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Sample records for microwave water radiometer

  1. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit water vapor radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukamto, L. M.; Cooley, T. W.; Janssen, M. A.; Parks, G. S.

    1991-01-01

    A proof of concept Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR) is under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). WVR's are used to remotely sense water vapor and cloud liquid water in the atmosphere and are valuable for meteorological applications as well as for determination of signal path delays due to water vapor in the atmosphere. The high cost and large size of existing WVR instruments motivate the development of miniature MMIC WVR's, which have great potential for low cost mass production. The miniaturization of WVR components allows large scale deployment of WVR's for Earth environment and meteorological applications. Small WVR's can also result in improved thermal stability, resulting in improved calibration stability. Described here is the design and fabrication of a 31.4 GHz MMIC radiometer as one channel of a thermally stable WVR as a means of assessing MMIC technology feasibility.

  2. Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) Monthly Mean Atmospheric Liquid Water (ALW) By Prabhakara

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SMMR_ALW_PRABHAKARA data are Special Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) Monthly Mean Atmospheric Liquid Water (ALW) data by Prabhakara.The Prabhakara Scanning...

  3. Atmospheric water distribution in cyclones as seen with Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometers (SMMR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaros, K. B.; Mcmurdie, L. A.

    1983-01-01

    Passive microwave measurements are used to study the distribution of atmospheric water in midlatitude cyclones. The integrated water vapor, integrated liquid water, and rainfall rate are deduced from the brightness temperatures at microwave frequencies measured by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMRR) flown on both the Seasat and Nimbus 7 satellites. The practical application of locating fronts by the cyclone moisture pattern over oceans is shown, and the relationship between the quantity of coastal rainfall and atmospheric water content is explored.

  4. Atmospheric water distribution in a midlatitude cyclone observed by the Seasat Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmurdie, L. A.; Katsaros, K. B.

    1985-01-01

    Patterns in the horizontal distribution of integrated water vapor, integrated liquid water and rainfall rate derived from the Seasat Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) during a September 10-12, 1978 North Pacific cyclone are studied. These patterns are compared with surface analyses, ship reports, radiosonde data, and GOES-West infrared satellite imagery. The SMMR data give a unique view of the large mesoscale structure of a midlatitude cyclone. The water vapor distribution is found to have characteristic patterns related to the location of the surface fronts throughout the development of the cyclone. An example is given to illustrate that SMMR data could significantly improve frontal analysis over data-sparse oceanic regions. The distribution of integrated liquid water agrees qualitatively well with corresponding cloud patterns in satellite imagery and appears to provide a means to distinguish where liquid water clouds exist under a cirrus shield. Ship reports of rainfall intensity agree qualitatively very well with SMMR-derived rainrates. Areas of mesoscale rainfall, on the order of 50 km x 50 km or greater are detected using SMMR derived rainrates.

  5. Microwave Radiometer Systems, Design and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Vine, David Le

    Two important microwave remote sensors are the radar and the radiometer. There have been a number of books written on various aspects of radar, but there have been only a few written on microwave radiometers, especially on subjects of how to design and build radiometer systems. This book, which...

  6. Forward Model Studies of Water Vapor Using Scanning Microwave Radiometers, Global Positioning System, and Radiosondes during the Cloudiness Intercomparison Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattioli, Vinia; Westwater, Ed R.; Gutman, S.; Morris, Victor R.

    2005-01-01

    Brightness temperatures computed from five absorption models and radiosonde observations were analyzed by comparing them with measurements from three microwave radiometers at 23.8 and 31.4 GHz. Data were obtained during the Cloudiness Inter-Comparison experiment at the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's (ARM) site in North-Central Oklahoma in 2003. The radiometers were calibrated using two procedures, the so-called instantaneous ?tipcal? method and an automatic self-calibration algorithm. Measurements from the radiometers were in agreement, with less than a 0.4-K difference during clear skies, when the instantaneous method was applied. Brightness temperatures from the radiometer and the radiosonde showed an agreement of less than 0.55 K when the most recent absorption models were considered. Precipitable water vapor (PWV) computed from the radiometers were also compared to the PWV derived from a Global Positioning System station that operates at the ARM site. The instruments agree to within 0.1 cm in PWV retrieval

  7. Dual Microwave Radiometer Experiment Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, Roger [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Passive microwave radiometers (MWRs) are the most commonly used and accurate instruments the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Research Facility has to retrieve cloud liquid water path (LWP). The MWR measurements (microwave radiances or brightness temperatures) are often used to derive LWP using climatological constraints, but are frequently also combined with measurements from radar and other instruments for cloud microphysical retrievals. Nominally this latter approach improves the retrieval of LWP and other cloud microphysical quantities (such as effective radius or number concentration), but this also means that when MWR data are poor, other cloud microphysical quantities are also negatively affected. Unfortunately, current MWR data is often contaminated by water on the MWR radome. This water makes a substantial contribution to the measured radiance and typically results in retrievals of cloud liquid water and column water vapor that are biased high. While it is obvious when the contamination by standing water is large (and retrieval biases are large), much of the time it is difficult to know with confidence that there is no contamination. At present there is no attempt to estimate or correct for this source of error, and identification of problems is largely left to users. Typically users are advised to simply throw out all data when the MWR “wet-window” resistance-based sensor indicates water is present, but this sensor is adjusted by hand and is known to be temperamental. In order to address this problem, a pair of ARM microwave radiometers was deployed to the University of Washington (UW) in Seattle, Washington, USA. The radiometers were operated such that one radiometer was scanned under a cover that (nominally) prevents this radiometer radome from gathering water and permits measurements away from zenith; while the other radiometer is operated normally – open or uncovered - with the radome exposed to the sky

  8. Microwave Radiometer Linearity Measured by Simple Means

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Modern spaceborne radiometer systems feature an almost perfect on-board calibration, hence the primary calibration task to be carried out before launch is a check of radiometer linearity. This paper describes two ways of measuring linearity of microwave radiometers only requiring relatively simple...

  9. Microwave Radiometry and Radiometers for Ocean Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    2008-01-01

    aperture radiometer technique, both yielding imaging capability without scanning. Typical applications of microwave radiometry concerning oceans are: sea salinity, sea surface temperature, wind speed and direction, sea ice detection and classification. However, in an attempt to measure properties...

  10. A Scanning Microwave Radar and Radiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1995-01-01

    The Scanning Microwave Radar and Radiometer (SMRR) is a line scanner featuring a combined radar and radiometer system operating around 35 and 94 GHz. The layout of the SMRR is shown. The 2 offset antenna parabolas scan in synchronism, the receiver antenna has the highest gain in order to ensure...

  11. Microwave Radiometry and Radiometers for Ocean Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    2008-01-01

    The microwave radiometer system measures, within its bandwidth, the naturally emitted radiation – the brightness temperature – of substances within its antenna’s field of view. Thus a radiometer is really a sensitive and calibrated microwave receiver. The radiometer can be a basic total power....../antenna size, and the problem: scanning antenna/space- craft stability. In many cases good compromises have been reached, as evident recalling the many successful missions throughout the recent 30 years. But in some cases the situation calls for special solutions, like the push-broom system or the synthetic...

  12. Intersatellite Calibration of Microwave Radiometers for GPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilheit, T. T.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the GPM mission is to measure precipitation globally with high temporal resolution by using a constellation of satellites logically united by the GPM Core Satellite which will be in a non-sunsynchronous, medium inclination orbit. The usefulness of the combined product depends on the consistency of precipitation retrievals from the various microwave radiometers. The calibration requirements for this consistency are quite daunting requiring a multi-layered approach. The radiometers can vary considerably in their frequencies, view angles, polarizations and spatial resolutions depending on their primary application and other constraints. The planned parametric algorithms will correct for the varying viewing parameters, but they are still vulnerable to calibration errors, both relative and absolute. The GPM Intersatellite Calibration Working Group (aka X-CAL) will adjust the calibration of all the radiometers to a common consensus standard for the GPM Level 1C product to be used in precipitation retrievals. Finally, each Precipitation Algorithm Working Group must have its own strategy for removing the residual errors. If the final adjustments are small, the credibility of the precipitation retrievals will be enhanced. Before intercomparing, the radiometers must be self consistent on a scan-wise and orbit-wise basis. Pre-screening for this consistency constitutes the first step in the intercomparison. The radiometers are then compared pair-wise with the microwave radiometer (GMI) on the GPM Core Satellite. Two distinct approaches are used for sake of cross-checking the results. On the one hand, nearly simultaneous observations are collected at the cross-over points of the orbits and the observations of one are converted to virtual observations of the other using a radiative transfer model to permit comparisons. The complementary approach collects histograms of brightness temperature from each instrument. In each case a model is needed to translate the

  13. Tomographic retrieval of cloud liquid water fields from a single scanning microwave radiometer aboard a moving platform – Part 1: Field trial results from the Wakasa Bay experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Huang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomographic methods offer great potential for retrieving three-dimensional spatial distributions of cloud liquid water from radiometric observations by passive microwave sensors. Fixed tomographic systems require multiple radiometers, while mobile systems can use just a single radiometer. Part 1 (this paper examines the results from a limited cloud tomography trial with a single-radiometer airborne system carried out as part of the 2003 AMSR-E validation campaign over Wakasa Bay of the Sea of Japan. During this trial, the Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR and Microwave Imaging Radiometer (MIR aboard the NASA P-3 research aircraft provided a useful dataset for testing the cloud tomography method over a system of low-level clouds. We do tomographic retrievals with a constrained inversion algorithm using three configurations: PSR, MIR, and combined PSR and MIR data. The liquid water paths from the PSR retrieval are consistent with those from the MIR retrieval. The retrieved cloud field based on the combined data appears to be physically plausible and consistent with the cloud image obtained by a cloud radar. We find that some vertically-uniform clouds appear at high altitudes in the retrieved field where the radar shows clear sky. This is likely due to the sub-optimal data collection strategy. This sets the stage for Part 2 of this study that aims to define optimal data collection strategies using observation system simulation experiments.

  14. Microwave integrated circuit radiometer front-ends for the Push Broom Microwave Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, R. F.; Hearn, C. P.

    1982-01-01

    Microwave integrated circuit front-ends for the L-band, S-band and C-band stepped frequency null-balanced noise-injection Dicke-switched radiometer to be installed in the NASA Langley airborne prototype Push Broom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR) are described. These front-ends were developed for the fixed frequency of 1.413 GHz and the variable frequencies of 1.8-2.8 GHz and 3.8-5.8 GHz. Measurements of the noise temperature of these units were made at 55.8 C, and the results of these tests are given. While the overall performance was reasonable, improvements need to be made in circuit losses and noise temperatures, which in the case of the C-band were from 1000 to 1850 K instead of the 500 K specified. Further development of the prototypes is underway to improve performance and extend the frequency range.

  15. Application of microwave radiometers for wetlands and estuaries monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shutko, A.; Haldin, A.; Novichikhin, E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the examples of experimental data obtained with airborne microwave radiometers used for monitoring of wetlands and estuaries located in coastal environments. The international team of researchers has successfully worked in Russia, Ukraine and USA. The data presented relate to a period of time between 1990 and 1995. They have been collected in Odessa Region, Black Sea coast, Ukraine, in Regions of Pittsville and Winfield, Maryland, USA, and in Region of St. Marks, Florida, USA. The parameters discussed are a soil moisture, depth to a shallow water table, vegetation index, salinity of water surface

  16. Comparison of global observations and trends of total precipitable water derived from microwave radiometers and COSMIC radio occultation from 2006 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-P. Ho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We compare atmospheric total precipitable water (TPW derived from the SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager and SSMIS (Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder radiometers and WindSat to collocated TPW estimates derived from COSMIC (Constellation System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate radio occultation (RO under clear and cloudy conditions over the oceans from June 2006 to December 2013. Results show that the mean microwave (MW radiometer – COSMIC TPW differences range from 0.06 to 0.18 mm for clear skies, from 0.79 to 0.96 mm for cloudy skies, from 0.46 to 0.49 mm for cloudy but non-precipitating conditions, and from 1.64 to 1.88 mm for precipitating conditions. Because RO measurements are not significantly affected by clouds and precipitation, the biases mainly result from MW retrieval uncertainties under cloudy and precipitating conditions. All COSMIC and MW radiometers detect a positive TPW trend over these 8 years. The trend using all COSMIC observations collocated with MW pixels for this data set is 1.79 mm decade−1, with a 95 % confidence interval of (0.96, 2.63, which is in close agreement with the trend estimated by the collocated MW observations (1.78 mm decade−1 with a 95 % confidence interval of 0.94, 2.62. The sample of MW and RO pairs used in this study is highly biased toward middle latitudes (40–60° N and 40–65° S, and thus these trends are not representative of global average trends. However, they are representative of the latitudes of extratropical storm tracks and the trend values are approximately 4 to 6 times the global average trends, which are approximately 0.3 mm decade−1. In addition, the close agreement of these two trends from independent observations, which represent an increase in TPW in our data set of about 6.9 %, are a strong indication of the positive water vapor–temperature feedback on a warming planet in regions where precipitation from extratropical

  17. Comparison of global observations and trends of total precipitable water derived from microwave radiometers and COSMIC radio occultation from 2006 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shu-Peng; Peng, Liang; Mears, Carl; Anthes, Richard A.

    2018-01-01

    We compare atmospheric total precipitable water (TPW) derived from the SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) and SSMIS (Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder) radiometers and WindSat to collocated TPW estimates derived from COSMIC (Constellation System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate) radio occultation (RO) under clear and cloudy conditions over the oceans from June 2006 to December 2013. Results show that the mean microwave (MW) radiometer - COSMIC TPW differences range from 0.06 to 0.18 mm for clear skies, from 0.79 to 0.96 mm for cloudy skies, from 0.46 to 0.49 mm for cloudy but non-precipitating conditions, and from 1.64 to 1.88 mm for precipitating conditions. Because RO measurements are not significantly affected by clouds and precipitation, the biases mainly result from MW retrieval uncertainties under cloudy and precipitating conditions. All COSMIC and MW radiometers detect a positive TPW trend over these 8 years. The trend using all COSMIC observations collocated with MW pixels for this data set is 1.79 mm decade-1, with a 95 % confidence interval of (0.96, 2.63), which is in close agreement with the trend estimated by the collocated MW observations (1.78 mm decade-1 with a 95 % confidence interval of 0.94, 2.62). The sample of MW and RO pairs used in this study is highly biased toward middle latitudes (40-60° N and 40-65° S), and thus these trends are not representative of global average trends. However, they are representative of the latitudes of extratropical storm tracks and the trend values are approximately 4 to 6 times the global average trends, which are approximately 0.3 mm decade-1. In addition, the close agreement of these two trends from independent observations, which represent an increase in TPW in our data set of about 6.9 %, are a strong indication of the positive water vapor-temperature feedback on a warming planet in regions where precipitation from extratropical storms is already large.

  18. Progress report of FY 1999 activities: The application of Kalman filtering to derive water vapor profiles from combined ground-based sensors: Raman lidar, microwave radiometers, GPS, and radiosondes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgeworth R. Westwater; Yong Han

    1999-01-01

    Previously, the proposers have delivered to ARM a documented algorithm, that is now applied operationally, and which derives water vapor profiles from combined remote sensor measurements of water vapor radiometers, cloud-base ceilometers, and radio acoustic sounding systems (RASS). With the expanded deployment of a Raman lidar at the CART Central Facility, high quality, high vertical-resolution, water vapor profiles will be provided during nighttime clear conditions, and during clear daytime conditions, to somewhat lower altitudes. The object of this effort is to use Kalman Filtering, previously applied to the combination of nighttime Raman lidar and microwave radiometer data, to derive high-quality water vapor profiles, during non-precipitating conditions, from data routinely available at the CART site. Input data to the algorithm would include: Raman lidar data, highly quality-controlled data of integrated moisture from microwave radiometers and GPS, RASS, and radiosondes. While analyzing data obtained during the Water Vapor Intensive Operating Period'97 at the SGP CART site in central Oklahoma, several questions arose about the calibration of the ARM microwave radiometers (MWR). A large portion of this years effort was a thorough analysis of the many factors that are important for the calibration of this instrument through the tip calibration method and the development of algorithms to correct this procedure. An open literature publication describing this analysis has been accepted

  19. Precipitation from the GPM Microwave Imager and Constellation Radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerow, Christian; Randel, David; Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Kulie, Mark; Wang, Nai-Yu

    2014-05-01

    Satellite precipitation retrievals from microwave sensors are fundamentally underconstrained requiring either implicit or explicit a-priori information to constrain solutions. The radiometer algorithm designed for the GPM core and constellation satellites makes this a-priori information explicit in the form of a database of possible rain structures from the GPM core satellite and a Bayesian retrieval scheme. The a-priori database will eventually come from the GPM core satellite's combined radar/radiometer retrieval algorithm. That product is physically constrained to ensure radiometric consistency between the radars and radiometers and is thus ideally suited to create the a-priori databases for all radiometers in the GPM constellation. Until a robust product exists, however, the a-priori databases are being generated from the combination of existing sources over land and oceans. Over oceans, the Day-1 GPM radiometer algorithm uses the TRMM PR/TMI physically derived hydrometer profiles that are available from the tropics through sea surface temperatures of approximately 285K. For colder sea surface temperatures, the existing profiles are used with lower hydrometeor layers removed to correspond to colder conditions. While not ideal, the results appear to be reasonable placeholders until the full GPM database can be constructed. It is more difficult to construct physically consistent profiles over land due to ambiguities in surface emissivities as well as details of the ice scattering that dominates brightness temperature signatures over land. Over land, the a-priori databases have therefore been constructed by matching satellite overpasses to surface radar data derived from the WSR-88 network over the continental United States through the National Mosaic and Multi-Sensor QPE (NMQ) initiative. Databases are generated as a function of land type (4 categories of increasing vegetation cover as well as 4 categories of increasing snow depth), land surface temperature and

  20. Progress report of FY 1997 activities: The application of Kalman filtering to derive water vapor profiles from combined ground-based sensors: Raman lidar, microwave radiometers, GPS, and radiosondes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgeworth R. Westwater; Yong Han

    1997-01-01

    Previously, the proposers have delivered to ARM a documented algorithm, that is now applied operationally, and which derives water vapor profiles from combined remote sensor measurements of water vapor radiometers, cloud-base ceilometers, and radio acoustic sounding systems (RASS). With the expanded deployment of a Raman lidar at the CART Central Facility, high quality, high vertical-resolution, water vapor profiles will be provided during nighttime clear conditions, and during clear daytime conditions, to somewhat lower altitudes. The object of this proposal was to use Kalman Filtering, previously applied to the combination of nighttime Raman lidar and microwave radiometer data, to derive high-quality water vapor profiles, during non-precipitating conditions, from data routinely available at the CART site. Input data to the algorithm would include: Raman lidar data, highly quality-controlled data of integrated moisture from microwave radiometers and GPS, RASS, and radiosondes. The algorithm will include recently-developed quality control procedures for radiometers. The focus of this years activities has been on the intercomparison of data obtained during an intensive operating period at the SGP CART site in central Oklahoma

  1. Microwave Photonic Imaging Radiometer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Passive Microwave Remote Sensing is currently utilized by NASA, NOAA, and USGIS to conduct Earth Science missions, including weather forecasting, early warning...

  2. Mapping global precipitation with satellite borne microwave radiometer and infrared radiometer using Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, S.; Sasashige, K.; Katagami, D.; Ushio, T.; Kubota, T.; Okamoto, K.; Iida, Y.; Kida, S.; Shige, S.; Shimomura, S.; Aonashi, K.; Inoue, T.; Morimoto, T.; Kawasaki, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Estimates of precipitation at a high time and space resolution are required for many important applications. In this paper, a new global precipitation map with high spatial (0.1 degree) and temporal (1 hour) resolution using Kalman filter technique is presented and evaluated. Infrared radiometer data, which are available globally nearly everywhere and nearly all the time from geostationary orbit, are used with the several microwave radiometers aboard the LEO satellites. IR data is used as a means to move the precipitation estimates from microwave observation during periods when microwave data are not available at a given location. Moving vector is produced by computing correlations on successive images of IR data. When precipitation is moved, the Kalman filter is applied for improving the moving technique in this research. The new approach showed a better score than the technique without Kalman filter. The correlation coefficient was 0.1 better than without the Kalman filter about 6 hours after the last microwave overpasses, and the RMS error was improved about 0.1 mm/h with the Kalman filter technique. This approach is unique in that 1) the precipitation estimates from the microwave radiometer is mainly used, 2) the IR temperature in every hour is also used for the precipitation estimates based on the Kalman filter theory

  3. Validation of multi-channel scanning microwave radiometer on-board Oceansat-1

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; Pankajakshan, T.; Harikrishnan, M.

    Sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface wind speed (WS) and columnar water vapour (WV) derived from Multi-frequency Scanning Microwave Radiometer (MSMR) sensor on-board IRS-P4 (Oceansat-1) were validated against the in situ measurements from ship...

  4. Source analysis of spaceborne microwave radiometer interference over land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Li; Zhang, Sibo

    2016-03-01

    Satellite microwave thermal emissions mixed with signals from active sensors are referred to as radiofrequency interference (RFI). Based on Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) observations from June 1 to 16, 2011, RFI over Europe was identified and analyzed using the modified principal component analysis algorithm in this paper. The X band AMSR-E measurements in England and Italy are mostly affected by the stable, persistent, active microwave transmitters on the surface, while the RFI source of other European countries is the interference of the reflected geostationary TV satellite downlink signals to the measurements of spaceborne microwave radiometers. The locations and intensities of the RFI induced by the geostationary TV and communication satellites changed with time within the observed period. The observations of spaceborne microwave radiometers in ascending portions of orbits are usually interfered with over European land, while no RFI was detected in descending passes. The RFI locations and intensities from the reflection of downlink radiation are highly dependent upon the relative geometry between the geostationary satellite and the measuring passive sensor. Only these fields of view of a spaceborne instrument whose scan azimuths are close to the azimuth relative to the geostationary satellite are likely to be affected by RFI.

  5. Comparison of time series of integrated water vapor measured using radiosonde, GPS and microwave radiometer at the CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Franceso; Rosoldi, Marco; Madonna, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    . radiosondes (processed using GRUAN processing algorithm); 4. a microwave radiometer (data processed using a retrieval based on a neural network). F. Amato, M. Rosoldi, and F. Madonna Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Metodologie per l'Analisi Ambientale (CNR-IMAA), Tito Scalo, Potenza, Italy Information about the amount and spatial distribution of atmospheric water vapor is essential to improve our knowledge of weather forecasting and climate change. Water vapor is highly variable in space and time depending on the complex interplay of several phenomena like convection, precipitation, turbulence, etc. It remains one of the most poorly characterized meteorological parameters. Remarkable progress in using of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), in particular GPS, for the monitoring of atmospheric water vapor has been achieved during the last decades. Various studies have demonstrated that GPS could provide accurate water vapor estimates for the study of the atmosphere. Different GPS data processing provided within the scientific community made use of various tropospheric models that primarily differs for the assumptions on the vertical refractivity profiles and the mapping of the vertical delay with elevation angles. This works compares several models based on the use of surface meteorological data. In order to calculate the Integrated Water Vapour (IWV), an algorithm for calculating the zenith tropospheric delay was implemented. It is based upon different mapping functions (Niell, Saastamoinen, Chao and Herring Mapping Functions). Observations are performed at the Istituto di Metodologie per l'Analisi Ambientale (IMAA) GPS station located in Tito Scalo, Potenza (40.60N, 15.72E), from July to December 2014, in the framework of OSCAR project (Observation System for Climate Application at Regional scale). The retrieved values of the IWV using the GPS are systematically compared with the other estimation of IWV collected at CIAO (CNR-IMAA Atmospheric

  6. Design and Development of the SMAP Microwave Radiometer Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Medeiros, James J.; Horgan, Kevin A.; Brambora, Clifford K.; Estep, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    The SMAP microwave radiometer will measure land surface brightness temperature at L-band (1413 MHz) in the presence of radio frequency interference (RFI) for soil moisture remote sensing. The radiometer design was driven by the requirements to incorporate internal calibration, to operate synchronously with the SMAP radar, and to mitigate the deleterious effects of RFI. The system design includes a highly linear super-heterodyne microwave receiver with internal reference loads and noise sources for calibration and an innovative digital signal processor and detection system. The front-end comprises a coaxial cable-based feed network, with a pair of diplexers and a coupled noise source, and radiometer front-end (RFE) box. Internal calibration is provided by reference switches and a common noise source inside the RFE. The RF back-end (RBE) downconverts the 1413 MHz channel to an intermediate frequency (IF) of 120 MHz. The IF signals are then sampled and quantized by high-speed analog-to-digital converters in the radiometer digital electronics (RDE) box. The RBE local oscillator and RDE sampling clocks are phase-locked to a common reference to ensure coherency between the signals. The RDE performs additional filtering, sub-band channelization, cross-correlation for measuring third and fourth Stokes parameters, and detection and integration of the first four raw moments of the signals. These data are packetized and sent to the ground for calibration and further processing. Here we discuss the novel features of the radiometer hardware particularly those influenced by the need to mitigate RFI.

  7. LAMMR: A new generation satellite microwave radiometer - Its concepts and capabilities. [Large Antenna Multichannel Microwave Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, W. T.; Wilheit, T. T.

    1981-01-01

    Definition studies and baseline design are summarized for the proposed, and now discontinued, LAMMR. The instrument is an offset parabolic reflector with Cassegrain feeds. The three-meter aperture reflector, to be constructed using graphite-epoxy technology, rotates continuously at 0.833 rps. The scan drive subsystem includes momentum compensation for the rotating mass which includes the reflector, the support arm and Cassegrain subreflector, feed horns and radiometer. Two total power radiometers are recommended for each frequency, one each for horizontal and vertical polarizations. The selection plan, definition study specifications, LAMMR performance specifications, and predicted accuracies and resolutions after processing are shown.

  8. Optimum Image Formation for Spaceborne Microwave Radiometer Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, David G; Brodzik, Mary J

    2016-05-01

    This paper considers some of the issues of radiometer brightness image formation and reconstruction for use in the NASA-sponsored Calibrated Passive Microwave Daily Equal-Area Scalable Earth Grid 2.0 Brightness Temperature Earth System Data Record project, which generates a multisensor multidecadal time series of high-resolution radiometer products designed to support climate studies. Two primary reconstruction algorithms are considered: the Backus-Gilbert approach and the radiometer form of the scatterometer image reconstruction (SIR) algorithm. These are compared with the conventional drop-in-the-bucket (DIB) gridded image formation approach. Tradeoff study results for the various algorithm options are presented to select optimum values for the grid resolution, the number of SIR iterations, and the BG gamma parameter. We find that although both approaches are effective in improving the spatial resolution of the surface brightness temperature estimates compared to DIB, SIR requires significantly less computation. The sensitivity of the reconstruction to the accuracy of the measurement spatial response function (MRF) is explored. The partial reconstruction of the methods can tolerate errors in the description of the sensor measurement response function, which simplifies the processing of historic sensor data for which the MRF is not known as well as modern sensors. Simulation tradeoff results are confirmed using actual data.

  9. GHRSST Level 2P Global Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 on the GCOM-W satellite (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) was launched on 18 May 2012, onboard the Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W) satellite developed...

  10. Four-channel temperature and humidity microwave scanning radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei-Yuan

    1994-06-01

    A compact four-channel microwave scanning radiometer for tropospheric remote sensing is being developed. A pair of 53.85 and 56.02 GHz and a pair of 23.87 and 31.65 GHz are adopted as temperature and humidity channels' frequencies respectively. For each pair of frequencies it has an offset reflector antenna and a Dicke-switching receiver. The pair of receivers is assembled in an enclosure, which is mounted on the rotating table of an azimuth mounting and the pair of antennas is connected with the rotating table of an azimuth mounting in the opposite side by a pair of elevation arms. Each antenna is composed of a 90 degree off-set paraboloid and a conical corrugated horn. Each antenna patterrn of four channels has nearly same HPBW, low side lobes, and low VSWR. The dual band humidity receiver is a time sharing type with 0.2K sensitivity at 1-sec integration time. The dual band temperature receiver is a band sharing type with 0.2K sensitivity at 10-sec integration time. The radiometer and observation are controlled by a single chip microcomputer to realize the unattended operation.

  11. Pushbroom microwave radiometer results from HAPEX-MOBILHY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, W.E.; Cuenca, R.H.; Schmugge, T.J.; Wang, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA C-130 remote sensing aircraft was in Toulouse, France from 25 May through 4 July 1986, for participation in the HAPEX-MOBILHY program. Spectral and radiometric data were collected by C-130 borne sensors in the visible, infrared, and microwave wavelengths. These data provided information on the spatial and temporal variations of surface parameters such as vegetation indices, surface temperature, and surface soil moisture. The Pushbroom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR) was used to collect passive microwave brightness temperature data. This four-beam sensor operates at the 21-cm wavelength, providing cross-track coverage approximately 1.2 times the aircraft altitude. Observed brightness temperatures for the period were high, ranging from above 240 K about 290 K. Brightness temperature images appeared to correspond well to spatial and temporal soil moisture variation. Previous research has demonstrated that an approximately linear relationship exists between the surface emissivity and surface soil moisture. For these data, however, regression analysis did not indicate a strong linear relationship (r 2 = 0.32 and r 2 = 0.42 respectively) because of the limited range of soil moisture conditions encountered and the small number of ground measurements. When results from wetter soil conditions encountered in another experiment were included, the regression improved dramatically. Based on similar research with the PBMR and an understanding of the ground data collection program, this result was examined to produce recommendations for improvements to future passive microwave research and data collection programs. Examples of surface soil moisture maps generated with PBMR data are presented which appear to be representative of the actual soil moisture conditions

  12. Island based radar and microwave radiometer measurements of stratus cloud parameters during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, A.S. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Fairall, C.W.; Snider, J.B. [NOAA Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States); Lenshow, D.H.; Mayer, S.D. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, simultaneous measurements were made with a vertically pointing cloud sensing radar and a microwave radiometer. The radar measurements are used to estimate stratus cloud drizzle and turbulence parameters. In addition, with the microwave radiometer measurements of reflectivity, we estimated the profiles of cloud liquid water and effective radius. We used radar data for computation of vertical profiles of various drizzle parameters such as droplet concentration, modal radius, and spread. A sample of these results is shown in Figure 1. In addition, in non-drizzle clouds, with the radar and radiometer we can estimate the verticle profiles of stratus cloud parameters such as liquid water concentration and effective radius. This is accomplished by assuming a droplet distribution with droplet number concentration and width constant with height.

  13. GPM GROUND VALIDATION ADVANCED MICROWAVE RADIOMETER RAIN IDENTIFICATION (ADMIRARI) GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Advanced Microwave Radiometer Rain Identification (ADMIRARI) GCPEx dataset measures brightness temperature at three frequencies (10.7, 21.0...

  14. Effect of vegetation on soil moisture sensing observed from orbiting microwave radiometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The microwave radiometric measurements made by the Skylab 1.4 GHz radiometer and by the 6.6 GHz and 10.7 GHz channels of the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer were analyzed to study the large-area soil moisture variations of land surfaces. Two regions in Texas, one with sparse and the other with dense vegetation covers, were selected for the study. The results gave a confirmation of the vegetation effect observed by ground-level microwave radiometers. Based on the statistics of the satellite data, it was possible to estimate surface soil moisture in about five different levels from dry to wet conditions with a 1.4 GHz radiometer, provided that the biomass of the vegetation cover could be independently measured. At frequencies greater than about 6.6 GHz, the radiometric measurements showed little sensitivity to moisture variation for vegetation-covered soils. The effects of polarization in microwave emission were studied also. (author)

  15. Challenges in application of Active Cold Loads for microwave radiometer calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Balling, Jan E.; Skou, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Two Active Cold Loads (ACLs) for microwave radiometer calibration, operating at X-band, are evaluated with respect to important stability parameters. Using a stable radiometer system as test bed, absolute levels of 77 K and 55 K are found. This paper identifies and summarizes potential challenges...

  16. An optimal estimation algorithm to derive Ice and Ocean parameters from AMSR Microwave radiometer observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Leif Toudal; Tonboe, Rasmus T.; Høyer, Jacob

    channels as well as the combination of data from multiple sources such as microwave radiometry, scatterometry and numerical weather prediction. Optimal estimation is data assimilation without a numerical model for retrieving physical parameters from remote sensing using a multitude of available information......Global multispectral microwave radiometer measurements have been available for several decades. However, most current sea ice concentration algorithms still only takes advantage of a very limited subset of the available channels. Here we present a method that allows utilization of all available....... The methodology is observation driven and model innovation is limited to the translation between observation space and physical parameter space Over open water we use a semi-empirical radiative transfer model developed by Meissner & Wentz that estimates the multispectral AMSR brightness temperatures, i...

  17. An RFI Detection Algorithm for Microwave Radiometers Using Sparse Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed-Tano, Priscilla N.; Korde-Patel, Asmita; Gholian, Armen; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Schoenwald, Adam; Bradley, Damon

    2017-01-01

    Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is a threat to passive microwave measurements and if undetected, can corrupt science retrievals. The sparse component analysis (SCA) for blind source separation has been investigated to detect RFI in microwave radiometer data. Various techniques using SCA have been simulated to determine detection performance with continuous wave (CW) RFI.

  18. Soil Moisture ActivePassive (SMAP) L-Band Microwave Radiometer Post-Launch Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinzheng; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Misra, Sidharth; Dinnat, Emmanuel P.; Hudson, Derek; Le Vine, David M.; De Amici, Giovanni; Mohammed, Priscilla N.; Yueh, Simon H.; Meissner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The SMAP microwave radiometer is a fully-polarimetric L-band radiometer flown on the SMAP satellite in a 6 AM/ 6 PM sun-synchronous orbit at 685 km altitude. Since April, 2015, the radiometer is under calibration and validation to assess the quality of the radiometer L1B data product. Calibration methods including the SMAP L1B TA2TB (from Antenna Temperature (TA) to the Earth’s surface Brightness Temperature (TB)) algorithm and TA forward models are outlined, and validation approaches to calibration stability/quality are described in this paper including future work. Results show that the current radiometer L1B data satisfies its requirements.

  19. 1D-Var temperature retrievals from microwave radiometer and convective scale model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Martinet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the potential of ground-based microwave radiometers (MWR for providing accurate temperature retrievals by combining convective scale numerical models and brightness temperatures (BTs. A one-dimensional variational (1D-Var retrieval technique has been tested to optimally combine MWR and 3-h forecasts from the French convective scale model AROME. A microwave profiler HATPRO (Humidity and Temperature PROfiler was operated during 6 months at the meteorological station of Bordeaux (Météo France. MWR BTs were monitored against simulations from the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator 2 radiative transfer model. An overall good agreement was found between observations and simulations for opaque V-band channels but large errors were observed for channels the most affected by liquid water and water vapour emissions (51.26 and 52.28 GHz. 1D-Var temperature retrievals are performed in clear-sky and cloudy conditions using a screening procedure based on cloud base height retrieval from ceilometer observations, infrared radiometer temperature and liquid water path derived from the MWR observations. The 1D-Var retrievals were found to improve the AROME forecasts up to 2 km with a maximum gain of approximately 50 % in root-mean-square-errors (RMSE below 500 m. They were also found to outperform neural network retrievals. A static bias correction was proposed to account for systematic instrumental errors. This correction was found to have a negligible impact on the 1D-Var retrievals. The use of low elevation angles improves the retrievals up to 12 % in RMSE in cloudy-sky in the first layers. The present implementation achieved a RMSE with respect to radiosondes within 1 K in clear-sky and 1.3 K in cloudy-sky conditions for temperature.

  20. Wideband Radio Frequency Interference Detection for Microwave Radiometer Subsystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Anthropogenic Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI) is threatening the quality and utility of multi-frequency passive microwave radiometry. The GPM Microwave Imager...

  1. Interpretation of the cosmic microwave background radiation anisotropy detected by the COBE Differential Microwave Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, E. L.; Meyer, S. S.; Bennett, C. L.; Boggess, N. W.; Cheng, E. S.; Hauser, M. G.; Kogut, A.; Lineweaver, C.; Mather, J. C.; Smoot, G. F.

    1992-01-01

    The large-scale cosmic background anisotropy detected by the COBE Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) instrument is compared to the sensitive previous measurements on various angular scales, and to the predictions of a wide variety of models of structure formation driven by gravitational instability. The observed anisotropy is consistent with all previously measured upper limits and with a number of dynamical models of structure formation. For example, the data agree with an unbiased cold dark matter (CDM) model with H0 = 50 km/s Mpc and Delta-M/M = 1 in a 16 Mpc radius sphere. Other models, such as CDM plus massive neutrinos (hot dark matter (HDM)), or CDM with a nonzero cosmological constant are also consistent with the COBE detection and can provide the extra power seen on 5-10,000 km/s scales.

  2. Improved noise-adding radiometer for microwave receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batelaan, P. D.; Stelzried, C. T.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Use of input switch and noise reference standard is avoided by using noise-adding technique. Excess noise from solid state noise-diode is coupled into receiver through directional coupler and square-wave modulated at low rate. High sensitivity receivers for radioastronomy applications are utilized with greater confidence in stability of radiometer.

  3. A 1DVAR-based snowfall rate retrieval algorithm for passive microwave radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huan; Dong, Jun; Ferraro, Ralph; Yan, Banghua; Zhao, Limin; Kongoli, Cezar; Wang, Nai-Yu; Zavodsky, Bradley

    2017-06-01

    Snowfall rate retrieval from spaceborne passive microwave (PMW) radiometers has gained momentum in recent years. PMW can be so utilized because of its ability to sense in-cloud precipitation. A physically based, overland snowfall rate (SFR) algorithm has been developed using measurements from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A/Microwave Humidity Sounder sensor pair and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder. Currently, these instruments are aboard five polar-orbiting satellites, namely, NOAA-18, NOAA-19, Metop-A, Metop-B, and Suomi-NPP. The SFR algorithm relies on a separate snowfall detection algorithm that is composed of a satellite-based statistical model and a set of numerical weather prediction model-based filters. There are four components in the SFR algorithm itself: cloud properties retrieval, computation of ice particle terminal velocity, ice water content adjustment, and the determination of snowfall rate. The retrieval of cloud properties is the foundation of the algorithm and is accomplished using a one-dimensional variational (1DVAR) model. An existing model is adopted to derive ice particle terminal velocity. Since no measurement of cloud ice distribution is available when SFR is retrieved in near real time, such distribution is implicitly assumed by deriving an empirical function that adjusts retrieved SFR toward radar snowfall estimates. Finally, SFR is determined numerically from a complex integral. The algorithm has been validated against both radar and ground observations of snowfall events from the contiguous United States with satisfactory results. Currently, the SFR product is operationally generated at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and can be obtained from that organization.

  4. Characterization of a Compact Water Vapor Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ajay; Selina, Rob

    2018-01-01

    We report on laboratory test results of the Compact Water Vapor Radiometer (CWVR) prototype for the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), a five-channel design centered around the 22 GHz water vapor line. Fluctuations in perceptible water vapor cause fluctuations in atmospheric brightness emission, which are assumed to be proportional to phase fluctuations of the astronomical signal seen by an antenna. The design is intended to support empirical radiometric phase corrections for each baseline in the array.The dynamic range, channel isolation, and gain stability of the device were characterized. The device has a useful dynamic range of order 18 dB after calibration, and the CWVR channel isolation requirement of test, the diode detectors were operated in the square-law region, and a K-band noise diode was used as the broadband input power source to the CWVR over a period of 64 hours. Results indicate that the fluctuations in output counts are negatively correlated to the CWVR enclosure ambient temperature, with a change of ~ 405 counts per 1° C change in temperature.A correction for the CWVR ambient temperature makes a considerable improvement in stability for τ > 102.6 sec. With temperature corrections, the single channel and channel difference gain stability per channel is test results indicate that the CWVR meets required specifications for dynamic range, channel isolation, and gain stability in order to proceed with testing on a pair of VLA antennas.

  5. New Approach for Monitoring Seismic and Volcanic Activities Using Microwave Radiometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Takashi; Takano, Tadashi

    Interferograms formed from the data of satellite-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) enable us to detect slight land-surface deformations related to volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. Currently, however, we cannot determine when land-surface deformations occurred with high time resolution since the time lag between two scenes of SAR used to form interferograms is longer than the recurrent period of the satellite carrying it (several tens of days). In order to solve this problem, we are investigating new approach to monitor seismic and vol-canic activities with higher time resolution from satellite-borne sensor data, and now focusing on a satellite-borne microwave radiometer. It is less subject to clouds and rainfalls over the ground than an infrared spectrometer, so more suitable to observe an emission from land sur-faces. With this advantage, we can expect that thermal microwave energy by increasing land surface temperatures is detected before a volcanic eruption. Additionally, laboratory experi-ments recently confirmed that rocks emit microwave energy when fractured. This microwave energy may result from micro discharges in the destruction of materials, or fragment motions with charged surfaces of materials. We first extrapolated the microwave signal power gener-ated by rock failures in an earthquake from the experimental results and concluded that the microwave signals generated by rock failures near the land surface are strong enough to be detected by a satellite-borne radiometer. Accordingly, microwave energy generated by rock failures associated with a seismic activity is likely to be detected as well. However, a satellite-borne microwave radiometer has a serious problem that its spatial res-olution is too coarse compared to SAR or an infrared spectrometer. In order to raise the possibility of detection, a new methodology to compensate the coarse spatial resolution is es-sential. Therefore, we investigated and developed an analysis method to detect local

  6. Modeling the frequency response of microwave radiometers with QUCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zonca, A; Williams, B; Rubin, I; Meinhold, P; Lubin, P; Roucaries, B; D'Arcangelo, O; Franceschet, C; Mennella, A; Bersanelli, M; Jahn, S

    2010-01-01

    Characterization of the frequency response of coherent radiometric receivers is a key element in estimating the flux of astrophysical emissions, since the measured signal depends on the convolution of the source spectral emission with the instrument band shape. Laboratory Radio Frequency (RF) measurements of the instrument bandpass often require complex test setups and are subject to a number of systematic effects driven by thermal issues and impedance matching, particularly if cryogenic operation is involved. In this paper we present an approach to modeling radiometers bandpasses by integrating simulations and RF measurements of individual components. This method is based on QUCS (Quasi Universal Circuit Simulator), an open-source circuit simulator, which gives the flexibility of choosing among the available devices, implementing new analytical software models or using measured S-parameters. Therefore an independent estimate of the instrument bandpass is achieved using standard individual component measurements and validated analytical simulations. In order to automate the process of preparing input data, running simulations and exporting results we developed the Python package python-qucs and released it under GNU Public License. We discuss, as working cases, bandpass response modeling of the COFE and Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) radiometers and compare results obtained with QUCS and with a commercial circuit simulator software. The main purpose of bandpass modeling in COFE is to optimize component matching, while in LFI they represent the best estimation of frequency response, since end-to-end measurements were strongly affected by systematic effects.

  7. Development of an Internally-Calibrated Wide-Band Airborne Microwave Radiometer to Provide High-Resolution Wet-Tropospheric Path Delay Measurements for SWOT (HAMMR - High-frequency Airborne Microwave and Millimeter-wave Radiometer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Internally-Calibrated Wide-Band Airborne Microwave Radiometer to Provide High-Resolution Wet-Tropospheric Path Delay Measurements for SWOT (HAMMR -...

  8. Weight estimates and packaging techniques for the microwave radiometer spacecraft. [shuttle compatible design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J. K.; Wright, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Estimates of total spacecraft weight and packaging options were made for three conceptual designs of a microwave radiometer spacecraft. Erectable structures were found to be slightly lighter than deployable structures but could be packaged in one-tenth the volume. The tension rim concept, an unconventional design approach, was found to be the lightest and transportable to orbit in the least number of shuttle flights.

  9. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for temperature and humidity profile retrieval from microwave radiometer observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, K.; Kesarkar, A. P.; Bhate, J.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Jayaraman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The retrieval of accurate profiles of temperature and water vapour is important for the study of atmospheric convection. Recent development in computational techniques motivated us to use adaptive techniques in the retrieval algorithms. In this work, we have used an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to retrieve profiles of temperature and humidity up to 10 km over the tropical station Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E), India. ANFIS is trained by using observations of temperature and humidity measurements by co-located Meisei GPS radiosonde (henceforth referred to as radiosonde) and microwave brightness temperatures observed by radiometrics multichannel microwave radiometer MP3000 (MWR). ANFIS is trained by considering these observations during rainy and non-rainy days (ANFIS(RD + NRD)) and during non-rainy days only (ANFIS(NRD)). The comparison of ANFIS(RD + NRD) and ANFIS(NRD) profiles with independent radiosonde observations and profiles retrieved using multivariate linear regression (MVLR: RD + NRD and NRD) and artificial neural network (ANN) indicated that the errors in the ANFIS(RD + NRD) are less compared to other retrieval methods. The Pearson product movement correlation coefficient (r) between retrieved and observed profiles is more than 92% for temperature profiles for all techniques and more than 99% for the ANFIS(RD + NRD) technique Therefore this new techniques is relatively better for the retrieval of temperature profiles. The comparison of bias, mean absolute error (MAE), RMSE and symmetric mean absolute percentage error (SMAPE) of retrieved temperature and relative humidity (RH) profiles using ANN and ANFIS also indicated that profiles retrieved using ANFIS(RD + NRD) are significantly better compared to the ANN technique. The analysis of profiles concludes that retrieved profiles using ANFIS techniques have improved the temperature retrievals substantially; however, the retrieval of RH by all techniques considered in this paper (ANN, MVLR and

  10. The Passive Microwave Neural Network Precipitation Retrieval (PNPR) for AMSU/MHS and ATMS cross-track scanning radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano', Paolo; Casella, Daniele; Panegrossi, Giulia; Cinzia Marra, Anna; Dietrich, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    another when an observed precipitation system extends over two or more types of surfaces. As input data, the PNPR algorithm incorporates the TBs from selected channels, and various additional TBs-derived variables. Ancillary geographical/geophysical inputs (i.e., latitude, terrain height, surface type, season) are also considered during the training phase. The PNPR algorithm outputs consist of both the surface precipitation rate (along with the information on precipitation phase: liquid, mixed, solid) and a pixel-based quality index. We will illustrate the main features of the PNPR algorithm and will show results of a verification study over Europe and Africa. The study is based on the available ground-based radar and/or rain gauge network observations over the European area. In addition, results of the comparison with rainfall products available from the NASA/JAXA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) (over the African area) and Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Dual frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) will be shown. The analysis is built upon a two-years coincidence dataset of AMSU/MHS and ATMS observations with PR (2013-2014) and DPR (2014-2015). The PNPR is developed within the EUMETSAT H/SAF program (Satellite Application Facility for Operational Hydrology and Water Management), where it is used operationally towards the full exploitation of all microwave radiometers available in the GPM era. The algorithm will be tailored to the future European Microwave Sounder (MWS) onboard the MetOp-Second Generation (MetOp-SG) satellites.

  11. Remote sensing of the lightning heating effect duration with ground-based microwave radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Sulin; Pan, Yun; Lei, Lianfa; Ma, Lina; Li, Qing; Wang, Zhenhui

    2018-06-01

    Artificially triggered lightning events from May 26, 2017 to July 16, 2017 in Guangzhou Field Experiment Site for Lightning Research and Test (GFESL) were intentionally remotely sensed with a ground-based microwave radiometer for the first time in order to obtain the features of lightning heating effect. The microwave radiometer antenna was adjusted to point at a certain elevation angle towards the expected artificially triggered lightning discharging path. Eight of the 16 successfully artificially triggered lightning events were captured and the brightness temperature data at four frequencies in K and V bands were obtained. The results from data time series analysis show that artificially triggered lightning can make the radiometer generate brightness temperature pulses, and the amplitudes of these pulses are in the range of 2.0 K to 73.8 K. The brightness temperature pulses associated with 7 events can be used to estimate the duration of lightning heating effect through accounting the number of the pulses in the continuous pulse sequence and the sampling interval between four frequencies. The maximum duration of the lightning heating effect is 1.13 s, the minimum is 0.172 s, and the average is 0.63 s.

  12. A Model for Estimation of Rain Rate on Tropical Land from TRMM Microwave Imager Radiometer Observations

    OpenAIRE

    C., PRABHAKARA; R., IACOVAZZI; J. M., YOO; K. M., KIM; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; Center for Research on the Changing Earth System; EWHA Womans University; Science Systems and Applications, Inc.

    2005-01-01

    Over the tropical land regions scatter plots of the rain rate (R_), deduced from the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) versus the observed 85GHz brightness temperature (T_) made by the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) radiometer, for a period of a season over a given geographic region of 3°×5°(lat×lon), indicate that there are two maxima in rain rate. One strong maximum occurs when T_ has a value of about 220K, and the other weaker one when T_ is much colder ~150K. Also these two maxima are vividly re...

  13. Investigation of ground-based microwave radiometer calibration techniques at 530 hPa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Maschwitz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based microwave radiometers (MWR are becoming more and more common for remotely sensing the atmospheric temperature and humidity profile as well as path-integrated cloud liquid water content. The calibration accuracy of the state-of-the-art MWR HATPRO-G2 (Humidity And Temperature Profiler – Generation 2 was investigated during the second phase of the Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC-II in northern Chile (5320 m above mean sea level, 530 hPa conducted by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM program conducted between August and October 2009. This study assesses the quality of the two frequently used liquid nitrogen and tipping curve calibrations by performing a detailed error propagation study, which exploits the unique atmospheric conditions of RHUBC-II. Both methods are known to have open issues concerning systematic offsets and calibration repeatability. For the tipping curve calibration an uncertainty of ±0.1 to ±0.2 K (K-band and ±0.6 to ±0.7 K (V-band is found. The uncertainty in the tipping curve calibration is mainly due to atmospheric inhomogeneities and the assumed air mass correction for the Earth curvature. For the liquid nitrogen calibration the estimated uncertainty of ±0.3 to ±1.6 K is dominated by the uncertainty of the reflectivity of the liquid nitrogen target. A direct comparison between the two calibration techniques shows that for six of the nine channels that can be calibrated with both methods, they agree within the assessed uncertainties. For the other three channels the unexplained discrepancy is below 0.5 K. Systematic offsets, which may cause the disagreement of both methods within their estimated uncertainties, are discussed.

  14. A Model for Estimation of Rain Rate on Tropical Land from TRMM Microwave Imager Radiometer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2004-01-01

    Over the tropical land regions observations of the 85 GHz brightness temperature (T(sub 85v)) made by the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) radiometer when analyzed with the help of rain rate (R(sub pR)) deduced from the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) indicate that there are two maxima in rain rate. One strong maximum occurs when T(sub 85) has a value of about 220 K and the other weaker one when T(sub 85v) is much colder approx. 150 K. Together with the help of earlier studies based on airborne Doppler Radar observations and radiative transfer theoretical simulations, we infer the maximum near 220 K is a result of relatively weak scattering due to super cooled rain drops and water coated ice hydrometeors associated with a developing thunderstorm (Cb) that has a strong updraft. The other maximum is associated with strong scattering due to ice particles that are formed when the updraft collapses and the rain from the Cb is transit2oning from convective type to stratiform type. Incorporating these ideas and with a view to improve the estimation of rain rate from existing operational method applicable to the tropical land areas, we have developed a rain retrieval model. This model utilizes two parameters, that have a horizontal scale of approx. 20km, deduced from the TMI measurements at 19, 21 and 37 GHz (T(sub 19v), T(sub 21v), T(sub 37v). The third parameter in the model, namely the horizontal gradient of brightness temperature within the 20 km scale, is deduced from TMI measurements at 85 GHz. Utilizing these parameters our retrieval model is formulated to yield instantaneous rain rate on a scale of 20 km and seasonal average on a mesoscale that agree well with that of the PR.

  15. The design of an in-water optical radiometer

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.S.; Desa, B.A; De

    insights into the role playEd. by absorption and scattering processes in the optical properties of water masses. In this paper, we shall describe our design approach to current development effort on a profiling optical radiometer that will measure upwelling...

  16. Microwave Radiometers for Fire Detection in Trains: Theory and Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Alimenti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the theory of fire detection in moving vehicles by microwave radiometers. The system analysis is discussed and a feasibility study is illustrated on the basis of two implementation hypotheses. The basic idea is to have a fixed radiometer and to look inside the glass windows of the wagon when it passes in front of the instrument antenna. The proposed sensor uses a three-pixel multi-beam configuration that allows an image to be formed by the movement of the train itself. Each pixel is constituted by a direct amplification microwave receiver operating at 31.4 GHz. At this frequency, the antenna can be a 34 cm offset parabolic dish, whereas a 1 K brightness temperature resolution is achievable with an overall system noise figure of 6 dB, an observation bandwidth of 2 GHz and an integration time of 1 ms. The effect of the detector noise is also investigated and several implementation hypotheses are discussed. The presented study is important since it could be applied to the automatic fire alarm in trains and moving vehicles with dielectric wall/windows.

  17. Intercomparison of stratospheric temperature profiles from a ground-based microwave radiometer with other techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Navas-Guzmán

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work the stratospheric performance of a relatively new microwave temperature radiometer (TEMPERA has been evaluated. With this goal in mind, almost 3 years of temperature measurements (January 2014–September 2016 from the TEMPERA radiometer were intercompared with simultaneous measurements from other techniques: radiosondes, MLS satellite and Rayleigh lidar. This intercomparison campaign was carried out at the aerological station of MeteoSwiss at Payerne (Switzerland. In addition, the temperature profiles from TEMPERA were used to validate the temperature outputs from the SD-WACCM model. The results showed in general a very good agreement between TEMPERA and the different instruments and the model, with a high correlation (higher than 0.9 in the temperature evolution at different altitudes between TEMPERA and the different data sets. An annual pattern was observed in the stratospheric temperature with generally higher temperatures in summer than in winter and with a higher variability during winter. A clear change in the tendency of the temperature deviations was detected in summer 2015, which was due to the repair of an attenuator in the TEMPERA spectrometer. The mean and the standard deviations of the temperature differences between TEMPERA and the different measurements were calculated for two periods (before and after the repair in order to quantify the accuracy and precision of this radiometer over the campaign period. The results showed absolute biases and standard deviations lower than 2 K for most of the altitudes. In addition, comparisons proved the good performance of TEMPERA in measuring the temperature in the stratosphere.

  18. A synthetic aperture microwave radiometer to measure soil moisture and ocean salinity from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Hilliard, L. M.; Swift, C. T.; Ruf, C. S.; Garrett, L. B.

    1991-01-01

    A concept is presented for a microwave radiometer in space to measure soil moisture and ocean salinity as part of an 'Earth Probe' mission. The measurements could be made using an array of stick antennas. The L-band channel (1.4 GHz) would be the primary channel for determining soil moisture, with the S-band (2.65-GHz) and C-band (5.0-GHz) channels providing ancillary information to help correct for the effects of the vegetation canopy and possibly to estimate a moisture profile. A preliminary study indicates that an orbit at 450 km would provide coverage of better than 95 percent of the earth every 3 days. A 10-km resolution cell (at nadir) requires stick antennas about 9.5-m long at L-band. The S-band and C-band sticks would be substantially shorter (5 m and 2.7 m, respectively).

  19. Passive Microwave Observation of Soil Water Infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; Schmugge, Thomas J.; Rawls, Walter J.; ONeill, Peggy E.; Parlange, Marc B.

    1997-01-01

    Infiltration is a time varying process of water entry into soil. Experiments were conducted here using truck based microwave radiometers to observe small plots during and following sprinkler irrigation. Experiments were conducted on a sandy loam soil in 1994 and a silt loam in 1995. Sandy loam soils typically have higher infiltration capabilities than clays. For the sandy loam the observed brightness temperature (TB) quickly reached a nominally constant value during irrigation. When the irrigation was stopped the TB began to increase as drainage took place. The irrigation rates in 1995 with the silt loam soil exceeded the saturated conductivity of the soil. During irrigation the TB values exhibited a pattern that suggests the occurrence of coherent reflection, a rarely observed phenomena under natural conditions. These results suggested the existence of a sharp dielectric boundary (wet over dry soil) that was increasing in depth with time.

  20. Application of microwave radiometer and wind profiler data in the estimation of wind gust associated with intense convective weather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, P W; Wong, K H

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of the wind gusts associated with intense convective weather could be obtained using empirical relationships such as GUSTEX based on radiosonde measurements. However, such data are only available a couple of times a day and may not reflect the rapidly changing atmospheric condition in spring and summer times. The feasibility of combining the thermodynamic profiles from a ground-based microwave radiometer and wind profiles given by radar wind profilers in the continuous estimation of wind gusts is studied in this paper. Based on the results of a 4-month trial of a microwave radiometer in Hong Kong in 2004, the estimated and the actual gusts are reasonably well correlated. It is also found that the wind gusts so estimated provide better indications of the strength of squalls compared with those based on radiosonde measurements and with a lead time of about one hour

  1. Correlation function analysis of the COBE differential microwave radiometer sky maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lineweaver, Charles Howe [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Space Sciences Lab.

    1994-08-01

    The Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) aboard the COBE satellite has detected anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. A two-point correlation function analysis which helped lead to this discovery is presented in detail. The results of a correlation function analysis of the two year DMR data set is presented. The first and second year data sets are compared and found to be reasonably consistent. The positive correlation for separation angles less than ~20° is robust to Galactic latitude cuts and is very stable from year to year. The Galactic latitude cut independence of the correlation function is strong evidence that the signal is not Galactic in origin. The statistical significance of the structure seen in the correlation function of the first, second and two year maps is respectively > 9σ, > 10σ and > 18σ above the noise. The noise in the DMR sky maps is correlated at a low level. The structure of the pixel temperature covariance matrix is given. The noise covariance matrix of a DMR sky map is diagonal to an accuracy of better than 1%. For a given sky pixel, the dominant noise covariance occurs with the ring of pixels at an angular separation of 60° due to the 60° separation of the DMR horns. The mean covariance of 60° is 0.45%$+0.18\\atop{-0.14}$ of the mean variance. The noise properties of the DMR maps are thus well approximated by the noise properties of maps made by a single-beam experiment. Previously published DMR results are not significantly affected by correlated noise.

  2. Total column water vapor estimation over land using radiometer data from SAC-D/Aquarius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epeloa, Javier; Meza, Amalia

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is retrieving atmospheric total column water vapor (CWV) over land surfaces using a microwave radiometer (MWR) onboard the Scientific Argentine Satellite (SAC-D/Aquarius). To research this goal, a statistical algorithm is used for the purpose of filtering the study region according to the climate type. A log-linear relationship between the brightness temperatures of the MWR and CWV obtained from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurements was used. In this statistical algorithm, the retrieved CWV is derived from the Argentinian radiometer's brightness temperature which works at 23.8 GHz and 36.5 GHz, and taking into account CWVs observed from GNSS stations belonging to a region sharing the same climate type. We support this idea, having found a systematic effect when applying the algorithm; it was generated for one region using the previously mentioned criteria, however, it should be applied to additional regions, especially those with other climate types. The region we analyzed is in the Southeastern United States of America, where the climate type is Cfa (Köppen - Geiger classification); this climate type includes moist subtropical mid-latitude climates, with hot, muggy summers and frequent thunderstorms. However, MWR only contains measurements taken from over ocean surfaces; therefore the determination of water vapor over land is an important contribution to extend the use of the SAC-D/Aquarius radiometer measurements beyond the ocean surface. The CWVs computed by our algorithm are compared against radiosonde CWV observations and show a bias of about -0.6 mm, a root mean square (rms) of about 6 mm and a correlation of 0.89.

  3. Large area mapping of soil moisture using the ESTAR passive microwave radiometer in Washita'92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, T.J.; Le Vine, D.M.; Swift, C.T.; Schmugge, T.J.; Schiebe, F.R.

    1995-01-01

    Washita'92 was a large-scale study of remote sensing and hydrology conducted on the Little Washita watershed in southwest Oklahoma. Data collection during the experiment included passive microwave observations using an L-band electronically scanned thinned array radiometer (ESTAR) and surface soil moisture observations at sites distributed over the area. Data were collected on 8 days over a 9-day period in June 1992. The watershed was saturated with a great deal of standing water at the outset of the study. During the experiment there was no rainfall and surface soil moisture observations exhibited a drydown pattern over the period. Significant variations in the level and rate of change in surface soil moisture were noted over areas dominated by different soil textures. ESTAR data were processed to produce brightness temperature maps of a 740 sq. km. area on each of the 8 days. These data exhibited significant spatial and temporal patterns. Spatial patterns were clearly associated with soil textures and temporal patterns with drainage and evaporative processes. Relationships between the ground sampled soil moisture and the brightness temperatures were consistent with previous results. Spatial averaging of both variables was analyzed to study scaling of soil moisture over a mixed landscape. Results of these studies showed that a strong correlation is retained at these scales, suggesting that mapping surface moisture for large footprints may provide important information for regional studies. (author)

  4. TRMM MICROWAVE IMAGER (TMI) WENTZ OCEAN PRODUCTS V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) is a 5-channel, dual-polarized, passive microwave radiometer. Microwave radiation is emitted by the Earth's surface and by water...

  5. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Microwave Radiometer Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI) Mitigation: Initial On-Orbit Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Priscilla N.; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Johnson, Joel T.; Aksoy, Mustafa; Bringer, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, launched in January 2015, provides global measurements of soil moisture using a microwave radiometer. SMAPs radiometer passband lies within the passive frequency allocation. However, both unauthorized in-band transmitters as well as out-of-band emissions from transmitters operating at frequencies adjacent to this allocated spectrum have been documented as sources of radio frequency interference (RFI) to the L-band radiometers on SMOS and Aquarius. The spectral environment consists of high RFI levels as well as significant occurrences of low level RFI equivalent to 0.1 to 10 K. The SMAP ground processor reports the antenna temperature both before and after RFI mitigation is applied. The difference between these quantities represents the detected RFI level. The presentation will review the SMAP RFI detection and mitigation procedure and discuss early on-orbit RFI measurements from the SMAP radiometer. Assessments of global RFI properties and source types will be provided, as well as the implications of these results for SMAP soil moisture measurements.

  6. A novel fast-scanning microwave heterodyne radiometer system for electron cyclotron emission measurements in the HT-7 superconducting tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.Y.; Wan, Y.X.; Xie, J.K.; Luo, J.R.; Li, J.G.; Kuang, G.L.; Gao, X.; Zhang, X.D.; Wan, B.N.; Wang, K.J.; Mao, J.S.; Gong, X.Z.; Qin, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    Two sets of fast-scanning microwave heterodyne radiometer receiver systems employing backward-wave oscillators in the 78-118 GHz and 118-178 GHz ranges were developed for electron cyclotron emission measurements (ECE) on the HT-7 superconducting tokamak. The double-sideband radiometer in the 78-118 GHz range measures 16 ECE frequency points with a scanning period of 0.65 ms. The novel design of the 2 mm fast-scanning heterodyne radiometer in the 118-178 GHz range enables the unique system to measure 48 ECE frequency points in 0.65 ms periodically. The plasma profile consistency in reproducible ohmic plasmas was used to relatively calibrate each channel by changing the toroidal magnetic field shot-by-shot. The absolute temperature value was obtained by a comparison with the results from the soft x-ray pulse height analysis measurements and Thomson scattering system. A preliminary temperature profile measurement result in pellet injection plasma is presented. (author)

  7. Comparison of stratospheric temperature profiles from a ground-based microwave radiometer with lidar, radiosonde and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Haefele, Alexander; Keckhut, Philippe; Hauchecorne, Alain

    2015-04-01

    The importance of the knowledge of the temperature structure in the atmosphere has been widely recognized. Temperature is a key parameter for dynamical, chemical and radiative processes in the atmosphere. The cooling of the stratosphere is an indicator for climate change as it provides evidence of natural and anthropogenic climate forcing just like surface warming ( [1] and references therein). However, our understanding of the observed stratospheric temperature trend and our ability to test simulations of the stratospheric response to emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone depleting substances remains limited. Stratospheric long-term datasets are sparse and obtained trends differ from one another [1]. Therefore it is important that in the future such datasets are generated. Different techniques allow to measure stratospheric temperature profiles as radiosonde, lidar or satellite. The main advantage of microwave radiometers against these other instruments is a high temporal resolution with a reasonable good spatial resolution. Moreover, the measurement at a fixed location allows to observe local atmospheric dynamics over a long time period, which is crucial for climate research. TEMPERA (TEMPERature RAdiometer) is a newly developed ground-based microwave radiometer designed, built and operated at the University of Bern. The instrument and the retrieval of temperature profiles has been described in detail in [2]. TEMPERA is measuring a pressure broadened oxygen line at 53.1 GHz in order to determine stratospheric temperature profiles. The retrieved profiles of TEMPERA cover an altitude range of approximately 20 to 45 km with a vertical resolution in the order of 15 km. The lower limit is given by the instrumental baseline and the bandwidth of the measured spectrum. The upper limit is given by the fact that above 50 km the oxygen lines are splitted by the Zeeman effect in the terrestrial magnetic field. In this study we present a comparison of stratospheric

  8. Retrievals of chlorine chemistry kinetic parameters from Antarctic ClO microwave radiometer measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kremser

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Key kinetic parameters governing the partitioning of chlorine species in the Antarctic polar stratosphere were retrieved from 28 days of chlorine monoxide (ClO microwave radiometer measurements made during the late winter/early spring of 2005 at Scott Base (77.85° S, 166.75° E. During day-time the loss of the ClO dimer chlorine peroxide (ClOOCl occurs mainly by photolysis. Some time after sunrise, a photochemical equilibrium is established and the ClO/ClOOCl partitioning is determined by the ratio of the photolysis frequency, J, and the dimer formation rate, kf. The values of J and kf from laboratory studies remain uncertain to a considerable extent, and as a complement to these ongoing studies, the goal of this work is to provide a constraint on that uncertainty based on observations of ClO profiles in the Antarctic. First an optimal estimation technique was used to derive J/kf ratios for a range of Keq values. The optimal estimation forward model was a photochemical box model that takes J, kf, and Keq as inputs, together with a priori profiles of activated chlorine (ClOx = ClO+2×ClOOCl, profiles of ozone, temperature, and pressure. JPL06 kinetics are used as a priori in the optimal estimation and for all other chemistry in the forward model. Using the more recent JPL09 kinetics results in insignificant differences in the retrieved value of J/kf. A complementary approach was used to derive the optimal kinetic parameters; the full parameter space of J, kf, Keq and ClOx was sampled to find the minimum in differences between measured and modelled ClO profiles. Furthermore, values of Keq up to 2.0 times larger than recommended by JPL06 were explored to test the sensitivity of the

  9. Past, Current and Future of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachi, M.; Maeda, T.; Ono, N.; Tomii, N.; Kasahara, M.; Mokuno, M.; Sobue, S.

    2017-12-01

    Due to its penetrating capability, passive microwave remote sensing provides all-weather observation of the Earth's surface through clouds, and has bulk sensitivity to atmospheric column and some land surface layers such as snow. The first AMSR series instrument on orbit was the AMSR for EOS (AMSR-E) provided to NASA's Aqua satellite launched in May 2002. AMSR-E had 1.6-m diameter antenna and 14 channels with V and H polarizations including surface-sensitive C-band (6.9-GHz) channels those were not available in previous passive microwave imagers. Instant Field Of View (IFOV) of AMSR-E is largely improved due to antenna size. This IFOV improvement mainly contribute to C-band channel since its IFOV is larger (75x43-km) even though bigger antenna size. The latest AMSR series instrument on orbit, AMSR-2, was launched in May 2012 on board the Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W) satellite. The GCOM-W satellite was injected to the A-train orbit to keep observation continuities to AMSR-E and seek synergies with the other A-train constellation satellites. Antenna size of AMSR-2 is 2.0-m diameter with 16 channels. Channel set is almost identical to that of AMSR-E, but new 7.3-GHz channels are added along with previous 6.9-GHz channels to mitigate influence of Radio Frequency Interferences (RFIs) in brightness temperature. IFOV of AMSR-2 is also improved from AMSR-E due to larger antenna size. AMSR-2 has completed its 5-year designed mission life in May 2017, and continues scientific observations without any serious problem. Besides the 10-month gaps between AMSR-E and AMSR2, the AMSR series provide long-term high-resolution and highly-frequent global observation of water-related parameters over 15-year. Upon the success of AMSR series, we have started discussion of possible follow-on mission with various user communities as well as expansion of application of AMSR-2 and follow-on data in new fields. Highest priority from users is gap-less, in terms of both

  10. Long-term observations minus background monitoring of ground-based brightness temperatures from a microwave radiometer network

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Francesco; Cimini, Domenico; Löhnert, Ulrich; Caumont, Olivier; Haefele, Alexander; Pospichal, Bernhard; Martinet, Pauline; Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Klein-Baltink, Henk; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Hocking, James

    2017-10-01

    Ground-based microwave radiometers (MWRs) offer the capability to provide continuous, high-temporal-resolution observations of the atmospheric thermodynamic state in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) with low maintenance. This makes MWR an ideal instrument to supplement radiosonde and satellite observations when initializing numerical weather prediction (NWP) models through data assimilation. State-of-the-art data assimilation systems (e.g. variational schemes) require an accurate representation of the differences between model (background) and observations, which are then weighted by their respective errors to provide the best analysis of the true atmospheric state. In this perspective, one source of information is contained in the statistics of the differences between observations and their background counterparts (O-B). Monitoring of O-B statistics is crucial to detect and remove systematic errors coming from the measurements, the observation operator, and/or the NWP model. This work illustrates a 1-year O-B analysis for MWR observations in clear-sky conditions for an European-wide network of six MWRs. Observations include MWR brightness temperatures (TB) measured by the two most common types of MWR instruments. Background profiles are extracted from the French convective-scale model AROME-France before being converted into TB. The observation operator used to map atmospheric profiles into TB is the fast radiative transfer model RTTOV-gb. It is shown that O-B monitoring can effectively detect instrument malfunctions. O-B statistics (bias, standard deviation, and root mean square) for water vapour channels (22.24-30.0 GHz) are quite consistent for all the instrumental sites, decreasing from the 22.24 GHz line centre ( ˜ 2-2.5 K) towards the high-frequency wing ( ˜ 0.8-1.3 K). Statistics for zenith and lower-elevation observations show a similar trend, though values increase with increasing air mass. O-B statistics for temperature channels show different

  11. Radiometer Testbed Development for SWOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka; Brown, Shannon; Gaier, Todd; Dawson, Douglas; Harding, Dennis; Fu, Lee-Lueng; Esteban-Fernandez, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Conventional altimeters include nadir looking colocated 18-37 GHz microwave radiometer to measure wet tropospheric path delay. These have reduced accuracy in coastal zone (within 50 km from land) and do not provide wet path delay over land. The addition of high frequency channels to Jason-class radiometer will improve retrievals in coastal regions and enable retrievals over land. High-frequency window channels, 90, 130 and 166 GHz are optimum for improving performance in coastal region and channels on 183 GHz water vapor line are ideal for over-land retrievals.

  12. A General Analysis of the Impact of Digitization in Microwave Correlation Radiometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuk Park

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a general framework to analyze the effects on correlation radiometers of a generic quantization scheme and sampling process. It reviews, unifies and expands several previous works that focused on these effects separately. In addition, it provides a general theoretical background that allows analyzing any digitization scheme including any number of quantization levels, irregular quantization steps, gain compression, clipping, jitter and skew effects of the sampling period.

  13. Tunable Water-based Microwave Metasurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapitanova, Polina; Odit, Mikhail; Dobrykh, Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    A water-based dynamically tunable microwave metasurface is developed and experimentally investigated. A simple approach to tune the metasurface properties by changing the shape of water-based unit cells by gravitation force is proposed. The transmission spectra of the metasurface for linear...... angle. The proposed approach can be used to design cheap metasurfaces for electromagnetic wave control in the microwave frequency range....

  14. Lunar Heat Flux Measurements Enabled by a Microwave Radiometer Aboard the Deep Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, M.; Ruf, C.; Putzig, N.; Morgan, G.; Hayne, P.; Paige, D.; Nagihara, S.; Weber, R.

    2018-02-01

    We would like to present a concept to use the Deep Space Gateway as a platform for constraining the geothermal heat production, surface, and near-surface rocks, and dielectric properties of the Moon from orbit with passive microwave radiometery.

  15. Application of ground-based, multi-channel microwave radiometer in the nowcasting of intense convective weather through instability indices of the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, P.W.; Hon, K.K. [Hong Kong Observatory, Hong Kong (China)

    2011-08-15

    A ground-based microwave radiometer gives the possibility of providing continuously available temperature and humidity profiles of the troposphere, from which instability indices of the atmosphere could be derived. This paper studies the possibility of correlating the radiometer-based instability indices with the occurrence of intense convective activity, namely, the occurrence of lightning. The correlation so established could be useful for the nowcasting of convective weather: the weather forecaster follows the evolution of the radiometer-based instability indices in order to access the chance for lightning to occur. The quality of the radiometer-based instability indices is first established by comparing with the radiosonde-based indices. Though there are biases and spreads in the scatter plots of the two datasets, the radiometer-based indices appear to follow the trend of the radiosonde-based indices in spite of the differences in measurement locations and working principles of the two instruments. The thresholds of instability indices for the occurrence of lightning (using 1 discharge) are then determined, specifically for the radiometer in use and the climatological condition in Hong Kong. It turns out that, among all the indices considered in this paper, KI has the best performance in terms of probability of detection of lightning occurrence, particularly for non-summer months, by using an optimum threshold. Finally, the correlation between the instability index and the amount of lightning strokes (within a certain distance from the radiometer) is established. It turns out that the correlation is the best using the minimum value of humidity index, with correlation coefficient of 0.55. The distance from the radiometer considered is about 30 km (having the best correlation between the number of lightning discharges and the instability index), which may be taken as the area over which the radiometer's measurement is considered to be representative of the

  16. Sentinel-3 MWR Microwave Radiometer – Our contribution to the success of the Copernicus programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Palacios

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The MWR builds, together with the SRAL altimeter, the S3 topography mission. The MWR, developed by EADS CASA Espacio as prime contractor, provides information for tropospheric path correction of SRAL measurements. MWR data can also be used for determining surface emissivity and soil moisture over land, surface energy budget investigations and ice characterization. The MWR instrument is a Noise Injection Radiometer (NIR, working at two frequencies (23.8/36.5 GHz, embarking a dual frequency horn antenna pointing to the cold sky for embedded autonomous calibration.

  17. Simulated and measured performance of a real-time processor for RFI detection and mitigation on-board spaceborne microwave radiometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl

    2017-01-01

    An RFI processor breadboard has been designed and developed for future spaceborne microwave radiometer systems. RFI detection is based on the anomalous amplitude, kurtosis, and cross-frequency algorithms. These are implemented in VHDL code in an FPGA. Thus algorithm performance can be assessed...... by proper code simulation. The breadboard has been integrated with a Ku band radiometer subjected to RFI-like signals from a laboratory generator. Simulations show that the algorithms as implemented work according to theory when subjected to pulsed sinusoidal and QPSK signals. The laboratory measurements...

  18. Observations of frozen skin of southern ocean from multifrequency scanning microwave radiometer (MSMR) onboard oceansat - 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.; Bhandari, S.; Dash, M.; Pandey, P.; Khare, N.

    Encircling the Antarctic, Southern Ocean connects all the three oceans of the world with fastest current system found anywhere in the world. The region is thermally very stable and is covered with ice, which has a strong seasonal variability. The sea ice pulsates annually with seasonal migration varying from 4 million square kilometer to 20 million square kilometer during summer and winter respectively. This has strong influence on energy balance of the ocean-ice-atmosphere system, and hence on atmospheric general circulation affecting weather and climate. Sea ice also works as an insulator thus inhibiting the energy flux between ocean and atmosphere. It also influences the ecosystem of the southern ocean, which has rich fish resources with global economic values such as krill and tooth fish. During winter Krill survives on algae found at the under side of the sea ice. The southern ocean is known to have high nutrition but low concentration of chlorophyll-a, which is a proxy of the phytoplankton. It is now understood that iron is the limiting factor as has been shown by various iron fertilization experiments. Passive microwave radiometry from space has been extensively used for the study of sea ice types and concentration in the Arctic and the Antarctic regions. Since late 1970s, data from SMMR and SSM/I have been used to study trends in sea ice extent and area. We have further extended the above studies by using data from OCEANSAT - 1 MSMR. The data, acquired at 18 GHz (H) with 50 kilometer resolution and having a swath of 1360 kilometer and a repeat cycle of 2 days, was processed to generate the brightness temperature maps over the Antarctica for a period of 2 years and the results were analyzed in conjunction with those obtained earlier (since 1978) through the study of SMMR and SSM/I data. Besides strong seasonal variability, our analysis shows an increasing trend in the sea ice extent during the recent years and the rate appears to be accelerating contrary to

  19. Five-band microwave radiometer system for noninvasive brain temperature measurement in newborn babies: Phantom experiment and confidence interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, T.; Hirata, H.; Hand, J. W.; van Leeuwen, J. M. J.; Mizushina, S.

    2011-10-01

    Clinical trials of hypothermic brain treatment for newborn babies are currently hindered by the difficulty in measuring deep brain temperatures. As one of the possible methods for noninvasive and continuous temperature monitoring that is completely passive and inherently safe is passive microwave radiometry (MWR). We have developed a five-band microwave radiometer system with a single dual-polarized, rectangular waveguide antenna operating within the 1-4 GHz range and a method for retrieving the temperature profile from five radiometric brightness temperatures. This paper addresses (1) the temperature calibration for five microwave receivers, (2) the measurement experiment using a phantom model that mimics the temperature profile in a newborn baby, and (3) the feasibility for noninvasive monitoring of deep brain temperatures. Temperature resolutions were 0.103, 0.129, 0.138, 0.105 and 0.111 K for 1.2, 1.65, 2.3, 3.0 and 3.6 GHz receivers, respectively. The precision of temperature estimation (2σ confidence interval) was about 0.7°C at a 5-cm depth from the phantom surface. Accuracy, which is the difference between the estimated temperature using this system and the measured temperature by a thermocouple at a depth of 5 cm, was about 2°C. The current result is not satisfactory for clinical application because the clinical requirement for accuracy must be better than 1°C for both precision and accuracy at a depth of 5 cm. Since a couple of possible causes for this inaccuracy have been identified, we believe that the system can take a step closer to the clinical application of MWR for hypothermic rescue treatment.

  20. First middle-atmospheric zonal wind profile measurements with a new ground-based microwave Doppler-spectro-radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüfenacht, R.; Kämpfer, N.; Murk, A.

    2012-11-01

    We report on the wind radiometer WIRA, a new ground-based microwave Doppler-spectro-radiometer specifically designed for the measurement of middle-atmospheric horizontal wind by observing ozone emission spectra at 142.17504 GHz. Currently, wind speeds in five levels between 30 and 79 km can be retrieved which makes WIRA the first instrument able to continuously measure horizontal wind in this altitude range. For an integration time of one day the measurement error on each level lies at around 25 m s-1. With a planned upgrade this value is expected to be reduced by a factor of 2 in the near future. On the altitude levels where our measurement can be compared to wind data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) very good agreement in the long-term statistics as well as in short time structures with a duration of a few days has been found. WIRA uses a passive double sideband heterodyne receiver together with a digital Fourier transform spectrometer for the data acquisition. A big advantage of the radiometric approach is that such instruments can also operate under adverse weather conditions and thus provide a continuous time series for the given location. The optics enables the instrument to scan a wide range of azimuth angles including the directions east, west, north, and south for zonal and meridional wind measurements. The design of the radiometer is fairly compact and its calibration does not rely on liquid nitrogen which makes it transportable and suitable for campaign use. WIRA is conceived in a way that it can be operated remotely and does hardly require any maintenance. In the present paper, a description of the instrument is given, and the techniques used for the wind retrieval based on the determination of the Doppler shift of the measured atmospheric ozone emission spectra are outlined. Their reliability was tested using Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, a time series of 11 months of zonal wind measurements over Bern (46°57' N

  1. First middle-atmospheric zonal wind profile measurements with a new ground-based microwave Doppler-spectro-radiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rüfenacht

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We report on the wind radiometer WIRA, a new ground-based microwave Doppler-spectro-radiometer specifically designed for the measurement of middle-atmospheric horizontal wind by observing ozone emission spectra at 142.17504 GHz. Currently, wind speeds in five levels between 30 and 79 km can be retrieved which makes WIRA the first instrument able to continuously measure horizontal wind in this altitude range. For an integration time of one day the measurement error on each level lies at around 25 m s−1. With a planned upgrade this value is expected to be reduced by a factor of 2 in the near future. On the altitude levels where our measurement can be compared to wind data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF very good agreement in the long-term statistics as well as in short time structures with a duration of a few days has been found.

    WIRA uses a passive double sideband heterodyne receiver together with a digital Fourier transform spectrometer for the data acquisition. A big advantage of the radiometric approach is that such instruments can also operate under adverse weather conditions and thus provide a continuous time series for the given location. The optics enables the instrument to scan a wide range of azimuth angles including the directions east, west, north, and south for zonal and meridional wind measurements. The design of the radiometer is fairly compact and its calibration does not rely on liquid nitrogen which makes it transportable and suitable for campaign use. WIRA is conceived in a way that it can be operated remotely and does hardly require any maintenance.

    In the present paper, a description of the instrument is given, and the techniques used for the wind retrieval based on the determination of the Doppler shift of the measured atmospheric ozone emission spectra are outlined. Their reliability was tested using Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, a time series of 11

  2. GHRSST Level 2P Regional Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) on the NASA Aqua satellite for the Atlantic Ocean (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) was launched on 4 May 2002, aboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA)...

  3. GHRSST Level 2P Gridded Global Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Scanning Microwave Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) on the NASA Aqua Satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) was launched on 4 May 2002, aboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA)...

  4. GHRSST Level 2P Global Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Scanning Microwave Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) on the NASA Aqua Satellite (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) was launched on 4 May 2002, aboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA)...

  5. A Bayesian Retrieval of Greenland Ice Sheet Internal Temperature from Ultra-wideband Software-defined Microwave Radiometer (UWBRAD) Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Y.; Durand, M. T.; Jezek, K. C.; Yardim, C.; Bringer, A.; Aksoy, M.; Johnson, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    The ultra-wideband software-defined microwave radiometer (UWBRAD) is designed to provide ice sheet internal temperature product via measuring low frequency microwave emission. Twelve channels ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 GHz are covered by the instrument. A Greenland air-borne demonstration was demonstrated in September 2016, provided first demonstration of Ultra-wideband radiometer observations of geophysical scenes, including ice sheets. Another flight is planned for September 2017 for acquiring measurements in central ice sheet. A Bayesian framework is designed to retrieve the ice sheet internal temperature from simulated UWBRAD brightness temperature (Tb) measurements over Greenland flight path with limited prior information of the ground. A 1-D heat-flow model, the Robin Model, was used to model the ice sheet internal temperature profile with ground information. Synthetic UWBRAD Tb observations was generated via the partially coherent radiation transfer model, which utilizes the Robin model temperature profile and an exponential fit of ice density from Borehole measurement as input, and corrupted with noise. The effective surface temperature, geothermal heat flux, the variance of upper layer ice density, and the variance of fine scale density variation at deeper ice sheet were treated as unknown variables within the retrieval framework. Each parameter is defined with its possible range and set to be uniformly distributed. The Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach is applied to make the unknown parameters randomly walk in the parameter space. We investigate whether the variables can be improved over priors using the MCMC approach and contribute to the temperature retrieval theoretically. UWBRAD measurements near camp century from 2016 was also treated with the MCMC to examine the framework with scattering effect. The fine scale density fluctuation is an important parameter. It is the most sensitive yet highly unknown parameter in the estimation framework

  6. Long-term observations minus background monitoring of ground-based brightness temperatures from a microwave radiometer network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. De Angelis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based microwave radiometers (MWRs offer the capability to provide continuous, high-temporal-resolution observations of the atmospheric thermodynamic state in the planetary boundary layer (PBL with low maintenance. This makes MWR an ideal instrument to supplement radiosonde and satellite observations when initializing numerical weather prediction (NWP models through data assimilation. State-of-the-art data assimilation systems (e.g. variational schemes require an accurate representation of the differences between model (background and observations, which are then weighted by their respective errors to provide the best analysis of the true atmospheric state. In this perspective, one source of information is contained in the statistics of the differences between observations and their background counterparts (O–B. Monitoring of O–B statistics is crucial to detect and remove systematic errors coming from the measurements, the observation operator, and/or the NWP model. This work illustrates a 1-year O–B analysis for MWR observations in clear-sky conditions for an European-wide network of six MWRs. Observations include MWR brightness temperatures (TB measured by the two most common types of MWR instruments. Background profiles are extracted from the French convective-scale model AROME-France before being converted into TB. The observation operator used to map atmospheric profiles into TB is the fast radiative transfer model RTTOV-gb. It is shown that O–B monitoring can effectively detect instrument malfunctions. O–B statistics (bias, standard deviation, and root mean square for water vapour channels (22.24–30.0 GHz are quite consistent for all the instrumental sites, decreasing from the 22.24 GHz line centre ( ∼  2–2.5 K towards the high-frequency wing ( ∼  0.8–1.3 K. Statistics for zenith and lower-elevation observations show a similar trend, though values increase with increasing air mass. O

  7. In-situ Microwave Brightness Temperature Variability from Ground-based Radiometer Measurements at Dome C in Antarctica Induced by Wind-formed Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, A.; Picard, G.; Arnaud, L.; Brucker, L.; Fily, M..

    2014-01-01

    Space-borne microwave radiometers are among the most useful tools to study snow and to collect information on the Antarctic climate. They have several advantages over other remote sensing techniques: high sensitivity to snow properties of interest (temperature, grain size, density), subdaily coverage in the polar regions, and their observations are independent of cloud conditions and solar illumination. Thus, microwave radiometers are widely used to retrieve information over snow-covered regions. For the Antarctic Plateau, many studies presenting retrieval algorithms or numerical simulations have assumed, explicitly or not, that the subpixel-scale heterogeneity is negligible and that the retrieved properties were representative of whole pixels. In this presentation, we investigate the spatial variations of brightness temperature over arange of a few kilometers in the Dome C area (Antarctic Plateau).

  8. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westwater, Edgeworth

    2011-05-06

    The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of

  9. CAMEX-3 POLARIMETRIC SCANNING RADIOMETER (PSR) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) is a versatile airborne microwave imaging radiometer developed by the Georgia Institute of Technology and the NOAA...

  10. Tunable microwave metamaterials based on ordinary water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei V.; Jacobsen, Rasmus Elkjær; Arslanagic, Samel

    2017-01-01

    All-dielectric metamaterials are the growing trend in optics and electromagnetics. They require materials with high permittivity, for example silicon in photonics. Aiming the microwaves range we present here water as a unique substance for employing in metamaterials design. Dependence of water...

  11. Comparison of global cloud liquid water path derived from microwave measurements with CERES-MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Y.; Minnis, P.; Huang, J.; Lin, B.; Ayers, K.; Sun-Mack, S.; Fan, A.

    Cloud liquid water path LWP is a crucial parameter for climate studies due to the link that it provides between the atmospheric hydrological and radiative budgets Satellite-based visible infrared techniques such as the Visible Infrared Solar Split-Window Technique VISST can retrieve LWP for water clouds assumes single-layer over a variety of surfaces If the water clouds are overlapped by ice clouds the LWP of the underlying clouds can not be retrieved by such techniques However microwave techniques may be used to retrieve the LWP underneath ice clouds due to the microwave s insensitivity to cloud ice particles LWP is typically retrieved from satellite-observed microwave radiances only over ocean due to variations of land surface temperature and emissivity Recently Deeter and Vivekanandan 2006 developed a new technique for retrieving LWP over land In order to overcome the sensitivity to land surface temperature and emissivity their technique is based on a parameterization of microwave polarization-difference signals In this study a similar regression-based technique for retrieving LWP over land and ocean using Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - EOS AMSR-E measurements is developed Furthermore the microwave surface emissivities are also derived using clear-sky fields of view based on the Clouds and Earth s Radiant Energy System Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer CERES-MODIS cloud mask These emissivities are used in an alternate form of the technique The results are evaluated using independent measurements such

  12. Millimeter radiometer system technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W. J.; Swanson, P. N.

    1989-07-01

    JPL has had a large amount of experience with spaceborne microwave/millimeter wave radiometers for remote sensing. All of the instruments use filled aperture antenna systems from 5 cm diameter for the microwave Sounder Units (MSU), 16 m for the microwave limb sounder (MLS) to 20 m for the large deployable reflector (LDR). The advantages of filled aperture antenna systems are presented. The requirements of the 10 m Geoplat antenna system, 10 m multified antenna, and the MLS are briefly discussed.

  13. PHOCUS radiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Nyström

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available PHOCUS – Particles, Hydrogen and Oxygen Chemistry in the Upper Summer Mesosphere is a Swedish sounding rocket experiment, launched in July 2011, with the main goal of investigating the upper atmosphere in the altitude range 50–110 km. This paper describes the SondRad instrument in the PHOCUS payload, a radiometer comprising two frequency channels (183 GHz and 557 GHz aimed at exploring the water vapour concentration distribution in connection with the appearance of noctilucent (night shining clouds. The design of the radiometer system has been done in a collaboration between Omnisys Instruments AB and the Group for Advanced Receiver Development (GARD at Chalmers University of Technology where Omnisys was responsible for the overall design, implementation, and verification of the radiometers and backend, whereas GARD was responsible for the radiometer optics and calibration systems.

    The SondRad instrument covers the water absorption lines at 183 GHz and 557 GHz. The 183 GHz channel is a side-looking radiometer, while the 557 GHz radiometer is placed along the rocket axis looking in the forward direction. Both channels employ sub-harmonically pumped Schottky mixers and Fast Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FFTS backends with 67 kHz resolution.

    The radiometers include novel calibration systems specifically adjusted for use with each frequency channel. The 183 GHz channel employs a continuous wave CW pilot signal calibrating the entire receiving chain, while the intermediate frequency chain (the IF-chain of the 557 GHz channel is calibrated by injecting a signal from a reference noise source through a directional coupler.

    The instrument collected complete spectra for both the 183 GHz and the 557 GHz with 300 Hz data rate for the 183 GHz channel and 10 Hz data rate for the 557 GHz channel for about 60 s reaching the apogee of the flight trajectory and 100 s after that. With lossless data compression using variable

  14. Millimeter-wave Radiometer for High Sensitivity Water Vapor Profiling in Arid Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazmany, Andrew

    2006-11-09

    Abstract - ProSensing Inc. has developed a G-band (183 GHz) water Vapor Radiometer (GVR) for long-term, unattended measurements of low concentrations of atmospheric water vapor and liquid water. Precipitable water vapor and liquid water path are estimated from zenith brightness temperatures measured from four double-sideband receiver channels, centered at 183.31 1, 3 and 7, and 14 GHz. A prototype ground-based version of the instrument was deployed at the DOE ARM program?s North Slope of Alaska site near Barrow AK in April 2005, where it collected data continuously for one year. A compact, airborne version of this instrument, packaged to operate from a standard 2-D PMS probe canister, has been tested on the ground and is scheduled for test flights in the summer of 2006. This paper presents design details, laboratory test results and examples of retrieved precipitable water vapor and liquid water path from measured brightness temperature data.

  15. Microwave radiometric aircraft observations of the Fabry-Perot interference fringes of an ice-water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, R. F.; Swift, C. T.; Fedors, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Airborne stepped-frequency microwave radiometer (SFMR) observations of the Fabry-Perot interference fringes of ice-water systems are discussed. The microwave emissivity at normal incidence of a smooth layered dielectric medium over a semi-infinite dielectric medium is examined for the case of ice over water as a function of ice thickness and attenuation coefficient, and the presence of quarter-wavelength oscillations in emissivity as the ice thickness and frequency are varied is pointed out. Experimental observations of pronounced quarter-wavelength oscillations in radiometric brightness temperature due to the Fabry-Perot interference fringes over smooth sea ice and lake ice varying in roughness as the radiometer frequencies were scanned are then presented.

  16. The effect of cloud liquid water on tropospheric temperature retrievals from microwave measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bernet

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Microwave radiometry is a suitable technique to measure atmospheric temperature profiles with high temporal resolution during clear sky and cloudy conditions. In this study, we included cloud models in the inversion algorithm of the microwave radiometer TEMPERA (TEMPErature RAdiometer to determine the effect of cloud liquid water on the temperature retrievals. The cloud models were built based on measurements of cloud base altitude and integrated liquid water (ILW, all performed at the aerological station (MeteoSwiss in Payerne (Switzerland. Cloud base altitudes were detected using ceilometer measurements while the ILW was measured by a HATPRO (Humidity And Temperature PROfiler radiometer. To assess the quality of the TEMPERA retrieval when clouds were considered, the resulting temperature profiles were compared to 2 years of radiosonde measurements. The TEMPERA instrument measures radiation at 12 channels in the frequency range from 51 to 57 GHz, corresponding to the left wing of the oxygen emission line complex. When the full spectral information with all the 12 frequency channels was used, we found a marked improvement in the temperature retrievals after including a cloud model. The chosen cloud model influenced the resulting temperature profile, especially for high clouds and clouds with a large amount of liquid water. Using all 12 channels, however, presented large deviations between different cases, suggesting that additional uncertainties exist in the lower, more transparent channels. Using less spectral information with the higher, more opaque channels only also improved the temperature profiles when clouds where included, but the influence of the chosen cloud model was less important. We conclude that tropospheric temperature profiles can be optimized by considering clouds in the microwave retrieval, and that the choice of the cloud model has a direct impact on the resulting temperature profile.

  17. Applying the Water Vapor Radiometer to Verify the Precipitable Water Vapor Measured by GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Kang Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan is located at the land-sea interface in a subtropical region. Because the climate is warm and moist year round, there is a large and highly variable amount of water vapor in the atmosphere. In this study, we calculated the Zenith Wet Delay (ZWD of the troposphere using the ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS. The ZWD measured by two Water Vapor Radiometers (WVRs was then used to verify the ZWD that had been calculated using GPS. We also analyzed the correlation between the ZWD and the precipitation data of these two types of station. Moreover, we used the observational data from 14 GPS and rainfall stations to evaluate three cases. The offset between the GPS-ZWD and the WVR-ZWD ranged from 1.31 to 2.57 cm. The correlation coefficient ranged from 0.89 to 0.93. The results calculated from GPS and those measured using the WVR were very similar. Moreover, when there was no rain, light rain, moderate rain, or heavy rain, the flatland station ZWD was 0.31, 0.36, 0.38, or 0.40 m, respectively. The mountain station ZWD exhibited the same trend. Therefore, these results have demonstrated that the potential and strength of precipitation in a region can be estimated according to its ZWD values. Now that the precision of GPS-ZWD has been confirmed, this method can eventually be expanded to the more than 400 GPS stations in Taiwan and its surrounding islands. The near real-time ZWD data with improved spatial and temporal resolution can be provided to the city and countryside weather-forecasting system that is currently under development. Such an exchange would fundamentally improve the resources used to generate weather forecasts.

  18. Microwave Powered Gravitationally Independent Medical Grade Water Generation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative microwave system is proposed for the continuous production of medical grade water. This system will utilize direct absorption of microwave radiation to...

  19. Retrieval of Effective Correlation Length and Snow Water Equivalent from Radar and Passive Microwave Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Lemmetyinen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Current methods for retrieving SWE (snow water equivalent from space rely on passive microwave sensors. Observations are limited by poor spatial resolution, ambiguities related to separation of snow microstructural properties from the total snow mass, and signal saturation when snow is deep (~>80 cm. The use of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar at suitable frequencies has been suggested as a potential observation method to overcome the coarse resolution of passive microwave sensors. Nevertheless, suitable sensors operating from space are, up to now, unavailable. Active microwave retrievals suffer, however, from the same difficulties as the passive case in separating impacts of scattering efficiency from those of snow mass. In this study, we explore the potential of applying active (radar and passive (radiometer microwave observations in tandem, by using a dataset of co-incident tower-based active and passive microwave observations and detailed in situ data from a test site in Northern Finland. The dataset spans four winter seasons with daily coverage. In order to quantify the temporal variability of snow microstructure, we derive an effective correlation length for the snowpack (treated as a single layer, which matches the simulated microwave response of a semi-empirical radiative transfer model to observations. This effective parameter is derived from radiometer and radar observations at different frequencies and frequency combinations (10.2, 13.3 and 16.7 GHz for radar; 10.65, 18.7 and 37 GHz for radiometer. Under dry snow conditions, correlations are found between the effective correlation length retrieved from active and passive measurements. Consequently, the derived effective correlation length from passive microwave observations is applied to parameterize the retrieval of SWE using radar, improving retrieval skill compared to a case with no prior knowledge of snow-scattering efficiency. The same concept can be applied to future radar

  20. Observations of middle atmospheric H2O and O3 during the 2010 major sudden stratospheric warming by a network of microwave radiometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kämpfer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present middle atmospheric water vapor (H2O and ozone (O3 measurements obtained by ground-based microwave radiometers at three European locations in Bern (47° N, Onsala (57° N and Sodankylä (67° N during Northern winter 2009/2010. In January 2010, a major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW occurred in the Northern Hemisphere whose signatures are evident in the ground-based observations of H2O and O3. The observed anomalies in H2O and O3 are mostly explained by the relative location of the polar vortex with respect to the measurement locations. The SSW started on 26 January 2010 and was most pronounced by the end of January. The zonal mean temperature in the middle stratosphere (10 hPa increased by approximately 25 Kelvin within a few days. The stratospheric vortex weakened during the SSW and shifted towards Europe. In the mesosphere, the vortex broke down, which lead to large scale mixing of polar and midlatitudinal air. After the warming, the polar vortex in the stratosphere split into two weaker vortices and in the mesosphere, a new, pole-centered vortex formed with maximum wind speed of 70 m s−1 at approximately 40° N. The shift of the stratospheric vortex towards Europe was observed in Bern as an increase in stratospheric H2O and a decrease in O3. The breakdown of the mesospheric vortex during the SSW was observed at Onsala and Sodankylä as a sudden increase in mesospheric H2O. The following large-scale descent inside the newly formed mesospheric vortex was well captured by the H2O observations in Sodankylä. In order to combine the H2O observations from the three different locations, we applied the trajectory mapping technique on our H2O observations to derive synoptic scale maps of the H2O distribution. Based on our observations and the 3-D wind field, this method allows determining the approximate development of the stratospheric and mesospheric polar vortex and demonstrates the potential of a network of ground

  1. Estimation of areal soil water content through microwave remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oevelen, van P.J.

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis the use of microwave remote sensing to estimate soil water content is investigated. A general framework is described which is applicable to both passive and active microwave remote sensing of soil water content. The various steps necessary to estimate areal soil water content

  2. Microwave-gamma ray water in crude monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paap, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    A microwave-gamma ray water-in-crude monitoring system measures the percent quantity of fresh water or salt water in crude oil flowing in a pipe line. The system includes a measuring cell arranged with the pipe line so that the crude oil flows through the measuring cell. A microwave transmitter subsystem and a gamma ray source are arranged with the measuring cell so that microwave energy and gamma rays are transmitted through the measuring cell. A microwave receiving subsystem and a gamma ray detector provide signals corresponding to received microwave energy and to the received gamma rays, respectively. Apparatus connected to the microwave receiver and to the gamma ray detector provides an indication of the percentage of water in the crude oil

  3. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer Data Products for National Drought Monitor Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Leland

    2007-01-01

    Drought effects are either direct or indirect depending on location, population, and regional economic vitality. Common direct effects of drought are reduced crop, rangeland, and forest productivity; increased fire hazard; reduced water levels; increased livestock and wildlife mortality rates; and damage to wildlife and fish habitat. Indirect impacts follow on the heels of direct impacts. For example, a reduction in crop, rangeland, and forest productivity may result in reduced income for farmers and agribusiness, increased prices for food and timber, unemployment, reduced tax revenues, increased crime, foreclosures on bank loans to farmers and businesses, migration, and disaster relief programs. In the United States alone, drought is estimated to result in annual losses of between $6 - 8 billion. Recent sustained drought in the United States has made decision-makers aware of the impacts of climate change on society and environment. The eight major droughts that occurred in the United States between 1980 and 1999 accounted for the largest percentage of weather-related monetary losses. Monitoring drought and its impact that occurs at a variety of scales is an important government activity -- not only nationally but internationally as well. The NDMC (National Drought Mitigation Center) and the USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) RMA (Risk Management Agency) have partnered together to develop a DM-DSS (Drought Monitoring Decision Support System). This monitoring system will be an interactive portal that will provide users the ability to visualize and assess drought at all levels. This candidate solution incorporates atmospherically corrected VIIRS data products, such as NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and Ocean SST (sea surface temperature), and AMSR-E soil moisture data products into two NDMC vegetation indices -- VegDRI (Vegetation Drought Response Index) and VegOUT (Vegetation Outlook) -- which are then input into the DM-DSS.

  4. Water vapor profiling using microwave radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. R.; Wilheit, T. T.

    1988-01-01

    Water vapor is one of the most important constituents in the Earth's atmosphere. Its spatial and temporal variations affect a wide spectrum of meteorological phenomena ranging from the formation of clouds to the development of severe storms. The passive microwave technique offers an excellent means for water vapor measurements. It can provide both day and night coverage under most cloud conditions. Two water vapor absorption features, at 22 and 183 GHz, were explored in the past years. The line strengths of these features differ by nearly two orders of magnitude. As a consequence, the techniques and the final products of water vapor measurements are also quite different. The research effort in the past few years was to improve and extend the retrieval algorithm to the measurements of water vapor profiles under cloudy conditions. In addition, the retrieval of total precipitable water using 183 GHz measurements, but in a manner analogous to the use of 22 GHz measurements, to increase measurement sensitivity for atmospheres of very low moisture content was also explored.

  5. The scientific base of heating water by microwave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akdoğan, Ender, E-mail: ender.akdogan@tpe.gov.tr [Department of Physics Engineering, Ankara University, Dögol St. Tandoğan Ankara 06560 Türkiye (Turkey); Çiftçi, Muharrem, E-mail: muharrem-ciftci@windowslive.com [Author" 1 Department of Physics, Ankara University, Dögol St. Tandoğan Ankara 06560 Türkiye (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    This article is based on the master thesis [4] related to our invention which was published in World Intellectual Property Organization (WO/2011/048506) as a microwave water heater. In the project, a prototype was produced to use microwave in industrial heating. In order to produce the prototype, the most appropriate material kind for microwave-water experiments was determined by a new energy loss rate calculation technique. This new energy loss calculation is a determinative factor for material permeability at microwave frequency band (1-100 GHz). This experimental series aim to investigate the rationality of using microwave in heating industry. Theoretically, heating water by microwave (with steady frequency 2.45 GHz) is analyzed from sub-molecular to Classical Mechanic results of heating. In the study, we examined Quantum Mechanical base of heating water by microwave experiments. As a result, we derived a Semi-Quantum Mechanical equation for microwave-water interactions and thus, Wien displacement law can be derived to verify experimental observations by this equation.

  6. Measurement of atmospheric precipitable water using a solar radiometer. [water vapor absorption effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, D. E.; Dillinger, A. E.; Mcallum, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    A technique is described and tested that allows the determination of atmospheric precipitable water from two measurements of solar intensity: one in a water-vapor absorption band and another in a nearby spectral region unaffected by water vapor.

  7. Quality assessment of ground-based microwave measurements of chlorine monoxide, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide from the NDSC radiometer at the Plateau de Bure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ricaud

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A ground-based microwave radiometer dedicated to chlorine monoxide (ClO measurements around 278GHz has been in operation from December 1993-June 1996 at the Plateau de Bure, France (45° N, 5.9° E, 2500m altitude. It belongs to the international Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change. A detailed study of both measurements and retrieval schemes has been undertaken. Although dedicated to the measurements of ClO, simultaneous profiles of O3, ClO and NO2, together with information about the instrumental baseline, have been retrieved using the optimal estimation method. The vertical profiles have been compared with other ground-based microwave data, satellite-borne data and model results. Data quality shows: 1 the weak sensitivity of the instrument that obliges to make time averages over several hours; 2 the site location where measurements of good opacities are possible for only a few days per year; 3 the baseline undulation affecting all the spectra, an issue common to all the microwave instruments; 4 the slow drift of some components affecting frequencies by 3-4MHz within a couple of months. Nevertheless, when temporally averaging data over a few days, ClO temporal variations (diurnal and over several weeks in winter 1995 from 35-50km are consistent with model results and satellite data, particularly at the peak altitude around 40km, although temporal coincidences are infrequent in winter 1995. In addition to ClO, it is possible to obtain O3 information from 30-60km whilst the instrument is not optimized at all for this molecule. Retrievals of O3 are reasonable when compared with model and another ground-based data set, although the lowermost layers are affected by the contamination of baseline remnants. Monthly-averaged diurnal variations of NO2 are detected at 40km and appear in agreement with photochemical model results and satellite zonally-averaged data, although the amplitude

  8. Retrieval of total water vapour in the Arctic using microwave humidity sounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristian Scarlat, Raul; Melsheimer, Christian; Heygster, Georg

    2018-04-01

    Quantitative retrievals of atmospheric water vapour in the Arctic present numerous challenges because of the particular climate characteristics of this area. Here, we attempt to build upon the work of Melsheimer and Heygster (2008) to retrieve total atmospheric water vapour (TWV) in the Arctic from satellite microwave radiometers. While the above-mentioned algorithm deals primarily with the ice-covered central Arctic, with this work we aim to extend the coverage to partially ice-covered and ice-free areas. By using modelled values for the microwave emissivity of the ice-free sea surface, we develop two sub-algorithms using different sets of channels that deal solely with open-ocean areas. The new algorithm extends the spatial coverage of the retrieval throughout the year but especially in the warmer months when higher TWV values are frequent. The high TWV measurements over both sea-ice and open-water surfaces are, however, connected to larger uncertainties as the retrieval values are close to the instrument saturation limits.This approach allows us to apply the algorithm to regions where previously no data were available and ensures a more consistent physical analysis of the satellite measurements by taking into account the contribution of the surface emissivity to the measured signal.

  9. Investigation of the use of microwave image line integrated circuits for use in radiometers and other microwave devices in X-band and above

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R. M.; Toulios, P. P.; Onoda, G. Y.

    1972-01-01

    Program results are described in which the use of a/high permittivity rectangular dielectric image waveguide has been investigated for use in microwave and millimeter wavelength circuits. Launchers from rectangular metal waveguide to image waveguide are described. Theoretical and experimental evaluations of the radiation from curved image waveguides are given. Measurements of attenuation due to conductor and dielectric losses, adhesives, and gaps between the dielectric waveguide and the image plane are included. Various passive components are described and evaluations given. Investigations of various techniques for fabrication of image waveguide circuits using ceramic waveguides are also presented. Program results support the evaluation of the image line approach as an advantageous method for realizing low loss integrated electronic circuits for X-band and above.

  10. Hurricane Imaging Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Daniel J.; Biswas, Sayak K.; James, Mark W.; Roberts, J. Brent; Jones, W. Linwood; Johnson, James; Farrar, Spencer; Sahawneh, Saleem; Ruf, Christopher S.; Morris, Mary; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a synthetic thinned array passive microwave radiometer designed to allow retrieval of surface wind speed in hurricanes, up through category five intensity. The retrieval technology follows the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which measures surface wind speed in hurricanes along a narrow strip beneath the aircraft. HIRAD maps wind speeds in a swath below the aircraft, about 50-60 km wide when flown in the lower stratosphere. HIRAD has flown in the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment in 2010 on a WB-57 aircraft, and on a Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) in 2012 and 2013 as part of NASA's Hurricane and Severe Storms Sentinel (HS3) program. The GRIP program included flights over Hurricanes Earl and Karl (2010). The 2012 HS3 deployment did not include any hurricane flights for the UAS carrying HIRAD. The 2013 HS3 flights included one flight over the predecessor to TS Gabrielle, and one flight over Hurricane Ingrid. This presentation will describe the HIRAD instrument, its results from the 2010 and 2013 flights, and potential future developments.

  11. Microwave-Based Water Decontamination System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Byerly, Diane (Inventor); Sognier, Marguerite (Inventor); Dusl, John (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A system for decontaminating a medium. The system can include a medium having one or more contaminants disposed therein. The contaminants can be or include bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, and combinations thereof. A microwave energy radiation device can be positioned proximate the medium. The microwave energy radiation device can be adapted to generate a signal having a frequency from about 10 GHz to about 100 GHz. The signal can be adapted to kill one or more of the contaminants disposed within the medium while increasing a temperature of the medium by less than about 10 C.

  12. Monitoring middle-atmospheric water vapor over Seoul by using a 22 GHz ground-based radiometer SWARA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka, Soohyun; de Wachter, Evelyn; Kaempfer, Niklaus; Oh, Jung Jin

    2010-10-01

    Water vapor is the strongest natural greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. It is most abundant in the troposphere at low altitudes, due to evaporation at the ocean surface, with maximum values of around 6 g/kg. The amount of water vapor reaches a minimum at tropopause level and increases again in the middle atmosphere through oxidation of methane and vertical transport. Water vapor has both positive and negative effects on global warming, and we need to study how it works on climate change by monitoring water vapor concentration in the middle atmosphere. In this paper, we focus on the 22 GHz ground-based radiometer called SWARA (Seoul Water vapor Radiometer) which has been operated at Sookmyung women's university in Seoul, Korea since Oct. 2006. It is a joint project of the University of Bern, Switzerland, and the Sookmyung Women's University of Seoul, South Korea. The SWARA receives 22.235 GHz emitted from water vapor spontaneously and converts down to 1.5 GHz with +/- 0.5 GHz band width in 61 kHz resolution. To represent 22.235 GHz water vapor spectrum precisely, we need some calibration methods because the signal shows very weak intensity in ~0.1 K on the ground. For SWARA, we have used the balancing and the tipping curve methods for a calibration. To retrieve the water vapor profile, we have applied ARTS and Qpack software. In this paper, we will present the calibration methods and water vapor variation over Seoul for the last 4 years.

  13. The new Passive microwave Neural network Precipitation Retrieval (PNPR algorithm for the cross-track scanning ATMS radiometer: description and verification study over Europe and Africa using GPM and TRMM spaceborne radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sanò

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to describe the development and evaluate the performance of a completely new version of the Passive microwave Neural network Precipitation Retrieval (PNPR v2, an algorithm based on a neural network approach, designed to retrieve the instantaneous surface precipitation rate using the cross-track Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS radiometer measurements. This algorithm, developed within the EUMETSAT H-SAF program, represents an evolution of the previous version (PNPR v1, developed for AMSU/MHS radiometers (and used and distributed operationally within H-SAF, with improvements aimed at exploiting the new precipitation-sensing capabilities of ATMS with respect to AMSU/MHS. In the design of the neural network the new ATMS channels compared to AMSU/MHS, and their combinations, including the brightness temperature differences in the water vapor absorption band, around 183 GHz, are considered. The algorithm is based on a single neural network, for all types of surface background, trained using a large database based on 94 cloud-resolving model simulations over the European and the African areas. The performance of PNPR v2 has been evaluated through an intercomparison of the instantaneous precipitation estimates with co-located estimates from the TRMM Precipitation Radar (TRMM-PR and from the GPM Core Observatory Ku-band Precipitation Radar (GPM-KuPR. In the comparison with TRMM-PR, over the African area the statistical analysis was carried out for a 2-year (2013–2014 dataset of coincident observations over a regular grid at 0.5°  ×  0.5° resolution. The results have shown a good agreement between PNPR v2 and TRMM-PR for the different surface types. The correlation coefficient (CC was equal to 0.69 over ocean and 0.71 over vegetated land (lower values were obtained over arid land and coast, and the root mean squared error (RMSE was equal to 1.30 mm h−1 over ocean and 1.11 mm h−1 over

  14. An Uncertainty Data Set for Passive Microwave Satellite Observations of Warm Cloud Liquid Water Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Thomas J.; Bennartz, Ralf; Lebsock, Matthew; Teixeira, João.

    2018-04-01

    The first extended comprehensive data set of the retrieval uncertainties in passive microwave observations of cloud liquid water path (CLWP) for warm oceanic clouds has been created for practical use in climate applications. Four major sources of systematic errors were considered over the 9-year record of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E): clear-sky bias, cloud-rain partition (CRP) bias, cloud-fraction-dependent bias, and cloud temperature bias. Errors were estimated using a unique merged AMSR-E/Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Level 2 data set as well as observations from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization and the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar. To quantify the CRP bias more accurately, a new parameterization was developed to improve the inference of CLWP in warm rain. The cloud-fraction-dependent bias was found to be a combination of the CRP bias, an in-cloud bias, and an adjacent precipitation bias. Globally, the mean net bias was 0.012 kg/m2, dominated by the CRP and in-cloud biases, but with considerable regional and seasonal variation. Good qualitative agreement between a bias-corrected AMSR-E CLWP climatology and ship observations in the Northeast Pacific suggests that the bias estimates are reasonable. However, a possible underestimation of the net bias in certain conditions may be due in part to the crude method used in classifying precipitation, underscoring the need for an independent method of detecting rain in warm clouds. This study demonstrates the importance of combining visible-infrared imager data and passive microwave CLWP observations for estimating uncertainties and improving the accuracy of these observations.

  15. DMSP SSMT/2 - Atmospheric Water Vapor Profiler

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SSM/T-2 sensor is a five channel, total power microwave radiometer with three channels situated symmetrically about the 183.31 GHz water vapor resonance line and...

  16. Assessment of Radiometer Calibration with GPS Radio Occultation for the MiRaTA CubeSat Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinan, Anne D.; Cahoy, Kerri L.; Bishop, Rebecca L.; Lui, Susan S.; Bardeen, James R.; Mulligan, Tamitha; Blackwell, William J.; Leslie, R. Vincent; Osaretin, Idahosa; Shields, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The Microwave Radiometer Technology Acceleration (MiRaTA) is a 3U CubeSat mission sponsored by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO). The science payload on MiRaTA consists of a tri-band microwave radiometer and Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (GPSRO) sensor. The microwave radiometer takes measurements of all-weather temperature (V-band, 50-57 GHz), water vapor (G-band, 175-191 GHz), and cloud ice (G-band, 205 GHz) to provide observations used to improve weather forecasting. The Aerospace Corporation's GPSRO experiment, called the Compact TEC (Total Electron Content) and Atmospheric GPS Sensor (CTAGS), measures profiles of temperature and pressure in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (∼20 km) and electron density in the ionosphere (over 100 km). The MiRaTA mission will validate new technologies in both passive microwave radiometry and GPS radio occultation: (1) new ultra-compact and low-power technology for multi-channel and multi-band passive microwave radiometers, (2) the application of a commercial off the shelf (COTS) GPS receiver and custom patch antenna array technology to obtain neutral atmospheric GPSRO retrieval from a nanosatellite, and (3) a new approach to spaceborne microwave radiometer calibration using adjacent GPSRO measurements. In this paper, we focus on objective (3), developing operational models to meet a mission goal of 100 concurrent radiometer and GPSRO measurements, and estimating the temperature measurement precision for the CTAGS instrument based on thermal noise. Based on an analysis of thermal noise of the CTAGS instrument, the expected temperature retrieval precision is between 0.17 K and 1.4 K, which supports the improvement of radiometric calibration to 0.25 K. PMID:28828144

  17. Rotating shadowband radiometer development and analysis of spectral shortwave data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalsky, J.; Harrison, L.; Min, Q. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Our goals in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program are improved measurements of spectral shortwave radiation and improved techniques for the retrieval of climatologically sensitive parameters. The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) that was developed during the first years of the ARM program has become a workhorse at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site, and it is widely deployed in other climate programs. We have spent most of our effort this year developing techniques to retrieve column aerosol, water vapor, and ozone from direct beam spectral measurements of the MFRSR. Additionally, we have had some success in calculating shortwave surface diffuse spectral irradiance. Using the surface albedo and the global irradiance, we have calculated cloud optical depths. From cloud optical depth and liquid water measured with the microwave radiometer, we have calculated effective liquid cloud particle radii. The rest of the text will provide some detail regarding each of these efforts.

  18. Microwave measurements of water vapor partial pressure at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre, V.R.

    1991-01-01

    One of the desired parameters in the Yucca Mountain Project is the capillary pressure of the rock comprising the repository. This parameter is related to the partial pressure of water vapor in the air when in equilibrium with the rock mass. Although there are a number of devices that will measure the relative humidity (directly related to the water vapor partial pressure), they generally will fail at temperatures on the order of 150C. Since thee author has observed borehole temperatures considerably in excess of this value in G-Tunnel at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a different scheme is required to obtain the desired partial pressure data at higher temperatures. This chapter presents a microwave technique that has been developed to measure water vapor partial pressure in boreholes at temperatures up to 250C. The heart of the system is a microwave coaxial resonator whose resonant frequency is inversely proportional to the square root of the real part of the complex dielectric constant of the medium (air) filling the resonator. The real part of the dielectric constant of air is approximately equal to the square of the refractive index which, in turn, is proportional to the partial pressure of the water vapor in the air. Thus, a microwave resonant cavity can be used to measure changes in the relative humidity or partial pressure of water vapor in the air. Since this type of device is constructed of metal, it is able to withstand very high temperatures. The actual limitation is the temperature limit of the dielectric material in the cable connecting the resonator to its driving and monitoring equipment-an automatic network analyzer in our case. In the following sections, the theory of operation, design, construction, calibration and installation of the microwave diagnostics system is presented. The results and conclusions are also presented, along with suggestions for future work

  19. Microwave Determination of Water Mole Fraction in Humid Gas Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccaro, R.; Gavioso, R. M.; Benedetto, G.; Madonna Ripa, D.; Fernicola, V.; Guianvarc'h, C.

    2012-09-01

    A small volume (65 cm3) gold-plated quasi-spherical microwave resonator has been used to measure the water vapor mole fraction x w of H2O/N2 and H2O/air mixtures. This experimental technique exploits the high precision achievable in the determination of the cavity microwave resonance frequencies and is particularly sensitive to the presence of small concentrations of water vapor as a result of the high polarizability of this substance. The mixtures were prepared using the INRIM standard humidity generator for frost-point temperatures T fp in the range between 241 K and 270 K and a commercial two-pressure humidity generator operated at a dew-point temperature between 272 K and 291 K. The experimental measurements compare favorably with the calculated molar fractions of the mixture supplied by the humidity generators, showing a normalized error lower than 0.8.

  20. AMSR-E/Aqua Monthly Global Microwave Land Surface Emissivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a global land emissivity product using passive microwave observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System...

  1. BETA digital beta radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikov, N.V.; Kosinov, G.A.; Fedorov, Yu.N.

    1989-01-01

    Portable transportable digital beta radiometer providing for measuring beta-decay radionuclide specific activity in the range from 5x10 -9 up to 10 -6 Cu/kg (Cu/l) with error of ±25% is designed and introduced into commercial production for determination of volume and specific water and food radioactivity. The device specifications are given. Experience in the BETA radiometer application under conditions of the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone has shown that it is convenient for measuring specific activity of the order of 10 -8 Cu/kg, and application of a set of different beta detectors gives an opportunity to use it for surface contamination measurement in wide range of the measured value

  2. Wide-band Millimeter and Sub-Millimeter Wave Radiometer Instrument to Measure Tropospheric Water and Cloud ICE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop, fabricate and test a new, multi-frequency millimeter and sub-millimeter-wave radiometer instrument to provide critically-needed measurements...

  3. Temperature/pressure and water vapor sounding with microwave spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhleman, D. O.; Janssen, M. A.; Clancy, R. T.; Gulkis, S.; Mccleese, D. J.; Zurek, R.; Haberle, R. M.; Frerking, M.

    1992-01-01

    Two intense microwave spectra lines exist in the martian atmosphere that allow unique sounding capabilities: water vapor at 183 GHz and the (2-1) rotational line of CO at 230 GHz. Microwave spectra line sounding is a well-developed technique for the Earth's atmosphere for sounding from above from spacecraft and airplanes, and from below from fixed surface sites. Two simple instruments for temperature sounding on Mars (the CO line) and water vapor measurements are described. The surface sounder proposed for the MESUR sites is designed to study the boundary layer water vapor distribution and the temperature/pressure profiles with vertical resolution of 0.25 km up to 1 km with reduced resolution above approaching a scale height. The water channel will be sensitive to a few tenths of a micrometer of water and the temperature profile will be retrieved to an accuracy between 1 and 2 K. The latter is routinely done on the Earth using oxygen lines near 60 GHz. The measurements are done with a single-channel heterodyne receiver looking into a 10-cm mirror that is canned through a range of elevation angles plus a target load. The frequency of the receiver is sweep across the water and CO lines generating the two spectra at about 1-hr intervals throughout the mission. The mass and power for the proposed instrument are 2 kg and 5-8 W continuously. The measurements are completely immune to the atmospheric dust and ice particle loads. It was felt that these measurements are the ultimate ones to properly study the martian boundary layer from the surface to a few kilometers. Sounding from above requires an orbiting spacecraft with multichannel microwave spectrometers such as the instrument proposed for MO by a subset of the authors, a putative MESUR orbiter, and a proposed Discovery mission called MOES. Such an instrument can be built with less than 10 kg and use less than 15 W. The obvious advantage of this approach is that the entire atmosphere can be sounded for temperature and

  4. Space-based passive microwave soil moisture retrievals and the correction for a dynamic open water fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Gouweleeuw

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The large observation footprint of low-frequency satellite microwave emissions complicates the interpretation of near-surface soil moisture retrievals. While the effect of sub-footprint lateral heterogeneity is relatively limited under unsaturated conditions, open water bodies (if not accounted for cause a strong positive bias in the satellite-derived soil moisture retrieval. This bias is generally assumed static and associated with large, continental lakes and coastal areas. Temporal changes in the extent of smaller water bodies as small as a few percent of the sensor footprint size, however, can cause significant and dynamic biases. We analysed the influence of such small open water bodies on near-surface soil moisture products derived from actual (non-synthetic data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E for three areas in Oklahoma, USA. Differences between on-ground observations, model estimates and AMSR-E retrievals were related to dynamic estimates of open water fraction, one retrieved from a global daily record based on higher frequency AMSR-E data, a second derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and a third through inversion of the radiative transfer model, used to retrieve soil moisture. The comparison demonstrates the presence of relatively small areas (<0.05 of open water in or near the sensor footprint, possibly in combination with increased, below-critical vegetation density conditions (optical density <0.8, which contribute to seasonally varying biases in excess of 0.2 (m3 m−3 soil water content. These errors need to be addressed, either through elimination or accurate characterisation, if the soil moisture retrievals are to be used effectively in a data assimilation scheme.

  5. An atlas of mean distribution of precipitable water vapour over the tropical Indian Ocean for the year 1979

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Sathe, P.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Rao, L.V.G.

    The monthly mean maps of the precipitable water (PW) over the tropical Indian Ocean are prepared using the data derived from the Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) sensor for the period January to December, 1979. The PW...

  6. The Microwave Radiative Properties of Falling Snow Derived from Nonspherical Ice Particle Models. Part II: Initial Testing Using Radar, Radiometer and In Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, William S.; Tian, Lin; Grecu, Mircea; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Johnson, Benjamin; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Bansemer, Aaron; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Wang, James R.; Meneghini, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In this study, two different particle models describing the structure and electromagnetic properties of snow are developed and evaluated for potential use in satellite combined radar-radiometer precipitation estimation algorithms. In the first model, snow particles are assumed to be homogeneous ice-air spheres with single-scattering properties derived from Mie theory. In the second model, snow particles are created by simulating the self-collection of pristine ice crystals into aggregate particles of different sizes, using different numbers and habits of the collected component crystals. Single-scattering properties of the resulting nonspherical snow particles are determined using the discrete dipole approximation. The size-distribution-integrated scattering properties of the spherical and nonspherical snow particles are incorporated into a dual-wavelength radar profiling algorithm that is applied to 14- and 34-GHz observations of stratiform precipitation from the ER-2 aircraft-borne High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP) radar. The retrieved ice precipitation profiles are then input to a forward radiative transfer calculation in an attempt to simulate coincident radiance observations from the Conical Scanning Millimeter-Wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR). Much greater consistency between the simulated and observed CoSMIR radiances is obtained using estimated profiles that are based upon the nonspherical crystal/aggregate snow particle model. Despite this greater consistency, there remain some discrepancies between the higher moments of the HIWRAP-retrieved precipitation size distributions and in situ distributions derived from microphysics probe observations obtained from Citation aircraft underflights of the ER-2. These discrepancies can only be eliminated if a subset of lower-density crystal/aggregate snow particles is assumed in the radar algorithm and in the interpretation of the in situ data.

  7. Cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The 20-ft horn-reflector antenna at Bell Laboratories is discussed in detail with emphasis on the 7.35 cm radiometer. The circumstances leading to the detection of the cosmic microwave background radiation are explored

  8. The performance of the new enhanced-resolution satellite passive microwave dataset applied for snow water equivalent estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, J.; Durand, M. T.; Jiang, L.; Liu, D.

    2017-12-01

    The newly-processed NASA MEaSures Calibrated Enhanced-Resolution Brightness Temperature (CETB) reconstructed using antenna measurement response function (MRF) is considered to have significantly improved fine-resolution measurements with better georegistration for time-series observations and equivalent field of view (FOV) for frequencies with the same monomial spatial resolution. We are looking forward to its potential for the global snow observing purposes, and therefore aim to test its performance for characterizing snow properties, especially the snow water equivalent (SWE) in large areas. In this research, two candidate SWE algorithms will be tested in China for the years between 2005 to 2010 using the reprocessed TB from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E), with the results to be evaluated using the daily snow depth measurements at over 700 national synoptic stations. One of the algorithms is the SWE retrieval algorithm used for the FengYun (FY) - 3 Microwave Radiation Imager. This algorithm uses the multi-channel TB to calculate SWE for three major snow regions in China, with the coefficients adapted for different land cover types. The second algorithm is the newly-established Bayesian Algorithm for SWE Estimation with Passive Microwave measurements (BASE-PM). This algorithm uses the physically-based snow radiative transfer model to find the histogram of most-likely snow property that matches the multi-frequency TB from 10.65 to 90 GHz. It provides a rough estimation of snow depth and grain size at the same time and showed a 30 mm SWE RMS error using the ground radiometer measurements at Sodankyla. This study will be the first attempt to test it spatially for satellite. The use of this algorithm benefits from the high resolution and the spatial consistency between frequencies embedded in the new dataset. This research will answer three questions. First, to what extent can CETB increase the heterogeneity in the mapped SWE? Second, will

  9. The AMSR2 Satellite-based Microwave Snow Algorithm (SMSA) to estimate regional to global snow depth and snow water equivalent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, R. E. J.; Saberi, N.; Li, Q.

    2017-12-01

    With moderate to high spatial resolution (observation approaches yet to be fully scoped and developed, the long-term satellite passive microwave record remains an important tool for cryosphere-climate diagnostics. A new satellite microwave remote sensing approach is described for estimating snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE). The algorithm, called the Satellite-based Microwave Snow Algorithm (SMSA), uses Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - 2 (AMSR2) observations aboard the Global Change Observation Mission - Water mission launched by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency in 2012. The approach is unique since it leverages observed brightness temperatures (Tb) with static ancillary data to parameterize a physically-based retrieval without requiring parameter constraints from in situ snow depth observations or historical snow depth climatology. After screening snow from non-snow surface targets (water bodies [including freeze/thaw state], rainfall, high altitude plateau regions [e.g. Tibetan plateau]), moderate and shallow snow depths are estimated by minimizing the difference between Dense Media Radiative Transfer model estimates (Tsang et al., 2000; Picard et al., 2011) and AMSR2 Tb observations to retrieve SWE and SD. Parameterization of the model combines a parsimonious snow grain size and density approach originally developed by Kelly et al. (2003). Evaluation of the SMSA performance is achieved using in situ snow depth data from a variety of standard and experiment data sources. Results presented from winter seasons 2012-13 to 2016-17 illustrate the improved performance of the new approach in comparison with the baseline AMSR2 algorithm estimates and approach the performance of the model assimilation-based approach of GlobSnow. Given the variation in estimation power of SWE by different land surface/climate models and selected satellite-derived passive microwave approaches, SMSA provides SWE estimates that are independent of real or near real

  10. Low Cost and Pipe Conformable Microwave-Based Water-Cut Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram; Arsalan, Muhammad; Shamim, Atif

    2016-01-01

    Efficient oil production and refining processes require the precise measurement of water content in oil. This paper presents a novel planar microwave sensor for entirely non-intrusive in situ water cut (WC) sensing over the full range of operation

  11. ARIS-Campaign: intercomparison of three ground based 22 GHz radiometers for middle atmospheric water vapor at the Zugspitze in winter 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Straub

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Alpine Radiometer Intercomparison at the Schneefernerhaus (ARIS, which took place in winter 2009 at the high altitude station at the Zugspitze, Germany (47.42° N, 10.98° E, 2650 m. This campaign was the first direct intercomparison between three new ground based 22 GHz water vapor radiometers for middle atmospheric profiling with the following instruments participating: MIRA 5 (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, cWASPAM3 (Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Katlenburg-Lindau and MIAWARA-C (Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern. Even though the three radiometers all measure middle atmospheric water vapor using the same rotational transition line and similar fundamental set-ups, there are major differences between the front ends, the back ends, the calibration concepts and the profile retrieval. The spectrum comparison shows that all three radiometers measure spectra without severe baseline artifacts and that the measurements are in good general agreement. The measurement noise shows good agreement to the values theoretically expected from the radiometer noise formula. At the same time the comparison of the noise levels shows that there is room for instrumental and calibration improvement, emphasizing the importance of low elevation angles for the observation, a low receiver noise temperature and an efficient calibration scheme.

    The comparisons of the retrieved profiles show that the agreement between the profiles of MIAWARA-C and cWASPAM3 with the ones of MLS is better than 0.3 ppmv (6% at all altitudes. MIRA 5 has a dry bias of approximately 0.5 ppm (8% below 0.1 hPa with respect to all other instruments. The profiles of cWASPAM3 and MIAWARA-C could not be directly compared because the vertical region of overlap was too small. The comparison of the time series at different altitude levels show a similar evolution of the H2O volume mixing ratio (VMR for the ground based

  12. AMSR-E/Aqua Monthly Global Microwave Land Surface Emissivity, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a global land emissivity product using passive microwave observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System...

  13. The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer: Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy L.; James, M. W.; Roberts, J. B.; Biswas, S. K.; Cecil, D.; Jones, W. L.; Johnson, J.; Farrar, S.; Sahawneh, S.; Ruf, C. S.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is an airborne passive microwave radiometer designed to provide high resolution, wide swath imagery of surface wind speed in tropical cyclones from a low profile planar antenna with no mechanical scanning. Wind speed and rain rate images from HIRAD's first field campaign (GRIP, 2010) are presented here followed, by a discussion on the performance of the newly installed thermal control system during the 2012 HS3 campaign. The paper ends with a discussion on the next generation dual polarization HIRAD antenna (already designed) for a future system capable of measuring wind direction as well as wind speed.

  14. Determination of water vapor and ozone profiles in the middle atmosphere by microwave-spectroscopy. Bestimmung von Wasserdampf- und Ozonprofilen in der mittleren Atmosphaere durch Millimeterwellenspektroskopie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puliafito, S.E.

    1989-10-17

    This work was performed at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie (F.R.G.) and treats the following points: 1. Satellite borne microwave radiometry. Principles for a real-time evaluation of the MAS-Limb-Sounding measurements. (MAS: Millimeter Wave Atmospheric Sounder from Space Shuttle as part of the NASA ATLAS Missions, 1991-1997). (a) Deconvolution of the 60 GHz-antenna. (b) Test of different inversion proceedings. A detailed study of the boundary conditions and 'error influence' as well as a discussion of the radiometer specifications. (c) Near real time inversion of microwave spectral lines of the Earth atmosphere. i. The possibility of a (near) real time evaluation (retrieval of the profiles of the atmospheric components) was proved for the first time with a space proof microprocessor. ii. Data reduction of about a factor > 10{sup 3} in comparison with other methods. 2. Airborne and ground based microwave radiometry. (a) Study of the possibilities of ground- and aircraft based measurements for validation and cross calibration of the satellite measurements. (b) Study of the possibilities of ground based radiometric measurements of water vapour in the Artic or Antartica. Precise boundary conditions were given for the first time in order to perform ground based millimeter radiometric measurements in these areas. (orig.).

  15. High-efficiency water-loaded microwave antenna in ultra-high-frequency band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zilun; Bartone, Chris; Yang, Fuyi; Yao, Jie

    2018-03-01

    High-index dielectrics are widely used in microwave antennas to control the radiation characteristics. Liquid water, with a high dielectric index at microwave frequency, is an interesting material to achieving tunable functionalities. Here, we demonstrate a water-loaded microwave antenna system that has high loss-tolerance and wideband tunability enabled by fluidity. Our simulation and experimental results show that the resonance frequency can be effectively tuned by the size of loading water. Furthermore, the antenna systems with water loading can achieve high radiation efficiency (>90%) in the ultra-high-frequency (0.3-3 GHz) band. This work brings about opportunities in realistic tunable microwave antenna designs enabled by liquid.

  16. Raman Lidar Calibration for the DMSP SSM/T-2 Microwave Water Vapor Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wessel, J

    2000-01-01

    Campaigns were conducted at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Barking Sands, Kauai, investigating Raman lidar as a method to improve calibration of the DMSP SSM/T-2 microwave water vapor profiling instrument...

  17. The Free Jet Microwave Spectrum of 2-PHENYLETHYLAMINE-WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melandri, Sonia; Giuliano, B. Michela; Maris, Assimo; Caminati, Walther

    2009-06-01

    2-Phenylethylamine (PEA) is the parent structure for a variety of important compounds including dopamine, tyrosine, anphetamine and adrenaline. Due to the flexibility of the side chain, the conformational hypersurface of the isolated molecule contains several minima at relatively low energy. The conformational surface was studied by various spectroscopic and theoretical techniques and four of the five stable conformers were detected. The most stable conformers observed in isolated conditions are those in which the methylene side chain is folded into a gauche structure and the amino hydrogen is oriented towards the aromatic ring to form a weakly hydrogen bonded structure, while in the less stable conformers the amino group is in the anti position, thus the energy difference between the gauche and anti conformers (ca 4 kJ mol^{-1}) represents the energy associated with this weak interaction. Since bioactive molecules can be found in different environments including aqueous media and rotational spectroscopy coupled with high level ab initio calculations gives the most detailed structural picture, we studied the free jet microwave spectrum of the adducts formed between PEA and water in the region 60-78 GHz. The dominant spectrum is that of the 1:1 adduct of PEA and water where PEA is in its most stable gauche conformation and the water molecole is bound to the nitrogen lone pair. The orientation of the water molecole is such that the oxygen atom is closest (ca 2.5 Å) and equidistant from the ring and chain hydrogen atoms. The experimental data were complemented by ab initio calculations at the MP2/6311++G** level of theory; several stable conformations of the PEA-W have been characterized and the observed structure corresponds to the global minimum. The bonding of water seems to affect only slightly the structure of isolated PEA and the main structural parameters of the flexible amino side chain remain basically unaltered. Some lines still remain unassigned in the

  18. Dynamic Characterization of a Low Cost Microwave Water-Cut Sensor in a Flow Loop

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram; Arsalan, Muhammad; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    Inline precise measurement of water fraction in oil (i.e. water-cut [WC]) finds numerous applications in oil and gas industry. This paper presents the characterization of an extremely low cost, completely non-intrusive and full range microwave water

  19. Optimizing available water capacity using microwave satellite data for improving irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manika; Bolten, John; Lakshmi, Venkat

    2015-04-01

    This work addresses the improvement of available water capacity by developing a technique for estimating soil hydraulic parameters through the utilization of satellite-retrieved near surface soil moisture. The prototype involves the usage of Monte Carlo analysis to assimilate historical remote sensing soil moisture data available from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) within the hydrological model. The main hypothesis used in this study is that near-surface soil moisture data contain useful information that can describe the effective hydrological conditions of the basin such that when appropriately In the method followed in this study the hydraulic parameters are derived directly from information on the soil moisture state at the AMSR-E footprint scale and the available water capacity is derived for the root zone by coupling of AMSR-E soil moisture with the physically-based hydrological model. The available capacity water, which refers to difference between the field capacity and wilting point of the soil and represent the soil moisture content at 0.33 bar and 15 bar respectively is estimated from the soil hydraulic parameters using the van Genuchten equation. The initial ranges of soil hydraulic parameters are taken in correspondence with the values available from the literature based on Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database within the particular AMSR-E footprint. Using the Monte Carlo simulation, the ranges are narrowed in the region where simulation shows a good match between predicted and near-surface soil moisture from AMSR-E. In this study, the uncertainties in accurately determining the parameters of the nonlinear soil water retention function for large-scale hydrological modeling is the focus of the development of the Bayesian framework. Thus, the model forecasting has been combined with the observational information to optimize the model state and the soil hydraulic parameters simultaneously. The optimization process is divided into

  20. Microwave-enhanced pyrolysis of natural algae from water blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Linling; Tong, Dongmei; Hu, Changwei

    2016-07-01

    Microwave-enhanced pyrolysis (MEP) of natural algae under different reaction conditions was carried out. The optimal conditions for bio-oil production were the following: algae particle size of 20-5 mesh, microwave power of 600W, and 10% of activated carbon as microwave absorber and catalyst. The maximum liquid yield obtained under N2, 10% H2/Ar, and CO2 atmosphere was 49.1%, 51.7%, and 54.3% respectively. The energy yield of bio-products was 216.7%, 236.9% and 208.7% respectively. More long chain fatty acids were converted into hydrocarbons by hydrodeoxygenation under 10% H2/Ar atmosphere assisted by microwave over activated carbon containing small amounts of metals. Under CO2 atmosphere, carboxylic acids (66.6%) were the main products in bio-oil because the existence of CO2 vastly inhibited the decarboxylation. The MEP of algae was quick and efficient for bio-oil production, which provided a way to not only ameliorate the environment but also obtain fuel or chemicals at the same time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. One-step microwave synthesis of photoluminescent carbon nanoparticles from sodium dextran sulfate water solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokorina, Alina A.; Goryacheva, Irina Y.; Sapelkin, Andrei V.; Sukhorukov, Gleb B.

    2018-04-01

    Photoluminescent (PL) carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) have been synthesized by one-step microwave irradiation from water solution of sodium dextran sulfate (DSS) as the sole carbon source. Microwave (MW) method is very simple and cheap and it provides fast synthesis of CNPs. We have varied synthesis time for obtaining high luminescent CNPs. The synthesized CNPs exhibit excitation-dependent photoluminescent. Final CNPs water solution has a blue- green luminescence. CNPs have low cytotoxicity, good photostability and can be potentially suitable candidates for bioimaging, analysis or analytical tests.

  2. The DMRT-ML Model: Numerical Simulations of the Microwave Emission of Snowpacks Based on the Dense Media Radiative Transfer Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Ludovic; Picard, Ghislain; Roy, Alexandre; Dupont, Florent; Fily, Michel; Royer, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Microwave radiometer observations have been used to retrieve snow depth and snow water equivalent on both land and sea ice, snow accumulation on ice sheets, melt events, snow temperature, and snow grain size. Modeling the microwave emission from snow and ice physical properties is crucial to improve the quality of these retrievals. It also is crucial to improve our understanding of the radiative transfer processes within the snow cover, and the snow properties most relevant in microwave remote sensing. Our objective is to present a recent microwave emission model and its validation. The model is named DMRT-ML (DMRT Multi-Layer), and is available at http:lgge.osug.frpicarddmrtml.

  3. Pre-Launch Calibration and Performance Study of the Polarcube 3u Temperature Sounding Radiometer Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, L.; Gasiewski, A. J.; Sanders, B. T.; Rouw, C.; Alvarenga, G.; Gallaher, D. W.

    2016-12-01

    The positive impact of passive microwave observations of tropospheric temperature, water vapor and surface variables on short-term weather forecasts has been clearly demonstrated in recent forecast anomaly growth studies. The development of a fleet of such passive microwave sensors especially at V-band and higher frequencies in low earth orbit using 3U and 6U CubeSats could help accomplish the aforementioned objectives at low system cost and risk as well as provide for regularly updated radiometer technology. The University of Colorado's 3U CubeSat, PolarCube is intended to serve as a demonstrator for such a fleet of passive sounders and imagers. PolarCube supports MiniRad, an eight channel, double sideband 118.7503 GHz passive microwave sounder. The mission is focused primarily on sounding in Arctic and Antarctic regions with the following key remote sensing science and engineering objectives: (i) Collect coincident tropospheric temperature profiles above sea ice, open polar ocean, and partially open areas to develop joint sea ice concentration and lower tropospheric temperature mapping capabilities in clear and cloudy atmospheric conditions. This goal will be accomplished in conjunction with data from existing passive microwave sensors operating at complementary bands; and (ii) Assess the capabilities of small passive microwave satellite sensors for environmental monitoring in support of the future development of inexpensive Earth science missions. Performance data of the payload/spacecraft from pre-launch calibration will be presented. This will include- (i) characterization of the antenna sub-system comprising of an offset 3D printed feedhorn and spinning parabolic reflector and impact of the antenna efficiencies on radiometer performance, (ii) characterization of MiniRad's RF front-end and IF back-end with respect to temperature fluctuations and their impact on atmospheric temperature weighting functions and receiver sensitivity, (iii) results from roof

  4. MICROWAVE HEATING AND SEPARATION OF WATER-IN-OIL EMULSION FROM MEXICAN CRUDE OIL

    OpenAIRE

    VAZQUEZ V., ADRIAN; LOPEZ M., ARTURO; ANDRADE C., LUIS J.; VAZQUEZ A., ARIANA M.

    2014-01-01

    Microwave heating and gravity sedimentation are alternatives for demulsification and layer separation into oil and water layers, this process was demonstrated in the laboratory and provides an option for reducing and oil recovering from water-in-oil Mexican oil emulsions. The combinatorial process was implemented in a test lab using Mexican crude oil samples. The Laboratory samples were 100% and 50-50%, crude and crude-water respectively, were heated. The results were encouraging show that mi...

  5. Dynamic Characterization of a Low Cost Microwave Water-Cut Sensor in a Flow Loop

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2017-03-31

    Inline precise measurement of water fraction in oil (i.e. water-cut [WC]) finds numerous applications in oil and gas industry. This paper presents the characterization of an extremely low cost, completely non-intrusive and full range microwave water-cut sensor based upon pipe conformable microwave T-resonator. A 10″ microwave stub based T-resonator has been implemented directly on the pipe surface whose resonance frequency changes in the frequency band of 90MHz–190MHz (111%) with changing water fraction in oil. The designed sensor is capable of detecting even small changes in WC with a resolution of 0.07% at low WC and 0.5% WC at high WC. The performance of the microwave WC sensor has been tested in an in-house flow loop. The proposed WC sensor has been characterized over full water-cut range (0%–100%) not only in vertical but also in horizontal orientation. The sensor has shown predictable response in both orientations with huge frequency shift. Moreover, flow rate effect has also been investigated on the proposed WC sensor’s performance and it has been found that the sensor’s repeatability is within 2.5% WC for variable flow rates.

  6. High resolution soil moisture radiometer. [large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilheit, T. T.

    1978-01-01

    An electrically scanned pushbroom phased antenna array is described for a microwave radiometer which can provide agriculturally meaningful measurements of soil moisture. The antenna size of 100 meters at 1400 MHz or 230 meters at 611 MHz requires several shuttle launches and orbital assembly. Problems inherent to the size of the structure and specific instrument problems are discussed as well as the preliminary design.

  7. Accurate antenna reflector loss measurements for radiometer calibration budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1996-01-01

    Antenna reflector losses may play an important role in the calibration budget for a microwave radiometer. If the losses are small they are difficult to measure by traditional means. However, they can be assessed directly by radiometric means using the sky brightness temperature as incident...

  8. Measurement of small antenna reflector losses for radiometer calibration budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1997-01-01

    Antenna reflector losses play an important role in the calibration budget for a microwave radiometer. If the losses are small, they are difficult to measure by traditional means. However, they can be assessed directly by radiometric means using the sky brightness temperature as incident radiation...

  9. Monitored background radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruel, C.

    1988-01-01

    A monitored background radiometer is described comprising: a thermally conductive housing; low conductivity support means mounted on the housing; a sensing plate mounted on the low conductivity support means and spaced from the housing so as to be thermally insulated from the housing and having an outwardly facing first surface; the sensing plate being disposed relative to the housing to receive direct electromagnetic radiation from sources exterior to the radiometer upon the first surface only; means for controllably heating the sensing plate; first temperature sensitive means to measure the temperature of the housing; and second temperature sensitive means to measure the temperature of the sensing plate, so that the heat flux at the sensing plate may be determined from the temperatures of the housing and sensing plate after calibration of the radiometer by measuring the temperatures of the housing and sensing plate while controllably heating the sensing plate

  10. Calibration of Correlation Radiometers Using Pseudo-Random Noise Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Pantoja

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The calibration of correlation radiometers, and particularly aperture synthesis interferometric radiometers, is a critical issue to ensure their performance. Current calibration techniques are based on the measurement of the cross-correlation of receivers’ outputs when injecting noise from a common noise source requiring a very stable distribution network. For large interferometric radiometers this centralized noise injection approach is very complex from the point of view of mass, volume and phase/amplitude equalization. Distributed noise injection techniques have been proposed as a feasible alternative, but are unable to correct for the so-called “baseline errors” associated with the particular pair of receivers forming the baseline. In this work it is proposed the use of centralized Pseudo-Random Noise (PRN signals to calibrate correlation radiometers. PRNs are sequences of symbols with a long repetition period that have a flat spectrum over a bandwidth which is determined by the symbol rate. Since their spectrum resembles that of thermal noise, they can be used to calibrate correlation radiometers. At the same time, since these sequences are deterministic, new calibration schemes can be envisaged, such as the correlation of each receiver’s output with a baseband local replica of the PRN sequence, as well as new distribution schemes of calibration signals. This work analyzes the general requirements and performance of using PRN sequences for the calibration of microwave correlation radiometers, and particularizes the study to a potential implementation in a large aperture synthesis radiometer using an optical distribution network.

  11. The influence of microwave heating and water glass kind on the properties of molding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Granat

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents rcsults of research on thc influcncc of microwave heating time on the process of hardening of warcr glass moldingsands. Essential influence of this drying process on basic properties such as: cornprcssion, bcnding mind tcnsitc strcng~h as well aspcrrneabili~y and war resistance, has bccn found. It has bccn proved, that at1 thc investigated sorts of sodium water glass could be uscd asbinding material of molding sands intended for curing with the microwave process healing. It has bccn found, while analyzing the rcsultsof property studics or microwavc heated molding sands with 2.5% addition of water glass, that aIl available on the markct kinds of thisbinding agent (inctuding the most frequently uscd in foundry 145 and 149 kinds after microwave heating guarantee very goodcompression, bending and tensile strength as well as permeability and wcar resistance. Moroovcr, it has bccn dctcrmined that the optimalcuring powcr of molding sands containing various kinds of water gIass is 560 W. AII values exceeding this rcsult in stabilization of basicpropcrtics of molding sands. The use of microwave curing of water glass molding sands results in a significant decrease of hardeningprocess time. full stabilization of molding sands as well as much lower energy consumption.

  12. Effect of methanol on the liquefaction reaction of biomass in hot compressed water under microwave energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junming Xu; Jianchun Jiang; Chun-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2013-01-01

    Liquefaction of sawdust was studied in methanol-water solutions using an acid catalyst under microwave energy. The effect of the methanol concentration on the changes of components in the liquefied products was analyzed by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS). It was found that 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and levulinic acid are the...

  13. Migration of bisphenol A into water from polycarbonate baby bottles during microwave heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, K.A.; Beumer, C.W.E.; Groot, M.C.E.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive migration database was established for bisphenol A from polycarbonate baby bottles into water during exposure to microwave heating. Eighteen different brands of polycarbonate baby bottles sold in Europe were collected. Initial residual content of bisphenol A and migration after

  14. ATSR - The Along Track Scanning Radiometer For ERS-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Jones, David T.; Mutlow, C. T.

    1990-04-01

    The ATSR instrument is an advanced imaging radiometer designed to measure global sea surface temperature to an accuracy of the order of 0.3C from the ESA's ERS-1 satellite, due to be launched in late 1990. The instrument is designed to achieve a very precise correction for atmospheric effects through the use of carefully selected spectral bands, and a new "along-track" scanning technique. This involves viewing the same geophysical scene at two different angles, hence using two different atmospheric paths, so that the difference in radiative signal from the two scenes is due only to atmospheric effects, which can then be quantitatively estimated. ATSR is also a high performance radiometer, and embodies two important technological features; the first of these is the use of closed-cycle coolers, especially developed for space applications, and which were used to cool the sensitive infrared detectors. The radiometer also incorporates two purpose-designed on-board blackbody calibration targets which will also be described in detail. These two features enable the instrument to meet the stringent requirements of sensitivity and absolute radiometric accuracy demanded by this application. ATSR also incorporates a passive nadir-viewing two-channel microwave sounder. Measurements from this instrument will enable total atmospheric water vapour to be inferred, which will not only lead to improved SST retrievals, but will also considerably improve the atmospheric range correction required by the ERS-1 radar altimeter. ATSR is provided by a consortium of research institutes including the University of Oxford, Department of Atmospheric Oceanic and Planetary Physics, who are primarily responsible for scientific calibration of the instrument; University College London's Mullard Space Science Laboratory, who are responsible for the development of the blackbodies; the UK Meteorological Office, whose contributions include the focal plane assembly; the French laboratory CRPE, who are

  15. The effect of residual water on antacid properties of sucralfate gel dried by microwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainotti, Alessandro; Losi, Elena; Colombo, Paolo; Santi, Patrizia; Sonvico, Fabio; Baroni, Daniela; Massimo, Gina; Colombo, Gaia; Del Gaudio, Pasquale

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study the acid neutralization characteristics of microwave-dried sucralfate gel in relation to the water content and physical structure of the substance. Several dried sucralfate gels were compared with humid sucralfate gel and sucralfate nongel powder in terms of neutralization rate and buffering capacity. Humid sucralfate gel and microwave-dried gel exhibited antacid effectiveness. In particular, the neutralization rate of dried gel powders was inversely related to the water content: as the water content of dried powders decreased, the acid reaction rate linearly increased. The relationship was due to the different morphology of dried sucralfate gels. In fact, the porosity of the dried samples increased with the water reduction. However, the acid neutralization equivalent revealed that the dried sucralfate gel became more resistant to acid attack in the case of water content below 42%. Then, the microwave drying procedure had the opposite effect on the reactivity of the aluminum hydroxide component of dried sucralfate gel powders, since the rate of the reaction increased whereas the buffering capacity decreased as the amount of water was reduced.

  16. Effect of water addition in a microwave assisted thermal cracking of biomass tar models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warsita, Aris; Al-attab, K.A.; Zainal, Z.A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effective tar thermal treatment with water addition using microwave is proposed. • The reactor temperature of 1200 °C can be reached quickly at bed height 120 mm. • The optimum water to tar ratio W/T was 0.3 for tar models. • Temperature greatly effect tar removal at various W/T rates. - Abstract: Producer gas from biomass gasification is plagued by the presence of tar which causes pipe blockages. Thermal and catalytic treatments in a microwave reactor have been shown to be effective methods in removing tar from producer gas. A question arises as to the possibility of enhancing the removal mechanism by adding water into the reactor. Toluene and naphthalene were used as tar models in the present study with N_2 as the carrier gas followed by the use of simulated producer gas. Thermal treatment with various amount of water was added at temperatures in the range of 800–1200 °C. The tar removal efficiency obtained 95.83% at the optimum temperature of 1200 °C for naphthalene in for toluene 96.32% at 1050 °C at water to tar ratio (W/T) of 0.3. This study shows that the removal of tar by microwave irradiation with water addition is a significant and effective method in tar cracking.

  17. Science at Home: Measuring a Thermophysical Property of Water with a Microwave Oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Zachary H.

    2018-02-01

    An attempt to calibrate a conventional oven led to making a measurement of a thermophysical property of water using items found in the author's home. Specifically, the ratio of the energy required to heat water from the melting point to boiling to the energy required to completely boil away the water is found to be 5.7. This may be compared to the standard value of 5.5. The close agreement is not representative of the actual uncertainties in this simple experiment (Fig. 1). Heating water in a microwave oven can let a student apply the techniques of quantitative science based on questions generated by his or her scientific curiosity.

  18. Extraction of Water from Polar Lunar Permafrost with Microwaves - Dielectric Property Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaukler, William

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing indicates the presence of hydrogen rich regions associated with the lunar poles. The logical hypothesis is that there is cryogenically trapped water ice located in craters at the lunar poles. Some of the craters have been in permanent darkness for a billion years. The presence of water at the poles as well as other scientific advantages of a polar base, have influenced NASA plans for the lunar outpost. The lunar outpost has water and oxygen requirements on the order of 1 ton per year scaling up to as much as 10 tons per year. Microwave heating of the frozen permafrost has unique advantages for water extraction. Proof of principle experiments have successfully demonstrated that microwaves will couple to the cryogenic soil in a vacuum and the sublimed water vapor can be successfully captured on a cold trap. The dielectric properties of lunar soil will determine the hardware requirements for extraction processes. Microwave frequency dielectric property measurements of lunar soil simulant have been measured.

  19. MCM Polarimetric Radiometers for Planar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka; Dawson, Douglas; Gaier, Todd

    2007-01-01

    A polarimetric radiometer that operates at a frequency of 40 GHz has been designed and built as a prototype of multiple identical units that could be arranged in a planar array for scientific measurements. Such an array is planned for use in studying the cosmic microwave background (CMB). All of the subsystems and components of this polarimetric radiometer are integrated into a single multi-chip module (MCM) of substantially planar geometry. In comparison with traditional designs of polarimetric radiometers, the MCM design is expected to greatly reduce the cost per unit in an array of many such units. The design of the unit is dictated partly by a requirement, in the planned CMB application, to measure the Stokes parameters I, Q, and U of the CMB radiation with high sensitivity. (A complete definition of the Stokes parameters would exceed the scope of this article. In necessarily oversimplified terms, I is a measure of total intensity of radiation, while Q and U are measures of the relationships between the horizontally and vertically polarized components of radiation.) Because the sensitivity of a single polarimeter cannot be increased significantly, the only way to satisfy the high-sensitivity requirement is to make a large array of polarimeters that operate in parallel. The MCM includes contact pins that can be plugged into receptacles on a standard printed-circuit board (PCB). All of the required microwave functionality is implemented within the MCM; any required supporting non-microwave ("back-end") electronic functionality, including the provision of DC bias and control signals, can be implemented by standard PCB techniques. On the way from a microwave antenna to the MCM, the incoming microwave signal passes through an orthomode transducer (OMT), which splits the radiation into an h + i(nu) beam and an h - i(nu) beam (where, using complex-number notation, h denotes the horizontal component, nu denotes the vertical component, and +/-i denotes a +/-90deg phase

  20. Microwave-assisted headspace single-drop microextration of chlorobenzenes from water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, Lorena [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Domini, Claudia E. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Grane, Nuria [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Psillakis, Elefteria [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, GR-73100 Chania, Crete (Greece); Canals, Antonio [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)]. E-mail: a.canals@ua.es

    2007-05-29

    A one-step and in-situ sample preparation method used for quantifying chlorobenzene compounds in water samples has been developed, coupling microwave and headspace single-drop microextraction (MW-HS-SDME). The chlorobenzenes in water samples were extracted directly onto an ionic liquid single-drop in headspace mode under the aid of microwave radiation. For optimization, a Plackett-Burman screening design was initially used, followed by a mixed-level factorial design. The factors considered were: drop volume, aqueous sample volume, stirring speed, ionic strength, extraction time, ionic liquid type, microwave power and length of the Y-shaped glass-tube. The optimum experimental conditions found from this statistical evaluation were: a 5 {mu}L microdrop of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate exposed for 20 min to the headspace of a 30 mL aqueous sample, irradiated by microwaves at 200 W and placed in a 50 mL spherical flask connected to a 25 cm Y-shaped glass-tube. Under the optimised experimental conditions, the response of a high performance liquid chromatographic system was found to be linear over the range studied and with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.9995 and 0.9999. The method showed a good level of repeatability, with relative standard deviations varying between 2.3 and 8.3% (n = 5). Detection limits were found in the low {mu}g L{sup -1} range varying between 0.016 and 0.039 {mu}g L{sup -1}. Overall, the performance of the proposed method demonstrated the favourable effect of microwave sample irradiation upon HS-SDME. Finally, recovery studies from different types of environmental water samples revealed that matrix had little effect upon extraction.

  1. Microwave-assisted headspace single-drop microextration of chlorobenzenes from water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, Lorena; Domini, Claudia E.; Grane, Nuria; Psillakis, Elefteria; Canals, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    A one-step and in-situ sample preparation method used for quantifying chlorobenzene compounds in water samples has been developed, coupling microwave and headspace single-drop microextraction (MW-HS-SDME). The chlorobenzenes in water samples were extracted directly onto an ionic liquid single-drop in headspace mode under the aid of microwave radiation. For optimization, a Plackett-Burman screening design was initially used, followed by a mixed-level factorial design. The factors considered were: drop volume, aqueous sample volume, stirring speed, ionic strength, extraction time, ionic liquid type, microwave power and length of the Y-shaped glass-tube. The optimum experimental conditions found from this statistical evaluation were: a 5 μL microdrop of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate exposed for 20 min to the headspace of a 30 mL aqueous sample, irradiated by microwaves at 200 W and placed in a 50 mL spherical flask connected to a 25 cm Y-shaped glass-tube. Under the optimised experimental conditions, the response of a high performance liquid chromatographic system was found to be linear over the range studied and with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.9995 and 0.9999. The method showed a good level of repeatability, with relative standard deviations varying between 2.3 and 8.3% (n = 5). Detection limits were found in the low μg L -1 range varying between 0.016 and 0.039 μg L -1 . Overall, the performance of the proposed method demonstrated the favourable effect of microwave sample irradiation upon HS-SDME. Finally, recovery studies from different types of environmental water samples revealed that matrix had little effect upon extraction

  2. A Compact L-band Radiometer for High Resolution sUAS-based Imaging of Soil Moisture and Surface Salinity Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasiewski, A. J.; Stachura, M.; Dai, E.; Elston, J.; McIntyre, E.; Leuski, V.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the long electrical wavelengths required along with practical aperture size limitations the scaling of passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture and salinity from spaceborne low-resolution (~10-100 km) applications to high resolution (~10-1000 m) applications requires use of low flying aerial vehicles. This presentation summarizes the status of a project to develop a commercial small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) hosting a microwave radiometer for mapping of soil moisture in precision agriculture and sea surface salinity studies. The project is based on the Tempest electric-powered UAS and a compact L-band (1400-1427 MHz) radiometer developed specifically for extremely small and lightweight aerial platforms or man-portable, tractor, or tower-based applications. Notable in this combination are a highly integrated sUAS/radiometer antenna design and use of both the upwelling emitted signal from the surface and downwelling cold space signal for precise calibration using a unique lobe-differencing correlating radiometer architecture. The system achieves a spatial resolution comparable to the altitude of the UAS above the surface while referencing upwelling measurements to the constant and well-known background temperature of cold space. The radiometer has been tested using analog correlation detection, although future builds will include infrared, near-infrared, and visible (red) sensors for surface temperature and vegetation biomass correction and digital sampling for radio frequency interference mitigation. This NASA-sponsored project is being developed for commercial application in cropland water management (for example, high-value shallow root-zone crops), landslide risk assessment, NASA SMAP satellite validation, and NASA Aquarius salinity stratification studies. The system will ultimately be capable of observing salinity events caused by coastal glacier and estuary fresh water outflow plumes and open ocean rainfall events.

  3. Soil moisture inversion from aircraft passive microwave observations during SMEX04 using a single-frequency algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, J Y; Li, Z; Chen, Q; Bi, H Y

    2014-01-01

    Soil moisture plays a key role in global water cycles. In the study, soil moisture retrievals from airborne microwave radiometer observations using a single-frequency algorithm were presented. The algorithm is based on a simplified radiative transfer (tau-omega) model and the influence of both the roughness and vegetation is combined into a single parameter in the algorithm. The microwave polarization difference index (MPDI) is used to eliminate the effects of temperature. Then soil moisture is obtained through a nonlinear iterative procedure by making the absolute value of the differences between the simulated and observed MPDI minimum. The algorithm was validated with aircraft passive microwave data from the Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) at the Arizona during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2004 (SMEX04). The results show that the soil moisture retrieved by the algorithm is in good agreement with ground measurements with a small bias and an overall accuracy of 0.037m 3 m −3

  4. Water-Based Metasurfaces for Effective Switching of Microwaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rasmus Elkjær; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.; Arslanagic, Samel

    2018-01-01

    All-dielectric metasurfaces have recently attracted great attention in the artificial material design and related applications. Among a variety of materials, water was recently proposed for strongly resonant inclusions in such configurations due to its relatively high permittivity. We presently...... design and characterize polarization-sensitive metasurfaces with simple and easily fabricated “rod-like” water inclusions in a low-permittivity host, which may be tuned mechanically by rotation. Excellent agreement is reported between simulations and the experimental results, obtained in an L...

  5. Nondestructive detection of water stress in tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum] plants using microwave sensing, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomachi, T.; Takemasa, T.; Kurata, K.; Takakura, T.

    2004-01-01

    The physiological accommodation response to environmental stress of a plant can induce changes in physiological and physical conditions of the plant. These changes influence the dielectric properties of the plant, which can be detected by measuring microwave complex dielectric properties of plant materials such as leaves and stems. The objective of this research was to detect these responses of plants to water deficiency stress nondestructively. The complex dielectric properties of tomato leaves during water stress were measured with an Open-ended Coaxial Probe from 0.3 to 3 GHz, as well as changes in gravimetric moisture, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and water potential which reflect the physiological condition of the plants. Experimental results showed that the complex permittivity (both permittivity and loss factor) of tomato leaves increased during water stress. Of the parameters measured the highest correlation was observed between complex permittivity and water potential. In order to confirm these results, control and water deficient tomato leaves were crushed, and the complex permittivity was measured and compared. The results showed quite similar tendencies compared with the results from the nondestructive microwave measurements. A physiochemical model to describe the complex permittivity of crushed non-stressed and stressed tomato leaves was constructed with pure water, pulp, glycine, and KN03, and the complex dielectric measurements of crushed tomato leaves were reproduced quite accurately from 0.3 to 3 GHz

  6. Modeling of the water uptake process for cowpea seeds (vigna unguiculata l.) under common treatment and microwave treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirhan, E.

    2015-01-01

    The water uptake kinetics of cowpea seeds were carried out at two different water absorption treatments - common treatment and microwave treatment - to evaluate the effects of rehydration temperatures and microwave output powers on rehydration. Water uptake of cowpea seeds during soaking in water was studied at various temperatures of 20 - 45 degree C, and at various microwave output powers of 180 - 900 W. As the rehydration temperature and microwave output power increased, the water uptake of cowpea seeds increased and the rehydration time decreased. The Peleg and Richards Models were capable of predicting water uptake of cowpea seeds undergoing common treatment and microwave treatment, respectively. The effective diffusivity values were evaluated by fitting experimental absorption data to Fick second law of diffusion. The effective diffusivity coefficients for cowpea seeds varied from 7.75*10-11 to 1.99*10-10 m2/s and from 2.23*10-9 to 9.78*10-9 m2/s for common treatment and microwave treatment, respectively. (author)

  7. The DC-8 Submillimeter-Wave Cloud Ice Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Steven J.; Batelaan, Paul; Siegel, Peter; Evans, K. Franklin; Evans, Aaron; Balachandra, Balu; Gannon, Jade; Guldalian, John; Raz, Guy; Shea, James

    2000-01-01

    An airborne radiometer is being developed to demonstrate the capability of radiometry at submillimeter-wavelengths to characterize cirrus clouds. At these wavelengths, cirrus clouds scatter upwelling radiation from water vapor in the lower troposphere. Radiometric measurements made at multiple widely spaced frequencies permit flux variations caused by changes in scattering due to crystal size to be distinguished from changes in cloud ice content. Measurements at dual polarizations can also be used to constrain the mean crystal shape. An airborne radiometer measuring the upwelling submillimeter-wave flux should then able to retrieve both bulk and microphysical cloud properties. The radiometer is being designed to make measurements at four frequencies (183 GHz, 325 GHz, 448 GHz, and 643 GHz) with dual-polarization capability at 643 GHz. The instrument is being developed for flight on NASA's DC-8 and will scan cross-track through an aircraft window. Measurements with this radiometer in combination with independent ground-based and airborne measurements will validate the submillimeter-wave radiometer retrieval techniques. The goal of this effort is to develop a technique to enable spaceborne characterization of cirrus, which will meet a key climate measurement need. The development of an airborne radiometer to validate cirrus retrieval techniques is a critical step toward development of spaced-based radiometers to investigate and monitor cirrus on a global scale. The radiometer development is a cooperative effort of the University of Colorado, Colorado State University, Swales Aerospace, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory and is funded by the NASA Instrument Incubator Program.

  8. Temperature distribution analysis of tissue water vaporization during microwave ablation: experiments and simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Haiming; Wu, Shuicai; Gao, Hongjian; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Chunlan; Zeng, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The temperature distribution in the region near a microwave antenna is a critical factor that affects the entire temperature field during microwave ablation of tissue. It is challenging to predict this distribution precisely, because the temperature in the near-antenna region varies greatly. The effects of water vaporisation and subsequent tissue carbonisation in an ex vivo porcine liver were therefore studied experimentally and in simulations. The enthalpy and high-temperature specific absorption rate (SAR) of liver tissues were calculated and incorporated into the simulation process. The accuracy of predictions for near-field temperatures in our simulations has reached the level where the average maximum error is less than 5°C. In addition, a modified thermal model that accounts for water vaporisation and the change in the SAR distribution pattern is proposed and validated with experiment. The results from this study may be useful in the clinical practice of microwave ablation and can be applied to predict the temperature field in surgical planning.

  9. Microwave measurements of the absolute values of absorption by water vapour in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, D C; Guiraud, F O

    1979-05-31

    MEASUREMENT of the absolute value of absorption by water vapour at microwave frequencies is difficult because the effect is so small. Far in the wings of the absorption lines, in the so-called 'windows' of the spectrum, it is especially difficult to achieve high accuracy in the free atmosphere. But it is in these windows that the behaviour of the absorption is important from both applied and scientific points of view. Satellite communications, remote sensing of the atmosphere, and radioastronomy, are all influenced by this behaviour. Measurements on an Earth-space path are reported here; the results indicate a nonlinear relationship between absorption and water-vapour content.

  10. Utilization of downscaled microwave satellite data and GRACE Total Water Storage anomalies for improving streamflow prediction in the Lower Mekong Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, V.; Gupta, M.; Bolten, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    The Mekong river is the world's eighth largest in discharge with draining an area of 795,000 km² from the Eastern watershed of the Tibetan Plateau to the Mekong Delta including, Myanmar, Laos PDR, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and three provinces of China. The populations in these countries are highly dependent on the Mekong River and they are vulnerable to the availability and quality of the water resources within the Mekong River Basin. Soil moisture is one of the most important hydrological cycle variables and is available from passive microwave satellite sensors (such as AMSR-E, SMOS and SMAP), but their spatial resolution is frequently too coarse for effective use by land managers and decision makers. The merging of satellite observations with numerical models has led to improved land surface predictions. Although performance of the models have been continuously improving, the laboratory methods for determining key hydraulic parameters are time consuming and expensive. The present study assesses a method to determine the effective soil hydraulic parameters using a downscaled microwave remote sensing soil moisture product based on the NASA Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E). The soil moisture downscaling algorithm is based on a regression relationship between 1-km MODIS land surface temperature and 1-km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to produce an enhanced spatial resolution ASMR-E-based soil moisture product. Since the optimized parameters are based on the near surface soil moisture information, further constraints are applied during the numerical simulation through the assimilation of GRACE Total Water Storage (TWS) within the land surface model. This work improves the hydrological fluxes and the state variables are optimized and the optimal parameter values are then transferred for retrieving hydrological fluxes. To evaluate the performance of the system in helping improve

  11. Monitored background radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruel, C.

    1988-01-01

    This radiometer accurately measures IR and solar spectrum radiation in a vacuum, and accounts for radiation loss from its sensing plate by measuring the housing temperature. Calibration is performed by measuring the temperature of the sensing plate and housing while power to a heater attached to the sensing plate is varied. The square of the difference between the measured power dissipation of the heater and the heat absorbed by the sensing plate as determined from the heat balance equation of the sensing plate is minimized to obtain calibration factors for the heat balance equation

  12. A Multifrequency Radiometer System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1977-01-01

    A radiometer system having four channels: 5 GHz, l7 GHz, 34 GHz, all vertical polarization, and a 34 GHz sky horn, will be described. The system which is designed for collecting glaciological and oceanographic data is intended for airborne use and imaging is achieved by means of a multifrequency...... conically scanning antenna. Implementation of the noise-injection technique ensures the high absolute accuracy needed for oceanographic purposes. The collected data can be preprocessed in a microcomputer system and displayed in real time. Simultaneously, the data are recorded digitally on tape for more...

  13. An improved model for the dielectric constant of sea water at microwave frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, L. A.; Swift, C. T.

    1977-01-01

    The advent of precision microwave radiometry has placed a stringent requirement on the accuracy with which the dielectric constant of sea water must be known. To this end, measurements of the dielectric constant have been conducted at S-band and L-band with a quoted uncertainty of tenths of a percent. These and earlier results are critically examined, and expressions are developed which will yield computations of brightness temperature having an error of no more than 0.3 K for an undisturbed sea at frequencies lower than X-band. At the higher microwave and millimeter wave frequencies, the accuracy is in question because of uncertainties in the relaxation time and the dielectric constant at infinite frequency.

  14. Water-based metamaterial absorbers for optical transparency and broadband microwave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yongqiang; Shen, Yang; Li, Yongfeng; Wang, Jiafu; Xu, Zhuo; Qu, Shaobo

    2018-04-01

    Naturally occurring water is a promising candidate for achieving broadband absorption. In this work, by virtue of the optically transparent character of the water, the water-based metamaterial absorbers (MAs) are proposed to achieve the broadband absorption at microwave frequencies and optical transparence simultaneously. For this purpose, the transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) are chosen as the constitutive materials. The water is encapsulated between the ITO backed plate and PMMA, serving as the microwave loss as well as optically transparent material. Numerical simulations show that the broadband absorption with the efficiency over 90% in the frequency band of 6.4-30 GHz and highly optical transparency of about 85% in the visible region can be achieved and have been well demonstrated experimentally. Additionally, the proposed water-based MA displays a wide-angle absorption performance for both TE and TM waves and is also robust to the variations of the structure parameters, which is much desired in a practical application.

  15. Empirical studies of the microwave radiometric response to rainfall in the tropics and midlatitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Grant W.; Katsaros, Kristina B.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from quantitative comparisons between satellite microwave radiometer observations and digital radar observations of equatorial convective cloud clusters and midlatitude frontal precipitation. Simultaneous data from the Winter Monsoon Experiment digital radar and the SMMR for December 1978 are analyzed. It is found that the most important differences between the microwave response to rainfall in the equatorial tropics and to stratiform rain in oceanic midlatitude fronts is caused by the different spatial characteristics of stratiform and convective rainfall and by the different background brightness temperature fields associated with tropical and midlatitude levels of atmospheric water vapor.

  16. Extended Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) Temperature Data Record (TDR) in netCDF

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) is a seven-channel linearly polarized passive microwave radiometer that operates at frequencies of 19.36 (vertically and...

  17. Extended Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) Sensor Data Record (SDR) in netCDF

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) is a seven-channel linearly polarized passive microwave radiometer that operates at frequencies of 19.36 (vertically and...

  18. Tropical stratospheric water vapor measured by the microwave limb sounder (MLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, E. S.; Harwood, R. S.; Mote, P. W.; Peckham, G. E.; Suttie, R. A.; Lahoz, W. A.; O'Neill, A.; Froidevaux, L.; Jarnot, R. F.; Read, W. G.

    1995-01-01

    The lower stratospheric variability of equatorial water vapor, measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), follows an annual cycle modulated by the quasi-biennial oscillation. At levels higher in the stratosphere, water vapor measurements exhibit a semi-annual oscillatory signal with the largest amplitudes at 2.2 and 1hPa. Zonal-mean cross sections of MLS water vapor are consistent with previous satellite measurements from the limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere (LIMS) and the stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 2 (SAGE 2) instruments in that they show water vapor increasing upwards and the polewards from a well defined minimum in the tropics. The minimum values vary in height between the retrieved 46 and 22hPa pressure levels.

  19. Lake surface water temperatures of European Alpine lakes (1989-2013) based on the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 1 km data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffler, M.; Wunderle, S.

    2014-05-01

    Lake water temperature (LWT) is an important driver of lake ecosystems and it has been identified as an indicator of climate change. Thus, the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) lists LWT as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV). Although for some European lakes long in situ time series of LWT do exist, many lakes are not observed or only on a non-regular basis making these observations insufficient for climate monitoring. Satellite data can provide the information needed. However, only few satellite sensors offer the possibility to analyse time series which cover 25 years or more. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is among these and has been flown as a heritage instrument for almost 35 years. It will be carried on for at least ten more years finally offering a unique opportunity for satellite-based climate studies. Herein we present a satellite-based lake surface water temperature (LSWT) data set for European (pre-alpine) water bodies based on the extensive AVHRR 1 km data record (1989-2013) of the Remote Sensing Research Group at the University of Bern. It has been compiled out of AVHRR/2 (NOAA-07, -09, -11, -14) and AVHRR/3 (NOAA-16, -17, -18, -19 and Metop-A) data. The high accuracy needed for climate related studies requires careful pre-processing and consideration of the atmospheric state. Especially data from NOAA-16 and prior satellites were prone to noise, e.g., due to transmission errors or fluctuations in the instrument's thermal state. This has resulted in partly corrupted thermal calibration data and may cause errors of up to several Kelvin in the final resulting LSWT. Thus, a multi-stage correction scheme has been applied to the data to minimize these artefacts. The LSWT retrieval is based on a simulation-based scheme making use of the Radiative Transfer for TOVS (RTTOV) Version 10 together with operational analysis and reanalysis data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. The resulting LSWTs were

  20. Processor breadboard for on-board RFI detection and mitigation in MetOp-SG radiometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Kristensen, Steen S.; Kovanen, Arhippa

    2015-01-01

    Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is an increasing threat to proper operation of space-borne Earth viewing microwave radiometer systems. There is a steady growth in active services, and tougher requirements to sensitivity and fidelity of future radiometer systems. Thus it has been decided...... that the next generation MetOp satellites must include some kind of RFI detection and mitigation system at Ku band. This paper describes a breadboard processor that detects and mitigates RFI on-board the satellite. Thus cleaned data can be generated in real time, and following suitable integration, downloaded...... to ground at the modest data rate usually associated with radiometer systems....

  1. Optimization and analysis of shape of coaxial electrode for microwave plasma in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yoshiaki; Mukasa, Shinobu; Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the shape of the electrode to generate 2.45 GHz microwave plasma in pure water is examined. Three variations of a common coaxial electrode are proposed, and compared according to the power required for plasma ignition and the position of plasma ignition in pure water at 6 kPa using a high-speed camera. These coaxial electrodes are calculated using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method calculations. The superior shape of coaxial electrode is found to be one with a flat plane on the tip of the inner electrode and dielectric substance located below the tip of the outer electrode. The position of the plasma ignition is related to the shape of the coaxial electrode. By solving the heat-conduction equation of water around the coaxial electrode taking into account the absorption of the microwave energy, the position of the plasma ignition is found to be not where electric field is the largest, but rather where temperature is maximized.

  2. Estimation of Hydraulic properties of a sandy soil using ground-based active and passive microwave remote sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Jonard, François

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we experimentally analyzed the feasibility of estimating soil hydraulic properties from 1.4 GHz radiometer and 0.8-2.6 GHz ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. Radiometer and GPR measurements were performed above a sand box, which was subjected to a series of vertical water content profiles in hydrostatic equilibrium with a water table located at different depths. A coherent radiative transfer model was used to simulate brightness temperatures measured with the radiometer. GPR data were modeled using full-wave layered medium Green\\'s functions and an intrinsic antenna representation. These forward models were inverted to optimally match the corresponding passive and active microwave data. This allowed us to reconstruct the water content profiles, and thereby estimate the sand water retention curve described using the van Genuchten model. Uncertainty of the estimated hydraulic parameters was quantified using the Bayesian-based DREAM algorithm. For both radiometer and GPR methods, the results were in close agreement with in situ time-domain reflectometry (TDR) estimates. Compared with radiometer and TDR, much smaller confidence intervals were obtained for GPR, which was attributed to its relatively large bandwidth of operation, including frequencies smaller than 1.4 GHz. These results offer valuable insights into future potential and emerging challenges in the development of joint analyses of passive and active remote sensing data to retrieve effective soil hydraulic properties.

  3. Low Cost and Pipe Conformable Microwave-Based Water-Cut Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2016-08-11

    Efficient oil production and refining processes require the precise measurement of water content in oil. This paper presents a novel planar microwave sensor for entirely non-intrusive in situ water cut (WC) sensing over the full range of operation, i.e., 0%-100%. A planar configuration has enabled the direct implementation of WC sensor on the pipe surface using low cost method, i.e., screen printing using 3D printed mask. Modified ground plane-based T-resonator design makes this WC sensor usable for the wide range of pipe sizes present in the oil industry. The viability of this sensor has been confirmed through electromagnetic simulations as well as through a prototype characterization. Two cases of oil and water mixtures, namely, separate phases and homogeneous mix, have been studied. Measurements performed over two independently built prototypes show the root mean square variation in results of only 0.1%.

  4. Temperature-dependent daily variability of precipitable water in special sensor microwave/imager observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, William J.; Lindemulder, Elizabeth A.; Jovaag, Kari

    1995-01-01

    We use retrievals of atmospheric precipitable water from satellite microwave observations and analyses of near-surface temperature to examine the relationship between these two fields on daily and longer time scales. The retrieval technique producing the data used here is most effective over the open ocean, so the analysis focuses on the southern hemisphere's extratropics, which have an extensive ocean surface. For both the total and the eddy precipitable water fields, there is a close correspondence between local variations in the precipitable water and near-surface temperature. The correspondence appears particularly strong for synoptic and planetary scale transient eddies. More specifically, the results support a typical modeling assumption that transient eddy moisture fields are proportional to transient eddy temperature fields under the assumption f constant relative humidity.

  5. Description and Performance of an L-Band Radiometer with Digital Beamforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Marchan-Hernandez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the description and performance tests of an L-band microwave radiometer with Digital Beamforming (DBF, developed for the Passive Advanced Unit (PAU for ocean monitoring project. PAU is an instrument that combines, in a single receiver and without time multiplexing, a microwave radiometer at L-band (PAU-RAD and a GPS-reflectometer (PAU-GNSS-R. This paper focuses on the PAU‑RAD beamformer’s first results, analyzing the hardware and software required for the developed prototype. Finally, it discusses the first results measured in the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC anechoic chamber.

  6. Space-Time Variations in Water Vapor as Observed by the UARS Microwave Limb Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, Lee S.; Read, William G.; Waters, Joe W.; Mote, Philip W.; Kinnersley, Jonathan S.; Harwood, Robert S.

    1996-01-01

    Water vapor in the upper troposphere has a significant impact on the climate system. Difficulties in making accurate global measurements have led to uncertainty in understanding water vapor's coupling to the hydrologic cycle in the lower troposphere and its role in radiative energy balance. The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite is able to retrieve water vapor concentration in the upper troposphere with good sensitivity and nearly global coverage. An analysis of these preliminary retrievals based on 3 years of observations shows the water vapor distribution to be similar to that measured by other techniques and to model results. The primary MLS water vapor measurements were made in the stratosphere, where this species acts as a conserved tracer under certain conditions. As is the case for the upper troposphere, most of the stratospheric discussion focuses on the time evolution of the zonal mean and zonally varying water vapor. Stratospheric results span a 19-month period and tropospheric results a 36-month period, both beginning in October of 1991. Comparisons with stratospheric model calculations show general agreement, with some differences in the amplitude and phase of long-term variations. At certain times and places, the evolution of water vapor distributions in the lower stratosphere suggests the presence of meridional transport.

  7. Recent Improvements in Retrieving Near-Surface Air Temperature and Humidity Using Microwave Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. Brent

    2010-01-01

    Detailed studies of the energy and water cycles require accurate estimation of the turbulent fluxes of moisture and heat across the atmosphere-ocean interface at regional to basin scale. Providing estimates of these latent and sensible heat fluxes over the global ocean necessitates the use of satellite or reanalysis-based estimates of near surface variables. Recent studies have shown that errors in the surface (10 meter)estimates of humidity and temperature are currently the largest sources of uncertainty in the production of turbulent fluxes from satellite observations. Therefore, emphasis has been placed on reducing the systematic errors in the retrieval of these parameters from microwave radiometers. This study discusses recent improvements in the retrieval of air temperature and humidity through improvements in the choice of algorithms (linear vs. nonlinear) and the choice of microwave sensors. Particular focus is placed on improvements using a neural network approach with a single sensor (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) and the use of combined sensors from the NASA AQUA satellite platform. The latter algorithm utilizes the unique sampling available on AQUA from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A). Current estimates of uncertainty in the near-surface humidity and temperature from single and multi-sensor approaches are discussed and used to estimate errors in the turbulent fluxes.

  8. Absence of genotoxic activity from milk and water boiled in microwave oven in somatic cells from Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Cristina das Dores.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment for evaluation of the possible genotoxic effects of food prepared in a microwave oven, through the mutation test and somatic recombination, in wings of Drosophila melanogaster. Two crossing have been performed: a standard cross-ST and a high bioactivation cross - HB resulting in marked trans -heterozygote descendents (MH) and balanced heterozygotes (BH). The 72 hours larvas were fed with water and milk boiled both in the microwave oven and in the traditional way. The MH individual wings were analyzed, where the spots can be induced either by mutation or mitotic recombination. The experiment presented negative results related to the genotoxic effects of the water and milk boiled using the microwave oven, in MH descendents of both crossing. Therefore, under these experimental conditions, genotoxic activity were not presented by milk and water boiled in the microwave oven. However, an extensive study using different techniques is necessary to investigate the action of the food prepared in the microwave oven on the genetic material

  9. Characterising Dynamic Instability in High Water-Cut Oil-Water Flows Using High-Resolution Microwave Sensor Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weixin; Jin, Ningde; Han, Yunfeng; Ma, Jing

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, multi-scale entropy algorithm was used to characterise the complex flow phenomena of turbulent droplets in high water-cut oil-water two-phase flow. First, we compared multi-scale weighted permutation entropy (MWPE), multi-scale approximate entropy (MAE), multi-scale sample entropy (MSE) and multi-scale complexity measure (MCM) for typical nonlinear systems. The results show that MWPE presents satisfied variability with scale and anti-noise ability. Accordingly, we conducted an experiment of vertical upward oil-water two-phase flow with high water-cut and collected the signals of a high-resolution microwave resonant sensor, based on which two indexes, the entropy rate and mean value of MWPE, were extracted. Besides, the effects of total flow rate and water-cut on these two indexes were analysed. Our researches show that MWPE is an effective method to uncover the dynamic instability of oil-water two-phase flow with high water-cut.

  10. Effect of residual water content on the physico-chemical properties of sucralfate dried gel obtained by microwave drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainotti, Alessandro; Losi, Elena; Bettini, Ruggero; Colombo, Paolo; Sonvico, Fabio; Baroni, Daniela; Santi, Patrizia; Colombo, Gaia

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physico-chemical characteristics of sucralfate humid gel dried by microwaves, in relation to the residual water content. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) allowed for the determination of the water state in sucralfate samples. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to monitor the changes in sucralfate gel structure induced by the microwave drying. A boundary value of total water content for sucralfate gel samples was found at 42% (w/w). Below this value only bound water was present, whereas above this value, the increase in total water was due to free water. In the physical form of gel, the strength of the coordination between sulfate anions and the positively charged aluminum hydroxide was dependent on the residual water content. The study of the sedimentation behavior of water suspensions prepared with dried sucralfate allowed for the evaluation of the retention of gel properties. We found that the microwave drying process affected the sedimentation of sucralfate dried gel suspensions independent of the residual water content: when suspensions were prepared from sucralfate dried gel powders containing more than 42% (w/w) of residual water, the sedimentation ratio was higher than 0.9. The non-gel powder suspension showed a sedimentation ratio of 0.68 +/- 0.02, whereas the sucralfate humid gel suspension did not sediment.

  11. Developing an A Priori Database for Passive Microwave Snow Water Retrievals Over Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Mengtao; Liu, Guosheng

    2017-12-01

    A physically optimized a priori database is developed for Global Precipitation Measurement Microwave Imager (GMI) snow water retrievals over ocean. The initial snow water content profiles are derived from CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) measurements. A radiative transfer model in which the single-scattering properties of nonspherical snowflakes are based on the discrete dipole approximate results is employed to simulate brightness temperatures and their gradients. Snow water content profiles are then optimized through a one-dimensional variational (1D-Var) method. The standard deviations of the difference between observed and simulated brightness temperatures are in a similar magnitude to the observation errors defined for observation error covariance matrix after the 1D-Var optimization, indicating that this variational method is successful. This optimized database is applied in a Bayesian retrieval snow water algorithm. The retrieval results indicated that the 1D-Var approach has a positive impact on the GMI retrieved snow water content profiles by improving the physical consistency between snow water content profiles and observed brightness temperatures. Global distribution of snow water contents retrieved from the a priori database is compared with CloudSat CPR estimates. Results showed that the two estimates have a similar pattern of global distribution, and the difference of their global means is small. In addition, we investigate the impact of using physical parameters to subset the database on snow water retrievals. It is shown that using total precipitable water to subset the database with 1D-Var optimization is beneficial for snow water retrievals.

  12. L-band brightness temperature disaggregation for use with S-band and C-band radiometer data for WCOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, P.; Shi, J.; Zhao, T.; Cosh, M. H.; Bindlish, R.

    2017-12-01

    There are two passive microwave sensors onboard the Water Cycle Observation Mission (WCOM), which includes a synthetic aperture radiometer operating at L-S-C bands and a scanning microwave radiometer operating from C- to W-bands. It provides a unique opportunity to disaggregate L-band brightness temperature (soil moisture) with S-band C-bands radiometer data. In this study, passive-only downscaling methodologies are developed and evaluated. Based on the radiative transfer modeling, it was found that the TBs (brightness temperature) between the L-band and S-band exhibit a linear relationship, and there is an exponential relationship between L-band and C-band. We carried out the downscaling results by two methods: (1) downscaling with L-S-C band passive measurements with the same incidence angle from payload IMI; (2) downscaling with L-C band passive measurements with different incidence angle from payloads IMI and PMI. The downscaling method with L-S bands with the same incident angle was first evaluated using SMEX02 data. The RMSE are 2.69 K and 1.52 K for H and V polarization respectively. The downscaling method with L-C bands is developed with different incident angles using SMEX03 data. The RMSE are 2.97 K and 2.68 K for H and V polarization respectively. These results showed that high-resolution L-band brightness temperature and soil moisture products could be generated from the future WCOM passive-only observations.

  13. The SPARC water vapor assessment II: intercomparison of satellite and ground-based microwave measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedoluha, Gerald E.; Kiefer, Michael; Lossow, Stefan; Gomez, R. Michael; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Lainer, Martin; Forkman, Peter; Christensen, Ole Martin; Oh, Jung Jin; Hartogh, Paul; Anderson, John; Bramstedt, Klaus; Dinelli, Bianca M.; Garcia-Comas, Maya; Hervig, Mark; Murtagh, Donal; Raspollini, Piera; Read, William G.; Rosenlof, Karen; Stiller, Gabriele P.; Walker, Kaley A.

    2017-12-01

    As part of the second SPARC (Stratosphere-troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate) water vapor assessment (WAVAS-II), we present measurements taken from or coincident with seven sites from which ground-based microwave instruments measure water vapor in the middle atmosphere. Six of the ground-based instruments are part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) and provide datasets that can be used for drift and trend assessment. We compare measurements from these ground-based instruments with satellite datasets that have provided retrievals of water vapor in the lower mesosphere over extended periods since 1996. We first compare biases between the satellite and ground-based instruments from the upper stratosphere to the upper mesosphere. We then show a number of time series comparisons at 0.46 hPa, a level that is sensitive to changes in H2O and CH4 entering the stratosphere but, because almost all CH4 has been oxidized, is relatively insensitive to dynamical variations. Interannual variations and drifts are investigated with respect to both the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS; from 2004 onwards) and each instrument's climatological mean. We find that the variation in the interannual difference in the mean H2O measured by any two instruments is typically ˜ 1%. Most of the datasets start in or after 2004 and show annual increases in H2O of 0-1 % yr-1. In particular, MLS shows a trend of between 0.5 % yr-1 and 0.7 % yr-1 at the comparison sites. However, the two longest measurement datasets used here, with measurements back to 1996, show much smaller trends of +0.1 % yr-1 (at Mauna Loa, Hawaii) and -0.1 % yr-1 (at Lauder, New Zealand).

  14. The SPARC water vapor assessment II: intercomparison of satellite and ground-based microwave measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Nedoluha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of the second SPARC (Stratosphere–troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate water vapor assessment (WAVAS-II, we present measurements taken from or coincident with seven sites from which ground-based microwave instruments measure water vapor in the middle atmosphere. Six of the ground-based instruments are part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC and provide datasets that can be used for drift and trend assessment. We compare measurements from these ground-based instruments with satellite datasets that have provided retrievals of water vapor in the lower mesosphere over extended periods since 1996. We first compare biases between the satellite and ground-based instruments from the upper stratosphere to the upper mesosphere. We then show a number of time series comparisons at 0.46 hPa, a level that is sensitive to changes in H2O and CH4 entering the stratosphere but, because almost all CH4 has been oxidized, is relatively insensitive to dynamical variations. Interannual variations and drifts are investigated with respect to both the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS; from 2004 onwards and each instrument's climatological mean. We find that the variation in the interannual difference in the mean H2O measured by any two instruments is typically  ∼  1%. Most of the datasets start in or after 2004 and show annual increases in H2O of 0–1 % yr−1. In particular, MLS shows a trend of between 0.5 % yr−1 and 0.7 % yr−1 at the comparison sites. However, the two longest measurement datasets used here, with measurements back to 1996, show much smaller trends of +0.1 % yr−1 (at Mauna Loa, Hawaii and −0.1 % yr−1 (at Lauder, New Zealand.

  15. Precipitation Estimation Using Combined Radar/Radiometer Measurements Within the GPM Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission specifically designed to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors. The GPM mission centers upon the deployment of a Core Observatory in a 65o non-Sun-synchronous orbit to serve as a physics observatory and a transfer standard for intersatellite calibration of constellation radiometers. The GPM Core Observatory will carry a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a conical-scanning multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The DPR will be the first dual-frequency radar in space to provide not only measurements of 3-D precipitation structures but also quantitative information on microphysical properties of precipitating particles needed for improving precipitation retrievals from microwave sensors. The DPR and GMI measurements will together provide a database that relates vertical hydrometeor profiles to multi-frequency microwave radiances over a variety of environmental conditions across the globe. This combined database will be used as a common transfer standard for improving the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. For global coverage, GPM relies on existing satellite programs and new mission opportunities from a consortium of partners through bilateral agreements with either NASA or JAXA. Each constellation member may have its unique scientific or operational objectives but contributes microwave observations to GPM for the generation and dissemination of unified global precipitation data products. In addition to the DPR and GMI on the Core Observatory, the baseline GPM constellation consists of the following sensors: (1) Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) instruments on the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites, (2) the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-2 (AMSR-2) on the GCOM-W1

  16. Microwave-induced facile synthesis of water-soluble fluorogenic alginic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatbar, Mahesh U; Meena, Ramavatar; Prasad, Kamalesh; Chejara, Dharmesh R; Siddhanta, A K

    2011-04-01

    A facile microwave-induced method was developed for synthesizing water-soluble fluorescent derivatives of alginic acid (ALG) with four different diamines, hydrazine (HY), ethylenediamine (EDA), 1,6-hexanediamine (HDA), and 1,4-cyclohexanediamine (CHDA), followed by a cross-linking reaction with a natural cross linker genipin. The ethylenediamine derivative of alginic acid (ALG-EDA) exhibited good fluorescent activity, which upon cross linking was enhanced threefold. The other amide derivatives, for example, ALG-HY, ALG-HDA, and ALG-CHDA, were not fluorescent, but their respective crosslinked products exhibited excellent fluorescent activity. The fluorescence intensity had an inverse correlation with the number of carbon atoms present in the amine, which in turn was a function of degree of substitution (DS). These fluorescent polysaccharide derivatives are of potential utility in the domain of sensor applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Machine Learning on Images: Combining Passive Microwave and Optical Data to Estimate Snow Water Equivalent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, J.; Tolle, K.; Bair, N.

    2014-12-01

    We have a problem that may be a specific example of a generic one. The task is to estimate spatiotemporally distributed estimates of snow water equivalent (SWE) in snow-dominated mountain environments, including those that lack on-the-ground measurements. Several independent methods exist, but all are problematic. The remotely sensed date of disappearance of snow from each pixel can be combined with a calculation of melt to reconstruct the accumulated SWE for each day back to the last significant snowfall. Comparison with streamflow measurements in mountain ranges where such data are available shows this method to be accurate, but the big disadvantage is that SWE can only be calculated retroactively after snow disappears, and even then only for areas with little accumulation during the melt season. Passive microwave sensors offer real-time global SWE estimates but suffer from several issues, notably signal loss in wet snow or in forests, saturation in deep snow, subpixel variability in the mountains owing to the large (~25 km) pixel size, and SWE overestimation in the presence of large grains such as depth and surface hoar. Throughout the winter and spring, snow-covered area can be measured at sub-km spatial resolution with optical sensors, with accuracy and timeliness improved by interpolating and smoothing across multiple days. So the question is, how can we establish the relationship between Reconstruction—available only after the snow goes away—and passive microwave and optical data to accurately estimate SWE during the snow season, when the information can help forecast spring runoff? Linear regression provides one answer, but can modern machine learning techniques (used to persuade people to click on web advertisements) adapt to improve forecasts of floods and droughts in areas where more than one billion people depend on snowmelt for their water resources?

  18. On-board digital RFI and polarimetry processor for future spaceborne radiometer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Ruokokoski, T.

    2012-01-01

    Man-made Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is an increasingly threatening problem for passive microwave radiometry from space. The problem is presently very evident in L-band data from SMOS, but it is realized that it is already now a problem at other traditional radiometer bands at C, X, and Ku...

  19. L-Band Radiometers Measuring Salinity From Space: Atmospheric Propagation Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Hofman-Bang, Dorthe

    2005-01-01

    Microwave radiometers can measure sea surface salinity from space using L-band frequencies around 1.4 GHz. However, requirements to the accuracy of the measurements, in order to be satisfactory for the user, are so stringent that the influence of the intervening atmosphere cannot be neglected...

  20. Double-polarizating scanning radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishev, D.N.; Nazyrski, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    The double-polarizating single-channel scanning radiometer comprises the following serial connected parts: a scanning double-polarizating aerial, a block for polarization separation, a radiometer receiver, an analog-to-digit converter and an information flow forming block. The low frequency input of the radiometer receiver is connected with a control block, which is also connected with a first bus of a microprocessor, the second bus of which is connected with the A-D converter. The control input of the scanning double-polarizating aerial is connected with the first microprocessor bus. The control inputs of the block for polarization separation are linked by an electronic switch with the output of the forming block, the input of which is connected to the first input of the control block. The control inputs of the block for polarization separation are connected with the second and the third input of the information flow forming block. 2 cls

  1. A low cost and pipe conformable microwave-based water-cut sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2016-08-15

    Efficient oil production and refining processes require the precise measurement of water content in oil (i.e., water-cut [WC]) which is extracted during oil production as a by-product. Traditional laboratory water fraction measurements are precise but incapable of providing real-time information, while recently reported inline WC measurements are either incapable of sensing the full WC range (0-100%), restricted to a limited selection of pipe sizes, bulky, intrusive or extremely expensive. This work presents a novel planar microwave sensor for entirely non-intrusive in situ WC sensing over the full range of operation. Its planar configuration has enabled the direct implementation of this sensor on the pipe surface using two low cost methods i.e. copper tape and 3D printed mask. The innovative ground plane design makes this WC sensor usable for the wide range of pipe sizes present in the oil industry. The viability of this sensor has been confirmed through EM simulations as well as through characterization of two types of prototype. The proposed design offers very fine resolution due to its wide sensing range (>110%) in the frequency band of 90-190MHz and repeatability of 0.1%.

  2. Use of AMSR-E microwave satellite data for land surface characteristics and snow cover variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Singh Boori

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains data related to the research article entitled “Global land cover classification based on microwave polarization and gradient ratio (MPGR” [1] and “Microwave polarization and gradient ratio (MPGR for global land surface phenology” [2]. This data article presents land surface characteristics and snow cover variation information from sensors like EOS Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E. This data article use the HDF Explorer, Matlab, and ArcGIS software to process the pixel latitude, longitude, snow water equivalent (SWE, digital elevation model (DEM and Brightness Temperature (BT information from AMSR-E satellite data to provide land surface characteristics and snow cover variation data in all-weather condition at any time. This data information is useful to discriminate different land surface cover types and snow cover variation, which is turn, will help to improve monitoring of weather, climate and natural disasters.

  3. A simple method to minimize orientation effects in a profiling radiometer

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Talaulikar, M.; Desa, E.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; SrinivasaKumar, T.; Lotlikar, A.

    -fall radiometer is found to be a better option for measuring underwater light parameters as it avoids the effects of ship shadow and is easy to operate, the measurements demand profiling the radiometer vertical in water with minimum tilt. Here we present...

  4. Air-water ‘tornado’-type microwave plasmas applied for sugarcane biomass treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundaleska, N.; Tatarova, E.; Dias, F. M.; Lino da Silva, M.; Ferreira, C. M.; Amorim, J.

    2014-02-01

    The production of cellulosic ethanol from sugarcane biomass is an attractive alternative to the use of fossil fuels. Pretreatment is needed to separate the cellulosic material, which is packed with hemicellulose and lignin in cell wall of sugarcane biomass. A microwave ‘tornado’-type air-water plasma source operating at 2.45 GHz and atmospheric pressure has been applied for this purpose. Samples of dry and wet biomass (˜2 g) have been exposed to the late afterglow plasma stream. The experiments demonstrate that the air-water highly reactive plasma environment provides a number of long-lived active species able to destroy the cellulosic wrapping. Scanning electron microscopy has been applied to analyse the morphological changes occurring due to plasma treatment. The effluent gas streams have been analysed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Optical emission spectroscopy and FT-IR have been applied to determine the gas temperature in the discharge and late afterglow plasma zones, respectively. The optimal range of the operational parameters is discussed along with the main active species involved in the treatment process. Synergistic effects can result from the action of singlet O2(a 1Δg) oxygen, NO2, nitrous acid HNO2 and OH hydroxyl radical.

  5. Air–water ‘tornado’-type microwave plasmas applied for sugarcane biomass treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundaleska, N; Tatarova, E; Dias, F M; Lino da Silva, M; Ferreira, C M; Amorim, J

    2014-01-01

    The production of cellulosic ethanol from sugarcane biomass is an attractive alternative to the use of fossil fuels. Pretreatment is needed to separate the cellulosic material, which is packed with hemicellulose and lignin in cell wall of sugarcane biomass. A microwave ‘tornado’-type air–water plasma source operating at 2.45 GHz and atmospheric pressure has been applied for this purpose. Samples of dry and wet biomass (∼2 g) have been exposed to the late afterglow plasma stream. The experiments demonstrate that the air–water highly reactive plasma environment provides a number of long-lived active species able to destroy the cellulosic wrapping. Scanning electron microscopy has been applied to analyse the morphological changes occurring due to plasma treatment. The effluent gas streams have been analysed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Optical emission spectroscopy and FT-IR have been applied to determine the gas temperature in the discharge and late afterglow plasma zones, respectively. The optimal range of the operational parameters is discussed along with the main active species involved in the treatment process. Synergistic effects can result from the action of singlet O 2 (a  1 Δ g ) oxygen, NO 2 , nitrous acid HNO 2 and OH hydroxyl radical. (paper)

  6. GHRSST Level 2P Regional Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Tropical Rainfall Mapping Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) for the Atlantic Ocean (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) is a well calibrated passive microwave radiometer, similar to SSM/I, that contains lower...

  7. GHRSST Level 2P Global Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) onboard Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GDS2 Version -The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) is a well calibrated passive microwave radiometer, similar to the Special Sensor...

  8. GHRSST L2P Gridded Global Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Tropical Rainfall Mapping Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) is a well calibrated passive microwave radiometer, similar to SSM/I, that contains lower...

  9. Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder stratospheric water vapor measurements by the NOAA frost point hygrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Dale F; Lambert, Alyn; Read, William G; Davis, Sean M; Rosenlof, Karen H; Hall, Emrys G; Jordan, Allen F; Oltmans, Samuel J

    2014-02-16

    Differences between stratospheric water vapor measurements by NOAA frost point hygrometers (FPHs) and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are evaluated for the period August 2004 through December 2012 at Boulder, Colorado, Hilo, Hawaii, and Lauder, New Zealand. Two groups of MLS profiles coincident with the FPH soundings at each site are identified using unique sets of spatiotemporal criteria. Before evaluating the differences between coincident FPH and MLS profiles, each FPH profile is convolved with the MLS averaging kernels for eight pressure levels from 100 to 26 hPa (~16 to 25 km) to reduce its vertical resolution to that of the MLS water vapor retrievals. The mean FPH - MLS differences at every pressure level (100 to 26 hPa) are well within the combined measurement uncertainties of the two instruments. However, the mean differences at 100 and 83 hPa are statistically significant and negative, ranging from -0.46 ± 0.22 ppmv (-10.3 ± 4.8%) to -0.10 ± 0.05 ppmv (-2.2 ± 1.2%). Mean differences at the six pressure levels from 68 to 26 hPa are on average 0.8% (0.04 ppmv), and only a few are statistically significant. The FPH - MLS differences at each site are examined for temporal trends using weighted linear regression analyses. The vast majority of trends determined here are not statistically significant, and most are smaller than the minimum trends detectable in this analysis. Except at 100 and 83 hPa, the average agreement between MLS retrievals and FPH measurements of stratospheric water vapor is better than 1%.

  10. ESTAR: The Electronically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer for remote sensing measurement of soil moisture and ocean salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, C. T.

    1993-01-01

    The product of a working group assembled to help define the science objectives and measurement requirements of a spaceborne L-band microwave radiometer devoted to remote sensing of surface soil moisture and sea surface salinity is presented. Remote sensing in this long-wavelength portion of the microwave spectrum requires large antennas in low-Earth orbit to achieve acceptable spatial resolution. The proposed radiometer, ESTAR, is unique in that it employs aperture synthesis to reduce the antenna area requirements for a space system.

  11. Low-temperature synthesis of allyl dimethylamine by selective heating under microwave irradiation used for water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Binghui; Luan Zhaokun; Li Mingming

    2005-01-01

    Low-temperature synthesis of allyl dimethylamine (ADA) by selective heating under microwave irradiation (MI) used for water treatment is investigated. The effect of MI, ultrasound irradiation (UI) and conventional heating on yield of ADA, reaction time and the flocculation efficiency of polydiallyl dimethylammunion chloride (PDADMAC) prepared form ADA were studied. The results show that by selective heating at low temperature, MI not only increases yield of ADA and reduces reaction time, but also greatly enhances the flocculation efficiency of PDADMAC

  12. The effects of vegetation and soil hydraulic properties on passive microwave sensing of soil moisture: Data report for the 1982 fiels experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneill, P.; Jackson, T.; Blanchard, B. J.; Vandenhoek, R.; Gould, W.; Wang, J.; Glazar, W.; Mcmurtrey, J., III

    1983-01-01

    Field experiments to (1) study the biomass and geometrical structure properties of vegetation canopies to determine their impact on microwave emission data, and (2) to verify whether time series microwave data can be related to soil hydrologic properties for use in soil type classification. Truck mounted radiometers at 1.4 GHz and 5 GHz were used to obtain microwave brightness temperatures of bare vegetated test plots under different conditions of soil wetness, plant water content and canopy structure. Observations of soil moisture, soil temperature, vegetation biomass and other soil and canopy parameters were made concurrently with the microwave measurements. The experimental design and data collection procedures for both experiments are documented and the reduced data are presented in tabular form.

  13. Emission, absorption and group delay of microwaves in the atmosphere in relation to water vapour content over the Indian subcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, A. K.; Gupta, A. K. D.; Karmakar, P. K.; Barman, S. D.; Bhattacharya, A. B.; Purkait, N.; Gupta, M. K. D.; Sehra, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    The advent of satellite communication for global coverage has apparently indicated a renewed interest in the studies of radio wave propagation through the atmosphere, in the VHF, UHF and microwave bands. The extensive measurements of atmosphere constituents, dynamics and radio meterological parameters during the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) have opened up further the possibilities of studying tropospheric radio wave propagation parameters, relevant to Earth/space link design. The three basic parameters of significance to radio propagation are thermal emission, absorption and group delay of the atmosphere, all of which are controlled largely by the water vapor content in the atmosphere, particular at microwave bands. As good emitters are also good absorbers, the atmospheric emission as well as the absorption attains a maximum at the frequency of 22.235 GHz, which is the peak of the water vapor line. The group delay is practically independent of frequency in the VHF, UHF and microwave bands. However, all three parameters exhibit a similar seasonal dependence originating presumably from the seasonal dependence of the water vapor content. Some of the interesting results obtained from analyses of radiosonde data over the Indian subcontinent collected by the India Meteorological Department is presented.

  14. Field campaign LINEX 96/1 - possibilities of water vapor observation in the free atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhagen, H.; Dier, H.; Engelbart, D.; Goersdorf, U.; Lehmann, V.; Leiterer, U.; Neisser, J. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Lindenberg (Germany). Meteorologisches Observatorium; Bakan, S. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.; Boesenberg, J.; Jansen, F.; Wulfmeyer, V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Fischer, J. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Weltraumwissenschaften; Gendt, G. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany); Gueldner, J. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Potsdam (Germany). Meteorologisches Observatorium

    1998-12-01

    LINEX 96/1 was a field experiment to assess information content, accuracy, and availability for different remote sensing techniques measuring water vapor. An important goal of LINEX 96/1 was the test of a new differential absorption lidar (DIAL) developed by the MPI fuer meteorologie Hamburg. Comparisons of DIAL with rawinsonde and tethersonde measurements showed an excellent accuracy of the DIAL method in the determination of water vapor with high vertical and temporal resolution. The operation of the microwave radiometer WVR-1100 showed a high availability of water vapor and liquid water column content measurements except during rain. Microwave radiometers are reliable systems to measure the precipitable water vapor and liquid water content under unattended operational conditions with high accuracy and temporal resolution. Measurements of the water vapor column content by ground-based GPS receivers proved highly reliable. Comparisons with corresponding values of the microwave radiometer showed a bias less than 0.6 mm and a standard deviation less than 0.9 mm. The main problem of an operational use of this new information is that the evaluated data are not available in real-time because, at present, the data have to be postprocessed in a ground control center. During LINEX 96/1, possibilities for estimation of water vapor column content from sun and star photometer measurements were also demonstrated. The comparison of the precipitable water vapor content measurements of sun and star photometers, microwave radiometer, and rawinsondes RS 80 showed a good agreement. Unfortunately, the use of optical methods like sun and star photometers is restricted by cloudy conditions. 28 refs.

  15. Infrared fibers for radiometer thermometry in hypothermia and hyperthermia treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzir, A.; Bowman, H.F.; Asfour, Y.; Zur, A.; Valeri, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    Hypothermia is a condition which results from prolonged exposure to a cold environment. Rapid and efficient heating is needed to rewarm the patient from 32-35 degrees C to normal body temperature. Hyperthermia in cancer treatment involves heating malignant tumors to 42.5-43.0 degrees C for an extended period (e.g., 30 min) in an attempt to obtain remission. Microwave or radio frequency heating is often used for rewarming in hypothermia or for temperature elevation in hyperthermia treatment. One severe problem with such heating is the accurate measurement and control of temperature in the presence of a strong electromagnetic field. For this purpose, we have developed a fiberoptic radiometer system which is based on a nonmetallic, infrared fiber probe, which can operate either in contact or noncontact mode. In preliminary investigations, the radiometer worked well in a strong microwave or radiofrequency field, with an accuracy of +/- 0.5 degrees C. This fiberoptic thermometer was used to control the surface temperature of objects within +/- 2 degrees C

  16. Continuity of Climate Data Records derived from Microwave Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, C. A.; Wentz, F. J.; Brewer, M.; Meissner, T.; Ricciardulli, L.

    2017-12-01

    Remote Sensing Systems (www.remss.com) has been producing and distributing microwave climate data products from microwave imagers (SSMI, TMI, AMSR, WindSat, GMI, Aquarius, SMAP) over the global oceans since the launch of the first SSMI in 1987. Interest in these data products has been significant as researchers around the world have downloaded the approximate equivalent of 1 million satellite years of processed data. Users, including NASA, NOAA, US National Laboratories, US Navy, UK Met, ECMWF, JAXA, JMA, CMC, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, as well as many hundreds of other agencies and universities routinely access these microwave data products. The quality of these data records has increased as more observations have become available and inter-calibration techniques have improved. The impending end of missions for WindSat, AMSR-2, and the remaining SSMIs will have significant impact on the quality and continuity of long term microwave climate data records. In addition to the problem of reduced numbers of observations, there is a real danger of losing overlapping observations. Simultaneous operation of satellites, especially when the observations are at similar local crossing times, provides a significant benefit in the effort to inter-calibrate satellites to yield accurate and stable long-term records. The end of WindSat and AMSR-2 will leave us without microwave SSTs in cold water, as there will be no microwave imagers with C-band channels. Microwave SSTs have a crucial advantage over IR SSTs, which is not able to measure SST in clouds or if aerosols are present. The gap in ocean wind vectors will be somewhat mitigated as the European ASCAT C-band scatterometer mission on MetOp is continuing. Nonetheless, the anticipated cease of several microwave satellite radiometers retrieving ocean winds in the coming years will lead to a significant gap in temporal coverage. Atmospheric water vapor, cloud liquid water, and rain rate are all important climate

  17. Microwave Correlation Measurement Crossed-pair Antennas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We propose here new processes, an add and square correlation radiometer and the non-resonant perturbation, which thoroughly investigated for different muscle phantom materials to define the optimum penetration depth of the electromagnetic field at fixed distance between the antennas. Keywords: Microwave correlation ...

  18. Potential of Future Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) Ocean Surface Wind Observations for Determining Tropical Storm Vortex Intensity and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Robert; Bailey, M. C.; Black, Peter; James, Mark; Johnson, James; Jones, Linwood; Miller, Timothy; Ruf, Christopher; Uhlhorn, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is an innovative technology development, which offers the potential of new and unique remotely sensed observations of both extreme oceanic wind events and strong precipitation from either UAS or satellite platforms. It is based on the airborne Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which is a proven aircraft remote sensing technique for observing tropical cyclone ocean surface wind speeds and rain rates, including those of major hurricane intensity. The proposed HIRAD instrument advances beyond the current nadir viewing SFMR to an equivalent wide-swath SFMR imager using passive microwave synthetic thinned aperture radiometer technology. This sensor will operate over 4-7 GHz (C-band frequencies) where the required tropical cyclone remote sensing physics has been validated by both SFMR and WindSat radiometers. HIRAD incorporates a unique, technologically advanced array antenna and several other technologies successfully demonstrated by the NASA's Instrument Incubator Program. A brassboard version of the instrument is complete and has been successfully tested in an anechoic chamber, and development of the aircraft instrument is well underway. HIRAD will be a compact, lightweight, low-power instrument with no moving parts that will produce wide-swath imagery of ocean vector winds and rain during hurricane conditions when existing microwave sensors (radiometers or scatterometers) are hindered. Preliminary studies show that HIRAD will have a significant positive impact on analyses as either a new aircraft or satellite sensor.

  19. Low cost and conformal microwave water-cut sensor for optimizing oil production process

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2015-08-01

    Efficient oil production and refining processes require the precise measurement of water content in oil (i.e., water-cut) which is extracted out of a production well as a byproduct. Traditional water-cut (WC) laboratory measurements are precise, but are incapable of providing real-time information, while recently reported in-line WC sensors (both in research and industry) are usually incapable of sensing the full WC range (0 – 100 %), are bulky, expensive and non-scalable for the variety of pipe sizes used in the oil industry. This work presents a novel implementation of a planar microwave T-resonator for fully non-intrusive in situ WC sensing over the full range of operation, i.e., 0 – 100 %. As opposed to non-planar resonators, the choice of a planar resonator has enabled its direct implementation on the pipe surface using low cost fabrication methods. WC sensors make use of series resonance introduced by a λ/4 open shunt stub placed in the middle of a microstrip line. The detection mechanism is based on the measurement of the T-resonator’s resonance frequency, which varies with the relative percentage of oil and water (due to the difference in their dielectric properties). In order to implement the planar T-resonator based sensor on the curved surface of the pipe, a novel approach of utilizing two ground planes is proposed in this work. The innovative use of dual ground planes makes this sensor scalable to a wide range of pipe sizes present in the oil industry. The design and optimization of this sensor was performed in an electromagnetic Finite Element Method (FEM) solver, i.e., High Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS) and the dielectric properties of oil, water and their emulsions of different WCs used in the simulation model were measured using a SPEAG-dielectric assessment kit (DAK-12). The simulation results were validated through characterization of fabricated prototypes. Initial rapid prototyping was completed using copper tape, after which a

  20. Flower elliptical constellation of millimeter-wave radiometers for precipitating cloud monitoring at geostationary scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, F. S.; Cimini, D.; Montopoli, M.; Rossi, T.; Mortari, D.; di Michele, S.; Bauer, P.

    2009-04-01

    Millimeter-wave observation of the atmospheric parameters is becoming an appealing goal within satellite radiometry applications. The major technological advantage of millimeter-wave (MMW) radiometers is the reduced size of the overall system, for given performances, with respect to microwave sensor. On the other hand, millimeter-wave sounding can exploit window frequencies and various gaseous absorption bands at 50/60 GHz, 118 GHz and 183 GHz. These bands can be used to estimate tropospheric temperature profiles, integrated water vapor and cloud liquid content and, using a differentia spectral mode, light rainfall and snowfall. Millimeter-wave radiometers, for given observation conditions, can also exhibit relatively small field-of-views (FOVs), of the order of some kilometers for low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellites. However, the temporal resolution of LEO millimeter-wave system observations remains a major drawback with respect to the geostationary-Earth-orbit (GEO) satellites. An overpass every about 12 hours for a single LEO platform (conditioned to a sufficiently large swath of the scanning MMW radiometer) is usually too much when compared with the typical temporal scale variation of atmospheric fields. This feature cannot be improved by resorting to GEO platforms due to their high orbit altitude and consequent degradation of the MMW-sensor FOVs. A way to tackle this impasse is to draw our attention at the regional scale and to focus non-circular orbits over the area of interest, exploiting the concept of micro-satellite flower constellations. The Flower Constellations (FCs) is a general class of elliptical orbits which can be optimized, through genetic algorithms, in order to maximize the revisiting time and the orbital height, ensuring also a repeating ground-track. The constellation concept nicely matches the choice of mini-satellites as a baseline choice, due to their small size, weight (less than 500 kilograms) and relatively low cost (essential when

  1. Characterisation of water hyacinth with microwave-heated alkali pretreatment for enhanced enzymatic digestibility and hydrogen/methane fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Richen; Cheng, Jun; Song, Wenlu; Ding, Lingkan; Xie, Binfei; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-04-01

    Microwave-heated alkali pretreatment (MAP) was investigated to improve enzymatic digestibility and H2/CH4 production from water hyacinth. SEM revealed that MAP deconstructed the lignocellulose matrix and swelled the surfaces of water hyacinth. XRD indicated that MAP decreased the crystallinity index from 16.0 to 13.0 because of cellulose amorphisation. FTIR indicated that MAP effectively destroyed the lignin structure and disrupted the crystalline cellulose to reduce crystallinity. The reducing sugar yield of 0.296 g/gTVS was achieved at optimal hydrolysis conditions (microwave temperature = 190°C, time = 10 min, and cellulase dosage = 5 wt%). The sequentially fermentative hydrogen and methane yields from water hyacinth with MAP and enzymatic hydrolysis were increased to 63.9 and 172.5 mL/gTVS, respectively. The energy conversion efficiency (40.0%) in the two-stage hydrogen and methane cogeneration was lower than that (49.5%) in the one-stage methane production (237.4 mL/gTVS) from water hyacinth with MAP and enzymatic hydrolysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diagnostics of the SMOS radiometer antenna system at the DTU-ESA spherical near-field antenna test facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, Cecilia; Frandsen, A.; Pivnenko, Sergey

    2007-01-01

    The recently developed Spherical Wave Expansion-to-Plane Wave Expansion (SWE-to-PWE) antenna diagnostics technique is employed in an investigation of the antenna system in the Microwave Imaging Radiometer using Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) for ESA’s Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission...

  3. Monitoring water phase dynamics in winter clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Edwin F.; Ware, Randolph; Joe, Paul; Hudak, David

    2014-10-01

    This work presents observations of water phase dynamics that demonstrate the theoretical Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen concepts in mixed-phase winter storms. The work analyzes vertical profiles of air vapor pressure, and equilibrium vapor pressure over liquid water and ice. Based only on the magnitude ranking of these vapor pressures, we identified conditions where liquid droplets and ice particles grow or deplete simultaneously, as well as the conditions where droplets evaporate and ice particles grow by vapor diffusion. The method is applied to ground-based remote-sensing observations during two snowstorms, using two distinct microwave profiling radiometers operating in different climatic regions (North American Central High Plains and Great Lakes). The results are compared with independent microwave radiometer retrievals of vertically integrated liquid water, cloud-base estimates from a co-located ceilometer, reflectivity factor and Doppler velocity observations by nearby vertically pointing radars, and radiometer estimates of liquid water layers aloft. This work thus makes a positive contribution toward monitoring and nowcasting the evolution of supercooled droplets in winter clouds.

  4. Effects of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Clouds on NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) Satellite Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    the effect of inadequate information about world food supplies. The impact of the Soviet grain buys of 1972 are a case in point. The last ten...First came TIROS-I ( Televison and Infrared Observational Satellite) in the early 1960’s. The TIROS Operational Satellite (TOS) or ESSA 5 (Environmental...these items impact on the calculated VIN. Other than water, most objects in a scene transmit very little visible solar radiation. The energy

  5. Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products and Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Microwave Ovens Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 1030.10 - Microwave Ovens Required Reports for the Microwave Oven Manufacturers or Industry Exemption from Certain Reporting ...

  6. Microwave engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pozar, David M

    2012-01-01

    The 4th edition of this classic text provides a thorough coverage of RF and microwave engineering concepts, starting from fundamental principles of electrical engineering, with applications to microwave circuits and devices of practical importance.  Coverage includes microwave network analysis, impedance matching, directional couplers and hybrids, microwave filters, ferrite devices, noise, nonlinear effects, and the design of microwave oscillators, amplifiers, and mixers. Material on microwave and RF systems includes wireless communications, radar, radiometry, and radiation hazards. A large

  7. Coupling the snow thermodynamic model SNOWPACK with the microwave emission model of layered snowpacks for subarctic and arctic snow water equivalent retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, A.; Royer, A.; Derksen, C.; Montpetit, B.; Dupont, F.; GoïTa, K.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite-passive microwave remote sensing has been extensively used to estimate snow water equivalent (SWE) in northern regions. Although passive microwave sensors operate independent of solar illumination and the lower frequencies are independent of atmospheric conditions, the coarse spatial resolution introduces uncertainties to SWE retrievals due to the surface heterogeneity within individual pixels. In this article, we investigate the coupling of a thermodynamic multilayered snow model with a passive microwave emission model. Results show that the snow model itself provides poor SWE simulations when compared to field measurements from two major field campaigns. Coupling the snow and microwave emission models with successive iterations to correct the influence of snow grain size and density significantly improves SWE simulations. This method was further validated using an additional independent data set, which also showed significant improvement using the two-step iteration method compared to standalone simulations with the snow model.

  8. Evidence for Surface Water Ice in the Lunar Polar Regions Using Reflectance Measurements from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter and Temperature Measurements from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Elizabeth A.; Lucey, Paul G.; Lemelin, Myriam; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Siegler, Matthew A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Aharonson, Oded; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Hayne, Paul O.; Neumann, Gregory A.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We find that the reflectance of the lunar surface within 5 deg of latitude of theSouth Pole increases rapidly with decreasing temperature, near approximately 110K, behavior consistent with the presence of surface water ice. The North polar region does not show this behavior, nor do South polar surfaces at latitudes more than 5 deg from the pole. This South pole reflectance anomaly persists when analysis is limited to surfaces with slopes less than 10 deg to eliminate false detection due to the brightening effect of mass wasting, and also when the very bright south polar crater Shackleton is excluded from the analysis. We also find that south polar regions of permanent shadow that have been reported to be generally brighter at 1064 nm do not show anomalous reflectance when their annual maximum surface temperatures are too high to preserve water ice. This distinction is not observed at the North Pole. The reflectance excursion on surfaces with maximum temperatures below 110K is superimposed on a general trend of increasing reflectance with decreasing maximum temperature that is present throughout the polar regions in the north and south; we attribute this trend to a temperature or illumination-dependent space weathering effect (e.g. Hemingway et al. 2015). We also find a sudden increase in reflectance with decreasing temperature superimposed on the general trend at 200K and possibly at 300K. This may indicate the presence of other volatiles such as sulfur or organics. We identified and mapped surfaces with reflectances so high as to be unlikely to be part of an ice-free population. In this south we find a similar distribution found by Hayne et al. 2015 based on UV properties. In the north a cluster of pixels near that pole may represent a limited frost exposure.

  9. Evidence for surface water ice in the lunar polar regions using reflectance measurements from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter and temperature measurements from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Elizabeth A.; Lucey, Paul G.; Lemelin, Myriam; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Siegler, Matthew A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Aharonson, Oded; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Hayne, Paul O.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Paige, David A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2017-08-01

    We find that the reflectance of the lunar surface within 5° of latitude of the South Pole increases rapidly with decreasing temperature, near ∼110 K, behavior consistent with the presence of surface water ice. The North polar region does not show this behavior, nor do South polar surfaces at latitudes more than 5° from the pole. This South pole reflectance anomaly persists when analysis is limited to surfaces with slopes less than 10° to eliminate false detection due to the brightening effect of mass wasting, and also when the very bright south polar crater Shackleton is excluded from the analysis. We also find that south polar regions of permanent shadow that have been reported to be generally brighter at 1064 nm do not show anomalous reflectance when their annual maximum surface temperatures are too high to preserve water ice. This distinction is not observed at the North Pole. The reflectance excursion on surfaces with maximum temperatures below 110 K is superimposed on a general trend of increasing reflectance with decreasing maximum temperature that is present throughout the polar regions in the north and south; we attribute this trend to a temperature or illumination-dependent space weathering effect (e.g. Hemingway et al., 2015). We also find a sudden increase in reflectance with decreasing temperature superimposed on the general trend at 200 K and possibly at 300 K. This may indicate the presence of other volatiles such as sulfur or organics. We identified and mapped surfaces with reflectances so high as to be unlikely to be part of an ice-free population. In this south we find a similar distribution found by Hayne et al. (2015) based on UV properties. In the north a cluster of pixels near that pole may represent a limited frost exposure.

  10. The construction and application of the AMSR-E global microwave emissivity database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijuan, Shi; Wenbo, Wu; Yubao, Qiu; Jingjing, Niu

    2014-01-01

    Land surface microwave emissivity is an important parameter to describe the characteristics of terrestrial microwave radiation, and is the necessary input amount for inversion various geophysical parameters. We use brightness temperature of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) and synchronous land surface temperature and atmospheric temperature-humidity profile data obtained from the MODIS which aboard on satellite AQUA the same as AMSR-E, to retrieved microwave emissivity under clear sky conditions. After quality control, evaluation and design, the global microwave emissivity database of AMSR-E under clear sky conditions is established. This database include 2002–2011 years, different regions, different surface coverage, dual-polarized, 6.9,10.65, 18.7, 23.8, 36.5 and 89GHz, ascending and descending orbit, spatial resolution 25km, global 0.05 degrees, instantaneous and half-month averaged emissivity data. The database can provide the underlying surface information for precipitation algorithm, water-vapor algorithm, and long-resolution mode model (General Circulation Model (GCM) etc.). It also provides underlying surface information for the satellite simulator, and provides basic prior knowledge of land surface radiation for future satellite sensors design. The emissivity database or the fast emissivity obtained can get ready for climate model, energy balance, data assimilation, geophysical model simulation, inversion and estimates of the physical parameters under the cloud cover conditions

  11. Microwave emission measurements of sea surface roughness, soil moisture, and sea ice structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloersen, P.; Wilheit, T. T.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1972-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the microwave radiometers to be carried aboard the Nimbus 5 and 6 satellites and proposed for one of the earth observatory satellites, remote measurements of microwave radiation at wavelengths ranging from 0.8 to 21 cm have been made of a variety of the earth's surfaces from the NASA CV-990 A/C. Brightness temperatures of sea water surfaces of varying roughness, of terrain with varying soil moisture, and of sea ice of varying structure were observed. In each case, around truth information was available for correlation with the microwave brightness temperature. The utility of passive microwave radiometry in determining ocean surface wind speeds, at least for values higher than 7 meters/second has been demonstrated. In addition, it was shown that radiometric signatures can be used to determine soil moisture in unvegetated terrain to within five percentage points by weight. Finally, it was demonstrated that first year thick, multi-year, and first year thin sea ice can be distinguished by observing their differing microwave emissivities at various wavelengths.

  12. rGO-ZnO nanocomposites for high electrocatalytic effect on water oxidation obtained by microwave-hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiro, Fernanda C.; Rodrigues, Mônica A.; Silva, Luiz A. J.; Catto, Ariadne C.; da Silva, Luis F.; Longo, Elson; Nossol, Edson; Lima, Renata C.

    2017-11-01

    Reduced graphene oxide-zinc oxide (rGO-ZnO) nanocomposites were successfully synthesized using a facile microwave-hydrothermal method under mild conditions, and their electrocatalytic properties towards O2 evolution were investigated. The microwave radiation played an important role in obtainment of well dispersed ZnO nanoparticles directly on reduced graphene oxide sheets without any additional reducing reagents or passivation agent. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and infrared spectroscopies indicated the reduction of GO as well as the successful synthesis of rGO-ZnO nanocomposites. The chemical states of the samples were shown by XPS analyses. Due to the synergic effect, the resulting nanocomposites exhibited high electronic interaction between ZnO and rGO sheets, which improved the electrocatalytic oxidation of water with low onset potential of 0.48 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in neutral pH and long-term stability, with high current density during electrolysis. The overpotential for water oxidation decreased in alkaline pH, suggesting useful insight on the catalytic mechanism for O2 evolution.

  13. Removal of Pb(II) from water by the activated carbon modified by nitric acid under microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shuheng; Zhang, Jiajun; Shen, Dekui; Xiao, Rui; Gu, Sai; Zhao, Ming; Liang, Junyu

    2016-02-01

    The rice husk based activated carbon (RH-AC) was treated by nitric acid under microwave heating, in order to improve its capability for the removal of heavy metal ions from water. The optimal conditions for the modification of RH-AC (M-RH-AC) were determined by means of orthogonal array experimental design, giving those as the concentration of nitric acid of 8mol/L, modification time of 15min, modification temperature of 130°C and microwave power of 800W. The characteristics of the M-RH-AC and RH-AC were examined by BET, XRD, Raman spectrum, pH titration, zeta potential, Boehm titration and FTIR analysis. The M-RH-AC has lower pore surface area, smaller crystallite, lower pHIEP and more oxygen-containing functional groups than the RH-AC. Removal capacity of Pb(II) ions by the M-RH-AC and RH-AC from water solution was estimated concerning the influence of contact time, pH value, and initial concentration. The equilibrium time of Pb(II) removal was found to be around 90min after modification process. Two kinetic models are adopted to describe the possible Pb(II) adsorption mechanism, finding that the adsorption rate of Pb(II) ions by the M-RH-AC is larger than that of RH-AC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Synergistic estimation of surface parameters from jointly using optical and microwave observations in EOLDAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Joris; Gomez-Dans, Jose; Lewis, Philip; Loew, Alexander; Schlenz, Florian

    2017-04-01

    The large amount of remote sensing data nowadays available provides a huge potential for monitoring crop development, drought conditions and water efficiency. This potential however not been realized yet because algorithms for land surface parameter retrieval mostly use data from only a single sensor. Consequently products that combine different low-level observations from different sensors are hard to find. The lack of synergistic retrieval is caused because it is easier to focus on single sensor types/footprints and temporal observation times, than to find a way to compensate for differences. Different sensor types (microwave/optical) require different radiative transfer (RT) models and also require consistency between the models to have any impact on the retrieval of soil moisture by a microwave instrument. Varying spatial footprints require first proper collocation of the data before one can scale between different resolutions. Considering these problems, merging optical and microwave observations have not been performed yet. The goal of this research was to investigate the potential of integrating optical and microwave RT models within the Earth Observation Land Data Assimilation System (EOLDAS) synergistically to derive biophysical parameters. This system uses a Bayesian data assimilation approach together with observation operators such as the PROSAIL model to estimate land surface parameters. For the purpose of enabling the system to integrate passive microwave radiation (from an ELBARRA II passive microwave radiometer), the Community Microwave Emission Model (CMEM) RT-model, was integrated within the EOLDAS system. In order to quantify the potential, a variety of land surface parameters was chosen to be retrieved from the system, in particular variables that a) impact only optical RT (such as leaf water content and leaf dry matter), b) only impact the microwave RT (such as soil moisture and soil temperature), and c) Leaf Area Index (LAI) that impacts both

  15. The High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer on the GLOBAL HAWK: From Technology Development to Science Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shannon; Denning, Richard; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn; Lim, Boon; Tanabe, Jordan; Tanner, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from the High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) during three recent field campaigns on the Global Hawk Unmanned Ariel Vehicles (UAV), focusing on the enabling technology that led to unprecedented observations of significant weather phenomenon, such as thermodynamic evolution of the tropical cyclone core during rapid intensification and the high resolution three dimensional mapping of several atmospheric river events. HAMSR is a 25 channel cross-track scanning microwave sounder with channels near the 60 and 118 GHz oxygen lines and the 183 GHz water vapor line. HAMSR was originally designed and built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a technology demonstrator in 1998. Subsequent to this, HAMSR participated in three NASA hurricane field campaigns, CAMEX-4, TCSP and NAMMA. Beginning in 2008, HAMSR was extensively upgraded to deploy on the NASA Global Hawk (GH) platform and serve as an asset to the NASA sub-orbital program. HAMSR has participated on the Global Hawk during the 2010 Genesis and Rapid Intensification (GRIP) campaign, the 2011 Winter Storms and Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR) campaign and is currently participating in the NASA Ventures Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) campaign (2011-2015).

  16. Microwave Radiometry for Oil Pollution Monitoring, Measurements, and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1986-01-01

    Work is presently carried out in Europe to change the Status of the microwave radiometer, namely, to develop it from a research instrument to an operational instrument-especially for measuring oil pollution on the sea surface. The Technical University of Denmark (TUD), with its long experience...... in airborne microwave radiometry, is heavily involved in this process. The TUD multichannel imaging radiometer system has been flown in several large-scale oil-pollution experiments, the collected data have been analyzed, and they have revealed that care must be exercised to obtain accurate oil volume...

  17. Application of Fourier transforms for microwave radiometric inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J. J.; Balanis, C. A.; Truman, W. M.

    1975-01-01

    Existing microwave radiometer technology now provides a suitable method for remote determination of the ocean surface's absolute brightness temperature. To extract the brightness temperature of the water from the antenna temperature, an unstable Fredholm integral equation of the first kind is solved. Fourier transform techniques are used to invert the integral after it is placed into a cross correlation form. Application and verification of the methods to a two-dimensional modeling of a laboratory wave tank system are included. The instability of the ill-posed Fredholm equation is examined and a restoration procedure is included which smooths the resulting oscillations. With the recent availability and advances of fast Fourier transform (FFT) techniques, the method presented becomes very attractive in the evaluation of large quantities of data.

  18. Microwave imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Pastorino, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    An introduction to the most relevant theoretical and algorithmic aspects of modern microwave imaging approaches Microwave imaging-a technique used in sensing a given scene by means of interrogating microwaves-has recently proven its usefulness in providing excellent diagnostic capabilities in several areas, including civil and industrial engineering, nondestructive testing and evaluation, geophysical prospecting, and biomedical engineering. Microwave Imaging offers comprehensive descriptions of the most important techniques so far proposed for short-range microwave imaging-in

  19. Twenty-four year record of Northern Hemisphere snow cover derived from passive microwave remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard L.; Brodzik, Mary Jo

    2003-04-01

    Snow cover is an important variable for climate and hydrologic models due to its effects on energy and moisture budgets. Seasonal snow can cover more than 50% of the Northern Hemisphere land surface during the winter resulting in snow cover being the land surface characteristic responsible for the largest annual and interannual differences in albedo. Passive microwave satellite remote sensing can augment measurements based on visible satellite data alone because of the ability to acquire data through most clouds or during darkness as well as to provide a measure of snow depth or water equivalent. It is now possible to monitor the global fluctuation of snow cover over a 24 year period using passive microwave data (Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) 1978-1987 and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), 1987-present). Evaluation of snow extent derived from passive microwave algorithms is presented through comparison with the NOAA Northern Hemisphere snow extent data. For the period 1978 to 2002, both passive microwave and visible data sets show a smiliar pattern of inter-annual variability, although the maximum snow extents derived from the microwave data are consistently less than those provided by the visible statellite data and the visible data typically show higher monthly variability. During shallow snow conditions of the early winter season microwave data consistently indicate less snow-covered area than the visible data. This underestimate of snow extent results from the fact that shallow snow cover (less than about 5.0 cm) does not provide a scattering signal of sufficient strength to be detected by the algorithms. As the snow cover continues to build during the months of January through March, as well as on into the melt season, agreement between the two data types continually improves. This occurs because as the snow becomes deeper and the layered structure more complex, the negative spectral gradient driving the passive microwave algorithm

  20. Combining Passive Microwave Sounders with CYGNSS information for improved retrievals: Observations during Hurricane Harvey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    The launch of CYGNSS (Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System) has added an interesting component to satellite observations: it can provide wind speeds in the tropical area with a high repetition rate. Passive microwave sounders that are overpassing the same region can benefit from this information, when it comes to the retrieval of temperature or water profiles: the uncertainty about wind speeds has a strong impact on emissivity and reflectivity calculations with respect to surface temperature. This has strong influences on the uncertainty of retrieval of temperature and water content, especially under extreme weather conditions. Adding CYGNSS information to the retrieval can help to reduce errors and provide a significantly better sounder retrieval. Based on observations during Hurricane Harvey, we want to show the impact of CYGNSS data on the retrieval of passive microwave sensors. We will show examples on the impact on the retrieval from polar orbiting instruments, like the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) and AMSU-A/B on NOAA-18 and 19. In addition we will also show the impact on retrievals from HAMSR (High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer), which was flying on the Global Hawk during the EPOCH campaign. We will compare the results with other observations and estimate the impact of additional CYGNSS information on the microwave retrieval, especially on the impact in error and uncertainty reduction. We think, that a synergetic use of these different data sources could significantly help to produce better assimilation products for forecast assimilation.

  1. One-step microwave-assisted synthesis of water-dispersible Fe3O4 magnetic nanoclusters for hyperthermia applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathya, Ayyappan; Kalyani, S.; Ranoo, Surojit; Philip, John

    2017-10-01

    To realize magnetic hyperthermia as an alternate stand-alone therapeutic procedure for cancer treatment, magnetic nanoparticles with optimal performance, within the biologically safe limits, are to be produced using simple, reproducible and scalable techniques. Herein, we present a simple, one-step approach for synthesis of water-dispersible magnetic nanoclusters (MNCs) of superparamagnetic iron oxide by reducing of Fe2(SO4)3 in sodium acetate (alkali), poly ethylene glycol (capping ligand), and ethylene glycol (solvent and reductant) in a microwave reactor. The average size and saturation magnetization of the MNC's are tuned from 27 to 52 nm and 32 to 58 emu/g by increasing the reaction time from 10 to 600 s. Transmission electron microscopy images reveal that each MNC composed of large number of primary Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The synthesised MNCs show excellent colloidal stability in aqueous phase due to the adsorbed PEG layer. The highest SAR value of 215 ± 10 W/gFe observed in 52 nm size MNC at a frequency of 126 kHz and field of 63 kA/m suggest the potential use of these MNC in hyperthermia applications. This study further opens up the possibilities to develop metal ion-doped MNCs with tunable sizes suitable for various biomedical applications using microwave assisted synthesis.

  2. Applying Advances in GPM Radiometer Intercalibration and Algorithm Development to a Long-Term TRMM/GPM Global Precipitation Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, W. K.

    2016-12-01

    The Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Core Observatory, which was launched in February of 2014, provides a number of advances for satellite monitoring of precipitation including a dual-frequency radar, high frequency channels on the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI), and coverage over middle and high latitudes. The GPM concept, however, is about producing unified precipitation retrievals from a constellation of microwave radiometers to provide approximately 3-hourly global sampling. This involves intercalibration of the input brightness temperatures from the constellation radiometers, development of an apriori precipitation database using observations from the state-of-the-art GPM radiometer and radars, and accounting for sensor differences in the retrieval algorithm in a physically-consistent way. Efforts by the GPM inter-satellite calibration working group, or XCAL team, and the radiometer algorithm team to create unified precipitation retrievals from the GPM radiometer constellation were fully implemented into the current version 4 GPM precipitation products. These include precipitation estimates from a total of seven conical-scanning and six cross-track scanning radiometers as well as high spatial and temporal resolution global level 3 gridded products. Work is now underway to extend this unified constellation-based approach to the combined TRMM/GPM data record starting in late 1997. The goal is to create a long-term global precipitation dataset employing these state-of-the-art calibration and retrieval algorithm approaches. This new long-term global precipitation dataset will incorporate the physics provided by the combined GPM GMI and DPR sensors into the apriori database, extend prior TRMM constellation observations to high latitudes, and expand the available TRMM precipitation data to the full constellation of available conical and cross-track scanning radiometers. This combined TRMM/GPM precipitation data record will thus provide a high-quality high

  3. Determination of nitrate in lettuce by ion chromatography after microwave water extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Brevilato Novaes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce is worldwide known as the most important vegetable. In this context, most farmers are searching new techniques for best quality products including hydropony. However, nitrate is of great concern, since it has a negative impact on human metabolism. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate the nitrate content of lettuce produced by conventional and hydroponic systems. The determination was conducted by ion chromatography and a new method of extraction was tested using microwave oven digestion. The results indicated that nitrate level produced in the conventional system was lower than in the hydroponic system.

  4. Applications of microwave remote sensing of soil moisture for water resources and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engman, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    There has been significant progress in the application of microwave remote sensing for measuring soil moisture. Both passive and active systems have demonstrated the capability to measure soil moisture, and there have been a number of studies using aircraft and spaceborne data that have demonstrated its usefulness for agricultural and hydrologic applications. However, there are still several unresolved questions regarding the optimal instrument configuration and other target characteristics such as roughness and vegetation. In addition, the most likely disciplines for using these data, agriculture and hydrology, do not currently possess adequate models or procedures to use this new technology

  5. Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) Handbook With subsections for derivative instruments: Multifilter Radiometer (MFR) Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, Gary B. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Michalsky, Joseph J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.

    2016-03-01

    The visible Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) is a passive instrument that measures global and diffuse components of solar irradiance at six narrowband channels and one open, or broadband, channel (Harrison et al. 1994). Direct irradiance is not a primary measurement, but is calculated using diffuse and global measurements. To collect one data record, the MFRSR takes measurements at four different shadowband positions. The first measurement is taken with the shadowband in the nadir (home) position. The next three measurements are, in order, the first side-band, sun-blocked, and second side-band. The side-band measurements are used to correct for the portion of the sky obscured by the shadowband. The nominal wavelengths of the narrowband channels are 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere’s aerosol optical depth at each wavelength. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Harrison and Michalsky 1994) and other atmospheric constituents.

  6. Snow Water Equivalent SAR and Radiometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — After nearly four decades of international effort developing remote sensing techniques, measurement of land surface snow remains a significant challenge. Developing...

  7. GRIP HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER (HIRAD) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) V1 dataset contains measurements of brightness temperature taken at 4, 5, 6 and 6.6 GHz, as well as MERRA 2 m wind...

  8. A low cost and pipe conformable microwave-based water-cut sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram; Arsalan, Muhammad; Shamim, Atif

    2016-01-01

    Efficient oil production and refining processes require the precise measurement of water content in oil (i.e., water-cut [WC]) which is extracted during oil production as a by-product. Traditional laboratory water fraction measurements are precise

  9. Snow water equivalent monitoring retrieved by assimilating passive microwave observations in a coupled snowpack evolution and microwave emission models over North-Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, A.; Larue, F.; De Sève, D.; Roy, A.; Vionnet, V.; Picard, G.; Cosme, E.

    2017-12-01

    Over northern snow-dominated basins, the snow water equivalent (SWE) is of primary interest for spring streamflow forecasting. SWE retrievals from satellite data are still not well resolved, in particular from microwave (MW) measurements, the only type of data sensible to snow mass. Also, the use of snowpack models is challenging due to the large uncertainties in meteorological input forcings. This project aims to improve SWE prediction by assimilation of satellite brightness temperature (TB), without any ground-based observations. The proposed approach is the coupling of a detailed multilayer snowpack model (Crocus) with a MW snow emission model (DMRT-ML). The assimilation scheme is a Sequential Importance Resampling Particle filter, through ensembles of perturbed meteorological forcings according to their respective uncertainties. Crocus simulations driven by operational meteorological forecasts from the Canadian Global Environmental Multiscale model at 10 km spatial resolution were compared to continuous daily SWE measurements over Québec, North-Eastern Canada (56° - 45°N). The results show a mean bias of the maximum SWE overestimated by 16% with variations up to +32%. This observed large variability could lead to dramatic consequences on spring flood forecasts. Results of Crocus-DMRT-ML coupling compared to surface-based TB measurements (at 11, 19 and 37 GHz) show that the Crocus snowpack microstructure described by sticky hard spheres within DMRT has to be scaled by a snow stickiness of 0.18, significantly reducing the overall RMSE of simulated TBs. The ability of assimilation of daily TBs to correct the simulated SWE is first presented through twin experiments with synthetic data, and then with AMSR-2 satellite time series of TBs along the winter taking into account atmospheric and forest canopy interferences (absorption and emission). The differences between TBs at 19-37 GHz and at 11-19 GHz, in vertical polarization, were assimilated. This assimilation

  10. Continuous synthesis of magnesium-hydroxide, zinc-oxide, and silver nanoparticles by microwave plasma in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yoshiaki; Mukasa, Shinobu; Toyota, Hiromichi; Inoue, Toru; Nomura, Shinfuku

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticles are continuously synthesized from submerged magnesium, zinc, and silver rods 1–2 mm in diameter by microwave plasma in pure water at 20 kPa. Magnesium-hydroxide nanoplates shaped as triangles, truncated triangles or hexagons with 25–125 nm in size are synthesized with a production rate of 60 g h −1 . Zinc-oxide nanoparticles formed as sharp sticks with diameters of 50 nm and lengths of 150–200 nm are synthesized with a production rate of 14 g h −1 . Silver nanoparticles with a diameter of approximately 6 nm are synthesized with a production rate of 0.8 g h −1 . The excitation temperature is estimated by applying the Boltzmann plot method in assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. The excitation temperatures obtained from hydrogen, magnesium, and zinc lines are 3300 ± 100 K, 4000 ± 500 K, and 3200 ± 500 K, respectively.

  11. Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, GB; Michalsky, JJ

    2011-02-07

    The visible Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) is a passive instrument that measures global and diffuse components of solar irradiance at six narrowband channels and one open, or broadband, channel (Harrison et al. 1994). Direct irradiance is not a primary measurement, but is calculated using the diffuse and global measurements. To collect one data record, the MFRSR takes measurements at four different shadowband positions. The first measurement is taken with the shadowband in the nadir (home) position. The next three measurements are, in order, the first side-band, sun-blocked, and second side-band. The side-band measurements are used to correct for the portion of the sky obscured by the shadowband. The nominal wavelengths of the narrowband channels are 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's aerosol optical depth at each wavelength. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Harrison and Michalsky 1994) and other atmospheric constituents.

  12. Statistical retrieval of thin liquid cloud microphysical properties using ground-based infrared and microwave observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marke, Tobias; Ebell, Kerstin; Löhnert, Ulrich; Turner, David D.

    2016-12-01

    In this article, liquid water cloud microphysical properties are retrieved by a combination of microwave and infrared ground-based observations. Clouds containing liquid water are frequently occurring in most climate regimes and play a significant role in terms of interaction with radiation. Small perturbations in the amount of liquid water contained in the cloud can cause large variations in the radiative fluxes. This effect is enhanced for thin clouds (liquid water path, LWP cloud properties crucial. Due to large relative errors in retrieving low LWP values from observations in the microwave domain and a high sensitivity for infrared methods when the LWP is low, a synergistic retrieval based on a neural network approach is built to estimate both LWP and cloud effective radius (reff). These statistical retrievals can be applied without high computational demand but imply constraints like prior information on cloud phase and cloud layering. The neural network retrievals are able to retrieve LWP and reff for thin clouds with a mean relative error of 9% and 17%, respectively. This is demonstrated using synthetic observations of a microwave radiometer (MWR) and a spectrally highly resolved infrared interferometer. The accuracy and robustness of the synergistic retrievals is confirmed by a low bias in a radiative closure study for the downwelling shortwave flux, even for marginally invalid scenes. Also, broadband infrared radiance observations, in combination with the MWR, have the potential to retrieve LWP with a higher accuracy than a MWR-only retrieval.

  13. Daily quality assurance software for a satellite radiometer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegstra, P. B.; Smoot, G. F.; Bennett, C. L.; Aymon, J.; Backus, C.; Deamici, G.; Hinshaw, G.; Jackson, P. D.; Kogut, A.; Lineweaver, C.

    1992-01-01

    Six Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) on COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer) measure the large-angular-scale isotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at 31.5, 53, and 90 GHz. Quality assurance software analyzes the daily telemetry from the spacecraft to ensure that the instrument is operating correctly and that the data are not corrupted. Quality assurance for DMR poses challenging requirements. The data are differential, so a single bad point can affect a large region of the sky, yet the CMB isotropy requires lengthy integration times (greater than 1 year) to limit potential CMB anisotropies. Celestial sources (with the exception of the moon) are not, in general, visible in the raw differential data. A 'quicklook' software system was developed that, in addition to basic plotting and limit-checking, implements a collection of data tests as well as long-term trending. Some of the key capabilities include the following: (1) stability analysis showing how well the data RMS averages down with increased data; (2) a Fourier analysis and autocorrelation routine to plot the power spectrum and confirm the presence of the 3 mK 'cosmic' dipole signal; (3) binning of the data against basic spacecraft quantities such as orbit angle; (4) long-term trending; and (5) dipole fits to confirm the spacecraft attitude azimuth angle.

  14. Remote sensing of atmospheric water content from Bhaskara SAMIR data. [using statistical linear regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohil, B. S.; Hariharan, T. A.; Sharma, A. K.; Pandey, P. C.

    1982-01-01

    The 19.35 GHz and 22.235 GHz passive microwave radiometers (SAMIR) on board the Indian satellite Bhaskara have provided very useful data. From these data has been demonstrated the feasibility of deriving atmospheric and ocean surface parameters such as water vapor content, liquid water content, rainfall rate and ocean surface winds. Different approaches have been tried for deriving the atmospheric water content. The statistical and empirical methods have been used by others for the analysis of the Nimbus data. A simulation technique has been attempted for the first time for 19.35 GHz and 22.235 GHz radiometer data. The results obtained from three different methods are compared with radiosonde data. A case study of a tropical depression has been undertaken to demonstrate the capability of Bhaskara SAMIR data to show the variation of total water vapor and liquid water contents.

  15. High spatial resolution upgrade of the electron cyclotron emission radiometer for the DIII-D tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, D D; Austin, M E

    2014-11-01

    The 40-channel DIII-D electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer provides measurements of Te(r,t) at the tokamak midplane from optically thick, second harmonic X-mode emission over a frequency range of 83-130 GHz. The frequency spacing of the radiometer's channels results in a spatial resolution of ∼1-3 cm, depending on local magnetic field and electron temperature. A new high resolution subsystem has been added to the DIII-D ECE radiometer to make sub-centimeter (0.6-0.8 cm) resolution Te measurements. The high resolution subsystem branches off from the regular channels' IF bands and consists of a microwave switch to toggle between IF bands, a switched filter bank for frequency selectivity, an adjustable local oscillator and mixer for further frequency down-conversion, and a set of eight microwave filters in the 2-4 GHz range. Higher spatial resolution is achieved through the use of a narrower (200 MHz) filter bandwidth and closer spacing between the filters' center frequencies (250 MHz). This configuration allows for full coverage of the 83-130 GHz frequency range in 2 GHz bands. Depending on the local magnetic field, this translates into a "zoomed-in" analysis of a ∼2-4 cm radial region. Expected uses of these channels include mapping the spatial dependence of Alfven eigenmodes, geodesic acoustic modes, and externally applied magnetic perturbations. Initial Te measurements, which demonstrate that the desired resolution is achieved, are presented.

  16. PAU-SA: A Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Radiometer Test Bed for Potential Improvements in Future Missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merce Vall-llosera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS mission is an Earth Explorer Opportunity mission from the European Space Agency (ESA. Its goal is to produce global maps of soil moisture and ocean salinity using the Microwave Imaging Radiometer by Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS. The purpose of the Passive Advanced Unit Synthetic Aperture (PAU-SA instrument is to study and test some potential improvements that could eventually be implemented in future missions using interferometric radiometers such as the Geoestacionary Atmosferic Sounder (GAS, the Precipitation and All-weather Temperature and Humidity (PATH and the Geostationary Interferometric Microwave Sounder (GIMS. Both MIRAS and PAU-SA are Y-shaped arrays with uniformly distributed antennas, but the receiver topology and the processing unit are quite different. The purpose of this work is to identify the elements in the MIRAS’s design susceptible of improvement and apply them in the PAU-SA instrument demonstrator, to test them in view of these future interferometric radiometer missions.

  17. The STARTWAVE atmospheric water database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Morland

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The STARTWAVE (STudies in Atmospheric Radiative Transfer and Water Vapour Effects project aims to investigate the role which water vapour plays in the climate system, and in particular its interaction with radiation. Within this framework, an ongoing water vapour database project was set up which comprises integrated water vapour (IWV measurements made over the last ten years by ground-based microwave radiometers, Global Positioning System (GPS receivers and sun photometers located throughout Switzerland at altitudes between 330 and 3584 m. At Bern (46.95° N, 7.44° E tropospheric and stratospheric water vapour profiles are obtained on a regular basis and integrated liquid water, which is important for cloud characterisation, is also measured. Additional stratospheric water vapour profiles are obtained by an airborne microwave radiometer which observes large parts of the northern hemisphere during yearly flight campaigns. The database allows us to validate the various water vapour measurement techniques. Comparisons between IWV measured by the Payerne radiosonde with that measured at Bern by two microwave radiometers, GPS and sun photometer showed instrument biases within ±0.5 mm. The bias in GPS relative to sun photometer over the 2001 to 2004 period was –0.8 mm at Payerne (46.81° N, 6.94° E, 490 m, which lies in the Swiss plains north of the Alps, and +0.6 mm at Davos (46.81° N, 9.84° E, 1598 m, which is located within the Alps in the eastern part of Switzerland. At Locarno (46.18° N, 8.78° E, 366 m, which is located on the south side of the Alps, the bias is +1.9 mm. The sun photometer at Locarno was found to have a bias of –2.2 mm (13% of the mean annual IWV relative to the data from the closest radiosonde station at Milano. This result led to a yearly rotation of the sun photometer instruments between low and high altitude stations to improve the calibrations. In order to demonstrate the capabilites of the database for studying

  18. Microwave Irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Way to Eco-friendly, Green Chemistry. Rashmi ... The rapid heating of food in the kitchen using microwave ovens ... analysis; application to waste treatment; polymer technology; ... of microwave heating in organic synthesis since the first contri-.

  19. Design and Dynamic Characterization of an Orientation Insensitive Microwave Water-Cut Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram; Arsalan, Muhammad; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    Modern reservoir management in oil and gas industry relies on accurate water fraction measurement which is produced as a by-product with oil. This paper presents a novel and contactless water fraction (also known as water-cut) measurement technique

  20. Science at Home: Measuring a Thermophysical Property of Water with a Microwave Oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Zachary H.

    2018-01-01

    An attempt to calibrate a conventional oven led to making a measurement of a thermophysical property of water using items found in the author's home. Specifically, the ratio of the energy required to heat water from the melting point to boiling to the energy required to completely boil away the water is found to be 5.7. This may be compared to the…

  1. Low cost and conformal microwave water-cut sensor for optimizing oil production process

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2015-01-01

    Efficient oil production and refining processes require the precise measurement of water content in oil (i.e., water-cut) which is extracted out of a production well as a byproduct. Traditional water-cut (WC) laboratory measurements are precise

  2. The Looming Potential Gap in Microwave Imagery - How did we get here and what can we do about it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W. S.; Gallaher, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Air Force's Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI), the Japanese Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR), and the Navy's Windsat have provided a steady and reliable stream of microwave imagery that has served the Earth science community very well. Derived products include sea ice cover, snow cover on land, all-weather sea surface temperature, columnar water vapor, rain rate, and cloud liquid water. Such products are used both in operational weather forecasting, as well as in establishing and maintaining climate data records. When these sources of microwave imagery each reach the end of their life, there is the potential for a gap in coverage to occur prior to the launch of new Air Force, European and Japanese sources. Additionally, the Chinese and Russians have been flying microwave imagers that might be useful in spanning this potential gap, but users in the U.S. have not assessed the reliability and quality of their data. This presentation will set the stage for the session and provide a context for the individual papers. Two papers will address the needs and associated requirements for microwave imagery, as well as how derived products are currently being used - both for maintaining climate records and for operational use. One or two will address the performance of existing systems that are currently contributing imagery. A half-dozen will address the projected performance of future satellite systems that represent potential sources of imagery. One will address the challenges associated with the use of microwave imagery from different satellites in the maintenance of climate data records. Finally, we will plan to have some remaining time available for a general discussion about how we might work together in the future to minimize prospects for such a potential gap in to recur in the future.

  3. Investigation on water content in fresco mock-ups in the microwave and near-IR spectral regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magrini, Donata; Riminesi, Cristiano; Cucci, Costanza; Olmi, Roberto; Picollo, Marcello

    2017-01-01

    Water diffusion inside masonry is responsible for the majority of the decay phenomena observed in wall paintings and frescos. Thus, the diagnostics of moisture and water content and their monitoring represent a key issue. In order to preserve the integrity of surfaces of artistic interest, investigations by means of non-destructive techniques (NDT) are preferred over others. The aim of this research is to determine methodologies to quantify the moisture content (MC) of frescos by means of the integrated use of two non-invasive techniques, namely fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) in the near-IR region and evanescent field dielectrometry (EFD) in the microwave range. The FORS technique has been employed in order to assess the amount of water adsorbed from the surface by means of an analysis of the reflectance spectra in the Vis–NIR (350-2200 nm) range. This technique investigates the electronic and vibrational transitions that are characteristic of each compound and enables their identification. The water content is evaluated on the basis of the 1920 nm and 1450 nm absorption bands. The EFD system consists of a resonant probe connected to a network analyzer. The resonance frequency of the cavity under different moisture-content conditions of frescos is in the 1.0–1.5 GHz range. The device makes it possible to compute, in real time, the MC from a measurement of the transmission coefficient (amplitude versus frequency) through the probe. Fresco mock-ups have been prepared in collaboration with the Opificio delle Pietre Dure in order to recreate most of the possible chromatic shades obtained by mixing iron oxides and hydroxide-based pigments. Measurements were performed by employing both techniques on fresco models after wet-dry cycles obtained by means of poultices with a known water content. The results obtained with these two techniques were compared, and cross relationships between the EFD and FORS data were defined. (paper)

  4. Noise performance of microwave humidity sounders over their lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Imke; Burgdorf, Martin; John, Viju O.; Mittaz, Jonathan; Buehler, Stefan A.

    2017-12-01

    The microwave humidity sounders Special Sensor Microwave Water Vapor Profiler (SSMT-2), Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B (AMSU-B) and Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) to date have been providing data records for 25 years. So far, the data records lack uncertainty information essential for constructing consistent long time data series. In this study, we assess the quality of the recorded data with respect to the uncertainty caused by noise. We calculate the noise on the raw calibration counts from the deep space views (DSVs) of the instrument and the noise equivalent differential temperature (NEΔT) as a measure for the radiometer sensitivity. For this purpose, we use the Allan deviation that is not biased from an underlying varying mean of the data and that has been suggested only recently for application in atmospheric remote sensing. Moreover, we use the bias function related to the Allan deviation to infer the underlying spectrum of the noise. As examples, we investigate the noise spectrum in flight for some instruments. For the assessment of the noise evolution in time, we provide a descriptive and graphical overview of the calculated NEΔT over the life span of each instrument and channel. This overview can serve as an easily accessible information for users interested in the noise performance of a specific instrument, channel and time. Within the time evolution of the noise, we identify periods of instrumental degradation, which manifest themselves in an increasing NEΔT, and periods of erratic behaviour, which show sudden increases of NEΔT interrupting the overall smooth evolution of the noise. From this assessment and subsequent exclusion of the aforementioned periods, we present a chart showing available data records with NEΔT processing to provide input values for the uncertainty propagation in the generation of a new set of Fundamental Climate Data Records (FCDRs) that are currently produced in the project Fidelity and Uncertainty in Climate data

  5. Microwave alkaline roasting-water dissolving process for germanium extraction from zinc oxide dust and its analysis by response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wankun; Wang, Fuchun; Lu, Fanghai

    2017-12-01

    Microwave alkaline roasting-water dissolving process was proposed to improve the germanium (Ge) extraction from zinc oxide (ZnO) dust. The effects of important parameters were investigated and the process conditions were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The Ge extraction is consistent with the linear polynomial model type. Alkali-material ratio, microwave heating temperature and leaching temperature are the significant factors for this process. The optimized conditions are obtained as follows, alkali-material ratio of 0.9 kg/kg, aging time of 1.12 day, microwave heating at 658 K for 10 min, liquid-solid ratio of 4.31 L/kg, leaching temperature at 330 K, leaching time of 47 min with the Ge extraction about 99.38%. It is in consistence with the predictive value of 99.31%. Compared to the existed alkaline roasting process heated by electric furnace in literature, the alkaline roasting temperature and holding time. It shows a good prospect on leaching Ge from ZnO dust with microwave alkaline roasting-water dissolving process.

  6. Promotion of H2 production by microwave-assisted treatment of water hyacinth with dilute H2SO4 through combined dark fermentation and photofermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jun; Xia, Ao; Su, Huibo; Song, Wenlu; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Water hyacinth is microwaved with dilute H 2 SO 4 to improve enzymatic hydrolysis. • Hydrolyzed hyacinth is fermented by hydrogenogens to improve dark H 2 yield. • Nearly 100% glucose and most arabinose in hydrolysate are used in dark fermentation. • H 2 yield from hyacinth via combined fermentation is 75.2% of theoretical H 2 yield. - Abstract: Water hyacinth was treated with microwave-assisted dilute H 2 SO 4 to improve saccharification before enzymatic hydrolysis and H 2 production during dark fermentation. A maximum reducing sugar (RS) yield of 64.4 g/100 g total volatile solid (TVS) (96.1% of the theoretical RS yield) was achieved when water hyacinth was treated through microwave heating with 1% dilute H 2 SO 4 for 15 min at 140 °C and then enzymatically hydrolyzed for 72 h. During enzymatic hydrolysis, glucose was efficiently produced from the hydrolysis of cellulose that resulted from the disruption of the lignocellulosic structure of water hyacinth after microwave-assisted H 2 SO 4 treatment. When the hydrolyzed water hyacinth was inoculated with H 2 -producing bacteria to produce H 2 during dark fermentation, a maximum H 2 yield of 112.3 ml/g TVS was obtained. The major sugar compositions in the residual solution from dark fermentation were xylose and cellobiose (total RS utilization efficiency: 88.5%). Through a combination of dark fermentation and photofermentation, the maximum H 2 yield from water hyacinth was significantly increased from 112.3 ml/g TVS to 751.5 ml/g TVS, which is 75.2% of the theoretical H 2 yield

  7. Amputation of congo red dye from waste water using microwave induced grafted Luffa cylindrica cellulosic fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Pathania, Deepak; Agarwal, Shilpi; Sharma, Shikha

    2014-10-13

    The present study deals with the surface modification of Luffa cylindrica fiber through graft copolymerization of methyl acrylate/acrylamide (MA/AAm) via microwave radiation without the use of initiator. Various reaction parameters effecting grafting yield were optimized and physico-chemical properties were evaluated. The grafted Luffa cylindrica fiber showed morphological transformations, thermal stability and chemical resistance. The adsorption potential of modified fiber was investigated using adsorption isotherms for hazardous congo red dye removal from aqueous system. The maximum adsorption capacity of dye onto grafted Luffa cylindrica fiber was found to be 17.39 mg/g with best fit for Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The values of thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy change, ΔH(0) (21.27 kJ/mol), entropy change, ΔS(0) (64.71 J/mol K) and free energy change, ΔG(0) (-139.52 kJ/mol) were also calculated. Adsorption process was found spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Validation of ocean color sensors using a profiling hyperspectral radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrusek, M. E.; Stengel, E.; Rella, M. A.; Goode, W.; Ladner, S.; Feinholz, M.

    2014-05-01

    Validation measurements of satellite ocean color sensors require in situ measurements that are accurate, repeatable and traceable enough to distinguish variability between in situ measurements and variability in the signal being observed on orbit. The utility of using a Satlantic Profiler II equipped with HyperOCR radiometers (Hyperpro) for validating ocean color sensors is tested by assessing the stability of the calibration coefficients and by comparing Hyperpro in situ measurements to other instruments and between different Hyperpros in a variety of water types. Calibration and characterization of the NOAA Satlantic Hyperpro instrument is described and concurrent measurements of water-leaving radiances conducted during cruises are presented between this profiling instrument and other profiling, above-water and moored instruments. The moored optical instruments are the US operated Marine Optical BuoY (MOBY) and the French operated Boussole Buoy. In addition, Satlantic processing versions are described in terms of accuracy and consistency. A new multi-cast approach is compared to the most commonly used single cast method. Analysis comparisons are conducted in turbid and blue water conditions. Examples of validation matchups with VIIRS ocean color data are presented. With careful data collection and analysis, the Satlantic Hyperpro profiling radiometer has proven to be a reliable and consistent tool for satellite ocean color validation.

  9. Engineered biochar from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of switchgrass for increasing water-holding capacity and fertility of sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Badr A.; Ellis, Naoko; Kim, Chang Soo; Bi, Xiaotao; Emam, Ahmed El-raie

    2016-01-01

    Engineered biochars produced from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of switchgrass have been evaluated in terms of their ability on improving water holding capacity (WHC), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and fertility of loamy sand soil. The addition of K 3 PO 4 , clinoptilolite and/or bentonite as catalysts during the pyrolysis process increased biochar surface area and plant nutrient contents. Adding biochar produced with 10 wt.% K 3 PO 4 + 10 wt.% clinoptilolite as catalysts to the soil at 2 wt% load increased soil WHC by 98% and 57% compared to the treatments without biochar (control) and with 10 wt.% clinoptilolite, respectively. Synergistic effects on increased soil WHC were manifested for biochars produced from combinations of two additives compared to single additive, which may be the result of increased biochar microporosity due to increased microwave heating rate. Biochar produced from microwave catalytic pyrolysis was more efficient in increasing the soil WHC due to its high porosity in comparison with the biochar produced from conventional pyrolysis at the same conditions. The increases in soil CEC varied widely compared to the control soil, ranging from 17 to 220% for the treatments with biochars produced with 10 wt% clinoptilolite at 400 °C, and 30 wt% K 3 PO 4 at 300 °C, respectively. Strong positive correlations also exist among soil WHC with CEC and biochar micropore area. Biochar from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis appears to be a novel approach for producing biochar with high sorption affinity and high CEC. These catalysts remaining in the biochar product would provide essential nutrients for the growth of bioenergy and food crops. - Highlights: • High quality biochar was made by catalytic pyrolysis in a microwave reactor. • High heating rate and good biochar quality were achieved using K 3 PO 4 and clinoptilolite mixture. • Biochars showed significant increase in soil WHC and CEC. • Microwave catalytic pyrolysis can produce

  10. Rain detection over land surfaces using passive microwave satellite data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, P.; Burose, D.; Schulz, J.

    2002-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for the detection of surface rainfall using passive microwave measurements by satellite radiometers. The technique consists of a two-stage approach to distinguish precipitation signatures from other effects: (1) Contributions from slowly varying parameters (surface type and

  11. Thermoactivation of viruses by microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahnel, H.; von Brodorotti, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    Eight different viruses, suspended in drinking water, were examined for their ability to be inactivated by microwaves from a microwave oven. Up to a virus content of 10/sup 5/ TCID/sub 50//ml inactivation was successful within a few minutes of microwave treatment and occurred in parallel to the heat stability of the viruses. Evidence for direct effects of microwaves on viruses could not be detected. 7 of the viruses studied were inactivated rapidly when temperatures of 50 to 65/sup 0/C under microwave treatment were reached in the flowing water, while a bovine parvovirus was only inactivated by temperatures above 90/sup 0/C. The advantages of a thermal virus-decontamination of fluids and material by microwaves are discussed.

  12. Recent divergences in stratospheric water vapor measurements by frost point hygrometers and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Dale F; Read, William G; Vömel, Holger; Selkirk, Henry B; Rosenlof, Karen H; Davis, Sean M; Hall, Emrys G; Jordan, Allen F; Oltmans, Samuel J

    2016-09-08

    Balloon-borne frost point hygrometers (FPs) and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) provide high-quality vertical profile measurements of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). A previous comparison of stratospheric water vapor measurements by FPs and MLS over three sites - Boulder, Colorado (40.0° N); Hilo, Hawaii (19.7° N); and Lauder, New Zealand (45.0° S) - from August 2004 through December 2012 not only demonstrated agreement better than 1% between 68 and 26 hPa but also exposed statistically significant biases of 2 to 10% at 83 and 100 hPa (Hurst et al., 2014). A simple linear regression analysis of the FP-MLS differences revealed no significant long-term drifts between the two instruments. Here we extend the drift comparison to mid-2015 and add two FP sites - Lindenberg, Germany (52.2° N), and San José, Costa Rica (10.0° N) - that employ FPs of different manufacture and calibration for their water vapor soundings. The extended comparison period reveals that stratospheric FP and MLS measurements over four of the five sites have diverged at rates of 0.03 to 0.07 ppmv year -1 (0.6 to 1.5% year -1 ) from ~2010 to mid-2015. These rates are similar in magnitude to the 30-year (1980-2010) average growth rate of stratospheric water vapor (~ 1% year -1 ) measured by FPs over Boulder (Hurst et al., 2011). By mid-2015, the FP-MLS differences at some sites were large enough to exceed the combined accuracy estimates of the FP and MLS measurements.

  13. Hurricane Imaging Radiometer Wind Speed and Rain Rate Retrievals during the 2010 GRIP Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahawneh, Saleem; Farrar, Spencer; Johnson, James; Jones, W. Linwood; Roberts, Jason; Biswas, Sayak; Cecil, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing observations of hurricanes, from NOAA and USAF hurricane surveillance aircraft, provide vital data for hurricane research and operations, for forecasting the intensity and track of tropical storms. The current operational standard for hurricane wind speed and rain rate measurements is the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which is a nadir viewing passive microwave airborne remote sensor. The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer, HIRAD, will extend the nadir viewing SFMR capability to provide wide swath images of wind speed and rain rate, while flying on a high altitude aircraft. HIRAD was first flown in the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes, GRIP, NASA hurricane field experiment in 2010. This paper reports on geophysical retrieval results and provides hurricane images from GRIP flights. An overview of the HIRAD instrument and the radiative transfer theory based, wind speed/rain rate retrieval algorithm is included. Results are presented for hurricane wind speed and rain rate for Earl and Karl, with comparison to collocated SFMR retrievals and WP3D Fuselage Radar images for validation purposes.

  14. Novel Cyclotron-Based Radiometal Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGrado, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    Accomplishments: (1) Construction of prototype solution target for radiometal production; (2) Testing of prototype target for production of following isotopes: a. Zr-89. Investigation of Zr-89 production from Y-89 nitrate solution. i. Defined problems of gas evolution and salt precipitation. ii. Solved problem of precipitation by addition of nitric acid. iii. Solved gas evolution problem with addition of backpressure regulator and constant degassing of target during irradiations. iv. Investigated effects of Y-89 nitrate concentration and beam current. v. Published abstracts at SNM and ISRS meetings; (3) Design of 2nd generation radiometal solution target. a. Included reflux chamber and smaller target volume to conserve precious target materials. b. Included aluminum for prototype and tantalum for working model. c. Included greater varicosities for improved heat transfer; and, (4) Construction of 2nd generation radiometal solution target started

  15. Impact of advanced technology microwave sounder data in the NCMRWF 4D-VAR data assimilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, S. Indira; Srinivas, D.; Mallick, Swapan; George, John P.

    2016-05-01

    This study demonstrates the added benefits of assimilating the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) radiances from the Suomi-NPP satellite in the NCMRWF Unified Model (NCUM). ATMS is a cross-track scanning microwave radiometer inherited the legacy of two very successful instrument namely, Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) and Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS). ATMS has 22 channels: 11 temperature sounding channels around 50-60 GHz oxygen band and 6 moisture sounding channels around the 183GHz water vapour band in addition to 5 channels sensitive to the surface in clear conditions, or to water vapour, rain, and cloud when conditions are not clear (at 23, 31, 50, 51 and 89 GHz). Before operational assimilation of any new observation by NWP centres it is standard practice to assess data quality with respect to NWP model background (short-forecast) fields. Quality of all channels is estimated against the model background and the biases are computed and compared against that from the similar observations. The impact of the ATMS data on global analyses and forecasts is tested by adding the ATMS data in the NCUM Observation Processing system (OPS) and 4D-Var variational assimilation (VAR) system. This paper also discusses the pre-operational numerical experiments conducted to assess the impact of ATMS radiances in the NCUM assimilation system. It is noted that the performance of ATMS is stable and it contributes to the performance of the model, complimenting observations from other instruments.

  16. CDRD and PNPR passive microwave precipitation retrieval algorithms: verification study over Africa and Southern Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panegrossi, Giulia; Casella, Daniele; Cinzia Marra, Anna; Petracca, Marco; Sanò, Paolo; Dietrich, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The ongoing NASA/JAXA Global Precipitation Measurement mission (GPM) requires the full exploitation of the complete constellation of passive microwave (PMW) radiometers orbiting around the globe for global precipitation monitoring. In this context the coherence of the estimates of precipitation using different passive microwave radiometers is a crucial need. We have developed two different passive microwave precipitation retrieval algorithms: one is the Cloud Dynamics Radiation Database algorithm (CDRD), a physically ¬based Bayesian algorithm for conically scanning radiometers (i.e., DMSP SSMIS); the other one is the Passive microwave Neural network Precipitation Retrieval (PNPR) algorithm for cross¬-track scanning radiometers (i.e., NOAA and MetOp¬A/B AMSU-¬A/MHS, and NPP Suomi ATMS). The algorithms, originally created for application over Europe and the Mediterranean basin, and used operationally within the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF, http://hsaf.meteoam.it), have been recently modified and extended to Africa and Southern Atlantic for application to the MSG full disk area. The two algorithms are based on the same physical foundation, i.e., the same cloud-radiation model simulations as a priori information in the Bayesian solver and as training dataset in the neural network approach, and they also use similar procedures for identification of frozen background surface, detection of snowfall, and determination of a pixel based quality index of the surface precipitation retrievals. In addition, similar procedures for the screening of not ¬precipitating pixels are used. A novel algorithm for the detection of precipitation in tropical/sub-tropical areas has been developed. The precipitation detection algorithm shows a small rate of false alarms (also over arid/desert regions), a superior detection capability in comparison with other widely used screening algorithms, and it is applicable

  17. Dual color radiometer imagery and test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, A.; Carlen, F.; Link, D.; Zegel, F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the technical characteristics of the Dual Color Radiometer and recent data and test results. The Dual Color Radiometer is a state-of-the-art device that provides simultaneous pixel to pixel registered thermal imagery in both the 3 to 5 and 8 to 12 micron regions. The device is unique in terms of its spatial and temperature resolution of less than 0.10 degrees C temperature and 0.10 milliradian spatial resolution. In addition, the device is tailored for use by the Automatic Target Recognizer (ATR) community

  18. Design and Dynamic Characterization of an Orientation Insensitive Microwave Water-Cut Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2017-06-12

    Modern reservoir management in oil and gas industry relies on accurate water fraction measurement which is produced as a by-product with oil. This paper presents a novel and contactless water fraction (also known as water-cut) measurement technique which is independent of geometric distribution of oil and water inside the pipe. The sensor is based on a modified T-resonator implemented directly on the pipe\\'s outer surface and whose resonance frequency decreases by increasing the water content in oil. The E-fields have been made to rotate and distribute well inside the pipe, despite having narrow and curved ground plane. It makes the sensor\\'s reading dependent only on the water fraction and not on the mixture distribution inside the pipe. That is why, the presented design does not require any flow conditioner to homogenize the oil/water mixture unlike many commercial water-cut (WC) sensors. The presented sensor has been realized by using extremely low-cost methods of screen printing and reusable 3-D printed mask. Complete characterization of the proposed WC sensor, both in horizontal and vertical orientations, has been carried out in an industrial flow loop. Excellent repeatability of the sensor\\'s response has been observed in \\'dispersed bubble\\' as well as in \\'stratified wavy\\' flow regimes. The performance test of the sensor confirms that the water fraction measurement is independent of the flow pattern, flow rate or orientation. The measured performance results of the sensor show full range accuracy of $± $2%-3% while tested under random orientations and wide range of flow rates.

  19. Boreal Inundation Mapping with SMAP Radiometer Data for Methane Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungbum; Brisco, Brian; Poncos, Valentin

    2017-04-01

    Inundation and consequent anoxic condition induce methane release, which is one of the most potent greenhouse gases. Boreal regions contain large amounts of organic carbon, which is a potentially major methane emission source under climatic warming conditions. Boreal wetlands in particular are one of the largest sources of uncertainties in global methane budget. Wetland spatial extent together with the gas release rate remains highly unknown. Characterization of the existing inundation database is poor, because of the inundation under clouds and dense vegetation. In this work, the inundation extent is derived using brightness temperature data acquired by the L-band Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite, which offers the L-band capabilities to penetrate clouds and vegetation at 3-day revisit. The fidelity of the SMAP watermask is assessed as a first step in this investigation by comparing with the following data sets: 3-m resolution maps derived using Radarsat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data in northern Canada and multi-sensor climatology over Siberia. Because Radarsat coverages are limited despite its high spatial resolution, at the time and location where Radarsats are not available, we also compare with 3-km resolution SMAP SAR data that are concurrent with the SMAP radiometer data globally until July 2015. Inundation extents were derived with Radarsat, SMAP SAR, and SMAP radiometer over the 60 km x 60km area at Peace Athabasca Delta (PAD), Canada on 6 days in spring and summer 2015. The SMAP SAR results match the locations of Radarsat waterbodies. However, the SMAP SAR underestimates the water extent, mainly over mixed pixels that have subpixel land presence. The threshold value (-3 dB) applied to the SMAP SAR was determined previously over the global domain. The threshold is dependent on the type of local landcover within a mixed pixel. Further analysis is needed to locally optimize the threshold. The SMAP radiometer water fraction over Peace

  20. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and derivatization of sulfonamides in river water, honey, milk, and animal plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Xu; Su Rui; Zhao Xin; Liu Zhuang; Zhang Yupu; Li Dan; Li Xueyuan; Zhang Hanqi [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang Ziming, E-mail: analchem@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2011-11-30

    Graphical abstract: The extraction and derivatization efficiency of SAs is dependent on type and volume of extraction solvent, type and volume of disperser, microwave power and irradiation time, volume of derivatization reagent, pH of sample solution as well as ionic strength. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new, rapid and sensitive method for determining sulfonamides (SAs) was proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Derivatization, extraction and preconcentration of SAs were performed in one step. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IL-based MADLLME and derivatization were first applied for the determination of SAs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trace SAs in river water, honey, milk, and pig plasma were determined. - Abstract: The ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-based MADLLME) and derivatization was applied for the pretreatment of six sulfonamides (SAs) prior to the determination by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). By adding methanol (disperser), fluorescamine solution (derivatization reagent) and ionic liquid (extraction solvent) into sample, extraction, derivatization, and preconcentration were continuously performed. Several experimental parameters, such as the type and volume of extraction solvent, the type and volume of disperser, amount of derivatization reagent, microwave power, microwave irradiation time, pH of sample solution, and ionic strength were investigated and optimized. When the microwave power was 240 W, the analytes could be derivatized and extracted simultaneously within 90 s. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of river water, honey, milk, and pig plasma samples, and the recoveries of analytes obtained were in the range of 95.0-110.8, 95.4-106.3, 95.0-108.3, and 95.7-107.7, respectively. The relative standard deviations varied between 1.5% and 7.3% (n = 5). The results showed that the proposed method was a rapid, convenient and feasible method for the determination

  1. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction and derivatization of sulfonamides in river water, honey, milk, and animal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xu; Su Rui; Zhao Xin; Liu Zhuang; Zhang Yupu; Li Dan; Li Xueyuan; Zhang Hanqi; Wang Ziming

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The extraction and derivatization efficiency of SAs is dependent on type and volume of extraction solvent, type and volume of disperser, microwave power and irradiation time, volume of derivatization reagent, pH of sample solution as well as ionic strength. Highlights: ► A new, rapid and sensitive method for determining sulfonamides (SAs) was proposed. ► Derivatization, extraction and preconcentration of SAs were performed in one step. ► IL-based MADLLME and derivatization were first applied for the determination of SAs. ► Trace SAs in river water, honey, milk, and pig plasma were determined. - Abstract: The ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (IL-based MADLLME) and derivatization was applied for the pretreatment of six sulfonamides (SAs) prior to the determination by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). By adding methanol (disperser), fluorescamine solution (derivatization reagent) and ionic liquid (extraction solvent) into sample, extraction, derivatization, and preconcentration were continuously performed. Several experimental parameters, such as the type and volume of extraction solvent, the type and volume of disperser, amount of derivatization reagent, microwave power, microwave irradiation time, pH of sample solution, and ionic strength were investigated and optimized. When the microwave power was 240 W, the analytes could be derivatized and extracted simultaneously within 90 s. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of river water, honey, milk, and pig plasma samples, and the recoveries of analytes obtained were in the range of 95.0–110.8, 95.4–106.3, 95.0–108.3, and 95.7–107.7, respectively. The relative standard deviations varied between 1.5% and 7.3% (n = 5). The results showed that the proposed method was a rapid, convenient and feasible method for the determination of SAs in liquid samples.

  2. Risk of Burns from Eruptions of Hot Water Overheated in Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products and Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Risk of Burns from Eruptions of Hot Water Overheated ... coffee or sugar are added before heating, the risk is greatly reduced. If superheating has occurred, a ...

  3. Water-soluble Microwave-exfoliated Graphene Nanosheet/Platinum Nanoparticle Composite and Its Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Peng; Chang, Ya-Huei; Huang, Yu-Ting; Wei, Tzu-Chien; Su, Haijun; Feng, Shien-Ping

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a facile and scalable aqueous process including mild oxidative intercalation, microwave exfoliation, ultrasonication, drying and Ar-annealing is developed to synthesize the water-soluble microwave-exfoliated graphene (MEG)/platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) composite, which has a relative low defect level and can be readily dispersed in deionized water without adding surfactants. This low cost synthesis method is applicable in many systems, such as supercapacitors, thermal storage, lithium battery and Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). An efficiency of 6.69% for the MEG/PtNPs composite deposited on ITO PEN as flexible counter electrode (CE) for DSSCs has been obtained, higher than the control device made by PVP-Pt as flexible CE

  4. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and derivatization of sulfonamides in river water, honey, milk, and animal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu; Su, Rui; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Zhuang; Zhang, Yupu; Li, Dan; Li, Xueyuan; Zhang, Hanqi; Wang, Ziming

    2011-11-30

    The ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-based MADLLME) and derivatization was applied for the pretreatment of six sulfonamides (SAs) prior to the determination by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). By adding methanol (disperser), fluorescamine solution (derivatization reagent) and ionic liquid (extraction solvent) into sample, extraction, derivatization, and preconcentration were continuously performed. Several experimental parameters, such as the type and volume of extraction solvent, the type and volume of disperser, amount of derivatization reagent, microwave power, microwave irradiation time, pH of sample solution, and ionic strength were investigated and optimized. When the microwave power was 240 W, the analytes could be derivatized and extracted simultaneously within 90 s. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of river water, honey, milk, and pig plasma samples, and the recoveries of analytes obtained were in the range of 95.0-110.8, 95.4-106.3, 95.0-108.3, and 95.7-107.7, respectively. The relative standard deviations varied between 1.5% and 7.3% (n=5). The results showed that the proposed method was a rapid, convenient and feasible method for the determination of SAs in liquid samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Application and sensitivity investigation of Fourier transforms for microwave radiometric inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J. J.; Balanis, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    Existing microwave radiometer technology now provides a suitable method for remote determination of the ocean surface's absolute brightness temperature. To extract the brightness temperature of the water from the antenna temperature equation, an unstable Fredholm integral equation of the first kind was solved. Fast Fourier Transform techniques were used to invert the integral after it is placed into a cross-correlation form. Application and verification of the methods to a two-dimensional modeling of a laboratory wave tank system were included. The instability of the Fredholm equation was then demonstrated and a restoration procedure was included which smooths the resulting oscillations. With the recent availability and advances of Fast Fourier Transform techniques, the method presented becomes very attractive in the evaluation of large quantities of data. Actual radiometric measurements of sea water are inverted using the restoration method, incorporating the advantages of the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm for computations.

  6. Low-cost microwave radiometry for remote sensing of soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikando, Eric Ndjoukwe

    2007-12-01

    Remote sensing is now widely regarded as a dominant means of studying the Earth and its surrounding atmosphere. This science is based on blackbody theory, which states that all objects emit broadband electromagnetic radiation proportional to their temperature. This thermal emission is detectable by radiometers---highly sensitive receivers capable of measuring extremely low power radiation across a continuum of frequencies. In the particular case of a soil surface, one important parameter affecting the emitted radiation is the amount of water content or, soil moisture. A high degree of precision is required when estimating soil moisture in order to yield accurate forecasting of precipitations and short-term climate variability such as storms and hurricanes. Rapid progress within the remote sensing community in tackling current limitations necessitates an awareness of the general public towards the benefits of the science. Information about remote sensing instrumentation and techniques remain inaccessible to many higher-education institutions due to the high cost of instrumentation and the current general inaccessibility of the science. In an effort to draw more talent within the field, more affordable and reliable scientific instrumentation are needed. This dissertation introduces the first low-cost handheld microwave instrumentation fully capable of surface soil moisture studies. The framework of this research is two-fold. First, the development of a low-cost handheld microwave radiometer using the well-known Dicke configuration is examined. The instrument features a super-heterodyne architecture and is designed following a microwave integrated circuit (MIC) system approach. Validation of the instrument is performed by applying it to various soil targets and comparing measurement results to gravimetric technique measured data; a proven scientific method for determining volumetric soil moisture content. Second, the development of a fully functional receiver RF front

  7. Satellite passive microwave rain measurement techniques for land and ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    Multiseasonal rainfall was found to be measurable over land with satellite passive microwave data, based upon comparisons between Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMME) brightness temperatures (T sub B) and operational WSR-57 radar rain rates. All of the SMMR channels (bipolarized 37, 21, 18, 10.7, and 6.6. GHz T sub B) were compared to radar reflectivities for 25 SMMR passes and 234 radar scans over the U.S. during the spring, summer, and fall of 1979. It was found that the radar rain rates were closely related to the difference between 37 and 21 GHz T sub B. This result is due to the volume scattering effects of precipitation which cause emissivity decreases with frequency, as opposed to emissive surfaces (e.g., water) whose emissivities increase with frequency. Two frequencies also act to reduce the effects of thermometric temperature variations on T sub B to a miminum. During summer and fall, multiple correlation coefficients of 0.80 and 0.75 were obtained. These approach the limit of correlation that can be expected to exist between two very different data sources, especially in light of the errors attributable to manual digitization of PPI photographs of variable quality from various operational weather radar not calibrated for research purposes. During the spring, a significantly lower (0.63) correlation was found. This poorer performance was traced to cases of wet, unvegetated soil being sensed at the lower frequencies through light rain, partly negating the rain scattering signal.

  8. Microwave undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, K.

    1986-03-01

    The theory of a microwave undulator utilizing a plane rectangular waveguide operating in the TE/sub 10n/ mode and other higher order modes is presented. Based on this, a possible undulator configuration is analyzed, leading to the conclusion that the microwave undulator represents a viable option for undulator wavelength down to about 1 cm where peak voltage and available microwave power considerations limit effectiveness. 4 refs., 4 figs

  9. Dynamic response of the thermometric net radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Wilson; W. J. Massman; G. E. Swaters

    2009-01-01

    We computed the dynamic response of an idealized thermometric net radiometer, when driven by an oscillating net longwave radiation intended roughly to simulate rapid fluctuations of the radiative environment such as might be expected during field use of such devices. The study was motivated by curiosity as to whether non-linearity of the surface boundary conditions...

  10. Calibration of aerosol radiometers. Special aerosol sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkina, S.K.; Zalmanzon, Yu.E.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Fertman, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Problems of calibration of artificial aerosol radiometry and information-measurement systems of radiometer radiation control, in particular, are considered. Special aerosol source is suggested, which permits to perform certification and testing of aerosol channels of the systems in situ without the dismantling

  11. Balloon-borne radiometer profiler: Field observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, W.J.; Whiteman, C.D.; Anderson, G.A.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Hubbe, J.M.; Scott, K.A.

    1995-03-01

    This project involves the development of the capability of making routine soundings of broadband radiative fluxes and radiative flux divergences to heights of 1500m AGL. Described in this document are radiometers carried on a stabilized platform in a harness inserted in the tetherline of a tethered balloon meteriological sounding system. Field test results are given

  12. Irradiation, microwave and alternative energy-based treatments for low water activity foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an increasing recognition of low water activity foods as vectors for human pathogens. Partially or fully dried agricultural commodities, along with modern formulated dried food products, are complex, and designed to meet a variety of nutritional, sensory, and market-oriented goal. This comp...

  13. Microwave Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Makes ultra-high-resolution field measurements. The Microwave Microscope (MWM) has been used in support of several NRL experimental programs involving sea...

  14. Microwave Radiometry in Remote Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmandsen, Preben

    1982-01-01

    Microwave radiometry has shown its capabilities of observing and monitoring large-scale geophysical observables from space. Examples are sea surface temperature and surface wind over the ocean, sea ice extent, concentration and category and snow cover extent and water content. At low microwave fr...

  15. VESPA-22: a ground-based microwave spectrometer for long-term measurements of polar stratospheric water vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mevi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The new ground-based 22 GHz spectrometer, VESPA-22 (water Vapor Emission Spectrometer for Polar Atmosphere at 22 GHz measures the 22.23 GHz water vapor emission line with a bandwidth of 500 MHz and a frequency resolution of 31 kHz. The integration time for a measurement ranges from 6 to 24 h, depending on season and weather conditions. Water vapor spectra are collected using the beam-switching technique. VESPA-22 is designed to operate automatically with little maintenance; it employs an uncooled front-end characterized by a receiver temperature of about 180 K and its quasi-optical system presents a full width at half maximum of 3.5°. Every 30 min VESPA-22 measures also the sky opacity using the tipping curve technique. The instrument calibration is performed automatically by a noise diode; the emission temperature of this element is estimated twice an hour by observing alternatively a black body at ambient temperature and the sky at an elevation of 60°. The retrieved profiles obtained inverting 24 h integration spectra present a sensitivity larger than 0.8 from about 25 to 75 km of altitude during winter and from about 30 to 65 km during summer, a vertical resolution from about 12 to 23 km (depending on altitude, and an overall 1σ uncertainty lower than 7 % up to 60 km altitude and rapidly increasing to 20 % at 75 km. In July 2016, VESPA-22 was installed at the Thule High Arctic Atmospheric Observatory located at Thule Air Base (76.5° N, 68.8° W, Greenland, and it has been operating almost continuously since then. The VESPA-22 water vapor mixing ratio vertical profiles discussed in this work are obtained from 24 h averaged spectra and are compared with version 4.2 of concurrent Aura/Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS water vapor vertical profiles. In the sensitivity range of VESPA-22 retrievals, the intercomparison from July 2016 to July 2017 between VESPA-22 dataset and Aura/MLS dataset

  16. VESPA-22: a ground-based microwave spectrometer for long-term measurements of polar stratospheric water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevi, Gabriele; Muscari, Giovanni; Bertagnolio, Pietro Paolo; Fiorucci, Irene; Pace, Giandomenico

    2018-02-01

    The new ground-based 22 GHz spectrometer, VESPA-22 (water Vapor Emission Spectrometer for Polar Atmosphere at 22 GHz) measures the 22.23 GHz water vapor emission line with a bandwidth of 500 MHz and a frequency resolution of 31 kHz. The integration time for a measurement ranges from 6 to 24 h, depending on season and weather conditions. Water vapor spectra are collected using the beam-switching technique. VESPA-22 is designed to operate automatically with little maintenance; it employs an uncooled front-end characterized by a receiver temperature of about 180 K and its quasi-optical system presents a full width at half maximum of 3.5°. Every 30 min VESPA-22 measures also the sky opacity using the tipping curve technique. The instrument calibration is performed automatically by a noise diode; the emission temperature of this element is estimated twice an hour by observing alternatively a black body at ambient temperature and the sky at an elevation of 60°. The retrieved profiles obtained inverting 24 h integration spectra present a sensitivity larger than 0.8 from about 25 to 75 km of altitude during winter and from about 30 to 65 km during summer, a vertical resolution from about 12 to 23 km (depending on altitude), and an overall 1σ uncertainty lower than 7 % up to 60 km altitude and rapidly increasing to 20 % at 75 km. In July 2016, VESPA-22 was installed at the Thule High Arctic Atmospheric Observatory located at Thule Air Base (76.5° N, 68.8° W), Greenland, and it has been operating almost continuously since then. The VESPA-22 water vapor mixing ratio vertical profiles discussed in this work are obtained from 24 h averaged spectra and are compared with version 4.2 of concurrent Aura/Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) water vapor vertical profiles. In the sensitivity range of VESPA-22 retrievals, the intercomparison from July 2016 to July 2017 between VESPA-22 dataset and Aura/MLS dataset convolved with VESPA-22 averaging kernels shows an average difference

  17. EDITORIAL: Microwave Moisture Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatze, Udo; Kupfer, Klaus; Hübner, Christof

    2007-04-01

    Microwave moisture measurements refer to a methodology by which the water content of materials is non-invasively determined using electromagnetic fields of radio and microwave frequencies. Being the omnipresent liquid on our planet, water occurs as a component in most materials and often exercises a significant influence on their properties. Precise measurements of the water content are thus extremely useful in pure sciences, particularly in biochemistry and biophysics. They are likewise important in many agricultural, technical and industrial fields. Applications are broad and diverse, and include the quality assessment of foodstuffs, the determination of water content in paper, cardboard and textile production, the monitoring of moisture in sands, gravels, soils and constructions, as well as the measurement of water admixtures to coal and crude oil in reservoirs and in pipelines. Microwave moisture measurements and evaluations require insights in various disciplines, such as materials science, dielectrics, the physical chemistry of water, electrodynamics and microwave techniques. The cooperation of experts from the different fields of science is thus necessary for the efficient development of this complex discipline. In order to advance cooperation the Workshop on Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Water and Moist Substances was held in 1993 in Atlanta. It initiated a series of international conferences, of which the last one was held in 2005 in Weimar. The meeting brought together 130 scientists and engineers from all over the world. This special issue presents a collection of some selected papers that were given at the event. The papers cover most topics of the conference, featuring dielectric properties of aqueous materials, electromagnetic wave interactions, measurement methods and sensors, and various applications. The special issue is dedicated to Dr Andrzej W Kraszewski, who died in July 2006 after a distinguished career of 48 years in the research of

  18. The JET ECE heterodyne radiometer and investigations of fast phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, D.V.; Porte, L.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, the design and performance characteristics of the JET heterodyne radiometer are reviewed, and some novel aspects of the instrument are described. Areas where the radiometer could benefit from further improvement are highlighted, and those improvements currently in progress are discussed. Some measurements which demonstrate the radiometer's power as a diagnostic of fast phenomena are presented. (orig.)

  19. Wideband filter radiometers for blackbody temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, L. P.; Bamber, C.; Gaertner, A. A.; Gerson, R. K.; Woods, D. J.; Woolliams, E. R.

    2010-10-01

    The use of high-temperature blackbody (HTBB) radiators to realize primary spectral irradiance scales requires that the operating temperature of the HTBB be accurately determined. We have developed five filter radiometers (FRs) to measure the temperature of the National Research Council of Canada's HTBB. The FRs are designed to minimize sensitivity to ambient temperature fluctuations. They incorporate air-spaced colored glass filters and a Si photodiode detector that are housed in a cell whose temperature is controlled to ±0.1°C by means of annular thermoelectric elements at the front and rear of the cell. These wideband filter radiometers operate in four different wavelength bands. The spectral responsivity measurements were performed in an underfill geometry for a power-mode calibration that is traceable to NRC's cryogenic radiometer. The spectral temperature sensitivity of each of these FRs has been measured. The apertures for these FRs were cold-formed by swaging machine-cut apertures onto precision dowel pins. A description of the filter radiometer design, fabrication and testing, together with a detailed uncertainty analysis, is presented. We derive the equations that relate the spectral irradiance measured by the FRs to the spectral radiance and temperature of the HTBB, and deal specifically with the change of index of refraction over the path of the radiation from the interior of the HTBB to the FRs. We believe these equations are more accurate than recently published derivations. Our measurements of the operating temperature of our HTBB working at temperatures near 2500 K, 2700 K and 2900 K, together with measurements using a pyrometer, show agreement between the five filter radiometers and with the pyrometer to within the estimated uncertainties.

  20. Microfluidic radiolabeling of biomolecules with PET radiometals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Dexing; Desai, Amit V.; Ranganathan, David; Wheeler, Tobias D.; Kenis, Paul J.A.; Reichert, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: A robust, versatile and compact microreactor has been designed, fabricated and tested for the labeling of bifunctional chelate conjugated biomolecules (BFC-BM) with PET radiometals. Methods: The developed microreactor was used to radiolabel a chelate, either 1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) or 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) that had been conjugated to cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-DPhe-Lys) peptide, with both 64 Cu and 68 Ga respectively. The microreactor radiolabeling conditions were optimized by varying temperature, concentration and residence time. Results: Direct comparisons between the microreactor approach and conventional methods showed improved labeling yields and increased reproducibility with the microreactor under identical labeling conditions, due to enhanced mass and heat transfer at the microscale. More importantly, over 90% radiolabeling yields (incorporation of radiometal) were achieved with a 1:1 stoichiometry of bifunctional chelate biomolecule conjugate (BFC-BM) to radiometal in the microreactor, which potentially obviates extensive chromatographic purification that is typically required to remove the large excess of unlabeled biomolecule in radioligands prepared using conventional methods. Moreover, higher yields for radiolabeling of DOTA-functionalized BSA protein (Bovine Serum Albumin) were observed with 64 Cu/ 68 Ga using the microreactor, which demonstrates the ability to label both small and large molecules. Conclusions: A robust, reliable, compact microreactor capable of chelating radiometals with common chelates has been developed and validated. Based on our radiolabeling results, the reported microfluidic approach overall outperforms conventional radiosynthetic methods, and is a promising technology for the radiometal labeling of commonly utilized BFC-BM in aqueous solutions.

  1. Microfluidic radiolabeling of biomolecules with PET radiometals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dexing; Desai, Amit V; Ranganathan, David; Wheeler, Tobias D; Kenis, Paul J A; Reichert, David E

    2013-01-01

    A robust, versatile and compact microreactor has been designed, fabricated and tested for the labeling of bifunctional chelate conjugated biomolecules (BFC-BM) with PET radiometals. The developed microreactor was used to radiolabel a chelate, either 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) or 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) that had been conjugated to cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-DPhe-Lys) peptide, with both ⁶⁴Cu and ⁶⁸Ga respectively. The microreactor radiolabeling conditions were optimized by varying temperature, concentration and residence time. Direct comparisons between the microreactor approach and conventional methods showed improved labeling yields and increased reproducibility with the microreactor under identical labeling conditions, due to enhanced mass and heat transfer at the microscale. More importantly, over 90% radiolabeling yields (incorporation of radiometal) were achieved with a 1:1 stoichiometry of bifunctional chelate biomolecule conjugate (BFC-BM) to radiometal in the microreactor, which potentially obviates extensive chromatographic purification that is typically required to remove the large excess of unlabeled biomolecule in radioligands prepared using conventional methods. Moreover, higher yields for radiolabeling of DOTA-functionalized BSA protein (Bovine Serum Albumin) were observed with ⁶⁴Cu/⁶⁸Ga using the microreactor, which demonstrates the ability to label both small and large molecules. A robust, reliable, compact microreactor capable of chelating radiometals with common chelates has been developed and validated. Based on our radiolabeling results, the reported microfluidic approach overall outperforms conventional radiosynthetic methods, and is a promising technology for the radiometal labeling of commonly utilized BFC-BM in aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Assimilation of Global Radar Backscatter and Radiometer Brightness Temperature Observations to Improve Soil Moisture and Land Evaporation Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, H.; Martens, B.; Verhoest, N. E. C.; Hahn, S.; Reichle, R. H.; Miralles, D. G.

    2017-01-01

    Active radar backscatter (s?) observations from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) and passive radiometer brightness temperature (TB) observations from the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission are assimilated either individually or jointly into the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM) to improve its simulations of soil moisture and land evaporation. To enable s? and TB assimilation, GLEAM is coupled to the Water Cloud Model and the L-band Microwave Emission from the Biosphere (L-MEB) model. The innovations, i.e. differences between observations and simulations, are mapped onto the model soil moisture states through an Ensemble Kalman Filter. The validation of surface (0-10 cm) soil moisture simulations over the period 2010-2014 against in situ measurements from the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) shows that assimilating s? or TB alone improves the average correlation of seasonal anomalies (Ran) from 0.514 to 0.547 and 0.548, respectively. The joint assimilation further improves Ran to 0.559. Associated enhancements in daily evaporative flux simulations by GLEAM are validated based on measurements from 22 FLUXNET stations. Again, the singular assimilation improves Ran from 0.502 to 0.536 and 0.533, respectively for s? and TB, whereas the best performance is observed for the joint assimilation (Ran = 0.546). These results demonstrate the complementary value of assimilating radar backscatter observations together with brightness temperatures for improving estimates of hydrological variables, as their joint assimilation outperforms the assimilation of each observation type separately.

  3. Microwave-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of ionic liquid for the determination of sulfonamides in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ying; Wu, Lijie; Lu, Chunmei; Li, Na; Hu, Mingzhu; Wang, Ziming

    2014-12-01

    An easy, quick, and green method, microwave-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of ionic liquid, was first developed and applied to the extraction of sulfonamides in environmental water samples. 1-Ethy-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, which is a solid-state ionic liquid at room temperature, was used as extraction solvent in the present method. After microwave irradiation for 90 s, the solid-state ionic liquid was melted into liquid phase and used to finish the extraction of the analytes. The ionic liquid and sample matrix can be separated by freezing and centrifuging. Several experimental parameters, including amount of extraction solvent, microwave power and irradiation time, pH of sample solution, and ionic strength, were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum experimental conditions, good linearity was observed in the range of 2.00-400.00 μg/L with the correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9995 to 0.9999. The limits of detection for sulfathiazole, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfaphenazole were 0.39, 0.33, 0.62, and 0.85 μg/L, respectively. When the present method was applied to the analysis of environmental water samples, the recoveries of the analytes ranged from 75.09 to 115.78% and relative standard deviations were lower than 11.89%. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Localised Microwave Bursts During ELMs on MAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freethy Simon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bursts of microwave emission are observed during ELM events on the Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak. In agreement with observations on other machines, these bursts are up to 3 orders of magnitude more intense than the thermal background, but are electron cyclotron in nature. The peak in microwave emission is ~20μ before the peak in midplane Dα emission. Using the Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging radiometer, we are able to demonstrate that these bursts are often highly spatially localised and preferentially occur at the tokamak midplane. It is hypothesised that the localisation is a result of Doppler resonance broadening for electron Bernstein waves and the high perpendicular electron energies could be the result of pitch angle scattering in high collisionality regions of the plasma.

  5. Soil moisture and temperature profile effects on microwave emission at low frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, S.; Chanzy, A.; Wigneron, J.P.; Calvet, J.C.; Kerr, Y.; Laguerre, L.

    1995-01-01

    Soil moisture and temperature vertical profiles vary quickly during the day and may have a significant influence on the soil microwave emission. The objective of this work is to quantify such an influence and the consequences in soil moisture estimation from microwave radiometric information. The analysis is based on experimental data collected by the ground-based PORTOS radiometer at 1.4, 5.05, and 10.65 GHz and data simulated by a coherent model of microwave emission from layered media [Wilheit model (1978)]. In order to simulate diurnal variations of the brightness temperature (TB), the Wilheit model is coupled to a mechanistic model of heat and water flows in the soil. The Wilheit model is validated on experimental data and its performances for estimating TB are compared to those of a simpler approach based on a description of the soil media as a single layer (Fresnel model). When the depth of this single layer (hereafter referred to as the sampling depth) is determined to fit the experimental data, similar accuracy in TB estimation is found with both the Wilheit and Fresnel models. The soil microwave emission is found to be strongly affected by the diurnal variations of soil moisture and temperature profiles. Consequently, the TB sensitivity to soil moisture and temperature profiles has an influence on the estimation, from microwave observations, of the surface soil moisture in a surface layer with a fixed depth (05): the accuracy of θs retrievals and the optimal sampling depth depends both on the variation in soil moisture and temperature profile shape. (author)

  6. Radiometers for radon concentration in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartak, J.; Machaj, B.; Pienkos, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Constant grow of science and technology stimulates development of new improved measuring tools. New measuring demand arise also in radon concentration measurements. Varying rock stress and rock cracks influencing radon emanation encouraged research aimed at use of this phenomenon to predict crumps of mine formation among others based on variation of radon emanation. A measuring set was developed in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology enabling long term monitoring of radon concentration in mine bore-hole. The set consists probe and probe controller. Detection threshold of the probe is 230 Bq/m 3 . The set can operate in the environment with methane explosion hazard. A radiometer employing Lucas cell as radiation detector for radon concentration in air was also developed its detection threshold is approx. 10 Bq/m 3 . Replaceable Lucas cell of the radiometer allows for measurement of high as well as low radon concentration in short time interval. (author)

  7. Dual-Polarization, Multi-Frequency Antenna Array for use with Hurricane Imaging Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, John

    2013-01-01

    Advancements in common aperture antenna technology were employed to utilize its proprietary genetic algorithmbased modeling tools in an effort to develop, build, and test a dual-polarization array for Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) applications. Final program results demonstrate the ability to achieve a lightweight, thin, higher-gain aperture that covers the desired spectral band. NASA employs various passive microwave and millimeter-wave instruments, such as spectral radiometers, for a range of remote sensing applications, from measurements of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, to cosmic background emission. These instruments such as the HIRAD, SFMR (Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer), and LRR (Lightweight Rainfall Radiometer), provide unique data accumulation capabilities for observing sea surface wind, temperature, and rainfall, and significantly enhance the understanding and predictability of hurricane intensity. These microwave instruments require extremely efficient wideband or multiband antennas in order to conserve space on the airborne platform. In addition, the thickness and weight of the antenna arrays is of paramount importance in reducing platform drag, permitting greater time on station. Current sensors are often heavy, single- polarization, or limited in frequency coverage. The ideal wideband antenna will have reduced size, weight, and profile (a conformal construct) without sacrificing optimum performance. The technology applied to this new HIRAD array will allow NASA, NOAA, and other users to gather information related to hurricanes and other tropical storms more cost effectively without sacrificing sensor performance or the aircraft time on station. The results of the initial analysis and numerical design indicated strong potential for an antenna array that would satisfy all of the design requirements for a replacement HIRAD array. Multiple common aperture antenna methodologies were employed to achieve exceptional gain over the entire

  8. Capabilities and Impact on Wind Analyses of the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy L.; Amarin, Ruba; Atlas, Robert; Bailey, M. C.; Black, Peter; Buckley, Courtney; James, Mark; Johnson, James; Jones, Linwood; Ruf, Christopher; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a new airborne microwave remote sensor for hurricane observations that is currently under development by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in partnership with the NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory/Hurricane Research Division, the University of Central Florida, the University of Michigan, and the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The instrument is being test flown in January and is expected to participate in or collaborate with the tropical cyclone experiment GRIP (Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes) in the 2010 season. HIRAD is designed to study the wind field in some detail within strong hurricanes and to enhance the real-time airborne ocean surface winds observation capabilities of NOAA and USAF Weather Squadron hurricane hunter aircraft currently using the operational Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR). Unlike SFMR, which measures wind speed and rain rate along the ground track at a single point directly beneath the aircraft, HIRAD will provide images of the surface wind and rain field over a wide swath (approx.3 x the aircraft altitude) with approx.2 km resolution. See Figure 1, which depicts a simulated HIRAD swath versus the line of data obtained by SFMR.

  9. A radiometer for stochastic gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballmer, Stefan W

    2006-01-01

    The LIGO Scientific Collaboration recently reported a new upper limit on an isotropic stochastic background of gravitational waves obtained based on the data from the third LIGO science run (S3). Here I present a new method for obtaining directional upper limits on stochastic gravitational waves that essentially implements a gravitational wave radiometer. The LIGO Scientific Collaboration intends to use this method for future LIGO science runs

  10. Performance of a novel microwave-based treatment technology for atrazine removal and destruction: Sorbent reusability and chemical stability, and effect of water matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Erdan; Hu, Yuanan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Cheng, Hefa, E-mail: hefac@umich.edu [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); MOE Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Cu{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} in zeolite pores enhance atrazine sorption and MW-induced degradation. • Exchanged zeolites perform well over multiple sorption–regeneration cycles. • Fe{sup 3+} species in the zeolite micropores have much greater stability than those of Cu{sup 2+}. • DOC in natural waters can compromise the sorption capacity of exchanged zeolites. • Iron-exchanged dealuminated Y zeolites hold great promise for practical applications. - Abstract: Transition metal-exchanged dealuminated Y zeolites were used to adsorb atrazine from aqueous solutions, followed by regeneration of the sorbents and destruction of the sorbed atrazine with microwave irradiation. Exchange of copper and iron into the zeolite's micropores significantly enhanced its sorption capacity and selectivity toward atrazine, and increased the microwave-induced degradation rate of the sorbed atrazine by 3–4-folds. Both the copper- and iron-exchanged zeolites could be regenerated and reused multiple times, while the catalytic activity of the latter was more robust due to the much greater chemical stability of Fe{sup 3+} species in the micropores. The presence of humic acid, and common cations and anions had little impact on the sorption of atrazine on the transition metal-exchanged zeolites. In the treatment of atrazine spiked in natural surface water and groundwater samples, sorptive removal of atrazine was found to be impacted by the level of dissolved organic carbon, probably through competition for the micropore spaces and pore blocking, while the water matrices exhibited no strong effect on the microwave-induced degradation of sorbed atrazine. Overall, iron-exchanged dealuminated Y zeolites show great potential for removal and destruction of atrazine from contaminated surface water and groundwater in practical implementation of the novel treatment technology.

  11. Performance of a novel microwave-based treatment technology for atrazine removal and destruction: Sorbent reusability and chemical stability, and effect of water matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Erdan; Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu"2"+ and Fe"3"+ in zeolite pores enhance atrazine sorption and MW-induced degradation. • Exchanged zeolites perform well over multiple sorption–regeneration cycles. • Fe"3"+ species in the zeolite micropores have much greater stability than those of Cu"2"+. • DOC in natural waters can compromise the sorption capacity of exchanged zeolites. • Iron-exchanged dealuminated Y zeolites hold great promise for practical applications. - Abstract: Transition metal-exchanged dealuminated Y zeolites were used to adsorb atrazine from aqueous solutions, followed by regeneration of the sorbents and destruction of the sorbed atrazine with microwave irradiation. Exchange of copper and iron into the zeolite's micropores significantly enhanced its sorption capacity and selectivity toward atrazine, and increased the microwave-induced degradation rate of the sorbed atrazine by 3–4-folds. Both the copper- and iron-exchanged zeolites could be regenerated and reused multiple times, while the catalytic activity of the latter was more robust due to the much greater chemical stability of Fe"3"+ species in the micropores. The presence of humic acid, and common cations and anions had little impact on the sorption of atrazine on the transition metal-exchanged zeolites. In the treatment of atrazine spiked in natural surface water and groundwater samples, sorptive removal of atrazine was found to be impacted by the level of dissolved organic carbon, probably through competition for the micropore spaces and pore blocking, while the water matrices exhibited no strong effect on the microwave-induced degradation of sorbed atrazine. Overall, iron-exchanged dealuminated Y zeolites show great potential for removal and destruction of atrazine from contaminated surface water and groundwater in practical implementation of the novel treatment technology.

  12. [Determination of sodium, magnesium, calcium, lithium and strontium in natural mineral drinking water by microwave plasma torch spectrometer with nebulization sample introduction system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Xiong, Hai-long; Feng, Guo-dong; Yu, Ai-min; Chen, Huan-wen

    2014-06-01

    The microwave plasma torch (MPT) was used as the emission light source. Aqueous samples were introduced with a nebulizer and a desolvation system. A method for the determination of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr in natural mineral drinking water by argon microwave plasma torch spectrometer (ArMPT spectrometer) was established. The effects of microwave power, flow rate of carrier gas and support gas were investigated in detail and these parameters were optimized. Under the optimized condition, the experiments for the determination of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr in 11 kinds of bottled mineral drinking water were carried out by ArMPT spectrometer. The limit-of-detection (LOD) of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr was found to be 4.4, 21, 56, 11 and 84 μg x mL(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviation (n = 6) was in the range of 1.30%-5.45% and standard addition recoveries were in the range of 84.6%-98.5%. MPT spectrometer was simpler, more convenient and of lower cost as compared to ICP unit. MPT spectrometer demonstrated its rapid analysis speed, accuracy, sensitivity and simultaneous multi element analysis ability during the analysis process. The results showed that MPT spectrometer was suitable for metal elements detection for natural mineral drinking water. This approach provides not only one way for resisting the illegal dealings, but also a security for the quality of drinking water. Moreover, the usability of MPT spectrometer in the field of food security; drug safety; clinical diagnostic is promised.

  13. Engineered biochar from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of switchgrass for increasing water-holding capacity and fertility of sandy soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Badr A. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Agricultural Engineering Department, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Ellis, Naoko [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Kim, Chang Soo [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Clean Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 14 gil 5 Hwarang-no Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Bi, Xiaotao, E-mail: tony.bi@ubc.ca [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Emam, Ahmed El-raie [Agricultural Engineering Department, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2016-10-01

    Engineered biochars produced from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of switchgrass have been evaluated in terms of their ability on improving water holding capacity (WHC), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and fertility of loamy sand soil. The addition of K{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, clinoptilolite and/or bentonite as catalysts during the pyrolysis process increased biochar surface area and plant nutrient contents. Adding biochar produced with 10 wt.% K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} + 10 wt.% clinoptilolite as catalysts to the soil at 2 wt% load increased soil WHC by 98% and 57% compared to the treatments without biochar (control) and with 10 wt.% clinoptilolite, respectively. Synergistic effects on increased soil WHC were manifested for biochars produced from combinations of two additives compared to single additive, which may be the result of increased biochar microporosity due to increased microwave heating rate. Biochar produced from microwave catalytic pyrolysis was more efficient in increasing the soil WHC due to its high porosity in comparison with the biochar produced from conventional pyrolysis at the same conditions. The increases in soil CEC varied widely compared to the control soil, ranging from 17 to 220% for the treatments with biochars produced with 10 wt% clinoptilolite at 400 °C, and 30 wt% K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} at 300 °C, respectively. Strong positive correlations also exist among soil WHC with CEC and biochar micropore area. Biochar from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis appears to be a novel approach for producing biochar with high sorption affinity and high CEC. These catalysts remaining in the biochar product would provide essential nutrients for the growth of bioenergy and food crops. - Highlights: • High quality biochar was made by catalytic pyrolysis in a microwave reactor. • High heating rate and good biochar quality were achieved using K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and clinoptilolite mixture. • Biochars showed significant increase in soil WHC and CEC.

  14. High spatial resolution upgrade of the electron cyclotron emission radiometer for the DIII-D tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truong, D. D., E-mail: dtruong@wisc.edu [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Austin, M. E. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas, Austin, Texas, 78712 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The 40-channel DIII-D electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer provides measurements of T{sub e}(r,t) at the tokamak midplane from optically thick, second harmonic X-mode emission over a frequency range of 83–130 GHz. The frequency spacing of the radiometer's channels results in a spatial resolution of ∼1–3 cm, depending on local magnetic field and electron temperature. A new high resolution subsystem has been added to the DIII-D ECE radiometer to make sub-centimeter (0.6–0.8 cm) resolution T{sub e} measurements. The high resolution subsystem branches off from the regular channels’ IF bands and consists of a microwave switch to toggle between IF bands, a switched filter bank for frequency selectivity, an adjustable local oscillator and mixer for further frequency down-conversion, and a set of eight microwave filters in the 2–4 GHz range. Higher spatial resolution is achieved through the use of a narrower (200 MHz) filter bandwidth and closer spacing between the filters’ center frequencies (250 MHz). This configuration allows for full coverage of the 83–130 GHz frequency range in 2 GHz bands. Depending on the local magnetic field, this translates into a “zoomed-in” analysis of a ∼2–4 cm radial region. Expected uses of these channels include mapping the spatial dependence of Alfven eigenmodes, geodesic acoustic modes, and externally applied magnetic perturbations. Initial T{sub e} measurements, which demonstrate that the desired resolution is achieved, are presented.

  15. Microwave Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, A D

    2007-01-01

    The IET has organised training courses on microwave measurements since 1983, at which experts have lectured on modern developments. Their lecture notes were first published in book form in 1985 and then again in 1989, and they have proved popular for many years with a readership beyond those who attended the courses. The purpose of this third edition of the lecture notes is to bring the latest techniques in microwave measurements to this wider audience. The book begins with a survey of the theory of current microwave circuits and continues with a description of the techniques for the measureme

  16. Microwave photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chi H

    2006-01-01

    Wireless, optical, and electronic networks continue to converge, prompting heavy research into the interface between microwave electronics, ultrafast optics, and photonic technologies. New developments arrive nearly as fast as the photons under investigation, and their commercial impact depends on the ability to stay abreast of new findings, techniques, and technologies. Presenting a broad yet in-depth survey, Microwave Photonics examines the major advances that are affecting new applications in this rapidly expanding field.This book reviews important achievements made in microwave photonics o

  17. Remote Sensing of Surface Soil Moisture using Semi-Concurrent Radar and Radiometer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Ouellette, J. D.; Colliander, A.; Cosh, M. H.; Caldwell, T. G.; Walker, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Radar backscatter and radiometer brightness temperature both have well-documented sensitivity to surface soil moisture, particularly in the microwave regime. While radiometer-derived soil moisture retrievals have been shown to be stable and accurate, they are only available at coarse spatial resolutions on the order of tens of kilometers. Backscatter from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is similarly sensitive to soil moisture but can yield higher spatial resolutions, with pixel sizes about an order of magnitude smaller. Soil moisture retrieval from radar backscatter is more difficult, however, due to the combined sensitivity of radar scattering to surface roughness, vegetation structure, and soil moisture. The algorithm uses a time-series of SAR data to retrieval soil moisture information, constraining the SAR-derived soil moisture estimates with radiometer observations. This effectively combines the high spatial resolution offered by SAR with the precision offered by passive radiometry. The algorithm is a change detection approach which maps changes in the radar backscatter to changes in surface soil moisture. This new algorithm differs from existing retrieval techniques in that it does not require ancillary vegetation information, but assumes vegetation and surface roughness are stable between pairs of consecutive radar overpasses. Furthermore, this method does not require a radar scattering model for the vegetation canopy, nor the use of a training data set. The algorithm works over a long time series, and is constrained by hard bounds which are defined using a coarse-resolution radiometer soil moisture product. The presentation will include soil moisture retrievals from Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) SAR data. Two sets of optimization bounds will constrain the radar change detection algorithm: one defined by SMAP radiometer retrievals and one defined by WindSat radiometer retrievals. Retrieved soil moisture values will be presented on a world map and will

  18. Development of a Compact High Altitude Imager and Sounding Radiometer (CHAISR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, R. K. Y.; Min, S.; Cho, Y. J.; Kim, K. H.; Ha, J. C.; Joo, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    Joint Civilian-Military Committee, under Advisory Council on Science and Technology, Korea, has approved a technology demonstration project for developing a lightweight HALE UAV (High-Altitude, Long Endurance). It aims to operate at lower stratosphere, i.e. altitude of 16 20 km, offering unique observational platform to atmospheric research community as pseudo-satellite. NIMS (National Institute of Meteorological Sciences, Korea) is responsible for a payload for atmospheric science, a Compact High Altitude Imager and Sounding Radiometer (CHAISR) to demonstrate scientific observations at lower stratosphere in the interest of improving numerical weather prediction model. CHAISR consists of three microwave radiometers (MWR) with 16 channel, and medium resolution cameras operating in a visible and infrared spectrum. One of the technological challenges for CHAISR is to accommodate those instruments within 50 W of power consumption. CHAISR will experience temperature up to -75°C, while pressure as low as 50 hPa at operational altitude. It requires passive thermal control of the payload to keep electronic subsystems warm enough for instrument operation with minimal power available. Safety features, such as payload power management and thermal control, are considered with minimal user input. Three radiometers measure atmospheric brightness temperature at frequency at around 20, 40, and 50 GHz. Retrieval process yields temperature and humidity profiles with cross track scan along the flight line. Estimated total weight of all radiometer hardware, from the antennas to data acquisition system, is less than 0.8 kg and a maximum power consumption is 15.2 W. With not enough power for blackbody calibration target, radiometers use zenith sky view at lower stratosphere as an excellent calibration target for a conventional tipping-curve calibration. Spatial distributions of clouds from visible and surface temperature from thermal cameras are used as additional information for

  19. A Radar/Radiometer Instrument for Mapping Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Peter H.; Hilliard, Laurence; Rincon, Rafael; LeVine, David; Mead, James

    2003-01-01

    The RadSTAR instrument combines an L-band, digital beam-forming radar with an L-band synthetic aperture, thinned array (STAR) radiometer. The RadSTAR development will support NASA Earth science goals by developing a novel, L-band scatterometer/ radiometer that measures Earth surface bulk material properties (surface emissions and backscatter) as well as surface characteristics (backscatter). Present, real aperture airborne L-Band active/passive measurement systems such as the JPUPALS (Wilson, et al, 2000) provide excellent sampling characteristics, but have no scanning capabilities, and are extremely large; the huge JPUPALS horn requires a the C-130 airborne platform, operated with the aft loading door open during flight operation. The approach used for the upcoming Aquarius ocean salinity mission or the proposed Hydros soil mission use real apertures with multiple fixed beams or scanning beams. For real aperture instruments, there is no upgrade path to scanning over a broad swath, except rotation of the whole aperture, which is an approach with obvious difficulties as aperture size increases. RadSTAR will provide polarimetric scatterometer and radiometer measurements over a wide swath, in a highly space-efficient configuration. The electronic scanning approaches provided through STAR technology and digital beam forming will enable the large L-band aperture to scan efficiently over a very wide swath. RadSTAR technology development, which merges an interferometric radiometer with a digital beam forming scatterometer, is an important step in the path to space for an L-band scatterometer/radiometer. RadSTAR couples a patch array antenna with a 1.26 GHz digital beam forming radar scatterometer and a 1.4 GHz STAR radiometer to provide Earth surface backscatter and emission measurements in a compact, cross-track scanning instrument with no moving parts. This technology will provide the first L-band, emission and backscatter measurements in a compact aircraft instrument

  20. Integrated Receivers for NASA Radiometers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is responsive to NASA SBIR Subtopic S1.02: Microwave Technologies for Remote Sensing, 640GHz Polarimeter. VDI has recently demonstrated the integration...

  1. Electrotechnologies, microwaves, and ultrasounds combined with binary mixtures of ethanol and water to extract steviol glycosides and antioxidant compounds from Stevia rebaudiana leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonell-Capella, Juana M.; Šic Žlabur, Jana; Rimac Brnčić, Suzana

    2017-01-01

    /g) was obtained after ultrasound-assisted extraction, while microwave allowed the highest yields of rebaudioside A (22.7 ± 0.1 mg/g). However, pulsed electric field technology was the most efficient to recover stevioside (44.2 ± 0.1 mg/g) and rebaudioside A (22.4 ± 0.3 mg/g) when using 50% ethanol-water. Results...... leaves in food industry is usually performed using thermal extraction under agitation after drying and grinding. Although efficient, this technique generates an extract not only rich in targeted compounds but also in impurities, which complicates the downstream processing steps. Selective extraction...

  2. Microwave-assisted self-doping of TiO2 photonic crystals for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhonghai; Yang, Xiulin; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Ahmed, Elaf S.; Shi, Le; Wang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we report that the combination of microwave heating and ethylene glycol, a mild reducing agent, can induce Ti3+ self-doping in TiO2. A hierarchical TiO2 nanotube array with the top layer serving as TiO2 photonic crystals (TiO2 NTPCs

  3. A horizontal vane radiometer: experiment, theory and simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, David; Lazarra, Andres; Garcia, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The existence of two motive forces on a Crookes radiometer has complicated the investigation of either force independently. The thermal creep shear force in particular has been subject to differing interpretations of the direction in which it acts and its order of magnitude. In this article we provide a horizontal vane radiometer design which isolates the thermal creep shear force. The horizontal vane radiometer is explored through experiment, kinetic theory, and the Direct Simulation Monte C...

  4. Analyzing Non Stationary Processes in Radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The lack of well-developed techniques for modeling changing statistical moments in our observations has stymied the application of stochastic process theory for many scientific and engineering applications. Non linear effects of the observation methodology is one of the most perplexing aspects to modeling non stationary processes. This perplexing problem was encountered when modeling the effect of non stationary receiver fluctuations on the performance of radiometer calibration architectures. Existing modeling approaches were found not applicable; particularly problematic is modeling processes across scales over which they begin to exhibit non stationary behavior within the time interval of the calibration algorithm. Alternatively, the radiometer output is modeled as samples from a sequence random variables; the random variables are treated using a conditional probability distribution function conditioned on the use of the variable in the calibration algorithm. This approach of treating a process as a sequence of random variables with non stationary stochastic moments produce sensible predictions of temporal effects of calibration algorithms. To test these model predictions, an experiment using the Millimeter wave Imaging Radiometer (MIR) was conducted. The MIR with its two black body calibration references was configured in a laboratory setting to observe a third ultra-stable reference (CryoTarget). The MIR was programmed to sequentially sample each of the three references in approximately a 1 second cycle. Data were collected over a six-hour interval. The sequence of reference measurements form an ensemble sample set comprised of a series of three reference measurements. Two references are required to estimate the receiver response. A third reference is used to estimate the uncertainty in the estimate. Typically, calibration algorithms are designed to suppress the non stationary effects of receiver fluctuations. By treating the data sequence as an ensemble

  5. GPM GROUND VALIDATION DUAL POLARIZATION RADIOMETER GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Dual Polarization Radiometer GCPEx dataset provides brightness temperature measurements at frequencies 90 GHz (not polarized) and 150 GHz...

  6. If Frisch is true - impacts of varying beam width, resolution, frequency combinations and beam overlap when retrieving liquid water content profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küchler, N.; Kneifel, S.; Kollias, P.; Loehnert, U.

    2017-12-01

    Cumulus and stratocumulus clouds strongly affect the Earth's radiation budget and are a major uncertainty source in weather and climate prediction models. To improve and evaluate models, a comprehensive understanding of cloud processes is necessary and references are needed. Therefore active and passive microwave remote sensing of clouds can be used to derive cloud properties such as liquid water path and liquid water content (LWC), which can serve as a reference for model evaluation. However, both the measurements and the assumptions when retrieving physical quantities from the measurements involve uncertainty sources. Frisch et al. (1998) combined radar and radiometer observations to derive LWC profiles. Assuming their assumptions are correct, there will be still uncertainties regarding the measurement setup. We investigate how varying beam width, temporal and vertical resolutions, frequency combinations, and beam overlap of and between the two instruments influence the retrieval of LWC profiles. Especially, we discuss the benefit of combining vertically, high resolved radar and radiometer measurements using the same antenna, i.e. having ideal beam overlap. Frisch, A. S., G. Feingold, C. W. Fairall, T. Uttal, and J. B. Snider, 1998: On cloud radar and microwave radiometer measurements of stratus cloud liquid water profiles. J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos., 103 (18), 23 195-23 197, doi:0148-0227/98/98JD-01827509.00.

  7. Enhanced hemispheric-scale snow mapping through the blending of optical and microwave satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R. L.; Brodzik, M. J.; Savoie, M.; Knowles, K.

    2003-04-01

    Snow cover is an important variable for climate and hydrologic models due to its effects on energy and moisture budgets. Seasonal snow can cover more than 50% of the Northern Hemisphere land surface during the winter resulting in snow cover being the land surface characteristic responsible for the largest annual and interannual differences in albedo. Passive microwave satellite remote sensing can augment measurements based on visible satellite data alone because of the ability to acquire data through most clouds or during darkness as well as to provide a measure of snow depth or water equivalent. Global snow cover fluctuation can now be monitored over a 24 year period using passive microwave data (Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) 1978-1987 and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), 1987-present). Evaluation of snow extent derived from passive microwave algorithms is presented through comparison with the NOAA Northern Hemisphere weekly snow extent data. For the period 1978 to 2002, both passive microwave and visible data sets show a similar pattern of inter-annual variability, although the maximum snow extents derived from the microwave data are consistently less than those provided by the visible satellite data and the visible data typically show higher monthly variability. Decadal trends and their significance are compared for the two data types. During shallow snow conditions of the early winter season microwave data consistently indicate less snow-covered area than the visible data. This underestimate of snow extent results from the fact that shallow snow cover (less than about 5.0 cm) does not provide a scattering signal of sufficient strength to be detected by the algorithms. As the snow cover continues to build during the months of January through March, as well as throughout the melt season, agreement between the two data types continually improves. This occurs because as the snow becomes deeper and the layered structure more complex, the

  8. Optimum Conditions for Microwave Assisted Extraction for Recovery of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity from Macadamia (Macadamia tetraphylla Skin Waste Using Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Dailey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop optimal microwave assisted extraction conditions for recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties from the macadamia skin, an abundant waste source from the macadamia industry. Water, a safe, accessible, and inexpensive solvent, was used as the extraction solvent and Response Surface Methodology (RSM was applied to design and analyse the conditions for microwave-assisted extraction (MAE. The results showed that RSM models were reliable for the prediction of extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties. Within the tested ranges, MAE radiation time and power, as well as the sample-to-solvent ratio, affected the extraction efficiency of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and antioxidant properties of the macadamia skin; however, the impact of these variables was varied. The optimal MAE conditions for maximum recovery of TPC, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant properties from the macadamia skin were MAE time of 4.5 min, power of 30% (360 W and sample-to-water ratio of 5 g/100 mL. Under these conditions, an extract could be prepared with TPC of 45 mg/g, flavonoids of 29 mg RUE/g of dried macadamia skin.

  9. Microfluidic Radiometal Labeling Systems for Biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, D E; Kenis, P J. A.

    2011-12-29

    In a typical labeling procedure with radiometals, such as Cu-64 and Ga-68; a very large (~ 100-fold) excess of the non-radioactive reactant (precursor) is used to promote rapid and efficient incorporation of the radioisotope into the PET imaging agent. In order to achieve high specific activities, careful control of reaction conditions and extensive chromatographic purifications are required in order to separate the labeled compounds from the cold precursors. Here we propose a microfluidic approach to overcome these problems, and achieve high specific activities in a more convenient, semi-automated fashion and faster time frame. Microfluidic reactors, consisting of a network of micron-sized channels (typical dimensions in the range 10 - 300¼m), filters, separation columns, electrodes and reaction loops/chambers etched onto a solid substrate, are now emerging as an extremely useful technology for the intensification and miniaturization of chemical processes. The ability to manipulate, process and analyze reagent concentrations and reaction interfaces in both space and time within the channel network of a microreactor provides the fine level of reaction control that is desirable in PET radiochemistry practice. These factors can bring radiometal labeling, specifically the preparation of radio-labeled biomolecules such as antibodies, much closer to their theoretical maximum specific activities.

  10. Absence of genotoxic activity from milk and water boiled in microwave oven in somatic cells from Drosophila melanogaster; Ausencia da atividade genotoxica do leite e agua, fervidos com microondas, em celulas somaticas de Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Cristina das Dores. E-mail: crisddias@yahoo.com.br

    2003-07-01

    This paper reports an experiment for evaluation of the possible genotoxic effects of food prepared in a microwave oven, through the mutation test and somatic recombination, in wings of Drosophila melanogaster. Two crossing have been performed: a standard cross-ST and a high bioactivation cross - HB resulting in marked trans -heterozygote descendents (MH) and balanced heterozygotes (BH). The 72 hours larvas were fed with water and milk boiled both in the microwave oven and in the traditional way. The MH individual wings were analyzed, where the spots can be induced either by mutation or mitotic recombination. The experiment presented negative results related to the genotoxic effects of the water and milk boiled using the microwave oven, in MH descendents of both crossing. Therefore, under these experimental conditions, genotoxic activity were not presented by milk and water boiled in the microwave oven. However, an extensive study using different techniques is necessary to investigate the action of the food prepared in the microwave oven on the genetic material.

  11. Physical retrieval of precipitation water contents from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) data. Part 1: A cloud ensemble/radiative parameterization for sensor response (report version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, William S.; Raymond, William H.

    1990-01-01

    The physical retrieval of geophysical parameters based upon remotely sensed data requires a sensor response model which relates the upwelling radiances that the sensor observes to the parameters to be retrieved. In the retrieval of precipitation water contents from satellite passive microwave observations, the sensor response model has two basic components. First, a description of the radiative transfer of microwaves through a precipitating atmosphere must be considered, because it is necessary to establish the physical relationship between precipitation water content and upwelling microwave brightness temperature. Also the spatial response of the satellite microwave sensor (or antenna pattern) must be included in the description of sensor response, since precipitation and the associated brightness temperature field can vary over a typical microwave sensor resolution footprint. A 'population' of convective cells, as well as stratiform clouds, are simulated using a computationally-efficient multi-cylinder cloud model. Ensembles of clouds selected at random from the population, distributed over a 25 km x 25 km model domain, serve as the basis for radiative transfer calculations of upwelling brightness temperatures at the SSM/I frequencies. Sensor spatial response is treated explicitly by convolving the upwelling brightness temperature by the domain-integrated SSM/I antenna patterns. The sensor response model is utilized in precipitation water content retrievals.

  12. Measuring tropospheric wind with microwave sounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrigtsen, B.; Su, H.; Turk, J.; Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Dang, V. T.

    2017-12-01

    In its 2007 "Decadal Survey" of earth science missions for NASA the U.S. National Research Council recommended that a Doppler wind lidar be developed for a three-dimensional tropospheric winds mission ("3D-Winds"). The technology required for such a mission has not yet been developed, and it is expected that the next Decadal Survey, planned to be released by the end of 2017, will put additional emphasis on the still pressing need for wind measurements from space. The first Decadal Survey also called for a geostationary microwave sounder (GMS) on a Precipitation and All-weather Temperature and Humidity (PATH) mission, which could be used to measure wind from space. Such a sounder, the Geostationary Synthetic Thinned Aperture Radiometer (GeoSTAR), has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The PATH mission has not yet been funded by NASA, but a low-cost subset of PATH, GeoStorm has been proposed as a hosted payload on a commercial communications satellite. Both PATH and GeoStorm would obtain frequent (every 15 minutes of better) measurements of tropospheric water vapor profiles, and they can be used to derive atmospheric motion vector (AMV) wind profiles, even in the presence of clouds. Measurement of wind is particularly important in the tropics, where the atmosphere is largely not in thermal balance and wind estimates cannot generally be derived from temperature and pressure fields. We report on simulation studies of AMV wind vectors derived from a GMS and from a cluster of low-earth-orbiting (LEO) small satellites (e.g., CubeSats). The results of two separate simulation studies are very encouraging and show that a ±2 m/s wind speed precision is attainable, which would satisfy WMO requirements. A GMS observing system in particular, which can be implemented now, would enable significant progress in the study of atmospheric dynamics. Copyright 2017 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged

  13. Microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing for security applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nanzer, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing techniques are fast becoming a necessity in many aspects of security as detection and classification of objects or intruders becomes more difficult. This groundbreaking resource offers you expert guidance in this burgeoning area. It provides you with a thorough treatment of the principles of microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing for security applications, as well as practical coverage of the design of radiometer, radar, and imaging systems. You learn how to design active and passive sensors for intruder detection, concealed object detection,

  14. Satellite observations of rainfall effect on sea surface salinity in the waters adjacent to Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chung-Ru; Hsu, Po-Chun; Lin, Chen-Chih; Huang, Shih-Jen

    2017-10-01

    Changes of oceanic salinity are highly related to the variations of evaporation and precipitation. To understand the influence of rainfall on the sea surface salinity (SSS) in the waters adjacent to Taiwan, satellite remote sensing data from the year of 2012 to 2014 are employed in this study. The daily rain rate data obtained from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's Microwave Imager (TRMM/TMI), Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR), and WindSat Polarimetric Radiometer. The SSS data was derived from the measurements of radiometer instruments onboard the Aquarius satellite. The results show the average values of SSS in east of Taiwan, east of Luzon and South China Sea are 33.83 psu, 34.05 psu, and 32.84 psu, respectively, in the condition of daily rain rate higher than 1 mm/hr. In contrast to the rainfall condition, the average values of SSS are 34.07 psu, 34.26 psu, and 33.09 psu in the three areas, respectively at no rain condition (rain rate less than 1 mm/hr). During the cases of heavy rainfall caused by spiral rain bands of typhoon, the SSS is diluted with an average value of -0.78 psu when the average rain rate is higher than 4 mm/hr. However, the SSS was increased after temporarily decreased during the typhoon cases. A possible reason to explain this phenomenon is that the heavy rainfall caused by the spiral rain bands of typhoon may dilute the sea surface water, but the strong winds can uplift the higher salinity of subsurface water to the sea surface.

  15. Calibration of the TUD Ku-band Synthetic Aperture Radiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Brian; Skou, Niels

    1995-01-01

    The TUD Synthetic Aperture Radiometer is a 2-channel demonstration model that can simulate a thinned aperture radiometer having an unfilled aperture consisting of several small antenna elements. Aperture synthesis obtained by interferometric measurements using the antenna elements in pairs, follo...

  16. L-Band Polarimetric Correlation Radiometer with Subharmonic Sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotbøll, Jesper; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Skou, Niels

    2001-01-01

    A novel L-band radiometer trading analog complexity for digital ditto has been designed and built. It is a fully polarimetric radiometer of the correlation type and it is based on the sub-harmonic sampling principle in which the L-band signal is directly sampled by a fast A to D converter...

  17. Novel multi-beam radiometers for accurate ocean surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, C.; Pontoppidan, K.; Nielsen, P. H.

    2014-01-01

    Novel antenna architectures for real aperture multi-beam radiometers providing high resolution and high sensitivity for accurate sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean vector wind (OVW) measurements are investigated. On the basis of the radiometer requirements set for future SST/OVW missions...

  18. A novel L-band polarimetric radiometer featuring subharmonic sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotbøll, J.; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Skou, Niels

    2003-01-01

    A novel L-band radiometer trading analog components for digital circuits has been designed, built and operated. It is a fully polarimetric radiometer of the correlation type, and it is based on the subharmonic sampling principle in which the L-band signal is directly sampled by a fast A to D...

  19. First TSI observations of the new Compact Lightweight Absolute Radiometer (CLARA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, B.; Finsterle, W.; Koller, S.; Levesque, P. L.; Pfiffner, D.; Schmutz, W. K.

    2017-12-01

    Continuous and precise Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) measurements are indispensable to evaluate the influence of short- and long-term solar radiative emission variations on the Earth's energy budget. The existence of a potentially long-term trend in the suns activity and whether or not such a trend could be climate effective is still a matter of debate. The Compact Lightweight Absolute Radiometer (CLARA) is one of PMOD/WRC's future contributions to the almost seamless series of space borne TSI measurements since 1978. CLARA is one of three payloads of the Norwegian micro satellite NORSAT-1, along with Langmuir probes for space plasma research and an Automatic Identification System (AIS) receiver to monitor maritime traffic in Norwegian waters. NORSAT-1 was launched July 14th 2017 and the nominal operation of CLARA will start after the instrument commissioning beginning August 21st2017. We present the design, calibration and first TSI observations of CLARA, a new generation of active cavity Electrical Substitution Radiometers (ESR) comprising the latest radiometer developments of PMOD/WRC: i) A three-cavity design for degradation tracking and redundancy, ii) a digital control loop with feed forward system allowing for measurement cadences of 30s, iii) an aperture arrangement to reduce internal scattered light and iv) a new cavity and heatsink design to minimize non-equivalence, size and weight of the instrument. CLARA was end-to-end calibrated against the SI traceable cryogenic radiometer of the TSI Radiometer Facility (TRF) in Boulder (Colorado). The absolute measurement uncertainties for the three SI-traceable TSI detectors of CLARA are 567, 576 and 912 ppm (k = 1).

  20. Merging thermal and microwave satellite observations for a high-resolution soil moisture data product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many societal applications of soil moisture data products require high spatial resolution and numerical accuracy. Current thermal geostationary satellite sensors (GOES Imager and GOES-R ABI) could produce 2-16km resolution soil moisture proxy data. Passive microwave satellite radiometers (e.g. AMSR...

  1. Microwave Remote Sensing of Ocean Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rates over Tropical Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, C. T.; Dehority, D. C.; Black, P. G.; Chien, J. Z.

    1984-01-01

    The value of using narrowly spaced frequencies within a microwave band to measure wind speeds and rain rates over tropical storms with radiometers is reviewed. The technique focuses on results obtained in the overflights of Hurricane Allen during 5 and 8 of August, 1980.

  2. Etched track radiometers in radon measurements: a review

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolaev, V A

    1999-01-01

    Passive radon radiometers, based on alpha particle etched track detectors, are very attractive for the assessment of radon exposure. The present review considers various devices used for measurement of the volume activity of radon isotopes and their daughters and determination of equilibrium coefficients. Such devices can be classified into 8 groups: (i) open or 'bare' detectors, (ii) open chambers, (iii) sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn chambers with an inlet filter, (iv) advanced sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn radiometers, (v) multipurpose radiometers, (vi) radiometers based on a combination of etched track detectors and an electrostatic field, (vii) radiometers based on etched track detectors and activated charcoal and (viii) devices for the measurement of radon isotopes and/or radon daughters by means of track parameter measurements. Some of them such as the open detector and the chamber with an inlet filter have a variety of modifications and are applied widely both in geophysical research and radon dosimetric surveys. At the...

  3. Noise performance of microwave humidity sounders over their lifetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hans

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The microwave humidity sounders Special Sensor Microwave Water Vapor Profiler (SSMT-2, Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B (AMSU-B and Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS to date have been providing data records for 25 years. So far, the data records lack uncertainty information essential for constructing consistent long time data series. In this study, we assess the quality of the recorded data with respect to the uncertainty caused by noise. We calculate the noise on the raw calibration counts from the deep space views (DSVs of the instrument and the noise equivalent differential temperature (NEΔT as a measure for the radiometer sensitivity. For this purpose, we use the Allan deviation that is not biased from an underlying varying mean of the data and that has been suggested only recently for application in atmospheric remote sensing. Moreover, we use the bias function related to the Allan deviation to infer the underlying spectrum of the noise. As examples, we investigate the noise spectrum in flight for some instruments. For the assessment of the noise evolution in time, we provide a descriptive and graphical overview of the calculated NEΔT over the life span of each instrument and channel. This overview can serve as an easily accessible information for users interested in the noise performance of a specific instrument, channel and time. Within the time evolution of the noise, we identify periods of instrumental degradation, which manifest themselves in an increasing NEΔT, and periods of erratic behaviour, which show sudden increases of NEΔT interrupting the overall smooth evolution of the noise. From this assessment and subsequent exclusion of the aforementioned periods, we present a chart showing available data records with NEΔT  <  1 K. Due to overlapping life spans of the instruments, these reduced data records still cover without gaps the time since 1994 and may therefore serve as a first step for constructing long time

  4. Rapid synthesis of water-dispersible superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by a microwave-assisted route for safe labeling of endothelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carenza, Elisa; Barceló, Verónica; Morancho, Anna; Montaner, Joan; Rosell, Anna; Roig, Anna

    2014-08-01

    We synthesize highly crystalline citrate-coated iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles that are stable and readily dispersible in water by an extremely fast microwave-assisted route and investigate the uptake of magnetic nanoparticles by endothelial cells. Nanoparticles form large aggregates when added to complete endothelial cell medium. The size of the aggregates was controlled by adjusting the ionic strength of the medium. The internalization of nanoparticles into endothelial cells was then investigated by transmission electron microscopy, magnetometry and chemical analysis, together with cell viability assays. Interestingly, a sevenfold more efficient uptake was found for systems with larger nanoparticle aggregates, which also showed significantly higher magnetic resonance imaging effectiveness without compromising cell viability and functionality. We are thus presenting an example of a straightforward microwave synthesis of citrate-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for safe endothelial progenitor cell labeling and good magnetic resonance cell imaging with potential application for magnetic cell guidance and in vivo cell tracking. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Tissue Propagation Model for Validating Close-Proximity Biomedical Radiometer Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, Q.; Herzig, P.; Weller, T.

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of thermally-generated electromagnetic emissions through stratified human tissue is studied herein using a non-coherent mathematical model. The model is developed to complement subsurface body temperature measurements performed using a close proximity microwave radiometer. The model takes into account losses and reflections as thermal emissions propagate through the body, before being emitted at the skin surface. The derivation is presented in four stages and applied to the human core phantom, a physical representation of a stomach volume of skin, muscle, and blood-fatty tissue. A drop in core body temperature is simulated via the human core phantom and the response of the propagation model is correlated to the radiometric measurement. The results are comparable, with differences on the order of 1.5 - 3%. Hence the plausibility of core body temperature extraction via close proximity radiometry is demonstrated, given that the electromagnetic characteristics of the stratified tissue layers are known.

  6. Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) Wind Speed Retrievals and Assessment Using Dropsondes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Daniel J.; Biswas, Sayak K.

    2018-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is an experimental C-band passive microwave radiometer designed to map the horizontal structure of surface wind speed fields in hurricanes. New data processing and customized retrieval approaches were developed after the 2015 Tropical Cyclone Intensity (TCI) experiment, which featured flights over Hurricanes Patricia, Joaquin, Marty, and the remnants of Tropical Storm Erika. These new approaches produced maps of surface wind speed that looked more realistic than those from previous campaigns. Dropsondes from the High Definition Sounding System (HDSS) that was flown with HIRAD on a WB-57 high altitude aircraft in TCI were used to assess the quality of the HIRAD wind speed retrievals. The root mean square difference between HIRAD-retrieved surface wind speeds and dropsonde-estimated surface wind speeds was 6.0 meters per second. The largest differences between HIRAD and dropsonde winds were from data points where storm motion during dropsonde descent compromised the validity of the comparisons. Accounting for this and for uncertainty in the dropsonde measurements themselves, we estimate the root mean square error for the HIRAD retrievals as around 4.7 meters per second. Prior to the 2015 TCI experiment, HIRAD had previously flown on the WB-57 for missions across Hurricanes Gonzalo (2014), Earl (2010), and Karl (2010). Configuration of the instrument was not identical to the 2015 flights, but the methods devised after the 2015 flights may be applied to that previous data in an attempt to improve retrievals from those cases.

  7. Scanning Mechanism of the FY-3 Microwave Humidity Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Manfred; Jing, Li; Hehr, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Astrium GmbH Germany, developed the scanning equipment for the instrument package of the MicroWave Humidity Sounder (MWHS) flying on the FY-3 meteorological satellite (FY means Feng Yun, Wind and Cloud) in a sun-synchronized orbit of 850-km altitude and at an inclination of 98.8 . The scanning mechanism rotates at variable velocity comprising several acceleration / deceleration phases during each revolution. The Scanning Mechanism contains two output shafts, each rotating a parabolic offset Antenna Reflector. The mechanism is operated in closed loop by means of redundant control electronics. MWHS is a sounding radiometer for measurement of global atmospheric water vapour profiles. An Engineering Qualification Model was developed and qualified and a first Flight Model was launched early 2008. The system is now working for more than two years successful in orbit. A second Flight Model of the Antenna Scanning Mechanism and of its associated control electronics was built and delivered to the customer for application on the follow-on spacecraft that will be launched by the end of 2010.

  8. Development, Capabilities, and Impact on Wind Analyses of the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T.; Amarin, R.; Atlas, R.; Bailey, M.; Black, P.; Buckley, C.; Chen, S.; El-Nimri, S.; Hood, R.; James, M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a new airborne microwave remote sensor for hurricane observations that is currently under development by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in partnership with the NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory/Hurricane Research Division, the University of Central Florida, the University of Michigan, and the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The instrument is being test flown in January and is expected to participate in the tropical cyclone experiment GRIP (Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes) in the 2010 season. HIRAD is being designed to study the wind field in some detail within strong hurricanes and to enhance the real-time airborne ocean surface winds observation capabilities of NOAA and USAF Weather Squadron hurricane hunter aircraft currently using the operational Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR). Unlike SFMR, which measures wind speed and rain rate along the ground track at a single point directly beneath the aircraft, HIRAD will provide images of the surface wind and rain field over a wide swath (approximately 3 x the aircraft altitude) with approximately 2 km resolution. This paper describes the HIRAD instrument and the physical basis for its operations, including chamber test data from the instrument. The potential value of future HIRAD observations will be illustrated with a summary of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) in which measurements from the new instrument as well as those from existing instruments (air, surface, and space-based) are simulated from the output of a detailed numerical model, and those results are used to construct simulated H*Wind analyses. Evaluations will be presented on the impact on H*Wind analyses of using the HIRAD instrument observations to replace those of the SFMR instrument, and also on the impact of a future satellite-based HIRAD in comparison to instruments with more limited capabilities for observing strong winds through heavy

  9. Effect of Dielectric Properties of a Solvent-Water Mixture Used in Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Antioxidants from Potato Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Singh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric properties of a methanol-water mixture were measured at different temperatures from 20 to 80 °C at two frequencies 915 MHz and 2450 MHz. These frequencies are most commonly used on industrial and domestic scales respectively. In this study, the dielectric properties of a methanol-water mixture were found to be dependent on temperature, solvent concentration, and presence of plant matrix. Linear and quadratic equations were developed to establish the dependency between factors. At 2450 MHz, the dielectric constant of methanol-water mixtures was significantly affected by concentration of methanol rather than by temperature, whereas the dielectric loss factor was significantly affected by temperature rather than by methanol concentration. Introduction of potato peel led to an increase in the effect of temperature on the dielectric properties of the methanol fractions. At 915 MHz, both the dielectric properties were significantly affected by the increase in temperature and solvent concentration, while the presence of potato peel had no significant effect on the dielectric properties. Statistical analysis of the dissipation factor at 915 and 2450 MHz revealed that both temperature and solvent concentration had a significant effect on it, whereas introduction of potato peels at 915 MHz reduced the effect of temperature as compared to 2450 MHz. The total phenolic yield of the microwave-assisted extraction process was significantly affected by the solvent concentration, the dissipation factor of the methanol-water mixture and the extraction time.

  10. Mapping Daily and Maximum Flood Extents at 90-m Resolution During Hurricanes Harvey and Irma Using Passive Microwave Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galantowicz, J. F.; Picton, J.; Root, B.

    2017-12-01

    Passive microwave remote sensing can provided a distinct perspective on flood events by virtue of wide sensor fields of view, frequent observations from multiple satellites, and sensitivity through clouds and vegetation. During Hurricanes Harvey and Irma, we used AMSR2 (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2, JAXA) data to map flood extents starting from the first post-storm rain-free sensor passes. Our standard flood mapping algorithm (FloodScan) derives flooded fraction from 22-km microwave data (AMSR2 or NASA's GMI) in near real time and downscales it to 90-m resolution using a database built from topography, hydrology, and Global Surface Water Explorer data and normalized to microwave data footprint shapes. During Harvey and Irma we tested experimental versions of the algorithm designed to map the maximum post-storm flood extent rapidly and made a variety of map products available immediately for use in storm monitoring and response. The maps have several unique features including spanning the entire storm-affected area and providing multiple post-storm updates as flood water shifted and receded. From the daily maps we derived secondary products such as flood duration, maximum flood extent (Figure 1), and flood depth. In this presentation, we describe flood extent evolution, maximum extent, and local details as detected by the FloodScan algorithm in the wake of Harvey and Irma. We compare FloodScan results to other available flood mapping resources, note observed shortcomings, and describe improvements made in response. We also discuss how best-estimate maps could be updated in near real time by merging FloodScan products and data from other remote sensing systems and hydrological models.

  11. Land Surface Microwave Emissivities Derived from AMSR-E and MODIS Measurements with Advanced Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncet, Jean-Luc; Liang, Pan; Galantowicz, John F.; Lipton, Alan E.; Uymin, Gennady; Prigent, Catherine; Grassotti, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A microwave emissivity database has been developed with data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) and with ancillary land surface temperature (LST) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the same Aqua spacecraft. The primary intended application of the database is to provide surface emissivity constraints in atmospheric and surface property retrieval or assimilation. An additional application is to serve as a dynamic indicator of land surface properties relevant to climate change monitoring. The precision of the emissivity data is estimated to be significantly better than in prior databases from other sensors due to the precise collocation with high-quality MODIS LST data and due to the quality control features of our data analysis system. The accuracy of the emissivities in deserts and semi-arid regions is enhanced by applying, in those regions, a version of the emissivity retrieval algorithm that accounts for the penetration of microwave radiation through dry soil with diurnally varying vertical temperature gradients. These results suggest that this penetration effect is more widespread and more significant to interpretation of passive microwave measurements than had been previously established. Emissivity coverage in areas where persistent cloudiness interferes with the availability of MODIS LST data is achieved using a classification-based method to spread emissivity data from less-cloudy areas that have similar microwave surface properties. Evaluations and analyses of the emissivity products over homogeneous snow-free areas are presented, including application to retrieval of soil temperature profiles. Spatial inhomogeneities are the largest in the vicinity of large water bodies due to the large water/land emissivity contrast and give rise to large apparent temporal variability in the retrieved emissivities when satellite footprint locations vary over time. This issue will be dealt with in the future by

  12. Aquarius L-Band Radiometers Calibration Using Cold Sky Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnat, Emmanuel P.; Le Vine, David M.; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Brown, Shannon T.; Hong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    An important element in the calibration plan for the Aquarius radiometers is to look at the cold sky. This involves rotating the satellite 180 degrees from its nominal Earth viewing configuration to point the main beams at the celestial sky. At L-band, the cold sky provides a stable, well-characterized scene to be used as a calibration reference. This paper describes the cold sky calibration for Aquarius and how it is used as part of the absolute calibration. Cold sky observations helped establish the radiometer bias, by correcting for an error in the spillover lobe of the antenna pattern, and monitor the long-term radiometer drift.

  13. Special aerosol sources for certification and test of aerosol radiometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkina, S.K.; Zalmanzon, Y.E.; Kuznetsov, Y.V.; Rizin, A.I.; Fertman, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of the development and practical application of new radionuclide source types (Special Aerosol Sources (SAS)), that meet the international standard recommendations, which are used for certification and test of aerosol radiometers (monitors) using model aerosols of plutonium-239, strontium-yttrium-90 or uranium of natural isotope composition and certified against Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USSR national radioactive aerosol standard or by means of a reference radiometer. The original technology for source production allows the particular features of sampling to be taken into account as well as geometry and conditions of radionuclides radiation registration in the sample for the given type of radiometer. (author)

  14. Special aerosol sources for certification and test of aerosol radiometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, S.K.; Zalmanzon, Y.E.; Kuznetsov, Y.V.; Rizin, A.I.; Fertman, D.E. (Union Research Institute of Instrumentation, Moscow (USSR))

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of the development and practical application of new radionuclide source types (Special Aerosol Sources (SAS)), that meet the international standard recommendations, which are used for certification and test of aerosol radiometers (monitors) using model aerosols of plutonium-239, strontium-yttrium-90 or uranium of natural isotope composition and certified against Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USSR national radioactive aerosol standard or by means of a reference radiometer. The original technology for source production allows the particular features of sampling to be taken into account as well as geometry and conditions of radionuclides radiation registration in the sample for the given type of radiometer. (author).

  15. Spectral measurements of the cosmic microwave background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogut, A.J.

    1989-04-01

    Three experiments have measured the intensity of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at wavelengths 4.0, 3.0, and 0.21 cm. The measurement at 4.0 cm used a direct-gain total-power radiometer to measure the difference in power between the zenith sky and a large cryogenic reference target. Foreground signals are measured with the same instrument and subtracted from the zenith signal, leaving the CMB as the residual. The reference target consists of a large open-mouth cryostat with a microwave absorber submerged in liquid helium; thin windows block the radiative heat load and prevent condensation atmospheric gases within the cryostat. The thermodynamic temperature of the CMB at 4.0 cm is 2.59 +- 0.07 K. The measurement at 3.0 cm used a superheterodyne Dicke-switched radiometer with a similar reference target to measure the zenith sky temperature. A rotating mirror allowed one of the antenna beams to be redirected to a series of zenith angles, permitting automated atmospheric measurements without moving the radiometer. A weighted average of 5 years of data provided the thermodynamic temperature of the CMB at 3.0 cm of 2.62 +- 0.06 K. The measurement at 0.21 cm used Very Large Array observations of interstellar ortho-formaldehyde to determine the CMB intensity in molecular clouds toward the giant HII region W51A (G49.5-0.4). Solutions of the radiative transfer problem in the context of a large velocity gradient model provided estimates of the CMB temperature within the foreground clouds. Collisional excitation from neutral hydrogen molecules within the clouds limited the precision of the result. The thermodynamic temperature of the CMB at 0.21 cm is 3.2 +- 0.9 K. 72 refs., 27 figs., 38 tabs.

  16. Spectral measurements of the cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogut, A.J.

    1989-04-01

    Three experiments have measured the intensity of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at wavelengths 4.0, 3.0, and 0.21 cm. The measurement at 4.0 cm used a direct-gain total-power radiometer to measure the difference in power between the zenith sky and a large cryogenic reference target. Foreground signals are measured with the same instrument and subtracted from the zenith signal, leaving the CMB as the residual. The reference target consists of a large open-mouth cryostat with a microwave absorber submerged in liquid helium; thin windows block the radiative heat load and prevent condensation atmospheric gases within the cryostat. The thermodynamic temperature of the CMB at 4.0 cm is 2.59 +- 0.07 K. The measurement at 3.0 cm used a superheterodyne Dicke-switched radiometer with a similar reference target to measure the zenith sky temperature. A rotating mirror allowed one of the antenna beams to be redirected to a series of zenith angles, permitting automated atmospheric measurements without moving the radiometer. A weighted average of 5 years of data provided the thermodynamic temperature of the CMB at 3.0 cm of 2.62 +- 0.06 K. The measurement at 0.21 cm used Very Large Array observations of interstellar ortho-formaldehyde to determine the CMB intensity in molecular clouds toward the giant HII region W51A (G49.5-0.4). Solutions of the radiative transfer problem in the context of a large velocity gradient model provided estimates of the CMB temperature within the foreground clouds. Collisional excitation from neutral hydrogen molecules within the clouds limited the precision of the result. The thermodynamic temperature of the CMB at 0.21 cm is 3.2 +- 0.9 K. 72 refs., 27 figs., 38 tabs

  17. PAU/RAD: Design and Preliminary Calibration Results of a New L-Band Pseudo-Correlation Radiometer Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Valencia

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The Passive Advanced Unit (PAU for ocean monitoring is a new type of instrument that combines in a single receiver and without time multiplexing, a polarimetric pseudo-correlation microwave radiometer at L-band (PAU-RAD and a GPS reflectometer (PAU-GNSS/R. These instruments in conjunction with an infra-red radiometer (PAU-IR will respectively provide the sea surface temperature and the sea state information needed to accurately retrieve the sea surface salinity from the radiometric measurements. PAU will consist of an array of 4x4 receivers performing digital beamforming and polarization synthesis both for PAU-RAD and PAU-GNSS/R. A concept demonstrator of the PAU instrument with only one receiver has been implemented (PAU-One Receiver or PAU-OR. PAU-OR has been used to test and tune the calibration algorithms that will be applied to PAU. This work describes in detail PAU-OR’s radiometer calibration algorithms and their performance.

  18. Design and characterization of the Large-aperture Experiment to Detect the Dark Age (LEDA) radiometer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, D. C.; Greenhill, L. J.; Fialkov, A.; Bernardi, G.; Garsden, H.; Barsdell, B. R.; Kocz, J.; Anderson, M. M.; Bourke, S. A.; Craig, J.; Dexter, M. R.; Dowell, J.; Eastwood, M. W.; Eftekhari, T.; Ellingson, S. W.; Hallinan, G.; Hartman, J. M.; Kimberk, R.; Lazio, T. Joseph W.; Leiker, S.; MacMahon, D.; Monroe, R.; Schinzel, F.; Taylor, G. B.; Tong, E.; Werthimer, D.; Woody, D. P.

    2018-05-01

    The Large-Aperture Experiment to Detect the Dark Age (LEDA) was designed to detect the predicted O(100) mK sky-averaged absorption of the Cosmic Microwave Background by Hydrogen in the neutral pre- and intergalactic medium just after the cosmological Dark Age. The spectral signature would be associated with emergence of a diffuse Lyα background from starlight during `Cosmic Dawn'. Recently, Bowman et al. (2018) have reported detection of this predicted absorption feature, with an unexpectedly large amplitude of 530 mK, centered at 78 MHz. Verification of this result by an independent experiment, such as LEDA, is pressing. In this paper, we detail design and characterization of the LEDA radiometer systems, and a first-generation pipeline that instantiates a signal path model. Sited at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory Long Wavelength Array, LEDA systems include the station correlator, five well-separated redundant dual polarization radiometers and backend electronics. The radiometers deliver a 30-85 MHz band (16 z < 34) and operate as part of the larger interferometric array, for purposes ultimately of in situ calibration. Here, we report on the LEDA system design, calibration approach, and progress in characterization as of January 2016. The LEDA systems are currently being modified to improve performance near 78 MHz in order to verify the purported absorption feature.

  19. Advances in microwaves 8

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Microwaves, Volume 8 covers the developments in the study of microwaves. The book discusses the circuit forms for microwave integrated circuits; the analysis of microstrip transmission lines; and the use of lumped elements in microwave integrated circuits. The text also describes the microwave properties of ferrimagnetic materials, as well as their interaction with electromagnetic waves propagating in bounded waveguiding structures. The integration techniques useful at high frequencies; material technology for microwave integrated circuits; specific requirements on technology for d

  20. Microwave power engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Okress, Ernest C

    2013-01-01

    Microwave Power Engineering, Volume 2: Applications introduces the electronics technology of microwave power and its applications. This technology emphasizes microwave electronics for direct power utilization and transmission purposes. This volume presents the accomplishments with respect to components, systems, and applications and their prevailing limitations in the light of knowledge of the microwave power technology. The applications discussed include the microwave heating and other processes of materials, which utilize the magnetron predominantly. Other applications include microwave ioni

  1. Application of microwave to drying and blanching of tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Y.; Orikasa, T.; Shiina, T.; Sotome, I.; Isobe, S.; Muramatsu, Y.; Tagawa, A.

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of microwave to the drying and blanching of tomatoes was examined. The changes of the drying rate and surface color were first measured and compared between drying by hot air (50degC) or microwave at three radiation powers. The drying rates using a microwave were higher than that using hot air. Both a constant-rate drying period and a falling-rate drying period were observed for each microwave radiation power. Compared to hot air drying, microwave drying resulted in an increase in lightness which is a preferable quality of tomatoes. Next, the changes in temperature, nutrients and surface color were measured and compared between blanching by microwave or boiling water. Microwave blanching required less time, resulted in higher retention of nutrients (ascorbic acid and lycopene) and caused less change in color in comparison with boiling water blanching. These results suggest that a microwave could be applied to drying and blanching tomatoes

  2. Prelaunch Performance of the 118 GHz Polarcube 3U Cubesat Temperature Sounding Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, L.; Gasiewski, A. J.; Gallaher, D. W.; Sanders, B. T.; Belter, R.; Kraft, D.; Castillo, J.; Gordon, J. A.; Hurowitz, M.

    2017-12-01

    The low cost PolarCube 3U CubeSat supports a 118.75 GHz imaging spectrometer for temperature profiling of the troposphere and surface temperature. It is a demonstrator for a constellation of LEO passive microwave sensors at V-band and other frequencies using 3U/6U CubeSats. Such a satellite constellation for weather forecasting will provide data at high spatial and temporal resolution to observe rapidly evolving mesoscale weather. The satellite's payload is an eight channel, double sideband passive microwave temperature sounder with cross-track scanning and will provide 18 km surface resolution from a 400 km orbit. The radiometer implements a two-point calibration using an internal PIN switch and view of cold space. Although the instrument is based on a well established classical design, the challenges lie in developing a sensitive spectrometer that fits in a 1.5U volume, is low cost, consumes 4 W power and satisfies the CubeSat weight and envelope constraints. PolarCube is scheduled for launch on a Virgin Galactic flight in summer, 2018. The estimated radiometer sensitivity, ΔTrms varies from 0.3 to 2 K across the eight channels. The 50 MHz to 7 GHz 8-channel filter bank (designed with surface mount capacitors and inductors) fits on a 9x5 cm2 RO4350B PCB and includes 2-stage amplification and detector circuitry. The scanning reflector with an 8 cm2 main aperture uses a 3D printed corrugated feed that includes a WR8 to WC8 waveguide transition with a 17° bend. Initial performance results from the instrument using the 3D printed feed and IF/VA board obtained from airborne measurements over Antarctica on the NASA DC8 in early November 2016 indicate a well-functioning radiometer. The end-to-end characterization of the payload with the satellite bus, performance results from vibration and thermal-vacuum tests and roof-top measurements will be presented.

  3. CAROLS: A New Airborne L-Band Radiometer for Ocean Surface and Land Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zribi, Mehrez; Parde, Mickael; Boutin, Jacquline

    2011-01-01

    The "Cooperative Airborne Radiometer for Ocean and Land Studies" (CAROLS) L-Band radiometer was designed and built as a copy of the EMIRAD II radiometer constructed by the Technical University of Denmark team. It is a fully polarimetric and direct sampling correlation radiometer. It is installed ...

  4. Construction and calibration of solar radiometers: pyranometer and pyrheliometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobedo, J.F.; Passos, E.F.; Souza, M.F. de

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports the construction and development of solar radiometers and discusses some characteristic parameters such as linearity, sensitivity and time constant, using an Eppley black-and-white pyranometer as reference. (author) [pt

  5. The development of the advanced cryogenic radiometer facility at NRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamouras, A.; Todd, A. D. W.; Côté, É.; Rowell, N. L.

    2018-02-01

    The National Research Council (NRC) of Canada has established a next generation facility for the primary realization of optical radiant power. The main feature of this facility is a new cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer with a closed-cycle helium cryocooler. A monochromator-based approach allows for detector calibrations at any desired wavelength. A custom-designed motion apparatus includes two transfer standard radiometer mounting ports which has increased our measurement capability by allowing the calibration of two photodetectors in one measurement cycle. Measurement uncertainties have been improved through several upgrades, including newly designed and constructed transimpedance amplifiers for the transfer standard radiometers, and a higher power broadband light source. The most significant improvements in uncertainty arise from the enhanced characteristics of the new cryogenic radiometer including its higher cavity absorptance and reduced non-equivalence effects.

  6. Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Huricane Satellite (HURSAT)-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is used to extend the HURSAT data set such that appling the Objective Dvorak technique...

  7. Effect of Chamber Wall Proximity on Radiometer Force Production (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selden, N. P; Gimelshein, N. E; Gimelshein, S. F; Ketsdever, A. D

    2008-01-01

    ... on a given radiometer configuration in both the free molecule and transitional regimes. The contribution of the chamber walls to both the flowfield structure and radiometric force production were examined for helium, argon, and nitrogen test gases...

  8. Sources of errors in the measurements of underwater profiling radiometer

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Silveira, N.; Suresh, T.; Talaulikar, M.; Desa, E.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Lotlikar, A.

    to meet the stringent quality requirements of marine optical data for satellite ocean color sensor validation, development of algorithms and other related applications, it is very essential to take great care while measuring these parameters. There are two... of the pelican hook. The radiometer dives vertically and the cable is paid out with less tension, keeping in tandem with the descent of the radiometer while taking care to release only the required amount of cable. The operation of the release mechanism lever...

  9. Measurement of radiosity coefficient by means of an infrared radiometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Yoshizo; Kaminaga, Fumito; Osakabe, Masahiro; Maekawa, Katsuhiro [Ibaraki Univ., Hitachi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Ishii, Toshimitsu; Ouoka, Norikazu; Etou, Motokuni

    1991-02-01

    An infrared radiometer has been used for measuring and visualizing the radiation temperature distribution of a surface in many fields. Measured radiation energy by the radiometer is a summation of an emitted radiation and a reflection, which is called a radiosity flux. The present paper shows the characteristics of the radiosity of tested materials. The infrared sensor in used to measure the erosion rate of the graphite by ion beam injection and the temperature distribution of a cutter. (author).

  10. Measurement of radiosity coefficient by means of an infrared radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Yoshizo; Kaminaga, Fumito; Osakabe, Masahiro; Maekawa, Katsuhiro; Ishii, Toshimitsu; Ouoka, Norikazu; Etou, Motokuni.

    1991-01-01

    An infrared radiometer has been used for measuring and visualizing the radiation temperature distribution of a surface in many fields. Measured radiation energy by the radiometer is a summation of an emitted radiation and a reflection, which is called a radiosity flux. The present paper shows the characteristics of the radiosity of tested materials. The infrared sensor in used to measure the erosion rate of the graphite by ion beam injection and the temperature distribution of a cutter. (author)

  11. A cost effective total power radiometer package for atmospheric research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, B.N.; Kelly, W.M.; Vizard, D.R.; Lidholm, U.S.

    1993-01-01

    Millimeter wave radiometers are being increasingly used for plasma diagnostics and remote sensing applications. To date however the widespread use of such systems, particularly for applications requiring frequency coverage above 100 GHz, have been inhibited by the lack of availability of an appropriately specified commercial package. This paper outlines the design and construction of such a radiometer package and gives details of results obtained to date

  12. Reprocessing the Historical Satellite Passive Microwave Record at Enhanced Spatial Resolutions using Image Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, M.; Brodzik, M. J.; Long, D. G.; Paget, A. C.; Armstrong, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    Beginning in 1978, the satellite passive microwave data record has been a mainstay of remote sensing of the cryosphere, providing twice-daily, near-global spatial coverage for monitoring changes in hydrologic and cryospheric parameters that include precipitation, soil moisture, surface water, vegetation, snow water equivalent, sea ice concentration and sea ice motion. Currently available global gridded passive microwave data sets serve a diverse community of hundreds of data users, but do not meet many requirements of modern Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) or Climate Data Records (CDRs), most notably in the areas of intersensor calibration, quality-control, provenance and consistent processing methods. The original gridding techniques were relatively primitive and were produced on 25 km grids using the original EASE-Grid definition that is not easily accommodated in modern software packages. Further, since the first Level 3 data sets were produced, the Level 2 passive microwave data on which they were based have been reprocessed as Fundamental CDRs (FCDRs) with improved calibration and documentation. We are funded by NASA MEaSUREs to reprocess the historical gridded data sets as EASE-Grid 2.0 ESDRs, using the most mature available Level 2 satellite passive microwave (SMMR, SSM/I-SSMIS, AMSR-E) records from 1978 to the present. We have produced prototype data from SSM/I and AMSR-E for the year 2003, for review and feedback from our Early Adopter user community. The prototype data set includes conventional, low-resolution ("drop-in-the-bucket" 25 km) grids and enhanced-resolution grids derived from the two candidate image reconstruction techniques we are evaluating: 1) Backus-Gilbert (BG) interpolation and 2) a radiometer version of Scatterometer Image Reconstruction (SIR). We summarize our temporal subsetting technique, algorithm tuning parameters and computational costs, and include sample SSM/I images at enhanced resolutions of up to 3 km. We are actively

  13. CIRiS: Compact Infrared Radiometer in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, D. P.; Collins, S.; Ferguson, J.; Good, W.; Kampe, T.; Rohrschneider, R.; Warden, R.

    2016-09-01

    The Compact Infrared Radiometer in Space (CIRiS) is a thermal infrared radiometric imaging instrument under development by Ball Aerospace for a Low Earth Orbit mission on a CubeSat spacecraft. Funded by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office's In-Space Validation of Earth Science Technology (InVEST) program, the mission objective is technology demonstration for improved on-orbit radiometric calibration. The CIRiS calibration approach uses a scene select mirror to direct three calibration views to the focal plane array and to transfer the resulting calibrated response to earth images. The views to deep space and two blackbody sources, including one at a selectable temperature, provide multiple options for calibration optimization. Two new technologies, carbon nanotube blackbody sources and microbolometer focal plane arrays with reduced pixel sizes, enable improved radiometric performance within the constrained 6U CubeSat volume. The CIRiS instrument's modular design facilitates subsystem modifications as required by future mission requirements. CubeSat constellations of CIRiS and derivative instruments offer an affordable approach to achieving revisit times as short as one day for diverse applications including water resource and drought management, cloud, aerosol, and dust studies, and land use and vegetation monitoring. Launch is planned for 2018.

  14. Trajectory mapping of middle atmospheric water vapor by a mini network of NDACC instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lainer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The important task to observe the global coverage of middle atmospheric trace gases like water vapor or ozone usually is accomplished by satellites. Climate and atmospheric studies rely upon the knowledge of trace gas distributions throughout the stratosphere and mesosphere. Many of these gases are currently measured from satellites, but it is not clear whether this capability will be maintained in the future. This could lead to a significant knowledge gap of the state of the atmosphere. We explore the possibilities of mapping middle atmospheric water vapor in the Northern Hemisphere by using Lagrangian trajectory calculations and water vapor profile data from a small network of five ground-based microwave radiometers. Four of them are operated within the frame of NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. Keeping in mind that the instruments are based on different hardware and calibration setups, a height-dependent bias of the retrieved water vapor profiles has to be expected among the microwave radiometers. In order to correct and harmonize the different data sets, the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS on the Aura satellite is used to serve as a kind of traveling standard. A domain-averaging TM (trajectory mapping method is applied which simplifies the subsequent validation of the quality of the trajectory-mapped water vapor distribution towards direct satellite observations. Trajectories are calculated forwards and backwards in time for up to 10 days using 6 hourly meteorological wind analysis fields. Overall, a total of four case studies of trajectory mapping in different meteorological regimes are discussed. One of the case studies takes place during a major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW accompanied by the polar vortex breakdown; a second takes place after the reformation of stable circulation system. TM cases close to the fall equinox and June solstice event from the year 2012 complete the study, showing the high

  15. Vanadium Pentoxide-Based Composite Synthesized Using Microwave Water Plasma for Cathode Material in Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiko Yajima

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Multivalent cation rechargeable batteries are expected to perform well as high-capacity storage devices. Rechargeable magnesium batteries have an advantage in terms of resource utilization and safety. Here, we report on sulfur-doped vanadium pentoxide (S-V2O5 as a potential material for the cathodes of such a battery; S-V2O5 showed a specific capacity of 300 mAh·g−1. S-V2O5 was prepared by a method using a low-temperature plasma generated by carbon felt and a 2.45 GHz microwave generator. This study investigates the ability of S-V2O5 to achieve high capacity when added to metal oxide. The highest recorded capacity (420 mAh·g−1 was reached with MnO2 added to composite SMn-V2O5, which has a higher proportion of included sulfur than found in S-V2O5. Results from transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Micro-Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy show that the bulk of the SMn-V2O5 was the orthorhombic V2O5 structure; the surface was a xerogel-like V2O5 and a solid solution of MnO2 and sulfur.

  16. Microwave-assisted self-doping of TiO2 photonic crystals for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhonghai

    2014-01-08

    In this article, we report that the combination of microwave heating and ethylene glycol, a mild reducing agent, can induce Ti3+ self-doping in TiO2. A hierarchical TiO2 nanotube array with the top layer serving as TiO2 photonic crystals (TiO2 NTPCs) was selected as the base photoelectrode. The self-doped TiO2 NTPCs demonstrated a 10-fold increase in visible-light photocurrent density compared to the nondoped one, and the optimized saturation photocurrent density under simulated AM 1.5G illumination was identified to be 2.5 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode, which is comparable to the highest values ever reported for TiO2-based photoelectrodes. The significant enhancement of photoelectrochemical performance can be ascribed to the rational coupling of morphological and electronic features of the self-doped TiO 2 NTPCs: (1) the periodically morphological structure of the photonic crystal layer traps broadband visible light, (2) the electronic interband state induced from self-doping of Ti3+ can be excited in the visible-light region, and (3) the captured light by the photonic crystal layer is absorbed by the self-doped interbands. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  17. Global Land Surface Temperature From the Along-Track Scanning Radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghent, D. J.; Corlett, G. K.; Göttsche, F.-M.; Remedios, J. J.

    2017-11-01

    The Leicester Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) and Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) Processor for LAnd Surface Temperature (LASPLAST) provides global land surface temperature (LST) products from thermal infrared radiance data. In this paper, the state-of-the-art version of LASPLAST, as deployed in the GlobTemperature project, is described and applied to data from the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR). The LASPLAST retrieval formulation for LST is a nadir-only, two-channel, split-window algorithm, based on biome classification, fractional vegetation, and across-track water vapor dependences. It incorporates globally robust retrieval coefficients derived using highly sampled atmosphere profiles. LASPLAST benefits from appropriate spatial resolution auxiliary information and a new probabilistic-based cloud flagging algorithm. For the first time for a satellite-derived LST product, pixel-level uncertainties characterized in terms of random, locally correlated, and systematic components are provided. The new GlobTemperature GT_ATS_2P Version 1.0 product has been validated for 1 year of AATSR data (2009) against in situ measurements acquired from "gold standard reference" stations: Gobabeb, Namibia, and Evora, Portugal; seven Surface Radiation Budget stations, and the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement station at Southern Great Plains. These data show average absolute biases for the GT_ATS_2P Version 1.0 product of 1.00 K in the daytime and 1.08 K in the nighttime. The improvements in data provenance including better accuracy, fully traceable retrieval coefficients, quantified uncertainty, and more detailed information in the new harmonized format of the GT_ATS_2P product will allow for more significant exploitation of the historical LST data record from the ATSRs and a valuable near-real-time service from the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometers (SLSTRs).

  18. Estimating Global Ecosystem Isohydry/Anisohydry Using Active and Passive Microwave Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Guan, Kaiyu; Gentine, Pierre; Konings, Alexandra G.; Meinzer, Frederick C.; Kimball, John S.; Xu, Xiangtao; Anderegg, William R. L.; McDowell, Nate G.; Martinez-Vilalta, Jordi; Long, David G.; Good, Stephen P.

    2017-12-01

    The concept of isohydry/anisohydry describes the degree to which plants regulate their water status, operating from isohydric with strict regulation to anisohydric with less regulation. Though some species level measures of isohydry/anisohydry exist at a few locations, ecosystem-scale information is still largely unavailable. In this study, we use diurnal observations from active (Ku-Band backscatter from QuikSCAT) and passive (X-band vegetation optical depth (VOD) from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on EOS Aqua) microwave satellite data to estimate global ecosystem isohydry/anisohydry. Here diurnal observations from both satellites approximate predawn and midday plant canopy water contents, which are used to estimate isohydry/anisohydry. The two independent estimates from radar backscatter and VOD show reasonable agreement at low and middle latitudes but diverge at high latitudes. Grasslands, croplands, wetlands, and open shrublands are more anisohydric, whereas evergreen broadleaf and deciduous broadleaf forests are more isohydric. The direct validation with upscaled in situ species isohydry/anisohydry estimates indicates that the VOD-based estimates have much better agreement than the backscatter-based estimates. The indirect validation with prior knowledge suggests that both estimates are generally consistent in that vegetation water status of anisohydric ecosystems more closely tracks environmental fluctuations of water availability and demand than their isohydric counterparts. However, uncertainties still exist in the isohydry/anisohydry estimate, primarily arising from the remote sensing data and, to a lesser extent, from the methodology. The comprehensive assessment in this study can help us better understand the robustness, limitation, and uncertainties of the satellite-derived isohydry/anisohydry estimates. The ecosystem isohydry/anisohydry has the potential to reveal new insights into spatiotemporal ecosystem response to droughts.

  19. Novel microwave-assisted synthesis of porous g-C3N4/SnO2 nanocomposite for solar water-splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seza, A.; Soleimani, F.; Naseri, N.; Soltaninejad, M.; Montazeri, S. M.; Sadrnezhaad, S. K.; Mohammadi, M. R.; Moghadam, H. Asgari; Forouzandeh, M.; Amin, M. H.

    2018-05-01

    Highly porous nanocomposites of graphitic-carbon nitride and tin oxide (g-C3N4/SnO2) were prepared through simple pyrolysis of urea molecules under microwave irradiation. The initial amount of tin was varied in order to investigate the effect of SnO2 content on preparation and properties of the composites. The synthesized nanocomposites were well-characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, HR-TEM, BET, FTIR, XPS, DRS, and PL. A homogeneous distribution of SnO2 nanoparticles with the size of less than 10 nm on the porous C3N4 sheets could be obtained, suggesting that in-situ synthesis of SnO2 nanoparticles was responsible for the formation of g-C3N4. The process likely occurred by the aid of the large amounts of OH groups formed on the surfaces of SnO2 nanoparticles during the polycondensation reactions of tin derivatives which could facilitate the pyrolysis of urea to carbon nitride. The porous nanocomposite prepared with initial tin amount of 0.175 g had high specific surface area of 195 m2 g-1 which showed high efficiency photoelectrochemical water-splitting ability. A maximum photocurrent density of 33 μA cm-2 was achieved at an applied potential of 0.5 V when testing this nanocomposite as photo-anode in water-splitting reactions under simulated visible light irradiation, introducing it as a promising visible light photoactive material.

  20. Combining Passive Microwave Rain Rate Retrieval with Visible and Infrared Cloud Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shawn William

    The relation between cloud type and rain rate has been investigated here from different approaches. Previous studies and intercomparisons have indicated that no single passive microwave rain rate algorithm is an optimal choice for all types of precipitating systems. Motivated by the upcoming Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), an algorithm which combines visible and infrared cloud classification with passive microwave rain rate estimation was developed and analyzed in a preliminary manner using data from the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere-Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA-COARE). Overall correlation with radar rain rate measurements across five case studies showed substantial improvement in the combined algorithm approach when compared to the use of any single microwave algorithm. An automated neural network cloud classifier for use over both land and ocean was independently developed and tested on Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. The global classifier achieved strict accuracy for 82% of the test samples, while a more localized version achieved strict accuracy for 89% of its own test set. These numbers provide hope for the eventual development of a global automated cloud classifier for use throughout the tropics and the temperate zones. The localized classifier was used in conjunction with gridded 15-minute averaged radar rain rates at 8km resolution produced from the current operational network of National Weather Service (NWS) radars, to investigate the relation between cloud type and rain rate over three regions of the continental United States and adjacent waters. The results indicate a substantially lower amount of available moisture in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains than in the Midwest or in the eastern Gulf of Mexico.

  1. Sensitivity of Support Vector Machine Predictions of Passive Microwave Brightness Temperature Over Snow-covered Terrain in High Mountain Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, J. A.; Forman, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    High Mountain Asia (HMA) serves as a water supply source for over 1.3 billion people, primarily in south-east Asia. Most of this water originates as snow (or ice) that melts during the summer months and contributes to the run-off downstream. In spite of its critical role, there is still considerable uncertainty regarding the total amount of snow in HMA and its spatial and temporal variation. In this study, the NASA Land Information Systems (LIS) is used to model the hydrologic cycle over the Indus basin. In addition, the ability of support vector machines (SVM), a machine learning technique, to predict passive microwave brightness temperatures at a specific frequency and polarization as a function of LIS-derived land surface model output is explored in a sensitivity analysis. Multi-frequency, multi-polarization passive microwave brightness temperatures as measured by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) over the Indus basin are used as training targets during the SVM training process. Normalized sensitivity coefficients (NSC) are then computed to assess the sensitivity of a well-trained SVM to each LIS-derived state variable. Preliminary results conform with the known first-order physics. For example, input states directly linked to physical temperature like snow temperature, air temperature, and vegetation temperature have positive NSC's whereas input states that increase volume scattering such as snow water equivalent or snow density yield negative NSC's. Air temperature exhibits the largest sensitivity coefficients due to its inherent, high-frequency variability. Adherence of this machine learning algorithm to the first-order physics bodes well for its potential use in LIS as the observation operator within a radiance data assimilation system aimed at improving regional- and continental-scale snow estimates.

  2. Water vapour inter-comparison effort in the framework of the hydrological cycle in the mediterranean experiment - special observation period (hymex-sop1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Donato; Di Girolamo, Paolo; Flamant, Cyrille; De Rosa, Benedetto; Cacciani, Marco; Stelitano, Dario

    2018-04-01

    Accurate measurements of the vertical profiles of water vapour are of paramount importance for most key areas of atmospheric sciences. A comprehensive inter-comparison between different remote sensing and in-situ sensors has been carried out in the frame work of the first Special Observing Period of the Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment for the purpose of obtaining accurate error estimates for these sensors. The inter-comparison involves a ground-based Raman lidar (BASIL), an airborne DIAL (LEANDRE2), a microwave radiometer, radiosondes and aircraft in-situ sensors.

  3. Water vapour inter-comparison effort in the framework of the hydrological cycle in the mediterranean experiment – special observation period (hymex-sop1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summa Donato

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of the vertical profiles of water vapour are of paramount importance for most key areas of atmospheric sciences. A comprehensive inter-comparison between different remote sensing and in-situ sensors has been carried out in the frame work of the first Special Observing Period of the Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment for the purpose of obtaining accurate error estimates for these sensors. The inter-comparison involves a ground-based Raman lidar (BASIL, an airborne DIAL (LEANDRE2, a microwave radiometer, radiosondes and aircraft in-situ sensors.

  4. Microwave Atmospheric Sounder on CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, S.; Brown, S. E.; Kangaslahti, P.; Cofield, R.; Russell, D.; Stachnik, R. A.; Su, H.; Wu, L.; Tanelli, S.; Niamsuwan, N.

    2014-12-01

    To accurately predict how the distribution of extreme events may change in the future we need to understand the mechanisms that influence such events in our current climate. Our current observing system is not well-suited for observing extreme events globally due to the sparse sampling and in-homogeneity of ground-based in-situ observations and the infrequent revisit time of satellite observations. Observations of weather extremes, such as extreme precipitation events, temperature extremes, tropical and extra-tropical cyclones among others, with temporal resolution on the order of minutes and spatial resolution on the order of few kms (cost passive microwave sounding and imaging sensors on CubeSats that would work in concert with traditional flagship observational systems, such as those manifested on large environmental satellites (i.e. JPSS,WSF,GCOM-W), to monitor weather extremes. A 118/183 GHz sensor would enable observations of temperature and precipitation extremes over land and ocean as well as tropical and extra-tropical cyclones. This proposed project would enable low cost, compact radiometer instrumentation at 118 and 183 GHz that would fit in a 6U Cubesat with the objective of mass-producing this design to enable a suite of small satellites to image the key geophysical parameters needed to improve prediction of extreme weather events. We take advantage of past and current technology developments at JPL viz. HAMSR (High Altitude Microwave Scanning Radiometer), Advanced Component Technology (ACT'08) to enable low-mass, low-power high frequency airborne radiometers. In this paper, we will describe the design and implementation of the 118 GHz temperature sounder and 183 GHz humidity sounder on the 6U CubeSat. In addition, a summary of radiometer calibration and retrieval techniques of temperature and humidity will be discussed. The successful demonstration of this instrument on the 6U CubeSat would pave the way for the development of a constellation which

  5. Satellite-derived ice data sets no. 2: Arctic monthly average microwave brightness temperatures and sea ice concentrations, 1973-1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, C. L.; Comiso, J. C.; Zwally, H. J.

    1987-01-01

    A summary data set for four years (mid 70's) of Arctic sea ice conditions is available on magnetic tape. The data include monthly and yearly averaged Nimbus 5 electrically scanning microwave radiometer (ESMR) brightness temperatures, an ice concentration parameter derived from the brightness temperatures, monthly climatological surface air temperatures, and monthly climatological sea level pressures. All data matrices are applied to 293 by 293 grids that cover a polar stereographic map enclosing the 50 deg N latitude circle. The grid size varies from about 32 X 32 km at the poles to about 28 X 28 km at 50 deg N. The ice concentration parameter is calculated assuming that the field of view contains only open water and first-year ice with an ice emissivity of 0.92. To account for the presence of multiyear ice, a nomogram is provided relating the ice concentration parameter, the total ice concentration, and the fraction of the ice cover which is multiyear ice.

  6. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  7. Free water content and monitoring of healing processes of skin burns studied by microwave dielectric spectroscopy in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Miura, Nobuhiro; Shinyashiki, Naoki; Yagihara, Shin

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the dielectric properties of human skin in vivo at frequencies up to 10 GHz using a time-domain reflectometry method with open-ended coaxial probes. Since γ-dispersion results from the reorientation of free water molecules, the free water content of skin is quantitatively determined by dielectric measurements. The free water content of finger skin increased by about 10% after soaking in 37 0 C water for 30 min, and it systematically decreased again through the drying process, as expected. Thus this analytical method has been applied to the study of skin burns. The free water content of burned human cheek skin due to hydrofluoric acid was significantly lower than that of normal skin, and the burned skin recovered through the healing process. In the case of a human hand skin burn due to heat, although the free water content was almost the same as that of normal skin at the beginning, it decreased during the healing process for the first 10 days, then began to increase. Although the number of test subjects was one for each experiment, it was shown that free water content is a good indicator for evaluating skin health and can be well monitored by dielectric spectroscopy

  8. A low-cost, orientation-insensitive microwave water-cut sensor printed on a pipe surface

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2017-10-24

    This paper presents a novel and contactless water fraction (also known as water cut) measurement technique, which is independent of geometric distribution of oil and water inside the pipe. The sensor is based upon a modified dual helical stub resonators implemented directly on the pipe\\'s outer surface and whose resonance frequency decreases by increasing the water content in oil. The E-fields have been made to rotate and distribute well inside the pipe, despite having narrow and curved ground plane. It makes the sensor\\'s reading dependent only on the water fraction and not on the mixture distribution inside the pipe. That is why, the presented design does not require any flow conditioner to homogenize the oil/water mixture unlike many commercial WC sensors. The presented sensor has been realized by using extremely low cost methods of screen-printing and reusable 3D printed mask. Complete characterization of the proposed WC sensor, both in horizontal and vertical orientations, has been carried out in an industrial flow loop. Excellent repeatability of the sensor\\'s response has been observed under different flow conditions. The measured performance results of the sensor show full range accuracy of ±2-3% while tested under random orientations and wide range of flow rates.

  9. Effect of microwave drying and oven drying on the water activity, color, phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity of coconut husk (Cocos nucifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez-Carmona, Lourdes; Cortez-García, Rosa María; Plazola-Jacinto, Carla Patricia; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia

    2016-09-01

    The coconut ( Cocos nucifera L.) husk is basically composed by fiber and pith material and remained under-utilized. This is an important source of phenolic compounds that could be used as functional ingredients. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of: oven-drying (OD) and microwave drying (MD), on the water activity, color, phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity of coconut husk. The OD was performed at 60 °C for 12 h and MD was performed at 900 W for 10 min. The total phenolic content (TPC) in fresh coconut husk was 64.2 mg GAE/g dry wt and significant higher than observed after OD and MD of 35.8 and 45.5 mg GAE/g dry wt, respectively. Ten phenols were identified in fresh and dehydrated coconut husks. The husk MD showed an increase in the content of gallic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic and syringic acids and epicatechin compared with the fresh; while coconut husk OD and MD, showed a decrease in the content of vanillic acid, vanillin, catequin and kaempferol. The antioxidant activity decreased after both OD and MD. However, MD resulted in a better antioxidant activity in husk than OD. MD of husk resulted into better retention of preserved color, TPC and TFC than OD.

  10. Precipitable water and surface humidity over global oceans from special sensor microwave imager and European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. T.; Tang, Wenqing; Wentz, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    Global fields of precipitable water W from the special sensor microwave imager were compared with those from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model. They agree over most ocean areas; both data sets capture the two annual cycles examined and the interannual anomalies during an ENSO episode. They show significant differences in the dry air masses over the eastern tropical-subtropical oceans, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. In these regions, comparisons with radiosonde data indicate that overestimation by the ECMWF model accounts for a large part of the differences. As a check on the W differences, surface-level specific humidity Q derived from W, using a statistical relation, was compared with Q from the ECMWF model. The differences in Q were found to be consistent with the differences in W, indirectly validating the Q-W relation. In both W and Q, SSMI was able to discern clearly the equatorial extension of the tongues of dry air in the eastern tropical ocean, while both ECMWF and climatological fields have reduced spatial gradients and weaker intensity.

  11. Spatiotemporal Variability of Earth's Radiation Balance Components from Russian Radiometer IKOR-M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherviakov, M.

    2016-12-01

    The radiometer IKOR-M was created in National Research Saratov State University for satellite monitoring of the outgoing reflected short-wave radiation, which is one of the components of Earth's radiation budget. Such information can be used in different models of long-term weather forecasts, in researches of climate change trends and in calculation of absorbed solar radiation values and albedo of the Earth-atmosphere system. The IKOR-M product archive is available online at all times. A searchable catalogue of data products is continually updated and users may search and download data products via the Earth radiation balance components research laboratory website as soon as they become available. Two series of measurements from two different IKOR-M are available. The first radiometer had worked from October 2009 to August 2014 and second - from August 2014 to the present. Therefore, there is a period when both radiometers work at the same time. Top-of-atmosphere fluxes deduced from the "Meteor-M" No 1 measurement in August, 2014 show very good agreement with the fluxes determined from "Meteor-M" No 2. The scale relationship of the IKOR-M radiometers on "Meteor - M" No 1 and No 2 satellites found by comparing of the global distribution maps for monthly averaged albedo values. The seasonal and interannual variations of OSR, albedo and ASR were discussed. The variations between SW radiation budget components seem to be within observational uncertainty and natural variability governed by cloudiness, water vapor and aerosol variations. It was assessed spatial and temporal variations of albedo and the absorbed solar radiation over different regions. Latitudinal distributions of albedo and ASR were estimated in more detail. Meridional cross sections over oceans and land were used separately for this estimation. It was shown that the albedo and ASR data received from the radiometer IKOR-M can be used to detect El Nino in the Pacific Ocean. The reported study was funded by

  12. Passive microwave observations of inundation area and the area/stage relation in the Amazon River floodplain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sippel, S.J.; Hamilton, S.K.; Melack, J.M.; Novo, E.M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Inundation patterns in Amazon River floodplains are revealed by analysis of the 37GHz polarization difference observed by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer on the Nimbus-7 satellite. Flooded area is estimated at monthly intervals for January 1979 through August 1987 using mixing models that account for the major landscape units with distinctive microwave emission characteristics. Results are presented separately for 12 longitudinal reaches along the Amazon River main stem in Brazil as well as for three major tributaries (the Jurua, Purus and Madeira rivers). The total area along the Amazon River main stem that was flooded (including both floodplain and open water) varied between 19 000 and 91 000 km 2 . The correlation between flooded area and river stage is used to develop a predictive relationship and reconstruct regional inundation patterns in the floodplain of the Amazon River main stem over the past 94 years of stage records (1903± 1996). The mean flooded area along the Amazon River during this 94-year period was 46 800 km 2 , of which the openwater surfaces of river channels and floodplain lakes comprised about 20 700 km 2 . (author)

  13. Optimization of procedure for calibration with radiometer/photometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detilly, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    A test procedure for the radiometer/photometer calibrations mark International Light at the Laboratorio de Fotometria y Tecnologia Laser (LAFTA) de la Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica de la Universidad de Costa Rica is established. Two photometric banks are used as experimental set and two calibrations were performed of the International Light. A basic procedure established in the laboratory, is used for calibration from measurements of illuminance and luminous intensity. Some dependent variations of photometric banks used in the calibration process, the programming of the radiometer/photometer and the applied methodology showed the results. The procedure for calibration with radiometer/photometer can be improved by optimizing the programming process of the measurement instrument and possible errors can be minimized by using the recommended procedure. (author) [es

  14. Microwave heating type evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taura, Masazumi; Nishi, Akio; Morimoto, Takashi; Izumi, Jun; Tamura, Kazuo; Morooka, Akihiko.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent evaporization stills against corrosion due to radioactive liquid wastes. Constitution: Microwaves are supplied from a microwave generator by way of a wave guide tube and through a microwave permeation window to the inside of an evaporatization still. A matching device is attached to the wave guide tube for transmitting the microwaves in order to match the impedance. When the microwaves are supplied to the inside of the evaporization still, radioactive liquid wastes supplied from a liquid feed port by way of a spray tower to the inside of the evaporization still is heated and evaporated by the induction heating of the microwaves. (Seki, T.)

  15. Rapid biodiesel production using wet microalgae via microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahidin, Suzana; Idris, Ani; Shaleh, Sitti Raehanah Muhamad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Lipid was directly extracted from wet microalgae using microwave irradiation. • The microwave irradiation and water bath-assisted solvent extraction are applied. • Cell walls are significantly disrupted under microwave irradiation. • Highly disrupted cell walls led to higher biodiesel yield in microwave irradiation. • Microwave irradiation is a promising direct technique with high biodiesel yields. - Abstract: The major challenges for industrial commercialized biodiesel production from microalgae are the high cost of downstream processing such as dewatering and drying, utilization of large volumes of solvent and laborious extraction processes. In order to address these issues the microwave irradiation method was used to produce biodiesel directly from wet microalgae biomass. This alternative method of biodiesel production from wet microalgae biomass is compared with the conventional water bath-assisted solvent extraction. The microwave irradiation extracted more lipids and high biodiesel conversion was obtained compared to the water bath-assisted extraction method due to the high cell disruption achieved and rapid transesterification. The total content of lipid extracted from microwave irradiation and water bath-assisted extraction were 38.31% and 23.01% respectively. The biodiesel produced using microwave irradiation was higher (86.41%) compared to the conventional method. Thus microwave irradiation is an attractive and promising technology to be used in the extraction and transesterification process for efficient biodiesel production

  16. Precipitable water: Its linear retrieval using leaps and bounds procedure and its global distribution from SEASAT SMMR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, P. C.

    1982-01-01

    Eight subsets using two to five frequencies of the SEASAT scanning multichannel microwave radiometer are examined to determine their potential in the retrieval of atmospheric water vapor content. Analysis indicates that the information concerning the 18 and 21 GHz channels are optimum for water vapor retrieval. A comparison with radiosonde observations gave an rms accuracy of approximately 0.40 g sq cm. The rms accuracy of precipitable water using different subsets was within 10 percent. Global maps of precipitable water over oceans using two and five channel retrieval (average of two and five channel retrieval) are given. Study of these maps reveals the possibility of global moisture distribution associated with oceanic currents and large scale general circulation in the atmosphere. A stable feature of the large scale circulation is noticed. The precipitable water is maximum over the Bay of Bengal and in the North Pacific over the Kuroshio current and shows a general latitudinal pattern.

  17. Cloud Absorption Radiometer Autonomous Navigation System - CANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Duncan; Gatebe, Charles; McCune, Bill; Hellwig, Dustan

    2013-01-01

    CAR (cloud absorption radiometer) acquires spatial reference data from host aircraft navigation systems. This poses various problems during CAR data reduction, including navigation data format, accuracy of position data, accuracy of airframe inertial data, and navigation data rate. Incorporating its own navigation system, which included GPS (Global Positioning System), roll axis inertia and rates, and three axis acceleration, CANS expedites data reduction and increases the accuracy of the CAR end data product. CANS provides a self-contained navigation system for the CAR, using inertial reference and GPS positional information. The intent of the software application was to correct the sensor with respect to aircraft roll in real time based upon inputs from a precision navigation sensor. In addition, the navigation information (including GPS position), attitude data, and sensor position details are all streamed to a remote system for recording and later analysis. CANS comprises a commercially available inertial navigation system with integral GPS capability (Attitude Heading Reference System AHRS) integrated into the CAR support structure and data system. The unit is attached to the bottom of the tripod support structure. The related GPS antenna is located on the P-3 radome immediately above the CAR. The AHRS unit provides a RS-232 data stream containing global position and inertial attitude and velocity data to the CAR, which is recorded concurrently with the CAR data. This independence from aircraft navigation input provides for position and inertial state data that accounts for very small changes in aircraft attitude and position, sensed at the CAR location as opposed to aircraft state sensors typically installed close to the aircraft center of gravity. More accurate positional data enables quicker CAR data reduction with better resolution. The CANS software operates in two modes: initialization/calibration and operational. In the initialization/calibration mode

  18. A Novel Application of Fourier Transform Spectroscopy with HEMT Amplifiers at Microwave Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David T.; Page, Lyman

    1995-01-01

    The goal was to develop cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) based radiometers and use them to measure the anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In particular, a novel Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) built entirely of waveguide components would be developed. A dual-polarization Ka-band HEMT radiometer and a similar Q-band radiometer were built. In a series of measurements spanning three years made from a ground-based site in Saskatoon, SK, the amplitude, frequency spectrum, and spatial frequency spectrum of the anisotropy were measured. A prototype Ka-band FTS was built and tested, and a simplified version is proposed for the MAP satellite mission. The 1/f characteristics of HEMT amplifiers were quantified using correlation techniques.

  19. UWBRAD: Ultra Wideband Software Defined Microwave Radiometer for Ice Sheet Subsurface Temperature Sensing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Existing space and airborne remote sensing instruments have pushed the state-of-the-art in the characterization of ice sheet behaviors with the exception of one key...

  20. Daily SST fields produced by blending infrared and microwave radiometer estimates

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreejith, O.P.; Shenoi, S.S.C.

    Measurement of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) using satellite based sensors have matured during the last decade. The infrared measurements, using the AVHRR sensor, flown onboard the NOAA satellites, have been used for the generation of high...

  1. Validation of multi-channel scanning microwave radiometer onboard OCEANSAT - 1

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; Pankajakshan, T.; Harikrishnan, M.

    IRS-P4 (OCEASAT-1) was the first operational oceanographic satellite that India has launched. An extensive validation campaign was unleashed immediately after its launch in May 1999. Various platforms (Ship, Moored buoy, Drifting buoy, Autonomous...

  2. CLPX-Ground: Ground Based Passive Microwave Radiometer (GBMR-7) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains brightness temperature observations of the snow cover at the Local Scale Observation Site (LSOS) of the Cold Land Processes Field Experiment...

  3. Microwave sounding units and global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Bruce L.; Keihm, Stephen J.

    1991-01-01

    A recent work of Spencer and Christy (1990) on precise monitoring of global temperature trends from satellites is critically examined. It is tentatively concluded in the present comment that remote sensing using satellite microwave radiometers can in fact provide a means for the monitoring of troposphere-averaged air temperature. However, for this to be successful more than one decade of data will be required to overcome the apparent inherent variability of global average air temperature. It is argued that the data set reported by Spencer and Christy should be subjected to careful review before it is interpreted as evidence of the presence or absence of global warming. In a reply, Christy provides specific responses to the commenters' objections.

  4. Use of ground-based radiometers for L-Band Freeze/Thaw retrieval in a boreal forest site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A.; Sonnentag, O.; Derksen, C.; Toose, P.; Pappas, C.; Mavrovic, A.; El Amine, M.; Royer, A.; Berg, A. A.; Rowlandson, T. L.; Barr, A.; Black, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    The boreal forest is the second largest land biome in the world and thus plays a major role in the global and regional climate systems. The extent, timing and duration of the seasonal freeze/thaw (F/T) state influences vegetation developmental stages (phenology) and, consequently, constitutes an important control on how boreal forest ecosystems exchange carbon, water and energy with the atmosphere. Recently, new L-Band satellite-derived F/T information has become available. However, disentangling the seasonally differing contributions from forest overstory and understory vegetation, and the ground surface to the satellite signal remains challenging. Here we present results from an ongoing campaign with two L-Band surface-based radiometers (SBR) installed on a micrometeorological tower at the Southern Old Black Spruce site (53.99°N / 105.12°W) in central Saskatchewan. One radiometer unit is installed on top of the tower viewing the multi-layer vegetation canopy from above. A second radiometer unit is installed within the multi-layer canopy, viewing the understory and the ground surface only. The objectives of our study are to (i) disentangle the L-Band F/T signal contribution of boreal forest overstory from the combined understory and ground surface contribution, and (ii) link the L-Band F/T signal to related boreal forest structural and functional characteristics. Analysis of these radiometer measurements made from September to November 2016 shows that when the ground surface is thawed, the main contributor to both radiometer signals is soil moisture. The Pearson correlation coefficient between brightness temperature (TB) at vertical polarization (V-pol) and soil permittivity is 0.79 for the radiometer above the canopy and 0.74 for the radiometer below the canopy. Under cold conditions when the soil was thawed (snow insulation) and the trees were frozen (below 0°C), TB at V-pol is negatively correlated with tree permittivity. The freezing tree contribution to

  5. Microwave energy transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Hiroshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1989-03-05

    Laying stress on the technological problems and effect on the environment of microwave energy transmission, recent scientific and engineering problems and related subjects are described. Because no fuel is required for the solar power generation, the power generation system can not be considered as an expensive one when the unit cost of energy is taken into consideration. Some of the important technological problems in the microwave energy transmission are accurate microwave beam control technology to receiving stations and improvement in the efficiency of transmission system. Microwave energy beam has effects on living bodies, communication, and plasma atmosphere of the earth. Microwave energy transmission using a space flyer unit is scheduled. Its objective is the development of microwave wireless transmission technology and the study of the correlation between high power microwave and ionosphere plasma. Experiments on such a small scale application as a microwave driven space ship to bring results seem also important. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  6. GPM GROUND VALIDATION CONICAL SCANNING MILLIMETER-WAVE IMAGING RADIOMETER (COSMIR) MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (COSMIR) MC3E dataset used the Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer...

  7. GPM GROUND VALIDATION CONICAL SCANNING MILLIMETER-WAVE IMAGING RADIOMETER (COSMIR) GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (COSMIR) GCPEx dataset used the Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer...

  8. HURRICANE AND SEVERE STORM SENTINEL (HS3) HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER (HIRAD) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) was collected by the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD), which was a multi-band...

  9. Advances in microwaves 7

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Microwaves, Volume 7 covers the developments in the study of microwaves. The book discusses the effect of surface roughness on the propagation of the TEM mode, as well as the voltage breakdown of microwave antennas. The text also describes the theory and design considerations of single slotted-waveguide linear arrays and the techniques and theories that led to the achievement of wide bandwidths and ultralow noise temperatures for communication applications. The book will prove invaluable to microwave engineers.

  10. Dehydration of sodium carbonate monohydrate with indirect microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyrankaya, Abdullah; Ozalp, Baris

    2006-01-01

    In this study, dehydration of sodium carbonate monohydrate (Na 2 CO 3 .H 2 O) (SCM) in microwave (MW) field with silicon carbide (SiC) as an indirect heating medium was investigated. SCM samples containing up to 3% free moisture were placed in the microwave oven. The heating experiments showed that SCM is a poor microwave energy absorber for up to 6 min of irradiation at an 800 W of microwave power. The heat for SCM calcination is provided by SiC which absorbs microwave. The monohydrate is then converted to anhydrous sodium carbonate on the SiC plate by calcining, i.e. by removing the crystal water through heating of the monohydrate temperatures of over 120 deg. C. The calcination results in a solid phase recrystallization of the monohydrate into anhydrate. In the microwave irradiation process, dehydration of SCM in terms of indirect heating can be accelerated by increasing the microwave field power

  11. Microwave processing heats up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwaves are a common appliance in many households. In the United States microwave heating is the third most popular domestic heating method food foods. Microwave heating is also a commercial food processing technology that has been applied for cooking, drying, and tempering foods. It's use in ...

  12. Cosmic Microwave Background Timeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmic Microwave Background Timeline 1934 : Richard Tolman shows that blackbody radiation in an will have a blackbody cosmic microwave background with temperature about 5 K 1955: Tigran Shmaonov anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background, this strongly supports the big bang model with gravitational

  13. Calibration of the solar UV radiometers in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leszczynski, K.; Jokela, K.; Visuri, R.; Ylianttila, L. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland). Non-Ionizing Radiation Lab.

    1996-12-31

    In this report, the main emphasis is given to (1) the problems associated with the basic calibration of the spectroradiometer and (2) the year-to-year variability of the calibrations of the solar UV network radiometers. Also, the results from intercomparisons of the Brewer and OL 742 spectroradiometers are included

  14. Combined Radar-Radiometer Surface Soil Moisture and Roughness Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Ruzbeh; Cosh, Michael H.; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Entekhabi, Dara; Moghaddam, Mahta

    2017-01-01

    A robust physics-based combined radar-radiometer, or Active-Passive, surface soil moisture and roughness estimation methodology is presented. Soil moisture and roughness retrieval is performed via optimization, i.e., minimization, of a joint objective function which constrains similar resolution radar and radiometer observations simultaneously. A data-driven and noise-dependent regularization term has also been developed to automatically regularize and balance corresponding radar and radiometer contributions to achieve optimal soil moisture retrievals. It is shown that in order to compensate for measurement and observation noise, as well as forward model inaccuracies, in combined radar-radiometer estimation surface roughness can be considered a free parameter. Extensive Monte-Carlo numerical simulations and assessment using field data have been performed to both evaluate the algorithms performance and to demonstrate soil moisture estimation. Unbiased root mean squared errors (RMSE) range from 0.18 to 0.03 cm3cm3 for two different land cover types of corn and soybean. In summary, in the context of soil moisture retrieval, the importance of consistent forward emission and scattering development is discussed and presented.

  15. Calibration OGSE for a multichannel radiometer for Mars atmosphere studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, J. J.; Álvarez, F. J.; Gonzalez-Guerrero, M.; Apéstigue, V.; Martin, I.; Fernández, J. M.; Fernán, A. A.; Arruego, I.

    2017-09-01

    This work describes several OGSEs (Optical Ground Support Equipment) developed by INTA (Spanish Institute of Aerospace Technology - Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) for the calibration and characterization of their self-manufactured multichannel radiometers (Solar Irradiance Sensors - SIS) for planetary atmospheric studies in the frame of some Martian missions at which INTA is participating.

  16. Calibration of the solar UV radiometers in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leszczynski, K; Jokela, K; Visuri, R; Ylianttila, L [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland). Non-Ionizing Radiation Lab.

    1997-12-31

    In this report, the main emphasis is given to (1) the problems associated with the basic calibration of the spectroradiometer and (2) the year-to-year variability of the calibrations of the solar UV network radiometers. Also, the results from intercomparisons of the Brewer and OL 742 spectroradiometers are included

  17. Characterisation of optical filters for broadband UVA radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luciana C.; Coelho, Carla T.; Corrêa, Jaqueline S. P. M.; Menegotto, Thiago; Ferreira da Silva, Thiago; Aparecida de Souza, Muriel; Melo da Silva, Elisama; Simões de Lima, Maurício; Dornelles de Alvarenga, Ana Paula

    2016-07-01

    Optical filters were characterized in order to know its suitability for use in broadband UVA radiometer head for spectral irradiance measurements. The spectral transmittance, the angular dependence and the spatial uniformity of the spectral transmittance of the UVA optical filters were investigated. The temperature dependence of the transmittance was also studied.

  18. Calibrated, Enhanced-Resolution Brightness Temperature Earth System Data Record: A New Era for Gridded Passive Microwave Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, M.; Brodzik, M. J.; Long, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    Since 1978, the satellite passive microwave data record has been a mainstay of remote sensing of the cryosphere, providing twice-daily, near-global spatial coverage for monitoring changes in hydrologic and cryospheric parameters that include precipitation, soil moisture, surface water, vegetation, snow water equivalent, sea ice concentration and sea ice motion. Up until recently, the available global gridded passive microwave data sets have not been produced consistently. Various projections (equal-area, polar stereographic), a number of different gridding techniques were used, along with various temporal sampling as well as a mix of Level 2 source data versions. In addition, not all data from all sensors have been processed completely and they have not been processed in any one consistent way. Furthermore, the original gridding techniques were relatively primitive and were produced on 25 km grids using the original EASE-Grid definition that is not easily accommodated in modern software packages. As part of NASA MEaSUREs, we have re-processed all data from SMMR, all SSM/I-SSMIS and AMSR-E instruments, using the most mature Level 2 data. The Calibrated, Enhanced-Resolution Brightness Temperature (CETB) Earth System Data Record (ESDR) gridded data are now available from the NSIDC DAAC. The data are distributed as netCDF files that comply with CF-1.6 and ACDD-1.3 conventions. The data have been produced on EASE 2.0 projections at smoothed, 25 kilometer resolution and spatially-enhanced resolutions, up to 3.125 km depending on channel frequency, using the radiometer version of the Scatterometer Image Reconstruction (rSIR) method. We expect this newly produced data set to enable scientists to better analyze trends in coastal regions, marginal ice zones and in mountainous terrain that were not possible with the previous gridded passive microwave data. The use of the EASE-Grid 2.0 definition and netCDF-CF formatting allows users to extract compliant geotiff images and

  19. The process research of drying UF4 by microwave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Guo; Wang Yunbo; Liu Long

    2010-01-01

    This paper make use of microwave to dry UF 4 filter cake, the aim is desorbed adsorption water. The research focus on such process conditions, boat material, thickness of filter cake, drying time, setting temperature, heating power and so on. the research of desorption crystal water of UF 4 that dried by microwave in fixed bed .When UF 4 drying by microwave and claiming by fixed bed, the qualified UF 4 powder is prepared. The research is shown that microwave can desorbs adsorption water which contain in UF 4 filter cake. There is a stable water contents in UF 4 after drying, and the sum of two members is less. After drying by microwave and claiming by fixed bed, the contents of water, UO 2 and UO 2 F 2 are all according to the quality standard. (authors)

  20. Effects of Microwave Radiation on Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Abdollah

    2011-12-01

    A variety of oil recovery methods have been developed and applied to mature and depleted reservoirs in order to improve the efficiency. Microwave radiation oil recovery method is a relatively new method and has been of great interest in the recent years. Crude oil is typically co-mingled with suspended solids and water. To increase oil recovery, it is necessary to remove these components. The separation of oil from water and solids using gravitational settling methods is typically incomplete. Oil-in-water and oil-water-solid emulsions can be demulsified and separated into their individual layers by microwave radiation. The data also show that microwave separation is faster than gravity separation and can be faster than conventional heating at many conditions. After separation of emulsion into water and oil layers, water can be discharged and oil is collected. High-frequency microwave recycling process can recover oil and gases from oil shale, residual oil, drill cuttings, tar sands oil, contaminated dredge/sediments, tires and plastics with significantly greater yields and lower costs than are available utilizing existing known technologies. This process is environmentally friendly, fuel-generating recycler to reduce waste, cut emissions, and save energy. This paper presents a critical review of Microwave radiation method for oil recovery.

  1. Particle size-controllable microwave-assisted solvothermal synthesis of the high-voltage cathode material LiCoPO4 using water/ethylene glycol solvent blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Jennifer; Haering, Dominik; Doeff, Marca M.; Nilges, Tom

    2017-03-01

    Particle size-tuned platelets of the high-voltage cathode material LiCoPO4 for Li-ion batteries have been synthesized by a simple one-step microwave-assisted solvothermal process using an array of water/ethylene glycol (EG) solvent mixtures. Particle size control was achieved by altering the concentration of the EG co-solvent in the mixture between 0 and 100 vol%, with amounts of 0-80 vol% EG producing single phase, olivine-type LiCoPO4. The particle sizes of the olivine materials were significantly reduced from about 1.2 μm × 1.2 μm × 500 nm (0 vol% EG) to 200 nm × 100 nm × 50 nm (80 vol% EG) with increasing EG content, while specific surface areas increased from 2 to 13 m2 g-1. The particle size reduction could mainly be attributed to the modified viscosities of the solvent blends. Owing to the soft template effect of EG, the crystals exhibited the smallest dimensions along the [010] direction of the Li diffusion pathways in the olivine crystal structure, resulting in enhanced lithium diffusion properties. The relationship between the synthesis, crystal properties and electrochemical performance was further elucidated, indicating that the electrochemical performances of the as-prepared materials mainly depend on the solvent composition and the respective particle size range. LiCoPO4 products obtained from reaction media with low and high EG contents exhibited good electrochemical performances (initial discharge capacities of 87-124 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C), whereas materials made from medium EG concentrations (40-60 vol% EG) showed the highest capacities and gravimetric energy densities (up to 137 mAh g-1 and 658 Wh kg-1 at 0.1 C), excellent rate capabilities, and cycle life.

  2. Microwave Remote Sensing Modeling of Ocean Surface Salinity and Winds Using an Empirical Sea Surface Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.

    2004-01-01

    Active and passive microwave remote sensing techniques have been investigated for the remote sensing of ocean surface wind and salinity. We revised an ocean surface spectrum using the CMOD-5 geophysical model function (GMF) for the European Remote Sensing (ERS) C-band scatterometer and the Ku-band GMF for the NASA SeaWinds scatterometer. The predictions of microwave brightness temperatures from this model agree well with satellite, aircraft and tower-based microwave radiometer data. This suggests that the impact of surface roughness on microwave brightness temperatures and radar scattering coefficients of sea surfaces can be consistently characterized by a roughness spectrum, providing physical basis for using combined active and passive remote sensing techniques for ocean surface wind and salinity remote sensing.

  3. A New Way to Demonstrate the Radiometer as a Heat Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladkouski, V. I.; Pinchuk, A. I.

    2015-01-01

    While the radiometer is readily available as a toy, A. E. Woodruff notes that it is also a very useful tool to help us understand how to resolve certain scientific problems. Many physicists think they know how the radiometer works, but only a few actually understand it. Here we present a demonstration that shows that a radiometer can be thought of…

  4. Design of a Push-Broom Multi-Beam Radiometer for Future Ocean Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, C.; Pontoppidan, K.; Nielsen, P. H.

    2015-01-01

    The design of a push-broom multi-beam radiometer for future ocean observations is described. The radiometer provides a sensitivity one order of magnitude higher than a traditional conical scanning radiometer, and has the big advantage of being fully stationary relative to the satellite platform...

  5. Synergistic use of active and passive microwave in soil moisture estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, P.; Chauhan, N.; Jackson, T.; Saatchi, S.

    1992-01-01

    Data gathered during the MACHYDRO experiment in central Pennsylvania in July 1990 have been utilized to study the synergistic use of active and passive microwave systems for estimating soil moisture. These data sets were obtained during an eleven-day period with NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) and Push-Broom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR) over an instrumented watershed which included agricultural fields with a number of different crop covers. Simultaneous ground truth measurements were also made in order to characterize the state of vegetation and soil moisture under a variety of meteorological conditions. A combination algorithm is presented as applied to a representative corn field in the MACHYDRO watershed.

  6. Intercomparison of atmospheric water vapour measurements at a Canadian High Arctic site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Dan; Strong, Kimberly; Schneider, Matthias; Rowe, Penny M.; Sioris, Chris; Walker, Kaley A.; Mariani, Zen; Uttal, Taneil; McElroy, C. Thomas; Vömel, Holger; Spassiani, Alessio; Drummond, James R.

    2017-08-01

    Water vapour is a critical component of the Earth system. Techniques to acquire and improve measurements of atmospheric water vapour and its isotopes are under active development. This work presents a detailed intercomparison of water vapour total column measurements taken between 2006 and 2014 at a Canadian High Arctic research site (Eureka, Nunavut). Instruments include radiosondes, sun photometers, a microwave radiometer, and emission and solar absorption Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers. Close agreement is observed between all combination of datasets, with mean differences ≤ 1.0 kg m-2 and correlation coefficients ≥ 0.98. The one exception in the observed high correlation is the comparison between the microwave radiometer and a radiosonde product, which had a correlation coefficient of 0.92.A variety of biases affecting Eureka instruments are revealed and discussed. A subset of Eureka radiosonde measurements was processed by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Reference Upper Air Network (GRUAN) for this study. Comparisons reveal a small dry bias in the standard radiosonde measurement water vapour total columns of approximately 4 %. A recently produced solar absorption FTIR spectrometer dataset resulting from the MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) retrieval technique is shown to offer accurate measurements of water vapour total columns (e.g. average agreement within -5.2 % of GRUAN and -6.5 % of a co-located emission FTIR spectrometer). However, comparisons show a small wet bias of approximately 6 % at the high-latitude Eureka site. In addition, a new dataset derived from Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) measurements is shown to provide accurate water vapour measurements (e.g. average agreement was within 4 % of GRUAN), which usefully enables measurements to be taken during day and night (especially valuable during polar night).

  7. Current Operational Use of and Future Needs for Microwave Imagery at NOAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, M.; McWilliams, G.; Chang, P.

    2017-12-01

    There are many applications of microwave imagery served by NOAA's operational products and services. They include the use of microwave imagery and derived products for monitoring precipitation, tropical cyclones, sea surface temperature under all weather conditions, wind speed, snow and ice cover, and even soil moisture. All of NOAA's line offices including the National Weather Service, National Ocean Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, and Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research rely on microwave imagery. Currently microwave imagery products used by NOAA come from a constellation of satellites that includes Air Force's Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS), the Japanese Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR), the Navy's WindSat, and NASA's Global Precipitation Monitoring (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI). Follow-on missions for SSMIS are very uncertain, JAXA approval for a follow-on to AMSR2 is still pending, and GMI is a research satellite (lacking high-latitude coverage) with no commitment for operational continuity. Operational continuity refers to a series of satellites, so when one satellite reaches its design life a new satellite is launched. EUMETSAT has made a commitment to fly a microwave imager in the mid-morning orbit. China and Russia have demonstrated on-orbit microwave imagers. Of utmost importance to NOAA, however, is the quality, access, and latency of the data This presentation will focus on NOAA's current requirements for microwave imagery data which, for the most part, are being fulfilled by AMSR2, SSMIS, and WindSat. It will include examples of products and applications of microwave imagery at NOAA. We will also discuss future needs, especially for improved temporal resolution which hopefully can be met by an international constellation of microwave imagers. Finally, we will discuss what we are doing to address the potential gap in imagery.

  8. Microwave regeneration of molecular sieves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.P.

    1984-05-01

    Molecular sieve driers have been included in the design of tritium handling systems for fusion reactors. In these systems there is a need to maintain extremely low exit dew points from the driers as well as a capability to rapidly reduce tritium concentrations following an accident. The required capacity of the driers is very high. The conventional method of regenerating these sieves after a water adsorption cycle is with hot air. However, because water is rapidly heated by microwave energy, this technology may be suitable for decreasing the bed regeneration time and hence may allow reduced capital and operating costs associated with a smaller bed. The present study was conducted to obtain preliminary information on the technical feasibility of regenerating molecular sieves with microwave energy. The study concentrated on Type 4A molecular sieve with a few tests on Type 13X sieve and also a silica gel adsorbent

  9. Proceedings of microwave processing of materials 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beatty, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of the third MRS Symposium on Microwave Processing of Materials. Topics covered include: Microwave Processing Overviews, Numerical Modeling Techniques, Microwave Processing System Design, Microwave/Plasma Processing, Microwave/Materials Interactions, Microwave Processing of Ceramics, Microwave Processing of Polymers, Microwave Processing of Hazardous Wastes, Microwave NDE Techniques and Dielectric Properties and Measurements

  10. Microwave heating denitration device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hajime; Morisue, Tetsuo.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress energy consumption due to a reflection of microwaves. Constitution: Microwaves are irradiated to the nitrate solution containing nuclear fuel materials, to cause denitrating reaction under heating and obtain oxides of the nuclear fuel materials. A microwave heating and evaporation can for reserving the nitrate solution is disposed slantwise relative to the horizontal plane and a microwave heating device is connected to the evaporation can, and inert gases for agitation are supplied to the solution within the can. Since the evaporation can is slanted, wasteful energy consumption due to the reflection of the microwaves can be suppressed. (Moriyama, K.)

  11. Modeling the Observed Microwave Emission from Shallow Multi-Layer Tundra Snow Using DMRT-ML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Saberi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The observed brightness temperatures (Tb at 37 GHz from typical moderate density dry snow in mid-latitudes decreases with increasing snow water equivalent (SWE due to volume scattering of the ground emissions by the overlying snow. At a certain point, however, as SWE increases, the emission from the snowpack offsets the scattering of the sub-nivean emission. In tundra snow, the Tb slope reversal occurs at shallower snow thicknesses. While it has been postulated that the inflection point in the seasonal time series of observed Tb V 37 GHz of tundra snow is controlled by the formation of a thick wind slab layer, the simulation of this effect has yet to be confirmed. Therefore, the Dense Media Radiative Transfer Theory for Multi Layered (DMRT-ML snowpack is used to predict the passive microwave response from airborne observations over shallow, dense, slab-layered tundra snow. Airborne radiometer observations coordinated with ground-based in situ snow measurements were acquired in the Canadian high Arctic near Eureka, NT, in April 2011. The DMRT-ML was parameterized with the in situ snow measurements using a two-layer snowpack and run in two configurations: a depth hoar and a wind slab dominated pack. With these two configurations, the calibrated DMRT-ML successfully predicted the Tb V 37 GHz response (R correlation of 0.83 when compared with the observed airborne Tb footprints containing snow pits measurements. Using this calibrated model, the DMRT-ML was applied to the whole study region. At the satellite observation scale, observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E over the study area reflected seasonal differences between Tb V 37 GHz and Tb V 19 GHz that supports the hypothesis of the development of an early season volume scattering depth hoar layer, followed by the growth of the late season emission-dominated wind slab layer. This research highlights the necessity to consider the two

  12. Microwave remote sensing of temporal variations of brightness temperature and near-surface soil water content during a watershed-scale field experiment, and its application to the estimation of soil physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattikalli, N.M.; Engman, E.T.; Jackson, T.J.; Ahuja, L.R.

    1998-01-01

    Passive microwave airborne remote sensing was employed to collect daily brightness temperature (T(B)) and near-surface (0-5 cm depth) soil water content (referred to as 'soil water content') data during June 10-18, 1992, in the Little Washita watershed, Oklahoma. A comparison of multitemporal data with the soils data revealed a direct correlation between changes in T(B) and soil water content, and soil texture. Regression relationships were developed for the ratio of percent sand to percent clay (RSC) and effective saturated hydraulic conductivity (K(sat)) in terms of T(B) and soil water content change. Validation of results indicated that both RSC and K(sat) can be estimated with adequate accuracy. The relationships are valid for the region with small variation of soil organic matter content, soils with fewer macropores, and limiting experimental conditions. However, the findings have potential to employ microwave remote sensing for obtaining quick estimates of soil properties over large areas

  13. Use of microwave remote sensing in salinity estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.P.; Kumar, V.; Srivastav, S.K.

    1990-01-01

    Soil-moisture interaction and the consequent liberation of ions causes the salinity of waters. The salinity of river, lake, ocean and ground water changes due to seepage and surface runoff. We have studied the feasibility of using microwave remote sensing for the estimation of salinity by carrying out numerical calculations to study the microwave remote sensing responses of various models representative of river, lake and ocean water. The results show the dependence of microwave remote sensing responses on the salinity and surface temperature of water. The results presented in this paper will be useful in the selection of microwave sensor parameters and in the accurate estimation of salinity from microwave remote sensing data

  14. Real-time millimeter-wave imaging radiometer for avionic synthetic vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovberg, John A.; Chou, Ri-Chee; Martin, Christopher A.

    1994-07-01

    ThermoTrex Corporation (TTC) has developed an imaging radiometer, the passive microwave camera (PMC), that uses an array of frequency-scanned antennas coupled to a multi-channel acousto-optic (Bragg cell) spectrum analyzer to form visible images of a scene through acquisition of thermal blackbody radiation in the millimeter-wave spectrum. The output of the Bragg cell is imaged by a standard video camera and passed to a computer for normalization and display at real-time frame rates. One application of this system could be its incorporation into an enhanced vision system to provide pilots with a clear view of the runway during fog and other adverse weather conditions. The unique PMC system architecture will allow compact large-aperture implementations because of its flat antenna sensor. Other potential applications include air traffic control, all-weather area surveillance, fire detection, and security. This paper describes the architecture of the TTC PMC and shows examples of images acquired with the system.

  15. PHyTIR - A Prototype Thermal Infrared Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jau, Bruno M.; Hook, Simon J.; Johnson, William R.; Foote, Marc C.; Paine, Christopher G.; Pannell, Zack W.; Smythe, Robert F.; Kuan, Gary M.; Jakoboski, Julie K.; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the PHyTIR (Prototype HyspIRI Thermal Infrared Radiometer) instrument, which is the engineering model for the proposed HyspIRI (Hyperspectral Infrared Imager) earth observing instrument. The HyspIRI mission would be comprised of the HyspIRI TIR (Thermal Infrared Imager), and a VSWIR (Visible Short-Wave Infra-Red Imaging Spectrometer). Both instruments would be used to address key science questions related to the earth's carbon cycle, ecosystems, climate, and solid earth properties. Data gathering of volcanic activities, earthquakes, wildfires, water use and availability, urbanization, and land surface compositions and changes, would aid the predictions and evaluations of such events and the impact they create. Even though the proposed technology for the HyspIRI imager is mature, the PHyTIR prototype is needed to advance the technology levels for several of the instrument's key components, and to reduce risks, in particular to validate 1) the higher sensitivity, spatial resolution, and higher throughput required for this focal plane array, 2) the pointing accuracy, 2) the characteristics of several spectral channels, and 4) the use of ambient temperature optics. The PHyTIR telescope consists of the focal plane assembly that is housed within a cold housing located inside a vacuum enclosure; all mounted to a bulkhead, and an optical train that consists of 3 powered mirrors; extending to both sides of the bulkhead. A yoke connects the telescope to a scan mirror. The rotating mirror enables to scan- a large track on the ground. This structure is supported by kinematic mounts, linking the telescope assembly to a base plate that would also become the spacecraft interface for HyspIRI. The focal plane's cooling units are also mounted to the base plate, as is an overall enclosure that has two viewing ports with large exterior baffles, shielding the focal plane from incoming stray light. PHyTIR's electronics is distributed inside and near the vacuum

  16. Global Warming and the Microwave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the work, the importance of assigning the microwave background to the Earth is ad- dressed while emphasizing the consequences for global climate change. Climate mod- els can only produce meaningful forecasts when they consider the real magnitude of all radiative processes. The oceans and continents both contribute to terrestrial emis- sions. However, the extent of oceanic radiation, particularly in the microwave region, raises concerns. This is not only since the globe is covered with water, but because the oceans themselves are likely to be weaker emitters than currently believed. Should the microwave background truly be generated by the oceans of the Earth, our planet would be a much less efficient emitter of radiation in this region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Furthermore, the oceans would appear unable to increase their emissions in the microwave in response to temperature elevation, as predicted by Stefan’s law. The results are significant relative to the modeling of global warming.

  17. Diviner lunar radiometer observations of cold traps in the moon's south polar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, D.A.; Siegler, M.A.; Zhang, J.A.; Hayne, P.O.; Foote, E.J.; Bennett, K.A.; Vasavada, A.R.; Greenhagen, B.T.; Schofield, J.T.; McCleese, D.J.; Foote, M.C.; DeJong, E.; Bills, B.G.; Hartford, W.; Murray, B.C.; Allen, C.C.; Snook, K.; Soderblom, L.A.; Calcutt, S.; Taylor, F.W.; Bowles, N.E.; Bandfield, J.L.; Elphic, R.; Ghent, R.; Glotch, T.D.; Wyatt, M.B.; Lucey, P.G.

    2010-01-01

    Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment surface-temperature maps reveal the existence of widespread surface and near-surface cryogenic regions that extend beyond the boundaries of persistent shadow. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) struck one of the coldest of these regions, where subsurface temperatures are estimated to be 38 kelvin. Large areas of the lunar polar regions are currently cold enough to cold-trap water ice as well as a range of both more volatile and less volatile species. The diverse mixture of water and high-volatility compounds detected in the LCROSS ejecta plume is strong evidence for the impact delivery and cold-trapping of volatiles derived from primitive outer solar system bodies.

  18. Results from the Fourth WMO Filter Radiometer Comparison for aerosol optical depth measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazadzis, Stelios; Kouremeti, Natalia; Diémoz, Henri; Gröbner, Julian; Forgan, Bruce W.; Campanelli, Monica; Estellés, Victor; Lantz, Kathleen; Michalsky, Joseph; Carlund, Thomas; Cuevas, Emilio; Toledano, Carlos; Becker, Ralf; Nyeki, Stephan; Kosmopoulos, Panagiotis G.; Tatsiankou, Viktar; Vuilleumier, Laurent; Denn, Frederick M.; Ohkawara, Nozomu; Ijima, Osamu; Goloub, Philippe; Raptis, Panagiotis I.; Milner, Michael; Behrens, Klaus; Barreto, Africa; Martucci, Giovanni; Hall, Emiel; Wendell, James; Fabbri, Bryan E.; Wehrli, Christoph

    2018-03-01

    This study presents the results of the Fourth Filter Radiometer Comparison that was held in Davos, Switzerland, between 28 September and 16 October 2015. Thirty filter radiometers and spectroradiometers from 12 countries participated including reference instruments from global aerosol networks. The absolute differences of all instruments compared to the reference have been based on the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) criterion defined as follows: 95% of the measured data has to be within 0.005 ± 0.001/m (where m is the air mass). At least 24 out of 29 instruments achieved this goal at both 500 and 865 nm, while 12 out of 17 and 13 out of 21 achieved this at 368 and 412 nm, respectively. While searching for sources of differences among different instruments, it was found that all individual differences linked to Rayleigh, NO2, ozone, water vapor calculations and related optical depths and air mass calculations were smaller than 0.01 in aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 and 865 nm. Different cloud-detecting algorithms used have been compared. Ångström exponent calculations showed relatively large differences among different instruments, partly because of the high calculation uncertainty of this parameter in low AOD conditions. The overall low deviations of these AOD results and the high accuracy of reference aerosol network instruments demonstrated a promising framework to achieve homogeneity, compatibility and harmonization among the different spectral AOD networks in the near future.

  19. Narrow Field of View Zenith Radiometer (NFOV) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, C; Marshak, A; Hodges, G; Barnard, JC; Schmelzer, J

    2008-11-01

    The two-channel narrow field-of-view radiometer (NFOV2) is a ground-based radiometer that looks straight up and measures radiance directly above the instrument at wavelengths of 673 and 870 nm. The field-of-view of the instrument is 1.2 degrees, and the sampling time resolution is one second. Measurements of the NFOV2 have been used to retrieve optical properties for overhead clouds that range from patchy to overcast. With a one-second sampling rate of the NFOV2, faster than almost any other ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) instrument, we are able, for the first time, to capture changes in cloud optical properties at the natural time scale of cloud evolution.

  20. Effect of a spacer moiety on radiometal labelled Neurotensin derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarin, A.; Valverde, I.E.; Mindt, T.L. [Univ. of Basel Hospital (Switzerland). Div. of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry

    2013-07-01

    The binding sequence of the regulatory peptide Neurotensin, NT(8-13), represents a promising tumour-specific vector for the development of radiopeptides useful in nuclear oncology for the diagnosis (imaging) and therapy of cancer. A number of radiometal-labelled NT(8-13) derivatives have been reported, however, the effect of the spacer which connects the vector with the radiometal complex has yet not been investigated systematically. Because a spacer moiety can influence potentially important biological characteristics of radiopeptides, we synthesized three [DOTA({sup 177}Lu)]-X-NT(8-13) derivatives and evaluated the effect of a spacer (X) on the physico-chemical properties of the conjugate including lipophilicity, stability, and in vitro receptor affinity and cell internalization. (orig.)

  1. The Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) for ERS1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delderfield, J.; Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.; Bernard, R.; de Javel, Y.; Williamson, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    The ATSR is an infrared imaging radiometer which has been selected to fly aboard the ESA Remote Sensing Satellite No. 1 (ERS1) with the specific objective of accurately determining global Sea Surface Temperature (SST). Novel features, including the technique of 'along track' scanning, a closed Stirling cycle cooler, and the precision on-board blackbodies are described. Instrument subsystems are identified and their design trade-offs discussed.

  2. Estimation of Hydraulic properties of a sandy soil using ground-based active and passive microwave remote sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Jonard, Franç ois; Weihermü ller, Lutz; Schwank, Mike; Jadoon, Khan; Vereecken, Harry; Lambot, Sé bastien

    2015-01-01

    profiles, and thereby estimate the sand water retention curve described using the van Genuchten model. Uncertainty of the estimated hydraulic parameters was quantified using the Bayesian-based DREAM algorithm. For both radiometer and GPR methods

  3. Microwave Regenerable Air Purification Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, James E.; Holtsnider, John T.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of using microwave power to thermally regenerate sorbents loaded with water vapor, CO2, and organic contaminants has been rigorously demonstrated. Sorbents challenged with air containing 0.5% CO2, 300 ppm acetone, 50 ppm trichloroethylene, and saturated with water vapor have been regenerated, singly and in combination. Microwave transmission, reflection, and phase shift has also been determined for a variety of sorbents over the frequency range between 1.3-2.7 GHz. This innovative technology offers the potential for significant energy savings in comparison to current resistive heating methods because energy is absorbed directly by the material to be heated. Conductive, convective and radiative losses are minimized. Extremely rapid heating is also possible, i.e., 1400 C in less than 60 seconds. Microwave powered thermal desorption is directly applicable to the needs of Advance Life Support in general, and of EVA in particular. Additionally, the applicability of two specific commercial applications arising from this technology have been demonstrated: the recovery for re-use of acetone (and similar solvents) from industrial waste streams using a carbon based molecular sieve; and the separation and destruction of trichloroethylene using ZSM-5 synthetic zeolite catalyst, a predominant halocarbon environmental contaminant. Based upon these results, Phase II development is strongly recommended.

  4. Plasma relativistic microwave electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzelev, M.V.; Loza, O.T.; Rukhadze, A.A.; Strelkov, P.S.; Shkvarunets, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    One formulated the principles of plasma relativistic microwave electronics based on the induced Cherenkov radiation of electromagnetic waves at interaction of a relativistic electron beam with plasma. One developed the theory of plasma relativistic generators and accelerators of microwave radiation, designed and studied the prototypes of such devices. One studied theoretically the mechanisms of radiation, calculated the efficiencies and the frequency spectra of plasma relativistic microwave generators and accelerators. The theory findings are proved by the experiment: intensity of the designed sources of microwave radiation is equal to 500 μW, the frequency of microwave radiation is increased by 7 times (from 4 up to 28 GHz), the width of radiation frequency band may vary from several up to 100%. The designed sources of microwave radiation are no else compared in the electronics [ru

  5. A new real time infrared background discrimination radiometer (BDR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopolovich, Z.; Cabib, D.; Buckwald, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a new radiometer (BDR) that has been developed, which discriminates small differences between an object and its surrounding background, and is able to measure an object's changing contrast when the contrast of a moving object is to be measured against a changing background. The difference in radiant emittance of a small object against its background or of two objects with respect to each other and this difference is small compared to the emittance itself. Practical examples of such measurements are contrast measurements of airplanes and missiles in flight, contrast measurements of small, weak objects on a warm background and uniformity measurements of radiant emittance from an object's surface. Previous instruments were unable to make such measurements since the process of contrast measurement with a fixed field of view radiometer is too slow for implementation on flying objects; detection of a small difference between two large DC signals is impossible in a traditional fixed field of view radiometer when the instrument itself is saturated

  6. A horizontal vane radiometer: Experiment, theory, and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, David; Larraza, Andres, E-mail: larraza@nps.edu [Department of Physics, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California 93940 (United States); Garcia, Alejandro [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, San Jose, California 95152 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The existence of two motive forces on a Crookes radiometer has complicated the investigation of either force independently. The thermal creep shear force in particular has been subject to differing interpretations of the direction in which it acts and its order of magnitude. In this article, we provide a horizontal vane radiometer design which isolates the thermal creep shear force. The horizontal vane radiometer is explored through experiment, kinetic theory, and the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. The qualitative agreement between the three methods of investigation is good except for a dependence of the force on the width of the vane even when the temperature gradient is narrower than the vane which is present in the DSMC method results but not in the theory. The experimental results qualitatively resemble the theory in this regard. The quantitative agreement between the three methods of investigation is better than an order of magnitude in the cases examined. The theory is closer to the experimental values for narrow vanes and the simulations are closer to the experimental values for the wide vanes. We find that the thermal creep force acts from the hot side to the cold side of the vane. We also find the peak in the radiometer’s angular speed as a function of pressure is explained as much by the behavior of the drag force as by the behavior of the thermal creep force.

  7. A horizontal vane radiometer: Experiment, theory, and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, David; Larraza, Andres; Garcia, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The existence of two motive forces on a Crookes radiometer has complicated the investigation of either force independently. The thermal creep shear force in particular has been subject to differing interpretations of the direction in which it acts and its order of magnitude. In this article, we provide a horizontal vane radiometer design which isolates the thermal creep shear force. The horizontal vane radiometer is explored through experiment, kinetic theory, and the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. The qualitative agreement between the three methods of investigation is good except for a dependence of the force on the width of the vane even when the temperature gradient is narrower than the vane which is present in the DSMC method results but not in the theory. The experimental results qualitatively resemble the theory in this regard. The quantitative agreement between the three methods of investigation is better than an order of magnitude in the cases examined. The theory is closer to the experimental values for narrow vanes and the simulations are closer to the experimental values for the wide vanes. We find that the thermal creep force acts from the hot side to the cold side of the vane. We also find the peak in the radiometer’s angular speed as a function of pressure is explained as much by the behavior of the drag force as by the behavior of the thermal creep force.

  8. Manual of program operation for data analysis from radiometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Mello, L.A.R. da; Migliora, C.G.S.

    1987-12-01

    This manual describes how to use the software to retrieve and analyse data from radiometer systems and raingauges used in the 12 GHz PROPAGATION MEASUREMENTS/CANADA - TELEBRAS COOPERATION PROGRAM. The data retrieval and analisys is being carried out by CETUC, as part of the activities of the project Simulacao de Enlaces Satelite (SES). The software for these tasks has been supplied by the Canadian Research Centre (CRC), together with the measurement equipment. The two following sections describe the use of the data retrieval routines and the data analysis routines of program ATTEN. Also, a quick reference guide for commands that can be used when a microcomputer is local or remotely connected to a radiometer indoor unit is included as a last section. A more detailed description of these commands, their objectives and cautions that should de taken when using them can be found in the manual ''12 GHz Propagation Measurements System - Volume 1 - Dual Slope Radiometer and Data Aquisition System'', supplied by Diversitel Communications Inc. (author) [pt

  9. Microwave Resonators and Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-22

    1 Microwave Resonators and Filters Daniel E. Oates MIT Lincoln Laboratory 244 Wood St. Lexington, MA 02478 USA Email: oates@ll.mit.edu...explained in other chapters, the surface resistance of superconductors at microwave frequencies can be as much as three orders of magnitude lower than the...resonators and filters in the first edition of this handbook (Z.-Y. Shen 2003) discussed the then state of the art of microwave frequency applications

  10. Microwave and RF engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sorrentino, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    An essential text for both students and professionals, combining detailed theory with clear practical guidance This outstanding book explores a large spectrum of topics within microwave and radio frequency (RF) engineering, encompassing electromagnetic theory, microwave circuits and components. It provides thorough descriptions of the most common microwave test instruments and advises on semiconductor device modelling. With examples taken from the authors' own experience, this book also covers:network and signal theory;electronic technology with guided electromagnetic pr

  11. Design of microwave vitrification systems for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.L.; Wilson, C.T.; Schaick, C.R.; Bostick, W.D.

    1996-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is involved in the research and development of high-power microwave heating systems for the vitrification of DOE radioactive sludges. Design criteria for a continuous microwave vitrification system capable of processing a surrogate filtercake sludge representative of a typical waste-water treatment operation are discussed. A prototype 915 MHz, 75 kW microwave vitrification system or 'microwave melter' is described along with some early experimental results that demonstrate a 4 to 1 volume reduction of a surrogate ORNL filtercake sludge

  12. Design of microwave vitrification systems for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.L.; Wilson, C.T.; Schaich, C.R.; Bostick, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is involved in the research and development of high-power microwave heating systems for the vitrification of Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive sludges. Design criteria for a continuous microwave vitrification system capable of processing a surrogate filtercake sludge representative of a typical waste-water treatment operation are discussed. A prototype 915-MHz, 75-kW microwave vitrification system or ''microwave melter'' is described along with some early experimental results that demonstrate a 4 to 1 volume reduction of a surrogate ORNL filtercake sludge

  13. The multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) - precision infrared radiometer (PIR) platform in Fairbanks: Scientific objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamnes, K.; Leontieva, E. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) and precision infrared radiometer (PIR) have been employed at the Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks to check their performance under arctic conditions. Drawing on the experience of the previous measurements in the Arctic, the PIR was equipped with a ventilator to prevent frost and moisture build-up. We adopted the Solar Infrared Observing Sytem (SIROS) concept from the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) to allow implementation of the same data processing software for a set of radiation and meteorological instruments. To validate the level of performance of the whole SIROS prior to its incorporation into the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Cloud and Radiation Testbed Site instrumental suite for flux radiatin measurements, the comparison between measurements and model predictions will be undertaken to assess the MFRSR-PIR Arctic data quality.

  14. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  15. Advances in microwaves 3

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Microwaves, Volume 3 covers the advances and applications of microwave signal transmission and Gunn devices. This volume contains six chapters and begins with descriptions of ground-station antennas for space communications. The succeeding chapters deal with beam waveguides, which offer interesting possibilities for transmitting microwave energy, as well as with parallel or tubular beams from antenna apertures. A chapter discusses the electron transfer mechanism and the velocity-field characteristics, with a particular emphasis on the microwave properties of Gunn oscillators. The l

  16. The microwave market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bybokas, J.

    1989-01-01

    As superconductors move from the laboratory to the marketplace, it becomes more important for researchers and manufacturers to understand the markets for this technology. The large market for microwave systems represents a major opportunity for high-T c superconductors. Conductor losses are a primary design limitation in conventional microwave systems. The low losses of superconductors at microwave frequencies will allow component designers and system designers to improve their products in many ways. The most important market segments for microwave systems are outlined in this discussion

  17. Rapid assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Present techniques of airborne chlorophyll measurement are discussed as an approach to water pollution assessment. The differential radiometer, the chlorophyll correlation radiometer, and an infrared radiometer for water temperature measurements are described as the key components of the equipment. Also covered are flight missions carried out to evaluate the capability of the chlorophyll correlation radiometer in measuring the chlorophyll content in water bodies with widely different levels of nutrients, such as fresh-water lakes of high and low eutrophic levels, marine waters of high and low productivity, and an estuary with a high sediment content. The feasibility and usefulness of these techniques are indicated.

  18. Mapping Greenland's Firn Aquifer using L-band Microwave Radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.; Bringer, A.; Jezek, K. C.; Johnson, J. T.; Scambos, T. A.; Long, D. G.

    2016-12-01

    Greenland's recently discovered firn aquifer is one of the most interesting, yet still mysterious, components of the ice sheet system. Many open questions remain regarding timescales of refreezing and/or englacial drainage of liquid meltwater, and the connections of firn aquifers to the subglacial hydrological system. If liquid meltwater production at the surface of the Greenland ice sheet continues to increase, subsequent increases in the volume of mobile liquid meltwater retained within Greenland's firn aquifer may increase the possibility of crevasse-deepening via hydrofracture. Hydrofracture is an important component of supraglacial lake drainage leading to at least temporary accelerated flow velocities and ice sheet mass balance changes. Firn aquifers may also support hydrofracture-induced drainage and thus are potentially capable of significantly influencing ice sheet mass balance and sea level rise. Spaceborne L-band microwave radiometers provide an innovative tool for ice-sheet wide mapping of the spatiotemporal variability of Greenland's firn aquifer. Both refreezing and englacial drainage may be observable given the sensitivity of the microwave response to the upper surface of liquid meltwater retained within snow and firn pore space as well as the ability of L band instruments to probe the ice sheet from the surface to the firn-ice transition at pore close-off depth. Here we combine L-band (1.4 GHz) brightness temperature observations from multiple sources to demonstrate the potential of mapping firn aquifers on ice sheets using L-band microwave radiometry. Data sources include the interferometric MIRAS instrument aboard ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission and the radiometer aboard NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite mission. We will also present mulit-frequency L-band brightness temperature data (0.5-2 GHz) that will be collected over several firn aquifer areas on the Greenland ice sheet by the Ohio State

  19. Migration of DEHP from plastic to food simulants under microwave heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X.; Li, F.; Qiu, Z. Z.; Huang, J. W.

    2017-05-01

    The migration of plasticizer DEHP from the plastic products (4 kinds of commonly used plastic food containers under microwave heating: plastic wrap, food bags, ordinary plastic boxes, microwave special plastic boxes) through food contact materials to food simulants (isooctane, 10% ethanol-water solution (v/v), 3% acetic acid-water solution (w/w) and distilled water) was studied under microwave heating (power levels of 400 W). The results shows that the DEHP mobility increases with the increase of microwave heating time, DEHP mobility in isooctane and 3% acetic acid-water solution (w/w) is significantly greater than in 10% ethanol-water solution (v/v) and distilled water; the order of DEHP mobility in isooctane is plastic wrap>food bag>common plastic box>microwave-safe plastic box, while in 3% acetic acid (w/w), the order is food bag>common plastic box>microwave-safe plastic box>plastic wrap.

  20. Microwave Enhanced Reactive Distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altman, E.

    2011-01-01

    The application of electromagnetic irradiation in form of microwaves (MW) has gathered the attention of the scientific community in recent years. MW used as an alternative energy source for chemical syntheses (microwave chemistry) can provide clear advantages over conventional heating methods in

  1. Integrated microwave photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marpaung, D.A.I.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Heideman, Rene; Leinse, Arne; Sales, S.; Capmany, J.

    2013-01-01

    Microwave photonics (MWP) is an emerging field in which radio frequency (RF) signals are generated, distributed, processed and analyzed using the strength of photonic techniques. It is a technology that enables various functionalities which are not feasible to achieve only in the microwave domain. A

  2. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between...... various requirements to be fulfilled in the design of an imaging system for breast cancer detection and some strategies to overcome these limitations....

  3. MICROWAVES IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of microwaves, a non-ionizing radiation, on organic reactions is described both in polar solvents and under solvent-free conditions. The special applications are highlighted in the context of solventless organic synthesis which involve microwave (MW) exposure of neat r...

  4. Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.; Johnson, A.C.; Thigpen, L.T.

    1999-10-05

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  5. The Potential of Autonomous Ship-Borne Hyperspectral Radiometers for the Validation of Ocean Color Radiometry Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio E. Brando

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Calibration and validation of satellite observations are essential and on-going tasks to ensure compliance with mission accuracy requirements. An automated above water hyperspectral radiometer significantly augmented Australia’s ability to contribute to global and regional ocean color validation and algorithm design activities. The hyperspectral data can be re-sampled for comparison with current and future sensor wavebands. The continuous spectral acquisition along the ship track enables spatial resampling to match satellite footprint. This study reports spectral comparisons of the radiometer data with Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-Aqua for contrasting water types in tropical waters off northern Australia based on the standard NIR atmospheric correction implemented in SeaDAS. Consistent match-ups are shown for transects of up to 50 km over a range of reflectance values. The MODIS and VIIRS satellite reflectance data consistently underestimated the in situ spectra in the blue with a bias relative to the “dynamic above water radiance and irradiance collector” (DALEC at 443 nm ranging from 9.8 × 10−4 to 3.1 × 10−3 sr−1. Automated acquisition has produced good quality data under standard operating and maintenance procedures. A sensitivity analysis explored the effects of some assumptions in the data reduction methods, indicating the need for a comprehensive investigation and quantification of each source of uncertainty in the estimate of the DALEC reflectances. Deployment on a Research Vessel provides the potential for the radiometric data to be combined with other sampling and observational activities to contribute to algorithm development in the wider bio-optical research community.

  6. Reflectance of Antarctic surfaces from multispectral radiometers: The correction of atmospheric effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zibordi, G.; Maracci, G.

    1993-01-01

    Monitoring reflectance of polar icecaps has relevance in climate studies. In fact, climate changes produce variations in the morphology of ice and snow covers, which are detectable as surface reflectance change. Surface reflectance can be retrieved from remotely sensed data. However, absolute values independent of atmospheric turbidity and surface altitude can only be obtained after removing masking effects of the atmosphere. An atmospheric correction model, accounting for surface and sensor altitudes above sea level, is described and validated through data detected over Antarctic surfaces with a Barnes Modular Multispectral Radiometer having bands overlapping those of the Landsat Thematic Mapper. The model is also applied in a sensitivity analysis to investigate error induced in reflectance obtained from satellite data by indeterminacy in optical parameters of atmospheric constituents. Results show that indeterminacy in the atmospheric water vapor optical thickness is the main source of nonaccuracy in the retrieval of surface reflectance from data remotely sensed over Antarctic regions

  7. Miniaturized Laser Heterodyne Radiometer for Measurements of CO2 in the Atmospheric Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, E. L.; Mclinden, M. L.; Miller, J. H.; Allan, G. R.; Lott, L. E.; Melroy, H. R.; Clarke, G. B.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a low-cost, miniaturized laser heterodyne radiometer for highly sensitive measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmospheric column. In this passive design, sunlight that has undergone absorption by CO2 in the atmosphere is collected and mixed with continuous wave laser light that is step-scanned across the absorption feature centered at 1,573.6 nm. The resulting radio frequency beat signal is collected as a function of laser wavelength, from which the total column mole fraction can be de-convolved. We are expanding this technique to include methane (CH4) and carbon monoxide (CO), and with minor modifications, this technique can be expanded to include species such as water vapor (H2O) and nitrous oxide (N2O).

  8. Microwave-assisted synthesis of HKUST-1 and functionalized HKUST-1-@H3PW12O40: selective adsorption of heavy metal ions in water analyzed with synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Fang; Yu, Runhan; Li, Rongguan; Li, Wei

    2013-08-26

    A simple, rapid and efficient synthesis of the metal-organic framework (MOF) HKUST-1 [Cu3(1,3,5-benzene-tri-carboxilic-acid)2] by microwave irradiation is described, which afforded a homogeneous and highly selective material. The unusually short time to complete the synthesis by microwave irradiation is mainly attributable to rapid nucleation rather than to crystal growth rate. Using this method, HKUST-1-MW (MW=microwave) could be prepared within 20 min, whereas by hydrothermal synthesis, involving conventional heating, the preparation time is 8 h. Work efficiency was improved by the good performance of the obtained HKUST-1-MW which exhibited good selective adsorption of heavy metal ions, as well as a remarkably high adsorption affinity and adsorption capacity, but no adsorption of Hg(2+) under the same experimental conditions. Of particular importance is the preservation of the structure after metal-ion adsorption, which remained virtually intact, with only a few changes in X-ray diffraction intensity and a moderate decline in surface area. Synthesis of the polyoxometalate-containing HKUST-1-MW@H3PW12O40 afforded a MOF with enhanced stability in water, due to the introduced Keggin-type phosphotungstate, which systematically occluded in the cavities constituting the walls between the mesopores. Different Cu/W ratios were investigated according to the extrusion rate of cooper ions concentration, without significant structural changes after adsorption. The MOFs obtained feature particle sizes between 10-20 μm and their structures were determined using synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction. The results of this study can be considered important for potentially wider future applications of MOFs, especially to attend environmental issues. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Measuring the global distribution of intense convection over land with passive microwave radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, R. W.; Santek, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The global distribution of intense convective activity over land is shown to be measurable with satellite passive-microwave methods through a comparison of an empirical rain rate algorithm with a climatology of thunderstorm days for the months of June-August. With the 18 and 37 GHz channels of the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), the strong volume scattering effects of precipitation can be measured. Even though a single frequency (37 GHz) is responsive to the scattering signature, two frequencies are needed to remove most of the effect that variations in thermometric temperatures and soil moisture have on the brightness temperatures. Because snow cover is also a volume scatterer of microwave energy at these microwavelengths, a discrimination procedure involving four of the SMMR channels is employed to separate the rain and snow classes, based upon their differences in average thermometric temperature.

  10. Global, exact cosmic microwave background data analysis using Gibbs sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Larson, David L.; Lakshminarayanan, Arun

    2004-01-01

    We describe an efficient and exact method that enables global Bayesian analysis of cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. The method reveals the joint posterior density (or likelihood for flat priors) of the power spectrum C l and the CMB signal. Foregrounds and instrumental parameters can be simultaneously inferred from the data. The method allows the specification of a wide range of foreground priors. We explicitly show how to propagate the non-Gaussian dependency structure of the C l posterior through to the posterior density of the parameters. If desired, the analysis can be coupled to theoretical (cosmological) priors and can yield the posterior density of cosmological parameter estimates directly from the time-ordered data. The method does not hinge on special assumptions about the survey geometry or noise properties, etc., It is based on a Monte Carlo approach and hence parallelizes trivially. No trace or determinant evaluations are necessary. The feasibility of this approach rests on the ability to solve the systems of linear equations which arise. These are of the same size and computational complexity as the map-making equations. We describe a preconditioned conjugate gradient technique that solves this problem and demonstrate in a numerical example that the computational time required for each Monte Carlo sample scales as n p 3/2 with the number of pixels n p . We use our method to analyze the data from the Differential Microwave Radiometer on the Cosmic Background Explorer and explore the non-Gaussian joint posterior density of the C l from the Differential Microwave Radiometer on the Cosmic Background Explorer in several projections

  11. Radiometer Calibration and Characterization (RCC) User's Manual: Windows Version 4.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, Afshin M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilcox, Stephen M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-29

    The Radiometer Calibration and Characterization (RCC) software is a data acquisition and data archival system for performing Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibrations (BORCAL). RCC provides a unique method of calibrating broadband atmospheric longwave and solar shortwave radiometers using techniques that reduce measurement uncertainty and better characterize a radiometer's response profile. The RCC software automatically monitors and controls many of the components that contribute to uncertainty in an instrument's responsivity. This is a user's manual and guide to the RCC software.

  12. Spacebased Observation of Water Balance Over Global Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Xie, X.

    2008-12-01

    We demonstrated that ocean surface fresh water flux less the water discharge into the ocean from river and ice melt balances the mass loss in the ocean both in magnitude and in the phase of annual variation. The surface water flux was computed from the divergence of the water transport integrated over the depth of the atmosphere. The atmospheric water transport is estimated from the precipitable water measured by Special Sensor Microwave Imager, the surface wind vector by QuikSCAT, and the NOAA cloud drift wind through a statistical model. The transport has been extensively validated using global radiosonde and data and operational numerical weather prediction results. Its divergence has been shown to agree with the difference between evaporation estimated from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer data and the precipitation measured by Tropical Rain Measuring Mission over the global tropical and subtropical oceans both in magnitude and geographical distribution for temporal scales ranging from intraseasonal to interannual. The water loss rate in the ocean is estimated by two methods, one is from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment and the other is by subtracting the climatological steric change from the sea level change measured by radar altimeter on Jason. Only climatological river discharge and ice melt from in situ measurements are available and the lack of temporal variation may contribute to discrepancies in the balance. We have successfully used the spacebased surface fluxes to estimate to climatological mean heat transport in the Atlantic ocean and is attempting to estimate the meridional fresh water (or salt) transport from the surface flux. The approximate closure of the water balance gives a powerful indirect validation of the spacebased products.

  13. Radiometric temperature reading of a hot ellipsoidal object inside the oral cavity by a shielded microwave antenna put flush to the cheek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemetsen, Øystein; Jacobsen, Svein; Birkelund, Yngve

    2012-05-07

    A new scheme for detection of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children has recently been proposed in the literature. The idea is to warm bladder urine via microwave exposure to at least fever temperatures and observe potential urine reflux from the bladder back to the kidney(s) by medical radiometry. As a preliminary step toward realization of this detection device, we present non-invasive temperature monitoring by use of microwave radiometry in adults to observe temperature dynamics in vivo of a water-filled balloon placed within the oral cavity. The relevance of the approach with respect to detection of VUR in children is motivated by comparing the oral cavity and cheek tissue with axial CT images of young children in the bladder region. Both anatomical locations reveal a triple-layered tissue structure consisting of skin-fat-muscle with a total thickness of about 8-10 mm. In order to mimic variations in urine temperature, the target balloon was flushed with water coupled to a heat exchanger, that was moved between water baths of different temperatures, to induce measurable temperature gradients. The applied radiometer has a center frequency of 3.5 GHz and provides a sensitivity (accuracy) of 0.03 °C for a data acquisition time of 2 s. Three different scenarios were tested and included observation through the cheek tissue with and without an intervening water bolus compartment present. In all cases, radiometric readings observed over a time span of 900 s were shown to be highly correlated (R ~ 0.93) with in situ temperatures obtained by fiberoptic probes.

  14. Leveraging GeoTIFF Compatibility for Visualizing a New EASE-Grid 2.0 Global Satellite Passive Microwave Climate Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paget, A. C.; Brodzik, M. J.; Long, D. G.; Hardman, M.

    2016-02-01

    The historical record of satellite-derived passive microwave brightness temperatures comprises data from multiple imaging radiometers (SMMR, SSM/I-SSMIS, AMSR-E), spanning nearly 40 years of Earth observations from 1978 to the present. Passive microwave data are used to monitor time series of many climatological variables, including ocean wind speeds, cloud liquid water and sea ice concentrations and ice velocity. Gridded versions of passive microwave data have been produced using various map projections (polar stereographic, Lambert azimuthal equal-area, cylindrical equal-area, quarter-degree Platte-Carree) and data formats (flat binary, HDF). However, none of the currently available versions can be rendered in the common visualization standard, geoTIFF, without requiring cartographic reprojection. Furthermore, the reprojection details are complicated and often require expert knowledge of obscure software package options. We are producing a consistently calibrated, completely reprocessed data set of this valuable multi-sensor satellite record, using EASE-Grid 2.0, an improved equal-area projection definition that will require no reprojection for translation into geoTIFF. Our approach has been twofold: 1) define the projection ellipsoid to match the reference datum of the satellite data, and 2) include required file-level metadata for standard projection software to correctly render the data in the geoTIFF standard. The Calibrated, Enhanced Resolution Brightness Temperature (CETB) Earth System Data Record (ESDR), leverages image reconstruction techniques to enhance gridded spatial resolution to 3 km and uses newly available intersensor calibrations to improve the quality of derived geophysical products. We expect that our attention to easy geoTIFF compatibility will foster higher-quality analysis with the CETB product by enabling easy and correct intercomparison with other gridded and in situ data.

  15. Deprotection of oximes using urea nitrate under microwave irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A new mild and efficient method for the cleavage of oximes to carbonyl compounds using readily available urea nitrate in acetonitrile-water (95 : 5), under microwave irradiation within 2 min, in good yields is reported.

  16. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, Kelsie E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Christian, Jonathan H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coopersmith, Kaitlin [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, Aaron L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murph, Simona H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-27

    At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however, polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, and a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute; this maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.

  17. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krantz, Kelsie E.; Christian, Jonathan H.; Coopersmith, Kaitlin; Washington II, Aaron L.; Murph, Simona H.

    2016-01-01

    At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however, polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, and a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute; this maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.

  18. Evaluating the Long-term Water Cycle Trends at a Global-scale using Satellite and Assimilation Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Lakshmi, V.

    2017-12-01

    Global-scale soil moisture and rainfall products retrieved from remotely sensed and assimilation datasets provide an effective way to monitor near surface soil moisture content and precipitation with sub-daily temporal resolution. In the present study, we employed the concept of the stored precipitation fraction Fp(f) in order to examine the long-term water cycle trends at a global-scale. The analysis was done for Fp(f) trends with the various geophysical aspects such as climate zone, land use classifications, amount of vegetation, and soil properties. Furthermore, we compared a global-scale Fp(f) using different microwave-based satellite soil moisture datasets. The Fp(f) is calculated by utilized surface soil moisture dataset from Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity, Advanced Scatterometer, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2, and precipitation information from Global Precipitation Measurement Mission and Global Land Data Assimilation System. Different results from microwave-based soil moisture dataset showed discordant results particularly over arid and highly vegetated regions. The results of this study provide us new insights of the long-term water cycle trends over different land surface areas. Thereby also highlighting the advantages of the recently available GPM and SMAP datasets for the uses in various hydrometeorological applications.

  19. Microwave-induced torrefaction of rice husk and sugarcane residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M.J.; Huang, Y.F.; Chiueh, P.T.; Kuan, W.H.; Lo, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    This study utilized microwave irradiation to induce torrefaction (mild pyrolysis) of rice husk and sugarcane residues by varying different parameters, including microwave power level, processing time, water content, and particle size of biomass. Proper microwave power levels are suggested to be set between 250 and 300 W for the torrefaction of these two agricultural residues. With proper processing time, the caloric value can increase 26% for rice husk and 57% for sugarcane residue. Compared to dry rice husk, both maximum reaction temperature and mass reduction ratio increased with higher water content (not over 10%). Moreover, the particle size of biomass needs not to be very small. The mass reduction ratios were 65 wt.%, 69 wt.%, and 72 wt.%, when the sizes were 50/100 mesh, 100/200 mesh, and >200 mesh, respectively. Microwave-induced torrefaction reduces more oxygen/carbon ratio of biomass in comparison with traditional torrefaction. Microwave-induced torrefaction is considered as an efficient and promising technology with great potential. -- Highlights: ► Microwave-induced torrefaction is promising compared to conventional methods. ► Neither high microwave power nor small particle size is needed. ► High energy yield can be met under mild microwave power. ► Caloric value can increase up to about 60%.

  20. Advances In Understanding Global Water Cycle With Advent of GPM Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.

    2002-01-01

    During the coming decade, the internationally organized Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission will take an important step in creating a global precipitation observing system from space based on an international fleet of satellites operated as a constellation. One perspective for understanding the nature of GPM is that it will be a hierarchical system of datastreams beginning with very high caliber combined dual frequency radar/passive microwave (PMW) rain-radiometer retrievals, to high caliber PMW rain-radiometer only retrievals, and then on to blends of the former datastreams with additional lower-caliber PMW-based and IR-based rain retrievals. Within the context of the now emerging global water & energy cycle (GWEC) programs of a number of research agencies throughout the world, GPM serves as a centerpiece space mission for improving our understanding of the Earth's water cycle from a global measurement perspective and on down to regional scales and below. One of the salient problems within our current understanding of the global water and energy cycle is determining whether a change in the rate of the water cycle is accompanying changes in climate, e.g., climate warming. As there are a number of ways in which to define a rate-change of the global water cycle, it is not entirely clear as to what constitutes such a determination. This paper first presents an overview of the GPM Mission and how its overriding scientific objectives for climate, weather, and hydrology flow from the anticipated improvements that are being planned for the constellation-based measuring system. Next, the paper shows how the GPM observations can be used within the framework of the oceanic and continental water budget equations to determine whether a given perturbation in precipitation is indicative of an actual rate change in the water cycle, consistent with required responses in water storage and/or water flux transport processes, or whether it is simply part of the natural

  1. Advances in Understanding Global Water Cycle with Advent of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Within this decade the internationally organized Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission will take an important step in creating a global precipitation observing system from space. One perspective for understanding the nature of GPM is that it will be a hierarchical system of datastreams beginning with very high caliber combined dual frequency radar/passive microwave (PMW) rain-radiometer retrievals, to high caliber PMW rain-radiometer only retrievals, and then on to blends of the former datastreams with additional lower-caliber PMW-based and IR-based rain retrievals. Within the context of the now emerging global water & energy cycle (GWEC) programs of a number of research agencies throughout the world, GPM serves as a centerpiece space mission for improving our understanding of the global water cycle from a global measurement perspective. One of the salient problems within our current understanding of the global water and energy cycle is determining whether a change in the rate of the water cycle is accompanying changes in climate, e.g., climate warming. As there are a number of ways in which to define a rate-change of the global water cycle, it is not entirely clear as to what constitutes such a determination. This paper presents an overview of the GPM Mission and how its observations can be used within the framework of the oceanic and continental water budget equations to determine whether a given perturbation in precipitation is indicative of an actual rate change in the global water cycle, consistent with required responses in water storage and/or water flux transport processes, or whether it is the natural variability of a fixed rate cycle.

  2. Advances in Global Water Cycle Science Made Possible by Global Precipitation Mission (GPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Within this decade the internationally sponsored Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) will take an important step in creating a global precipitation observing system from space. One perspective for understanding the nature of GPM is that it will be a hierarchical system of datastreams from very high caliber combined dual frequency radar/passive microwave (PMW) rain-radiometer retrievals, to high caliber PMW rain-radiometer only retrievals, and on to blends of the former datastreams with other less-high caliber PMW-based and IR-based rain retrievals. Within the context of NASA's role in global water cycle science and its own Global Water & Energy Cycle (GWEC) program, GPM is the centerpiece mission for improving our understanding of the global water cycle from a space-based measurement perspective. One of the salient problems within our current understanding of the global water and energy cycle is determining whether a change in the rate of the water cycle is accompanying changes in global temperature. As there are a number of ways in which to define a rate-change of the global water cycle, it is not entirely clear as to what constitutes such a determination, This paper presents an overview of the Global Precipitation Mission and how its datasets can be used in a set of quantitative tests within the framework of the oceanic and continental water budget equations to determine comprehensively whether substantive rate changes do accompany perturbations in global temperatures and how such rate changes manifest themselves in both water storage and water flux transport processes.

  3. Advances in microwaves

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Leo

    1967-01-01

    Advances in Microwaves, Volume 2 focuses on the developments in microwave solid-state devices and circuits. This volume contains six chapters that also describe the design and applications of diplexers and multiplexers. The first chapter deals with the parameters of the tunnel diode, oscillators, amplifiers and frequency converter, followed by a simple physical description and the basic operating principles of the solid state devices currently capable of generating coherent microwave power, including transistors, harmonic generators, and tunnel, avalanche transit time, and diodes. The next ch

  4. Advances in microwaves 4

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Microwaves, Volume 4 covers some innovations in the devices and applications of microwaves. This volume contains three chapters and begins with a discussion of the application of microwave phasers and time delay elements as beam steering elements in array radars. The next chapter provides first an overview of the technical aspects and different types of millimeter waveguides, followed by a survey of their application to railroads. The last chapter examines the general mode of conversion properties of nonuniform waveguides, such as waveguide tapers, using converted Maxwell's equatio

  5. A new model for the structure function of integrated water vapor in turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobak, Justin P.; Ruf, Christopher S.

    1999-01-01

    Turbulent fluctuation of integrated water vapor in the troposphere is one of the major noise sources in radio interferometry. Processed integrated water vapor estimates from microwave radiometers colocated with interferometers have been used to set bounds on this uncertainty. The bound has been in the form of a calculated structure function, which is a measure of temporal or spatial decorrelation of fluctuations. In this paper a new model is presented for the estimation of the structure function in the absence of radiometer measurements. Using this model, the structure function can be estimated using measurements or estimates of a limited number of meteorological parameters. These parameters include boundary layer depth, surface heat and humidity fluxes, entrainment humidity flux, average virtual potential temperature in the boundary layer, and geostrophic wind speed. These parameters can be found or estimated from radiosonde and surface eddy correlation system data. The model is based on a framework of turbulence meteorology and provides excellent agreement when compared with state-of-the-art atmospheric turbulence simulations. Results of preliminary comparisons with ground truth show some excellent agreement, as well as some problems. The performance of the new model exceeds that of one current model. (c) 1999 American Geophysical Union

  6. Relationship between ice water path and downward longwave radiation for clouds optically thin in the infrared: Observations and model calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttal, Taneil; Matrosov, Sergey Y.; Snider, Jack B.; Kropfli, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    A vertically pointing 3.2-cm radar is used to observe altostratus and cirrus clouds as they pass overhead. Radar reflectivities are used in combination with an empirical Z(sub i)-IWC (ice water content) relationship developed by Sassen (1987) to parameterize IWC, which is then integrated to obtain estimates of ice water path (IWP). The observed dataset is segregated into all-ice and mixed-phase periods using measurements of integrated liquid water paths (LWP) detected by a collocated, dual-channel microwave radiometer. The IWP values for the all ice periods are compared to measurements of infrared (IR) downward fluxes measured by a collocated narrowband (9.95-11.43 microns) IR radiometer, which results in scattergrams representing the observed dependence of IR fluxes on IWP. A two-stream model is used to calculate the infrared fluxes expected from ice clouds with boundary conditions specified by the actual clouds, and similar curves relating IWP and infrared fluxes are obtained. The model and observational results suggest that IWP is one of the primary controls on infrared thermal fluxes for ice clouds.

  7. Effect of microwave radiation on coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbayoglu, G.; Depci, T.; Ataman, N. [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

    2009-07-01

    Most low-rank coals are high in moisture and acid functional groups, therefore showing poor floatability. Drying, which removes the water molecules trapped in the pores and adsorbed at the surface of coal, decreases the hydrophilic character and improves the floatability. Microwave heating, whose simplest application is drying, was applied at 0.9 kW power level for 60 sec exposure time in the experiments to decrease the moisture content of coal in order to enhance the hydrophobicity. The flotation tests of microwave-treated coal by using heptanol and octanol lead to a higher flotation yield and ash removal than original coal.

  8. Phase 2 microwave concrete decontamination results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.L.; Foster, D. Jr.; Wilson, C.T.; Schaich, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    The authors report on the results of the second phase of a four-phase program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop a system to decontaminate concrete using microwave energy. The microwave energy is directed at the concrete surface through the use of an optimized wave guide antenna, or applicator, and this energy rapidly heats the free water present in the interstitial spaces of the concrete matrix. The resulting steam pressure causes the surface to burst in much the same way popcorn pops in a home microwave oven. Each steam explosion removes several square centimeters of concrete surface that are collected by a highly integrated wave guide and vacuum system. The authors call this process the microwave concrete decontamination, or MCD, process. In the first phase of the program the principle of microwaves concrete removal concrete surfaces was demonstrated. In these experiments, concrete slabs were placed on a translator and moved beneath a stationary microwave system. The second phase demonstrated the ability to mobilize the technology to remove the surfaces from concrete floors. Area and volume concrete removal rates of 10.4 cm 2 /s and 4.9 cm 3 /S, respectively, at 18 GHz were demonstrated. These rates are more than double those obtained in Phase 1 of the program. Deeper contamination can be removed by using a longer residence time under the applicator to create multiple explosions in the same area or by taking multiple passes over previously removed areas. Both techniques have been successfully demonstrated. Small test sections of painted and oil-soaked concrete have also been removed in a single pass. Concrete with embedded metal anchors on the surface has also been removed, although with some increased variability of removal depth. Microwave leakage should not pose any operational hazard to personnel, since the observed leakage was much less than the regulatory standard

  9. Insight into Aluminum Sulfate-Catalyzed Xylan Conversion into Furfural in a γ-Valerolactone/Water Biphasic Solvent under Microwave Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Zhou, Yi-Han; Zhu, Sheng-Zhen; Pan, Hui; Huang, Yao-Bing

    2017-10-23

    A simple and efficient biphasic system with an earth-abundant metal salt catalyst was used to produce furfural from xylan with a high yield of up to 87.8 % under microwave conditions. Strikingly, the metal salt Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 exhibited excellent catalytic activity for xylan conversion, owing to a combination of Lewis and Brønsted acidity and its ability to promote good phase separation. The critical role of the SO 4 2- anion was first analyzed, which resulted in the aforementioned characteristics when combined with the Al 3+ cation. The mixed solvent system with γ-valerolactone (GVL) as the organic phase provided the highest furfural yield, resulting from its good dielectric properties and dissolving capacity, which facilitated the absorption of microwave energy and promoted mass transfer. Mechanistic studies suggested that the xylan-to-furfural conversion proceeded mainly through a hydrolysis-isomerization-dehydration pathway and the hexa-coordinated Lewis acidic [Al(OH) 2 (aq)] + species were the active sites for xylose-xylulose isomerization. Detailed kinetic studies of the subreaction for the xylan conversion revealed that GVL regulates the reaction rates and pathways by promoting the rates of the key steps involved for furfural production and suppressing the side reactions for humin production. Finally, the Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 catalyst was used for the production of furfural from several lignocellulosic feedstocks, revealing its great potential for other biomass conversions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Improvements in or relating to microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardwick, W.H.; Gayler, R.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is concerned with microwave heating and more particularly with microwave heating to effect melting. Material is contained in a container and microwave energy is applied to melt material while a portion of the material adjacent to the internal surfaces of the container is maintained at a temperature at which it is not molten. This may be by cooling water in vessel. The invention therefore provides for ''skull'' melting in which a layer of non-molten material protects the container from molten material. Examples of materials which may be treated in accordance with the present invention are glasses and glass-like materials and precursors therefor (e.g. glasses and glass-like materials or precursors therefor containing radioactive wastes). (author)

  11. Microwave photonics shines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Rachel

    2011-12-01

    The combination of microwave photonics and optics has advanced many applications in defence, wireless communications, imaging and network infrastructure. Rachel Won talks to Jianping Yao from the University of Ottawa in Canada about the importance of this growing field.

  12. Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) salinity data validation over Malaysia coastal water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reba, M N M; Rosli, A Z; Rahim, N A

    2014-01-01

    The study of sea surface salinity (SSS) plays an important role in the marine ecosystem, estimation of global ocean circulation and observation of fisheries, aquaculture, coral reef and sea grass habitats. The new challenge of SSS estimation is to exploit the ocean surface brightness temperature (Tb) observed by the Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) onboard the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite that is specifically designed to provide the best retrieval of ocean salinity and soil moisture using the L band of 1.4 GHz radiometer. Tb observed by radiometer is basically a function of the dielectric constant, sea surface temperature (SST), wind speed (U), incidence angle, polarization and SSS. Though, the SSS estimation is an ill-posed inversion problem as the relationship between the Tb and SSS is non-linear function. Objective of this study is to validate the SMOS SSS estimates with the ground-truth over the Malaysia coastal water. The LM iteratively determines the SSS of SMOS by the reduction of the sum of squared errors between Tb SMOS and Tb simulation (using in-situ) based on the updated geophysical triplet in the direction of the minimum of the cost function. The minimum cost function is compared to the desired threshold at each iteration and this recursive least square process updates the SST, U and SSS until the cost function converged. The designed LM's non-linear inversion algorithm simultaneously estimates SST, U and SSS and thus, map of SSS over Malaysia coastal water is produced from the regression model and accuracy assessment between the SMOS and in-situ retrieved SSS. This study found a good agreement in the validation with R square of 0.9 and the RMSE of 0.4. It is concluded that the non-linear inversion method is effective and practical to extract SMOS SSS, U and SST simultaneously

  13. Physical, biological, and chemical data from radiometer, profiling reflectance radiometer, and CTD casts in a world-wide distribution as part of the SeaWiFS/SIMBIOS project from 13 September 1981 to 16 December 1999 (NODC Accession 0000632)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, biological, and chemical data were collected using radiometer, profiling reflectance radiometer, and CTD casts in a world-wide distribution from 13...

  14. Integrated Microwave Photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Marpaung, David; Roeloffzen, Chris; Heideman, René; Leinse, Arne; Sales Maicas, Salvador; Capmany Francoy, José

    2013-01-01

    Microwave photonics (MWP) is an emerging field in which radio frequency (RF) signals are generated, distributed, processed and analyzed using the strength of photonic techniques. It is a technology that enables various functionalities which are not feasible to achieve only in the microwave domain. A particular aspect that recently gains significant interests is the use of photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology in the MWP field for enhanced functionalities and robustness as well as the r...

  15. Microwave system engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Raff, Samuel J

    1977-01-01

    Microwave System Engineering Principles focuses on the calculus, differential equations, and transforms of microwave systems. This book discusses the basic nature and principles that can be derived from thermal noise; statistical concepts and binomial distribution; incoherent signal processing; basic properties of antennas; and beam widths and useful approximations. The fundamentals of propagation; LaPlace's Equation and Transmission Line (TEM) waves; interfaces between homogeneous media; modulation, bandwidth, and noise; and communications satellites are also deliberated in this text. This bo

  16. Analysis of a dryline-like feature in northern Germany detected by ground-based microwave profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaenkuch, Dietrich [Leibniz-Soziaetet der Wissenschaften zu Berlin e.V. (Germany); Gueldner, Juergen [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Lindenberg (Germany). Meteorologisches Observatorium Lindenberg - Richard-Assmann-Observatorium; Bender, Michael [Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam, Potsdam (DE). Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ); Steinhagen, Hans

    2011-08-15

    Two dryline-like humidity drops without considerable temperature change were detected by the ground-based microwave radiometer profiler (MWRP) at the Richard-Assmann-Observatory Lindenberg (52.21 N, 14.12 E) on April 28, 2007. The detailed analysis of these two events includes cloud radar and radar wind profiler measurements at the site as well as data from the surface synoptic network and from integrated water vapour (IWV) maps derived from GPS. The first more pronounced humidity drop is part of a roughly 200 km long line that meets the criterion of a classical dryline or dewpoint front, namely of a moisture gradient larger 3.5 g m{sup -3} per 100 km. This dewpoint front is ahead of an approaching cold front and is caused by strong downdraft induced by low tropospheric wind shear due to weakening of a midtropospheric high over Germany. It consisted in particular in two kernels of variable size depending on their stage. The fate of the kernels - migration, speed, unification and divorce - is described in detail. Their lifetime was a bit more than 9 hours. The second humidity drop at the site was observed after the passage of the cold front and was caused by dry advection behind the front. Both events are predicted by the numerical weather prediction model COSMO-EU of the German Weather Service to some extent.

  17. Active microwave remote sensing research program plan. Recommendations of the Earth Resources Synthetic Aperture Radar Task Force. [application areas: vegetation canopies, surface water, surface morphology, rocks and soils, and man-made structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A research program plan developed by the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications to provide guidelines for a concentrated effort to improve the understanding of the measurement capabilities of active microwave imaging sensors, and to define the role of such sensors in future Earth observations programs is outlined. The focus of the planned activities is on renewable and non-renewable resources. Five general application areas are addressed: (1) vegetation canopies, (2) surface water, (3) surface morphology, (4) rocks and soils, and (5) man-made structures. Research tasks are described which, when accomplished, will clearly establish the measurement capabilities in each area, and provide the theoretical and empirical results needed to specify and justify satellite systems using imaging radar sensors for global observations.

  18. Compact Front-end Prototype for Next Generation RFI-rejecting Polarimetric L-band Radiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brian Sveistrup; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Skou, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Realizing the need for lower noise figure and smaller physical size in todays higly sensitive radiometers, this paper presents a new compact analog front-end (AFE) for use with the existing L-band (1400-1427 MHz) radiometer designed and operated by the Technical University of Denmark. Using subha...

  19. Spaceborne L-band Radiometers: Push-broom or Synthetic Aperture?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    2004-01-01

    L-band radiometers can measure ocean salinity and soil moisture from space. A synthetic aperture radiometer system, SMOS, is under development by ESA for launch in 2007. A real aperture push-broom system, Aquarius, has been approved by NASA for launch in 2008. Pros et cons of the two fundamentally...

  20. Report from the Passive Microwave Data Set Management Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ed; Conover, Helen; Goodman, Michael; Krupp, Brian; Liu, Zhong; Moses, John; Ramapriyan, H. K.; Scott, Donna; Smith, Deborah; Weaver, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Passive microwave data sets are some of the most important data sets in the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), providing data as far back as the early 1970s. The widespread use of passive microwave (PM) radiometer data has led to their collection and distribution over the years at several different Earth science data centers. The user community is often confused by this proliferation and the uneven spread of information about the data sets. In response to this situation, a Passive Microwave Data Set Management Workshop was held 17 ]19 May 2011 at the Global Hydrology Resource Center, sponsored by the NASA Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project. The workshop attendees reviewed all primary (Level 1 ]3) PM data sets from NASA and non ]NASA sensors held by NASA Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), as well as high ]value data sets from other NASA ]funded organizations. This report provides the key findings and recommendations from the workshop as well as detailed tabluations of the datasets considered.