hungary, south Slovakia, Germany, Croatia, Ukraine and Serbia. During 2007 it was identified from Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia & Herzegovina, France, Montenegro, the Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland, Russia and UK. The expansion of locust gall midge was also recorded in Japan, South Korea, where it was identified for the first time in 2002, and in 2005 it was identified from China. The first finding from Serbia was recorded in the autumn 2006 in the surroundings of Šabac. During 2007, it was identified from Belgrade, and in the same year and the following year (2008 it was found at numerous sites in Serbia, the Republic of Srpska and Montenegro. This study presents O. robiniae biology, method of distribution, natural enemies and the ecological significance.

  11. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SCHMALLENBERG VIRUS IN EUROPEAN BISON ( BISON BONASUS) IN POLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kęsik-Maliszewska, Julia; Krzysiak, Michał K; Grochowska, Maria; Lechowski, Lech; Chase, Christopher; Larska, Magdalena

    2018-04-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV), an emerging arbovirus in Europe, is an important pathogen in domestic ruminants; however, its impact on free-ranging wild ruminants is not well studied. Three hundred and forty-seven serum samples collected between 2011 and 2016 from 302 European bison ( Bison bonasus) from 12 different sites in Poland were tested for the presence of SBV antibodies. In addition, 86 sera were collected between 2013 and 2016 from three species of cervids for testing for SBV antibodies. After the first detection of the virus in Poland in October 2012, the proportion of SBV-seropositive European bison reached 81% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 77.1-85.8%), whereas in cervids seroprevalence was 34% (95% CI: 23.5-43.9%). There was an increase in seroprevalence in European bison from 2012 to 2014. Biting midges ( Culicoides spp.), the primary vectors of SBV, were monitored entomologically for the identification of the biting midge populations and virologically for SBV infections in the Białowieża Forest region, which contains the world's largest European bison population. We detected SBV by PCR in 3% of Culicoides pools from 2015. In addition, seven fetal brain samples from European bison or cervids were tested and were negative for SBV RNA. Our results indicate a high seroprevalence with reduced transmission of SBV in subsequent years in the European bison populations and lower seroprevalence in cervids.

  12. NATURAL ENEMIES OF DIURAPHIS NOXIA (STERNORRHYNCHA: APHIDIDAE IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter TÓTH

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A study from 2002 documented the occurrence of natural enemies (parasitoid wasps, predatory fl ies, entomopathogenic fungi associated with colonies of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov, 1913 (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae, in the spring barley fi elds in Slovakia. Parasitization by wasps was low (<5.5% with Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh, 1855 the dominant hymenopterous parasitoid (91% of emerging wasps. The remaining parasitoid guild comprised of Aphidius ervi Haliday, 1834 Aphidius rhopalosiphi DeStefani, 1902, Aphidius picipes (Nees, 1811, Ephedrus plagiator (Nees, 1811, Praon volucre (Haliday, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae and two hyperparasites Asaphes suspensus (Nees, 1834 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae and Lygocerus spp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae. Predaceous midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae were consistently found with densities ranging from 0.1 to 2.5 larvae per aphid colony. The most abundant predaceous midge was Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani, 1847, while Lestodiplosis sp. was recorded infrequently. Four syrphids, Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer, 1776, Melanostoma mellinum (L., 1758, Sphaerophoria rueppellii (Wiedemann, 1830, Sphaerophoria scripta (L., 1758 (Diptera: Syrphidae and one pathogenic fungus, Pandora neoaphidis (Remaudière et Hennebert Humber, were recorded.

  13. Temperature-dependent development, cold tolerance, and potential distribution of Cricotopus lebetis (Diptera: Chironomidae), a tip miner of Hydrilla verticillata (Hydrocharitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratman, Karen N; Overholt, William A; Cuda, James P; Mukherjee, A; Diaz, R; Netherland, Michael D; Wilson, Patrick C

    2014-10-15

    A chironomid midge, Cricotopus lebetis (Sublette) (Diptera: Chironomidae), was discovered attacking the apical meristems of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f. Royle) in Crystal River, Citrus Co., Florida in 1992. The larvae mine the stems of H. verticillata and cause basal branching and stunting of the plant. Temperature-dependent development, cold tolerance, and the potential distribution of the midge were investigated. The results of the temperature-dependent development study showed that optimal temperatures for larval development were between 20 and 30°C, and these data were used to construct a map of the potential number of generations per year of C. lebetis in Florida. Data from the cold tolerance study, in conjunction with historical weather data, were used to generate a predicted distribution of C. lebetis in the United States. A distribution was also predicted using an ecological niche modeling approach by characterizing the climate at locations where C. lebetis is known to occur and then finding other locations with similar climate. The distributions predicted using the two modeling approaches were not significantly different and suggested that much of the southeastern United States was climatically suitable for C. lebetis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  14. A new species of Stenodiplosis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on Spartina grasses (Poaceae) with notes on its biology and its parasitoid Tetrastichus bromi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J Manuel Perilla; Johnson, Paul J; Gagné, Raymond J; Boe, Arvid

    2015-12-09

    Stenodiplosis spartinae Gagné new species (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is described from eastern South Dakota and coastal North Carolina, and compared with other American congeners. The known host plants are Spartina alterniflora and S. pectinata. The larva is a seed predator of the ovule and immature caryopsis of the host plant. Adult activity is from the early emergence of the host inflorescence through anthesis. Oviposition occurs in the floret with eggs laid under the edges of the palea and lemma. The larva apparently overwinters in dehisced spikelets in the soil among rhizomes of S. pectinata, with pupation in late spring. Laboratory emergence and field activity of the adults suggest a potentialsecond or third generation developing on late emerging inflorescences. Larval feeding does not induce external color or shape changes in the spikelet. Apparently all three instars are ectoparasitized by Tetrastichus bromi Kostyukov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) that was probably introduced to North America in the late 1800's and is inculcated into parasitoid guilds of several Stenodiplosis species. Resource partitioning appears to occur between the gall midge and early instars of Aethes spartinana Barnes and McDunnough (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) that feed on maturing caryopses. The feeding of this gall midge and the moth probably account for most of the reduced seed production in both natural and agronomic populations of S. pectinata.

  15. Copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in aquatic food chains from the Upper Sacramento River (California) and selected tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, M.K.; Castleberry, D. T.; May, T. W.; Martin, B.A.; Bullard, F. N.

    1995-01-01

    Metals enter the Upper Sacramento River above Redding, California, primarily through Spring Creek, a tributary that receives acid-mine drainage from a US EPA Superfund site known locally as Iron Mountain Mine. Waterweed (Elodea canadensis) and aquatic insects (midge larvae, Chironomidae; and mayfly nymphs, Ephemeroptera) from the Sacramento River downstream from Spring Creek contained much higher concentrations of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) than did similar taxa from nearby reference tributaries not exposed to acid-mine drainage. Aquatic insects from the Sacramento River contained especially high maximum concentrations of Cu (200 mg/kg dry weight in midge larvae), Cd (23 mg/kg dry weight in mayfly nymphs), and Zn (1,700 mg/kg dry weight in mayfly nymphs). Although not always statistically significant, whole-body concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Zn in fishes (threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus; Sacramento sucker, Catostomus occidentalis; Sacramento squawfish, Ptychocheilus grandis; and chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytasch) from the Sacramento River were generally higher than in fishes from the reference tributaries.

  16. Diversity and distribution of Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera of protected areas in North Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulaaba S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In North Africa seasonal streams called wadi are an unique habitats with serve hydrological and thermal regime. Non-biting midges take an important part of freshwater biodiversity in North Africa. We present new data on the distribution and diversity of Chironomidae in North Tunisia. Larvae, pupal exuviae and adult males of chironomids were collected from a various freshwater ecosystems from May 2005 till April 2006. The aim of this study was to recognize the pattern of midge diversity in North Tunisia to estimate ecological value of running waters in the region. In total, 79 taxa were identified. Nearly all of the taxa were typical representatives of the Palaearctic and Mediterranean complexes. The majority of the investigated sites belonged to the protected areas in North Tunisia, such as the Ichkeul National Park, the Kroumerie Mountains and the El Feija National Park, part of the Intercontinental Reserve of the Mediterranean Biosphere. Altitudinal zonation of the communities composition was found in the lowland (250 m a.s.l. with maximum of 760 m. Whereas among the data 39 species are recorded from Tunisia for the first time, the species richness of Chironomidae is higher than previously estimated.

  17. Combined Stimulation with the Tumor Necrosis Factor α and the Epidermal Growth Factor Promotes the Proliferation of Hepatocytes in Rat Liver Cultured Slices

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    Francis Finot

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The culture liver slices are mainly used to investigate drug metabolism and xenobiotic-mediated liver injuries while apoptosis and proliferation remain unexplored in this culture model. Here, we show a transient increase in LDH release and caspase activities indicating an ischemic injury during the slicing procedure. Then, caspase activities decrease and remain low in cultured slices demonstrating a low level of apoptosis. The slicing procedure is also associated with the G0/G1 transition of hepatocytes demonstrated by the activation of stress and proliferation signalling pathways including the ERK1/2 and JNK1/2/3 MAPKinases and the transient upregulation of c-fos. The cells further progress up to mid-G1 phase as indicated by the sequential induction of c-myc and p53 mRNA levels after the slicing procedure and at 24 h of culture, respectively. The stimulation by epidermal growth factor induces the ERK1/2 phosphorylation but fails to activate expression of late G1 and S phase markers such as cyclin D1 and Cdk1 indicating that hepatocytes are arrested in mid-G1 phase of the cell cycle. However, we found that combined stimulation by the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α and the epidermal growth factor promotes the commitment to DNA replication as observed in vivo during the liver regeneration.

  18. Sexual differences in prevalence of a new species of trypanosome infecting túngara frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Ximena E; Pinto, C Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Trypanosomes are a diverse group of protozoan parasites of vertebrates transmitted by a variety of hematophagous invertebrate vectors. Anuran trypanosomes and their vectors have received relatively little attention even though these parasites have been reported from frog and toad species worldwide. Blood samples collected from túngara frogs (Engystomops pustulosus), a Neotropical anuran species heavily preyed upon by eavesdropping frog-biting midges (Corethrella spp.), were examined for trypanosomes. Our results revealed sexual differences in trypanosome prevalence with female frogs being rarely infected (frog-biting midges that find their host using the mating calls produced by male frogs. Following previous anuran trypanosome studies, we examined 18S ribosomal RNA gene to characterize and establish the phylogenetic relationship of the trypanosome species found in túngara frogs. A new species of giant trypanosome, Trypanosoma tungarae n. sp., is described in this study. Overall the morphometric data revealed that the trypomastigotes of T. tungarae n. sp. are similar to other giant trypanosomes such as Trypanosoma rotatorium and Trypanosoma ranarum. Despite its slender and long cell shape, however, 18S rRNA gene sequences revealed that T. tungarae n. sp. is sister to the rounded-bodied giant trypanosome, Trypanosoma chattoni. Therefore, morphological convergence explains similar morphology among members of two non-closely related groups of trypanosomes infecting frogs. The results from this study underscore the value of coupling morphological identification with molecular characterization of anuran trypanosomes.

  19. Using remote sensing and machine learning for the spatial modelling of a bluetongue virus vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van doninck, J.; Peters, J.; De Baets, B.; Ducheyne, E.; Verhoest, N. E. C.

    2012-04-01

    Bluetongue is a viral vector-borne disease transmitted between hosts, mostly cattle and small ruminants, by some species of Culicoides midges. Within the Mediterranean basin, C. imicola is the main vector of the bluetongue virus. The spatial distribution of this species is limited by a number of environmental factors, including temperature, soil properties and land cover. The identification of zones at risk of bluetongue outbreaks thus requires detailed information on these environmental factors, as well as appropriate epidemiological modelling techniques. We here give an overview of the environmental factors assumed to be constraining the spatial distribution of C. imicola, as identified in different studies. Subsequently, remote sensing products that can be used as proxies for these environmental constraints are presented. Remote sensing data are then used together with species occurrence data from the Spanish Bluetongue National Surveillance Programme to calibrate a supervised learning model, based on Random Forests, to model the probability of occurrence of the C. imicola midge. The model will then be applied for a pixel-based prediction over the Iberian peninsula using remote sensing products for habitat characterization.

  20. Total selenium and selenium species in irrigation drain inflows to the Salton Sea, California, October 2008 and January 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Saiki, Michael K.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results for two sampling periods (October 2008 and January 2009) during a 4-year monitoring program to characterize selenium concentrations in selected irrigation drains flowing into the Salton Sea, California. Total selenium, selenium species (dissolved selenite, selenate, organoselenium), and total suspended solids were determined in water samples. Total selenium also was determined in water column particulates and in sediment, detritus, and biota that included algae, plankton, midge larvae (family, Chironomidae), and two fish species (western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, and sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna). In addition, sediments were analyzed for percent total organic carbon and particle size. Mean total selenium concentrations in water for both sampling periods ranged from 1.00 to 33.6 micrograms per liter, predominately as selenate, which is typical of waters where selenium is leached out of selenium-containing marine shales and associated soils under alkaline and oxidizing conditions. Total selenium concentrations (micrograms per gram dry weight) ranged as follows: algae, 1.52 to 8.26; plankton, 0.79 to 3.66; midges, 2.68 to 50.6; fish, 3.09 to 30.4; detritus, 1.78 to 58.0; and sediment, 0.42 to 10.0.

  1. Total selenium and selenium species in irrigation drain inflows to the Salton Sea, California, April and July 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Saiki, Michael K.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results for two sampling periods (April 2008 and July 2008) during a 4-year monitoring program to characterize selenium concentrations in selected irrigation drains flowing into the Salton Sea, California. Total selenium, selenium species (dissolved selenite, selenate, organoselenium), and total suspended solids were determined in water samples and total selenium was determined in water column particulates and in sediment, detritus, and biota that included algae, plankton, midge larvae (family, Chironomidae), and two fish species - western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) and sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna). In addition, sediments were analyzed for percent total organic carbon and particle size. Mean total selenium concentrations in water for both sampling periods ranged from 1.93 to 44.2 micrograms per liter, predominately as selenate, which is typical of waters where selenium is leached out of selenium-containing marine shales and associated soils under alkaline and oxidizing conditions. Total selenium concentrations (micrograms per gram dry weight) ranged as follows: algae, 0.75 to 3.39; plankton, 0.88 to 4.03; midges, 2.52 to 44.3; fish, 3.37 to 18.9; detritus, 1.11 to 13.6; sediment, 0.11 to 8.93.

  2. Total selenium and selenium species in irrigation drain inflows to the Salton Sea, California, October 2007 and January 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Saiki, Michael K.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results for two sampling periods (October 2007 and January 2008) during a 4-year monitoring program to characterize selenium concentrations in selected irrigation drains flowing into the Salton Sea, California. Total selenium, selenium species (selenite, selenate, organoselenium), and total suspended solids were determined in water samples, and total selenium was determined in sediment, detritus, and biota that included algae, plankton, midge larvae (family, Chironomidae), and two fish species?western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) and sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna). In addition, sediments were analyzed for percent total organic carbon and particle size. Mean total selenium concentrations in water for both sampling periods ranged from 0.97 to 64.5 micrograms per liter, predominately as selenate, which is typical of waters where selenium is leached out of selenium-containing marine shales and associated soils under alkaline and oxidizing conditions. Total selenium concentrations (micrograms per gram dry weight) ranged as follows: algae, 0.95 to 5.99; plankton, 0.15 to 19.3; midges, 1.39 to 15.4; fish, 3.71 to 25.1; detritus, 0.85 to 21.7; sediment, 0.32 to 7.28.

  3. Chronic toxicity of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments: variation in toxicity among eight invertebrate taxa and eight sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Ivey, Chris D.; Kunz, James L.; Kemble, Nile E.; Schlekat, Christian E.; Garman, Emily R.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the chronic toxicity of Ni-spiked freshwater sediments to benthic invertebrates. A 2-step spiking procedure (spiking and sediment dilution) and a 2-stage equilibration period (10 wk anaerobic and 1 wk aerobic) were used to spike 8 freshwater sediments with wide ranges of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS; 0.94–38 µmol/g) and total organic carbon (TOC; 0.42–10%). Chronic sediment toxicity tests were conducted with 8 invertebrates (Hyalella azteca, Gammarus pseudolimnaeus, Chironomus riparius, Chironomus dilutus, Hexagenia sp., Lumbriculus variegatus, Tubifex tubifex, and Lampsilis siliquoidea) in 2 spiked sediments. Nickel toxicity thresholds estimated from species-sensitivity distributions were 97 µg/g and 752 µg/g (total recoverable Ni; dry wt basis) for sediments with low and high concentrations of AVS and TOC, respectively. Sensitive species were tested with 6 additional sediments. The 20% effect concentrations (EC20s) for Hyalella and Gammarus, but not Hexagenia, were consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency benchmarks based on Ni in porewater and in simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) normalized to AVS and TOC. For Hexagenia, sediment EC20s increased at less than an equimolar basis with increased AVS, and toxicity occurred in several sediments with Ni concentrations in SEM less than AVS. The authors hypothesize that circulation of oxygenated water by Hexagenia led to oxidation of AVS in burrows, creating microenvironments with high Ni exposure. Despite these unexpected results, a strong relationship between Hexagenia EC20s and AVS could provide a basis for conservative site-specific sediment quality guidelines for Ni.

  4. Spatiotemporal dynamics of soil rotifers in a South-Bohemian beech forest Dinâmica espaço-temporal de rotíferos edáficos em uma floresta de faias no sul da Boêmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav Devetter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine seasonal variation and vertical distribution of the soil rotifer assemblage in a climax beech forest in South Bohemia. During 2005, soil rotifer was investigated to the species level. Soil samples of 10 cm² and 10 cm in depth were divided into five layers, which were processed separately. Thirty one rotifer species were identified during the investigation. Dominant species significantly changed throughout the seasons. The most abundant species were Encentrum arvicola and Wierzejskiella vagneri among the monogononts, and Adineta steineri, Ceratotrocha cornigera, Habrotrocha filum, Habrotrocha ligula, Macrotrachela plicata, Mniobia tentans, Mniobia incrassata and Mniobia granulosa among the bdelloids. Mean Shannon diversity index varied from 1.99 to 2.63. Total rotifer abundance varied from 212±63 to 513±127 10³ individuals m-2 along the year, with the highest numbers found in May, and the lowest in July. The great part of the community was concentrated in the upper (fresh litter and second (partially decomposed litter layers and significantly decreased in the soil vertical profile on all sampling dates. The highest rotifer density of 43 individuals g-1 was found in the upper layer in May.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a variação sazonal e a distribuição vertical de comunidades de rotíferos edáficos em uma floresta de faias em clímax, no Sul da Boêmia. Durante 2005, as comunidades de rotíferos edáficos foram estudadas até o nível da espécie. Amostras de 10 cm² de área com 10 cm de profundidade foram divididas em cinco camadas, que foram processadas separadamente. Trinta e uma espécies de rotíferos foram identificadas durante a investigação. Todas as espécies dominantes tiveram variações significativas durante as estações climáticas. As espécies mais abundantes foram Encentrum arvicola e Wierzejskiella vagneri entre os monogonontes e Adineta steineri, Ceratotrocha

  5. Mansonella ozzardi and its vectors in the New World: an update with emphasis on the current situation in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccurt, C P

    2017-10-25

    Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) is a little studied filarial nematode. This human parasite, transmitted by two families of dipteran vectors, biting midges (most of them members of the genus Culicoides) and blackflies (genus Simulium), is endemic to the Neotropical regions of the New World. With a patchy geographical distribution from southern Mexico to north-western Argentina, human infection with M. ozzardi is highly prevalent in some of the Caribbean islands, along riverine communities in the Amazon Basin, and on both sides of the border between Bolivia and Argentina. Studies conducted in Haiti between 1974 and 1984 allowed the first complete description of the adult worm and permitted clarification of the taxonomic position of this filarial species. This paper reports the known geographical distribution of M. ozzardi in Neotropical regions of the Americas, and focuses on the current situation in Haiti where this filariasis remains a completely neglected public health problem.

  6. Association between land cover and Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) breeding sites on four Danish cattle farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Bødker, Rene; Stockmarr, Anders

    2009-01-01

    from 30 sampling points. Soil samples were set up in emergence chambers for hatching adult Culicoides. Two species of Culicoides (C punctatus and C pulicaris) emerged from nine of 12 soil samples from a wet, grazed field with manure. Seventy-two other samples from similar land cover on the three other......Biting midges of the genus Culicoides are vectors of bluetongue virus. Their larval habitats are poorly known in Northern Europe. Three classes of the CORINE land cover index, found within 300 in of four farms in Denmark, were used to stratify sampling sites for a total of 360 soil core samples...... farms were negative. Seven sampling points from pastures were incorrectly classified by CORINE. The remaining 23 sampling points were classified correctly. The visually observed land use was not sufficiently detailed to adequately predict Culicoides breeding sites in this study. The CORINE index failed...

  7. A new genus and species of Lasiopteridi (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A new genus and species of gall midge, Haplopappusmyia gregaria, is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, and female. This species induces apical galls on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae, an endemic shrub from central Chile. The specimens were collected at La Ligua Municipality, Petorca Province, Valparaiso region, Chile, during spring of 2011-2014. This area corresponds to one of the fifth Mediterranean Matorral biome, considered among Earth's biodiversity hotspots. The new genus is characterized by presenting lateral margin of antennal scape with a mesal reentrance; four-segmented palpus, one-toothed tarsal claws, R5 straight, reaching C anterior to wing apex; male seventh and eighth tergites lacking sclerotization mesally, beyond proximal margin; presence of trichoid sensilla on the abdominal terga and sterna of both sexes, protrusible ovipositor with elongate fused cerci, and larva with 4 pairs of setose terminal papillae.

  8. Delineation of Culicoides species by morphology and barcode exemplified by three new species of the subgenus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Kristensen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    new species initially separated by DNA barcoding with mitochondrial COI can be distinguished by morphological characters. In this context a key to Scandinavian subgenus Culicoides using wing and maxillary palp characters is presented. The key is including the three new species Culicoides boyi...... is considered, as well as the evolutionary relationships between species within this genus remains problematic. In recent years molecular barcoding has assisted substantially in the identification of biting midges in the multiple entomological survey projects which were initiated in many European countries...... following the bluetongue outbreak in 2006–2009. These studies revealed potentially new species and “species-complexes” with large genetic and morphological variability. Here we use molecular barcoding, together with morphological analysis, to study subgenus Culicoides Latreille from Scandinavia with focus...

  9. Assessment of oil sand process water toxicity in wetlands of northern Alberta using Chironomid mentum deformities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelly, M. P.; Ciborowski, J. J. H. [Windsor, Univ., Windsor, ON (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    The effects of oil sands process water (OSPW) on aquatic invertebrates in wetlands near Fort McMurray, Alberta, are assessed. Principal components analysis and cluster analysis of environmental characteristics of 15 wetlands were used to identify three pairs of environmentally similar wetlands that differed mainly in exposure to or absence of OSPW. Large larvae of Chironomidae were collected and examined for mentum deformities (missing or extra teeth) for use as a biomarker. Invertebrate taxa richness and abundance was only moderately lower at OSPW -affected sites than at corresponding reference sites. The incidence of teeth deformities in midges (Chironomidae spp.) from OSPW-affected and corresponding reference wetlands was found to be moderate, and homogeneous among sites and between paired reference and OSPW-affected wetlands. This finding led to the conclusion that the suspected trace metals and PAHs may not be bioavailable in these highly humic wetlands.

  10. A guide to the larvae of the Nearctic Diamesinae (Diptera; Chironomidae), the genera Boreoheptagyia, Protanypus, Diamesa, and Pseudokiefferiella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughman, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    The subfamily Diamesinae consists of the monogeneric tribes Boreoheptagnini and Parotanypini and the diverse tribe Diamesini with seven genera. These midges are prevalent in clean, cool arctic-alpine waters, but less abundant in the lowlands. Keys and descriptions herein to the known species of these nine genera may prove valuable in the biomonitoring of these cool aquatic habitats. The larvae of Protanypus saetheri Wiederholm is described for the first time. Identification is based upon the absence of other species in the collection area. Examination of a series of larval D. incallida Walker collected in Wyoming and a review of pertinent literature shows that there is considerable variation in the procerus and the labral armature. Because these characters are often used in keys, this variability can lead to misidentification of less recognizable species of Diamesa. (USGS)

  11. Cytogenetics of a parthenogenetic Arctic species of Micropsectra (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, David L.; Martin, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Micropsectra sedna (Oliver, 1976) is a parthenogenetic midge from the Canadian Arctic. The parthenogenetic mechanism is apomictic thelytoky, with a restitutional division during oogenesis, as found in other parthenogenetic Chironomidae. It is triploid, with two similar chromosome sets, and the third is relatively dissimilar, pairing little with the diploid set. Two karyotypes were observed: a single individual with eight polytene elements in the salivary glands (3n=12), considered standard, while the majority of larvae showed only seven polytene chromosomes (3n=11). Hybrid speciation is considered likely, although chromosomal recombination following the origin of thelytoky has played some part in karyotype evolution. A single morphologically distinct larva was also found, which might be the donor of the haploid chromosome set. The apomictic restitutional system is compared to that of the other, independently derived, parthenogenetic Chironomids to assess the extent of similarity between species. PMID:24260638

  12. Assessment of oil sand process water toxicity in wetlands of northern Alberta using Chironomid mentum deformities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelly, M. P.; Ciborowski, J. J. H. [Windsor, Univ., Windsor, ON (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    The effects of oil sands process water (OSPW) on aquatic invertebrates in wetlands near Fort McMurray, Alberta, are assessed. Principal components analysis and cluster analysis of environmental characteristics of 15 wetlands were used to identify three pairs of environmentally similar wetlands that differed mainly in exposure to or absence of OSPW. Large larvae of Chironomidae were collected and examined for mentum deformities (missing or extra teeth) for use as a biomarker. Invertebrate taxa richness and abundance was only moderately lower at OSPW -affected sites than at corresponding reference sites. The incidence of teeth deformities in midges (Chironomidae spp.) from OSPW-affected and corresponding reference wetlands was found to be moderate, and homogeneous among sites and between paired reference and OSPW-affected wetlands. This finding led to the conclusion that the suspected trace metals and PAHs may not be bioavailable in these highly humic wetlands.

  13. Assessment of oil sand process water toxicity in wetlands of northern Alberta using Chironomid mentum deformities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelly, M. P.; Ciborowski, J. J. H.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of oil sands process water (OSPW) on aquatic invertebrates in wetlands near Fort McMurray, Alberta, are assessed. Principal components analysis and cluster analysis of environmental characteristics of 15 wetlands were used to identify three pairs of environmentally similar wetlands that differed mainly in exposure to or absence of OSPW. Large larvae of Chironomidae were collected and examined for mentum deformities (missing or extra teeth) for use as a biomarker. Invertebrate taxa richness and abundance was only moderately lower at OSPW -affected sites than at corresponding reference sites. The incidence of teeth deformities in midges (Chironomidae spp.) from OSPW-affected and corresponding reference wetlands was found to be moderate, and homogeneous among sites and between paired reference and OSPW-affected wetlands. This finding led to the conclusion that the suspected trace metals and PAHs may not be bioavailable in these highly humic wetlands

  14. An assessment of Chironomidae as quantitative indicators of past climatic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, I.R.; Smol, J.P.; Engstrom, D.R.; Birks, H.J.B. (Queen' s University, Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology)

    1991-06-01

    The distribution among Labrador (Canada) lakes of remains from 21 chironomid taxa (aquatic midges) was analysed by means of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Tests with partial CCA of three hypotheses revealed that the distributions of chironomid taxa were significantly correlated with summer surface-water temperature and maximum lake depth, but not sediment organic content. In addition, an exploratory CCA revealed possible relationships of chironomid fauna with residual longitude and Fe concentration. A weighted-averaging-regression/calibration model of the chironomid-temperature relationship (derived from a temperature-constrained CCA) allowed the summer surface-water temperature of lakes to be inferred from chironomid remains. Accurate quantitative reconstructions of late glacial and Holocene temperature variations should be possible from fossil Chironomidae. 60 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Niakha virus: a novel member of the family Rhabdoviridae isolated from phlebotomine sandflies in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilakis, Nikos; Widen, Steven; Mayer, Sandra V; Seymour, Robert; Wood, Thomas G; Popov, Vsevolov; Guzman, Hilda; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Ghedin, Elodie; Holmes, Edward C; Walker, Peter J; Tesh, Robert B

    2013-09-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae have been assigned to eight genera but many remain unassigned. Rhabdoviruses have a remarkably diverse host range that includes terrestrial and marine animals, invertebrates and plants. Transmission of some rhabdoviruses often requires an arthropod vector, such as mosquitoes, midges, sandflies, ticks, aphids and leafhoppers, in which they replicate. Herein we characterize Niakha virus (NIAV), a previously uncharacterized rhabdovirus isolated from phebotomine sandflies in Senegal. Analysis of the 11,124 nt genome sequence indicates that it encodes the five common rhabdovirus proteins with alternative ORFs in the M, G and L genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the L protein indicate that NIAV's closest relative is Oak Vale rhabdovirus, although in this analysis NIAV is still so phylogenetically distinct that it might be classified as distinct from the eight currently recognized Rhabdoviridae genera. This observation highlights the vast, and yet not fully recognized diversity, of this family. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ledantevirus: a proposed new genus in the Rhabdoviridae has a strong ecological association with bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasdell, Kim R; Guzman, Hilda; Widen, Steven G; Firth, Cadhla; Wood, Thomas G; Holmes, Edward C; Tesh, Robert B; Vasilakis, Nikos; Walker, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    The Le Dantec serogroup of rhabdoviruses comprises Le Dantec virus from a human with encephalitis and Keuriliba virus from rodents, each isolated in Senegal. The Kern Canyon serogroup comprises a loosely connected set of rhabdoviruses many of which have been isolated from bats, including Kern Canyon virus from California, Nkolbisson virus from Cameroon, Central African Republic, and Cote d'Ivoire, Kolente virus from Guinea, Mount Elgon bat and Fikirini viruses from Kenya, and Oita virus from Japan. Fukuoka virus isolated from mosquitoes, midges, and cattle in Japan, Barur virus from a rodent in India and Nishimuro virus from pigs in Japan have also been linked genetically or serologically to this group. Here, we analyze the genome sequences and phylogenetic relationships of this set of viruses. We show that they form three subgroups within a monophyletic group, which we propose should constitute the new genus Ledantevirus. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. Tibrogargan and Coastal Plains rhabdoviruses: genomic characterization, evolution of novel genes and seroprevalence in Australian livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubala, Aneta; Davis, Steven; Weir, Richard; Melville, Lorna; Cowled, Chris; Boyle, David

    2011-09-01

    Tibrogargan virus (TIBV) and Coastal Plains virus (CPV) were isolated from cattle in Australia and TIBV has also been isolated from the biting midge Culicoides brevitarsis. Complete genomic sequencing revealed that the viruses share a novel genome structure within the family Rhabdoviridae, each virus containing two additional putative genes between the matrix protein (M) and glycoprotein (G) genes and one between the G and viral RNA polymerase (L) genes. The predicted novel protein products are highly diverged at the sequence level but demonstrate clear conservation of secondary structure elements, suggesting conservation of biological functions. Phylogenetic analyses showed that TIBV and CPV form an independent group within the 'dimarhabdovirus supergroup'. Although no disease has been observed in association with these viruses, antibodies were detected at high prevalence in cattle and buffalo in northern Australia, indicating the need for disease monitoring and further study of this distinctive group of viruses.

  18. Niakha virus: A novel member of the family Rhabdoviridae isolated from phlebotomine sandflies in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilakis, Nikos; Widen, Steven; Mayer, Sandra V.; Seymour, Robert; Wood, Thomas G.; Popov, Vsevolov; Guzman, Hilda; da Rosa, Amelia P.A. Travassos; Ghedin, Elodie; Holmes, Edward C.; Walker, Peter J.; Tesh, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae have been assigned to eight genera but many remain unassigned. Rhabdoviruses have a remarkably diverse host range that includes terrestrial and marine animals, invertebrates and plants. Transmission of some rhabdoviruses often requires an arthropod vector, such as mosquitoes, midges, sandflies, ticks, aphids and leafhoppers, in which they replicate. Herein we characterize Niakha virus (NIAV), a previously uncharacterized rhabdovirus isolated from phebotomine sandflies in Senegal. Analysis of the 11,124 nt genome sequence indicates that it encodes the five common rhabdovirus proteins with alternative ORFs in the M, G and L genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the L protein indicate that NIAV’s closest relative is Oak Vale rhabdovirus, although in this analysis NIAV is still so phylogenetically distinct that it might be classified as distinct from the eight currently recognized Rhabdoviridae genera. This observation highlights the vast, and yet not fully recognized diversity, of this family. PMID:23773405

  19. Ledantevirus: A Proposed New Genus in the Rhabdoviridae Has A Strong Ecological Association with Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasdell, Kim R.; Guzman, Hilda; Widen, Steven G.; Firth, Cadhla; Wood, Thomas G.; Holmes, Edward C.; Tesh, Robert B.; Vasilakis, Nikos; Walker, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    The Le Dantec serogroup of rhabdoviruses comprises Le Dantec virus from a human with encephalitis and Keuriliba virus from rodents, each isolated in Senegal. The Kern Canyon serogroup comprises a loosely connected set of rhabdoviruses many of which have been isolated from bats, including Kern Canyon virus from California, Nkolbisson virus from Cameroon, Central African Republic, and Cote d'Ivoire, Kolente virus from Guinea, Mount Elgon bat and Fikirini viruses from Kenya, and Oita virus from Japan. Fukuoka virus isolated from mosquitoes, midges, and cattle in Japan, Barur virus from a rodent in India and Nishimuro virus from pigs in Japan have also been linked genetically or serologically to this group. Here, we analyze the genome sequences and phylogenetic relationships of this set of viruses. We show that they form three subgroups within a monophyletic group, which we propose should constitute the new genus Ledantevirus. PMID:25487727

  20. Feeding ecology of arctic-nesting sandpipers during spring migration through the prairie pothole region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, J.L.; Krapu, G.L.; Johnson, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated food habits of 4 species of spring-migrant calidrid sandpipers in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North Dakota. Sandpipers foraged in several wetland classes and fed primarily on aquatic dipterans, mostly larvae, and the midge family Chironomidae was the primary food eaten. Larger sandpiper species foraged in deeper water and took larger larvae than did smaller sandpipers. The diverse wetland habitats that migrant shorebirds use in the PPR suggest a landscape-level approach be applied to wetland conservation efforts. We recommend that managers use livestock grazing and other tools, where applicable, to keep shallow, freshwater wetlands from becoming choked with emergent vegetation limiting chironomid production and preventing shorebird use.