Sample records for mid-infrared semiconductor lasers

  1. Diagnostic studies of molecular plasmas using mid-infrared semiconductor lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röpcke, J.; Welzel, S.; Lang, N.; Hempel, F.; Gatilova, L.; Guaitella, O.; Rousseau, A.; Davies, P.B.


    Within the last decade mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy between 3 and 20 µm, known as infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (IRLAS) and based on tuneable semiconductor lasers, namely lead salt diode lasers, often called tuneable diode lasers (TDL), and quantum cascade lasers (QCL) has

  2. Mid-Infrared Lasers (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mid infrared solid state lasers for Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) systems required for understanding atmospheric chemistry are not available. This program...

  3. Band Gap Distortion in Semiconductors Strongly Driven by Intense Mid-Infrared Laser Fields (United States)

    Kono, J.; Chin, A. H.


    Crystalline solids non-resonantly driven by intense time-periodic electric fields are predicted to exhibit unusual band-gap distortion.(e.g., Y. Yacoby, Phys. Rev. 169, 610 (1968); L.C.M. Miranda, Solid State Commun. 45, 783 (1983); J.Z. Kaminski, Acta Physica Polonica A 83, 495(1993).) Such non-perturbative effects have not been observed to date because of the unavoidable sample damage due to the very high intensity required using conventional lasers ( 1 eV photon energy). Here, we report the first clear evidence of laser-induced bandgap shrinkage in semiconductors under intense mid-infrared (MIR) laser fields. The use of long-wavelength light reduces the required intensity and prohibits strong interband absorption, thereby avoiding the damage problem. The significant sub-bandgap absorption persists only during the existence of the MIR laser pulse, indicating the virtual nature of the effect. We show that this particular example of non-perturbative behavior, known as the dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect, occurs when the effective ponderomotive potential energy is comparable to the photon energy of the applied field. This work was supported by ONR, NSF, JST and NEDO.

  4. Mid-infrared Semiconductor Optoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Krier, Anthony


    The practical realisation of optoelectronic devices operating in the 2–10 µm (mid-infrared) wavelength range offers potential applications in a variety of areas from environmental gas monitoring around oil rigs and landfill sites to the detection of pharmaceuticals, particularly narcotics. In addition, an atmospheric transmission window exists between 3 µm and 5 µm that enables free-space optical communications, thermal imaging applications and the development of infrared measures for "homeland security". Consequently, the mid-infrared is very attractive for the development of sensitive optical sensor instrumentation. Unfortunately, the nature of the likely applications dictates stringent requirements in terms of laser operation, miniaturisation and cost that are difficult to meet. Many of the necessary improvements are linked to a better ability to fabricate and to understand the optoelectronic properties of suitable high-quality epitaxial materials and device structures. Substantial progress in these m...

  5. Short-range remote spectral sensor using mid-infrared semiconductor lasers with orthogonal code-division multiplexing approach (United States)

    Morbi, Zulfikar; Ho, D. B.; Ren, H.-W.; Le, Han Q.; Pei, Shin Shem


    Demonstration of short-range multispectral remote sensing, using 3 to 4-micrometers mid- infrared Sb semiconductor lasers based on code-division multiplexing (CDM) architecture, is described. The system is built on a principle similar to intensity- modulated/direct-detection optical-CDMA for communications, but adapted for sensing with synchronous, orthogonal codes to distinguish different wavelength channels with zero interchannel correlation. The concept is scalable for any number of channels, and experiments with a two-wavelength system are conducted. The CDM-signal processing yielded a white-Gaussian-like system noise that is found to be near the theoretical level limited by the detector fundamental intrinsic noise. With sub-mW transmitter average power, the system was able to detect an open-air acetylene gas leak of 10-2 STP ft3/hr from 10-m away with time-varying, random, noncooperative backscatters. A similar experiment detected and positively distinguished hydrocarbon oil contaminants on water from bio-organic oils and detergents. Projection for more advanced systems suggests a multi-kilometer-range capability for watt-level transmitters, and hundreds of wavelength channels can also be accommodated for active hyperspectral remote sensing application.

  6. Mid infrared lasers for remote sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Brian M., E-mail: [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Lee, Hyung R. [National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, VA 23666 (United States); Barnes, Norman P. [Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Hampton, VA 23666 (United States)


    To accurately measure the concentrations of atmospheric gasses, especially the gasses with low concentrations, strong absorption features must be accessed. Each molecular species or constituent has characteristic mid-infrared absorption features by which either column content or range resolved concentrations can be measured. Because of these characteristic absorption features the mid infrared spectral region is known as the fingerprint region. However, as noted by the Decadal Survey, mid-infrared solid-state lasers needed for DIAL systems are not available. The primary reason is associated with short upper laser level lifetimes of mid infrared transitions. Energy gaps between the energy levels that produce mid-infrared laser transitions are small, promoting rapid nonradiative quenching. Nonradiative quenching is a multiphonon process, the more phonons needed, the smaller the effect. More low energy phonons are required to span an energy gap than high energy phonons. Thus, low energy phonon materials have less nonradiative quenching compared to high energy phonon materials. Common laser materials, such as oxides like YAG, are high phonon energy materials, while fluorides, chlorides and bromides are low phonon materials. Work at NASA Langley is focused on a systematic search for novel lanthanide-doped mid-infrared solid-state lasers using both quantum mechanical models (theoretical) and spectroscopy (experimental) techniques. Only the best candidates are chosen for laser studies. The capabilities of modeling materials, experimental challenges, material properties, spectroscopy, and prospects for lanthanide-doped mid-infrared solid-state laser devices will be presented. - Highlights: • We discuss mid infrared lasers and laser materials. • We discuss applications to remote sensing. • We survey the lanthanide ions in low phonon materials for potential. • We present examples of praseodymium mid infrared spectroscopy and laser design.

  7. Mid-infrared Fe2+:ZnSe semiconductor saturable absorber mirror for passively Q-switched Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shougui Ning


    Full Text Available A mid-infrared (mid-IR semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM based on Fe2+:ZnSe for passively Q-switched Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser has been demonstrated. Fe2+:ZnSe SESAM was fabricated by electron beam evaporation method. Fe2+ was innovatively doped into the reflective Bragg stack, in which ZnSe layer served as both doped matrix and high refractive layer during the fabricating process. By using the Fe2+:ZnSe SESAM, stable passively Q-switched pulses with the minimum pulse width of 0.43 μs under a repetition rate of 160.82 kHz were obtained. The recorded maximum average output power of 873 mW with a peak power of 12.59 W and pulse energy of 5.43 μJ were achieved. The results demonstrated a new method for fabricating Fe2+:ZnSe SESAM, which can be used in compact mid-IR Q-switched fiber laser.

  8. Mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectroscopy probing of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aparajeo Chattopadhyay


    May 7, 2018 ... cm3 molecule. −1 s. −1 ... Quantum cascade laser; time-resolved mid-infrared spectroscopy; transient absorption; peroxy radicals .... peak of the laser emission profile. .... cal with O2 is a termolecular reaction (Eq. 3) and the.

  9. Laser-induced filaments in the mid-infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheltikov, A M


    Laser-induced filamentation in the mid-infrared gives rise to unique regimes of nonlinear wave dynamics and reveals in many ways unusual nonlinear-optical properties of materials in this frequency range. The λ 2 scaling of the self-focusing threshold P cr , with radiation wavelength λ , allows the laser powers transmitted by single mid-IR filaments to be drastically increased without the loss of beam continuity and spatial coherence. When extended to the mid-infrared, laser filamentation enables new methods of pulse compression. Often working around the universal physical limitations, it helps generate few-cycle and subcycle field waveforms within an extraordinarily broad range of peak powers, from just a few up to hundreds of P cr . As a part of a bigger picture, laser-induced filamentation in the mid-infrared offers important physical insights into the general properties of the nonlinear-optical response of matter as a function of the wavelength. Unlike their near-infrared counterparts, which can be accurately described within the framework of perturbative nonlinear optics, mid-infrared filaments often entangle perturbative and nonperturbative nonlinear-optical effects, showing clear signatures of strong-field optical physics. With the role of nonperturbative nonlinear-optical phenomena growing, as a general tendency, with the field intensity and the driver wavelength, extension of laser filamentation to even longer driver wavelengths, toward the long-wavelength infrared, promises a hic sunt dracones land. (topical review)

  10. 2 W high efficiency PbS mid-infrared surface emitting laser (United States)

    Ishida, A.; Sugiyama, Y.; Isaji, Y.; Kodama, K.; Takano, Y.; Sakata, H.; Rahim, M.; Khiar, A.; Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Zogg, H.


    High efficiency laser operation with output power exceeding 2 W was obtained for vertical external-cavity PbS based IV-VI compound surface emitting quantum-well structures. The laser showed external quantum efficiency as high as 16%. Generally, mid-infrared III-V or II-VI semiconductor laser operation utilizing interband electron transitions are restricted by Auger recombination and free carrier absorption. Auger recombination is much lower in the IV-VI semiconductors, and the free-carrier absorption is significantly reduced by an optically pumped laser structure including multi-step optical excitation layers.

  11. Unstable Resonator Mid-Infrared Laser Sources (United States)


    effective refractive indices of the guided mode at the grating ridge and groove were calcu- lated using a 4-layer slab waveguide model with a top clad... waterfall plot of the spectra. This DFB laser device demonstrated a continuous, mode-hop-free, tuning range of 80 nm, from 3057 to 3137 nm at ~2.5...curve is a quadratic fit. The inset shows the grating normal pump configuration (GNC). (b) Waterfall plot of the individual spectra vs. pump position

  12. Femtosecond few-cycle mid-infrared laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xing

    The few-cycle pulses of mid-infrared (mid-IR, wavelength 2-10 microns) have attracted increasing attention owing to their great potentials for high order harmonic generation, time-resolved spectroscopy, precision of cutting and biomedical science.In this thesis, mid-IR frequency conversion.......2 - 5.5 μm with only one fixed pump wavelength, a feature absent in Kerr media. Finally, we experimentally observe supercontinuum generation spanning 1.5 octaves, generated in a 10 mm long silicon-rich nitride waveguide pumped by 100 pJ femtosecond pulses from an erbium fiber laser. The waveguide has...

  13. Two-color mid-infrared spectroscopy of optically doped semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forcales, M.; Klik, M.A.J.; Vinh, N.Q.; Phillips, J.; Wells, J-P.R.; Gregorkiewicz, T.


    Optical doping is an attractive method to tailor photonic properties of semiconductor matrices for development of solid-state electroluminescent structures. For practical applications, thermal stability of emission obtained from these materials is required. Thermal processes can be conveniently investigated by two-color spectroscopy in the visible and the mid-infrared. Free-electron laser is a versatile high-brilliance source of radiation in the latter spectral range. In this contribution, we briefly review some of the results obtained recently by the two-color spectroscopy with a free-electron laser in different semiconductors optically doped with rare earth and transition metal ions. Effects leading to both enhancement and quenching of emission from optical dopants will be presented. For InP:Yb, Si:Er, and Si:Cu activation of particular optically induced non-radiative recombination paths will be shown. For Si:Er and Si:Ag, observation of a low temperature optical memory effect will be reported

  14. Towards diode-pumped mid-infrared praseodymium-ytterbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers (United States)

    Woodward, R. I.; Hudson, D. D.; Jackson, S. D.


    We explore the potential of a new mid-infrared laser transition in praseodymium-doped fluoride fiber for emission around 3.4 μm, which can be conveniently pumped by 0.975 μm diodes via ytterbium sensitizer co-doping. Optimal cavity designs are determined through spectroscopic measurements and numerical modeling, suggesting that practical diode-pumped watt-level mid-infrared fiber sources beyond 3 μm could be achieved.

  15. Mid-Infrared Fiber Lasers (Les fibres laser infrarouge moyen) (United States)


    Marcel Poulain, Université de Rennes / Le Verre Fluoré, France Fluoride Fiber Sources: Problems and Prospects Prof. Marcel Poulain from Rennes...currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES...Les fibres laser infrarouge moyen (RTO-MP-SET-171) Synthèse Les sources laser en infrarouge moyen sont nécessaires aux systèmes actifs de

  16. Application of mid-infrared tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy to plasma diagnostics: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roepcke, J; Lombardi, G; Rousseau, A; Davies, P B


    Within the last decade mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy over a region from 3 to 17μm and based on tuneable lead salt diode lasers, often called tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy or TDLAS, has progressed considerably as a powerful diagnostic technique for in situ studies of the fundamental physics and chemistry in molecular plasmas. The increasing interest in processing plasmas containing hydrocarbons, fluorocarbons, organo-silicon and boron compounds has led to further applications of TDLAS because most of these compounds and their decomposition products are infrared active. TDLAS provides a means of determining the absolute concentrations of the ground states of stable and transient molecular species, which is of particular importance for the investigation of reaction kinetic phenomena. Information about gas temperature and population densities can also be derived from TDLAS measurements. A variety of free radicals and molecular ions have been detected by TDLAS. Since plasmas with molecular feed gases are used in many applications such as thin film deposition, semiconductor processing, surface activation and cleaning, and materials and waste treatment, this has stimulated the adaptation of infrared spectroscopic techniques to industrial requirements. The recent development of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) offers an attractive new option for the monitoring and control of industrial plasma processes. The aim of the present paper is threefold: (i) to review recent achievements in our understanding of molecular phenomena in plasmas (ii) to report on selected studies of the spectroscopic properties and kinetic behaviour of radicals and (iii) to describe the current status of advanced instrumentation for TDLAS in the mid-infrared

  17. Rugged and compact mid-infrared solid-state laser for avionics applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Esser, MJD


    Full Text Available In order to demonstrate the feasibility of a helicopter-based application using advanced laser technology, the authors have developed a rugged and compact mid-infrared solid-state laser. The requirement for the laser was to simultaneously emit at 2...

  18. Supercontinuum - broad as a lamp, bright as a laser, now in the mid-infrared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moselund, Peter M.; Petersen, Christian; Dupont, Sune


    Based on the experience gained developing our market leading visible spectrum supercontinuum sources NKT Photonics has built the first mid-infrared supercontinuum source based on modelocked picosecond fiber lasers. The source is pumped by a ≈ 2 um laser based on a combination of erbium and thuliu...

  19. Supercontinuum: broad as a lamp, bright as a laser, now in the mid-infrared (United States)

    Moselund, Peter M.; Petersen, Christian; Dupont, Sune; Agger, Christian; Bang, Ole; Keiding, Søren R.


    Based on the experience gained developing our market leading visible spectrum supercontinuum sources NKT Photonics has built the first mid-infrared supercontinuum source based on modelocked picosecond fiber lasers. The source is pumped by a ~ 2 um laser based on a combination of erbium and thulium and use ZBLAN fibers to generate a 1.75-4.4 μm spectrum. We will present results obtained by applying the source for mid-infrared microscopy where absorption spectra can be used to identify the chemical nature of different parts of a sample. Subsequently, we discuss the possible application of a mid-IR supercontinuum source in other areas including infrared countermeasures.

  20. Cutting and skin-ablative properties of pulsed mid-infrared laser surgery. (United States)

    Kaufmann, R; Hartmann, A; Hibst, R


    Pulsed mid-infrared lasers allow a precise removal of soft tissues with only minimal thermal damage. To study the potential dermatosurgical usefulness of currently available systems at different wavelengths (2010-nm Thulium:YAG laser, 2100-nm Holmium:YAG laser, 2790-nm Erbium:YSGG laser, and 2940-nm Erbium:YAG laser) in vivo on pig skin. Immediate effects and wound healing of superficial laser-abrasions and incisions were compared with those of identical control lesions produced by dermabrasion, scalpel incisions, or laser surgery performed by a 1060-nm Nd:YAG and a 1060-nm CO2 laser (continuous and superpulsed mode). Best efficiency and least thermal injury was found for the pulsed Erbium:YAG laser, leading to ablative and incisional lesions comparable to those obtained by dermabrasion or superficial scalpel incisions, respectively. In contrast to other mid-infrared lasers tested, the 2940-nm Erbium:YAG laser thus provides a potential instrument for future applications in skin surgery, especially when aiming at a careful ablative removal of delicate superficial lesions with maximum sparing of adjacent tissue structures. However, in the purely incisional application mode pulsed mid-infrared lasers, though of potential usefulness in microsurgical indications (eg, surgery of the cornea), do not offer a suggestive alternative to simple scalpel surgery of the skin.

  1. Estimating optical feedback from a chalcogenide fiber in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jumpertz


    Full Text Available The amount of optical feedback originating from a chalcogenide fiber used to couple light from a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser is evaluated experimentally. Threshold reduction measurements on the fibered laser, combined with an analytical study of a rate equations model of the laser under optical feedback, allow estimating the feedback strength between 11% and 15% depending on the fiber cleavage quality. While this remains below the frontier of the chaotic regime, it is sufficient to deeply modify the optical spectrum of a quantum cascade laser. Hence for applications such as gas spectroscopy, where the shape of the optical spectrum is of prime importance, the use of mid-infrared optical isolators may be necessary for fibered quantum cascade lasers to be fully exploited.

  2. Mid-infrared lasers for energy frontier plasma accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Pogorelsky


    Full Text Available Plasma wake field accelerators driven with solid-state near-IR lasers have been considered as an alternative to conventional rf accelerators for next-generation TeV-class lepton colliders. Here, we extend this study to the mid-IR spectral domain covered by CO_{2} lasers. We conclude that the increase in the laser driver wavelength favors the regime of laser wake field acceleration with a low plasma density and high electric charge. This regime is the most beneficial for gamma colliders to be converted from lepton colliders via inverse Compton scattering. Selecting a laser wavelength to drive a Compton gamma source is essential for the design of such a machine. The revealed benefits from spectral diversification of laser drivers for future colliders and off-spring applications validate ongoing efforts in advancing the ultrafast CO_{2} laser technology.

  3. Recent progress in diode-pumped mid-infrared vibronic solid-state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokina, I.T.; Sorokin, E.; Mirov, S.; Schaffers, K.


    Full text: The last few years were marked by the increased interest of researchers towards the new class of transition-metal doped zinc chalcogenides. In particular Cr:ZnSe attracts a lot of attention as broadly tunable continuous-wave (cw), mode-locked and diode-pumped lasers operating around 2.5 mm. This interest is explained by the absence of other comparable tunable room-temperature laser sources in this spectral region. However, another member of the II-VI compounds family Cr:ZnS, has yet remained barely studied as a laser medium. Recently we demonstrated the first continuous-wave room-temperature tunable over more than 280 nm around 2.3 μm Cr 2+ :ZnS laser, pumped with a Co:MgF2 laser and yielding over 100 mW of output power. The most recent result is the development of a compact tunable over 700 nm continuous-wave room-temperature Cr 2+ :ZnS laser, pumped by the diode-pumped Er-fiber laser at 1.6 μm and generating 0.7 W of the linearly polarized radiation. We also demonstrated direct diode-pumping at 1.6 μm of the Cr 2+ :ZnS. Although the Cr:ZnS exhibited lower (relatively to the Cr:ZnSe) efficiency and output power due to the higher passive losses of the available Cr:ZnS samples, the analysis of the spectroscopic and laser data indicates the high potential of Cr:ZnS for compact broadly tunable mid-infrared systems, as well as for high power applications. The physics of the novel diode-pumped laser systems is highly interesting. It comprises the features of the ion-doped dielectric crystalline lasers and semiconductors. For example, we observe in these media, for the first time to our knowledge, a new nonlinear phenomenon, which is analogous to the opto-optical switching process, where the laser output of the diode-pumped continuous-wave Cr:ZnSe and Cr:ZnS lasers around 2.5 μm is modulated by only a few milliwatt of the visible (470-500 nm) and near-infrared radiation (740-770 nm). We present a physical explanation of the observed effect. Refs. 4 (author)

  4. Bracket debonding by mid-infrared laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelínková, H; Šulc, J; Koranda, P; Němec, M; Dostálová, T; Hofmanova, P


    The purpose of the study was to determine the proper laser radiation for ceramic bracket debonding and the investigation of the tooth root temperature injury. The debonding was investigated by diode-pumped continuously running Tm:YAP and Nd:YAG lasers, and by GaAs laser diode generating radiation with the wavelengths 1.997 μm, 1.444 μm, and 0.808 μm, respectively. The possibility of brackets removal by laser radiation was investigated together with the tooth and, it specifically, root temperature rise. From the results it follows that continuously running diode pumped Tm:YAG or Nd:YAG laser generating wavelengths 1.997 μm or 1.444 μm, respectively, having the output power 1 W can be good candidates for ceramic brackets debonding

  5. Optical system design with common aperture for mid-infrared and laser composite guidance (United States)

    Zhang, Xuanzhi; Yang, Zijian; Sun, Ting; Yang, Huamei; Han, Kunye; Hu, Bo


    When the field of operation of precision strike missiles is more and more complicated, autonomous seekers will soon encounter serious difficulties, especially with regard to low signature targets and complex scenarios. So the dual-mode sensors combining an imaging sensor with a semi-active laser seeker are conceived to overcome these specific problems. Here the sensors composed a dual field of view mid-infrared thermal imaging camera and a laser range finder have the common optical aperture which produced the minization of seeker construction. The common aperture optical systems for mid-infrared and laser dual-mode guildance have been developed, which could meet the passive middle infrared high-resolution imaging and the active laser high-precision indication and ranging. The optical system had good image quality, and fulfilled the performance requirement of seeker system. The design and expected performance of such a dual-mode optical system will be discussed.

  6. Scaling of an Optically Pumped Mid-Infrared Rubidium Laser (United States)


    beam, and the saturation intensity, Isat , was calculated using Equation 4.6: = ℎ( + ) , (6) where h is the...4.91 mm2, the intensity of the laser at a pump energy of 0.05 mJ was 10.2 mW/cm2. Thus I/ Isat ~ 290, so ∆νsat should have been about 17 times... Isat ~ 5796, so ∆νsat should have been about 76∆νD, in reasonable agreement with the experimental result of 53∆νD. Rb Laser Output Energy vs. Pump

  7. A Tunable Mid-Infrared Solid-State Laser with a Compact Thermal Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyang Yu


    Full Text Available Tunable mid-infrared lasers are widely used in laser spectroscopy, gas sensing and many other related areas. In order to solve heat dissipation problems and improve the environmental temperature adaptability of solid-state laser sources, a tunable all-fiber laser pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO was established, and a compact thermal control system based on thermoelectric coolers, an automatic temperature control circuit, cooling fins, fans and heat pipes was integrated and designed for the laser. This system is compact, light and air-cooling which satisfies the demand for miniaturization of lasers. A mathematical model and method was established to estimate the cooling capacity of this thermal control system under different ambient environments. A finite-element model was built and simulated to analyze the thermal transfer process. Experiments in room and high temperature environments were carried out and showed that the substrate temperature of a pump module could be maintained at a stable value with controlled precision to 0.2 degrees, while the output power stability of the laser was within ±1%. The experimental results indicate that this compact air-cooling thermal control system could effectively solve the heat dissipation problem of mid-infrared solid-state lasers with a one hundred watts level pump module in room and high temperature environments.

  8. Indirect absorption spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers: mid-infrared refractometry and photothermal spectroscopy. (United States)

    Pfeifer, Marcel; Ruf, Alexander; Fischer, Peer


    We record vibrational spectra with two indirect schemes that depend on the real part of the index of refraction: mid-infrared refractometry and photothermal spectroscopy. In the former, a quantum cascade laser (QCL) spot is imaged to determine the angles of total internal reflection, which yields the absorption line via a beam profile analysis. In the photothermal measurements, a tunable QCL excites vibrational resonances of a molecular monolayer, which heats the surrounding medium and changes its refractive index. This is observed with a probe laser in the visible. Sub-monolayer sensitivities are demonstrated.

  9. Polarization effects in above-threshold ionization with a mid-infrared strong laser field (United States)

    Kang, Hui-Peng; Xu, Song-Po; Wang, Yan-Lan; Yu, Shao-Gang; Zhao, Xiao-Yun; Hao, Xiao-Lei; Lai, Xuan-Yang; Pfeifer, Thomas; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Jing; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhi-Zhan


    Using a semiclassical approach, we theoretically study the above-threshold ionization of magnesium by intense, mid-infrared laser pulses. The formation of low-energy structures in the photoelectron spectrum is found to be enhanced by comparing with a calculation based on the single-active electron approximation. By performing electron trajectory and recollision-time distribution analysis, we demonstrate that this phenomenon is due to the laser-induced ionic core polarization effects on the recolliding electrons. We also show that the polarization effects should be experimentally detectable. Our finding provides new insight into ultrafast control of strong-field photoionization and imaging of polar molecules.

  10. Mid-infrared pulsed laser ultrasonic testing for carbon fiber reinforced plastics. (United States)

    Kusano, Masahiro; Hatano, Hideki; Watanabe, Makoto; Takekawa, Shunji; Yamawaki, Hisashi; Oguchi, Kanae; Enoki, Manabu


    Laser ultrasonic testing (LUT) can realize contactless and instantaneous non-destructive testing, but its signal-to-noise ratio must be improved in order to measure carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs). We have developed a mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser source optimal for generating ultrasonic waves in CFRPs by using a wavelength conversion device based on an optical parametric oscillator. This paper reports a comparison of the ultrasonic generation behavior between the mid-IR laser and the Nd:YAG laser. The mid-IR laser generated a significantly larger ultrasonic amplitude in CFRP laminates than a conventional Nd:YAG laser. In addition, our study revealed that the surface epoxy matrix of CFRPs plays an important role in laser ultrasonic generation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Terahertz and Mid Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Shulika, Oleksiy; Detection of Explosives and CBRN (Using Terahertz)


    The reader will find here a timely update on new THz sources and detection schemes as well as concrete applications to the detection of Explosives and CBRN. Included is a method to identify hidden RDX-based explosives (pure and plastic ones) in the frequency domain study by Fourier Transformation, which has been complemented by the demonstration of improvement of the quality of the images captured commercially available THz passive cameras. The presented examples show large potential for the detection of small hidden objects at long distances (6-10 m).  Complementing the results in the short-wavelength range, laser spectroscopy with a mid-infrared, room temperature, continuous wave, DFB laser diode and high performance DFB QCL have been demonstrated to offer excellent enabling sensor technologies for environmental monitoring, medical diagnostics, industrial and security applications.  From the new source point of view a number of systems have been presented - From superconductors to semiconductors, e.g. Det...

  12. Lead-chalcogenide mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers with improved threshold: Theory and experiment (United States)

    Fill, Matthias; Debernardi, Pierluigi; Felder, Ferdinand; Zogg, Hans


    Mid-infrared Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VECSEL) based on narrow gap lead-chalcogenide (IV-VI) semiconductors exhibit strongly reduced threshold powers if the active layers are structured laterally for improved optical confinement. This is predicted by 3-d optical calculations; they show that lateral optical confinement is needed to counteract the anti-guiding features of IV-VIs due to their negative temperature dependence of the refractive index. An experimental proof is performed with PbSe quantum well based VECSEL grown on a Si-substrate by molecular beam epitaxy and emitting around 3.3 μm. With proper mesa-etching, the threshold intensity is about 8-times reduced.

  13. Lead-chalcogenide mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers with improved threshold: Theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fill, Matthias [ETH Zurich, Laser Spectroscopy and Sensing Lab, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Phocone AG, 8005 Zurich (Switzerland); Debernardi, Pierluigi [IEIIT-CNR, Torino 10129 (Italy); Felder, Ferdinand [Phocone AG, 8005 Zurich (Switzerland); Zogg, Hans [ETH Zurich (Switzerland)


    Mid-infrared Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VECSEL) based on narrow gap lead-chalcogenide (IV-VI) semiconductors exhibit strongly reduced threshold powers if the active layers are structured laterally for improved optical confinement. This is predicted by 3-d optical calculations; they show that lateral optical confinement is needed to counteract the anti-guiding features of IV-VIs due to their negative temperature dependence of the refractive index. An experimental proof is performed with PbSe quantum well based VECSEL grown on a Si-substrate by molecular beam epitaxy and emitting around 3.3 μm. With proper mesa-etching, the threshold intensity is about 8-times reduced.

  14. Active mode-locking of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with short gain recovery time. (United States)

    Wang, Yongrui; Belyanin, Alexey


    We investigate the dynamics of actively modulated mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) using space- and time-domain simulations of coupled density matrix and Maxwell equations with resonant tunneling current taken into account. We show that it is possible to achieve active mode locking and stable generation of picosecond pulses in high performance QCLs with a vertical laser transition and a short gain recovery time by bias modulation of a short section of a monolithic Fabry-Perot cavity. In fact, active mode locking in QCLs with a short gain recovery time turns out to be more robust to the variation of parameters as compared to previously studied lasers with a long gain recovery time. We investigate the effects of spatial hole burning and phase locking on the laser output.

  15. Research on propane leak detection system and device based on mid infrared laser (United States)

    Jiang, Meng; Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Junlong; Wang, Yizhao; Li, Pan; Feng, Qiaoling


    Propane is a key component of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and crude oil volatile. This issue summarizes the recent progress of propane detection technology. Meanwhile, base on the development trend, our latest progress is also provided. We demonstrated a mid infrared propane sensor system, which is based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) technique with a CW interband cascade laser (ICL) emitting at 3370.4nm. The ICL laser scanned over a sharp feature in the broader spectrum of propane, and harmonic signals are obtained by lock-in amplifier for gas concentration deduction. The surrounding gas is extracted into the fine optical absorption cell through the pump to realize online detection. The absorption cell is designed in mid infrared windows range. An example experimental setup is shown. The second harmonic signals 2f and first harmonic signals1f are obtained. We present the sensor performance test data including dynamic precision and temperature stability. The propane detection sensor system and device is portable can carried on the mobile inspection vehicle platforms or intelligent robot inspection platform to realize the leakage monitoring of whole oil gas tank area.

  16. Continuously tunable monomode mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser on Si (United States)

    Khiar, A.; Rahim, M.; Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Hobrecker, F.; Zogg, H.


    A tunable PbTe based mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser is described. The active part is a ˜1 μm thick PbTe layer grown epitaxially on a Bragg mirror on the Si-substrate. The cavity is terminated with a curved Si/SiO Bragg top mirror and pumped optically with a 1.55 μm laser. Cavity length is <100 μm in order that only one longitudinal mode is supported. By changing the cavity length, up to 5% wavelength continuous and mode-hop free tuning is achieved at fixed temperature. The total tuning extends from 5.6 to 4.7 μm at 100-170 K operation temperature.

  17. Mid-infrared pulsed laser ablation of the arterial wall. Mechanical origin of "acoustic" wall damage and its effect on wall healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erven, L.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Post, M. J.; van der Veen, M. J.; Velema, E.; Borst, C.


    Pulsed mid-infrared lasers are an alternative to excimer lasers for transluminal angioplasty. The mid-infrared lasers, however, were reported to produce "acoustic" wall damage that might impair the immediate and long-term results. To study the immediate and long-term effects on the arterial wall,

  18. Non-destructive testing of ceramic materials using mid-infrared ultrashort-pulse laser (United States)

    Sun, S. C.; Qi, Hong; An, X. Y.; Ren, Y. T.; Qiao, Y. B.; Ruan, Liming M.


    The non-destructive testing (NDT) of ceramic materials using mid-infrared ultrashort-pulse laser is investigated in this study. The discrete ordinate method is applied to solve the transient radiative transfer equation in 2D semitransparent medium and the emerging radiative intensity on boundary serves as input for the inverse analysis. The sequential quadratic programming algorithm is employed as the inverse technique to optimize objective function, in which the gradient of objective function with respect to reconstruction parameters is calculated using the adjoint model. Two reticulated porous ceramics including partially stabilized zirconia and oxide-bonded silicon carbide are tested. The retrieval results show that the main characteristics of defects such as optical properties, geometric shapes and positions can be accurately reconstructed by the present model. The proposed technique is effective and robust in NDT of ceramics even with measurement errors.

  19. An experimental study of noise in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers of different designs (United States)

    Schilt, Stéphane; Tombez, Lionel; Tardy, Camille; Bismuto, Alfredo; Blaser, Stéphane; Maulini, Richard; Terazzi, Romain; Rochat, Michel; Südmeyer, Thomas


    We present an experimental study of noise in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) of different designs. By quantifying the high degree of correlation occurring between fluctuations of the optical frequency and voltage between the QCL terminals, we show that electrical noise is a powerful and simple mean to study noise in QCLs. Based on this outcome, we investigated the electrical noise in a large set of 22 QCLs emitting in the range of 7.6-8 μm and consisting of both ridge-waveguide and buried-heterostructure (BH) lasers with different geometrical designs and operation parameters. From a statistical data processing based on an analysis of variance, we assessed that ridge-waveguide lasers have a lower noise than BH lasers. Our physical interpretation is that additional current leakages or spare injection channels occur at the interface between the active region and the lateral insulator in the BH geometry, which induces some extra noise. In addition, Schottky-type contacts occurring at the interface between the n-doped regions and the lateral insulator, i.e., iron-doped InP, are also believed to be a potential source of additional noise in some BH lasers, as observed from the slight reduction in the integrated voltage noise observed at the laser threshold in several BH-QCLs.

  20. Mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator pumped by an amplified random fiber laser (United States)

    Shang, Yaping; Shen, Meili; Wang, Peng; Li, Xiao; Xu, Xiaojun


    Recently, the concept of random fiber lasers has attracted a great deal of attention for its feature to generate incoherent light without a traditional laser resonator, which is free of mode competition and insure the stationary narrow-band continuous modeless spectrum. In this Letter, we reported the first, to the best of our knowledge, optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by an amplified 1070 nm random fiber laser (RFL), in order to generate stationary mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser. The experiment realized a watt-level laser output in the mid-IR range and operated relatively stable. The use of the RFL seed source allowed us to take advantage of its respective stable time-domain characteristics. The beam profile, spectrum and time-domain properties of the signal light were measured to analyze the process of frequency down-conversion process under this new pumping condition. The results suggested that the near-infrared (near-IR) signal light `inherited' good beam performances from the pump light. Those would be benefit for further develop about optical parametric process based on different pumping circumstances.

  1. Fiber-delivered mid-infrared (6-7) laser ablation of retinal tissue under perfluorodecalin (United States)

    Mackanos, Mark A.; Joos, Karen M.; Jansen, E. Duco


    The Er:YAG laser (l=2.94mm) is an effective tool in vitreo-retinal surgery. Pulsed mid-infrared (l=6.45 mm) radiation from the Free Electron Laser has been touted as a potentially superior cutting tool. To date, use of this laser has been limited to applications in an air environment. The goal of this study was: 1) determine feasibility of fiberoptic delivery of 6.45mm using silverhalide fibers (d=700mm); 2) use infrared transparent vitreous substitute (perfluorodecalin) to allow non-contact ablation of the retina at 6.45mm. Fiber damage threshold=7.8J/cm2 (0.54GW/cm2) while transmission loss=0.54dB/m, allowing supra-ablative radiant exposures to the target. FTIR measurements of perfluorodecalin at 6.45mm yielded ma=3mm-1. Pump-probe imaging of ablation of a tissue-phantom through perfluorodecalin showed feasibility of non-contact ablation at l=6.45mm. Ablation of the retinal membranes of enucleated pig eyes was carried out under perfluorodecalin (5 Hz, 1.3 J/cm2). Each eye was cut along its equator to expose the retina. Vitreous was replaced by perfluorodecalin and laser radiation was delivered to the retina via the silverhalide fiber. The eye was rotated (at 2 rpm) using a stepper motor (0.9o/step) to create an ablation circle around the central axis of the retina (50% spot-to-spot overlap). Histological analysis of ablation yield and collateral damage will be presented. We have shown that using l=6.45mm delivered via silver halide fibers through perfluorodecalin allowed non-contact laser ablation. Remote structures are shielded, as the radiant exposure falls below the ablation threshold owing non-negligible absorption of perfluorodecalin at 6.45mm. This may optimize efficacy and safety of laser-based vitreoretinal surgery.

  2. Heuristic modelling of laser written mid-infrared LiNbO3 stressed-cladding waveguides. (United States)

    Nguyen, Huu-Dat; Ródenas, Airán; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Martínez, Javier; Chen, Feng; Aguiló, Magdalena; Pujol, Maria Cinta; Díaz, Francesc


    Mid-infrared lithium niobate cladding waveguides have great potential in low-loss on-chip non-linear optical instruments such as mid-infrared spectrometers and frequency converters, but their three-dimensional femtosecond-laser fabrication is currently not well understood due to the complex interplay between achievable depressed index values and the stress-optic refractive index changes arising as a function of both laser fabrication parameters, and cladding arrangement. Moreover, both the stress-field anisotropy and the asymmetric shape of low-index tracks yield highly birefringent waveguides not useful for most applications where controlling and manipulating the polarization state of a light beam is crucial. To achieve true high performance devices a fundamental understanding on how these waveguides behave and how they can be ultimately optimized is required. In this work we employ a heuristic modelling approach based on the use of standard optical characterization data along with standard computational numerical methods to obtain a satisfactory approximate solution to the problem of designing realistic laser-written circuit building-blocks, such as straight waveguides, bends and evanescent splitters. We infer basic waveguide design parameters such as the complex index of refraction of laser-written tracks at 3.68 µm mid-infrared wavelengths, as well as the cross-sectional stress-optic index maps, obtaining an overall waveguide simulation that closely matches the measured mid-infrared waveguide properties in terms of anisotropy, mode field distributions and propagation losses. We then explore experimentally feasible waveguide designs in the search of a single-mode low-loss behaviour for both ordinary and extraordinary polarizations. We evaluate the overall losses of s-bend components unveiling the expected radiation bend losses of this type of waveguides, and finally showcase a prototype design of a low-loss evanescent splitter. Developing a realistic waveguide

  3. Generation of 70-fs pulses at 286 μm from a mid-infrared fiber laser (United States)

    Woodward, R. I.; Hudson, D. D.; Fuerbach, A.; Jackson, S. D.


    We propose and demonstrate a simple route to few-optical-cycle pulse generation from a mid-infrared fiber laser through nonlinear compression of pulses from a holmium-doped fiber oscillator using a short length of chalcogenide fiber and a grating pair. Pulses from the oscillator with 265-fs duration at 2.86 {\\mu}m are spectrally broadened through self-phase modulation in step-index As2S3 fiber to 141-nm bandwidth and then re-compressed to 70 fs (7.3 optical cycles). These are the shortest pulses from a mid-infrared fiber system to date, and we note that our system is compact, robust, and uses only commercially available components. The scalability of this approach is also discussed, supported by numerical modeling.

  4. Few-cycle high energy mid-infrared pulse from Ho:YLF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murari, Krishna


    Over the past decade, development of high-energy ultrafast laser sources has led to important breakthroughs in attoscience and strong-field physics study in atoms and molecules. Coherent pulse synthesis of few-cycle high-energy laser pulse is a promising tool to generate isolated attosecond pulses via high harmonics generation (HHG). An effective way to extend the HHG cut-off energy to higher values is making use of long mid-infrared (MIR) driver wavelength, as the ponderomotive potential scales quadratically with wavelength. If properly scaled in energy to multi-mJ level and few-cycle duration, such pulses provide a direct path to intriguing attoscience experiments in gases and solids, which even permit the realization of bright coherent table-top HHG sources in the water-window and keV X-ray region. However, the generation of high-intensity long-wavelength MIR pulses has always remained challenging, in particular starting from high-energy picosecond 2-μm laser driver, that is suitable for further energy scaling of the MIR pulses to multi-mJ energies by utilizing optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs). In this thesis, a front-end source for such MIR OPA is presented. In particular, a novel and robust strong-field few-cycle 2-μm laser driver directly from picosecond Ho:YLF laser and utilizing Kagome fiber based compression is presented. We achieved: a 70-fold compression of 140-μJ, 3.3-ps pulses from Ho:YLF amplifier to 48 fs with 11 μJ energy. The work presented in this thesis demonstrates a straightforward path towards generation of few-cycle MIR pulses and we believe that in the future the ultrafast community will benefit from this enabling technology. The results are summarized in mainly four parts: The first part is focused on the development of a 2-μm, high-energy laser source as the front-end. Comparison of available technology in general and promising gain media at MIR wavelength are discussed. Starting from the basics of an OPA, the design criteria

  5. Few-cycle high energy mid-infrared pulse from Ho:YLF laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murari, Krishna


    Over the past decade, development of high-energy ultrafast laser sources has led to important breakthroughs in attoscience and strong-field physics study in atoms and molecules. Coherent pulse synthesis of few-cycle high-energy laser pulse is a promising tool to generate isolated attosecond pulses via high harmonics generation (HHG). An effective way to extend the HHG cut-off energy to higher values is making use of long mid-infrared (MIR) driver wavelength, as the ponderomotive potential scales quadratically with wavelength. If properly scaled in energy to multi-mJ level and few-cycle duration, such pulses provide a direct path to intriguing attoscience experiments in gases and solids, which even permit the realization of bright coherent table-top HHG sources in the water-window and keV X-ray region. However, the generation of high-intensity long-wavelength MIR pulses has always remained challenging, in particular starting from high-energy picosecond 2-μm laser driver, that is suitable for further energy scaling of the MIR pulses to multi-mJ energies by utilizing optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs). In this thesis, a front-end source for such MIR OPA is presented. In particular, a novel and robust strong-field few-cycle 2-μm laser driver directly from picosecond Ho:YLF laser and utilizing Kagome fiber based compression is presented. We achieved: a 70-fold compression of 140-μJ, 3.3-ps pulses from Ho:YLF amplifier to 48 fs with 11 μJ energy. The work presented in this thesis demonstrates a straightforward path towards generation of few-cycle MIR pulses and we believe that in the future the ultrafast community will benefit from this enabling technology. The results are summarized in mainly four parts: The first part is focused on the development of a 2-μm, high-energy laser source as the front-end. Comparison of available technology in general and promising gain media at MIR wavelength are discussed. Starting from the basics of an OPA, the design criteria

  6. Analysis of energy transfer process based emission spectra of erbium doped germanate glasses for mid-infrared laser materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Muzhi; Wei, Tao; Zhou, Beier; Tian, Ying; Zhou, Jiajia; Xu, Shiqing, E-mail:; Zhang, Junjie, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Er{sup 3+} doped germanate glass with good thermal stability were prepared. • Ionic boding nature was proved by bonding parameter calculation. • Mid-infrared fluorescent behaviors and energy transfer were investigated. • Rate equation and Dexter’s theory were utilized to elucidate 2.7 μm emission. - Abstract: Er{sup 3+} activated germanate glass with good thermal stability was prepared. Bonding parameters have been calculated and the nature of ionic bonding of the germanate glass has been determined. Mid-infrared fluorescence was observed and corresponding radiative properties were investigated. For Er{sup 3+}:{sup 4}I{sub 11/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 13/2} transition, high spontaneous radiative transition probability (30.09 s{sup −1}), large emission cross section ((14.84 ± 0.10) × 10{sup −21} cm{sup 2}) and superior gain performance were obtained from the prepared glass. Besides, energy transfer processes concerning the 2.7 μm emission were also discussed in detail. According to simplified rate equation and Dexter’s theory, energy transfer microscopic parameters were computed to elucidate observed 2.7 μm emissions. Results demonstrate that the prepared germanate glass possessing excellent spectroscopic properties might be an attractive candidate for mid-infrared laser or amplifier.

  7. Analysis of energy transfer process based emission spectra of erbium doped germanate glasses for mid-infrared laser materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Muzhi; Wei, Tao; Zhou, Beier; Tian, Ying; Zhou, Jiajia; Xu, Shiqing; Zhang, Junjie


    Highlights: • Er 3+ doped germanate glass with good thermal stability were prepared. • Ionic boding nature was proved by bonding parameter calculation. • Mid-infrared fluorescent behaviors and energy transfer were investigated. • Rate equation and Dexter’s theory were utilized to elucidate 2.7 μm emission. - Abstract: Er 3+ activated germanate glass with good thermal stability was prepared. Bonding parameters have been calculated and the nature of ionic bonding of the germanate glass has been determined. Mid-infrared fluorescence was observed and corresponding radiative properties were investigated. For Er 3+ : 4 I 11/2 → 4 I 13/2 transition, high spontaneous radiative transition probability (30.09 s −1 ), large emission cross section ((14.84 ± 0.10) × 10 −21 cm 2 ) and superior gain performance were obtained from the prepared glass. Besides, energy transfer processes concerning the 2.7 μm emission were also discussed in detail. According to simplified rate equation and Dexter’s theory, energy transfer microscopic parameters were computed to elucidate observed 2.7 μm emissions. Results demonstrate that the prepared germanate glass possessing excellent spectroscopic properties might be an attractive candidate for mid-infrared laser or amplifier

  8. Preferential flow pathways revealed by field based stable isotope analysis of CO2 by mid-infrared laser spectroscopy (United States)

    van Geldern, Robert; Nowak, Martin; Zimmer, Martin; Szizybalski, Alexandra; Myrttinen, Anssi; Barth, Johannes A. C.; Jost, Hj


    A newly developed and commercially available isotope ratio laser spectrometer for CO2 analyses has been tested during a 10-day field monitoring campaign at the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage in northern Germany. The laser instrument is based on tunable laser direct absorption in the mid-infrared. The instrument recorded a continuous 10-day carbon stable isotope data set with 30 minutes resolution directly on-site in a field-based laboratory container during a tracer experiment. To test the instruments performance and accuracy the monitoring campaign was accompanied by daily CO2 sampling for laboratory analyses with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The carbon stable isotope ratios measured by conventional IRMS technique and by the new mid-infrared laser spectrometer agree remarkably well within 2σ analytical precision (<0.3 ‰). This proves the capability of the new mid-infrared direct absorption technique to measure high precision and accurate real-time table isotope data directly in the field. The injected CO2 tracer had a distinct δ13C value that was largely different from the reservoir background value. The laser spectroscopy data revealed a prior to this study unknown, intensive dynamic with fast changing δ13C values. The arrival pattern of the tracer suggest that the observed fluctuations were probably caused by migration along separate and distinct preferential flow paths between injection well and observation well. The new technique might contribute to a better tracing of the migration of the underground CO2 plume and help to ensure the long-term integrity of the reservoir.

  9. Fabrication of Shatter-Proof Metal Hollow-Core Optical Fibers for Endoscopic Mid-Infrared Laser Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumasa Iwai


    Full Text Available A method for fabricating robust and thin hollow-core optical fibers that carry mid-infrared light is proposed for use in endoscopic laser applications. The fiber is made of stainless steel tubing, eliminating the risk of scattering small glass fragments inside the body if the fiber breaks. To reduce the inner surface roughness of the tubing, a polymer base layer is formed prior to depositing silver and optical-polymer layers that confine light inside the hollow core. The surface roughness is greatly decreased by re-coating thin polymer base layers. Because of this smooth base layer surface, a uniform optical-polymer film can be formed around the core. As a result, clear interference peaks are observed in both the visible and mid-infrared regions. Transmission losses were also low for the carbon dioxide laser used for medical treatments as well as the visible laser diode used for an aiming beam. Measurements of bending losses for these lasers demonstrate the feasibility of the designed fiber for endoscopic applications.

  10. A mid-infrared laser absorption sensor for carbon monoxide and temperature measurements (United States)

    Vanderover, Jeremy

    A mid-infrared (mid-IR) absorption sensor based on quantum cascade laser (QCL) technology has been developed and demonstrated for high-temperature thermometry and carbon monoxide (CO) measurements in combustion environments. The sensor probes the high-intensity fundamental CO ro-vibrational band at 4.6 mum enabling sensitive measurement of CO and temperature at kHz acquisition rates. Because the sensor operates in the mid-IR CO fundamental band it is several orders of magnitude more sensitive than most of the previously developed CO combustion sensors which utilized absorption in the near-IR overtone bands and mature traditional telecommunications-based diode lasers. The sensor has been demonstrated and validated under operation in both scanned-wavelength absorption and wavelength-modulation spectroscopy (WMS) modes in room-temperature gas cell and high-temperature shock tube experiments with known and specified gas conditions. The sensor has also been demonstrated for CO and temperature measurements in an atmospheric premixed ethylene/air McKenna burner flat flame for a range of equivalence ratios (phi = 0.7-1.4). Demonstration of the sensor under scanned-wavelength direct absorption operation was performed in a room-temperature gas cell (297 K and 0.001-1 atm) allowing validation of the line strengths and line shapes predicted by the HITRAN 2004 spectroscopic database. Application of the sensor in scanned-wavelength mode, at 1-2 kHz acquisition bandwidths, to specified high-temperature shock-heated gases (950-3400 K, 1 atm) provided validation of the sensor for measurements under the high-temperature conditions found in combustion devices. The scanned-wavelength shock tube measurements yielded temperature determinations that deviated by only +/-1.2% (1-sigma deviation) with the reflected shock temperatures and CO mole fraction determinations that deviated by that specified CO mole fraction by only +/-1.5% (1-sigma deviation). These deviations are in fact smaller

  11. Gain and Threshold Current in Type II In(AsSb Mid-Infrared Quantum Dot Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Lu


    Full Text Available In this work, we improved the performance of mid-infrared type II InSb/InAs quantum dot (QD laser diodes by incorporating a lattice-matched p-InAsSbP cladding layer. The resulting devices exhibited emission around 3.1 µm and operated up to 120 K in pulsed mode, which is the highest working temperature for this type of QD laser. The modal gain was estimated to be 2.9 cm−1 per QD layer. A large blue shift (~150 nm was observed in the spontaneous emission spectrum below threshold due to charging effects. Because of the QD size distribution, only a small fraction of QDs achieve threshold at the same injection level at 4 K. Carrier leakage from the waveguide into the cladding layers was found to be the main reason for the high threshold current at higher temperatures.

  12. Frequency locking of an extended-cavity quantum cascade laser to a frequency comb for precision mid infrared spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaif, Bidoor; Lamperti, Marco; Gatti, Davide; Laporta, Paolo; Fermann, Martin E.; Farooq, Aamir; Marangoni, Marco


    Extended-cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs) enable mode-hope-free frequency sweeps in the mid-infrared region over ranges in excess of 100 cm−1, at speeds up to 1 THz/s and with a 100-mW optical power level. This makes them ideally suited for broadband absorption spectroscopy and for the simultaneous detection of multiple gases. On the other hand, their use for precision spectroscopy has been hampered so far by a large amount of frequency noise, resulting in an optical linewidth of about 30 MHz over 50 ms [1]. This is one of the reasons why neither their frequency nor their phase have been so far locked to a frequency comb. Their use in combination with frequency combs has been performed in an open loop regime only [2], which has the merit of preserving the inherently fast modulation speed of these lasers, yet not to afford high spectral resolution and accuracy.

  13. Frequency locking of an extended-cavity quantum cascade laser to a frequency comb for precision mid infrared spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaif, Bidoor


    Extended-cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs) enable mode-hope-free frequency sweeps in the mid-infrared region over ranges in excess of 100 cm−1, at speeds up to 1 THz/s and with a 100-mW optical power level. This makes them ideally suited for broadband absorption spectroscopy and for the simultaneous detection of multiple gases. On the other hand, their use for precision spectroscopy has been hampered so far by a large amount of frequency noise, resulting in an optical linewidth of about 30 MHz over 50 ms [1]. This is one of the reasons why neither their frequency nor their phase have been so far locked to a frequency comb. Their use in combination with frequency combs has been performed in an open loop regime only [2], which has the merit of preserving the inherently fast modulation speed of these lasers, yet not to afford high spectral resolution and accuracy.

  14. Modular PbSrS/PbS mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser on Si (United States)

    Khiar, A.; Rahim, M.; Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Zogg, H.; Cao, D.; Kobayashi, S.; Yokoyama, T.; Ishida, A.


    A mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) based on undoped PbS is described herein. A 200 nm-thick PbS active layer embedded between PbSrS cladding layers forms a double heterostructure. The layers are grown on a lattice and thermal expansion mismatched Si-substrate. The substrate is placed onto a flat bottom Bragg mirror again grown on a Si substrate, and the VECSEL is completed with a curved top mirror. Pumping is done optically with a 1.55 μm laser diode. This leads to an extremely simple modular fabrication process. Lasing wavelengths range from 3-3.8 μm at 100-260 K heat sink temperature. The lowest threshold power is ˜210 mWp and highest output power is ˜250 mWp. The influence of the different recombination mechanism as well as free carrier absorption on the threshold power is modeled.

  15. PbSe quantum well mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser on Si-substrates (United States)

    Fill, M.; Khiar, A.; Rahim, M.; Felder, F.; Zogg, H.


    Mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers based on PbSe/PbSrSe multi-quantum-well structures on Si-substrates are realized. A modular design allows growing the active region and the bottom Bragg mirror on two different Si-substrates, thus facilitating comparison between different structures. Lasing is observed from 3.3 to 5.1 μm wavelength and up to 52 °C heat sink temperature with 1.55 μm optical pumping. Simulations show that threshold powers are limited by Shockley-Read recombination with lifetimes as short as 0.1 ns. At higher temperatures, an additional threshold power increase occurs probably due to limited carrier diffusion length and carrier leakage, caused by an unfavorable band alignment.

  16. Selective treatment of carious dentin using a mid-infrared tunable pulsed laser at 6 μm wavelength range (United States)

    Saiki, Masayuki; Ishii, Katsunori; Yoshikawa, Kazushi; Yasuo, Kenzo; Yamamoto, Kazuyo; Awazu, Kunio


    Optical technologies have good potential for caries detection, prevention, excavation, and the realization of minimal intervention dentistry. This study aimed to develop a selective excavation technique of carious tissue using the specific absorption in 6 μm wavelength range. Bovine dentin demineralized with lactic acid solution was used as a carious dentin model. A mid-infrared tunable pulsed laser was obtained by difference-frequency generation technique. The wavelength was tuned to 6.02 and 6.42 μm which correspond to absorption bands called amide I and amide II, respectively. The laser delivers 5 ns pulse width at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The morphological change after irradiation was observed with a scanning electron microscope, and the measurement of ablation depth was performed with a confocal laser microscope. At λ = 6.02 μm and the average power density of 15 W/cm2, demineralized dentin was removed selectively with less-invasive effect on sound dentin. The wavelength of 6.42 μm also showed the possibility of selective removal. High ablation efficiency and low thermal side effect were observed using the nanosecond pulsed laser with λ = 6.02 μm. In the near future, development of compact laser device will open the minimal invasive laser treatment to the dental clinic.

  17. Application of mid-infrared free-electron laser tuned to amide bands for dissociation of aggregate structure of protein. (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takayasu; Yaji, Toyonari; Ohta, Toshiaki; Tsukiyama, Koichi


    A mid-infrared free-electron laser (FEL) is a linearly polarized, high-peak powered pulse laser with tunable wavelength within the mid-infrared absorption region. It was recently found that pathogenic amyloid fibrils could be partially dissociated to the monomer form by the irradiation of the FEL targeting the amide I band (C=O stretching vibration), amide II band (N-H bending vibration) and amide III band (C-N stretching vibration). In this study, the irradiation effect of the FEL on keratin aggregate was tested as another model to demonstrate an applicability of the FEL for dissociation of protein aggregates. Synchrotron radiation infrared microscopy analysis showed that the α-helix content in the aggregate structure decreased to almost the same level as that in the monomer state after FEL irradiation tuned to 6.06 µm (amide I band). Both irradiations at 6.51 µm (amide II band) and 8.06 µm (amide III band) also decreased the content of the aggregate but to a lesser extent than for the irradiation at the amide I band. On the contrary, the irradiation tuned to 5.6 µm (non-absorbance region) changed little the secondary structure of the aggregate. Scanning-electron microscopy observation at the submicrometer order showed that the angular solid of the aggregate was converted to non-ordered fragments by the irradiation at each amide band, while the aggregate was hardly deformed by the irradiation at 5.6 µm. These results demonstrate that the amide-specific irradiation by the FEL was effective for dissociation of the protein aggregate to the monomer form.

  18. Boundary conditions for 3D dynamic models of ablation of ceramics by pulsed mid-infrared lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vila Verde, A. [Department of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Ramos, Marta M.D. [Department of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)]. E-mail:


    We present and discuss a set of boundary conditions (BCs) to use in three-dimensional, mesoscopic, finite element models of mid-infrared pulsed laser ablation of brittle materials. These models allow the study of the transient displacement and stress fields generated at micrometer scales during and after one laser pulse, where using conventional BCs may lead to some results without physical significance that can be considered an artefact of the calculations. The proposed BCs are tested and applied to a micrometer-scale continuous model of human dental enamel under CO{sub 2} radiation (10.6 {mu}m, 0.35 {mu}s pulse, sub-ablative fluence), giving rise to the following results: the highest stress is obtained at the irradiated surface of the model, at the end of the laser pulse, but afterwards it decreases rapidly until it becomes significantly lower than the stress in a region 2.5 {mu}m deep in the model; a thermally induced vibration in the material is predicted. This non-intuitive dynamics in stress and displacement distribution cannot be neglected and has to be considered in dynamic laser ablation models, since it may have serious implications in the mechanisms of ablation.

  19. Different influence of long and short mid-infrared laser pulsed on eye rissue

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínková, H.; Pašta, J.; Němec, M.; Šulc, J.; Miyagi, M.; Shi, Y.W.; Matsuura, Y.; Jelínek, Miroslav


    Roč. 13, č. 5 (2003), s. 735-742 ISSN 1054-660X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : Er:YAG laser * application in ophtalmology Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.765, year: 2003

  20. Cutting efficiency of a mid-infrared laser on human enamel. (United States)

    Levy, G; Koubi, G F; Miserendino, L J


    In this study, the cutting ability of a newly developed dental laser was compared with a dental high-speed handpiece and rotary bur for removal of enamel. Measurements of the volume of tissue removed, energy emitted, and time of exposure were used to quantify the ablation rate (rate of tissue removal) for each test group and compared. Cutting efficiency (mm3/s) of the laser was calculated based on the mean volume of tissue removed per pulse (mm3/pulse) and unit energy expended (mm3/J) over the range of applied powers (2, 4, 6, and 8 W). The specimens were then examined by light microscopy and scanning electron micrographs for qualitative analysis of the amount of remaining debris and the presence of the smear layer on the prepared enamel surface. Calculations of the cutting efficiency of the laser over the range of powers tested revealed a linear relationship with the level of applied power. The maximum average rate of tissue removal by the laser was 0.256 mm3/s at 8 W, compared with 0.945 mm3/s by the dental handpiece. Light microscopy and scanning electron micrograph examinations revealed a reduction in the amount of remaining debris and smear layer in the laser-prepared enamel surfaces, compared with the conventional method. Based on the results of this study, the cutting efficiency of the high-speed handpiece and dental bur was 3.7 times greater than the laser over the range of powers tested, but the laser appeared to create a cleaner enamel surface with minimal thermal damage. Further modifications of the laser system are suggested for improvement of laser cutting efficiency.

  1. Phase-locked, high power, mid-infrared quantum cascade laser arrays (United States)

    Zhou, W.; Slivken, S.; Razeghi, M.


    We demonstrate phase-locked, high power quantum cascade laser arrays, which are combined using a monolithic, tree array multimode interferometer, with emission wavelengths around 4.8 μm. A maximum output power of 15 W was achieved from an eight-element laser array, which has only a slightly higher threshold current density and a similar slope efficiency compared to a Fabry-Perot laser of the same length. Calculated multimode interferometer splitting loss is on the order of 0.27 dB for the in-phase supermode. In-phase supermode operation with nearly ideal behavior is demonstrated over the working current range of the array.

  2. Hollow core waveguide as mid-infrared laser modal beam filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patimisco, P.; Giglio, M.; Spagnolo, V. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Università e Politecnico di Bari, CNR-IFN UOS BARI, Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Sampaolo, A. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Università e Politecnico di Bari, CNR-IFN UOS BARI, Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Kriesel, J. M. [Opto-Knowledge Systems, Inc. (OKSI), 19805 Hamilton Ave., Torrance, California 90502-1341 (United States); Tittel, F. K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)


    A novel method for mid-IR laser beam mode cleaning employing hollow core waveguide as a modal filter element is reported. The influence of the input laser beam quality on fiber optical losses and output beam profile using a hollow core waveguide with 200 μm-bore size was investigated. Our results demonstrate that even when using a laser with a poor spatial profile, there will exist a minimum fiber length that allows transmission of only the Gaussian-like fundamental waveguide mode from the fiber, filtering out all the higher order modes. This essentially single mode output is preserved also when the waveguide is bent to a radius of curvature of 7.5 cm, which demonstrates that laser mode filtering can be realized even if a curved light path is required.

  3. Tunable, Narrow Line Width Mid-Infrared Laser Source, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to advance the technology of interband cascade (IC) lasers and their facet coatings and to design, build, and deliver to NASA a...

  4. Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory is equipped to investigate and characterize the lasing properties of semiconductor diode lasers. Lasing features such...

  5. Coherent control of D2/H2 dissociative ionization by a mid-infrared two-color laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanie, Vincent; Ibrahim, Heide; Beaulieu, Samuel; Thiré, Nicolas; Schmidt, Bruno E; Légaré, François; Deng, Yunpei; Alnaser, Ali S; Litvinyuk, Igor V; Tong, Xiao-Min


    Steering the electrons during an ultrafast photo-induced process in a molecule influences the chemical behavior of the system, opening the door to the control of photochemical reactions and photobiological processes. Electrons can be efficiently localized using a strong laser field with a well-designed temporal shape of the electric component. Consequently, many experiments have been performed with laser sources in the near-infrared region (800 nm) in the interest of studying and enhancing the electron localization. However, due to its limited accessibility, the mid-infrared (MIR) range has barely been investigated, although it allows to efficiently control small molecules and even more complex systems. To push further the manipulation of basic chemical mechanisms, we used a MIR two-color (1800 and 900 nm) laser field to ionize H 2 and D 2 molecules and to steer the remaining electron during the photo-induced dissociation. The study of this prototype reaction led to the simultaneous control of four fragmentation channels. The results are well reproduced by a theoretical model solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the molecular ion, identifying the involved dissociation mechanisms. By varying the relative phase between the two colors, asymmetries (i.e., electron localization selectivity) of up to 65% were obtained, corresponding to enhanced or equivalent levels of control compared to previous experiments. Experimentally easier to implement, the use of a two-color laser field leads to a better electron localization than carrier-envelope phase stabilized pulses and applying the technique in the MIR range reveals more dissociation channels than at 800 nm. (paper)

  6. Methane concentration and isotopic composition measurements with a mid-infrared quantum-cascade laser (United States)

    Kosterev, A. A.; Curl, R. F.; Tittel, F. K.; Gmachl, C.; Capasso, F.; Sivco, D. L.; Baillargeon, J. N.; Hutchinson, A. L.; Cho, A. Y.


    A quantum-cascade laser operating at a wavelength of 8.1 micrometers was used for high-sensitivity absorption spectroscopy of methane (CH4). The laser frequency was continuously scanned with current over more than 3 cm-1, and absorption spectra of the CH4 nu 4 P branch were recorded. The measured laser linewidth was 50 MHz. A CH4 concentration of 15.6 parts in 10(6) ( ppm) in 50 Torr of air was measured in a 43-cm path length with +/- 0.5-ppm accuracy when the signal was averaged over 400 scans. The minimum detectable absorption in such direct absorption measurements is estimated to be 1.1 x 10(-4). The content of 13CH4 and CH3D species in a CH4 sample was determined.

  7. High-speed high-sensitivity infrared spectroscopy using mid-infrared swept lasers (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Childs, David T. D.; Groom, Kristian M.; Hogg, Richard A.; Revin, Dmitry G.; Cockburn, John W.; Rehman, Ihtesham U.; Matcher, Stephen J.


    Infrared spectroscopy is a highly attractive read-out technology for compositional analysis of biomedical specimens because of its unique combination of high molecular sensitivity without the need for exogenous labels. Traditional techniques such as FTIR and Raman have suffered from comparatively low speed and sensitivity however recent innovations are challenging this situation. Direct mid-IR spectroscopy is being speeded up by innovations such as MEMS-based FTIR instruments with very high mirror speeds and supercontinuum sources producing very high sample irradiation levels. Here we explore another possible method - external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL's) with high cavity tuning speeds (mid-IR swept lasers). Swept lasers have been heavily developed in the near-infrared where they are used for non-destructive low-coherence imaging (OCT). We adapt these concepts in two ways. Firstly by combining mid-IR quantum cascade gain chips with external cavity designs adapted from OCT we achieve spectral acquisition rates approaching 1 kHz and demonstrate potential to reach 100 kHz. Secondly we show that mid-IR swept lasers share a fundamental sensitivity advantage with near-IR OCT swept lasers. This makes them potentially able to achieve the same spectral SNR as an FTIR instrument in a time x N shorter (N being the number of spectral points) under otherwise matched conditions. This effect is demonstrated using measurements of a PDMS sample. The combination of potentially very high spectral acquisition rates, fundamental SNR advantage and the use of low-cost detector systems could make mid-IR swept lasers a powerful technology for high-throughput biomedical spectroscopy.

  8. Low-Loss Hollow Waveguide Fibers for Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Laser Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Harrington


    Full Text Available We report on single mode optical transmission of hollow core glass waveguides (HWG coupled with an external cavity mid-IR quantum cascade lasers (QCLs. The QCL mode results perfectly matched to the hybrid HE11 waveguide mode and the higher losses TE-like modes have efficiently suppressed by the deposited inner dielectric coating. Optical losses down to 0.44 dB/m and output beam divergence of ~5 mrad were measured. Using a HGW fiber with internal core size of 300 µm we obtained single mode laser transmission at 10.54 µm and successful employed it in a quartz enhanced photoacoustic gas sensor setup.

  9. Investigation of SOI Raman Lasers for Mid-Infrared Gas Sensing (United States)

    Passaro, Vittorio M.N.; De Leonardis, Francesco


    In this paper, the investigation and detailed modeling of a cascaded Raman laser, operating in the midwave infrared region, is described. The device is based on silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides and a coupled resonant microcavity. Theoretical results are compared with recent experiments, demonstrating a very good agreement. Design criteria are derived for cascaded Raman lasers working as continuous wave light sources to simultaneously sense two types of gases, namely C2H6 and CO2, at a moderate power level of 130 mW. PMID:22408481

  10. Black phosphorus saturable absorber for a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Er:CaF2 mid-infrared laser (United States)

    Li, Chun; Liu, Jie; Guo, Zhinan; Zhang, Han; Ma, Weiwei; Wang, Jingya; Xu, Xiaodong; Su, Liangbi


    A multilayer black phosphorus, as a novel two dimensional saturable absorber, has superb saturable absorption properties for a Er:CaF2 solid-state pulse laser. The pulse laser is realized at mid-infrared region with the passively Q-switched technology by a diode-pumping. The high-quality black phosphorus saturable absorber is fabricated by liquid phase exfoliation method. The pulse laser generates the pulses operation with the pulse duration of 954.8 ns, the repetition rate of 41.93 kHz, the pulse energy of 4.25 μJ and the peak power of 4.45 W. Our work demonstrates that black phosphorus could be used as a kind of efficient mid-infrared region optical absorber for ultrafast photonics.

  11. Efficient, High-Power Mid-Infrared Laser for National Securityand Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiani, Leily S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The LLNL fiber laser group developed a unique short-wave-infrared, high-pulse energy, highaverage- power fiber based laser. This unique laser source has been used in combination with a nonlinear frequency converter to generate wavelengths, useful for remote sensing and other applications in the mid-wave infrared (MWIR). Sources with high average power and high efficiency in this MWIR wavelength region are not yet available with the size, weight, and power requirements or energy efficiency necessary for future deployment. The LLNL developed Fiber Laser Pulsed Source (FiLPS) design was adapted to Erbium doped silica fibers for 1.55 μm pumping of Cadmium Silicon Phosphide (CSP). We have demonstrated, for the first time optical parametric amplification of 2.4 μm light via difference frequency generation using CSP with an Erbium doped fiber source. In addition, for efficiency comparison purposes, we also demonstrated direct optical parametric generation (OPG) as well as optical parametric oscillation (OPO).

  12. Dispersion compensated mid-infrared quantum cascade laser frequency comb with high power output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Y. Lu


    Full Text Available Chromatic dispersion control plays an underlying role in optoelectronics and spectroscopy owing to its enhancement to nonlinear interactions by reducing the phase mismatching. This is particularly important to optical frequency combs based on quantum cascade lasers which require negligible dispersions for efficient mode locking of the dispersed modes into equally spaced comb modes. Here, we demonstrated a dispersion compensated mid-IR quantum cascade laser frequency comb with high power output at room temperature. A low-loss dispersive mirror has been engineered to compensate the device’s dispersion residue for frequency comb generation. Narrow intermode beating linewidths of 40 Hz in the comb-working currents were identified with a high power output of 460 mW and a broad spectral coverage of 80 cm-1. This dispersion compensation technique will enable fast spectroscopy and high-resolution metrology based on QCL combs with controlled dispersion and suppressed noise.

  13. Mid-infrared 1  W hollow-core fiber gas laser source. (United States)

    Xu, Mengrong; Yu, Fei; Knight, Jonathan


    We report the characteristics of a 1 W hollow-core fiber gas laser emitting CW in the mid-IR. Our system is based on an acetylene-filled hollow-core optical fiber guiding with low losses at both the pump and laser wavelengths and operating in the single-pass amplified spontaneous emission regime. Through systematic characterization of the pump absorption and output power dependence on gas pressure, fiber length, and pump intensity, we determine that the reduction of pump absorption at high pump flux and the degradation of gain performance at high gas pressure necessitate the use of increased gain fiber length for efficient lasing at higher powers. Low fiber attenuation is therefore key to efficient high-power laser operation. We demonstrate 1.1 W output power at a 3.1 μm wavelength by using a high-power erbium-doped fiber amplifier pump in a single-pass configuration, approximately 400 times higher CW output power than in the ring cavity previously reported.

  14. Optical feedback in dfb quantum cascade laser for mid-infrared cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terabayashi, Ryohei, E-mail:; Sonnenschein, Volker, E-mail:; Tomita, Hideki, E-mail:; Hayashi, Noriyoshi, E-mail:; Kato, Shusuke, E-mail:; Jin, Lei, E-mail:; Yamanaka, Masahito, E-mail:; Nishizawa, Norihiko, E-mail: [Nagoya University, Department of Quantum Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan); Sato, Atsushi, E-mail:; Nozawa, Kohei, E-mail:; Hashizume, Kenta, E-mail:; Oh-hara, Toshinari, E-mail: [Sekisui Medical Co., Ltd., Drug Development Solutions Center (Japan); Iguchi, Tetsuo, E-mail: [Nagoya University, Department of Quantum Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan)


    A simple external optical feedback system has been applied to a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (DFB QCL) for cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) and a clear effect of feedback was observed. A long external feedback path length of up to 4m can decrease the QCL linewidth to around 50kHz, which is of the order of the transmission linewidth of our high finesse ring-down cavity. The power spectral density of the transmission signal from high finesse cavity reveals that the noise at frequencies above 20kHz is reduced dramatically.

  15. Mid infrared resonant cavity detectors and lasers with epitaxial lead-chalcogenides (United States)

    Zogg, H.; Rahim, M.; Khiar, A.; Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Quack, N.


    Wavelength tunable emitters and detectors in the mid-IR wavelength region allow applications including thermal imaging and gas spectroscopy. One way to realize such tunable devices is by using a resonant cavity. By mechanically changing the cavity length with MEMS mirror techniques, the wavelengths may be tuned over a considerable range. Resonant cavity enhanced detectors (RCED) are sensitive at the cavity resonance only. They may be applied for low resolution spectroscopy, and, when arrays of such detectors are realized, as multicolour IR-FPA or "IR-AFPA", adaptive focal plane arrays. We report the first room temperature mid-IR VECSEL (vertical external cavity surface emitting laser) with a wavelength above 3 μm. The active region is just 850 nm PbSe, followed by a 2.5 pair Bragg mirror. Output power is > 10 mW at RT.

  16. Semiconductor laser shearing interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Hai; Li Ming; Chen Nong; Xie Jiaping


    The application of semiconductor laser on grating shearing interferometry is studied experimentally in the present paper. The method measuring the coherence of semiconductor laser beam by ion etching double frequency grating is proposed. The experimental result of lens aberration with semiconductor laser shearing interferometer is given. Talbot shearing interferometry of semiconductor laser is also described. (author). 2 refs, 9 figs

  17. Novel mid-infrared imaging system based on single-mode quantum cascade laser illumination and upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomko, Jan; Junaid, Saher; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter


    Compared to the visible or near-infrared (NIR) spectral regions, there is a lack of very high sensitivity detectors in the mid-infrared (MIR) that operate near room temperature. Upconversion of the MIR light to NIR light that is imaged using affordable, fast, and sensitive NIR detectors or camera...

  18. Toward power scaling in an acetylene mid-infrared hollow-core optical fiber gas laser: effects of pressure, fiber length, and pump power (United States)

    Weerasinghe, H. W. Kushan; Dadashzadeh, Neda; Thirugnanasambandam, Manasadevi P.; Debord, Benoît.; Chafer, Matthieu; Gérôme, Frédéric; Benabid, Fetah; Corwin, Kristan L.; Washburn, Brian R.


    The effect of gas pressure, fiber length, and optical pump power on an acetylene mid-infrared hollow-core optical fiber gas laser (HOFGLAS) is experimentally determined in order to scale the laser to higher powers. The absorbed optical power and threshold power are measured for different pressures providing an optimum pressure for a given fiber length. We observe a linear dependence of both absorbed pump energy and lasing threshold for the acetylene HOFGLAS, while maintaining a good mode quality with an M-squared of 1.15. The threshold and mode behavior are encouraging for scaling to higher pressures and pump powers.

  19. Generation of broadly tunable picosecond mid-infrared laser and sensitive detection of a mid-infrared signal by parametric frequency up-conversion in MgO:LiNbO3 optical parametric amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiu-Lin; Zhang Jing; Qiu Kang-Sheng; Zhang Dong-Xiang; Feng Bao-Hua; Zhang Jing-Yuan


    Picosecond optical parametric generation and amplification in the near-infrared region within 1.361–1.656 μm and the mid-infrared region within 2.976–4.875 μm is constructed on the basis of bulk MgO:LiNbO 3 crystals pumped at 1.064 μm. The maximum pulse energy reaches 1.3 mJ at 1.464 μm and 0.47 mJ at 3.894 μm, corresponding to a pump-to-idler photon conversion efficiency of 25%. By seeding the hard-to-measure mid-infrared radiation as the idler in the optical parametric amplification and measuring the amplified and frequency up-converted signal in the near-infrared or even visible region, one can measure very week mid-infrared radiation with ordinary detectors, which are insensitive to mid-infrared radiation, with a very high gain. A maximum gain factor of about 7 × 10 7 is achieved at the mid-infrared wavelength of 3.374 μm and the corresponding energy detection limit is as low as about 390 aJ per pulse. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  20. Real-time monitoring of benzene, toluene, and p-xylene in a photoreaction chamber with a tunable mid-infrared laser and ultraviolet differential optical absorption spectroscopy. (United States)

    Parsons, Matthew T; Sydoryk, Ihor; Lim, Alan; McIntyre, Thomas J; Tulip, John; Jäger, Wolfgang; McDonald, Karen


    We describe the implementation of a mid-infrared laser-based trace gas sensor with a photoreaction chamber, used for reproducing chemical transformations of benzene, toluene, and p-xylene (BTX) gases that may occur in the atmosphere. The system performance was assessed in the presence of photoreaction products including aerosol particles. A mid-infrared external cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL)-tunable from 9.41-9.88 μm (1012-1063 cm(-1))-was used to monitor gas phase concentrations of BTX simultaneously and in real time during chemical processing of these compounds with hydroxyl radicals in a photoreaction chamber. Results are compared to concurrent measurements using ultraviolet differential optical absorption spectroscopy (UV DOAS). The EC-QCL based system provides quantitation limits of approximately 200, 200, and 600 parts in 10(9) (ppb) for benzene, toluene, and p-xylene, respectively, which represents a significant improvement over our previous work with this laser system. Correspondingly, we observe the best agreement between the EC-QCL measurements and the UV DOAS measurements with benzene, followed by toluene, then p-xylene. Although BTX gas-detection limits are not as low for the EC-QCL system as for UV DOAS, an unidentified by-product of the photoreactions was observed with the EC-QCL, but not with the UV DOAS system.

  1. Highly-efficient mid-infrared CW laser operation in a lightly-doped 3 at.% Er:SrF2 single crystal. (United States)

    Su, Liangbi; Guo, Xinsheng; Jiang, Dapeng; Wu, Qinghui; Qin, Zhipeng; Xie, Guoqiang


    3 at.% Er:SrF 2 laser crystals with high optical quality were successfully grown using the temperature gradient technique (TGT). The intense mid-infrared emission was observed around 2.7 μm with excitation by a 970 nm LD. Based on the Judd-Ofelt theory, the emission cross-sections of the 4 I 13/2 - 4 I 11/2 transition were calculated by using the Fuchtbauer-Ladenburg (FL) method. Efficient continuous-wave laser operation at 2.8 µm was achieved with the lightly-doped 3 at.% Er:SrF 2 crystal pumped by a 970 nm laser diode. The laser output power reached up to 1.06 W with a maximum slope efficiency of 26%.

  2. Fugitive methane leak detection using mid-infrared hollow-core photonic crystal fiber containing ultrafast laser drilled side-holes (United States)

    Karp, Jason; Challener, William; Kasten, Matthias; Choudhury, Niloy; Palit, Sabarni; Pickrell, Gary; Homa, Daniel; Floyd, Adam; Cheng, Yujie; Yu, Fei; Knight, Jonathan


    The increase in domestic natural gas production has brought attention to the environmental impacts of persistent gas leakages. The desire to identify fugitive gas emission, specifically for methane, presents new sensing challenges within the production and distribution supply chain. A spectroscopic gas sensing solution would ideally combine a long optical path length for high sensitivity and distributed detection over large areas. Specialty micro-structured fiber with a hollow core can exhibit a relatively low attenuation at mid-infrared wavelengths where methane has strong absorption lines. Methane diffusion into the hollow core is enabled by machining side-holes along the fiber length through ultrafast laser drilling methods. The complete system provides hundreds of meters of optical path for routing along well pads and pipelines while being interrogated by a single laser and detector. This work will present transmission and methane detection capabilities of mid-infrared photonic crystal fibers. Side-hole drilling techniques for methane diffusion will be highlighted as a means to convert hollow-core fibers into applicable gas sensors.

  3. Nonlinear optics in germanium mid-infrared fiber material: Detuning oscillations in femtosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ordu


    Full Text Available Germanium optical fibers hold great promise in extending semiconductor photonics into the fundamentally important mid-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The demonstration of nonlinear response in fabricated Ge fiber samples is a key step in the development of mid-infrared fiber materials. Here we report the observation of detuning oscillations in a germanium fiber in the mid-infrared region using femtosecond dispersed pump-probe spectroscopy. Detuning oscillations are observed in the frequency-resolved response when mid-infrared pump and probe pulses are overlapped in a fiber segment. The oscillations arise from the nonlinear frequency resolved nonlinear (χ(3 response in the germanium semiconductor. Our work represents the first observation of coherent oscillations in the emerging field of germanium mid-infrared fiber optics.

  4. Mid-infrared PbTe vertical external cavity surface emitting laser on Si-substrate with above 1 W output power (United States)

    Rahim, M.; Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Chappuis, D.; Corda, M.; Zogg, H.


    Mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSELs) emitting above 1 W output power in pulsed mode and up to 17 mW in continuous mode at -172 °C were realized. Emission wavelength changes from 5 μm at -172 °C to 3.6 μm at 20 °C heat sink temperature. The active medium is a one wavelength thick PbTe layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a Si-substrate. It is followed by a 2.5 pair Pb1-yEuyTe/EuTe epitaxial Bragg mirror. The cavity is completed with an external curved Pb1-yEuyTe/BaF2 mirror. The VECSEL is optically pumped with 1.55 μm wavelength laser and In-soldered to Cu heat sink. No microstructural processing is needed.

  5. High power frequency comb based on mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at λ ∼ 9 μm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Q. Y.; Razeghi, M., E-mail:; Slivken, S.; Bandyopadhyay, N.; Bai, Y.; Zhou, W. J.; Chen, M.; Heydari, D.; Haddadi, A.; McClintock, R. [Center for Quantum Devices, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Amanti, M.; Sirtori, C. [Laboratoire Matériaux et Phénomènes Quantiques, Université Paris Diderot and CNRS, UMR7162, 75205 Paris (France)


    We investigate a frequency comb source based on a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at λ ∼ 9 μm with high power output. A broad flat-top gain with near-zero group velocity dispersion has been engineered using a dual-core active region structure. This favors the locking of the dispersed Fabry-Pérot modes into equally spaced frequency lines via four wave mixing. A current range with a narrow intermode beating linewidth of 3 kHz is identified with a fast detector and spectrum analyzer. This range corresponds to a broad spectral coverage of 65 cm{sup −1} and a high power output of 180 mW for ∼176 comb modes.

  6. High power frequency comb based on mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at λ ∼ 9 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Q. Y.; Razeghi, M.; Slivken, S.; Bandyopadhyay, N.; Bai, Y.; Zhou, W. J.; Chen, M.; Heydari, D.; Haddadi, A.; McClintock, R.; Amanti, M.; Sirtori, C.


    We investigate a frequency comb source based on a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at λ ∼ 9 μm with high power output. A broad flat-top gain with near-zero group velocity dispersion has been engineered using a dual-core active region structure. This favors the locking of the dispersed Fabry-Pérot modes into equally spaced frequency lines via four wave mixing. A current range with a narrow intermode beating linewidth of 3 kHz is identified with a fast detector and spectrum analyzer. This range corresponds to a broad spectral coverage of 65 cm −1 and a high power output of 180 mW for ∼176 comb modes

  7. Phenomenological scattering-rate model for the simulation of the current density and emission power in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurlov, S. S. [Department of Physics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstraße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences, pr. Nauki 45, Kiev-03028 (Ukraine); Flores, Y. V.; Elagin, M.; Semtsiv, M. P.; Masselink, W. T. [Department of Physics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstraße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Schrottke, L.; Grahn, H. T. [Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5–7, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Tarasov, G. G. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences, pr. Nauki 45, Kiev-03028 (Ukraine)


    A phenomenological scattering-rate model introduced for terahertz quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) [Schrottke et al., Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25, 045025 (2010)] is extended to mid-infrared (MIR) QCLs by including the energy dependence of the intersubband scattering rates for energies higher than the longitudinal optical phonon energy. This energy dependence is obtained from a phenomenological fit of the intersubband scattering rates based on published lifetimes of a number of MIR QCLs. In our approach, the total intersubband scattering rate is written as the product of the exchange integral for the squared moduli of the envelope functions and a phenomenological factor that depends only on the transition energy. Using the model to calculate scattering rates and imposing periodical boundary conditions on the current density, we find a good agreement with low-temperature data for current-voltage, power-current, and energy-photon flux characteristics for a QCL emitting at 5.2 μm.

  8. Highly efficient dual-wavelength mid-infrared CW Laser in diode end-pumped Er:SrF2 single crystals (United States)

    Ma, Weiwei; Qian, Xiaobo; Wang, Jingya; Liu, Jingjing; Fan, Xiuwei; Liu, Jie; Su, Liangbi; Xu, Jun


    The spectral properties and laser performance of Er:SrF2 single crystals were investigated and compared with Er:CaF2. Er:SrF2 crystals have larger absorption cross-sections at the pumping wavelength, larger mid-infrared stimulated emission cross-sections and much longer fluorescence lifetimes of the upper laser level (Er3+:4I11/2 level) than those of Er:CaF2 crystals. Dual-wavelength continuous-wave (CW) lasers around 2.8 μm were demonstrated in both 4at.% and 10at.% Er:SrF2 single crystals under 972 nm laser diode (LD) end pumping. The laser wavelengths are 2789.3 nm and 2791.8 nm in the former, and 2786.4 nm and 2790.7 nm in the latter, respectively. The best laser performance has been demonstrated in lightly doped 4at.% Er:SrF2 with a low threshold of 0.100 W, a high slope efficiency of 22.0%, an maximum output power of 0.483 W.

  9. Low-loss 3D-laser-written mid-infrared LiNbO3 depressed-index cladding waveguides for both TE and TM polarizations. (United States)

    Nguyen, Huu-Dat; Ródenas, Airán; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Martín, Guillermo; Martínez, Javier; Aguiló, Magdalena; Pujol, Maria Cinta; Díaz, Francesc


    We report mid-infrared LiNbO3 depressed-index microstructured cladding waveguides fabricated by three-dimensional laser writing showing low propagation losses (~1.5 dB/cm) at 3.68 µm wavelength for both the transverse electric and magnetic polarized modes, a feature previously unachieved due to the strong anisotropic properties of this type of laser microstructured waveguides and which is of fundamental importance for many photonic applications. Using a heuristic modeling-testing iteration design approach which takes into account cladding induced stress-optic index changes, the fabricated cladding microstructure provides low-loss single mode operation for the mid-IR for both orthogonal polarizations. The dependence of the localized refractive index changes within the cladding microstructure with post-fabrication thermal annealing processes was also investigated, revealing its complex dependence of the laser induced refractive index changes on laser fabrication conditions and thermal post-processing steps. The waveguide modes properties and their dependence on thermal post-processing were numerically modeled and fitted to the experimental values by systematically varying three fundamental parameters of this type of waveguides: depressed refractive index values at sub-micron laser-written tracks, track size changes, and piezo-optic induced refractive index changes.

  10. Physics of semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Mroziewicz, B; Nakwaski, W


    Written for readers who have some background in solid state physics but do not necessarily possess any knowledge of semiconductor lasers, this book provides a comprehensive and concise account of fundamental semiconductor laser physics, technology and properties. The principles of operation of these lasers are therefore discussed in detail with the interrelations between their design and optical, electrical and thermal properties. The relative merits of a large number of laser structures and their parameters are described to acquaint the reader with the various aspects of the semiconductor l

  11. Compact semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Siyuan; Lourtioz, Jean-Michel


    This book brings together in a single volume a unique contribution by the top experts around the world in the field of compact semiconductor lasers to provide a comprehensive description and analysis of the current status as well as future directions in the field of micro- and nano-scale semiconductor lasers. It is organized according to the various forms of micro- or nano-laser cavity configurations with each chapter discussing key technical issues, including semiconductor carrier recombination processes and optical gain dynamics, photonic confinement behavior and output coupling mechanisms, carrier transport considerations relevant to the injection process, and emission mode control. Required reading for those working in and researching the area of semiconductors lasers and micro-electronics.

  12. Teradiode's high brightness semiconductor lasers (United States)

    Huang, Robin K.; Chann, Bien; Burgess, James; Lochman, Bryan; Zhou, Wang; Cruz, Mike; Cook, Rob; Dugmore, Dan; Shattuck, Jeff; Tayebati, Parviz


    TeraDiode is manufacturing multi-kW-class ultra-high brightness fiber-coupled direct diode lasers for industrial applications. A fiber-coupled direct diode laser with a power level of 4,680 W from a 100 μm core diameter, BPP) of 3.5 mm-mrad and is the lowest BPP multi-kW-class direct diode laser yet reported. This laser is suitable for industrial materials processing applications, including sheet metal cutting and welding. This 4-kW fiber-coupled direct diode laser has comparable brightness to that of industrial fiber lasers and CO2 lasers, and is over 10x brighter than state-of-the-art direct diode lasers. We have also demonstrated novel high peak power lasers and high brightness Mid-Infrared Lasers.

  13. Mid infrared quantum cascade laser operating in pure amplitude modulation for background-free trace gas spectroscopy. (United States)

    Bidaux, Yves; Bismuto, Alfredo; Patimisco, Pietro; Sampaolo, Angelo; Gresch, Tobias; Strubi, Gregory; Blaser, Stéphane; Tittel, Frank K; Spagnolo, Vincenzo; Muller, Antoine; Faist, Jérôme


    We present a single mode multi-section quantum cascade laser source composed of three different sections: master oscillator, gain and phase section. Non-uniform pumping of the QCL's gain reveals that the various laser sections are strongly coupled. Simulations of the electronic and optical properties of the laser (based on the density matrix and scattering matrix formalisms, respectively) were performed and a good agreement with measurements is obtained. In particular, a pure modulation of the laser output power can be achieved. This capability of the device is applied in tunable-laser spectroscopy of N2O where background-free quartz enhanced photo acoustic spectral scans with nearly perfect Voigt line shapes for the selected absorption line are obtained.

  14. Next-generation mid-infrared sources (United States)

    Jung, D.; Bank, S.; Lee, M. L.; Wasserman, D.


    The mid-infrared (mid-IR) is a wavelength range with a variety of technologically vital applications in molecular sensing, security and defense, energy conservation, and potentially in free-space communication. The recent development and rapid commercialization of new coherent mid-infrared sources have spurred significant interest in the development of mid-infrared optical systems for the above applications. However, optical systems designers still do not have the extensive optical infrastructure available to them that exists at shorter wavelengths (for instance, in the visible and near-IR/telecom wavelengths). Even in the field of optoelectronic sources, which has largely driven the growing interest in the mid-infrared, the inherent limitations of state-of-the-art sources and the gaps in spectral coverage offer opportunities for the development of new classes of lasers, light emitting diodes and emitters for a range of potential applications. In this topical review, we will first present an overview of the current state-of-the-art mid-IR sources, in particular thermal emitters, which have long been utilized, and the relatively new quantum- and interband-cascade lasers, as well as the applications served by these sources. Subsequently, we will discuss potential mid-infrared applications and wavelength ranges which are poorly served by the current stable of mid-IR sources, with an emphasis on understanding the fundamental limitations of the current source technology. The bulk of the manuscript will then explore both past and recent developments in mid-infrared source technology, including narrow bandgap quantum well lasers, type-I and type-II quantum dot materials, type-II superlattices, highly mismatched alloys, lead-salts and transition-metal-doped II-VI materials. We will discuss both the advantages and limitations of each of the above material systems, as well as the potential new applications which they might serve. All in all, this topical review does not aim

  15. Mid-infrared spectroscopic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, L.; Vergo, N.; Salisbury, J.W.


    Mid-infrared spectroscopic research efforts are discussed. The development of a new instrumentation to permit advanced measurements in the mid-infrared region of the spectrum, the development of a special library of well-characterized mineral and rock specimens for interpretation of remote sensing data, and cooperative measurements of the spectral signatures of analogues of materials that may be present on the surfaces of asteroids, planets or their Moons are discussed

  16. Interband cascade laser-based ppbv-level mid-infrared methane detection using two digital lock-in amplifier schemes (United States)

    Song, Fang; Zheng, Chuantao; Yu, Di; Zhou, Yanwen; Yan, Wanhong; Ye, Weilin; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Yiding; Tittel, Frank K.


    A parts-per-billion in volume (ppbv) level mid-infrared methane (CH4) sensor system was demonstrated using second-harmonic wavelength modulation spectroscopy (2 f-WMS). A 3291 nm interband cascade laser (ICL) and a multi-pass gas cell (MPGC) with a 16 m optical path length were adopted in the reported sensor system. Two digital lock-in amplifier (DLIA) schemes, a digital signal processor (DSP)-based DLIA and a LabVIEW-based DLIA, were used for harmonic signal extraction. A limit of detection (LoD) of 13.07 ppbv with an averaging time of 2 s was achieved using the DSP-based DLIA and a LoD of 5.84 ppbv was obtained using the LabVIEW-based DLIA with the same averaging time. A rise time of 0→2 parts-per-million in volume (ppmv) and fall time of 2→0 ppmv were observed. Outdoor atmospheric CH4 concentration measurements were carried out to evaluate the sensor performance using the two DLIA schemes.

  17. Realizing A Mid-Infrared Optically Pumped Molecular Gas Laser Inside Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber (United States)


    structure resembling a star- of- David pattern can clearly be seen surrounding the hollow core region. The fiber’s hollow core is created by leaving out...O.R. Wood, An optically pumped CO2 laser. IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, 1972. 8(6): p. 598. 19. Schlossberg, H.R. and H.R. Fetterman

  18. Single frequency semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zujie; Chen, Gaoting; Qu, Ronghui


    This book systematically introduces the single frequency semiconductor laser, which is widely used in many vital advanced technologies, such as the laser cooling of atoms and atomic clock, high-precision measurements and spectroscopy, coherent optical communications, and advanced optical sensors. It presents both the fundamentals and characteristics of semiconductor lasers, including basic F-P structure and monolithic integrated structures; interprets laser noises and their measurements; and explains mechanisms and technologies relating to the main aspects of single frequency lasers, including external cavity lasers, frequency stabilization technologies, frequency sweeping, optical phase locked loops, and so on. It paints a clear, physical picture of related technologies and reviews new developments in the field as well. It will be a useful reference to graduate students, researchers, and engineers in the field.

  19. Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in tapered ZBLAN fiber with a standard Erbium mode-locked fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubat, Irnis; Moselund, Peter M.; Bang, Ole


    to generate a broadband SC using direct pumping with commercially available Erbium (Er) mode-locked fiber lasers at 1550 nm. Formation of SC is manipulated both in the UV and IR by changing the fiber dispersion and nonlinearity using tapers. This has been much studied in various silica fiber designs...... and is now also becoming used in ZBLAN [2], and other soft glasses such as chalcogenide [3] and tellurite [4]. The aim of this nummerical work is to show how pumping tapered commercially available ZBLAN fibers with an Er mode-locked fiber laser can generate a broadband SC approaching the ZBLAN long....... commercially available), core diameter Dc=7 μm, and ZDW=1.5 μm, is pumped with TFWHM=10 ps and P0=10 kW pulses from an Er mode-locked laser with a 40 MHz repetition rate and 4W average power. The resulting MIR SC seen in Fig. 1(b) is based on Modulation Instability breakup of the pump pulse, which generates...

  20. Low-loss, robust fusion splicing of silica to chalcogenide fiber for integrated mid-infrared laser technology development. (United States)

    Thapa, Rajesh; Gattass, Rafael R; Nguyen, Vinh; Chin, Geoff; Gibson, Dan; Kim, Woohong; Shaw, L Brandon; Sanghera, Jasbinder S


    We demonstrate a low-loss, repeatable, and robust splice between single-mode silica fiber and single-mode chalcogenide (CHG) fiber. These splices are particularly difficult to create because of the significant difference in the two fibers' glass transition temperatures (∼1000°C) as well as the large difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion between the fibers (∼20×10(-6)/°C). With 90% light coupled through the silica-CHG fiber splice, predominantly in the fundamental circular-symmetric mode, into the core of the CHG fiber and with 0.5 dB of splice loss measured around the wavelength of 2.5 μm, after correcting only for the Fresnel loss, the silica-CHG splice offers excellent beam quality and coupling efficiency. The tensile strength of the splice is greater than 12 kpsi, and the laser damage threshold is greater than 2 W (CW) and was limited by the available laser pump power. We also utilized this splicing technique to demonstrate 2 to 4.5 μm ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation in a monolithic all-fiber system comprising a CHG fiber and a high peak power 2 μm pulsed Raman-shifted thulium fiber laser. This is a major development toward compact form factor commercial applications of soft-glass mid-IR fibers.

  1. Fundamentals of semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Numai, Takahiro


    This book explains physics under the operating principles of semiconductor lasers in detail based on the experience of the author, dealing with the first manufacturing of phase-shifted DFB-LDs and recent research on transverse modes.   The book also bridges a wide gap between journal papers and textbooks, requiring only an undergraduate-level knowledge of electromagnetism and quantum mechanics, and helps readers to understand journal papers where definitions of some technical terms vary, depending on the paper. Two definitions of the photon density in the rate equations and two definitions of the phase-shift in the phase-shifted DFB-LD are explained, and differences in the calculated results are indicated, depending on the definitions.    Readers can understand the physics of semiconductor lasers and analytical tools for Fabry-Perot LDs, DFB-LDs, and VCSELs and will be stimulated to develop semiconductor lasers themselves.

  2. Fabrication of molecularly imprinted polymer microarray on a chip by mid-infrared laser pulse initiated polymerisation. (United States)

    Henry, Olivier Y F; Piletsky, Sergey A; Cullen, David C


    The possibility to assess several functional polymeric materials in parallel in a microchip format could find a wide range of applications in sensing, combinatorial and high-throughput screening. However several factors, inherent to the nature of material polymerisation have limited such development. We here report an innovative fabrication approach for the elaboration of polymer microarrays bearing polymer dots typically 300 microm in diameter fabricated in situ on a glass cover slip via CO(2) laser pulse initiated polymerisation, as well as initial results on the identification of a suitable monomer composition for the molecular imprinting of dansyl-L-phenylalanine as a proof-of-concept example. A combination of methacrylic acid and 2-vinylpyridine showed the largest affinity to dansyl-L-phenylalanine which agreed with the existing literature and the results were further confirmed by HPLC. Finally, a sensor chip bearing both non-imprinted as well as imprinted polymers was also prepared in order to prove the suitability of this fabrication approach for the elaboration of MIP based sensors. The assay consisted in a simple dip-and-read step and the sensing system was able to discriminate between the l and d enantiomers of dansylphenylalanine with an imprinting factor of 1.6.

  3. Mid-infrared upconversion spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Andersen, H. V.


    Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy is emerging as an attractive alternative to near-infrared or visible spectroscopy. MIR spectroscopy offers a unique possibility to probe the fundamental absorption bands of a large number of gases as well as the vibrational spectra of complex molecules. In this paper...

  4. Short pulse mid-infrared amplifier for high average power

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, LR


    Full Text Available High pressure CO2 lasers are good candidates for amplifying picosecond mid infrared pulses. High pressure CO2 lasers are notorious for being unreliable and difficult to operate. In this paper a high pressure CO2 laser is presented based on well...

  5. Picosecond mid-infrared amplifier for high average power.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, LR


    Full Text Available High pressure CO2 lasers are good candidates for amplifying picosecond mid infrared pulses. High pressure CO2 lasers are notorious for being unreliable and difficult to operate. In this paper a high pressure CO2 laser is presented based on well...

  6. Temperature controller of semiconductor laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Vít; Číp, Ondřej


    Roč. 73, č. 3 (2003), s. 10 - 12 ISSN 0928-5008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : temperature controller * semiconductor laser * laser diode Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  7. EDITORIAL: Semiconductor lasers: the first fifty years Semiconductor lasers: the first fifty years (United States)

    Calvez, S.; Adams, M. J.


    achievements in the June 1987 Special Issue of IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics. The Millennium Issue of IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics presented a further set of articles on historical aspects of the subject as well as a 'snapshot' of current research in June 2000. It is not the intention here to duplicate any of this historical material that is already available, but rather to complement it with personal recollections from researchers who were involved in laser development in the USA, France, Russia and the UK. Hence, in addition to fascinating accounts of the discovery of the theoretical condition for stimulated emission from semiconductors and of the pioneering work at IBM, there are two complementary views of the laser research at the Lebedev Institute, and personal insights into the developments at STL and at Bell Laboratories. These are followed by an account of the scientific and technological connections between the early pioneering breakthroughs and the commercialisation of semiconductor laser products. Turning to the papers from today's researchers, there is coverage of many of the current 'hot' topics including quantum cascade lasers, mid-infrared lasers, high-power lasers, the exciting developments in understanding and exploiting the nonlinear dynamics of lasers, and photonic integrated circuits with extremely high communication data capacity, as well as reports of recent progress on laser materials such as dilute nitrides and bismides, photonic crystals, quantum dots and organic semiconductors. Thanks are due to Jarlath McKenna for sterling support from IOP Publishing and to Peter Blood for instigating this Special Issue and inviting us to serve as Guest Editors.

  8. Towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seddon, Angela B.; Benson, Trevor M.; Sujecki, Slawomir


    We are establishing a new paradigm in mid-infrared molecular sensing, mapping and imaging to open up the mid-infrared spectral region for in vivo (i.e. in person) medical diagnostics and surgery. Thus, we are working towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy ('opsy' look at, bio the biology) in situ...... in the body for real-time diagnosis. This new paradigm will be enabled through focused development of devices and systems which are robust, functionally designed, safe, compact and cost effective and are based on active and passive mid-infrared optical fibers. In particular, this will enable early diagnosis...... of a bright mid-infrared wideband source in a portable package as a first step for medical fiber-based systems operating in the mid-infrared. Moreover, mid-infrared molecular mapping and imaging is potentially a disruptive technology to give improved monitoring of the environment, energy efficiency, security...

  9. Single filament semiconductor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botez, D.


    A semiconductor laser comprising: a body of semiconductor material including a substrate having a surface and a pair of spaced, substantially parallel dove-tailed shaped grooves in said surface, said body having a pair of end surfaces between which said grooves extend, said end surfaces being reflective to light with at least one of said end surfaces being partially transparent to light a first epitaxial layer over said surface of the substrate and the surfaces of the grooves, said first epitaxial layer having a flat surface portion over the portion of the substrate surface between the grooves, a thin second epitaxial layer over said first epitaxial layer, a third epitaxial layer over said second epitaxial layer, said first and third epitaxial layers being of opposite conductivity types and the second epitaxial layer being the active recombination region of the laser with the light being generated therein in the vicinity of the portion which is over the flat surface portion of the first epitaxial layer, and a pair of contacts on said body with one contact being over said third epitaxial body and the other being on said substrate

  10. Review on the dynamics of semiconductor nanowire lasers (United States)

    Röder, Robert; Ronning, Carsten


    Semiconductor optoelectronic devices have contributed tremendously to the technological progress in the past 50-60 years. Today, they also play a key role in nanophotonics stimulated by the inherent limitations of electronic integrated circuits and the growing demand for faster communications on chip. In particular, the field of ‘nanowire photonics’ has emerged including the search for coherent light sources with a nano-scaled footprint. The past decade has been dedicated to find suitable semiconductor nanowire (NW) materials for such nanolasers. Nowadays, such NW lasers consistently work at room temperature covering a huge spectral range from the ultraviolet down to the mid-infrared depending on the band gap of the NW material. Furthermore, first approaches towards the modification and optimization of such NW laser devices have been demonstrated. The underlying dynamics of the electronic and photonic NW systems have also been studied very recently, as they need to be understood in order to push the technological relevance of nano-scaled coherent light sources. Therefore, this review will first present novel measurement approaches in order to study the ultrafast temporal and optical mode dynamics of individual NW laser devices. Furthermore, these fundamental new insights are reviewed and deeply discussed towards the efficient control and adjustment of the dynamics in semiconductor NW lasers.

  11. A semiconductor laser device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaro, K.; Naoki, T.; Satosi, K.; Yasutosi, K.


    A device is proposed which makes it possible to obtain single vertical mode emission in the absence of noise. Noise suppression is achieved by a method which determines the relationship between the donor densities in the second and third layers of an n type semiconductor laser, and the total output optical emission of layers with respect to the emission from the entire laser. The device consists of a photoresist film with a window applied to a 100 GaAs n type conductivity substrate using a standard method. Chemical etching through this window in the substrate is used to generate a slot approximately 1 micrometer in size. After the photoresist film is removed, the following layers are deposited from the liquid phase onto the substrate in the sequence indicated: a telurium doped protective layer of n type AlxGa(1-x) As; 2) an undoped active p type AlyGa(1-6) As layer and a tellurium doped upper protective n type conductivity GaAs layer.

  12. Semiconductor lasers stability, instability and chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsubo, Junji


    This book describes the fascinating recent advances made concerning the chaos, stability and instability of semiconductor lasers, and discusses their applications and future prospects in detail. It emphasizes the dynamics in semiconductor lasers by optical and electronic feedback, optical injection, and injection current modulation. Applications of semiconductor laser chaos, control and noise, and semiconductor lasers are also demonstrated. Semiconductor lasers with new structures, such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and broad-area semiconductor lasers, are intriguing and promising devices. Current topics include fast physical number generation using chaotic semiconductor lasers for secure communication, development of chaos, quantum-dot semiconductor lasers and quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. This fourth edition has been significantly expanded to reflect the latest developments. The fundamental theory of laser chaos and the chaotic dynamics in se...

  13. Semiconductor lasers and herterojunction leds

    CERN Document Server

    Kressel, Henry


    Semiconductor Lasers and Heterojunction LEDs presents an introduction to the subject of semiconductor lasers and heterojunction LEDs. The book reviews relevant basic solid-state and electromagnetic principles; the relevant concepts in solid state physics; and the p-n junctions and heterojunctions. The text also describes stimulated emission and gain; the relevant concepts in electromagnetic field theory; and the modes in laser structures. The relation between electrical and optical properties of laser diodes; epitaxial technology; binary III-V compounds; and diode fabrication are also consider

  14. Mid infrared MEMS FTIR spectrometer (United States)

    Erfan, Mazen; Sabry, Yasser M.; Mortada, Bassem; Sharaf, Khaled; Khalil, Diaa


    In this work we report, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, a bulk-micromachined wideband MEMS-based spectrometer covering both the NIR and the MIR ranges and working from 1200 nm to 4800 nm. The core engine of the spectrometer is a scanning Michelson interferometer micro-fabricated using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) technology. The spectrum is obtained using the Fourier Transform techniques that allows covering a very wide spectral range limited by the detector responsivity. The moving mirror of the interferometer is driven by a relatively large stroke electrostatic comb-drive actuator. Zirconium fluoride (ZrF4) multimode optical fibers are used to connect light between the white light source and the interferometer input, as well as the interferometer output to a PbSe photoconductive detector. The recorded signal-to-noise ratio is 25 dB at the wavelength of 3350 nm. The spectrometer is successfully used in measuring the absorption spectra of methylene chloride, quartz glass and polystyrene film. The presented solution provides a low cost method for producing miniaturized spectrometers in the near-/mid-infrared.

  15. Towards filament free semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.


    We outline physical models and simulations for suppression of self-focusing and filamentation in large aperture semiconductor lasers. The principal technical objective is to generate multi-watt CW or quasi-CW outputs with nearly diffraction limited beams, suitable for long distance free space...... propagation structures in lasers and amplifiers which suppress lateral reflections....

  16. IV-VI mid-infrared VECSEL on Si-substrate (United States)

    Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Rahim, M.; Khiar, A.; Rodriguez, R.; Zogg, H.; Ishida, A.


    Optically pumped VECSEL (vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers) based on IV-VI semiconductors grown on Si cover the entire wavelength range between 3.0 and 10 μm. Thanks to their simple structure and large wavelength coverage they are an interesting alternative laser technology to access the mid-infrared wavelength region. The active layers consist either of homogeneous "bulk" layers, double heterostructures or quantum well structures of the PbSe, PbTe or PbS material system. Maximum operation temperatures of 325 K are achieved with output powers above 200 mWp. Further, continuously tunable VECSEL are presented, emitting between 3.2 and 5.4 μm. The single emission mode is continuously tunable over 50-100 nm around the center wavelength, yielding an output power > 10 mWp. The axial symmetric emission beam has a half divergence angle of < 3.3°.

  17. Ring cavity surface emitting semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujagic, E.


    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are electrically driven semiconductor lasers, which have undergone a steady improvement since the first demonstration in 1994. These are now well established as reliable sources of coherent light in the mid-infrared (MIR) and terahertz (THz)range of the electromagnetic spectrum (3-300 μm). The rapid progress of this type of lasers is based on a high degree of freedom in tailoring the emission wavelength within a large variety of semiconductor heterostructure designs and materials. These properties have attracted the attention of various applications such as gas analysis, chemical sensing, spectral imaging and free-space telecommunication. In order to improve the selectivity, sensitivity and efficiency of today's sensor systems, high optical power, continuous wave and room temperature performance, single-mode operation and low divergence optical beams, are highly desirable qualities of a compact laser source in this field of research. Since all of these features cannot be provided by a conventional edge-emitting device at the same time, research has put focus on the development of surface emitting devices. Nowadays, the vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) are the most prominent representative for this type of light emitters. With its capability of producing narrow circular beams, the feasibility of two-dimensional arrays and on-wafer testing, such a coherent light source results in a reduction of the fabrication effort and production costs. Since the radiation in QCLs is strictly polarized normal to the epitaxial layer plane, fabrication of VCSELs based on QC structures is not viable. The subject of this work is the design and realization of 'ring cavity surface emitting lasers' (ring-CSELs). This type of lasers employs a circular ring cavity and a resonant distributed feedback (DFB) surface grating. Ring-CSELs were fabricated on the basis of MIR and THz QC structures, which cover a wavelength range from 4 μm to 93

  18. Innovative mid-infrared detector concepts (United States)

    Höfling, Sven; Pfenning, Andreas; Weih, Robert; Ratajczak, Albert; Hartmann, Fabian; Knebl, Georg; Kamp, Martin; Worschech, Lukas


    Gas sensing is a key technology with applications in various industrial, medical and environmental areas. Optical detection mechanisms allow for a highly selective, contactless and fast detection. For this purpose, rotational-vibrational absorption bands within the mid infrared (MIR) spectral region are exploited and probed with appropriate light sources. During the past years, the development of novel laser concepts such as interband cascade lasers (ICLs) and quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) has driven a continuous optimization of MIR laser sources. On the other hand side, there has been relatively little progress on detectors in this wavelength range. Here, we study two novel and promising GaSb-based detector concepts: Interband cascade detectors (ICD) and resonant tunneling diode (RTD) photodetectors. ICDs are a promising approach towards highly sensitive room temperature detection of MIR radiation. They make use of the cascading scheme that is enabled by the broken gap alignment of the two binaries GaSb and InAs. The interband transition in GaSb/InAs-superlattices (SL) allows for normal incidence detection. The cut-off wavelength, which determines the low energy detection limit, can be engineered via the SL period. RTD photodetectors act as low noise and high speed amplifiers of small optically generated electrical signals. In contrast to avalanche photodiodes, where the gain originates from multiplication due to impact ionization, in RTD photodetectors a large tunneling current is modulated via Coulomb interaction by the presence of photogenerated minority charge carriers. For both detector concepts, first devices operational at room temperature have been realized.

  19. Waveguide based external cavity semiconductor lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbeuving, Ruud; Klein, E.J.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Lee, Christopher James; Verhaegen, M.; Boller, Klaus J.


    We report on progress of the project waveguide based external cavity semiconductor laser (WECSL) arrays. Here we present the latest results on our efforts to mode lock an array of tunable, external cavity semiconductor lasers.

  20. Laser semiconductor diode integrated with frequency doubler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighineanu, I.; Dorogan, V.; Suruceanu, G.


    The invention relates to the technology of optoelectronic semiconductor devices and may be used in the production of laser semiconductor diodes integrated with optical nonlinear elements. The laser semiconductor diode integrated with frequency doubler includes a semiconductor substrate, a laser structure with waveguide. metal contacts in the waveguide of the laser structure it is formed a nanostructured field so that the nanostructure provides for the fulfillment of the phase synchronism conditions

  1. Advances in semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Coleman, James J; Jagadish, Chennupati


    Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. Originally widely known as the ""Willardson and Beer"" Series, it has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. The series publishes timely, highly relevant volumes intended for long-term impact and reflecting the truly interdisciplinary nature of the field. The volumes in Semiconductors and Semimetals have been and will continue to be of great interest to physicists, chemists, materials scientists, and device engineers in academia, scien

  2. Semiconductor processing with excimer lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.T.; Narayan, J.; Christie, W.H.; van der Leeden, G.A.; Rothe, D.E.; Cheng, L.J.


    The advantages of pulsed excimer lasers for semiconductor processing are reviewed. Extensive comparisons of the quality of annealing of ion-implanted Si obtained with XeCl and ruby lasers have been made. The results indicate that irrespective of the large differences in the optical properties of Si at uv and visible wavelengths, the efficiency of usage of the incident energy for annealing is comparable for the two lasers. However, because of the excellent optical beam quality, the XeCl laser can provide superior control of the surface melting and the resulting junction depth. Furthermore, the concentrations of electrically active point defects in the XeCl laser annealed region are 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than that obtained from ruby or Nd:YAG lasers. All these results seem to suggest that XeCl lasers should be suitable for fabricating not only solar cells but also the more advanced device structures required for VLSI or VHSIC applications

  3. Comparison of the mid-infrared magneto-otical response of GaMnAs films grown by molecular beam epitaxy and ion implantation and pulsed laser melting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Acbas, G.; Sinova, J.; Scarpulla, M.A.; Dubon, O.D.; Cukr, Miroslav; Novák, Vít; Cerne, J.


    Roč. 20, - (2007), s. 457-460 ISSN 1557-1939 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/04/1519 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : epitaxy * diluted magnetic semiconductors * spintronics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.425, year: 2007

  4. Generation of Mid-Infrared Frequency Combs for Spectroscopic Applications (United States)

    Maser, Daniel L.

    Mid-infrared laser sources prove to be a valuable tool in exploring a vast array of phenomena, finding their way into applications ranging from trace gas detection to X-ray generation and carbon dating. Mid-infrared frequency combs, in particular, are well-suited for many of these applications, owing to their inherent low-noise and broadband nature. Frequency comb technology is well-developed in the near-infrared as a result of immense technological development by the telecommunication industry in silica fiber and the existence of readily-available glass dopants such as ytterbium and erbium that enable oscillators at 1 and 1.5 ?m. However, options become substantially more limited at longer wavelengths, as silica is no longer transparent and the components required in a mid-infrared frequency comb system (oscillators, fibers, and both fiber and free-space components) are far less technologically mature. This thesis explores several different approaches to generating frequency comb sources in the mid-infrared region, and the development of sources used in the nonlinear processes implemented to reach these wavelengths. An optical parametric oscillator, two approaches to difference frequency generation, and nonlinear spectral broadening in chip-scale waveguides are developed, characterized, and spectroscopic potential for these techniques is demonstrated. The source used for these nonlinear processes, the erbium-doped fiber amplifier, is also studied and discussed throughout the design and optimization process. The nonlinear optical processes critical to this work are numerically modeled and used to confirm and predict experimental behavior.

  5. A widely tunable 10-μm quantum cascade laser phase-locked to a state-of-the-art mid-infrared reference for precision molecular spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sow, P. L. T.; Mejri, S.; Tokunaga, S. K.; Lopez, O.; Argence, B.; Chardonnet, C.; Darquié, B., E-mail: [CNRS, UMR 7538, LPL, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Goncharov, A.; Amy-Klein, A.; Daussy, C. [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); CNRS, UMR 7538, LPL, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)


    We report the coherent phase-locking of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) at 10-μm to the secondary frequency standard of this spectral region, a CO{sub 2} laser stabilized on a saturated absorption line of OsO{sub 4}. The stability and accuracy of the standard are transferred to the QCL resulting in a line width of the order of 10 Hz, and leading to the narrowest QCL to date. The locked QCL is then used to perform absorption spectroscopy spanning 6 GHz of NH{sub 3} and methyltrioxorhenium, two species of interest for applications in precision measurements.

  6. Off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy with a mid-infrared interband cascade laser for real-time breath ethane measurements. (United States)

    Parameswaran, Krishnan R; Rosen, David I; Allen, Mark G; Ganz, Alan M; Risby, Terence H


    Cavity-enhanced tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy is an attractive method for measuring small concentrations of gaseous species. Ethane is a breath biomarker of lipid peroxidation initiated by reactive oxygen species. A noninvasive means of quickly quantifying oxidative stress status has the potential for broad clinical application. We present a simple, compact system using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy with an interband cascade laser and demonstrate its use in real-time measurements of breath ethane. We demonstrate a detection sensitivity of 0.48 ppb/Hz(1/2).

  7. Preparation and optical properties of TeO2-BaO-ZnO-ZnF2 fluoro-tellurite glass for mid-infrared fiber Raman laser applications (United States)

    Li, Jie; Xiao, Xusheng; Gu, Shaoxuan; Xu, Yantao; Zhou, Zhiguang; Guo, Haitao


    A serial of novel fluoro-tellurite glasses with compositions of 60TeO2-20BaO-(20-x)ZnO-xZnF2 (x = 0, 2, 4, 5 and 6 mol%) were prepared. The compositional dependences of glass structural evaluation, Raman gain coefficient, UV-Vis transmission spectrum, IR transmission spectrum, linear refractive index and third-order nonlinearity were analyzed. The results showed that the addition of 6 mol% ZnF2 can further improve the Raman gain coefficient to as well as 52 × 10-11 cm/W and effectively decrease around 73% and 57% absorption coefficients respectively caused by free Osbnd H groups (@3.3 μm) and hydrogen-bonded Osbnd H groups (@4.5 μm) in glass. Addition of ZnF2 does not change the UV-Vis absorption edge, optical band gap energy and infrared region cut-off edge almost, while the linear refraction index and ultrafast third-nonlinearity show unmonotonic changes. These novel fluoro-tellurite glasses may be suitable candidates for using in mid-infrared Raman fiber laser and/or amplifier.

  8. Dual-wavelength mid-infrared CW and Q-switched laser in diode end-pumped Tm,Ho:GdYTaO4 crystal (United States)

    Wang, Beibei; Gao, Congcong; Dou, Renqin; Nie, Hongkun; Sun, Guihua; Liu, Wenpeng; Yu, Haijuan; Wang, Guoju; Zhang, Qingli; Lin, Xuechun; He, Jingliang; Wang, Wenjun; Zhang, Bingyuan


    Dual-wavelength continuous-wave and Q-switched lasers are demonstrated in a Tm,Ho:GdYTaO4 crystal under 790 nm laser diode end pumping for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The laser operates with a dual wavelength at 1949.677 nm and 2070 nm for continuous-wave with a spacing of about 120 nm. The maximum output power is 0.332 W with a pump power of 3 W. By using graphene as the saturable absorber, a passively Q-switched operation is performed with a dual-wavelength at 1950.323 nm and 2068.064 nm with a wavelength interval of about 118 nm. The maximum average output power of the Q-switched laser goes up to 200 mW with a minimum pulse duration of 1.2 µs and a maximum repetition rate of 34.72 kHz.

  9. Mid-infrared, long wave infrared (4-12 μm) molecular emission signatures from pharmaceuticals using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). (United States)

    Yang, Clayton S-C; Brown, Ei E; Kumi-Barimah, Eric; Hommerich, Uwe H; Jin, Feng; Trivedi, Sudhir B; Samuels, Alan C; Snyder, A Peter


    In an effort to augment the atomic emission spectra of conventional laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and to provide an increase in selectivity, mid-wave to long-wave infrared (IR), LIBS studies were performed on several organic pharmaceuticals. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy signature molecular emissions of target organic compounds are observed for the first time in the IR fingerprint spectral region between 4-12 μm. The IR emission spectra of select organic pharmaceuticals closely correlate with their respective standard Fourier transform infrared spectra. Intact and/or fragment sample molecular species evidently survive the LIBS event. The combination of atomic emission signatures derived from conventional ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared LIBS with fingerprints of intact molecular entities determined from IR LIBS promises to be a powerful tool for chemical detection.

  10. Theoretical evaluation of a continues-wave Ho3+:BaY2F8 laser with mid-infrared emission (United States)

    Rong, Kepeng; Cai, He; An, Guofei; Han, Juhong; Yu, Hang; Wang, Shunyan; Yu, Qiang; Wu, Peng; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Hongyuan; Wang, You


    In this paper, we build a theoretical model to study a continues-wave (CW) Ho3+:BaY2F8 laser by considering both energy transfer up-conversion (ETU) and cross relaxation (CR) processes. The influences of the pump power, reflectance of an output coupler (OC), and crystal length on the output features are systematically analyzed for an end-pumped configuration, respectively. We also investigate how the processes of ETU and CR in the energy-level system affect the output of a Ho3+:BaY2F8 laser by use of the kinetic evaluation. The simulation results show that the optical-to-optical efficiency can be promoted by adjusting the parameters such as the reflectance of an output coupler, crystal length, and pump power. It has been theoretically demonstrated that the threshold of a Ho3+:BaY2F8 laser is very high for the lasing operation in a CW mode.

  11. Theory of semiconductor laser cooling (United States)

    Rupper, Greg

    Recently laser cooling of semiconductors has received renewed attention, with the hope that a semiconductor cooler might be able to achieve cryogenic temperatures. In order to study semiconductor laser cooling at cryogenic temperatures, it is crucial that the theory include both the effects of excitons and the electron-hole plasma. In this dissertation, I present a theoretical analysis of laser cooling of bulk GaAs based on a microscopic many-particle theory of absorption and luminescence of a partially ionized electron-hole plasma. This theory has been analyzed from a temperature 10K to 500K. It is shown that at high temperatures (above 300K), cooling can be modeled using older models with a few parameter changes. Below 200K, band filling effects dominate over Auger recombination. Below 30K excitonic effects are essential for laser cooling. In all cases, excitonic effects make cooling easier then predicted by a free carrier model. The initial cooling model is based on the assumption of a homogeneous undoped semiconductor. This model has been systematically modified to include effects that are present in real laser cooling experiments. The following modifications have been performed. (1) Propagation and polariton effects have been included. (2) The effect of p-doping has been included. (n-doping can be modeled in a similar fashion.) (3) In experiments, a passivation layer is required to minimize non-radiative recombination. The passivation results in a npn heterostructure. The effect of the npn heterostructure on cooling has been analyzed. (4) The effect of a Gaussian pump beam was analyzed and (5) Some of the parameters in the cooling model have a large uncertainty. The effect of modifying these parameters has been analyzed. Most of the extensions to the original theory have only had a modest effect on the overall results. However we find that the current passivation technique may not be sufficient to allow cooling. The passivation technique currently used appears

  12. Semiconductor Lasers Stability, Instability and Chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsubo, Junji


    This third edition of “Semiconductor Lasers, Stability, Instability and Chaos” was significantly extended.  In the previous edition, the dynamics and characteristics of chaos in semiconductor lasers after the introduction of the fundamental theory of laser chaos and chaotic dynamics induced by self-optical feedback and optical injection was discussed. Semiconductor lasers with new device structures, such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and broad-area semiconductor lasers, are interesting devices from the viewpoint of chaotic dynamics since they essentially involve chaotic dynamics even in their free-running oscillations. These topics are also treated with respect to the new developments in the current edition. Also the control of such instabilities and chaos control are critical issues for applications. Another interesting and important issue of semiconductor laser chaos in this third edition is chaos synchronization between two lasers and the application to optical secure communication. One o...

  13. Mid-Infrared Continuously Tunable Single Mode VECSEL (United States)

    Khiar, A.; Rahim, M.; Felder, F.; Fill, M.; Zogg, H.


    Tunable mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers were developed for the wavelength range around 3.8-3.9 μm and 3.2-3.3 μm, respectively. The devices are based on lead salt materials epitaxially grown by MBE on a Si substrate. The active part consists of PbSe QW in a PbSrSe host layer. Both devices are operated around -20 °C and have output power of several 10 mW. By changing the cavity length, a single mode hop free tuning range up to 80 cm-1 is achieved.

  14. Enhanced 2.7 μm emission from Er3+ doped oxyfluoride tellurite glasses for a diode-pump mid-infrared laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. Zhang


    Full Text Available The influence of fluoride and shielding gas (O2 or Ar on the physical and spectroscopic properties of Er3+ doped TeO2-ZnO-ZnF2 glass system is investigated. The larger electronegativity of F than O accounts for the gradual decrease of refractive index, density, and J-O parameters with increasing ZnF2. An analysis on Fourier transform infrared transmission spectra reveals that the absorption coefficient of OH− around 3 μm as low as 0.247 cm−1 can be achieved when 30 mol% ZnF2 containing sample is treated with Ar gas during glass melting process. The reduction of OH− groups combined with the low multiphonon relaxation rate (207 s−1 contributes to the enhanced emissions at 1.5 and 2.7 μm, along with prolonged lifetimes of 4I11/2 and 4I13/2 levels. A high branching ratio (17.95% corresponding to the Er3+: 4I11/2 → 4I13/2 transition, the large absorption and emission cross section (0.44 × 10−20 cm2 and 0.45 × 10−20 cm2, and good gain cross section demonstrate that oxyfluoride tellurite glass could be a promising material for a diode-pump 2.7 μm fiber laser.

  15. Broadband integrated mid infrared light sources as enabling technology for point of care mid-infrared spectroscopy (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0061 Broadband integrated mid-infrared light sources as enabling technology for point-of-care mid- infrared spectroscopy Alex...mid-infrared light sources as enabling technology for point-of-care mid-infrared spectroscopy 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-16-1-4037...Broadband integrated mid-infrared light sources as enabling technology for point-of-care mid- infrared spectroscopy ” Date: 16th August 2017 Name

  16. Semiconductor Lasers Stability, Instability and Chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsubo, Junji


    This monograph describes fascinating recent progress in the field of chaos, stability and instability of semiconductor lasers. Applications and future prospects are discussed in detail. The book emphasizes the various dynamics induced in semiconductor lasers by optical and electronic feedback, optical injection, and injection current modulation. Recent results of both theoretical and experimental investigations are presented. Demonstrating applications of semiconductor laser chaos, control and noise, Semiconductor Lasers describes suppression and chaotic secure communications. For those who are interested in optics but not familiar with nonlinear systems, a brief introduction to chaos analysis is presented.

  17. New Opportunities in Mid-Infrared Emission Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Geiser


    Full Text Available Tunable laser absorption spectroscopy (TLAS has been well accepted as a preferred measurement technique for many industrial applications in recent years, especially for in situ applications. Previously, mainly near-infrared lasers have been used in TLAS sensors. The advent of compact mid-infrared light sources, like quantum cascade lasers and interband cascade lasers, has made it possible to detect gases with better sensitivity by utilizing fundamental absorption bands and to measure species that do not have any absorption lines in the near-infrared spectral region. This technological advancement has allowed developing new sensors for gases, such as nitric oxide and sulfur dioxide, for industrial applications. Detection limits of better than 1 ppm·m for nitric oxide and better than 10 ppm·m for sulfur dioxide are demonstrated in field experiments.

  18. Chaotic bursting in semiconductor lasers (United States)

    Ruschel, Stefan; Yanchuk, Serhiy


    We investigate the dynamic mechanisms for low frequency fluctuations in semiconductor lasers subjected to delayed optical feedback, using the Lang-Kobayashi model. This system of delay differential equations displays pronounced envelope dynamics, ranging from erratic, so called low frequency fluctuations to regular pulse packages, if the time scales of fast oscillations and envelope dynamics are well separated. We investigate the parameter regions where low frequency fluctuations occur and compute their Lyapunov spectra. Using the geometric singular perturbation theory, we study this intermittent chaotic behavior and characterize these solutions as bursting slow-fast oscillations.

  19. Mid-Infrared Tunable Resonant Cavity Enhanced Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Zogg


    Full Text Available Mid-infrared detectors that are sensitive only in a tunable narrow spectral band are presented. They are based on the Resonant Cavity Enhanced Detector (RCED principle and employing a thin active region using IV-VI narrow gap semiconductor layers. A Fabry-Pérot cavity is formed by two mirrors. The active layer is grown onto one mirror, while the second mirror can be displaced. This changes the cavity length thus shifting the resonances where the detector is sensitive. Using electrostatically actuated MEMS micromirrors, a very compact tunable detector system has been fabricated. Mirror movements of more than 3 μm at 30V are obtained. With these mirrors, detectors with a wavelength tuning range of about 0.7 μm have been realized. Single detectors can be used in mid-infrared micro spectrometers, while a detector arrangement in an array makes it possible to realize Adaptive Focal Plane Arrays (AFPA.

  20. High brightness semiconductor lasers with reduced filamentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter.; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.


    High brightness semiconductor lasers have applications in spectroscopy, fiber lasers, manufacturing and materials processing, medicine and free space communication or energy transfer. The main difficulty associated with high brightness is that, because of COD, high power requires a large aperture...

  1. Dual-comb spectroscopy of water vapor with a free-running semiconductor disk laser. (United States)

    Link, S M; Maas, D J H C; Waldburger, D; Keller, U


    Dual-comb spectroscopy offers the potential for high accuracy combined with fast data acquisition. Applications are often limited, however, by the complexity of optical comb systems. Here we present dual-comb spectroscopy of water vapor using a substantially simplified single-laser system. Very good spectroscopy measurements with fast sampling rates are achieved with a free-running dual-comb mode-locked semiconductor disk laser. The absolute stability of the optical comb modes is characterized both for free-running operation and with simple microwave stabilization. This approach drastically reduces the complexity for dual-comb spectroscopy. Band-gap engineering to tune the center wavelength from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared could optimize frequency combs for specific gas targets, further enabling dual-comb spectroscopy for a wider range of industrial applications. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Towards supercontinuum-driven hyperspectral microscopy in the mid-infrared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindsay, I. D.; Valle, S.; Ward, J.


    The extension of supercontinuum (SC) sources into the mid-infrared, via the use of fluoride and chalcogenide optical fibers, potentially offers the high radiance of a laser combined with spectral coverage far exceeding that of typical tunable lasers and comparable to traditional black-body emitte...

  3. Ultrafast laser-semiconductor interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schile, L.A.


    Studies of the ultrafast (< 100 fs) interactions of infrared, sub-100 fs laser pulses with IR, photosensitive semiconductor materials InGaAs, InSb, and HgCdTe are reported. Both the carrier dynamics and the associated Terahertz radiation from these materials are discussed. The most recent developments of femtosecond (< 100 fs) Optical Parametric Oscillators (OPO) has extended the wavelength range from the visible to 5.2 μm. The photogenerated semiconductor free carrier dynamics are determined in the 77 to 300 degrees K temperature range using the Transmission Correlation Peak (TCP) method. The electron-phonon scattering times are typically 200 - 600 fs. Depending upon the material composition and substrate on which the IR crystalline materials are deposited, the nonlinear TCP absorption gives recombination rates as fast as 10's of picoseconds. For the HgCdTe, there exists a 400 fs electron-phonon scattering process along with a much longer 3600 fs loss process. Studies of the interactions of these ultrashort laser pulses with semiconductors produce Terahertz (Thz) radiative pulses. With undoped InSb, there is a substantial change in the spectral content of this THz radiation between 80 - 260 degrees K while the spectrum of Te-doped InSb remains nearly unchanged, an effect attributed to its mobility being dominated by impurity scattering. At 80 degrees K, the terahertz radiation from undoped InSb is dependent on wavelength, with both a higher frequency spectrum and much larger amplitudes generated at longer wavelengths. No such effect is observed at 260 degrees K. Finally, new results on the dependence of the emitted THz radiation on the InSb crystal's orientation is presented

  4. Injection-seeded tunable mid-infrared pulses generated by difference frequency mixing (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Hara, Hideaki; Masuda, Takahiko; Hiraki, Takahiro; Sasao, Noboru; Uetake, Satoshi


    We report on the generation of nanosecond mid-infrared pulses having frequency tunability, a narrow linewidth, and a high pulse energy. These pulses are obtained by frequency mixing between injection-seeded near-infrared pulses in potassium titanyl arsenate crystals. A continuous-wave external cavity laser diode or a Ti:sapphire ring laser is used as a tunable seeding source for the near-infrared pulses. The typical energy of the generated mid-infrared pulses is in the range of 0.4-1 mJ/pulse. The tuning wavelength ranges from 3142 to 4806 nm. A narrow linewidth of 1.4 GHz and good frequency reproducibility of the mid-infrared pulses are confirmed by observing a rovibrational absorption line of gaseous carbon monoxide at 4587 nm.

  5. Progress in semiconductor laser diodes: SPIE volume 723

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichen, E.


    This book contains proceedings arranged under the following session headings: High power diode lasers; single emitters and arrays; Ultrahigh speed modulation of semiconductor diode lasers; Coherence and linewidth stabilized semiconductor lasers; and Growth, fabrication, and evaluation of laser diodes

  6. Kinetic and diagnostic studies of molecular plasmas using laser absorption techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welzel, S.; Rousseau, A.; Davies, P.B.; Röpcke, J.


    Within the last decade mid infrared absorption spectroscopy between 3 and 20 µm, known as Infrared Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (IRLAS) and based on tuneable semiconductor lasers, namely lead salt diode lasers, often called tuneable diode lasers (TDL), and quantum cascade lasers (QCL) has

  7. Mid-Infrared Frequency-Agile Dual-Comb Spectroscopy (United States)

    Luo, Pei-Ling; Yan, Ming; Iwakuni, Kana; Millot, Guy; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Picqué, Nathalie


    We demonstrate a new approach to mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy. It opens up new opportunities for accurate real-time spectroscopic diagnostics and it significantly simplifies the technique of dual-comb spectroscopy. Two mid-infrared frequency combs of slightly different repetition frequencies and moderate, but rapidly tunable, spectral span are generated in the 2800-3200 cm-1 region. The generators rely on electro-optic modulators, nonlinear fibers for spectral broadening and difference frequency generation and do not involve mode-locked lasers. Flat-top frequency combs span up to 10 cm-1 with a comb line spacing of 100 MHz (3×10-3 cm-1). The performance of the spectrometer without any phase-lock electronics or correction scheme is illustrated with spectra showing resolved comb lines and Doppler-limited spectra of methane. High precision on the spectroscopic parameter (line positions and intensities) determination is demonstrated for spectra measured on a millisecond time scale and it is validated with comparison with literature data. G. Millot, S. Pitois, M. Yan, T. Hovannysyan, A. Bendahmane, T.W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, Frequency-agile dual-comb spectroscopy, Nature Photonics 10, 27-30 (2016).

  8. Frequency modulation of semiconductor disk laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolotovskii, I O; Korobko, D A; Okhotnikov, O G [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation)


    A numerical model is constructed for a semiconductor disk laser mode-locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), and the effect that the phase modulation caused by gain and absorption saturation in the semiconductor has on pulse generation is examined. The results demonstrate that, in a laser cavity with sufficient second-order dispersion, alternating-sign frequency modulation of pulses can be compensated for. We also examine a model for tuning the dispersion in the cavity of a disk laser using a Gires–Tournois interferometer with limited thirdorder dispersion. (control of radiation parameters)

  9. Laser Cooling of 2-6 Semiconductors (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0067 Laser Cooling of II-VI Semiconductors Qihua Xiong NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY Final Report 08/12/2016 DISTRIBUTION A...From - To) 15 May 2013 to 14 May 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Laser Cooling of II-VI Semiconductors 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-13-1...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The breakthrough of laser cooling in semiconductor has stimulated strong interest in further scaling up towards

  10. Optimum output coupling for a mid-infrared KTiOAsO4 optical parametric oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guochao; Gao, Yesheng; Zheng, Guangjin; Zhao, Yao; Chen, Kunfeng; Wang, Qingpu; Bai, Fen


    Taking into account the turn off time of the Q-switch, the coupled equations for a mid-infrared KTiOAsO 4 optical parametric oscillator (OPO) are given. These rate equations are solved numerically and some key parameters for designing the laser system are determined. The key parameters include the optimal coupling and nonlinear crystal length which maximize the output power and OPO conversion efficiency. We found that a low-loss singly resonant OPO cavity not only enhances the mid-infrared output but also decreases the optimal OPO crystal length. (paper)

  11. Mid-infrared-to-mid-ultraviolet supercontinuum enhanced by third-to-fifteenth odd harmonics. (United States)

    Mitrofanov, A V; Voronin, A A; Mitryukovskiy, S I; Sidorov-Biryukov, D A; Pugžlys, A; Andriukaitis, G; Flöry, T; Stepanov, E A; Fedotov, A B; Baltuška, A; Zheltikov, A M


    A high-energy supercontinuum spanning 4.7 octaves, from 250 to 6500 nm, is generated using a 0.3-TW, 3.9-μm output of a mid-infrared optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier as a driver inducing a laser filament in the air. The high-frequency wing of the supercontinuum spectrum is enhanced by odd-order optical harmonics of the mid-infrared driver. Optical harmonics up to the 15th order are observed in supercontinuum spectra as overlapping, yet well-resolved peaks broadened, as verified by numerical modeling, due to spatially nonuniform ionization-induced blue shift.

  12. Study on guided waves in semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudensi, M.A.A.


    In This work we studied the guided waves in semiconductor lasers. In the first part we carried on the experimental measurements on lasers with stripe nonorthogonal to the mirrors. In the second part we developed a matrix method for the study of propagation and reflection of guided waves in lasers. (author) [pt

  13. Spectral-temporal composition matters when cascading supercontinua into the mid-infrared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Moselund, Peter M.; Petersen, Christian


    Supercontinuum generation in chalcogenide fibers is a promising technology for broadband spatially coherent sources in the mid-infrared, but it suffers from discouraging commercial prospects, mainly due to a lack of suitable pump lasers. Here, a promising approach is experimentally demonstrated u...

  14. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Terahertz and Mid Infrared Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Mauro F; Terahertz and Mid Infrared Radiation


    Terahertz (THz) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) radiation  (TERA-MIR) can be transmitted through nearly any material without causing biological harm. Novel and rapid methods of detection can be created with devices operation in these spectral ranges allowing scanning for weapons, detecting hidden explosives (including plastic landmines), controlling the quality of food and a host of other exciting applications.  This book focuses on mathematical and physical aspects of the field, on unifying these two spectral domains (THz and MIR) with regard to common sources, detectors, materials and applications, and on key interdisciplinary topics. The main THz and MIR source is the quantum cascade laser (QCL). Thus significant attention is paid to the challenge of turning this advanced technology into affordable commercial devices so as to exploit its enormous potential. However other alternatives to THz QCLs are also presented, e.g.  sub-terahertz imaging from avalanching GaAs bipolar transistors, Josephson junctions as THz ...

  15. Si-Based Germanium Tin Semiconductor Lasers for Optoelectronic Applications (United States)

    Al-Kabi, Sattar H. Sweilim

    Silicon-based materials and optoelectronic devices are of great interest as they could be monolithically integrated in the current Si complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processes. The integration of optoelectronic components on the CMOS platform has long been limited due to the unavailability of Si-based laser sources. A Si-based monolithic laser is highly desirable for full integration of Si photonics chip. In this work, Si-based germanium-tin (GeSn) lasers have been demonstrated as direct bandgap group-IV laser sources. This opens a completely new avenue from the traditional III-V integration approach. In this work, the material and optical properties of GeSn alloys were comprehensively studied. The GeSn films were grown on Ge-buffered Si substrates in a reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition system with low-cost SnCl4 and GeH4 precursors. A systematic study was done for thin GeSn films (thickness 400 nm) with Sn composition 5 to 17.5%. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra were measured that showed a gradual shift of emission peaks towards longer wavelength as Sn composition increases. Strong PL intensity and low defect density indicated high material quality. Moreover, the PL study of n-doped samples showed bandgap narrowing compared to the unintentionally p-doped (boron) thin films with similar Sn compositions. Finally, optically pumped GeSn lasers on Si with broad wavelength coverage from 2 to 3 mum were demonstrated using high-quality GeSn films with Sn compositions up to 17.5%. The achieved maximum Sn composition of 17.5% broke the acknowledged Sn incorporation limit using similar deposition chemistry. The highest lasing temperature was measured at 180 K with an active layer thickness as thin as 270 nm. The unprecedented lasing performance is due to the achievement of high material quality and a robust fabrication process. The results reported in this work show a major advancement towards Si-based electrically pumped mid-infrared

  16. Effect of gain nonlinearity in semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels H.; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Skovgaard, Ove


    Semiconductor lasers are modeled by single-mode rate equations with Langevin noise terms and the influence of nonlinear gain is investigated. For cw operation the probability distribution for the carrier number and the photon number in the laser cavity is obtained. The corresponding (2+1)-dimensi......Semiconductor lasers are modeled by single-mode rate equations with Langevin noise terms and the influence of nonlinear gain is investigated. For cw operation the probability distribution for the carrier number and the photon number in the laser cavity is obtained. The corresponding (2...

  17. Laser vapor phase deposition of semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlov, N.V.; Luk' ianchuk, B.S.; Sisakian, E.V.; Shafeev, G.A.


    The pyrolytic effect of IR laser radiation is investigated with reference to the initiation and control of the vapor phase deposition of semiconductor films. By selecting the gas mixture composition and laser emission parameters, it is possible to control the deposition and crystal formation processes on the surface of semiconductors, with the main control action achieved due to the nonadiabatic kinetics of reactions in the gas phase and high temperatures in the laser heating zone. This control mechanism is demonstrated experimentally during the laser vapor deposition of germanium and silicon films from tetrachlorides on single-crystal Si and Ge substrates. 5 references.

  18. Semiconductor laser technology for remote sensing experiments (United States)

    Katz, Joseph


    Semiconductor injection lasers are required for implementing virtually all spaceborne remote sensing systems. Their main advantages are high reliability and efficiency, and their main roles are envisioned in pumping and injection locking of solid state lasers. In some shorter range applications they may even be utilized directly as the sources.

  19. Semiconductor laser using multimode interference principle (United States)

    Gong, Zisu; Yin, Rui; Ji, Wei; Wu, Chonghao


    Multimode interference (MMI) structure is introduced in semiconductor laser used in optical communication system to realize higher power and better temperature tolerance. Using beam propagation method (BPM), Multimode interference laser diode (MMI-LD) is designed and fabricated in InGaAsP/InP based material. As a comparison, conventional semiconductor laser using straight single-mode waveguide is also fabricated in the same wafer. With a low injection current (about 230 mA), the output power of the implemented MMI-LD is up to 2.296 mW which is about four times higher than the output power of the conventional semiconductor laser. The implemented MMI-LD exhibits stable output operating at the wavelength of 1.52 μm and better temperature tolerance when the temperature varies from 283.15 K to 293.15 K.

  20. Semiconductor Laser Tracking Frequency Distance Gauge (United States)

    Phillips, James D.; Reasenberg, Robert D.


    Advanced astronomical missions with greatly enhanced resolution and physics missions of unprecedented accuracy will require a spaceworthy laser distance gauge of substantially improved performance. The Tracking Frequency Gauge (TFG) uses a single beam, locking a laser to the measurement interferometer. We have demonstrated this technique with pm (10(exp -12) m) performance. We report on the version we are now developing based on space-qualifiable, fiber-coupled distributed-feedback semiconductor lasers.

  1. Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides (United States)

    Guo, Hairun; Herkommer, Clemens; Billat, Adrien; Grassani, Davide; Zhang, Chuankun; Pfeiffer, Martin H. P.; Weng, Wenle; Brès, Camille-Sophie; Kippenberg, Tobias J.


    Mid-infrared optical frequency combs are of significant interest for molecular spectroscopy due to the large absorption of molecular vibrational modes on the one hand, and the ability to implement superior comb-based spectroscopic modalities with increased speed, sensitivity and precision on the other hand. Here, we demonstrate a simple, yet effective, method for the direct generation of mid-infrared optical frequency combs in the region from 2.5 to 4.0 μm (that is, 2,500-4,000 cm-1), covering a large fraction of the functional group region, from a conventional and compact erbium-fibre-based femtosecond laser in the telecommunication band (that is, 1.55 μm). The wavelength conversion is based on dispersive wave generation within the supercontinuum process in an unprecedented large-cross-section silicon nitride (Si3N4) waveguide with the dispersion lithographically engineered. The long-wavelength dispersive wave can perform as a mid-infrared frequency comb, whose coherence is demonstrated via optical heterodyne measurements. Such an approach can be considered as an alternative option to mid-infrared frequency comb generation. Moreover, it has the potential to realize compact dual-comb spectrometers. The generated combs also have a fine teeth-spacing, making them suitable for gas-phase analysis.

  2. Reduced filamentation in high power semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Peter M. W.; McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter


    High brightness semiconductor lasers have applications in fields ranging from material processing to medicine. The main difficulty associated with high brightness is that high optical power densities cause damage to the laser facet and thus require large apertures. This, in turn, results in spatio......-temporal instabilities such as filamentation which degrades spatial coherence and brightness. We first evaluate performance of existing designs with a “top-hat” shaped transverse current density profile. The unstable nature of highly excited semiconductor material results in a run-away process where small modulations...

  3. A Mid-Infrared Search for Kardashev Civilizations (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Steinn; Wright, J.; Griffith, R.; Povich, M. S.


    We are using the WISE all-sky Source Catalog to search for and put upper limits on the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. Any galaxy-spanning (Type III) civilization with an energy supply of more than about one percent of its stellar luminosity will have detectable mid-infrared excess, and nearby (extended) galaxies with civilizations with supplies more than about 80% of their stellar luminosity will be well-distinguished from nearly all natural sources in WISE color-color space. Mid-infrared spectra, far-infrared photometry, and radio emission from CO can all be used to distinguish extraterrestrial mid-infrared radiation from dust.

  4. Narrowband widely tunable CW mid-infrared generator based on difference frequency generation in periodically poled KTP and KTA crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baravets, Yauhen; Honzátko, Pavel; Todorov, Filip; Gladkov, Petar


    Roč. 48, č. 5 (2016), May ISSN 0306-8919 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD14112 Grant - others:COST(XE) MP1204 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Fiber optics amplifiers * Difference-frequency generation * Mid-infrared tunable laser source Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.055, year: 2016

  5. MBE System for Antimonide Based Semiconductor Lasers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lester, Luke


    .... SLR-770 inductively coupled plasma (ICP) processing system. The SLR-770 has been invaluable in the study of plasma etching of AlGaAsSb and GaSb-materials that form the backbone of antimonide-based semiconductor lasers...

  6. Luminescence from ZnSe excited by picosecond mid-infrared FEL pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuyu, T.; Suzuki, T.; Tomimasu, T.


    We have observed blue band-edge emission from a ZnSe crystal under irradiation of mid-infrared picosecond free electron laser (FEL) pulses. The emission characteristics including spectrum, excitation power dependence, excitation wavelength dependence, and decay time have been investigated. The experimental results have indicated that it is difficult to understand the excitation process by multiphoton excitation, thermal excitation, or excitation through mid-gap levels. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Mid-infrared spectroscopy in skin cancer cell type identification (United States)

    Kastl, Lena; Kemper, Björn; Lloyd, Gavin R.; Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Stone, Nick; Naranjo, Valery; Penaranda, Francisco; Schnekenburger, Jürgen


    Mid infrared spectroscopy samples were developed for the analysis of skin tumor cell types and three dimensional tissue phantoms towards the application of midIR spectroscopy for fast and reliable skin cancer diagnostics.

  8. Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in the fingerprint region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Kubat, Irnis

    The mid-infrared spectral region is of great technical and scientific interest because most molecules display fundamental vibrational absorptions in this region, leaving distinctive spectral fingerprints. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that launching intense ultra-short pulses with a central...... the potential of fibres to emit across the mid-infrared molecular fingerprint region, which is of key importance for applications such as early cancer diagnostics, gas sensing and food quality control....

  9. Mid-infrared upconversion based hyperspectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junaid, Saher; Tomko, Jan; Semtsiv, Mykhaylo P.


    quantum cascade laser illumination. AgGaS2 is used as the nonlinear medium for sum frequency generation using a 1064 nm mixing laser. Angular scanning of the nonlinear crystal provides broad spectral coverage at every spatial position in the image. This study demonstrates the retrieval of series...

  10. E-beam-pumped semiconductor lasers (United States)

    Rice, Robert R.; Shanley, James F.; Ruggieri, Neil F.


    The collapse of the Soviet Union opened many areas of laser technology to the West. E-beam- pumped semiconductor lasers (EBSL) were pursued for 25 years in several Soviet Institutes. Thin single crystal screens of II-VI alloys (ZnxCd1-xSe, CdSxSe1-x) were incorporated in laser CRTs to produce scanned visible laser beams at average powers greater than 10 W. Resolutions of 2500 lines were demonstrated. MDA-W is conducting a program for ARPA/ESTO to assess EBSL technology for high brightness, high resolution RGB laser projection application. Transfer of II-VI crystal growth and screen processing technology is underway, and initial results will be reported. Various techniques (cathodoluminescence, one- and two-photon laser pumping, etc.) have been used to assess material quality and screen processing damage. High voltage (75 kV) video electronics were procured in the U.S. to operate test EBSL tubes. Laser performance was documented as a function of screen temperature, beam voltage and current. The beam divergence, spectrum, efficiency and other characteristics of the laser output are being measured. An evaluation of the effect of laser operating conditions upon the degradation rate is being carried out by a design-of-experiments method. An initial assessment of the projected image quality will be performed.

  11. Asymmetrically excited semiconductor injection laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladany, I.; Marinelli, D.P.; Kressel, H.; Cannuli, V.M.


    A diode laser is improved in order to produce an output in a single longitudinal mode. The laser has a rectangular body with two regions of differing conductivity type material. Extending from one surface of the rectangular body and into one of the regions of differing conductivity material is a third region. Although the third region is composed of the same general conductivity type material as the region into which it extends, it is more highly doped with conductivity modifiers (more conductive). This third region extends along one surface between the ends of the body and is spaced from the sides of the body. An electrical contact stripe is positioned on the one surface so that a portion of its width overlaps a portion of the width of the third region

  12. Semiconductor lasers in rheumatological treatment (United States)

    Pascu, Mihail-Lucian; Suteanu, S.; Ignat, P.; Pruna, Simion; Chitu, A.


    A computer controlled equipment, containing 6 lasers (HeNe and 5 diode lasers--DL) conceived to be used in rheumatological treatment is reported. DL emit at 895 nm and for typical applications, their expanded spots are superposed within the irradiation plane, on the HeNE defocused spot used to define the surface to be irradiated. DL emit 100 nsec pulses between 0.5 KHz and 1.5 KHz repetition rate and 0.5 mW average power (measured at 1 KHz). 150 patients with rheumathologic diseases were treated: lumbar spondylosis (75), gonarthrosis (30), cervical spondylosis (21), coxarthrosis (15), Heberden and Bouchard (9). The treatment consisted of: group I, 50 patients--laser therapy, 10 min/day, 10 days; group II, 50 patients--classical antirheumatic treatment; group III, 50 patients--mixed treatment. Assessment of sympathetic skin activity made using reactometry measurements, shows that latency time was longer before irradiation, 1867 +/- 289) msec then after, (1234 +/- 321) msec. Pain rating indexes decreasing for all three groups of patients were measured. Better results for more superficial diseases were obtained and best results were observed after irradiation with 1 KHz - 1.5 KHz repetition rate IR pulses. Better results were obtained when spot irradiation in a few points combined with zone irradiations was used.

  13. Optical double-locked semiconductor lasers (United States)

    AlMulla, Mohammad


    Self-sustained period-one (P1) nonlinear dynamics of a semiconductor laser are investigated when both optical injection and modulation are applied for stable microwave frequency generation. Locking the P1 oscillation through modulation on the bias current, injection strength, or detuning frequency stabilizes the P1 oscillation. Through the phase noise variance, the different modulation types are compared. It is demonstrated that locking the P1 oscillation through optical modulation on the output of the master laser outperforms bias-current modulation of the slave laser. Master laser modulation shows wider P1-oscillation locking range and lower phase noise variance. The locking characteristics of the P1 oscillation also depend on the operating conditions of the optical injection system

  14. Squeezing in an injection-locked semiconductor laser (United States)

    Inoue, S.; Machida, S.; Yamamoto, Y.; Ohzu, H.


    The intensity-noise properties of an injection-locked semiconductor laser were studied experimentally. The constant-current-driven semiconductor laser producing the amplitude-squeezed state whose intensity noise was reduced below the standard quantum limit (SQL) by 0.72 dB was injection-locked by an external master laser. The measured intensity-noise level of the injection-locked semiconductor laser was 0.91 dB below the SQL. This experimental result indicates that a phase-coherent amplitude-squeezed state or squeezed vacuum state together with a reference local oscillator wave can be generated directly by semiconductor laser systems.

  15. Versatile silicon-waveguide supercontinuum for coherent mid-infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    Nader, Nima; Maser, Daniel L.; Cruz, Flavio C.; Kowligy, Abijith; Timmers, Henry; Chiles, Jeff; Fredrick, Connor; Westly, Daron A.; Nam, Sae Woo; Mirin, Richard P.; Shainline, Jeffrey M.; Diddams, Scott


    Laser frequency combs, with their unique combination of precisely defined spectral lines and broad bandwidth, are a powerful tool for basic and applied spectroscopy. Here, we report offset-free, mid-infrared frequency combs and dual-comb spectroscopy through supercontinuum generation in silicon-on-sapphire waveguides. We leverage robust fabrication and geometrical dispersion engineering of nanophotonic waveguides for multi-band, coherent frequency combs spanning 70 THz in the mid-infrared (2.5 μm-6.2 μm). Precise waveguide fabrication provides significant spectral broadening with engineered spectra targeted at specific mid-infrared bands. We characterize the relative-intensity-noise of different bands and show that the measured levels do not pose any limitation for spectroscopy applications. Additionally, we use the fabricated photonic devices to demonstrate dual-comb spectroscopy of a carbonyl sulfide gas sample at 5 μm. This work forms the technological basis for applications such as point sensors for fundamental spectroscopy, atmospheric chemistry, trace and hazardous gas detection, and biological microscopy.

  16. Versatile silicon-waveguide supercontinuum for coherent mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Nader


    Full Text Available Laser frequency combs, with their unique combination of precisely defined spectral lines and broad bandwidth, are a powerful tool for basic and applied spectroscopy. Here, we report offset-free, mid-infrared frequency combs and dual-comb spectroscopy through supercontinuum generation in silicon-on-sapphire waveguides. We leverage robust fabrication and geometrical dispersion engineering of nanophotonic waveguides for multi-band, coherent frequency combs spanning 70 THz in the mid-infrared (2.5 μm–6.2 μm. Precise waveguide fabrication provides significant spectral broadening with engineered spectra targeted at specific mid-infrared bands. We characterize the relative-intensity-noise of different bands and show that the measured levels do not pose any limitation for spectroscopy applications. Additionally, we use the fabricated photonic devices to demonstrate dual-comb spectroscopy of a carbonyl sulfide gas sample at 5 μm. This work forms the technological basis for applications such as point sensors for fundamental spectroscopy, atmospheric chemistry, trace and hazardous gas detection, and biological microscopy.

  17. The features of modelling semiconductor lasers with a wide contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzhanov Alexey


    Full Text Available The aspects of calculating the dynamics and statics of powerful semiconductor laser diodes radiation are investigated. It takes into account the main physical mechanisms influencing power, spectral composition, far and near field of laser radiation. It outlines a dynamic distributed model of a semiconductor laser with a wide contact and possible algorithms for its implementation.

  18. The pursuit of electrically-driven organic semiconductor lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisri, Satria Zulkarnaen; Takenobu, Taishi; Iwasa, Yoshihiro


    Organic semiconductors have many favourable and plastic-like optical properties that are promising for the development of low energy consuming laser devices. Although optically-pumped organic semiconductor lasers have been demonstrated since the early days of lasers, electrically-driven organic

  19. Melting phenomenon and laser annealing in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, J.


    The work on annealing of displacement damage, dissolution of boron precipitates, and the broadening of dopant profiles in semiconductors after treating with ruby and dye laser pulses is reviewed in order to provide convincing evidence for the melting phenomenon and illustrate the mechanism associated with laser annealing. The nature of the solid-liquid interface and the interface instability during rapid solidification is considered in detail. It is shown that solute concentrations after pulsed laser annealing can far exceed retrograde maxima values. However, there is a critical solute concentration above which a planar solid-liquid interface becomes unstable and breaks into a cellular structure. The solute concentrations and cell sizes associated with this instability are calculated using a perturbation theory, and compared with experimental results

  20. Mid-infrared beam splitter for ultrashort pulses. (United States)

    Somma, Carmine; Reimann, Klaus; Woerner, Michael; Kiel, Thomas; Busch, Kurt; Braun, Andreas; Matalla, Mathias; Ickert, Karina; Krüger, Olaf


    A design is presented for a beam splitter suitable for ultrashort pulses in the mid-infrared and terahertz spectral range consisting of a structured metal layer on a diamond substrate. Both the theory and experiment show that this beam splitter does not distort the temporal pulse shape.

  1. Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium (United States)

    Soref, Richard


    Ingenious techniques are needed to extend group IV photonics from near-infrared to mid-infrared wavelengths. If achieved, the reward could be on-chip CMOS optoelectronic systems for use in spectroscopy, chemical and biological sensing, and free-space communications.

  2. CO2 laser pulse switching by optically excited semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, V.L. da.


    The construction and the study of a semi-conductor optical switch used for generating short infrared pulses and to analyse the semiconductor characteristics, are presented. The switch response time depends on semiconductor and control laser characteristics. The results obtained using a Ge switch controlled by N 2 , NdYag and Dye lasers are presented. The response time was 50 ns limited by Ge recombination time. The reflectivity increased from 7% to 59% using N 2 laser to control the switch. A simple model for semiconductor optical properties that explain very well the experimental results, is also presented. (author) [pt

  3. Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Møller, Uffe Visbech; Kubat, Irnis


    -power laser diodes, quantum cascade lasers and synchrotron radiation have precluded mid-infrared applications where the spatial coherence, broad bandwidth, high brightness and portability of a supercontinuum laser are all required. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that launching intense ultra-short pulses...... the potential of fibres to emit across the mid-infrared molecular ‘fingerprint region’, which is of key importance for applications such as early cancer diagnostics3, gas sensing and food quality control....

  4. The Modulation Response of a Semiconductor Laser Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Mecozzi, Antonio; Eisenstein, Gadi


    We present a theoretical analysis of the modulation response of a semiconductor laser amplifier. We find a resonance behavior similar to the well-known relaxation oscillation resonance found in semiconductor lasers, but of a different physical origin. The role of the waveguide (scattering) loss i...

  5. Modelling colliding-pulse mode-locked semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Svend

    or to determine the optimum operation conditions. The purpose of this thesis is to elucidate some of the physics of interest in the field of semiconductor laser modelling, semiconductor optics and fiber optics. To be more specific we will investigate: The Colliding-Pulse Mode-Locked (CPM) Quantum Well (QW) laser...... diode; the excitonic semiconductor response for varying material thickness in the case of linear optics; and modulational instability of electromagnetic waves in media with spatially varying non-linearity....

  6. Semiconductor Laser Diode Pumps for Inertial Fusion Energy Lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deri, R.J.


    Solid-state lasers have been demonstrated as attractive drivers for inertial confinement fusion on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and at the Omega Facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in Rochester, NY. For power plant applications, these lasers must be pumped by semiconductor diode lasers to achieve the required laser system efficiency, repetition rate, and lifetime. Inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will require approximately 40-to-80 GW of peak pump power, and must operate efficiently and with high system availability for decades. These considerations lead to requirements on the efficiency, price, and production capacity of the semiconductor pump sources. This document provides a brief summary of these requirements, and how they can be met by a natural evolution of the current semiconductor laser industry. The detailed technical requirements described in this document flow down from a laser ampl9ifier design described elsewhere. In brief, laser amplifiers comprising multiple Nd:glass gain slabs are face-pumped by two planar diode arrays, each delivering 30 to 40 MW of peak power at 872 nm during a ∼ 200 (micro)s quasi-CW (QCW) pulse with a repetition rate in the range of 10 to 20 Hz. The baseline design of the diode array employs a 2D mosaic of submodules to facilitate manufacturing. As a baseline, they envision that each submodule is an array of vertically stacked, 1 cm wide, edge-emitting diode bars, an industry standard form factor. These stacks are mounted on a common backplane providing cooling and current drive. Stacks are conductively cooled to the backplane, to minimize both diode package cost and the number of fluid interconnects for improved reliability. While the baseline assessment in this document is based on edge-emitting devices, the amplifier design does not preclude future use of surface emitting diodes, which may offer appreciable future cost reductions and

  7. Mid-infrared Variability of Changing-look AGNs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Zhenfeng; Wang, Tinggui; Jiang, Ning; Yang, Chenwei; Peng, Bo; Yan, Lin; Dou, Liming


    It is known that some active galactic nuclei (AGNs) transit from Type 1 to Type 2 or vice versa. There are two explanations for the so-called changing-look AGNs: one is the dramatic change of the obscuration along the line of sight, and the other is the variation of accretion rate. In this Letter, we report the detection of large amplitude variations in the mid-infrared luminosity during the transitions in 10 changing-look AGNs using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE ) and newly released Near-Earth Object WISE Reactivation data. The mid-infrared light curves of 10 objects echo the variability in the optical band with a time lag expected for dust reprocessing. The large variability amplitude is inconsistent with the scenario of varying obscuration, rather it supports the scheme of dramatic change in the accretion rate.

  8. Mid-infrared Variability of Changing-look AGNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Zhenfeng; Wang, Tinggui; Jiang, Ning; Yang, Chenwei; Peng, Bo [CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology, University of Sciences and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Yan, Lin [Caltech Optical Observatories, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dou, Liming, E-mail:, E-mail: [Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)


    It is known that some active galactic nuclei (AGNs) transit from Type 1 to Type 2 or vice versa. There are two explanations for the so-called changing-look AGNs: one is the dramatic change of the obscuration along the line of sight, and the other is the variation of accretion rate. In this Letter, we report the detection of large amplitude variations in the mid-infrared luminosity during the transitions in 10 changing-look AGNs using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE ) and newly released Near-Earth Object WISE Reactivation data. The mid-infrared light curves of 10 objects echo the variability in the optical band with a time lag expected for dust reprocessing. The large variability amplitude is inconsistent with the scenario of varying obscuration, rather it supports the scheme of dramatic change in the accretion rate.

  9. The astigmatism factor for semiconductor injection lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yiguang; Guo Changzhi


    The relations between the astigmatism factor and the waveguide structure, working conditions etc. were accurately calculated, using a method for deriving a self-consistent solution of the optical field equation and the carrier diffusion equation. Various theoretical models regarding the spontaneous emission factor were analyzed and compared. The results show that there is a difference between astigmatism factors of semiconductor lasers with different waveguide structures. W. Streifer's results, for a model having an invariable distribution of the complex refractive index, are larger by a factor of 6 to 80 than the accurate calculated value. K. Petermann's theory regarding the spontaneous emission factor is more appropriate than other theories. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs

  10. Below-bandgap photoreflection spectroscopy of semiconductor laser structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotnikov, Aleksandr E; Chernikov, Maksim A; Ryabushkin, Oleg A; Trubenko, P; Moshegov, N; Ovchinnikov, A


    A new method of modulated light reflection - below-bandgap photoreflection, is considered. Unlike the conventional photoreflection method, the proposed method uses optical pumping by photons of energy smaller than the bandgap of any layer of a semiconductor structure under study. Such pumping allows one to obtain the modulated reflection spectrum for all layers of the structure without excitation of photoluminescence. This method is especially promising for the study of wide-gap semiconductors. The results of the study of semiconductor structures used in modern high-power multimode semiconductor lasers are presented. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  11. High energy eye-safe and mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J; Liu, Q; Huang, L; Gong, M


    A high energy eye-safe and mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is demonstrated. The nonlinear media is a Y-cut KTA crystal with the length of 20 mm, which is pumped by a Nd:YAG laser. Both eye-safe and mid-infrared laser are output with high energy. When the pump energy is 1 J and the pulse duration is 10 ns, we get 53 mJ idler at 3.632 μm and 151 mJ signal at 1.505 μm. As we know, the idler energy is the highest at the wavelength beyond 3.5 μm and the signal energy is the highest with Y-cut KTA. The results prove that the Y-cut KTA crystal can produce the signal and idler with the energies as high as these in the paper. We have tested the temperature-tuning characters and the coefficient of the idler is 0.26 nm/°C

  12. Measurement of the refractive index dispersion of As2Se3 bulk glass and thin films prior to and after laser irradiation and annealing using prism coupling in the near- and mid-infrared spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlie, N.; Petit, L.; Musgraves, J. D.; Richardson, K.; Anheier, N. C. Jr.; Qiao, H. A.; Bernacki, B.; Phillips, M. C.


    The prism coupling technique has been utilized to measure the refractive index in the near- and mid-IR spectral region of chalcogenide glasses in bulk and thin film form. A commercial system (Metricon model 2010) has been modified with additional laser sources, detectors, and a new GaP prism to allow the measurement of refractive index dispersion over the 1.5-10.6 μm range. The instrumental error was found to be ±0.001 refractive index units across the entire wavelength region examined. Measurements on thermally evaporated AMTIR2 thin films confirmed that (i) the film deposition process provides thin films with reduced index compared to that of the bulk glass used as a target, (ii) annealing of the films increases the refractive index of the film to the level of the bulk glass used as a target to create it, and (iii) it is possible to locally increase the refractive index of the chalcogenide glass using laser exposure at 632.8 nm.

  13. Mid-infrared volume diffraction gratings in IG2 chalcogenide glass: fabrication, characterization, and theoretical verification (United States)

    Butcher, Helen L.; MacLachlan, David G.; Lee, David; Brownsword, Richard A.; Thomson, Robert R.; Weidmann, Damien


    Ultrafast laser inscription (ULI) has previously been employed to fabricate volume diffraction gratings in chalcogenide glasses, which operate in transmission mode in the mid-infrared spectral region. Prior gratings were manufactured for applications in astrophotonics, at wavelengths around 2.5 μm. Rugged volume gratings also have potential use in remote atmospheric sensing and molecular spectroscopy; for these applications, longer wavelength operation is required to coincide with atmospheric transparency windows (3-5 μm) and intense ro-vibrational molecular absorption bands. We report on ULI gratings inscribed in IG2 chalcogenide glass, enabling access to the full 3-5 μm window. High-resolution broadband spectral characterization of fabricated gratings was performed using a Fourier transform spectrometer. The zeroth order transmission was characterized to derive the diffraction efficiency into higher orders, up to the fourth orders in the case of gratings optimized for first order diffraction at 3 μm. The outcomes imply that ULI in IG2 is well suited for the fabrication of volume gratings in the mid infrared, providing the impact of the ULI fabrication parameters on the grating properties are well understood. To develop this understanding, grating modeling was conducted. Parameters studied include grating thickness, refractive index modification, and aspect ratio of the modulation achieved by ULI. Knowledge of the contribution and sensitivity of these parameters was used to inform the design of a 4.3 μm grating expected to achieve > 95% first order efficiency. We will also present the characterization of these latest mid-infrared diffraction gratings in IG2.

  14. High-power continuous-wave mid-infrared radiation generated by difference frequency mixing of diode-laser-seeded fiber amplifiers and its application to dual-beam spectroscopy (United States)

    Lancaster, D. G.; Richter, D.; Curl, R. F.; Tittel, F. K.; Goldberg, L.; Koplow, J.


    We report the generation of up to 0.7 mW of narrow-linewidth (radiation at 3.3 micrometers by difference frequency mixing of a Nd:YAG-seeded 1.6-W Yb fiber amplifier and a 1.5-micrometers diode-laser-seeded 0.6-W Er/Yb fiber amplifier in periodically poled LiNbO3. A conversion efficiency of 0.09%/W (0.47 mWW-2 cm-1) was achieved. A room-air CH4 spectrum acquired with a compact 80-m multipass cell and a dual-beam spectroscopic configuration indicates an absorption sensitivity of +/-2.8 x 10(-5) (+/-1 sigma), corresponding to a sub-parts-in-10(9) (ppb) CH4 sensitivity (0.8 ppb).

  15. Key techniques for space-based solar pumped semiconductor lasers (United States)

    He, Yang; Xiong, Sheng-jun; Liu, Xiao-long; Han, Wei-hua


    In space, the absence of atmospheric turbulence, absorption, dispersion and aerosol factors on laser transmission. Therefore, space-based laser has important values in satellite communication, satellite attitude controlling, space debris clearing, and long distance energy transmission, etc. On the other hand, solar energy is a kind of clean and renewable resources, the average intensity of solar irradiation on the earth is 1353W/m2, and it is even higher in space. Therefore, the space-based solar pumped lasers has attracted much research in recent years, most research focuses on solar pumped solid state lasers and solar pumped fiber lasers. The two lasing principle is based on stimulated emission of the rare earth ions such as Nd, Yb, Cr. The rare earth ions absorb light only in narrow bands. This leads to inefficient absorption of the broad-band solar spectrum, and increases the system heating load, which make the system solar to laser power conversion efficiency very low. As a solar pumped semiconductor lasers could absorb all photons with energy greater than the bandgap. Thus, solar pumped semiconductor lasers could have considerably higher efficiencies than other solar pumped lasers. Besides, solar pumped semiconductor lasers has smaller volume chip, simpler structure and better heat dissipation, it can be mounted on a small satellite platform, can compose satellite array, which can greatly improve the output power of the system, and have flexible character. This paper summarizes the research progress of space-based solar pumped semiconductor lasers, analyses of the key technologies based on several application areas, including the processing of semiconductor chip, the design of small and efficient solar condenser, and the cooling system of lasers, etc. We conclude that the solar pumped vertical cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers will have a wide application prospects in the space.

  16. Mid-infrared signatures of hydroxyl containing water clusters: Infrared laser Stark spectroscopy of OH–H{sub 2}O and OH(D{sub 2}O){sub n} (n = 1-3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Federico J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States); INFIQC, Dpto. de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Centro Láser de Ciencias Moleculares, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón, X5000HUA Córdoba (Argentina); Brice, Joseph T.; Leavitt, Christopher M.; Liang, Tao; Douberly, Gary E., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States); Raston, Paul L. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, Virginia 22807 (United States); Pino, Gustavo A. [INFIQC, Dpto. de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Centro Láser de Ciencias Moleculares, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón, X5000HUA Córdoba (Argentina)


    Small water clusters containing a single hydroxyl radical are synthesized in liquid helium droplets. The OH–H{sub 2}O and OH(D{sub 2}O){sub n} clusters (n = 1-3) are probed with infrared laser spectroscopy in the vicinity of the hydroxyl radical OH stretch vibration. Experimental band origins are qualitatively consistent with ab initio calculations of the global minimum structures; however, frequency shifts from isolated OH are significantly over-predicted by both B3LYP and MP2 methods. An effective Hamiltonian that accounts for partial quenching of electronic angular momentum is used to analyze Stark spectra of the OH–H{sub 2}O and OH–D{sub 2}O binary complexes, revealing a 3.70(5) D permanent electric dipole moment. Computations of the dipole moment are in good agreement with experiment when large-amplitude vibrational averaging is taken into account. Polarization spectroscopy is employed to characterize two vibrational bands assigned to OH(D{sub 2}O){sub 2}, revealing two nearly isoenergetic cyclic isomers that differ in the orientation of the non-hydrogen-bonded deuterium atoms relative to the plane of the three oxygen atoms. The dipole moments for these clusters are determined to be approximately 2.5 and 1.8 D for “up-up” and “up-down” structures, respectively. Hydroxyl stretching bands of larger clusters containing three or more D{sub 2}O molecules are observed shifted approximately 300 cm{sup −1} to the red of the isolated OH radical. Pressure dependence studies and ab initio calculations imply the presence of multiple cyclic isomers of OH(D{sub 2}O){sub 3}.

  17. Thermoreflectance spectroscopy—Analysis of thermal processes in semiconductor lasers (United States)

    Pierścińska, D.


    This review focuses on theoretical foundations, experimental implementation and an overview of experimental results of the thermoreflectance spectroscopy as a powerful technique for temperature monitoring and analysis of thermal processes in semiconductor lasers. This is an optical, non-contact, high spatial resolution technique providing high temperature resolution and mapping capabilities. Thermoreflectance is a thermometric technique based on measuring of relative change of reflectivity of the surface of laser facet, which provides thermal images useful in hot spot detection and reliability studies. In this paper, principles and experimental implementation of the technique as a thermography tool is discussed. Some exemplary applications of TR to various types of lasers are presented, proving that thermoreflectance technique provides new insight into heat management problems in semiconductor lasers and in particular, that it allows studying thermal degradation processes occurring at laser facets. Additionally, thermal processes and basic mechanisms of degradation of the semiconductor laser are discussed.

  18. High Power Mid-IR Semiconductor Lasers for LADAR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lester, Luke


    The growing need for antimonide-based, room temperature, 2-5 micrometers, semiconductor lasers for trace gas spectroscopy, ultra-low loss communication, infrared countermeasures, and ladar motivated this work...

  19. Mid-infrared GaSb-based resonant tunneling diode photodetectors for gas sensing applications (United States)

    Rothmayr, F.; Pfenning, A.; Kistner, C.; Koeth, J.; Knebl, G.; Schade, A.; Krueger, S.; Worschech, L.; Hartmann, F.; Höfling, S.


    We present resonant tunneling diode-photodetectors (RTD-PDs) with GaAs0.15Sb0.85/AlAs0.1Sb0.9 double barrier structures combined with an additional quaternary Ga0.64In0.36As0.33Sb0.67 absorption layer covering the fingerprint absorption lines of various gases in the mid-infrared wavelength spectral region. The absorption layer cut-off wavelength is determined to be 3.5 μm, and the RTD-PDs show peak-to-valley current ratios up to 4.3 with a peak current density of 12 A/cm-2. The incorporation of the quaternary absorption layer enables the RTD-PDs to be sensitive to illumination with light up to the absorption lines of HCl at 3395 nm. At this wavelength, the detector shows a responsivity of 6.3 mA/W. At the absorption lines of CO2 and CO at 2004 nm and 2330 nm, respectively, the RTD-PDs reach responsivities up to 0.97 A/W. Thus, RTD-PDs pave the way towards high sensitive mid-infrared detectors that can be utilized in tunable laser absorption spectroscopy.

  20. A High-Power Continuous-Wave Mid-Infrared Optical Parametric Oscillator Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichen Liu


    Full Text Available We demonstrate here a compact optical parametric oscillator module for mid-infrared generation via nonlinear frequency conversion. This module weighs only 2.5 kg and fits within a small volume of 220 × 60 × 55 mm3. The module can be easily aligned to various pump laser sources, and here we use a 50 W ytterbium (Yb-doped fiber laser as an example. With a two-channel MgO-doped periodically poled lithium niobate crystal (MgO:PPLN, our module covers a tuning range of 2416.17–2932.25 nm and 3142.18–3452.15 nm. The highest output power exceeds 10.4 W at 2.7 μm, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 24%. The measured power stability is 2.13% Root Meat Square (RMS for a 10 h duration under outdoor conditions.

  1. Silicon nitride photonics: from visible to mid-infrared wavelengths (United States)

    Micó, Gloria; Bru, Luis A.; Pastor, Daniel; Doménech, David; Fernández, Juan; Sánchez, Ana; Cirera, Josep M.; Domínguez, Carlos; Muñoz, Pascual


    Silicon nitride has received a lot of attention during the last ten years, for applications such as bio-photonics, tele/datacom, optical signal processing and sensing. In this paper, firstly an updated review of the state of the art of silicon nitride photonics integration platforms will be provided. Secondly, our developments on a moderate confinement Si3N4 platform in the near-infrared will be presented. Finally, our steps towards establishing a Si3N4 based platform for broadband operation spanning from visible to mid-infrared wavelengths will be introduced.

  2. Dilute bismides for near and mid-infrared applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yuxin; Gu, Yi; Ye, Hong


    Dilute bismides are a group of emerging materials with unique properties. Incorporation of a small amount of Bi in common III–V host materials results in large band-gap reduction and strong spin-orbit splitting, leading to potential applications in near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR......) optoelectronics. Recent progresses on molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) of novel III-Sb-Bi, i.e. GaSbBi and InSbBi thin films from our group are summarised in this paper. Quantum well structures based on GaSbBi and InGaAsBi aiming for the optical communication window were grown and characterized....

  3. Two-crystal mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator for absorption and dispersion dual-comb spectroscopy. (United States)

    Jin, Yuwei; Cristescu, Simona M; Harren, Frans J M; Mandon, Julien


    We present a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) containing two magnesium-doped periodically poled lithium niobate crystals in a singly resonant ring cavity, pumped by two mode-locked Yb-fiber lasers. As such, the OPO generates two idler combs (up to 220 mW), covering a wavelength range from 2.7 to 4.2 μm, from which a mid-infrared dual-comb Fourier transform spectrometer is constructed. By detecting the heterodyning signal between the two idler beams a full broadband spectrum of a molecular gas can be observed over 250  cm(-1) within 70 μs with a spectral resolution of 15 GHz. The absorption and dispersion spectra of acetylene and methane have been measured around 3000  cm(-1), indicating that this OPO represents an ideal broadband mid-infrared source for fast chemical sensing.

  4. Quantum confined laser devices optical gain and recombination in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Blood, Peter


    The semiconductor laser, invented over 50 years ago, has had an enormous impact on the digital technologies that now dominate so many applications in business, commerce and the home. The laser is used in all types of optical fibre communication networks that enable the operation of the internet, e-mail, voice and skype transmission. Approximately one billion are produced each year for a market valued at around $5 billion. Nearly all semiconductor lasers now use extremely thin layers of light emitting materials (quantum well lasers). Increasingly smaller nanostructures are used in the form of quantum dots. The impact of the semiconductor laser is surprising in the light of the complexity of the physical processes that determine the operation of every device. This text takes the reader from the fundamental optical gain and carrier recombination processes in quantum wells and quantum dots, through descriptions of common device structures to an understanding of their operating characteristics. It has a consistent...

  5. Broadband mid-infrared superlattice light-emitting diodes (United States)

    Ricker, R. J.; Provence, S. R.; Norton, D. T.; Boggess, T. F.; Prineas, J. P.


    InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice light-emitting diodes were fabricated to form a device that provides emission over the entire 3-5 μm mid-infrared transmission window. Variable bandgap emission regions were coupled together using tunnel junctions to emit at peak wavelengths of 3.3 μm, 3.5 μm, 3.7 μm, 3.9 μm, 4.1 μm, 4.4 μm, 4.7 μm, and 5.0 μm. Cascading the structure recycles the electrons in each emission region to emit several wavelengths simultaneously. At high current densities, the light-emitting diode spectra broadened into a continuous, broadband spectrum that covered the entire mid-infrared band. When cooled to 77 K, radiances of over 1 W/cm2 sr were achieved, demonstrating apparent temperatures above 1000 K over the 3-5 μm band. InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices are capable of emitting from 3 μm to 30 μm, and the device design can be expanded to include longer emission wavelengths.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Joel D.; Jones, Olivia C.; Poteet, Charles A.; Sargent, Benjamin A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Keller, Luke D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY (United States); Yang, Yao-Lun; Evans II, Neal J. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Fischer, William J. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Rebull, Luisa M. [IPAC, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)


    We present new SOFIA-FORCAST observations obtained in 2016 February of the archetypal outbursting low-mass young stellar object FU Orionis, and we compare the continuum, solid-state, and gas properties with mid-infrared data obtained at the same wavelengths in 2004 with Spitzer -IRS. In this study, we conduct the first mid-infrared spectroscopic comparison of an FUor over a long time period. Over a 12-year period, UBVR monitoring indicates that FU Orionis has continued its steady decrease in overall brightness by ∼14%. We find that this decrease in luminosity occurs only at wavelengths ≲20 μ m. In particular, the continuum shortward of the silicate emission complex at 10 μ m exhibits a ∼12% (∼3 σ ) drop in flux density but no apparent change in slope; both the Spitzer and SOFIA spectra are consistent with a 7200 K blackbody. Additionally, the detection of water absorption is consistent with the Spitzer spectrum. The silicate emission feature at 10 μ m continues to be consistent with unprocessed grains, unchanged over 12 years. We conclude that either the accretion rate in FU Orionis has decreased by ∼12–14% over this time baseline or the inner disk has cooled, but the accretion disk remains in a superheated state outside the innermost region.

  7. Mid-Infrared Silicate Dust Features in Seyfert 1 Spectra (United States)

    Thompson, Grant D.; Levenson, N. A.; Sirocky, M. M.; Uddin, S.


    Silicate dust emission dominates the mid-infrared spectra of galaxies, and the dust produces two spectral features, at 10 and 18 μm. These features' strengths (in emission or absorption) and peak wavelengths reveal the geometry of the dust distribution, and they are sensitive to the dust composition. We examine mid-infrared spectra of 32 Seyfert 1 active galactic nuclei (AGN), observed with the Infrared Spectrograph aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. In the spectra, we typically find the shorter-wavelength feature in emission, at an average peak wavelength of 10.0 μm, although it is known historically as the "9.7 μm" feature. In addition, peak wavelength increases with feature strength. The 10 and 18 μm feature strengths together are sensitive to the dust geometry surrounding the central heating engine. Numerical calculations of radiative transfer distinguish between clumpy and smooth distributions, and we find that the surroundings of these AGN (the obscuring "tori" of unified AGN schemes) are clumpy. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features are associated with star formation, and we find strong PAH emission (luminosity ≥ 1042 erg/s) in only four sources, three of which show independent evidence for starbursts. We will explore the effects of luminosity on dust geometry and chemistry in a comparison sample of quasars. We acknowledge work supported by the NSF under grant number 0237291.

  8. Hybrid organic semiconductor lasers for bio-molecular sensing. (United States)

    Haughey, Anne-Marie; Foucher, Caroline; Guilhabert, Benoit; Kanibolotsky, Alexander L; Skabara, Peter J; Burley, Glenn; Dawson, Martin D; Laurand, Nicolas


    Bio-functionalised luminescent organic semiconductors are attractive for biophotonics because they can act as efficient laser materials while simultaneously interacting with molecules. In this paper, we present and discuss a laser biosensor platform that utilises a gain layer made of such an organic semiconductor material. The simple structure of the sensor and its operation principle are described. Nanolayer detection is shown experimentally and analysed theoretically in order to assess the potential and the limits of the biosensor. The advantage conferred by the organic semiconductor is explained, and comparisons to laser sensors using alternative dye-doped materials are made. Specific biomolecular sensing is demonstrated, and routes to functionalisation with nucleic acid probes, and future developments opened up by this achievement, are highlighted. Finally, attractive formats for sensing applications are mentioned, as well as colloidal quantum dots, which in the future could be used in conjunction with organic semiconductors.

  9. Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers | Edeagu | Nigerian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Technology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 31, No 3 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  10. Mid-Infrared Photonic Devices Fabricated by Ultrafast Laser Inscription (United States)


    pump focusing lens (f= 40 mm), M2 and M3 are HR dielectric mirrors, CM is a concave chirped mirror, GSA is a graphene -based saturable absorber...inscribe waveguide in CaF2. Passive modelocking is achieved using a SESAM or few layer graphene saturable absorber. Assuming the The voltage was left on until the sample returned to room temperature. The electrodes (silver paint ) on the positive and negative c-axis

  11. Synchronization scenario of two distant mutually coupled semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulet, Josep; Mirasso, Claudio; Heil, Tilmann


    We present numerical and experimental investigations of the synchronization of the coupling-induced instabilities in two distant mutually coupled semiconductor lasers. In our experiments, two similar Fabry-Perot lasers are coupled via their coherent optical fields. Our theoretical framework is ba...

  12. Driver circuit for pulse modulation of a semiconductor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, A.


    A pulse modulation driver circuit for a semiconductor laser is disclosed which discriminates among input pulse signals composed of binary codes to detect the occurrence of a pulse having a code of ''I'' following a pulse having a code of ''0''. Detection of this pattern is used to control the driver to increase either or both the width or peak value of the pulse having a code of 1. The effect of this is to eliminate a pattern effect in the light emitted by the semiconductor laser caused by an attenuation of the population inversion in the laser. (U.S.)

  13. Direct solar pumping of semiconductor lasers: A feasibility study (United States)

    Anderson, Neal G.


    This report describes results of NASA Grant NAG-1-1148, entitled Direct Solar Pumping of Semiconductor Lasers: A Feasibility Study. The goals of this study were to provide a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of pumping semiconductor lasers in space with directly focused sunlight and to identify semiconductor laser structures expected to operate at the lowest possible focusing intensities. It should be emphasized that the structures under consideration would provide direct optical-to-optical conversion of sunlight into laser light in a single crystal, in contrast to a configuration consisting of a solar cell or storage battery electrically pumping a current injection laser. With external modulation, such lasers could perhaps be efficient sources for intersatellite communications. We proposed specifically to develop a theoretical model of semiconductor quantum-well lasers photopumped by a broadband source, test it against existing experimental data where possible, and apply it to estimating solar pumping requirements and identifying optimum structures for operation at low pump intensities. These tasks have been accomplished, as described in this report of our completed project. The report is organized as follows: Some general considerations relevant to the solar-pumped semiconductor laser problem are discussed in Section 2, and the types of structures chosen for specific investigation are described. The details of the laser model we developed for this work are then outlined in Section 3. In Section 4, results of our study are presented, including designs for optimum lattice-matched and strained-layer solar-pumped quantum-well lasers and threshold pumping estimates for these structures. It was hoped at the outset of this work that structures could be identified which could be expected to operate continuously at solar photoexcitation intensities of several thousand suns, and this indeed turned out to be the case as described in this section. Our project is

  14. Semiconductor Laser Multi-Spectral Sensing and Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Q. Le


    Full Text Available Multi-spectral laser imaging is a technique that can offer a combination of the laser capability of accurate spectral sensing with the desirable features of passive multispectral imaging. The technique can be used for detection, discrimination, and identification of objects by their spectral signature. This article describes and reviews the development and evaluation of semiconductor multi-spectral laser imaging systems. Although the method is certainly not specific to any laser technology, the use of semiconductor lasers is significant with respect to practicality and affordability. More relevantly, semiconductor lasers have their own characteristics; they offer excellent wavelength diversity but usually with modest power. Thus, system design and engineering issues are analyzed for approaches and trade-offs that can make the best use of semiconductor laser capabilities in multispectral imaging. A few systems were developed and the technique was tested and evaluated on a variety of natural and man-made objects. It was shown capable of high spectral resolution imaging which, unlike non-imaging point sensing, allows detecting and discriminating objects of interest even without a priori spectroscopic knowledge of the targets. Examples include material and chemical discrimination. It was also shown capable of dealing with the complexity of interpreting diffuse scattered spectral images and produced results that could otherwise be ambiguous with conventional imaging. Examples with glucose and spectral imaging of drug pills were discussed. Lastly, the technique was shown with conventional laser spectroscopy such as wavelength modulation spectroscopy to image a gas (CO. These results suggest the versatility and power of multi-spectral laser imaging, which can be practical with the use of semiconductor lasers.

  15. Semiconductor laser multi-spectral sensing and imaging. (United States)

    Le, Han Q; Wang, Yang


    Multi-spectral laser imaging is a technique that can offer a combination of the laser capability of accurate spectral sensing with the desirable features of passive multispectral imaging. The technique can be used for detection, discrimination, and identification of objects by their spectral signature. This article describes and reviews the development and evaluation of semiconductor multi-spectral laser imaging systems. Although the method is certainly not specific to any laser technology, the use of semiconductor lasers is significant with respect to practicality and affordability. More relevantly, semiconductor lasers have their own characteristics; they offer excellent wavelength diversity but usually with modest power. Thus, system design and engineering issues are analyzed for approaches and trade-offs that can make the best use of semiconductor laser capabilities in multispectral imaging. A few systems were developed and the technique was tested and evaluated on a variety of natural and man-made objects. It was shown capable of high spectral resolution imaging which, unlike non-imaging point sensing, allows detecting and discriminating objects of interest even without a priori spectroscopic knowledge of the targets. Examples include material and chemical discrimination. It was also shown capable of dealing with the complexity of interpreting diffuse scattered spectral images and produced results that could otherwise be ambiguous with conventional imaging. Examples with glucose and spectral imaging of drug pills were discussed. Lastly, the technique was shown with conventional laser spectroscopy such as wavelength modulation spectroscopy to image a gas (CO). These results suggest the versatility and power of multi-spectral laser imaging, which can be practical with the use of semiconductor lasers.

  16. Mid-infrared emission and Raman spectra analysis of Er(3+)-doped oxyfluorotellurite glasses. (United States)

    Chen, Fangze; Xu, Shaoqiong; Wei, Tao; Wang, Fengchao; Cai, Muzhi; Tian, Ying; Xu, Shiqing


    This paper reports on the spectroscopic and structural properties in Er(3+)-doped oxyfluorotellurite glasses. The compositional variation accounts for the evolutions of Raman spectra, Judd-Ofelt parameters, radiative properties, and fluorescent emission. It is found that, when maximum phonon energy changes slightly, phonon density plays a crucial role in quenching the 2.7 μm emission generated by the Er(3+):(4)I11/2→(4)I13/2 transition. The comparative low phonon density contributes strong 2.7 μm emission intensity. The high branching ratio (18.63%) and large emission cross section (0.95×10(-20)  cm(2)) demonstrate that oxyfluorotellurite glass contained with 50 mol.% TeO2 has potential application in the mid-infrared region laser.

  17. Broadly tunable mid-infrared VECSEL for multiple components hydrocarbon gas sensing (United States)

    Rey, J. M.; Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Sigrist, M. W.


    A new sensing platform to simultaneously identify and quantify volatile C1 to C4 alkanes in multi-component gas mixtures is presented. This setup is based on an optically pumped, broadly tunable mid-infrared vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) developed for gas detection. The lead-chalcogenide VECSEL is the key component of the presented optical sensor. The potential of the proposed sensing setup is illustrated by experimental absorption spectra obtained from various mixtures of volatile hydrocarbons and water vapor. The sensor has a sub-ppm limit of detection for each targeted alkane in a hydrocarbon gas mixture even in the presence of a high water vapor content.

  18. Development of the power control system for semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Suk; Kim, Cheol Jung


    For the first year plan of this program, we developed the power control system for semiconductor lasers. We applied the high-current switching mode techniques to fabricating a power control system. Then, we investigated the direct side pumping techniques with GaA1As diode laser bars to laser crystal without pumping optics. We obtained 0.5W average output power from this DPSSL. (author). 54 refs., 3 tabs., 18 figs

  19. Mid-infrared spectroscopy for characterization of Baltic amber (succinite) (United States)

    Wagner-Wysiecka, Ewa


    Natural Baltic amber (succinite) is the most appreciated fossil resin of the rich cultural traditions dating back to prehistoric times. Its unequivocal identification is extremely important in many branches of science and trades including archeology, paleontology, chemistry and finally mineralogical and gemological societies. Current methods of modification of natural succinite are more and more sophisticated making the identification of natural Baltic amber often challenging. In article the systematic analytical approach for identification of natural and modified under different conditions succinite, using mid-infrared spectroscopy (transmission, Drifts and ATR techniques) is presented. The correlation between spectral characteristics and properties of succinite is discussed pointing that the understanding of the nature of changes is the key of identification of this precious material.

  20. Mid Infrared Instrument cooler subsystem test facility overview (United States)

    Moore, B.; Zan, J.; Hannah, B.; Chui, T.; Penanen, K.; Weilert, M.


    The Cryocooler for the Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) provides cooling at 6.2K on the instrument interface. The cooler system design has been incrementally documented in previous publications [1][2][3][4][5]. It has components that traverse three primary thermal regions on JWST: Region 1, approximated by 40K; Region 2, approximated by 100K; and Region 3, which is at the allowable flight temperatures for the spacecraft bus. However, there are several sub-regions that exist in the transition between primary regions and at the heat reject interfaces of the Cooler Compressor Assembly (CCA) and Cooler Control Electronics Assembly (CCEA). The design and performance of the test facility to provide a flight representative thermal environment for acceptance testing and characterization of the complete MIRI cooler subsystem are presented.

  1. Thermal noise in mid-infrared broadband upconversion detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barh, Ajanta; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian


    Low noise detection with state-of-the-art mid-infrared (MIR) detectors (e.g., PbS, PbSe, InSb, HgCdTe) is a primary challenge owing to the intrinsic thermal background radiation of the low bandgap detector material itself. However, researchers have employed frequency upconversion based detectors...... of the noise-equivalent power of an UCD system. In this article, we rigorously analyze the optical power generated by frequency upconversion of the intrinsic black-body radiation in the nonlinear material itself due to the crystals residual emissivity, i.e. absorption. The thermal radiation is particularly...... prominent at the optical absorption edge of the nonlinear material even at room temperature. We consider a conventional periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) based MIR-UCD for the investigation. The UCD is designed to cover a broad spectral range, overlapping with the entire absorption edge of the PPLN...

  2. Evaluation of detectable angle of mid-infrared slot antennas (United States)

    Obara, R.; Horikawa, J.; Shimakage, H.; Kawakami, A.


    For evaluations of a mid-infrared (MIR) detectors with antenna, we constructed an angular dependence measurement system of the antenna properties. The fabricated MIR detector consisted of twin slot antennas and a bolometer. The area of the slot antennas was designed to be 2.6 × 0.2 μm2 as to resonate at 61 THz, and they were located parallel and separated 1.6 μm each other. The bolometer was fabricated using by a 7.0-nm thick NbN thin film, and located at the center of the twin antennas. We measured polarization angle dependence and directivity, and showed that the MIR antennas have polarization dependence and directivity like radiofrequency antennas.

  3. Mid-infrared integrated photonics on silicon: a perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hongtao


    Full Text Available The emergence of silicon photonics over the past two decades has established silicon as a preferred substrate platform for photonic integration. While most silicon-based photonic components have so far been realized in the near-infrared (near-IR telecommunication bands, the mid-infrared (mid-IR, 2–20-μm wavelength band presents a significant growth opportunity for integrated photonics. In this review, we offer our perspective on the burgeoning field of mid-IR integrated photonics on silicon. A comprehensive survey on the state-of-the-art of key photonic devices such as waveguides, light sources, modulators, and detectors is presented. Furthermore, on-chip spectroscopic chemical sensing is quantitatively analyzed as an example of mid-IR photonic system integration based on these basic building blocks, and the constituent component choices are discussed and contrasted in the context of system performance and integration technologies.

  4. Semiconductor quantum-dot lasers and amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Borri, Paola; Ledentsov, N. N.


    -power surface emitting VCSELs. We investigated the ultrafast dynamics of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers. The dephasing time at room temperature of the ground-state transition in semiconductor quantum dots is around 250 fs in an unbiased amplifier, decreasing to below 50 fs when the amplifier...... is biased to positive net gain. We have further measured gain recovery times in quantum dot amplifiers that are significantly lower than in bulk and quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifiers. This is promising for future demonstration of quantum dot devices with high modulation bandwidth...

  5. Laser apparatus for surgery and force therapy based on high-power semiconductor and fibre lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minaev, V P


    High-power semiconductor lasers and diode-pumped lasers are considered whose development qualitatively improved the characteristics of laser apparatus for surgery and force therapy, extended the scope of their applications in clinical practice, and enhanced the efficiency of medical treatment based on the use of these lasers. The characteristics of domestic apparatus are presented and their properties related to the laser emission wavelength used in them are discussed. Examples of modern medical technologies based on these lasers are considered. (invited paper)

  6. Recent advances in mid-infrared (3--6 micron) emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biefeld, R.M.; Allerman, A.A.; Kurtz, S.R.


    The authors describe the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of InAsSb/InAs multiple quantum well (MQW) and InAsSb/InAsP strained-layer superlattice (SLS) active regions for use in mid-infrared emitters. They have made gain-guided, injection lasers using undoped, p-type AlAs{sub 0.16}Sb{sub 0.84} for optical confinement and both strained InAsSb/InAs MQW and InAsSb/InAsP SLS active regions. The lasers and LEDs utilize the semi-metal properties of a p-GaAsSb/n-InAs heterojunction as a source for electrons injected into active regions. A multiple-stage LED utilizing this semi-metal injection scheme is reported. Gain-guided, injected lasers with a strained InAsSb/InAs MQW active region operated up to 210 K in pulsed mode with an emission wavelength of 3.8--3.9 {micro}m and a characteristic temperature of 29--40 K. They also present results for both optically pumped and injection lasers with InAsSb/InAsP SLS active regions. The maximum operating temperature of an optically pumped 3.7 {micro}m SLS laser was 240 K. An SLS LED emitted at 4.0 {micro}m with 80 {micro}W of power at 300 K.

  7. Mesoscopic modeling of the response of human dental enamel to mid-infrared radiation (United States)

    Vila Verde, Ana; Ramos, Marta; Stoneham, A. M.


    Ablation of human dental enamel, a composite biomaterial with water pores, is of significant importance in minimally invasive laser dentistry but progress in the area is hampered by the lack of optimal laser parameters. We use mesoscopic finite element models of this material to study its response to mid-infrared radiation. Our results indicate that the cost-effective, off-the-shelf CO2 laser at λ = 10.6 μm may in fact ablate enamel precisely, reproducibly and with limited unwanted side effects such as cracking or heating, provided that a pulse duration of 10 μs is used. Furthermore, our results also indicate that the Er:YAG laser (λ = 2.94 μm), currently popular for laser dentistry, may in fact cause unwanted deep cracking in the enamel when regions with unusually high water content are irradiated, and also provide an explanation for the large range of ablation threshold values observed for this material. The model may be easily adapted to study the response of any composite material to infrared radiation and thus may be useful for the scientific community.

  8. Construction of an optical semiconductor amplifier starting from a Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E.; Soto, H.; Marquez, H.; Valles V, N.


    A methodology to convert a semiconductor laser Fabry-Perot (SL-FP) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is presented. In order to suppress the cavity resonant an optical thin film coating was deposited on the facets of the SL-FP. The experiment was carried out putting on service a new monitoring technique that consist in the observation of the laser power spectrum during the antireflection coatings deposition. This allows to determine the moment were the facets reflectivity is minimum. The SOA obtained was characterized for different polarization currents. (Author)

  9. Heteroclinic dynamics of coupled semiconductor lasers with optoelectronic feedback. (United States)

    Shahin, S; Vallini, F; Monifi, F; Rabinovich, M; Fainman, Y


    Generalized Lotka-Volterra (GLV) equations are important equations used in various areas of science to describe competitive dynamics among a population of N interacting nodes in a network topology. In this Letter, we introduce a photonic network consisting of three optoelectronically cross-coupled semiconductor lasers to realize a GLV model. In such a network, the interaction of intensity and carrier inversion rates, as well as phases of laser oscillator nodes, result in various dynamics. We study the influence of asymmetric coupling strength and frequency detuning between semiconductor lasers and show that inhibitory asymmetric coupling is required to achieve consecutive amplitude oscillations of the laser nodes. These studies were motivated primarily by the dynamical models used to model brain cognitive activities and their correspondence with dynamics obtained among coupled laser oscillators.

  10. Gain and Index Dynamics in Semiconductor Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    Semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) provide ultrafast, i.e. broadband components for optical communication systems. They enter not only as signal generators and amplifiers, but also as nonlinear elements for ultrafast signal processing such as wavelength conversion, switching, and regeneration...... changed character from bulk semiconductor to quantum wells and most recently to quantum dots. By quantum confinement of the carriers, the light-matter interactions can be significantly modified and the optical properties, including dynamics, can be engineered to match the required functionalities...

  11. Ultrafast dynamics and laser action of organic semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Vardeny, Zeev Valy


    Spurred on by extensive research in recent years, organic semiconductors are now used in an array of areas, such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaics, and other optoelectronics. In all of these novel applications, the photoexcitations in organic semiconductors play a vital role. Exploring the early stages of photoexcitations that follow photon absorption, Ultrafast Dynamics and Laser Action of Organic Semiconductors presents the latest research investigations on photoexcitation ultrafast dynamics and laser action in pi-conjugated polymer films, solutions, and microcavities.In the first few chapters, the book examines the interplay of charge (polarons) and neutral (excitons) photoexcitations in pi-conjugated polymers, oligomers, and molecular crystals in the time domain of 100 fs-2 ns. Summarizing the state of the art in lasing, the final chapters introduce the phenomenon of laser action in organics and cover the latest optoelectronic applications that use lasing based on a variety of caviti...

  12. Real-Time and Label-Free Chemical Sensor-on-a-chip using Monolithic Si-on-BaTiO3 Mid-Infrared waveguides. (United States)

    Jin, Tiening; Li, Leigang; Zhang, Bruce; Lin, Hao-Yu Greg; Wang, Haiyan; Lin, Pao Tai


    Chip-scale chemical detection is demonstrated by using mid-Infrared (mid-IR) photonic circuits consisting of amorphous silicon (a-Si) waveguides on an epitaxial barium titanate (BaTiO 3 , BTO) thin film. The highly c-axis oriented BTO film was grown by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method and it exhibits a broad transparent window from λ = 2.5 μm up to 7 μm. The waveguide structure was fabricated by the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process and a sharp fundamental waveguide mode has been observed. By scanning the spectrum within the characteristic absorption regime, our mid-IR waveguide successfully perform label-free monitoring of various organic solvents. The real-time heptane detection is accomplished by measuring the intensity attenuation at λ = 3.0-3.2 μm, which is associated with -CH absorption. While for methanol detection, we track the -OH absorption at λ = 2.8-2.9 μm. Our monolithic Si-on-BTO waveguides establish a new sensor platform that enables integrated photonic device for label-free chemical detection.

  13. Return-map for semiconductor lasers with optical feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Tromborg, Bjarne; Sabbatier, H.


    It is well known that a semiconductor laser exposed to moderate optical feedback and biased near threshold exhibits the phenomenon of low-frequency intensity fluctuations (LFF). While this behavior can be numerically simulated using the so-called Lang-Kobayshi model, the interpretation of the phe......It is well known that a semiconductor laser exposed to moderate optical feedback and biased near threshold exhibits the phenomenon of low-frequency intensity fluctuations (LFF). While this behavior can be numerically simulated using the so-called Lang-Kobayshi model, the interpretation...

  14. Optically pumped semiconductor lasers for atomic and molecular physics (United States)

    Burd, S.; Leibfried, D.; Wilson, A. C.; Wineland, D. J.


    Experiments in atomic, molecular and optical (AMO) physics rely on lasers at many different wavelengths and with varying requirements on spectral linewidth, power and intensity stability. Optically pumped semiconductor lasers (OPSLs), when combined with nonlinear frequency conversion, can potentially replace many of the laser systems currently in use. We are developing a source for laser cooling and spectroscopy of Mg+ ions at 280 nm, based on a frequency quadrupled OPSL with the gain chip fabricated at the ORC at Tampere Univ. of Technology, Finland. This OPSL system could serve as a prototype for many other sources used in atomic and molecular physics.

  15. Mid-infrared spectroscopic characterisation of an ultra-broadband tunable EC-QCL system intended for biomedical applications (United States)

    Vahlsing, T.; Moser, H.; Grafen, M.; Nalpantidis, K.; Brandstetter, M.; Heise, H. M.; Lendl, B.; Leonhardt, S.; Ihrig, D.; Ostendorf, A.


    Mid-infrared spectroscopy has been successfully applied for reagent-free clinical chemistry applications. Our aim is to design a portable bed-side system for ICU patient monitoring, based on mid-infrared absorption spectra of continuously sampled body-fluids. Robust and miniature bed-side systems can be achieved with tunable external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL). Previously, single EC-QCL modules covering a wavenumber interval up to 250 cm-1 have been utilized. However, for broader applicability in biomedical research an extended interval around the mid-infrared fingerprint region should be accessible, which is possible with at least three or four EC-QCL modules. For such purpose, a tunable ultra-broadband system (1920 - 780 cm-1, Block Engineering) has been studied with regard to its transient emission characteristics in ns time resolution during different laser pulse widths using a VERTEX 80v FTIR spectrometer with step-scan option. Furthermore, laser emission line profiles of all four incorporated EC-QCL modules have been analysed at high spectral resolution (0.08 cm-1) and beam profiles with few deviations from the TEM 00 spatial mode have been manifested. Emission line reproducibility has been tested for various wavenumbers in step tune mode. The overall accuracy of manufacturer default wavenumber setting has been found between ± 3 cm-1 compared to the FTIR spectrometer scale. With regard to an application in clinical chemistry, theoretically achievable concentration accuracies for different blood substrates based on blood plasma and dialysate spectra previously recorded by FTIRspectrometers have been estimated taking into account the now accessible extended wavenumber interval.

  16. Monolithic beam steering in a mid-infrared, surface-emitting, photonic integrated circuit. (United States)

    Slivken, Steven; Wu, Donghai; Razeghi, Manijeh


    The mid-infrared (2.5 < λ < 25 μm) spectral region is utilized for many purposes, such as chemical/biological sensing, free space communications, and illuminators/countermeasures. Compared to near-infrared optical systems, however, mid-infrared component technology is still rather crude, with isolated components exhibiting limited functionality. In this manuscript, we make a significant leap forward in mid-infrared technology by developing a platform which can combine functions of multiple mid-infrared optical elements, including an integrated light source. In a single device, we demonstrate wide wavelength tuning (240 nm) and beam steering (17.9 degrees) in the mid-infrared with a significantly reduced beam divergence (down to 0.5 degrees). The architecture is also set up to be manufacturable and testable on a wafer scale, requiring no cleaved facets or special mirror coating to function.

  17. Integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Ling-Xiu; Liu, Bo-Wen; Lv, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Huang, Yong-Zhen, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)


    We experimentally study the characteristics of an integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection through a connected optical waveguide. Based on the lasing spectra, four-wave mixing, injection locking, and period-two oscillation states are observed due to the mutually optical injection by adjusting the injected currents applied to the two microdisks. The enhanced 3 dB bandwidth is realized for the microdisk laser at the injection locking state, and photonic microwave is obtained from the electrode of the microdisk laser under the period-two oscillation state. The plentifully dynamical states similar as semiconductor lasers subject to external optical injection are realized due to strong optical interaction between the two microdisks.

  18. Management of gingival hyperpigmentation by semiconductor diode laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeti Gupta


    Full Text Available Gingival hyperpigmentation is caused by excessive deposition of melanin in the basal and suprabasal cell layers of the epithelium. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign, cosmetic concerns are common, particularly in patients having a very high smile line (gummy smile. Various depigmentation techniques have been employed, such as scalpel surgery, gingivectomy, gingivectomy with free gingival autografting, cryosurgery, electrosurgery, chemical agents such as 90% phenol and 95% alcohol, abrasion with diamond burs, Nd:YAG laser, semiconductor diode laser, and CO 2 laser. The present case report describes simple and effective depigmentation technique using semiconductor diode laser surgery - for gingival depigmentation, which have produced good results with patient satisfaction.

  19. Recent advances of mid-infrared compact, field deployable sensors: principles and applications (United States)

    Tittel, Frank; Gluszek, Aleksander; Hudzikowski, Arkadiusz; Dong, Lei; Li, Chunguang; Patimisco, Pietro; Sampaolo, Angelo; Spagnolo, Vincenzo; Wojtas, Jacek


    The recent development of compact interband cascade lasers(ICLs) and quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) based trace gas sensors will permit the targeting of strong fundamental rotational-vibrational transitions in the mid-infrared which are one to two orders of magnitude more intense than transitions in the overtone and combination bands in the near-infrared. This has led to the design and fabrication of mid-infrared compact, field deployable sensors for use in the petrochemical industry, environmental monitoring and atmospheric chemistry. Specifically, the spectroscopic detection and monitoring of four molecular species, methane (CH4) [1], ethane (C2H6), formaldehyde (H2CO) [2] and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) [3] will be described. CH4, C2H6 and H2CO can be detected using two detection techniques: mid-infrared tunable laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) using a compact multi-pass gas cell and quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS). Both techniques utilize state-of-the-art mid-IR, continuous wave (CW), distributed feedback (DFB) ICLs and QCLs. TDLAS was performed with an ultra-compact 54.6m effective optical path length innovative spherical multipass gas cell capable of 435 passes between two concave mirrors separated by 12.5 cm. QEPAS used a small robust absorption detection module (ADM) which consists of a quartz tuning fork (QTF), two optical windows, gas inlet/outlet ports and a low noise frequency pre-amplifier. Wavelength modulation and second harmonic detection were employed for spectral data processing. TDLAS and QEPAS can achieve minimum detectable absorption losses in the range from 10-8 to 10-11cm-1/Hz1/2. Several recent examples of real world applications of field deployable gas sensors will be described. For example, an ICL based TDLAS sensor system is capable of detecting CH4 and C2H6 concentration levels of 1 ppb in a 1 sec. sampling time, using an ultra-compact, robust sensor architecture. H2S detection was realized with a THz QEPAS sensor

  20. Low-confinement high-power semiconductor lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buda, M.


    This thesis presents the results of studies related to optimisation of high power semiconductor laser diodes using the low confinement concept. This implies a different approach in designing the transversal layer structure before growth and in processing the wafer after growth, for providing the

  1. Optical trapping with Bessel beams generated from semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolovskii, G S; Dudelev, V V; Losev, S N; Soboleva, K K; Deryagin, A G; Kuchinskii, V I; Sibbett, W; Rafailov, E U


    In this paper, we study generation of Bessel beams from semiconductor lasers with high beam propagation parameter M 2 and their utilization for optical trapping and manipulation of microscopic particles including living cells. The demonstrated optical tweezing with diodegenerated Bessel beams paves the way to replace their vibronic-generated counterparts for a range of applications towards novel lab-on-a-chip configurations

  2. Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers for Optical Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten


    The thesis deals with the design and fabrication of semiconductor mode-locked lasers for use in optical communication systems. The properties of pulse sources and characterization methods are described as well as requirements for application in communication systems. Especially, the importance of...

  3. Dynamics of laterally coupled semiconductor lasers: transition to chaos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousefi, M.; Barsella, A.; Lenstra, D.; Lenstra, D.; Morthier, G.; Erneux, T.; Pessa, M.


    A method for the investigation of the dynamics of two semiconductor lasers, grown side-by-side on the same wafer to enhance the lateral optical coupling, is presented. Using steady state analysis, parameter regimes of relevant dynamics are identified. This is completed by a spectral analysis, were

  4. Material Engineering for Monolithic Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulkova, Irina

    This thesis is devoted to the materials engineering for semiconductor monolithic passively mode-locked lasers (MLLs) as a compact energy-efficient source of ultrashort optical pulses. Up to the present day, the achievement of low-noise sub-picosecond pulse generation has remained a challenge...

  5. Mathematical modeling of thermal runaway in semiconductor laser operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, W.R.


    A mathematical model describing the coupling of electrical, optical and thermal effects in semiconductor lasers is introduced. Through a systematic asymptotic expansion, the governing system of differential equations is reduced to a single second-order boundary value problem. This highly nonlinear

  6. SIBI: A compact hyperspectral camera in the mid-infrared (United States)

    Pola Fossi, Armande; Ferrec, Yann; Domel, Roland; Coudrain, Christophe; Guerineau, Nicolas; Roux, Nicolas; D'Almeida, Oscar; Bousquet, Marc; Kling, Emmanuel; Sauer, Hervé


    Recent developments in unmanned aerial vehicles have increased the demand for more and more compact optical systems. In order to bring solutions to this demand, several infrared systems are being developed at ONERA such as spectrometers, imaging devices, multispectral and hyperspectral imaging systems. In the field of compact infrared hyperspectral imaging devices, ONERA and Sagem Défense et Sécurité have collaborated to develop a prototype called SIBI, which stands for "Spectro-Imageur Birefringent Infrarouge". It is a static Fourier transform imaging spectrometer which operates in the mid-wavelength infrared spectral range and uses a birefringent lateral shearing interferometer. Up to now, birefringent interferometers have not been often used for hyperspectral imaging in the mid-infrared because of the lack of crystal manufacturers, contrary to the visible spectral domain where the production of uniaxial crystals like calcite are mastered for various optical applications. In the following, we will present the design and the realization of SIBI as well as the first experimental results.

  7. Cadmium zinc telluride as a mid-infrared variable retarder (United States)

    FitzGerald, William; Taherion, Saeid; Kumar, F. Joseph; Giles, David; Hore, Dennis


    The electro-optic behavior of cadmium zinc telluride is examined in the mid-infrared region between 3 and 11 μm, for applied DC field strengths of up to 106 V/m. The measurements performed here include full characterization of the polarization state of the transmitted light by means of the Stokes vector. We demonstrate the suitability of this material for DC variable retarder applications such as those achieved by quarter- or half-wave retardation. A comparison of two different metallic coatings for electrodes, gold and indium, reveals important differences in performance that are attributed to the homogeneity of the field through the bulk of the crystal. We illustrate that, in the case of both metals, the same electro-optic coefficients are measured, but regions of higher and lower retardation result in significant depolarization in the case of gold. Such depolarization may adversely affect the contrast ratio in a light valve, or increase the voltage necessary for the operation of an arbitrary polarization state generator.

  8. Mid-Infrared Sensing of Organic Pollutants in Aqueous Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ross


    Full Text Available The development of chemical sensors for monitoring the levels of organic pollutants in the aquatic environment has received a great deal of attention in recent decades. In particular, the mid-infrared (MIR sensor based on attenuated total reflectance (ATR is a promising analytical tool that has been used to detect a variety of hydrocarbon compounds (i.e., aromatics, alkyl halides, phenols, etc. dissolved in water. It has been shown that under certain conditions the MIR-ATR sensor is capable of achieving detection limits in the 10-100 ppb concentration range. Since the infrared spectral features of every single organic molecule are unique, the sensor is highly selective, making it possible to distinguish between many different analytes simultaneously. This review paper discusses some of the parameters (i.e., membrane type, film thickness, conditioning that dictate MIR ATR sensor response. The performance of various chemoselective membranes which are used in the fabrication of the sensor will be evaluated. Some of the challenges associated with long-term environmental monitoring are also discussed.

  9. Human Milk Analysis Using Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Groh-Wargo, Sharon; Valentic, Jennifer; Khaira, Sharmeel; Super, Dennis M; Collin, Marc


    The composition of human milk is known to vary with length of gestation, stage of lactation, and other factors. Human milk contains all nutrients required for infant health but requires fortification to meet the needs of low-birth-weight infants. Without a known nutrient profile of the mother's milk or donor milk fed to a baby, the composition of the fortified product is only an estimate. Human milk analysis has the potential to improve the nutrition care of high-risk newborns by increasing the information about human milk composition. Equipment to analyze human milk is available, and the technology is rapidly evolving. This pilot study compares mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy to reference laboratory milk analysis. After obtaining informed consent, we collected human milk samples from mothers of infants weighing milk obtained by MIR vs reference laboratory analysis. MIR analysis appears to provide an accurate assessment of macronutrient content in expressed human milk from mothers of preterm infants. The small sample size of this study limits confidence in the results. Measurement of lactose is confounded by the presence of oligosaccharides. Human milk analysis is a potentially useful tool for establishing an individualized fortification plan. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  10. Mid-Infrared Sensing of Organic Pollutants in Aqueous Environments (United States)

    Pejcic, Bobby; Myers, Matthew; Ross, Andrew


    The development of chemical sensors for monitoring the levels of organic pollutants in the aquatic environment has received a great deal of attention in recent decades. In particular, the mid-infrared (MIR) sensor based on attenuated total reflectance (ATR) is a promising analytical tool that has been used to detect a variety of hydrocarbon compounds (i.e., aromatics, alkyl halides, phenols, etc.) dissolved in water. It has been shown that under certain conditions the MIR-ATR sensor is capable of achieving detection limits in the 10–100 ppb concentration range. Since the infrared spectral features of every single organic molecule are unique, the sensor is highly selective, making it possible to distinguish between many different analytes simultaneously. This review paper discusses some of the parameters (i.e., membrane type, film thickness, conditioning) that dictate MIR-ATR sensor response. The performance of various chemoselective membranes which are used in the fabrication of the sensor will be evaluated. Some of the challenges associated with long-term environmental monitoring are also discussed. PMID:22454582

  11. Mid-Infrared Spectral Properties of IR QSOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, X. Y.; Cao, C.; Mao, S.; Deng, Z. G.


    We analyse mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopic properties for 19 ultra-luminous infrared quasars (IR QSOs) in the local universe based on the spectra from the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. The MIR properties of IR QSOs are compared with those of optically-selected Palomar-Green QSOs (PG QSOs) and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The average MIR spectral features from ∼5 to 30 μm, including the spectral slopes, 6.2 μm PAH emission strengths and [NeII] 12.81 μm luminosities of IR QSOs, differ from those of PG QSOs. In contrast, IR QSOs and ULIRGs have comparable PAH and [NeII] luminosities. These results are consistent with IR QSOs being at a transitional stage from ULIRGs to classical QSOs. We also find the correlation between the EW (PAH 6.2 μm) and outflow velocities suggests that star formation activities are suppressed by feedback from AGNs and/or supernovae.

  12. Mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy for atmospheric NO2 measurements (United States)

    Lassen, Mikael; Lamard, Laurent; Balslev-Harder, David; Peremans, Andre; Petersen, Jan C.


    A photoacoustic (PA) sensor for spectroscopic measurements of NO2-N2 at ambient pressure and temperature is demonstrated. The PA sensor is pumped resonantly by a nanosecond pulsed single-mode mid-infrared (MIR) optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Spectroscopic measurements of NO2-N2 in the 3.25 μm to 3.55 μm wavelength region with a resolution bandwidth of 5 cm-1 and with a single shot detection limit of 1.6 ppmV (μmol/mol) is demonstrated. The measurements were conducted with a constant flow rate of 300 ml/min, thus demonstrating the suitability of the gas sensor for real time trace gas measurements. The acquired spectra is compared with data from the Hitran database and good agreement is found. An Allan deviation analysis shows that the detection limit at optimum integration time for the PAS sensor is 14 ppbV (nmol/mol) at 170 seconds of integration time, corresponding to a normalized noise equivalent absorption (NNEA) coefficient of 3.3×10-7 W cm-1 Hz-1/2.

  13. Characterization methods of integrated optics for mid-infrared interferometry (United States)

    Labadie, Lucas; Kern, Pierre Y.; Schanen-Duport, Isabelle; Broquin, Jean-Emmanuel


    his article deals with one of the important instrumentation challenges of the stellar interferometry mission IRSI-Darwin of the European Space Agency: the necessity to have a reliable and performant system for beam combination has enlightened the advantages of an integrated optics solution, which is already in use for ground-base interferometry in the near infrared. Integrated optics provides also interesting features in terms of filtering, which is a main issue for the deep null to be reached by Darwin. However, Darwin will operate in the mid infrared range from 4 microns to 20 microns where no integrated optics functions are available on-the-shelf. This requires extending the integrated optics concept and the undergoing technology in this spectral range. This work has started with the IODA project (Integrated Optics for Darwin) under ESA contract and aims to provide a first component for interferometry. In this paper are presented the guidelines of the characterization work that is implemented to test and validate the performances of a component at each step of the development phase. We present also an example of characterization experiment used within the frame of this work, is theoretical approach and some results.

  14. Primary experimental studies on mid-infrared FEL irradiation on dental substances at BFEL

    CERN Document Server

    Biao, Z J; Gao Xue Ju; He Wei; Huang Yu Ying; Li Yong Gui; LiuNianQing; Wang Min Kai; Wu Gan; Yan Xue Pin; Zhang Guo Qing


    A free electron laser (FEL) with its characteristics of wide wavelength tunability, ultrashort pulse time structure, and high peak power density is predominantly superior to all other conventional lasers in applications. Several experimental studies on mid-infrared FEL irradiation on dental enamel and dentine were performed at the Beijing FEL. Experimental aims were to investigate changes in the hardness, ratios of P to Ca and Cs before and after irradiation on samples with a characteristic absorption wavelength of 9.66 mu m, in the colors of these sample surfaces after irradiation with different wavelengths around the peak wavelength. The time dependence of temperature of the dentine sample was measured with its ps pulse effects compared to that with a continuous CO sub 2 laser. FTIR absorption spectra in the range of 2.5-15.4 mu m for samples of these hard dental substances and pure hydroxyapatite were first examined to decide their chemical components and absorption maximums. Primary experimental results w...

  15. Absolute Distance Measurements with Tunable Semiconductor Laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikel, Břetislav; Číp, Ondřej; Lazar, Josef

    T118, - (2005), s. 41-44 ISSN 0031-8949 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAB2065001 Keywords : tunable laser * absolute interferometer Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.661, year: 2004

  16. Electrically pumped edge-emitting photonic bandgap semiconductor laser (United States)

    Lin, Shawn-Yu; Zubrzycki, Walter J.


    A highly efficient, electrically pumped edge-emitting semiconductor laser based on a one- or two-dimensional photonic bandgap (PBG) structure is described. The laser optical cavity is formed using a pair of PBG mirrors operating in the photonic band gap regime. Transverse confinement is achieved by surrounding an active semiconductor layer of high refractive index with lower-index cladding layers. The cladding layers can be electrically insulating in the passive PBG mirror and waveguide regions with a small conducting aperture for efficient channeling of the injection pump current into the active region. The active layer can comprise a quantum well structure. The quantum well structure can be relaxed in the passive regions to provide efficient extraction of laser light from the active region.

  17. Development of an ultra-compact mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectrophotometer (United States)

    Kim, Dong Soo; Lee, Tae-Ro; Yoon, Gilwon


    Mid-infrared spectroscopy has been an important tool widely used for qualitative analysis in various fields. However, portable or personal use is size and cost prohibitive for either Fourier transform infrared or attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectrophotometers. In this study, we developed an ultra-compact ATR spectrophotometer whose frequency band was 5.5-11.0 μm. We used miniature components, such as a light source fabricated by semiconductor technology, a linear variable filter, and a pyro-electric array detector. There were no moving parts. Optimal design based on two light sources, a zippered configuration of the array detector and ATR optics could produce absorption spectra that might be used for qualitative analysis. A microprocessor synchronized the pulsed light sources and detector, and all the signals were processed digitally. The size was 13.5×8.5×3.5 cm3 and the weight was 300 grams. Due to its low cost, our spectrophotometer can replace many online monitoring devices. Another application could be for a u-healthcare system installed in the bathroom or attached to a smartphone for monitoring substances in body fluids.

  18. Radiation effects in semiconductor laser diode arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, R.F.


    The effects of radiation events are important for many of the present and future applications that involve optoelectronic components. Laser diodes show a strong resistance to degradation by gamma rays, prompt x-rays and (to a lesser extent), neutrons. This is due to the short carrier lifetime that is associated with stimulated emission and the high current injection conditions that are present in these devices. Radiation-resistant properties should carry over to many of the more recently developed devices such as multi-stripe array and broad area laser diodes. There are, however, additional considerations for radiation tolerance that are introduced by these devices. Arrays and other high power laser diodes have larger active region volumes than lower power single stripe devices. In addition, evanescent field coupling between stripes, the material quality available from newer MOCVD epitaxial growth techniques, and stripe definition methods may all influence the radiation tolerance of the high power laser diode devices. Radiation tests have been conducted on various GaAs-GaAlAs laser diode array and broad area devices. Tests involving total gamma dose have indicated that high power laser diodes and arrays have small degradations in light power output with current input after 4 MRad(Si) of radiation from a Co 60 source. Additional test results involving flash x-rays indicate that high power diode lasers and arrays are tolerant to 10 12 rads(Si)/sec, when observed on microsecond or millisecond time scales. High power diode laser devices were also irradiated with neutrons to a fluence of 10 14 neutrons/cm 2 with some degradation of threshold current level

  19. A proposal for Coulomb assisted laser cooling of piezoelectric semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nia, Iman Hassani; Mohseni, Hooman, E-mail: [Bio-Inspired Sensors and Optoelectronics Laboratory (BISOL), Department of Electrical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)


    Anti-Stokes laser cooling of semiconductors as a compact and vibration-free method is very attractive. While it has achieved significant milestones, increasing its efficiency is highly desirable. The main limitation is the lack of the pristine material quality with high luminescence efficiency. Here, we theoretically demonstrate that the Coulomb interaction among electrons and holes in piezoelectric heterostructures could lead to coherent damping of acoustic phonons; rendering a significantly higher efficiency that leads to the possibility of cooling a broad range of semiconductors.

  20. The history of laser conditions in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Maurice


    Fifty years ago, summer 1962: in three independent laboratories of the US East Coast, almost simultaneously, IR coherent light was for the first time emitted from semiconductor crystals. No theory was associated with these results. Two years before, Georges Duraffourg and Maurice Bernard had readily proved that for such phenomenon to occur requires that a relation is fulfilled between quasi-Fermi levels and photon energy: F n − F p > hν. This paper presents an overview of this important period of history and the events that occurred around that time. (paper)

  1. Jupiter's Mid-Infrared Aurora: Solar Connection and Minor Constituents (United States)

    Kostiuk, Theodore; Livengood, T.A.; Fast, K.E.; Hewagama, T.; Schmilling, F.; Sonnabend, G.; Delgado, J.


    High spectral resolution in the 12 pin region of the polar regions of Jupiter reveal unique information on auroral phenomena and upper stratospheric composition. Polar aurorae in Jupiter's atmosphere radiate; throughout the electromagnetic spectrum from X-ray through mid-infrared (mid-IR, 5 - 20 micron wavelength). Voyager IRIS data and ground-based. spectroscopic measurements of Jupiter's northern mid-IR aurora acquired since 1982, reveal a correlation between auroral brightness and solar activity that has not been observed in Jovian aurora at other wavelengths. Over nearly three solar cycles, Jupiter auroral ethane, emission brightness and solar 10.7-cm radar flux and sunspot number are positively correlated with high confidence. Ethane line emission intensity varies over tenfold between low and high scalar activity periods. Detailed measurements have been made using the GSFC HIPWAC spectrometer at the NASA IRTF since the last solar maximum, following the mid-IR emission through the declining phase toward solar minimum. An even more convincing correlation with solar activity is evident in these data. The spectra measured contain features that cannot be attributed to ethane and are most likely spectra of minor constituents whose molecular bands overlap the v9 band of ethane. Possible candidates are allene, propane, and other higher order hydrocarbons. These features appear to be enhanced in the active polar regions. Laboratory measurements at comparable spectral resolution of spectra of candidate molecules will be used to identify the constituents. Current analyses of these results will be described, including planned measurements on polar ethane line emission scheduled through the rise of the next solar maximum beginning in 2009, with a steep gradient to a maximum in 2012. This work is relevant to the Juno mission and to the development of the NASA/ESA Europa Jupiter System Mission.

  2. Singly-resonant sum frequency generation of visible light in a semiconductor disk laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Thalbitzer; Schlosser, P.J.; Hastie, J.E.


    In this paper a generic approach for visible light generation is presented. It is based on sum frequency generation between a semiconductor disk laser and a solid-state laser, where the frequency mixing is achieved within the cavity of the semiconductor disk laser using a singlepass of the solid......-state laser light. This exploits the good beam quality and high intra-cavity power present in the semiconductor disk laser to achieve high conversion efficiency. Combining sum frequency mixing and semiconductor disk lasers in this manner allows in principle for generation of any wavelength within the visible...

  3. Design and Characterisation of III-V Semiconductor Nanowire Lasers (United States)

    Saxena, Dhruv

    The development of small, power-efficient lasers underpins many of the technologies that we utilise today. Semiconductor nanowires are promising for miniaturising lasers to even smaller dimensions. III-V semiconductors, such as Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) and Indium Phosphide (InP), are the most widely used materials for optoelectronic devices and so the development of nanowire lasers based on these materials is expected to have technologically significant outcomes. This PhD dissertation presents a comprehensive study of the design of III-V semiconductor nanowire lasers, with bulk and quantum confined active regions. Based on the design, various III-V semiconductor nanowire lasers are demonstrated, namely, GaAs nanowire lasers, GaAs/AlGaAs multi-quantum well (MQW) nanowire lasers and InP nanowire lasers. These nanowire lasers are shown to operate at room temperature, have low thresholds, and lase from different transverse modes. The structural and optoelectronic quality of nanowire lasers are characterised via electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopic techniques. Lasing is characterised in all these devices by optical pumping. The lasing characteristics are analysed by rate equation modelling and the lasing mode(s) in these devices is characterised by threshold gain modelling, polarisation measurements and Fourier plane imaging. Firstly, GaAs nanowire lasers that operate at room temperature are demonstrated. This is achieved by determining the optimal nanowire diameter to reduce threshold gain and by passivating nanowires to improve their quantum efficiency (QE). High-quality surface passivated GaAs nanowires of suitable diameters are grown. The growth procedure is tailored to improve both QE and structural uniformity of nanowires. Room-temperature lasing is demonstrated from individual nanowires and lasing is characterised to be from TM01 mode by threshold gain modelling. To lower threshold even further, nanowire lasers with GaAs/AlGaAs coaxial multi

  4. Synchronous characterization of semiconductor microcavity laser beam. (United States)

    Wang, T; Lippi, G L


    We report on a high-resolution double-channel imaging method used to synchronously map the intensity- and optical-frequency-distribution of a laser beam in the plane orthogonal to the propagation direction. The synchronous measurement allows us to show that the laser frequency is an inhomogeneous distribution below threshold, but that it becomes homogeneous across the fundamental Gaussian mode above threshold. The beam's tails deviations from the Gaussian shape, however, are accompanied by sizeable fluctuations in the laser wavelength, possibly deriving from manufacturing details and from the influence of spontaneous emission in the very low intensity wings. In addition to the synchronous spatial characterization, a temporal analysis at any given point in the beam cross section is carried out. Using this method, the beam homogeneity and spatial shape, energy density, energy center, and the defects-related spectrum can also be extracted from these high-resolution pictures.

  5. Semiconductor Laser Wind Lidar for Turbine Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qi

    This thesis describes an experimentally oriented study of continuous wave (CW) coherent Doppler lidar system design. The main application is remote wind sensing for active wind turbine control using nacelle mounted lidar systems; and the primary focus is to devise an industrial instrument that can...... historical overview within the topic of wind lidar systems. Both the potential and the challenges of an industrialized wind lidar has been addressed here. Furthermore, the basic concept behind the heterodyne detection and a brief overview of the lidar signal processing is explained; and a simple...... investigation of the telescope truncation and lens aberrations is conducted, both numerically and experimentally. It is shown that these parameters dictate the spatial resolution of the lidar system, and have profound impact on the SNR. In this work, an all-semiconductor light source is used in the lidar design...

  6. On increasing the efficiency of a streamer semiconductor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusakov, K I; Parashchuk, V V


    The influence of intense electric and optical fields produced by a streamer discharge in wide-gap semiconductors on their spectroscopic properties is studied. The effect is manifested in the reversible change of the luminescence parameters of the active medium. Methods are proposed for increasing the service life and efficiency of a streamer laser in limiting regimes, which are based on the use of semiconductor protective layers of a certain crystallographic orientation and a crystal microrelief with the size of elements of the order of the wavelength of light. Streamer emission was observed and studied in new promising Eu:CaGa 2 S 4 and Eu:Ca 4 Ga 2 S 7 materials. (lasers)

  7. Silicon Based Mid Infrared SiGeSn Heterostructure Emitters and Detectors (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0054 Silicon based mid infrared SiGeSn heterostrcture emitters and detectors Greg Sun UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS Final Report... Silicon Based Mid Infrared SiGeSn Heterostructure Emitters and Detectors ” February 10, 2016 Principal Investigator: Greg Sun Engineering...diodes are incompatible with the CMOS process and therefore cannot be easily integrated with Si electronics . The GeSn mid IR detectors developed in

  8. Final Report: High Power Semiconductor Laser Sources, (United States)


    Mittelstein, Yasuhiko Arakawa, ) Anders Larssonb) and Amnon Yariv California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91 125~412 (Received 7 July...Electronics and Commu- nication Engineers of Japan. He is a member of the Institute of Electronics Yasuhiko Arakawa S󈨑-M󈨔) was born in Ai- and...Gain, Modulation Response, and Spectral Linewidth in AlGaAs Quantum Well Lasers YASUHIKO ARAKAWA. MEMBER, IEEE. AND AMNON YARIV. FELLOW. IEEE Abstract


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, C. P.; Smith, G. P.; Sanderson, A. J. R.; Egami, E.; Ellis, R. S.; Moran, S. M.; Merluzzi, P.; Busarello, G.; Smith, R. J.


    We study the mid-infrared (MIR) properties of galaxies in 30 massive galaxy clusters at 0.02 ≤ z ≤ 0.40, using panoramic Spitzer/MIPS 24 μm and near-infrared data, including 27 new observations from the LoCuSS and ACCESS surveys. This is the largest sample of clusters to date with such high-quality and uniform MIR data covering not only the cluster cores, but extending into the infall regions. We use these data to revisit the so-called Butcher-Oemler (BO) effect, measuring the fraction of massive infrared luminous galaxies (K IR > 5 x 10 10 L sun ) within r 200 , finding a steady increase in the fraction with redshift from ∼3% at z = 0.02 to ∼10% by z = 0.30, and an rms cluster-to-cluster scatter about this trend of 0.03. The best-fit redshift evolution model of the form f SF ∝ (1 + z) n has n = 5.7 +2.1 -1.8 , which is stronger redshift evolution than that of L* IR in both clusters and the field. We find that, statistically, this excess is associated with galaxies found at large cluster-centric radii, specifically r 500 200 , implying that the MIR BO effect can be explained by a combination of both the global decline in star formation in the universe since z ∼ 1 and enhanced star formation in the infall regions of clusters at intermediate redshifts. This picture is supported by a simple infall model based on the Millennium Simulation semianalytic galaxy catalogs, whereby star formation in infalling galaxies is instantaneously quenched upon their first passage through the cluster, in that the observed radial trends of f SF trace those inferred from the simulations. The observed f SF values, however, lie systematically above the predictions, suggesting an overall excess of star formation, either due to triggering by environmental processes, or a gradual quenching. We also find that f SF does not depend on simple indicators of the dynamical state of clusters, including the offset between the brightest cluster galaxy and the peak of the X-ray emission


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebull, L. M. [Infrared Science Archive (IRSA), Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), 1200 E. California Blvd., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stauffer, J. R.; Cody, A. M. [Spitzer Science Center (SSC), 1200 E. California Blvd., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Günther, H. M.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Wolk, S. J.; Hora, J.; Forbrich, J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hillenbrand, L. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hernandez, J. [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía, Apdo. Postal 264, Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Bayo, A. [Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Covey, K. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Gutermuth, R. [Dept. of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Morales-Calderón, M.; Bouy, H. [Depto. Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), ESAC campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada (Spain); Plavchan, P. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI), Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), 1200 E. California Blvd., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Song, I. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States); Terebey, S., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 5151 State University Drive, California State University at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); and others


    As part of the Young Stellar Object VARiability (YSOVAR) program, we monitored NGC 1333 for ∼35 days at 3.6 and 4.5 μm using the Spitzer Space Telescope. We report here on the mid-infrared variability of the point sources in the ∼10′ × ∼20′ area centered on 03:29:06, +31:19:30 (J2000). Out of 701 light curves in either channel, we find 78 variables over the YSOVAR campaign. About half of the members are variable. The variable fraction for the most embedded spectral energy distributions (SEDs) (Class I, flat) is higher than that for less embedded SEDs (Class II), which is in turn higher than the star-like SEDs (Class III). A few objects have amplitudes (10–90th percentile brightness) in [3.6] or [4.5] > 0.2 mag; a more typical amplitude is 0.1–0.15 mag. The largest color change is >0.2 mag. There are 24 periodic objects, with 40% of them being flat SED class. This may mean that the periodic signal is primarily from the disk, not the photosphere, in those cases. We find 9 variables likely to be “dippers,” where texture in the disk occults the central star, and 11 likely to be “bursters,” where accretion instabilities create brightness bursts. There are 39 objects that have significant trends in [3.6]–[4.5] color over the campaign, about evenly divided between redder-when-fainter (consistent with extinction variations) and bluer-when-fainter. About a third of the 17 Class 0 and/or jet-driving sources from the literature are variable over the YSOVAR campaign, and a larger fraction (∼half) are variable between the YSOVAR campaign and the cryogenic-era Spitzer observations (6–7 years), perhaps because it takes time for the envelope to respond to changes in the central source. The NGC 1333 brown dwarfs do not stand out from the stellar light curves in any way except there is a much larger fraction of periodic objects (∼60% of variable brown dwarfs are periodic, compared to ∼30% of the variables overall)

  11. Nonlinear gain suppression in semiconductor lasers due to carrier heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willatzen, M.; Uskov, A.; Moerk, J.; Olesen, H.; Tromborg, B.; Jauho, A.P.


    We present a simple model for carrier heating in semiconductor lasers, from which the temperature dynamics of the electron and hole distributions can be calculated. Analytical expressions for two new contributions to the nonlinear gain coefficient ε are derived, which reflect carrier heating due to stimulated emission and free carrier absorption. In typical cases, carrier heating and spectral holeburning are found to give comparable contributions to nonlinear gain suppression. The results are in good agreement with recent measurements on InGaAsP laser diodes. (orig.)

  12. Semiconductor ring lasers coupled by a single waveguide (United States)

    Coomans, W.; Gelens, L.; Van der Sande, G.; Mezosi, G.; Sorel, M.; Danckaert, J.; Verschaffelt, G.


    We experimentally and theoretically study the characteristics of semiconductor ring lasers bidirectionally coupled by a single bus waveguide. This configuration has, e.g., been suggested for use as an optical memory and as an optical neural network motif. The main results are that the coupling can destabilize the state in which both rings lase in the same direction, and it brings to life a state with equal powers at both outputs. These are both undesirable for optical memory operation. Although the coupling between the rings is bidirectional, the destabilization occurs due to behavior similar to an optically injected laser system.

  13. Field-glass range finder with a semiconductor laser (United States)

    Iwanejko, Leszek; Jankiewicz, Zdzislaw; Jarocki, Roman; Marczak, Jan


    This paper presents the project of a laboratory model of a field-glasses range-finger. The optical transmitter of the device contains a commercial pulse semiconductor laser which generates IR wavelength around 905 nm. Some of the technical parameters of this device are: a maximum range of up to 3 km; an accuracy of +/- 5 m, divergence of a laser beam of 1 mrad; a repetition rate of 1 kHz. Dichroic elements of the receiver ensure a capability of an optimization of a field of view, without the worsening of luminance and size of an observation field.

  14. Modes in light wave propagating in semiconductor laser (United States)

    Manko, Margarita A.


    The study of semiconductor laser based on an analogy of the Schrodinger equation and an equation describing light wave propagation in nonhomogeneous medium is developed. The active region of semiconductor laser is considered as optical waveguide confining the electromagnetic field in the cross-section (x,y) and allowing waveguide propagation along the laser resonator (z). The mode structure is investigated taking into account the transversal and what is the important part of the suggested consideration longitudinal nonhomogeneity of the optical waveguide. It is shown that the Gaussian modes in the case correspond to spatial squeezing and correlation. Spatially squeezed two-mode structure of nonhomogeneous optical waveguide is given explicitly. Distribution of light among the laser discrete modes is presented. Properties of the spatially squeezed two-mode field are described. The analog of Franck-Condon principle for finding the maxima of the distribution function and the analog of Ramsauer effect for control of spatial distribution of laser emission are discussed.

  15. Toward continuous-wave operation of organic semiconductor lasers (United States)

    Sandanayaka, Atula S. D.; Matsushima, Toshinori; Bencheikh, Fatima; Yoshida, Kou; Inoue, Munetomo; Fujihara, Takashi; Goushi, Kenichi; Ribierre, Jean-Charles; Adachi, Chihaya


    The demonstration of continuous-wave lasing from organic semiconductor films is highly desirable for practical applications in the areas of spectroscopy, data communication, and sensing, but it still remains a challenging objective. We report low-threshold surface-emitting organic distributed feedback lasers operating in the quasi–continuous-wave regime at 80 MHz as well as under long-pulse photoexcitation of 30 ms. This outstanding performance was achieved using an organic semiconductor thin film with high optical gain, high photoluminescence quantum yield, and no triplet absorption losses at the lasing wavelength combined with a mixed-order distributed feedback grating to achieve a low lasing threshold. A simple encapsulation technique greatly reduced the laser-induced thermal degradation and suppressed the ablation of the gain medium otherwise taking place under intense continuous-wave photoexcitation. Overall, this study provides evidence that the development of a continuous-wave organic semiconductor laser technology is possible via the engineering of the gain medium and the device architecture. PMID:28508042

  16. Semiconductor laser diodes and the design of a D.C. powered laser diode drive unit


    Cappuccio, Joseph C., Jr.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis addresses the design, development and operational analysis of a D.C. powered semiconductor laser diode drive unit. A laser diode requires an extremely stable power supply since a picosecond spike of current or power supply switching transient could result in permanent damage. The design offers stability and various features for operational protection of the laser diode. The ability to intensity modulate (analog) and pulse m...

  17. Generation of Phase-Stable Sub-Cycle Mid-Infrared Pulses from Filamentation in Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Fuji


    Full Text Available Sub-single-cycle pulses in the mid-infrared (MIR region were generated through a laser-induced filament. The fundamental (ω1 and second harmonic (ω2 output of a 30-fs Ti:sapphire amplifier were focused into nitrogen gas and produce phase-stable broadband MIR pulses (ω0 by using a four-wave mixing process (ω1 + ω1 - ω2 → ω0 through filamentation. The spectrum spread from 400 cm-1 to 5500 cm-1, which completely covered the MIR region. The low frequency components were detected by using an electro-optic sampling technique with a gaseous medium. The efficiency of the MIR pulse generation was very sensitive to the delay between the fundamental and second harmonic pulses. It was revealed that the delay dependence of the efficiency came from the interference between two opposite parametric processes, ω1 + ω1 - ω2 → ω0 and ω2 - ω1 - ω1 → ω0. The pulse duration was measured as 6.9 fs with cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating by using four-wave mixing in nitrogen. The carrier-envelope phase of the MIR pulse was passively stabilized. The instability was estimated as 154 mrad rms in 2.5 h.

  18. Demonstration of a mid-infrared NO molecular Faraday optical filter. (United States)

    Wu, Kuijun; Feng, Yutao; Li, Juan; Yu, Guangbao; Liu, Linmei; Xiong, Yuanhui; Li, Faquan


    A molecular Faraday optical filter (MFOF) working in the mid-infrared region is realized for the first time. NO molecule was used as the working material of the MFOF for potential applications in atmospheric remote sensing and combustion diagnosis. We develop a complete theory to describe the performance of MFOF by taking both Zeeman absorption and Faraday rotation into account. We also record the Faraday rotation transmission (FRT) signal using a quantum cascade laser over the range of 1,820 cm -1 to 1,922 cm -1 and calibrate it by using a 101.6 mm long solid germanium etalon with a free spectral range of 0.012 cm -1 . Good agreement between the simulation results and experimental data is achieved. The NO-MFOF's transmission characteristics as a function of magnetic field and pressure are studied in detail. Both Comb-like FRT spectrum and single branch transmission spectrum are obtained by changing the magnetic field. The diversity of FRT spectrum expands the range of potential applications in infrared optical remote sensing. This filtering method can also be extended to the lines of other paramagnetic molecules.

  19. Measurement of the emission spectrum of a semiconductor laser using laser-feedback interferometry. (United States)

    Keeley, James; Freeman, Joshua; Bertling, Karl; Lim, Yah L; Mohandas, Reshma A; Taimre, Thomas; Li, Lianhe H; Indjin, Dragan; Rakić, Aleksandar D; Linfield, Edmund H; Davies, A Giles; Dean, Paul


    The effects of optical feedback (OF) in lasers have been observed since the early days of laser development. While OF can result in undesirable and unpredictable operation in laser systems, it can also cause measurable perturbations to the operating parameters, which can be harnessed for metrological purposes. In this work we exploit this 'self-mixing' effect to infer the emission spectrum of a semiconductor laser using a laser-feedback interferometer, in which the terminal voltage of the laser is used to coherently sample the reinjected field. We demonstrate this approach using a terahertz frequency quantum cascade laser operating in both single- and multiple-longitudinal mode regimes, and are able to resolve spectral features not reliably resolved using traditional Fourier transform spectroscopy. We also investigate quantitatively the frequency perturbation of individual laser modes under OF, and find excellent agreement with predictions of the excess phase equation central to the theory of lasers under OF.

  20. Development of semiconductor laser based Doppler lidars for wind-sensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Hu, Qi; Pedersen, Christian


    We summarize the progress we have made in the development of semiconductor laser (SL) based Doppler lidar systems for remote wind speed and direction measurements. The SL emitter used in our wind-sensing lidar is an integrated diode laser with a tapered (semiconductor) amplifier. The laser source...

  1. Spherical distribution structure of the semiconductor laser diode stack for pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Tianzhuo; Yu Jin; Liu Yang; Zhang Xue; Ma Yunfeng; Fan Zhongwei


    A semiconductor laser diode stack is used for pumping and 8 semiconductor laser diode arrays of the stack are put on a sphere, and the output of every bar is specially off-axis compressed to realize high coupling efficiency. The output beam of this semiconductor laser diode stack is shaped by a hollow duct to the laser active medium. The efficiency of the hollow light pipe, which is used for semiconductor laser diode stack coupling, is analyzed by geometric optics and ray tracing. Geometric optics analysis diagnoses the reasons for coupling loss and guides the design of the structure. Ray tracing analyzes the relation between the structural parameters and the output characteristics of this pumping system, and guides parameter optimization. Simulation and analysis results show that putting the semiconductor laser diode arrays on a spherical surface can increase coupling efficiency, reduce the optimum duct length and improve the output energy field distribution. (semiconductor devices)

  2. Delay induced high order locking effects in semiconductor lasers (United States)

    Kelleher, B.; Wishon, M. J.; Locquet, A.; Goulding, D.; Tykalewicz, B.; Huyet, G.; Viktorov, E. A.


    Multiple time scales appear in many nonlinear dynamical systems. Semiconductor lasers, in particular, provide a fertile testing ground for multiple time scale dynamics. For solitary semiconductor lasers, the two fundamental time scales are the cavity repetition rate and the relaxation oscillation frequency which is a characteristic of the field-matter interaction in the cavity. Typically, these two time scales are of very different orders, and mutual resonances do not occur. Optical feedback endows the system with a third time scale: the external cavity repetition rate. This is typically much longer than the device cavity repetition rate and suggests the possibility of resonances with the relaxation oscillations. We show that for lasers with highly damped relaxation oscillations, such resonances can be obtained and lead to spontaneous mode-locking. Two different laser types-—a quantum dot based device and a quantum well based device—are analysed experimentally yielding qualitatively identical dynamics. A rate equation model is also employed showing an excellent agreement with the experimental results.

  3. Transient thermal analysis of semiconductor diode lasers under pulsed operation (United States)

    Veerabathran, G. K.; Sprengel, S.; Karl, S.; Andrejew, A.; Schmeiduch, H.; Amann, M.-C.


    Self-heating in semiconductor lasers is often assumed negligible during pulsed operation, provided the pulses are `short'. However, there is no consensus on the upper limit of pulse width for a given device to avoid-self heating. In this paper, we present an experimental and theoretical analysis of the effect of pulse width on laser characteristics. First, a measurement method is introduced to study thermal transients of edge-emitting lasers during pulsed operation. This method can also be applied to lasers that do not operate in continuous-wave mode. Secondly, an analytical thermal model is presented which is used to fit the experimental data to extract important parameters for thermal analysis. Although commercial numerical tools are available for such transient analyses, this model is more suitable for parameter extraction due to its analytical nature. Thirdly, to validate this approach, it was used to study a GaSb-based inter-band laser and an InP-based quantum cascade laser (QCL). The maximum pulse-width for less than 5% error in the measured threshold currents was determined to be 200 and 25 ns for the GaSb-based laser and QCL, respectively.

  4. Chaos-pass filtering in injection-locked semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Atsushi; Shore, K. Alan


    Chaos-pass filtering (CPF) of semiconductor lasers has been studied theoretically. CPF is a phenomenon which occurs in laser chaos synchronization by injection locking and is a fundamental technique for the extraction of messages at the receiver laser in chaotic communications systems. We employ a simple theory based on driven damped oscillators to clarify the physical background of CPF. The receiver laser is optically driven by injection from the transmitter laser. We have numerically investigated the response characteristics of the receiver when it is driven by periodic (message) and chaotic (carrier) signals. It is thereby revealed that the response of the receiver laser in the two cases is quite different. For the periodic drive, the receiver exhibits a response depending on the signal frequency, while the chaotic drive provides a frequency-independent synchronous response to the receiver laser. We verify that the periodic and chaotic drives occur independently in the CPF response, and, consequently, CPF can be clearly understood in the difference of the two drives. Message extraction using CPF is also examined, and the validity of our theoretical explanation for the physical mechanism underlying CPF is thus verified

  5. Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers (United States)

    Uchida, Atsushi; Amano, Kazuya; Inoue, Masaki; Hirano, Kunihito; Naito, Sunao; Someya, Hiroyuki; Oowada, Isao; Kurashige, Takayuki; Shiki, Masaru; Yoshimori, Shigeru; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Davis, Peter


    Random number generators in digital information systems make use of physical entropy sources such as electronic and photonic noise to add unpredictability to deterministically generated pseudo-random sequences. However, there is a large gap between the generation rates achieved with existing physical sources and the high data rates of many computation and communication systems; this is a fundamental weakness of these systems. Here we show that good quality random bit sequences can be generated at very fast bit rates using physical chaos in semiconductor lasers. Streams of bits that pass standard statistical tests for randomness have been generated at rates of up to 1.7 Gbps by sampling the fluctuating optical output of two chaotic lasers. This rate is an order of magnitude faster than that of previously reported devices for physical random bit generators with verified randomness. This means that the performance of random number generators can be greatly improved by using chaotic laser devices as physical entropy sources.

  6. A semiconductor nanowire Josephson junction microwave laser (United States)

    Cassidy, Maja; Uilhoorn, Willemijn; Kroll, James; de Jong, Damaz; van Woerkom, David; Nygard, Jesper; Krogstrup, Peter; Kouwenhoven, Leo

    We present measurements of microwave lasing from a single Al/InAs/Al nanowire Josephson junction strongly coupled to a high quality factor superconducting cavity. Application of a DC bias voltage to the Josephson junction results in photon emission into the cavity when the bias voltage is equal to a multiple of the cavity frequency. At large voltage biases, the strong non-linearity of the circuit allows for efficient down conversion of high frequency microwave photons down to multiple photons at the fundamental frequency of the cavity. In this regime, the emission linewidth narrows significantly below the bare cavity linewidth to 50%. The junction-cavity coupling and laser emission can be tuned rapidly via an external gate, making it suitable to be integrated into a scalable qubit architecture as a versatile source of coherent microwave radiation. This work has been supported by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO/OCW), Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), European Research Council (ERC), and Microsoft Corporation Station Q.

  7. Static and time-resolved mid-infrared spectroscopy of Hg0.95Cd0.05Cr2Se4 spinel. (United States)

    Barsaume, S; Telegin, A V; Sukhorukov, Yu P; Stavrias, N; Fedorov, V A; Menshchikova, T K; Kimel, A V


    Static and time-resolved mid-infrared spectroscopy of ferromagnetic single crystal Hg 0.95 Cd 0.05 Cr 2 Se 4 was performed below the absorption edge, in order to reveal the origin of the electronic transitions contributing to the magneto-optical properties of this material. The mid-infrared spectroscopy reveals a strong absorption peak around 0.236 eV which formerly was assigned to a transition within the selenide-chromium complexes ([Formula: see text] Se -Cr 2+ ). To reveal the sensitivity of the transition to the magnetic order, we performed the studies in a temperature range across the Curie temperature and magnetic fields across the value at which the saturation of ferromagnetic magnetization occurs. Despite the fact that the Curie temperature of this ferromagnetic semiconductor is around 107 K, the intensity of the mid-infrared transition reduces substantially increasing the temperature, so that already at 70 K the absorption peak is hardly visible. Such a dramatic decrease of the oscillator strength is observed simultaneously with the strong red-shift of the absorption edge in the magnetic semiconductor. Employing a time-resolved pump-and-probe technique enabled us to determine the lifetime of the electrons in the excited state of this optical transition. In the temperature range from 7 K to 80 K, the lifetime changes from 3 ps to 6 ps. This behavior agrees with the phenomenon of giant oscillator strength described earlier for weakly bound excitons in nonmagnetic semiconductors.

  8. Generation and application of ultrashort coherent mid-infrared electromagnetic radiation (United States)

    Wandel, Scott

    Particle accelerators are useful instruments that help address critical issues for the future development of nuclear energy. Current state-of-the-art accelerators based on conventional radio-frequency (rf) cavities are too large and expensive for widespread commercial use, and alternative designs must be considered for supplying relativistic beams to small-scale applications, including medical imaging, secu- rity screening, and scientific research in a university-scale laboratory. Laser-driven acceleration using micro-fabricated dielectric photonic structures is an attractive approach because such photonic microstructures can support accelerating fields that are 10 to 100 times higher than that of rf cavity-based accelerators. Dielectric laser accelerators (DLAs) use commercial lasers as a driving source, which are smaller and less expensive than the klystrons used to drive current rf-based accelerators. Despite the apparent need for compact and economical laser sources for laser-driven acceleration, the availability of suitable high-peak-power lasers that cover a broad spectral range is currently limited. To address the needs of several innovative acceleration mechanisms like DLA, it is proposed to develop a coherent source of mid-infrared (IR) electromagnetic radiation that can be implemented as a driving source of laser accelerators. The use of ultrashort mid-IR high peak power laser systems in various laser-driven acceleration schemes has shown the potential to greatly reduce the optical pump intensities needed to realize high acceleration gradients. The optical intensity needed to achieve a given ponderomotive potential is 25 times less when using a 5-mum mid-IR laser as compared to using a 1-mum near-IR solid-state laser. In addition, dielectric structure breakdown caused by multiphoton ionization can be avoided by using longer-wavelength driving lasers. Current mid-IR laser sources do not produce sufficiently short pulse durations, broad spectral bandwidths


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a compact, reliable and low-cost coherent LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) system for remote wind-speed determination, determination of particle concentration, and/or temperature based on an all semiconductor light source and related methods. The present...... invention provides a coherent LIDAR system comprising a semiconductor laser for emission of a measurement beam of electromagnetic radiation directed towards a measurement volume for illumination of particles in the measurement volume, a reference beam generator for generation of a reference beam, a detector...... for generation of a detector signal by mixing of the reference beam with light emitted from the particles in the measurement volume illuminated by the measurement beam, and a signal processor for generating a velocity signal corresponding to the velocity of the particles based on the detector signal....

  10. Multispectral mid-infrared imaging using frequency upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Nicolai Højer; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin


    It has recently been shown that it is possible to upconvert infrared images to the near infrared region with high quantum efficiency and low noise by three-wave mixing with a laser field [1]. If the mixing laser is single-frequency, the upconverted image is simply a band-pass filtered version...... parameter, allowing for fast tuning and hence potentially fast image acquisition, paving the way for upconversion based real time multispectral imaging. In the present realization the upconversion module consists of an external cavity tapered diode laser in a Littrow configuration with a computer controlled...

  11. Modeling bidirectionally coupled single-mode semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulet, Josep; Masoller, Cristina; Mirasso, Claudio R.


    We develop a dynamical model suitable for the description of two mutually coupled semiconductor lasers in a face-to-face configuration. Our study considers the propagation of the electric field along the compound system as well as the evolution of the carrier densities within each semiconductor laser. Mutual injection, passive optical feedback, and multiple reflections are accounted for in this framework, although under weak to moderate coupling conditions. We systematically describe the effect of the coupling strength on the spectrum of monochromatic solutions and on the respective dynamical behavior. By assuming single-longitudinal-mode operation, weak mutual coupling and slowly varying approximation, the dynamical model can be reduced to rate equations describing the mutual injection from one laser to its counterpart and vice versa. A good agreement between the complete and simplified models is found for small coupling. For larger coupling, higher-order terms lead to a smaller threshold reduction, reflected itself in the spectrum of the monochromatic solutions and in the dynamics of the optical power

  12. Mid infrared LHS system packaging using flexible waveguides (United States)

    Yu, Chung


    As mid IR fiber optic systems are rapidly approaching a reality, so is the feasibility of fiber optic laser heterodyne systems. Laser heterodyne spectroscopy for high resolution monitoring of atmospheric gaseous pollutants is necessarily in the mid IR, the region in which the absorption signature of gaseous species is most prominent. It so happens that the lowest theoretical loss due to Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering also lies in the mid IR. Prospects of highly efficient laser heterodyne systems are thus very good. Such fibers are now beginning to be commercially available, and a test program is being conducted for such fibers with ambient temperature ranging from cryogenic to above room, and stringest mechanical flexibility requirements. Preliminary results are encouraging. A program is being started to explore the possibility of mid IR fiber optic device applications, by taking advantage of this phonon rich region. The potential long interaction length in fibers coupled with predicted extremely low losses point to stimulated Brillouin scattering based devices in the mW range. The generation of backscattered sBs at low laser powers is significant not only as an ultimate power limiting factor for laser transmission in fibers in the mid IR, but also the presence of frequency-shifted multiple order sBs Stokes and antiStokes lines will certainly have severe effect on the laser beats crucial in high resolution heterodyne spectroscopy.

  13. Excitonic bistabilities, instabilities and chaos in laser-pumped semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ba An; Nguyen Trung Dan; Hoang Xuan Nguyen


    The Hurwitz criteria are used for a stability analysis of the steady state excitonic optical bistability curves in a semiconductor pumped by an external laser resonant with the exciton level. Besides the middle branch of the bistability curves which is unstable in the sense of the linear stability theory, we have found other domains of instability in the upper and lower branches of the steady state curves. Numerical results show that a possible route to chaos in the photon-exciton system is period-doubling self-oscillation process. The influence of the presence of free carriers that coexist with the excitons is also discussed. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs

  14. An electrically injected rolled-up semiconductor tube laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dastjerdi, M. H. T.; Djavid, M.; Mi, Z., E-mail: [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McGill University, 3480 University Street, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0E9 (Canada)


    We have demonstrated electrically injected rolled-up semiconductor tube lasers, which are formed when a coherently strained InGaAs/InGaAsP quantum well heterostructure is selectively released from the underlying InP substrate. The device exhibits strong coherent emission in the wavelength range of ∼1.5 μm. A lasing threshold of ∼1.05 mA is measured for a rolled-up tube with a diameter of ∼5 μm and wall thickness of ∼140 nm at 80 K. The Purcell factor is estimated to be ∼4.3.

  15. Effective Linewidth of Semiconductor Lasers for Coherent Optical Data Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Pang, Xiaodan; Schatz, Richard


    name “Effective Linewidth”. We derive this figure of merit analytically, explore it by numerical simulations and experimentally validate our results by transmitting a 28 Gbaud DP-16QAM over an optical link. Our investigations cover the use of semiconductor lasers both in the transmitter side...... and as a local oscillator at the receiver. The obtained results show that our proposed “effective linewidth” is easy to measure and accounts for frequency noise more accurately, and hence the penalties associated to phase noise in the received signal....

  16. Monolithic integration of microfluidic channels and semiconductor lasers (United States)

    Cran-McGreehin, Simon J.; Dholakia, Kishan; Krauss, Thomas F.


    We present a fabrication method for the monolithic integration of microfluidic channels into semiconductor laser material. Lasers are designed to couple directly into the microfluidic channel, allowing submerged particles pass through the output beams of the lasers. The interaction between particles in the channel and the lasers, operated in either forward or reverse bias, allows for particle detection, and the optical forces can be used to trap and move particles. Both interrogation and manipulation are made more amenable for lab-on-a-chip applications through monolithic integration. The devices are very small, they require no external optical components, have perfect intrinsic alignment, and can be created with virtually any planar configuration of lasers in order to perform a variety of tasks. Their operation requires no optical expertise and only low electrical power, thus making them suitable for computer interfacing and automation. Insulating the pn junctions from the fluid is the key challenge, which is overcome by using photo-definable SU8-2000 polymer.

  17. Study of GeSn Alloy for Low Cost Monolithic Mid Infrared Quantum Well Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash PAREEK


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on theoretical study of Tin incorporated group IV alloys particularly GeSn and design of quantum well sensor for mid infrared sensing applications. Initially, the physics behind the selection of material for midinfrared sensor is explained. The importance of controlling strain in GeSn alloy is also explained. The physical background and motivation for incorporation of Tin(Sn in Germanium is briefly narrated. Eigen energy states for different Sn concentrations are obtained for strain compensated quantum well in G valley conduction band (GCB, heavy hole (HH band and light hole (LH band by solving coupled Schrödinger and Poisson equations simultaneously. Sn concentration dependent absorption spectra for HH- GCB transition reveals that significant absorption observed in mid infrared range (3-5 µm. So, Ge1-x Snx quantum well can be used for mid infrared sensing applications.

  18. Mid-infrared two-photon absorption in an extended-wavelength InGaAs photodetector (United States)

    Piccardo, Marco; Rubin, Noah A.; Meadowcroft, Lauren; Chevalier, Paul; Yuan, Henry; Kimchi, Joseph; Capasso, Federico


    We investigate the nonlinear optical response of a commercial extended-wavelength In0.81Ga0.19As uncooled photodetector. Degenerate two-photon absorption in the mid-infrared range is observed using a quantum cascade laser emitting at λ = 4.5 μm as the excitation source. From the measured two-photon photocurrent signal, we extract a two-photon absorption coefficient β(2) = 0.6 ± 0.2 cm/MW, in agreement with the theoretical value obtained from the Eg-3 scaling law. Considering the wide spectral range covered by extended-wavelength InxGa1-xAs alloys, this result holds promise for applications based on two-photon absorption for this family of materials at wavelengths between 1.8 and 5.6 μm.

  19. Thermal effects of an ICL-based mid-infrared CH4 sensor within a wide atmospheric temperature range (United States)

    Ye, Weilin; Zheng, Chuantao; Sanchez, Nancy P.; Girija, Aswathy V.; He, Qixin; Zheng, Huadan; Griffin, Robert J.; Tittel, Frank K.


    The thermal effects of an interband cascade laser (ICL) based mid-infrared methane (CH4) sensor that uses long-path absorption spectroscopy were studied. The sensor performance in the laboratory at a constant temperature of ∼25 °C was measured for 5 h and its Allan deviation was ∼2 ppbv with a 1 s averaging time. A LabVIEW-based simulation program was developed to study thermal effects on infrared absorption and a temperature compensation technique was developed to minimize these effects. An environmental test chamber was employed to investigate the thermal effects that occur in the sensor system with variation of the test chamber temperature between 10 and 30 °C. The thermal response of the sensor in a laboratory setting was observed using a 2.1 ppm CH4 standard gas sample. Indoor/outdoor CH4 measurements were conducted to evaluate the sensor performance within a wide atmospheric temperature range.

  20. The role of mesoscopic modelling in understanding the response of dental enamel to mid-infrared radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verde, A Vila [Department of Chemical Engineering, Fenske Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Ramos, M M D [Department of Physics, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Stoneham, A M [London Centre for Nanotechnology and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)


    Human dental enamel has a porous mesostructure at the nanometre to micrometre scales that affects its thermal and mechanical properties relevant to laser treatment. We exploit finite-element models to investigate the response of this mesostructured enamel to mid-infrared lasers (CO{sub 2} at 10.6 {mu}m and Er:YAG at 2.94 {mu}m). Our models might easily be adapted to investigate ablation of other brittle composite materials. The studies clarify the role of pore water in ablation, and lead to an understanding of the different responses of enamel to CO{sub 2} and Er:YAG lasers, even though enamel has very similar average properties at the two wavelengths. We are able to suggest effective operating parameters for dental laser ablation, which should aid the introduction of minimally-invasive laser dentistry. In particular, our results indicate that, if pulses of {approx}10 {mu}s are used, the CO{sub 2} laser can ablate dental enamel without melting, and with minimal damage to the pulp of the tooth. Our results also suggest that pulses with 0.1-1 {mu}s duration can induce high stress transients which may cause unwanted cracking.

  1. The role of mesoscopic modelling in understanding the response of dental enamel to mid-infrared radiation (United States)

    Vila Verde, A.; Ramos, M. M. D.; Stoneham, A. M.


    Human dental enamel has a porous mesostructure at the nanometre to micrometre scales that affects its thermal and mechanical properties relevant to laser treatment. We exploit finite-element models to investigate the response of this mesostructured enamel to mid-infrared lasers (CO2 at 10.6 µm and Er:YAG at 2.94 µm). Our models might easily be adapted to investigate ablation of other brittle composite materials. The studies clarify the role of pore water in ablation, and lead to an understanding of the different responses of enamel to CO2 and Er:YAG lasers, even though enamel has very similar average properties at the two wavelengths. We are able to suggest effective operating parameters for dental laser ablation, which should aid the introduction of minimally-invasive laser dentistry. In particular, our results indicate that, if pulses of ap10 µs are used, the CO2 laser can ablate dental enamel without melting, and with minimal damage to the pulp of the tooth. Our results also suggest that pulses with 0.1-1 µs duration can induce high stress transients which may cause unwanted cracking.

  2. The role of mesoscopic modelling in understanding the response of dental enamel to mid-infrared radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verde, A Vila; Ramos, M M D; Stoneham, A M


    Human dental enamel has a porous mesostructure at the nanometre to micrometre scales that affects its thermal and mechanical properties relevant to laser treatment. We exploit finite-element models to investigate the response of this mesostructured enamel to mid-infrared lasers (CO 2 at 10.6 μm and Er:YAG at 2.94 μm). Our models might easily be adapted to investigate ablation of other brittle composite materials. The studies clarify the role of pore water in ablation, and lead to an understanding of the different responses of enamel to CO 2 and Er:YAG lasers, even though enamel has very similar average properties at the two wavelengths. We are able to suggest effective operating parameters for dental laser ablation, which should aid the introduction of minimally-invasive laser dentistry. In particular, our results indicate that, if pulses of ∼10 μs are used, the CO 2 laser can ablate dental enamel without melting, and with minimal damage to the pulp of the tooth. Our results also suggest that pulses with 0.1-1 μs duration can induce high stress transients which may cause unwanted cracking

  3. Design and construct of a tunable semiconductor laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sabbaghzadeh


    Full Text Available   In this paper we explain in detail the design of a semiconductor laser coupled with the reflected beams from a grating. Since the beams reflected are diffracted at different angles, only one component of them can be resonated in the cavity. This technique reduces the output frequency of the laser and increases its stability.   Since this system has various applications in the spectroscopy, gas concentrations, air pollution measurements, investigation of atomic and molecular structure, and so on, system is believed to be simple and accurate. This design is made for the first time in Iran and its reliability has been tested by the measurement of the rubidium atom, and the result is given.

  4. The dynamical complexity of optically injected semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieczorek, S.; Krauskopf, B.; Simpson, T.B.; Lenstra, D.


    This report presents a modern approach to the theoretical and experimental study of complex nonlinear behavior of a semiconductor laser with optical injection-an example of a widely applied and technologically relevant forced nonlinear oscillator. We show that the careful bifurcation analysis of a rate equation model yields (i) a deeper understanding of already studied physical phenomena, and (ii) the discovery of new dynamical effects, such as multipulse excitability. Different instabilities, cascades of bifurcations, multistability, and sudden chaotic transitions, which are often viewed as independent, are in fact logically connected into a consistent web of bifurcations via special points called organizing centers. This theoretical bifurcation analysis has predictive power, which manifests itself in good agreement with experimental measurements over a wide range of parameters and diversity of dynamics. While it is dealing with the specific system of an optically injected laser, our work constitutes the state-of-the-art in the understanding and modeling of a nonlinear physical system in general


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P.; Glenn, Jason; Battersby, Cara; Ginsburg, Adam; Bally, John [CASA, University of Colorado, UCB 389, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Mairs, Steven [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1 (Canada); Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Shirley, Yancy L., E-mail: [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)


    We present a new distance estimation method for dust-continuum-identified molecular cloud clumps. Recent (sub-)millimeter Galactic plane surveys have cataloged tens of thousands of these objects, plausible precursors to stellar clusters, but detailed study of their physical properties requires robust distance determinations. We derive Bayesian distance probability density functions (DPDFs) for 770 objects from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey in the Galactic longitude range 7. Degree-Sign 5 {<=} l {<=} 65 Degree-Sign . The DPDF formalism is based on kinematic distances, and uses any number of external data sets to place prior distance probabilities to resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity (KDA) for objects in the inner Galaxy. We present here priors related to the mid-infrared absorption of dust in dense molecular regions and the distribution of molecular gas in the Galactic disk. By assuming a numerical model of Galactic mid-infrared emission and simple radiative transfer, we match the morphology of (sub-)millimeter thermal dust emission with mid-infrared absorption to compute a prior DPDF for distance discrimination. Selecting objects first from (sub-)millimeter source catalogs avoids a bias towards the darkest infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) and extends the range of heliocentric distance probed by mid-infrared extinction and includes lower-contrast sources. We derive well-constrained KDA resolutions for 618 molecular cloud clumps, with approximately 15% placed at or beyond the tangent distance. Objects with mid-infrared contrast sufficient to be cataloged as IRDCs are generally placed at the near kinematic distance. Distance comparisons with Galactic Ring Survey KDA resolutions yield a 92% agreement. A face-on view of the Milky Way using resolved distances reveals sections of the Sagittarius and Scutum-Centaurus Arms. This KDA-resolution method for large catalogs of sources through the combination of (sub-)millimeter and mid-infrared observations of molecular

  6. Investigation of Spatial Distribution Properties of Mid-Infrared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatial distribution properties of quantum cascade lasers with emission wavelengths around 7 µm were measured. In addition, the emission profile on a plane orthogonal to the propagation axis of the beam were measured and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) on the orthogonal and lateral directions calculated.

  7. Efficient femtosecond mid-infrared pulse generation by dispersivewave radiation in bulk lithium niobate crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Guo, Hairun; Bache, Morten


    We experimentally demonstrate efficient mid-infrared pulse generation by dispersive wave radiation in bulk lithium niobate crystal. Femtosecond mid-IR pulses centering from 2.8–2.92 µm are generated using the single pump wavelengths from 1.25–1.45 µm.......We experimentally demonstrate efficient mid-infrared pulse generation by dispersive wave radiation in bulk lithium niobate crystal. Femtosecond mid-IR pulses centering from 2.8–2.92 µm are generated using the single pump wavelengths from 1.25–1.45 µm....

  8. Efficient Mid-Infrared Supercontinuum Generation in Tapered Large Mode Area Chalcogenide Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Engelsholm, Rasmus Dybbro; Markos, Christos


    Mid-infrared supercontinuum spanning from 1.8-9  μm with an output power of 41.5 mW is demonstrated by pumping tapered large mode area chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers using a 4 μm optical parametric source.......Mid-infrared supercontinuum spanning from 1.8-9  μm with an output power of 41.5 mW is demonstrated by pumping tapered large mode area chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers using a 4 μm optical parametric source....

  9. All-metal coupling and package of semiconductor laser and amplifier with optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Fenglan; Li Lina; Zhang Yueqing


    The semiconductor laser and optical amplifier made by Changchun Institute of Physics coupled with optical fiber by use of all-metal coupling are represented. The net gain of semiconductor laser amplifier with optical fiber is 14 ∼18 dB

  10. Controlling the emission wavelength in group III-V semiconductor laser diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.; Majid, Mohammed Abdul; Afandy, Rami; Aljabr, Ahmad


    Methods are provided for modifying the emission wavelength of a semiconductor quantum well laser diode, e.g. by blue shifting the emission wavelength. The methods can be applied to a variety of semiconductor quantum well laser diodes, e.g. group III

  11. Nanonewton thrust measurement of photon pressure propulsion using semiconductor laser (United States)

    Iwami, K.; Akazawa, Taku; Ohtsuka, Tomohiro; Nishida, Hiroyuki; Umeda, Norihiro


    To evaluate the thrust produced by photon pressure emitted from a 100 W class continuous-wave semiconductor laser, a torsion-balance precise thrust stand is designed and tested. Photon emission propulsion using semiconductor light sources attract interests as a possible candidate for deep-space propellant-less propulsion and attitude control system. However, the thrust produced by photon emission as large as several ten nanonewtons requires precise thrust stand. A resonant method is adopted to enhance the sensitivity of the biflier torsional-spring thrust stand. The torsional spring constant and the resonant of the stand is 1.245 × 10-3 Nm/rad and 0.118 Hz, respectively. The experimental results showed good agreement with the theoretical estimation. The thrust efficiency for photon propulsion was also defined. A maximum thrust of 499 nN was produced by the laser with 208 W input power (75 W of optical output) corresponding to a thrust efficiency of 36.7%. The minimum detectable thrust of the stand was estimated to be 2.62 nN under oscillation at a frequency close to resonance.

  12. Analytical potential of mid-infrared detection in capillary electrophoresis and liquid chromatography: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuligowski, Julia; Quintas, Guillermo; Guardia, Miguel de la; Lendl, Bernhard


    Literature published in the last decade concerning the use of mid-infrared spectrometry as a detection system in separation techniques employing a liquid mobile phase is reviewed. In addition to the continued use of isocratic liquid chromatographic (LC) techniques, advances in chemometric data evaluation techniques now allow the use of gradient techniques on a routine basis, thus significantly broadening the range of possible applications of LC-IR. The general trend towards miniaturized separation systems was also followed for mid-IR detection where two key developments are of special importance. Firstly, concerning on-line detection the advent of micro-fabricated flow-cells with inner volumes of only a few nL for transmission as well as attenuated total reflection measurements enabled on-line mid-IR detection in capillary LC and opened the path for the first successful realization of on-line mid-IR detection in capillary zone electrophoresis as well as micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Secondly, concerning off-line detection the use of micro-flow through dispensers now enables to concentrate eluting analytes on dried spots sized a few tens of micrometers, thus matching the dimensions for sensitive detection by mid-IR microscopy. Finally in an attempt to increase detection sensitivity of on-line mid-IR detection, mid-IR quantum cascade lasers have been used. Applications cover the field of food analysis, environmental analysis and the characterization of explosives among others. Best detection sensitivities for on-line and off-line detection have been achieved in miniaturized systems and are in the order of 50 ng and 2 ng on column, respectively.

  13. Construction of an optical semiconductor amplifier starting from a Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser; Construccion de un amplificador optico de semiconductor a partir de un laser de semiconductor Fabry-Perot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E.; Soto, H.; Marquez, H.; Valles V, N. [Departamento de Electronica y Telecomunicaciones, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada. Km. 107, Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)


    A methodology to convert a semiconductor laser Fabry-Perot (SL-FP) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is presented. In order to suppress the cavity resonant an optical thin film coating was deposited on the facets of the SL-FP. The experiment was carried out putting on service a new monitoring technique that consist in the observation of the laser power spectrum during the antireflection coatings deposition. This allows to determine the moment were the facets reflectivity is minimum. The SOA obtained was characterized for different polarization currents. (Author)

  14. Mid-infrared performance of single mode chalcogenide fibers (United States)

    Cook, Justin; Sincore, Alex; Tan, Felix; El Halawany, Ahmed; Riggins, Anthony; Shah, Lawrence; Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Richardson, Martin C.; Schepler, Kenneth L.


    Due to the intrinsic absorption edge in silica near 2.4 μm, more exotic materials are required to transmit laser power in the IR such as fluoride or chalcogenide glasses (ChGs). In particular, ChG fibers offer broad IR transmission with low losses fibers at four different infrared wavelengths: 2053 nm, 2520 nm and 4550 nm. Polymer clad ChG fibers were drawn with 12.3 μm and 25 μm core diameters. Testing at 2053 nm was accomplished using a > 15 W, CW Tm:fiber laser. Power handling up to 10.2 W with single mode beam quality has been demonstrated, limited only by the available Tm:fiber output power. Anti-reflective coatings were successfully deposited on the ChG fiber facets, allowing up to 90.6% transmission with 12.2 MW/cm2 intensity on the facet. Single mode guidance at 4550 nm was also demonstrated using a quantum cascade laser (QCL). A custom optical system was constructed to efficiently couple the 0.8 NA QCL radiation into the 0.2 NA ChG fiber, allowing for a maximum of 78% overlap between the QCL radiation and fundamental mode of the fiber. With an AR-coated, 25 μm core diameter fiber, >50 mW transmission was demonstrated with > 87% transmission. Finally, we present results on fiber coupling from a free space Cr:ZnSe resonator at 2520 nm.

  15. Semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This book deals with process and measurement of semiconductor. It contains 20 chapters, which goes as follows; semiconductor industry, introduction of semiconductor manufacturing, yield of semiconductor process, materials, crystal growth and a wafer forming, PN, control pollution, oxidation, photomasking photoresist chemistry, photomasking technologies, diffusion and ion injection, chemical vapor deposition, metallization, wafer test and way of evaluation, semiconductor elements, integrated circuit and semiconductor circuit technology.

  16. Mid-infrared plasmonic resonances exploiting heavily-doped Ge on Si (United States)

    Biagioni, P.; Sakat, E.; Baldassarre, L.; Calandrini, E.; Samarelli, A.; Gallacher, K.; Frigerio, J.; Isella, G.; Paul, D. J.; Ortolani, M.


    We address the behavior of mid-infrared localized plasmon resonances in elongated germanium antennas integrated on silicon substrates. Calculations based on Mie theory and on the experimentally retrieved dielectric constant allow us to study the tunability and the figures of merit of plasmon resonances in heavily-doped germanium and to preliminarily compare them with those of the most established plasmonic material, gold.

  17. Spitzer mid-infrared spectra of cool-core galaxy clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Messières, G.E.; O'Connell, R.W.; McNamara, B.R.; Donahue, M.; Nulsen, P.E.J.; Voit, G.M.; Wise, M.W.; Smith, B.; Higdon, J.; Higdon, S.; Bastian, N.


    We have obtained mid-infrared spectra of nine cool-core galaxy clusters with the Infrared Spectrograph aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. X-ray, ultraviolet and optical observations have demonstrated that each of these clusters hosts a cooling flow which seems to be fueling vigorous star formation

  18. Fiber Based Mid Infrared Supercontinuum Source for Spectroscopic Analysis in Food Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsay, Jacob; Dupont, Sune Vestergaard Lund; Keiding, Søren Rud

    Optimization of sustainable food production is a worldwide challenge that is undergoing continuous development as new technologies emerge. Applying solutions for food analysis with novel bright and broad mid-infrared (MIR) light sources has the potential to meet the increasing demands for food...

  19. Modelling of mid-infrared interferometric signature of hot exozodiacal dust emission (United States)

    Kirchschlager, Florian; Wolf, Sebastian; Brunngräber, Robert; Matter, Alexis; Krivov, Alexander V.; Labdon, Aaron


    Hot exozodiacal dust emission was detected in recent surveys around two dozen main-sequence stars at distances of less than 1 au using the H- and K-band interferometry. Due to the high contrast as well as the small angular distance between the circumstellar dust and the star, direct observation of this dust component is challenging. An alternative way to explore the hot exozodiacal dust is provided by mid-infrared interferometry. We analyse the L, M and N bands interferometric signature of this emission in order to find stronger constraints for the properties and the origin of the hot exozodiacal dust. Considering the parameters of nine debris disc systems derived previously, we model the discs in each of these bands. We find that the M band possesses the best conditions to detect hot dust emission, closely followed by L and N bands. The hot dust in three systems - HD 22484 (10 Tau), HD 102647 (β Leo) and HD 177724 (ζ Aql) - shows a strong signal in the visibility functions, which may even allow one to constrain the dust location. In particular, observations in the mid-infrared could help to determine whether the dust piles up at the sublimation radius or is located at radii up to 1 au. In addition, we explore observations of the hot exozodiacal dust with the upcoming mid-infrared interferometer Multi AperTure mid-Infrared SpectroScopic Experiment (MATISSE) at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer.

  20. Two-octave mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in As-Se suspended core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Kubat, Irnis


    A more than two-octave mid-infrared supercontinuum with an average output power of 15.6 mW covering 1.7-7.5 μm (1,333-5,900 cm-1) is generated in a low-loss As38Se62 suspended core fiber with core diameter of 4.5 μm....

  1. Conductive Oxides Trench Structures as Hyperbolic Metamaterials in Mid-infrared Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takayama, Osamu; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee

    ,2]. Moreover plasmonics for mid-infrared offer unique applications such as bio-sensing, thermal imaging and quest for novel materials and structures has been continuing [3]. In this report we show that vertical trench structures made of, for example, aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) or other transparent conductive...

  2. Heterogeneously integrated silicon photonics for the mid-infrared and spectroscopic sensing. (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Lin, Hongtao; Hu, Juejun; Li, Mo


    Besides being the foundational material for microelectronics, crystalline silicon has long been used for the production of infrared lenses and mirrors. More recently, silicon has become the key material to achieve large-scale integration of photonic devices for on-chip optical interconnect and signal processing. For optics, silicon has significant advantages: it offers a very high refractive index and is highly transparent in the spectral range from 1.2 to 8 μm. To fully exploit silicon’s superior performance in a remarkably broad range and to enable new optoelectronic functionalities, here we describe a general method to integrate silicon photonic devices on arbitrary foreign substrates. In particular, we apply the technique to integrate silicon microring resonators on mid-infrared compatible substrates for operation in the mid-infrared. These high-performance mid-infrared optical resonators are utilized to demonstrate, for the first time, on-chip cavity-enhanced mid-infrared spectroscopic analysis of organic chemicals with a limit of detection of less than 0.1 ng.

  3. Herbig-haro objects and mid-infrared outflows in the VELA C molecular cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Miaomiao; Wang, Hongchi; Henning, Thomas


    We have performed a deep [S II] λλ6717/6731 wide field Herbig-Haro (HH) object survey toward the Vela C molecular cloud with a sky coverage of about 2 deg 2 . In total, 18 new HH objects, HH 1090-1107, are discovered and the two previously known HH objects, HH 73-74, are also detected in our [S II] images. We also present an investigation of mid-infrared outflows in the Vela C molecular cloud using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer images taken from AllWISE data release. Using the method suggested by Zhang and Wang, 11 extended green objects (EGOs) are identified to be the mid-infrared outflows, including 6 new mid-infrared outflows that have not been detected previously at other wavelengths and 5 mid-infrared counterparts of the HH objects detected in this work. Using the AllWISE Source Catalog and the source classification scheme suggested by Koenig et al., we have identified 56 young stellar object (YSO) candidates in the Vela C molecular cloud. The possible driving sources of the HH objects and EGOs are discussed based on the morphology of HH objects and EGOs and the locations of HH objects, EGOs and YSO candidates. Finally we associate 12 HH objects and 5 EGOs with 10 YSOs and YSO candidates. The median length of the outflows in Vela C is 0.35 pc and the outflows seem to be oriented randomly.

  4. Advanced excimer laser technologies enable green semiconductor manufacturing (United States)

    Fukuda, Hitomi; Yoo, Youngsun; Minegishi, Yuji; Hisanaga, Naoto; Enami, Tatsuo


    "Green" has fast become an important and pervasive topic throughout many industries worldwide. Many companies, especially in the manufacturing industries, have taken steps to integrate green initiatives into their high-level corporate strategies. Governments have also been active in implementing various initiatives designed to increase corporate responsibility and accountability towards environmental issues. In the semiconductor manufacturing industry, there are growing concerns over future environmental impact as enormous fabs expand and new generation of equipments become larger and more powerful. To address these concerns, Gigaphoton has implemented various green initiatives for many years under the EcoPhoton™ program. The objective of this program is to drive innovations in technology and services that enable manufacturers to significantly reduce both the financial and environmental "green cost" of laser operations in high-volume manufacturing environment (HVM) - primarily focusing on electricity, gas and heat management costs. One example of such innovation is Gigaphoton's Injection-Lock system, which reduces electricity and gas utilization costs of the laser by up to 50%. Furthermore, to support the industry's transition from 300mm to the next generation 450mm wafers, technologies are being developed to create lasers that offer double the output power from 60W to 120W, but reducing electricity and gas consumption by another 50%. This means that the efficiency of lasers can be improve by up to 4 times in 450mm wafer production environments. Other future innovations include the introduction of totally Heliumfree Excimer lasers that utilize Nitrogen gas as its replacement for optical module purging. This paper discusses these and other innovations by Gigaphoton to enable green manufacturing.

  5. Achromatic wave plates for the mid-infrared (United States)

    Beasley, J. Donald; Marlowe, Philip D.


    Achromatic wave plates are useful in various mid-IR applications, such as analyzing or controlling the spectrum available from CO2 and other lasers, and for the study of IR spectra from distant stars. Their production relies upon the technical skills of those who grow the required high quality crystals and upon those who fabricate the optical parts to the needed precision. Two materials are described - one useful for light in the spectral range of the visible through the near IR and another that functions well in mid-IR applications from 2.5 μm to 11.5 μm. Some limitations imposed by inherent material properties will also be discussed.

  6. Deep-red semiconductor monolithic mode-locked lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, L.; Bajek, D.; White, S. E.; Forrest, A. F.; Cataluna, M. A.; Wang, H. L.; Pan, J. Q.; Wang, X. L.; Cui, B. F.; Ding, Y.


    A deep-red semiconductor monolithic mode-locked laser is demonstrated. Multi-section laser diodes based on an AlGaAs multi-quantum-well structure were passively mode-locked, enabling the generation of picosecond optical pulses at 752 nm, at pulse repetition rates of 19.37 GHz. An investigation of the dependence of the pulse duration as a function of reverse bias revealed a predominantly exponential decay trend of the pulse duration, varying from 10.5 ps down to 3.5 ps, which can be associated with the concomitant reduction of absorption recovery time with increasing applied field. A 30-MHz-tunability of the pulse repetition rate with bias conditions is also reported. The demonstration of such a compact, efficient and versatile ultrafast laser in this spectral region paves the way for its deployment in a wide range of applications such as biomedical microscopy, pulsed terahertz generation as well as microwave and millimeter-wave generation, with further impact on sensing, imaging and optical communications

  7. Multiclustered chimeras in large semiconductor laser arrays with nonlocal interactions (United States)

    Shena, J.; Hizanidis, J.; Hövel, P.; Tsironis, G. P.


    The dynamics of a large array of coupled semiconductor lasers is studied numerically for a nonlocal coupling scheme. Our focus is on chimera states, a self-organized spatiotemporal pattern of coexisting coherence and incoherence. In laser systems, such states have been previously found for global and nearest-neighbor coupling, mainly in small networks. The technological advantage of large arrays has motivated us to study a system of 200 nonlocally coupled lasers with respect to the emerging collective dynamics. Moreover, the nonlocal nature of the coupling allows us to obtain robust chimera states with multiple (in)coherent domains. The crucial parameters are the coupling strength, the coupling phase and the range of the nonlocal interaction. We find that multiclustered chimera states exist in a wide region of the parameter space and we provide quantitative characterization for the obtained spatiotemporal patterns. By proposing two different experimental setups for the realization of the nonlocal coupling scheme, we are confident that our results can be confirmed in the laboratory.

  8. Mid-infrared emissions of Pr{sup 3+}-doped GeS{sub 2}–Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3}–CdI{sub 2} chalcohalide glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chunfeng [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Science (CAS), Xi’an, Shaanxi 710119 (China); Guo, Haitao, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Science (CAS), Xi’an, Shaanxi 710119 (China); Xu, Yantao; Hou, Chaoqi; Lu, Min [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Science (CAS), Xi’an, Shaanxi 710119 (China); He, Xin [School of Applied Physics and Materials, Wuyi University, Jiangmen, Guangdong 529020 (China); Wang, Pengfei; Li, Weinan [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Science (CAS), Xi’an, Shaanxi 710119 (China); Peng, Bo, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Science (CAS), Xi’an, Shaanxi 710119 (China)


    Graphical abstract: ∼4.6 μm mid-infrared fluorescence emission from Pr{sup 3+} in the sulfide glass is successfully observed at room temperature excited by a 2.01 μm Tm{sup 3+}:YAG ceramic laser system. - Highlights: • Serial Pr{sup 3+}-doped GeS{sub 2}–Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3}–CdI{sub 2} chalcohalide glasses were synthesized. • ∼4.6 μm mid-infrared fluorescence from Pr{sup 3+} was observed at room temperature. • The compositional dependence of luminescence properties was studied. • Radiative properties have been determined using the Judd–Ofelt theory. - Abstract: For elucidation of the glass composition’s influence on the spectroscopic properties in the chalcohalide system and the discovery of a new material for applications in mid-infrared fiber-lasers, a serial Pr{sup 3+}-doped (100 − x)(0.8GeS{sub 2}·0.2Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3})xCdI{sub 2} (x = 5, 10, 15 and 20) chalcohalide glasses were prepared. ∼4.6 μm mid-infrared fluorescence emission from Pr{sup 3+} in the sulfide glass is successfully observed at room temperature excited by a 2.01 μm Tm{sup 3+}:YAG ceramic laser system, and the effective line-width of fluorescence band is 106–227 nm. Intense compositional dependence of mid-infrared emissions is found. The radiative rates of Pr{sup 3+} ions in these glasses were calculated by using the Judd–Ofelt theory.

  9. Optically pumped semiconductor lasers: Conception and characterization of a single mode source for Cesium atoms manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocquelin, B.


    Lasers currently used in atomic clocks or inertial sensors are suffering from a lack of power, narrow linewidth or compactness for future spatial missions. Optically pumped semiconductor lasers, which combine the approach of classical solid state lasers and the engineering of semiconductor laser, are considered here as a candidate to a metrological laser source dedicated to the manipulation of Cesium atoms in these instruments. These lasers have demonstrated high power laser emission in a circular single transverse mode, as well as single longitudinal mode emission, favoured by the semiconductor structure and the external cavity design. We study the definition and the characterization of a proper semiconductor structure for the cooling and the detection of Cesium atoms at 852 nm. A compact and robust prototype tunable on the Cesium D2 hyperfine structure is built. The laser frequency is locked to an atomic transition thanks to a saturated absorption setup. The emission spectral properties are investigated, with a particular attention to the laser frequency noise and the laser linewidth. Finally, we describe and model the thermal properties of the semiconductor structure, which enables the simulation of the laser power characteristic. The experimental parameters are optimised to obtain the maximum output power with our structure. Thanks to our analysis, we propose several ways to overcome these limitations, by reducing the structure heating. (authors)

  10. Mid-infrared studies of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum cascade structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keightley, Peter Thomas


    This thesis describes an investigation of GaAs/AIGaAs Quantum Cascade (QC) structures. Mid-infrared spectroscopic techniques are employed to study several QC LED and laser structures, in order to investigate the fundamental principles underlying the operation of these state of the art devices. The results presented in this thesis include the demonstration of intersubband lasing in a GaAs/AIGaAs QC laser, which closely followed the first report of QC lasing using this materials system in 1998, and form a basis from which further research into QC lasers can be built upon. Initially, a spectroscopic investigation of several QC LEDs is presented, beginning with a comparison of the performance of two designs incorporating an active region based on a diagonal transition. These devices have single quantum well (SQW), or multi-quantum well (MQW) bridging regions and are investigated using intersubband electroluminescence (EL) spectroscopy. It is found that although growth and design are simplified by the use of a SQW bridging region, superior performance is obtained by the use of MQW bridging regions, intersubband EL and photocurrent (PC) spectroscopy are employed to study the operating characteristics of a QC LED incorporating a graded superlattice active region. EL is observed at 9 and 11μm arising from interminiband radiative transitions. Complementary intersubband and interband spectroscopic techniques have been employed to study the evolution of the electron distribution within a QC LED, with increasing bias. Below the device turn on, the transfer of electrons from the donors to the active region ground state is observed. As the bias is increased the redistribution of electrons through the bridging region is observed, in conjunction with an alignment of energy levels within the structure, close to the operating bias. Intersubband lasing has been demonstrated from a GaAs/AIGaAs QC laser at λ∼9μm. Reciprocal gain measurements have been performed to determine the

  11. Controlling the emission wavelength in group III-V semiconductor laser diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.


    Methods are provided for modifying the emission wavelength of a semiconductor quantum well laser diode, e.g. by blue shifting the emission wavelength. The methods can be applied to a variety of semiconductor quantum well laser diodes, e.g. group III-V semiconductor quantum wells. The group III-V semiconductor can include AlSb, AlAs, Aln, AlP, BN, GaSb, GaAs, GaN, GaP, InSb, InAs, InN, and InP, and group III-V ternary semiconductors alloys such as AlxGai.xAs. The methods can results in a blue shifting of about 20 meV to 350 meV, which can be used for example to make group III-V semiconductor quantum well laser diodes with an emission that is orange or yellow. Methods of making semiconductor quantum well laser diodes and semiconductor quantum well laser diodes made therefrom are also provided.

  12. Comprehensive and fully self-consistent modeling of modern semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakwaski, W.; Sarzał, R. P.


    The fully self-consistent model of modern semiconductor lasers used to design their advanced structures and to understand more deeply their properties is given in the present paper. Operation of semiconductor lasers depends not only on many optical, electrical, thermal, recombination, and sometimes mechanical phenomena taking place within their volumes but also on numerous mutual interactions between these phenomena. Their experimental investigation is quite complex, mostly because of miniature device sizes. Therefore, the most convenient and exact method to analyze expected laser operation and to determine laser optimal structures for various applications is to examine the details of their performance with the aid of a simulation of laser operation in various considered conditions. Such a simulation of an operation of semiconductor lasers is presented in this paper in a full complexity of all mutual interactions between the above individual physical processes. In particular, the hole-burning effect has been discussed. The impacts on laser performance introduced by oxide apertures (their sizes and localization) have been analyzed in detail. Also, some important details concerning the operation of various types of semiconductor lasers are discussed. The results of some applications of semiconductor lasers are shown for successive laser structures. (paper)

  13. Mid-infrared interferometric variability of DG Tauri: Implications for the inner-disk structure (United States)

    Varga, J.; Gabányi, K. É.; Ábrahám, P.; Chen, L.; Kóspál, Á.; Menu, J.; Ratzka, Th.; van Boekel, R.; Dullemond, C. P.; Henning, Th.; Jaffe, W.; Juhász, A.; Moór, A.; Mosoni, L.; Sipos, N.


    Context. DG Tau is a low-mass pre-main sequence star, whose strongly accreting protoplanetary disk exhibits a so-far enigmatic behavior: its mid-infrared thermal emission is strongly time-variable, even turning the 10 μm silicate feature from emission to absorption temporarily. Aims: We look for the reason for the spectral variability at high spatial resolution and at multiple epochs. Methods: Infrared interferometry can spatially resolve the thermal emission of the circumstellar disk, also giving information about dust processing. We study the temporal variability of the mid-infrared interferometric signal, observed with the VLTI/MIDI instrument at six epochs between 2011 and 2014. We fit a geometric disk model to the observed interferometric signal to obtain spatial information about the disk. We also model the mid-infrared spectra by template fitting to characterize the profile and time dependence of the silicate emission. We use physically motivated radiative transfer modeling to interpret the mid-infrared interferometric spectra. Results: The inner disk (r 1-3 au) spectra show a crystalline silicate feature in emission, similar to the spectra of comet Hale-Bopp. The striking difference between the inner and outer disk spectral feature is highly unusual among T Tauri stars. The mid-infrared variability is dominated by the outer disk. The strength of the silicate feature changed by more than a factor of two. Between 2011 and 2014 the half-light radius of the mid-infrared-emitting region decreased from 1.15 to 0.7 au. Conclusions: For the origin of the absorption we discuss four possible explanations: a cold obscuring envelope, an accretion heated inner disk, a temperature inversion on the disk surface and a misaligned inner geometry. The silicate emission in the outer disk can be explained by dusty material high above the disk plane, whose mass can change with time, possibly due to turbulence in the disk. Based on observations made with the ESO Very Large

  14. Photoacoustic Techniques for Trace Gas Sensing Based on Semiconductor Laser Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Spagnolo


    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview on the use of photoacoustic sensors based on semiconductor laser sources for the detection of trace gases. We review the results obtained using standard, differential and quartz enhanced photoacoustic techniques.

  15. Identification of amplitude and timing jitter in external-cavity mode-locked semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulet, Josep; Mørk, Jesper; Kroh, Marcel


    We theoretically and experimentally investigate the dynamics of external-cavity mode-locked semiconductor lasers, focusing on stability properties, optimization of pulsewidth and timing jitter. A new numerical approach allows to clearly separate timing and amplitude jitter....

  16. Critical coupling using the hexagonal boron nitride crystals in the mid-infrared range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jipeng; Wang, Hengliang; Wen, Shuangchun [Key Laboratory for Micro-/Nano-Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Jiang, Leyong; Guo, Jun; Dai, Xiaoyu [SZU-NUS Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Science & Technology, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Xiang, Yuanjiang, E-mail: [Key Laboratory for Micro-/Nano-Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); SZU-NUS Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Science & Technology, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)


    We theoretically demonstrate the perfect absorption phenomena in the hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) crystals in the mid-infrared wavelength ranges by means of critical coupling with a one-dimensional photonic crystal spaced by the air. Different from the polymer absorbing layer composed by a metal-dielectric composite film, the hyperbolic dispersion characteristics of hBN can meet the condition of critical coupling and achieve the total absorption in the mid-infrared wavelength ranges. However, the critical coupling phenomenon can only appear in the hBN crystals with the type II dispersion. Moreover, we discuss the influence of the thickness of hBN, the incident angle, and the thickness and permittivity of the space dielectric on the total absorption. Ultimately, the conditions for absorption enhancement and the optimization methods of perfect absorption are proposed, and the design rules for a totally absorbing system under the different conditions are achieved.

  17. Mid-Infrared Observations of Possible Intergalactic Star Forming Regions in the Leo Ring (United States)

    Giroux, Mark; Smith, B.; Struck, C.


    Within the Leo group of galaxies lies a gigantic loop of intergalactic gas known as the Leo Ring. Not clearly associated with any particular galaxy, its origin remains uncertain. It may be a primordial intergalactic cloud alternatively, it may be a collision ring, or have a tidal origin. Combining archival Spitzer images of this structure with published UV and optical data, we investigate the mid-infrared properties of possible knots of star formation in the ring. These sources are very faint in the mid-infrared compared to star forming regions in the tidal features of interacting galaxies. This suggests they are either deficient in dust, or they may not be associated with the ring.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearty, Thomas; Song, Inseok; Kim, Sam; Tinetti, Giovanna


    We have investigated mid-infrared spectra of Earth obtained by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument on-board the AQUA spacecraft to explore the characteristics that may someday be observed in extrasolar terrestrial planets. We have used the AIRS infrared (R ∼ 1200; 3.75-15.4 μm) spectra to construct directly observed high-resolution spectra of the only known life bearing planet, Earth. The AIRS spectra are the first such spectra that span the seasons. We investigate the rotational and seasonal spectral variations that would arise due to varying cloud amount and viewing geometry and we explore what signatures may be observable in the mid-infrared by the next generation of telescopes capable of observing extrasolar terrestrial planets.

  19. Optical field emission from resonant gold nanorods driven by femtosecond mid-infrared pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusa, F. [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakacho, Koganei Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Echternkamp, K. E.; Herink, G.; Ropers, C. [4th Physical Institute – Solids and Nanostructures, University of Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Ashihara, S., E-mail: [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)


    We demonstrate strong-field photoelectron emission from gold nanorods driven by femtosecond mid-infrared optical pulses. The maximum photoelectron yield is reached at the localized surface plasmon resonance, indicating that the photoemission is governed by the resonantly-enhanced optical near-field. The wavelength- and field-dependent photoemission yield allows for a noninvasive determination of local field enhancements, and we obtain intensity enhancement factors close to 1300, in good agreement with finite-difference time domain computations.

  20. Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faccio D.


    Full Text Available We present supercontinuum generation pumped by femtosecond mid-infrared pulses in a bulk homogeneous material. The spectrum extends from 450 nm into the midinfrared, and carries high spectral energy density (3 pJ/nm–10 nJ/nm. The supercontinuum has high shot-to-shot reproducibility and preserves the carrier-to-envelope phase. Our result paves the way for compact supercontinuum sources with unprecedented bandwidth.

  1. Silicon Nitride Photonic Integration Platforms for Visible, Near-Infrared and Mid-Infrared Applications (United States)

    Micó, Gloria; Pastor, Daniel; Pérez, Daniel; Doménech, José David; Fernández, Juan; Baños, Rocío; Alemany, Rubén; Sánchez, Ana M.; Cirera, Josep M.; Mas, Roser


    Silicon nitride photonics is on the rise owing to the broadband nature of the material, allowing applications of biophotonics, tele/datacom, optical signal processing and sensing, from visible, through near to mid-infrared wavelengths. In this paper, a review of the state of the art of silicon nitride strip waveguide platforms is provided, alongside the experimental results on the development of a versatile 300 nm guiding film height silicon nitride platform. PMID:28895906


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, C. L. [Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, R. dos Estados Unidos, Bairro das Nações, CEP 37504-364, Itajubá—MG (Brazil); Blum, R. D. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Damineli, A. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, R. do Matão, 1226, Cid. Universitária, São Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil); Conti, P. S. [JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States); Gusmão, D. M., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [IP and D—Universidade do Vale do Paraíba, Av. Shishima Hifumi, 2911. São José dos Campos, SP, 12244-000 (Brazil)


    In this paper we present the results of a mid-infrared study of G49.5-0.4, or W51A, part of the massive starbirth complex W51. Combining public data from the Spitzer IRAC camera, and Gemini mid-infrared camera T-ReCS at 7.73, 9.69, 12.33, and 24.56 μ m, with a spatial resolution of ∼0.″5, we have identified the mid-infrared counterparts of eight ultracompact H ii regions, showing that two radio sources are deeply embedded in molecular clouds and another is a cloud of ionized gas. From the T-ReCS data we have unveiled the central core of the W51 region, revealing massive young stellar candidates. We modeled the spectral energy distribution of the detected sources. The results suggest that the embedded objects are sources with spectral types ranging from B3 to O5, but the majority of the fits indicate stellar objects with B1 spectral types. We also present an extinction map of IRS 2, showing that a region with lower extinction corresponds to the region where a proposed jet of gas has impacted the foreground cloud. From this map, we also derived the total extinction toward the enigmatic source IRS 2E, which amounts to ∼60 mag in the V band. We calculated the color temperature due to thermal emission of the circumstellar dust of the detected sources; the temperatures are in the interval of ∼100–150 K, which corresponds to the emission of dust located at 0.1 pc from the central source. Finally, we show a possible mid-infrared counterpart of a detected source at millimeter wavelengths that was found by Zapata et al. to be a massive young stellar object undergoing a high accretion rate.

  3. Mid-infrared response of reduced graphene oxide and its high-temperature coefficient of resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Liang


    Full Text Available Much effort has been made to study the formation mechanisms of photocurrents in graphene and reduced graphene oxide films under visible and near-infrared light irradiation. A built-in field and photo-thermal electrons have been applied to explain the experiments. However, much less attention has been paid to clarifying the mid-infrared response of reduced graphene oxide films at room temperature. Thus, mid-infrared photoresponse and annealing temperature-dependent resistance experiments were carried out on reduced graphene oxide films. A maximum photocurrent of 75 μA was observed at room temperature, which was dominated by the bolometer effect, where the resistance of the films decreased as the temperature increased after they had absorbed light. The electrons localized in the defect states and the residual oxygen groups were thermally excited into the conduction band, forming a photocurrent. In addition, a temperature increase of 2 °C for the films after light irradiation for 2 minutes was observed using absorption power calculations. This work details a way to use reduced graphene oxide films that contain appropriate defects and residual oxygen groups as bolometer-sensitive materials in the mid-infrared range.

  4. Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a suspended core chalcogenide fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Yu, Yi; Gai, Xin

    The mid-infrared spectral region is of great interest because virtually all organic compounds display distinctive spectral fingerprints herein that reveal chemical information about them [1], and the mid-infrared region is therefore of key importance to many applications, including food quality...... control [2], gas sensing [3] and medical diagnostics [4] . We have used a low-loss suspended core As 38 Se 62 fiber with core diameter of 4.5 μ m and a zero - dispersion wavelength of 3.5 μ m to generate mid-infrared supercontinuum by pumping with an optical parametric amplifier delivering 320 fs pulses...... with a peak power of ~5.5 kW at a repetition rate of 21 MHz at different wavelengths from 3.3 to 4.7 μ m . By pumping at 4.4 μ m with a peak power of 5.2 kW coupled to the fiber a supercontinuum spanning from 1.7 to 7.5 μ m with an average output power of 15.6 mW was obtained. Figure 1 shows the results...

  5. Emergence of resonant mode-locking via delayed feedback in quantum dot semiconductor lasers. (United States)

    Tykalewicz, B; Goulding, D; Hegarty, S P; Huyet, G; Erneux, T; Kelleher, B; Viktorov, E A


    With conventional semiconductor lasers undergoing external optical feedback, a chaotic output is typically observed even for moderate levels of the feedback strength. In this paper we examine single mode quantum dot lasers under strong optical feedback conditions and show that an entirely new dynamical regime is found consisting of spontaneous mode-locking via a resonance between the relaxation oscillation frequency and the external cavity repetition rate. Experimental observations are supported by detailed numerical simulations of rate equations appropriate for this laser type. The phenomenon constitutes an entirely new mode-locking mechanism in semiconductor lasers.

  6. Quantifying Information Flow between Two Chaotic Semiconductor Lasers Using Symbolic Transfer Entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Nian-Qiang; Pan Wei; Yan Lian-Shan; Luo Bin; Xu Ming-Feng; Tang Yi-Long


    Symbolic transfer entropy (STE) is employed to quantify the dominant direction of information flow between two chaotic-semiconductor-laser time series. The information flow in unidirectionally and bidirectionally coupled systems was analyzed systematically. Numerical results show that the dependence relationship can be revealed if there exists any coupling between two chaotic semiconductor lasers. More importantly, in both unsynchronized and good synchronization regimes, the STE can be used to quantify the direction of information flow between the lasers, although the former case leads to a better identification. The results thus establish STE as an effective tool for quantifying the direction of information flow between chaotic-laser-based systems

  7. Extracting physical properties of arbitrarily shaped laser-doped micro-scale areas in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, Martin; Kluska, Sven; Hameiri, Ziv; Hoex, Bram; Aberle, Armin G.


    We present a method that allows the extraction of relevant physical properties such as sheet resistance and dopant profile from arbitrarily shaped laser-doped micro-scale areas formed in semiconductors with a focused pulsed laser beam. The key feature of the method is to use large laser-doped areas with an identical average number of laser pulses per area (laser pulse density) as the arbitrarily shaped areas. The method is verified using sheet resistance measurements on laser-doped silicon samples. Furthermore, the method is extended to doping with continuous-wave lasers by using the average number of passes per area or density of passes

  8. Piezoelectric strained layer semiconductor lasers and integrated modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, Thomas


    The properties, benefits and limitations of strained InGaAs/GaAs quantum well lasers and modulators grown on (111)B GaAs have been studied. Particular interest in this material system arose from the predicted increase in critical layer thickness, which would facilitate semiconductor lasers emitting beyond 1 μm. However, the recent discovery of a new type of misfit dislocation indicates that the critical layer thickness in this system is closer to that of (001) orientated structures. Photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy presented in this study support this predicted reduction of the critical layer thickness and the resulting limitations on the emission wavelength. The absence of 3D growth in this system may however be advantageous when high reproducibility and reliable lasing operation beyond 1 μm are required. The piezoelectric field originating from strained growth on substrate orientations other than (001) was studied and its influence on transition energies and absorptive behaviour were investigated. The piezoelectric constant was found to show significant temperature dependence and, as also indicated in earlier studies, its value is smaller then the linearly interpolated value. When the effects of indium segregation on the transition energies is considered, the reduction is significantly smaller. Good agreement between theory and experiment was obtained using 86% of the value linearly interpolated between the binaries at room temperature and 82% at low temperature. Broad area lasers were fabricated emitting at lasing wavelengths of up to 1.08 μm with threshold current densities as low as 80 A/cm 2 at room temperature under continuous wave operation. Increasing the indium composition and strain within the limit of strain relaxation was demonstrated to improve device performance significantly. Furthermore, ridge waveguide lasers were fabricated exhibiting monomode emission at wavelengths up to 1.07 μm with a threshold current of 19 mA at

  9. Mid-infrared followup of cold brown dwarfs: diversity in age, mass and metallicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saumon, Didier [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leggett, Sandy K [GEMINI OBSERVATORY; Burningham, Ben [HERTFORDSHITE UNIV; Marley, Mark S [NASA AMES; Waren, S J [IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON; Jones, H R A [HERTFORDSHIRE U; Pinfield, D J [HERTFORDSHIRE U; Smart, R L [ASTRONOMICAL OBS


    We present new Spitzer IRAC [3.6], [4.5], [5.8] and [8.0] photometry of nine very late-type T dwarfs. Combining this with previously published photometry, we investigate trends with type and color that are useful for both the planning and interpretation of infrared surveys designed to discover the coldest T or Y dwarfs. Brown dwarfs with effective temperature (T{sub eff}) below 700 K emit more than half their flux at wavelengths longer than 3 {micro}m, and the ratio of the mid-infrared flux to the near-infrared flux becomes very sensitive to T{sub eff} at these low temperatures. We confirm that the color H (1.6 {micro}m) - [4.5] is a good indicator of T{sub eff} with a relatively weak dependence on metallicity and gravity. Conversely, the colors H - K (2.2 {micro}m) and [4.5] - [5.8] are sensitive to metallicity and gravity. Thus near- and mid-infrared photometry provide useful indicators of the fundamental properties of brown dwarfs, and if temperature and gravity are known, then mass and age can be reliably determined from evolutionary models. There are twelve dwarfs currently known with H - [4.5] > 3.0, and {approx} 500 < T{sub eff} K {approx}< 800, which we examine in detail. The ages of the dwarfs in the sample range from very young (0.1 - 1.0 Gyr) to relatively old (3 - 12 Gyr). The mass range is possibly as low as 5 Jupiter masses to up to 70 Jupiter masses, i.e. near the hydrogen burning limit. The metallicities also span a large range, from [m/H]= -0.3 to [m/H]= +0.2. The small number of T8 - T9 dwarfs found in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey to date appear to be predominantly young low-mass dwarfs. Accurate mid-infrared photometry of cold brown dwarfs is essentially impossible from the ground, and extensions to the mid-infrared space missions warm-Spitzer and WISE are desirable in order to obtain the vital mid-infrared data for cold brown dwarfs, and to discover more of these rare objects.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, S. K.; Burningham, Ben; Jones, H. R. A.; Lucas, P. W.; Pinfield, D. J.; Saumon, D.; Marley, M. S.; Warren, S. J.; Smart, R. L.; Tamura, Motohide


    We present new Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) photometry of 12 very late-type T dwarfs: nine have [3.6], [4.5], [5.8], and [8.0] photometry and three have [3.6] and [4.5] photometry only. Combining this with previously published photometry, we investigate trends with type and color that are useful for both the planning and interpretation of infrared surveys designed to discover the coldest T or Y dwarfs. The online appendix provides a collation of MKO-system YJHKL'M' and IRAC photometry for a sample of M, L, and T dwarfs. Brown dwarfs with effective temperature (T eff ) below 700 K emit more than half their flux at wavelengths longer than 3 μm, and the ratio of the mid-infrared flux to the near-infrared flux becomes very sensitive to T eff at these low temperatures. We confirm that the color H (1.6 μm) - [4.5] is a good indicator of T eff with a relatively weak dependence on metallicity and gravity. Conversely, the colors H - K (2.2 μm) and [4.5] - [5.8] are sensitive to metallicity and gravity. Thus, near- and mid-infrared photometry provide useful indicators of the fundamental properties of brown dwarfs, and if temperature and gravity are known, then mass and age can be reliably determined from evolutionary models. There are 12 dwarfs currently known with H- [4.5] >3.0, and 500 K ∼ eff ∼<800 K, which we examine in detail. The ages of the dwarfs in the sample range from very young (0.1-1.0 Gyr) to relatively old (3-12 Gyr). The mass range is possibly as low as 5 Jupiter masses to up to 70 Jupiter masses, i.e., near the hydrogen burning limit. The metallicities also span a large range, from [m/H] = -0.3 to [m/H] = +0.3. The small number of T8-T9 dwarfs found in the UK Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey to date appear to be predominantly young low-mass dwarfs. Accurate mid-infrared photometry of cold brown dwarfs is essentially impossible from the ground, and extensions to the mid-infrared space missions, warm-Spitzer and Wide-Field Infrared

  11. All-polymer organic semiconductor laser chips: Parallel fabrication and encapsulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Klinkhammer, Sönke; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner


    Organic semiconductor lasers are of particular interest as tunable visible laser light sources. For bringing those to market encapsulation is needed to ensure practicable lifetimes. Additionally, fabrication technologies suitable for mass production must be used. We introduce all-polymer chips...... comprising encapsulated distributed feedback organic semiconductor lasers. Several chips are fabricated in parallel by thermal nanoimprint of the feedback grating on 4? wafer scale out of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and cyclic olefin copolymer (COC). The lasers consisting of the organic semiconductor...... tris(8- hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) doped with the laser dye 4-dicyanomethylene-2- methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyril)-4H-pyrane (DCM) are hermetically sealed by thermally bonding a polymer lid. The organic thin film is placed in a basin within the substrate and is not in direct contact to the lid...

  12. Broadband tunability of gain-flattened quantum-well semiconductor lasers with an external grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittelstein, M.; Mehuys, D.; Yariv, A.; Sarfaty, R.; Ungar, J.E.


    Semiconductor injection lasers are known to be tunable over a range of order kΒ · T. Quantum-well lasers, in particular, are shown to exhibit flattened, broadband gain spectra at a particular pumping condition. The gain requirement for a grating-tuned external cavity configuration is examined and is applied to a semiconductor quantum-well laser with an optimized length of gain region. The coupled-cavity formalism is employed to examine the conditions for continuous tuning. The possible tuning range of double-heterostructure lasers is compared to that of quantum-well lasers. The predicted broadband tunability of quantum-well lasers is confirmed experimentally by grating-tuning of uncoated lasers exceeding 120 nm, with single, longitudinal mode output power exceeding 300 mW

  13. Design of high-efficiency diffractive optical elements towards ultrafast mid-infrared time-stretched imaging and spectroscopy (United States)

    Xie, Hongbo; Ren, Delun; Wang, Chao; Mao, Chensheng; Yang, Lei


    Ultrafast time stretch imaging offers unprecedented imaging speed and enables new discoveries in scientific research and engineering. One challenge in exploiting time stretch imaging in mid-infrared is the lack of high-quality diffractive optical elements (DOEs), which encode the image information into mid-infrared optical spectrum. This work reports the design and optimization of mid-infrared DOE with high diffraction-efficiency, broad bandwidth and large field of view. Using various typical materials with their refractive indices ranging from 1.32 to 4.06 in ? mid-infrared band, diffraction efficiencies of single-layer and double-layer DOEs have been studied in different wavelength bands with different field of views. More importantly, by replacing the air gap of double-layer DOE with carefully selected optical materials, one optimized ? triple-layer DOE, with efficiency higher than 95% in the whole ? mid-infrared window and field of view greater than ?, is designed and analyzed. This new DOE device holds great potential in ultrafast mid-infrared time stretch imaging and spectroscopy.

  14. Influence of temperature on the spectral characteristics of semiconductor lasers in the visible range (United States)

    Adamov, A. A.; Baranov, M. S.; Khramov, V. N.


    The results of studies on the effect of temperature on the output spectral characteristics of continuous semiconductor lasers of the visible range are presented. The paper presents the results of studying the spectral-optical radiation parameters of semiconductor lasers, their coherence lengths, and the dependence of the position of the spectral peak of the wavelength on temperature. This is necessary for the selection of the most optimal laser in order to use it for medical ophthalmologic diagnosis. The experiment was carried out using semiconductor laser modules based on a laser diode. The spectra were recorded by using a two-channel automated spectral complex based on the MDR-23 monochromator. Spectral dependences on the temperature of semiconductor lasers are obtained, in the range from 300 to 370 K. The possibility of determining the internal damage to the stabilization of laser modules without opening the case is shown, but only with the use of their spectral characteristics. The obtained data allow taking into account temperature characteristics and further optimization of parameters of such lasers when used in medical practice, in particular, in ophthalmologic diagnostics.

  15. Pb{sub 1–x}Eu{sub x}Te alloys (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1) as materials for vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers in the mid-infrared spectral range of 4–5 μm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashkeev, D. A., E-mail:; Selivanov, Yu. G.; Chizhevskii, E. G.; Zasavitskiy, I. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)


    The optical properties of epitaxial layers and heterostructures based on Pb{sub 1–x}Eu{sub x}Te alloys (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1) are analyzed in the context of designing Bragg mirrors and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for the midinfrared spectral range. It is shown that the optimal heteropair for laser microcavities is Pb{sub 1–x}Eu{sub x}Te(x ≈ 0.06)/EuTe. On the basis of this heteropair, highly reflective Bragg mirrors consisting of just three periods and featuring a reflectance of R ⩾ 99.8% at the center of the stop band are grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on BaF{sub 2} (111) substrates. Single-mode optically pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for the 4–5 μm spectral range operating at liquid-nitrogen temperatures are demonstrated.

  16. A study on the optical parts for a semiconductor laser module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jun-Girl; Lee, Dong-Kil; Kim, Yang-Gyu; Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Park, Young-Sik [Korea Photonics Technology Institute, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Kwang-Ho [Hanvit Optoline, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Seung-Goo [COSET, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    A semiconductor laser module consists of a LD (laser diode) chip that generates a laser beam, two cylindrical lenses to collimate the laser beam, a high-reflection mirror to produce a large output by collecting the laser beam, a collimator lens to guide the laser beam to an optical fiber and a protection filter to block reflected laser light that might damage the LD chip. The cylindrical lenses used in a semiconductor laser module are defined as FACs (fast axis collimators) and SACs (slow axis collimators) and are attached to the system module to control the shape of the laser beam. The FAC lens and the SAC lens are made of a glass material to protect the lenses from thermal deformation. In addition, they have aspheric shapes to improve optical performances. This paper presents a mold core grinding process for an asymmetrical aspheric lens and a GMP (glass molding press), what can be used to make aspheric cylindrical lenses for use as FACs or SACs, and a protection filter made by using IAD (ion-beam-assisted deposition). Finally, we developed the aspheric cylindrical lenses and the protection filter for a 10-W semiconductor laser module.

  17. Plastic lab-on-a-chip for fluorescence excitation with integrated organic semiconductor lasers. (United States)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Klinkhammer, Sönke; Lemmer, Uli; Mappes, Timo


    Laser light excitation of fluorescent markers offers highly sensitive and specific analysis for bio-medical or chemical analysis. To profit from these advantages for applications in the field or at the point-of-care, a plastic lab-on-a-chip with integrated organic semiconductor lasers is presented here. First order distributed feedback lasers based on the organic semiconductor tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) doped with the laser dye 4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyril)-4H-pyrane (DCM), deep ultraviolet induced waveguides, and a nanostructured microfluidic channel are integrated into a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate. A simple and parallel fabrication process is used comprising thermal imprint, DUV exposure, evaporation of the laser material, and sealing by thermal bonding. The excitation of two fluorescent marker model systems including labeled antibodies with light emitted by integrated lasers is demonstrated.

  18. Authentication of Whey Protein Powders by Portable Mid-Infrared Spectrometers Combined with Pattern Recognition Analysis. (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Tan, Siow Ying; Mutilangi, William; Aykas, Didem P; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E


    The objective of this study was to develop a simple and rapid method to differentiate whey protein types (WPC, WPI, and WPH) used for beverage manufacturing by combining the spectral signature collected from portable mid-infrared spectrometers and pattern recognition analysis. Whey protein powders from different suppliers are produced using a large number of processing and compositional variables, resulting in variation in composition, concentration, protein structure, and thus functionality. Whey protein powders including whey protein isolates, whey protein concentrates and whey protein hydrolysates were obtained from different suppliers and their spectra collected using portable mid-infrared spectrometers (single and triple reflection) by pressing the powder onto an Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) diamond crystal with a pressure clamp. Spectra were analyzed by soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) generating a classification model showing the ability to differentiate whey protein types by forming tight clusters with interclass distance values of >3, considered to be significantly different from each other. The major bands centered at 1640 and 1580 cm(-1) were responsible for separation and were associated with differences in amide I and amide II vibrations of proteins, respectively. Another important band in whey protein clustering was associated with carboxylate vibrations of acidic amino acids (∼1570 cm(-1)). The use of a portable mid-IR spectrometer combined with pattern recognition analysis showed potential for discriminating whey protein ingredients that can help to streamline the analytical procedure so that it is more applicable for field-based screening of ingredients. A rapid, simple and accurate method was developed to authenticate commercial whey protein products by using portable mid-infrared spectrometers combined with chemometrics, which could help ensure the functionality of whey protein ingredients in food applications. © 2015

  19. Protoplanetary disks around intermediate-mass stars: the asset of imaging in the mid-infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, Coralie


    The accrued efficiency of the instruments in many wavelengths has allowed to show that most young stellar objects were surrounded by circumstellar matter distributed in a disk. Direct imaging of such systems is very difficult because of their narrow angular size and their weak luminosity in comparison with the star. Nowadays, 50 % of low-mass pre-main sequence stars, i.e. T Tauri stars, are surrounded by a disk. This proportion is less obvious for intermediate-mass stars, like Herbig Ae stars, that are less numerous and whose direct disk detection is more difficult. Until now, only the interpretation of the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) of such objects allows to have access to the geometry of the disk. But the solutions are degenerated and several parameters fit the same SED. It is essential to have direct images of the objects, the only evidence of the presence of disks. This PhD allows to show that mid-infrared imaging could rise a part of the degeneracy of the disk's parameters linked to the fit of the SED for several objects and gives constraints on the minimum external radius and inclination of the disk. We present a new observation mode with VISIR, the mid-infrared imager and spectrometer on the VLT (ESO, Chile): the so-called BURST mode. This mode allows to reach the diffraction limit of the telescope. Thanks to mid-infrared imaging with this instrument, we were able, for the first time, to have access to the geometry of a disk (flared structure) around a massive star that was, until now, only deduced from the SED modelling. (author) [fr

  20. Instability of stationary lasing and self-starting mode locking in external-cavity semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetanin, Igor V; Vasil'ev, Petr P


    Parameters of external-cavity semiconductor lasers, when the stationary lasing becomes unstable, were analysed within the framework of a theoretical model of self-starting mode locking. In this case, a train of ultrashort pulses can be generated due to intrinsic nonlinearities of the laser medium. A decisive role of the transverse optical field nonuniformity, pump rate, and gain spectral bandwidth in the development of the instability of stationary lasing was demonstrated. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  1. Periodic dark pulse emission induced by delayed feedback in a quantum well semiconductor laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Li


    Full Text Available We report the experimental observation of periodic dark pulse emission in a quantum-well semiconductor laser with delayed optical feedback. We found that under appropriate operation conditions the laser can also emit a stable train of dark pulses. The repetition frequency of the dark pulse is determined by the external cavity length. Splitting of the dark pulse was also observed. We speculate that the observed dark pulse is a kind of temporal cavity soliton formed in the laser.

  2. Semiconductor lasers with a continuous tuning range above 100 nm in the nearest IR spectral region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostin, Yu O; Lobintsov, A A; Shramenko, M V [OOO ' Opton' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Ladugin, M A; Marmalyuk, A A [Open Joint-Stock Company M.F. Stel' makh Polyus Research Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chamorovsky, A Yu [Superlum Ltd., Unit B3, Fota Point Enterprise Park, Carrigtwohill, Co Cork (Ireland); Yakubovich, S D [Moscow State Institute of Radio-Engineering, Electronics and Automation (Technical University), Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We have developed two new types of lasers based on quantum-confined semiconductor optical amplifiers with an acousto-optic tunable filter in an external fibre ring cavity. The lasers offer continuous wavelength tuning ranges from 780 to 885 and from 880 to 1010 nm, 20 mW of cw output power, and a tuning rate up to 10{sup 4} nm s{sup -1} at an instantaneous spectral linewidth less than 0.1 nm. (lasers)

  3. Optical Activation of Germanium Plasmonic Antennas in the Mid-Infrared (United States)

    Fischer, Marco P.; Schmidt, Christian; Sakat, Emilie; Stock, Johannes; Samarelli, Antonio; Frigerio, Jacopo; Ortolani, Michele; Paul, Douglas J.; Isella, Giovanni; Leitenstorfer, Alfred; Biagioni, Paolo; Brida, Daniele


    Impulsive interband excitation with femtosecond near-infrared pulses establishes a plasma response in intrinsic germanium structures fabricated on a silicon substrate. This direct approach activates the plasmonic resonance of the Ge structures and enables their use as optical antennas up to the mid-infrared spectral range. The optical switching lasts for hundreds of picoseconds until charge recombination redshifts the plasma frequency. The full behavior of the structures is modeled by the electrodynamic response established by an electron-hole plasma in a regular array of antennas.

  4. Synergy Effect of Combining Fluorescence and Mid Infrared Fiber Spectroscopy for Kidney Tumor Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Bogomolov


    Full Text Available Matching pairs of tumor and non-tumor kidney tissue samples of four patients were investigated ex vivo using a combination of two methods, attenuated total reflection mid infrared spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy, through respectively prepared and adjusted fiber probes. In order to increase the data information content, the measurements on tissue samples in both methods were performed in the same 31 preselected positions. Multivariate data analysis revealed a synergic effect of combining the two methods for the diagnostics of kidney tumor compared to individual techniques.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzerolle, James; Flaherty, Kevin; Balog, Zoltan; Smith, Paul S.; Rieke, George H.; Furlan, Elise; Allen, Lori; Muench, August; Calvet, Nuria; D'Alessio, Paola; Megeath, S. Thomas; Sherry, William H.


    We present multi-epoch Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the transitional disk LRLL 31 in the 2-3 Myr old star-forming region IC 348. Our measurements show remarkable mid-infrared variability on timescales as short as one week. The infrared continuum emission exhibits systematic wavelength-dependent changes that suggest corresponding dynamical changes in the inner disk structure and variable shadowing of outer disk material. We propose several possible sources for the structural changes, including a variable accretion rate or a stellar or planetary companion embedded in the disk. Our results indicate that variability studies in the infrared can provide important new constraints on protoplanetary disk behavior.

  6. Prospective for graphene based thermal mid-infrared light emitting devices (United States)

    Lawton, L. M.; Mahlmeister, N. H.; Luxmoore, I. J.; Nash, G. R.


    We have investigated the spatial and spectral characteristics of mid-infrared thermal emission from large area Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) graphene, transferred onto SiO2/Si, and show that the emission is broadly that of a grey-body emitter, with emissivity values of approximately 2% and 6% for mono- and multilayer graphene. For the currents used, which could be sustained for over one hundred hours, the emission peaked at a wavelength of around 4 μm and covered the characteristic absorption of many important gases. A measurable modulation of thermal emission was obtained even when the drive current was modulated at frequencies up to 100 kHz.

  7. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, I: Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieke, G. H.; Wright, G. S.; Böker, T.


    MIRI (the Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope [JWST]) operates from 5 to 28: 5 μm and combines over this range: (1) unprecedented sensitivity levels; (2) subarcsecond angular resolution; (3) freedom from atmospheric interference; (4) the inherent stability of observing...... in space; and (5) a suite of versatile capabilities including imaging, low- and medium-resolution spectroscopy (with an integral field unit), and coronagraphy. We illustrate the potential uses of this unique combination of capabilities with various science examples: (1) imaging exoplanets; (2) transit...

  8. Complementary periodic diffracting metallic nanohole and nanodipole arrays in the mid-infrared range (United States)

    Ye, Yong-Hong; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Feng Ma, Hui; Yao, Jie; Wang, Xudong


    Metallic nanohole arrays and metallic nanodipole arrays are fabricated and experimentally characterized. A complementary response is observed in both transmission and reflection. For the metallic nanohole arrays, a peak (dip) in transmission (reflection) is observed at resonance whereas the metallic nanodipole arrays display a dip (peak) in transmission (reflection). The resonant frequency of both the metallic nanohole arrays and the nanodipole arrays depends on the dipole arm length, the incident angle, and the period. The resonant position of the nanohole arrays matches that of its complement, which means that Babinet's principle nearly holds for these structures in the mid-infrared region.

  9. Experimental control of power dropouts by current modulation in a semiconductor laser with optical feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ticos, Catalin M; Andrei, Ionut R; Pascu, Mihail L; Bulinski, Mircea


    The injection current of an external-cavity semiconductor laser working in a regime of low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs) is modulated at several MHz. The rate of power dropouts in the laser emission is correlated with the amplitude and frequency of the modulating signal. The occurrence of dropouts becomes more regular when the laser is driven at 7 MHz, which is close to the dominant frequency of dropouts in the solitary laser. Driving the laser at 10 MHz also induces dropouts with a periodicity of 0.1 μs, resulting in LFFs with two dominant frequencies.

  10. Laser interferometric method for determining the carrier diffusion length in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manukhov, V. V. [Saint Petersburg State University (Russian Federation); Fedortsov, A. B.; Ivanov, A. S., E-mail: [Saint Petersburg Mining University (Russian Federation)


    A new laser interferometric method for measuring the carrier diffusion length in semiconductors is proposed. The method is based on the interference–absorption interaction of two laser radiations in a semiconductor. Injected radiation generates additional carriers in a semiconductor, which causes a change in the material’s optical constants and modulation of the probing radiation passed through the sample. When changing the distance between carrier generation and probing points, a decrease in the carrier concentration, which depends on the diffusion length, is recorded. The diffusion length is determined by comparing the experimental and theoretical dependences of the probe signal on the divergence of the injector and probe beams. The method is successfully tested on semiconductor samples with different thicknesses and surface states and can be used in scientific research and the electronics industry.

  11. Theory of semiconductor lasers from basis of quantum electronics to analyses of the mode competition phenomena and noise

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, Minoru


    This book provides a unified and complete theory for semiconductor lasers, covering topics ranging from the principles of classical and quantum mechanics to highly advanced levels for readers who need to analyze the complicated operating characteristics generated in the real application of semiconductor lasers.   The author conducts a theoretical analysis especially on the instabilities involved in the operation of semiconductor lasers. A density matrix into the theory for semiconductor lasers is introduced and the formulation of an improved rate equation to help understand the mode competition phenomena which cause the optical external feedback noise is thoroughly described from the basic quantum mechanics. The derivation of the improved rate equation will allow readers to extend the analysis for the different types of semiconductor materials and laser structures they deal with.   This book is intended not only for students and academic researchers but also for engineers who develop lasers for the market, ...

  12. Reduced graphene oxide mid-infrared photodetector at 300 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Gustavo E.; Kim, Jin Ho; Oller, Declan; Xu, Jimmy [School of Engineering, Brown University, Box D, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)


    We report on uncooled mid-infrared photovoltaic responses at 300 K arising in heterojunctions of reduced graphene oxide with p-Si. Two major photoresponse spectral peaks are observed, one in the near infrared starting at 1.1 μm corresponding to electron-hole pair generation in the Si substrate, and another at wavelengths below 2.5 μm, arising from properties of the reduced graphene oxide-Si heterojunction. Our analysis of the current-voltage characteristics at various temperatures suggests that the two materials form a type-II (broken-gap) heterojunction, with a characteristic transition between direct tunneling to field emission, to over-the-barrier excitation with increasing reverse voltage. Illumination was found to affect the onset of the transition between direct tunneling and field-emission, suggesting that the mid infrared response results from the excitation of minority carriers (electrons) from the Si and their collection in the reduced graphene oxide contact. The photoresponse near 1.1 μm showed a time constant at least five times faster than the one at 2.5 μm, which points to surface defects as well as high series resistance and capacitance as potentially limiting factors in this mode of operation. With proper device engineering considerations, these devices could be promising as a graphene-based platform for infrared sensing.

  13. Comparative study of wine tannin classification using Fourier transform mid-infrared spectrometry and sensory analysis. (United States)

    Fernández, Katherina; Labarca, Ximena; Bordeu, Edmundo; Guesalaga, Andrés; Agosin, Eduardo


    Wine tannins are fundamental to the determination of wine quality. However, the chemical and sensorial analysis of these compounds is not straightforward and a simple and rapid technique is necessary. We analyzed the mid-infrared spectra of white, red, and model wines spiked with known amounts of skin or seed tannins, collected using Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) transmission spectroscopy (400-4000 cm(-1)). The spectral data were classified according to their tannin source, skin or seed, and tannin concentration by means of discriminant analysis (DA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) to obtain a probabilistic classification. Wines were also classified sensorially by a trained panel and compared with FT-MIR. SIMCA models gave the most accurate classification (over 97%) and prediction (over 60%) among the wine samples. The prediction was increased (over 73%) using the leave-one-out cross-validation technique. Sensory classification of the wines was less accurate than that obtained with FT-MIR and SIMCA. Overall, these results show the potential of FT-MIR spectroscopy, in combination with adequate statistical tools, to discriminate wines with different tannin levels.

  14. Wireless Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy Sensor Network for Automatic Carbon Dioxide Fertilization in a Greenhouse Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Wang


    Full Text Available In this paper, a wireless mid-infrared spectroscopy sensor network was designed and implemented for carbon dioxide fertilization in a greenhouse environment. A mid-infrared carbon dioxide (CO2 sensor based on non-dispersive infrared (NDIR with the functionalities of wireless communication and anti-condensation prevention was realized as the sensor node. Smart transmission power regulation was applied in the wireless sensor network, according to the Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI, to realize high communication stability and low-power consumption deployment. Besides real-time monitoring, this system also provides a CO2 control facility for manual and automatic control through a LabVIEW platform. According to simulations and field tests, the implemented sensor node has a satisfying anti-condensation ability and reliable measurement performance on CO2 concentrations ranging from 30 ppm to 5000 ppm. As an application, based on the Fuzzy proportional, integral, and derivative (PID algorithm realized on a LabVIEW platform, the CO2 concentration was regulated to some desired concentrations, such as 800 ppm and 1200 ppm, in 30 min with a controlled fluctuation of <±35 ppm in an acre of greenhouse.

  15. Bio-analytical applications of mid-infrared spectroscopy using silver halide fiber-optic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heise, H.M.; Kuepper, L.; Butvina, L.N.


    Infrared-spectroscopy has proved to be a powerful method for the study of various biomedical samples, in particular for in-vitro analysis in the clinical laboratory and for non-invasive diagnostics. In general, the analysis of biofluids such as whole blood, urine, microdialysates and bioreactor broth media takes advantage of the fact that a multitude of analytes can be quantified simultaneously and rapidly without the need for reagents. Progress in the quality of infrared silver halide fibers enabled us to construct several flexible fiber-optic probes of different geometries, which are particularly suitable for the measurement of small biosamples. Recent trends show that dry film measurements by mid-infrared spectroscopy could revolutionize analytical tools in the clinical chemistry laboratory, and an example is given. Infrared diagnostic tools show a promising potential for patients, and minimal-invasive blood glucose assays or skin tissue pathology in particular cannot be left out using mid-infrared fiber-based probes. Other applications include the measurement of skin samples including penetration studies of vitamins and constituents of cosmetic cream formulations. A further field is the micro-domain analysis of biopsy samples from bog mummified corpses, and recent results on the chemistry of dermis and hair samples are reported. Another field of application, for which results are reported, is food analysis and bio-reactor monitoring

  16. Mid-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for determination of tetracycline residues in cow's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Mariel Casarrubias-Torres


    Full Text Available Mid-infrared spectroscopy and chemometric analysis were tested to determine tetracycline's residues in cow's milk. Cow's milk samples (n = 30 were spiked with tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline in the range of 10-400 µg/l. Chemometric models to quantify each of the tetracycline's residues were developed by applying Partial Components Regression and Partial Least Squares algorithms. The Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy model was used to differentiate between pure milk and milk sample with tetracycline residues. The best models for predicting the levels of these antibiotics were obtained using Partial Least Square 1 algorithm (coefficient of determination between 0.997-0.999 and the standard error of calibration from 1.81 to 2.95. The Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy model showed well-separated groups allowing classification of milk samples and milk sample with antibiotics. The obtained results demonstrate the great analytical potential of chemometrics coupled with mid-infrared spectroscopy for the prediction of antibiotic in cow's milk at a concentration of microgram per litre (µg/l. This technique can be used to verify the safety of the milk rapidly and reliably.

  17. Submillisecond mixing in a continuous-flow, microfluidic mixer utilizing mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging detection. (United States)

    Kise, Drew P; Magana, Donny; Reddish, Michael J; Dyer, R Brian


    We report a continuous-flow, microfluidic mixer utilizing mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging detection, with an experimentally determined, submillisecond mixing time. The simple and robust mixer design has the microfluidic channels cut through a polymer spacer that is sandwiched between two IR transparent windows. The mixer hydrodynamically focuses the sample stream with two side flow channels, squeezing it into a thin jet and initiating mixing through diffusion and advection. The detection system generates a mid-infrared hyperspectral absorbance image of the microfluidic sample stream. Calibration of the hyperspectral image yields the mid-IR absorbance spectrum of the sample versus time. A mixing time of 269 μs was measured for a pD jump from 3.2 to above 4.5 in a D2O sample solution of adenosine monophosphate (AMP), which acts as an infrared pD indicator. The mixer was further characterized by comparing experimental results with a simulation of the mixing of an H2O sample stream with a D2O sheath flow, showing good agreement between the two. The IR microfluidic mixer eliminates the need for fluorescence labeling of proteins with bulky, interfering dyes, because it uses the intrinsic IR absorbance of the molecules of interest, and the structural specificity of IR spectroscopy to follow specific chemical changes such as the protonation state of AMP.

  18. Efficiency of soft tissue incision with a novel 445-nm semiconductor laser. (United States)

    Braun, Andreas; Kettner, Moritz; Berthold, Michael; Wenzler, Johannes-Simon; Heymann, Paul Günther Baptist; Frankenberger, Roland


    Using a 445-nm semiconductor laser for tissue incision, an effective cut is expected due to the special absorption properties of blue laser light in soft tissues. The aim of the present study was the histological evaluation of tissue samples after incision with a 445-nm diode laser. Forty soft tissue specimens were obtained from pork oral mucosa and mounted on a motorized linear translation stage. The handpiece of a high-frequency surgery device, a 970-nm semiconductor laser, and a 445-nm semiconductor laser were connected to the slide, allowing a constant linear movement (2 mm/s) and the same distance of the working tip to the soft tissue's surface. Four incisions were made each: (I) 970-nm laser with conditioned fiber tip, contact mode at 3-W cw; (II-III): 445-nm laser with non-conditioned fiber tip, contact mode at 2-W cw, and non-contact mode (1 mm) at 2 W; and (IV): high-frequency surgery device with straight working tip, 90° angulation, contact mode at 50 W. Histological analysis was performed after H&E staining of the embedded specimens at 35-fold magnification. The comparison of the incision depths showed a significant difference depending on the laser wavelength and the selected laser parameters. The highest incision depth was achieved with the 445-nm laser contact mode (median depth 0.61 mm, min 0.26, max 1.17, interquartile range 0.58) (p laser, a higher cutting efficiency can be expected when compared with a 970-nm diode laser and high-frequency surgery. Even the 445-nm laser application in non-contact mode shows clinically acceptable incision depths without signs of extensive soft tissue denaturation.

  19. Frequency locking, quasiperiodicity, subharmonic bifurcations and chaos in high frequency modulated stripe geometry DH semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yiguang


    The method of obtaining self-consistent solutions of the field equation and the rate equations of photon density and carrier concentration has been used to study frequecny locking, quasiperiodicity, subharmonic bifurcations and chaos in high frequency modulated stripe geometry DH semiconductor lasers. The results show that the chaotic behavior arises in self-pulsing stripe geometry semiconductor lasers. The route to chaos is not period-double, but quasiperiodicity to chaos. All of the results agree with the experiments. Some obscure points in previous theory about chaos have been cleared up

  20. Mode-Locked Semiconductor Lasers for Optical Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten; Larsson, David; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo


    We present investigations on 10 and 40 GHz monolithic mode-locked lasers for applications in optical communications systems. New all-active lasers with one to three quantum wells have been designed, fabricated and characterized....

  1. Modification of semiconductor materials using laser-produced ion streams additionally accelerated in the electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinski, M.; Badziak, B.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Pisarek, M.


    The laser-produced ion stream may be attractive for direct ultra-low-energy ion implantation in thin layer of semiconductor for modification of electrical and optical properties of semiconductor devices. Application of electrostatic fields for acceleration and formation of laser-generated ion stream enables to control the ion stream parameters in broad energy and current density ranges. It also permits to remove the useless laser-produced ions from the ion stream designed for implantation. For acceleration of ions produced with the use of a low fluence repetitive laser system (Nd:glass: 2 Hz, pulse duration: 3.5 ns, pulse energy:∼0.5 J, power density: 10 10 W/cm 2 ) in IPPLM the special electrostatic system has been prepared. The laser-produced ions passing through the diaphragm (a ring-shaped slit in the HV box) have been accelerated in the system of electrodes. The accelerating voltage up to 40 kV, the distance of the diaphragm from the target, the diaphragm diameter and the gap width were changed for choosing the desired parameters (namely the energy band of the implanted ions) of the ion stream. The characteristics of laser-produced Ge ion streams were determined with the use of precise ion diagnostic methods, namely: electrostatic ion energy analyser and various ion collectors. The laser-produced and post-accelerated Ge ions have been used for implantation into semiconductor materials for nanocrystal fabrication. The characteristics of implanted samples were measured using AES

  2. All solid state mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy platform based on QCL technology (United States)

    Hugi, Andreas; Geiser, Markus; Villares, Gustavo; Cappelli, Francesco; Blaser, Stephane; Faist, Jérôme


    We develop a spectroscopy platform for industrial applications based on semiconductor quantum cascade laser (QCL) frequency combs. The platform's key features will be an unmatched combination of bandwidth of 100 cm-1, resolution of 100 kHz, speed of ten to hundreds of μs as well as size and robustness, opening doors to beforehand unreachable markets. The sensor can be built extremely compact and robust since the laser source is an all-electrically pumped semiconductor optical frequency comb and no mechanical elements are required. However, the parallel acquisition of dual-comb spectrometers comes at the price of enormous data-rates. For system scalability, robustness and optical simplicity we use free-running QCL combs. Therefore no complicated optical locking mechanisms are required. To reach high signal-to-noise ratios, we develop an algorithm, which is based on combination of coherent and non-coherent averaging. This algorithm is specifically optimized for free-running and small footprint, therefore high-repetition rate, comb sources. As a consequence, our system generates data-rates of up to 3.2 GB/sec. These data-rates need to be reduced by several orders of magnitude in real-time in order to be useful for spectral fitting algorithms. We present the development of a data-treatment solution, which reaches a single-channel throughput of 22% using a standard laptop-computer. Using a state-of-the art desktop computer, the throughput is increased to 43%. This is combined with a data-acquisition board to a stand-alone data processing unit, allowing real-time industrial process observation and continuous averaging to achieve highest signal fidelity.

  3. Simultaneous generation of tunable giant dispersive waves in the visible and mid-infrared regions based on photonic crystal fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lei; Yang, Si-Gang; Chen, Hong-Wei; Chen, Ming-Hua; Xie, Shi-Zhong; Han, Ying


    Cherenkov radiation (CR) in both the visible and mid-infrared regions is simultaneously generated experimentally based on a photonic crystal fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths. The generation of CR in the visible region originates from solitons located in the anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD) regime which are perturbed by positive third order dispersion. Conversely, the generation of CR in the mid-infrared region requires that the solitons in the anomalous GVD regime are perturbed by negative third order dispersion. The peak wavelength of the CR in the visible region can be tuned from 498 to 425 nm by increasing the average input pump power from 70 to 400 mW, while the peak wavelength of the CR in the mid-infrared region can be tuned from 1986 to 2279 nm by increasing the average input pump power from 70 to 320 mW. (paper)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennesson, B.; Serabyn, E.; Colavita, M. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena CA 91109-8099 (United States); Absil, O. [Departement d' Astrophysique, Geophysique et Oceanographie, Universite de Liege, 17 Allee du Six Aout, B-4000 Sart Tilman (Belgium); Lebreton, J.; Augereau, J.-C. [IPAG, UMR 5274, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Millan-Gabet, R. [Michelson Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena CA 91125 (United States); Liu, W. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hinz, P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Thebault, P. [Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, F-92195 Meudon Principal Cedex (France)


    We report on high-contrast mid-infrared observations of Fomalhaut obtained with the Keck Interferometer Nuller (KIN) showing a small resolved excess over the level expected from the stellar photosphere. The measured null excess has a mean value of 0.35% {+-} 0.10% between 8 and 11 {mu}m and increases from 8 to 13 {mu}m. Given the small field of view of the instrument, the source of this marginal excess must be contained within 2 AU of Fomalhaut. This result is reminiscent of previous VLTI K-band ({approx_equal}2{mu}m) observations, which implied the presence of a {approx}0.88% excess, and argued that thermal emission from hot dusty grains located within 6 AU from Fomalhaut was the most plausible explanation. Using a parametric two-dimensional radiative transfer code and a Bayesian analysis, we examine different dust disk structures to reproduce both the near- and mid-infrared data simultaneously. While not a definitive explanation of the hot excess of Fomalhaut, our model suggests that the most likely inner few AU disk geometry consists of a two-component structure, with two different and spatially distinct grain populations. The 2-11 {mu}m data are consistent with an inner hot ring of very small ({approx_equal}10-300 nm) carbon-rich grains concentrating around 0.1 AU. The second dust population-inferred from the KIN data at longer mid-infrared wavelengths-consists of larger grains (size of a few microns to a few tens of microns) located further out in a colder region where regular astronomical silicates could survive, with an inner edge around 0.4 AU-1 AU. From a dynamical point of view, the presence of the inner concentration of submicron-sized grains is surprising, as such grains should be expelled from the inner planetary system by radiation pressure within only a few years. This could either point to some inordinate replenishment rates (e.g., many grazing comets coming from an outer reservoir) or to the existence of some braking mechanism preventing the grains

  5. Dual-channel operation in a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator for the generation of broadband mid-infrared coherent light sources. (United States)

    Liu, Pei; Wang, Sicong; He, Puyuan; Zhang, Zhaowei


    We report, to the best of our knowledge, a novel approach for generating broadband mid-infrared (mid-IR) light by implementing a dual-channel scheme in a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (SPOPO). Two-channel operation was achieved by inserting a prism pair and two reflection mirrors inside an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) cavity. Pumped by a Yb-fiber laser, the OPO generated an idler wave at ∼3150  nm with a -10  dB bandwidth of ∼13.2  THz, which was twice as much as that of the pump source. This scheme represents a promising technical route to transform conventional SPOPOs into a device capable of generating mid-IR light with very broad instantaneous bandwidth.

  6. The growth of mid-infrared emitting InAsSb/InAsP strained-layer superlattices using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biefeld, R.M.; Allerman, A.A.; Kurtz, S.R.; Burkhart, J.H.


    We describe the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition os InAsSb/InAsP strained-layer superlattice (SLS) active regions for use in mid-infrared emitters. These SLSs were grown at 500 degrees C, and 200 torr in a horizontal quartz reactor using trimethylindium, triethylantimony, AsH 3 , and PH 3 . By changing the layer thickness and composition we have prepared structures with low temperature (≤20K) photoluminescence wavelengths ranging from 3.2 to 5.0 μm. Excellent performance was observed for an SLS light emitting diode (LED) and both optically pumped and electrically injected SLS layers. An InAsSb/InAsP SLS injection laser emitted at 3.3 μm at 80 K with peak power of 100 mW

  7. Broadband mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in novel As2Se3-As2Se2 S step-index fibers (United States)

    Wang, Yingying; Dai, Shixun; Han, Xin; Zhang, Peiqing; Liu, Yongxing; Wang, Xunsi; Sun, Shaochao


    We experimentally demonstrate the mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a chalcogenide step-index fiber consisting of an As2Se3 core and an As2Se2 S cladding. The fiber with the core diameter of 21 μm was fabricated through the rod-in-tube technique and fiber-drawing process. The effect of pump wavelength, fiber length, and pump power on the spectral bandwidth and output power of the supercontinuum spectra generated from the fiber pumped by the ultrashort pulses of ∼ 150 fs with a repetition rate of 1000 Hz was systematically investigated. When pumping a 12-cm-long fiber at a wavelength of 6 . 5 μm with 14 mW pump laser power, a broadband supercontinuum spanning from 2 . 0 μm to 12 . 7 μm with an output power of 300 μW was obtained.

  8. Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 12.5μm in large NA chalcogenide step-index fibres pumped at 4.5μm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubat, Irnis; Agger, Christian; Møller, Uffe Visbech


    We present numerical modeling of mid-infrared (MIR) supercontinuum generation (SCG) in dispersion-optimized chalcogenide (CHALC) step-index fibres (SIFs) with exceptionally high numerical aperture (NA) around one, pumped with mode-locked praseodymium-doped (Pr3+) chalcogenide fibre lasers. The 4...... for the highest NA considered but required pumping at 4.7kW as well as up to 3m of fibre to compensate for the lower nonlinearities. The amount of power converted into the 8-10 μm band was 7.5 and 8.8mW for the 8 and 10μm fibres, respectively. For the 20μm core fibres up to 46mW was converted....

  9. Theory for passive mode-locking in semiconductor laser structures including the effects of self-phase modulation, dispersion and pulse collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koumans, R.G.M.P.; Roijen, van R.


    We present a theory for passive mode-locking in semiconductor laser structures using a semiconductor laser amplifier and absorber. The mode-locking system is described in terms of the different elements in the semiconductor laser structure. We derive mode-locking conditions and show how other

  10. Fiber optical laser spot microscope: A new concept for photoelectrochemical characterization of semiconductor electrodes


    Carlsson, Per; Holmström, Bertil; Uosaki, Kohei; Kita, Hideaki


    A fiber optical laser spot microscope, which allows the simultaneous measurements of photocurrent and reflected light intensity or the measurement of laser spot photocurrent under the illumination of other light sources, has been developed to study semiconductor/electrolyte interfaces. The capability of this microscope was demonstrated on as-cleaved and Pt-treated p-InSe. The Pt treatment increased the photocurrent and improved the lateral resolution due to the increase of surface reaction ra...

  11. Mode-Locking in Broad-Area Semiconductor Lasers Enhanced by Picosecond-Pulse Injection


    Kaiser, J; Fischer, I; Elsasser, W; Gehrig, E; Hess, O


    We present combined experimental and theoretical investigations of the picosecond emission dynamics of broad-area semiconductor lasers (BALs). We enhance the weak longitudinal self-mode-locking that is inherent to BALs by injecting a single optical 50-ps pulse, which triggers the output of a distinct regular train of 13-ps pulses. Modeling based on multimode Maxwell-Bloch equations illustrates how the dynamic interaction of the injected pulse with the internal laser field efficiently couples ...

  12. Bistability and self-oscillations effects in a polariton-laser semiconductor microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotta, E A; Matinaga, F M


    We report an experimental observation of polaritonic optical bistability of the laser emission in a planar semiconductor microcavity with a 100 0 A GaAs single quantum well in the strong-coupling regime. The bistability curves show crossings that indicate a competition between a Kerr-like effect induced by the polariton population and thermal effects. Associated with the bistability, laser-like emission occurs at the bare cavity mode

  13. Dielectric properties of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the terahertz and mid-infrared range (United States)

    Thomson, Mark D.; Zouaghi, Wissem; Meng, Fanqi; Wiecha, Matthias M.; Rabia, Kaneez; Heinlein, Thorsten; Hussein, Laith; Babu, Deepu; Yadav, Sandeep; Engstler, Jörg; Schneider, Jörg J.; Nicoloso, Norbert; Rychetský, Ivan; Kužel, Petr; Roskos, Hartmut G.


    We investigate the broadband dielectric properties of vertically aligned, multi-wall carbon nanotubes (VACNT), over both the terahertz (THz) and mid-infrared spectral ranges. The nominally undoped, metallic VACNT samples are probed at normal incidence, i.e. the response is predominantly due to polarisation perpendicular to the CNT axis. A detailed comparison of various conductivity models and previously reported results is presented for the non-Drude behaviour we observe in the conventional THz range (up to 2.5 THz). Extension to the mid-infrared range reveals an absorption peak at \

  14. Yb-fiber-pumped mid-infrared picosecond optical parametric oscillator tunable across 6.2-6.7 µm (United States)

    Kumar, S. Chaitanya; Casals, J. Canals; Parsa, S.; Zawilski, K. T.; Schunemann, P. G.; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M.


    We report a high-average-power picosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) tunable in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) based on CdSiP2 synchronously pumped by an Yb-fiber laser at 80 MHz repetition rate. Successful operation of this high-repetition-rate singly-resonant picosecond OPO has been enabled by the improved CSP crystal quality over a long interaction length. The OPO can be tuned across 1264-1284 nm in the near-IR signal and 6205-6724 nm in the mid-IR idler by temperature tuning the CSP crystal over 39-134 °C. By deploying a 5% output coupler for the resonant signal, we have extracted up to 44 mW of average power in the near-IR and up to 95 mW of non-resonant idler power at 6205 nm at 6.3% total conversion efficiency, with > 50 mW over > 55% of the mid-IR tuning range. We have investigated temperature-tuning characteristics of the OPO and compared the data with the theoretical calculations using the recent Sellmeier and thermo-optic coefficients for CdSiP2. The signal pulses from the OPO exhibit a Gaussian pulse duration of 19 ps centered at 1284 nm. We have also studied the output power stability of the OPO, resulting in a passive stability better than 1.9% rms for the near-IR signal and 2.4% rms for the mid-IR idler, measured over > 17 h, with both beams in high spatial quality.

  15. Mid-infrared optical properties of chalcogenide glasses within tin-antimony-selenium ternary system. (United States)

    Lin, Ruiqiang; Chen, Feifei; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Huang, Yicong; Song, Baoan; Dai, Shixun; Zhang, Xianghua; Ji, Wei


    In this work, we investigated the mid-infrared (MIR) optical properties of selenide (Se-based) chalcogenide glasses (ChGs) within an As- and Ge-free system, namely the environment-friendly and low-cost tin-antimony-selenium (Sn-Sb-Se, SSS) ternary system, which has not been systematically studied to the best of our knowledge. As compared to ChGs within those conventional Se-based systems, SSS ChGs were found to exhibit extended infrared transmittance range as well as larger linear refractive index (n 0 ). Femtosecond Z-scan measurements show the presence of evident three-photon absorption from Urbach absorption of the SSS ChGs at MIR wavelength, which resonantly enhanced the nonlinear refractive behavior and resulted in large nonlinear refractive index (n 2 ).

  16. Extraordinary mid-infrared transmission of subwavelength holes in gold films

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng; Wang, Zhihong; Yang, Yang; Chen, Longqing; Syed, Ahad A.; Wang, Xianbin


    Gold (Au) nanoholes are fabricated with electron-beam lithography and used for the investigation of extraordinary transmission in mid-infrared regime. Transmission properties of the nanoholes are studied as the dependence on hole-size. Transmittance spectra are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and enhanced transmittance through the subwavelength holes is observed. The transmission spectra exhibit well-defined maximum and minimum of which the position are determined by the lattice of the hole array. The hole-size primarily influence the transmission intensity and bandwidth of the resonance peak. With an increase of hole-size, while keep lattice constant fixed, the intensity of the resonance peak and the bandwidth increases, which are due to the localized surface plasmons. Numerical simulation for the transmission through the subwavelength holes is performed and the simulated results agree with the experimental observations. Copyright © 2014 American Scientific Publishers.

  17. Mid-Infrared Spectrum of the Zodiacal Emission: Detection of Crystalline Silicates in Interplanetary Dust (United States)

    Ootsubo, T.; Onaka, T.; Yamamura, I.; Ishihara, D.; Tanabe, T.; Roellig, T. L.


    Within a few astronomical units of the Sun the solar system is filled with interplanetary dust, which is believed to be dust of cometary and asteroidal origin. Spectroscopic observations of the zodiacal emission with moderate resolution provide key information on the composition and size distribution of the dust in the interplanetary space. They can be compared directly to laboratory measurements of candidate materials, meteorites, and dust particles collected in the stratosphere. Recently mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of the zodiacal emission have been made by two instruments on board the Infrared Space Observatory; the camera (ISOCAM) and the spectrophotometer (ISOPHOT-S). A broad excess emission feature in the 9-11 micron range is reported in the ISOCAM spectrum, whereas the ISOPHOT-S spectra in 6-12 microns can be well fitted by a blackbody radiation without spectral features.

  18. Visible and Mid-Infrared Gypsum Optical Constants for Modeling of Martian Deposits (United States)

    Roush, Ted L.; Esposito, Francesca; Rossmann, George R.; Colangeli, Luigi


    Introduction: Recent and on-going remote and in situ observations indicate that sulfates are present in significant abundances at various locations on Mars [1-7]. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) imaging spectrometer (CRISM) is returning hyperspectral data at higher spatial resolution [8] than the OMEGA instrument on the Mars Express Mission [3]. Data from both OMEGA and CRISM have provided spectral evidence for the presence of gypsum and various hydrated sulfates on the Martian surface [e.g. 3-7] Thus, the optical properties of sulfates, in general, are of interest to quantitative interpretation of this increasing volume of remotely sensed data. This is because optical constants describe how a material interacts with electromagnetic radiation and represent the fundamental values used in radiative transfer calculations describing a variety of physical environments. Such environments include atmospheres where aerosols are present, planetary and satellite regoliths, and circumstellar dust clouds. Here we focus upon gypsum because of its applicability due to its identification on Mars. Also, gypsum is a mineral that is readily available in samples sizes that are suitable for study using a variety of spectral measurements. In the infrared (>5 μm) several studies reporting the optical constants of gypsum can be used in evaluating the approach used here. Most importantly, there is a general lack of data regarding the optical constants for gypsum at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths (0.4-5 μm) that are being observed by OMEGA and CRISM. Background: In the infrared, there have been several studies focused at determining the optical constants of gypsum using classical dispersion models [9-11]. These have used a variety of samples including; crystals, compressed pellets of pure materials, and grains suspended in a KBr matrix. Spectral measurements of gypsum, and other sulfates, have existed for about 100 years at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths (0.4-5 μm) [e


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisari, Nora E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kelson, Daniel D., E-mail: [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Science, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)


    We study the mid-infrared color space of 30 galaxies from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) survey for which Sloan Digital Sky Survey data are also available. We construct two-color maps for each galaxy and compare them to results obtained from combining Maraston evolutionary synthesis models, galactic thermally pulsating asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) colors, and smooth star formation histories. For most of the SINGS sample, the spatially extended mid-IR emission seen by Spitzer in normal galaxies is consistent with our simple model in which circumstellar dust from TP-AGB stars dominates at 8 and 24 {mu}m. There is a handful of exceptions that we identify as galaxies that have high star formation rates presumably with star formation histories that cannot be assumed to be smooth, or anemic galaxies, which were depleted of their H I at some point during their evolution and have very low ongoing star formation rates.

  20. Extraordinary mid-infrared transmission of subwavelength holes in gold films

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng


    Gold (Au) nanoholes are fabricated with electron-beam lithography and used for the investigation of extraordinary transmission in mid-infrared regime. Transmission properties of the nanoholes are studied as the dependence on hole-size. Transmittance spectra are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and enhanced transmittance through the subwavelength holes is observed. The transmission spectra exhibit well-defined maximum and minimum of which the position are determined by the lattice of the hole array. The hole-size primarily influence the transmission intensity and bandwidth of the resonance peak. With an increase of hole-size, while keep lattice constant fixed, the intensity of the resonance peak and the bandwidth increases, which are due to the localized surface plasmons. Numerical simulation for the transmission through the subwavelength holes is performed and the simulated results agree with the experimental observations. Copyright © 2014 American Scientific Publishers.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chisari, Nora E.; Kelson, Daniel D.


    We study the mid-infrared color space of 30 galaxies from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) survey for which Sloan Digital Sky Survey data are also available. We construct two-color maps for each galaxy and compare them to results obtained from combining Maraston evolutionary synthesis models, galactic thermally pulsating asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) colors, and smooth star formation histories. For most of the SINGS sample, the spatially extended mid-IR emission seen by Spitzer in normal galaxies is consistent with our simple model in which circumstellar dust from TP-AGB stars dominates at 8 and 24 μm. There is a handful of exceptions that we identify as galaxies that have high star formation rates presumably with star formation histories that cannot be assumed to be smooth, or anemic galaxies, which were depleted of their H I at some point during their evolution and have very low ongoing star formation rates.

  2. Resonance control of mid-infrared metamaterials using arrays of split-ring resonator pairs

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng


    We present our design, fabrication and characterization of resonance-controllable metamaterials operating at mid-infrared wavelengths. The metamaterials are composed of pairs of back-to-back or face-to-face U-shape split-ring resonators (SRRs). Transmission spectra of the metamaterials are measured using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the transmission resonance is dependent on the distance between the two SRRs in each SRR pair. The dips in the transmission spectrum shift to shorter wavelengths with increasing distance between the two SRRs for both the back-to-back and face-to-face SRR pairs. The position of the resonance dips in the spectrum can hence be controlled by the relative position of the SRRs. This mechanism of resonance control offers a promising way of developing metamaterials with tunability for optical filters and bio/chemical sensing devices in integrated nano-optics.

  3. Conceptual thermal design and analysis of a far-infrared/mid-infrared remote sensing instrument (United States)

    Roettker, William A.


    This paper presents the conceptual thermal design and analysis results for the Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere using Far-Infrared Emission (SAFIRE) instrument. SAFIRE has been proposed for Mission to Planet Earth to study ozone chemistry in the middle atmosphere using remote sensing of the atmosphere in the far-infrared (21-87 microns) and mid-infrared (9-16 microns) spectra. SAFIRE requires that far-IR detectors be cooled to 3-4 K and mid-IR detectors to 80 K for the expected mission lifetime of five years. A superfluid helium dewar and Stirling-cycle cryocoolers provide the cryogenic temperatures required by the infrared detectors. The proposed instrument thermal design uses passive thermal control techniques to reject 465 watts of waste heat from the instrument.

  4. Resonance control of mid-infrared metamaterials using arrays of split-ring resonator pairs

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng; Wang, Zhihong; Whittaker, John; Schedin, Fredrik; Wu, Zhipeng; Han, Jiaguang


    We present our design, fabrication and characterization of resonance-controllable metamaterials operating at mid-infrared wavelengths. The metamaterials are composed of pairs of back-to-back or face-to-face U-shape split-ring resonators (SRRs). Transmission spectra of the metamaterials are measured using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the transmission resonance is dependent on the distance between the two SRRs in each SRR pair. The dips in the transmission spectrum shift to shorter wavelengths with increasing distance between the two SRRs for both the back-to-back and face-to-face SRR pairs. The position of the resonance dips in the spectrum can hence be controlled by the relative position of the SRRs. This mechanism of resonance control offers a promising way of developing metamaterials with tunability for optical filters and bio/chemical sensing devices in integrated nano-optics.

  5. The influence of melt purification and structure defects on mid-infrared light emitting diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Krier, A


    Mid-infrared light emitting diodes which exhibit more than 7 mW (pulsed) and 0.35 mW dc output power at 3.3 mu m and at room temperature have been fabricated by liquid phase epitaxy using Pb as a neutral solvent. Using Pb solution an increase in pulsed output power of between two and three times was obtained compared with InAs light emitting diodes (LEDs) made using rare-earth gettering. The performance improvements were attributed to a reduction in residual carrier concentration arising from the removal of un-intentional donors and structure defects in the InAs active region material. These LEDs are well matched to the CH sub 4 absorption spectrum and potentially could form the basis of a practical infrared CH sub 4 gas sensor.

  6. Mid-infrared fiber-coupled supercontinuum spectroscopic imaging using a tapered chalcogenide photonic crystal fiber (United States)

    Rosenberg Petersen, Christian; Prtljaga, Nikola; Farries, Mark; Ward, Jon; Napier, Bruce; Lloyd, Gavin Rhys; Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Stone, Nick; Bang, Ole


    We present the first demonstration of mid-infrared spectroscopic imaging of human tissue using a fiber-coupled supercontinuum source spanning from 2-7.5 μm. The supercontinuum was generated in a tapered large mode area chalcogenide photonic crystal fiber in order to obtain broad bandwidth, high average power, and single-mode output for good imaging properties. Tissue imaging was demonstrated in transmission by raster scanning over a sub-mm region of paraffinized colon tissue on CaF2 substrate, and the signal was measured using a fiber-coupled grating spectrometer. This demonstration has shown that we can distinguish between epithelial and surrounding connective tissues within a paraffinized section of colon tissue by imaging at discrete wavelengths related to distinct chemical absorption features.

  7. Validation of mid-infrared spectroscopy for macronutrient analysis of human milk. (United States)

    Parat, S; Groh-Wargo, S; Merlino, S; Wijers, C; Super, D M


    Human milk has considerable variation in its composition. Hence, the nutrient profile is only an estimate and can result in under- or over-estimation of the intake of preterm infants. Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy is an evolving technique for analyzing human milk but needs validation before use in clinical practice. Human milk samples from 35 mothers delivering at 35 weeks to term gestation were analyzed for macronutrients by MIR spectroscopy and by standard laboratory methods using Kjeldahl assay for protein, Mojonnier assay for fat and high-pressure liquid chromatography assay for lactose. MIR analysis of the macronutrients in human milk correlated well with standard laboratory tests with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.997 for fat, 0.839 for protein and 0.776 for lactose. Agreement between the two methods was excellent for fat, and moderate for protein and lactose (Pmilk. Agreement between the methodologies varies by macronutrient.

  8. Prospective for graphene based thermal mid-infrared light emitting devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Lawton


    Full Text Available We have investigated the spatial and spectral characteristics of mid-infrared thermal emission from large area Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD graphene, transferred onto SiO2/Si, and show that the emission is broadly that of a grey-body emitter, with emissivity values of approximately 2% and 6% for mono- and multilayer graphene. For the currents used, which could be sustained for over one hundred hours, the emission peaked at a wavelength of around 4 μm and covered the characteristic absorption of many important gases. A measurable modulation of thermal emission was obtained even when the drive current was modulated at frequencies up to 100 kHz.

  9. Using low-loss phase-change materials for mid-infrared antenna resonance tuning. (United States)

    Michel, Ann-Katrin U; Chigrin, Dmitry N; Maß, Tobias W W; Schönauer, Kathrin; Salinga, Martin; Wuttig, Matthias; Taubner, Thomas


    We show tuning of the resonance frequency of aluminum nanoantennas via variation of the refractive index n of a layer of phase-change material. Three configurations have been considered, namely, with the antennas on top of, inside, and below the layer. Phase-change materials offer a huge index change upon the structural transition from the amorphous to the crystalline state, both stable at room temperature. Since the imaginary part of their permittivity is negligibly small in the mid-infrared spectral range, resonance damping is avoided. We present resonance shifting to lower as well as to higher wavenumbers with a maximum shift of 19.3% and a tuning figure of merit, defined as the resonance shift divided by the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the resonance peak, of 1.03.

  10. Digitally tunable dual wavelength emission from semiconductor ring lasers with filtered optical feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoder, Mulham; Verschaffelt, Guy; Nguimdo, Romain Modeste; Danckaert, Jan; Leijtens, Xaveer; Bolk, Jeroen


    We report on a novel integrated approach to obtain dual wavelength emission from a semiconductor laser based on on-chip filtered optical feedback. Using this approach, we show experiments and numerical simulations of dual wavelength emission of a semiconductor ring laser. The filtered optical feedback is realized on-chip by employing two arrayed waveguide gratings to split/recombine light into different wavelength channels. Semiconductor optical amplifiers are placed in the feedback loop in order to control the feedback strength of each wavelength channel independently. By tuning the current injected into each of the amplifiers, we can effectively cancel the gain difference between the wavelength channels due to fabrication and material dichroism, thus resulting in stable dual wavelength emission. We also explore the accuracy needed in the operational parameters to maintain this dual wavelength emission. (letter)

  11. Laser action on rare earth doped nitride semiconductor thin layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oussif, A.; Diaf, M.


    Complete text of publication follows. The structure, chemical composition, properties, and their relationships in solids lay the foundation of materials science. Recently, great interest in rare-earth (RE)-doped wide-bandgap semiconductors, which combine the electronic properties of semiconductors with the unique luminescence features of RE ions, is from the fundamental standpoint of structure-composition-properties of solids. At first, a significant amount of work has been reported on the study of infrared emissions from Er 3+- doped semiconductors because Er 3+ exhibits luminescence at 1.54 μm, a wavelength used in optical communications. Since Steckl and Birkhahn first reported visible emission associated with Er from GaN:Er films, the RE-doped semiconductors have received considerable interest for possible application in light emitting devices. Molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) and metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) have been used mainly to grow GaN host films. The RE dopants were typically incorporated into the host films by in situ doping during the growth or by ion implantation after the growth. GaN doped with rare-earth elements (RE) hold significant potential for applications in optical devices, since they show sharp intense luminescence which is only minimally affected by temperature variations. Among the various RE dopants, Eu seems to be the most interesting, since it yields red luminescence 622 nm which has not been realized in commercially available light emitting devices (LEDs) that use InGaN active layers. We have earlier reported single crystalline growth of Eu-doped GaN and nearly temperature independent red luminescence at 622 nm originating from the intra-4f-4f transition of the Eu 3+ ion. The red luminescence was analyzed and determined to be generated through trap-level-mediated energy transfer from the semiconductor host.

  12. High spatial resolution observations of the T Tau system - II. Interferometry in the mid-infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratzka, Thorsten


    Each time the resolution was improved, observations of the young low-mass star T Tau led to new insights. Initially classified as the prototype of low-mass pre-main-sequence stars, measurements with high resolution techniques in the near-infrared revealed the existence of a deeply embedded companion only 0.7 arcsec to the south. Later on, this companion itself has been resolved into two sources with a separation of only about 50 mas. We investigated both the optically bright northern component and the embedded southern binary with the MID-infrared Interferometric instrument (MIDI). The resulting visibilities of the northern component decrease with wavelength, independent of the baseline's position angle. This is a clear sign of the large face-on circumstellar disc. With a simultaneous fit of a radiative transfer model to both the interferometric results and the spectral energy distribution, the properties of this disc can be determined without the high degeneracy of fits to the spectral energy distribution alone. Since the visibilities of the southern binary are clearly dominated by the typical sinusoidal binary signal, we could for the first time in the mid-infrared derive separate spectra for both components together with a very precise relative position. This position is in excellent agreement with the orbit found from a fit to the near-infrared adaptive optics measurements. The orbit with its small periastron distance indicates tidally truncated discs, which are consistent with the interferometric measurements. The peculiar properties of the infrared companion can be explained by the model of an intermediate mass star extincted by an almost edge-on disc.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluver, M. E.; Ogle, P.; Guillard, P.; Appleton, P. N.; Jarrett, T. H.; Rasmussen, J.; Lisenfeld, U.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Antonucci, R.; Bitsakis, T.; Charmandaris, V.; Boulanger, F.; Egami, E.; Xu, C. K.; Yun, M. S.


    We present results from a Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopy study of a sample of 74 galaxies located in 23 Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs), chosen to be at a dynamically active stage of H I depletion. We find evidence for enhanced warm H 2 emission (i.e., above that associated with UV excitation in star-forming regions) in 14 galaxies (∼20%), with 8 galaxies having extreme values of L(H 2 S(0)-S(3))/L(7.7 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon), in excess of 0.07. Such emission has been seen previously in the compact group HCG 92 (Stephan's Quintet), and was shown to be associated with the dissipation of mechanical energy associated with a large-scale shock caused when one group member collided, at high velocity, with tidal debris in the intragroup medium. Similarly, shock excitation or turbulent heating is likely responsible for the enhanced H 2 emission in the compact group galaxies, since other sources of heating (UV or X-ray excitation from star formation or active galactic nuclei) are insufficient to account for the observed emission. The group galaxies fall predominantly in a region of mid-infrared color-color space identified by previous studies as being connected to rapid transformations in HCG galaxy evolution. Furthermore, the majority of H 2 -enhanced galaxies lie in the optical ''green valley'' between the blue cloud and red sequence, and are primarily early-type disk systems. We suggest that H 2 -enhanced systems may represent a specific phase in the evolution of galaxies in dense environments and provide new insight into mechanisms which transform galaxies onto the optical red sequence.

  14. Welcome to the Twilight Zone: The Mid-infrared Properties of Post-starburst Galaxies (United States)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Bitsakis, Theodoros; Lanz, Lauranne; Lacy, Mark; Brown, Michael J. I.; French, K. Decker; Ciesla, Laure; Appleton, Philip N.; Beaton, Rachael L.; Cales, Sabrina L.; Crossett, Jacob; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Kelson, Daniel D.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Kriek, Mariska; Medling, Anne M.; Mulchaey, John S.; Nyland, Kristina; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Urry, C. Meg


    We investigate the optical and Wide-field Survey Explorer (WISE) colors of “E+A” identified post-starburst galaxies, including a deep analysis of 190 post-starbursts detected in the 2 μm All Sky Survey Extended Source Catalog. The post-starburst galaxies appear in both the optical green valley and the WISE Infrared Transition Zone. Furthermore, we find that post-starbursts occupy a distinct region of [3.4]-[4.6] versus [4.6]-[12] WISE colors, enabling the identification of this class of transitioning galaxies through the use of broadband photometric criteria alone. We have investigated possible causes for the WISE colors of post-starbursts by constructing a composite spectral energy distribution (SED), finding that the mid-infrared (4-12 μm) properties of post-starbursts are consistent with either 11.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission, or thermally pulsating asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) and post-AGB stars. The composite SED of extended post-starburst galaxies with 22 μm emission detected with signal-to-noise ratio ≥slant 3 requires a hot dust component to produce their observed rising mid-infrared SED between 12 and 22 μm. The composite SED of WISE 22 μm non-detections (S/N systems. This could mean that including selections capable of identifying AGNs as part of a search for transitioning and post-starburst galaxies would create a more complete census of the transition pathways taken as a galaxy quenches its star formation.

  15. Just add water: Accuracy of analysis of diluted human milk samples using mid-infrared spectroscopy. (United States)

    Smith, R W; Adamkin, D H; Farris, A; Radmacher, P G


    To determine the maximum dilution of human milk (HM) that yields reliable results for protein, fat and lactose when analyzed by mid-infrared spectroscopy. De-identified samples of frozen HM were obtained. Milk was thawed and warmed (40°C) prior to analysis. Undiluted (native) HM was analyzed by mid-infrared spectroscopy for macronutrient composition: total protein (P), fat (F), carbohydrate (C); Energy (E) was calculated from the macronutrient results. Subsequent analyses were done with 1 : 2, 1 : 3, 1 : 5 and 1 : 10 dilutions of each sample with distilled water. Additional samples were sent to a certified lab for external validation. Quantitatively, F and P showed statistically significant but clinically non-critical differences in 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 dilutions. Differences at higher dilutions were statistically significant and deviated from native values enough to render those dilutions unreliable. External validation studies also showed statistically significant but clinically unimportant differences at 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 dilutions. The Calais Human Milk Analyzer can be used with HM samples diluted 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 and return results within 5% of values from undiluted HM. At a 1 : 5 or 1 : 10 dilution, however, results vary as much as 10%, especially with P and F. At the 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 dilutions these differences appear to be insignificant in the context of nutritional management. However, the accuracy and reliability of the 1 : 5 and 1 : 10 dilutions are questionable.

  16. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging with a complimentary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serov, Alexander; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; de Mul, F.F.M.


    We utilized a complimentary metal oxide semiconductor video camera for fast f low imaging with the laser Doppler technique. A single sensor is used for both observation of the area of interest and measurements of the interference signal caused by dynamic light scattering from moving particles inside

  17. Design and evaluation of modelocked semiconductor lasers for low noise and high stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten; Larsson, David; Christiansen, Lotte Jin


    We present work on design of monolithic mode-locked semiconductor lasers with focus on the gain medium. The use of highly inverted quantum wells in a low-loss waveguide enables both low quantum noise, low-chirped pulses and a large stability region. Broadband noise measurements are performed...

  18. Numerical investigations on the performance of external-cavity mode-locked semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulet, Josep; Mørk, Jesper


    The performance of an external-cavity mode-locked semiconductor laser is analyzed theoretically and numerically. Passive mode-locking is described using a fully-distributed time-domain model including fast effects, spectral hole burning and carrier heating. We provide optimization rules in order ...

  19. Analog direct-modulation behavior of semiconductor laser transmitters using optical FM demodulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yabre, G.S.


    In this paper, we report a theoretical investigation of the analog modulation performance of a semiconductor laser transmitter which employs the direct optical FM demodulation. This analysis is based on the rate equations in which Langevin noise functions are included. The optical FM response has

  20. A theoretical analysis for gigabit/second pulse code modulation of semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Magnus


    Investigation of the rate equations of a semiconductor laser suggests that bit rates of 3-4 Gbit/s can be achieved. Delay, ringing transients, and charge-storage effects can be removed by adjusting the dc-bias current and the peak and width of the current pulse to values prescribed by simple...

  1. Single-mode very wide tunability in laterally coupled semiconductor lasers with electrically controlled reflectivities (United States)

    Griffel, Giora; Chen, Howard Z.; Grave, Ilan; Yariv, Amnon


    The operation of a novel multisection structure comprised of laterally coupled gain-guided semiconductor lasers is demonstrated. It is shown that tunable single longitudinal mode operation can be achieved with a high degree of frequency selectivity. The device has a tuning range of 14.5 nm, the widest observed to date in a monolithic device.

  2. Return-map for low-frequency fluctuations in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Sabbatier, H.; Sørensen, Mads Peter


    We show that the phenomenon of low-frequency fluctuations (LFF) , commonly observed in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback, can be explained by a simple return-map, implying a tremendous simplification in the description of the slow time-scale dynamics of the system. Experimentally observed...

  3. Study on biological effect on mice and use safety of 830 nm semiconductor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Keqiu; Li Jian; Miao Xuhong; Liu Shujuan; Li Guang


    Objective: To study biological effect on mice by 830 nm semiconductor laser in different dosage, and determine the optimal irradiating dosage by observing and analyzing the immunoregulation and cytogenetical damage of mice after irradiation. Methods: The spleen and thymus areas of Kunming mice were irradiated in vitro by 830 nm semiconductor laser of 30 mW for 5 min, 10 min and 20 min per day respectively, then the blood samples were collected from orbital vein. Further, the spleen tissue and sternum marrow were collected soon after the mice were killed. Afterwards, IgG, dopamine, serotonin in serum were detected respectively. Besides these, the rate of lymphocyte transformation and the rate of micronuclei in marrow polychromatic erythrocytes were also determined. Results: With the extending of irradiating time, the detected factors changed differently. Statistically, there were differences in IgG concentration and the rate of lymphocyte transformation between 10 min group, 20 min group and control group respectively, but no difference between each experimental group were found. /compare with control group, serotonin concentration in 10 min group increased, and there was statistical difference between these two groups, while there was no difference in dopamine concentration among each group. Besides these, the rate of micronuclei in 20 min group increased. Conclusion: In this study, irradiation by semiconductor laser for appropriate time can improve immuno function of mice, but irradiation in high dosage will result in the damage of genetic material. The optimal time of irradiation by 830 nm semiconductor laser was 10 min. (authors)

  4. High gain semiconductor optical amplifier — Laser diode at visible wavelength

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao; Lee, Changmin; Ng, Tien Khee; Nakamura, Shuji; Speck, James S.; DenBaars, Steven P.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; El-Desouki, Munir M.; Ooi, Boon S.


    We reported on the first experimental demonstration of a two-section semipolar InGaN-based laser diode with monolithically integrated semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA-LD). The onset of amplification effect was measured at 4V SOA bias (VSOA). The SOA-LD shows a large gain of 5.32 dB at Vsoa = 6 V.

  5. Ultrawideband pulse generation based on overshooting effect in gain-switched semiconductor laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Company, V.; Prince, Kamau; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso


    We demonstrate an alternative procedure to achieve ultrawideband (UWB) radio-frequency (RF) doublet impulses. It is based on the overshooting effect appearing by biasing a semiconductor laser close to the threshold with a large-amplitude signal. Specifically, with an optical bandpass filter...... a reliable, easy, and low-cost alternative for RF UWB impulse generation....

  6. High gain semiconductor optical amplifier — Laser diode at visible wavelength

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao


    We reported on the first experimental demonstration of a two-section semipolar InGaN-based laser diode with monolithically integrated semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA-LD). The onset of amplification effect was measured at 4V SOA bias (VSOA). The SOA-LD shows a large gain of 5.32 dB at Vsoa = 6 V.

  7. Bistability and low-frequency fluctuations in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: a theoretical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Tromborg, Bjarne; Christiansen, Peter Leth


    Near-threshold operation of a semiconductor laser exposed to moderate optical feedback may lead to low-frequency fluctuations. In the same region, a kink is observed in the light-current characteristic. Here it is demonstrated that these nonlinear phenomena are predicted by a noise driven multimode...

  8. Linewidth broadening in a distributed feedback laser integrated with a semiconductor optical amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Champagne, A.; Camel, J.; Maciejko, R.


    The problem of the linewidth degradation in systems using distributed-feedback lasers together with strained-layer multi-quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) is examined. A modified expression for the linewidth in the case of antireflection-coated SOA output facets is derived and ...

  9. Spectral characteristics of DFB lasers in presence of a semiconductor optical amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Champagne, A.; Camel, J.; Maciejko, R.


    The problem of the linewidth degradation in systems using distributed-feedback lasers together with strained-layer multi-quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) is examined. A numerical model combining finite element calculations in the transverse x - y plane and a longitudinal model...

  10. Semiconductor and ceramic microstructure made by single mode fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlak, R; Tomczyk, M; Walczak, M; Domagalski, P


    In the paper the results of micromachining of 3D microstructures of microsystems made from silicon and alumina ceramic using a single mode fiber laser (1064 nm) are presented. The quality of obtained structures and its smallest dimensions with acceptable maintained quality were examined. The influence of variable parameters of laser processing with changing of mapping scale on geometrical features of structures was identified.

  11. Interband optical pulse injection locking of quantum dot mode-locked semiconductor laser. (United States)

    Kim, Jimyung; Delfyett, Peter J


    We experimentally demonstrate optical clock recovery from quantum dot mode-locked semiconductor lasers by interband optical pulse injection locking. The passively mode-locked slave laser oscillating on the ground state or the first excited state transition is locked through the injection of optical pulses generated via the opposite transition bands, i.e. the first excited state or the ground state transition from the hybridly mode-locked master laser, respectively. When an optical pulse train generated via the first excited state from the master laser is injected to the slave laser oscillating via ground state, the slave laser shows an asymmetric locking bandwidth around the nominal repetition rate of the slave laser. In the reverse injection case of, i.e. the ground state (master laser) to the first excited state (slave laser), the slave laser does not lock even though both lasers oscillate at the same cavity frequency. In this case, the slave laser only locks to higher injection rates as compared to its own nominal repetition rate, and also shows a large locking bandwidth of 6.7 MHz.

  12. Vibration-tolerant narrow-linewidth semiconductor disk laser using novel frequency-stabilisation schemes (United States)

    Hunter, Craig R.; Jones, Brynmor E.; Schlosser, Peter; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Strain, Michael J.; McKnight, Loyd J.


    This paper will present developments in narrow-linewidth semiconductor-disk-laser systems using novel frequencystabilisation schemes for reduced sensitivity to mechanical vibrations, a critical requirement for mobile applications. Narrow-linewidth single-frequency lasers are required for a range of applications including metrology and highresolution spectroscopy. Stabilisation of the laser was achieved using a monolithic fibre-optic ring resonator with free spectral range of 181 MHz and finesse of 52 to act as passive reference cavity for the laser. Such a cavity can operate over a broad wavelength range and is immune to a wide band of vibrational frequency noise due to its monolithic implementation. The frequency noise of the locked system has been measured and compared to typical Fabry-Perotlocked lasers using vibration equipment to simulate harsh environments, and analysed here. Locked linewidths of portable, narrow-linewidth laser system for harsh environments that can be flexibly designed for a range of applications.

  13. Semiconductor laser irradiation improves root canal sealing during routine root canal therapy (United States)

    Hu, Xingxue; Wang, Dashan; Cui, Ting; Yao, Ruyong


    Objective To evaluate the effect of semiconductor laser irradiation on root canal sealing after routine root canal therapy (RCT). Methods Sixty freshly extracted single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10). The anatomic crowns were sectioned at the cementoenamel junction and the remaining roots were prepared endodontically with conventional RCT methods. Groups A and B were irradiated with semiconductor laser at 1W for 20 seconds; Groups C and D were ultrasonically rinsed for 60 seconds as positive control groups; Groups E and F without treatment of root canal prior to RCT as negative control groups. Root canal sealing of Groups A, C and E were evaluated by measurements of apical microleakage. The teeth from Groups B, D and F were sectioned, and the micro-structures were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). One way ANOVA and LSD-t test were used for statistical analysis (α = .05). Results The apical sealing of both the laser irradiated group and the ultrasonic irrigated group were significantly different from the control group (pirrigated group (p>0.5). SEM observation showed that most of the dentinal tubules in the laser irradiation group melted, narrowed or closed, while most of the dentinal tubules in the ultrasonic irrigation group were filled with tooth paste. Conclusion The application of semiconductor laser prior to root canal obturation increases the apical sealing of the roots treated. PMID:28957407

  14. A photonic ultra-wideband pulse generator based on relaxation oscillations of a semiconductor laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Pawlik, Michal


    A photonic ultra-wideband (UWB) pulse generator based on relaxation oscillations of a semiconductor laser is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. We numerically simulate the modulation response of a direct modulation laser (DML) and show that due to the relaxation oscillations of the laser......, the generated signals with complex shape in time domain match the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) mask in the frequency domain. Experimental results using a DML agree well with simulation predictions. Furthermore, we also experimentally demonstrate the generation of FCC compliant UWB signals...

  15. Nanoimprinted organic semiconductor laser pumped by a light-emitting diode. (United States)

    Tsiminis, Georgios; Wang, Yue; Kanibolotsky, Alexander L; Inigo, Anto R; Skabara, Peter J; Samuel, Ifor D W; Turnbull, Graham A


    An organic semiconductor laser, simply fabricated by UV-nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL), that is pumped with a pulsed InGaN LED is demonstrated. Molecular weight optimization of the polymer gain medium on a nanoimprinted polymer distributed feedback resonator enables the lowest reported UV-NIL laser threshold density of 770 W cm(-2) , establishing the potential for scalable organic laser fabrication compatible with mass-produced LEDs. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Diffuse-reflectance fourier-transform mid-infrared spectroscopy as a method of characterizing changes in soil organic matter (United States)

    Diffuse-Reflectance Fourier-Transform Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy (MidIR) can identify the presence of important organic functional groups in soil organic matter (SOM). Soils contain myriad organic and inorganic components that absorb in the MidIR so spectral interpretation needs to be validated in or...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyo, Jeonghyun; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuura, Shuji


    We present the smoothness of the mid-infrared sky from observations by the Japanese infrared astronomical satellite AKARI. AKARI monitored the north ecliptic pole (NEP) during its cold phase with nine wave bands covering from 2.4 to 24 μm, out of which six mid-infrared bands were used in this study. We applied power-spectrum analysis to the images in order to search for the fluctuation of the sky brightness. Observed fluctuation is explained by fluctuation of photon noise, shot noise of faint sources, and Galactic cirrus. The fluctuations at a few arcminutes scales at short mid-infrared wavelengths (7, 9, and 11 μm) are largely caused by the diffuse Galactic light of the interstellar dust cirrus. At long mid-infrared wavelengths (15, 18, and 24 μm), photon noise is the dominant source of fluctuation over the scale from arcseconds to a few arcminutes. The residual fluctuation amplitude at 200'' after removing these contributions is at most 1.04 ± 0.23 nW m –2 sr –1 or 0.05% of the brightness at 24 μm and at least 0.47 ± 0.14 nW m –2 sr –1 or 0.02% at 18 μm. We conclude that the upper limit of the fluctuation in the zodiacal light toward the NEP is 0.03% of the sky brightness, taking 2σ error into account.

  18. Compact 2050 nm Semiconductor Diode Laser Master Oscillator, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I effort seeks to develop DFB laser master oscillators at the novel wavelength of 12050 nm. Two prototypes will be built, tested, and delivered ....

  19. The theory of laser annealing of disordered semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noga, M.


    A theoretical explanation of the disorder-order phase transition concerning the ion implanted Si pulsed laser annealing is given. The phase transition is related to the Bose condensation of electron-hole plasmons. (author)

  20. Application of laser spot cutting on spring contact probe for semiconductor package inspection (United States)

    Lee, Dongkyoung; Cho, Jungdon; Kim, Chan Ho; Lee, Seung Hwan


    A packaged semiconductor has to be electrically tested to make sure they are free of any manufacturing defects. The test interface, typically employed between a Printed Circuit Board and the semiconductor devices, consists of densely populated Spring Contact Probe (SCP). A standard SCP typically consists of a plunger, a barrel, and an internal spring. Among these components, plungers are manufactured by a stamping process. After stamping, plunger connecting arms need to be cut into pieces. Currently, mechanical cutting has been used. However, it may damage to the body of plungers due to the mechanical force engaged at the cutting point. Therefore, laser spot cutting is considered to solve this problem. The plunger arm is in the shape of a rectangular beam, 50 μm (H) × 90 μm (W). The plunger material used for this research is gold coated beryllium copper. Laser parameters, such as power and elapsed time, have been selected to study laser spot cutting. Laser material interaction characteristics such as a crater size, material removal zone, ablation depth, ablation threshold, and full penetration are observed. Furthermore, a carefully chosen laser parameter (Etotal = 1000mJ) to test feasibility of laser spot cutting are applied. The result show that laser spot cutting can be applied to cut SCP.

  1. Threshold reduction through photon recycling in semiconductor lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gigase, Y.B.; Harder, C.S.; Kesler, M.P.; Meier, H.P. (IBM Research Division, Zurich Research Laboratory, CH-8803 Rueschlikon (Switzerland)); Van Zeghbroeck, B. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (USA))


    The threshold pump power of an AlGaAs-GaAs ridge quantum well laser diode has been reduced by 42% by recycling the spontaneous emission. An integrated photodiode absorbs the spontaneous radiation emitted by the laser diode and converts it back into electrical power. The recycling of this power results in a reduction of the electrical power required to reach the lasing threshold.

  2. Noninvasive measurement of blood glucose level using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (United States)

    Yoshioka, Kiriko; Kino, Saiko; Matsuura, Yuji


    For non-invasive measurement of blood glucose level, attenuated total reflection (ATR) absorption spectroscopy system using a QCL as a light source was developed. The results of measurement of glucose solutions showed that the system had a sensitivity that was enough for blood glucose measurement. In-vivo measurement using the proposed system based on QCL showed that there was a correlation between absorptions measured with human lips and blood glucose level.

  3. Optically pumped tunable HBr laser in the mid-infrared region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Koen, W


    Full Text Available on 19 molecular transition lines, which included both the R-branch (3870–4015 nm) and the P-branch (4070–4453 nm), by the use of an intra-cavity diffraction grating. The highest output energy was 2.4 mJ at 4133 nm....

  4. Tunable, Narrow Line Width Mid-Infrared Laser Source, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Maxion Technologies, Inc. (Maxion) and Professor Mario Dagenais and his group at the University of Maryland (UMD) jointly propose to develop a compact, efficient,...

  5. Fabrication of metal/semiconductor nanocomposites by selective laser nano-welding. (United States)

    Yu, Huiwu; Li, Xiangyou; Hao, Zhongqi; Xiong, Wei; Guo, Lianbo; Lu, Yongfeng; Yi, Rongxing; Li, Jiaming; Yang, Xinyan; Zeng, Xiaoyan


    A green and simple method to prepare metal/semiconductor nanocomposites by selective laser nano-welding metal and semiconductor nanoparticles was presented, in which the sizes, phases, and morphologies of the components can be maintained. Many types of nanocomposites (such as Ag/TiO 2 , Ag/SnO 2 , Ag/ZnO 2 , Pt/TiO 2 , Pt/SnO 2 , and Pt/ZnO) can be prepared by this method and their corresponding performances were enhanced.

  6. A Multiwavelength Study of Cygnus X-1: The First Mid-Infrared Spectroscopic Detection of Compact Jets (United States)

    Rahoui, Farid; Lee, Julia C.; Heinz, Sebastian; Hines, Dean C.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wilms, Joern


    We report on a Spitzer/IRS (mid-infrared), RXTE /PCA+HEXTE (X-ray), and Ryle (radio) simultaneous multi-wavelength study of the micro quasar Cygnus X-I, which aimed at an investigation of the origin of its mid-infrared emission. Compact jets were present in two out of three observations, and we show that they strongly contribute to the mid-infrared continuum. During the first observation, we detect the spectral break - where the transition from the optically thick to the optically thin regime takes place - at about 2.9 x 10(exp 13) Hz. We then show that the jet's optically thin synchrotron emission accounts for the Cygnus X-1's emission beyond 400 keY, although it cannot alone explain its 3-200 keV continuum. A compact jet was also present during the second observation, but we do not detect the break, since it has likely shifted to higher frequencies. In contrast, the compact jet was absent during the last observation, and we show that the 5-30 micron mid-infrared continuum of Cygnus X-I stems from the blue supergiant companion star HD 226868. Indeed, the emission can then be understood as the combination of the photospheric Raleigh-Jeans tail and the bremsstrahlung from the expanding stellar wind. Moreover, the stellar wind is found to be clumpy, with a filling factor f(sub infinity) approx.= 0.09-0.10. Its bremsstrahlung emission is likely anti-correlated to the soft X-ray emission, suggesting an anticorrelation between the mass-loss and mass-accretion rates. Nevertheless, we do not detect any mid-infrared spectroscopic evidence of interaction between the jets and the Cygnus X-1's environment and/or companion star's stellar wind.

  7. Pump spot size dependent lasing threshold in organic semiconductor DFB lasers fabricated via nanograting transfer. (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Klinkhammer, Sönke; Wang, Ziyao; Wienhold, Tobias; Vannahme, Christoph; Jakobs, Peter-Jürgen; Bacher, Andreas; Muslija, Alban; Mappes, Timo; Lemmer, Uli


    Optically excited organic semiconductor distributed feedback (DFB) lasers enable efficient lasing in the visible spectrum. Here, we report on the rapid and parallel fabrication of DFB lasers via transferring a nanograting structure from a flexible mold onto an unstructured film of the organic gain material. This geometrically well-defined structure allows for a systematic investigation of the laser threshold behavior. The laser thresholds for these devices show a strong dependence on the pump spot diameter. This experimental finding is in good qualitative agreement with calculations based on coupled-wave theory. With further investigations on various DFB laser geometries prepared by different routes and based on different organic gain materials, we found that these findings are quite general. This is important for the comparison of threshold values of various devices characterized under different excitation areas.

  8. Pump spot size dependent lasing threshold in organic semiconductor DFB lasers fabricated via nanograting transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xin; Klinkhammer, Sönke; Wang, Ziyao


    material. This geometrically well-defined structure allows for a systematic investigation of the laser threshold behavior. The laser thresholds for these devices show a strong dependence on the pump spot diameter. This experimental finding is in good qualitative agreement with calculations based on coupled......Optically excited organic semiconductor distributed feedback (DFB) lasers enable efficient lasing in the visible spectrum. Here, we report on the rapid and parallel fabrication of DFB lasers via transferring a nanograting structure from a flexible mold onto an unstructured film of the organic gain......-wave theory. With further investigations on various DFB laser geometries prepared by different routes and based on different organic gain materials, we found that these findings are quite general. This is important for the comparison of threshold values of various devices characterized under different...

  9. Mode structure of delay-coupled semiconductor lasers: influence of the pump current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erzgraeber, Hartmut; Krauskopf, Bernd; Lenstra, Daan


    We consider two identical, mutually delay-coupled semiconductor lasers and show that their compound laser modes (CLMs)-the basic continuous wave solutions-depend rather sensitively on the pump current of the lasers. Specifically, we show with figures and accompanying animations how the underlying CLM structure and the associated locking region, where both lasers operate stably with the same frequency, change as a function of the pump current. Our results provide a natural transition between rather different CLM structures that have been reported in the literature. Moreover, we demonstrate how the locking region as well as the different types of instabilities at its boundary depend on the pump current. This is of fundamental interest for the dynamics of coupled lasers and their possible application

  10. Homogeneous spectral spanning of terahertz semiconductor lasers with radio frequency modulation. (United States)

    Wan, W J; Li, H; Zhou, T; Cao, J C


    Homogeneous broadband and electrically pumped semiconductor radiation sources emitting in the terahertz regime are highly desirable for various applications, including spectroscopy, chemical sensing, and gas identification. In the frequency range between 1 and 5 THz, unipolar quantum cascade lasers employing electron inter-subband transitions in multiple-quantum-well structures are the most powerful semiconductor light sources. However, these devices are normally characterized by either a narrow emission spectrum due to the narrow gain bandwidth of the inter-subband optical transitions or an inhomogeneous broad terahertz spectrum from lasers with heterogeneous stacks of active regions. Here, we report the demonstration of homogeneous spectral spanning of long-cavity terahertz semiconductor quantum cascade lasers based on a bound-to-continuum and resonant phonon design under radio frequency modulation. At a single drive current, the terahertz spectrum under radio frequency modulation continuously spans 330 GHz (~8% of the central frequency), which is the record for single plasmon waveguide terahertz lasers with a bound-to-continuum design. The homogeneous broadband terahertz sources can be used for spectroscopic applications, i.e., GaAs etalon transmission measurement and ammonia gas identification.

  11. Online analysis of H2S and SO2 via advanced mid-infrared gas sensors. (United States)

    Petruci, João Flavio da Silveira; Wilk, Andreas; Cardoso, Arnaldo Alves; Mizaikoff, Boris


    Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are among the most prevalent emitted pollutants in urban and rural atmospheres. Mainly because of the versatility of sulfur regarding its oxidation state (2- to 6+), VSCs are present in a wide variety of redox-environments, concentration levels, and molar ratios. Among the VSCs, hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide are considered most relevant and have simultaneously been detected within naturally and anthropogenically caused emission events (e.g., volcano emissions, food production and industries, coal pyrolysis, and various biological activities). Next to their presence as pollutants, changes within their molar ratio may also indicate natural anomalies. Prior to analysis, H2S- and SO2-containing samples are usually preconcentrated via solid sorbents and are then detected by gas chromatographic techniques. However, such analytical strategies may be of limited selectivity, and the dimensions and operation modalities of the involved instruments prevent routine field usage. In this contribution, we therefore describe an innovative portable mid-infrared chemical sensor for simultaneously determining and quantifying gaseous H2S and SO2 via coupling a substrate-integrated hollow waveguides (iHWG) serving as a highly miniaturized mid-infrared photon conduit and gas cell with a custom-made preconcentration tube and an in-line UV-converter device. Both species were collected onto a solid sorbent within the preconcentrator and then released by thermal desorption into the UV-device. Hydrogen sulfide is detected by UV-assisted quantitative conversion of the rather weak IR-absorber H2S into SO2, which provides a significantly more pronounced and distinctively detectable rovibrational signature. Modulation of the UV-device system (i.e., UV-lamp on/off) enables discriminating between SO2 generated from H2S conversion and abundant SO2 signals. After optimization of the operational parameters, calibrations in the range of 0.75-10 ppmv with a limit

  12. Cloud top structure of Venus revealed by Subaru/COMICS mid-infrared images (United States)

    Sato, T. M.; Sagawa, H.; Kouyama, T.; Mitsuyama, K.; Satoh, T.; Ohtsuki, S.; Ueno, M.; Kasaba, Y.; Nakamura, M.; Imamura, T.


    We have investigated the cloud top structure of Venus by analyzing ground-based images taken at the mid-infrared wavelengths of 8.66 μm and 11.34 μm. Venus at a solar phase angle of ∼90°, with the morning terminator in view, was observed by the Cooled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectrometer (COMICS), mounted on the 8.2-m Subaru Telescope, during the period October 25-29, 2007. The disk-averaged brightness temperatures for the observation period are ∼230 K and ∼238 K at 8.66 μm and 11.34 μm, respectively. The obtained images with good signal-to-noise ratio and with high spatial resolution (∼200 km at the sub-observer point) provide several important findings. First, we present observational evidence, for the first time, of the possibility that the westward rotation of the polar features (the hot polar spots and the surrounding cold collars) is synchronized between the northern and southern hemispheres. Second, after high-pass filtering, the images reveal that streaks and mottled and patchy patterns are distributed over the entire disk, with typical amplitudes of ∼0.5 K, and vary from day to day. The detected features, some of which are similar to those seen in past UV images, result from inhomogeneities of both the temperature and the cloud top altitude. Third, the equatorial center-to-limb variations of brightness temperatures have a systematic day-night asymmetry, except those on October 25, that the dayside brightness temperatures are higher than the nightside brightness temperatures by 0-4 K under the same viewing geometry. Such asymmetry would be caused by the propagation of the migrating semidiurnal tide. Finally, by applying the lapse rates deduced from previous studies, we demonstrate that the equatorial center-to-limb curves in the two spectral channels give access to two parameters: the cloud scale height H and the cloud top altitude zc. The acceptable models for data on October 25 are obtained at H = 2.4-4.3 km and zc = 66-69 km; this supports

  13. Multiphoton microscopy in every lab: the promise of ultrafast semiconductor disk lasers (United States)

    Emaury, Florian; Voigt, Fabian F.; Bethge, Philipp; Waldburger, Dominik; Link, Sandro M.; Carta, Stefano; van der Bourg, Alexander; Helmchen, Fritjof; Keller, Ursula


    We use an ultrafast diode-pumped semiconductor disk laser (SDL) to demonstrate several applications in multiphoton microscopy. The ultrafast SDL is based on an optically pumped Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VECSEL) passively mode-locked with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) and generates 170-fs pulses at a center wavelength of 1027 nm with a repetition rate of 1.63 GHz. We demonstrate the suitability of this laser for structural and functional multiphoton in vivo imaging in both Drosophila larvae and mice for a variety of fluorophores (including mKate2, tdTomato, Texas Red, OGB-1, and R-CaMP1.07) and for endogenous second-harmonic generation in muscle cell sarcomeres. We can demonstrate equivalent signal levels compared to a standard 80-MHz Ti:Sapphire laser when we increase the average power by a factor of 4.5 as predicted by theory. In addition, we compare the bleaching properties of both laser systems in fixed Drosophila larvae and find similar bleaching kinetics despite the large difference in pulse repetition rates. Our results highlight the great potential of ultrafast diode-pumped SDLs for creating a cost-efficient and compact alternative light source compared to standard Ti:Sapphire lasers for multiphoton imaging.

  14. The theoretical and numerical models of the novel and fast tunable semiconductor ring laser (United States)

    Zhu, Jiangbo; Zhang, Junwen; Chi, Nan; Yu, Siyuan


    Fast wavelength-tunable semiconductor lasers will be the key components in future optical packet switching networks. Especially, they are of great importance in the optical network nodes: transmitters, optical wavelength-routers, etc. In this paper, a new scheme of a next-generation fast tunable ring laser was given. Tunable lasers in this design have better wavelength tunability compared with others, for they are switched faster in wavelength and simpler to control with the injecting light from an external distributed Bragg-reflector(DBR). Then some discussion of the waveguide material system and coupler design of the ring laser were given. And we also derived the multimode rate equations corresponding to this scheme by analyzing some characteristics of the semiconductor ring cavity, directionality, nonlinear mode competition, optical injection locking, etc. We did MatLab simulation based on the new rate equations to research the process of mode competition and wavelength switching in the laser, and achieved the basic functions of a tunable laser. Finally some discussion of the impact of several key parameters was given.

  15. Fabrication of laser-target components by semiconductor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tindall, W.E.


    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a unique silicon substrate with which laser-target components can be mass produced. Different sizes and shapes of gold foils from 50 to 3000 microns in diameter and up to 25 microns thick have been produced with this process since 1976

  16. 1-W quasi-cw near-diffraction-limited semiconductor laser pumped optically by a fibre-coupled diode bar


    Dhanjal, S.; Hoogland, S.; Roberts, J.S.; Hayward, R.A.; Clarkson, W.A.; Tropper, Anne


    We describe a diode-bar-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor laser, which in quasi-cw operation emitted a peak power of >1 W at 1020 nm in a circular, near diffraction-limited beam.

  17. Suspended mid-infrared fiber-to-chip grating couplers for SiGe waveguides (United States)

    Favreau, Julien; Durantin, Cédric; Fédéli, Jean-Marc; Boutami, Salim; Duan, Guang-Hua


    Silicon photonics has taken great importance owing to the applications in optical communications, ranging from short reach to long haul. Originally dedicated to telecom wavelengths, silicon photonics is heading toward circuits handling with a broader spectrum, especially in the short and mid-infrared (MIR) range. This trend is due to potential applications in chemical sensing, spectroscopy and defense in the 2-10 μm range. We previously reported the development of a MIR photonic platform based on buried SiGe/Si waveguide with propagation losses between 1 and 2 dB/cm. However the low index contrast of the platform makes the design of efficient grating couplers very challenging. In order to achieve a high fiber-to-chip efficiency, we propose a novel grating coupler structure, in which the grating is locally suspended in air. The grating has been designed with a FDTD software. To achieve high efficiency, suspended structure thicknesses have been jointly optimized with the grating parameters, namely the fill factor, the period and the grating etch depth. Using the Efficient Global Optimization (EGO) method we obtained a configuration where the fiber-to-waveguide efficiency is above 57 %. Moreover the optical transition between the suspended and the buried SiGe waveguide has been carefully designed by using an Eigenmode Expansion software. Transition efficiency as high as 86 % is achieved.

  18. Near-infrared to Mid-infrared Observations of Galaxy Mergers: NGC 2782 and NGC 7727 (United States)

    Onaka, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Sakon, Itsuki; Wu, Ronin; Ohsawa, Ryou; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Roellig, Thomas L.


    We present the results of near-infrared-to-mid-infrared (NIR-to-MIR) imaging and NIR spectroscopic observations of two galaxy mergers, NGC 2782 (Arp 215) and NGC 7727 (Arp 222), with the Infrared Camera on board AKARI. NGC 2782 shows extended MIR emission in the eastern side of the galaxy, which corresponds to the eastern tidal tail seen in the H I 21 cm map, while NGC 7727 shows extended MIR emission in the north of the galaxy, which is similar to the plumes seen in the residual image at the K-band after subtracting a galaxy model. Both extended structures are thought to have formed in association with their merger events. They show excess emission at 7–15 μm, which can be attributed to emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), while the observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) decline longward of 24 μm, suggesting that very small grains (VSGs) are deficient. These characteristics of the observed MIR SED may be explained if PAHs are formed by fragmentation of VSGs during merger events. The star formation rate is estimated from the MIR PAH emission in the eastern tail region of NGC 2782 and it is in fair agreement with those estimated from Hα and [C II] 158 μm. MIR observations are efficient for the study of dust processing and structures formed during merger events.

  19. Mid-infrared multi-wavelength imaging of Ophiuchus IRS 48 transitional disk† (United States)

    Honda, Mitsuhiko; Okada, Kazushi; Miyata, Takashi; Mulders, Gijs D.; Swearingen, Jeremy R.; Kamizuka, Takashi; Ohsawa, Ryou; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Fujiwara, Hideaki; Uchiyama, Mizuho; Yamashita, Takuya; Onaka, Takashi


    Transitional disks around the Herbig Ae/Be stars are fascinating targets in the contexts of disk evolution and planet formation. Oph IRS 48 is one of such Herbig Ae stars, which shows an inner dust cavity and azimuthally lopsided large dust distribution. We present new images of Oph IRS 48 at eight mid-infrared (MIR) wavelengths from 8.59 to 24.6 μm taken with COMICS mounted on the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope. The N-band (7 to 13 μm) images show that the flux distribution is centrally peaked with a slight spatial extent, while the Q-band (17 to 25 μm) images show asymmetric double peaks (east and west). Using 18.8- and 24.6 μm images, we derived the dust temperature at both east and west peaks to be 135 ± 22 K. Thus, the asymmetry may not be attributed to a difference in the temperature. Comparing our results with previous modeling works, we conclude that the inner disk is aligned to the outer disk. A shadow cast by the optically thick inner disk has a great influence on the morphology of MIR thermal emission from the outer disk.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmus, D.; Hönig, S. F.; Gandhi, P.


    Recent mid-infrared (MIR) interferometric observations have shown that in a few active galactic nuclei (AGNs) the bulk of the infrared emission originates from the polar region above the putative torus, where only a little dust should be present. Here, we investigate whether such strong polar dust emission is common in AGNs. Out of 149 Seyferts in the MIR atlas of local AGNs, 21 show extended MIR emission on single-dish images. In 18 objects, the extended MIR emission aligns with the position angle (PA) of the system axis, established by [O iii], radio, polarization, and maser-based PA measurements. The relative amount of resolved MIR emission is at least 40% and scales with the [O iv] fluxes, implying a strong connection between the extended continuum and [O iv] emitters. These results together with the radio-quiet nature of the Seyferts support the scenario that the bulk of MIR emission is emitted by dust in the polar region and not by the torus, which would demand a new paradigm for the infrared emission structure in AGNs. The current low detection rate of polar dust in the AGNs of the MIR atlas is explained by the lack of sufficient high-quality MIR data and the requirements on the orientation, strength of narrow-line region, and distance of the AGNs. The James Webb Space Telescope will enable much deeper nuclear MIR studies with comparable angular resolution, allowing us to resolve the polar emission and surroundings in most of the nearby AGNs.

  1. Design analysis of doped-silicon surface plasmon resonance immunosensors in mid-infrared range. (United States)

    DiPippo, William; Lee, Bong Jae; Park, Keunhan


    This paper reports the design analysis of a microfabricatable mid-infrared (mid-IR) surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor platform. The proposed platform has periodic heavily doped profiles implanted into intrinsic silicon and a thin gold layer deposited on top, making a physically flat grating SPR coupler. A rigorous coupled-wave analysis was conducted to prove the design feasibility, characterize the sensor's performance, and determine geometric parameters of the heavily doped profiles. Finite element analysis (FEA) was also employed to compute the electromagnetic field distributions at the plasmon resonance. Obtained results reveal that the proposed structure can excite the SPR on the normal incidence of mid-IR light, resulting in a large probing depth that will facilitate the study of larger analytes. Furthermore, the whole structure can be microfabricated with well-established batch protocols, providing tunability in the SPR excitation wavelength for specific biosensing needs with a low manufacturing cost. When the SPR sensor is to be used in a Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy platform, its detection sensitivity and limit of detection are estimated to be 3022 nm/RIU and ~70 pg/mm(2), respectively, at a sample layer thickness of 100 nm. The design analysis performed in the present study will allow the fabrication of a tunable, disposable mid-IR SPR sensor that combines advantages of conventional prism and metallic grating SPR sensors.

  2. Ultrafast Mid-Infrared Intra-Excitonic Response of Individualized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jigang; Graham, Matt W.; Ma, Yingzhong; Fleming, Graham R.; Kaindl, Robert A.


    The quasi-1D confinement and reduced screening of photoexcited charges in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) entails strongly-enhanced Coulomb interactions and exciton binding energies. Such amplified electron-hole (e-h) correlations have important implications for both fundamental physics and optoelectronic applications of nanotubes. The availability of 'individualized' SWNT ensembles with bright and structured luminescence has rendered specific tube chiralities experimentally accessible. In these samples, evidence for excitonic behavior was found in absorption-luminescence maps, two-photon excited luminescence, or ultrafast carrier dynamics. Here, we report ultrafast mid-infrared (mid-IR) studies of individualized SWNTs, evidencing strong photoinduced absorption around 200 meV in semiconducting tubes of (6,5) and (7,5) chiralities. This manifests the observation of quasi-1D intra-excitonic transitions between different relative-momentum states, in agreement with the binding energy and calculated oscillator strength. Our measurements further reveal a saturation of the photoinduced absorption with increasing phase-space filling of the correlated e-h pairs. The transient mid-IR response represents a new tool, unhindered by restrictions of momentum or interband dipole moment, to investigate the density and dynamics of SWNT excitons.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakita, Hideyo; Arai, Akira; Shinnaka, Yoshiharu [Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Ootsubo, Takafumi [Department of Earth Science and Astronomy, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Nagashima, Masayoshi, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan)


    The dust-forming nova V2676 Oph is unique in that it was the first nova to provide evidence of C{sub 2} and CN molecules during its near-maximum phase and evidence of CO molecules during its early decline phase. Observations of this nova have revealed the slow evolution of its lightcurves and have also shown low isotopic ratios of carbon ({sup 12}C/{sup 13}C) and nitrogen ({sup 14}N/{sup 15}N) in its envelope. These behaviors indicate that the white dwarf (WD) star hosting V2676 Oph is a CO-rich WD rather than an ONe-rich WD (typically larger in mass than the former). We performed mid-infrared spectroscopic and photometric observations of V2676 Oph in 2013 and 2014 (respectively 452 and 782 days after its discovery). No significant [Ne ii] emission at 12.8 μ m was detected at either epoch. These provided evidence for a CO-rich WD star hosting V2676 Oph. Both carbon-rich and oxygen-rich grains were detected in addition to an unidentified infrared feature at 11.4 μ m originating from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules or hydrogenated amorphous carbon grains in the envelope of V2676 Oph.

  4. Quantitative analysis of red wine tannins using Fourier-transform mid-infrared spectrometry. (United States)

    Fernandez, Katherina; Agosin, Eduardo


    Tannin content and composition are critical quality components of red wines. No spectroscopic method assessing these phenols in wine has been described so far. We report here a new method using Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectroscopy and chemometric techniques for the quantitative analysis of red wine tannins. Calibration models were developed using protein precipitation and phloroglucinolysis as analytical reference methods. After spectra preprocessing, six different predictive partial least-squares (PLS) models were evaluated, including the use of interval selection procedures such as iPLS and CSMWPLS. PLS regression with full-range (650-4000 cm(-1)), second derivative of the spectra and phloroglucinolysis as the reference method gave the most accurate determination for tannin concentration (RMSEC = 2.6%, RMSEP = 9.4%, r = 0.995). The prediction of the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of the tannins also gave a reasonable prediction (RMSEC = 6.7%, RMSEP = 10.3%, r = 0.958). These results represent the first step in the development of a spectroscopic methodology for the quantification of several phenolic compounds that are critical for wine quality.

  5. The origin of the mid-infrared nuclear polarization of active galactic nuclei (United States)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, E.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Gonzalez-Martin, O.; Ichikawa, K.; Levenson, N. A.; Martinez-Paredes, M.; Nikutta, R.; Packham, C.; Perlman, E.; Almeida, C. Ramos; Rodriguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Telesco, C. M.


    We combine new (NGC 1275, NGC 4151, and NGC 5506) and previously published (Cygnus A, Mrk 231, and NGC 1068) sub-arcsecond resolution mid-infrared (MIR; 8-13 μm) imaging- and spectro-polarimetric observations of six Seyfert galaxies using CanariCam on the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS. These observations reveal a diverse set of physical processes responsible for the nuclear polarization, and permit characterization of the origin of the MIR nuclear polarimetric signature of active galactic nuclei (AGN). For all radio quiet objects, we found that the nuclear polarization is low (sensitivity to detect such extended emission (i.e., NGC 1068 and NGC 4151). We suggest that the higher degree of polarization previously found in lower resolution data arises only on the larger-than-nuclear scales. Only the radio-loud Cygnus A exhibits significant nuclear polarization (˜11 per cent), attributable to synchrotron emission from the pc-scale jet close to the core. We present polarization models that suggest that the MIR nuclear polarization for highly obscured objects arises from a self-absorbed MIR polarized clumpy torus and/or dichroism from the host galaxy, while for unabsorbed cores, MIR polarization arises from dust scattering in the torus and/or surrounding nuclear dust.

  6. Room temperature high-detectivity mid-infrared photodetectors based on black arsenic phosphorus. (United States)

    Long, Mingsheng; Gao, Anyuan; Wang, Peng; Xia, Hui; Ott, Claudia; Pan, Chen; Fu, Yajun; Liu, Erfu; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Lu, Wei; Nilges, Tom; Xu, Jianbin; Wang, Xiaomu; Hu, Weida; Miao, Feng


    The mid-infrared (MIR) spectral range, pertaining to important applications, such as molecular "fingerprint" imaging, remote sensing, free space telecommunication, and optical radar, is of particular scientific interest and technological importance. However, state-of-the-art materials for MIR detection are limited by intrinsic noise and inconvenient fabrication processes, resulting in high-cost photodetectors requiring cryogenic operation. We report black arsenic phosphorus-based long-wavelength IR photodetectors, with room temperature operation up to 8.2 μm, entering the second MIR atmospheric transmission window. Combined with a van der Waals heterojunction, room temperature-specific detectivity higher than 4.9 × 10 9 Jones was obtained in the 3- to 5-μm range. The photodetector works in a zero-bias photovoltaic mode, enabling fast photoresponse and low dark noise. Our van der Waals heterojunction photodetectors not only exemplify black arsenic phosphorus as a promising candidate for MIR optoelectronic applications but also pave the way for a general strategy to suppress 1/ f noise in photonic devices.

  7. Low-luminosity Blazars in Wise: A Mid-infrared View of Unification (United States)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Anderson, S. F.; Brandt, W. N.; Markoff, S.; Shemmer, O.; Wu, J.


    We use the preliminary data release from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to perform the first statistical study on the mid-infrared (IR) properties of a large number ( 102) of BL Lac objects -- low-luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) with a jet beamed toward the Earth. As expected, many BL Lac objects are so highly beamed that their jet synchrotron emission dominates their IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and the shape of their SEDs in the IR correlates well with SED peak frequency. In other BL Lac objects, the jet is not strong enough to completely dilute the rest of the AGN, and we do not see observational signatures of the dusty torus from these weakly beamed BL Lac objects. While at odds with simple unification, the missing torus is consistent with recent suggestions that BL Lac objects are fed by radiatively inefficient accretion flows. We discuss implications on the ``nature vs. nurture" debate for FR I and FR II galaxies, and also on the standard orientation-based AGN unification model.

  8. Development of a rapid "fingerprinting" system for wine authenticity by mid-infrared spectroscopy. (United States)

    Bevin, Christopher J; Fergusson, Allison J; Perry, Wade B; Janik, Leslie J; Cozzolino, Daniel


    This paper reports on the development of a rapid and simple method for red wine authenticity confirmation during transport and processing; namely, a wine "fingerprinting" system. When wine is transported between two sites, a sample is taken and a mid-infrared (MIR) spectrum is obtained. One hundred sixty-one (n = 161) samples of three main red wine varieties grown in Australia, Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Merlot, were collected from six commercial wineries across Australia and scanned in transmission on two MIR spectrophotometers located at The Hardy Wine Company's main site at Reynella, South Australia (Foss WineScan FT 120) (926-5012 cm-1). A similarity index (SI) method was used as a tool to classify wine samples on the basis of their spectral data. The results showed that high rates of classification were obtained when wine samples scanned in different instruments were analyzed. The SI has been proven to provide an acceptable measurement for authentication of red wine integrity during transportation. In five of the six winery data sets, the SI correctly classified 98% of the wines. It was also observed that less than 1% of wines were misclassified between the different wineries investigated. Further studies are needed in order to test the applicability of the SI in a commercial situation and to evaluate its potential as a rapid quality control tool for routine use to authenticate wine samples during transport.

  9. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Studies Of Wheat In The Mid Infrared (United States)

    Olinger, Jill M.; Griffiths, Peter R.


    Official grain standards of the United States state that wheat may be divided into seven classes which are: Durum, Red Durum, Hard Red Spring, Hard Red Winter, Soft Red Winter, White, and Mixed.1 Most end uses of wheat involve converting the grain into flour through one of a variety of grinding methods. The quality of wheat-based products is often very dependent upon the type or class of wheat which was used to make the flour. Pasta products, for example, are made almost exclusively from the flour of durum wheats, which are the hardest of the wheats listed above. The highest quality breads are produced using flour from wheats classed as hard, whereas cakes, cookies and pastries are considered best when flour from wheats classed as soft are used. It is obvious then that the capability of determining the class of a particular wheat, especially with respect to hardness, is of economic importance to growers, processors, and merchants of wheat and wheat products. Hardness has been measured in many different ways 2-5 but, as of yet, no one method has become the method of choice. This paper reports on the use of principal components analysis (PCA) of mid infrared diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra of diluted ground wheats to aid in the classification of those wheats with respect to their hardness. The theory and mathematics involved in a principal component analysis have been described elsewhere.9

  10. Source brightness fluctuation correction of solar absorption fourier transform mid infrared spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ridder


    Full Text Available The precision and accuracy of trace gas observations using solar absorption Fourier Transform infrared spectrometry depend on the stability of the light source. Fluctuations in the source brightness, however, cannot always be avoided. Current correction schemes, which calculate a corrected interferogram as the ratio of the raw DC interferogram and a smoothed DC interferogram, are applicable only to near infrared measurements. Spectra in the mid infrared spectral region below 2000 cm−1 are generally considered uncorrectable, if they are measured with a MCT detector. Such measurements introduce an unknown offset to MCT interferograms, which prevents the established source brightness fluctuation correction. This problem can be overcome by a determination of the offset using the modulation efficiency of the instrument. With known modulation efficiency the offset can be calculated, and the source brightness correction can be performed on the basis of offset-corrected interferograms. We present a source brightness fluctuation correction method which performs the smoothing of the raw DC interferogram in the interferogram domain by an application of a running mean instead of high-pass filtering the corresponding spectrum after Fourier transformation of the raw DC interferogram. This smoothing can be performed with the onboard software of commercial instruments. The improvement of MCT spectra and subsequent ozone profile and total column retrievals is demonstrated. Application to InSb interferograms in the near infrared spectral region proves the equivalence with the established correction scheme.

  11. Development of integrated platform based on chalcogenides for sensing applications in the mid-infrared (United States)

    Gutierrez-Arroyo, Aldo; Bodiou, Loïc.; Lemaitre, Jonathan; Baudet, Emeline; Baillieul, Marion; Hardy, Isabelle; Caillaud, Celine; Colas, Florent; Boukerma, Kada; Rinnert, Emmanuel; Michel, Karine; Bureau, Bruno; Nazabal, Virginie; Charrier, Joël.


    Mid-Infrared (mid-IR) spectral range, spanning from 2 μm to 20 μm, is ideal for chemical sensing using spectroscopy thanks to the presence of vibrational absorption bands of many liquid and gas substances in this wavelength range. Indeed, mid-IR spectroscopy allows simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis by, respectively, identifying molecules from their spectral signature and relating the concentrations of different chemical agents to their absorption coefficient according to Beer-Lambert law. In the last years, photonic integrated sensors based on mid-IR spectroscopy have emerged as a cheap, accurate, and compact solution that would enable continuous real-time on-site diagnostics and monitoring of molecular species without the need to collect samples for off-site measurements. Here, we report the design, processing and characterization of a photonic integrated transducer based on selenide ridge waveguides. Evanescent wave detection of chemical substances in liquid phase (isopropyl alcohol, C3H8O, and acetic acid, C2H4O2, both dissolved in cyclohexane) is presented using their absorption at a wavelength of 7.7 μm.

  12. YSOVAR: Mid-infrared variability in the star-forming region Lynds 1688

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günther, H. M.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Wolk, S. J.; Hora, J. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cody, A. M. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Covey, K. R. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Hillenbrand, L. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Plavchan, P. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rebull, L. M.; Stauffer, J. R. [Spitzer Science Center/Caltech, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Allen, L. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bayo, A. [Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Gutermuth, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Meng, H. Y. A. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Morales-Calderón, M. [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), ESAC Campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada (Spain); Parks, J. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place South, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Song, Inseok, E-mail: [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States)


    The emission from young stellar objects (YSOs) in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) is dominated by the inner rim of their circumstellar disks. We present IR data from the Young Stellar Object VARiability (YSOVAR) survey of ∼800 objects in the direction of the Lynds 1688 (L1688) star-forming region over four visibility windows spanning 1.6 yr using the Spitzer Space Telescope in its warm mission phase. Among all light curves, 57 sources are cluster members identified based on their spectral energy distribution and X-ray emission. Almost all cluster members show significant variability. The amplitude of the variability is larger in more embedded YSOs. Ten out of 57 cluster members have periodic variations in the light curves with periods typically between three and seven days, but even for those sources, significant variability in addition to the periodic signal can be seen. No period is stable over 1.6 yr. Nonperiodic light curves often still show a preferred timescale of variability that is longer for more embedded sources. About half of all sources exhibit redder colors in a fainter state. This is compatible with time-variable absorption toward the YSO. The other half becomes bluer when fainter. These colors can only be explained with significant changes in the structure of the inner disk. No relation between mid-IR variability and stellar effective temperature or X-ray spectrum is found.

  13. Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing (United States)

    Singh, Vivek; Lin, Pao Tai; Patel, Neil; Lin, Hongtao; Li, Lan; Zou, Yi; Deng, Fei; Ni, Chaoying; Hu, Juejun; Giammarco, James; Soliani, Anna Paola; Zdyrko, Bogdan; Luzinov, Igor; Novak, Spencer; Novak, Jackie; Wachtel, Peter; Danto, Sylvain; Musgraves, J David; Richardson, Kathleen; Kimerling, Lionel C; Agarwal, Anuradha M


    In this article, we review our recent work on mid-infrared (mid-IR) photonic materials and devices fabricated on silicon for on-chip sensing applications. Pedestal waveguides based on silicon are demonstrated as broadband mid-IR sensors. Our low-loss mid-IR directional couplers demonstrated in SiNx waveguides are useful in differential sensing applications. Photonic crystal cavities and microdisk resonators based on chalcogenide glasses for high sensitivity are also demonstrated as effective mid-IR sensors. Polymer-based functionalization layers, to enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of our sensor devices, are also presented. We discuss the design of mid-IR chalcogenide waveguides integrated with polycrystalline PbTe detectors on a monolithic silicon platform for optical sensing, wherein the use of a low-index spacer layer enables the evanescent coupling of mid-IR light from the waveguides to the detector. Finally, we show the successful fabrication processing of our first prototype mid-IR waveguide-integrated detectors. PMID:27877641

  14. Young massive stars and their environment in the mid-infrared at high angular resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wit, W J de; Hoare, M G; Oudmaijer, R D; Fujiyoshi, T


    We present interferometric and single-dish mid-infrared observations of a sample of massive young stellar objects (BN-type objects), using VLTI-MIDI (10μm) and Subaru-COMICS (24.5 μm). We discuss the regions S140, Mon R2, M8E-IR, and W33A. The observations probe the inner regions of the dusty envelope at scales of 50 milli arcsecond and 0.6'' (∼100-1000 AU), respectively. Simultaneous model fits to spectral energy distributions and spatial data are achieved using self-consistent spherical envelope modelling. We conclude that those MYSO envelopes that are best described by a spherical geometry, the commensurate density distribution is a powerlaw with index -1.0. Such a powerlaw is predicted if the envelope is supported by turbulence on the 100-1000 AU scales probed with MIDI and COMICS, but the role of rotation at these spatial scales need testing.

  15. Mid-infrared multi-wavelength imaging of Ophiuchus IRS 48 transitional disk† (United States)

    Honda, Mitsuhiko; Okada, Kazushi; Miyata, Takashi; Mulders, Gijs D.; Swearingen, Jeremy R.; Kamizuka, Takashi; Ohsawa, Ryou; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Fujiwara, Hideaki; Uchiyama, Mizuho; Yamashita, Takuya; Onaka, Takashi


    Transitional disks around the Herbig Ae/Be stars are fascinating targets in the contexts of disk evolution and planet formation. Oph IRS 48 is one of such Herbig Ae stars, which shows an inner dust cavity and azimuthally lopsided large dust distribution. We present new images of Oph IRS 48 at eight mid-infrared (MIR) wavelengths from 8.59 to 24.6 μm taken with COMICS mounted on the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope. The N-band (7 to 13 μm) images show that the flux distribution is centrally peaked with a slight spatial extent, while the Q-band (17 to 25 μm) images show asymmetric double peaks (east and west). Using 18.8- and 24.6 μm images, we derived the dust temperature at both east and west peaks to be 135 ± 22 K. Thus, the asymmetry may not be attributed to a difference in the temperature. Comparing our results with previous modeling works, we conclude that the inner disk is aligned to the outer disk. A shadow cast by the optically thick inner disk has a great influence on the morphology of MIR thermal emission from the outer disk.

  16. "Slow-scanning" in Ground-based Mid-infrared Observations (United States)

    Ohsawa, Ryou; Sako, Shigeyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Okada, Kazushi; Mori, Kiyoshi; Uchiyama, Masahito S.; Yamaguchi, Junpei; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Morii, Mikio; Ikeda, Shiro


    Chopping observations with a tip-tilt secondary mirror have conventionally been used in ground-based mid-infrared observations. However, it is not practical for next generation large telescopes to have a large tip-tilt mirror that moves at a frequency larger than a few hertz. We propose an alternative observing method, a "slow-scanning" observation. Images are continuously captured as movie data, while the field of view is slowly moved. The signal from an astronomical object is extracted from the movie data by a low-rank and sparse matrix decomposition. The performance of the "slow-scanning" observation was tested in an experimental observation with Subaru/COMICS. The quality of a resultant image in the "slow-scanning" observation was as good as in a conventional chopping observation with COMICS, at least for a bright point-source object. The observational efficiency in the "slow-scanning" observation was better than that in the chopping observation. The results suggest that the "slow-scanning" observation can be a competitive method for the Subaru telescope and be of potential interest to other ground-based facilities to avoid chopping.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunham, Miranda K.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Evans, Neal J. II; Schlingman, Wayne M.; Cyganowski, Claudia J.; Urquhart, James


    We present the results of a search for mid-infrared signs of star formation activity in the 1.1 mm sources in the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). We have correlated the BGPS catalog with available mid-IR Galactic plane catalogs based on the Spitzer Space Telescope GLIMPSE legacy survey and the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) Galactic plane survey. We find that 44% (3712 of 8358) of the BGPS sources contain at least one mid-IR source, including 2457 of 5067 (49%) within the area where all surveys overlap (10 deg. s tarlessBGPS sources which were not matched to any mid-IR sources. The mean 1.1 mm flux of each group increases with increasing probability of active star formation. We also find that the 'starless' BGPS sources are the most compact, while the sources with the highest probability of star formation activity are on average more extended with large skirts of emission. A subsample of 280 BGPS sources with known distances demonstrates that mass and mean H 2 column density also increase with probability of star formation activity.

  18. Far-and mid-infrared properties of carbon layers elaborated by plasma sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, Benoit, E-mail: [Université de Nantes, CNRS, LTN UMR6607, La Chantrerie, Rue Christian Pauc, B.P. 50609, F-44306 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Ammar, Mohamed Ramzi; Bormann, Denis; Simon, Patrick [CNRS, CEMHTI UPR3079, Université d' Orléans, F-55071 (France); Rabat, Hervé; Brault, Pascal [Université d' Orléans, CNRS, GREMI UMR7344, BP 6744, F-45067 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)


    Highlights: • Magnetron sputtering deposition of columnar, disordered carbon films. • Sputtered carbon films infrared properties are dependent on the local order. • Film texture at the micro-nanoscale explains difference of optical properties. - Abstract: The far-and mid-infrared reflectivity spectra of two carbon layers deposited on pure (100) silicon substrates by DC magnetron sputtering were investigated at room temperature in the 10–5000 cm{sup −1} wavenumber range. Their structural and textural features were also studied by combining Raman spectroscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS). The set of results was used to discuss afterwards the influence of the texture on the infrared properties at varying length scale. Thereby, the two layers were found to be heterogeneous as assessed by RBS, XRR and FESEM and their thicknesses had been measured by XRR and FESEM. The information on the structural organization and “crystallite” size was given by Raman spectroscopy. The influence of both the textural and structural parameters on the measured infrared reflectivity spectra was discussed. Finally, a methodology was proposed to recover the intrinsic index of refraction and the intrinsic index of absorption of each layer.

  19. Ten years optically pumped semiconductor lasers: review, state-of-the-art, and future developments (United States)

    Kannengiesser, Christian; Ostroumov, Vasiliy; Pfeufer, Volker; Seelert, Wolf; Simon, Christoph; von Elm, Rüdiger; Zuck, Andreas


    Optically Pumped Semiconductor Lasers - OPSLs - have been introduced in 2001. Their unique features such as power scalability and wavelength flexibility, their excellent beam parameters, power stability and reliability opened this pioneering technology access to a wide range of applications such as flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, sequencing, medical diagnosis and therapy, semiconductor inspection, graphic arts, forensic, metrology. This talk will introduce the OPSL principles and compare them with ion, diode and standard solid state lasers. It will revue the first 10 years of this exciting technology, its current state and trends. In particular currently accessible wavelengths and power ranges, frequency doubling, ultra-narrow linewidth possibilities will be discussed. A survey of key applications will be given.

  20. N.G. Basov and early works on semiconductor lasers at P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseev, P G


    A survey is presented of works on creation and investigation of semiconductor lasers during 1957 – 1977 at the P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute. Many of these works were initiated by N.G. Basov, starting from pre-laser time, when N.G. Basov and his coworkers formulated principal conditions of creation of lasers on interband transitions in semiconductors. Main directions of further works were diode lasers based on various materials and structures, their characteristics of output power, high-speed operation and reliability. (special issue devoted to the 90th anniversary of n.g. basov)

  1. Picosecond Laser Pulse Interactions with Metallic and Semiconductor Surfaces. (United States)


    thermometric determination of plasma relaxation is by far more sensitive than direct optical measurements. The solid line in Fig. 4 shows the calculated...passively mode-locked Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet in Si, several researchers have used high picosecond or fem- laser was used to produce single 30-ps, 1.06...these targets to an aluminum backing plate with a silver-epoxy conducting glue (Ablestik). The conductivity of the targets was high enough to make

  2. Preparation of ZnS semiconductor nanocrystals using pulsed laser ablation in aqueous surfactant solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, S-H; Sasaki, T; Shimizu, Y; Yoon, J-W; Nichols, W T; Sung, Y-E; Koshizaki, N


    Cubic ZnS semiconductor nanocrystals with the size of 2 to 5 nm were prepared by pulsed laser ablation in aqueous surfactant solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide without any further treatments. The obtained suspensions of the nanocrystals have broad photoluminescence emission from 375 to 600 nm. The abundance and emission intensity of the nanocrystals depend on the concentration of the surfactant in solution

  3. Dynamics of modal power distribution in a multimode semiconductor laser with optical feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buldu, J M; Trull, J; Torrent, M C; GarcIa-Ojalvo, J; Mirasso, Claudio R


    The dynamics of power distribution between longitudinal modes of a multimode semiconductor laser subjected to external optical feedback is experimentally analysed in the low-frequency fluctuation regime. Power dropouts in the total light intensity are invariably accompanied by sudden activations of several longitudinal modes. These activations are seen not to be simultaneous to the dropouts, but to occur after them. The phenomenon is statistically analysed in a systematic way, and the corresponding delay is estimated. (letter to the editor)

  4. Dynamics of modal power distribution in a multimode semiconductor laser with optical feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buldu, J M [Departament de FIsica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, E-08222 Terrassa (Spain); Trull, J [Departament de FIsica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, E-08222 Terrassa (Spain); Torrent, M C [Departament de FIsica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, E-08222 Terrassa (Spain); GarcIa-Ojalvo, J [Departament de FIsica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, E-08222 Terrassa (Spain); Mirasso, Claudio R [Departament de FIsica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07071 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)


    The dynamics of power distribution between longitudinal modes of a multimode semiconductor laser subjected to external optical feedback is experimentally analysed in the low-frequency fluctuation regime. Power dropouts in the total light intensity are invariably accompanied by sudden activations of several longitudinal modes. These activations are seen not to be simultaneous to the dropouts, but to occur after them. The phenomenon is statistically analysed in a systematic way, and the corresponding delay is estimated. (letter to the editor)

  5. Semiconductor laser joint study program with Rome Laboratory (United States)

    Schaff, William J.; Okeefe, Sean S.; Eastman, Lester F.


    A program to jointly study vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) for high speed vertical optical interconnects (VOI) has been conducted under an ES&E between Rome Laboratory and Cornell University. Lasers were designed, grown, and fabricated at Cornell University. A VCSEL measurement laboratory has been designed, built, and utilized at Rome Laboratory. High quality VCSEL material was grown and characterized by fabricating conventional lateral cavity lasers that emitted at the design wavelength of 1.04 microns. The VCSEL's emit at 1.06 microns. Threshold currents of 16 mA at 4.8 volts were obtained for 30 microns diameter devices. Output powers of 5 mW were measured. This is 500 times higher power than from the light emitting diodes employed previously for vertical optical interconnects. A new form of compositional grading using a cosinusoidal function has been developed and is very successful for reducing diode series resistance for high speed interconnection applications. A flip-chip diamond package compatible with high speed operation of 16 VCSEL elements has been designed and characterized. A flip-chip device binding effort at Rome Laboratory was also designed and initiated. This report presents details of the one-year effort, including process recipes and results.

  6. Comprehensive experimental analysis of nonlinear dynamics in an optically-injected semiconductor laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Schires


    Full Text Available We present the first comprehensive experimental study, to our knowledge, of the routes between nonlinear dynamics induced in a semiconductor laser under external optical injection based on an analysis of time-averaged measurements of the optical and RF spectra and phasors of real-time series of the laser output. The different means of analysis are compared for several types of routes and the benefits of each are discussed in terms of the identification and mapping of the nonlinear dynamics. Finally, the results are presented in a novel audio/video format that describes the evolution of the dynamics with the injection parameters.

  7. Electroluminescence Analysis by Tilt Polish Technique of InP-Based Semiconductor Lasers (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Kouichi; Hamada, Kotaro; Yamaguchi, Akira


    We developed an effective electroluminescence (EL) analysis method to specify the degraded region of InP-based semiconductor lasers. The EL analysis method is one of the most important methods for failure analysis. However, EL observation was difficult because opaque electrodes surround an active layer. A portion of each electrode had to be left intact for wiring to inject the current. Thus, we developed a partial polish technique for the bottom electrode. Tilt polish equipment with a rotating table was introduced; a flat polished surface and a sufficiently wide remaining portion of the bottom electrode were obtained. As a result, clear EL from the back surface of the laser was observed.

  8. Stability diagrams for continuous wide-range control of two mutually delay-coupled semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junges, Leandro; Gallas, Jason A C


    The dynamics of two mutually delay-coupled semiconductor lasers has been frequently studied experimentally, numerically, and analytically either for weak or strong detuning between the lasers. Here, we present a systematic numerical investigation spanning all detuning ranges. We report high-resolution stability diagrams for wide ranges of the main control parameters of the laser, as described by the Lang–Kobayashi model. In particular, we detail the parameter influence on dynamical performance and map the distribution of chaotic pulsations and self-generated periodic spiking with arbitrary periodicity. Special attention is given to the unfolding of regular pulse packages for both symmetric and non-symmetric configurations with respect to detuning. The influence of the delay –time on the self-organization of periodic and chaotic laser phases as a function of the coupling and detuning is also described in detail. (paper)

  9. Gigahertz dual-comb modelocked diode-pumped semiconductor and solid-state lasers (United States)

    Link, S. M.; Mangold, M.; Golling, M.; Klenner, A.; Keller, U.


    We present a simple approach to generate simultaneously two gigahertz mode-locked pulse trains from a single gain element. A bi-refringent crystal in the laser cavity splits the one cavity beam into two cross-polarized and spatially separated beams. This polarization-duplexing is successfully demonstrated for both a semiconductor disk laser (i.e. MIXSEL) and a diode-pumped solid-state Nd:YAG laser. The beat between the two beams results in a microwave frequency comb, which represents a direct link between the terahertz optical frequencies and the electronically accessible microwave regime. This dual-output technique enables compact and cost-efficient dual-comb lasers for spectroscopy applications.

  10. Near infrared laser stimulation of human neural stem cells into neurons on graphene nanomesh semiconductors. (United States)

    Akhavan, Omid; Ghaderi, Elham; Shirazian, Soheil A


    Reduced graphene oxide nanomeshes (rGONMs), as p-type semiconductors with band-gap energy of ∼ 1 eV, were developed and applied in near infrared (NIR) laser stimulation of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) into neurons. The biocompatibility of the rGONMs in growth of hNSCs was found similar to that of the graphene oxide (GO) sheets. Proliferation of the hNSCs on the GONMs was assigned to the excess oxygen functional groups formed on edge defects of the GONMs, resulting in superhydrophilicity of the surface. Under NIR laser stimulation, the graphene layers (especially the rGONMs) exhibited significant cell differentiations, including more elongations of the cells and higher differentiation of neurons than glia. The higher hNSC differentiation on the rGONM than the reduced GO (rGO) was assigned to the stimulation effects of the low-energy photoexcited electrons injected from the rGONM semiconductors into the cells, while the high-energy photoelectrons of the rGO (as a zero band-gap semiconductor) could suppress the cell proliferation and/or even cause cell damages. Using conventional heating of the culture media up to ∼ 43 °C (the temperature typically reached under the laser irradiation), no significant differentiation was observed in dark. This further confirmed the role of photoelectrons in the hNSC differentiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamics of InGaN tandem blue-violet semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antohi, I.; Rusu, S.S.; Tronciu, V.Z.


    Full text: Blue-violet semiconductor lasers have received much attention because of their promise for high-density optical storage applications. In particular, blue-violet laser diodes operating at 400 nm are required for BD- systems and for use in medicine, biology, color printers and monitors, etc, In recent years, numerous fabrication methods have been proposed and developed for blue lasers with CW and self-pulsating operations and the lifetime of such lasers has been increased to over 15000 h. Recently, we have reported self-pulsation and excitable behaviour for an InGaN laser with a p-type saturable absorber, and SP in the frequency range from 1.6 to 2.9 GHz has been achieved with such lasers. In this paper, we present an investigation of the dynamics of tandem 400 nm blue-violet lasers with setup presented in Fig.1a. A particular feature of the devices is the connection of the contacts of the SA, to reduce the carrier lifetime in the SA with the intention of producing self-pulsation and excitability. We examine the laser dynamics in terms of bifurcation diagrams. A typical calculation of bifurcation for the periodic solution is shown in Fig. 1b. This figure shows the dependence of the peak of the photon number on the injected.

  12. Quantitative determination of additive Chlorantraniliprole in Abamectin preparation: Investigation of bootstrapping soft shrinkage approach by mid-infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    Yan, Hong; Song, Xiangzhong; Tian, Kuangda; Chen, Yilin; Xiong, Yanmei; Min, Shungeng


    A novel method, mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy, which enables the determination of Chlorantraniliprole in Abamectin within minutes, is proposed. We further evaluate the prediction ability of four wavelength selection methods, including bootstrapping soft shrinkage approach (BOSS), Monte Carlo uninformative variable elimination (MCUVE), genetic algorithm partial least squares (GA-PLS) and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) respectively. The results showed that BOSS method obtained the lowest root mean squared error of cross validation (RMSECV) (0.0245) and root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) (0.0271), as well as the highest coefficient of determination of cross-validation (Qcv2) (0.9998) and the coefficient of determination of test set (Q2test) (0.9989), which demonstrated that the mid infrared spectroscopy can be used to detect Chlorantraniliprole in Abamectin conveniently. Meanwhile, a suitable wavelength selection method (BOSS) is essential to conducting a component spectral analysis.

  13. Rapid determination of carbohydrates, ash, and extractives contents of straw using attenuated total reflectance fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy. (United States)

    Tamaki, Yukihiro; Mazza, Giuseppe


    Analysis of the chemical components of lignocellulosic biomass is essential to understanding its potential for utilization. Mid-infrared spectroscopy and partial least-squares regression were used for rapid measurement of the carbohydrate (total glycans; glucan; xylan; galactan; arabinan; mannan), ash, and extractives content of triticale and wheat straws. Calibration models for total glycans, glucan, and extractives showed good and excellent predictive performance on the basis of slope, r², RPD, and R/SEP criteria. The xylan model showed good and acceptable predictive performance. However, the ash model was evaluated as providing only approximate quantification and screening. The models for galactan, arabinan, and mannan indicated poor and insufficient prediction for application. Most models could predict both triticale and wheat straw samples with the same degree of accuracy. Mid-infrared spectroscopic techniques coupled with partial least-squares regression can be used for rapid prediction of total glycans, glucan, xylan, and extractives in triticale and wheat straw samples.

  14. Determination of carbohydrates present in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using mid-infrared spectroscopy and partial least squares regression


    Plata, Maria R.; Koch, Cosima; Wechselberger, Patrick; Herwig, Christoph; Lendl, Bernhard


    A fast and simple method to control variations in carbohydrate composition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, baker's yeast, during fermentation was developed using mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy. The method allows for precise and accurate determinations with minimal or no sample preparation and reagent consumption based on mid-IR spectra and partial least squares (PLS) regression. The PLS models were developed employing the results from reference analysis of the yeast cells. The reference anal...

  15. Confronting Standard Models of Proto-planetary Disks with New Mid-infrared Sizes from the Keck Interferometer


    Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Che, Xiao; Monnier, John D.; Sitko, Michael L.; Russell, Ray W.; Grady, Carol A.; Day, Amanda N.; Perry, R. B.; Harries, Tim J.; Aarnio, Alicia N.; Colavita, Mark M.; Wizinowich, Peter L.; Ragland, Sam; Woillez, Julien


    We present near- and mid-infrared (MIR) interferometric observations made with the Keck Interferometer Nuller and near-contemporaneous spectro-photometry from the infrared telescope facilities (IRTFs) of 11 well-known young stellar objects, several of which were observed for the first time in these spectral and spatial resolution regimes. With au-level spatial resolution, we first establish characteristic sizes of the infrared emission using a simple geometrical model consisting of a hot inne...

  16. Validation of mid-infrared spectrometry in milk for predicting body energy status in Holstein-Friesian cows


    McParland, S.; Banos, G.; McCarthy, B.; Lewis, E.; Coffey, M. P.; O'Neill, B.; O'Donovan, M.; Wall, E.; Berry, D. P.


    Cow energy balance is known to be associated with cow health and fertility; therefore, routine access to data on energy balance can be useful in both management and breeding decisions to improve cow performance. The objective of this study was to determine if individual cow milk mid-infrared spectra (MIR) could be useful to predict cow energy balance across contrasting production systems. Direct energy balance was calculated as the differential between energy intake and energy output in milk ...

  17. Study on the mechanism of human blood glucose concentration measuring using mid-infrared spectral analysis technology (United States)

    Li, Xiang


    All forms of diabetes increase the risk of long-term complications. Blood glucose monitoring is of great importance for controlling diabetes procedure, preventing the complications and improving the patient's life quality. At present, the clinical blood glucose concentration measurement is invasive and could be replaced by noninvasive spectroscopy analytical techniques. The mid-infrared spectral region contains strong characteristic and well-defined absorption bands. Therefore, mid-infrared provides an opportunity for monitoring blood glucose invasively with only a few discrete bonds. Although the blood glucose concentration measurement using mid-infrared spectroscopy has a lot of advantages, the disadvantage is also obvious. The absorption in this infrared region is fundamental molecular group vibration. Absorption intensity is very strong, especially for biological molecules. In this paper, it figures out that the osmosis rate of glucose has a certain relationship with the blood glucose concentration. Therefore, blood glucose concentration could be measured indirectly by measuring the glucose exudate in epidermis layer. Human oral glucose tolerance tests were carried out to verify the correlation of glucose exudation in shallow layer of epidermis layer and blood glucose concentration. As it has been explained above, the mid-infrared spectral region contains well-defined absorption bands, the intensity of absorption peak around 1123 cm-1 was selected to measure the glucose and that around 1170 cm-1 was selected as reference. Ratio of absorption peak intensity was recorded for each set of measurement. The effect and importance of the cleaning the finger to be measured before spectrum measuring are discussed and also verified by experiment.

  18. Effect of preservatives on the accuracy of mid-infrared milk component testing. (United States)

    Barbano, D M; Wojciechowski, K L; Lynch, J M


    Our objective was to determine the effect of commonly used milk preservatives on the accuracy of fat, protein, and lactose content determination in milk by mid-infrared (mid-IR) milk analysis. Two producer raw milks (Holstein and Jersey) and 2 pasteurized modified milks, 1 similar to Holstein milk and 1 similar to Jersey milk were used as the 4 different milk sources. Seven different milk preservative approaches (K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and 6 different bronopol-based preservatives) and a portion of unpreserved milk for each of the 4 different milks sources were tested for fat B, lactose, protein, and fat A. The experiment was replicated 3 times (28 d each) for a total of 84 d. Two mid-infrared (mid-IR) transmittance milk analyzers (an optical and a virtual filter instrument) were used. A large batch of pilot milk was prepared from pasteurized, homogenized, unpreserved whole milk, split into vials, quick frozen by immersion in liquid nitrogen, and transferred into a -80 °C freezer. Pilots were thawed and analyzed on each testing day during the study. Significant increases were observed in all uncorrected readings on the pilot milks over the 84 d of the study, but the increases were gradual and small on each instrument for all components. Results from the study were corrected for these changes. A significant difference in mid-IR fat A readings was observed, whereas no differences were detected for fat B, lactose, or protein between unpreserved and preserved milks containing 0.02% K(2)Cr(2)O(7.) Therefore, K(2)Cr(2)O(7) has little or no effect on mid-IR test results. All bronopol-based preservative approaches in this study differed in mid-IR test results compared with K(2)Cr(2)O(7)-preserved and unpreserved milks, with the largest effect on protein results. Mid-IR uncorrected readings increased with time of refrigerated storage at 4°C for all preservative approaches, with the largest increase for protein. The rate of increase in uncorrected readings with time of storage was

  19. Use of photoacoustic mid-infrared spectroscopy to characterize soil properties and soil organic matter stability (United States)

    Peltre, Clement; Bruun, Sander; Du, Changwen; Stoumann Jensen, Lars


    The persistence of soil organic matter (SOM) is recognized as a major ecosystem property due to its key role in earth carbon cycling, soil quality and ecosystem services. SOM stability is typically studied using biological methods such as measuring CO2-C evolution from microbial decomposition of SOM during laboratory incubation or by physical or chemical fractionation methods, allowing the separation of a labile fraction of SOM. However these methods are time consuming and there is still a need for developing reliable techniques to characterize SOM stability, providing both quantitative measurements and qualitative information, in order to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling SOM persistence. Several spectroscopic techniques have been used to characterize and predict SOM stability, such as near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy (DRIFT). The latter allows a proper identification of spectral regions corresponding to vibrations of specific molecular or functional groups associated with SOM lability. However, reflectance spectroscopy for soil analyses raises some difficulties related to the low reflectance of soils, and to the high influence of particle size. In the last three decades, the progresses in microphone sensitivity dramatically increased the performance of photoacoustic Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). This technique offers benefits over reflectance spectroscopy techniques, because particle size and the level of sample reflectance have little effect of on the PAS signal, since FTIR-PAS is a direct absorption technique. Despite its high potential for soil analysis, only a limited number of studies have so far applied FTIR-PAS for soil characterization and its potential for determining SOM degradability still needs to be investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of FTIR-PAS for the characterization of SOM decomposability during

  20. Mid-infrared mapping of Jupiter's temperatures, aerosol opacity and chemical distributions with IRTF/TEXES (United States)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Greathouse, T. K.; Orton, G. S.; Sinclair, J. A.; Giles, R. S.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Encrenaz, T.


    Global maps of Jupiter's atmospheric temperatures, gaseous composition and aerosol opacity are derived from a programme of 5-20 μm mid-infrared spectroscopic observations using the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph (TEXES) on NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Image cubes from December 2014 in eight spectral channels, with spectral resolutions of R ∼2000 - 12 , 000 and spatial resolutions of 2-4° latitude, are inverted to generate 3D maps of tropospheric and stratospheric temperatures, 2D maps of upper tropospheric aerosols, phosphine and ammonia, and 2D maps of stratospheric ethane and acetylene. The results are compared to a re-analysis of Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) observations acquired during Cassini's closest approach to Jupiter in December 2000, demonstrating that this new archive of ground-based mapping spectroscopy can match and surpass the quality of previous investigations, and will permit future studies of Jupiter's evolving atmosphere. The visibility of cool zones and warm belts varies from channel to channel, suggesting complex vertical variations from the radiatively-controlled upper troposphere to the convective mid-troposphere. We identify mid-infrared signatures of Jupiter's 5-μm hotspots via simultaneous M, N and Q-band observations, which are interpreted as temperature and ammonia variations in the northern Equatorial Zone and on the edge of the North Equatorial Belt (NEB). Equatorial plumes enriched in NH3 gas are located south-east of NH3-desiccated 'hotspots' on the edge of the NEB. Comparison of the hotspot locations in several channels across the 5-20 μm range indicate that these anomalous regions tilt westward with altitude. Aerosols and PH3 are both enriched at the equator but are not co-located with the NH3 plumes. The equatorial temperature minimum and PH3/aerosol maxima have varied in amplitude over time, possibly as a result of periodic equatorial brightenings and the fresh updrafts of