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Sample records for microwave assisted solvent

  1. Microwave-assisted silica-promoted solvent-free synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    method using microwave irradiation with an excellent yield. The newly ... Table 1. Silica promoted microwave-assisted solvent-free synthesis of quinazolinone ... Time (min). Yield (%)a ..... thanks SC/ST cell of Bangalore University for research.

  2. Microwave-assisted clean synthesis of amides via aza-wittig reaction under solvent-free condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathishkumar, Murugan; Nagarajan, Sangaraiah; Velan, Poovan Shanmuga; Dinesh, Murugan; Ponnuswamy, Alagusundaram [Department of Organic Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Tamilnadu (India)

    2011-09-15

    A solvent-free microwave-assisted coupling of phosphazenes with acyl chlorides or carboxylic anhydrides in presence of triethylphosphite has been accomplished resulting in a clean synthesis of amides in good yields. Unlike the prevailing time-consuming solution phase methodologies employing chlorinated solvents, benzene (carcinogenic), etc, the present protocol is an eco friendly, rapid and simple approach. (author)

  3. Efficient synthesis of sulfonamide derivatives on solid supports catalyzed using solvent-free and microwave-assisted methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo-Ordonez, Argelia; Moreno-Reyes, Christian; Olazaran-Santibanez, Fabian; Martinez-Hernandez, Sheila; Bocanegra-Garcia, Virgilio; Rivera, Gildardo [Universidad Autonoma de Tamaulipas, Reynosa (Mexico). Dep. de Farmacia y Quimica Medicinal

    2011-07-01

    In this work we report the synthesis of sulfonamide derivatives using a conventional procedure and with solid supports, such as silica gel, florisil, alumina, 4A molecular sieves, montmorillonite KSF, and montmorillonite K10 using solvent-free and microwave-assisted methods. Our results show that solid supports have a catalytic activity in the formation of sulfonamide derivatives. We found that florisil, montmorillonite KSF, and K10 could be used as inexpensive alternative catalysts that are easily separated from the reaction media. Additionally, solvent-free and microwave-assisted methods were more efficient in reducing reaction time and in increasing yield. (author)

  4. Efficient synthesis of sulfonamide derivatives on solid supports catalyzed using solvent-free and microwave-assisted methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo-Ordonez, Argelia; Moreno-Reyes, Christian; Olazaran-Santibanez, Fabian; Martinez-Hernandez, Sheila; Bocanegra-Garcia, Virgilio; Rivera, Gildardo

    2011-01-01

    In this work we report the synthesis of sulfonamide derivatives using a conventional procedure and with solid supports, such as silica gel, florisil, alumina, 4A molecular sieves, montmorillonite KSF, and montmorillonite K10 using solvent-free and microwave-assisted methods. Our results show that solid supports have a catalytic activity in the formation of sulfonamide derivatives. We found that florisil, montmorillonite KSF, and K10 could be used as inexpensive alternative catalysts that are easily separated from the reaction media. Additionally, solvent-free and microwave-assisted methods were more efficient in reducing reaction time and in increasing yield. (author)

  5. Microwave-assisted synthesis of ZnSe of various morphologies using alkylamines as ligating solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Dongmei; Song Chunfeng; Li Xiaoyu

    2009-01-01

    ZnSe nanoparticles were prepared using alkylamines as ligating solvent by microwave-irradiation method. The high-crystalline ZnSe nanomaterials were obtained within 20 min through a simple process. The differences of morphologies in the effect of alkylamines and microwave variables were investigated. The results show that there is an inverse relationship between the size of nanoparticles and the length of the alkylamine. The average sizes were increased with the duration of irradiation time. Microwave-irradiation power affects the sizes and shapes of ZnSe materials because of the movement and polarization of amine molecules under the rapidly changing electric field of the microwave reactor. A further characterization of binding condition on surface of ZnSe nanoparticles by the FTIR absorbance measurements indicates the presence of alkylamine molecules on the surface of ZnSe nanoparticles.

  6. An absorbing microwave micro-solid-phase extraction device used in non-polar solvent microwave-assisted extraction for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ziming; Zhao Xin; Xu Xu; Wu Lijie; Su Rui; Zhao Yajing; Jiang Chengfei; Zhang Hanqi; Ma Qiang; Lu Chunmei; Dong Deming

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An absorbing microwave μ-SPE device packed with activated carbon was used. ► Absorbing microwave μ-SPE device was made and used to enrich the analytes. ► Absorbing microwave μ-SPE device was made and used to heat samples directly. ► MAE-μ-SPE was applied to the extraction of OPPs with non-polar solvent only. - Abstract: A single-step extraction-cleanup method, including microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and micro-solid-phase extraction (μ-SPE), was developed for the extraction of ten organophosphorus pesticides in vegetable and fruit samples. Without adding any polar solvent, only one kind of non-polar solvent (hexane) was used as extraction solvent in the whole extraction step. Absorbing microwave μ-SPE device, was prepared by packing activated carbon with microporous polypropylene membrane envelope, and used as not only the sorbent in μ-SPE, but also the microwave absorption medium. Some experimental parameters effecting on extraction efficiency was investigated and optimized. 1.0 g of sample, 8 mL of hexane and three absorbing microwave μ-SPE devices were added in the microwave extraction vessel, the extraction was carried out under 400 W irradiation power at 60 °C for 10 min. The extracts obtained by MAE-μ-SPE were directly analyzed by GC–MS without any clean-up process. The recoveries were in the range of 93.5–104.6%, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 8.7%.

  7. An absorbing microwave micro-solid-phase extraction device used in non-polar solvent microwave-assisted extraction for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Ziming, E-mail: wangziming@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Zhao Xin; Xu Xu; Wu Lijie; Su Rui; Zhao Yajing; Jiang Chengfei; Zhang Hanqi [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Ma Qiang [Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Beijing 100123 (China); Lu Chunmei [College of Technology Center, Jilin Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Changchun 130062 (China); Dong Deming [College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2013-01-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An absorbing microwave {mu}-SPE device packed with activated carbon was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absorbing microwave {mu}-SPE device was made and used to enrich the analytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absorbing microwave {mu}-SPE device was made and used to heat samples directly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAE-{mu}-SPE was applied to the extraction of OPPs with non-polar solvent only. - Abstract: A single-step extraction-cleanup method, including microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and micro-solid-phase extraction ({mu}-SPE), was developed for the extraction of ten organophosphorus pesticides in vegetable and fruit samples. Without adding any polar solvent, only one kind of non-polar solvent (hexane) was used as extraction solvent in the whole extraction step. Absorbing microwave {mu}-SPE device, was prepared by packing activated carbon with microporous polypropylene membrane envelope, and used as not only the sorbent in {mu}-SPE, but also the microwave absorption medium. Some experimental parameters effecting on extraction efficiency was investigated and optimized. 1.0 g of sample, 8 mL of hexane and three absorbing microwave {mu}-SPE devices were added in the microwave extraction vessel, the extraction was carried out under 400 W irradiation power at 60 Degree-Sign C for 10 min. The extracts obtained by MAE-{mu}-SPE were directly analyzed by GC-MS without any clean-up process. The recoveries were in the range of 93.5-104.6%, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 8.7%.

  8. Microwave-Assisted Solvent-Free Synthesis of Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-67

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A microporous metal-organic framework (MOF, cobalt-based zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF-67, was synthesized by the combination of solvent-free hand-mill and microwave irradiation, without any organic solvent and within 30 minutes. The hand-milling process can mix the reactants well by the virtue of high moisture/water absorption capacity of reactants. In addition, the outstanding electromagnetic wave absorption capability of cobalt leads to efficient conversion to MOF structures before carbonization. The obtained ZIF-67 possesses high surface area and micropore volume.

  9. An absorbing microwave micro-solid-phase extraction device used in non-polar solvent microwave-assisted extraction for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziming; Zhao, Xin; Xu, Xu; Wu, Lijie; Su, Rui; Zhao, Yajing; Jiang, Chengfei; Zhang, Hanqi; Ma, Qiang; Lu, Chunmei; Dong, Deming

    2013-01-14

    A single-step extraction-cleanup method, including microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and micro-solid-phase extraction (μ-SPE), was developed for the extraction of ten organophosphorus pesticides in vegetable and fruit samples. Without adding any polar solvent, only one kind of non-polar solvent (hexane) was used as extraction solvent in the whole extraction step. Absorbing microwave μ-SPE device, was prepared by packing activated carbon with microporous polypropylene membrane envelope, and used as not only the sorbent in μ-SPE, but also the microwave absorption medium. Some experimental parameters effecting on extraction efficiency was investigated and optimized. 1.0 g of sample, 8 mL of hexane and three absorbing microwave μ-SPE devices were added in the microwave extraction vessel, the extraction was carried out under 400 W irradiation power at 60°C for 10 min. The extracts obtained by MAE-μ-SPE were directly analyzed by GC-MS without any clean-up process. The recoveries were in the range of 93.5-104.6%, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 8.7%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of solvent type on microwave-assisted liquefaction of bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiulong Xie; Chung Hse; Todd F. Shupe; Tingxing Hu

    2016-01-01

    Microwave-assisted liquefaction of bamboo in glycerol, polyethylene glycerol (PEG), methanol, ethanol, and water were comparatively investigated by evaluating the temperature-dependence for conversion and liquefied residue characteristics. The conversion for the liquefaction in methanol, ethanol, and water increased with an increase in reaction temperature, while that...

  11. Microwave-assisted synthesis of CuInSe{sub 2} nanoparticles in low-absorbing solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleksak, Richard P.; Flynn, Brendan T.; Herman, Gregory S. [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Schut, David M. [Voxtel Inc., Eugene, OR (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Copper indium diselenide (CIS) nanoparticles were synthesized using a microwave-assisted one-pot solvothermal approach. For these studies high microwave-absorbing precursors were used in combination with low microwave absorbing solvents tri-n-octylphosphine (TOP) and oleic acid (OA) to investigate the effect of selective heating of the precursors on nanoparticle synthesis. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results indicated that the nanoparticles were spherical, crystalline and 4-5 nm in diameter. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicated that the nanoparticles had a body-centered tetragonal structure with planar defects that decreased in concentration with increasing reaction temperature and reaction time. The nanoparticle compositions varied depending on the reaction conditions and the compositions were found to approach stoichiometry for increased reaction times. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy indicated both solvents adsorbed to the nanoparticle surface and energy dispersive spectroscopy indicated that these ligands became chlorinated during the reaction. The uniform temperature profile offered by the microwave heating allowed for highly reproducible batch-to-batch reactions, allowing for tight control over composition and defect concentration. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. CATALYST-FREE REACTIONS UNDER SOLVENT-FEE CONDITIONS: MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF HETEROCYCLIC HYDRAZONES BELOW THE MELTING POINT OF NEAT REACTANTS: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    NRMRL-CIN-1437 Jeselnik, M., Varma*, R.S., Polanc, S., and Kocevar, M. Catalyst-free Reactions under Solvent-fee Conditions: Microwave-assisted Synthesis of Heterocyclic Hydrazones below the Melting Point of Neat Reactants. Published in: Chemical Communications 18:1716-1717 (200...

  13. Nitropyrroles, Diels-Alder reactions assisted by microwave irradiation and solvent effect. An experimental and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Pedro M. E.; Kneeteman, María N.; Cainelli, Mauro; Ormachea, Carla M.; Domingo, Luis R.

    2017-11-01

    The behaviors of N-tosylnitropyrroles acting as electrophilic dienophiles in polar Diels-Alder reactions joint to different dienes of increeased nucleophilicity are analyzed. The reactions were developed under microwave irradiation using toluene or protic ionic liquids (PILs) as solvents and in free solvent conditions. In all the cases explored we observed good yields in short reaction times. For these reactions, the free solvent condition and the use of protic ionic liquids as solvents offer similar results. However, the free solvent conditions favor environmental sustainability. The role of PILs in these polar Diels-Alder reactions has been theoretically studied within the Molecular Electron Density Theory.

  14. Synthesis of quinoxaline 1,4-di-n-oxide derivatives on solid support using room temperature and microwave-assisted solvent-free procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Caro, Lilia C.; Sanchez-Sanchez, Mario; Bocanegra-Garcia, Virgilio; Rivera, Gildardo; Monge, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    We describe the synthesis of 12 new ethyl and methyl quinoxaline-7-carboxylate 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives on solid supports with room temperature and microwave-assisted solvent-free procedures. Results show that solid supports have good catalytic activity in the formation of quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives. We found that florisil and montmorillonite KSF and K10 could be used as new, easily available, inexpensive alternatives of catalysts. Additionally, room temperature and microwave-irradiation solvent-free synthesis was more efficient than a conventional procedure (Beirut reaction), reducing reaction time and increasing yield. (author)

  15. Synthesis of quinoxaline 1,4-di-n-oxide derivatives on solid support using room temperature and microwave-assisted solvent-free procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Caro, Lilia C.; Sanchez-Sanchez, Mario; Bocanegra-Garcia, Virgilio; Rivera, Gildardo [Universidad Autonoma de Tamaulipas, Reynosa (Mexico). Dept. de Farmacia y Quimica Medicinal; Monge, Antonio [Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain). Centro de Investigacion en Farmacobiologia Aplicada. Unidad de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Medicamentos

    2011-07-01

    We describe the synthesis of 12 new ethyl and methyl quinoxaline-7-carboxylate 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives on solid supports with room temperature and microwave-assisted solvent-free procedures. Results show that solid supports have good catalytic activity in the formation of quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives. We found that florisil and montmorillonite KSF and K10 could be used as new, easily available, inexpensive alternatives of catalysts. Additionally, room temperature and microwave-irradiation solvent-free synthesis was more efficient than a conventional procedure (Beirut reaction), reducing reaction time and increasing yield. (author)

  16. Solvent-Free Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Polyphenols from Olive Tree Leaves: Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Selin; Samli, Ruya; Tan, Ayşe Seher Birteksöz; Barba, Francisco J; Chemat, Farid; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Lorenzo, José M

    2017-06-24

    Response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural networks (ANN) were evaluated and compared in order to decide which method was the most appropriate to predict and optimize total phenolic content (TPC) and oleuropein yields in olive tree leaf ( Olea europaea ) extracts, obtained after solvent-free microwave-assisted extraction (SFMAE). The SFMAE processing conditions were: microwave irradiation power 250-350 W, extraction time 2-3 min, and the amount of sample 5-10 g. Furthermore, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the olive leaf extracts, obtained under optimal extraction conditions, were assessed by several in vitro assays. ANN had better prediction performance for TPC and oleuropein yields compared to RSM. The optimum extraction conditions to recover both TPC and oleuropein were: irradiation power 250 W, extraction time 2 min, and amount of sample 5 g, independent of the method used for prediction. Under these conditions, the maximal yield of oleuropein (0.060 ± 0.012 ppm) was obtained and the amount of TPC was 2.480 ± 0.060 ppm. Moreover, olive leaf extracts obtained under optimum SFMAE conditions showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus and S. epidermidis , with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 1.25 mg/mL.

  17. Solvent-Free Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Polyphenols from Olive Tree Leaves: Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin Şahin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM and artificial neural networks (ANN were evaluated and compared in order to decide which method was the most appropriate to predict and optimize total phenolic content (TPC and oleuropein yields in olive tree leaf (Olea europaea extracts, obtained after solvent-free microwave-assisted extraction (SFMAE. The SFMAE processing conditions were: microwave irradiation power 250–350 W, extraction time 2–3 min, and the amount of sample 5–10 g. Furthermore, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the olive leaf extracts, obtained under optimal extraction conditions, were assessed by several in vitro assays. ANN had better prediction performance for TPC and oleuropein yields compared to RSM. The optimum extraction conditions to recover both TPC and oleuropein were: irradiation power 250 W, extraction time 2 min, and amount of sample 5 g, independent of the method used for prediction. Under these conditions, the maximal yield of oleuropein (0.060 ± 0.012 ppm was obtained and the amount of TPC was 2.480 ± 0.060 ppm. Moreover, olive leaf extracts obtained under optimum SFMAE conditions showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus and S. epidermidis, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value of 1.25 mg/mL.

  18. Microwave-assisted polymerization of 2-oxazolines: ionic liquids as solvents and fluorinated aromatic monomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, R.; Sanchez, C.; Lobert, M.; Schubert, U.S.

    2008-01-01

    The use of microwave-irradn. instead of conventional heating has been demonstrated to result in faster and cleaner reactions and in some cases to different selectivity. In our previous work, we have demonstrated that the use of pressurized microwave conditions results in a tremendous acceleration

  19. Microwave Assisted Solvent Free Synthesis of Azomethines from Aryl Aldehydes on Melamin Formaldehyde as Solid Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Rezaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various aryl aldehydes underwent prompt one pot conversion into the corresponding azomethines in high yields by reacting with hydroxylamine hydrochloride supported on melamine formaldehyde under microwave irradiation.

  20. Green and solvent-free procedure for microwave-assisted synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tant tool in organic synthesis and therefore microwave chemistry can provide ... silica nanoparticles for preparation of highly substi- tuted pyridines.42 ..... MgO. 30. 60. 9. BaO. 25. 65. 10. NaOEt. 22. 70. 11. L-Alanine. 25. 65. 12. Montmorillonite.

  1. Nafion®-catalyzed microwave-assisted Ritter reaction: An atom-economic solvent-free synthesis of amides

    Science.gov (United States)

    An atom-economic solvent-free synthesis of amides by the Ritter reaction of alcohols and nitriles under microwave irradiation is reported. This green protocol is catalyzed by solid supported Nafion®NR50 with improved efficiency and reduced waste production.

  2. Microwave-assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction with ethyl acetate-cyclohexane before determination of organochlorines in fish tissue by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichbrodt, M; Vetter, W; Luckas, B

    2000-01-01

    Focused open-vessel microwave-assisted extraction (FOV-MAE), closed-vessel microwave-assisted extraction (CV-MAE), and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) were used for extraction before determination of organochlorine compounds (polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT, toxaphene, chlordane, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and dieldrin) in cod liver and fish fillets. Wet samples were extracted without the time-consuming step of lyophilization or other sample-drying procedures. Extractions were performed with the solvent mixture ethyl acetate-cyclohexane (1 + 1, v/v), which allowed direct use of gel-permeation chromatography without solvent exchange. For FOV-MAE, the solvent mixture removed water from the sample matrix via azeotropic distillation. The status of water removal was controlled during extraction by measuring the temperature of the distillate. After water removal, the temperature of the distillate increased and the solvent mixture became less polar. Only the pure extraction solvent allowed quantitative extraction of the organochlorine compounds. For CV-MAE, water could not be separated during the extraction. For this reason, the extraction procedure for wet fish tissue required 2 extraction steps: the first for manual removal of coextracted water, and the second for quantitative extraction of the organochlorine compounds with the pure solvent. Therefore, CV-MAE is less convenient for samples with high water content. For ASE, water in the sample was bound with Na2SO4. The reproducibility for each technique was very good (relative standard deviation was typically <10%); the slightly varying levels were attributed to deviations during sample cleanup and the generally low levels.

  3. Effect of Dielectric Properties of a Solvent-Water Mixture Used in Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Antioxidants from Potato Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Singh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric properties of a methanol-water mixture were measured at different temperatures from 20 to 80 °C at two frequencies 915 MHz and 2450 MHz. These frequencies are most commonly used on industrial and domestic scales respectively. In this study, the dielectric properties of a methanol-water mixture were found to be dependent on temperature, solvent concentration, and presence of plant matrix. Linear and quadratic equations were developed to establish the dependency between factors. At 2450 MHz, the dielectric constant of methanol-water mixtures was significantly affected by concentration of methanol rather than by temperature, whereas the dielectric loss factor was significantly affected by temperature rather than by methanol concentration. Introduction of potato peel led to an increase in the effect of temperature on the dielectric properties of the methanol fractions. At 915 MHz, both the dielectric properties were significantly affected by the increase in temperature and solvent concentration, while the presence of potato peel had no significant effect on the dielectric properties. Statistical analysis of the dissipation factor at 915 and 2450 MHz revealed that both temperature and solvent concentration had a significant effect on it, whereas introduction of potato peels at 915 MHz reduced the effect of temperature as compared to 2450 MHz. The total phenolic yield of the microwave-assisted extraction process was significantly affected by the solvent concentration, the dissipation factor of the methanol-water mixture and the extraction time.

  4. Evaluation of Soxhlet extraction, accelerated solvent extraction and microwave-assisted extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil and fish samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pu; Zhang Qinghua; Wang Yawei; Wang Thanh; Li Xiaomin; Ding Lei; Jiang Guibin

    2010-01-01

    Three commonly applied extraction techniques for persistent organic chemicals, Soxhlet extraction (SE), accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), were applied on soil and fish samples in order to evaluate their performances. For both PCBs and PBDEs, the two more recent developed techniques (ASE and MAE) were in general capable of producing comparable extraction results as the classical SE, and even higher extraction recoveries were obtained for some PCB congeners with large octanol-water partitioning coefficients (K ow ). This relatively uniform extraction results from ASE and MAE indicated that elevated temperature and pressure are favorable to the efficient extraction of PCBs from the solid matrices. For PBDEs, difference between the results from MAE and ASE (or SE) suggests that the MAE extraction condition needs to be carefully optimized according to the characteristics of the matrix and analyte to avoid degradation of higher brominated BDE congeners and improve the extraction yields.

  5. Evaluation of Soxhlet extraction, accelerated solvent extraction and microwave-assisted extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil and fish samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Pu [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Qinghua, E-mail: qhzhang@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Wang Yawei; Wang Thanh; Li Xiaomin; Ding Lei; Jiang Guibin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2010-03-17

    Three commonly applied extraction techniques for persistent organic chemicals, Soxhlet extraction (SE), accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), were applied on soil and fish samples in order to evaluate their performances. For both PCBs and PBDEs, the two more recent developed techniques (ASE and MAE) were in general capable of producing comparable extraction results as the classical SE, and even higher extraction recoveries were obtained for some PCB congeners with large octanol-water partitioning coefficients (K{sub ow}). This relatively uniform extraction results from ASE and MAE indicated that elevated temperature and pressure are favorable to the efficient extraction of PCBs from the solid matrices. For PBDEs, difference between the results from MAE and ASE (or SE) suggests that the MAE extraction condition needs to be carefully optimized according to the characteristics of the matrix and analyte to avoid degradation of higher brominated BDE congeners and improve the extraction yields.

  6. Particle size-controllable microwave-assisted solvothermal synthesis of the high-voltage cathode material LiCoPO4 using water/ethylene glycol solvent blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Jennifer; Haering, Dominik; Doeff, Marca M.; Nilges, Tom

    2017-03-01

    Particle size-tuned platelets of the high-voltage cathode material LiCoPO4 for Li-ion batteries have been synthesized by a simple one-step microwave-assisted solvothermal process using an array of water/ethylene glycol (EG) solvent mixtures. Particle size control was achieved by altering the concentration of the EG co-solvent in the mixture between 0 and 100 vol%, with amounts of 0-80 vol% EG producing single phase, olivine-type LiCoPO4. The particle sizes of the olivine materials were significantly reduced from about 1.2 μm × 1.2 μm × 500 nm (0 vol% EG) to 200 nm × 100 nm × 50 nm (80 vol% EG) with increasing EG content, while specific surface areas increased from 2 to 13 m2 g-1. The particle size reduction could mainly be attributed to the modified viscosities of the solvent blends. Owing to the soft template effect of EG, the crystals exhibited the smallest dimensions along the [010] direction of the Li diffusion pathways in the olivine crystal structure, resulting in enhanced lithium diffusion properties. The relationship between the synthesis, crystal properties and electrochemical performance was further elucidated, indicating that the electrochemical performances of the as-prepared materials mainly depend on the solvent composition and the respective particle size range. LiCoPO4 products obtained from reaction media with low and high EG contents exhibited good electrochemical performances (initial discharge capacities of 87-124 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C), whereas materials made from medium EG concentrations (40-60 vol% EG) showed the highest capacities and gravimetric energy densities (up to 137 mAh g-1 and 658 Wh kg-1 at 0.1 C), excellent rate capabilities, and cycle life.

  7. Quantification of fenoxaprop-p-ethyl herbicide in soil and vegetable samples by microwave-assisted solvent extraction and HPLC method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, F.U.N.; Shah, J.; Jan, M.R.; Muhammad, M.

    2012-01-01

    A simple HPLC procedure for the determination of fenoxaprop-p-ethyl herbicide in environmental samples is described. The chromatographic analysis was carried out by HPLC, on a C18 packed capillary column (4x4 mm,4.6 X 150 mm, 5mm particle size) with 20 macro l injection volume and UV detector at 280 nm. HPLC-grade acetonitrile and methanol were used as mobile phase with flow rate of 1mL min-1. Samples were spiked with amount between 5 - 20 micro g g-1 of herbicide and were isolated from samples by applying microwave assisted extraction (MASE) at ambient temperature. Percent recoveries were improved by optimizing solvent types, solvent volume, extraction temperature and time. Calibration curve range determined by HPLC was 0.5-16 micro g mL-1. The interaction of different variables for maximum % recovery response was checked by applying factorial design and was found to be in range of 91.22+-0.01-99.32+-0.01 with good precision (< 5% ). Application of this procedure to the analysis of herbicide in ester and acid form showed the effectiveness of the proposed approach. (author)

  8. Microwave-assisted extraction and antihyperlipidemic effect of total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The process of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of total flavonoids from corn silk and the hypolipidemia in animal models were studied. Influence of solvent concentration, microwave power, extraction time and dose of solvent were investigated and then, the orthogonal experiments were performed. Animal models of ...

  9. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED CU (I) CATALYZED SOLVENT-FREE THREE COMPONENT COUPLING OF ALDEHYDE, ALKYNE AND AMINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct Grignard type addition of terminal alkynes to in situ generated imines, from aldehydes and amines, occurs under microwave irradiation using CuBr alone in a one-pot operation. This solventless approach provides ready access to propargylamines and is applicable both...

  10. Study on microwave assisted process in chemical extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer Ali; Rosli Mohd Yunus; Ramlan Abd Aziz

    2001-01-01

    The microwave assisted process is a revolutionary method of extraction that reduces the extraction time to as little as a few seconds, with up to a ten-fold decrease in the use of solvents. The target material is immersed in solvent that is transparent to microwaves, so only the target material is heated, and because of the microwaves tend to heat the inside of the material quickly, the target chemical are expelled in a few seconds. benefits from this process include significant reductions in the amount of energy required and substantial reductions in the cost and dispose of hazardous solvents. A thorough review has been displayed on: using the microwave in extraction, applications of microwave in industry, process flow diagram, mechanism of the process and comparison between microwave process and other extraction techniques (soxhlet, steam distillation and supercritical fluid). This review attempts to summarize the studies about microwave assisted process as a very promising technique. (Author)

  11. CATALYST-FREE REACTIONS UNDER SOLVENT-FEE CONDITIONS: MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF HETEROCYCLIC HYDRAZONES BELOW THE MELTING POINT OF NEAT REACTANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reaction of neat 5- or 8-oxobenzopyran-2(1H)-ones with a variety of aromatic and heteroaromatic hydrazines are remarkable accelerated upon irradiation in a household microwave oven in the absence of any catalyst, solid support or solvent thus providing an environmentally frie...

  12. New Trend for Acceleration Solid Phase Extraction Process Based on Using Magnetic Nano-adsorbents along with Surface Functionalization through Microwave Assisted Solvent-free Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Salwa A; Soliman, Ezzat M

    2015-01-01

    The use of a microwave assisted solvent-free technique for silica coating of iron magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4-MNPs) and their functionalization with three aliphatic diamines: 1,2-ethylenediamine (1,2EDA), 1,5-pentanediamine (1,5PDA) and 1.8-octanediamine (1,8-ODA), were successfully achieved in a very short time. Only 60 min were needed for the nano-adsorbent modification as compared with more than 1000 min using conventional methods under reflux conditions. Their surface characteristics (observed by TEM, XRD and FT-IR), in addition to Cu(II) adsorption capacities (1.805, 1.928 and 2.116 mmol g(-1)) and time of equilibration (5 s) were almost the same. Thus, the time required to accomplish the solid phase extraction process is greatly reduced. On the other hand, the phenomenon of the fast equilibration kinetics was successfully extended on using the functionalized aliphatic diamines magnetic nano-adsorbents as precursors for further microwave treatment. Three selective magnetic nano-adsorbents (Fe3O4-MNPs-SiO2-1,2EDA-3FSA, Fe3O4-MNPs-SiO2-1,5PDA-3FSA and Fe3O4-MNPs-SiO2-1,8ODA-3FSA) were obtained via the reaction with 3-formayl salicylic acid (3FSA) as a selective reagent for Fe(III). At 5 s contact time, they exhibited maximum Fe(III) uptake equal to 4.512, 4.987 and 5.367 mmol g(-1), respectively. Furthermore, modeling of values of metal uptake capacity obtained at different shaking time intervals supports pseudo-second order kinetics.

  13. Microwave-assisted Chemical Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, there has been a considerable interest in developing sustainable chemistries utilizing green chemistry principles. Since the first published report in 1986 by Gedye and Giguere on microwave assisted synthesis in household microwave ovens, the use of microwaves as...

  14. Accurate quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in dust samples using microwave-assisted solvent extraction combined with isotope-dilution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Nobuyasu; Fushimi, Akihiro; Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Numata, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We applied MAE-IDMS for accurate quantification of PAHs in dust samples. → Both partitioning and isotopic equilibria can be achieved using this technique. → MAE-IDMS can provide accurate concentrations even if extraction efficiencies were low. → Characteristics of samples strongly affected for low extraction efficiencies of PAHs. - Abstract: For accurate quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in dust samples, we investigated the use of microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MAE) combined with isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) using deuterium-labelled PAHs (D-PAHs). Although MAE with a methanol/toluene mixture (1:3 by volume) at 160 deg. C for 40 min was best for extracting PAHs from tunnel dust among examined, the recovery yields of D-PAHs decreased with increasing molecular weight (<40% for MW ≥ 264; that of deuterium-labelled indeno[123-cd]pyrene (D-IcdP) was only 7.1%). Although the residues were extracted a second time, the observed concentrations did not change dramatically (<5%), and the recovery yields of heavier D-PAHs (i.e., MW ≥ 264) were approximately half of those of the first extract, including D-IcdP (3.4%). These results suggest that both partitioning and isotopic equilibria of PAHs and D-PAHs between sample and solvent were achieved for extractable heavier PAHs under the condition. Thus, the observed concentrations of PAHs obtained by MAE-IDMS were reasonable, even though recovery yields of D-PAHs were <50%. From the results of carbon analyses and extractable contents, lower recovery yields of D-PAHs from the tunnel dust were due to a large content of char with low extractable contents.

  15. Solvent-free microwave-assisted synthesis of novel pyrazolo[4′,3′:5,6]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines with potential antifungal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Acosta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Novel fused pyrazolo[4′,3′:5,6]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines 5 were prepared by a solvent-free microwave assisted reaction of heterocyclic o-aminonitriles 3 and cyanopyridines 4 in the presence of tBuOK as catalyst. This protocol provides a versatile procedure for the synthesis of the title compounds with the advantages of easy work-up, mild reaction conditions and good yields. All compounds were also tested for antifungal properties against two clinically important fungi; Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Several compounds showed moderate activity against both fungi, being 5a the most active compound. Analysis of the antifungal behavior of properly grouped compounds allowed to determine that the position of the N in the pyrimidyl moiety per se does not play a role in the activity. In turn, the type of 4-R substituent appears to influence the activity. In addition to the above considerations, the lipophilicity of compounds measured as logP showed to be not related to the activity and regarding the dipole moment (D, no net correlation was observed, although it is the most active compounds (% inhibition >50% that have a D ⩾ 7.5, mainly against C. albicans.

  16. Advantageous Microwave-Assisted Suzuki Polycondensation for the Synthesis of Aniline-Fluorene Alternate Copolymers as Molecular Model with Solvent Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Vázquez-Guilló

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymerization via Suzuki coupling under microwave (µW irradiation has been studied for the synthesis of poly{1,4-(2/3-aminobenzene-alt-2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene} (PAF, chosen as molecular model. Briefly, µW-assisted procedures accelerated by two orders of magnitude the time required when using classical polymerization processes, and the production yield was increased (>95%. In contrast, although the sizes of the polymers that were obtained by non-conventional heating reactions were reproducible and adequate for most applications, with this methodology the molecular weight of final polymers were not increased with respect to conventional heating. Asymmetric orientation of the amine group within the monomer and the assignments of each dyad or regioregularity, whose values ranged from 38% to 95% with this molecule, were analysed using common NMR spectroscopic data. Additionally, the synthesis of a new cationic polyelectrolyte, poly{1,4-(2/3-aminobenzene-co-alt-2,7-[9,9´-bis(6’’-N,N,N-trimethylammonium-hexylfluorene]} dibromide (PAFAm, from poly{1,4-(2/3-aminobenzene-co-alt-2,7-[9,9´-bis(6’’-bromohexylfluorene]} (PAFBr by using previously optimized conditions for µW-assisted heating procedures was reported. Finally, the characterization of the final products from these batches showed unkown interesting solvatochromic properties of the PAF molecule. The study of the solvatochromism phenomena, which was investigated as a function of the polarity of the solvents, showed a well-defined Lippert correlation, indicating that the emission shift observed in PAF might be due to its interaction with surrounding environment. Proven high sensitivity to changes of its environment makes PAF a promising candidate of sensing applications.

  17. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Phenothiazine and Quinoline Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Găină, Luiza; Cristea, Castelia; Moldovan, Claudia; Porumb, Dan; Surducan, Emanoil; Deleanu, Călin; Mahamoud, Abdalah; Barbe, Jacques; Silberg, Ioan A.

    2007-01-01

    Application of a dynamic microwave power system in the chemical synthesis of some phenothiazine and quinoline derivatives is described. Heterocyclic ring formation, aromatic nucleophilic substitution and heterocyclic aldehydes/ketones condensation reactions were performed on solid support, or under solvent free reaction conditions. The microwave-assisted Duff formylation of phenothiazine was achieved. Comparison of microwave-assisted synthesis with the conventional synthetic methods demonstrates advantages related to shorter reaction times and in some cases better reaction yields.

  18. Determination of linuron and related compounds in soil by microwave-assisted solvent extraction and reversed-phase liquid chromatography with UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins, C; Hogendoorn, E A; Dijkman, E; Heusinkveld, H A; Baumann, R A

    2000-02-11

    The combination of microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MASE) and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) with UV detection has been investigated for the efficient determination of phenylurea herbicides in soils involving the single-residue method (SRM) approach (linuron) and the multi-residue method (MRM) approach (monuron, monolinuron, isoproturon, metobromuron, diuron and linuron). Critical parameters of MASE, viz, extraction temperature, water content and extraction solvent were varied in order to optimise recoveries of the analytes while simultaneously minimising co-extraction of soil interferences. The optimised extraction procedure was applied to different types of soil with an organic carbon content of 0.4-16.7%. Besides freshly spiked soil samples, method validation included the analysis of samples with aged residues. A comparative study between the applicability of RPLC-UV without and with the use of column switching for the processing of uncleaned extracts, was carried out. For some of the tested analyte/matrix combinations the one-column approach (LC mode) is feasible. In comparison to LC, coupled-column LC (LC-LC mode) provides high selectivity in single-residue analysis (linuron) and, although less pronounced in multi-residue analysis (all six phenylurea herbicides), the clean-up performance of LC-LC improves both time of analysis and sample throughput. In the MRM approach the developed procedure involving MASE and LC-LC-UV provided acceptable recoveries (range, 80-120%) and RSDs (<12%) at levels of 10 microg/kg (n=9) and 50 microg/kg (n=7), respectively, for most analyte/matrix combinations. Recoveries from aged residue samples spiked at a level of 100 microg/kg (n=7) ranged, depending of the analyte/soil type combination, from 41-113% with RSDs ranging from 1-35%. In the SRM approach the developed LC-LC procedure was applied for the determination of linuron in 28 sandy soil samples collected in a field study. Linuron could be determined in

  19. Microwave Assisted Drug Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónasson, Sævar Þór; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the microwave radiation is adopted for remote activation of pharmaceutical drug capsules inside the human body in order to release drugs at a pre-determined time and location. An array of controllable transmitting sources is used to produce a constructive interference at a certain...... focus point inside the body, where the drugs are then released from the specially designed capsules. An experimental setup for microwave activation has been developed and tested on a body phantom that emulates the human torso. A design of sensitive receiving structures for integration with a drug...

  20. Oligoquinolines under Solvent-free Microwave Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kwi-Jeon; Kwon, Tae-Woo [Kyungsung University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Quinolines are thermally stable and can be used as an excellent n-type semiconducting materials. Since quinolines are also known to be electron acceptor molecules, combination of various electron donor building blocks can be utilized in photonic and electronic organic light-emitting diode (OLED) applications. For example, donor.acceptor systems with phenothiazine (or carbazole) molecules as electron donors and the phenylquinoline group as an electron acceptor provide an efficient approach for the design of new materials exhibiting highly efficient charge-transfer photophysics and electroluminescence in OLEDs. We have described the Friedlander quinoline synthesis between aminobenzophenones and symmetrical diacetyl compounds having phenothiazine, carbazole, biphenyl, and phenyl moieties under solvent-free microwave irradiation in 12.98% isolated yields.

  1. Microwave assisted chemical vapor infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devlin, D.J.; Currier, R.P.; Barbero, R.S.; Espinoza, B.F.; Elliott, N.

    1991-01-01

    A microwave assisted process for production of continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites is described. A simple apparatus combining a chemical vapor infiltration reactor with a conventional 700 W multimode oven is described. Microwave induced inverted thermal gradients are exploited with the ultimate goal of reducing processing times on complex shapes. Thermal gradients in stacks of SiC (Nicalon) cloths have been measured using optical thermometry. Initial results on the ''inside out'' deposition of SiC via decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane in hydrogen are presented. Several key processing issues are identified and discussed. 5 refs

  2. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Phenothiazine and Qinoline Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan A. Silberg

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of a dynamic microwave power system in the chemical synthesis ofsome phenothiazine and quinoline derivatives is described. Heterocyclic ring formation,aromatic nucleophilic substitution and heterocyclic aldehydes/ketones condensationreactions were performed on solid support, or under solvent free reaction conditions. Themicrowave-assisted Duff formylation of phenothiazine was achieved. Comparison ofmicrowave-assisted synthesis with the conventional synthetic methods demonstratesadvantages related to shorter reaction times and in some cases better reaction yields.

  3. Microwave-assisted extraction of polycyclic aromatic compounds from coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerst, M; Andersson, J T

    2001-08-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) from coal is shown to give the same pattern of compounds as Soxhlet extraction. MAE requires only 10 mL solvent and 10 min extraction time whereas Soxhlet uses 200 mL and takes 24 h. Although the yields were lower, dichloromethane (DCM) was preferred to pyridine, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), and NMP with CS2 because the pattern of the PACs is shown to be independent of solvent and DCM is a much more convenient solvent to work with.

  4. Microwave-assisted organic and polymer chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, R.; Schubert, U.S.

    2009-01-01

    The first ACS symposium on Microwave-Assisted Chemistry: Organic and Polymer Synthesis, held as part of the ACS National meeting in Philadelphia, in August 2008, aimed at various topics of the use of microwave irradiation. The symposium found that specific heating effects, such as higher microwave

  5. Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Essential Oil from Eucalyptus: Study of the Effects of Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Saoud

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Classical extraction of essential oil such as Soxhlet and steam distillation is still a formidable and time-solvent consuming. Microwave assisted process (MAP is used to accelerate the extraction process of target compounds. It can be used for the extraction of compounds from various plants and animal tissues, or the extraction of undesirable components from raw materials. The investigation of microwave extraction of eucalyptus (globules essential oil using ethanol as solvent was carried out. The influence of material (eucalyptus/solvent (ethanol ratio, required doses of microwave, and time of microwave exposure on extraction efficiency, was studied.

  6. Ceramic matrix composites by microwave assisted CVI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currier, R.P.; Devlin, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) processes for producing continuously reinforced ceramic composites are reviewed. Potential advantages of microwave assisted CVI are noted and numerical studies of microwave assisted CVI are reviewed. The models predict inverted thermal gradients in fibrous ceramic preforms subjected to microwave radiation and suggest processing strategies for achieving uniformly dense composites. Comparisons are made to experimental results on silicon-based composite systems. The role played by the relative ability of fiber and matrix to dissipate microwave energy is noted. Results suggest that microwave induced inverted gradients can be exploited to promote inside-out densification. 10 refs., 2 figs

  7. Solvent-vapor-assisted imprint lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voicu, Nicoleta E.; Ludwigs, Sabine; Crossland, Edward J. W.; Andrew, Piers; Steiner, Ullrich

    2007-01-01

    Sub-micrometer features are replicated into high-molecular-weight polymer resists by using solvent-assisted nanoimprint lithography (see figure). By swelling the polymer in a controlled solvent-vapor atmosphere, millibar pressures and ambient temperatures are sufficient to achieve high-fidelity

  8. Modeling and prediction of extraction profile for microwave-assisted extraction based on absorbed microwave energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chung-Hung; Yusoff, Rozita; Ngoh, Gek-Cheng

    2013-09-01

    A modeling technique based on absorbed microwave energy was proposed to model microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of antioxidant compounds from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) leaves. By adapting suitable extraction model at the basis of microwave energy absorbed during extraction, the model can be developed to predict extraction profile of MAE at various microwave irradiation power (100-600 W) and solvent loading (100-300 ml). Verification with experimental data confirmed that the prediction was accurate in capturing the extraction profile of MAE (R-square value greater than 0.87). Besides, the predicted yields from the model showed good agreement with the experimental results with less than 10% deviation observed. Furthermore, suitable extraction times to ensure high extraction yield at various MAE conditions can be estimated based on absorbed microwave energy. The estimation is feasible as more than 85% of active compounds can be extracted when compared with the conventional extraction technique. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Flexible composite via rapid titania coating by microwave-assisted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-06-09

    Jun 9, 2017 ... carbon fibre via microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis (MHS) ... Nanoparticles; titanium dioxide; microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis; carbon fibre. ..... study, the carbon fibre absorbs microwave radiation and con-.

  10. Central composite rotatable design for investigation of microwave-assisted extraction of ginger (Zingiber officinale)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadzilah, R. Hanum; Sobhana, B. Arianto; Mahfud, M.

    2015-12-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction technique was employed to extract essential oil from ginger. The optimal condition for microwave assisted extraction of ginger were determined by resposnse surface methodology. A central composite rotatable design was applied to evaluate the effects of three independent variables. The variables is were microwave power 400 - 800W as X1, feed solvent ratio of 0.33 -0.467 as X2 and feed size 1 cm, 0.25 cm and less than 0.2 cm as X3. The correlation analysis of mathematical modelling indicated that quadratic polynomial could be employed to optimize microwave assisted extraction of ginger. The optimal conditions to obtain highest yield of essential oil were : microwave power 597,163 W : feed solvent ratio and size of feed less than 0.2 cm.

  11. Microwave Assisted Convenient One-Pot Synthesis of Coumarin Derivatives via Pechmann Condensation Catalyzed by FeF3 under Solvent-Free Conditions and Antimicrobial Activities of the Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Vahabi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and efficient solvent-free one-pot synthesis of coumarin derivatives by Pechmann condensation reactions of phenols with ethyl acetoacetate using FeF3 as a catalyst under microwave irradiation is described. This one-pot synthesis on a solid inorganic support provides the products in good yields. The newly synthesized compounds were systematically characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS and elemental CHN analyses. The proposed solvent-free microwave irradiation method using the environmentally friendly catalyst FeF3 offers the unique advantages of high yields, shorter reaction times, easy and quick isolation of the products, excellent chemoselectivity, and a one-pot, green synthesis. The products were screened for antimicrobial activity, and the results showed that the compounds reacted against all the tested bacteria.

  12. Microwave assisted solvent extraction and coupled-column reversed-phase liquid chromatography with UV detection use of an analytical restricted-access-medium column for the efficient multi-residue analysis of acidic pesticides in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogendoom, E A; Huls, R; Dijkman, E; Hoogerbrugge, R

    2001-12-14

    A screening method has been developed for the determination of acidic pesticides in various types of soils. Methodology is based on the use of microwave assisted solvent extraction (MASE) for fast and efficient extraction of the analytes from the soils and coupled-column reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC-LC) with UV detection at 228 nm for the instrumental analysis of uncleaned extracts. Four types of soils, including sand, clay and peat, with a range in organic matter content of 0.3-13% and ten acidic pesticides of different chemical families (bentazone, bromoxynil, metsulfuron-methyl, 2,4-D, MCPA, MCPP, 2,4-DP, 2,4,5-T, 2,4-DB and MCPB) were selected as matrices and analytes, respectively. The method developed included the selection of suitable MASE and LC-LC conditions. The latter consisted of the selection of a 5-microm GFF-II internal surface reversed-phase (ISRP, Pinkerton) analytical column (50 x 4.6 mm, I.D.) as the first column in the RAM-C18 configuration in combination with an optimised linear gradient elution including on-line cleanup of sample extracts and reconditioning of the columns. The method was validated with the analysis of freshly spiked samples and samples with aged residues (120 days). The four types of soils were spiked with the ten acidic pesticides at levels between 20 and 200 microg/kg. Weighted regression of the recovery data showed for most analyte-matrix combinations, including freshly spiked samples and aged residues, that the method provides overall recoveries between 60 and 90% with relative standard deviations of the intra-laboratory reproducibility's between 5 and 25%; LODs were obtained between 5 and 50 microg/kg. Evaluation of the data set with principal component analysis revealed that the parameters (i) increase of organic matter content of the soil samples and (ii) aged residues negatively effect the recovery of the analytes.

  13. Microwave-assisted extraction of pectin from cocoa peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah, M.; Hanum, F.; Rizky, M.; Hisham, M. F.

    2018-02-01

    Pectin is a polymer of d-galacturonate acids linked by β-1,4 glycosidic bond. This study isolates pectin from cocoa peel (Theobroma cacao) using citric acid as solvent by microwave-assisted extraction method. Cocoa peels (moisture content of 10%) with citric acid solution (pH of 1.5) irradiated by microwave energy at various microwave power (180, 300, 450 and 600 W) for 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes respectively. Pectin obtained from this study was collected and filtrated by adding 96% ethanol to precipitate the pectin. The best results obtained from extraction process using microwave power of 180 Watt for 30 minutes. This combination of power and time yielded 42.3% pectin with moisture content, ash content, weight equivalent, methoxyl content and galacturonate levels were 8.08%, 5%, 833.33 mg, 6.51% and 58,08%, respectively. The result finding suggested that microwave-assisted extraction method has a great potency on the commercial pectin production.

  14. Fast microwave assisted pyrolysis of biomass using microwave absorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Fernanda Cabral; Du, Zhenyi; Xie, Qinglong; Trierweiler, Jorge Otávio; Cheng, Yanling; Wan, Yiqin; Liu, Yuhuan; Zhu, Rongbi; Lin, Xiangyang; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2014-03-01

    A novel concept of fast microwave assisted pyrolysis (fMAP) in the presence of microwave absorbents was presented and examined. Wood sawdust and corn stover were pyrolyzed by means of microwave heating and silicon carbide (SiC) as microwave absorbent. The bio-oil was characterized, and the effects of temperature, feedstock loading, particle sizes, and vacuum degree were analyzed. For wood sawdust, a temperature of 480°C, 50 grit SiC, with 2g/min of biomass feeding, were the optimal conditions, with a maximum bio-oil yield of 65 wt.%. For corn stover, temperatures ranging from 490°C to 560°C, biomass particle sizes from 0.9mm to 1.9mm, and vacuum degree lower than 100mmHg obtained a maximum bio-oil yield of 64 wt.%. This study shows that the use of microwave absorbents for fMAP is feasible and a promising technology to improve the practical values and commercial application outlook of microwave based pyrolysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruisanchez, E.; Juarez-Perez, E. J.; Arenillas, A.; Bermudez, J. M.; Menendez, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Metallurgical cokes are composed of graphitic carbon (s2p2) and different inorganic compounds with very different capacities to absorb microwave radiation. Moreover, due to the electric conductivity shown by the metallurgical cokes, microwave radiation produces electric arcs or microplasmas, which gives rise to hot spots. Therefore, when these cokes are irradiated with microwaves some parts of the particle experiment a rapid heating, while some others do not heat at all. As a result of the different expansion and stress caused by thermal the shock, small cracks and micro-fissures are produced in the particle. The weakening of the coke particles, and therefore an improvement of its grind ability, is produced. This paper studies the microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke and evaluates the grinding improvement and energy saving. (Author)

  16. Solvent-assisted polymer micro-molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN LuLu; ZHOU Jing; GONG Xiao; GAO ChangYou

    2009-01-01

    The micro-molding technology has played an important role in fabrication of polymer micro-patterns and development of functional devices.In such a process,suitable solvent can swell or dissolve the polymer films to decrease their glass transition temperature (Tg) and viscosity and thereby improve flowing ability.Consequently,it is easy to obtain the 2D and 3D patterns with high fidelity by the solvent-assisted micro-molding.Compared with the high temperature molding,this technology overcomes some shortcomings such as shrinking after cooling,degradation at high temperature,difficulty in processing some functional materials having high Tg,etc.It can be applied to making patterns not only on polymer monolayers but also on polyelectrolyte multilayers.Moreover,the compressioninduced patterns on the multilayers are chemically homogenous but physically heterogeneous.In this review,the controlling factors on the pattern quality are also discussed,including materials of the mold,solvent,pressure,temperature and pattern density.

  17. Simplified polymer characterization after microwave assisted sample preparation (T9)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafer, M.; Kettisch, P.; Gfrerrer, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Beside the determination of fillers and heavy metals in polymers after decomposition more often stabilizers, fire inhibitors and antistatic additive agents are measured alter using fast microwave accelerated solvent extraction. Determination of heavy metal traces for example in food packaging materials needs high sample weight to detect small amounts of impurities. High sample weight is also needed for plastic waste providing the homogeneity for representative analysis. Due to the high concentration of' organic carbon and the fact that the materials swim on the acid surface, closed vessel digestion had limits concerning sample weight. A new vessel insert in combination with extremely fast reaction control allows now to double or triple usual sample weights. High performance vessels can also be used to decompose polymers filled with TiO 2 , talcum, fibers or similar within short one or two step procedures gaining solutions without precipitates. Additional filtration or sample treatment is not necessary. For the determination of organic components more and more classical, but time consuming methods are replaced by microwave assisted solvent extraction. Instead of hours or even half days using Soxhlet extraction samples can be extracted within minutes using vessels and rotors similar to those used for decomposition. The dual use of one basic microwave instrument for both, analysis of inorganic as well as organic parameters will help to increase efficiency by reduced costs. (author)

  18. Comparison of microwave hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from Melaleuca leucadendra Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismanto, A. W.; Kusuma, H. S.; Mahfud, M.

    2017-12-01

    The comparison of solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and microwave hydrodistillation (MHD) in the extraction of essential oil from Melaleuca leucadendra Linn. was examined. Dry cajuput leaves were used in this study. The purpose of this study is also to determine optimal condition (microwave power). The relative electric consumption of SFME and MHD methods are both showing 0,1627 kWh/g and 0,3279 kWh/g. The results showed that solvent-free microwave extraction methods able to reduce energy consumption and can be regarded as a green technique for extraction of cajuput oil.

  19. An Expedient Method for the Synthesis of Thiosemicarbazones under Microwave Irradiation in Solvent-free Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI, Jian-Ping; ZHENG, Peng-Zhi; ZHU, Jun-Ge; LIU, Rui-Jie; QU, Gui-Rong

    2006-01-01

    A simple, efficient and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of thiosemicarbazones from thiosemicarbazides and aldehyde under microwave irradiation has been reported, and no solvent and catalyst were used. And the technique of microwave irradiation coupled with solvent-free condition proved to be a quite valuable method in the organic synthesis.

  20. Efficient microwave-assisted synthesis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from concentrated aqueous fructose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard Hansen, Thomas; Woodley, John; Riisager, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Studies on the HCl-catalysed microwave-assisted dehydration of highly concentrated aqueous fructose (27 wt %) to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) revealed a significant increase in the fructose conversion rate over the conventional heated systems. Water, being the most benign solvent and therefore...

  1. Microwave-assisted maleation of tung oil for bio-based products

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work, a simple, “green” and convenient chemical modification of tung oil for maleinized tung oil (TOMA) was developed via microwave-assisted one-step maleation. This modifying process did not involve any solvent, catalyst, or initiator, but demonstrated the most efficiency of functionalizing...

  2. Preparation of silica nanoparticles through microwave-assisted acid-catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovingood, Derek D; Owens, Jeffrey R; Seeber, Michael; Kornev, Konstantin G; Luzinov, Igor

    2013-12-16

    Microwave-assisted synthetic techniques were used to quickly and reproducibly produce silica nanoparticle sols using an acid catalyst with nanoparticle diameters ranging from 30-250 nm by varying the reaction conditions. Through the selection of a microwave compatible solvent, silicic acid precursor, catalyst, and microwave irradiation time, these microwave-assisted methods were capable of overcoming the previously reported shortcomings associated with synthesis of silica nanoparticles using microwave reactors. The siloxane precursor was hydrolyzed using the acid catalyst, HCl. Acetone, a low-tan δ solvent, mediates the condensation reactions and has minimal interaction with the electromagnetic field. Condensation reactions begin when the silicic acid precursor couples with the microwave radiation, leading to silica nanoparticle sol formation. The silica nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering data and scanning electron microscopy, which show the materials' morphology and size to be dependent on the reaction conditions. Microwave-assisted reactions produce silica nanoparticles with roughened textured surfaces that are atypical for silica sols produced by Stöber's methods, which have smooth surfaces.

  3. Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis of Heterocycles in Aqueous Media: Recent Advances in Medicinal Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frecentese, Francesco; Saccone, Irene; Caliendo, Giuseppe; Corvino, Angela; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Magli, Elisa; Perissutti, Elisa; Severino, Beatrice; Santagada, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Green chemistry is a discipline of great interest in medicinal chemistry. It involves all fields of chemistry and it is based on the principle to conduct chemical reactions protecting the environment at the same time, through the use of chemical procedures able to avoid pollution. In this context, water as solvent is a good choice because it is abundant, nontoxic, non-caustic, and non-combustible. Even if microwave assisted organic reactions in conventional solvents have quickly progressed, in the recent years medicinal chemists have focused their attention to processes deemed not dangerous for the environment, using nanotechnology and greener solvents as water. Several reports of reaction optimizations and selectivities, demonstrating the capability of microwave to allow the obtaining of increased yields have been recently published using water as solvent. In this review, we selected the available knowledge related to microwave assisted organic synthesis in aqueous medium, furnishing examples of the newest strategies to obtain useful scaffolds and novel derivatives for medicinal chemistry purposes. The intention of this review is to demonstrate the exclusive ability of MAOS in water as solvent or as co-solvent. For this purpose we report here the most representative applications of MAOS using water as solvent, focusing on medicinal chemistry processes leading to interesting nitrogen containing heterocycles with potential pharmaceutical applications.

  4. Microwave-assisted extraction of rutin and quercetin from the stalks of Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Sieb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Yang, Yi; Su, Ping; Guo, Zhenku

    2009-01-01

    Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) has been used as one of traditional Chinese medicines for several thousand years. Conventional methods for the extraction of rutin and quercetin from E. alatus, including solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction and heat reflux extraction are characterised by long extraction times and consumption of large amounts of solvents. To develop a simple and rapid method for the extraction of rutin and quercetin from the stalks of Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Sieb using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique. MAE experiments were performed with a multimode microwave extraction system. The experimental variables that affect the MAE process, such as the concentration of ethanol solution, extractant volume, microwave power and extraction time were optimised. Yields were determined by HPLC. The results were compared with that obtained by classical Soxhlet and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE). From the optimised conditions for MAE of rutin and quercetin it can be concluded that the solvent is 50% ethanol (v/v) solution, the extractant volume is 40 mL, microwave power is 170 W and irradiation time is 6 min. Compared with Soxhlet extraction and ultrasonic extraction, microwave extraction is a rapid method with a higher yield and lower solvent consumption. The results showed that MAE can be used as an efficient and rapid method for the extraction of the active components from plants.

  5. Microwave-Assisted Extraction for Microalgae: From Biofuels to Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Vijay Kapoore

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The commercial reality of bioactive compounds and oil production from microalgal species is constrained by the high cost of production. Downstream processing, which includes harvesting and extraction, can account for 70–80% of the total cost of production. Consequently, from an economic perspective extraction technologies need to be improved. Microalgal cells are difficult to disrupt due to polymers within their cell wall such as algaenan and sporopollenin. Consequently, solvents and disruption devices are required to obtain products of interest from within the cells. Conventional techniques used for cell disruption and extraction are expensive and are often hindered by low efficiencies. Microwave-assisted extraction offers a possibility for extraction of biochemical components including lipids, pigments, carbohydrates, vitamins and proteins, individually and as part of a biorefinery. Microwave technology has advanced since its use in the 1970s. It can cut down working times and result in higher yields and purity of products. In this review, the ability and challenges in using microwave technology are discussed for the extraction of bioactive products individually and as part of a biorefinery approach.

  6. Ultrasound-assisted phase-transfer catalysis method in an aqueous medium to promote the Knoevenagel reaction: advantages over the conventional and microwave-assisted solvent-free/catalyst-free method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-la-Torre, Pedro; Osorio, Edison; Alzate-Morales, Jans H; Caballero, Julio; Trilleras, Jorge; Astudillo-Saavedra, Luis; Brito, Iván; Cárdenas, Alejandro; Quiroga, Jairo; Gutiérrez, Margarita

    2014-09-01

    Given the broad spectrum of uses of acrylonitrile derivatives as fluorescent probes, AChE inhibitors, and others, it is necessary to find easy, efficient and simple methods to synthesize and diversify these compounds. We report the results of a comparative study of the effects of three techniques on the reactions between heterocyclic aldehydes and 2-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)acetonitrile: stirring; ultrasound coupled to PTC conditions (US-PTC); and MW irradiation (MWI) under solvent and catalyst-free conditions. The effects of conditions on reaction parameters were evaluated and compared in terms of reaction time, yield, purity and outcomes. The US-PTC method is more efficient than the MWI and conventional methods. The reaction times were considerably shorter, with high yields (>90%) and good levels of purity. In addition, X-ray diffraction analysis and quantum mechanical calculations, at the level of density functional theory (DFT), ratify obtaining acrylonitrile isomers with E configurations. The crystal structure of 3c is stabilized by weak C-Ho⋯N intermolecular interactions (Ho⋯NC=2.45 Å, Co⋯NC=3.348(3) Å, Ho⋯NC=162°), forming centrosymmetric ring R2(2) (20) along the crystallographic a axis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Microwave Assisted Manufacturing and Repair of Carbon Reinforced Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Sosa, Edward D.; Worthy, Erica S.; Darlington, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    We report a composite capable of advanced manufacturing and damage repair. Microwave energy is used to induce thermal reversible polymerization of the matrix allowing for microwave assisted composite welding and repair. Composites can be bonded together in just a few minutes through microwave welding. Lap shear testing demonstrates that microwave welded composites exhibit 40% bond strength relative to composites bonded with epoxy resin. Double cantilever beam testing shows 60% recovery in del...

  8. Determination of 13 endocrine disrupting chemicals in environmental solid samples using microwave-assisted solvent extraction and continuous solid-phase extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Abdelmonaim; Ballesteros, Evaristo

    2016-01-01

    Soil can contain large numbers of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The varied physicochemical properties of EDCs constitute a great challenge to their determination in this type of environmental matrix. In this work, an analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of various classes of EDCs, including parabens, alkylphenols, phenylphenols, bisphenol A, and triclosan, in soils, sediments, and sewage sludge. The method uses microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) in combination with continuous solid-phase extraction for determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A systematic comparison of the MAE results with those of ultrasound-assisted and Soxhlet extraction showed MAE to provide the highest extraction efficiency (close to 100%) in the shortest extraction time (3 min). The proposed method provides a linear response over the range 2.0 - 5000 ng kg(-1) and features limits of detection from 0.5 to 4.5 ng kg(-1) depending on the properties of the EDC. The method was successfully applied to the determination of target compounds in agricultural soils, pond and river sediments, and sewage sludge. The sewage sludge samples were found to contain all target compounds except benzylparaben at concentration levels from 36 to 164 ng kg(-1). By contrast, the other types of samples contained fewer EDCs and at lower concentrations (5.6 - 84 ng kg(-1)).

  9. Microwave assisted synthesis of hydroxyapatite nano strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruban Kumar, A.; Kalainathan, S.; Saral, A.M. [School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-07-15

    Synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nano strips was carried out by chemical precipitation method followed by microwave irradiation. The microwave assisted reactions proceed at fast rates. It is found that the presence of the complex reagent EDTA plays an important role in the morphological changes of nanostructure hydroxyapatite. EDTA acts as a hexadentate unit by wrapping itself around the Ca{sup 2+} metal ion with, four oxygen and two nitrogen atoms and forms several five member chelate rings. The relative specific surface energies associated with the facets of the crystal determines the shape of the crystal. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of hydroxyapatite nano strips with the range 50-100 nm in EDTA influenced HAP powders. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) result combined with the X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicates the presence of amorphous hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the as-prepared material. X-ray patterns collected on the powder after heat-treatment at 1100 C for 2 h in air exhibits single phase of HAP. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Microwave-assisted extraction of lipid from fish waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, M. A.; Omar, R.; Ethaib, S.; Siti Mazlina, M. K.; Awang Biak, D. R.; Nor Aisyah, R.

    2017-06-01

    Processing fish waste for extraction of value added products such as protein, lipid, gelatin, amino acids, collagen and oil has become one of the most intriguing researches due to its valuable properties. In this study the extraction of lipid from sardine fish waste was carried out using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and compared with Soxhlets and Hara and Radin methods. A mixture of two organic solvents isopropanol/hexane and distilled water were used for MAE and Hara and Radin methods. Meanwhile, Soxhlet method utilized only hexane as solvent. The results show that the higher yield of lipid 80.5 mg/g was achieved using distilled water in MAE method at 10 min extraction time. Soxhlet extraction method only produced 46.6 mg/g of lipid after 4 hours of extraction time. Lowest yield of lipid was found at 15.8 mg/g using Hara and Radin method. Based on aforementioned results, it can be concluded MAE method is superior compared to the Soxhlet and Hara and Radin methods which make it an attractive route to extract lipid from fish waste.

  11. Semi-automated microwave assisted solid-phase peptide synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Ljungberg

    with microwaves for SPPS has gained in popularity as it for many syntheses has provided significant improvement in terms of speed, purity, and yields, maybe especially in the synthesis of long and "difficult" peptides. Thus, precise microwave heating has emerged as one new parameter for SPPS, in addition...... to coupling reagents, resins, solvents etc. We have previously reported on microwave heating to promote a range of solid-phase reactions in SPPS. Here we present a new, flexible semi-automated instrument for the application of precise microwave heating in solid-phase synthesis. It combines a slightly modified...... Biotage Initiator microwave instrument, which is available in many laboratories, with a modified semi-automated peptide synthesizer from MultiSynTech. A custom-made reaction vessel is placed permanently in the microwave oven, thus the reactor does not have to be moved between steps. Mixing is achieved...

  12. Producing Lignin-Based Polyols through Microwave-Assisted Liquefaction for Rigid Polyurethane Foam Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai-Liang Xue

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lignin-based polyols were synthesized through microwave-assisted liquefaction under different microwave heating times (5–30 min. The liquefaction reactions were carried out using polyethylene glycol (PEG-400/glycerol as liquefying solvents and 97 wt% sulfur acid as a catalyst at 140 °C. The polyols obtained were analyzed for their yield, composition and structural characteristics using gel permeation chromatography (GPC, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectra. FT-IR and NMR spectra showed that the liquefying solvents reacted with the phenol hydroxyl groups of the lignin in the liquefied product. With increasing microwave heating time, the viscosity of polyols was slightly increased and their corresponding molecular weight (MW was gradually reduced. The optimal condition at the microwave heating time (5 min ensured a high liquefaction yield (97.47% and polyol with a suitable hydroxyl number (8.628 mmol/g. Polyurethane (PU foams were prepared by polyols and methylene diphenylene diisocyanate (MDI using the one-shot method. With the isocyanate/hydroxyl group ([NCO]/[OH] ratio increasing from 0.6 to 1.0, their mechanical properties were gradually increased. This study provided some insight into the microwave-assisted liquefied lignin polyols for the production of rigid PU foam.

  13. Box-Behnken design for investigation of microwave-assisted extraction of patchouli oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Heri Septya; Mahfud, Mahfud

    2015-12-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed to extract the essential oil from patchouli (Pogostemon cablin). The optimal conditions for microwave-assisted extraction of patchouli oil were determined by response surface methodology. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied to evaluate the effects of three independent variables (microwave power (A: 400-800 W), plant material to solvent ratio (B: 0.10-0.20 g mL-1) and extraction time (C: 20-60 min)) on the extraction yield of patchouli oil. The correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model indicated that quadratic polynomial model could be employed to optimize the microwave extraction of patchouli oil. The optimal extraction conditions of patchouli oil was microwave power 634.024 W, plant material to solvent ratio 0.147648 g ml-1 and extraction time 51.6174 min. The maximum patchouli oil yield was 2.80516% under these optimal conditions. Under the extraction condition, the experimental values agreed with the predicted results by analysis of variance. It indicated high fitness of the model used and the success of response surface methodology for optimizing and reflect the expected extraction condition.

  14. Microwave assisted centrifuge and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikrantz, David H [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-08-17

    Centrifuge samples may be exposed to microwave energy to heat the samples during centrifugation and to promote separation of the different components or constituents of the samples using a centrifuge device configured for generating microwave energy and directing the microwave energy at a sample located in the centrifuge.

  15. Perlite-SO3H nanoparticles as an efficient and reusable catalyst for one-pot three-component synthesis of 1,2-dihydro-1-aryl-naphtho[1,2-e][1,3]oxazine-3-one derivatives under both microwave-assisted and thermal solvent-free conditions: Single crystal X-ray structure analysis and theoretical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ramazani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A general synthetic route for the synthesis of 1,2-dihydro-1-aryl-naphtho[1,2-e][1,3]oxazine-3-one derivatives has been developed using perlite-SO3H nanoparticles as efficient catalyst under both microwave-assisted and thermal solvent-free conditions. The combination of 2-naphthol, aldehyde and urea enabled the synthesis of 1,2-dihydro-1-aryl-naphtho[1,2-e][1,3]oxazine-3-one derivatives in the presence of perlite-SO3H nanoparticles in good to excellent yields. This method provides several advantages like simple work-up, environmentally benign, and shorter reaction times along with high yields. In order to explore the recyclability of the catalyst, the perlite-SO3H nanoparticles in solvent-free conditions were used as catalyst for the same reaction repeatedly and the change in their catalytic activity was studied. It was found that perlite-SO3H nanoparticles could be reused for four cycles with negligible loss of their activity. Single crystal X-ray structure analysis and theoretical studies also were investigated for 4i product. The electronic properties of the compound have been analyzed using DFT calculations (B3LYP/6-311+G*. The FMO analysis suggests that charge transfer takes place within the molecule and the HOMO is localized mainly on naphthalene and oxazinone rings whereas the LUMO resides on the naphthalene ring.

  16. Microwave-assisted extraction kinetics of terpenes from caraway seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chemat, S.; Ait-Amar, H.; Lagha, A.; Esveld, D.C.

    2005-01-01

    The process conditions during the extraction of carvone and limonene from caraway seed (Carum carvi L.) with microwave-assisted extraction have been studied with respect to microwave power, radiation dose and extraction time in order to obtain the secondary metabolites selectively. Using classical

  17. Monomode microwave-assisted atom transfer radical polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, H.; Schubert, U.S.

    2004-01-01

    The first monomode microwave-assisted atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) is reported. The ATRP of methyl methacrylate was successfully performed with microwave heating, which was well controlled and provided almost the same results as experiments with conventional heating, demonstrating the

  18. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of "N"-Phenylsuccinimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Thomas A.; Shell, Jennifer R.; Poole, Kathleen A.; Guetzloff, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    A microwave-assisted synthesis of "N"-phenylsuccinimide has been developed for the second-semester organic teaching laboratory. Utilizing this procedure, "N"-phenylsuccinimide can be synthesized in moderate yields (40-60%) by heating a mixture of aniline and succinic anhydride in a domestic microwave oven for four minutes. This technique reduces…

  19. Microwave-assisted Synthesis of an Important Intermediate of Benazepril

    OpenAIRE

    Mistry, B; Medhane, Dipti; Mohanraj, Krishnapriya; Ghone, Sanjeevani A.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid and efficient methods for the synthesis of an important intermediate of benazepril ethyl 3-phthalimido-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-[1]benzazepin-2-one-1-acetate under the influence of microwave irradiation are described. A comparative study of conventional and microwave assisted method is briefly discussed.

  20. Microwave-assisted Synthesis of an Important Intermediate of Benazepril

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, B; Medhane, Dipti; Mohanraj, Krishnapriya; Ghone, Sanjeevani A.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid and efficient methods for the synthesis of an important intermediate of benazepril ethyl 3-phthalimido-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-[1]benzazepin-2-one-1-acetate under the influence of microwave irradiation are described. A comparative study of conventional and microwave assisted method is briefly discussed. PMID:21188052

  1. New Approaches for Effective Microwave Assisted Extraction of Caffeine and Catechins from Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gönül SERDAR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to develop an effective microwave assisted extraction (MAE method for extraction of caffeine and catechins from green tea samples. A series of solvents (water, ethanol:water mixture or citric acid:water mixture were used for extraction of green tea samples (fresh, frozen or dried collected in three collection periods (first, second and third collection periods. Tea samples were extracted using water in a close microwave system under the certain extraction conditions. Extraction was carried out under a controlled 600 W microwave power at 80 oC temperature for 4 min irradiation time. Alternative to water, an ethanol-water mixture (1:1 or a citric acid-water (1:1 mixture was used as extracting solvent under the same conditions. After MAE crude aqueous extract was partitioned first with chloroform to separate caffeine then ethyl acetate for catechins.  Both caffeine and catechin extraction was quite successful with microwave assisted system employing only 4 minutes treatment. The highest caffeine yield was obtained in the second collection period using frozen green tea samples and ethanol-water as extracting solvent. The yield of catechin extracts was between 0.84-3.96% depending on the solvent system used for extraction. Ethanol-water mixture seems to be appropriate for effective extraction in the basis of extract yields. However, HPLC results showed that individual catechin content of each extraction is more important criteria for the evaluation of most effective extraction medium rather than the mass of the extract.  Using citric acid as extracting solvent in MAE seem to be more fruitful providing 100% catechin mixture with the highest EGCG content. 

  2. Microwave-assisted green synthesis and antimicrobial activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microwave-assisted green synthesis and antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles derived from a ... Journal Home > Vol 16, No 12 (2017) > ... has been prepared by a simple, eco-friendly, cost-effective, rapid green chemistry methodology.

  3. Microwave-assisted 'greener' synthesis of organics and nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwave selective heating techniques in conjunction with greener reaction media are dramatically reducing chemical waste and reaction times in several organic transformations and material synthesis. This presentation summarizes author’s own experience in developing MW-assisted ...

  4. Microwave-Assisted γ-Valerolactone Production for Biomass Lignin Extraction: A Cascade Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabasso, Silvia; Grillo, Giorgio; Carnaroglio, Diego; Calcio Gaudino, Emanuela; Cravotto, Giancarlo

    2016-03-26

    The general need to slow the depletion of fossil resources and reduce carbon footprints has led to tremendous effort being invested in creating "greener" industrial processes and developing alternative means to produce fuels and synthesize platform chemicals. This work aims to design a microwave-assisted cascade process for a full biomass valorisation cycle. GVL (γ-valerolactone), a renewable green solvent, has been used in aqueous acidic solution to achieve complete biomass lignin extraction. After lignin precipitation, the levulinic acid (LA)-rich organic fraction was hydrogenated, which regenerated the starting solvent for further biomass delignification. This process does not requires a purification step because GVL plays the dual role of solvent and product, while the reagent (LA) is a product of biomass delignification. In summary, this bio-refinery approach to lignin extraction is a cascade protocol in which the solvent loss is integrated into the conversion cycle, leading to simplified methods for biomass valorisation.

  5. Microwave-Assisted γ-Valerolactone Production for Biomass Lignin Extraction: A Cascade Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tabasso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The general need to slow the depletion of fossil resources and reduce carbon footprints has led to tremendous effort being invested in creating “greener” industrial processes and developing alternative means to produce fuels and synthesize platform chemicals. This work aims to design a microwave-assisted cascade process for a full biomass valorisation cycle. GVL (γ-valerolactone, a renewable green solvent, has been used in aqueous acidic solution to achieve complete biomass lignin extraction. After lignin precipitation, the levulinic acid (LA-rich organic fraction was hydrogenated, which regenerated the starting solvent for further biomass delignification. This process does not requires a purification step because GVL plays the dual role of solvent and product, while the reagent (LA is a product of biomass delignification. In summary, this bio-refinery approach to lignin extraction is a cascade protocol in which the solvent loss is integrated into the conversion cycle, leading to simplified methods for biomass valorisation.

  6. Physical principles of microwave assisted magnetic recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivkin, Kirill; Benakli, Mourad; Yin, Huaqing; Tabat, Ned

    2014-01-01

    While the basic physics of Microwave Assisted Magnetization Reversal (MAMR) phenomenon is well established both theoretically and experimentally, its application in a practical magnetic recording environment was so far studied primarily with the help of micromagnetic recording models. In this work, we instead attempt to use analytical formulation and simple numerical models to understand the main challenges as well as benefits that are associated with such a system. It appears that the main difference between the previously introduced theory [G. Bertotti et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 724 (2001); K. Rivkin et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153104 (2008); S. Okamoto et al., J. Appl. Phys. 107, 123914 (2010).] and recording environment is that both the RF and DC magnetic fields are applied at a substantial angle to the anisotropy axis. While the associated symmetry breaking prevents one from describing the reversal process explicitly, it is possible to approximate the solutions well enough to satisfactorily match numerical models both in the case of wire and Spin Torque Oscillator generated RF fields. This approach allows for physical explanation of various effects associated with MAMR such as high gradient of writeable anisotropy and reduction of track width, and offers a clear guidance regarding future optimization of MAMR recording.

  7. Physical principles of microwave assisted magnetic recording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, Kirill; Benakli, Mourad; Yin, Huaqing [Seagate Technology, Edina, Minnesota 55435 (United States); Tabat, Ned [Semaphore Scientific Inc., Chanhassen, Minnesota 55317 (United States)

    2014-06-07

    While the basic physics of Microwave Assisted Magnetization Reversal (MAMR) phenomenon is well established both theoretically and experimentally, its application in a practical magnetic recording environment was so far studied primarily with the help of micromagnetic recording models. In this work, we instead attempt to use analytical formulation and simple numerical models to understand the main challenges as well as benefits that are associated with such a system. It appears that the main difference between the previously introduced theory [G. Bertotti et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 724 (2001); K. Rivkin et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153104 (2008); S. Okamoto et al., J. Appl. Phys. 107, 123914 (2010).] and recording environment is that both the RF and DC magnetic fields are applied at a substantial angle to the anisotropy axis. While the associated symmetry breaking prevents one from describing the reversal process explicitly, it is possible to approximate the solutions well enough to satisfactorily match numerical models both in the case of wire and Spin Torque Oscillator generated RF fields. This approach allows for physical explanation of various effects associated with MAMR such as high gradient of writeable anisotropy and reduction of track width, and offers a clear guidance regarding future optimization of MAMR recording.

  8. Compressed air-assisted solvent extraction (CASX) for metal removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chi-Wang; Chen, Yi-Ming; Hsiao, Shin-Tien

    2008-03-01

    A novel process, compressed air-assisted solvent extraction (CASX), was developed to generate micro-sized solvent-coated air bubbles (MSAB) for metal extraction. Through pressurization of solvent with compressed air followed by releasing air-oversaturated solvent into metal-containing wastewater, MSAB were generated instantaneously. The enormous surface area of MSAB makes extraction process extremely fast and achieves very high aqueous/solvent weight ratio (A/S ratio). CASX process completely removed Cr(VI) from acidic electroplating wastewater under A/S ratio of 115 and extraction time of less than 10s. When synthetic wastewater containing Cd(II) of 50mgl(-1) was treated, A/S ratios of higher than 714 and 1190 could be achieved using solvent with extractant/diluent weight ratio of 1:1 and 5:1, respectively. Also, MSAB have very different physical properties, such as size and density, compared to the emulsified solvent droplets, making separation and recovery of solvent from treated effluent very easy.

  9. Aqueous Microwave-Assisted Solid-Phase Synthesis Using Boc-Amino Acid Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinobu Fukumori

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We have previously developed water-based microwave (MW-assisted peptide synthesis using Fmoc-amino acid nanopaticles. It is an organic solvent-free, environmentally friendly method for peptide synthesis. Here we describe water-based MW-assisted solid-phase synthesis using Boc-amino acid nanoparticles. The microwave irradiation allowed rapid solid-phase reaction of nanoparticle reactants on the resin in water. We also demonstrated the syntheses of Leu-enkephalin, Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu-OH, and difficult sequence model peptide, Val-Ala-Val-Ala-Gly-OH, using our water-based MW-assisted protocol with Boc-amino acid nanoparticles.

  10. Optimization of microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and soxhlet extraction of phenolic compound from licorice root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Zohreh; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Mirzaee, Habib Allah; Khomeiri, Morteza; Mahoonak, Alireza Sadeghi; Aydani, Emad

    2015-06-01

    In present study, response surface methodology was used to optimize extraction condition of phenolic compounds from licorice root by microwave application. Investigated factors were solvent (ethanol 80 %, methanol 80 % and water), liquid/solid ratio (10:1-25:1) and time (2-6 min). Experiments were designed according to the central composite rotatable design. The results showed that extraction conditions had significant effect on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities. Optimal condition in microwave assisted method were ethanol 80 % as solvent, extraction time of 5-6 min and liquid/solid ratio of 12.7/1. Results were compared with those obtained by soxhlet extraction. In soxhlet extraction, Optimum conditions were extraction time of 6 h for ethanol 80 % as solvent. Value of phenolic compounds and extraction yield of licorice root in microwave assisted (MAE), and soxhlet were 47.47 mg/g and 16.38 %, 41.709 mg/g and 14.49 %, respectively. These results implied that MAE was more efficient extracting method than soxhlet.

  11. Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from Melaleuca leucadendra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Ismanto Aviarina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cajuput (Melaleuca leucadendra L. oil is one of potential commodity that provides an important role for the country’s foreign exchange but the extraction of these essential oil is still using conventional method such as hydrodistillation which takes a long time to produce essential oil with good quality. Therefore it is necessary to optimize the extraction process using a more effective and efficient method. So in this study the extraction is done using solvent-free microwave extraction method that are considered more effective and efficient than conventional methods. The optimum yield in the extraction of cajuput oil using solvent-free microwave extraction method is 1.0674%. The optimum yield is obtained on the feed to distiller (F/D ratio of 0.12 g/mL with microwave power of 400 W. In the extraction of cajuput oil using solvent-free microwave extraction method is performed first-order and second-order kinetics modelling. Based on kinetics modelling that has been done, it can be said that the second-order kinetic model (R2 = 0.9901 can be better represent experimental results of extraction of cajuput oil that using solvent-free microwave extraction method when compared with the first-order kinetic model (R2 = 0.9854.

  12. Process characteristics for microwave assisted hydrothermal carbonization of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junting; An, Ying; Borrion, Aiduan; He, Wenzhi; Wang, Nan; Chen, Yirong; Li, Guangming

    2018-07-01

    The process characteristics of microwave assisted hydrothermal carbonization of cellulose was investigated and a first order kinetics model based on carbon concentration was developed. Chemical properties analysis showed that comparing to conventional hydrothermal carbonization, hydrochar with comparable energy properties can be obtained with 5-10 times decrease in reaction time with assistance of microwave heating. Results from kinetics study was in great agreement with experimental analysis, that they both illustrated the predominant mechanism of the reaction depend on variations in the reaction rates of two co-existent pathways. Particularly, the pyrolysis-like intramolecular dehydration reaction was proved to be the predominant mechanism for hydrochar generation under high temperatures. Finally, the enhancement effects of microwave heating were reflected under both soluble and solid pathways in this research, suggesting microwave-assisted hydrothermal carbonization as a more attracting method for carbon-enriched hydrochar recovery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of microwave assisted digestion in industrial hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paudyn, A.M.; Smith, R.G.; Gawlowski, E.

    1990-01-01

    Microwave assisted digestion plays an important role in speeding up acquisition of analytical data for industrial hygiene purposes. This paper will compare hot plate and microwave assisted digestion for the determination of elements in industrial samples (air sampling filters, dusts, ashes, paints) by the ICPAES technique. Also, the determination of radionuclides in environmental samples (soils, sediments, rocks) by alpha, beta and gamma spectroscopy after the dissolution in a microwave oven will be presented. The results on the determination of elements in NIST standard reference materials and radionuclides in IAEA standards will be included. QC/QA protocols used in an occupational health laboratory setting will be discussed. Sample preparation using microwave assisted digestion proved not only to speed-up extraction of acid soluble elements, but also to achieve better recovery of some elements (Pb in paints) and give better reproducibility of determinations

  14. Comparison of Conventional and Microwave-assisted Synthesis of Benzimidazole Derivative from Citronellal in Kaffir lime oil (Citrus hystrix DC.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsito, W.; Noorhamdani, A. S.; Suratmo; Dwi Sapri, R.; Alkaroma, D.; Azhar, A. Z.

    2018-04-01

    Simple method has been used for the synthesis of benzimidazole derivative from citronellal in kaffir lime oil under microwave irradiation. These compounds were synthesized also by conventional heating for comparison. In addtion, microwave-assited synthesis was also compared between using to dichloromethane and methanol solvents with variation of reaction time for 30 to 70 minutes and 4 to 12 h for conventional heating. The 2-citronellyl benzimidazole compound synthesized were characterised by FT-IR, GC-MS, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Comparison between conventional and microwave-assisted synthesis was done by comparing between correlation of reaction time and percentage yield. The time optimum of microwave-assisted and conventional synthesis using dichloromethane solvent respectively at 60 minutes (yield 19.23%) and 8 hours (yield 11.54%). In addition, microwave-assited synthesis increasing 157.81 times compared by conventional heating. While using methanol solvent tends to increase linearly however the percentage of yield only 0.77 times of synthesis using dichloromethane solvent.

  15. Photoluminescence enhancement of porous silicon particles by microwave-assisted activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Bing [Key Laboratory of Forest Genetics and Biotechnology (Ministry of Education of China), Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Advanced Analysis and Testing Center, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Zhang, Wenyi; Dong, Chen; Shi, Jisen [Key Laboratory of Forest Genetics and Biotechnology (Ministry of Education of China), Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Bao, Weiyi [Advanced Analysis and Testing Center, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Zhang, Junfeng [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Photoluminescence (PL) of porous silicon (PSi) particles can be significantly enhanced in some organic solvents (i.e., ethanol or dimethyl sulfoxide) under microwave irradiation. Fourier transform infrared spectra, dynamic-light-scattering measurements, and scanning electron microscopy had been adopted to explore the mechanism of PL enhancement of PSi particles under microwave irradiation, which is attributed to the formation of higher porosity and the growth of silicon oxide by microwave-assisted wet etching. Compared with that fabricated by ultrasonication, smaller luminescent PSi nanoparticles (average size {proportional_to}60 nm) with stronger orange-red fluorescence (PL quantum yield {proportional_to}14.8%) and higher dispersibility can be large-scale prepared for cellular imaging and drug delivery in biomedical applications. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction: Effect of Extraction Time and Solvent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of extraction conditions assisted by ultrasound on the quality of extracts obtained from Mesembryanthemum edule shoots. Methods: The extraction procedure was carried out in an ultrasonic bath. The effect of two solvents (methanol and ethanol) and two extraction times (5 and 10 min) ...

  17. Highly efficient isocyanate-free microwave-assisted synthesis of [6]-oligourea

    KAUST Repository

    Qaroush, Abdussalam K.

    2013-01-01

    A new eco-friendly, isocyanate-free, energy-saving method for the production of [6]-oligourea, utilizing a green carbonylating agent, viz. propylene carbonate, is reported. It comprises an organocatalyzed, microwave-assisted, solvent-free synthesis. Two modes of microwave-assisted synthesis, viz. dynamic and fixed energy modes, were applied. Upon optimization, the dynamic mode gave 79% yields of [6]-oligourea. On the other hand, almost quantitative yields were obtained using the fixed mode, within 20 min, at 10 W and with the same catalyst loading. Combination of both organocatalysis and microwave energy input appears to be a key issue for the efficiency of the reaction, with the fixed energy mode being best suited. It should be noted that all data reported are reproducible (due to the homogeneous microwave technology used by CEM Discover S-Class of microwave reactors). To the best of our knowledge, this is the best eco-friendly synthetic approach for the preparation of the title oligomers. It paves the way for using more of the biorenewable and sustainable chemicals as a feedstock for the production of polyureas. The oligomer produced was analyzed by EA, ATR-FTIR, XRD, 1H and 13CNMR. Furthermore, thermal properties of the resulting [6]-oligourea were analyzed using TGA and DSC. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

  18. [Analysis of triterpenoids in Ganoderma lucidum by microwave-assisted continuous extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan-fang; An, Jing; Jiang, Ye

    2015-04-01

    For further improving the extraction efficiency of microwave extraction, a microwave-assisted contijuous extraction (MACE) device has been designed and utilized. By contrasting with the traditional methods, the characteristics and extraction efficiency of MACE has also been studied. The method was validated by the analysis of the triterpenoids in Ganoderma lucidum. The extraction conditions of MACE were: using 95% ethanol as solvent, microwave power 200 W and radiation time 14.5 min (5 cycles). The extraction results were subsequently compared with traditional heat reflux extraction ( HRE) , soxhlet extraction (SE), ultrasonic extraction ( UE) as well as the conventional microwave extraction (ME). For triterpenoids, the two methods based on the microwaves (ME and MACE) were in general capable of finishing the extraction in 10, 14.5 min, respectively, while other methods should consume 60 min and even more than 100 min. Additionally, ME can produce comparable extraction results as the classical HRE and higher extraction yield than both SE and UE, however, notably lower extraction yield than MASE. More importantly, the purity of the crud extract by MACE is far better than the other methods. MACE can effectively combine the advantages of microwave extraction and soxhlet extraction, thus enabling a more complete extraction of the analytes of TCMs in comparison with ME. And therefore makes the analytic result more accurate. It provides a novel, high efficient, rapid and reliable pretreatment technique for the analysis of TCMs, and it could potentially be extended to ingredient preparation or extracting techniques of TCMs.

  19. Liquefaction behaviors of bamboo residues in a glycerol-based solvent using microwave energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiulong Xie; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe; Jinqiu Qi; Hui Pan

    2014-01-01

    Liquefaction of bamboo was performed in glycerol–methanol as co-solvent using microwave energy and was evaluated by characterizing the liquefied residues. High efficiency conversion of bamboo was achieved under mild reaction conditions. Liquefaction temperature and time interacted to affect the liquefaction reaction. Fourier transform infrared analyzes of the residues...

  20. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of flavonoids from young barley leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tian; Zhang, Min; Fang, Zhongxiang; Zhong, Qifeng

    2017-01-01

    A central composite design combined with response surface methodology was utilized to optimise microwave-assisted extraction of flavonoids from young barley leaves. The results showed that using water as solvent, the optimum conditions of microwave-assisted extraction were extracted twice at 1.27 W g-1 microwave power and liquid-solid ratio 34.02 ml g-1 for 11.12 min. The maximum extraction yield of flavonoids (rutin equivalents) was 80.78±0.52%. Compared with conventional extraction method, the microwave-assisted extraction was more efficient as the extraction time was only 6.18% of conventional extraction, but the extraction yield of flavonoids was increased by 5.47%. The main flavonoid components from the young barley leaf extract were probably 33.36% of isoorientin-7-O-glueoside and 54.17% of isovitexin-7-O-glucoside, based on the HPLC-MS analysis. The barley leaf extract exhibited strong reducing power as well as the DPPH radical scavenging capacity.

  1. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of lead zirconate fine powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apinpus Rujiwatra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid synthesis of lead zirconate fine powders by microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique is reported. The influences of type of lead precursor, concentration of potassium hydroxide mineraliser, applied microwave power and irradiation time are described. The synthesised powders were characterised by powder X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic microanalysis and light scattering technique. The merits of the microwave application in reducing reaction time and improving particle mono-dispersion and size uniformity as well as the drawbacks, viz. low purity of the desired phase and increasing demand of mineraliser, are discussed in relation to conventional heating method.

  2. Microwave-assisted efficient conjugation of nanodiamond and paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Han; Liu, Kuang-Kai; Sulake, Rohidas S; Chao, Jui-I; Chen, Chinpiao

    2015-01-01

    Nanodiamond has recently received considerable attention due to the various possible applications in medical field such as drug delivery and bio-labeling. For this purpose suitable and effective surface functionalization of the diamond material are required. A versatile and reproducible surface modification method of nanoscale diamond is essential for functionalization. We introduce the input of microwave energy to assist the functionalization of nanodiamond surface. The feasibility of such a process is illustrated by comparing the biological assay of ND-paclitaxel synthesized by conventional and microwave irradiating. Using a microwave we manage to have approximately doubled grafted molecules per nanoparticle of nanodiamond. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Solvent-free microwave-mediated Michael addition reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    obviously difficult to scale up. In this context ... eco-friendly features such as, (i) no solvent is required to conduct the ... water soluble, addition of reaction mixture after com- ..... Yield: 855 mg (89%; viscous liquid). 3.4 Ethyl .... Jung M E 1993 Comprehensive organic synthesis ... Leshcheva I F and Bundel Y G 1997 Mendeleev.

  4. Comparative study on sulphur reduction from heavy petroleum - Solvent extraction and microwave irradiation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Abdullahi Dyadya; Isah, Abubakar Garba; Umaru, Musa; Ahmed, Shehu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 65, Minna (Nigeria); Abdullahi, Yababa Nma [National Petroleum Investment Management Services (Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation), Lagos (Nigeria)

    2012-07-01

    Sulphur- containing compounds in heavy crude oils are undesirable in refining process as they affect the quality of the final product, cause catalyst poisoning and deactivation in catalytic converters as well as causing corrosion problems in oil pipelines, pumps and refining equipment aside environmental pollution from their combustion and high processing cost. Sulphur reduction has being studied using microwave irradiation set at 300W for 10 and 15minutes and oxidative- solvent extraction method using n- heptane and methanol by 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 crude- solvent ratios after being oxidized with hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 oxidants. Percentage sulphur removal with n- heptane solvent by 1:1 and 1:2 are 81.73 and 85.47%; but extraction using methanol by different observed ratios gave less sulphur reduction. Indeed when microwave irradiated at 300W for 10 and 15minutes, 53.68 and 78.45% reduction were achieved. This indicates that microwave irradiation had caused oxidation by air in the oven cavity and results to formation of alkyl radicals and sulphoxide from sulphur compound in the petroleum. The prevailing sulphur found in the crude going by FT-IR results is sulphides which oxidized to sulphoxide or sulphones. It is clear that sulphur extraction with heptane is more efficient than microwave irradiation but economically due to demands for solvent and its industrial usage microwave irradiation can serve as alternative substitute for sulphur reduction in petroleum. Sulphur reduction by microwave radiation should be up- scaled from laboratory to a pilot plant without involving extraction column in the refining.

  5. Effect of Microwave-Assisted Extraction on the Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Blackthorn Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovrić, Vanja; Putnik, Predrag; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Jukić, Marijana; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2017-06-01

    This research was undertaken to investigate the influence of extraction parameters during microwave-assisted extraction on total phenolic content, total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols of blackthorn flowers as well as to evaluate the antioxidant capacity by two different methods (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays). The investigated extraction parameters were: solvent type and volume fraction of alcohol in solvent (50 and 70% aqueous solutions of ethanol and methanol), extraction time (5, 15 and 25 min) and extraction temperature (40, 50 and 60 °C) controlled by microwave power of 100, 200 and 300 W. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to evaluate the differences at a 95% confidence level (p≤0.05). The obtained results show that aqueous solution of ethanol was more appropriate solvent for extraction of phenolic compounds (total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols) than aqueous solution of methanol. The amount of phenolic compounds was higher in 70% aqueous solution of ethanol or methanol, while higher antioxidant capacity was observed in 50% aqueous solution of methanol. Higher temperature of extraction improved the amount of phenolic compounds and also antioxidant capacity determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity assay. Extensive duration of extraction (15- to 25-minute interval) has a significant effect only on the increase of total phenolic content, while specific phenolic compound content and antioxidant capacity were the highest when microwave extraction time of 5 min was applied.

  6. Microwave-Assisted Extraction and Physicochemical Evaluation of Oil from Hevea brasiliensis Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn C. Creencia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis is exploited mainly for latex in view of its economic importance. However, one of its auxiliary products, the rubber seed, does not find any major applications, and hence, even the natural production of seeds itself remains underutilized. In this study, microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction is used as a green alternative to extract the oil from seeds at a reaction time of 90 min and microwave power of 300 W. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of the processing conditions, including drying time, temperature, solid–solvent ratio, and extraction solvent, on the yield of rubber seed oil. Moreover, the microwave-assisted aqueous extraction (MAAE under acidic conditions is also investigated. Based on the results, n-hexane gave the best yield at an optimized 1:20 seed–hexane ratio at 72 °C compared with the conventional Soxhlet method and the acidic MAAE. Furthermore, the chemical characteristics of the oil showed a high value of free fatty acids (% FFA (1.15–7.61% and an iodine value (IV that ranges from 100–150. As a semi-drying oil, rubber seed oil (RSO can be used as an ingredient for surface coating and in the formulation of products where the presence of unsaturation is important.

  7. Microwave-Assisted Multicomponent Synthesis of Heterocycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruithof, A.; Ruijter, E.; Orru, R.V.A.

    2011-01-01

    Multicomponent reactions are valuable tools for the generation of diverse heterocycles. As in many fields or organic chemistry, microwave irradiation is rapidly replacing conventional heating methods in multicomponent chemistry. In this review, we present an overview of recent applications of the

  8. Characterization of microwave-induced electric discharge phenomena in metal-solvent mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Gutmann, Bernhard; Kappe, C Oliver

    2012-02-01

    Electric discharge phenomena in metal-solvent mixtures are investigated utilizing a high field density, sealed-vessel, single-mode 2.45 GHz microwave reactor with a built-in camera. Particular emphasis is placed on studying the discharges exhibited by different metals (Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, Ni) of varying particle sizes and morphologies in organic solvents (e.g., benzene) at different electric field strengths. Discharge phenomena for diamagnetic and paramagnetic metals (Mg, Zn, Cu) depend strongly on the size of the used particles. With small particles, short-lived corona discharges are observed that do not lead to a complete breakdown. Under high microwave power conditions or with large particles, however, bright sparks and arcs are experienced, often accompanied by solvent decomposition and formation of considerable amounts of graphitized material. Small ferromagnetic Fe and Ni powders (discharges. Electric discharges were also observed when Cu metal or other conductive materials such as silicon carbide were exposed to the microwave field in the absence of a solvent in an argon or nitrogen atmosphere.

  9. The extraction of essential oil from patchouli leaves (Pogostemon cablin Benth) using microwave hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, D. K. Y.; Kusuma, H. S.; Syahputra, M. E.; Parasandi, D.; Mahfud, M.

    2017-12-01

    Patchouli plant (Pogostemon cablin Benth) is one of the important essential oil-producing plant, contributes more than 50% of total exports of Indonesia’s essential oil. However, the extraction of patchouli oil that has been done in Indonesia is generally still used conventional methods that require enormous amount of energy, high solvent usage, and long time of extraction. Therefore, in this study, patchouli oil extraction was carried out by using microwave hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction methods. Based on this research, it is known that the extraction of patchouli oil using microwave hydrodistillation method with longer extraction time (240 min) only produced patchouli oil’s yield 1.2 times greater than solvent-free microwave extraction method which require faster extraction time (120 min). Otherwise the analysis of electric consumption and the environmental impact, the solvent-free microwave extraction method showed a smaller amount when compared with microwave hydrodistillation method. It is conclude that the use of solvent-free microwave extraction method for patchouli oil extraction is suitably method as a new green technique.

  10. A review on the susceptor assisted microwave processing of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Madhuchhanda; Basak, Tanmay

    2016-01-01

    Microwave processing has received significant attention based on the energy efficient volumetric processing. The internal heat generation during the microwave heating unleashes the heat transfer limitations of the conventional furnaces and thus, the microwave processing can be performed at much faster rates than the conventional furnaces. Susceptors further accelerate the microwave processing via providing a two-way heating with reduced heat losses from the surface of the material. In addition, the rapid initial heating via susceptors becomes the key factor to execute the energy efficient microwave processing for the poorly microwave absorbing materials. These characteristics have been massively exploited for various applications (material processing, synthesis and waste treatments) over the last few decades and this review evaluates those processing characteristics with an emphasis on the energy efficiency. Till date, the advancement of the susceptor assisted microwave processing is primarily based on the experimental trials and this review brings together various case studies so that the readers can have a clear idea about the current status in each field of applications. This can be of immense help not only to select the appropriate susceptor, but also to select the future research direction for the advancement of the energy efficient processing. - Highlights: • Susceptor assisted hybrid microwave processing has been reviewed. • Energy efficiency of the hybrid heating has been analyzed for various applications. • The applications include material processing, synthesis and waste treatment. • The role of susceptors on the energy efficient material processing is highlighted. • The enhancement of the processing via the susceptors has been reported.

  11. Microwave-assisted Weak Acid Hydrolysis of Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyeong Seo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Myoglobin was hydrolyzed by microwave-assisted weak acid hydrolysis with 2% formic acid at 37 oC, 50 oC, and100 oC for 1 h. The most effective hydrolysis was observed at 100 oC. Hydrolysis products were investigated using matrixassistedlaser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Most cleavages predominantly occurred at the C-termini ofaspartyl residues. For comparison, weak acid hydrolysis was also performed in boiling water for 20, 40, 60, and 120 min. A 60-min weak acid hydrolysis in boiling water yielded similar results as a 60-min microwave-assisted weak acid hydrolysis at100 oC. These results strongly suggest that microwave irradiation has no notable enhancement effect on acid hydrolysis of proteinsand that temperature is the major factor that determines the effectiveness of weak acid hydrolysis.

  12. Microwave-assisted one-pot synthesis of benzothiazole and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microwave-assisted synthesis of benzothiazole and benzoxazole libraries via PIFA promoted cyclocondensation of 2-aminothiophenols/2-aminophenols with aldehydes under one-pot condition in good to excellent yields was achieved. Twenty compounds have been investigated for their analgesic activity and showed ...

  13. Microwave-assisted brazing of alumina ceramics for electron tube ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vickers microhardness measurement indicated reliable joint performance for the microwave-assisted brazed joints during ... Alumina ceramics are used in wide range of applications due to their .... temperature were recorded by DAQSOFT software in a sep- .... Tubes: Design and Development Capabilities (MTDDC)',.

  14. Microwave assisted one-pot synthesis of benzothiazole and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dr.P.T.P

    1. Microwave assisted one-pot synthesis of benzothiazole and benzoxazole libraries as analgesic agents. C PRAVEEN a. , A NANDAKUMAR a. , P DHEENKUMAR b. , D MURALIDHARAN a and P T. PERUMAL a,. * a. Organic Chemistry Division, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai 600020,. Tamilnadu ...

  15. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis – Catalytic Applications in Aqueous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of sustainable methods directed towards the synthesis of molecules is due to the heightened awareness and recognition of alternative eco-friendly and economical protocols that have minimum impact on environment. Among others, microwave (MW)-assisted methodology ha...

  16. Microwave-Assisted Green Synthesis of Silver Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    This account summarizes a microwave (MW)-assisted synthetic approach for producing silver nanostructures. The rapid and in-core MW heating has received considerable attention as a promising new method for the one-pot synthesis of metallic nanostructures in solutions. Conceptually...

  17. Fast and versatile microwave-assisted intramolecular Heck reaction in peptide macrocyclization using microwave energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Gerardo; Cohen-Ohana, Mirit; Raichman, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    We have revisited the intramolecular Heck reaction and investigated the microwave-assisted macrocyclization on preformed peptides using a model series of ring-varying peptides acryloyl-Gly-[Gly](n)-Phe(4-I)NHR; n = 0-4. The method was applied to both solution and solid supported cyclizations. We demonstrate that the intramolecular Heck reaction can be performed in peptides both in solution and solid support using a modified domestic microwave within 1 to 30 minutes in DMF under reflux with moderate yields ranging from 15 to 25% for a scale between 2-45 mg of linear precursors. The approach was applied to the synthesis of a constrained biologically relevant peptidomimetic bearing an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence. These results make the microwave-assisted Heck reaction an attractive renovated approach for peptidomimetics. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Microwave-assisted synthesis of poly(3-hexylthiophene) via direct oxidation with FeCl{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicho, M.E., E-mail: menicho@uaem.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos (UAEM), Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, C.P. 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Garcia-Escobar, C.H.; Hernandez-Martinez, D. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos (UAEM), Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, C.P. 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Linzaga-Elizalde, I. [Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas (CIQ) de la UAEM (Mexico); Cadenas-Pliego, G. [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada, Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2012-09-20

    In this work, CoolMate microwave synthesis system was employed to synthesize soluble poly(3-hexylthiophene) by direct oxidation of 3-hexylthiophene monomer with FeCl{sub 3} as oxidant. P3HT was synthesized varying reaction time by 2 h, 1 h and 0.5 h. According to the results optimal microwave radiation time for synthesis was 1 h. On the other hand, P3HT was synthesized in two different solvents: chloroform (CHCl{sub 3}) and dichloromethane (CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}). The obtained yields depend on the solvent and the reaction time used in the synthesis, microwave-assisted synthesis leads to outstanding increase in yield (with dichloromethane solvent). Homogeneous thin films were prepared by spin-coating technique from toluene. Physicochemical characterization of P3HT polymers was carried out: changes in weight molecular distribution and polydispersity were obtained by HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography); dyads and triads percent were analyzed by NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance). Surface topographical changes were obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM images revealed that the surface morphology depends on synthesis method, reaction time and solvent used. Finally the samples were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and ultraviolet-visible analysis (UV-vis). Compared with the traditional method (without microwave), this method provided considerable decrease in the reaction time, both lower polydispersity and molecular weight, less volume of solvents for the synthesis, as well as more alternatives for solvent choice. The results confirmed the versatility of the procedure by microwave, which yields polymeric materials in 1 h and has no adverse effects on the polymers quality.

  19. Microwave-Assisted Drying for the Conservation of Honeybee Pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Canale

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bee pollen is becoming an important product thanks to its nutritional properties, including a high content of bioactive compounds such as essential amino acids, antioxidants, and vitamins. Fresh bee pollen has a high water content (15%–30% wt %, thus it is a good substrate for microorganisms. Traditional conservation methods include drying in a hot air chamber and/or freezing. These techniques may significantly affect the pollen organoleptic properties and its content of bioactive compounds. Here, a new conservation method, microwave drying, is introduced and investigated. The method implies irradiating the fresh pollen with microwaves under vacuum, in order to reduce the water content without reaching temperatures capable of thermally deteriorating important bioactive compounds. The method was evaluated by taking into account the nutritional properties after the treatment. The analyzed parameters were phenols, flavonoids, with special reference to rutin content, and amino acids. Results showed that microwave drying offers important advantages for the conservation of bee pollen. Irrespective of microwave power and treatment time, phenol and flavonoid content did not vary over untreated fresh pollen. Similarly, rutin content was unaffected by the microwave drying, suggesting that the microwave-assisted drying could be a powerful technology to preserve bioprotective compounds in fresh pollen.

  20. Comparative study on conventional, ultrasonication and microwave assisted extraction of γ-oryzanol from rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod; Yadav, Devbrat; Kumar, Pradyuman; Panesar, Paramjeet Singh; Bunkar, Durga Shankar; Mishra, Diwaker; Chopra, H K

    2016-04-01

    In present study, conventional, ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction methods were compared with the aim of optimizing best fitting solvent and method, solvent concentration and digestion time for high yield of γ-oryzanol from rice bran. Petroleum ether, hexane and methanol were used to prepare extracts. Extraction yield were evaluated for giving high crude oil yield, total phenolic content (TPC) and γ-oryzanol content. Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry was used for the determination of γ-oryzanol concentration. The highest concentration of γ-oryzanol was detected in methanolic extracts of microwave treatment (85.0 ppm) followed by ultrasonication (82.0 ppm) and conventional extraction method (73.5 ppm). Concentration of γ-oryzanol present in the extracts was found to be directly proportional to the total phenolic content. A combination of 80 % methanolic concentration and 55 minutes digestion time of microwave treatment yielded the best extraction method for TPC and thus γ-oryzanol (105 ppm).

  1. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass for liquid biofuels production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2012-01-01

    Production of 2nd-generation biofuels from biomass residues and waste feedstock is gaining great concerns worldwide. Pyrolysis, a thermochemical conversion process involving rapid heating of feedstock under oxygen-absent condition to moderate temperature and rapid quenching of intermediate products......, is an attractive way for bio-oil production. Various efforts have been made to improve pyrolysis process towards higher yield and quality of liquid biofuels and better energy efficiency. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is one of the promising attempts, mainly due to efficient heating of feedstock by ‘‘microwave...

  2. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of bioactive saponin from mahogany seed (Swietenia mahogany Jacq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waziiroh, E.; Harijono; Kamilia, K.

    2018-03-01

    Mahogany is frequently used for medicines for cancer, tumor, and diabetes, as it contains saponin and flavonoid. Saponin is a complex glycosydic compound consisted of triterpenoids or steroids. Saponin can be extracted from a plant by using a solvent extraction. Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) is a non-conventional extraction method that use micro waves in the process. This research was conducted by a Complete Random Design with two factors which were extraction time (120, 150, and 180 seconds) and solvent ratio (10:1, 15:1, and 20:1 v/w). The best treatment of MAE were the solvent ratio 15:1 (v/w) for 180 seconds. The best treatment resulting crude saponin extract yield of 41.46%, containing 11.53% total saponins, and 49.17% of antioxidant activity. Meanwhile, the treatment of maceration method were the solvent ratio 20:1 (v/w) for 48 hours resulting 39.86% yield of saponin crude extract, 9.26% total saponins and 56.23% of antioxidant activity. The results showed MAE was more efficient (less time of extraction and solvent amount) than maceration method.

  3. Microwave-assisted extraction and mild saponification for determination of organochlorine pesticides in oyster samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, N; García, I; Ignacio, M-C; Llompart, M; Yebra, M-C; Mouteira, A

    2002-10-01

    A sample-preparation procedure (extraction and saponification) using microwave energy is proposed for determination of organochlorine pesticides in oyster samples. A Plackett-Burman factorial design has been used to optimize the microwave-assisted extraction and mild saponification on a freeze dried sample spiked with a mixture of aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, heptachorepoxide, isodrin, transnonachlor, p, p'-DDE, and p, p'-DDD. Six variables: solvent volume, extraction time, extraction temperature, amount of acetone (%) in the extractant solvent, amount of sample, and volume of NaOH solution were considered in the optimization process. The results show that the amount of sample is statistically significant for dieldrin, aldrin, p, p'-DDE, heptachlor, and transnonachlor and solvent volume for dieldrin, aldrin, and p, p'-DDE. The volume of NaOH solution is statistically significant for aldrin and p, p'-DDE only. Extraction temperature and extraction time seem to be the main factors determining the efficiency of extraction process for isodrin and p, p'-DDE, respectively. The optimized procedure was compared with conventional Soxhlet extraction.

  4. Membrane assisted solvent extraction for rare earth element recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhave, Ramesh R.; Kim, Daejin; Peterson, Eric S.

    2018-05-15

    Systems and methods for the recovery of rare earth elements are provided. The systems and methods generally include membrane assisted solvent extraction using permeable hollow fibers having an immobilized organic phase within the pores of the hollow fibers. The permeable hollow fibers are generally in contact with an acidic aqueous feed on one side thereof and a strip solution on another side thereof. The systems and methods generally include the simultaneous extraction and stripping of rare earth elements as a continuous recovery process that is well suited for post-consumer products, end-of-life products, and other recovery sources of rare earth elements.

  5. The influence of microwave irradiation on rocks for microwave-assisted underground excavation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferri Hassani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Demand is growing for explosive-free rock breakage systems for civil and mining engineering, and space industry applications. This paper highlights the work being undertaken in the Geomechanics Laboratory of McGill University to make a real application of microwave-assisted mechanical rock breakage to full-face tunneling machines and drilling. Comprehensive laboratory tests investigated the effect of microwave radiation on temperature profiles and strength reduction in hard rocks (norite, granite, and basalt for a range of exposure times and microwave power levels. The heating rate on the surface of the rock specimens linearly decreased with distance between the sample and the microwave antenna, regardless of microwave power level and exposure time. Tensile and uniaxial compressive strengths were reduced with increasing exposure time and power level. Scanning electron micrographs (SEMs highlighted fracture development in treated basalt. It was concluded that the microwave power level has a strong positive influence on the amount of heat damage induced to the rock surface. Numerical simulations of electric field intensity and wave propagation conducted with COMSOL Multiphysics® software generated temperature profiles that were in close agreement with experimental results.

  6. Microwave-assisted synthesis of palladium nanocubes and nanobars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yanchun; Zhao, Yanxi; Huang, Tao; Liu, Hanfan

    2010-01-01

    Microwave was employed in the shape-controlled synthesis of palladium nanoparticles. Palladium nanocubes and nanobars with a mean size of about 23.8 nm were readily synthesized with H 2 PdCl 4 as a precursor, tetraethylene glycol (TEG) as both a solvent and a reducing agent in the presence of PVP and CTAB in 80 s under microwave irradiation. The structures of the as-prepared palladium nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy. The formation of PdBr 4 2- due to the coordination replacement of the ligand Cl - ions in PdCl 4 2- ions by Br - ions in the presence of bromide was responsible for the synthesis of Pd nanocubes and nanobars. In addition, a milder reducing power, a higher viscosity and a stronger affinity of TEG were beneficial to the larger sizes of Pd nanocubes and nanobars.

  7. Obtaining zeolite Y synthesized by hydrothermal treatment assisted by microwave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, A.N.; Simoes, V.N.; Neiva, L.S.; Rodrigues, M.G.F.; Gama, L.; Oliveira, J. B.L.

    2011-01-01

    n search of new catalysts several man-made structures have been developed. The use of zeolites in catalysis is applied due to its ability to associate activity, selectivity and stability, the main conditions to have an effective catalyst. Thus, studies have been done on the hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites by microwave assisted, since the use of microwave radiation offers several advantages over conventional heating. In this context, this work aims to synthesis and characterization of zeolite Y via hydrothermal treatment in a microwave oven. The sample obtained was characterized by XRD, BET and SEM. XRD results showed the formation of zeolite Y in just 60 minutes. The sample showed high value of surface area, the latter being of 476.2 m² / g. The particles are agglomerated, but with a narrow distribution of size. (author)

  8. Effect of microwave-assisted heating on chalcopyrite leaching of kinetics, interface temperature and surface energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wen

    Full Text Available The microwave-assisted leaching was a new approach to intensify the copper recovery from chalcopyrite by hydrometallurgy. In this work, the effect of microwave-assisted heating on chalcopyrite leaching of kinetics, interfacial reaction temperature and surface energy were investigated. The activation energy of chalcopyrite leaching was affected indistinctively by the microwave-assisted heating (39.1 kJ/mol compared with the conventional heating (43.9 kJ/mol. However, the boiling point of the leaching system increased through microwave-assisted heating. Because of the improved boiling point and the selective heating of microwave, the interfacial reaction temperature increased significantly, which gave rise to the increase of the leaching recovery of copper. Moreover, the surface energy of the chalcopyrite through microwave-assisted heating was also enhanced, which was beneficial to strengthen the leaching of chalcopyrite. Keywords: Microwave-assisted heating, Chalcopyrite, Leaching kinetics, Interface temperature, Surface energy

  9. Effect of Microwave-Assisted Extraction on the Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Blackthorn Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Lovrić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was undertaken to investigate the influence of extraction parameters during microwave-assisted extraction on total phenolic content, total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols of blackthorn flowers as well as to evaluate the antioxidant capacity by two different methods (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays. The investigated extraction parameters were: solvent type and volume fraction of alcohol in solvent (50 and 70 % aqueous solutions of ethanol and methanol, extraction time (5, 15 and 25 min and extraction temperature (40, 50 and 60 °C controlled by microwave power of 100, 200 and 300 W. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was used to evaluate the differences at a 95 % confidence level (p≤0.05. The obtained results show that aqueous solution of ethanol was more appropriate solvent for extraction of phenolic compounds (total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols than aqueous solution of methanol. The amount of phenolic compounds was higher in 70 % aqueous solution of ethanol or methanol, while higher antioxidant capacity was observed in 50 % aqueous solution of methanol. Higher temperature of extraction improved the amount of phenolic compounds and also antioxidant capacity determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity assay. Extensive duration of extraction (15- to 25-minute interval has a significant effect only on the increase of total phenolic content, while specific phenolic compound content and antioxidant capacity were the highest when microwave extraction time of 5 min was applied.

  10. Solvent-free microwave-assisted synthesis of oxadiazoles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    tion mixture was refluxed for 4–5 h on an oil bath, the contents were cooled to room temperature and poured onto crushed ice. It was then neutralized by. 5% sodium bicarbonate solution. The solid that separated was collected by filtration through a. Büchner funnel and dried. Further purification was done by recrystallization ...

  11. One-pot Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of 1H-Phenanthro[9,10- d][1,2,3]triazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrak Faraji

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a fast and good yield one-pot microwave-assisted synthesis (45 seconds of 1H-phenanthro[9,10-d][1,2,3]triazole by a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of sodium azide and 9-bromophenanthrene in the presence of potassium tert-butoxide in DMSO as solvent is reported.

  12. Application of 2k Full Factorial Design in Optimization of Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction of Ginger Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaj Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from ginger was optimized using a 23 full factorial design in terms of oil yield to determine the optimum extraction conditions. Sixteen experiments were carried out with three varying parameters, extraction time, microwave power, and type of sample for two levels of each. A first order regression equation best fits the experimental data. The predicted values calculated by the regression model were in good agreement with the experimental values. The results showed that the extraction time is the most prominent factor followed by microwave power level and sample type for extraction process. An average of 0.25% of ginger oil can be extracted using current setup. The optimum conditions for the ginger oil extraction using SFME were the extraction time 30 minutes, microwave power level 640 watts, and sample type, crushed sample. Solvent-free microwave extraction proves a green and promising technique for essential oil extraction.

  13. An evaluation of microwave-assisted fusion and microwave-assisted acid digestion methods for determining elemental impurities in carbon nanostructures using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Patole, Shashikant P.; Simõ es, Filipa; Yapici, Tahir; Warsama, Bashir H.; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.

    2015-01-01

    A method for the complete digestion of carbon nanostructures has been demonstrated. Photographs (on the left side) show zirconium crucibles containing SWCNTs with flux of Na2CO3 and K2CO3, before and after microwave fusion; (on the right side) the appearance of the final solutions containing dissolved samples, from microwave-assisted fusion and microwave-assisted acid digestion. These solutions were used for determining the trace elemental impurities by ICP‒OES.

  14. Microwave-Promoted Synthesis of Sulfonated Metallophthalocyanines and Aggregation in Different Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Five metallosulfophthalocyanines (Fe, Ni, Zn, Co, and Cu compounds were synthesized by microwave irradiation. Compared to the conventional method of synthesis in terms of reaction time and yields, the microwave-promoted synthesis is preferred with high product yield and short reaction time. All synthesized products were characterized with MALDI-TOF mass spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Aggregation behavior of the five metallosulfophthalocyanines (MSPc in different solvents was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy separately in N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF and NaOH aqueous solution (5%wt. A redshift of maximum absorption wavelength and deviations from Lambert-Beer law with increasing the concentration were observed. The dimerization equilibrium constants (K of the five MSPc were determined, respectively.

  15. Simultaneous microwave-assisted synthesis, characterization, thermal stability, and antimicrobial activity of cellulose/AgCl nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shu-Ming; Fu, Lian-Hua; Ma, Ming-Guo; Zhu, Jie-Fang; Sun, Run-Cang; Xu, Feng

    2012-01-01

    By means of a simultaneous microwave-assisted method and a simple chemical reaction, cellulose/AgCl nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized using cellulose solution and AgNO 3 in N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) solvent. The cellulose solution was firstly prepared by the dissolution of the microcrystalline cellulose and lithium chloride (LiCl) in DMAc. DMAc acts as both a solvent and a microwave absorber. LiCl was used as the reactant to fabricate AgCl crystals. The effects of the heating time and heating temperature on the products were studied. This method is based on the simultaneous formation of AgCl nanoparticles and precipitation of the cellulose, leading to a homogeneous distribution of AgCl nanoparticles in the cellulose matrix. The experimental results confirmed the formation of cellulose/AgCl nanocomposites with high-purity, good thermal stability and antimicrobial activity. This rapid, green and environmentally friendly microwave-assisted method opens a new window to the high value-added applications of biomass. -- Highlights: ► Cellulose/AgCl nanocomposites have been synthesized by microwave method. ► Effect of heating temperature on the nanocomposites was researched. ► Thermal stability of the nanocomposites was investigated. ► Cellulose/AgCl nanocomposites had good antimicrobial activity. ► This method is based on the simultaneous formation of AgCl and cellulose.

  16. Comparisons between conventional, ultrasound-assisted and microwave-assisted methods for extraction of anthraquinones from Heterophyllaea pustulata Hook f. (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera Vázquez, M F; Comini, L R; Martini, R E; Núñez Montoya, S C; Bottini, S; Cabrera, J L

    2014-03-01

    This work reports a comparative study about extraction methods used to obtain anthraquinones (AQs) from stems and leaves of Heterophyllae pustulata Hook (Rubiáceae). One of the conventional procedures used to extract these metabolites from a vegetable matrix is by successive Soxhlet extractions with solvents of increasing polarity: starting with hexane to eliminate chlorophylls and fatty components, following by benzene and finally ethyl acetate. However, this technique shows a low extraction yield of total AQs, and consumes large quantities of solvent and time. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) have been investigated as alternative methods to extract these compounds, using the same sequence of solvents. It was found that UAE increases the extraction yield of total AQs and reduces the time and amount of solvent used. Nevertheless, the combination UAE with benzene, plus MAE with ethyl acetate at a constant power of 900 W showed the best results. A higher yield of total AQs was obtained in less time and using the same amount of solvent that UAE. The optimal conditions for this latter procedure were UAE with benzene at 50 °C during 60 min, followed by MAE at 900 W during 15 min using ethyl acetate as extraction solvent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Vacuum-assisted microwave drying characteristics of green bell pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chopped green bell pepper pieces were blanched (95 °C, 5 min and chemically pretreated (1% potassium metabisulphite solution, 25 min at room temperature before drying in hot air dryer (HAD at various temperature ranges (60 – 80 °C. Three vacuum levels (200, 400, 600 mm Hg and microwave power levels (100, 200, 300 W were also used to dry green bell pepper samples in a vacuum assisted microwave (VAM (2.45 GHz, 0.8 kW dryer. VAM drying methods offered a maximum reduction by four to five times in drying time as compared to that in HAD. The logarithmic model was found to have the best fit based on high R2 and small values of reduced χ2 and RMSE.  VAM method has higher values for effective moisture diffusivity (Deff and lower values for activation energy (Ea, in comparison to the HAD method. 

  18. Microwave assistance of labeling hippuric acid by I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherlock Huang, Lin-Chiang; Wu, Kou-Hung; Ko, Pi-Wen; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Pao, Kuan-Chuan; Chou, Shih-Ching; Shieh, Fa-Kuen; Sureshbabu, Radhakrishnan; Hsu, Ming-Hua

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a novel approach for labeling hippuric acid with I-131 using microwaves. It utilizes copper(II) acetate as a catalyst of the labeling. The process involves the use of this catalytic copper(II) acetate at low dilutions that were nevertheless sufficient to produce labeled hippuric acid with high radiochemical purity in a short time. Therefore, the novel technique overcomes the limitations of previously reported conventional methods that involve heating. - Highlights: • We report the microwave assisted radiochemical labeling of hippuric acid by I-131. • Cu(OAc) 2 can be used as catalyst to get labeled product in lower dilution condition. • Advantages of our method are lesser time scale and high radiochemical purity.

  19. Monodisperse Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by a Microwave-Assisted Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao-Peng, Zhu; Shao-Chun, Tang; Xiang-Kang, Meng

    2009-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles with an average size of about 20 nm are synthesized in a colloidal solution with the aid of microwave irradiation. Neither additional reductant nor stabilizer is required in this microwave-assisted method. The color of the colloidal solution is found to be dark green, different from the characteristic yellow of silver colloidal solutions. The silver nanoparticles in the colloidal solution have a narrow size distribution and large yield quantity. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy analysis reveals that the as-synthesized monodisperse silver nanoparticles have exceptional optical properties. Raman spectroscopy measurements demonstrate that these silver nanoparticles exhibit a notable surface-enhanced Raman scattering ability. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  20. Focused-microwave-assisted sample preparation (M8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobrega, J.A.; Santos, D.M.; Trevizan, L.C.; Costa, L.M.; Nogueira, A.R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Focused-microwave-assisted sample preparation is a suitable strategy when dealing with high masses of organic samples. However, the final acid concentration of the digestate can difficult routine analytical measurements using spectroscopic techniques. Acids could be evaporated, but this step could be slow even when using microwave-assisted heating and requires a scrubber system for acid vapor collection and neutralization. We are investigating two procedures to decrease the acid concentration of digestates. The first one is based on acid vapor phase digestion of samples contained in PTFE devices' inserted into the microwave flask. The acid solution is heated by absorption of microwave radiation, then the acid vapor partially condenses in the upper part of the reaction flask and it is partially collected in each sample container. Calcium, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn were quantitatively recovered in samples of animal and vegetable tissues. Better recoveries were attained when adding a small volume of sodium hypochlorite to the sample. This effect is probably related to the generation of chlorine in the sample container after collecting condensed acid. The second procedure developed is based on the gradual addition of liquid samples to a previously heated acid digestion mixture. This procedure was successfully applied for digestion of milk, fruit juices, and red wine. The main advantage is the possibility of digesting up to four-fold more sample using up to ten-fold lower amounts of concentrated acids. Results obtained using both digestion procedures and measurements by ICP-OES with axial view will be presented. (author)

  1. Optimisation of applied field pulses for microwave assisted magnetic recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon John Greaves

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Grains in a recording medium experience field pulses from a write head during recording. In general, a short head field rise time and a square pulse shape have been viewed as optimal. This work investigates the optimum field pulse shape for microwave assisted magnetic recording on single layer and ECC media. A square pulse was found to give the best recording performance on single layer media, but an initially negative field pulse increasing at a constant rate was more suitable for ECC media.

  2. Microwaveassisted reduction of racemic intermediates potential immunosuppressant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wender A. Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Immunosuppressant are drugs that reduce the immune response, as important in the treatment of autoimmune diseases and rejection attenuators in organ transplants, the structural point of view generally have a high complexity. Within this context it is indispensable structural simplifications, new molecules are proposed with potential action on a stage is a necessary, reduction system α,β-unsaturated specifically, chalcone, to their respective alcohol saturated. Therefore, a new method was developed for microwave assisted subsequently coupling to other fragments to the total synthesis of the novel compounds.

  3. EXTRACTION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM PETAI LEAVES (PARKIA SPECIOSA HASSK. USING MICROWAVE AND ULTRASOUND ASSISTED METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buanasari Buanasari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant has an activity to neutralize free radical compound that the body needs to avoid damage cells and tissues. Phenolic is one of the compounds that have an antioxidant activity. The influences of ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE conditions on phenolic compounds of Parkia speciosa Hassk. leaves were investigated. The effects of temperature (40°C, 50°C, 60°C and 70°C, time (10, 30 and 50 minutes and material-solvent ratio (1:10, 1:13, 1:15 were evaluated based on the yield, total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity. The result showed that the highest yield (15.82% was obtained at 1:15 (w/w of material-solvent ratio, 50°C of temperature and 50 minutes of extraction time for MAE. The highest yield of UAE is 15.53% that sample was obtained at 1:13 (w/w of material-solvent ratio, 60°C of optimal temperature and 30 minutes extraction time. The highest IC50 of UAE method extract was 52.55 ppm, while the extract obtained using MAE method was 50.44 ppm. UAE is more stable at higher temperatures. Time and solvent which was used more efficient than MAE. Extract of petai leaves (Parkia speciosa Hassk. were very potential to be used as a source of natural antioxidants because they have IC50 values from 41.39 to 66.00 ppm. Its antioxidants capacity is ranged from strong to very strong capacity.

  4. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of flavonoids from Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Chu, Kedan; Li, Huang; Zhang, Yuqin; Zheng, Haiyin; Chen, Ruilan; Chen, Lidian

    2012-12-03

    An ionic liquids (IL)-based microwave-assisted approach for extraction and determination of flavonoids from Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth. was proposed for the first time. Several ILs with different cations and anions and the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) conditions, including sample particle size, extraction time and liquid-solid ratio, were investigated. Two M 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([bmim] Br) solution with 0.80 M HCl was selected as the optimal solvent. Meanwhile the optimized conditions a ratio of liquid to material of 30:1, and the extraction for 10 min at 70 °C. Compared with conventional heat-reflux extraction (CHRE) and the regular MAE, IL-MAE exhibited a higher extraction yield and shorter extraction time (from 1.5 h to 10 min). The optimized extraction samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS. IL extracts of Bauhinia championii (Benth.)Benth consisted mainly of flavonoids, among which myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol, β-sitosterol, triacontane and hexacontane were identified. The study indicated that IL-MAE was an efficient and rapid method with simple sample preparation. LC-MS/MS was also used to determine the chemical composition of the ethyl acetate/MAE extract of Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth, and it maybe become a rapid method to determine the composition of new plant extracts.

  5. Optimization of ultrasound and microwave assisted extractions of polyphenols from black rice (Oryza sativa cv. Poireton) husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Pankaj; Das, Arup Jyoti; Deka, Sankar Chandra

    2017-11-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from the husk of milled black rice (cv. Poireton) by using a combination of ultrasound assisted extraction and microwave assisted extraction. Extraction parameters were optimized by response surface methodology according to a three levels, five variables Box-Behnken design. The appropriate process variables (extraction temperature and extraction time) to maximize the ethanolic extraction of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity of the extracts were obtained. Extraction of functional components with varying ethanol concentration and microwave time were significantly affected by the process variables. The best possible conditions obtained by RSM for all the factors included 10.02 min sonication time, 49.46 °C sonication temperature, 1:40.79 (w/v) solute solvent ratio, 67.34% ethanol concentration, and 31.11 s microwave time. Under the given solutions, the maximum extraction of phenolics (1.65 mg/g GAE), flavonoids (3.04 mg/100 g), anthocyanins (3.39 mg/100 g) and antioxidants (100%) were predicted, while the experimental values included 1.72 mg/g GAE of total phenolics, 3.01 mg/100 g of flavonoids, 3.36 mg/100 g of anthocyanins and 100% antioxidant activity. The overall results indicated positive impact of co-application of microwave and ultrasound assisted extractions of phenolic compounds from black rice husk.

  6. Microwave Assisted Synthesis of N-Arylheterocyclic Substituted-4-aminoquinazoline Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Lu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple, efficient, and general method has been developed for the synthesis of various N-aryl heterocylic substituted-4-aminoquinazoline compounds from 4-chloro- quinazoline and aryl heterocyclic amines under microwave irradiation using 2-propanol as solvent. The advantages of the use of microwave irradiation in relation to the classical method were demonstrated.

  7. Degradation of atrazine by microwave-assisted electrodeless discharge mercury lamp in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Na; Hong, Jun; Liu, Tingfeng; Sun, Cheng

    2006-11-02

    The present study investigates the degradation of atrazine (2-chloro-4-(ethyl amino)-6-isopropyl amino-s-triazine) in aqueous solution by a developed new method, namely by means of a microwave-assisted electrodeless discharge mercury lamp (MW-EDML). An experimental design was conducted to assess the influence of various parameters: pH value, initial concentration, amount of EDML, initial volume and coexisted solvent. Atrazine was degraded completely by EDML in a relatively short time (i.e. t(1/2)=1.2 min for 10 mg/l). Additionally, the identification of main degradation products during atrazine degradation process was conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). This study proposes the degradation mechanism including four possible pathways for atrazine degradation according to the degradation products.

  8. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of hydrocarbons in marine sediments: comparison with the Soxhlet extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez Blanco, E; López Mahía, P; Muniategui Lorenzo, S; Prada Rodríguez, D; Fernández Fernández, E

    2000-02-01

    Microwave energy was applied to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and linear aliphatic hydrocarbons (LAHs) from marine sediments. The influence of experimental conditions, such as different extracting solvents and mixtures, microwave power, irradiation time and number of samples extracted per run has been tested using real marine sediment samples; volume of the solvent, sample quantity and matrix effects were also evaluated. The yield of extracted compounds obtained by microwave irradiation was compared with that obtained using the traditional Soxhlet extraction. The best results were achieved with a mixture of acetone and hexane (1:1), and recoveries ranged from 92 to 106%. The extraction time is dependent on the irradiation power and the number of samples extracted per run, so when the irradiation power was set to 500 W, the extraction times varied from 6 min for 1 sample to 18 min for 8 samples. Analytical determinations were carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an ultraviolet-visible photodiode-array detector for PAHs and gas chromatography (GC) using a FID detector for LAHs. To test the accuracy of the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique, optimized methodology was applied to the analysis of standard reference material (SRM 1941), obtaining acceptable results.

  9. Rapid synthesis of tantalum oxide dielectric films by microwave microwave-assisted atmospheric chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndiege, Nicholas; Subramanian, Vaidyanathan; Shannon, Mark A.; Masel, Richard I.

    2008-01-01

    Microwave-assisted chemical vapor deposition has been used to generate high quality, high-k dielectric films on silicon at high deposition rates with film thicknesses varying from 50 nm to 110 μm using inexpensive equipment. Characterization of the post deposition products was performed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Film growth was determined to occur via rapid formation and accumulation of tantalum oxide clusters from tantalum (v) ethoxide (Ta(OC 2 H 5 ) 5 ) vapor on the deposition surface

  10. A new method for microwave assisted ethanolic extraction of Mentha rotundifolia bioactive terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sarrió, María Jesús; Sanz, María Luz; Sanz, Jesús; González-Coloma, Azucena; Cristina Soria, Ana

    2018-04-14

    A new microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method using ethanol as solvent has been optimized by means of a Box-Behnken experimental design for the enhanced extraction of bioactive terpenoids from Mentha rotundifolia leaves; 100°C, 5 min, 1.125 g dry sample: 10 mL solvent and a single extraction cycle were selected as optimal conditions. Improved performance of MAE method in terms of extraction yield and/or reproducibility over conventional solid-liquid extraction and ultrasound assisted extraction was also previously assessed. A comprehensive characterization of MAE extracts was carried out by GC-MS. A total of 46 compounds, mostly terpenoids, were identified; piperitenone oxide and piperitenone were the major compounds determined. Several neophytadiene isomers were also detected for the first time in MAE extracts. Different procedures (solid-phase extraction and activated charcoal (AC) treatment) were also evaluated for clean-up of MAE extracts, with AC providing the highest enrichment in bioactive terpenoids. Finally, the MAE method here developed is shown as a green, fast, efficient and reproducible liquid extraction methodology to obtain M. rotundifolia bioactive extracts for further application, among others, as food preservatives. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction for anthocyanins, polyphenols, and antioxidants from raspberry (Rubus Coreanus Miq.) using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Hui; Lee, Won Young; Choi, Yong Hee

    2013-09-01

    Anthocyanins (Acys), polyphenols, and antioxidants were extracted from raspberry (Rubus Coreanus Miq.) using a highly efficient microwave-assisted extraction technique. Different solvents, including methanol, ethanol, and acetone, were tested. The colors of the extracts varied from light yellow to purple red or dark red. SEM and other nutrient analyses verified that ethanol was the most favorable medium for the microwave-assisted extraction of raspberry due to its high output and low toxicity. Effects of process parameters, including microwave power, irradiation time, and solvent concentration, were investigated through response surface methodology. Canonical analysis estimated that the highest total Acys content, total polyphenols content, and antioxidant activity of raspberry were 17.93 mg cyanidin-3-O-glucoside equivalents per gram dry weight, 38.57 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram dry weight, and 81.24%, respectively. The polyphenol compositions of raspberry extract were identified by HPLC with diode array detection, and nine kinds of polyphenols were identified and quantified, revealing that chlorogenic acid, syringic acid, and rutin are the major polyphenols contained in raspberry fruits. Compared with other fruits and vegetables, raspberry contains higher Acy and polyphenol contents with stronger antioxidant activity, suggesting that raspberry fruits are a good source of natural food colorants and antioxidants. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Microwave-Irradiation-Assisted HVAC Filtration for Inactivation of Viral Aerosols (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Baggiani, A. and Senesi, S. (2004). Effect of Microwave Radiation on Bacillus subtilis Spores . J. Appl. Microbiol. 97: 1220–1227. Damit, B., Lee, C.N...AFRL-RX-TY-TP-2012-0020 MICROWAVE-IRRADIATION-ASSISTED HVAC FILTRATION FOR INACTIVATION OF VIRAL AEROSOLS POSTPRINT Myung-Heui Woo and...12-APR-2011 -- 11-DEC-2011 Microwave Irradiation-Assisted HVAC Filtration for Inactivation of Viral Aerosols (POSTPRINT) FA8650-06-C-5913 0602102F

  13. Physicochemical characterization of microwave assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuponiyi, Abiola John

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using different biological extracts is gaining recognition for its numerous applications in different disciplines. Although different approaches (physical and chemical) have been used for the synthesis of AgNP, the green chemistry method is most preferable because of its high efficacy, cost effectiveness, and environmental benignity. Aloe Vera (AV) contains chemical compounds (anthraquinones) that are known to possess antibacterial, antivirus and anticancer properties and the extract is a good chemical reduction agent for AgNP. Hence, it was hypothesized that a microwave assisted synthesis will produce highly concentrated, homogeneous, stable and biologically active AgNP. Thus, the main objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of microwave assisted synthesis of AgNP, the effect of pulse laser treatment on size reduction of a microwave synthesized AgNP, and the physicochemical characterization of AgNP synthesized with Aloe Vera water and ethanol extract. The experiment was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 was first conducted to optimize the experimental variables, thus establishing the optimum variables to apply in the second phase. The experiment in Phase 1 was conducted using three-factor factorial experimental design comprised of the following factors: 1) Extraction Solvent, 2) Heating Methods, 3) pH; and their corresponding levels were water and ethanol, conventional and microwave, pH (7, 8, 10 and 12), respectively. All synthesis was conducted at constant temperature of 80°C. Phase II experimental treatments were Laser ablation (0, 5, and 10 min) and Storage time (Week 1, 2 & 3). The Phase I of the results showed that increased AgNP concentrations were significantly (p 0.05) impact the particle size distribution. Hence, the Zeta potential of the particles has values typically ranging between +100 mV to -100 mV, hence indicative of colloidal stability matrix. Furthermore, the Polydispersity indexes of Week 1

  14. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction conditions for preparing lignan-rich extract from Saraca asoca bark using Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shikha; Aeri, Vidhu

    2016-07-01

    Lyoniside is the major constituent of Saraca asoca Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae) bark. There is an immediate need to develop an efficient method to isolate its chemical constituents, since it is a therapeutically important plant. A rapid extraction method for lyoniside based on microwave-assisted extraction of S. asoca bark was developed and optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Lyoniside was analyzed and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). The extraction solvent ratio (%), material solvent ratio (g/ml) and extraction time (min) were optimized using Box-Behnken design (BBD) to obtain the highest extraction efficiency. The optimal conditions were the use of 1:30 material solvent ratio with 70:30 mixture of methanol:water for 10 min duration. The optimized microwave-assisted extraction yielded 9.4 mg/g of lyoniside content in comparison to reflux extraction under identical conditions which yielded 4.2 mg/g of lyoniside content. Under optimum conditions, the experimental values agreed closely with the predicted values. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated a high goodness-of-fit model and the success of the RSM method for optimizing lyoniside extraction from the bark of S. asoca. All the three variables significantly affected the lyoniside content. Increased polarity of solvent medium enhances the lyoniside yield. The present study shows the applicability of microwave-assisted extraction in extraction of lyoniside from S. asoca bark.

  15. Microwave-assisted cyclizations promoted by polyphosphoric acid esters: a general method for 1-aryl-2-iminoazacycloalkanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena E. Díaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The first general procedure for the synthesis of 5 to 7-membered 1-aryl-2-iminoazacycloalkanes is presented, by microwave-assisted ring closure of ω-arylaminonitriles promoted by polyphosphoric acid (PPA esters. 1-Aryl-2-iminopyrrolidines were easily prepared from the acyclic precursors employing a chloroformic solution of ethyl polyphosphate (PPE. The use of trimethylsilyl polyphosphate (PPSE in solvent-free conditions allowed for the synthesis of 1-aryl-2-iminopiperidines and hitherto unreported 1-aryl-2-iminoazepanes. The cyclization reaction involves good to high yields and short reaction times, and represents a novel application of PPA esters in heterocyclic synthesis.

  16. Spin torque oscillator for microwave assisted magnetization reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Kubota, Hitoshi

    2018-05-01

    A theoretical study is given for the self-oscillation excited in a spin torque oscillator (STO) consisting of an in-plane magnetized free layer and a perpendicularly magnetized pinned layer in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field. This type of STO is a potential candidate for a microwave source of microwave assisted magnetization reversal (MAMR). It is, however, found that the self-oscillation applicable to MAMR disappears when the perpendicular field is larger than a critical value, which is much smaller than a demagnetization field. This result provides a condition that the reversal field of a magnetic recording bit by MAMR in nanopillar structure should be smaller than the critical value. The analytical formulas of currents determining the critical field are obtained, which indicate that a material with a small damping is not preferable to acheive a wide range of the self-oscillation applicable to MAMR, although such a material is preferable from the viewpoint of the reduction of the power consumption.

  17. Microwave assisted scalable synthesis of titanium ferrite nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Abhishek; Bhardwaj, Abhishek K.; Singh, S. C.; Uttam, K. N.; Gautam, Nisha; Himanshu, A. K.; Shah, Jyoti; Kotnala, R. K.; Gopal, R.

    2018-04-01

    Titanium ferrite magnetic nanomaterials are synthesized by one-step, one pot, and scalable method assisted by microwave radiation. Effects of titanium content and microwave exposure time on size, shape, morphology, yield, bonding nature, crystalline structure, and magnetic properties of titanium ferrite nanomaterials are studied. As-synthesized nanomaterials are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and vibrating sample magnetometer measurements. XRD measurements depict the presence of two phases of titanium ferrite into the same sample, where crystallite size increases from ˜33 nm to 37 nm with the increase in titanium concentration. UV-Vis measurement showed broad spectrum in the spectral range of 250-600 nm which reveals that its characteristic peaks lie between ultraviolet and visible region; ATR-FTIR and Raman measurements predict iron-titanium oxide structures that are consistent with XRD results. The micrographs of TEM and selected area electron diffraction patterns show formation of hexagonal shaped particles with a high degree of crystallinity and presence of multi-phase. Energy dispersive spectroscopy measurements confirm that Ti:Fe compositional mass ratio can be controlled by tuning synthesis conditions. Increase of Ti defects into titanium ferrite lattice, either by increasing titanium precursor or by increasing exposure time, enhances its magnetic properties.

  18. Empirical modeling of drying kinetics and microwave assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from Adathoda vasica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithvi Simha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To highlight the shortcomings in conventional methods of extraction, this study investigates the efficacy of Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE toward bioactive compound recovery from pharmaceutically-significant medicinal plants, Adathoda vasica and Cymbopogon citratus. Initially, the microwave (MW drying behavior of the plant leaves was investigated at different sample loadings, MW power and drying time. Kinetics was analyzed through empirical modeling of drying data against 10 conventional thin-layer drying equations that were further improvised through the incorporation of Arrhenius, exponential and linear-type expressions. 81 semi-empirical Midilli equations were derived and subjected to non-linear regression to arrive at the characteristic drying equations. Bioactive compounds recovery from the leaves was examined under various parameters through a comparative approach that studied MAE against Soxhlet extraction. MAE of A. vasica reported similar yields although drastic reduction in extraction time (210 s as against the average time of 10 h in the Soxhlet apparatus. Extract yield for MAE of C. citratus was higher than the conventional process with optimal parameters determined to be 20 g sample load, 1:20 sample/solvent ratio, extraction time of 150 s and 300 W output power. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy were performed to depict changes in internal leaf morphology.

  19. BCT phase formation in synthesis via microwave assisted hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barra, B.C.; Souza, A.E.; Teixeira, S.R.; Santos, G.T.A.; Lanzi, C.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    In previous work, samples of barium and calcium titanate (Ba1-xCaxTiO3 (BCT x = 0- 1) were prepared using the microwave assisted hydrothermal method in conditions of relatively short time and temperature. To the sample with 75wt% of Ca no BCT phase was formed but the photoluminescent emission was improved. In the present study, these titanates were synthesized by the same method with other concentrations of Ca, Ba1-xCaxTiO3 (x = 0, 0.20, 0.40, 0. 60, 0.80 and 1) to evaluate the limit of BCT phase formation. Results of X-ray diffraction showed that the phase BCT is formed between zero and 50wt%-Ca, in Ba substitution. Above this concentration, was observed only the formation of carbonates, and to x = 1 there was carbonate formation together with CaTiO3. These results were confirmed by micro Raman spectroscopy. (author)

  20. Microwave assisted pyrolysis of halogenated plastics recovered from waste computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, Luca; Bartoli, Mattia; Frediani, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Microwave Assisted Pyrolysis (MAP) of the plastic fraction of Waste from Electric and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) from end-life computers was run with different absorbers and set-ups in a multimode batch reactor. A large amount of various different liquid fractions (up to 76.6wt%) were formed together with a remarkable reduction of the solid residue (up to 14.2wt%). The liquid fractions were characterized using the following different techniques: FT-IR ATR, 1 H NMR and a quantitative GC-MS analysis. The liquid fractions showed low density and viscosity, together with a high concentration of useful chemicals such as styrene (up to 117.7mg/mL), xylenes (up to 25.6mg/mL for p-xylene) whereas halogenated compounds were absent or present in a very low amounts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Microwave-Assisted Syntheses of Bioactive Seven-Membered, Macro-Sized Heterocycles and Their Fused Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsine Driowya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the recent advances in the microwave-assisted synthesis of 7-membered and larger heterocyclic compounds. Several types of reaction for the cyclization step are discussed: Ring Closing Metathesis (RCM, Heck and Sonogashira reactions, Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling, dipolar cycloadditions, multi-component reactions (Ugi, Passerini, etc. Green syntheses and solvent-free procedures have been introduced whenever possible. The syntheses discussed herein have been selected to illustrate the huge potential of microwave in the synthesis of highly functionalized molecules with potential therapeutic applications, in high yields, enhanced reaction rates and increased chemoselectivity, compared to conventional methods. More than 100 references from the recent literature are listed in this review.

  2. Comparison of heat and mass transfer of different microwave-assisted extraction methods of essential oil from Citrus limon (Lisbon variety) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmakani, Mohammad-Taghi; Moayyedi, Mahsa

    2015-11-01

    Dried and fresh peels of Citrus limon were subjected to microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) and solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME), respectively. A comparison was made between MAHD and SFME with the conventional hydrodistillation (HD) method in terms of extraction kinetic, chemical composition, and antioxidant activity. Higher yield results from higher extraction rates by microwaves and could be due to a synergy of two transfer phenomena: mass and heat acting in the same way. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis did not indicate any noticeable differences between the constituents of essential oils obtained by MAHD and SFME, in comparison with HD. Antioxidant analysis of the extracted essential oils indicated that microwave irradiation did not have adverse effects on the radical scavenging activity of the extracted essential oils. The results of this study suggest that MAHD and SFME can be termed as green technologies because of their less energy requirements per ml of essential oil extraction.

  3. Application of microwave-assisted extraction to the analysis of PCBs and CBzs in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yifei; Takaoka, Masaki; Takeda, Nobuo; Matsumoto, Tadao; Oshita, Kazuyuki [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Urban and Environmental Engineering

    2004-09-15

    The extraction step has been, in generally, the least developed aspect of most analytical procedures, including procedures for the analysis of PCBs and CBzs. Although the Soxhlet extraction (SE) method for solid samples, developed in 1879, is still employed today in many laboratories, during the past decade, several novel extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and accelerated-solvent extraction (ASE), have been used to analyze PCBs, PAHs, and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from various matrixes. These newer methods are less time-consuming and use much smaller amounts of organic solvents. The efficiency of MAE has been reported to be higher than that of SFE. In the present study, MAE was used to analyze PCBs and CBzs in MSWI fly ash. Under different experimental conditions, the optimum solvent mixture, the optimum solvent volume, and the optimum irradiation time were established. Furthermore, the relative standard deviation (RSD) values were evaluated. Finally, MAE efficiencies were compared with those of SE. The main objective of the study, however, was to use water as a polar solvent in MAE. Because solvents with a high dielectric constant, such as water, have to be used in MAE to absorb the microwave energy and heat the solvent, the residual water after acid pretreatment could be used in MAE. Therefore, the air drying time, normally three days could be shortened with MAE following the required acid pretreatment.

  4. Microwave-assisted liquefaction of wood with polyhydric alcohols and its application in preparation of polyurethane (PU) foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Zhifeng Zheng; Chung Y. Hse

    2011-01-01

    Microwave radiation was used as the heating source in southern pine wood liquefaction with PEG/glycerin binary solvent. It was found that microwave heating was more efficient than conventional oil bath heating for wood liquefaction. The wood residue content of the H2SO4 catalyzed liquefied wood dropped to zero within 5 min with microwave heating. The resulting...

  5. Optimisation of Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. Seed Oil and Evaluation of Its Physicochemical and Bioactive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasene Keskin Çavdar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate seed oil was extracted in a closed-vessel high-pressure microwave system. The characteristics of the obtained oil, such as fatty acid composition, free fatty acidity, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and colour, were compared to those of the oil obtained by cold solvent extraction. Response surface methodology was applied to optimise extraction conditions: power (176–300 W, time (5–20 min, particle size (d=0.125–0.800 mm and solvent to sample ratio (2:1, 6:1 and 10:1, by mass. The predicted highest extraction yield (35.19 % was obtained using microwave power of 220 W, particle size in the range of d=0.125–0.450 mm and solvent-to-sample ratio of 10:1 (by mass in 5 min extraction time. Microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MASE resulted in higher extraction yield than that of Soxhlet (34.70 % in 8 h or cold (17.50 % in 8 h extraction. The dominant fatty acid of pomegranate seed oil was punicic acid (86 % irrespective of the extraction method. Oil obtained by MASE had bett er physicochemical properties, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity than the oil obtained by cold solvent extraction.

  6. Optimisation of Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Seed Oil and Evaluation 
of Its Physicochemical and Bioactive Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çavdar, Hasene Keskin; Yanık, Derya Koçak; Gök, Uğur; Göğüş, Fahrettin

    2017-03-01

    Pomegranate seed oil was extracted in a closed-vessel high-pressure microwave system. The characteristics of the obtained oil, such as fatty acid composition, free fatty acidity, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and colour, were compared to those of the oil obtained by cold solvent extraction. Response surface methodology was applied to optimise extraction conditions: power (176-300 W), time (5-20 min), particle size ( d =0.125-0.800 mm) and solvent to sample ratio (2:1, 6:1 and 10:1, by mass). The predicted highest extraction yield (35.19%) was obtained using microwave power of 220 W, particle size in the range of d =0.125-0.450 mm and solvent-to-sample ratio of 10:1 (by mass) in 5 min extraction time. Microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MASE) resulted in higher extraction yield than that of Soxhlet (34.70% in 8 h) or cold (17.50% in 8 h) extraction. The dominant fatty acid of pomegranate seed oil was punicic acid (86%) irrespective of the extraction method. Oil obtained by MASE had better physicochemical properties, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity than the oil obtained by cold solvent extraction.

  7. Production of xylooligosaccharide from wheat bran by microwave assisted enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tseng-Hsing; Lu, Shin

    2013-06-01

    The effective production of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) from wheat bran was investigated. Wheat bran contains rich hemicellulose which can be hydrolyzed by enzyme; the XOS were obtained by microwave assisted enzymatic hydrolysis. To improve the productivity of XOS, repeated microwave assisted enzymatic hydrolysis and activated carbon adsorption method was chosen to eliminate macromolecules in the XOS. On the basis of experimental data, an industrial XOS production process consisting of pretreatment, repeated microwave assisted enzymatic treatment and purification was designed. Using the designed process, 3.2g dry of purified XOS was produced from 50 g dry wheat bran powder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Solvent, Hydrogen Peroxide and Dioxide Titanium on Degradation of PCBs, Using Microwave Radiation in Order to Reduce Occupational Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajik Reza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are one group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs that are of international concern because of global distribution, persistence, and toxicity. Removal of these compounds from the environment remains a very difficult challenge because the compounds are highly hydrophobic and have very low solubility in water. A 900 W domestic microwave oven, pyrex vessel reactor, pyrex tube connector and condensing system were used in this experiment. Radiation was discontinuous and ray powers were 540, 720 and 900 W. The PCBS were analyzed by GC-ECD. The application of microwave radiation and H2O2/TiO2 agents for the degradation of polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated oil was explored in this study. PCB – contaminated oil was treated in a pyrex reactor by microwave irradiation at 2450 MHz with the addition of H2O2/TiO2. A novel grain TiO2 (GT01 was used. The determination of PCB residues in oil by gas chromatography (GC revealed that rates of PCB decomposition were highly dependent on microwave power, exposure time, ratio to solvent with transformer oil in 3:1, the optimal amount of GT01 (0.2 g and 0.116 mol of H2O2 were used in the study. It was suggested that microwave irradiation with the assistance of H2O2/TiO2 might be a potential technology for the degradation of PCB – contaminated oil. The experiments show that MW irradiation, H2O2 oxidant and TiO2 catalyst lead to a degradation efficiency of PCBs only in the presence of ethanol. The results showed that the addition of ethanol significantly enhanced degradation efficiency of PCBs.

  9. Microwave-assisted extraction of silkworm pupal oil and evaluation of its fatty acid composition, physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; Li, Cheng; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Qing; Zhu, Yadong; Su, Zhao; Chen, Yizi

    2017-09-15

    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of oil from silkworm pupae was firstly performed in the present research. The response surface methodology was applied to optimize the parameters for MAE. The yield of oil by MAE was 30.16% under optimal conditions of a mixed solvent consisting of ethanol and n-hexane (1:1, v/v), microwave power (360W), liquid to solid ratio (7.5/1mL/g), microwave time (29min). Moreover, oil extracted by MAE was quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (fatty acid profile) similar to those obtained using Soxhlet extraction (SE), but oil extracted by MAE exhibited favourable physicochemical properties and oxidation stability. Additionally, oil extracted by MAE had a higher content of total phenolic, and it showed stronger antioxidant activities. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that microwave technique efficiently promoted the release of oil by breaking down the cell structure of silkworm pupae. Therefore, MAE can be an effective method for the silkworm pupal oil extraction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis of β-phenylchalcogeno-α, β-unsaturated esters, ketones and nitriles using microwave and solvent-free conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenardao, Eder J.; Silva, Marcio S.; Mendes, Samuel R.; Azambuja, Francisco de; Jacob, Raquel G.; Perin, Gelson; Santos, Paulo Cesar Silva dos

    2007-01-01

    A simple, clean and efficient solvent-free protocol was developed for hydrochalcogenation of alkynes containing a Michael acceptor (ester, ketone and nitrile) with phenylchalcogenolate anions generated in situ from the respective diphenyl dichalcogenide (Se, Te, S), using alumina supported sodium borohydride. This efficient and improved method is general and furnishes the respective (Z)-β-phenylchalcogeno-α,β-unsaturated esters, ketones and nitriles, in good yield and higher selectivity, compared with those that use organic solvent and inert atmosphere. The use of microwave (MW) irradiation facilitates the procedure and accelerates the reaction. (author)

  11. Field emission characteristics of SnO2/CNT composite prepared by microwave assisted wet impregnation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available SnO2/CNT composites were prepared by microwave assisted wet impregnation at 60 °C. The process was optimized by varying the microwave power and reaction time. Raman analysis showed the typical features of the rutile phase of as-synthesized SnO2...

  12. Microwave-assisted cationic ring-opening polymerization of a soy-based 2-oxazoline monomer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, R.; Wiesbrock, F.D.; Schubert, U.S.

    2005-01-01

    The microwave-assisted cationic ring-opening polymn. of a soy based 2-oxazoline monomer (SoyOx) is described. The microwave irradn. provides more efficient heating when compared to conventional heating and, in addn., the SoyOx was prepd. starting from a sustainable resource (soy beans). The

  13. Scale-up of microwave assisted flow synthesis by transient processing through monomode cavities in series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, N.G.; Benaskar, F.; Rebrov, E.; Meuldijk, J.; Hulshof, L.A.; Hessel, V.; Schouten, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    A new scale-up concept for microwave assisted flow processing is presented where modular scale-up is achieved by implementing microwave cavities in series. The scale-up concept is demonstrated for case studies of a packed-bed reactor and a wall-coated tubular reactor. With known kinetics and

  14. Microwave-Assisted Organic Synthesis and Transformations using Benign Reaction Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nonclassical heating technique using microwaves, termed as 'Bunsen burner of the 21st century, is rapidly becoming popular and is dramatically reducing the reaction times. The significant outcomes of microwave (MW)-assisted green chemistry endeavors are summarized that have r...

  15. Surface modification of titanium hydride with epoxy resin via microwave-assisted ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, Rong; Chen, Ding; Zhang, Qianxia; Bian, Zhibing; Dai, Haixiong; Zhang, Chi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • TiH 2 was modified with epoxy resin by microwave-assisted ball milling. • The epoxy ring was opened under the coupling effect of microwave and ball milling. • Microwave-assisted ball milling improved the compatibility of TiH 2 with epoxy. - Abstract: Surface modification of titanium hydride with epoxy resin was carried out via microwave-assisted ball milling and the products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermo-gravimetry (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). A sedimentation test was performed to investigate the compatibility of the modified nano titanium hydride with the epoxy resin. The results show that the epoxy resin molecules were grafted on the surface of nano titanium hydride particles during the microwave-assisted ball milling process, which led to the improvement of compatibility between the nanoparticles and epoxy resin. According to the FT-IR, the grafting site was likely to be located around the epoxy group due to the fact that the epoxy ring was opened. However, compared with microwave-assisted ball milling, the conventional ball milling could not realize the surface modification, indicating that the coupling effect of mechanical force and microwave played a key role during the process

  16. Microwave-assisted synthesis of high-loading, highly dispersed Pt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Direct methanol fuel cell; carbon aerogel; Pt; microwave-assisted polyol process; electrocatalyst; ... obtained from the carbonization of the dried organic aero- gel in a ... 12 hours. The dried residue (0·01 g) was mixed with ethanol.

  17. An easy two-step microwave assisted synthesis of SnO2/CNT hybrids

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motshekga, SC

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide (SnO2) - decorated carbon nanotube (CNT) heterostructures were synthesized by microwave assisted wet impregnation method. CNTs of three different aspect ratios were compared. The hybrid samples were characterized by powder X...

  18. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of biocompatible silver sulfide nanoworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ruimin; Liu, Shanhu; Tian, Shufang

    2011-10-01

    In this study, silver sulfide nanoworms were prepared via a rapid microwave-assisted hydrothermal method by reacting silver nitrate and thioacetamide in the aqueous solution of the Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) protein. The morphology, composition, and crystallinity of the nanoworms were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results show that the nanoworms were assembled by multiple adjacent Ag2S nanoparticles and stabilized by a layer of BSA attached to their surface. The nanoworms have the sizes of about 50 nm in diameter and hundreds of nanometers in length. The analyses of high-resolution TEM and their correlative Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) indicate that the adjacent Ag2S nanoparticles grow by misoriented attachment at the connective interfaces to form the nanoworm structure. In vitro assays on the human cervical cancer cell line HeLa show that the nanoworms exhibit good biocompatibility due to the presence of BSA coating. This combination of features makes the nanoworms attractive and promising building blocks for advanced materials and devices.

  19. Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of Cellulose/Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Hua Fu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report a facile, rapid, and green strategy for the synthesis of cellulose/hydroxyapatite (HA nanocomposites using an inorganic phosphorus source (sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate (NaH2PO4·2H2O, or organic phosphorus sources (adenosine 5′-triphosphate disodium salt (ATP, creatine phosphate disodium salt tetrahydrate (CP, or D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate trisodium salt octahydrate (FBP through the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The effects of the phosphorus sources, heating time, and heating temperature on the phase, size, and morphology of the products were systematically investigated. The experimental results revealed that the phosphate sources played a critical role on the phase, size, and morphology of the minerals in the nanocomposites. For example, the pure HA was obtained by using NaH2PO4·2H2O as phosphorus source, while all the ATP, CP, and FBP led to the byproduct, calcite. The HA nanostructures with various morphologies (including nanorods, pseudo-cubic, pseudo-spherical, and nano-spherical particles were obtained by varying the phosphorus sources or adjusting the reaction parameters. In addition, this strategy is surfactant-free, avoiding the post-treatment procedure and cost for the surfactant removal from the product. We believe that this work can be a guidance for the green synthesis of cellulose/HA nanocomposites in the future.

  20. Alkali-assisted coal extraction with polar aprotic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makgato, M.H.; Moitsheki, L.J.; Shoko, L.; Kgobane, B.L.; Morgan, D.L.; Focke, W.W. [SARChI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, Institute of Applied Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)

    2009-04-15

    Coal extraction experiments were conducted using a coal, containing ca. 10% ash, from the Tshikondeni mine in South Africa. This coal dissolves only to a limited extent in pure polar aprotic solvents such as dimethylformamide (DMF) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP). However, the addition of a strong base, e.g. sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or sodium tert-butoxide increased the degree of coal dissolution in these organic solvents. Depending on the extraction conditions, carbon extraction efficiencies of up to 90% were obtained. Carbon precursor material was recovered from the solution as a gel by precipitation with water. Ash content was reduced from 10% in the coal to less than 1.6% in the coal extracts. Sodium sulfide (Na{sub 2}S) addition further reduced ash content and aided the recovery of carbon precursors that led to graphitizable cokes but the degree of extraction was significantly reduced. (author)

  1. Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Exotic Gordonia axillaris Fruit: Optimization and Identification of Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study reported that the fruit of Gordonia axillaris, an edible wild fruit, possessed strong antioxidant activity. In this study, a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE method was established to extract antioxidants from the fruit of Gordonia axillaris. The influence of five parameters, including ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, extraction time, extraction temperature and microwave power, was investigated by single-factor experiments. Three factors, namely ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, extraction time, were found to exert a major influence on extraction efficacy, and were further studied by response surface methodology to investigate their interactions. Ethanol concentration of 36.89%, solvent/material ratio of 29.56 mL/g, extraction time of 71.04 min, temperature of 40 °C, and microwave power of 400 W were found to be the optimal condition. The TEAC value was 198.16 ± 5.47 µmol Trolox/g DW under the optimal conditions, which was in conformity to the predicted value (200.28 µmol Trolox/g DW. In addition, the MAE method was compared with two conventional methods (Soxhlet extraction and maceration extraction. Results showed that the antioxidant capacity of the extract obtained by MAE method was stronger than that obtained by maceration (168.67 ± 3.88 µmol Trolox/g DW or Soxhlet extraction (114.09 ± 2.01 µmol Trolox/g DW. Finally, several phenolic compounds in the extract were identified and quantified by UPLC-MS/MS, which were rutin, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, 2-hydrocinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid.

  2. Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Exotic Gordonia axillaris Fruit: Optimization and Identification of Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Lin, Sheng-Jun; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Zhao, Cai-Ning; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-09-06

    Our previous study reported that the fruit of Gordonia axillaris , an edible wild fruit, possessed strong antioxidant activity. In this study, a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method was established to extract antioxidants from the fruit of Gordonia axillaris . The influence of five parameters, including ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, extraction time, extraction temperature and microwave power, was investigated by single-factor experiments. Three factors, namely ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, extraction time, were found to exert a major influence on extraction efficacy, and were further studied by response surface methodology to investigate their interactions. Ethanol concentration of 36.89%, solvent/material ratio of 29.56 mL/g, extraction time of 71.04 min, temperature of 40 °C, and microwave power of 400 W were found to be the optimal condition. The TEAC value was 198.16 ± 5.47 µmol Trolox/g DW under the optimal conditions, which was in conformity to the predicted value (200.28 µmol Trolox/g DW). In addition, the MAE method was compared with two conventional methods (Soxhlet extraction and maceration extraction). Results showed that the antioxidant capacity of the extract obtained by MAE method was stronger than that obtained by maceration (168.67 ± 3.88 µmol Trolox/g DW) or Soxhlet extraction (114.09 ± 2.01 µmol Trolox/g DW). Finally, several phenolic compounds in the extract were identified and quantified by UPLC-MS/MS, which were rutin, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, 2-hydrocinnamic acid, p -coumaric acid, quercetin, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid.

  3. Microwave Heating of Synthetic Skin Samples for Potential Treatment of Gout Using the Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Decrystallization Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Toker, Salih; Boone-Kukoyi, Zainab; Thompson, Nishone; Ajifa, Hillary; Clement, Travis; Ozturk, Birol; Aslan, Kadir

    2016-01-01

    Physical stability of synthetic skin samples during their exposure to microwave heating was investigated to demonstrate the use of the metal-assisted and microwave-accelerated decrystallization (MAMAD) technique for potential biomedical applications. In this regard, optical microscopy and temperature measurements were employed for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of damage to synthetic skin samples during 20 s intermittent microwave heating using a monomode microwave source (at 8 G...

  4. Closed vessel miniaturized microwave assisted chelating extraction for determination of trace metals in plant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Sezin; Duering, Rolf-Alexander

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, the use of closed vessel microwave assisted extraction (MAE) for plant samples has shown increasing research interest which will probably substitute conventional procedures in the future due to their general disadvantages including consumption of time and solvents. The objective of this study was to demonstrate an innovative miniaturized closed vessel microwave assisted extraction (µMAE) method under the use of EDTA (µMAE-EDTA) to determine metal contents (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in plant samples (Lolio-Cynosuretum) by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Validation of the method was done by comparison of the results with another miniaturized closed vessel microwave HNO3 method (µMAE-H) and with two other macro scale MAE procedures (MAE-H and MAE-EDTA) which were applied by using a mixture of nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (MAE-H) and EDTA (MAE-EDTA), respectively. The already established MAE-H method is taken into consideration as a reference validation MAE method for plant material. A conventional plant extraction (CE) method, based on dry ashing and dissolving of the plant material in HNO3, was used as a confidence comparative method. Certified plant reference materials (CRMs) were used for comparison of recovery rates from different extraction protocols. This allowed the validation of the applicability of the µMAE-EDTA procedure. For 36 real plant samples with triplicates each, µMAE-EDTA showed the same extraction yields as the MAE-H in the determination of Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn contents in plant samples. Analytical parameters in µMAE-EDTA should be further investigated and adapted for other metals of interest. By the reduction and elimination of the use of hazardous chemicals in environmental analysis and thus allowing a better understanding of metal distribution and accumulation process in plants and also the metal transfer from soil to plants and into the food chain, µ

  5. A Review of Microwave-Assisted Reactions for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifuddin Nomanbhay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of biomass into chemicals and biofuels is an active research area as trends move to replace fossil fuels with renewable resources due to society’s increased concern towards sustainability. In this context, microwave processing has emerged as a tool in organic synthesis and plays an important role in developing a more sustainable world. Integration of processing methods with microwave irradiation has resulted in a great reduction in the time required for many processes, while the reaction efficiencies have been increased markedly. Microwave processing produces a higher yield with a cleaner profile in comparison to other methods. The microwave processing is reported to be a better heating method than the conventional methods due to its unique thermal and non-thermal effects. This paper provides an insight into the theoretical aspects of microwave irradiation practices and highlights the importance of microwave processing. The potential of the microwave technology to accomplish superior outcomes over the conventional methods in biodiesel production is presented. A green process for biodiesel production using a non-catalytic method is still new and very costly because of the supercritical condition requirement. Hence, non-catalytic biodiesel conversion under ambient pressure using microwave technology must be developed, as the energy utilization for microwave-based biodiesel synthesis is reported to be lower and cost-effective.

  6. Microwave-assisted one-pot synthesis of metal/metal oxide nanoparticles on graphene and their electrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuangyin; Jiang San Ping; Wang Xin

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: → Microwave polyol method is efficient to deposit nanoparticles on graphene. → SnO 2 /graphene is more efficient than graphene for supercapacitor. → PtRu/graphene is more active than commercial PtRu/C for methanol oxidation. - Abstract: An effective synthesis strategy of hybrid metal (PtRu)/metal oxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticles on graphene nanocomposites is developed using a microwave-assisted one-pot reaction process. The mixture of ethylene glycol (EG) and water is used as both solvent and reactant. In the reaction system for the synthesis of SnO 2 /graphene nanocomposite, EG not only reduces graphene oxide (GO) to graphene, but also results in the formation of SnO 2 facilitated by the presence of a small amount of water. On the other hand, in the reaction system for preparation of PtRu/graphene nanocomposites, EG acts as solvent and reducing agent for reduction of PtRu nanoparticles from their precursors and reduction of graphene from graphene oxide. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterizations confirm the feasibility of the microwave-assisted reaction system to simultaneously reduce graphene oxide and to form SnO 2 or PtRu nanoparticles. The as-synthesized SnO 2 /graphene hybrid composites show a much higher supercapacitance than the pure graphene, and the as-prepared PtRu/graphene show much better electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation compared to the commercial E-TEK PtRu/C electrocatalysts.

  7. Microwave discharge electrodeless lamps (MDEL). V. Microwave-assisted photolytic disinfection of Bacillus subtilis in simulated electroplating wash wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Tsuchida, Akihiro; Abe, Masahiko; Ohba, Naoki; Uchida, Masayoshi; Serpone, Nick

    2010-01-01

    This short article examines the microwave-assisted photolytic disinfection of aqueous solutions contaminated by Bacillus subtilis microorganisms using UV and vacuum-UV radiation emitted from a microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (MDEL), a device containing a Hg/Ar gas-fill that was proposed recently for use in Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs). Results of the disinfection are compared with those obtained from UV radiation emitted by a low-pressure electrode Hg lamp and by an excimer lamp. Also examined is the disinfection of B. subtilis aqueous media that contained Au3+ or Ni2+ ions, species often found in the treatment of electroplating wash wastewaters.

  8. An evaluation of microwave-assisted fusion and microwave-assisted acid digestion methods for determining elemental impurities in carbon nanostructures using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Patole, Shashikant P.

    2015-10-21

    It is common for as-prepared carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene samples to contain remnants of the transition metals used to catalyze their growth; contamination may also leave other trace elemental impurities in the samples. Although a full quantification of impurities in as-prepared samples of carbon nanostructures is difficult, particularly when trace elements are intercalated or encapsulated within a protective layer of graphitic carbon, reliable information is essential for reasons such as quantifying the adulteration of physico-chemical properties of the materials and for evaluating environmental issues. Here, we introduce a microwave-based fusion method to degrade single- and double-walled CNTs and graphene nanoplatelets into a fusion flux thereby thoroughly leaching all metallic impurities. Subsequent dissolution of the fusion product in diluted hydrochloric and nitric acid allowed us to identify their trace elemental impurities using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Comparisons of the results from the proposed microwave-assisted fusion method against those of a more classical microwave-assisted acid digestion approach suggest complementarity between the two that ultimately could lead to a more reliable and less costly determination of trace elemental impurities in carbon nanostructured materials. Graphical abstract A method for the complete digestion of carbon nanostructures has been demonstrated. Photographs (on the left side) show zirconium crucibles containing SWCNTs with flux of Na2CO3 and K2CO3, before and after microwave fusion; (on the right side) the appearance of the final solutions containing dissolved samples, from microwave-assisted fusion and microwave-assisted acid digestion. These solutions were used for determining the trace elemental impurities by ICP‒OES.

  9. CO and C_3H_8 Sensitivity Behavior of Zinc Antimonate Prepared by a Microwave-Assisted Solution Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen-Bonilla, H.; Rodiguez Betancourtt, V. M.; Flores-Martinez, M.; Guillen-Bonilla, J. T.; Reyes-Gomez, J.; Gildo-Ortiz, L.; Olvera-Amador, M. L.; Santoyo-Salazar, J.

    2015-01-01

    ZnSb_2O_6 has been synthesized by a microwave-assisted solution method in order to test its possible application as a gas sensor. Zinc nitrate, antimony trichloride, and ethylenediamine were used as precursors and deionized water as solvent. Microwave radiation, with a power of "approx"350 W, was applied for solvent evaporation. The thermal decomposition of the precursors leads to the formation of ZnSb_2O_6 at 600 degree. This oxide crystallized in a tetragonal structure with cell parameters a=4.66 angstrom sign, c=9.26 angstrom sign and space group P4_2/ mnm. Micro wires and micro rods formed by nano crystals were observed by means of scanning and transmission electron micros copies (SEM and TEM, resp.). Pellets of the oxide were tested as gas sensors in flowing atmospheres of carbon monoxide (CO) and propane (C_3H_8). Sensitivity increased with the gas concentration (0-300 ppm) and working temperatures (ambient, 150 and 250 degree) increase. The results indicate high sensitivity of ZnSb_2O_6 in both gases at different concentrations and operating temperatures.

  10. CO and C3H8 Sensitivity Behavior of Zinc Antimonate Prepared by a Microwave-Assisted Solution Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Guillen-Bonilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnSb2O6 has been synthesized by a microwave-assisted solution method in order to test its possible application as a gas sensor. Zinc nitrate, antimony trichloride, and ethylenediamine were used as precursors and deionized water as solvent. Microwave radiation, with a power of ~350 W, was applied for solvent evaporation. The thermal decomposition of the precursors leads to the formation of ZnSb2O6 at 600°C. This oxide crystallized in a tetragonal structure with cell parameters a=4.66 Å, c=9.26 Å and space group P42/mnm. Microwires and microrods formed by nanocrystals were observed by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopies (SEM and TEM, resp.. Pellets of the oxide were tested as gas sensors in flowing atmospheres of carbon monoxide (CO and propane (C3H8. Sensitivity increased with the gas concentration (0–300 ppm and working temperatures (ambient, 150 and 250°C increase. The results indicate high sensitivity of ZnSb2O6 in both gases at different concentrations and operating temperatures.

  11. Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Polyphenols from Camellia oleifera Fruit Hull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahong Chen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The abundant fruit hulls of tea-oil tree (Camellia oleifera are still underutilized and wastefully discaded to pollute the environment. In order to solve this problem and better utilize the fruit hulls of C. oleifera, a microwave-assisted extraction system was used to extract their polyphenols using water as the extraction solvent. A central composite design (CCD was used to monitor the effects of three extraction processing parameters – liquid:solid ratio (mL/g, extraction time (min and extraction temperature (°C – on the polyphenol yield (%. The results showed that the optimal conditions were liquid:solid ratio of 15.33:1 (mL/g, extraction time of 35 min and extraction temperature of 76 °C. Validation tests indicated that under the optimized conditions the actual yield of polyphenols was 15.05 ± 0.04% with RSD = 0.21% (n = 5, which was in good agreement with the predicted yield. Phenolic compounds in the extracts were analysed by HPLC, and gallic acid was found to be the predominant constituent. The total flavonoid content in the extracts was determined and high total flavonoid content was revealed (140.06 mg/g dry material.

  12. Removal of VOCs from groundwater using membrane-assisted solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutter, J.C.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Nunez, L.; Redfield, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    A membrane-assisted solvent extraction (MASX) system coupled to a membrane-assisted distillation stripping (MADS) system for use in decontaminating groundwater is discussed. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are extracted in the MASX using a sunflower oil solvent. In the MADS, VOCs are stripped from the sunflower oil, and the oil is recycled to the MASX. Thermodynamic data for the sunflower oil-water-VOCs system were experimentally collected. Published membrane-mass transfer results along with these data were used to design the MASX and MADS modules

  13. Simulation of energetic- and exergetic performance of microwave-assisted fluidized bed drying of soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjbaran, M.; Zare, D.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of microwave-assisted fluidized bed drying of soybeans was simulated (using a previously validated mathematical model) and analyzed based on the first- and second law of thermodynamics. The energy and exergy analysis were carried out for several drying conditions. The effects of inlet air temperature, microwave power density, bed thickness and inlet air velocity on the efficiencies and inefficiencies of drying process have been simulated and discussed. Generally, application of microwave energy during fluidized bed drying enhanced the exergy efficiency of drying process. However, the results showed that it was more efficient not to apply microwave energy at the first stage of fluidized bed drying process. The application of higher levels of drying air temperature led in higher exergy efficiencies. The values of mean relative deviations for the predictions of efficiencies and inefficiencies of drying process were less than 14%, compared with those calculated using experimental data. - Highlights: • Introducing a mathematical model to predict the efficiency of microwave-assisted fluidized bed dryers. • Energy and exergy analysis in microwave-assisted fluidized bed drying of grains. • Providing practical recommendations for efficient use of microwave power during drying

  14. Microwave-assisted acid pretreatment of alkali lignin: Effect on characteristics and pyrolysis behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Dengle; Ruan, Roger; Wang, Yunpu; Liu, Yuhuan; Dai, Leilei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Zhou, Yue; Wu, Qiuhao

    2018-03-01

    This study performed microwave-assisted acid pretreatment on pure lignin. The effects of microwave temperature, microwave time, and hydrochloric acid concentration on characteristics and pyrolysis behavior of lignin were examined. Results of ultimate analysis revealed better properties of all pretreated samples than those of raw lignin. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed breakage of βO4 bond and aliphatic side chain, decrease in OH groups, and formation of CO groups in pretreatment. Microwave temperature exerted more significant influence on lignin structure. Thermal stability of treated lignin was improved and insensitive to short microwave time and acid concentration under mild conditions. Resulting from improved alkyl-phenols and decreased alkoxy-phenols, microwave-assisted acid pretreatment of lignin yielded bio-oil with excellent quality. Total yield of phenols in pyrolysis vapors (200 °C) improved to 14.15%, whereas that of guaiacols decreased to 22.36%. This study shows that microwave-assisted acid pretreatment is a promising technology for lignin conversion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Microwave-Assisted Simultaneous Extraction of Luteolin and Apigenin from Tree Peony Pod and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzheng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient microwave-assisted extraction (MAE technique was employed in simultaneous extraction of luteolin and apigenin from tree peony pod. The MAE procedure was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM and compared with other conventional extraction techniques of macerate extraction (ME and heat reflux extraction (HRE. The optimal conditions of MAE were as follows: employing 70% ethanol volume fraction as solvent, soaking time of 4 h, liquid-solid ratio of 10 (mL/g, microwave irradiation power of 265 W, microwave irradiation time of 9.6 min, and 3 extraction cycles. Under the optimal conditions, 151 μg/g luteolin and 104 μg/g apigenin were extracted from the tree peony pod. Compared with ME and HRE, MAE gave the highest extraction efficiency. The antioxidant activities of the extracts obtained by MAE, ME, and HRE were evaluated using a 2,2-di(4-tert-octylphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging assay, a ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP, and a reducing power assay. Meanwhile, the structural changes of the unprocessed and processed tree peony pod samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy.

  16. Microwave-assisted shingled magnetic recording simulations on an exchange-coupled composite medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T., E-mail: t-tanaka@ed.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Electronics, Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, Motoota 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Kashiwagi, S. [Department of Electronics, Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, Motoota 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Kanai, Y. [Department of Information and Electronics Engineering, Niigata Institute of Technology, Fujihashi 1719, Kashiwazaki, Niigata 945-1195 (Japan); Matsuyama, K. [Department of Electronics, Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, Motoota 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    The potential of microwave-assisted magnetic recording combined with the shingled recording scheme has been studied by simulating read/write processes on exchange-coupled composite media focusing on recording characteristics in the cross-track direction. Microwave fields enhance writability, especially at the track edge, resulting in lower noise and higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which enables higher track density in the shingled recording scheme. Read/write simulations of microwave-assisted shingled recording achieve 1.4 Mtracks/in. while retaining high SNR. Further increases in SNR and track density will require either a narrower reader or track edge noise reduction. - Highlights: • Signal recording of shingled magnetic recording using an asymmetric single pole type head combined with a microwave assistance was numerically demonstrated. • Writability is improved by microwave fields with a moderate frequency at the track edge of the shielded side, resulting in higher signal-to-noise ratio. • 1.41 Mtpi of track density is feasible for the recording scheme of shingled magnetic recording with microwave assistance.

  17. Microwave-assisted shingled magnetic recording simulations on an exchange-coupled composite medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.; Kashiwagi, S.; Kanai, Y.; Matsuyama, K.

    2016-01-01

    The potential of microwave-assisted magnetic recording combined with the shingled recording scheme has been studied by simulating read/write processes on exchange-coupled composite media focusing on recording characteristics in the cross-track direction. Microwave fields enhance writability, especially at the track edge, resulting in lower noise and higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which enables higher track density in the shingled recording scheme. Read/write simulations of microwave-assisted shingled recording achieve 1.4 Mtracks/in. while retaining high SNR. Further increases in SNR and track density will require either a narrower reader or track edge noise reduction. - Highlights: • Signal recording of shingled magnetic recording using an asymmetric single pole type head combined with a microwave assistance was numerically demonstrated. • Writability is improved by microwave fields with a moderate frequency at the track edge of the shielded side, resulting in higher signal-to-noise ratio. • 1.41 Mtpi of track density is feasible for the recording scheme of shingled magnetic recording with microwave assistance.

  18. A complete degradation of organophosphates by microwave-assisted hydrolysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jansa, Petr; Čechová, Lucie; Janeba, Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2016), s. 219-226 ISSN 2213-3356 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015046 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : organophosphates * microwave irradiation * hydrolysis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  19. Microwave-assisted rock breaking modelling and application

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Monchusi, B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As part of the ongoing development of novel mining methods, the CSIR has developed alternative methods to break rocks. In this case, we show the application of microwave energy to break narrow tabular ore bodies....

  20. Low-temperature-compatible tunneling-current-assisted scanning microwave microscope utilizing a rigid coaxial resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hideyuki; Imai, Yoshinori; Maeda, Atsutaka

    2016-06-01

    We present a design for a tunneling-current-assisted scanning near-field microwave microscope. For stable operation at cryogenic temperatures, making a small and rigid microwave probe is important. Our coaxial resonator probe has a length of approximately 30 mm and can fit inside the 2-in. bore of a superconducting magnet. The probe design includes an insulating joint, which separates DC and microwave signals without degrading the quality factor. By applying the SMM to the imaging of an electrically inhomogeneous superconductor, we obtain the spatial distribution of the microwave response with a spatial resolution of approximately 200 nm. Furthermore, we present an analysis of our SMM probe based on a simple lumped-element circuit model along with the near-field microwave measurements of silicon wafers having different conductivities.

  1. Comparison of Microwave-Assisted and Hydrodistillation Methods for Extraction of Essential Oil from Achillea millefolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mollasalehi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD method has been compared with hydrodistillation (HD conventional technique for extraction of essential oil from Achillea millefolium. Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation were examined at three levels of microwave powers (300, 500, and 700 W. Obtained results show that MAHD offers important advantages over HD in terms of energy savings and extraction time (20 min against 2.5 h. Also, the essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS. The amount of oxygenated compounds and monoterpene, such as 1,8 -Cineole, Lavandulyl acetate,Caryophylla-dien, Aromadendrene were increased in the microwave method. All these results suggest that MAHD represents an excellent alternative method for extraction of essential oils from plant materials.

  2. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of polysaccharide from Psidium guajava L. fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutha Gnana Arasi, Michael Antony Samy; Gopal Rao, Manchineela; Bagyalakshmi, Janardanan

    2016-10-01

    This study deals with the optimization of microwave assisted extraction of polysaccharide from Psidium guajava L. fruit using Response surface methodology. To evaluate the effect of three independent variables, Water to plant material ratio, microwave power used for extraction and Irradiation time, central composite design has been employed. The yield is considered as dependent variable. The design model estimated the optimum yield of 6.81677% at 200W microwave power level, 3:1 water to plant material ratio and 20min of irradiation time. Three factors three levels Central composite design coupled with RSM was used to model the extraction process. ANOVA was performed to find the significance of the model. The polysaccharide extracted using microwave assisted extraction process was analyzed using FTIR Spectroscopy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Microwave-assisted synthesis and antioxidant properties of hydrazinyl thiazolyl coumarin derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Hasnah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coumarin derivatives exhibit a wide range of biological properties including promising antioxidant activity. Furthermore, microwave-assisted organic synthesis has delivered rapid routes to N- and O-containing heterocycles, including coumarins and thiazoles. Combining these features, the use of microwave-assisted processes will provide rapid access to a targeted coumarin library bearing a hydrazino pharmacophore for evaluation of antioxidant properties Results Microwave irradiation promoted 3 of the 4 steps in a rapid, convergent synthesis of a small library of hydrazinyl thiazolyl coumarin derivatives, all of which exhibited significant antioxidant activity comparable to that of the natural antioxidant quercetin, as established by DPPH and ABTS radical assays Conclusions Microwave dielectric heating provides a rapid and expedient route to a series of hydrazinyl thiazolyl coumarins to investigate their radical scavenging properties. Given their favourable properties, in comparison with known antioxidants, these coumarin derivatives are promising leads for further development and optimization.

  4. Extraction of bioactives from Orthosiphon stamineus using microwave and ultrasound-assisted techniques: Process optimization and scale up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chung-Hung; See, Tiam-You; Yusoff, Rozita; Ngoh, Gek-Cheng; Kow, Kien-Woh

    2017-04-15

    This work demonstrated the optimization and scale up of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of bioactive compounds from Orthosiphon stamineus using energy-based parameters such as absorbed power density and absorbed energy density (APD-AED) and response surface methodology (RSM). The intensive optimum conditions of MAE obtained at 80% EtOH, 50mL/g, APD of 0.35W/mL, AED of 250J/mL can be used to determine the optimum conditions of the scale-dependent parameters i.e. microwave power and treatment time at various extraction scales (100-300mL solvent loading). The yields of the up scaled conditions were consistent with less than 8% discrepancy and they were about 91-98% of the Soxhlet extraction yield. By adapting APD-AED method in the case of UAE, the intensive optimum conditions of the extraction, i.e. 70% EtOH, 30mL/g, APD of 0.22W/mL, AED of 450J/mL are able to achieve similar scale up results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Microwave-assisted Polymerization of D, L-Lactide with Stannous Octanoate as Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) was synthesized by microwave-assisted ring-opening poly- merization of D, L-lactide with stannous octanoate (SnOct2) as catalyst. Its weight-average molar mass (Mw) ranged from 39000 to 67000 and the polydispersity index from 1.3 to 1.7. The polymerization rate was much faster than that of the conventional thermal polymerization. A degradation of newly formed PLA in reaction mixture by microwave irradiation was observed.

  6. Sugarcane Bagasse Pyrolysis in a Carbon Dioxide Atmosphere with Conventional and Microwave-Assisted Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Bo-Jhih; Chen, Wei-Hsin, E-mail: weihsinchen@gmail.com [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2015-02-04

    Pyrolysis is an important thermochemical method to convert biomass into bio-oil. In this study, the pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse in a CO{sub 2} atmosphere under conventional and microwave-assisted heating is investigated to achieve CO{sub 2} utilization. In the microwave pyrolysis, charcoal is used as the microwave absorber to aid in pyrolysis reactions. The results indicate that the yields of pyrolysis products are greatly influenced by the heating modes. In the conventional heating, the prime product is bio-oil and its yield is in the range of 51–54 wt%, whereas biochar is the major product in microwave-assisted heating and its yield ranges from 61 to 84 wt%. Two different absorber blending ratios of 0.1 and 0.3 are considered in the microwave pyrolysis. The solid yield decreases when the absorber blending ratio decreases from 0.3 to 0.1, while the gas and liquid yields increase. This is attributed to more energy consumed for bagasse pyrolysis at the lower blending ratio. Hydrogen is produced under the microwave pyrolysis and its concentration is between 2 and 12 vol%. This arises from the fact that the secondary cracking of vapors and the secondary decomposition of biochar in an environment with microwave irradiation is easier than those with conventional heating.

  7. Room temperature microwave-assisted recording on 500-Gbpsi-class perpendicular medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Y.; Ishida, N.; Soeno, Y.; Sekiguchi, K.

    2012-10-01

    Microwave-assisted recording on a 500-Gbpsi-class perpendicular medium was experimentally demonstrated at room temperature. Magnetization reversal under a radio-frequency magnetic field was measured by an electrically shorted coplanar waveguide, which enabled us to evaluate the change in the medium's ferromagnetic resonance spectrum. A frequency-dependent reduction in the switching field was clearly observed in response to a microwave impulse 50 ns in duration. A significant reduction of up to 30% in the coercive field was achieved by applying a microwave impulse with an amplitude of 25 dBm and a frequency of 15 GHz.

  8. Synthesis of Cycloveratrylene Macrocycles and Benzyl Oligomers Catalysed by Bentonite under Microwave/Infrared and Solvent-Free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Salmón

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tonsil Actisil FF, which is a commercial bentonitic clay, promotes the formation of cycloveratrylene macrocycles and benzyl oligomers from the corresponding benzyl alcohols in good yields under microwave heating and infrared irradiation in the absence of solvent in both cases. The catalytic reaction is sensitive to the type of substituent on the aromatic ring. Thus, when benzyl alcohol was substituted with a methylenedioxy, two methoxy or three methoxy groups, a cyclooligomerisation process was induced. Unsubstituted, methyl and methoxy benzyl alcohols yielded linear oligomers. In addition, computational chemistry calculations were performed to establish a validated mechanistic pathway to explain the growth of the obtained linear oligomers.

  9. Determination of 90Sr in environmental samples by microwave assisted digestion - chromatographic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, J.M.; Llaurado, M.; Rauret, G.

    1998-01-01

    The stages involved in the determination of 90 Sr in environmental samples are: sample attack, radiochemical separation (of both 90 Sr and its progeny 90 Y) and measurement. For the determination of 90 Sr, the introduction of microwave-assisted digestion methods has improved acid attack by drastically decreasing both digestion time and the volume of acidic reagents. Recent studies describe many applications of microwave-assisted methods for the determination of inorganic and organometallic compounds in several matrices. We have recently studied the microwave-assisted digestion of soils for the 90 Sr determination. The presented work extends the application of microwaves for the 90 Sr determination to other environmental samples such as sediments, vegetation and milk. An open-focused microwave system, which accepts large samples intakes usually required for radioanalytical chemistry due to the low level content of radionuclides in environmental samples, was used. This system can handle up to 10 g of sample intake which, in many cases, is enough to have acceptable limits of detection. Different digestion procedures are optimised for each matrix studied, paying special attention to the microwave power, the time of digestion and the volume of acidic reagents. Once the sample is in solution a new separation procedure using a specific resin -Sr.Spec- is applied and the measurement is performed by liquid scintillation. The results obtained are compared with a previously optimised method based on liquid-liquid extraction of 90 Y and Cerenkov radiation measurement

  10. Microwave-assisted extraction and a new determination method for total steroid saponins from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H. Wright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yao; Chen, Yu; Hu, Bohan; Wu, Hui; Lai, Furao; Li, Xiaofeng

    2015-12-01

    An efficient microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique was applied to isolate total steroid saponins from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H. Wright (DZW). The optimal extracting conditions were established as 75% ethanol as solvent, ratio of solid/liquid 1:20 (g/ml), temperature 75 °C, irradiation power 600 W and three extraction cycles of 6 min each. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of DZW processed by four different extractions provided visual evidence of the disruption effect on DZW. Diosgenin was quantified by HPLC and examined further by LC-ESI/MS after acid hydrolysis. Total steroid saponins were calculated using diosgenin from total steroid saponins. The MAE procedure was optimized, validated and compared with other conventional extraction processes. This report provides a convenient technology for the extraction and quantification of total saponins of DZW combining MAE with HPLC and LC-ESI/MS for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and derivatization of sulfonamides in river water, honey, milk, and animal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu; Su, Rui; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Zhuang; Zhang, Yupu; Li, Dan; Li, Xueyuan; Zhang, Hanqi; Wang, Ziming

    2011-11-30

    The ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-based MADLLME) and derivatization was applied for the pretreatment of six sulfonamides (SAs) prior to the determination by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). By adding methanol (disperser), fluorescamine solution (derivatization reagent) and ionic liquid (extraction solvent) into sample, extraction, derivatization, and preconcentration were continuously performed. Several experimental parameters, such as the type and volume of extraction solvent, the type and volume of disperser, amount of derivatization reagent, microwave power, microwave irradiation time, pH of sample solution, and ionic strength were investigated and optimized. When the microwave power was 240 W, the analytes could be derivatized and extracted simultaneously within 90 s. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of river water, honey, milk, and pig plasma samples, and the recoveries of analytes obtained were in the range of 95.0-110.8, 95.4-106.3, 95.0-108.3, and 95.7-107.7, respectively. The relative standard deviations varied between 1.5% and 7.3% (n=5). The results showed that the proposed method was a rapid, convenient and feasible method for the determination of SAs in liquid samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Cannabinoids in Hemp Nut Using Response Surface Methodology: Optimization and Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Chang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hemp nut is commonly incorporated into several food preparations; however, most countries set regulations for hemp products according to their cannabinoid content. In this study, we have developed an efficient microwave-assisted extraction (MAE method for cannabinoids (i.e., Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, and cannabinol in hemp nut. Optimization of the MAE procedure was conducted through single factor experiments and response surface methodology (RSM. A comparative study was also conducted to determine the differences in the extraction yields and morphology of hemp nut between MAE and reference extraction methods, namely heat reflux extraction (HRE, Soxhlet extraction (SE, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE. Among the independent variables in RSM, the temperature was the most significant parameter. The optimal conditions of MAE were as follows: extraction solvent of methanol, microwave power of 375 W, temperature of 109 °C, and extraction time of 30 min. Compared with reference extraction methods, MAE achieved the highest extraction yields of total cannabinoids in hemp nut (6.09 μg/g for MAE; 4.15 μg/g for HRE; 5.81 μg/g for SE; 3.61 μg/g for SFE; 3.73 μg/g for UAE with the least solvent consumption and shortest time. Morphological observations showed that substantial cell rupturing occurred in the microstructure of hemp nut after MAE, indicating enhanced dissolution of the target compounds during the extraction process. The MAE method is thus a rapid, economic, and environmentally friendly extraction method that is both effective and practical for industrial applications.

  13. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and derivatization of sulfonamides in river water, honey, milk, and animal plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Xu; Su Rui; Zhao Xin; Liu Zhuang; Zhang Yupu; Li Dan; Li Xueyuan; Zhang Hanqi [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang Ziming, E-mail: analchem@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2011-11-30

    Graphical abstract: The extraction and derivatization efficiency of SAs is dependent on type and volume of extraction solvent, type and volume of disperser, microwave power and irradiation time, volume of derivatization reagent, pH of sample solution as well as ionic strength. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new, rapid and sensitive method for determining sulfonamides (SAs) was proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Derivatization, extraction and preconcentration of SAs were performed in one step. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IL-based MADLLME and derivatization were first applied for the determination of SAs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trace SAs in river water, honey, milk, and pig plasma were determined. - Abstract: The ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-based MADLLME) and derivatization was applied for the pretreatment of six sulfonamides (SAs) prior to the determination by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). By adding methanol (disperser), fluorescamine solution (derivatization reagent) and ionic liquid (extraction solvent) into sample, extraction, derivatization, and preconcentration were continuously performed. Several experimental parameters, such as the type and volume of extraction solvent, the type and volume of disperser, amount of derivatization reagent, microwave power, microwave irradiation time, pH of sample solution, and ionic strength were investigated and optimized. When the microwave power was 240 W, the analytes could be derivatized and extracted simultaneously within 90 s. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of river water, honey, milk, and pig plasma samples, and the recoveries of analytes obtained were in the range of 95.0-110.8, 95.4-106.3, 95.0-108.3, and 95.7-107.7, respectively. The relative standard deviations varied between 1.5% and 7.3% (n = 5). The results showed that the proposed method was a rapid, convenient and feasible method for the determination

  14. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction and derivatization of sulfonamides in river water, honey, milk, and animal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xu; Su Rui; Zhao Xin; Liu Zhuang; Zhang Yupu; Li Dan; Li Xueyuan; Zhang Hanqi; Wang Ziming

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The extraction and derivatization efficiency of SAs is dependent on type and volume of extraction solvent, type and volume of disperser, microwave power and irradiation time, volume of derivatization reagent, pH of sample solution as well as ionic strength. Highlights: ► A new, rapid and sensitive method for determining sulfonamides (SAs) was proposed. ► Derivatization, extraction and preconcentration of SAs were performed in one step. ► IL-based MADLLME and derivatization were first applied for the determination of SAs. ► Trace SAs in river water, honey, milk, and pig plasma were determined. - Abstract: The ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (IL-based MADLLME) and derivatization was applied for the pretreatment of six sulfonamides (SAs) prior to the determination by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). By adding methanol (disperser), fluorescamine solution (derivatization reagent) and ionic liquid (extraction solvent) into sample, extraction, derivatization, and preconcentration were continuously performed. Several experimental parameters, such as the type and volume of extraction solvent, the type and volume of disperser, amount of derivatization reagent, microwave power, microwave irradiation time, pH of sample solution, and ionic strength were investigated and optimized. When the microwave power was 240 W, the analytes could be derivatized and extracted simultaneously within 90 s. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of river water, honey, milk, and pig plasma samples, and the recoveries of analytes obtained were in the range of 95.0–110.8, 95.4–106.3, 95.0–108.3, and 95.7–107.7, respectively. The relative standard deviations varied between 1.5% and 7.3% (n = 5). The results showed that the proposed method was a rapid, convenient and feasible method for the determination of SAs in liquid samples.

  15. Optimizing the conditions for the microwave-assisted direct liquefaction of Ulva prolifera for bio-oil production using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Junhai; Zhuang, Yingbin; Li, Yan; Chen, Limei; Guo, Jingxue; Li, Demao; Ye, Naihao

    2013-01-01

    Microwave-assisted direct liquefaction (MADL) of Ulva prolifera was performed in ethylene glycol (EG) using sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) as a catalyst. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed to optimize the conditions of three independent variables (catalyst content, solvent-to-feedstock ratio and temperature) for the liquefaction yield. And the bio-oil was analyzed by elementary analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis (FT-IR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The maximum liquefaction yield was 93.17%, which was obtained under a microwave power of 600 W for 30 min at 165 °C with a solvent-to-feedstock ratio of 18.87:1 and 4.93% sulfuric acid. The bio-oil was mainly composed of phthalic acid esters, alkenes and a fatty acid methyl ester with a long chain from C 16 to C 20 . - Highlights: • Ulva prolifera was converted to bio-oil through microwave-assisted direct liquefaction. • Response surface methodology was used to optimize the liquefaction technology. • A maximum liquefaction rate of 93.17 wt% bio-oil was obtained. • The bio-oil was composed of carboxylic acids and esters

  16. Beneficial effects of microwave-assisted heating versus conventional heating in noble metal nanoparticle synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Naween; García, Stephany; Zhou, Jiping; Humphrey, Simon M

    2012-11-27

    An extensive comparative study of the effects of microwave versus conventional heating on the nucleation and growth of near-monodisperse Rh, Pd, and Pt nanoparticles has revealed distinct and preferential effects of the microwave heating method. A one-pot synthetic method has been investigated, which combines nucleation and growth in a single reaction via precise control over the precursor addition rate. Using this method, microwave-assisted heating enables the convenient preparation of polymer-capped nanoparticles with improved monodispersity, morphological control, and higher crystallinity, compared with samples heated conventionally under otherwise identical conditions. Extensive studies of Rh nanoparticle formation reveal fundamental differences during the nucleation phase that is directly dependent on the heating method; microwave irradiation was found to provide more uniform seeds for the subsequent growth of larger nanostructures of desired size and surface structure. Nanoparticle growth kinetics are also markedly different under microwave heating. While conventional heating generally yields particles with mixed morphologies, microwave synthesis consistently provides a majority of tetrahedral particles at intermediate sizes (5-7 nm) or larger cubes (8+ nm) upon further growth. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy indicates that Rh seeds and larger nanoparticles obtained from microwave-assisted synthesis are more highly crystalline and faceted versus their conventionally prepared counterparts. Microwave-prepared Rh nanoparticles also show approximately twice the catalytic activity of similar-sized conventionally prepared particles, as demonstrated in the vapor-phase hydrogenation of cyclohexene. Ligand exchange reactions to replace polymer capping agents with molecular stabilizing agents are also easily facilitated under microwave heating, due to the excitation of polar organic moieties; the ligand exchange proceeds with excellent retention of

  17. Complex-mediated microwave-assisted synthesis of polyacrylonitrile nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinath Biswal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Trinath Biswal, Ramakanta Samal, Prafulla K SahooDepartment of Chemistry, Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar 751004, IndiaAbstract: The polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN is efficiently, easily, and quickly achieved in the presence of trans-[Co(IIIen2Cl2]Cl complex in a domestic microwave (MW oven. MW irradiation notably promoted the polymerization reaction; this phenomenon is ascribed to the acceleration of the initiator, ammonium persulfate (APS, decomposition by microwave irradiation in the presence of [Co(IIIen2Cl2]Cl. The conversion of monomer to the polymer was mostly excellent in gram scale. Irradiation at low power and time produced more homogeneous polymers with high molecular weight and low polydispersity when compared with the polymer formed by a conventional heating method. The interaction of reacting components was monitored by UV-visible spectrometer. The average molecular weight was derived by gel permeation chromatography (GPC, viscosity methods, and sound velocity by ultrasonic interferometer. The uniform and reduced molecular size was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, the diameter of polyacrylonitrile nanoparticles (PAN being in the range 50–115 nm and 40–230 nm in microwave and conventional heating methods respectively. The surface morphology of PAN prepared by MW irradiation was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM. From the kinetic results, the rate of polymerization (Rp was expressed as Rp = [AN]0.63 [APS]0.57 [complex (I].0.88Keywords: microwave, complex catalyst, nanoparticle, kinetics

  18. Microwave-assisted synthesis of transition metal phosphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Tito

    2014-12-30

    A method of synthesizing transition metal phosphide. In one embodiment, the method has the steps of preparing a transition metal lignosulfonate, mixing the transition metal lignosulfonate with phosphoric acid to form a mixture, and subjecting the mixture to a microwave radiation for a duration of time effective to obtain a transition metal phosphide.

  19. Microwave-assisted facile green synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silver nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized in aqueous medium by a green, rapid and costefficient synthetic approach based on microwave irradiation. In this study, iota-carrageenan (I-carrageenan) is used both as reducing and stabilizing agent. The formation of nanoparticles is determined using UV–vis, ...

  20. Microwave-Assisted Hydantoins Synthesis on Solid Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coursindel, Thibault; Martinez, Jean; Parrot, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    In this laboratory activity, students are introduced to a three-step synthesis of hydantoin (imidazolidine-2,4-dione), a moiety that is found in many biologically active compounds. Using a microwave oven and solid-support technology, this synthetic experiment is designed for masters-degree candidates working in organic chemistry or upper-level…

  1. Microwave assisted synthesis of Magnetically responsive composite materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Horská, Kateřina; Pospíšková, K.; Maděrová, Zdeňka; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2013), s. 213-218 ISSN 0018-9464 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/2263; GA MŠk LH12190 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : magnetic materials * magnetic modification * magnetic separation * microwaves Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.213, year: 2013

  2. Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Magnetically Responsive Composite Materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Pospišková, K.; Maděrová, Zdeňka; Baldíková, E.; Horská, Kateřina; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2015), s. 239-243 ISSN 0749-503X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13023; GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/2263 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : saccharomyces cerevisiae * cells immobilization * chitosan * magnetite * microwave irradiation * yeast Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.259, year: 2015

  3. Removal of Pentachlorophenol Using Microwave Assisted Persulfate from Synthetic Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorban Asgari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pentachlorophenol (PCP is an important class of environmental pollutants which is excessively used in industry in spite of strong evidence about its hazards. Therefore, the removal of PCP from aqua solution is recommended due to its toxicity and health risks. In the present study, the removal of PCP using a modified domestic microwave (MW oven alone and in combination with persulfate (MW/PS was investigated. The effects of operational parameters such as pH of solution, the power of microwave radiations and the amount of persulfate concentration were studied. A spectrophotometer was used for determining of the concentration of pentachlorophenol. The experimental results showed that the removal of PCP was influenced by many factors, such as the pH value, the amount of persulfate and microwave power. The optimum conditions for the best removal rate were obtained at pH=11, a persulfate concentration of 0.02mol/L and microwave irradiation power of about 600W for MW/PS system at constant PCP concentration.  Also, the direct degradation results showed that the removal of PCP was 2% in MW system without PS after 30 min of MW irradiation. The removal of PCP by MW/PS and MW alone were follow first order rate decay kinetics and the rate constants were 0.093 and 0.00066 min-1, respectively.

  4. Microwave-assisted green synthesis and antimicrobial activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Available online at http://www.tjpr.org ... Methods: The synthesis of AgNPs of a P. niruri extract was carried out in a microwave oven. The extraction .... Characterization of silver nanoparticles ... and current were 36 kV and 20 mA, respectively.

  5. Microwave assisted click chemistry on a conductive polymer film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hansen, Thomas S.; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2011-01-01

    Microwave (MW) irradiation has been used to accelerate the functionalization of an azide functional poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) film by click chemistry. The absorption of MW energy by the conductive polymer has been exploited for localized activation of the reaction on the polymer surface...

  6. Synthesis of benzamides by microwave assisted ring opening of less reactive dimethylaminobenzylidene oxazolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh C. Khadse

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the synthesis of some benzamide compounds (B1–B10 by microwave-assisted ring opening of 4-(4-dimethylaminobenzylidene-2-phenyl-5-oxazolone (AZ4. By conventional synthesis involving heating, it was found difficult to obtain ring-opened products, probably due to poor tendency of the carbonyl carbon (C5 of AZ4 to undergo nucleophilic attack by mono/or disubstituted anilines. Microwave assisted reactions were easy to perform, have reduced the reaction time and produced good yields.

  7. Microwave-assisted one-step synthesis of acetate-capped NaYF4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, Kumbam Lingeshwar; Prabhakar, Neeraj; Arppe, Riikka

    2017-01-01

    Acetate-capped hydrophilic cubic phase NaYF4:Yb/Er upconversion nanophosphors were effectively synthesized in a single step employing a facile microwave-assisted synthesis route by applying relatively low temperatures in a short span of time compared to the conventional synthetic methods. The nan......Acetate-capped hydrophilic cubic phase NaYF4:Yb/Er upconversion nanophosphors were effectively synthesized in a single step employing a facile microwave-assisted synthesis route by applying relatively low temperatures in a short span of time compared to the conventional synthetic methods...

  8. Optimization of microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and soxhlet extraction of phenolic compound from licorice root

    OpenAIRE

    Karami, Zohreh; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Mirzaee, Habib Allah; Khomeiri, Morteza; Mahoonak, Alireza Sadeghi; Aydani, Emad

    2014-01-01

    In present study, response surface methodology was used to optimize extraction condition of phenolic compounds from licorice root by microwave application. Investigated factors were solvent (ethanol 80 %, methanol 80 % and water), liquid/solid ratio (10:1–25:1) and time (2–6 min). Experiments were designed according to the central composite rotatable design. The results showed that extraction conditions had significant effect on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capac...

  9. Optimum Conditions for Microwave Assisted Extraction for Recovery of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity from Macadamia (Macadamia tetraphylla Skin Waste Using Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Dailey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop optimal microwave assisted extraction conditions for recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties from the macadamia skin, an abundant waste source from the macadamia industry. Water, a safe, accessible, and inexpensive solvent, was used as the extraction solvent and Response Surface Methodology (RSM was applied to design and analyse the conditions for microwave-assisted extraction (MAE. The results showed that RSM models were reliable for the prediction of extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties. Within the tested ranges, MAE radiation time and power, as well as the sample-to-solvent ratio, affected the extraction efficiency of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and antioxidant properties of the macadamia skin; however, the impact of these variables was varied. The optimal MAE conditions for maximum recovery of TPC, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant properties from the macadamia skin were MAE time of 4.5 min, power of 30% (360 W and sample-to-water ratio of 5 g/100 mL. Under these conditions, an extract could be prepared with TPC of 45 mg/g, flavonoids of 29 mg RUE/g of dried macadamia skin.

  10. Microwave-assisted synthesis and properties of a series of poly(2-alkyl-2-oxazoline)s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, R.; Fijten, M.W.M.; Thijs, H.M.L.; Lankvelt, van B.M.; Schubert, U.S.

    2005-01-01

    Microwave-assisted organic synthesis is a quickly expanding field of research. The fast non-contact (super)heating of the reaction mixtures has already resulted in many examples of increased reaction rates and improved yields. However, the number of investigations focusing on microwave-assisted

  11. Biodiesel Production from Dry Microalga Biomass by Microwave-Assisted In-Situ Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qadariyah Lailatul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalga is one of the potential feedstocks in the manufacture of biodiesel because it contains high oil content. In this study, Chlorella sp. was selected because its high oil content about 28-32% of oil (based on its dry weight and its presence is abundant among other green algae. In situ transesterification was carried out in round neck flask under microwave irradiation. Microwave irradiation can facilitate the in situ transesterification by extracted the lipid of microalga and simultaneous convert to FAME. The purposes of this study are to investigate the effect of acid catalyst concentration, microwave power, reaction time and the addition of co-solvent (n-hexane on the yield of biodiesel, to get optimum operating conditions and to know the fatty acid compounds of biodiesel from Chlorella sp. The results of oil extraction and biodiesel were analyzed by GC-MS analysis. Based on the experiment, the yield of microalga oil was 11.37%. The optimum yield of biodiesel by in-situ transesterification was 75.68%. It was obtained at the microwave power of 450 watts, the reaction time of 60 minutes, an acid catalyst concentration of 0,2M of H2SO4, and the co-solvent addition of 10 ml.

  12. Microwave-assisted degradation of acid orange using a conjugated polymer, polyaniline, as catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufana Riaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assisted photocatalytic degradation of dyes is one of the emerging technologies for waste water remediation. Microwave effectively accelerates photocatalytic degradation, when microwave electrodeless lamp (MEL substitutes traditional UV lamp as light source. This setup can be extremely simplified if MEL and photocatalyst can be replaced by a catalyst which can work under microwave irradiation in the absence of any light source. The present work reports for the first time degradation of acid orange 7 (AO under microwave irradiation using polyaniline (PANI as catalyst in the absence of any UV lamp as light source. The degradation/decolourization was carried out in neutral acidic and basic media and was monitored spectrophotometrically to evaluate the ability of microwave irradiation to degrade AO. Microwave irradiation showed excellent performance as it completely decolourizes AO dye solution in 10 min. With the advantages of low cost and rapid processing, this novel catalyst is expected to gain promising application in the treatment of various dyestuff wastewaters on a large scale.

  13. Microwave assisted synthesis and characterization of barium titanate nanoparticles for multi layered ceramic capacitor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalai, Sundararajan; Shanmugavel, Balasivanandha Prabu

    2011-01-01

    Barium titanate is a common ferroelectric electro-ceramic material having high dielectric constant, with photorefractive effect and piezoelectric properties. In this research work, nano-scale barium titanate powders were synthesized by microwave assisted mechano-chemical route. Suitable precursors were ball milled for 20 hours. TGA studies were performed to study the thermal stability of the powders. The powders were characterized by XRD, SEM and EDX Analysis. Microwave and Conventional heating were performed at 1000 degrees C. The overall heating schedule was reduced by 8 hours in microwave heating thereby reducing the energy and time requirement. The nano-scale, impurity-free and defect-free microstructure was clearly evident from the SEM micrograph and EDX patterns. LCR meter was used to measure the dielectric constant and dielectric loss values at various frequencies. Microwave heated powders showed superior dielectric constant value with low dielectric loss which is highly essential for the fabrication of Multi Layered Ceramic Capacitors.

  14. Microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke; Molienda asistida con microondas de un coque metalurgico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruisanchez, E.; Juarez-Perez, E. J.; Arenillas, A.; Bermudez, J. M.; Menendez, J. A.

    2014-10-01

    Metallurgical cokes are composed of graphitic carbon (s2p2) and different inorganic compounds with very different capacities to absorb microwave radiation. Moreover, due to the electric conductivity shown by the metallurgical cokes, microwave radiation produces electric arcs or microplasmas, which gives rise to hot spots. Therefore, when these cokes are irradiated with microwaves some parts of the particle experiment a rapid heating, while some others do not heat at all. As a result of the different expansion and stress caused by thermal the shock, small cracks and micro-fissures are produced in the particle. The weakening of the coke particles, and therefore an improvement of its grind ability, is produced. This paper studies the microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke and evaluates the grinding improvement and energy saving. (Author)

  15. Microwave-assisted one-step patterning of aqueous colloidal silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G; Zhou, Y W; Guo, Z R; Wan, Y; Ding, Q; Bai, T T; Wang, C L; Gu, N

    2012-07-05

    A new approach of utilizing microwave to pattern gradient concentric silver nanoparticle ring structures has been presented. The width and height of a single ring and the space between adjacent rings can be adjusted by changing the silver colloidal concentration and the microwave output power. By simply enhancing the ambient vapour pressure to the saturated value during microwave-assisted evaporation, sub-100 nm rings can be deposited in between adjacent micro-rings over a distance of millimetres. Combined with microwave sintering, this approach can also create conductive silver tracks in a single step, showing huge potential in fabricating micro- and nano-electronic devices in an ultra-fast and cost-effective fashion.

  16. Processed Meat Protein and Heat-Stable Peptide Marker Identification Using Microwave-Assisted Tryptic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Montowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New approaches to rapid examination of proteins and peptides in complex food matrices are of great interest to the community of food scientists. The aim of the study is to examine the influence of microwave irradiation on the acceleration of enzymatic cleavage and enzymatic digestion of denatured proteins in cooked meat of five species (cattle, horse, pig, chicken and turkey and processed meat products (coarsely minced, smoked, cooked and semi-dried sausages. Severe protein aggregation occurred not only in heated meat under harsh treatment at 190 °C but also in processed meat products. All the protein aggregates were thoroughly hydrolyzed aft er 1 h of trypsin treatment with short exposure times of 40 and 20 s to microwave irradiation at 138 and 303 W. There were much more missed cleavage sites observed in all microwave-assisted digestions. Despite the incompleteness of microwave-assisted digestion, six unique peptide markers were detected, which allowed unambiguous identification of processed meat derived from the examined species. Although the microwave-assisted tryptic digestion can serve as a tool for rapid and high-throughput protein identification, great caution and pre-evaluation of individual samples is recommended in protein quantitation.

  17. On-Demand Microwave-Assisted Fabrication of Gelatin Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane D. Frazier

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultraporous gelatin foams (porosity >94%, ρ ≈ 0.039–0.056 g/cm3 have been fabricated via microwave radiation. The resulting foam structures are unique with regard to pore morphology (i.e., closed-cell and exhibit 100% macroporosity (pore size 332 to 1700 μm, presence of an external skin, and densities similar to aerogels. Results indicate that the primary foaming mechanism is governed by the vaporization of water that is tightly bound in secondary structures (i.e., helices, β-turns, β-sheets that are present in dehydrated gelatin films but not present in the foams after microwave radiation (700 Watts.

  18. Degradation of Transformer Oil (PCB Compounds by Microwave Radiation, Ethanol Solvent, Hydrogen Peroxide and Dioxide Titanium for Reducing Environmental Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tajik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poly chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a class of chlorinated organic chemicals that do not easily degrade in the environment. This study was conducted to determine the effect of microwave rays, hydrogen peroxide, dioxide titanium and ethanol solvent on the degradation of PCBs. Methods: A 900w domestic MW oven with a fixed frequency of 2450 MHZ was used to provide MW irradiation. Ray powers were used in 540, 720, and 900w. A hole was made on the top portion of the oven and a Pyrex vessel reactor (250ml volume was connected to condensing system with a Pyrex tube connector. The PCBs were analyzed by GC-ECD. Results: The degradation of total PCBs was 54.62%, 79.71%, and 95.76% in terms of their ratio to solvent with transformer oil at 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1, respectively. The degradation of total PCBs was 84.27%, 89.18%, and 96.1% when using 540, 720, and 900W microwave radiation, respectively. The degradation of total PCBs was 70.72%, 93.02%, 94.16, 95.23% and 96.1% when not using H2O2/ Tio2 and using 20% H2O2 and 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2g Tio2, respectively. Conclusion: In the present study, the optimum conditions to decompose PCBs efficiently included 50 ml volume of ratio to solvent with transformer oil (3:1, sodium hydroxide solution (0.2N 1 cc, use of 20% hydrogen peroxide of total volume of samples, dioxide titanium (0.2g, and irradiation for 9 minutes. Under these optimum conditions, efficiency of PCBs decomposition increased.

  19. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Functional Lipophilic Compounds from Arthrospira platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. Esquivel-Hernández

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira platensis biomass was used in order to obtain functional lipophilic compounds through green extraction technologies such as supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SFE and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE. The temperature (T factor was evaluated for MAE, while for SFE, pressure (P, temperature (T, and co-solvent (ethanol (CS were evaluated. The maximum extraction yield of the obtained oleoresin was (4.07% ± 0.14% and (4.27% ± 0.10% for SFE and MAE, respectively. Extracts were characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID. The maximum contents of functional lipophilic compounds in the SFE and MAE extracts were: for carotenoids 283 ± 0.10 μg/g and 629 ± 0.13 μg/g, respectively; for tocopherols 5.01 ± 0.05 μg/g and 2.46 ± 0.09 μg/g, respectively; and for fatty acids 34.76 ± 0.08 mg/g and 15.88 ± 0.06 mg/g, respectively. In conclusion, the SFE process at P 450 bar, T 60 °C and CS 53.33% of CO2 produced the highest yield of tocopherols, carotenoids and fatty acids. The MAE process at 400 W and 50 °C gives the best extracts in terms of tocopherols and carotenoids. For yield and fatty acids, the MAE process at 400 W and 70 °C produced the highest values. Both SFE and MAE showed to be suitable green extraction technologies for obtaining functional lipophilic compounds from Arthrospira platensis.

  20. Ionic Liquid-Based Ultrasonic/Microwave-Assisted Extraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Compared with traditional methods, IL-UMAE method uses Ionic liquid-solvent which greatly shortens the extraction time. IL-UMAE as a simple, effective and environmentally friendly approach shows a broad prospect for active ingredient extraction. Keywords: Dioscorea zingiberensis Steroidal saponins, Ionic ...

  1. Kinetics and Quality of Microwave-Assisted Drying of Mango (Mangifera indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Ekow Abano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of microwave-assisted convective air-drying on the drying kinetics and quality of mango was evaluated. Both microwave power and pretreatment time were significant factors but the effect of power was more profound. Increase in microwave power and pretreatment time had a positive effect on drying time. The nonenzymatic browning index of the fresh samples increased from 0.29 to 0.60 while the ascorbic acid content decreased with increase in microwave power and time from 3.84 mg/100g to 1.67 mg/100g. The effective moisture diffusivity varied from 1.45 × 10−9 to 2.13 × 10−9 m2/s for microwave power range of 300-600 W for 2 to 4 minutes of pretreatment. The Arrhenius type power-dependent activation energy was found to be in the range of 8.58–17.48 W/mm. The fitting of commonly used drying models to the drying data showed the Midilli et al. model as the best. Microwave power of 300 W and pretreatment time of 4 minutes emerged as the optimum conditions prior to air-drying at 7°C. At this ideal condition, the energy savings as a result of microwave application was approximately 30%. Therefore, microwave-assisted drying should be considered for improved heat and mass transfer processes during drying to produce dried mangoes with better quality.

  2. The synthesis of α-aryl-α-aminophosphonates and α-aryl-α-aminophosphine oxides by the microwave-assisted Pudovik reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Bálint

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A family of α-aryl-α-aminophosphonates and α-aryl-α-aminophosphine oxides was synthesized by the microwave-assisted solvent-free addition of dialkyl phosphites and diphenylphosphine oxide, respectively, to imines formed from benzaldehyde derivatives and primary amines. After optimization, the reactivity was mapped, and the fine mechanism was evaluated by DFT calculations. Two α-aminophosphonates were subjected to an X-ray study revealing a racemic dimer formation made through a N–H···O=P intermolecular hydrogen bridges pair.

  3. Rapid synthesis of single-phase bismuth ferrite by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Wenqian [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Chen, Zhi, E-mail: zchen0@gmail.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Gao, Tong; Zhou, Dantong; Leng, Xiaonan; Niu, Feng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Zhu, Yuxiang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Marine Resources and Chemistry, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin (China); Qin, Laishun, E-mail: qinlaishun@yeah.net [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Wang, Jiangying; Huang, Yuexiang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China)

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes on the fast synthesis of bismuth ferrite by the simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The phase transformation and the preferred growth facets during the synthetic process have been investigated by X-ray diffraction. Bismuth ferrite can be quickly prepared by microwave hydrothermal method by simply controlling the reaction time, which is further confirmed by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and magnetic measurement. - Graphical abstract: Single-phase BiFeO{sub 3} could be realized at a shortest reaction time of 65 min. The reaction time has strong influences on the phase transformation and the preferred growth facets. - Highlights: • Rapid synthesis (65 min) of BiFeO{sub 3} by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. • Reaction time has influence on the purity and preferred growth facets. • FTIR and magnetic measurement further confirm the pure phase.

  4. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of methyl ricinoleate for continuous production of undecylenic acid methyl ester (UAME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yong; Duan, Ying; Gong, Ruchao; Yu, Shangzhi; Lu, Meizhen; Yu, Fengwen; Ji, Jianbing

    2015-06-01

    Undecylenic acid methyl ester (UAME) was continuously produced from methyl ricinoleate using a microwave-assisted pyrolysis system with atomization feeding. The UAME yield of 77 wt.% was obtained at 500°C using SiC as the microwave absorbent and heating medium. The methyl ricinoleate conversion and UAME yield from microwave-assisted pyrolysis process were higher than those from conventional pyrolysis. The effect of temperature on the pyrolysis process was also investigated. The methyl ricinoleate conversion increased but the cracking liquid yield decreased when the temperature increased from 460°C to 560°C. The maximum UAME yield was obtained at the temperature of 500°C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid synthesis of single-phase bismuth ferrite by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Wenqian; Chen, Zhi; Gao, Tong; Zhou, Dantong; Leng, Xiaonan; Niu, Feng; Zhu, Yuxiang; Qin, Laishun; Wang, Jiangying; Huang, Yuexiang

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes on the fast synthesis of bismuth ferrite by the simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The phase transformation and the preferred growth facets during the synthetic process have been investigated by X-ray diffraction. Bismuth ferrite can be quickly prepared by microwave hydrothermal method by simply controlling the reaction time, which is further confirmed by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and magnetic measurement. - Graphical abstract: Single-phase BiFeO_3 could be realized at a shortest reaction time of 65 min. The reaction time has strong influences on the phase transformation and the preferred growth facets. - Highlights: • Rapid synthesis (65 min) of BiFeO_3 by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. • Reaction time has influence on the purity and preferred growth facets. • FTIR and magnetic measurement further confirm the pure phase.

  6. One-step microwave-assisted synthesis of water-dispersible Fe3O4 magnetic nanoclusters for hyperthermia applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathya, Ayyappan; Kalyani, S.; Ranoo, Surojit; Philip, John

    2017-10-01

    To realize magnetic hyperthermia as an alternate stand-alone therapeutic procedure for cancer treatment, magnetic nanoparticles with optimal performance, within the biologically safe limits, are to be produced using simple, reproducible and scalable techniques. Herein, we present a simple, one-step approach for synthesis of water-dispersible magnetic nanoclusters (MNCs) of superparamagnetic iron oxide by reducing of Fe2(SO4)3 in sodium acetate (alkali), poly ethylene glycol (capping ligand), and ethylene glycol (solvent and reductant) in a microwave reactor. The average size and saturation magnetization of the MNC's are tuned from 27 to 52 nm and 32 to 58 emu/g by increasing the reaction time from 10 to 600 s. Transmission electron microscopy images reveal that each MNC composed of large number of primary Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The synthesised MNCs show excellent colloidal stability in aqueous phase due to the adsorbed PEG layer. The highest SAR value of 215 ± 10 W/gFe observed in 52 nm size MNC at a frequency of 126 kHz and field of 63 kA/m suggest the potential use of these MNC in hyperthermia applications. This study further opens up the possibilities to develop metal ion-doped MNCs with tunable sizes suitable for various biomedical applications using microwave assisted synthesis.

  7. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of essential oil and biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chun-hui; Liu, Ting-ting; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuan-gang; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Chunjian

    2011-12-02

    Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) has been successfully applied in extracting essential oil and four kinds of biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill. 0.25 M 1-lauryl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid is selected as solvent. The optimum parameters of dealing with 25.0 g sample are 385 W irradiation power, 40 min microwave extraction time and 1:12 solid-liquid ratio. The yields of essential oil and lignans are 12.12±0.37 ml/kg and 250.2±38.2 mg/kg under the optimum conditions. The composition of the essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation, steam-distillation and ILMAE is analyzed by GC-MS. With ILMAE method, the energy consumption time has not only been shortened to 40 min (hydro-distillation 3.0 h for extracting essential oil and reflux extraction 4.0 h for extracting lignans, respectively), but also the extraction efficiency has been improved (extraction of lignans and distillation of essential oil at the same time) and reduces the environmental pollution. S. chinensis materials treated by different methods are observed by scanning electronic microscopy. Micrographs provide more evidence to prove that ILMAE is a better and faster method. The experimental results also indicate that ILMAE is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. One-step microwave-assisted colloidal synthesis of hybrid silver oxide/silver nanoparticles: characterization and catalytic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakoso, S. P.; Taufik, A.; Saleh, R.

    2017-04-01

    This study reports the characterization and catalytic activities of silver-oxide/silver nanoparticles (Ag2O/Ag NPs) synthesized by microwave-assisted colloidal method in the presence of anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant. To promote different contents of silver in silver oxide, the volume ratio (VR) of ethylene glycol (EG) was varied (VR: 10% to 14%) in relation to the total volume of distilled water solvent. The plasmonic resonance of Ag2O/Ag NPs could be detected around a wavelength of 350 nm, and it is suggested that Ag2O/Ag NPs were successfully formed in the colloid solution following exposure to microwaves. Additionally, the growth rate for each crystal phase within Ag2O and Ag was influenced by an increase of EG as revealed by x-ray diffraction patterns. The morphology, average diameter, and uniformity of Ag2O/Ag NPs were studied simultaneously by transmission electron microscopy. Infrared absorption measurement of Ag2O/Ag NPs confirmed the existence of SDS surfactant as a protective agent. Based on the characterization data, Ag2O/Ag NPs synthesized using this technique exhibited good properties, with high-yield production of NPs. The photocatalytic experiments demonstrate the key role of the crystal phase of Ag2O/Ag NPs in photocatalytic efficiency.

  9. Mathematical Modeling of Microwave-Assisted Convective Heating and Drying of Grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research studied the processing performance and product quality of Thompson seedless grapes dried using microwave-assisted convective hot air drying as well as the effect of blanching and dipping pretreatments. Two pretreatment methods were compared, dipping into 2% ethyl oleate (V/V) and 5% p...

  10. DEXTROSE-TEMPLATED MICROWAVE-ASSISTED COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS OF SPONGY METAL OXIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of porous nanocrystalline titania and carbon coated titania is reported using dextrose as template and the product was compared with the one obtained using conventional heating furnace. Out of three compositions viz., 1:1, 1:3, and 1:5 (met...

  11. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Mesoporous Nano-Hydroxyapatite Using Surfactant Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAP) was expeditiously synthesized using the pseudo sol-gel microwave-assisted protocol (30 min) in the presence of two novel templates, namely sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) and linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LABS). The cooperative self-assem...

  12. Pd(OAc)2/DPPF-catalysed microwave-assisted cyanides-free ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pd(OAc)2/DPPF-catalysed microwave-assisted cyanides-free synthesis of aryl nitriles. DINESH N. SAWANT and BHALCHANDRA M. BHANAGE*. Department of Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, N. Parekh Marg, Matunga,. Mumbai 400019 India. e-mail bm.bhanage@ictmumbai.edu.in. INDEX ...

  13. Microwave-assisted solid-phase Ugi four-component condensations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1999-01-01

    An 18-member library was constructed from 2 isocyanides, 3 aldehydes and 3 carboxylic acids via microwave-assisted solid-phase Ugi reactions on TentaGel S RAM. Products of high purity were obtained in moderate to excellent yields after reaction times of 5 minutes or less (irradiation at 60W). (C...

  14. Rapid and convenient semi-automated microwave-assisted solid-phase synthesis of arylopeptoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jakob Ewald; Boccia, Marcello Massimo; Nielsen, John

    2014-01-01

    A facile and expedient route to the synthesis of arylopeptoid oligomers (N-alkylated aminomethyl benz-amides) using semi-automated microwave-assisted solid-phase synthesis is presented. The synthesis was optimized for the incorporation of side chains derived from sterically hindered or unreactive...

  15. Microwave assisted air drying of osmotically treated pineapple with variable power programmes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, GE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Variable power programmes for microwave assisted air drying of pineapple were studied. The pineapple pieces were pre-treated by osmotic dehydration in a 55º Brix sucrose solution at 40ºC for 90 minutes. Variable power output programmes were designed...

  16. Microwave-assisted nonionic surfactant extraction of aliphatic hydrocarbons from petroleum source rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinlua, A., E-mail: geochemresearch@yahoo.com [Fossil Fuels and Environmental Geochemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Jochmann, M.A.; Laaks, J.; Ewert, A.; Schmidt, T.C. [Instrumental Analytical Chemistry, University Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstr, 5, 45141 Essen (Germany)

    2011-04-08

    The extraction of aliphatic hydrocarbons from petroleum source rock using nonionic surfactants with the assistance of microwave was investigated and the conditions for maximum yield were determined. The results showed that the extraction temperatures and kinetic rates have significant effects on extraction yields of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The optimum temperature for microwave-assisted nonionic surfactant extraction of aliphatic hydrocarbons from petroleum source rock was 105 deg. C. The optimum extraction time for the aliphatic hydrocarbons was at 50 min. Concentration of the nonionic surfactant solution and irradiation power had significant effect on the yields of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The yields of the analytes were much higher using microwave assisted nonionic surfactant extraction than with Soxhlet extraction. The recoveries of the n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoid hydrocarbons for GC-MS analysis from the extractant nonionic surfactant solution by in-tube extraction (ITEX 2) with a TENAX TA adsorbent were found to be efficient. The results show that microwave-assisted nonionic surfactant extraction (MANSE) is a good and efficient green analytical preparatory technique for geochemical evaluation of petroleum source rock.

  17. Microwave-assisted nonionic surfactant extraction of aliphatic hydrocarbons from petroleum source rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinlua, A.; Jochmann, M.A.; Laaks, J.; Ewert, A.; Schmidt, T.C.

    2011-01-01

    The extraction of aliphatic hydrocarbons from petroleum source rock using nonionic surfactants with the assistance of microwave was investigated and the conditions for maximum yield were determined. The results showed that the extraction temperatures and kinetic rates have significant effects on extraction yields of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The optimum temperature for microwave-assisted nonionic surfactant extraction of aliphatic hydrocarbons from petroleum source rock was 105 deg. C. The optimum extraction time for the aliphatic hydrocarbons was at 50 min. Concentration of the nonionic surfactant solution and irradiation power had significant effect on the yields of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The yields of the analytes were much higher using microwave assisted nonionic surfactant extraction than with Soxhlet extraction. The recoveries of the n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoid hydrocarbons for GC-MS analysis from the extractant nonionic surfactant solution by in-tube extraction (ITEX 2) with a TENAX TA adsorbent were found to be efficient. The results show that microwave-assisted nonionic surfactant extraction (MANSE) is a good and efficient green analytical preparatory technique for geochemical evaluation of petroleum source rock.

  18. Microwave-Assisted Chemistry: Synthetic Applications for Rapid Assembly of Nanomaterials and Organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The magic of microwave (MW) heating technique, termed as the Bunsen burner of the 21th Century, has emerged as valuable alternative in synthesis of organics, polymers, inorganics, and nanomaterials. Important innovations in MW-assisted chemistry now enable chemists to prepare cat...

  19. Efficient and 'green' microwave-assisted synthesis of haloalkylphosphonates via the Michaelis-Arbuzov reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jansa, Petr; Holý, Antonín; Dračínský, Martin; Baszczyňski, Ondřej; Česnek, Michal; Janeba, Zlatko

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2011), s. 882-888 ISSN 1463-9262 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400550903; GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : microwave-assisted synthesis * haloalkylphosphonates * Michaelis-Arbuzov reaction Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 6.320, year: 2011

  20. A study of pressureless microwave sintering, microwave-assisted hot press sintering and conventional hot pressing on properties of aluminium/alumina nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedinzadeh, Reza; Safavi, Seyed Mohsen; Karimzadeh, Fathallah [Isfahan University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Bulk Al/4wt-%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposites were prepared by consolidating nanocomposite powders using pressureless microwave sintering, microwave-assisted hot press sintering and conventional hot pressing techniques. Microstructural observations revealed that the microwave-assisted hot press sintering at different sintering temperatures of 400.deg.C and 500.deg.C resulted in more densification and smaller grain size for Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite as compared with the conventional hot pressing. Moreover, the application of pressure in microwave sintering process led to more densification and grain growth. Mechanical properties resulting from microhardness and nanoindentation tests were also compared between three-method processed samples. It was found that the microwave-assisted hot-pressed sample exhibited higher hardness and elastic modulus in comparison with microwave-sintered and conventional hot-pressed samples. The improvement in the mechanical properties can be ascribed to lower porosity of microwave-assisted hot-pressed sample.

  1. Microwave-assisted Facile and Ultrafast Growth of ZnO Nanostructures and Proposition of Alternative Microwave-assisted Methods to Address Growth Stoppage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Abu Ul Hassan Sarwar; Kang, Mingi; Kim, Hyun-Seok

    2016-04-01

    The time constraint in the growth of ZnO nanostructures when using a hydrothermal method is of paramount importance in contemporary research, where a long fabrication time rots the very essence of the research on ZnO nanostructures. In this study, we present the facile and ultrafast growth of ZnO nanostructures in a domestic microwave oven within a pressurized environment in just a few minutes. This method is preferred for the conventional solution-based method because of the ultrafast supersaturation of zinc salts and the fabrication of high-quality nanostructures. The study of the effect of seed layer density, growth time, and the solution’s molar concentration on the morphology, alignment, density, and aspect ratio of ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) is explored. It is found in a microwave-assisted direct growth method that ~5 mins is the optimum time beyond which homogeneous nucleation supersedes heterogeneous nucleation, which results in the growth stoppage of ZNRs. To deal with this issue, we propound different methods such as microwave-assisted solution-replacement, preheating, and PEI-based growth methods, where growth stoppage is addressed and ZNRs with a high aspect ratio can be grown. Furthermore, high-quality ZnO nanoflowers and ZnO nanowalls are fabricated via ammonium hydroxide treatment in a very short time.

  2. Cycloadditions of ketene acetals under microwave irradiation in solvent-free conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Ortiz, A.; Diez-Barra, E.; La Hoz, A. De; Prieto, P.; Moreno, A.

    1994-01-01

    When subjected to microwave irradiation ketene acetals undergo 1.3-dipolar and hetero-Diels-Alder cycloadditions within 5-12 min to give excellent yields of easily purified heterocyclic products. This efficient and rapid synthesis has the advantage of employing milder reaction conditions than those of classical thermal heating. (author)

  3. Freeze drying reduces the extractability of organochlorine pesticides in fish muscle tissue by microwave-assisted method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Lin, Nan; Su, Shu; Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Yuanchen; Yang, Chunli; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Tao, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Samples of animal origin are usually dried before solvent extraction for analysis of organic contaminants. The freeze drying technique is preferred for hydrophobic organic compounds in practice. In this study, it was shown that the concentration of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) extracted from fish muscle tissue significantly decreased after the samples were freeze dried. And the reason for this reduced extractability seemed to be the resistance of OCPs associated with freeze-dried muscle protein to solvent extraction. The extractability can be recovered by adding water prior to extraction. It suggests that the dietary exposure risk of OCPs from fish might be underestimated if freeze-dried samples are used. - Highlights: • Freeze drying significantly reduces extractability of OCPs in fish muscle sample. • It is the protein that causes the reduction in extractability of OCPs. • The extractability can be recovered by adding water before extraction. - Freeze drying significantly decreases the concentrations of OCPs extracted from fish muscle samples by microwave-assisted method

  4. Enhancement of flame development by microwave-assisted spark ignition in constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Wolk, Benjamin

    2013-07-01

    The enhancement of laminar flame development using microwave-assisted spark ignition has been investigated for methane-air mixtures at a range of initial pressures and equivalence ratios in a 1.45. l constant volume combustion chamber. Microwave enhancement was evaluated on the basis of several parameters including flame development time (FDT) (time for 0-10% of total net heat release), flame rise time (FRT) (time for 10-90% of total net heat release), total net heat release, flame kernel growth rate, flame kernel size, and ignitability limit extension. Compared to a capacitive discharge spark, microwave-assisted spark ignition extended the lean and rich ignition limits at all pressures investigated (1.08-7.22. bar). The addition of microwaves to a capacitive discharge spark reduced FDT and increased the flame kernel size for all equivalence ratios tested and resulted in increases in the spatial flame speed for sufficiently lean flames. Flame enhancement is believed to be caused by (1) a non-thermal chemical kinetic enhancement from energy deposition to free electrons in the flame front and (2) induced flame wrinkling from excitation of flame (plasma) instability. The enhancement of flame development by microwaves diminishes as the initial pressure of the mixture increases, with negligible flame enhancement observed above 3. bar. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  5. Using x-ray mammograms to assist in microwave breast image interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Charlotte; Frayne, Richard; Fear, Elise

    2012-01-01

    Current clinical breast imaging modalities include ultrasound, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and the ubiquitous X-ray mammography. Microwave imaging, which takes advantage of differing electromagnetic properties to obtain image contrast, shows potential as a complementary imaging technique. As an emerging modality, interpretation of 3D microwave images poses a significant challenge. MR images are often used to assist in this task, and X-ray mammograms are readily available. However, X-ray mammograms provide 2D images of a breast under compression, resulting in significant geometric distortion. This paper presents a method to estimate the 3D shape of the breast and locations of regions of interest from standard clinical mammograms. The technique was developed using MR images as the reference 3D shape with the future intention of using microwave images. Twelve breast shapes were estimated and compared to ground truth MR images, resulting in a skin surface estimation accurate to within an average Euclidean distance of 10 mm. The 3D locations of regions of interest were estimated to be within the same clinical area of the breast as corresponding regions seen on MR imaging. These results encourage investigation into the use of mammography as a source of information to assist with microwave image interpretation as well as validation of microwave imaging techniques.

  6. Using X-Ray Mammograms to Assist in Microwave Breast Image Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Curtis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current clinical breast imaging modalities include ultrasound, magnetic resonance (MR imaging, and the ubiquitous X-ray mammography. Microwave imaging, which takes advantage of differing electromagnetic properties to obtain image contrast, shows potential as a complementary imaging technique. As an emerging modality, interpretation of 3D microwave images poses a significant challenge. MR images are often used to assist in this task, and X-ray mammograms are readily available. However, X-ray mammograms provide 2D images of a breast under compression, resulting in significant geometric distortion. This paper presents a method to estimate the 3D shape of the breast and locations of regions of interest from standard clinical mammograms. The technique was developed using MR images as the reference 3D shape with the future intention of using microwave images. Twelve breast shapes were estimated and compared to ground truth MR images, resulting in a skin surface estimation accurate to within an average Euclidean distance of 10 mm. The 3D locations of regions of interest were estimated to be within the same clinical area of the breast as corresponding regions seen on MR imaging. These results encourage investigation into the use of mammography as a source of information to assist with microwave image interpretation as well as validation of microwave imaging techniques.

  7. Final Technical Report Microwave Assisted Electrolyte Cell for Primary Aluminum Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaodi Huang; J.Y. Hwang

    2007-04-18

    This research addresses the high priority research need for developing inert anode and wetted cathode technology, as defined in the Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap and Inert Anode Roadmap, with the performance targets: a) significantly reducing the energy intensity of aluminum production, b) ultimately eliminating anode-related CO2 emissions, and c) reducing aluminum production costs. This research intended to develop a new electrometallurgical extraction technology by introducing microwave irradiation into the current electrolytic cells for primary aluminum production. This technology aimed at accelerating the alumina electrolysis reduction rate and lowering the aluminum production temperature, coupled with the uses of nickel based superalloy inert anode, nickel based superalloy wetted cathode, and modified salt electrolyte. Michigan Technological University, collaborating with Cober Electronic and Century Aluminum, conducted bench-scale research for evaluation of this technology. This research included three sub-topics: a) fluoride microwave absorption; b) microwave assisted electrolytic cell design and fabrication; and c) aluminum electrowinning tests using the microwave assisted electrolytic cell. This research concludes that the typically used fluoride compound for aluminum electrowinning is not a good microwave absorbing material at room temperature. However, it becomes an excellent microwave absorbing material above 550°C. The electrowinning tests did not show benefit to introduce microwave irradiation into the electrolytic cell. The experiments revealed that the nickel-based superalloy is not suitable for use as a cathode material; although it wets with molten aluminum, it causes severe reaction with molten aluminum. In the anode experiments, the chosen superalloy did not meet corrosion resistance requirements. A nicked based alloy without iron content could be further investigated.

  8. Microwave-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of ionic liquid for the determination of sulfonamides in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ying; Wu, Lijie; Lu, Chunmei; Li, Na; Hu, Mingzhu; Wang, Ziming

    2014-12-01

    An easy, quick, and green method, microwave-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of ionic liquid, was first developed and applied to the extraction of sulfonamides in environmental water samples. 1-Ethy-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, which is a solid-state ionic liquid at room temperature, was used as extraction solvent in the present method. After microwave irradiation for 90 s, the solid-state ionic liquid was melted into liquid phase and used to finish the extraction of the analytes. The ionic liquid and sample matrix can be separated by freezing and centrifuging. Several experimental parameters, including amount of extraction solvent, microwave power and irradiation time, pH of sample solution, and ionic strength, were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum experimental conditions, good linearity was observed in the range of 2.00-400.00 μg/L with the correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9995 to 0.9999. The limits of detection for sulfathiazole, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfaphenazole were 0.39, 0.33, 0.62, and 0.85 μg/L, respectively. When the present method was applied to the analysis of environmental water samples, the recoveries of the analytes ranged from 75.09 to 115.78% and relative standard deviations were lower than 11.89%. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Integration of ceramic membrane and compressed air-assisted solvent extraction (CASX) for metal recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chi-Wang; Chiu, Chun-Hao; Lee, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Chia-Hao; Lee, Yu-Hsun; Chen, Yi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In our previous publications, compressed air-assisted solvent extraction process (CASX) was developed and proved to be kinetically efficient process for metal removal. In the current study, CASX with a ceramic MF membrane integrated for separation of spent solvent was employed to remove and recover metal from wastewater. MF was operated either in crossflow mode or dead-end with intermittent flushing mode. Under crossflow mode, three distinct stages of flux vs. TMP (trans-membrane pressure) relationship were observed. In the first stage, flux increases with increasing TMP which is followed by the stage of stable flux with increasing TMP. After reaching a threshold TMP which is dependent of crossflow velocity, flux increases again with increasing TMP. At the last stage, solvent was pushed through membrane pores as indicated by increasing permeate COD. In dead-end with intermittent flushing mode, an intermittent flushing flow (2 min after a 10-min or a 30-min dead-end filtration) was incorporated to reduce membrane fouling by flush out MSAB accumulated on membrane surface. Effects of solvent concentration and composition were also investigated. Solvent concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1% (w/w) have no adverse effect in terms of membrane fouling. However, solvent composition, i.e. D(2)EHPA/kerosene ratio, shows impact on membrane fouling. The type of metal extractants employed in CASX has significant impact on both membrane fouling and the quality of filtrate due to the differences in their viscosity and water solubility. Separation of MSAB was the limiting process controlling metal removal efficiency, and the removal efficiency of Cd(II) and Cr(VI) followed the same trend as that for COD.

  10. A Facile Solvent Free Microwave Induced Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Some 3-(2’-Hydroxyphenyl-5-(Substituted Aryl-2-Pyrazoline-N1-Caboxaldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birbal Bajia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel one pot formylation of 3-(2’-hydroxyphenyl-5-(substituted 2-pyrazolines has been carried out using microwave irradiation with formic acid. solvent free reaction afforded title compounds in 80-90% yield with high purity.synthesized compounds were tested for their antibacterial activity using standard drug.

  11. Microwave-Enhanced Sulphated Zirconia and SZ/MCM-41 Catalyzed Regioselective Synthesis of β-Amino Alcohols Under Solvent-Free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo González-Zamora

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A solvent-free approach for the regioselective synthesis of β-amino alcohols inshorter reaction times and higher yields, compared to conventional heating is described. Itinvolves microwave (MW exposure of undiluted reactants in the presence of sulphatedzirconia (SZ or sulphated zirconia over MCM-41 (SZM as catalyst. Both acid materialscan be easily recovered and reused.

  12. 1,3-Dibromo 5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DBH-Catalyzed Solvent-Free Synthesis of 2-arylbenzimidazoles under Microwave Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Forouzani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An expeditious synthesis of 2-aryl-benzimidazoles by the condensation of o-phenylenediamine with various arylaldehydes is described. This greener protocol is catalyzed by 1,3-Dibromo 5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DBH, and proceeds efficiently in the absence of any organic solvent under thermal condition and microwave irradiation in high yields.

  13. Synthesis and application of magnetic deep eutectic solvents: Novel solvents for ultrasound assisted liquid-liquid microextraction of thiophene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezeli, Tahere; Daneshfar, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Two novel magnetic deep eutectic solvents (MDESs), comprised of cheap and simple components named [choline chloride/phenol] [FeCl 4 ] and [choline chloride/ethylene glycol] [FeCl 4 ] were prepared and characterized by CHN elemental analysis, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR), vibrating sample magnetometery (VSM), Raman, Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) and UV-Vis spectrometery. The extraction efficiency of the prepared MDESs has been investigated in ultrasound assisted liquid-liquid microextraction based MDES (UALLME-MDES). Briefly, MDESs were added to n-heptan containing thiophene. Then, MDESs were dispersed in n-heptane by sonication. After that, microdroplets of MDESs were collected by a magnet and the remained concentration of thiophene in n-heptane phase was analyzed by GC-FID. The results indicated that [choline chloride/phenol] [FeCl 4 ] has higher extraction efficiency than [choline chloride/ethylene glycol] [FeCl 4 ]. This work opens a new way to the application of MDESs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Microwave-assisted synthesis of α-aryl malonates: Key intermediates for the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Ibrahim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We disclose a new microwave-assisted protocol for the effective α-arylation of diethyl malonate. The coupling of aryl halides with diethyl malonate proceeds smoothly in short reaction time in the presence of a catalytic amount of Cu(OTf2, 2-picolinic acid and Cs2CO3 in toluene using microwave irradiation. The resulting α-aryl malonates are then used as key intermediates for synthesis of variety of heterocyclic compounds, including benzodiazepines, isoquinolines and pyrrolopyridine scaffolds.

  15. Rapid extraction of PCDD/Fs from soil and fly ash samples. Pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, P.; Fabrellas, B. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    The main reference extraction method in the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzop- dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) is still the Soxhlet extraction. But it requires long extraction times (up to 24 hs), large volumes of hazardous organic solvents (100-300 ml) and its automation is limited. Pressurized Fluid Extraction (PFE) and Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE) are two relatively new extraction techniques that reduce the time and the volume of solvent required for extraction. However, very different PFE extraction conditions are found for the same enviromental matrices in the literature. MAE is not a extraction technique very applied for the analysis of PCDD/Fs yet, although it is used for the determination of other organic compounds, such as PCBs and PAHs. In this study, PFE and MAE extraction conditions were optimized to determine PCDDs y PCDFs in fly ash and soil/sediment samples. Conventional Soxhlet extraction with toluene was used to compare the extraction efficiency of both techniques.

  16. Extraction of Dihydroquercetin from Larix gmelinii with Ultrasound-Assisted and Microwave-Assisted Alternant Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuangang Zu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasound and microwave assisted alternant extraction method (UMAE was applied for extracting dihydroquercetin (DHQ from Larix gmelinii wood. This investigation was conducted using 60% ethanol as solvent, 1:12 solid to liquid ratio, and 3 h soaking time. The optimum treatment time was ultrasound 40 min, microwave 20 min, respectively, and the extraction was performed once. Under the optimized conditions, satisfactory extraction yield of the target analyte was obtained. Relative to ultrasound-assisted or microwave-assisted method, the proposed approach provides higher extraction yield. The effect of DHQ of different concentrations and synthetic antioxidants on oxidative stability in soy bean oil stored for 20 days at different temperatures (25 °C and 60 °C was compared. DHQ was more effective in restraining soy bean oil oxidation, and a dose-response relationship was observed. The antioxidant activity of DHQ was a little stronger than that of BHA and BHT. Soy bean oil supplemented with 0.08 mg/g DHQ exhibited favorable antioxidant effects and is preferable for effectively avoiding oxidation. The L. gmelinii wood samples before and after extraction were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the UMAE method is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation.

  17. Microwave-assisted extraction of pyrethroid insecticides from semi permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) used to indoor air monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A.; Pastor, Agustin; Guardia, Miguel de la

    2006-01-01

    A rapid and environmentally friendly methodology was developed for the extraction of pyrethroid insecticides from semi permeable membrane devices (SPMDs), in which they were preconcentrated in gas phase. The method was based on gas chromatography mass-mass spectrometry determination after a microwave-assisted extraction, in front of the widely employed dialysis method. SPMDs were extracted twice with 30 mL hexane:acetone, irradiated with 250 W power output, until 90 deg. C in 10 min, this temperature being held for another 10 min. Clean-up of the extracts was performed by acetonitrile-hexane partitioning and solid-phase extraction (SPE) with a combined cartridge of 2 g basic-alumina, deactivated with 5% water, and 500 mg C 18 . Pyrethroids investigated were Allethrin, Prallethrin, Tetramethrin, Bifenthrin, Phenothrin, λ-Cyhalothrin, Permethrin, Cyfluthrin, Cypermethrin, Flucythrinate, Esfenvalerate, Fluvalinate and Deltamethrin. The main pyrethroid synergist compound, Pyperonyl Butoxide, was also studied. Limit of detection values ranging from 0.3 to 0.9 ng/SPMD and repeatability data, as relative standard deviation, from 2.9 to 9.4%, were achieved. Pyrethroid recoveries, for spiked SPMDs, with 100 ng of each one of the pyrethroids evaluated, were from 61 ± 8 to 103 ± 7% for microwave-assisted extraction, versus 54 ± 4 to 104 ± 3% for dialysis reference method. Substantial reduction of solvent consumed (from 400 to 60 mL) and analysis time (from 48 to 1 h) was achieved by using the developed procedure. High concentration levels of pyrethroid compounds, from 0.14 to 7.3 μg/SPMD, were found in indoor air after 2 h of a standard application

  18. Microwave-assisted extraction of pyrethroid insecticides from semi permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) used to indoor air monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A. [Analytical Chemistry Department, University of Valencia, Edifici Jeroni Munoz, 50th Dr. Moliner, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Pastor, Agustin [Analytical Chemistry Department, University of Valencia, Edifici Jeroni Munoz, 50th Dr. Moliner, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: agustin.pastor@uv.es; Guardia, Miguel de la [Analytical Chemistry Department, University of Valencia, Edifici Jeroni Munoz, 50th Dr. Moliner, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2006-02-23

    A rapid and environmentally friendly methodology was developed for the extraction of pyrethroid insecticides from semi permeable membrane devices (SPMDs), in which they were preconcentrated in gas phase. The method was based on gas chromatography mass-mass spectrometry determination after a microwave-assisted extraction, in front of the widely employed dialysis method. SPMDs were extracted twice with 30 mL hexane:acetone, irradiated with 250 W power output, until 90 deg. C in 10 min, this temperature being held for another 10 min. Clean-up of the extracts was performed by acetonitrile-hexane partitioning and solid-phase extraction (SPE) with a combined cartridge of 2 g basic-alumina, deactivated with 5% water, and 500 mg C{sub 18}. Pyrethroids investigated were Allethrin, Prallethrin, Tetramethrin, Bifenthrin, Phenothrin, {lambda}-Cyhalothrin, Permethrin, Cyfluthrin, Cypermethrin, Flucythrinate, Esfenvalerate, Fluvalinate and Deltamethrin. The main pyrethroid synergist compound, Pyperonyl Butoxide, was also studied. Limit of detection values ranging from 0.3 to 0.9 ng/SPMD and repeatability data, as relative standard deviation, from 2.9 to 9.4%, were achieved. Pyrethroid recoveries, for spiked SPMDs, with 100 ng of each one of the pyrethroids evaluated, were from 61 {+-} 8 to 103 {+-} 7% for microwave-assisted extraction, versus 54 {+-} 4 to 104 {+-} 3% for dialysis reference method. Substantial reduction of solvent consumed (from 400 to 60 mL) and analysis time (from 48 to 1 h) was achieved by using the developed procedure. High concentration levels of pyrethroid compounds, from 0.14 to 7.3 {mu}g/SPMD, were found in indoor air after 2 h of a standard application.

  19. Kinetic study of microwave-assisted alkaline hydrolysis of Jatropha curcas oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Nur'aini Raman; Kamil, Ruzaimah Nik Mohamad; Yusup, Suzana

    2016-11-01

    The kinetics of hydrolysis of Jatropha curcas oil under microwave irradation in the presence of alkaline solution was studied. The temperature of 50°C, 65°C and 80°C were studied in the range of optimum condition of 1.75 M catalyst, solvent/oil ratio of (1: 68) and 15 minutes reaction time. The rate constants of oil hydrolysis are corresponding to triglyceride disappearance concentration. The rates of reaction for fatty acids production was determined by pseudo first order. The activation energy (Ea) achieved at 30.61 kJ/mol is lower using conventional method. This conclude that the rate of reaction via microwave heating is less temperature sensitive therefore reaction can be obtained at lower temperature.

  20. Monitoring and control system for tuneable high frequency microwave assisted chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G P; Wylie, S R; Shaw, A; Al-Shamma'a, A I; Phipps, D; Alkhaddar, R; Bond, G

    2007-01-01

    Microwave chemistry is an established technique in the synthesis of organic compounds at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. This is considered to be a result of the development of microwave ovens, rather than an objective solution, which maximises efficiency through careful selection of the operating frequency. To obtain a frequency for a dielectric, the complex permittivity should be determined as a function of frequency. If the correct heating frequency is found, superheating can occur when a liquid solvent reaches its boiling point and exceeds it. This paper presents sensor diodes and temperature sensors used in a mono-mode reactor, with computer control of an E-H tuner, frequency and incident power to control temperature and power, experimental results showing heating and reactions using ethanol are reported

  1. Tailored MoS2 nanorods: a simple microwave assisted synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshmi, S.; Akshaya, M. V.; Satpati, Biswarup; Roy, Anupam; Basu, Palash Kumar; Bhattacharjee, K.

    2017-11-01

    We report here the synthesis of MoS2 nanostructures by a simple liquid phase exfoliation of MoS2 powder in organic solvents followed by microwave treatment. The probe sonication and the microwave treatment play an important role in rolling and curling of the MoS2 nanosheets to give rise to MoS2 spheres and rod/tube like-structures with diameter approximately 150-200 nm. The MoS2 nanorods formed in this fashion are hollow inside with a wall thickness of 15-20 nm and the length of the nanorods is found in the order of several micrometers. Synthesis of such tailored MoS2 nanorods by liquid phase exfoliation is not yet reported. Our observations suggest the 2H phase of bulk MoS2 remains preserved in the nanostructures with high crystalline quality.

  2. Microwave-assisted activation for electroless nickel plating on PMMA microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yen-Chung [Graduate School of Defense Science, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan 335 (China); Materials and Electro-optics Research Division, Chung Shan Institute of Science and Technology, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan 325 (China); Liu, Robert Lian-Huey [Graduate School of Defense Science, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan 335 (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Minghsin University of Science and Technology, Hsinchu Taiwan 304 (China); Chen, Xin-Liang [Graduate School of Defense Science, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan 335 (China); Shu, Hsiou-Jeng [Materials and Electro-optics Research Division, Chung Shan Institute of Science and Technology, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan 325 (China); Ger, Ming-Der, E-mail: mingderger@gmail.com [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan 335 (China)

    2011-05-15

    A novel microwave-assisted activation method for electroless plating on PMMA microspheres is presented in this study. When the microwave irradiation was applied during the activation step, the amount of the Pd species adsorbed on PMMA surfaces was much higher than that of sample pretreated with a conventional activation process without microwave irradiation. With this activation method, it was also shown that the adsorbed Pd species with a size of 4-6 nm were uniformly distributed on the surfaces of the PMMA microspheres, thus a smooth and uniform nickel-phosphorus coating on the PMMA microspheres was obtained by subsequent electroless plating. The samples after each step were characterized by XPS, TEM, ICP and SEM.

  3. Development of microwave assisted spectrophotometric method for the determination of glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asif; Hussain, Zahid; Arain, Muhammad Balal; Shah, Nasrullah; Khan, Khalid Mohammad; Gulab, Hussain; Zada, Amir

    2016-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method was developed based on the microwave assisted synthesis of Maillard product. Various conditions of the reaction were optimized by varying the relative concentration of the reagents, operating temperature and volume of solutions used in the reaction in the microwave synthesizer. The absorbance of the microwave synthesized Maillard product was measured in the range of 360-740 nm using UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Based on the maximum absorbance, 370 nm was selected as the optimum wave length for further studies. The LOD and LOQ of glucose was found 3.08 μg mL- 1 and 9.33 μg mL- 1 with standard deviation of ± 0.05. The developed method was also applicable to urine sample.

  4. Microwave assisted alkali-catalyzed transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed oil for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ritesh; Kumar, G Ravi; Chandrashekar, N

    2011-06-01

    In this study, microwave assisted transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed oil was carried out for the production of biodiesel. The experiments were carried out using methanol and two alkali catalysts i.e., sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). The experiments were carried out at 6:1 alcohol/oil molar ratio and 60°C reaction temperature. The effect of catalyst concentration and reaction time on the yield and quality of biodiesel was studied. The result of the study suggested that 0.5% sodium hydroxide and 1.0% potassium hydroxide catalyst concentration were optimum for biodiesel production from P. pinnata oil under microwave heating. There was a significant reduction in reaction time for microwave induced transesterification as compared to conventional heating. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. First-Row-Transition Ion Metals(II-EDTA Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles as Catalysts for Solvent-Free Microwave-Induced Oxidation of Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno M. R. Martins

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of first-row transition-metals combined with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA, as metal-based N,O-chelating ligands, at the surface of ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs was prepared by a co-precipitation method. Those EDTA functionalized MNPs with general formula Fe3O4@EDTA-M2+ [M = Mn2+ (1, Fe2+ (2, Co2+ (3, Ni2+ (4, Cu2+ (5 or Zn2+ (6] were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, powder XRD (X-ray Diffraction, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope, EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, VSM (Vibrating Sample Magnetometer and TGA (Thermal Gravity Analysis. The application of the magnetic NPs towards the microwave-assisted oxidation of several alcohol substrates in a solvent-free medium was evaluated. The influence of reaction parameters such as temperature, time, type of oxidant, and presence of organic radicals was investigated. This study demonstrates that these MNPs can act as efficient catalysts for the conversion of alcohols to the corresponding ketones or aldehydes with high selectivity and yields up to 99% after 2 h of reaction at 110 °C using t-BuOOH as oxidant. Moreover, they have the advantage of being magnetically recoverable catalysts that can be easily recycled in following runs.

  6. Turning “on” and “off” nucleation and growth: Microwave assisted synthesis of CdS clusters and nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, Edmy; Nater, Sariann; Rivera, Daniel; Colon, Jean Marie; Zayas, Francisco; Gonzalez, Miguel; Castro, Miguel E.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Cadmium acetate and DMSO were employed as ion precursors. ► New approach to controlled CdS nanoparticle synthesis. ► CdS clusters and nanoparticles synthesis achieved using microwave irradiation. ► Microwave irradiation turns on and off nanoparticle growth. ► The formation of clusters, embryos and nanoparticles studied with optical spectroscopy. -- Abstract: We report here on the formation of CdS NP from the microwave assisted reaction of Cd(CH 3 CO 2 ) 2 with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). DMSO serves as the solvent and a controlled source of sulfide ions to form (CdS) 1≤n≤5 clusters at the early stages of the process. The clusters grow into CdS nanoparticles, with diameters that range from 1.6 nm up to over 250 nm, with microwave heating. The time dependence of the onset of light absorption and absorbance are consistent with a concurrent nucleation and growth processes. The formation of clusters and nuclei and their subsequent reactions is controlled by turning on and off the energy supply consistent with an energy barrier to the formation of CdS nanostructures.

  7. Turning “on” and “off” nucleation and growth: Microwave assisted synthesis of CdS clusters and nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer, Edmy; Nater, Sariann; Rivera, Daniel; Colon, Jean Marie; Zayas, Francisco; Gonzalez, Miguel [Chemical Imaging Center, Department of Chemistry, The University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez, Mayaguez, PR 00680 (United States); Castro, Miguel E., E-mail: miguel.castro2@upr.edu [Chemical Imaging Center, Department of Chemistry, The University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez, Mayaguez, PR 00680 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Cadmium acetate and DMSO were employed as ion precursors. ► New approach to controlled CdS nanoparticle synthesis. ► CdS clusters and nanoparticles synthesis achieved using microwave irradiation. ► Microwave irradiation turns on and off nanoparticle growth. ► The formation of clusters, embryos and nanoparticles studied with optical spectroscopy. -- Abstract: We report here on the formation of CdS NP from the microwave assisted reaction of Cd(CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}){sub 2} with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). DMSO serves as the solvent and a controlled source of sulfide ions to form (CdS){sub 1≤n≤5} clusters at the early stages of the process. The clusters grow into CdS nanoparticles, with diameters that range from 1.6 nm up to over 250 nm, with microwave heating. The time dependence of the onset of light absorption and absorbance are consistent with a concurrent nucleation and growth processes. The formation of clusters and nuclei and their subsequent reactions is controlled by turning on and off the energy supply consistent with an energy barrier to the formation of CdS nanostructures.

  8. Effects of moisture content in cigar tobacco on nicotine extraction. Similarity between soxhlet and focused open-vessel microwave-assisted techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lay-Keow; Hupé, Michel

    2003-09-05

    The effects of tobacco moisture on nicotine yield were investigated in this study. Soxhlet and microwave-assisted techniques were used to extract nicotine from cigar fillers of varying moisture contents (5-20%), using a polar (methanol) and a non-polar (isooctane) solvent. The extracts were analyzed by a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame-ionization detector. For both extraction techniques, higher nicotine yields were consistently obtained with methanol than with isooctane from the same samples. Solubility of nicotine salts in methanol but not in isooctane is the major cause of this observation. Moreover, pronounced effects of the tobacco moisture content on extraction efficiency were observed with isooctane but not with methanol. For microwave assisted extraction (MAE) with isooctane, nicotine yield increased from 3 to 70% as the moisture level in tobacco was raised from 3 to 13%, and leveled off thereafter. Similar observations were made with Soxhlet extraction. While MAE results were rationalized by the known cell-rupture process, a mechanism based on the interaction between the solvents and the structural components of the plant cells has been proposed to account for the observations made with Soxhlet extraction.

  9. Facile and efficient one-pot solvothermal and microwave-assisted synthesis of stable colloidal solutions of MFe2O4 spinel magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano, Eduardo; Perez-Mirabet, Leonardo; Martinez-Julian, Fernando; Guzmán, Roger; Arbiol, Jordi; Puig, Teresa; Obradors, Xavier; Yañez, Ramón; Pomar, Alberto; Ricart, Susagna; Ros, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Well-defined synthesis conditions of high quality MFe 2 O 4 (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, and Cu) spinel ferrite magnetic nanoparticles, with diameters below 10 nm, have been described based on facile and efficient one-pot solvothermal or microwave-assisted heating procedures. Both methods are reproducible and scalable and allow forming concentrated stable colloidal solutions in polar solvents, but microwave-assisted heating allows reducing 15 times the required annealing time and leads to an enhanced monodispersity of the nanoparticles. Non-agglomerated nanoparticles dispersions have been achieved using a simple one-pot approach where a single compound, triethyleneglycol, behaves at the same time as solvent and capping ligand. A narrow nanoparticle size distribution and high quality crystallinity have been achieved through selected nucleation and growth conditions. High resolution transmission electron microscopy images and electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis confirm the expected structure and composition and show that similar crystal faceting has been formed in both synthetic approaches. The spinel nanoparticles behave as ferrimagnets with a high saturation magnetization and are superparamagnetic at room temperature. The influence of synthesis route on phase purity and unconventional magnetic properties is discussed in some particular cases such as CuFe 2 O 4 , CoFe 2 O 4 , and ZnFe 2 O 4 .

  10. Microwave-Assisted Eco-Friendly Synthesis of Organics and Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation summarizes our recent activity in MW-assisted synthesis, which involves benign alternatives, such as the use of supported reagents, and greener reaction medium in aqueous or solvent-free conditions.1 The greener synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, coupling reac...

  11. Microwave assisted acid and alkali pretreatment of Miscanthus biomass for biorefineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyuan Zhu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Miscanthus is a major bioenergy crop in Europe and a potential feedstock for second generation biofuels. Thermochemical pretreatment is a significant step in the process of converting lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. In this work, microwave energy was applied to facilitate NaOH and H2SO4 pretreatments of Miscanthus. This was carried out at 180 ℃ in a monomode microwave cavity at 300 W. Our results show that H2SO4 pretreatment contributes to the breakdown of hemicelluloses and cellulose, leading to a high glucose yield. The maximum sugar yield from available carbohydrates during pretreatment is 75.3% (0.2 M H2SO4 20 Min, and glucose yield is 46.7% under these conditions. NaOH and water pretreatments tend to break down only hemicellulose in preference to cellulose, contributing to high xylose yield. Compared to conventional heating NaOH/H2SO4 pretreatment, 12 times higher sugar yield was obtained by using microwave assisted pretreatment within half the time. NaOH pretreatments lead to a significantly enhanced digestibility of the residue, because the effective removal of lignin and hemicellulose makes cellulose fibres more accessible to cellulases. Morphological study of biomass shows that the tightly packed fibres in the Miscanthus were dismantled and exposed under NaOH condition. We studied sugar degradation under microwave assisted H2SO4 conditions. The results shows that 6-8% biomass was converted into levulinic acid (LA during pretreatment, showing the possibility of using microwave technology to produce LA from biomass. The outcome of this work shows great potential for using microwave in the thermo-chemical pretreatment for biomass and also selective production of LA from biomass.

  12. Investigation of microwave assisted drying of samples and evaporation of aqueous solutions in trace element analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maichin, B.; Knapp, G. [Technische Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Analytische Chemie, Mikro- und Radiochemie; Kettisch, P. [Anton Paar GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2000-01-01

    Investigations of microwave assisted drying of sample materials and microwave assisted evaporation of aqueous sample solutions and acidic digestion residues were accomplished by means of special rotors for the microwave digestion system MULTIWAVE. To check the results obtained by microwave assisted drying, the samples were also conventionally dried at 105 C in an oven. The following samples have been dried: 10 g each of meat, fish, apple, cucumber, potato, mustard, yogurt, clay and marl; 1 g each of certified reference material TORT 2 (lobster hepatopancreas), BCR 278 (mussel tissue) and BCR 422 (cod muscle); 500 g garden mould. Microwave assisted drying takes 40 min for organic samples and 30 min for inorganic material. Important is a slow increase of microwave power during the first 20 min. The results agree well with conventional drying at 105 C. Losses of As, Se and Hg have been investigated for 3 CRMs. Only Se shows losses in the range of 20%. Losses of As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, Tl, V and Zn after evaporation of aqueous samples and acidic solutions after wet digestion, respectively, have been investigated. 50 mL aqueous solution was evaporated almost to dryness within 25 min. The recovery of Hg is 40-50%, of Se 90-95% and of the other elements 97-102%. 0.2 g each of TORT 2, BCR 278 and BCR 422 have been digested with 4 mL nitric acid and 1 mL hydrochloric acid by means of the microwave digestion system MULTIWAVE. The digestion residue was evaporated almost to dryness and dissolved again in 10 mL diluted nitric acid. In this case no element losses have been observed. The measured concentration of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Hg, Pb, Mo, Ni, Se, Sr, V and Zn agree very well with the certified values. An important prerequisite for good recoveries is not to evaporate the solutions to complete dryness. (orig.)

  13. Optimisation of microwave-assisted processing in production of pineapple jam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nur Aisyah Mohd; Abdullah, Norazlin; Muhammad, Norhayati

    2017-10-01

    Pineapples are available all year round since they are unseasonal fruits. Due to the continuous harvesting of the fruit, the retailers and farmers had to find a solution such as the processing of pineapple into jam, to treat the unsuccessfully sold pineapples. The direct heating of pineapple puree during the production of pineapple jam can cause over degradation of quality of the fresh pineapple. Thus, this study aims to optimise the microwave-assisted processing conditions for producing pineapple jam which could reduce water activity and meets minimum requirement for pH and total soluble solids contents of fruit jam. The power and time of the microwave processing were chosen as the factors, while the water activity, pH and total soluble solids (TSS) content of the pineapple jam were determined as responses to be optimised. The microwave treatment on the pineapple jam was able to give significant effect on the water activity and TSS content of the pineapple jam. The optimum power and time for the microwave processing of pineapple jam is 800 Watt and 8 minutes, respectively. The use of domestic microwave oven for the pineapple jam production results in acceptable pineapple jam same as conventional fruit jam sold in the marketplace.

  14. Rapid, efficient and solvent free microwave mediated synthesis of aldo- and ketonitrones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Maiuolo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A library of C-alkyl and C-aryl nitrones has been obtained by direct condensation of primary N-substituted hydroxylamine hydrochlorides with various aldehydes and ketones without catalysts or base. The synthetic procedure, performed under MW irradiation in the absence of solvent, does not require the presence of a base, is fast, clean, high-yielding and characterized by simple work-up.

  15. Microwave assisted esterification of free fatty acid over a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wei; Yin, Ping; Liu, Xiguang; Chen, Wen; Chen, Hou; Liu, Chunping; Qu, Rongjun; Xu, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Microwave assisted esterification of stearic acid with ethanol was catalyzed by D418. • D418 exhibited remarkable catalytic performance for ethyl stearate formation. • It proved possible to prepare biodiesel rapidly and with good conversions by microwave heating. • The relative catalytic kinetics study has been conducted and modeled. - Abstract: Biodiesel fuel is gaining significant attention in recent years because of its environmental benefits and the growing interest in finding new resources and alternatives for conventional fuels. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil with high free fatty acids usually requires esterification step to produce fatty acid methyl/ethyl ester. In the present work, the heterogeneous catalyst aminophosphonic acid resin D418 has been successfully utilized in the energy-efficient microwave-assisted esterification reaction of fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) from free fatty acid (FFA) stearic acid with short-chain alcohol ethanol. Under the reaction conditions of 9 wt% D418 and 11: 1 M ratio of ethanol to stearic acid at 353 K and atmospheric pressure, more than 90% conversion of the esterification was achieved in 7 h by microwave heating, while it took about 12 h by conventional heating. Moreover, the kinetics of this esterification reaction has been studied, and the relevant values of activation energy and pre-exponential factor were obtained

  16. Microwave-assisted extraction of anthocyanin from Chinese bayberry and its effects on anthocyanin stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenkai DUAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAnthocyanins are present in high concentrations in Chinese bayberry, Myrica rubra Sieb. & Zucc. Herein, a microwave-assisted extraction was used to extract the anthocyanins from Chinese bayberry. The HPLC chromatogram of the extracts showed that the anthocyanin components were slightly hydrolysed during the extraction process. Further experiments confirmed that microwave irradiation slightly hydrolysed cyanidin-3-O-glucoside to cyanidin, but did not significantly influence the antioxidant activity of the extracts. Optimized extraction conditions for total anthocyanin content were a solid-to-liquid ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time of 1:50, 80 °C, and 15 min, respectively. Under these conditions, the anthocyanin content was 2.95 ± 0.08 mg·g−1, and the antioxidant activity yield was 279.96 ± 0.1 μmol.·g−1 Trolox equivalent on a dry weight basis. These results indicated that microwave-assisted extraction was a highly efficient extraction method with reduced processing time. However, under some extraction conditions it could damage the anthocyanins. These results provide an important guide for the application of microwave extraction.

  17. Comparison of microwave-assisted and conventional extraction of mangiferin from mango (Mangifera indica L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tangbin; Wu, Hongfu; Li, Huawen; Jia, Qing; Song, Gang

    2013-10-01

    Mangiferin is the main bioactive component in mango leaves, which possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, and antitumor activities. In the present study, a microwave-assisted extraction method was developed for the extraction of mangiferin from mango leaves. Some parameters such as ethanol concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, microwave power, and extraction time were optimized by single-factor experiments and response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were 45% ethanol, liquid-to-solid ratio of 30:1 (mL/g), and extraction time of 123 s under microwave irradiation of 474 W. Under optimal conditions, the yield of mangiferin was 36.10 ± 0.72 mg/g, significantly higher than that of conventional extraction. The results obtained are beneficial for the full utilization of mango leaves and also indicate that microwave-assisted extraction is a very useful method for extracting mangiferin from plant materials. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Rapid biodiesel production using wet microalgae via microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahidin, Suzana; Idris, Ani; Shaleh, Sitti Raehanah Muhamad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Lipid was directly extracted from wet microalgae using microwave irradiation. • The microwave irradiation and water bath-assisted solvent extraction are applied. • Cell walls are significantly disrupted under microwave irradiation. • Highly disrupted cell walls led to higher biodiesel yield in microwave irradiation. • Microwave irradiation is a promising direct technique with high biodiesel yields. - Abstract: The major challenges for industrial commercialized biodiesel production from microalgae are the high cost of downstream processing such as dewatering and drying, utilization of large volumes of solvent and laborious extraction processes. In order to address these issues the microwave irradiation method was used to produce biodiesel directly from wet microalgae biomass. This alternative method of biodiesel production from wet microalgae biomass is compared with the conventional water bath-assisted solvent extraction. The microwave irradiation extracted more lipids and high biodiesel conversion was obtained compared to the water bath-assisted extraction method due to the high cell disruption achieved and rapid transesterification. The total content of lipid extracted from microwave irradiation and water bath-assisted extraction were 38.31% and 23.01% respectively. The biodiesel produced using microwave irradiation was higher (86.41%) compared to the conventional method. Thus microwave irradiation is an attractive and promising technology to be used in the extraction and transesterification process for efficient biodiesel production

  19. Optimization of Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Curcumin From Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity in Multi-Test Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bener

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Turmeric ( Curcuma longa L. is a medicinal plant, and its biological activities mainly arise from the main constituent, known as diferuloylmethane or curcumin. In the present paper, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE was investigated for the recovery of curcumin from turmeric in comparison to conventional heat-assisted extraction (CHAE technique. Various experimental conditions, such as solvent concentration (0-100%, v/v, MAE temperature (30-130 oC and MAE time (0-20 min were investigated to optimize the extraction of curcumin from turmeric. The identification and quantification of curcumin in extracts were performed by HPLC-DAD system. Antioxidant potential and radical scavenging abilities of microwave-assisted extract and conventional heat-assisted extract of turmeric (MAET and CHAET were evaluated using different systems including total phenolic content (TPC, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, and radical scavenging activities. MAET and CHAET showed high antioxidant activity in all test systems, but the antioxidant properties of MAET were stronger than those of CHAET.

  20. Blotting Assisted by Heating and Solvent Extraction for DESI-MS Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Elaine C.; Mirabelli, Mario F.; Perez, Consuelo J.; Ifa, Demian R.

    2013-06-01

    Imprints of potato sprout ( Solanum tuberosum L.), gingko leaves (Gingko biloba L. ) and strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. ) were successfully imaged by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) on TLC plates through blotting assisted by heating and/or solvent extraction. Ion images showing the distribution of significant compounds such as glycoalkaloid toxins in potato sprout, ginkgolic acids and flavonoids in ginkgo leaves, and sugars and anthocyanidin in strawberry were obtained. Practical implications of this work include analysis of a wide range of irregular or soft materials by different imprinting conditions without requiring the addition of matrices or use of specific kinds of surfaces.

  1. Large-core single-mode rib SU8 waveguide using solvent-assisted microcontact molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Sheng; Wang, Wei-Chih

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes a novel fabrication technique for constructing a polymer-based large-core single-mode rib waveguide. A negative tone SU8 photoresist with a high optical transmission over a large wavelength range and stable mechanical properties was used as a waveguide material. A waveguide was constructed by using a polydimethylsiloxane stamp combined with a solvent-assisted microcontact molding technique. The effects on the final pattern's geometry of four different process conditions were investigated. Optical simulations were performed using beam propagation method software. Single-mode beam propagation was observed at the output of the simulated waveguide as well as the actual waveguide through the microscope image.

  2. Microwave assisted synthesis of luminescent carbonaceous nanoparticles from silk fibroin for bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongzhi; Teng, Choon Peng; Huang, Donghong; Xu, Wanqing; Zheng, Chaohui; Chen, Yisong; Liu, Minghuan; Yang, Da-Peng; Lin, Ming; Li, Zibiao; Ye, Enyi

    2017-11-01

    Bombyx mori silk as a natural protein based biopolymer with high nitrogen content, is abundant and sustainable because of its mass product all over the world per year. In this study, we developed a facile and fast microwave-assisted synthesis of luminescent carbonaceous nanoparticles using Bombyx mori silk fibroin and silk solution as the precursors. As a result, the obtained carbonaceous nanoparticles exhibit a photoluminescence quantum yield of ~20%, high stability, low cytotoxicity, high biocompatibility. Most importantly, we successfully demonstrated bioimaging using these luminescent carbonaceous nanoparticles with excitation dependent luminescence. In addition, the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method can be extended to convert other biomass into functional nanomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Microwave-assisted extraction of metal elements from glass fibrous filters for aerosol sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dong-Mei; Zhang Li-Xing; Wang Xu-Hui; Liu Long-Bo

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are generally collected on filters according to the International Monitoring System (IMS) designed in the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). More information could be revealed when the filter sample is pretreated rather than measured directly by γ-ray spectrometer. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) is a suitable method that gives higher recoveries of elements from glass fibrous filters under different conditions. The results indicate that the MAE is a highly efficient and robust method for the treatment of glass fibrous filter samples. The recoveries of potential fission products from glass fibrous filter samples by microwave-assisted extraction meet the efficiency of the extraction by both aqua regia and 2% HCl. (author)

  4. Microwave-assisted extraction of green coffee oil and quantification of diterpenes by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukui, A; Santos Júnior, H M; Oigman, S S; de Souza, R O M A; Bizzo, H R; Rezende, C M

    2014-12-01

    The microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of 13 different green coffee beans (Coffea arabica L.) was compared to Soxhlet extraction for oil obtention. The full factorial design applied to the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), related to time and temperature parameters, allowed to develop a powerful fast and smooth methodology (10 min at 45°C) compared to a 4h Soxhlet extraction. The quantification of cafestol and kahweol diterpenes present in the coffee oil was monitored by HPLC/UV and showed satisfactory linearity (R(2)=0.9979), precision (CV 3.7%), recovery (yield calculated on the diterpenes content for sample AT1 (Arabica green coffee) showed a six times higher value compared to the traditional Soxhlet method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Microwave-Assisted Diastereoselective Multicomponent Reaction To Access Dibenzo[c,e]azepinones: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, V.P.; Modha, S.G.; Ruijter, E.; van Hecke, K.; van Meervelt, L.; Pannecouque, C.; Balzarini, J.; Orru, R.V.A.; van der Eycken, E.

    2011-01-01

    An unprecedented microwave-assisted multicomponent strategy has been elaborated for the fast, efficient, and diastereoselective generation of the dibenzo[c,e]azepinone scaffold. The generated compounds were evaluated for their bioactivity. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  6. Microwave assisted extraction, antioxidant potential and chromatographic studies of some Rasayana drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashish; Mishra, Shilpi; Bhargav, Shilpi; Bhargava, Cs; Thakur, Mayank

    2015-07-01

    To study and compare the conventional extraction procedure with microwave assisted extraction (MAE) for some Ayurvedic Rasayana drugs and to evaluate their antioxidant potential and carry out the characterization of extracts by thin layer chromatography. Three Ayurvedic rasayana plants Allium sativum Linn., Bombax ceiba Linn. and Inula racemosa Hook. were evaluated for an improved MAE methodology by determining the effects of grinding degree, extraction solvent, effect of dielectric constant and duration of time on the extractive value. Antioxidant potential of all three drugs was evaluated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and reducing power was determined by using Gallic acid as standard. Further thin layer chromatographic (TLC) analysis was performed on pre-activated Silica Gel G plates and Rf value were compared with those reported for the important biomarkers. The total extractive value for Allium sativum Linn. was 36.95% (w/w) and 49.95% (w/w) for ethanol extraction respectively. In case of Bombax ceiba Linn. the yield of aqueous extract by MAE was 50% (w/w) compared to 42% (w/w) in ethanol (50% v/v). Percent yield of Inula racemosa Hook. in aqueous extract was found to be 27.55% (w/w) which was better than ethanol extract (50%) where the yield was 25.95% (w/w). Upon antioxidant activity evaluation. sativum extract showed an absorbance of 0.980±0.92 at concentration of 500 μg with maximum reducing capacity. This was followed by. ceiba Linn. 0.825±0.98 and. racemosa Hook. with 0.799±2.01 at a concentration of 500 μg. TLC based standardization of. sativum Linn. extract shows single spot with Rf value of 0.38, B. ceiba Linn. extract shows Rf values were 0.23, 0.58, 0.77, 0.92 and I. racemosa Hook. extract spot had a Rf value of 0.72. A significant improvement in extractive values was observed as a factor of time and other advantages by using MAE technology. All three drugs have high antioxidant potential and a TLC

  7. Microwave-Assisted Alkylation of [CB11H12]- and Related Anions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valášek, Michal; Štursa, Jan; Pohl, Radek; Michl, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 22 (2010), s. 10247-10254 ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400550708; GA ČR GC203/09/J058 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200550906 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : carboranes * organometallics * microwave assisted synthesis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.326, year: 2010

  8. Microwave-assisted synthesis and micellization behavior of soy-based copoly(2-oxazoline)s

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogenboom, Richard; Leenen, Mark A. M.; Huang, Haiying; Fustin, Charles-Andr?; Gohy, Jean-Fran?ois; Schubert, Ulrich S.

    2006-01-01

    Polymers based on renewable resources are promising candidates for replacing common organic polymers, and thus, for reducing oil consumption. In this contribution we report the microwave-assisted synthesis of block and statistical copolymers from 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline and 2-?soy alkyl?-2-oxazoline via a cationic ring-opening polymerization mechanism. The synthesized copolymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The micellization of these amphiphilic cop...

  9. Biodiesel Production from Chlorella protothecoides Oil by Microwave-Assisted Transesterification

    OpenAIRE

    G?lyurt, Mustafa ?mer; ?z?imen, Didem; ?nan, Benan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, biodiesel production from microalgal oil by microwave-assisted transesterification was carried out to investigate its efficiency. Transesterification reactions were performed by using Chlorella protothecoides oil as feedstock, methanol, and potassium hydroxide as the catalyst. Methanol:oil ratio, reaction time and catalyst:oil ratio were investigated as process parameters affected methyl ester yield. 9:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, 1.5% KOH catalyst/oil ratio and 10 min were opti...

  10. Preliminary study: kinetics of oil extraction from sandalwood by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, H. S.; Mahfud, M.

    2016-04-01

    Sandalwood and its oil, is one of the oldest known perfume materials and has a long history (more than 4000 years) of use as mentioned in Sanskrit manuscripts. Sandalwood oil plays an important role as an export commodity in many countries and its widely used in the food, perfumery and pharmaceuticals industries. The aim of this study is to know and verify the kinetics and mechanism of microwave-assisted hydrodistillation of sandalwood based on a second-order model. In this study, microwave-assisted hydrodistillation is used to extract essential oils from sandalwood. The extraction was carried out in ten extraction cycles of 15 min to 2.5 hours. The initial extraction rate, the extraction capacity and the second-order extraction rate constant were calculated using the model. Kinetics of oil extraction from sandalwood by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation proved that the extraction process was based on the second-order extraction model as the experimentally done in three different steps. The initial extraction rate, h, was 0.0232 g L-1 min-1, the extraction capacity, C S, was 0.6015 g L-1, the second-order extraction rate constant, k, was 0.0642 L g-1 min-1 and coefficient of determination, R 2, was 0.9597.

  11. Microwave-assisted ionic liquid homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of anthraquinones in Rheum palmatum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibing; Hu, Jianxue; Du, Hongxia; He, Shuang; Li, Qing; Zhang, Hanqi

    2016-06-05

    The microwave-assisted ionic liquid homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction (MA-IL-HLLME) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) was developed for the determination of anthraquinones, including aloe-emodin, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion in root of Rheum palmatum L. Several experimental parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, including amount of sample, type and volume of ionic liquid, volume and pH value of extraction medium, microwave power and extraction time, concentration of NH4PF6 as well as centrifugal condition were optimized. When 140μL of ionic liquid ([C8MIM][BF4]) was used as an extraction solvent, target analytes can be extracted from sample matrix in one minute with the help of microwave irradiation. The MA-IL-HLLME is simple and quick. The calibration curves exhibited good linear relationship (r>0.9984). The limits of detection and quantification were in the range of 0.015-0.026 and 0.051-0.088μgmL(-1), respectively. The spiked recovery for each analyte was in the range of 81.13-93.07% with relative standard deviations lower than 6.89%. The present method is free of volatile organic solvents, and represents lower expenditures of sample, extraction time and solvent, compared with ultrasonic and heat reflux extraction. The results indicated that the present method can be successfully applied to the determination of anthraquinones in medicinal plant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A modified approach for isolation of essential oil from fruit of Amorpha fruticosa Linn using microwave-assisted hydrodistillation concatenated liquid-liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengli; Jia, Jia; Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Huiyan; Yang, Lei

    2017-11-17

    In this work, a modified technique was developed to separate essential oil from the fruit of Amorpha fruticosa using microwave-assisted hydrodistillation concatenated liquid-liquid extraction (MHD-LLE). The new apparatus consists of two series-wound separation columns for separating essential oil, one is the conventional oil-water separation column, and the other is the extraction column of components from hydrosol using an organic solvent. Therefore, the apparatus can simultaneously collect the essential oil separated on the top of hydrosol and the components extracted from hydrosol using an organic solvent. Based on the yield of essential oil in the first and second separation columns, the effects of parameters were investigated by single factor experiments and Box-Behnken design. Under the optimum conditions (2mL ethyl ether as the extraction solvent in the second separation column, 12mL/g liquid-solid ratio, 4.0min homogenate time, 35min microwave irradiation time and 540W microwave irradiation power), satisfactory yields for the essential oil in the first separation column (10.31±0.33g/kg) and second separation column (0.82±0.03g/kg) were obtained. Compared with traditional methods, the developed method gave a higher yield of essential oil in a shorter time. In addition, GC-MS analysis of the essential oil indicated significant differences of the relative contents of individual volatile components in the essential oils obtained in the two separation columns. Therefore, the MHD-LLE technique developed here is a good alternative for the isolation of essential oil from A. fruticosa fruit as well as other herbs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimentos didáticos envolvendo radiação microondas Microwave-assisted experiments for undergraduate courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Rosini

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and practical aspects of the use of microwave-assisted strategies in chemistry are introduced for students using simple and safe experiments employing a domestic oven. Three procedures are proposed for evaluating the distribution of microwave radiation inside the microwave oven cavity: (1 variation of the volume of marshmallows; (2 drying of filter paper wetted with Co(II solution, and (3 variation of water temperature, after microwave-assisted heating. These experiments establish the position with the highest incidence of microwave radiation in the oven cavity, which was chosen for the synthesis of salicylic acid acetate. This synthesis was performed in 5 min of heating and the yield was around 85%. All experiments can be carried out in a 4 h lab-session using low-cost instrumentation.

  14. Stable Isotope-Assisted Evaluation of Different Extraction Solvents for Untargeted Metabolomics of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doppler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of extraction protocols for untargeted metabolomics approaches is still difficult. We have applied a novel stable isotope-assisted workflow for untargeted LC-HRMS-based plant metabolomics , which allows for the first time every detected feature to be considered for method evaluation. The efficiency and complementarity of commonly used extraction solvents, namely 1 + 3 (v/v mixtures of water and selected organic solvents (methanol, acetonitrile or methanol/acetonitrile 1 + 1 (v/v, with and without the addition of 0.1% (v/v formic acid were compared. Four different wheat organs were sampled, extracted and analysed by LC-HRMS. Data evaluation was performed with the in-house-developed MetExtract II software and R. With all tested solvents a total of 871 metabolites were extracted in ear, 785 in stem, 733 in leaf and 517 in root samples, respectively. Between 48% (stem and 57% (ear of the metabolites detected in a particular organ were found with all extraction mixtures, and 127 of 996 metabolites were consistently shared between all extraction agent/organ combinations. In aqueous methanol, acidification with formic acid led to pronounced pH dependency regarding the precision of metabolite abundance and the number of detectable metabolites, whereas extracts of acetonitrile-containing mixtures were less affected. Moreover, methanol and acetonitrile have been found to be complementary with respect to extraction efficiency. Interestingly, the beneficial properties of both solvents can be combined by the use of a water-methanol-acetonitrile mixture for global metabolite extraction instead of aqueous methanol or aqueous acetonitrile alone.

  15. Microwave-assisted solid phase conversion study of Meldrum's acid to ethylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (C 6O 6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherpour, Avat (Arman)

    2010-01-01

    Utilization of microwave irradiation provides an effective method for fast synthesizing of some important compounds. Microwave-assisted solid phase is an especial class in chemical synthesis. By the use of MW-irradiation on chemicals, sometimes interesting results can be seen. The synthesis of the interesting molecule ethylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (C 6O 6) was attempted with a few different methods. In this study, the microwave-assisted solid phase conversion of Meldrum's acid to ethylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride was reported. This conversion was characterized by FT-IR, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy results.

  16. Intensification of marrubiin concentration by optimization of microwave-assisted (low CO2 yielding) extraction process for Marrubium vulgare using central composite design and antioxidant evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Vineet; Nanda, Arun

    2017-12-01

    Marrubium vulgare Linn (Lamiaceae) was generally extracted by conventional methods with low yield of marrubiin; these processes were not considered environment friendly. This study extracts the whole plant of M. vulgare by microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and optimizes the effect of various extraction parameters on the marrubiin yield by using Central Composite Design (CCD). The selected medicinal plant was extracted using ethanol: water (1:1) as solvent by MAE. The plant material was also extracted using a Soxhlet and the various extracts were analyzed by HPTLC to quantify the marrubiin concentration. The optimized conditions for the microwave-assisted extraction of selected medicinal plant was microwave power of 539 W, irradiation time of 373 s and solvent to drug ratio, 32 mL per g of the drug. The marrubiin concentration in MAE almost doubled relative to the traditional method (0.69 ± 0.08 to 1.35 ± 0.04%). The IC 50 for DPPH was reduced to 66.28 ± 0.6 μg/mL as compared to conventional extract (84.14 ± 0.7 μg/mL). The scanning electron micrographs of the treated and untreated drug samples further support the results. The CCD can be successfully applied to optimize the extraction parameters (MAE) for M. vulgare. Moreover, in terms of environmental impact, the MAE technique could be assumed as a 'Green approach' because the MAE approach for extraction of plant released only 92.3 g of CO 2 as compared to 3207.6 g CO 2 using the Soxhlet method of extraction.

  17. Microwave Assisted Enzymatic Kinetic Resolution of (±-1-Phenyl-2-propyn-1-ol in Nonaqueous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Devendran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic resolution of 1-phenyl-2-propyn-1-ol, an important chiral synthon, was studied through trans-esterification with acyl acetate to investigate synergism between microwave irradiation and enzyme catalysis. Lipases from different microbial origins were employed for the kinetic resolution of (R/S-1-phenyl-2-propyn-1-ol, among which Candida antarctica lipase B, immobilized on acrylic resin (Novozym 435, was found to be the best catalyst in n-hexane as solvent. Vinyl acetate was the most effective among different acyl esters studied. The effect of various parameters was studied in a systematic manner. Definite synergism between microwave and enzyme was observed. The initial rate was improved around 1.28 times under microwave irradiation than conventional heating. Under optimum conditions, maximum conversion (48.78% and high enantiomeric excess (93.25% were obtained in 2 h. From modeling studies, it is concluded that the reaction follows the Ping-Pong bi-bi mechanism with dead end alcohol inhibition. Kinetic parameters were obtained by using nonlinear regression. This process is green, clean, and easily scalable as compared to the chemical process.

  18. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Dihydropyrimidinone Derivatives as Anti-Inflammatory, Antibacterial, and Antifungal Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjna Bhatewara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple protocol for the efficient preparation of aryl and heteroaryl substituted dihydropyrimidinone has been achieved via initial Knoevenagel, subsequent addition, and final cyclization of aldehyde, ethylcyanoacetate, and guanidine nitrate in the presence of piperidine as a catalyst in solvent-free under microwave irradiation. The synthesized compounds showed a good anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antifungal activity.

  19. The Production of Biodiesel and Bio-kerosene from Coconut Oil Using Microwave Assisted Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAIFUDDIN, N.; SITI FAZLILI, A.; KUMARAN, P.; PEI-JUA, N.; PRIATHASHINI, P.

    2016-03-01

    Biofuels including biodiesel, an alternative fuel, is renewable, environmentally friendly, non-toxic and low emissions. The raw material used in this work was coconut oil, which contained saturated fatty acids about 90% with high percentage of medium chain (C8-C12), especially lauric acid and myristic acid. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of power and NaOH catalyst in transesterification assisted by microwave for production of biofuels (biodiesel and bio-kerosene) derived from coconut oil. The reaction was performed with oil and methanol using mole ratio of 1:6, catalyst concentration of 0.6% with microwave power at 100W, 180W, 300W, 450W, 600W, and 850W. The reaction time was set at of 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 min. The results showed that microwave could accelerate the transesterification process to produce biodiesel and bio-kerosene using NaOH catalyst. The highest yield of biodiesel was 97.17 %, or 99.05 % conversion at 5 min and 100W microwave power. Meanwhile, the bio-kerosene obtained was 65% after distillation.

  20. Nanosize Fe x O y @SBA-3: A Comparative Study Between Conventional and Microwave Assisted Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Sunita; Badamali, Sushanta K; Sahoo, Sagarika; Behera, Nandakishor; Dapurkar, Sudhir E

    2018-01-01

    The present study is focussed on development of highly dispersed nanosize iron oxide (FexOy) particles within the uniform mesopore channels of SBA-3. Herein we report a comparative study between conventional incipient wetness and microwave assisted synthesis routes adopted to devise nanoparticles. The developed materials are characterised by following X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, proton induced X-ray emission, diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Mesoporous siliceous SBA-3 was prepared at room temperature to obtain samples with good crystallinity and ordered pore structure. Pore channels of SBA-3 were used as nanoreactor for developing iron oxide nanoparticles. Iron oxide nanoparticles developed under microwave activation showed uniform distribution within the SBA-3 structure along with retaining the orderness of the pore architecture. On the contrary, iron oxides developed under incipient wetness method followed by conventional heating resulted in agglomeration of nanoparticles along with significant loss in SBA-3 pore structure. Proton induced X-ray emission studies revealed the extremely high purity of the samples and almost thrice higher amount of iron oxide particles are encapsulated within the host by microwave assisted preparation as compared to incipient/conventional heating method.

  1. Microwave-assisted fabrication of strontium doped apatite coating on Ti6Al4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Huan, E-mail: huanzhou@cczu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Kong, Shiqin [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Pan, Yan; Zhang, Zhiguo [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Deng, Linhong, E-mail: dlh@cczu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China)

    2015-11-01

    Strontium has been shown to be a beneficial dopant to calcium phosphates when incorporated at nontoxic level. In the present work we studied the possibility of solution derived doping strontium into calcium phosphate coatings on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V based implants by a recently reported microwave-assisted method. By using this method strontium doped calcium phosphate nuclei were deposited to pretreated titanium alloy surface dot by dot to compose a crack-free coating layer. The presence of strontium in solution led to reduced roughness of the coating and finer nucleus size formed. In vitro study found that proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast cells seeded on the coating were influenced by strontium content in coatings, showing an increasing followed by a decreasing behavior with increasing substitution of calcium by strontium. It is suggested that this new microwave-assisted strontium doped calcium phosphate coatings may have great potential in implant modification. - Highlights: • Strontium doped calcium phosphate coating is deposited with microwave irradiation. • Increase of strontium reduces coating roughness and results in finer nucleus size. • Proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts depend on doped strontium content.

  2. The Microwave-Assisted Green Synthesis of TiC Powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhu, Wencheng; Liu, Yanchun; Zeng, Lingke; Sun, Luyi

    2016-11-08

    Titanium carbide (TiC) is an important engineering material and has found widespread applications. Currently, TiC is typically synthesized through carbothermal reduction, requiring a high temperature (ca. 1700-2300 °C) and long reaction time (ca. 10-20 h), which is not eco-friendly. During a conventional reaction path, anatase TiO₂ (A-TiO₂) was first converted to rutile TiO₂ (R-TiO₂), which was subsequently reduced to TiC. Herein, we explored the synthesis of TiC powders with the assistance of microwave heating. In particular, we achieved the conversion of A-TiO₂, which was more reactive than R-TiO₂ for the carbothermal reduction, to TiC, which was directly due to quick microwave heating. As such, the carbothermal reduction started at a much lower temperature of ca. 1200 °C and finished within 30 min when reacting at 1400 °C, leading to significant energy saving. This study shows that microwave-assisted synthesis can be an effective and green process for preparing TiC powders, which is promising for future large-scale production. The influence of the reaction temperature, the reaction duration, and the carbon content on the synthesis of TiC powders was investigated.

  3. Microwave-assisted synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles in biocompatible organic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Aivazoglou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of magnetite and maghemite particles in uniform nanometer size has triggered the interest of the research community due to their many interesting properties leading to a wide range of applications, such as catalysis, nanomedicine-nanobiology and other engineering applications. In this study, a simple, time-saving and low energy-consuming, microwave-assisted synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles, is presented. The nanoparticles were prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis using polyethylene glycol (PEG or PEG and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD/water solutions of chloride salts of iron in the presence of ammonia solution. The prepared nano-powders were characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Transition Electron Microscopy (TEM, Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman Spectroscopy, Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS and Thermal analysis (TG/DSC. The produced nanoparticles are crystallized mostly in the magnetite and maghemite lattice exhibiting very similar shape and size, with indications of partial PEG coating. Heating time, microwave power and presence of PEG, are the key factors shaping the size properties of nanoparticles. The average size of particles ranges from 10.3 to 19.2 nm. The nanoparticles exhibit a faceted morphology, with zero contamination levels. The magnetic measurements indicate that the powders are soft magnetic materials with negligible coercivity and remanence, illustrating super-paramagnetic behavior.

  4. Microwave-assisted synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles in biocompatible organic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aivazoglou, E.; Metaxa, E.; Hristoforou, E.

    2018-04-01

    The development of magnetite and maghemite particles in uniform nanometer size has triggered the interest of the research community due to their many interesting properties leading to a wide range of applications, such as catalysis, nanomedicine-nanobiology and other engineering applications. In this study, a simple, time-saving and low energy-consuming, microwave-assisted synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles, is presented. The nanoparticles were prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis using polyethylene glycol (PEG) or PEG and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)/water solutions of chloride salts of iron in the presence of ammonia solution. The prepared nano-powders were characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Transition Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman Spectroscopy, Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Thermal analysis (TG/DSC). The produced nanoparticles are crystallized mostly in the magnetite and maghemite lattice exhibiting very similar shape and size, with indications of partial PEG coating. Heating time, microwave power and presence of PEG, are the key factors shaping the size properties of nanoparticles. The average size of particles ranges from 10.3 to 19.2 nm. The nanoparticles exhibit a faceted morphology, with zero contamination levels. The magnetic measurements indicate that the powders are soft magnetic materials with negligible coercivity and remanence, illustrating super-paramagnetic behavior.

  5. Porous carbon spheres via microwave-assisted synthesis for capacitive deionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yong; Pan, Likun; Chen, Taiqiang; Xu, Xingtao; Lu, Ting; Sun, Zhuo; Chua, Daniel H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Porous carbon spheres were fabricated through a fast microwave-assisted approach. • The capacitive deionization performance of Porous carbon spheres was studied. • Porous carbon spheres exhibit a high NaCl removal with good regeneration ability. - Abstract: Porous carbon spheres (PCSs) were fabricated through a fast microwave-assisted approach using sucrose as the precursor in a microwave system and subsequent thermal treatment at 600, 800 and 1000 °C. The morphology, structure and electrochemical performance of the PCSs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Their electrosorption performance in NaCl solution was studied and compared with activated carbon, carbon nanotubes, reduced graphene and carbon aerogels. The results show that due to their high specific surface area and low charge transfer resistance, PCSs treated at 1000 °C exhibit high electrosorption capacity of 5.81 m g g −1 when the initial solution concentration is 500 mg l −1 , which is higher than those of other carbon materials

  6. Microwave assisted in situ synthesis of Ag–NaCMC films and their reproducible surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Tao; Li, Junpeng; Zhang, Li; Wang, Binbing; Zhou, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Two kinds of Ag–NaCMC films for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) were prepared by conventional heating and microwave assisted in situ reduction methods without any additional capping or reducing agents. A relatively narrow and symmetric surface plasmon resonance band was observed in the absorption spectra of the films fabricated by the microwave assisted in situ reduction method. More uniform silver nanoparticles (NPs) implied by the symmetric absorption spectrum were further confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy images. After the simulation of the E-field intensity distribution around the silver NPs in NaCMC film, the Raman scattering enhancement factors (EFs) of these films were then investigated with 4-mercaptobenzoic acid molecule as a SERS reporter. Improved reproducibility of SERS signal was obtained in the microwave assisted synthesized Ag–NaCMC film, although it maintained an EF as only 1.11 × 10 8 . The reproducible SERS signal of the Ag–NaCMC film is particularly attractive and this microwave assisted in situ reduction method is suitable for the production of excellent substrate for biosensor application. - Highlights: • The synthesis of Ag–NaCMC films was successfully fulfilled by a low-cost microwave method. • More uniform silver nanoparticles were observed in Ag–NaCMC film synthesized by microwave. • Improved reproducibility of SERS signal was obtained in microwave synthesized Ag–NaCMC film. - Abstract: Two kinds of Ag–NaCMC films for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) were prepared by conventional heating and microwave assisted in situ reduction methods without any additional capping or reducing agents. A relatively narrow and symmetric surface plasmon resonance band was observed in the absorption spectra of the films fabricated by the microwave assisted in situ reduction method. More uniform silver nanoparticles (NPs) implied by the symmetric absorption spectrum were further confirmed by

  7. Separation and Analysis of Microwave-assisted Liquefied Products of Corn Stover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Xiao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Corn stover was successfully liquefied by microwave heating at 160 °C with ethylene glycol (EG used as the solvent and sulfuric acid as a catalyst. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS data indicated that methyl esters, including 3-(2-methyl-1,3-doxolane-2-yl propionic acid methyl ester (PAME, levulinic acid isopropyl ester (LAE, methyl laurate, and methyl palmitate were the major degradation compounds, in addition to EG derivatives in the liquefied product of corn stover (LPCS. For high value-added utilization of LPCS, solvent extraction was applied to characterize the components and to separate it into useful fractions. After being dispersed in water, the water-soluble fraction of the LPCS was then extracted with organic solvents, including hexane, chloroform, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate. Levulinic acid isopropyl ester showed the highest distribution in chloroform and ethyl acetate, while the lowest in hexane and ether. Levulinic acid isopropyl ester was selectively enriched to 28.76% and 43.65% by sequential extraction with chloroform and ethyl acetate, respectively, in accordance with the quantitative analysis.

  8. Microwave-Assisted Extraction and Purification of Arctiin and Arctigenin from Fructus Arctii by High-Speed Countercurrent Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Haitao; Sun, Zhaoyun; Shan, Hu; Song, Jiying

    2016-03-01

    An efficient method for the rapid extraction, separation and purification of bioactive lignans, arctiin and arctigenin, from Fructus arctii by microwave-assisted extraction coupled with high-speed countercurrent chromatography was developed. The optimal extraction conditions of arctiin and arctigenin were evaluated by orthogonal array. Arctigenin could be converted from arctiin by hydrochloric acid hydrolysis. The separations were performed at a preparative scale with two-phase solvents composed of ethyl acetate-ethanol-water (5 : 1 : 5, v/v/v) for arctiin, and n-hexane-ethyl acetate-ethanol-water (4 : 4 : 3 : 4, v/v/v/v) for arctigenin. From 500 mg of crude extract sample, 122.3 mg of arctiin and 45.7 mg of arctigenin were obtained with the purity of 98.46 and 96.57%, and the recovery of 94.3 and 81.6%, respectively. Their structures were determined by comparison with the high-performance liquid chromatography retention time of standard substance as well as UV, FT-IR, electrospray ion source (ESI)-MS, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR spectrum. According to the antioxidant activity assay, arctigenin had stronger 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radicals scavenging activity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Extraction of bioactive carbohydrates from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts using microwave assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Aceituno, Laura; García-Sarrió, M Jesús; Alonso-Rodriguez, Belén; Ramos, Lourdes; Sanz, M Luz

    2016-04-01

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) methods using water as solvent have been optimized by means of a Box-Behnken and 3(2) composite experimental designs, respectively, for the effective extraction of bioactive carbohydrates (inositols and inulin) from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts. MAE at 60 °C for 3 min of 0.3 g of sample allowed the extraction of slightly higher concentrations of inositol than PLE at 75 °C for 26.7 min (11.6 mg/g dry sample vs. 7.6 mg/g dry sample). On the contrary, under these conditions, higher concentrations of inulin were extracted with the latter technique (185.4 mg/g vs. 96.4 mg/g dry sample), considering two successive extraction cycles for both techniques. Both methodologies can be considered appropriate for the simultaneous extraction of these bioactive carbohydrates from this particular industrial by-product. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that these techniques are applied for this purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid Microwave-Assisted Copper-Catalyzed Nitration of Aromatic Halides with Nitrite Salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, Seung Uk; Jung, Myoung Geun

    2012-01-01

    A rapid and efficient copper-catalyzed nitration of aryl halides has been established under microwave irradiation. The catalytic systems were found to be the most effective with 4-substituted aryl iodides leading to nearly complete conversions. Nitration of aromatic compounds is one of the important industrial processes as underlying intermediates in the manufacture of a wide range of chemicals such as dyes, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and explosives. General methods for the nitration of aromatic compounds utilize strongly acidic conditions employing nitric acid or a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids, sometimes leading to problems with poor regioselectivity, overnitration, oxidized byproducts and excess acid waste in many cases of functionalized aromatic compounds. Several other nitrating agents or methods avoiding harsh reaction conditions have been explored using metal nitrates, nitrite salts, and ionic liquid-mediated or microwave-assisted nitrations. Recently, copper or palladium compounds have been successfully used as efficient catalysts for the arylation of amines with aryl halides under mild conditions

  11. Rapid synthesis of nitrogen doped titania with mixed crystal lattice via microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Peilin; Liu Bin; Yin Shu; Wang Yuhua; Petrykin, Valery; Kakihana, Masato; Sato, Tsugio

    2009-01-01

    A microwave-assisted hydrothermal method was employed to synthesize nitrogen doped titania nanoparticles. Due to the high heating efficiency of microwave, rapid synthesis could be achieved in comparison with the conventional oven. Mixed crystal lattice was found existing in the obtained product, and the phase transformation behaviour under calcination was studied by XRD measurement together with Raman spectroscopy in details. The obtained nitrogen doped titania showed high specific surface area, about 300 m 2 g -1 . Photocatalytic activity in destructing NO x gas by the prepared sample exceeded that of commercial titania (P 25) or nitrogen doped titania synthesized by conventional hydrothermal method, under both visible-light and ultraviolet-light irradiation.

  12. Gain assisted coherent control of microwave pulse in a one dimensional array of artificial atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Mohsin; Ayaz, M. Q.; Waseem, M.; Qamar, Sajid; Qamar, Shahid

    2018-06-01

    We study the coherent propagation of a microwave pulse through a one-dimensional array of artificial atoms. The scheme is based upon gain assisted propagation of the pulse using two-photon Raman transition in a three-level superconducting artificial atoms (SAAs) coupled to a microwave transmission line. Our results show that the group velocity can be significantly reduced by increasing the Rabi frequency of the pump fields which in turn can lead to an efficient storage of the pulse inside a 1D array of SAAs. Further, the intensity of the transmitted pulse increases with the number of artificial atoms owing to the gain associated with the two-photon Raman transition. Our results also show that the window width decreases for both scattering and negligible scattering cases with the increase in the number of SAAs. The fidelity of the system also remains high even after the passage of the pulse through a large number of SAAs.

  13. Rapid Microwave-Assisted Copper-Catalyzed Nitration of Aromatic Halides with Nitrite Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, Seung Uk; Jung, Myoung Geun [Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    A rapid and efficient copper-catalyzed nitration of aryl halides has been established under microwave irradiation. The catalytic systems were found to be the most effective with 4-substituted aryl iodides leading to nearly complete conversions. Nitration of aromatic compounds is one of the important industrial processes as underlying intermediates in the manufacture of a wide range of chemicals such as dyes, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and explosives. General methods for the nitration of aromatic compounds utilize strongly acidic conditions employing nitric acid or a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids, sometimes leading to problems with poor regioselectivity, overnitration, oxidized byproducts and excess acid waste in many cases of functionalized aromatic compounds. Several other nitrating agents or methods avoiding harsh reaction conditions have been explored using metal nitrates, nitrite salts, and ionic liquid-mediated or microwave-assisted nitrations. Recently, copper or palladium compounds have been successfully used as efficient catalysts for the arylation of amines with aryl halides under mild conditions.

  14. Fabrication of CdS films with superhydrophobicity by the microwave assisted chemical bath deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Tan, T; Wang, B; Zhai, R; Song, X; Li, E; Wang, H; Yan, H

    2008-04-15

    A simple method of microwave assisted chemical bath deposition (MA-CBD) was adopted to fabricate cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films. The superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle (CA) of 151 degrees was obtained. Via a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation, the film was proved having a porous micro/nano-binary structure which can change the property of the surface and highly enhance the hydrophobicity of the film. A possible mechanism was suggested to describe the growth of the porous structure, in which the microwave heating takes an important role in the formation of two distinct characteristic dimensions of CdS precipitates, the growth of CdS sheets in micro-scale and sphere particles in nano-scale. The superhydrophobic films may provide novel platforms for photovoltaic, sensor, microfluidic and other device applications.

  15. Microwave-assisted microemulsion technique for production of miconazole nitrate- and econazole nitrate-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rohan M; Eldridge, Daniel S; Palombo, Enzo A; Harding, Ian H

    2017-08-01

    The microwave-assisted production of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) is a novel technique reported recently by our group. The small particle size, solid nature and use of physiologically well-tolerated lipid materials make SLNs an interesting and potentially efficacious drug carrier. The main purpose of this research work was to investigate the suitability of microwave-assisted microemulsion technique to encapsulate selected ionic drug substances such as miconazole nitrate and econazole nitrate. The microwave-produced SLNs had a small size (250-300nm), low polydispersity (microwave-produced SLNs. Data fitting of drug release data revealed that the release of both drugs from microwave-produced SLNs was governed by non-Fickian diffusion indicating that drug release was both diffusion- and dissolution- controlled. Anti-fungal efficacy of drug-loaded SLNs was evaluated on C. albicans. The cell viability studies showed that cytotoxicity of SLNs was concentration-dependent. These encouraging results suggest that the microwave-assisted procedure is suitable for encapsulation of ionic drugs and that microwave-produced SLNs can act as potential carriers of antifungal drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Microwave-Assisted Selective Hydrogenation of Furfural to Furfuryl Alcohol Employing a Green and Noble Metal-Free Copper Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Pedro N; de Almeida, João M A R; Carvalho, Yuri; Priecel, Peter; Falabella Sousa-Aguiar, Eduardo; Lopez-Sanchez, Jose A

    2016-12-20

    Green, inexpensive, and robust copper-based heterogeneous catalysts achieve 100 % conversion and 99 % selectivity in the conversion of furfural to furfuryl alcohol when using cyclopentyl-methyl ether as green solvent and microwave reactors at low H 2 pressures and mild temperatures. The utilization of pressurized microwave reactors produces a 3-4 fold increase in conversion and an unexpected enhancement in selectivity as compared to the reaction carried out at the same conditions using conventional autoclave reactors. The enhancement in catalytic rate produced by microwave irradiation is temperature dependent. This work highlights that using microwave irradiation in the catalytic hydrogenation of biomass-derived compounds is a very strong tool for biomass upgrade that offers immense potential in a large number of transformations where it could be a determining factor for commercial exploitation. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A preliminary study of cladding steel with NiTi by microwave-assisted brazing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, K.Y.; Cheng, F.T.; Man, H.C.

    2005-01-01

    Nickel titanium (NiTi) plate of 1.2 mm thickness was successfully clad on AISI 316L stainless steel substrate by a microwave-assisted brazing process. Brazing was conducted in a multimode microwave oven in air using a copper-based brazing material in tape form. The brazing material was melted in a few minutes by microwave-induced plasma initiated by conducting wires surrounding the brazing assembly. Metallographic study by scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) and compositional analysis by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) of the brazed joint revealed metallurgical bonding formed via inter-diffusion between the brazing filler and the adjacent materials. A shear bonding strength in the range of 100-150 MPa was recorded in shear tests of the brazed joint. SEM and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) analysis for the surface of as-received NiTi plate and NiTi cladding showed similar microstructure and phase composition. Nanoindentation tests also indicated that the superelastic properties of NiTi were essentially retained. The cavitation erosion resistance of the NiTi cladding was essentially the same as that of as-received NiTi plate, and higher than that obtained in laser or TIG (tungsten-inert gas) surfacing. The high resistance could be attributed to avoidance of dilution and defect formation in the NiTi clad since the cladding did not undergo melting and solidification in the brazing process. Electrochemical tests also recorded similar corrosion resistance in both as-received NiTi and NiTi cladding. Thus, the present study indicates that microwave-assisted brazing is a simple, economical, and feasible process for cladding NiTi on 316L stainless steel for enhancing cavitation erosion resistance

  18. Advances in modern sample preparation techniques using microwaves assisted chemistry for metal species determination (W1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponard, O.F.X.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Sample preparation has long been the bottleneck of environmental analysis for both total and species specific analysis. Digestion, extraction and preparation of the analytes are relying on a series of chemical reactions. The introduction of microwave assisted sample preparation has first been viewed as a mean to accelerate the kinetics of digestion of the matrix for total elements and fast samples preparation procedures. However, the extensive development and success of microwave digestion procedures in total elemental analysis has now allowed to have a larger insight of the perspectives offered by this technique. Microwave technologies now offer to have a precise control of the temperature and indirectly control the reaction kinetics taking place during the sample preparation procedures. Microwave assisted chemistry permits to perform simultaneously the fundamental steps required for metal species extraction and derivatization. The number of sample preparation steps used for organotin or organomercury species have been reduced to one and the total time of sample preparation brought down for a few hours to some minutes. Further, the developments of GC/ICP/MS techniques allow to routinely use speciated isotopic dilution methods has internal probe of the chemical reactions. These new approaches allow us to use the addition of the labeled species for isotopic dilution as a mean to evaluate and follow the chemical processes taking place during the extraction procedure. These procedures will help us to understand and check for the stability of the analytes during the chemistry of the sample preparation procedure and bring some insights of the chemistry taking place during the extraction. Understanding the different mechanisms involved in the sample preparation steps will allow us in return to further improve all theses procedures and bring us to the horizon of 'on-line sample preparation and detection'. (author)

  19. Microwave-assisted synthesis and optical properties of cuprous oxide micro/nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Dandan [Key Laboratory of Processing and Testing Technology of Glass and Functional Ceramics of Shandong Province, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353 (China); Du, Yi, E-mail: duyi234@126.com [Key Laboratory of Processing and Testing Technology of Glass and Functional Ceramics of Shandong Province, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353 (China); Tian, Xiuying, E-mail: xiuyingt@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hunan Institute of Humanities Science and Technology, Loudi 417000 (China); Li, Zhongfu; Chen, Zhongtao; Zhu, Chaofeng [Key Laboratory of Processing and Testing Technology of Glass and Functional Ceramics of Shandong Province, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Cuprous oxide micro/nanocrystals were fabricated by a facile and green microwave-assisted method using soluble starch as reductant and dispersant. Spheres with the diameter of about 100 and 600 nm, octahedron and truncated octahedron with the edge length of about 0.8–3 μm cuprous oxide micro/nanocrystals were successfully obtained. Microwave heating was proved to be a efficient method and was advantageous to the homogeneous nucleation. Growth mechanism of the prepared Cu{sub 2}O microcrystals were investigated carefully. Furthermore, the optical properties of the prepared cuprous oxide microcrystals were investigated by UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, demonstrating that their band gaps of obtained samples were 1.96–2.07 eV, assigned to their different sizes and morphologies. - Abstract: Cuprous oxide micro/nanocrystals were fabricated by a facile and green microwave-assisted method using soluble starch as reductant and dispersant. It was observed that the addition amounts of NaOH had a prominent effect on the morphologies and size of cuprous oxide products, and microwave heating was proved to be a efficient method and was advantageous to the homogeneous nucleation. The as-obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results indicated that the samples were pure cuprous oxide. Spheres with the diameter of about 100 and 600 nm, octahedron and truncated octahedron with the edge length of about 0.8–3 μm cuprous oxide micro/nanocrystals were successfully obtained. Furthermore, the UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy was used to investigate the optical properties of the prepared cuprous oxide microcrystals, demonstrating that their band gaps of obtained samples were 1.96–2.07 eV, assigned to their different sizes and morphologies.

  20. Solvent-Assisted Gel Printing for Micropatterning Thin Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Beomjin; Hwang, Ihn; Cho, Sung Hwan; Kim, Eui Hyuk; Cha, Soonyoung; Lee, Jinseong; Kang, Han Sol; Cho, Suk Man; Choi, Hyunyong; Park, Cheolmin

    2016-09-27

    While tremendous efforts have been made for developing thin perovskite films suitable for a variety of potential photoelectric applications such as solar cells, field-effect transistors, and photodetectors, only a few works focus on the micropatterning of a perovskite film which is one of the most critical issues for large area and uniform microarrays of perovskite-based devices. Here we demonstrate a simple but robust method of micropatterning a thin perovskite film with controlled crystalline structure which guarantees to preserve its intrinsic photoelectric properties. A variety of micropatterns of a perovskite film are fabricated by either microimprinting or transfer-printing a thin spin-coated precursor film in soft-gel state with a topographically prepatterned elastomeric poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) mold, followed by thermal treatment for complete conversion of the precursor film to a perovskite one. The key materials development of our solvent-assisted gel printing is to prepare a thin precursor film with a high-boiling temperature solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide. The residual solvent in the precursor gel film makes the film moldable upon microprinting with a patterned PDMS mold, leading to various perovskite micropatterns in resolution of a few micrometers over a large area. Our nondestructive micropatterning process does not harm the intrinsic photoelectric properties of a perovskite film, which allows for realizing arrays of parallel-type photodetectors containing micropatterns of a perovskite film with reliable photoconduction performance. The facile transfer of a micropatterned soft-gel precursor film on other substrates including mechanically flexible plastics can further broaden its applications to flexible photoelectric systems.

  1. Microwave-Assisted Alkali Pre-Treatment, Densification and Enzymatic Saccharification of Canola Straw and Oat Hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agu, Obiora S; Tabil, Lope G; Dumonceaux, Tim

    2017-03-26

    The effects of microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment on pellets' characteristics and enzymatic saccharification for bioethanol production using lignocellulosic biomass of canola straw and oat hull were investigated. The ground canola straw and oat hull were immersed in distilled water, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide solutions at two concentrations (0.75% and 1.5% w/v) and exposed to microwave radiation at power level 713 W and three residence times (6, 12 and 18 min). Bulk and particle densities of ground biomass samples were determined. Alkaline-microwave pre-treated and untreated samples were subjected to single pelleting test in an Instron universal machine, pre-set to a load of 4000 N. The measured parameters, pellet density, tensile strength and dimensional stability were evaluated and the results showed that the microwave-assisted alkali pre-treated pellets had a significantly higher density and tensile strength compared to samples that were untreated or pre-treated by microwave alone. The chemical composition analysis showed that microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment was able to disrupt and break down the lignocellulosic structure of the samples, creating an area of cellulose accessible to cellulase reactivity. The best enzymatic saccharification results gave a high glucose yield of 110.05 mg/g dry sample for canola straw ground in a 1.6 mm screen hammer mill and pre-treated with 1.5% NaOH for 18 min, and a 99.10 mg/g dry sample for oat hull ground in a 1.6 mm screen hammer mill and pre-treated with 0.75% NaOH for 18 min microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatments. The effects of pre-treatment results were supported by SEM analysis. Overall, it was found that microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment of canola straw and oat hull at a short residence time enhanced glucose yield.

  2. Optimization of enzymes-microwave-ultrasound assisted extraction of Lentinus edodes polysaccharides and determination of its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chaomin; Fan, Xiuzhi; Fan, Zhe; Shi, Defang; Gao, Hong

    2018-05-01

    Enzymes-microwave-ultrasound assisted extraction (EMUE) method had been used to extract Lentinus edodes polysaccharides (LEPs). The enzymatic temperature, enzymatic pH, microwave power and microwave time were optimized by response surface methodology. The yields, properties and antioxidant activities of LEPs from EMUE and other extraction methods including hot-water extraction, enzymes-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction were evaluated. The results showed that the highest LEPs yield of 9.38% was achieved with enzymatic temperature of 48°C, enzymatic pH of 5.0, microwave power of 440W and microwave time of 10min, which correlated well with the predicted value of 9.79%. Additionally, LEPs from different extraction methods possessed typical absorption peak of polysaccharides, which meant different extraction methods had no significant effects on type of glycosidic bonds and sugar ring of LEPs. However, SEM images of LEPs from different extraction methods were significantly different. Moreover, the different LEPs all showed antioxidant activities, but LEPs from EMUE showed the highest reducing power when compared to other LEPs. The results indicated LEPs from EMUE can be used as natural antioxidant component in the pharmaceutical and functional food industries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of Iron Species by Combination of Solvent Assisted-Dispersive Solid Phase Extraction and Spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Dehghani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid and sensitive solvent assisted-dispersive solid phase extraction method was developed for the extraction of iron(II prior to its spectrophotometric determination. The Fe(II reacted with 2,4,6-tris(2-pyridyl-1,3,5-triazine, neutralized with sodium dodecyl sulfate and extracted onto the fine particles of benzophenone which were formed upon rapid injection of a mixture of benzophenone as the sorbent and ethanol as the disperser solvent into the aqueous solution. After phase separation, the sedimented phase containing the complex was dissolved in ethanol and the analyte concentration was determined by measuring its absorption at 594 nm. Total iron was determined after the reduction of Fe(III to Fe(II with hydroxylamine hydrochloride. Under the optimized conditions, an enhancement factor of 32, the detection limit of 0.16 µg l-1, and the relative standard deviation of 1.9% (n = 6 at 20 µg l-1 concentration level of Fe(II were achieved. The method was successfully applied to the determination of iron species in water samples and total iron in infant dry formula milk, apple, rice, spinach and parsley samples.

  4. Photocatalytic perfermance of sandwich-like BiVO{sub 4} sheets by microwave assisted synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Suqin, E-mail: liusuqin888@126.com [Department of Chemical engineering and Food Science, Hubei University of arts and science, Xiangyang 441053 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, Xiangyang 441053 (China); Tang, Huiling; Zhou, Huan [Department of Chemical engineering and Food Science, Hubei University of arts and science, Xiangyang 441053 (China); Dai, Gaopeng, E-mail: dgp2000@126.com [Department of Chemical engineering and Food Science, Hubei University of arts and science, Xiangyang 441053 (China); Wang, Wanqiang [Department of Chemical engineering and Food Science, Hubei University of arts and science, Xiangyang 441053 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Sandwich-like BiVO{sub 4} sheets were successfully synthesized via a facile microwave-assisted method. The as-prepared samples exhibit a high activity for the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • Sandwich-like BiVO{sub 4} sheets were synthesized by a facile microwave-assisted method. • The presence of PEG-10000 plays a critical role in the formation of BiVO{sub 4} sheets. • Ostwald ripening is the primary driving force for the formation of sandwich-like BiVO{sub 4}. • The sandwich-like BiVO{sub 4} sheets exhibit a high visible-light photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Sandwich-like BiVO{sub 4} sheets were successfully synthesized in an aqueous solution containing bismuth nitrate, ammonium metavanadate and polyethylene glycol with a molecular weight of 10,000 (PEG-10000) using a facile microwave-assisted method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results show that the presence of PEG-10000 plays a critical role in the formation of BiVO{sub 4} sheets, and Ostwald ripening is the primary driving force for the formation of sandwich-like structures. The sandwich-like BiVO{sub 4} sheets exhibit a high activity for the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation (λ ≥ 420 nm). The enhancement of photocatalytic activity of sandwich-like BiVO{sub 4} sheets can be attributed to its large surface area over the irregular BiVO{sub 4} particles.

  5. Photocatalytic perfermance of sandwich-like BiVO_4 sheets by microwave assisted synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Suqin; Tang, Huiling; Zhou, Huan; Dai, Gaopeng; Wang, Wanqiang

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Sandwich-like BiVO_4 sheets were successfully synthesized via a facile microwave-assisted method. The as-prepared samples exhibit a high activity for the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • Sandwich-like BiVO_4 sheets were synthesized by a facile microwave-assisted method. • The presence of PEG-10000 plays a critical role in the formation of BiVO_4 sheets. • Ostwald ripening is the primary driving force for the formation of sandwich-like BiVO_4. • The sandwich-like BiVO_4 sheets exhibit a high visible-light photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Sandwich-like BiVO_4 sheets were successfully synthesized in an aqueous solution containing bismuth nitrate, ammonium metavanadate and polyethylene glycol with a molecular weight of 10,000 (PEG-10000) using a facile microwave-assisted method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, N_2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results show that the presence of PEG-10000 plays a critical role in the formation of BiVO_4 sheets, and Ostwald ripening is the primary driving force for the formation of sandwich-like structures. The sandwich-like BiVO_4 sheets exhibit a high activity for the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation (λ ≥ 420 nm). The enhancement of photocatalytic activity of sandwich-like BiVO_4 sheets can be attributed to its large surface area over the irregular BiVO_4 particles.

  6. Microwave-assisted synthesis of new aryliminothiazolylidene-2-thiazolidin-4-ones and their azarhodacyanines analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Kasmi-Mir

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We here report an efficient microwave-assisted protocol for the synthesis of new arylimino-thiazolylidene-2-thiazolidin-4-ones 6 and their azarhodacyanines derivatives 7 with quantitative yield from 2'-(methylthio-4'-oxo-3H,4'H-[2,5-bithiazolylidene]-3'-ium tosylates 5 and 2-arylimino-5-(thiazol-2(3H-ylidene thiazolidin-4-ones 6, respectively, using as starting material the 4-thiazoline-2-thiones 1 and 3-methyl-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one 3. The transformation of the tosylate salts 5 into their arylimino derivatives 6 has not been reported to date.

  7. Influence of PVP molecular weight on the microwave assisted in situ amorphization of indomethacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doreth, Maria; Löbmann, Korbinian; Priemel, Petra

    2018-01-01

    . After plasticization by moisture, PVP K12 reached a Tg below ambient temperature (16 ± 2 °C) indicating that the Tg of the plasticized polymer is a key factor for the success of in situ amorphization. DSC analysis showed that the amorphized drug was part of a ternary glass solution consisting of IND......, PVP K12 and water. In dissolution tests, IND:PVP K12 compacts showed a delayed initial drug release due to a lack of compact disintegration, but reached a higher total drug release eventually. In summary, this study showed that the microwave assisted in situ amorphization was highly dependent...... on the Tg of the plasticized polymer....

  8. Microwave assisted synthesis of CdS nanoparticles and their size evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, I. A.; Vazquez, A.; Gomez, I.

    2013-01-01

    The study of the size evolution of CdS nanoparticles in aqueous dispersion is presented in this paper. The sodium citrate was employed as stabilizer of CdS nanoparticles synthesized by microwave assisted synthesis. Analysis of this study was carried out by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, by comparison of the band gap energy using theoretical and empirical models. Results obtained show that the synthesis conditions produce CdS nanoparticles with diameters below of 6 nm, which remains stabilized by at least 14 days. These characteristics were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirms cubic phase of the CdS nanoparticles. (Author)

  9. Microwave assisted synthesis of CdS nanoparticles and their size evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, I. A.; Vazquez, A.; Gomez, I., E-mail: idaliagomezmx@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Laboratorio de Materiales I, Av. Universidad, Cd. Universitaria, 66451 San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2013-05-01

    The study of the size evolution of CdS nanoparticles in aqueous dispersion is presented in this paper. The sodium citrate was employed as stabilizer of CdS nanoparticles synthesized by microwave assisted synthesis. Analysis of this study was carried out by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, by comparison of the band gap energy using theoretical and empirical models. Results obtained show that the synthesis conditions produce CdS nanoparticles with diameters below of 6 nm, which remains stabilized by at least 14 days. These characteristics were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirms cubic phase of the CdS nanoparticles. (Author)

  10. Microwave-assisted synthesis and critical analysis for YBa2Cu3O6+δ nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhaganlal Gandhi, Ashish; Lin, Jauyn Grace

    2018-05-01

    A new cost effective scheme of a microwave-assisted sol–gel route followed by a short annealing time is proposed to synthesize YBCO nanoparticles (NPs) of various sizes. The advanced techniques of synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction (SRXRD) and electron spin resonance (ESR) are used to analyze the size effects on their magnetic/superconducting properties. The major interesting finding is that the size of YBCO NPs could confine the amount of oxygen content and consequently change the superconducting transition temperature (T C ) of YBCO NPs. The ESR result demonstrates a sensitive probe to characterize surface defects in the oxygen-deficient YBCO NPs.

  11. Use of the 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin for microwave-assisted solid phase peptide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieronymaki, Matthaia; Androutsou, Maria Eleni; Pantelia, Anna; Friligou, Irene; Crisp, Molly; High, Kirsty; Penkman, Kirsty; Gatos, Dimitrios; Tselios, Theodore

    2015-09-01

    A fast and efficient microwave (MW)-assisted solid-phase peptide synthesis protocol using the 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin and the Fmoc/tBu methodology, has been developed. The established protocol combines the advantages of MW irradiation and the acid labile 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin. The effect of temperature during the MW irradiation, the degree of resin substitution during the coupling of the first amino acids and the rate of racemization for each amino acid were evaluated. The suggested solid phase methodology is applicable for orthogonal peptide synthesis and for the synthesis of cyclic peptides. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Microwave-assisted synthesis and micellization behavior of soy-based copoly(2-oxazoline)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, Richard; Leenen, Mark A M; Huang, Haiying; Fustin, Charles-André; Gohy, Jean-François; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2006-01-01

    Polymers based on renewable resources are promising candidates for replacing common organic polymers, and thus, for reducing oil consumption. In this contribution we report the microwave-assisted synthesis of block and statistical copolymers from 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline and 2-"soy alkyl"-2-oxazoline via a cationic ring-opening polymerization mechanism. The synthesized copolymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography and 1 H-NMR spectroscopy. The micellization of these amphiphilic copolymers was investigated by dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy to examine the effect of hydrophobic block length and monomer distribution on the resulting micellar characteristics.

  13. Biodiesel Production from Chlorella protothecoides Oil by Microwave-Assisted Transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülyurt, Mustafa Ömer; Özçimen, Didem; İnan, Benan

    2016-04-22

    In this study, biodiesel production from microalgal oil by microwave-assisted transesterification was carried out to investigate its efficiency. Transesterification reactions were performed by using Chlorella protothecoides oil as feedstock, methanol, and potassium hydroxide as the catalyst. Methanol:oil ratio, reaction time and catalyst:oil ratio were investigated as process parameters affected methyl ester yield. 9:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, 1.5% KOH catalyst/oil ratio and 10 min were optimum values for the highest fatty acid methyl ester yield.

  14. Microwave Heating of Synthetic Skin Samples for Potential Treatment of Gout Using the Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Decrystallization Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Salih; Boone-Kukoyi, Zainab; Thompson, Nishone; Ajifa, Hillary; Clement, Travis; Ozturk, Birol; Aslan, Kadir

    2016-11-30

    Physical stability of synthetic skin samples during their exposure to microwave heating was investigated to demonstrate the use of the metal-assisted and microwave-accelerated decrystallization (MAMAD) technique for potential biomedical applications. In this regard, optical microscopy and temperature measurements were employed for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of damage to synthetic skin samples during 20 s intermittent microwave heating using a monomode microwave source (at 8 GHz, 2-20 W) up to 120 s. The extent of damage to synthetic skin samples, assessed by the change in the surface area of skin samples, was negligible for microwave power of ≤7 W and more extensive damage (>50%) to skin samples occurred when exposed to >7 W at initial temperature range of 20-39 °C. The initial temperature of synthetic skin samples significantly affected the extent of change in temperature of synthetic skin samples during their exposure to microwave heating. The proof of principle use of the MAMAD technique was demonstrated for the decrystallization of a model biological crystal (l-alanine) placed under synthetic skin samples in the presence of gold nanoparticles. Our results showed that the size (initial size ∼850 μm) of l-alanine crystals can be reduced up to 60% in 120 s without damage to synthetic skin samples using the MAMAD technique. Finite-difference time-domain-based simulations of the electric field distribution of an 8 GHz monomode microwave radiation showed that synthetic skin samples are predicted to absorb ∼92.2% of the microwave radiation.

  15. Microwave Heating of Synthetic Skin Samples for Potential Treatment of Gout Using the Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Decrystallization Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Physical stability of synthetic skin samples during their exposure to microwave heating was investigated to demonstrate the use of the metal-assisted and microwave-accelerated decrystallization (MAMAD) technique for potential biomedical applications. In this regard, optical microscopy and temperature measurements were employed for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of damage to synthetic skin samples during 20 s intermittent microwave heating using a monomode microwave source (at 8 GHz, 2–20 W) up to 120 s. The extent of damage to synthetic skin samples, assessed by the change in the surface area of skin samples, was negligible for microwave power of ≤7 W and more extensive damage (>50%) to skin samples occurred when exposed to >7 W at initial temperature range of 20–39 °C. The initial temperature of synthetic skin samples significantly affected the extent of change in temperature of synthetic skin samples during their exposure to microwave heating. The proof of principle use of the MAMAD technique was demonstrated for the decrystallization of a model biological crystal (l-alanine) placed under synthetic skin samples in the presence of gold nanoparticles. Our results showed that the size (initial size ∼850 μm) of l-alanine crystals can be reduced up to 60% in 120 s without damage to synthetic skin samples using the MAMAD technique. Finite-difference time-domain-based simulations of the electric field distribution of an 8 GHz monomode microwave radiation showed that synthetic skin samples are predicted to absorb ∼92.2% of the microwave radiation. PMID:27917407

  16. Sample preparation of sewage sludge and soil samples for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on one-pot microwave-assisted saponification and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, M.T.; Pensado, Luis; Casais, M.C.; Mejuto, M.C.; Cela, Rafael [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Dpto. Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia. Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2007-04-15

    A microwave-assisted sample preparation (MASP) procedure was developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge and soil samples. The procedure involved the simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction of PAHs with n-hexane and the hydrolysis of samples with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Because of the complex nature of the samples, the extracts were submitted to further cleaning with silica and Florisil solid-phase extraction cartridges connected in series. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were considered in the study. Quantification limits obtained for all of these compounds (between 0.4 and 14.8 {mu}g kg{sup -1} dry mass) were well below of the limits recommended in the USA and EU. Overall recovery values ranged from 60 to 100%, with most losses being due to evaporation in the solvent exchange stages of the procedure, although excellent extraction recoveries were obtained. Validation of the accuracy was carried out with BCR-088 (sewage sludge) and BCR-524 (contaminated industrial soil) reference materials. (orig.)

  17. Sample preparation of sewage sludge and soil samples for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on one-pot microwave-assisted saponification and extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, M Teresa; Pensado, Luis; Casais, M Carmen; Mejuto, M Carmen; Cela, Rafael

    2007-04-01

    A microwave-assisted sample preparation (MASP) procedure was developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge and soil samples. The procedure involved the simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction of PAHs with n-hexane and the hydrolysis of samples with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Because of the complex nature of the samples, the extracts were submitted to further cleaning with silica and Florisil solid-phase extraction cartridges connected in series. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were considered in the study. Quantification limits obtained for all of these compounds (between 0.4 and 14.8 microg kg(-1) dry mass) were well below of the limits recommended in the USA and EU. Overall recovery values ranged from 60 to 100%, with most losses being due to evaporation in the solvent exchange stages of the procedure, although excellent extraction recoveries were obtained. Validation of the accuracy was carried out with BCR-088 (sewage sludge) and BCR-524 (contaminated industrial soil) reference materials.

  18. Open focused microwave-assisted sample preparation for rapid total and mercury species determination in environmental solid samples

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng, C. M.; Garraud, H.; Amouroux, D.; Donard, O. F. X.; de Diego, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes rapid, simple microwave-assisted leaching/ digestion procedures for total and mercury species determination in sediment samples and biomaterials. An open focused microwave system allowed the sample preparation time to be dramatically reduced to only 24 min when a power of 40-80 W was applied. Quantitative leaching of methylmercury from sediments by HNO3 solution and complete dissolution of biomaterials by an alkaline solution, such as 25% TMAH solution, were obtained. Met...

  19. Microwave Assisted Extraction of Defatted Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Seed at Subcritical Conditions with Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Yusoff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Roselle seeds are the waste product of roselle processing, but they are now labeled as a polyphenol source with great herbal quality. In this work, polyphenols were extracted using ethanol-water (70% (v/v in a closed vessel under microwave irradiation. The main objective was to determine the optimal parameters statistically. The influence of extraction time (4–10 min, microwave power (100–300 W, and solvent/solid ratio (25–100 mL/g was studied. The total phenolic and flavonoids content were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. Without temperature control, the subcritical conditions could occur and the highest flavonoid content (14.4251 mg QE/g was achieved at 158°C and 16.4 bar. Although the optimum MAE conditions (10 min, 300 W, and 97.7178 mL/g resulted in the highest yield (65.0367% and phenolic content (18.2244 mg GAE/g, low flavonoids content (6.4524 mg QE/g was unexpectedly obtained due to degradation at 163°C.

  20. Profitable ultrasonic assisted microwave disintegration of sludge biomass: Modelling of biomethanation and energy parameter analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Rajesh Banu, J; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Kaliappan, S; Yeom, Ick Tae

    2018-04-01

    In this study, microwave irradiation has been employed to disintegrate the sludge biomass profitably by deagglomerating the sludge using a mechanical device, ultrasonicator. The outcomes of the study revealed that a specific energy input of 3.5 kJ/kg TS was found to be optimum for deagglomeration with limited cell lysis. A higher suspended solids (SS) reduction and biomass lysis efficiency of about 22.5% and 33.2% was achieved through ultrasonic assisted microwave disintegration (UMWD) when compared to microwave disintegration - MWD (15% and 20.9%). The results of biochemical methane potential (BMP) test were used to estimate biodegradability of samples. Among the samples subjected to BMP, UMWD showed better amenability towards anaerobic digestion with higher methane production potential of 0.3 L/g COD representing enhanced liquefaction potential of disaggregated sludge biomass. Economic analysis of the proposed method of sludge biomass pretreatment showed a net profit of 2.67 USD/Ton respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Microwave-assisted synthesis of triple-helical, collagen-mimetic lipopeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Jayati; Hanson, Andrea J; Muhonen, Wallace W; Shabb, John B; Mallik, Sanku

    2018-01-01

    Collagen-mimetic peptides and lipopeptides are widely used as substrates for matrix degrading enzymes, as new biomaterials for tissue engineering, as drug delivery systems and so on. However, the preparation and subsequent purification of these peptides and their fatty-acid conjugates are really challenging. Herein, we report a rapid microwave-assisted, solid-phase synthetic protocol to prepare the fatty-acid conjugated, triple-helical peptides containing the cleavage site for the enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). We employed a PEG-based resin as the solid support and the amino acids were protected with Fmoc- and tert-butyl groups. The amino acids were coupled at 50 °C (25 W of microwave power) for 5 min. The deprotection reactions were carried out at 75 °C (35 W of microwave power) for 3 min. Using this protocol, a peptide containing 23 amino acids was synthesized and then conjugated to stearic acid in 14 h. PMID:20057380

  2. Rapid immunohistochemical diagnosis of tobacco mosaic virus disease by microwave-assisted plant sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellnig, Günther; Möstl, Stefan; Zechmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Immunoelectron microscopy is a powerful method to diagnose viral diseases and to study the distribution of the viral agent within plant cells and tissues. Nevertheless, current protocols for the immunological detection of viral diseases with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in plants take between 3 and 6 days and are therefore not suited for rapid diagnosis of virus diseases in plants. In this study, we describe a method that allows rapid cytohistochemical detection of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in leaves of tobacco plants. With the help of microwave irradiation, sample preparation of the leaves was reduced to 90 min. After sample sectioning, virus particles were stained on the sections by immunogold labelling of the viral coat protein, which took 100 min. After investigation with the TEM, a clear visualization of TMV in tobacco cells was achieved altogether in about half a day. Comparison of gold particle density by image analysis revealed that samples prepared with the help of microwave irradiation yielded significantly higher gold particle density as samples prepared conventionally at room temperature. This study clearly demonstrates that microwave-assisted plant sample preparation in combination with cytohistochemical localization of viral coat protein is well suited for rapid diagnosis of plant virus diseases in altogether about half a day by TEM. PMID:23580761

  3. Enhanced degradation of 4-nitrophenol by microwave assisted Fe/EDTA process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Bo, E-mail: yongboliu@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Li Song, E-mail: ls8214@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhao Yongjun, E-mail: zyjun2007@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu Wenfei, E-mail: feibanana6@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang Xuxiang, E-mail: zhangxx@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Gu Xueyuan, E-mail: xygu@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Li Ruihua, E-mail: liruihua@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yang Shaogui, E-mail: ysg420@sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-04-15

    A microwave assisted zero-valent iron oxidation process was studied in order to investigate the synergetic effects of MW irradiation on Fe/EDTA system (Fe/EDTA/MW) treated 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) from aqueous solution. The results indicated that the thermal effect of microwave improved the removal effect of 4-NP and TOC through raising the temperature of the system, as well as the non-thermal effect generated by the interaction between the microwave and the Fe resulting in an increase in the hydrophobic character of Fe surface. During the degradation of 4-NP in Fe/EDTA/MW system, the optimum value for MW power, Fe, EDTA dosage was 400 W, 2 g and 0.4 mM, respectively. The possible pathway for degrading the 4-NP was proposed based on GC/MS and HPLC analysis of the degradation intermediates. The concentration change course of the main bio-refractory by-products, the aminophenol formed in the degradation of 4-NP suggested a more efficient degradation and mineralization in Fe/EDTA/MW system. Finally, BOD{sub 5}/COD{sub Cr} of the solution increased from 0.237 to 0.635 after reaction for 18 min, indicating that the biodegradability of wastewater was greatly improved by Fe/EDTA/MW system and would benefit to further treatment by biochemical methods.

  4. Enhanced degradation of 4-nitrophenol by microwave assisted Fe/EDTA process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bo; Li Song; Zhao Yongjun; Wu Wenfei; Zhang Xuxiang; Gu Xueyuan; Li Ruihua; Yang Shaogui

    2010-01-01

    A microwave assisted zero-valent iron oxidation process was studied in order to investigate the synergetic effects of MW irradiation on Fe/EDTA system (Fe/EDTA/MW) treated 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) from aqueous solution. The results indicated that the thermal effect of microwave improved the removal effect of 4-NP and TOC through raising the temperature of the system, as well as the non-thermal effect generated by the interaction between the microwave and the Fe resulting in an increase in the hydrophobic character of Fe surface. During the degradation of 4-NP in Fe/EDTA/MW system, the optimum value for MW power, Fe, EDTA dosage was 400 W, 2 g and 0.4 mM, respectively. The possible pathway for degrading the 4-NP was proposed based on GC/MS and HPLC analysis of the degradation intermediates. The concentration change course of the main bio-refractory by-products, the aminophenol formed in the degradation of 4-NP suggested a more efficient degradation and mineralization in Fe/EDTA/MW system. Finally, BOD 5 /COD Cr of the solution increased from 0.237 to 0.635 after reaction for 18 min, indicating that the biodegradability of wastewater was greatly improved by Fe/EDTA/MW system and would benefit to further treatment by biochemical methods.

  5. Pectin from Opuntia ficus indica: Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction and preliminary characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefsih, Khalef; Giacomazza, Daniela; Dahmoune, Farid; Mangione, Maria Rosalia; Bulone, Donatella; San Biagio, Pier Luigi; Passantino, Rosa; Costa, Maria Assunta; Guarrasi, Valeria; Madani, Khodir

    2017-04-15

    Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of water-soluble pectin (WSP) from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes was performed using Response Surface Methodology. The effect of extraction time (X 1 ), microwave power (X 2 ), pH (X 3 ) and solid-to-liquid ratio (X 4 ) on the extraction yield was examined. The optimum conditions of MAE were as follows: X 1 =2.15min; X 2 =517W; X 3 =2.26 and X 4 =2g/30.6mL. The maximum obtained yield of pectin extraction was 12.57%. Total carbohydrate content of WSP is about 95.5% including 34.4% of Galacturonic acid. Pectin-related proteins represent only the 0.66% of WSP mass. HPSEC and light scattering analyses reveal that WSP is mostly constituted of high molecular pectin and FTIR measurements show that the microwave treatment does not alter the chemical structure of WSP, in which Galacturonic acid content and yield are 34.4% and 4.33%, respectively. Overall, application of MAE can give rise to high quality pectin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Chitosan/Polyvinyl Alcohol Silver Nanoparticles Gel for Wound Dressing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Hiep

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to fabricate chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol/Ag nanoparticles (CPA gels with microwave-assistance for skin applications. Microwave irradiation was employed to reduce silver ions to silver nanoparticles and to crosslink chitosan (CS with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA. The presence of silver nanoparticles in CPA gels matrix was examined using UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The interaction of CS and PVA was analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The release of silver ions was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The antimicrobial properties of CPA gels against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were investigated using agar diffusion method. Finally, the biocompatibility and wound-healing ability of the gels were studied using fibroblast cells (in vitro and mice models (in vivo. In conclusion, the results showed that CPA gels were successfully fabricated using microwave irradiation method. These gels can be applied to heal an open wound thanks to their antibacterial activity and biocompatibility.

  7. Response surface methodology applied to the study of the microwave-assisted synthesis of quaternized chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Danilo Martins; Bukzem, Andrea de Lacerda; Campana-Filho, Sérgio Paulo

    2016-03-15

    A quaternized derivative of chitosan, namely N-(2-hydroxy)-propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (QCh), was synthesized by reacting glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTMAC) and chitosan (Ch) in acid medium under microwave irradiation. Full-factorial 2(3) central composite design and response surface methodology (RSM) were applied to evaluate the effects of molar ratio GTMAC/Ch, reaction time and temperature on the reaction yield, average degree of quaternization (DQ) and intrinsic viscosity ([η]) of QCh. The molar ratio GTMAC/Ch was the most important factor affecting the response variables and RSM results showed that highly substituted QCh (DQ = 71.1%) was produced at high yield (164%) when the reaction was carried out for 30min. at 85°C by using molar ratio GTMAC/Ch 6/1. Results showed that microwave-assisted synthesis is much faster (≤30min.) as compared to conventional reaction procedures (>4h) carried out in similar conditions except for the use of microwave irradiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Scale-up of microwave-assisted polymerizations in continuous-flow mode : cationic ring-opening polymerization of 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulus, R.M.; Erdmenger, T.; Becer, C.R.; Hoogenboom, R.; Schubert, U.S.

    2007-01-01

    Microwave-assisted polymerizations is a growing field of interest because the use of microwave irradiation instead of thermal heating was demonstrated to result in faster, cleaner, and higher yielding reactions. To overcome the one-at-a-time nature of preparing polymerizations in single microwave

  9. Sequential Combination of Microwave- and Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Total Flavonoids from Osmanthus fragrans Lour. Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Yu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted extraction assays were used to isolate total flavonoids (TF from Osmanthus fragrans flowers. The effects of the solid-liquid ratio, ethanol concentration, microwave power, microwave extraction time, ultrasonic power and ultrasonic extraction time on the yield of TF were studied. A sequential combination of microwave- and ultrasound-assisted extraction (SC-MUAE methods was developed, which was subsequently optimized by Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology (BBD-RSM. The interaction effects of the ethanol concentration (40–60%, microwave extraction time (5–7 min, ultrasonic extraction time (8–12 min and ultrasonic power (210–430 W on the yield of TF were investigated. The optimum operating parameters for the extraction of TF were determined to be as follows: ethanol concentration (48.15%, microwave extraction time (6.43 min, ultrasonic extraction time (10.09 min and ultrasonic power (370.9 W. Under these conditions, the extraction yield of TF was 7.86 mg/g.

  10. A fast, simple and green method for the extraction of carbamate pesticides from rice by microwave assisted steam extraction coupled with solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weitao; Zhang, Yiqun; Li, Guijie; Chen, Haiyan; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Qi; He, Dong; Zhao, Chun; Ding, Lan

    2014-01-15

    This paper presented a fast, simple and green sample pretreatment method for the extraction of 8 carbamate pesticides in rice. The carbamate pesticides were extracted by microwave assisted water steam extraction method, and the extract obtained was immediately applied on a C18 solid phase extraction cartridge for clean-up and concentration. The eluate containing target compounds was finally analysed by high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. The parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated and optimised. The limits of detection ranging from 1.1 to 4.2ngg(-1) were obtained. The recoveries of 8 carbamate pesticides ranged from 66% to 117% at three spiked levels, and the inter- and intra-day relative standard deviation values were less than 9.1%. Compared with traditional methods, the proposed method cost less extraction time and organic solvent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An improved facile method for extraction and determination of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris by focused microwave-assisted extraction coupled with GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianlin; Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhang, Lan; Huang, Xinjian; Lin, Junwei; Chen, Guonan

    2009-12-01

    An improved fast method for extraction of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris based on the use of focus microwave-assisted extraction (FMAE) is proposed. Under optimized conditions, four steroidal saponins were extracted from Tribulus terrestris and identified by GC-MS, which are Tigogenin (TG), Gitogenin (GG), Hecogenin (HG) and Neohecogenin (NG). One of the most important steroidal saponins, namely TG was quantified finally. The recovery of TG was in the range of 86.7-91.9% with RSDTribulus terrestris from different areas of occurrence. The difference in chromatographic characteristics of steroidal saponins was proved to be related to the different areas of occurrence. The results showed that FMAE-GC-MS is a simple, rapid, solvent-saving method for the extraction and determination of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris.

  12. Magnetization Switching of a Co /Pt Multilayered Perpendicular Nanomagnet Assisted by a Microwave Field with Time-Varying Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Hirofumi; Kanao, Taro; Nagasawa, Tazumi; Mizushima, Koichi; Sato, Rie

    2018-05-01

    Microwave-assisted magnetization switching (MAS) is attracting attention as a method for reversing nanomagnets with a high magnetic anisotropy by using a small-amplitude magnetic field. We experimentally study MAS of a perpendicularly magnetized nanomagnet by applying a microwave magnetic field with a time-varying frequency. Because the microwave field frequency can follow the nonlinear decrease of the resonance frequency, larger magnetization excitation than that in a constant-frequency microwave field is induced, which enhances the MAS effect. The switching field decreases almost linearly as the start value of the time-varying microwave field frequency increases, and it becomes smaller than the minimum switching field in a constant-frequency microwave field. To obtain this enhancement of the MAS effect, the end value of the time-varying microwave field frequency needs to be almost the same as or lower than the critical frequency for MAS in a constant-frequency microwave field. In addition, the frequency change typically needs to take 1 ns or longer to make the rate of change slow enough for the magnetization to follow the frequency change. This switching behavior is qualitatively explained by the theory based on the macrospin model.

  13. High yield and facile microwave-assisted synthesis of conductive H_2SO_4 doped polyanilines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gizdavic-Nikolaidis, Marija R.; Jevremovic, Milutin M.; Milenkovic, Maja; Allison, Morgan C.; Stanisavljev, Dragomir R.; Bowmaker, Graham A.; Zujovic, Zoran D.

    2016-01-01

    The microwave-assisted synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) was performed using ammonium persulphate (APS) as oxidizing agent in 0.5 M–2.5 M concentration range of aqueous sulphuric acid (H_2SO_4) at 93 W applied microwave power of 10 min duration. The microwave (MW) synthesized PANIs had 3 times higher yield in comparison to PANI samples prepared using a classical method, CS (0 W MW power) at the same temperature for 10 min synthesis duration period. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and UV–Vis spectroscopies confirmed the formation of PANI structure in all products. The influence of H_2SO_4 acid dopant on the spin concentration of MW and CS H_2SO_4 doped PANI samples were examined by EPR spectroscopy, while the morphological characteristics were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD results showed amorphous phases in both MW and CS H_2SO_4 doped PANI samples. Conductivity measurements revealed ∼1.5 times higher conductivity values for MW H_2SO_4 doped PANI samples in comparison with PANI samples prepared by the CS method under same condition. The influence of sulfate anion in comparison to chloride anion as a dopant on morphological, dopant levels and conductivity properties of MW PANI samples were also investigated. - Highlights: • Nanoporous microwave synthesized doped polyanilines as chemical sensor material. • Morphology and physical properties of polyanilines depend on acid concentration. • Spin concentration is determined by the nature of the polyaniline synthesis.

  14. MICROWAVE ASSISTED HYDRODISTILLATION UNTUK EKSTRAKSI MINYAK ATSIRI DARI KULIT JERUK BALI SEBAGAI LILIN AROMATERAPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megawati -

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ekstraksi minyak atsiri kulit jeruk bali dilakukan menggunakan metode Microwave Assisted Hydrodistillation dengan variasi daya (800, 600, 450, 300, dan 100 W dan massa bahan (150, 125, 100, 75,dan 50 g. Ektraksi dengan variasi daya dilakukan pada massa 150 g dan didapat daya optimum yaitu 600 W, sedangkan ekstraksi dengan variasi massa bahan dilakukan pada daya 600 W. Minyak atsiri yang diperoleh dianalisis densitas, kelarutan dalam alkohol 95% dan senyawa kimia minyak atsiri kulit jeruk bali menggunakan Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS dan minyak atsiri kulit jeruk bali yang didapat diaplikasikan untuk lilin aromaterapi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan semakin besar daya yang digunakan maka volum minyak yang dihasilkan semakin besar dan waktu ekstraksinya lebih cepat. Variasi massa bahan menunjukkan semakin besar massa bahan massa bahan yang digunakan maka volum minyak yang dihasilkan semakin besar. Densitas minyak atsiri kulit jeruk bali hasil penelitian yaitu 0,810 g/mL, larut pada alkohol 95% dengan perbandingan minyak-alkohol 1:6 dan terdapat tiga komponen senyawa kimia penyusun minyak atsiri kulit jeruk bali yaitu limonen (93,99%, β-pinene (3,20%, dan germakren-D (2,82%. Minyak atsiri kulit jeruk bali hasil ekstraksi yang diperoleh dapat diaplikasikan untuk lilin aromaterapi. Kata kunci: Kulit jeruk bali, lilin aromaterapi, microwave assisted hydrodistillation, minyak atsiri. Essential oils extracted from pomelo peel was performed using Microwave Assisted Hydrodistillation with variations of microwave oven power (800, 600, 450, 300, and 100 W and material mass (150, 125, 100, 75, and 50 g. The extraction with power variation was conducted with 150 g of material and the optimum extraction power was obtained at 600 W. Therefore material mass variation was conducted with microwave oven power of 600 W. The essential oils produced were analyzed for its density, solubility in alcohol of 95% v/v, and chemical composition. The chemical

  15. Ethanol production from cashew apple bagasse: improvement of enzymatic hydrolysis by microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Tigressa Helena Soares; Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; de Macedo, Gorete Ribeiro; Gonçalves, Luciana R B

    2011-07-01

    In this work, the potential of microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment in order to improve the rupture of the recalcitrant structures of the cashew able bagasse (CAB), lignocellulosic by-product in Brazil with no commercial value, is obtained from cashew apple process to juice production, was studied. First, biomass composition of CAB was determined, and the percentage of glucan and lignin was 20.54 ± 0.70% and 33.80 ± 1.30%, respectively. CAB content in terms of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, 19.21 ± 0.35%, 12.05 ± 0.37%, and 38.11 ± 0.08%, respectively, was also determined. Results showed that, after enzymatic hydrolysis, alkali concentration exerted influence on glucose formation, after pretreatment with 0.2 and 1.0 mo L(-1) of NaOH (372 ± 12 and 355 ± 37 mg g(glucan)(-1) ) when 2% (w/v) of cashew apple bagasse pretreated by microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment (CAB-M) was used. On the other hand, pretreatment time (15-30 min) and microwave power (600-900 W) exerted no significant effect on hydrolysis. On enzymatic hydrolysis step, improvement on solid percentage (16% w/v) and enzyme load (30 FPU g (CAB-M) (-1) ) increased glucose concentration to 15 g L(-1). The fermentation of the hydrolyzate by Saccharomyces cerevesiae resulted in ethanol concentration and productivity of 5.6 g L(-1) and 1.41 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively.

  16. The determination of organochlorine pesticides based on dynamic microwave-assisted extraction coupled with on-line solid-phase extraction of high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ligang; Ding Lan; Jin Haiyan; Song Daqian; Zhang Huarong; Li Jiantao; Zhang Kun; Wang Yutang; Zhang Hanqi

    2007-01-01

    A rapid technique based on dynamic microwave-assisted extraction coupled with on-line solid-phase extraction of high-performance liquid chromatography (DMAE-SPE-HPLC) has been developed. A TM 010 microwave resonance cavity built in the laboratory was applied to concentrate the microwave energy. The sample placed in the zone of microwave irradiation was extracted with 95% acetonitrile (ACN) aqueous solution which was driven by a peristaltic pump at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min -1 . The extraction can be completed in a recirculating system in 10 min. When a number of extraction cycles were completed, the extract (1 mL) was diluted on-line with water. Then the extract was loaded into an SPE column where the analytes were retained while the unretained matrix components were washed away. Subsequently, the analytes were automatically transferred from the SPE column to the analytical column and determined by UV detector at 238 nm. The technique was used for determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in grains, including wheat, rice, corn and bean. The limits of detection of OCPs are in the range of 19-37 ng g -1 . The recoveries obtained by analyzing the four spiked grain samples are in the range of 86-105%, whereas the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) values are <8.7% ranging from 1.2 to 8.7%. Our method was demonstrated to be fast, accurate, and precise. In addition, only small quantities of solvent and sample were required

  17. Determination of fructooligosaccharides in burdock using HPLC and microwave-assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Xiaomei; Zhou, Bin; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shaoping

    2013-06-19

    The root of burdock ( Arctium lappa L.) is a commonly used vegetable in Asia. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are usually considered as its main bioactive components. Thus, quantitative analysis of these components is very important for the quality control of burdock. In this study, an HPLC-ELSD and microwave-assisted extraction method was developed for the simultaneous determination of seven FOS with degrees of polymerization (DP) between 3 and 9, as well as fructose, glucose, and sucrose in burdock from different regions. The separation was performed on a Waters XBridge Amide column (4.6 × 250 mm i.d., 3.5 μm) with gradient elution. All calibration curves for investigated analytes showed good linear regression (r > 0.9990). Their LODs and LOQs were lower than 3.63 and 24.82 μg/mL, respectively. The recoveries ranged from 99.2 to 102.6%. The developed method was successfully applied to determination of ten sugars in burdock from different locations of Asia. The results showed that the contents of FOS in different samples of burdock collected at appropriate times were similar, and the developed HPLC-ELSD with microwave-assisted extraction method is helpful to control the quality of burdock.

  18. Microwave-assisted methyl esters synthesis of Kapok (Ceiba pentandra seed oil: parametric and optimization study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awais Bokhari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The depleting fossil fuel reserves and increasing environmental concerns have continued to stimulate research into biodiesel as a green fuel alternative produced from renewable resources. In this study, Kapok (Ceiba pentandra oil methyl ester was produced by using microwave-assisted technique. The optimum operating conditions for the microwave-assisted transesterification of Kapok seed oil including temperature, catalyst loading, methanol to oil molar ratio, and irradiation time were investigated by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM based on Central Composite Design (CCD. A maximum conversion of 98.9 % was obtained under optimum conditions of 57.09 °C reaction temperature, 2.15 wt% catalyst (KOH loading, oil to methanol molar ratio of 1:9.85, and reaction time of 3.29 min. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR spectroscopy was performed to verify the conversion of the fatty acid into methyl esters. The properties of Kapok oil methyl ester produced under the optimum conditions were characterized and found in agreement with the international ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214 standards.

  19. Morphological evolution of Bi2Se3 nanocrystalline materials synthesized by microwave assisted solvothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Sumit; Behera, P.; Mishra, A. K.; Krishnan, M.; Patidar, M. M.; Singh, D.; Gangrade, M.; Venkatesh, R.; Deshpande, U. P.; Phase, D. M.; Ganesan, V.

    2018-04-01

    Structural, morphological and spectroscopic properties of Bi2Se3 nanoparticles synthesized by microwave assisted solvothermal method were investigated systematically. A controlled synthesis of different morphologies by a small variation in synthesis procedure is demonstrated. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the formation of single phase. Crystallite and particle size reductions were studied with XRD and AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy). Different morphologies such as hexagonal nanoflakes with cross section of around˜6µm, nanoflower and octahedral agglomerated crystals of nearly ˜60 nm size have been observed in scanning electron microscope while varying the microwave assisted synthesis procedures. A significant blue shift observed in diffuse reflectance spectroscopy evidences the energy gap tuning as a result of morphological evolution. The difference in morphology observed in this three fast, facile and scalable synthesis is advantageous for tuning the thermoelectric figure of merit and for probing the surface states of these topological insulators. Low temperature resistivity remains similar for all three variants depicting a 2D character as evidenced by a -lnT term of localization.

  20. Evaluation of hemocompatibility and in vitro immersion on microwave-assisted hydroxyapatite–alumina nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radha, G.; Balakumar, S.; Venkatesan, Balaji; Vellaichamy, Elangovan

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the microwave-assisted synthesis and characterization of nHAp (nano-hydroxyapatite)–alumina composites. The crystalline phase and interaction of alumina with nHAp was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman microscopy analysis, respectively. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) micrographs exhibit morphological changes of nHAp composites with increasing alumina concentrations. Microhardness studies reveal the enhanced mechanical strength of nHAp10 and nHAp20 nanocomposites than pure nHAp. In vitro bioactivity of the nanocomposites was studied by immersing samples in simulated body fluid (Hank's solution) for 21 days. The surface of biomineralized samples were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Hemolytic assay revealed acceptable compatibility for varying concentrations of all the samples. Cell proliferation assay was systematically investigated for 1 day and 3 days on Saos-2 osteoblast-like cell lines and it was found that nHAp nanocomposites improved the proliferation. - Highlights: • The microwave-assisted hydroxyapatite (nHAp)–alumina nanocomposites were prepared. • Structural and interaction between nHAp and alumina have been explored. • Increased alumina concentration enhanced mechanical strength of the nHAp. • Trace elements from SBF, incorporated on nHAp–alumina nanocomposite surface, were characterized by FESEM and EDX techniques. • Hemocompatibility of the samples were evaluated and the results are in accordance with ASTM standards

  1. Evaluation of hemocompatibility and in vitro immersion on microwave-assisted hydroxyapatite–alumina nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radha, G. [National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Madras, Guindy campus, Chennai - 600025 (India); Balakumar, S., E-mail: balasuga@yahoo.com [National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Madras, Guindy campus, Chennai - 600025 (India); Venkatesan, Balaji; Vellaichamy, Elangovan [Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy campus, Chennai - 600025 (India)

    2015-05-01

    This study reports the microwave-assisted synthesis and characterization of nHAp (nano-hydroxyapatite)–alumina composites. The crystalline phase and interaction of alumina with nHAp was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman microscopy analysis, respectively. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) micrographs exhibit morphological changes of nHAp composites with increasing alumina concentrations. Microhardness studies reveal the enhanced mechanical strength of nHAp10 and nHAp20 nanocomposites than pure nHAp. In vitro bioactivity of the nanocomposites was studied by immersing samples in simulated body fluid (Hank's solution) for 21 days. The surface of biomineralized samples were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Hemolytic assay revealed acceptable compatibility for varying concentrations of all the samples. Cell proliferation assay was systematically investigated for 1 day and 3 days on Saos-2 osteoblast-like cell lines and it was found that nHAp nanocomposites improved the proliferation. - Highlights: • The microwave-assisted hydroxyapatite (nHAp)–alumina nanocomposites were prepared. • Structural and interaction between nHAp and alumina have been explored. • Increased alumina concentration enhanced mechanical strength of the nHAp. • Trace elements from SBF, incorporated on nHAp–alumina nanocomposite surface, were characterized by FESEM and EDX techniques. • Hemocompatibility of the samples were evaluated and the results are in accordance with ASTM standards.

  2. TiO2 synthesized by microwave assisted solvothermal method: Experimental and theoretical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, K.F.; Maul, J.; Albuquerque, A.R.; Casali, G.P.; Longo, E.; Keyson, D.; Souza, A.G.; Sambrano, J.R.; Santos, I.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a microwave assisted solvothermal method was used to synthesize TiO 2 with anatase structure. The synthesis was done using Ti (IV) isopropoxide and ethanol without templates or alkalinizing agents. Changes in structural features were observed with increasing time of synthesis and evaluated using periodic quantum chemical calculations. The anatase phase was obtained after only 1 min of reaction besides a small amount of brookite phase. Experimental Raman spectra are in accordance with the theoretical one. Micrometric spheres constituted by nanometric particles were obtained for synthesis from 1 to 30 min, while spheres and sticks were observed after 60 min. - Graphical abstract: FE-SEM images of anatase obtained with different periods of synthesis associated with the order–disorder degree. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Anatase microspheres were obtained by the microwave assisted hydrothermal method. • Only ethanol and titanium isopropoxide were used as precursors during the synthesis. • Raman spectra and XRD patterns were compared with quantum chemical calculations. • Time of synthesis increased the short-range disorder in one direction and decreased in another

  3. Energy Gap, Microwave-Assisted Tunneling, and Josephson Steps in Thin-Film Weak Links at 63 and 302 GHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Bent; Særmark, Knud

    1973-01-01

    We present experimental evidence for the occurrence of energy-gap structure and microwave-assisted tunneling in the IV curves for superconducting thin-film weak links. From measurements of the power and the temperature dependence of the Josephson steps we argue that also the Riedel peak is observ......We present experimental evidence for the occurrence of energy-gap structure and microwave-assisted tunneling in the IV curves for superconducting thin-film weak links. From measurements of the power and the temperature dependence of the Josephson steps we argue that also the Riedel peak...

  4. Determining the microwave coupling and operational efficiencies of a microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition reactor under high pressure diamond synthesis operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nad, Shreya [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Gu, Yajun; Asmussen, Jes [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    The microwave coupling efficiency of the 2.45 GHz, microwave plasma assisted diamond synthesis process is investigated by experimentally measuring the performance of a specific single mode excited, internally tuned microwave plasma reactor. Plasma reactor coupling efficiencies (η) > 90% are achieved over the entire 100–260 Torr pressure range and 1.5–2.4 kW input power diamond synthesis regime. When operating at a specific experimental operating condition, small additional internal tuning adjustments can be made to achieve η > 98%. When the plasma reactor has low empty cavity losses, i.e., the empty cavity quality factor is >1500, then overall microwave discharge coupling efficiencies (η{sub coup}) of >94% can be achieved. A large, safe, and efficient experimental operating regime is identified. Both substrate hot spots and the formation of microwave plasmoids are eliminated when operating within this regime. This investigation suggests that both the reactor design and the reactor process operation must be considered when attempting to lower diamond synthesis electrical energy costs while still enabling a very versatile and flexible operation performance.

  5. Effects of microwave power and irradiation time on pectin extraction from watermelon rinds (Citrullus lanatus) with acetic acid using microwave assisted extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, A. M.; Ishartani, D.; Dewanty, P. S.

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this research are to study the effect of microwave power (119.7 W, 199.5 W and 279.3 W) and irradiation time (6, 9 and 12 min) on pectin extraction by using Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) with acetic acid and to do a preliminary characterization of pectin from watermelon rinds. A randomized factorial design with two factors was used to determine the effect of microwave power and processing time on the yield, equivalent weight, degree of methoxylation (DM), galacturonic acid content (GA) and the degree of esterification (DE) of extracted pectin. The results showed that extracted pectin from watermelon rinds using MAE method have yield ranged from 3.925% to 5.766%, with equivalent weight ranged from 1249.702 to 2007.756. Extracted pectin have a DM value ranged from 3.89% to 10.81%. Galacturonic acid content that meets with IPPA standard resulted from extraction condition of 279.3-watt microwave power for 9 min and 12 min. The degree of esterification (DE) value ranged from 56.86% to 85.76%, and this value exhibited a relatively high methoxyl pectin (>50%). The best pectin properties was obtained at a microwave power of 279.3 watts for 12 min.

  6. Design of guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction for the efficient extraction of Praeruptorin A from Radix peucedani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xueqin; Li, Li; Wang, Yuzhi; Chen, Jing; Huang, Yanhua; Xu, Kaijia

    2014-12-01

    A series of novel tetramethylguanidinium ionic liquids and hexaalkylguanidinium ionic liquids have been synthesized based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine. The structures of the ionic liquids were confirmed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. A green guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction method has been developed with these guanidinium ionic liquids for the effective extraction of Praeruptorin A from Radix peucedani. After extraction, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection was employed for the analysis of Praeruptorin A. Several significant operating parameters were systematically optimized by single-factor and L9 (3(4)) orthogonal array experiments. The amount of Praeruptorin A extracted by [1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine]CH2CH(OH)COOH is the highest, reaching 11.05 ± 0.13 mg/g. Guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction presents unique advantages in Praeruptorin A extraction compared with guanidinium ionic liquid based maceration extraction, guanidinium ionic liquid based heat reflux extraction and guanidinium ionic liquid based ultrasound-assisted extraction. The precision, stability, and repeatability of the process were investigated. The mechanisms of guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction were researched by scanning electron microscopy and IR spectroscopy. All the results show that guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction has a huge potential in the extraction of bioactive compounds from complex samples. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Dual ultrasonic-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with microwave-assisted derivatization for simultaneous determination of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xian-En; Lv, Tao; Zhu, Shuyun; Qu, Fei; Chen, Guang; He, Yongrui; Wei, Na; Li, Guoliang; Xia, Lian; Sun, Zhiwei; Zhang, Shijuan; You, Jinmao; Liu, Shu; Liu, Zhiqiang; Sun, Jing; Liu, Shuying

    2016-03-11

    This paper, for the first time, reported a speedy hyphenated technique of low toxic dual ultrasonic-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (dual-UADLLME) coupled with microwave-assisted derivatization (MAD) for the simultaneous determination of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT). The developed method was based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) detection using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. A mass spectrometry sensitizing reagent, 4'-carboxy-substituted rosamine (CSR) with high reaction activity and ionization efficiency was synthesized and firstly used as derivatization reagent. Parameters of dual-UADLLME, MAD and UHPLC-MS/MS conditions were all optimized in detail. Low toxic brominated solvents were used as extractant instead of traditional chlorinated solvents. Satisfactory linearity, recovery, repeatability, accuracy and precision, absence of matrix effect and extremely low limits of detection (LODs, 0.010 and 0.015ng/mL for PPD and PPT, respectively) were achieved. The main advantages were rapid, sensitive and environmentally friendly, and exhibited high selectivity, accuracy and good matrix effect results. The proposed method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetics of PPD and PPT in rat plasma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses in various solvents as well as under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predominantly exploiting the inexpensive unmodified household microwave (MW) ovens although th...

  9. One-Step Solvent Evaporation-Assisted 3D Printing of Piezoelectric PVDF Nanocomposite Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkhe, Sampada; Turcot, Gabrielle; Gosselin, Frederick P; Therriault, Daniel

    2017-06-21

    Development of a 3D printable material system possessing inherent piezoelectric properties to fabricate integrable sensors in a single-step printing process without poling is of importance to the creation of a wide variety of smart structures. Here, we study the effect of addition of barium titanate nanoparticles in nucleating piezoelectric β-polymorph in 3D printable polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and fabrication of the layer-by-layer and self-supporting piezoelectric structures on a micro- to millimeter scale by solvent evaporation-assisted 3D printing at room temperature. The nanocomposite formulation obtained after a comprehensive investigation of composition and processing techniques possesses a piezoelectric coefficient, d 31 , of 18 pC N -1 , which is comparable to that of typical poled and stretched commercial PVDF film sensors. A 3D contact sensor that generates up to 4 V upon gentle finger taps demonstrates the efficacy of the fabrication technique. Our one-step 3D printing of piezoelectric nanocomposites can form ready-to-use, complex-shaped, flexible, and lightweight piezoelectric devices. When combined with other 3D printable materials, they could serve as stand-alone or embedded sensors in aerospace, biomedicine, and robotic applications.

  10. Rapid synthesis of tin oxide nanostructures by microwave-assisted thermal oxidation for sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadungdhitidhada, S.; Ruankham, P.; Gardchareon, A.; Wongratanaphisan, D.; Choopun, S.

    2017-09-01

    In the present work nanostructures of tin oxides were synthesized by a microwave-assisted thermal oxidation. Tin precursor powder was loaded into a cylindrical quartz tube and further radiated in a microwave oven. The as-synthesized products were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and x-ray diffractometer. The results showed that two different morphologies of SnO2 microwires (MWs) and nanoparticles (NPs) were obtained in one minute of microwave radiation under atmospheric ambient. A few tens of the SnO2 MWs with the length of 10-50 µm were found. Some parts of the MWs were decorated with the SnO2 NPs. However, most of the products were SnO2 NPs with the diameter ranging from 30-200 nm. Preparation under loosely closed system lead to mixed phase SnO-SnO2 NPs with diameter of 30-200 nm. The single-phase of SnO2 could be obtained by mixing the Sn precursor powders with CuO2. The products were mostly found to be SnO2 nanowires (NWs) and MWs. The diameter of SnO2 NWs was less than 50 nm. The SnO2 NPs, MWs, and NWs were in the cassiterite rutile structure phase. The SnO NPs was in the tetragonal structure phase. The growth direction of the SnO2 NWs was observed in (1 1 0) and (2 2 1) direction. The ethanol sensor performance of these tin oxide nanostructures showed that the SnO-SnO2 NPs exhibited extremely high sensitivity. Invited talk at 5th Thailand International Nanotechnology Conference (Nano Thailand-2016), 27-29 November 2016, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand.

  11. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of a MK2 Inhibitor by Suzuki-Miyaura Coupling for Study in Werner Syndrome Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C. Bagley

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assisted Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions have been employed towards the synthesis of three different MAPKAPK2 (MK2 inhibitors to study accelerated aging in Werner syndrome (WS cells, including the cross-coupling of a 2-chloroquinoline with a 3-pyridinylboronic acid, the coupling of an aryl bromide with an indolylboronic acid and the reaction of a 3-amino-4-bromopyrazole with 4-carbamoylphenylboronic acid. In all of these processes, the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction was fast and relatively efficient using a palladium catalyst under microwave irradiation. The process was incorporated into a rapid 3-step microwave-assisted method for the synthesis of a MK2 inhibitor involving 3-aminopyrazole formation, pyrazole C-4 bromination using N-bromosuccinimide (NBS, and Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of the pyrazolyl bromide with 4-carbamoylphenylboronic acid to give the target 4-arylpyrazole in 35% overall yield, suitable for study in WS cells.

  12. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by ZnO-reduced graphene oxide composite synthesized via microwave-assisted reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv Tian [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200062 (China); Pan Likun, E-mail: lkpan@phy.ecnu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200062 (China); Liu Xinjuan; Lu Ting; Zhu Guang; Sun Zhuo [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200062 (China)

    2011-10-13

    Highlights: > ZnO-reduced graphene oxide composite is synthesized via microwave assisted reaction. > The method allows a facile, safe and rapid reaction in aqueous media. > A high dye degradation efficiency is achieved under UV light irradiation. - Abstract: A quick and facile microwave-assisted reaction is used to synthesize ZnO-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) hybrid composites by reducing graphite oxide dispersion with zinc nitrate using a microwave synthesis system. Their photocatalytic performance in degradation of methylene blue is investigated and the results show that the RGO plays an important role in the enhancement of photocatalytic performance and the ZnO-RGO composite with 1.1 wt. % RGO achieves a maximum degradation efficiency of 88% in a neutral solution under UV light irradiation for 260 min as compared with pure ZnO (68%) due to the increased light absorption, the reduced charge recombination with the introduction of RGO.

  13. Improving enzymatic saccharification of cassava stem using peroxide and microwave assisted pre-treatment techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of microwave assisted alkali (MAA and alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP pre-treatment methods in improving the enzymatic saccharification of cassava stem was investigated. Ground cassava stems were by MAA method by varying microwave power, NaOH concentration and pre-treatment time. AHP method was performed at various H2O2 concentrations, pre-treatment temperatures and times. The results showed that reducing sugar yield was higher from MAA pretreated stem when compared with AHP pre-treatment, which demonstrated that MAA pre-treatment was effective in releasing sugars. SEM studies on the pre-treated samples revealed extensive distortion of fibres in MAA pre-treated than AHP pre-treated samples, which showed pores and cracks in the fibrous structure. Spectral studies showed the change in the chemical structure of pre-treated samples. The work revealed that the studied pre-treatment methods were effective in improving the enzymatic saccharification of cassava stem.

  14. Microwave assisted leaching and electrochemical recovery of copper from printed circuit boards of computer waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivǎnuş, R. C.; ǎnuş, D., IV; Cǎlmuc, F.

    2010-06-01

    Due to the rapid technological progress, the replacement of electronic equipment is very often necessary, leading to huge amounts that end up as waste. In addition, waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) contains metals of high commercial value and others that are supposed to be hazardous for the environment. Consequently, WEEE could be considered as a significant source for recovery of nonferrous metals. Among these wastes, computers appear to be distinctive, as far as further exploitation is concerned. The most ″useful″ parts of the computers are the printed circuit boards that contain many metals of interest. A study on microwave assisted electronic scrap (printed circuit boards of computer waste - PCBs) leaching was carried out with a microwave hydrothermal reactor. The leaching was conducted with thick slurries (50-100 g/L). The leaching media is a mixed solution of CuCl2 and NaCl. Preliminary electrolysis from leaching solution has investigated the feasibility of electrodeposition of copper. The results were discussed and compared with the conventional leaching method and demonstrated the potential for selective extraction of copper from PCBs.

  15. Microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition of porous carbon film as supercapacitive electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ai-Min; Feng, Chen-Chen; Huang, Hao; Paredes Camacho, Ramon Alberto; Gao, Song; Lei, Ming-Kai; Cao, Guo-Zhong

    2017-07-01

    Highly porous carbon film (PCF) coated on nickel foam was prepared successfully by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) with C2H2 as carbon source and Ar as discharge gas. The PCF is uniform and dense with 3D-crosslinked nanoscale network structure possessing high degree of graphitization. When used as the electrode material in an electrochemical supercapacitor, the PCF samples verify their advantageous electrical conductivity, ion contact and electrochemical stability. The test results show that the sample prepared under 1000 W microwave power has good electrochemical performance. It displays the specific capacitance of 62.75 F/g at the current density of 2.0 A/g and retains 95% of its capacitance after 10,000 cycles at the current density of 2.0 A/g. Besides, its near-rectangular shape of the cyclic voltammograms (CV) curves exhibits typical character of an electric double-layer capacitor, which owns an enhanced ionic diffusion that can fit the requirements for energy storage applications.

  16. Bromination and Diazo-Coupling of Pyridinethiones; Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Isothiazolopyridine, Pyridothiazine and Pyridothiazepines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman M. S. Youssef

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Isothiazolopyridines, pyridothiazines and pyridothiazepines are important compounds that possess valuable biological activities. This paper reports on the synthesis of these compounds using both conventional chemical methods and modern microwave techniques. 3-Bromo-6-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydropyridine-3-carboxamide, 5-arylazo-6-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-thioxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carboxamides, 3,5-bis-arylazo-6-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydropyridine-3-caboxamide, 4-methyl-2,3,6,7-tetra-hydroisothiazolo[5,4-b]-pyridine-3,6-dione, 2,2'-(methylene-bis-(sulfanediylbis(4-methyl-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyridine-3-carboxamide, 2-hydroxy-5-methyl-4H-pyrido[3,2-e][1,3]-thiazine-4,7(8H-dione and 2-arylmethylene-8-hydroxy-6-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyrido-[3,2-f][1,4]thiazepine-3,5-diones have been prepared from 6-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydropyridine-3-carboxamide. Some of these compounds were prepared using microwave-assisted reaction conditions, that provided higher yields in shorter times than the conventional methods.

  17. Thermal decomposition of synthetic antlerite prepared by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Nobuyoshi [Chemistry Laboratory, Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University, 1-1-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8524 (Japan)], E-mail: nkoga@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Mako, Akira; Kimizu, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yuu [Chemistry Laboratory, Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University, 1-1-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8524 (Japan)

    2008-01-30

    Copper(II) hydroxide sulfate was synthesized by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method from a mixed solution of CuSO{sub 4} and urea. Needle-like crystals of ca. 20-30 {mu}m in length precipitated by irradiating microwave for 1 min were characterized as Cu{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}SO{sub 4} corresponding to mineral antlerite. The reaction pathway and kinetics of the thermal decomposition of the synthetic antlerite Cu{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}SO{sub 4} were investigated by means of thermoanalytical techniques complemented by powder X-ray diffractometry and microscopic observations. The thermal decomposition of Cu{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}SO{sub 4} proceeded via two separated reaction steps of dehydroxylation and desulfation to produce CuO, where crystalline phases of Cu{sub 2}OSO{sub 4} and CuO appeared as the intermediate products. The kinetic characteristics of the respective steps were discussed in comparison with those of the synthetic brochantite Cu{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}SO{sub 4} reported previously.

  18. Synthesis of Graphite Oxide with Different Surface Oxygen Contents Assisted Microwave Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ibarra-Hernández

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Graphite oxide is synthesized via oxidation reaction using oxidant compounds that have lattice defects by the incorporation of unlike functional groups. Herein, we report the synthesis of the graphite oxide with diverse surface oxygen content through three (B, C, D different modified versions of the Hummers method assisted microwave radiation compared with the conventional graphite oxide sample obtained by Hummers method (A. These methods allow not only the production of graphite oxide but also reduced graphene oxide, without undergoing chemical, thermal, or mechanical reduction steps. The values obtained of C/O ratio were ~2, 3.4, and ~8.5 for methodologies C, B, and D, respectively, indicating the presence of graphite oxide and reduced graphene oxide, according to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy of method D shows the fewest structural defects compared to the other methodologies. The results obtained suggest that the permanganate ion produces reducing species during graphite oxidation. The generation of these species is attributed to a reversible reaction between the permanganate ion with π electrons, ions, and radicals produced after treatment with microwave radiation.

  19. Microwave-assisted Synthesis of CuS/Graphene Composite for Enhanced Lithium Storage Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, He; Wang, Yunhui; Huang, Jingxin; Zhang, Yiyong; Zhao, Jinbao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CuS/graphene composite is synthesized via one-pot microwave-assisted method. • CuS/graphene composite shows enhanced cycle stability and rate performance. • The incorporation of graphene plays a vital role in the electrode. • The kinetic mechanisms are investigated by EIS, CV and GITT methods. - Abstract: In this work, CuS/graphene (CuS-G) composite is synthesized via one-pot microwave irradiation method under ambient conditions. As anode material for lithium ion batteries, the CuS-G composite delivers a significantly enhanced reversible capacity and charge/discharge cycle stability compared with pristine CuS. A capacity of 348 mAh g −1 can be maintained after 1000 cycles at the current density of 2.0 A g −1 . Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) along with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) measurements indicate that the incorporation of graphene sheets reduces the contact resistance and enhances lithium ion transfer rate during the electrochemical lithium insertion/extraction remarkably. Thus, as-prepared CuS spheres can be a promising anode material for high performance lithium ion batteries.

  20. Microwave assisted extraction for trace element analysis of plant materials by ICP-AES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkowska-Burnecka, J. [Wroclaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. Chemii

    2000-11-01

    Application of microwave assisted extraction for the decomposition and dissolution of plant samples for trace metal determination by ICP-AES was examined. Dried onion, leaves of spinach beet and three reference materials CTA-OTL-1, CTA-VTL-2 and CL-1 were analyzed. Water, EDTA and hydrochloric acid (0.01, 0.10 and 1.0 M, respectively) were used as leaching solutions. The extraction efficiency was investigated by comparison of the results with those obtained after microwave wet digestion. HCl was found to be very suitable for quantitative extraction of B, Ba, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn from the samples. For reference materials, the measured concentrations are well consistent with the certified values. The use of EDTA led to a complete extraction of B, Cd, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn. Water was found to be a good leaching solution for boron. For extraction with HCl and EDTA, the RSD values for the concentrations measured were below 8% for most of the elements. (orig.)

  1. Microwave assisted extraction for trace element analysis of plant materials by ICP-AES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowska-Burnecka, J

    2000-11-01

    Application of microwave assisted extraction for the decomposition and dissolution of plant samples for trace metal determination by ICP-AES was examined. Dried onion, leaves of spinach beet and three reference materials CTA-OTL-1, CTA-VTL-2 and CL-1 were analyzed. Water, EDTA and hydrochloric acid (0.01, 0.10 and 1.0 M, respectively) were used as leaching solutions. The extraction efficiency was investigated by comparison of the results with those obtained after microwave wet digestion. HCl was found to be very suitable for quantitative extraction of B, Ba, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn from the samples. For reference materials, the measured concentrations are well consistent with the certified values. The use of EDTA led to a complete extraction of B, Cd, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn. Water was found to be a good leaching solution for boron. For extraction with HCl and EDTA, the RSD values for the concentrations measured were below 8% for most of the elements.

  2. Microwave assisted leaching and electrochemical recovery of copper from printed circuit boards of computer waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivănuş R.C.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid technological progress, the replacement of electronic equipment is very often necessary, leading to huge amounts that end up as waste. In addition, waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE contains metals of high commercial value and others that are supposed to be hazardous for the environment. Consequently, WEEE could be considered as a significant source for recovery of nonferrous metals. Among these wastes, computers appear to be distinctive, as far as further exploitation is concerned. The most ″useful″ parts of the computers are the printed circuit boards that contain many metals of interest. A study on microwave assisted electronic scrap (printed circuit boards of computer waste – PCBs leaching was carried out with a microwave hydrothermal reactor. The leaching was conducted with thick slurries (50-100 g/L. The leaching media is a mixed solution of CuCl2 and NaCl. Preliminary electrolysis from leaching solution has investigated the feasibility of electrodeposition of copper. The results were discussed and compared with the conventional leaching method and demonstrated the potential for selective extraction of copper from PCBs.

  3. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAP) for ginseng components by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Bélanger, Jacqueline M R; Paré, J R Jocelyn

    2003-03-26

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to predict optimum conditions for microwave-assisted extraction-a MAP technology-of saponin components from ginseng roots. A central composite design was used to monitor the effect of ethanol concentration (30-90%, X(1)) and extraction time (30-270 s, X(2)) on dependent variables, such as total extract yield (Y(1)), crude saponin content (Y(2)), and saponin ratio (Y(3)), under atmospheric pressure conditions when focused microwaves were applied at an emission frequency of 2450 MHz. In MAP under pre-established conditions, correlation coefficients (R (2)) of the models for total extract yield and crude saponin were 0.9841 (p extraction conditions were predicted for each variable as 52.6% ethanol and 224.7 s in extract yield and as 77.3% ethanol and 295.1 s in crude saponins, respectively. Estimated maximum values at predicted optimum conditions were in good agreement with experimental values.

  4. Rapid preparation of functional polysaccharides from Pyropia yezoensis by microwave-assistant rapid enzyme digest system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hyeok; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Ko, Ju-Young; Jang, Jun-Ho; Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Lee, Jung-Suck; Nah, Jae-Woon; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-11-20

    This study describes a simple preparation of functional polysaccharides from Pyropia yezoensis using a microwave-assistant rapid enzyme digest system (MAREDS) with various carbohydrases, and evaluates their antioxidative effects. Polysaccharide hydrolysates were prepared using MAREDS under different hydrolytic conditions of the carbohydrases and microwave powers. Polysaccharides less than 10kDa (Low molecular weight polysaccharides, LMWP, ≤10kDa) were efficiently obtained using an ultrafiltration (molecular weight cut-off of 10kDa). MAREDS increases AMG activation via an increased degree of hydrolysis; the best AMG hydrolysate was prepared using a 10:1 ratio of substrate to enzyme for 2h in MAREDS with 400W. LMWP consisted of galactose (27.3%), glucose (64.5%), and mannose (8.3%) from the AMG hydrolysate had stronger antioxidant effects than the high molecular weight polysaccharides (>10kDa). We rapidly prepared functional LMWPs by using MAREDS with carbohydrases, and suggest that LMWP might be potentially a valuable algal polysaccharide antioxidant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modeling of electron behaviors under microwave electric field in methane and air pre-mixture gas plasma assisted combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Haruaki; Sasaki, K.; Yoshinaga, T.

    2011-10-01

    Recently, plasma-assisted combustion has been focused on for achieving more efficient combustion way of fossil fuels, reducing pollutants and so on. Shinohara et al has reported that the flame length of methane and air premixed burner shortened by irradiating microwave power without increase of gas temperature. This suggests that electrons heated by microwave electric field assist the combustion. They also measured emission from 2nd Positive Band System (2nd PBS) of nitrogen during the irradiation. To clarify this mechanism, electron behavior under microwave power should be examined. To obtain electron transport parameters, electron Monte Carlo simulations in methane and air mixture gas have been done. A simple model has been developed to simulate inside the flame. To make this model simple, some assumptions are made. The electrons diffuse from the combustion plasma region. And the electrons quickly reach their equilibrium state. And it is found that the simulated emission from 2nd PBS agrees with the experimental result. Recently, plasma-assisted combustion has been focused on for achieving more efficient combustion way of fossil fuels, reducing pollutants and so on. Shinohara et al has reported that the flame length of methane and air premixed burner shortened by irradiating microwave power without increase of gas temperature. This suggests that electrons heated by microwave electric field assist the combustion. They also measured emission from 2nd Positive Band System (2nd PBS) of nitrogen during the irradiation. To clarify this mechanism, electron behavior under microwave power should be examined. To obtain electron transport parameters, electron Monte Carlo simulations in methane and air mixture gas have been done. A simple model has been developed to simulate inside the flame. To make this model simple, some assumptions are made. The electrons diffuse from the combustion plasma region. And the electrons quickly reach their equilibrium state. And it is found

  6. Optimization of Microwave-Assisted Extraction Conditions for Five Major Bioactive Compounds from Flos Sophorae Immaturus (Cultivars of Sophora japonica L. Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Liang Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assisted extraction was applied to extract rutin; quercetin; genistein; kaempferol; and isorhamnetin from Flos Sophorae Immaturus. Six independent variables; namely; solvent type; particle size; extraction frequency; liquid-to-solid ratio; microwave power; and extraction time were examined. Response surface methodology using a central composite design was employed to optimize experimental conditions (liquid-to-solid ratio; microwave power; and extraction time based on the results of single factor tests to extract the five major components in Flos Sophorae Immaturus. Experimental data were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. Data were also analyzed using appropriate statistical methods. Optimal extraction conditions were as follows: extraction solvent; 100% methanol; particle size; 100 mesh; extraction frequency; 1; liquid-to-solid ratio; 50:1; microwave power; 287 W; and extraction time; 80 s. A rapid and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (EIS-Q-TOF MS/MS was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of rutin; quercetin; genistein; kaempferol; and isorhamnetin in Flos Sophorae Immaturus. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on a Kinetex C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm; 2.6 μm at 40 °C within 5 min. The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile (71:29; v/v. Isocratic elution was carried out at a flow rate of 0.35 mL/min. The constituents of Flos Sophorae Immaturus were simultaneously identified by EIS-Q-TOF MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring mode. During quantitative analysis; all of the calibration curves showed good linear relationships (R2 > 0.999 within the tested ranges; and mean recoveries ranged from 96.0216% to 101.0601%. The precision determined through intra- and inter-day studies showed an RSD% of <2.833%. These

  7. A Microwave-Assisted Simultaneous Distillation and Extraction Method for the Separation of Polysaccharides and Essential Oil from the Leaves of Taxus chinensis Var. mairei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjian Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient microwave-assisted simultaneous distillation and extraction (MA-SDE method has been developed for the separation of polysaccharides and essential oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei. The key operating parameters for MA-SDE were optimized by single factor and central composite design experiments, and the optimal conditions were found to include a particle size of 60–80 mesh, liquid/solid ratio of 22.5 mL/g, extraction time of 17.5 min, microwave power of 547 W, and dichloromethane was used as the extraction solvent of the essential oil. The yields obtained for polysaccharides and essential oil under the optimized conditions were 6.39% ± 0.12% and 0.27% ± 0.03%, respectively. The MA-SDE method was also compared with conventional heat reflux extraction (HRE and hydrodistillation extraction (HDE. The MA-SDE method not only allowed for the simultaneous extraction of polysaccharides and essential oil, but also completed the task with a much shorter extraction time of 17.5 min (HRE and HDE required 3 and 6 h, respectively. Furthermore, the MA-SDE method gave increased extraction yields for polysaccharides (1.14-fold higher than HRE and essential oil (1.23-fold higher than HDE. Based on these results, this MA-SDE method represents a rapid and efficient technique for the simultaneous extraction of polysaccharides and essential oil.

  8. Response surface methodology (RSM) modeling of microwave-assisted extraction of natural dye from Swietenia mahagony: A comparation between Box-Behnken and central composite design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Heri Septya; Sudrajat, Robby Ginanjar Margo; Susanto, David Febrilliant; Gala, Selfina; Mahfud, Mahfud

    2015-12-01

    The increasing demand of non-toxic and environmentally friendly dyes, colorants that come from natural source have risen as an alternative of sintetic poisonous dyes. In this research natural dye from S. mahagony was extracted using microwave-assisted extraction method under different operating condition such as extraction time (10-30min), plant material to solvent ratio (0.03-0.05g/mL) and microwave power level (100-380 watt). Box-Behnken method and central composite design (CCD) method is widely used for modeling response surface methodology (RSM), both methods show good prediction performance. In this study response surface methodology was performed to optimize the process, both methods were performed by the help Statgraphics Centurion 16 to evaluate the effects of different operating parameters. Finally, both methods were statistically compared by root mean square error (RMSE) and absolute average deviation (AAD) based on validation data set. Further, result suggests that CCD has better performance as compared to Box-Behnken method. The maximum yield obtained for Box-Behnken is 3.7647% (380 watt, 0.0339g/mL, 28.8899min) and 3.7506% (379.986 watt, 0.0378g/mL, 30min) for central composite design method.

  9. Microwave-assisted synthesis, molecular docking and antitubercular activity of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carbonitrile derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mohan, S. B.; Kumar, B. V. V. R.; Dinda, S. C.; Naik, D.; Seenivasan, S. P.; Kumar, V.; Rana, D. N.; Brahmkshatriya, Pathik

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 24 (2012), s. 7539-7542 ISSN 0960-894X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : antitubercular * binding interactions * luciferase reporter phage (LRP) assay * microwave-assisted * molecular docking Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.338, year: 2012

  10. Determination of inorganic arsenic in white fish using microwave-assisted alkaline alcoholic sample dissolution and HPLC-ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Engman, Joakim; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of inorganic arsenic in fish samples using HPLC-ICP-MS has been developed. The fresh homogenised sample was subjected to microwave-assisted dissolution by sodium hydroxide in ethanol, which dissolved the sample and quantitatively oxidised arsenite (As...

  11. The optimized microwave-assisted decomposition of formamides and its synthetic utility in the amination reactions of purines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čechová, Lucie; Jansa, Petr; Šála, Michal; Dračínský, Martin; Holý, Antonín; Janeba, Zlatko

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 5 (2011), s. 866-871 ISSN 0040-4020 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508; GA AV ČR KJB400550903 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : microwave-assisted synthesis * DMF * formamides * dehalogenative amination * purines Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.025, year: 2011

  12. Microwave-assisted modulated synthesis of zirconium-based metal–organic framework (Zr-MOF) for hydrogen storage applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Zirconium-based metal–organic framework (Zr-MOF) was synthesized using a microwave-assisted modulated method in a short reaction time of 5 min. The Zr-MOF material was highly crystalline with well-defined octahedral shaped crystals, and it exhibited...

  13. PENGARUH JUMLAH PELARUT PADA PROSES EKSTRAKSI MINYAK KAYU CENGKEH MENGGUNAKAN MICROWAVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Adhiksana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Clove oil is usually produced from the leaves and flowers, while the twigs cloves actually have potential to be exploited. One of the latest methods that can be used is the microwave assisted extraction. The advantages of microwaves is its ability to deliver energy directly to all material, so it can save time compared to conventional extraction methods. This research aims to study the effect of solvents on the extraction using microwaves. The solvent is water because the polar so very good at absorbing microwave. The variables studied were the weight (75-150 grams and volume of solvent (400-500 ml , while the microwave power of 264 W. The choice of wood clove oil yield was obtained of 3.89 % on the amount of solvent to 500 ml with weight is 150 grams.

  14. [Microwave assisted UV electrodeless discharge lamp photochemical degradation of 4-chlorophenol in aquatic solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Zhi-hui; Jiang, Jun-qing; Yang, Peng; Zhou, Tao; Lu, Xiao-hua

    2004-07-01

    A microwave assisted UV electrodeless discharge lamp system (MW/UV) was used for photo-degradation of 4CP simulated wastewater. In order to evaluate the degradation efficiency of 4CP, UV spectrophotometry and ion chromatography were used for determination of 4CP and Cl- respectively. The degradation rate in MW/UV system was higher than that in the UV system within 120min, which were 52.40% and 21.56% respectively. The degradation efficiency was improved by increasing pH value of the solution, aerating O2 gas, enhancing light intensity, or adding H2O2 oxidant. The degradation of 4CP under MW/UV accords with the first order kinetics equation.

  15. Process optimization and analysis of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sivakumar, V; Prakash Maran, J

    2014-11-04

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed for the extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel. The extracting parameters were optimized by using four-variable-three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM). RSM analysis indicated good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. 3D response surface plots were used to study the interactive effects of process variables on extraction of pectin. The optimum extraction conditions for the maximum yield of pectin were power of 400 W, temperature of 45 °C, extracting time of 20 min and solid-liquid ratio of 24 g/mL. Under these conditions, 7.5% of pectin was extracted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Critical evaluation of pressurized microwave-assisted digestion efficiency using nitric acid oxidizing systems (M7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matusiewicz, H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The possibilities of enhancement of a medium-pressure microwave-assisted digestion system for sample preparation in trace element analysis of biological material was investigated. Based on optimal digestion conditions for oxidizing systems with nitric acid, different digestion procedures were examined to minimize residual carbon. The substitution of nitric acid and the addition of hydrogen peroxide and ozone to nitric acid was evaluated. The residual carbon content of the digestate was determined coulometrically. Addition of hydrogen peroxide during organic oxidation reactions does not lower the resolved carbon in the solution. Ozone was tested as an additional, potentially non-contaminating, digestion/oxidation system to the nitric acid used in the sample preparation method. (author)

  17. CTAB assisted microwave synthesis of ordered mesoporous carbon supported Pt nanoparticles for hydrogen electro-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jian-Hua; He, Jian-Ping; Ji, Ya-Jun; Dang, Wang-Juan; Liu, Xiao-Lei; Zhao, Gui-Wang; Zhang, Chuan-Xiang; Zhao, Ji-Shuang; Fu, Qing-Bin; Hu, Huo-Ping

    2007-01-01

    Mesoporous carbon with ordered hexagonal structure derived from the co-assembly of triblock copolymer F127 and resol was employed as the carbon support of Pt catalysts for hydrogen electro-oxidation. Structural characterizations revealed that the mesoporous carbon exhibited large surface area and uniform mesopores. The Pt nanoparticles supported on the novel mesoporous carbon were fabricated by a facile CTAB assisted microwave synthesis process, wherein CTAB was expected to improve the wettability of carbon support as well as the dispersion of Pt nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were applied to characterize the Pt catalysts. It was found that the Pt nanoparticles were uniform in size and highly dispersed on the mesoporous carbon supports. The cyclic voltammograms in sulfuric acid demonstrated that the electrochemical active surface area of Pt catalysts prepared with CTAB was two times than that without CTAB

  18. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Alumina Nanoparticles Using Some Plants Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisam Hasanpoor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In present study we used five green plants for microwave assisted synthesis of Alumina nanoparticles from Aluminum nitrate. Structural characterization was studied using x-ray diffraction that showed semi- crystalline and possibly, amorphous structure. Fourier infrared spectroscopy was used to determine Al-O bond and functional groups responsible for synthesis of nanoparticles. FTIR confirmed existence of Al-O band and bio-functional groups, originated from plant extract. Morphology and size of nanoparticles were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy techniques. It was observed that nanoparticles have near-spherical shape. Average size of clusters of nanoparticles varied with different routes from of 60 nm to 300 nm. AFM images showed that Individual nanoparticles were less than 10 nm.

  19. Uranium oxide nanocrystals by microwave-assisted thermal decomposition. Electronic and structural properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leduc, Jennifer; Mathur, Sanjay; Pacold, Joseph I.; Shuh, David K.; Dong, Chung-Li

    2018-01-01

    Uranium oxides have attracted much attention not only in the context of nuclear energy generation but also for their application as pristine catalysts or as supports for other (transition metal) oxides and (precious) metals. Their propensity to adopt high coordination numbers and manifest multiple oxidation states (from +II to +VI) makes them attractive candidates for catalyzed transformation reactions. Herein, we report a new synthesis route to phase-pure, crystalline UO 2 nanoparticles via microwave-assisted decomposition of a molecular uranium(IV) precursor. The electronic structure and optical absorption properties of these nanocrystals were investigated using spectroscopic methods to evaluate their suitability for photo(electro)catalytic applications. (copyright 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Uranium oxide nanocrystals by microwave-assisted thermal decomposition. Electronic and structural properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leduc, Jennifer; Mathur, Sanjay [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Cologne (Germany); Pacold, Joseph I.; Shuh, David K. [Chemical Sciences Division, The Glenn T. Seaborg Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dong, Chung-Li [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui, Taiwan (China)

    2018-01-17

    Uranium oxides have attracted much attention not only in the context of nuclear energy generation but also for their application as pristine catalysts or as supports for other (transition metal) oxides and (precious) metals. Their propensity to adopt high coordination numbers and manifest multiple oxidation states (from +II to +VI) makes them attractive candidates for catalyzed transformation reactions. Herein, we report a new synthesis route to phase-pure, crystalline UO{sub 2} nanoparticles via microwave-assisted decomposition of a molecular uranium(IV) precursor. The electronic structure and optical absorption properties of these nanocrystals were investigated using spectroscopic methods to evaluate their suitability for photo(electro)catalytic applications. (copyright 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Portable microwave assisted extraction: An original concept for green analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perino, Sandrine; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; de la Guardia, Miguel; Chemat, Farid

    2013-11-08

    This paper describes a portable microwave assisted extraction apparatus (PMAE) for extraction of bioactive compounds especially essential oils and aromas directly in a crop or in a forest. The developed procedure, based on the concept of green analytical chemistry, is appropriate to obtain direct in-field information about the level of essential oils in natural samples and to illustrate green chemical lesson and research. The efficiency of this experiment was validated for the extraction of essential oil of rosemary directly in a crop and allows obtaining a quantitative information on the content of essential oil, which was similar to that obtained by conventional methods in the laboratory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of Bi2S3 nanorods in flower-shaped bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thongtem, Titipun; Pilapong, Chalermchai; Kavinchan, Jutarat; Phuruangrat, Anukorn; Thongtem, Somchai

    2010-01-01

    Bi 2 S 3 nanorods in flower-shaped bundles were successfully synthesized from the decomposition of Bi-thiourea complexes under the microwave-assisted hydrothermal process. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) show that Bi 2 S 3 has the orthorhombic phase and appears as nanorods in flower-shaped bundles. A transmission electron microscopic (TEM) study reveals the independent single Bi 2 S 3 nanorods with their growth along the [0 0 1] direction. A possible formation mechanism of Bi 2 S 3 nanorods in flower-shaped bundles is also proposed and discussed. Their UV-vis spectrum shows the absorbance at 596 nm, with its direct energy band gap of 1.82 eV.

  3. Wet torrefaction of microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31 with microwave-assisted heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, Quang-Vu; Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lin, Shih-Cheng; Sheen, Herng-Kuang; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A microwave-assisted heating system is used for wet torrefaction (WT) of microalga. • Microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31 is adopted as the feedstock. • The ash content in the microalga is reduced after WT. • The calorific value of the microalga can be intensified up to 21% after WT. • At least 61.5% of energy in the biomass is retained after WT. - Abstract: Microalgae are a prime source of third generation biofuels. Many thermochemical processes can be applied to convert them into fuels and other valuable products. However, some types of microalgae are characterized by very high moisture and ash contents, thereby causing several problems in further conversion processes. This study presents wet torrefaction (WT) as a promising pretreatment method to overcome the aforementioned drawbacks coupled with microalgal biomass. For this purpose, a microwave-assisted heating system was used for WT of microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31 at different reaction temperatures (160, 170, and 180 °C) and durations (5, 10, and 30 min). The results show several improvements in the fuel properties of the microalga after WT such as increased calorific value and hydrophobicity as well as reduced ash content. A correlation in terms of elemental analysis can be adopted to predict the higher heating value of the torrefied microalga. The structure analysis by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy reveals that the carbohydrate content in the torrefied microalgae is lowered, whereas their protein and lipid contents are increased if the WT extent is not severe. However, the protein and lipid contents are reduced significantly at more severe WT conditions. The thermogravimetric analysis shows that the torrefied microalgae have lower ignition temperatures but higher burnout temperatures than the raw microalga, revealing significant impact of WT on the combustion reactivity of the microalga. Overall, the calorific value of the microalga can be intensified up to

  4. Evaluation of vacuum microwave-assisted extraction technique for the extraction of antioxidants from plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Jun-Xia; Wang, Gang; Wang, Jia-Yue; Li, Gong-Ke

    2009-12-18

    In the present work, vacuum microwave-assisted extraction (VMAE) was to perform microwave-assisted extraction in vacuum. Two well-known antioxidants, vitamin C from guava and green pepper, and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol) from soybean and tea leaves, which were easy to be oxidized, were chosen as representative target compounds for the evaluation of VMAE. The extraction yields of vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol in VMAE and those in MAE performed in atmosphere (air-MAE) were compared and the effects of extraction time, extraction temperature and sample matrix were studied. Moreover, the effects of the oxygen and subpressure invacuo were also discussed via performed MAE in N(2) atmosphere (N(2)-MAE). The extraction yields of vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol in VMAE were higher than that in air-MAE, 35% increments of vitamin C from green pepper, 22% increments of alpha-tocopherol and 47% increments of gamma-tocopherol from tea leaves were obtained, respectively. The comparable increased extraction yields of vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol in N(2)-MAE to that in air-MAE confirmed that oxygen in system was the crucial factor for the oxidation of vitamin C and vitamin E, VMAE was beneficial for the extraction of these oxygen-sensitive compounds. In addition, the subpressure invacuo in the VMAE system also showed positive affect on the extraction yields. On the basis of preventing oxidation and improving extraction efficiency of target compounds because of less oxygen and subpressure invacuo in the extraction system, VMAE has good potential for the extraction of oxygen-sensitive and thermosensitive compounds from plant samples.

  5. Mg-doped hydroxyapatite nanoplates for biomedical applications: A surfactant assisted microwave synthesis and spectroscopic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Vijay Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Birendra Nath; Parkash, Om; Kumar, Devendra; Rai, Shyam Bahadur

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Microwave irradiation technique: employed for the synthesis of Mg-HAp nanoplates. • Surfactant (EDTA) assisted synthesis of Mg-HAp. • FT-IR and Raman analysis of functional groups of Mg-HAp. - Abstract: Nanoplates of Mg doped hydroxyapatite (Mg-HAp) were derived successfully and rapidly via microwave irradiation technique. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is the hard tissues and main inorganic component in mammals. Different nanostructures of HAp exist in different parts of human bone but nanorods are very common due to its intrinsic nature to grow in rode-like structure under physiological as well as under applied ambient conditions in laboratory. On the addition of Mg at very low level (0.06 mol%) in pure HAp results the formation of 2-D plate-like nanostructures rather than rod-like which is the matter of interest. In this attempt our efforts have been focused on the study of effect of Mg incorporation on structural and spectroscopic properties of HAp prepared via microwave irradiation technique. This technique is preferred due to several advantages viz. very fast as well as homogeneous heating, time/energy saving and eco-friendliness. The calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO 3 ) 2 ⋅4H 2 O)) as a source of calcium, magnesium nitrate hexahydrate (Mg(NO 3 ) 2 ⋅6H 2 O) as a source of magnesium, disodium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (NaH 2 PO 4 ⋅2H 2 O) as a source of phosphorous and sodium ethylene diamine tetra acetate (NaEDTA) as a surfactant were used as starting reagents. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pellets were employed to adjust the pH value of final solution. The solution of fixed pH value was kept into the microwave oven generating waves of frequency 2.45 GHz (water absorption frequency) and power 750 W for 8 min. The precipitate thus obtained was washed, centrifuged and then dried at 100 °C for 2 h. Dried powder was then calcined at 700 °C for 2 h. The bright white powder thus obtained was characterized structurally using X-ray diffraction and

  6. Mg-doped hydroxyapatite nanoplates for biomedical applications: A surfactant assisted microwave synthesis and spectroscopic investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Vijay Kumar [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Bhattacharjee, Birendra Nath; Parkash, Om [Department of Ceramic Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Kumar, Devendra, E-mail: devendra.cer@iitbhu.ac.in [Department of Ceramic Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Rai, Shyam Bahadur, E-mail: sbrai49@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2014-11-25

    Highlights: • Microwave irradiation technique: employed for the synthesis of Mg-HAp nanoplates. • Surfactant (EDTA) assisted synthesis of Mg-HAp. • FT-IR and Raman analysis of functional groups of Mg-HAp. - Abstract: Nanoplates of Mg doped hydroxyapatite (Mg-HAp) were derived successfully and rapidly via microwave irradiation technique. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is the hard tissues and main inorganic component in mammals. Different nanostructures of HAp exist in different parts of human bone but nanorods are very common due to its intrinsic nature to grow in rode-like structure under physiological as well as under applied ambient conditions in laboratory. On the addition of Mg at very low level (0.06 mol%) in pure HAp results the formation of 2-D plate-like nanostructures rather than rod-like which is the matter of interest. In this attempt our efforts have been focused on the study of effect of Mg incorporation on structural and spectroscopic properties of HAp prepared via microwave irradiation technique. This technique is preferred due to several advantages viz. very fast as well as homogeneous heating, time/energy saving and eco-friendliness. The calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}⋅4H{sub 2}O)) as a source of calcium, magnesium nitrate hexahydrate (Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}⋅6H{sub 2}O) as a source of magnesium, disodium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}⋅2H{sub 2}O) as a source of phosphorous and sodium ethylene diamine tetra acetate (NaEDTA) as a surfactant were used as starting reagents. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pellets were employed to adjust the pH value of final solution. The solution of fixed pH value was kept into the microwave oven generating waves of frequency 2.45 GHz (water absorption frequency) and power 750 W for 8 min. The precipitate thus obtained was washed, centrifuged and then dried at 100 °C for 2 h. Dried powder was then calcined at 700 °C for 2 h. The bright white powder thus obtained was characterized

  7. Two-step fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass for bio-oil production using microwave absorbent and HZSM-5 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhong, Zhaoping; Xie, Qinglong; Liu, Shiyu; Ruan, Roger

    2016-07-01

    A novel technology of two-step fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis (fMAP) of corn stover for bio-oil production was investigated in the presence of microwave absorbent (SiC) and HZSM-5 catalyst. Effects of fMAP temperature and catalyst-to-biomass ratio on bio-oil yield and chemical components were examined. The results showed that this technology, employing microwave, microwave absorbent and HZSM-5 catalyst, was effective and promising for biomass fast pyrolysis. The fMAP temperature of 500°C was considered the optimum condition for maximum yield and best quality of bio-oil. Besides, the bio-oil yield decreased linearly and the chemical components in bio-oil were improved sequentially with the increase of catalyst-to-biomass ratio from 1:100 to 1:20. The elemental compositions of bio-char were also determined. Additionally, compared to one-step fMAP process, two-step fMAP could promote the bio-oil quality with a smaller catalyst-to-biomass ratio. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Microwave Assisted Condensation Reactions of 2-Aryl Hydrazonopropanals with Nucleophilic Reagents and Dimethyl Acetylenedicarboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita M. Borik

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of methyl ketones 1a-g with dimethylformamide dimethylacetal (DMFDMA afforded the enaminones 2a-g, which were coupled with diazotized aromatic amines 3a,b to give the corresponding aryl hydrazones 6a-h. Condensation of compounds 6a-h with some aromatic heterocyclic amines afforded iminoarylhydrazones 9a-m. Enaminoazo compounds 12a,b could be obtained from condensation of 6c with secondary amines. The reaction of 6e,h with benzotriazolylacetone yielded 14a,b. Also, the reaction of 6a,b,d-f,h with glycine and hippuric acid in acetic anhydride afforded pyridazinone derivatives 17a-f. Synthesis of pyridazine carboxylic acid derivatives 22a,b from the reaction of 6b,e with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD in the presence of triphenylphosphine at room temperature is also reported. Most of these reactions were conducted under irradiation in a microwave oven in the absence of solvent in an attempt to improve the product yields and to reduce the reaction times.

  9. Microwave-assisted Synthesis of Benzimidazole Derivatives from Citronellal in Kaffir Lime (Citrus hystrix DC.) Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapri Ramadhan, Dwi; Warsito; Dhiaul Iftitah, Elvina

    2018-01-01

    Benzimidazoles are an important group of heterocyclic aromatic organic compound in the field of medicinal chemistry. It plays a very important role in pharmacological activity such as, analgesic, antiinflammatory, antibacterial, anti ungal, anti iral, antithelmenthic, anti convulsant, antihypertensive, and antiulcer. The synthesis of benzimidazole derivative under microwave irradiation of citronellal as raw material which is extracted from Citrus hystrix DC. (kaffir lime) leaves. The reaction using methanol and dichloromethane as solvent with variation of reaction time at 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 minutes and mole ratio of citronellal to 1,2-phenylenediamine, 1:1, 1:1.5, and 1:2, respectively. Synthesis products was characterized by FT-IR and GC-MS. The optimum reaction time was obtained at 60 minutes in the present of dichloromethane and 1:2 mole ratio of citronellal to 1,2-phenylenediamine. The yield of the product is 42.19%. Structure of the synthesized compound were assigned on spectrum bands for C=N str at 1661 cm-1, C-N str at 1271 cm-1, C=C str of benzene ring at 1622 and 1456 cm-1 and C=C str of alkene at 1379 cm-1. GC-MS analysis showed single peak with retention time of 15.339 minute and m/z 242.

  10. Solvent-assisted in situ synthesis of cysteamine-capped silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, José M.; Ríos de la Rosa, Julio M.; Sayagués, María J.; Sánchez-Alcázar, José A.; Merkling, Patrick J.; Zaderenko, Ana P.

    2018-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles offer a huge potential for biomedical applications owing to their exceptional properties and small size. Specifically, cysteamine-capped silver nanoparticles could form the basis for new anticancer therapies combining the cytotoxic effect of the silver core with the inherent antitumor activity of cysteamine, which inhibit cancer cell proliferation and suppress invasion and metastasis. In addition, the capability of the cysteamine coating monolayer to couple a variety of active principles and targeting (bio)molecules of interest proves key to the tailoring of this platform in order to exploit the pathophysiology of specific tumor types. Nevertheless, the chain length and conformational flexibility of cysteamine, together with its ability to attach to the surface of silver nanoparticles via both the thiol and the amine group, have made the in situ synthesis of these particles an especially challenging task. Herein we report a solvent-assisted in situ synthesis method that solves this problem. The obtained nanoparticles have been fully characterized by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction measurement, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy nanoanalysis, and dynamic light scattering measurement. Our synthesis method achieves extremely high yield and surface coating ratio, and colloidal stability over a wide range of pH values including physiological pH. Additionally, we have demonstrated that cysteamine-capped nanoparticles obtained by this method can be conjugated to an antibody for active targeting of the epidermal growth factor receptor, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of a wide variety of tumors, and induce cell death in human squamous carcinoma cells. We believe this method can be readily extended to combinations of noble

  11. Microwave assisted preparation of magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) for orthopedic applications: A novel solution to the exothermicity problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Huan; Agarwal, Anand K.; Goel, Vijay K.; Bhaduri, Sarit B.

    2013-01-01

    There are two interesting features of this paper. First, we report herein a novel microwave assisted technique to prepare phosphate based orthopedic cements, which do not generate any exothermicity during setting. The exothermic reactions during the setting of phosphate cements can cause tissue damage during the administration of injectable compositions and hence a solution to the problem is sought via microwave processing. This solution through microwave exposure is based on a phenomenon that microwave irradiation can remove all water molecules from the alkaline earth phosphate cement paste to temporarily stop the setting reaction while preserving the active precursor phase in the formulation. The setting reaction can be initiated a second time by adding aqueous medium, but without any exothermicity. Second, a special emphasis is placed on using this technique to synthesize magnesium phosphate cements for orthopedic applications with their enhanced mechanical properties and possible uses as drug and protein delivery vehicles. The as-synthesized cements were evaluated for the occurrences of exothermic reactions, setting times, presence of Mg-phosphate phases, compressive strength levels, microstructural features before and after soaking in (simulated body fluid) SBF, and in vitro cytocompatibility responses. The major results show that exposure to microwaves solves the exothermicity problem, while simultaneously improving the mechanical performance of hardened cements and reducing the setting times. As expected, the cements are also found to be cytocompatible. Finally, it is observed that this process can be applied to calcium phosphate cements system (CPCs) as well. Based on the results, this microwave exposure provides a novel technique for the processing of injectable phosphate bone cement compositions. - Highlights: • A microwave assisted system for bone cement manufacturing • A solution to exothermicity problem of acid–base reaction based bone cement

  12. Microwave assisted preparation of magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) for orthopedic applications: A novel solution to the exothermicity problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Huan, E-mail: Huan.Zhou@rockets.utoledo.edu [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Agarwal, Anand K.; Goel, Vijay K. [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Bhaduri, Sarit B. [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Division of Dentistry, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    There are two interesting features of this paper. First, we report herein a novel microwave assisted technique to prepare phosphate based orthopedic cements, which do not generate any exothermicity during setting. The exothermic reactions during the setting of phosphate cements can cause tissue damage during the administration of injectable compositions and hence a solution to the problem is sought via microwave processing. This solution through microwave exposure is based on a phenomenon that microwave irradiation can remove all water molecules from the alkaline earth phosphate cement paste to temporarily stop the setting reaction while preserving the active precursor phase in the formulation. The setting reaction can be initiated a second time by adding aqueous medium, but without any exothermicity. Second, a special emphasis is placed on using this technique to synthesize magnesium phosphate cements for orthopedic applications with their enhanced mechanical properties and possible uses as drug and protein delivery vehicles. The as-synthesized cements were evaluated for the occurrences of exothermic reactions, setting times, presence of Mg-phosphate phases, compressive strength levels, microstructural features before and after soaking in (simulated body fluid) SBF, and in vitro cytocompatibility responses. The major results show that exposure to microwaves solves the exothermicity problem, while simultaneously improving the mechanical performance of hardened cements and reducing the setting times. As expected, the cements are also found to be cytocompatible. Finally, it is observed that this process can be applied to calcium phosphate cements system (CPCs) as well. Based on the results, this microwave exposure provides a novel technique for the processing of injectable phosphate bone cement compositions. - Highlights: • A microwave assisted system for bone cement manufacturing • A solution to exothermicity problem of acid–base reaction based bone cement

  13. Rapid analysis of Fructus forsythiae essential oil by ionic liquids-assisted microwave distillation coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Jiao; Ma, Dan-Hui; Gai, Qing-Yan; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Fu, Yu-Jie; Ma, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A new ILAMD-HS-SDME method is developed for the microextraction of essential oil. •ILs used as destruction agent of plant cell walls and microwave absorption medium. •Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency are optimized by Box–Behnken design. •Procedure benefits: similar constituents, shorter duration and smaller sample amount. •ILAMD-HS-SDME followed by GC–MS is a promising technique in analytical fields. -- Abstract: A rapid, green and effective miniaturized sample preparation and analytical technique, i.e. ionic liquids-assisted microwave distillation coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction (ILAMD-HS-SDME) followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was developed for the analysis of essential oil (EO) in Fructus forsythiae. In this work, ionic liquids (ILs) were not only used as the absorption medium of microwave irradiation but also as the destruction agent of plant cell walls. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C 2 mim]OAc) was chosen as the optimal ILs. Moreover, n-heptadecane (2.0 μL) was selected as the appropriate suspended solvent for the extraction and concentration of EO. Extraction conditions of the proposed method were optimized using the relative peak area of EO constituents as the index, and the optimal operational parameters were obtained as follows: irradiation power (300 W), sample mass (0.7 g), mass ratio of ILs to sample (2.4), temperature (78 °C) and time (3.4 min). In comparison to previous reports, the proposed method was faster and required smaller sample amount but could equally monitor all EO constituents with no significant differences

  14. Rapid analysis of Fructus forsythiae essential oil by ionic liquids-assisted microwave distillation coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Jiao [State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Ma, Dan-Hui [College of Life Sciences, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Gai, Qing-Yan; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng [State Engineering Laboratory of Bio-Resource Eco-Utilization, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Fu, Yu-Jie, E-mail: yujie_fu2002@yahoo.com [State Engineering Laboratory of Bio-Resource Eco-Utilization, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Ma, Wei, E-mail: mawei@hljucm.net [State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); School of Pharmaceutical, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin 150040 (China)

    2013-12-04

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A new ILAMD-HS-SDME method is developed for the microextraction of essential oil. •ILs used as destruction agent of plant cell walls and microwave absorption medium. •Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency are optimized by Box–Behnken design. •Procedure benefits: similar constituents, shorter duration and smaller sample amount. •ILAMD-HS-SDME followed by GC–MS is a promising technique in analytical fields. -- Abstract: A rapid, green and effective miniaturized sample preparation and analytical technique, i.e. ionic liquids-assisted microwave distillation coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction (ILAMD-HS-SDME) followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was developed for the analysis of essential oil (EO) in Fructus forsythiae. In this work, ionic liquids (ILs) were not only used as the absorption medium of microwave irradiation but also as the destruction agent of plant cell walls. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C{sub 2}mim]OAc) was chosen as the optimal ILs. Moreover, n-heptadecane (2.0 μL) was selected as the appropriate suspended solvent for the extraction and concentration of EO. Extraction conditions of the proposed method were optimized using the relative peak area of EO constituents as the index, and the optimal operational parameters were obtained as follows: irradiation power (300 W), sample mass (0.7 g), mass ratio of ILs to sample (2.4), temperature (78 °C) and time (3.4 min). In comparison to previous reports, the proposed method was faster and required smaller sample amount but could equally monitor all EO constituents with no significant differences.

  15. Antioxidative Peptides Derived from Enzyme Hydrolysis of Bone Collagen after Microwave Assisted Acid Pre-Treatment and Nitrogen Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the preparation method of antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection. Phosphoric acid showed the highest ability of hydrolysis among the four other acids tested (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and/or citric acid. The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH was 9.5% using 4 mol/L phosphoric acid with a ratio of 1:6 under a microwave intensity of 510 W for 240 s. Neutral proteinase gave higher DH among the four protease tested (Acid protease, neutral protease, Alcalase and papain, with an optimum condition of: (1 ratio of enzyme and substrate, 4760 U/g; (2 concentration of substrate, 4%; (3 reaction temperature, 55 °C and (4 pH 7.0. At 4 h, DH increased significantly (P < 0.01 under nitrogen protection compared with normal microwave assisted acid pre-treatment hydrolysis conditions. The antioxidant ability of the hydrolysate increased and reached its maximum value at 3 h; however DH decreased dramatically after 3 h. Microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection could be a quick preparatory method for hydrolyzing bone collagen.

  16. Green synthesis of tetrahydrobenzo[b]Pyrans by microwave assisted multi-component one-pot reactions in PEG-400.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chun; Wang, Qiuyan; Lu, Cuifen; Yang, Guichun; Chen, Zuxing

    2012-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol is found to be a nontoxic and recyclable reaction medium for the microwave-assisted, multi-component one-pot reactions of aromatic aldehydes with ethyl-2-cyanoacetate and 1,3-cyclohexanedione or 5,5- dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione in the presence of piperidine. This environmentally friendly microwave protocol offers ease of operation and enables recyclability of reaction medium and synthesis of a variety of substituted tetrahydrobenzo[b]pyran derivatives. It is an efficient, promising, and green synthetic strategy to construct tetrahydrobenzo[b]pyran skeleton.

  17. Microwave-assisted synthesis of bismuth oxybromochloride nanoflakes for visible light photodegradation of pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijanzad, Keyvan; Tadjarodi, Azadeh; Moghaddasi Khiavi, Mohammad [Research Laboratory of Inorganic Materials Synthesis, Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akhavan, Omid, E-mail: oakhavan@sharif.ir [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 14588-89694, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    BiOBr{sub x}Cl{sub 1−x} (0microwave-assisted synthesis method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies confirmed the formation of pure crystalline phase of BiOBr{sub x}Cl{sub 1−x}. The UV–visible diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies revealed the indirect band gap of ~2.82 eV for the bismuth oxybromochloride nanoflakes. Visible light-assisted photocatalytic studies showed that the degradation efficiency of the as-prepared BiOBr{sub x}Cl{sub 1−x} for (100 mL of 10 mg L{sup −1}) Rhodamine B (RhB), Natural Red 4 (N-Red) dye solutions was 98.14% and for the colorless organic pentachlorophenol (PCP) solution was 91.09% over 150 min. The possible mechanisms involved in the visible light photodegradation of the pollutants by BiOBr{sub x}Cl{sub 1−x} photocatalyst were also discussed.

  18. Liquid phase solvent bonding of plastic microfluidic devices assisted by retention grooves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Alwin M D; Sadri, Amir; Young, Edmond W K

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel method for achieving consistent liquid phase solvent bonding of plastic microfluidic devices via the use of retention grooves at the bonding interface. The grooves are patterned during the regular microfabrication process, and can be placed at the periphery of a device, or surrounding microfluidic features with open ports, where they effectively mitigate solvent evaporation, and thus substantially reduce poor bond coverage. This method is broadly applicable to a variety of plastics and solvents, and produces devices with high bond quality (i.e., coverage, strength, and microfeature fidelity) that are suitable for studies in physics, chemistry, and cell biology at the microscale.

  19. Microwave-assisted synthesis of graphene/CoMoO4 nanocomposites with enhanced supercapacitor performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiaowei; Shen, Jianfeng; Li, Na; Ye, Mingxin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • RGO/CoMoO 4 nanocomposites are prepared by microwave irradiation for the first time. • RGO/CoMoO 4 nanocomposites show a high specific capacitance of 322.5 F g −1 . • Enhanced electrical conductivity leads to superior electrochemical performance. • Low crystallinity of CoMoO 4 is favorable to improve the electrochemical performance. - Abstract: A facile and efficient strategy for preparing reduced graphene oxide–cobalt molybdate (RGO/CoMoO 4 ) nanocomposites assisted by microwave irradiation for the first time is demonstrated. The resulting nanocomposites are comprised of CoMoO 4 nanoparticles that are well-anchored on graphene sheets by in situ reducing. The prepared RGO/CoMoO 4 nanocomposites have been thoroughly characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Importantly, the prepared nanocomposites exhibit excellent electrochemical performance for supercapacitors. Results show that RGO/CoMoO 4 nanocomposites exhibited much better electrochemical capability than pure-CoMoO 4 and RGO/CoMoO 4 for annealing. RGO/CoMoO 4 nanocomposites with 37.4 wt% CoMoO 4 content achieved a specific capacitance about 322.5 F g −1 calculated from the CV plots at 5 mV s −1 , which was higher than that of pure-CoMoO 4 (95.0 F g −1 ) and RGO/CoMoO 4 for annealing (102.5 F g −1 ). The good electrochemical performance can be attributed to the synergistic effects of the individual components

  20. Microwave assisted transformation of N,N-diphenylamine as precursors of organic light emitting diodes (OLED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefri,; Wahyuningrum, Deana, E-mail: deana@chem.itb.ac.id [Organic Chemistry Research Division, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    In this research, study on the transformation of N,N-diphenylamine (DPA) using iodine (I2) utilizing solid state Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS) method has been carried out. The reaction was performed by variations of three parameters namely the mole of reagents, the amount and type of solid support (alumina/Al2O3), and the reaction conditions. Experimental results showed that neutral-alumina was a better solid support than basic-alumina. The optimum temperature for the reaction was approximately at 125-133 °C with reaction time of 15 minutes and microwave reactor power at 500-600 W. The separation of the yellowish green product solution with preparative Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) method using n-hexane:ethyl acetate = 4:1 (v/v) as eluent yielded two fractions (I and II) and both fractions can undergo fluorescence under 365 nm UV light. Based on the LC chromatogram with methanol:water = 95:5 (v/v) as eluent and its corresponding mass spectra (ESI+), fraction I contained three compounds, which were tetracarbazole A, triphenylamine, and impurities in the form of plasticizer such as bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Fraction II also contained three compounds, which were tetracarbazole C, tetraphenylhydrazine, and plasticizer such as bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Both FT-IR (KBr disks) and NMR (500 MHz, CDCl{sub 3}) spectra of fraction I and II confirmed the aromatic amine groups in those compounds. The observed fluorescence colors of fraction I and II were violet and violet-blue, respectively. Based on their structures and fluorescence characters, the compounds in fraction I and II have the potential to be used as Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) compound precursors.

  1. Microwave-assisted and carbonaceous catalytic pyrolysis of crude glycerol from biodiesel waste for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Jo-Han; Leong, Swee Kim; Lam, Su Shiung; Ani, Farid Nasir; Chong, Cheng Tung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Crude glycerol is pyrolysed catalytically via microwave irradiation to produce bioenergy. • Carbonaceous catalyst elevates pyrolysis temperature and promotes selectivity towards H_2 production. • Synthesis gas consisting of mainly H_2 and CH_4 was predominantly produced at long residence time and high temperature. • Production of bio-oil consisting of oxygenated compounds peaks at intermediate carrier gas flow rate. • Energy profit analysis shows positive energy gained with increasing residence time and decreasing reaction temperature. - Abstract: Biodiesel proliferation as a sustainable fuel has led to a glut of crude glycerol as co-product. This scenario made a previously lucrative co-product in the food and pharmaceutical sectors into a bioresource waste. The present study investigates the utilisation of a microwave-assisted pyrolysis technique to convert crude glycerol from biodiesel waste into usable bioenergy source. Operating conditions ranged from a temperature of 300–800 °C at carrier gas flow rates of 100–2000 mL/min, with the effects of carbonaceous catalyst on the selectivity of reaction pathway being investigated. Within the aforementioned conditions, the proportion of products phases is mainly dependent on the residence time inside the quartz reactor, followed by the reaction temperature. This is due to the combined factors of the reaction sequence and provision of activation energy to change product phases. The third factor of carbonaceous catalyst shows a predisposition towards hydrogen gas selectivity, leading to a lower overall gaseous product mass when factoring in products from all phases. An analysis of the energy content revealed that overall energy profit increases with decreasing temperature and increasing residence time. This concurs with solid energy content increasing in the same conditions, while it increases for liquid and gaseous products with decreasing temperature and flow rate, respectively. The

  2. Characterization and antibacterial properties of stable silver substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles synthesized through surfactant assisted microwave process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Nida [Medical Implant Technology Group (MEDITEG), Faculty of Bioscience and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Darul Takzim (Malaysia); Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq, E-mail: rafiq@biomedical.utm.my [Medical Implant Technology Group (MEDITEG), Faculty of Bioscience and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Darul Takzim (Malaysia); Nik Malek, Nik Ahmad Nazim [Faculty of Bioscience and Medical Engineering (FBME), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Darul Takzim (Malaysia); Mahmood, Nasrul Humaimi Bin [Medical Implant Technology Group (MEDITEG), Faculty of Bioscience and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Darul Takzim (Malaysia); Murali, Malliga Raman; Kamarul, T. [Tissue Engineering Group, NOCERAL, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2013-09-01

    Highlights: • Stable nano sized silver substitute hydroxyapatite is prepared under surfactant assisted microwave process at 600 W power for 7 min. • The nanoparticles are in the size range of 58–72 nm and exert uniform elongated spheroid morphology. • Increase in silver concentration resulted in better dielectric properties. • Good antibacterial activity and silver release. - Abstract: The present study reports a relatively simple method for the synthesis of stable silver substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with controlled morphology and particle size. In order to achieve this, CTAB is included as a surfactant in the microwave refluxing process (600 W for 7 min). The nanoparticles produced with different silver ion concentrations (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 wt%) were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis. XRD and FTIR analyses reveal that the Ag-HA nanoparticles were phase pure at 1000 °C. FESEM images showed that the produced nanoparticles are in the size range of 58–72 nm and exert uniform elongated spheroid morphology. The dielectric properties suggest that the increase in dielectric constant (ε′) and dissipation factor (D) values with increasing Ag concentrations. Antibacterial performance of the Ag-HA samples elucidated using disk diffusion technique (DDT) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) demonstrates anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. This effect was dose dependent and was more pronounced against Gram-negative bacteria than Gram-positive organisms.

  3. Characterization and antibacterial properties of stable silver substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles synthesized through surfactant assisted microwave process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Nida; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Nik Malek, Nik Ahmad Nazim; Mahmood, Nasrul Humaimi Bin; Murali, Malliga Raman; Kamarul, T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Stable nano sized silver substitute hydroxyapatite is prepared under surfactant assisted microwave process at 600 W power for 7 min. • The nanoparticles are in the size range of 58–72 nm and exert uniform elongated spheroid morphology. • Increase in silver concentration resulted in better dielectric properties. • Good antibacterial activity and silver release. - Abstract: The present study reports a relatively simple method for the synthesis of stable silver substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with controlled morphology and particle size. In order to achieve this, CTAB is included as a surfactant in the microwave refluxing process (600 W for 7 min). The nanoparticles produced with different silver ion concentrations (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 wt%) were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis. XRD and FTIR analyses reveal that the Ag-HA nanoparticles were phase pure at 1000 °C. FESEM images showed that the produced nanoparticles are in the size range of 58–72 nm and exert uniform elongated spheroid morphology. The dielectric properties suggest that the increase in dielectric constant (ε′) and dissipation factor (D) values with increasing Ag concentrations. Antibacterial performance of the Ag-HA samples elucidated using disk diffusion technique (DDT) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) demonstrates anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. This effect was dose dependent and was more pronounced against Gram-negative bacteria than Gram-positive organisms

  4. Microwave-assisted of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and spectrophotometric determination of uranium after optimization based on Box-Behnken design and chemometrics methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Ali; Khorshidi, Neda; Ghaemmaghami, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    In this study an analytical procedure based on microwave-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (MA-DLLME) and spectrophotometric coupled with chemometrics methods is proposed to determine uranium. In the proposed method, 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR) is used as a chelating agent, and chloroform and ethanol are selected as extraction and dispersive solvent. The optimization strategy is carried out by using two level full factorial designs. Results of the two level full factorial design (24) based on an analysis of variance demonstrated that the pH, concentration of PAR, amount of dispersive and extraction solvents are statistically significant. Optimal condition for three variables: pH, concentration of PAR, amount of dispersive and extraction solvents are obtained by using Box-Behnken design. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graphs are linear in the range of 20.0-350.0 ng mL-1 with detection limit of 6.7 ng mL-1 (3δB/slope) and the enrichment factor of this method for uranium reached at 135. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) is 1.64% (n = 7, c = 50 ng mL-1). The partial least squares (PLS) modeling was used for multivariate calibration of the spectrophotometric data. The orthogonal signal correction (OSC) was used for preprocessing of data matrices and the prediction results of model, with and without using OSC, were statistically compared. MA-DLLME-OSC-PLS method was presented for the first time in this study. The root mean squares error of prediction (RMSEP) for uranium determination using PLS and OSC-PLS models were 4.63 and 0.98, respectively. This procedure allows the determination of uranium synthesis and real samples such as waste water with good reliability of the determination.

  5. Microwave-assisted of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and spectrophotometric determination of uranium after optimization based on Box-Behnken design and chemometrics methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Ali; Khorshidi, Neda; Ghaemmaghami, Pegah

    2015-01-25

    In this study an analytical procedure based on microwave-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (MA-DLLME) and spectrophotometric coupled with chemometrics methods is proposed to determine uranium. In the proposed method, 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR) is used as a chelating agent, and chloroform and ethanol are selected as extraction and dispersive solvent. The optimization strategy is carried out by using two level full factorial designs. Results of the two level full factorial design (2(4)) based on an analysis of variance demonstrated that the pH, concentration of PAR, amount of dispersive and extraction solvents are statistically significant. Optimal condition for three variables: pH, concentration of PAR, amount of dispersive and extraction solvents are obtained by using Box-Behnken design. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graphs are linear in the range of 20.0-350.0 ng mL(-1) with detection limit of 6.7 ng mL(-1) (3δB/slope) and the enrichment factor of this method for uranium reached at 135. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) is 1.64% (n=7, c=50 ng mL(-1)). The partial least squares (PLS) modeling was used for multivariate calibration of the spectrophotometric data. The orthogonal signal correction (OSC) was used for preprocessing of data matrices and the prediction results of model, with and without using OSC, were statistically compared. MA-DLLME-OSC-PLS method was presented for the first time in this study. The root mean squares error of prediction (RMSEP) for uranium determination using PLS and OSC-PLS models were 4.63 and 0.98, respectively. This procedure allows the determination of uranium synthesis and real samples such as waste water with good reliability of the determination. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Cu{sub 2}O Crystals with Morphological Evolution from Octapod to Octahedron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Youngsik; Huh, Youngduk [Dankook Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    We present the simple and facile microwave assisted synthetic method for morphology controlled Cu2O products. The Cu2O products were prepared for only 2 min of microwave irradiation, by using a commercially available microwave oven. The Cu2O products with various morphologies, such as 8-pod, 12-pod, (6x4)-pod, 6-pod, star-like, concave octahedron, and octahedron, were obtained by a simple adjustment of the reactant concentration. Under the lower reactant concentration, the open shaped crystals, such as 8-pod, 12-pod, (6x4)-pod, 6-pod, and star-like, were formed under the branching crystal growth mechanism. For the higher reaction concentration, the closed shaped crystals, such as concave octahedron and octahedron, were formed under the crystal habit formation.

  7. Realization of high efficiency in a plasma-assisted microwave source with two-dimensional electron motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkvarunets, A.G.; Carmel, Y.; Nusinovich, G.S.; Abu-elfadl, T.M.; Rodgers, J.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Granatstein, V.; Goebel, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    Conventional microwave sources utilize a strong axial magnetic field to guide an electron beam through an interaction region. A plasma-assisted slow wave microwave oscillator (Pasotron) can operate without an external magnetic field because the presence of ions neutralizes the space charge in the beam, permits the self-pinch forces to provide beam propagation, and allows for the radial motion of electrons under the action of transverse fields of the wave. While the inherent efficiency of conventional microwave sources with 1D electron flow is limited to 15%-20%, it is shown in this work that both the calculated and measured inherent efficiency of devices with 2D electron flow can be higher than 50%. Both in situ diagnostics and analysis confirmed that the enhanced efficiency is due to the fact that rf forces dominate the beam dynamics

  8. Ultrasonication-Assisted Solvent Extraction of Quercetin Glycosides from ‘Idared’ Apple Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendolyn M. Huber

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin and quercetin glycosides are physiologically active flavonol molecules that have been attributed numerous health benefits. Recovery of such molecules from plant matrices depends on a variety of factors including polarity of the extraction solvent. Among the solvents of a wide range of dielectric constants, methanol recovered the most quercetin and its glycosides from dehydrated ‘Idared’ apple peels. When ultra-sonication was employed to facilitate the extraction, exposure of 15 min of ultrasound wavelengths of dehydrated apple peel powder in 80% to 100% (v/v methanol in 1:50 (w:v solid to solvent ratio provided the optimum extraction conditions for quercetin and its glycosides. Acidification of extraction solvent with 0.1% (v/v or higher concentrations of HCl led to hydrolysis of naturally occurring quercetin glycosides into the aglycone as an extraction artifact.

  9. A novel, donor-active solvent-assisted liquid-phase microextraction procedure for spectrometric determination of zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocurova, Livia; Fatlova, Martina; Bazel, Yaroslav; Serbin, Rastislav; Andruch, Vasil, E-mail: liviamonika.kocurova@gmail.com [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of P. J. Safarik, Kosice (Slovakia); Balogh, Ioseph S. [Department of Chemistry, College of Nyiregyhaza (Hungary); Simon, Andras [Department of General and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary); Badida, Miroslav; Rusnak, Radoslav [Department of Environmentalistics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Kosice (Slovakia)

    2014-02-15

    Based on the reaction of Zn(II), thiocyanate and 2-[2-(5-dimethylamino-thiophen-2-yl)-vinyl]- 1,3,3-trimethyl-3H-indolium bromide (DTVTI), a donor-active solvent-assisted liquid-phase microextraction procedure followed by spectrophotometric determination of zinc at 570 nm was developed. The optimum experimental conditions were investigated and found to be as follows: concentration of NH{sub 4}SCN 0.02 mol L{sup -1} concentration of DTVTI 4 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1}. Various extraction solvents were studied alone as well as in mixtures with different improvers, and a mixture of toluene as the extraction solvent and tributylphosphate as the donor-active solvent in a 4:1 v/v ratio was selected. The calibration plot was linear up to 2.62 mg L{sup 1} of zinc with limit of detection 0.09 mg L{sup -1}. The developed procedure was applied for zinc determination in dietary supplements. (author)

  10. Stabilized γ-BIMNVOX solid electrolyte: Ethylene glycol–citrate sol–gel synthesis, microwave-assisted calcination, and structural and electrical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Areqi, Niyazi A.S., E-mail: niyazi.alareqi@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Science, Taiz University, Taiz, Republic of Yemen (Yemen); Beg, Saba [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Al-Alas, Ahlam [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Science, Taiz University, Taiz, Republic of Yemen (Yemen); Hafeez, Shehla [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India)

    2013-12-25

    Highlights: •γ-BIMNVOX was synthesized by ethylene glycol–citrate sol–gel route. •γ-BIMNVOX crystallizes by 25-min microwave-assisted calcination. •Smaller particle sizes for microwave calcined BIMNVOX samples. •Best oxide-ion performance for microwave calcined BIMNVOX samples. -- Abstract: Samples of γ-BIMNVOX (Bi{sub 2}V{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 5.5−x/2}; 0.13 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.20) system were synthesized by an ethylene glycol–citrate sol–gel route. The resulting xerogels were then calcined by the microwave heating using a modified domestic microwave oven operated at 2.45 GHz. Microwave-assisted calcination samples in comparison with other conventionally calcined samples were characterized in terms of phase crystallization, stabilization and particle size using simultaneous thermogravimetric–differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The AC impedance spectroscopy was employed for electrical characterization. It was found that the microwave-assisted calcination route successfully produces better crystalline stabilized γ-BIMNVOX samples with appreciably small average particle sizes after only 25 min of microwave heating. The electrical properties of microwave calcined γ-BIMNVOX system make it an advanced low-temperature solid electrolyte suitable for use in oxide-ion based electrochemical applications.

  11. System to continuously produce carbon fiber via microwave assisted plasma processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Terry L; Paulauskas, Felix L; Bigelow, Timothy S

    2014-03-25

    A method for continuously processing carbon fiber including establishing a microwave plasma in a selected atmosphere contained in an elongated chamber having a microwave power gradient along its length defined by a lower microwave power at one end and a higher microwave power at the opposite end of the elongated chamber. The elongated chamber having an opening in each of the ends of the chamber that are adapted to allow the passage of the fiber tow while limiting incidental gas flow into or out of said chamber. A continuous fiber tow is introduced into the end of the chamber having the lower microwave power. The fiber tow is withdrawn from the opposite end of the chamber having the higher microwave power. The fiber to is subjected to progressively higher microwave energy as the fiber is being traversed through the elongated chamber.

  12. Unsymmetrical Mesoporphyrinic Complexes of Copper (II and Zinc (II. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis, Spectral Characterization and Cytotoxicity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rica Boscencu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available New unsymmetrical mesoporphyrinic complexes, namely 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl-10,15,20–tris-(4-carboxymethylphenyl–21,23-Zn(II-porphine and 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl-10,15,20–tris-(4-carboxymethylphenyl–21,23-Cu(II-porphine, were synthesized using a microwave irradiation method. The structures of the porphyrinic complexes were confirmed using FT-IR, UV–Vis, EPR and NMR spectral data. The spectral absorption and emission properties of the porphyrinic complexes were studied in organic solvents of different polarities and the influence of solvent polarity on the wavelengths of the absorbance and fluorescence band maxima is described. The cytotoxicity evaluation of the porphyrinic complexes was performed on human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT29 for different doses and incubation times. The obtained result indicates a lack of or low toxicity for both compounds, thus recommending them for further testing in light activation protocols.

  13. Microwave blanching and drying characteristics of Centella asiatica (L.) urban leaves using tray and heat pump-assisted dehumidified drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trirattanapikul, W; Phoungchandang, S

    2014-12-01

    The appropriate stage of maturity of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban leaves was investigated. Mature leaves with large diameter contained high total phenolics and % inhibition. Microwave blanching for 30 s retained the highest total phenolics and the microwave blanching for 30 s and 45 s retained the highest % inhibition. Modified Henderson and Modified Chung-Pfost models showed the best fit to both fresh and blanched leaves for equilibrium moisture content, Xe = f(RHe, T) and equilibrium relative humidity, RHe = f(Xe, T), respectively. The Modified Page model was the most effective model in describing the leaf drying. All drying was in the falling rate period. The drying constant was related to drying air temperature using the Arrhenius model. Effective moisture diffusivities increased with increasing temperature and blanching treatments as well as dehumidification by heat pump-assisted dehumidified dryer. The heat pump-assited dehumidified drying incorporated by the microwave blanching could reduce the drying time at 40 °C by 31.2 % and increase % inhibition by 6.1 %. Quality evaluation by total phenolics, % inhibition and rehydration ratio showed the best quality for C. asiatica leaves pretreated by microwave blanching and dried at 40 °C in heat pump-assisted dehumidified dryer.

  14. Microwave-assisted synthesis of lanthanum conversion coating on Mg-Li alloy and its corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Dalei; Jing Xiaoyan; Wang Jun; Lu Shanshan; Yang Piaoping; Wang Yanli; Zhang Milin

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: → The method of microwave is used to synthesize lanthanum conversion coating. → Lanthanum conversion coating on Mg-Li alloy was studied. → Different conditions between room temperature and microwave were compared. → The corrosion behavior of lanthanum conversion coatings was studied. → The corrosion mechanism of lanthanum conversion coatings was studied. - Abstract: Lanthanum-based conversion coating on Mg-Li alloy has been prepared by a microwave-assisted method. X-ray diffractions (XRD) indicate that the intermetallic compounds of lanthanum are formed on Mg-Li alloy surface. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show that the coating has different morphologies and special structures. The corrosion resistance was assessed by means of potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). The results indicate that this coating significantly reduces the corrosion rate of Mg-Li alloy in NaCl solution. A comparing experiment indicates that the coating prepared by microwave-assisted process has superior corrosion resistance to the coating obtained at room temperature.

  15. A Green Protocol for Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Volatile Oil Terpenes from Pterodon emarginatus Vogel. (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana M. Vila Verde

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assisted extraction of volatile oils (MAE potentially offers a more efficient and bio-sustainable method than conventional extraction by Clevenger apparatus (CE. This study aimed to optimise the MAE of the volatile oil from Pterodon emarginatus fruits and characterise the volatile compounds. A 23 full-factorial central composite design and response surface methodology were used to evaluate the effects of time (min, moisture (% and microwave power (W on the extraction yield. The process optimisation was based on the desirability function approach. The reaction time and moisture conditions were standardised in these analyses. The volatile oil composition was analysed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS in order to compare techniques extractions influences. Microwave irradiation showed excellent performance for extraction of the volatile oil from Pterodon emarginatus and there were some advantages in compare to conventional method with respect to the time (14 times, energy (6 times, reagents amounts and waste formation. About chemical composition presents significant differences with the type of extraction. Caryophyllene (25.65% and trans-α-bisabolol (6.24% were identified as major components in MAE sample while caryophyllene (6.75% and γ-elemene (7.02% are the components with higher relative percentage in CE samples. The microwaves assisted process shown an increase of economic interested compounds present in volatile oil.

  16. Trends in the Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Nano tubes and Their Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motshekga, S.C.; Pillai, S.K.; Ray, S.S.; Motshekga, S.C.; Ray, S.S.; Jalama, K.; Krause, Rui.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    The study of coating carbon nano tubes with metal/oxides nanoparticles is now becoming a promising and challenging area of research. To optimize the use of carbon nano tubes in various applications, it is necessary to attach functional groups or other nano structures to their surface. The combination of the distinctive properties of carbon nano tubes and metal/oxides is expected to be applied in field emission displays, nano electronic devices, novel catalysts, and polymer or ceramic reinforcement. The synthesis of these composites is still largely based on conventional techniques, such as wet impregnation followed by chemical reduction of the metal nanoparticle precursors. These techniques based on thermal heating can be time consuming and often lack control of particle size and morphology. Hence, there is interest in microwave technology recently, where using microwaves represents an alternative way of power input into chemical reactions through dielectric heating. This paper covers the synthesis and applications of carbon-nano tube-coated metal/oxides nanoparticles prepared by a microwave-assisted method. The reviewed studies show that the microwave-assisted synthesis of the composites allows processes to be completed within a shorter reaction time with uniform and well-dispersed nanoparticle formation.

  17. Recent Trends in the Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Nanotubes and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C. Motshekga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of coating carbon nanotubes with metal/oxides nanoparticles is now becoming a promising and challenging area of research. To optimize the use of carbon nanotubes in various applications, it is necessary to attach functional groups or other nanostructures to their surface. The combination of the distinctive properties of carbon nanotubes and metal/oxides is expected to be applied in field emission displays, nanoelectronic devices, novel catalysts, and polymer or ceramic reinforcement. The synthesis of these composites is still largely based on conventional techniques, such as wet impregnation followed by chemical reduction of the metal nanoparticle precursors. These techniques based on thermal heating can be time consuming and often lack control of particle size and morphology. Hence, there is interest in microwave technology recently, where using microwaves represents an alternative way of power input into chemical reactions through dielectric heating. This paper covers the synthesis and applications of carbon-nanotube-coated metal/oxides nanoparticles prepared by a microwave-assisted method. The reviewed studies show that the microwave-assisted synthesis of the composites allows processes to be completed within a shorter reaction time with uniform and well-dispersed nanoparticle formation.

  18. Effect of Solvent, Catalyst Type and Catalyst Activation on the Microwave Transformation of 2-Tert-butylphenol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Radoiu, M.; Hájek, Milan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 186, 1-2 (2002), s. 121-126 ISSN 1381-1169 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : microwaves * tert-butylphenols * catalyst activation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.729, year: 2002

  19. Microwave-assisted rapid extracellular synthesis of stable bio-functionalized silver nanoparticles from guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunandan, Deshpande [H.K.E.S' s College of Pharmacy (India); Mahesh, Bedre D. [Gulbarga University, Materials Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Material Science (India); Basavaraja, S. [Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Veeco-India Nanotechnology Laboratory (India); Balaji, S. D. [Gulbarga University, Materials Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Material Science (India); Manjunath, S. Y. [Sri Krupa, Institute of Pharmaceutical Science (India); Venkataraman, A., E-mail: raman_chem@rediffmail.com [Gulbarga University, Materials Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Material Science (India)

    2011-05-15

    Our research interest centers on microwave-assisted rapid extracellular synthesis of bio-functionalized silver nanoparticles of 26 {+-} 5 nm from guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extract with control over dimension and composition. The reaction occurs very rapidly as the formation of spherical nanoparticles almost completed within 90 s. The probable pathway of the biosynthesis is suggested. Appearance, crystalline nature, size and shape of nanoparticles are understood by UV-vis (UV-vis spectroscopy), FTIR (fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) techniques. Microwave-assisted route is selected for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles to carry out the reaction fast, suppress the enzymatic action and to keep the process environmentally clean and green.

  20. Microwave-assisted rapid extracellular synthesis of stable bio-functionalized silver nanoparticles from guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunandan, Deshpande; Mahesh, Bedre D.; Basavaraja, S.; Balaji, S. D.; Manjunath, S. Y.; Venkataraman, A.

    2011-01-01

    Our research interest centers on microwave-assisted rapid extracellular synthesis of bio-functionalized silver nanoparticles of 26 ± 5 nm from guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extract with control over dimension and composition. The reaction occurs very rapidly as the formation of spherical nanoparticles almost completed within 90 s. The probable pathway of the biosynthesis is suggested. Appearance, crystalline nature, size and shape of nanoparticles are understood by UV–vis (UV–vis spectroscopy), FTIR (fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) techniques. Microwave-assisted route is selected for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles to carry out the reaction fast, suppress the enzymatic action and to keep the process environmentally clean and green.

  1. Microwave-assisted rapid extracellular synthesis of stable bio-functionalized silver nanoparticles from guava ( Psidium guajava) leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Deshpande; Mahesh, Bedre D.; Basavaraja, S.; Balaji, S. D.; Manjunath, S. Y.; Venkataraman, A.

    2011-05-01

    Our research interest centers on microwave-assisted rapid extracellular synthesis of bio-functionalized silver nanoparticles of 26 ± 5 nm from guava ( Psidium guajava) leaf extract with control over dimension and composition. The reaction occurs very rapidly as the formation of spherical nanoparticles almost completed within 90 s. The probable pathway of the biosynthesis is suggested. Appearance, crystalline nature, size and shape of nanoparticles are understood by UV-vis (UV-vis spectroscopy), FTIR (fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) techniques. Microwave-assisted route is selected for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles to carry out the reaction fast, suppress the enzymatic action and to keep the process environmentally clean and green.

  2. Fast microwave-assisted solvothermal synthesis of metal nanoparticles (Pd, Ni, Sn) supported on sulfonated MWCNTs: Pd-based bimetallic catalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramulifho, T

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of metal nanoparticles (Pd, Ni, Sn) supported on sulfonated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SF-MWCNTs) using a very rapid microwave-assisted solvothermal strategy has been described. Electrocatalytic behaviour of the SF...

  3. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-10-10

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions.

  4. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE and solvent extraction (SE. In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively. Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%–74.7%, palmitic (16:0, 14.9%–17.9%, stearic (18:0, 4.50%–5.25%, and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%–4.6%. Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO, palmitoyl diolein (POO and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL. In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE significantly (p < 0.05 influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE and conditions.

  5. An efficient microwave-assisted synthesis and biological properties of polysubstituted pyrimidinyl- and 1,3,5-triazinylphosphonic acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jansa, Petr; Hradil, Ondřej; Baszczyňski, Ondřej; Dračínský, Martin; Klepetářová, Blanka; Holý, Antonín; Balzarini, J.; Janeba, Zlatko

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 3 (2012), s. 865-871 ISSN 0040-4020 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400550903; GA MŠk 1M0508 Grant - others:K.U. Leuven(BE) GOA 10/014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : phosphonic acids * pyrimidines * 1,3,5-triazines * microwave-assisted synthesis * influenza virus Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.803, year: 2012

  6. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Origanum saccatum P.H. Davis essential oil obtained by solvent-free microwave extraction: comparison with hydrodistillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozmen, Fazli; Uysal, Burcu; Oksal, Birsen S; Kose, Elif Odabas; Deniz, I Gokhan

    2011-01-01

    The components of the essential oils (EOs) obtained by solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and hydrodistillation (HD) from endemic Origanum saccatum P.H. Davis were identified by using GC/MS. The main constituents of both EOs obtained by SFME and HD, respectively, from O. saccatum were p-cymene (72.5 and 70.6%), thymol (9.32 and 8.11%), and carvacrol (7.18 and 6.36%). The EO obtained by SFME contained substantially higher amounts of oxygenated compounds and lower amounts of monoterpenes than did the EO obtained by HD. The antibacterial activities of the EOs obtained by SFME and HD were evaluated with the disc diffusion method by comparison with 10 different bacterial strains. The antibacterial activity of the EO extracted by SFME was found to be more effective than that of the EO extracted by HD against seven of the tested bacteria.

  7. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of rutin from Chinese medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huan; Wang, Yuzhi; Kong, Jinhuan; Nie, Chan; Yuan, Ya

    2010-12-15

    An ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) method has been developed for the effective extraction of rutin from Chinese medicinal plants including Saururus chinensis (Lour.) Bail. (S. chinensis) and Flos Sophorae. A series of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different anions were investigated. The results indicated that the characteristics of anions have remarkable effects on the extraction efficiency of rutin and among the investigated ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([bmim]Br) aqueous solution was the best. In addition, the ILMAE procedures for the two kinds of medicinal herbs were also optimized by means of a series of single factor experiments and an L(9) (3(4)) orthogonal design. Compared with the optimal ionic liquid-based heating extraction (ILHE), marinated extraction (ILME), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (ILUAE), the optimized approach of ILMAE gained higher extraction efficiency which is 4.879 mg/g in S. chinensis with RSD 1.33% and 171.82 mg/g in Flos Sophorae with RSD 1.47% within the shortest extraction time. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with ultraviolet detection was employed for the analysis of rutin in Chinese medicinal plants. Under the optimum conditions, the average recoveries of rutin from S. chinensis and Flos Sophorae were 101.23% and 99.62% with RSD lower than 3%, respectively. The developed approach is linear at concentrations from 42 to 252 mg L(-1) of rutin solution, with the regression coefficient (r) at 0.99917. Moreover, the extraction mechanism of ILMAE and the microstructures and chemical structures of the two researched samples before and after extraction were also investigated. With the help of LC-MS, it was future demonstrated that the two researched herbs do contain active ingredient of rutin and ionic liquids would not influence the structure of rutin. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid microwave-assisted synthesis of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Elizabeth A; Atkins, Tonya M; Gilbert, Dustin A; Kauzlarich, Susan M; Liu, Kai; Louie, Angelique Y

    2012-06-01

    Currently, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are the only nanosized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents approved for clinical use, yet commercial manufacturing of these agents has been limited or discontinued. Though there is still widespread demand for these particles both for clinical use and research, they are difficult to obtain commercially, and complicated syntheses make in-house preparation unfeasible for most biological research labs or clinics. To make commercial production viable and increase accessibility of these products, it is crucial to develop simple, rapid and reproducible preparations of biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles. Here, we report a rapid, straightforward microwave-assisted synthesis of superparamagnetic dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were produced in two hydrodynamic sizes with differing core morphologies by varying the synthetic method as either a two-step or single-step process. A striking benefit of these methods is the ability to obtain swift and consistent results without the necessity for air-, pH- or temperature-sensitive techniques; therefore, reaction times and complex manufacturing processes are greatly reduced as compared to conventional synthetic methods. This is a great benefit for cost-effective translation to commercial production. The nanoparticles are found to be superparamagnetic and exhibit properties consistent for use in MRI. In addition, the dextran coating imparts the water solubility and biocompatibility necessary for in vivo utilization.

  9. Activated carbon as catalyst for microwave-assisted wet peroxide oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Costa, Alicia L; Lopez-Perela, Lucia; Xu, Xiyan; Zazo, Juan A; Rodriguez, Juan J; Casas, Jose A

    2018-05-21

    This paper addresses the removal of four aromatic hydrocarbons typically found in petrochemical wastewater: benzene (B), toluene (T), o-xylene (X), and naphthalene (N), by microwave-assisted catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (MW-CWPO) using activated carbon (AC) as catalyst. Under the studied conditions, complete pollutant elimination (B, 1.28 mM; T, 1.09 mM; X, 0.94 mM; and N, 0.78 mM) was achieved, with more than 90% TOC removal after only 15-min reaction time, working at 120 °C, pH 0  = 3, AC at 1 g L -1 , and H 2 O 2 at the stoichiometric dose. Furthermore, in the case of toluene, naphthalene, and xylene, the hydroxylation and breakdown of the ring is very rapid and toxic intermediates were not detected. The process follows two steps: (i) pollutant adsorption onto AC followed by (ii) adsorbed compounds oxidation. Thus, MW-CWPO with AC as catalyst appears a promising way for a fast and effective process for B, T, X, and N removal in aqueous phase.

  10. Plasma-assisted CO2 conversion: optimizing performance via microwave power modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britun, Nikolay; Silva, Tiago; Chen, Guoxing; Godfroid, Thomas; van der Mullen, Joost; Snyders, Rony

    2018-04-01

    Significant improvement in the energy efficiency of plasma-assisted CO2 conversion is achieved with applied power modulation in a surfaguide microwave discharge. The obtained values of CO2 conversion and energy efficiency are, respectively, 0.23 and 0.33 for a 0.95 CO2  +  0.05 N2 gas mixture. Analysis of the energy relaxation mechanisms shows that power modulation can potentially affect the vibrational-translational energy exchange in plasma. In our case, however, this mechanism does not play a major role, likely due to the low degree of plasma non-equilibrium in the considered pressure range. Instead, the gas residence time in the discharge active zone together with plasma pulse duration are found to be the main factors affecting the CO2 conversion efficiency at low plasma pulse repetition rates. This effect is confirmed experimentally by the in situ time-resolved two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence measurements of CO molecular density produced in the discharge as a result of CO2 decomposition.

  11. Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Rapid Synthesis of Calcium Phosphates: Structural Control and Application in Protein Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhu-Yun; Peng, Fan; Zi, Yun-Peng; Chen, Feng; Qian, Qi-Rong

    2015-07-31

    Synthetic calcium phosphate (CaP)-based materials have attracted much attention in the biomedical field. In this study, we have investigated the effect of pH values on CaP nanostructures prepared using a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The hierarchical nanosheet-assembled hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanostructure was prepared under weak acidic conditions (pH 5), while the HAP nanorod was prepared under neutral (pH 7) and weak alkali (pH 9) condition. However, when the pH value increases to 11, a mixed product of HAP nanorod and tri-calcium phosphate nanoparticle was obtained. The results indicated that the pH value of the initial reaction solution played an important role in the phase and structure of the CaP. Furthermore, the protein adsorption and release performance of the as-prepared CaP nanostructures were investigated by using hemoglobin (Hb) as a model protein. The sample that was prepared at pH = 11 and consisted of mixed morphologies of nanorods and nanoprisms showed a higher Hb protein adsorption capacity than the sample prepared at pH 5, which could be explained by its smaller size and dispersed structure. The results revealed the relatively high protein adsorption capacity of the as-prepared CaP nanostructures, which show promise for applications in various biomedical fields such as drug delivery and protein adsorption.

  12. Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Rapid Synthesis of Calcium Phosphates: Structural Control and Application in Protein Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu-Yun Cai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic calcium phosphate (CaP-based materials have attracted much attention in the biomedical field. In this study, we have investigated the effect of pH values on CaP nanostructures prepared using a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The hierarchical nanosheet-assembled hydroxyapatite (HAP nanostructure was prepared under weak acidic conditions (pH 5, while the HAP nanorod was prepared under neutral (pH 7 and weak alkali (pH 9 condition. However, when the pH value increases to 11, a mixed product of HAP nanorod and tri-calcium phosphate nanoparticle was obtained. The results indicated that the pH value of the initial reaction solution played an important role in the phase and structure of the CaP. Furthermore, the protein adsorption and release performance of the as-prepared CaP nanostructures were investigated by using hemoglobin (Hb as a model protein. The sample that was prepared at pH = 11 and consisted of mixed morphologies of nanorods and nanoprisms showed a higher Hb protein adsorption capacity than the sample prepared at pH 5, which could be explained by its smaller size and dispersed structure. The results revealed the relatively high protein adsorption capacity of the as-prepared CaP nanostructures, which show promise for applications in various biomedical fields such as drug delivery and protein adsorption.

  13. Rapid microwave-assisted synthesis of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, Elizabeth A; Atkins, Tonya M; Kauzlarich, Susan M; Gilbert, Dustin A; Liu Kai; Louie, Angelique Y

    2012-01-01

    Currently, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are the only nanosized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents approved for clinical use, yet commercial manufacturing of these agents has been limited or discontinued. Though there is still widespread demand for these particles both for clinical use and research, they are difficult to obtain commercially, and complicated syntheses make in-house preparation unfeasible for most biological research labs or clinics. To make commercial production viable and increase accessibility of these products, it is crucial to develop simple, rapid and reproducible preparations of biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles. Here, we report a rapid, straightforward microwave-assisted synthesis of superparamagnetic dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were produced in two hydrodynamic sizes with differing core morphologies by varying the synthetic method as either a two-step or single-step process. A striking benefit of these methods is the ability to obtain swift and consistent results without the necessity for air-, pH- or temperature-sensitive techniques; therefore, reaction times and complex manufacturing processes are greatly reduced as compared to conventional synthetic methods. This is a great benefit for cost-effective translation to commercial production. The nanoparticles are found to be superparamagnetic and exhibit properties consistent for use in MRI. In addition, the dextran coating imparts the water solubility and biocompatibility necessary for in vivo utilization. (paper)

  14. Convenient, rapid synthesis of silver nanocubes and nanowires via a microwave-assisted polyol method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dapeng; Qiao, Xueliang; Qiu, Xiaolin; Chen, Jianguo; Jiang, Renzhi

    2010-01-01

    Silver nanostructures have been synthesized via a microwave-assisted polyol method by adding sodium sulfide (Na2S) into the solution. An interesting morphology evolution can be observed by adjusting the concentration of Na2S and the heating power. It is found that the ideal concentration of Na2S is 31.25-500 µM for the fast reduction of Ag+ at 300 W under optimal conditions for producing monodispersed silver nanocubes. When the heating power is increased to 400 W, 62.5-250 µM is the ideal concentration of Na2S for the synthesis of silver nanocubes. On increasing the concentration of Na2S (>500 µM), a mixture of silver nanowires, nanocubes, bipyramids, and irregular/quasispherical particles is synthesized at 300 and 400 W. In particular, an increase in the concentration of Na2S to 750 µM at 400 W leads to the production of a quantity of silver nanowires. In addition, silver nanocubes with controllable sizes can be obtained by changing the concentration of Na2S and the heating power. Compared to traditional wet-chemical methods, this method has the advantage of a marked decrease in reaction time to 3.5 min. Finally, our work provides a simple strategy for fabricating silver nanostructures with controllable morphologies and sizes.

  15. Convenient, rapid synthesis of silver nanocubes and nanowires via a microwave-assisted polyol method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Dapeng; Qiao Xueliang; Chen Jianguo; Jiang Renzhi [State Key Laboratory of Plastic Forming Simulation and Die and Mold Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074, Hubei (China); Qiu Xiaolin, E-mail: dpchenhust@yahoo.com.cn [Nanomaterials Research Center, Nanchang Institute of Technology, Nanchang, 330013, Jiangxi (China)

    2010-01-15

    Silver nanostructures have been synthesized via a microwave-assisted polyol method by adding sodium sulfide (Na{sub 2}S) into the solution. An interesting morphology evolution can be observed by adjusting the concentration of Na{sub 2}S and the heating power. It is found that the ideal concentration of Na{sub 2}S is 31.25-500 {mu}M for the fast reduction of Ag{sup +} at 300 W under optimal conditions for producing monodispersed silver nanocubes. When the heating power is increased to 400 W, 62.5-250 {mu}M is the ideal concentration of Na{sub 2}S for the synthesis of silver nanocubes. On increasing the concentration of Na{sub 2}S (>500 {mu}M), a mixture of silver nanowires, nanocubes, bipyramids, and irregular/quasispherical particles is synthesized at 300 and 400 W. In particular, an increase in the concentration of Na{sub 2}S to 750 {mu}M at 400 W leads to the production of a quantity of silver nanowires. In addition, silver nanocubes with controllable sizes can be obtained by changing the concentration of Na{sub 2}S and the heating power. Compared to traditional wet-chemical methods, this method has the advantage of a marked decrease in reaction time to 3.5 min. Finally, our work provides a simple strategy for fabricating silver nanostructures with controllable morphologies and sizes.

  16. Convenient, rapid synthesis of silver nanocubes and nanowires via a microwave-assisted polyol method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dapeng; Qiao Xueliang; Chen Jianguo; Jiang Renzhi; Qiu Xiaolin

    2010-01-01

    Silver nanostructures have been synthesized via a microwave-assisted polyol method by adding sodium sulfide (Na 2 S) into the solution. An interesting morphology evolution can be observed by adjusting the concentration of Na 2 S and the heating power. It is found that the ideal concentration of Na 2 S is 31.25-500 μM for the fast reduction of Ag + at 300 W under optimal conditions for producing monodispersed silver nanocubes. When the heating power is increased to 400 W, 62.5-250 μM is the ideal concentration of Na 2 S for the synthesis of silver nanocubes. On increasing the concentration of Na 2 S (>500 μM), a mixture of silver nanowires, nanocubes, bipyramids, and irregular/quasispherical particles is synthesized at 300 and 400 W. In particular, an increase in the concentration of Na 2 S to 750 μM at 400 W leads to the production of a quantity of silver nanowires. In addition, silver nanocubes with controllable sizes can be obtained by changing the concentration of Na 2 S and the heating power. Compared to traditional wet-chemical methods, this method has the advantage of a marked decrease in reaction time to 3.5 min. Finally, our work provides a simple strategy for fabricating silver nanostructures with controllable morphologies and sizes.

  17. Kinetics of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from Balinese orange peel using Pseudo-homogeneous model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megawati, Wulansarie, Ria; Faiz, Merisa Bestari; Adi, Susatyo; Sammadikun, Waliyuddin

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this work was to study the homogeneous kinetics of pectin extraction of Balinese orange peel conducted using Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE). The experimental data showed that the power increases (180 to 600 W), so that the extraction yield of pectin also increases (12.2 to 30.6 % w/w). Moreover, the extraction time is longer (10, 15, and 20 min) the yield of pectin increases (8.8, 20.2, and 40.5). At time after of 20 min (25 and 30 min), the yield starts to decrease (36.6 and 22.9). This phenomena shows pectin degradation. Therefore, pectin extraction is a series reaction, i.e. extraction and degradation. The calculation result showed that pseudo series homogeneous model can quantitatively describe the extraction kinetics. The kinetic constants can be expressed by Arrhenius equation with the frequency factors of 1.58 × 105 and 2.29 × 105 1/min, while the activation energies are 64,350 and 56,571 J/mole for extraction and degradation, respectively.

  18. Microwave assisted direct saponification for the simultaneous determination of cholesterol and cholesterol oxides in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Hugo A L; Mariutti, Lilian R B; Bragagnolo, Neura

    2017-05-01

    A novel microwave-assisted direct saponification method for the simultaneous determination of cholesterol and cholesterol oxides in shrimp was developed and validated. Optimal saponification conditions, determined by means of an experimental design, were achieved using 500mg of sample and 20mL of 1mol/L KOH ethanol solution for 16min at 45°C at maximum power at 200W and magnetic stirring at 120rpm. Higher extraction of cholesterol oxides in a reduced saponification time (∼75 times) was achieved in comparison with the direct cold saponification method. The new method showed low detection (≤0.57μg/mL) and quantification (≤1.73μg/mL) limits, good repeatability (≤10.50% intraday and ≤8.56% interday) and low artifact formation (evaluated by using a deuterated cholesterol-D6 standard). Raw, salted and dried-salted shrimps were successfully analyzed by the validated method. The content of cholesterol oxides increased after salting and decreased after drying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from burdock leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Zaixiang; Wang Hongxin; Zhu Song; Chen Shangwei; Zhang Ming; Wang Zhouping

    2012-01-01

    The ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction (IL-UMAE) technique was first proposed and applied to isolate compounds. The ionic liquids comprising a range of four anions, five 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium derivatives were designed and prepared. The results suggested that varying the anion and cation both had apparent effects on the extraction of phenolics. The results also showed that irradiation power, time and solid–liquid ratio significantly affected the yields. The yields of caffeic acid and quercetin obtained by IL-UMAE were higher than those by regular UMAE. Compared with conventional heat-reflux extraction (HRE), the proposed approach exhibited higher efficiency (8–17% enhanced) and shorter extraction time (from 5 h to 30 s). The results indicated ILUMAE to be a fast and efficient extraction technique. Moreover, the proposed method was validated by the reproducibility and recovery experiments. The ILUMAE method provided good recoveries (from 96.1% to 105.3%) with RSD lower than 5.2%, which indicated that the proposed method was credible. Based on the designable nature of ionic liquids, and the rapid and highly efficient performance of the proposed approach, ILUMAE provided a new alternative for preparation of various useful substances from solid samples.

  20. Microwave-assisted extraction of Nigella sativa L. essential oil and evaluation of its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Abdol-Samad; Rismanchi, Marjan; Shahdoostkhany, Mehrnoush; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Mortazavian, Amir Mohammad

    2017-11-01

    It has been previously reported that the essential oil of Nigella sativa L. seeds and its major active component, thymoquinone (TQ), possess a broad variety of biological activities and therapeutic properties. In this work, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of the essential oil from Nigella sativa L. seeds and its antioxidant activity were studied. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to evaluate the effects of extraction time, irradiation power and moisture content on extraction yield and TQ content. Optimal parameters obtained by CCD and RSM were extraction time 30 min, irradiation power 450 W, and moisture content 50%. The extraction yield and TQ content of the essential oil were 0.33 and 20% under the optimum conditions, respectively. In contrast, extraction yield and TQ amount of oil obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) were 0.23 and 3.71%, respectively. The main constituents of the essential oil extracted by MAE and HD were p -cymene, TQ, α-thujene and longifolene, comprising more than 60% of total peak area. The antioxidant capacity of essential oils extracted by different methods were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and Ferric reducing antioxidant power assays, and compared with traditional antioxidants. The results showed that MAE method was a viable alternative to HD for the essential oil extraction from N. sativa seeds due to the excellent extraction efficiency, higher thymoquinone content, and stronger antioxidant activity.

  1. Microwave assisted synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles for lighting and dye removal application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vijay, E-mail: vijays_phy@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Gohain, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Som, S.; Kumar, Vinod [Department of Physics, University of Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Bezuindenhoudt, B.C.B. [Department of Chemistry, University of Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Swart, Hendrik C., E-mail: swarthc@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa)

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report on the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) via the microwave-assisted technique. The as-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were annealed at 500 °C for three hours. The ZnO NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopic techniques. XRD results confirmed the formation of as-synthesized ZnO powder oriented along the (101) direction. The Kubelka–Munk function has been employed to determine the band gap of the ZnO powder. ZnO powder has been studied by photoluminescence (PL) before and after annealing to identify the emission of defects in the visible range. The intensity of the PL emission has decreased after annealing. The synthesized ZnO samples were also studied for methyl orange dye removal from waste water. It has been found that the as-synthesized ZnO shows better adsorption behaviour as compared to the annealed sample.

  2. Biodiesel from wet microalgae: extraction with hexane after the microwave-assisted transesterification of lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Huang, Rui; Li, Tao; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2014-10-01

    A chloroform-free novel process for the efficient production of biodiesel from wet microalgae is proposed. Crude biodiesel is produced through extraction with hexane after microwave-assisted transesterification (EHMT) of lipids in wet microalgae. Effects of different parameters, including reaction temperature, reaction time, methanol dosage, and catalyst dosage, on fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) yield are investigated. The yield of FAME extracted into the hexane from the wet microalgae is increased 6-fold after the transesterification of lipids. The yield of FAME obtained through EHMT of lipids in wet microalgae is comparable to that obtained through direct transesterification of dried microalgae biomass with chloroform; however, FAME content in crude biodiesel obtained through EHMT is 86.74%, while that in crude biodiesel obtained through the chloroform-based process is 75.93%. EHMT ensures that polar pigments present in microalgae are not extracted into crude biodiesel, which leads to a 50% reduction in nitrogen content in crude biodiesel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of hemocompatibility and in vitro immersion on microwave-assisted hydroxyapatite-alumina nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha, G; Balakumar, S; Venkatesan, Balaji; Vellaichamy, Elangovan

    2015-05-01

    This study reports the microwave-assisted synthesis and characterization of nHAp (nano-hydroxyapatite)-alumina composites. The crystalline phase and interaction of alumina with nHAp was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman microscopy analysis, respectively. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) micrographs exhibit morphological changes of nHAp composites with increasing alumina concentrations. Microhardness studies reveal the enhanced mechanical strength of nHAp10 and nHAp20 nanocomposites than pure nHAp. In vitro bioactivity of the nanocomposites was studied by immersing samples in simulated body fluid (Hank's solution) for 21 days. The surface of biomineralized samples were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Hemolytic assay revealed acceptable compatibility for varying concentrations of all the samples. Cell proliferation assay was systematically investigated for 1 day and 3 days on Saos-2 osteoblast-like cell lines and it was found that nHAp nanocomposites improved the proliferation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Microwave-assisted co-pyrolysis of brown coal and corn stover for oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaning; Fan, Liangliang; Liu, Shiyu; Zhou, Nan; Ding, Kuan; Peng, Peng; Anderson, Erik; Addy, Min; Cheng, Yanling; Liu, Yuhuan; Li, Bingxi; Snyder, John; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2018-07-01

    The controversial synergistic effect between brown coal and biomass during co-pyrolysis deserves further investigation. This study detailed the oil production from microwave-assisted co-pyrolysis of brown coal (BC) and corn stover (CS) at different CS/BC ratios (0, 0.33, 0.50, 0.67, and 1) and pyrolysis temperatures (500, 550, and 600 °C). The results showed that a higher CS/BC ratio resulted in higher oil yield, and a higher pyrolysis temperature increased oil yield for brown coal and coal/corn mixtures. Corn stover and brown coal showed different pyrolysis characteristics, and positive synergistic effect on oil yield was observed only at CS/BC ratio of 0.33 and pyrolysis temperature of 600 °C. Oils from brown coal mainly included hydrocarbons and phenols whereas oils from corn stover and coal/corn mixtures were dominated by ketones, phenols, and aldehydes. Positive synergistic effects were observed for ketones, aldehydes, acids, and esters whereas negative synergistic effects for hydrocarbons, phenols and alcohols. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Microwave-assisted acid and base hydrolysis of intact proteins containing disulfide bonds for protein sequence analysis by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiz, Bela; Li, Liang

    2010-09-01

    Controlled hydrolysis of proteins to generate peptide ladders combined with mass spectrometric analysis of the resultant peptides can be used for protein sequencing. In this paper, two methods of improving the microwave-assisted protein hydrolysis process are described to enable rapid sequencing of proteins containing disulfide bonds and increase sequence coverage, respectively. It was demonstrated that proteins containing disulfide bonds could be sequenced by MS analysis by first performing hydrolysis for less than 2 min, followed by 1 h of reduction to release the peptides originally linked by disulfide bonds. It was shown that a strong base could be used as a catalyst for microwave-assisted protein hydrolysis, producing complementary sequence information to that generated by microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis. However, using either acid or base hydrolysis, amide bond breakages in small regions of the polypeptide chains of the model proteins (e.g., cytochrome c and lysozyme) were not detected. Dynamic light scattering measurement of the proteins solubilized in an acid or base indicated that protein-protein interaction or aggregation was not the cause of the failure to hydrolyze certain amide bonds. It was speculated that there were some unknown local structures that might play a role in preventing an acid or base from reacting with the peptide bonds therein. 2010 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of photocatalytic activities of Bi2WO6 nanoparticles synthesized by fast microwave-assisted method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phu, Nguyen Dang; Hoang, Luc Huy; Chen, Xiang-Bai; Kong, Meng-Hong; Wen, Hua-Chiang; Chou, Wu Ching

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of photocatalytic activities of Bi 2 WO 6 nanoparticles synthesized by fast microwave-assisted method. The photocatalytic activities of the nanoparticles were evaluated by the decolorization of methylene-blue under visible-light-irradiation. Our results show that the surface area of Bi 2 WO 6 nanoparticles plays a major role for improving photocatalytic activity, while visible-light absorption has only a weak effect on photocatalytic activity. This suggests efficient transportation of photo-generated electrons and holes to the oxidation active sites on the surface of nanoparticles, indicating Bi 2 WO 6 nanoparticles synthesized by fast microwave-assisted method are promising for achieving high photocatalytic activity under visible-light-irradiation. - Highlights: • The Bi 2 WO 6 nanoparticles were synthesized via fast microwave-assisted method. • The obtained Bi 2 WO 6 nanoparticles exhibited visible-light absorbance. • The surface area of Bi 2 WO 6 nanoparticles plays major role for improving photocatalytic activity. • The Bi 2 WO 6 nanoparticles are promising for achieving high photocatalytic activity under visible-light-irradiation

  7. Analysis of parameter and interaction between parameter of the microwave assisted transesterification process of coconut oil using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayanti, Nur; Suryanto, A.; Qadariyah, L.; Prihatini, P.; Mahfud, Mahfud

    2015-12-01

    A simple batch process was designed for the transesterification of coconut oil to alkyl esters using microwave assisted method. The product with yield above 93.225% of alkyl ester is called the biodiesel fuel. Response surface methodology was used to design the experiment and obtain the maximum possible yield of biodiesel in the microwave-assisted reaction from coconut oil with KOH as the catalyst. The results showed that the time reaction and concentration of KOH catalyst have significant effects on yield of alkyl ester. Based on the response surface methodology using the selected operating conditions, the time of reaction and concentration of KOH catalyst in transesterification process were 150 second and 0.25%w/w, respectively. The largest predicted and experimental yield of alkyl esters (biodiesel) under the optimal conditions are 101.385% and 93.225%, respectively. Our findings confirmed the successful development of process for the transesterification reaction of coconut oil by microwave-assisted heating, which is effective and time-saving for alkyl ester production.

  8. Insight into Aluminum Sulfate-Catalyzed Xylan Conversion into Furfural in a γ-Valerolactone/Water Biphasic Solvent under Microwave Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Zhou, Yi-Han; Zhu, Sheng-Zhen; Pan, Hui; Huang, Yao-Bing

    2017-10-23

    A simple and efficient biphasic system with an earth-abundant metal salt catalyst was used to produce furfural from xylan with a high yield of up to 87.8 % under microwave conditions. Strikingly, the metal salt Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 exhibited excellent catalytic activity for xylan conversion, owing to a combination of Lewis and Brønsted acidity and its ability to promote good phase separation. The critical role of the SO 4 2- anion was first analyzed, which resulted in the aforementioned characteristics when combined with the Al 3+ cation. The mixed solvent system with γ-valerolactone (GVL) as the organic phase provided the highest furfural yield, resulting from its good dielectric properties and dissolving capacity, which facilitated the absorption of microwave energy and promoted mass transfer. Mechanistic studies suggested that the xylan-to-furfural conversion proceeded mainly through a hydrolysis-isomerization-dehydration pathway and the hexa-coordinated Lewis acidic [Al(OH) 2 (aq)] + species were the active sites for xylose-xylulose isomerization. Detailed kinetic studies of the subreaction for the xylan conversion revealed that GVL regulates the reaction rates and pathways by promoting the rates of the key steps involved for furfural production and suppressing the side reactions for humin production. Finally, the Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 catalyst was used for the production of furfural from several lignocellulosic feedstocks, revealing its great potential for other biomass conversions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Microwave-assisted Maillard reactions for the preparation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Sonja; Medana, Claudio; Barge, Alessandro; Giancotti, Valeria; Cravotto, Giancarlo

    2010-05-21

    The application of microwaves as an efficient form of volumetric heating to promote organic reactions was recognized in the mid-1980 s. It has a much longer history in the food research and industry where microwave irradiation was studied in depth to optimize food browning and the development of desirable flavours from Maillard reactions. The microwave-promoted Maillard reaction is a challenging synthetic method to generate molecular diversity in a straightforward way. In this paper we present a new rapid and efficient one-pot procedure for the preparation of pentosidine and other AGEs under microwave irradiation.

  10. Controlled fabrication of the strong emission YVO4:Eu3+ nanoparticles and nanowires by microwave assisted chemical synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huong, Tran Thu; Vinh, Le Thi; Phuong, Ha Thi; Khuyen, Hoang Thi; Anh, Tran Kim; Tu, Vu Duc; Minh, Le Quoc

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we are presenting the controlled fabrication results of the strong emission YVO 4 : Eu 3+ nanoparticles and nanowires by microwave which is assisted chemical synthesis. The effects of incorporated synthesis conditions such as microwave irradiated powers, pH values and concentration of chemical composition on properties of nanomaterials are also investigated to obtain the controllable size and homogenous morphology. Morphological and optical properties of YVO 4 : Eu 3+ prepared products which have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission micrcroscopy (FESEM) and photoluminescence spectroscopy. As based from result of synthesized samples, we found that the changing of pH values, microwave irradiated powers and chemical composition rise to change reform the size and shape of materials from nanoparticles (diameter about 20 nm) to wires shape (with about 500÷800 nm length and 10÷20 nm width). The photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy measurements of YVO 4 : Eu 3+ nanostructure materials under UV excitation showed that: the strong luminescence in red region with narrow lines corresponding to the intra-4f transitions of 5 D 0 – 7 F j (j=1, 2, 3, and 4) of Eu 3+ ions with the highest luminescence intensity of 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 transition. - Highlights: • The strong emission YVO 4 :Eu 3+ nanostructure materials were successfully synthesized by microwave assisted chemical synthesis. • The size, morphology and luminescence of the YVO 4 :Eu 3+ nanostructure materials can be controlled by the solution pH, microwave irradiated powers and chemical composition. • These YVO 4 :Eu 3+ nanostructure materials above can potentially applied in various fields of application, especially in luminescent labeling and visualization in biomedical application.

  11. Ultrasound assisted extraction of natural dye from jackfruit's wood (Artocarpus heterophyllus): The effect of ethanol concentration as a solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febriana, Ike Dayi; Gala, Selfina; Mahfud, Mahfud

    2017-05-01

    Azo dye are synthetic organic dyes which has an azo group (- N = N -) as chromophore. Azo dye is resistand to decomposition process and harmfull for the environment and human being. Natural dye can be used as substitution of azo dye at textile industry. Natural dye are eco - friendly and can be applied for dyeing of fibrous material. Natural dye can be obtained from natural origin such as leaves, wood, or roots. The wood of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) can used as natural source of natural dye. Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) is a new method that can be used to extract natural dye from jackfruit's wood. The aim of this research are to study about influence of ethanol concentration as solvent and extraction kinetic. Jackfruit's wood dust from sawmill used for the experimentation were sifted by sieve 35 mesh. Ethanol 96% used as solvent of this experiment and varied the concentration in volume to volume ratio (v/v). Experiment were carried out from 20 to 50 minutes. The result of this experiment shows that ethanol concentration influenced yield of extraction from jackfruit's wood. Concentration of ethanol will be affected polarity of solvent. The Peleg model was used to describe about kinetic model of natural dye extraction. Value of k1 and k2 constant are 0.003835 and 0.04186 respectively.

  12. Systemic study of solvent-assisted active loading of gambogic acid into liposomes and its formulation optimization for improved delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei-Lun; Tang, Wei-Hsin; Szeitz, Andras; Kulkarni, Jayesh; Cullis, Pieter; Li, Shyh-Dar

    2018-06-01

    The solvent-assisted active loading technology (SALT) was developed for encapsulating a water insoluble weak base into the liposomal core in the presence of 5% DMSO. In this study, we further examined the effect of various water miscible solvents in promoting active loading of other types of drugs into liposomes. To achieve complete drug loading, the amount of solvent required must result in complete drug solubilization and membrane permeability enhancement, but must be below the threshold that induces liposomal aggregation or causes bilayer disruption. We then used the SALT to load gambogic acid (GA, an insoluble model drug that shows promising anticancer effect) into liposomes, and optimized the loading gradient and lipid composition to prepare a stable formulation (Lipo-GA) that displayed >95% drug retention after incubation with serum for 3 days. Lipo-GA contained a high drug-to-lipid ratio of 1/5 (w/w) with a mean particle size of ∼75 nm. It also displayed a prolonged circulation half-life (1.5 h vs. 18.6 h) and enhanced antitumor activity in two syngeneic mice models compared to free GA. Particularly, complete tumor regression was observed in the EMT6 tumor model for 14 d with significant inhibition of multiple oncogenes including HIF-1α, VEGF-A, STAT3, BCL-2, and NF-κB. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Order quantification of hexagonal periodic arrays fabricated by in situ solvent-assisted nanoimprint lithography of block copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simão, Claudia; Khunsin, Worawut; Kehagias, Nikolaos; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M; Salaun, Mathieu; Zelsmann, Marc; Morris, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Directed self-assembly of block copolymer polystyrene-b-polyethylene oxide (PS-b-PEO) thin film was achieved by a one-pot methodology of solvent vapor assisted nanoimprint lithography (SAIL). Simultaneous solvent-anneal and imprinting of a PS-b-PEO thin film on silicon without surface pre-treatments yielded a 250 nm line grating decorated with 20 nm diameter nanodots array over a large surface area of up to 4′ wafer scale. The grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering diffraction pattern showed the fidelity of the NIL stamp pattern replication and confirmed the periodicity of the BCP of 40 nm. The order of the hexagonally arranged nanodot lattice was quantified by SEM image analysis using the opposite partner method and compared to conventionally solvent-annealed block copolymer films. The imprint-based SAIL methodology thus demonstrated an improvement in ordering of the nanodot lattice of up to 50%, and allows significant time and cost reduction in the processing of these structures. (papers)

  14. Analysis of dextromethorphan and dextrorphan in decomposed skeletal tissues by microwave assisted extraction, microplate solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (MAE-MPSPE-GCMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Candice D; Cornthwaite, Heather M; Watterson, James H

    2015-08-01

    Analysis of decomposed skeletal tissues for dextromethorphan (DXM) and dextrorphan (DXT) using microwave assisted extraction (MAE), microplate solid-phase extraction (MPSPE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is described. Rats (n = 3) received 100 mg/kg DXM (i.p.) and were euthanized by CO2 asphyxiation roughly 20 min post-dose. Remains decomposed to skeleton outdoors and vertebral bones were recovered, cleaned, and pulverized. Pulverized bone underwent MAE using methanol as an extraction solvent in a closed microwave system, followed by MPSPE and GC-MS. Analyte stability under MAE conditions was assessed and found to be stable for at least 60 min irradiation time. The majority (>90%) of each analyte was recovered after 15 min. The MPSPE-GCMS method was fit to a quadratic response (R(2)  > 0.99), over the concentration range 10-10 000 ng⋅mL(-1) , with coefficients of variation <20% in triplicate analysis. The MPSPE-GCMS method displayed a limit of detection of 10 ng⋅mL(-1) for both analytes. Following MAE for 60 min (80 °C, 1200 W), MPSPE-GCMS analysis of vertebral bone of DXM-exposed rats detected both analytes in all samples (DXM: 0.9-1.5 µg⋅g(-1) ; DXT: 0.5-1.8 µg⋅g(-1) ). Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Highly efficient isocyanate-free microwave-assisted synthesis of [6]-oligourea

    KAUST Repository

    Qaroush, Abdussalam K.; Al-Hamayda, Asmaa S.; Khashman, Yasmeen K.; Vagin, Sergei I.; Troll, Carsten; Rieger, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    data reported are reproducible (due to the homogeneous microwave technology used by CEM Discover S-Class of microwave reactors). To the best of our knowledge, this is the best eco-friendly synthetic approach for the preparation of the title oligomers

  16. Fast surface modification by microwave assisted click reactions on silicon substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haensch, C.; Erdmenger, T.; Fijten, M.W.M.; Höppener, S.; Schubert, U.S.

    2009-01-01

    Microwave irradiation has been used for the chemical modification of functional monolayers on silicon surfaces. The thermal and chemical stability of these layers was tested under microwave irradiation to investigate the possibility to use this alternative heating process for the surface

  17. Microwave-assisted facile and rapid Friedel-Crafts benzoylation of arenes catalysed by bismuth trifluoromethanesulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Phoung Hoang; Hansen, Poul Erik; Pham, Thuy Than

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic activity of metal triflates was investigated in Friedel–Crafts benzoylation under microwave irradiation. Friedel–Crafts benzoylation with benzoyl chloride of a variety of arenes containing electron-rich and electron-poor rings using bismuth triflate under microwave irradiation is de...

  18. Life cycle assessment of facile microwave-assisted zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Papadaki, D

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle assessment of several zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures, fabricated by a facile microwave technique, is presented. Key synthesis parameters such as annealing temperature, varied from 90 °C to 220 °C, and microwave power, varied from 110...

  19. Synthesis of whiskers of SiC microwave assisted; Sintesis de whiskers de SiC asistida por microondas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garza-Mendez, F. J.; Vanegas, A. J.; Vazquez, B. A.; Garza-Paz, J.

    2013-06-01

    We developed a new process for the synthesis of SiC whiskers assisted by microwaves; this is based on the mixture of silica xerogels and graphite powder. As energy source were used microwaves of 2.45 GHz and 1.0 kW of power RMS. On the other hand, mesoporous silica was synthesized via sol-gel, the precursors used were TEOS/H{sub 2}O and ethanol. Through analysis of the BET is determined the value of average pore size (3.0 nm) and the surface area (1090 m2/g).By mean of X-Ray diffraction it was demonstrated that the silica obtained is an amorphous solid and, the powders obtained in the microwave synthesis are {beta}-SiC. Synthesized SiC powders were observed using a SEM in secondary electron mode, it was observed that this powders consists of SiC whiskers. The effect of microwaves on the synthesis of whiskers of SiC is discussed in the present work. (Author) 19 refs.

  20. Low cost guinea fowl bone derived recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for microwave assisted transesterification of Annona squamosa L. seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Veena; Sharma, Yogesh Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Discarded guinea fowl bone used to derive catalyst for biodiesel production. • High conversion of 95.82 ± 0.2% achieved in 20 min by microwave assisted transesterification of Annona Squamosa L. seed oil. • Catalyst was stable and can be reused up to five times by activation with >80% conversion. • Complete process is cheap, eco-friendly and fulfils ASTM standard limits. - Abstract: Guinea fowl bone derived heterogeneous catalyst was utilized for biodiesel production for the first time on microwave heating system from Annona squamosa (custard apple seed) oil. Synthesized catalyst was characterized by TGA, XRD, FTIR, SEM, EDS, BET surface area and basicity. Optimization for various reaction conditions on FAME conversion was explored. Maximum conversion of 95.82 ± 0.2% FAME was attained at 1:18 M ratio of oil: methanol, 4 wt% of catalyst at 800 W microwave power and 65 °C reaction temperatures for 20 min. Custard apple seed oil was studied by GCMS, whereas synthesized FAME was analysed by "1H FTNMR spectroscopy. Catalyst was reused up to five times with maximum conversion of >80%. Physicochemical properties of synthesized FAME were studied as per ASTM standards. Results displayed that catalyst derived from guinea fowl bone showed better reusability and has enormous potential to be used for biodiesel production under microwave irradiated transesterification of Annona squamosa L. (custard apple seed) oil within a short reaction time.