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Sample records for microtubule motor protein

  1. Multiscale modeling and simulation of microtubule-motor-protein assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tong; Blackwell, Robert; Glaser, Matthew A; Betterton, M D; Shelley, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules and motor proteins self-organize into biologically important assemblies including the mitotic spindle and the centrosomal microtubule array. Outside of cells, microtubule-motor mixtures can form novel active liquid-crystalline materials driven out of equilibrium by adenosine triphosphate-consuming motor proteins. Microscopic motor activity causes polarity-dependent interactions between motor proteins and microtubules, but how these interactions yield larger-scale dynamical behavior such as complex flows and defect dynamics is not well understood. We develop a multiscale theory for microtubule-motor systems in which Brownian dynamics simulations of polar microtubules driven by motors are used to study microscopic organization and stresses created by motor-mediated microtubule interactions. We identify polarity-sorting and crosslink tether relaxation as two polar-specific sources of active destabilizing stress. We then develop a continuum Doi-Onsager model that captures polarity sorting and the hydrodynamic flows generated by these polar-specific active stresses. In simulations of active nematic flows on immersed surfaces, the active stresses drive turbulent flow dynamics and continuous generation and annihilation of disclination defects. The dynamics follow from two instabilities, and accounting for the immersed nature of the experiment yields unambiguous characteristic length and time scales. When turning off the hydrodynamics in the Doi-Onsager model, we capture formation of polar lanes as observed in the Brownian dynamics simulation.

  2. Multiscale modeling and simulation of microtubule-motor-protein assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tong; Blackwell, Robert; Glaser, Matthew A.; Betterton, M. D.; Shelley, Michael J.

    2015-12-01

    Microtubules and motor proteins self-organize into biologically important assemblies including the mitotic spindle and the centrosomal microtubule array. Outside of cells, microtubule-motor mixtures can form novel active liquid-crystalline materials driven out of equilibrium by adenosine triphosphate-consuming motor proteins. Microscopic motor activity causes polarity-dependent interactions between motor proteins and microtubules, but how these interactions yield larger-scale dynamical behavior such as complex flows and defect dynamics is not well understood. We develop a multiscale theory for microtubule-motor systems in which Brownian dynamics simulations of polar microtubules driven by motors are used to study microscopic organization and stresses created by motor-mediated microtubule interactions. We identify polarity-sorting and crosslink tether relaxation as two polar-specific sources of active destabilizing stress. We then develop a continuum Doi-Onsager model that captures polarity sorting and the hydrodynamic flows generated by these polar-specific active stresses. In simulations of active nematic flows on immersed surfaces, the active stresses drive turbulent flow dynamics and continuous generation and annihilation of disclination defects. The dynamics follow from two instabilities, and accounting for the immersed nature of the experiment yields unambiguous characteristic length and time scales. When turning off the hydrodynamics in the Doi-Onsager model, we capture formation of polar lanes as observed in the Brownian dynamics simulation.

  3. Protein friction limits diffusive and directed movements of kinesin motors on microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormuth, Volker; Varga, Vladimir; Howard, Jonathon; Schäffer, Erik

    2009-08-14

    Friction limits the operation of macroscopic engines and is critical to the performance of micromechanical devices. We report measurements of friction in a biological nanomachine. Using optical tweezers, we characterized the frictional drag force of individual kinesin-8 motor proteins interacting with their microtubule tracks. At low speeds and with no energy source, the frictional drag was related to the diffusion coefficient by the Einstein relation. At higher speeds, the frictional drag force increased nonlinearly, consistent with the motor jumping 8 nanometers between adjacent tubulin dimers along the microtubule, and was asymmetric, reflecting the structural polarity of the microtubule. We argue that these frictional forces arise from breaking bonds between the motor domains and the microtubule, and they limit the speed and efficiency of kinesin.

  4. The Role of Molecular Microtubule Motors and the Microtubule Cytoskeleton in Stress Granule Dynamics

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    Kristen M. Bartoli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress granules (SGs are cytoplasmic foci that appear in cells exposed to stress-induced translational inhibition. SGs function as a triage center, where mRNAs are sorted for storage, degradation, and translation reinitiation. The underlying mechanisms of SGs dynamics are still being characterized, although many key players have been identified. The main components of SGs are stalled 48S preinitiation complexes. To date, many other proteins have also been found to localize in SGs and are hypothesized to function in SG dynamics. Most recently, the microtubule cytoskeleton and associated motor proteins have been demonstrated to function in SG dynamics. In this paper, we will discuss current literature examining the function of microtubules and the molecular microtubule motors in SG assembly, coalescence, movement, composition, organization, and disassembly.

  5. Heterotrimeric Kinesin II Is the Microtubule Motor Protein Responsible for Pigment Dispersion in Xenopus Melanophores

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    Tuma, M. Carolina; Zill, Andrew; Le Bot, Nathalie; Vernos, Isabelle; Gelfand, Vladimir

    1998-01-01

    Melanophores move pigment organelles (melanosomes) from the cell center to the periphery and vice-versa. These bidirectional movements require cytoplasmic microtubules and microfilaments and depend on the function of microtubule motors and a myosin. Earlier we found that melanosomes purified from Xenopus melanophores contain the plus end microtubule motor kinesin II, indicating that it may be involved in dispersion (Rogers, S.L., I.S. Tint, P.C. Fanapour, and V.I. Gelfand. 1997. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 94: 3720–3725). Here, we generated a dominant-negative construct encoding green fluorescent protein fused to the stalk-tail region of Xenopus kinesin-like protein 3 (Xklp3), the 95-kD motor subunit of Xenopus kinesin II, and introduced it into melanophores. Overexpression of the fusion protein inhibited pigment dispersion but had no effect on aggregation. To control for the specificity of this effect, we studied the kinesin-dependent movement of lysosomes. Neither dispersion of lysosomes in acidic conditions nor their clustering under alkaline conditions was affected by the mutant Xklp3. Furthermore, microinjection of melanophores with SUK4, a function-blocking kinesin antibody, inhibited dispersion of lysosomes but had no effect on melanosome transport. We conclude that melanosome dispersion is powered by kinesin II and not by conventional kinesin. This paper demonstrates that kinesin II moves membrane-bound organelles. PMID:9852150

  6. The Drosophila Microtubule-Associated Protein Mars Stabilizes Mitotic Spindles by Crosslinking Microtubules through Its N-Terminal Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Gang; Beati, Hamze; Nilsson, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Correct segregation of genetic material relies on proper assembly and maintenance of the mitotic spindle. How the highly dynamic microtubules (MTs) are maintained in stable mitotic spindles is a key question to be answered. Motor and non-motor microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) have been...

  7. Multiscale modeling and simulation of microtubule–motor-protein assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tong; Blackwell, Robert; Glaser, Matthew A.; Betterton, M. D.; Shelley, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules and motor proteins self-organize into biologically important assemblies including the mitotic spindle and the centrosomal microtubule array. Outside of cells, microtubule-motor mixtures can form novel active liquid-crystalline materials driven out of equilibrium by adenosine triphosphate–consuming motor proteins. Microscopic motor activity causes polarity-dependent interactions between motor proteins and microtubules, but how these interactions yield larger-scale dynamical behavior such as complex flows and defect dynamics is not well understood. We develop a multiscale theory for microtubule-motor systems in which Brownian dynamics simulations of polar microtubules driven by motors are used to study microscopic organization and stresses created by motor-mediated microtubule interactions. We identify polarity-sorting and crosslink tether relaxation as two polar-specific sources of active destabilizing stress. We then develop a continuum Doi-Onsager model that captures polarity sorting and the hydrodynamic flows generated by these polar-specific active stresses. In simulations of active nematic flows on immersed surfaces, the active stresses drive turbulent flow dynamics and continuous generation and annihilation of disclination defects. The dynamics follow from two instabilities, and accounting for the immersed nature of the experiment yields unambiguous characteristic length and time scales. When turning off the hydrodynamics in the Doi-Onsager model, we capture formation of polar lanes as observed in the Brownian dynamics simulation. PMID:26764729

  8. The Drosophila Microtubule-Associated Protein Mars Stabilizes Mitotic Spindles by Crosslinking Microtubules through Its N-Terminal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Beati, Hamze; Nilsson, Jakob; Wodarz, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Correct segregation of genetic material relies on proper assembly and maintenance of the mitotic spindle. How the highly dynamic microtubules (MTs) are maintained in stable mitotic spindles is a key question to be answered. Motor and non-motor microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) have been reported to stabilize the dynamic spindle through crosslinking adjacent MTs. Mars, a novel MAP, is essential for the early development of Drosophila embryos. Previous studies showed that Mars is required for maintaining an intact mitotic spindle but did not provide a molecular mechanism for this function. Here we show that Mars is able to stabilize the mitotic spindle in vivo. Both in vivo and in vitro data reveal that the N-terminal region of Mars functions in the stabilization of the mitotic spindle by crosslinking adjacent MTs. PMID:23593258

  9. The Drosophila microtubule-associated protein mars stabilizes mitotic spindles by crosslinking microtubules through its N-terminal region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhang

    Full Text Available Correct segregation of genetic material relies on proper assembly and maintenance of the mitotic spindle. How the highly dynamic microtubules (MTs are maintained in stable mitotic spindles is a key question to be answered. Motor and non-motor microtubule associated proteins (MAPs have been reported to stabilize the dynamic spindle through crosslinking adjacent MTs. Mars, a novel MAP, is essential for the early development of Drosophila embryos. Previous studies showed that Mars is required for maintaining an intact mitotic spindle but did not provide a molecular mechanism for this function. Here we show that Mars is able to stabilize the mitotic spindle in vivo. Both in vivo and in vitro data reveal that the N-terminal region of Mars functions in the stabilization of the mitotic spindle by crosslinking adjacent MTs.

  10. The Drosophila microtubule-associated protein mars stabilizes mitotic spindles by crosslinking microtubules through its N-terminal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Beati, Hamze; Nilsson, Jakob; Wodarz, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Correct segregation of genetic material relies on proper assembly and maintenance of the mitotic spindle. How the highly dynamic microtubules (MTs) are maintained in stable mitotic spindles is a key question to be answered. Motor and non-motor microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) have been reported to stabilize the dynamic spindle through crosslinking adjacent MTs. Mars, a novel MAP, is essential for the early development of Drosophila embryos. Previous studies showed that Mars is required for maintaining an intact mitotic spindle but did not provide a molecular mechanism for this function. Here we show that Mars is able to stabilize the mitotic spindle in vivo. Both in vivo and in vitro data reveal that the N-terminal region of Mars functions in the stabilization of the mitotic spindle by crosslinking adjacent MTs.

  11. The actin-binding protein capulet genetically interacts with the microtubule motor kinesin to maintain neuronal dendrite homeostasis.

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    Paul M B Medina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurons require precise cytoskeletal regulation within neurites, containing microtubule tracks for cargo transport in axons and dendrites or within synapses containing organized actin. Due to the unique architecture and specialized function of neurons, neurons are particularly susceptible to perturbation of the cytoskeleton. Numerous actin-binding proteins help maintain proper cytoskeletal regulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From a Drosophila forward genetic screen, we identified a mutation in capulet--encoding a conserved actin-binding protein--that causes abnormal aggregates of actin within dendrites. Through interaction studies, we demonstrate that simultaneous genetic inactivation of capulet and kinesin heavy chain, a microtubule motor protein, produces elongate cofilin-actin rods within dendrites but not axons. These rods resemble actin-rich structures induced in both mammalian neurodegenerative and Drosophila Alzheimer's models, but have not previously been identified by loss of function mutations in vivo. We further demonstrate that mitochondria, which are transported by Kinesin, have impaired distribution along dendrites in a capulet mutant. While Capulet and Cofilin may biochemically cooperate in certain circumstances, in neuronal dendrites they genetically antagonize each other. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study is the first molecularly defined loss of function demonstration of actin-cofilin rods in vivo. This study suggests that simultaneous, seemingly minor perturbations in neuronal dendrites can synergize producing severe abnormalities affecting actin, microtubules and mitochondria/energy availability in dendrites. Additionally, as >90% of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's cases are sporadic this study suggests mechanisms by which multiple mutations together may contribute to neurodegeneration instead of reliance on single mutations to produce disease.

  12. Plus- and minus-end directed microtubule motors bind simultaneously to herpes simplex virus capsids using different inner tegument structures.

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    Kerstin Radtke

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Many viruses depend on host microtubule motors to reach their destined intracellular location. Viral particles of neurotropic alphaherpesviruses such as herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1 show bidirectional transport towards the cell center as well as the periphery, indicating that they utilize microtubule motors of opposing directionality. To understand the mechanisms of specific motor recruitment, it is necessary to characterize the molecular composition of such motile viral structures. We have generated HSV1 capsids with different surface features without impairing their overall architecture, and show that in a mammalian cell-free system the microtubule motors dynein and kinesin-1 and the dynein cofactor dynactin could interact directly with capsids independent of other host factors. The capsid composition and surface was analyzed with respect to 23 structural proteins that are potentially exposed to the cytosol during virus assembly or cell entry. Many of these proteins belong to the tegument, the hallmark of all herpesviruses located between the capsid and the viral envelope. Using immunoblots, quantitative mass spectrometry and quantitative immunoelectron microscopy, we show that capsids exposing inner tegument proteins such as pUS3, pUL36, pUL37, ICP0, pUL14, pUL16, and pUL21 recruited dynein, dynactin, kinesin-1 and kinesin-2. In contrast, neither untegumented capsids exposing VP5, VP26, pUL17 and pUL25 nor capsids covered by outer tegument proteins such as vhs, pUL11, ICP4, ICP34.5, VP11/12, VP13/14, VP16, VP22 or pUS11 bound microtubule motors. Our data suggest that HSV1 uses different structural features of the inner tegument to recruit dynein or kinesin-1. Individual capsids simultaneously accommodated motors of opposing directionality as well as several copies of the same motor. Thus, these associated motors either engage in a tug-of-war or their activities are coordinately regulated to achieve net transport either to the nucleus during

  13. Probing intracellular motor protein activity using an inducible cargo trafficking assay.

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    Kapitein, Lukas C; Schlager, Max A; van der Zwan, Wouter A; Wulf, Phebe S; Keijzer, Nanda; Hoogenraad, Casper C

    2010-10-06

    Although purified cytoskeletal motor proteins have been studied extensively with the use of in vitro approaches, a generic approach to selectively probe actin and microtubule-based motor protein activity inside living cells is lacking. To examine specific motor activity inside living cells, we utilized the FKBP-rapalog-FRB heterodimerization system to develop an in vivo peroxisomal trafficking assay that allows inducible recruitment of exogenous and endogenous kinesin, dynein, and myosin motors to drive specific cargo transport. We demonstrate that cargo rapidly redistributes with distinct dynamics for each respective motor, and that combined (antagonistic) actions of more complex motor combinations can also be probed. Of importance, robust cargo redistribution is readily achieved by one type of motor protein and does not require the presence of opposite-polarity motors. Simultaneous live-cell imaging of microtubules and kinesin or dynein-propelled peroxisomes, combined with high-resolution particle tracking, revealed that peroxisomes frequently pause at microtubule intersections. Titration and washout experiments furthermore revealed that motor recruitment by rapalog-induced heterodimerization is dose-dependent but irreversible. Our assay directly demonstrates that robust cargo motility does not require the presence of opposite-polarity motors, and can therefore be used to characterize the motile properties of specific types of motor proteins. Copyright © 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Coin Tossing Explains the Activity of Opposing Microtubule Motors on Phagosomes.

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    Sanghavi, Paulomi; D'Souza, Ashwin; Rai, Ashim; Rai, Arpan; Padinhatheeri, Ranjith; Mallik, Roop

    2018-05-07

    How the opposing activity of kinesin and dynein motors generates polarized distribution of organelles inside cells is poorly understood and hotly debated [1, 2]. Possible explanations include stochastic mechanical competition [3, 4], coordinated regulation by motor-associated proteins [5-7], mechanical activation of motors [8], and lipid-induced organization [9]. Here, we address this question by using phagocytosed latex beads to generate early phagosomes (EPs) that move bidirectionally along microtubules (MTs) in an in vitro assay [9]. Dynein/kinesin activity on individual EPs is recorded as real-time force generation of the motors against an optical trap. Activity of one class of motors frequently coincides with, or is rapidly followed by opposite motors. This leads to frequent and rapid reversals of EPs in the trap. Remarkably, the choice between dynein and kinesin can be explained by the tossing of a coin. Opposing motors therefore appear to function stochastically and independently of each other, as also confirmed by observing no effect on kinesin function when dynein is inhibited on the EPs. A simple binomial probability calculation based on the geometry of EP-microtubule contact explains the observed activity of dynein and kinesin on phagosomes. This understanding of intracellular transport in terms of a hypothetical coin, if it holds true for other cargoes, provides a conceptual framework to explain the polarized localization of organelles inside cells. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Probing intracellular motor protein activity using an inducible cargo trafficking assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C. Kapitein (Lukas); M.A. Schlager (Max); W.A. van der Zwan (Wouter); P. Wulf (Phebe); N. Keijzer (Nanda); C.C. Hoogenraad (Casper)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAlthough purified cytoskeletal motor proteins have been studied extensively with the use of in vitro approaches, a generic approach to selectively probe actin and microtubule-based motor protein activity inside living cells is lacking. To examine specific motor activity inside living

  16. Nonlinear dynamics of C-terminal tails in cellular microtubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Dalibor L.; Sataric, Bogdan M.; Zdravkovic, Slobodan; Bugay, Aleksandr N.; Sataric, Miljko V.

    2016-07-01

    The mechanical and electrical properties, and information processing capabilities of microtubules are the permanent subject of interest for carrying out experiments in vitro and in silico, as well as for theoretical attempts to elucidate the underlying processes. In this paper, we developed a new model of the mechano-electrical waves elicited in the rows of very flexible C-terminal tails which decorate the outer surface of each microtubule. The fact that C-terminal tails play very diverse roles in many cellular functions, such as recruitment of motor proteins and microtubule-associated proteins, motivated us to consider their collective dynamics as the source of localized waves aimed for communication between microtubule and associated proteins. Our approach is based on the ferroelectric liquid crystal model and it leads to the effective asymmetric double-well potential which brings about the conditions for the appearance of kink-waves conducted by intrinsic electric fields embedded in microtubules. These kinks can serve as the signals for control and regulation of intracellular traffic along microtubules performed by processive motions of motor proteins, primarly from kinesin and dynein families. On the other hand, they can be precursors for initiation of dynamical instability of microtubules by recruiting the proper proteins responsible for the depolymerization process.

  17. In vivo control mechanisms of motor-cargo movement on microtubules

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    Gunawardena, Shermali

    2014-03-01

    Within axons, molecular motors transport essential components required for neuronal growth and viability. Although many levels of regulation must exist for proper anterograde and retrograde transport of vital proteins, little is known about these mechanisms. Previous work suggested that the amyloid precursor protein (APP) functions as a kinesin-1 receptor during transport. However, how APP vesicle motility is regulated is unclear. Using genetics and in vivo imaging in Drosophila we showed that reduction of presenilin (PS) substantially increased anterograde and retrograde APP vesicle velocities. Strikingly, PS deficiency had no effect on an unrelated cargo vesicle containing synaptotagmin, which is powered by a different kinesin motor. Increased PS-mediated velocities required functional kinesin-1 and dynein motors. We also found that these PS-mediated effects on motor protein function were mediated via a pathway that involves glycogen synthase kinase-3 β (GSK-3 β) . PS genetically interacted with GSK-3 β in an activity dependent manner. Excess of active GSK-3 β perturbed transport by causing axonal blockages, which were enhanced by reduction of kinesin-1 or dynein, while excess of non-functional GSK-3 β had no effect. Strikingly, GSK-3 β-activity dependent transport defects were enhanced by reduction of PS. Collectively, our findings suggest that PS and GSK-3 β are required for normal motor protein function, and we propose a model in which PS likely regulates GSK-3 β activity during transport. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the complex regulatory machinery that must exist in vivo and how this system is coordinated during vesicle motility on microtubules.

  18. Understanding molecular motor walking along a microtubule: a themosensitive asymmetric Brownian motor driven by bubble formation.

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    Arai, Noriyoshi; Yasuoka, Kenji; Koishi, Takahiro; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2013-06-12

    The "asymmetric Brownian ratchet model", a variation of Feynman's ratchet and pawl system, is invoked to understand the kinesin walking behavior along a microtubule. The model system, consisting of a motor and a rail, can exhibit two distinct binding states, namely, the random Brownian state and the asymmetric potential state. When the system is transformed back and forth between the two states, the motor can be driven to "walk" in one direction. Previously, we suggested a fundamental mechanism, that is, bubble formation in a nanosized channel surrounded by hydrophobic atoms, to explain the transition between the two states. In this study, we propose a more realistic and viable switching method in our computer simulation of molecular motor walking. Specifically, we propose a thermosensitive polymer model with which the transition between the two states can be controlled by temperature pulses. Based on this new motor system, the stepping size and stepping time of the motor can be recorded. Remarkably, the "walking" behavior observed in the newly proposed model resembles that of the realistic motor protein. The bubble formation based motor not only can be highly efficient but also offers new insights into the physical mechanism of realistic biomolecule motors.

  19. Manipulation and quantification of microtubule lattice integrity

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    Taylor A. Reid

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Microtubules are structural polymers that participate in a wide range of cellular functions. The addition and loss of tubulin subunits allows the microtubule to grow and shorten, as well as to develop and repair defects and gaps in its cylindrical lattice. These lattice defects act to modulate the interactions of microtubules with molecular motors and other microtubule-associated proteins. Therefore, tools to control and measure microtubule lattice structure will be invaluable for developing a quantitative understanding of how the structural state of the microtubule lattice may regulate its interactions with other proteins. In this work, we manipulated the lattice integrity of in vitro microtubules to create pools of microtubules with common nucleotide states, but with variations in structural states. We then developed a series of novel semi-automated analysis tools for both fluorescence and electron microscopy experiments to quantify the type and severity of alterations in microtubule lattice integrity. These techniques will enable new investigations that explore the role of microtubule lattice structure in interactions with microtubule-associated proteins.

  20. Nonlinear dynamics of C–terminal tails in cellular microtubules

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    Sekulic, Dalibor L., E-mail: dalsek@uns.ac.rs; Sataric, Bogdan M.; Sataric, Miljko V. [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad (Serbia); Zdravkovic, Slobodan [University of Belgrade, Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Serbia); Bugay, Aleksandr N. [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    The mechanical and electrical properties, and information processing capabilities of microtubules are the permanent subject of interest for carrying out experiments in vitro and in silico, as well as for theoretical attempts to elucidate the underlying processes. In this paper, we developed a new model of the mechano–electrical waves elicited in the rows of very flexible C–terminal tails which decorate the outer surface of each microtubule. The fact that C–terminal tails play very diverse roles in many cellular functions, such as recruitment of motor proteins and microtubule–associated proteins, motivated us to consider their collective dynamics as the source of localized waves aimed for communication between microtubule and associated proteins. Our approach is based on the ferroelectric liquid crystal model and it leads to the effective asymmetric double-well potential which brings about the conditions for the appearance of kink–waves conducted by intrinsic electric fields embedded in microtubules. These kinks can serve as the signals for control and regulation of intracellular traffic along microtubules performed by processive motions of motor proteins, primarly from kinesin and dynein families. On the other hand, they can be precursors for initiation of dynamical instability of microtubules by recruiting the proper proteins responsible for the depolymerization process.

  1. Nonlinear dynamics of C–terminal tails in cellular microtubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekulic, Dalibor L.; Sataric, Bogdan M.; Sataric, Miljko V.; Zdravkovic, Slobodan; Bugay, Aleksandr N.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical and electrical properties, and information processing capabilities of microtubules are the permanent subject of interest for carrying out experiments in vitro and in silico, as well as for theoretical attempts to elucidate the underlying processes. In this paper, we developed a new model of the mechano–electrical waves elicited in the rows of very flexible C–terminal tails which decorate the outer surface of each microtubule. The fact that C–terminal tails play very diverse roles in many cellular functions, such as recruitment of motor proteins and microtubule–associated proteins, motivated us to consider their collective dynamics as the source of localized waves aimed for communication between microtubule and associated proteins. Our approach is based on the ferroelectric liquid crystal model and it leads to the effective asymmetric double-well potential which brings about the conditions for the appearance of kink–waves conducted by intrinsic electric fields embedded in microtubules. These kinks can serve as the signals for control and regulation of intracellular traffic along microtubules performed by processive motions of motor proteins, primarly from kinesin and dynein families. On the other hand, they can be precursors for initiation of dynamical instability of microtubules by recruiting the proper proteins responsible for the depolymerization process.

  2. Motor Skills Training Improves Sensorimotor Dysfunction and Increases Microtubule-Associated Protein 2 mRNA Expression in Rats with Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

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    Tamakoshi, Keigo; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Onishi, Hideaki; Takamatsu, Yasuyuki; Ishida, Kazuto

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of motor skills training on the sensorimotor function and the expression of genes associated with synaptic plasticity after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. Male Wistar rats were subjected to ICH or sham operation. ICH was caused by the injection of collagenase into the left striatum. Rats were randomly assigned to no training, acrobatic training, and sham groups. The acrobatic group performed 5 types of acrobatic tasks from 4 to 28 days after surgery. The forelimb sensorimotor function was evaluated over time using forepaw grasping, forelimb placing, and postural instability tests. At 14 and 29 days after the lesion, we analyzed the mRNA expression levels of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and growth-associated protein 43 in the bilateral sensorimotor cortex (forelimb area) by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Motor skills training in ICH rats improved the sensorimotor dysfunction significantly from the early phase. The mRNA expression level of MAP2 was upregulated in the ipsilesional sensorimotor cortex by motor skills training at 29 days after the lesion. Our results suggest that sensorimotor functional recovery following motor skills training after ICH is promoted by dendritic growth in the ipsilesional sensorimotor cortex. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. EML proteins in microtubule regulation and human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Andrew M; O'Regan, Laura; Montgomery, Jessica; Adib, Rozita; Bayliss, Richard

    2016-10-15

    The EMLs are a conserved family of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). The founding member was discovered in sea urchins as a 77-kDa polypeptide that co-purified with microtubules. This protein, termed EMAP for echinoderm MAP, was the major non-tubulin component present in purified microtubule preparations made from unfertilized sea urchin eggs [J. Cell Sci. (1993) 104: , 445-450; J. Cell Sci. (1987) 87: (Pt 1), 71-84]. Orthologues of EMAP were subsequently identified in other echinoderms, such as starfish and sand dollar, and then in more distant eukaryotes, including flies, worms and vertebrates, where the name of ELP or EML (both for EMAP-like protein) has been adopted [BMC Dev. Biol. (2008) 8: , 110; Dev. Genes Evol. (2000) 210: , 2-10]. The common property of these proteins is their ability to decorate microtubules. However, whether they are associated with particular microtubule populations or exercise specific functions in different microtubule-dependent processes remains unknown. Furthermore, although there is limited evidence that they regulate microtubule dynamics, the biochemical mechanisms of their molecular activity have yet to be explored. Nevertheless, interest in these proteins has grown substantially because of the identification of EML mutations in neuronal disorders and oncogenic fusions in human cancers. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the expression, localization and structure of what is proving to be an interesting and important class of MAPs. We also speculate about their function in microtubule regulation and highlight how the studies of EMLs in human diseases may open up novel avenues for patient therapy. © 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  4. Microtubule protein ADP-ribosylation in vitro leads to assembly inhibition and rapid depolymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaife, R.M. (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States)); Wilson, L. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States)); Purich, D.L. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States))

    1992-01-14

    Bovine brain microtubule protein, containing both tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins, undergoes ADP-ribosylation in the presence of ({sup 14}C)NAD{sup +} and a turkey erythrocyte mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase in vitro. The modification reaction could be demonstrated in crude brain tissue extracts where selective ADP-ribosylation of both the {alpha} and {beta} chains of tubulin and of the high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein MAP-2 occurred. In experiments with purified microtubule protein, tubulin dimer, the high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein MAP-2, and another high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein which may be a MAP-1 species were heavily labeled. Tubulin and MAP-2 incorporated ({sup 14}C)ADP-ribose to an average extent of approximately 2.4 and 30 mol of ADP-ribose/mol of protein, respectively. Assembly of microtubule protein into microtubules in vitro was inhibited by ADP-ribosylation, and incubation of assembled steady-state microtubules with ADP-ribosyltransferase and NAD{sup +} resulted in rapid depolymerization of the microtubules. Thus, the eukaryotic enzyme can ADP-ribosylate tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins to much greater extents than previously observed with cholera and pertussis toxins, and the modification can significantly modulate microtubule assembly and disassembly.

  5. Application of quasi-steady state methods to molecular motor transport on microtubules in fungal hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvergne, Duncan; Edelstein-Keshet, Leah

    2015-08-21

    We consider bidirectional transport of cargo by molecular motors dynein and kinesin that walk along microtubules, and/or diffuse in the cell. The motors compete to transport cargo in opposite directions with respect to microtubule polarity (towards the plus or minus end of the microtubule). In recent work, Gou et al. (2014) used a hierarchical set of models, each consisting of continuum transport equations to track the evolution of motors and their cargo (early endosomes) in the specific case of the fungus Ustilago maydis. We complement their work using a framework of quasi-steady state analysis developed by Newby and Bressloff (2010) and Bressloff and Newby (2013) to reduce the models to an approximating steady state Fokker-Plank equation. This analysis allows us to find analytic approximations to the steady state solutions in many cases where the full models are not easily solved. Consequently, we can make predictions about parameter dependence of the resulting spatial distributions. We also characterize the overall rates of bulk transport and diffusion, and how these are related to state transition parameters, motor speeds, microtubule polarity distribution, and specific assumptions made. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optical Tweezers-Based Measurements of Forces and Dynamics at Microtubule Ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baclayon, Marian; Kalisch, Svenja-Marei; Hendel, Ed; Laan, Liedewij; Husson, Julien; Munteanu, E Laura; Dogterom, Marileen

    2017-01-01

    Microtubules are dynamic cytoskeletal polymers that polymerize and depolymerize while interacting with different proteins and structures within the cell. The highly regulated dynamic properties as well as the pushing and pulling forces generated by dynamic microtubule ends play important roles in processes such as in cell division. For instance, microtubule end-binding proteins are known to affect dramatically the dynamic properties of microtubules, and cortical dyneins are known to mediate pulling forces on microtubule ends. We discuss in this chapter our efforts to reconstitute these systems in vitro and mimic their interactions with structures within the cell using micro-fabricated barriers. Using an optical tweezers setup, we investigate the dynamics and forces of microtubules growing against functionalized barriers in the absence and presence of end-binding proteins and barrier-attached motor proteins. This setup allows high-speed as well as nanometer and piconewton resolution measurements on dynamic microtubules.

  7. Linking cortical microtubule attachment and exocytosis [version 1; referees: 2 approved

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    Ivar Noordstra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Exocytosis is a fundamental cellular process whereby secreted molecules are packaged into vesicles that move along cytoskeletal filaments and fuse with the plasma membrane. To function optimally, cells are strongly dependent on precisely controlled delivery of exocytotic cargo. In mammalian cells, microtubules serve as major tracks for vesicle transport by motor proteins, and thus microtubule organization is important for targeted delivery of secretory carriers. Over the years, multiple microtubule-associated and cortical proteins have been discovered that facilitate the interaction between the microtubule plus ends and the cell cortex. In this review, we focus on mammalian protein complexes that have been shown to participate in both cortical microtubule capture and exocytosis, thereby regulating the spatial organization of secretion. These complexes include microtubule plus-end tracking proteins, scaffolding factors, actin-binding proteins, and components of vesicle docking machinery, which together allow efficient coordination of cargo transport and release.

  8. Coupling of kinesin ATP turnover to translocation and microtubule regulation: one engine, many machines.

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    Friel, Claire T; Howard, Jonathon

    2012-12-01

    The cycle of ATP turnover is integral to the action of motor proteins. Here we discuss how variation in this cycle leads to variation of function observed amongst members of the kinesin superfamily of microtubule associated motor proteins. Variation in the ATP turnover cycle among superfamily members can tune the characteristic kinesin motor to one of the range of microtubule-based functions performed by kinesins. The speed at which ATP is hydrolysed affects the speed of translocation. The ratio of rate constants of ATP turnover in relation to association and dissociation from the microtubule influence the processivity of translocation. Variation in the rate-limiting step of the cycle can reverse the way in which the motor domain interacts with the microtubule producing non-motile kinesins. Because the ATP turnover cycle is not fully understood for the majority of kinesins, much work remains to show how the kinesin engine functions in such a wide variety of molecular machines.

  9. Combing and self-assembly phenomena in dry films of Taxol-stabilized microtubules

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    Rose Franck

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMicrotubules are filamentous proteins that act as a substrate for the translocation of motor proteins. As such, they may be envisioned as a scaffold for the self-assembly of functional materials and devices. Physisorption, self-assembly and combing are here investigated as a potential prelude to microtubule-templated self-assembly. Dense films of self-assembled microtubules were successfully produced, as well as patterns of both dendritic and non-dendritic bundles of microtubules. They are presented in the present paper and the mechanism of their formation is discussed.

  10. A Genome-wide RNAi Screen for Microtubule Bundle Formation and Lysosome Motility Regulation in Drosophila S2 Cells

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    Amber L. Jolly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance intracellular transport of organelles, mRNA, and proteins (“cargo” occurs along the microtubule cytoskeleton by the action of kinesin and dynein motor proteins, but the vast network of factors involved in regulating intracellular cargo transport are still unknown. We capitalize on the Drosophila melanogaster S2 model cell system to monitor lysosome transport along microtubule bundles, which require enzymatically active kinesin-1 motor protein for their formation. We use an automated tracking program and a naive Bayesian classifier for the multivariate motility data to analyze 15,683 gene phenotypes and find 98 proteins involved in regulating lysosome motility along microtubules and 48 involved in the formation of microtubule filled processes in S2 cells. We identify innate immunity genes, ion channels, and signaling proteins having a role in lysosome motility regulation and find an unexpected relationship between the dynein motor, Rab7a, and lysosome motility regulation.

  11. Hypothesis: NDL proteins function in stress responses by regulating microtubule organization.

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    Khatri, Nisha; Mudgil, Yashwanti

    2015-01-01

    N-MYC DOWNREGULATED-LIKE proteins (NDL), members of the alpha/beta hydrolase superfamily were recently rediscovered as interactors of G-protein signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. Although the precise molecular function of NDL proteins is still elusive, in animals these proteins play protective role in hypoxia and expression is induced by hypoxia and nickel, indicating role in stress. Homology of NDL1 with animal counterpart N-MYC DOWNREGULATED GENE (NDRG) suggests similar functions in animals and plants. It is well established that stress responses leads to the microtubule depolymerization and reorganization which is crucial for stress tolerance. NDRG is a microtubule-associated protein which mediates the microtubule organization in animals by causing acetylation and increases the stability of α-tubulin. As NDL1 is highly homologous to NDRG, involvement of NDL1 in the microtubule organization during plant stress can also be expected. Discovery of interaction of NDL with protein kinesin light chain- related 1, enodomembrane family protein 70, syntaxin-23, tubulin alpha-2 chain, as a part of G protein interactome initiative encourages us to postulate microtubule stabilizing functions for NDL family in plants. Our search for NDL interactors in G protein interactome also predicts the role of NDL proteins in abiotic stress tolerance management. Based on published report in animals and predicted interacting partners for NDL in G protein interactome lead us to hypothesize involvement of NDL in the microtubule organization during abiotic stress management in plants.

  12. Short Linear Sequence Motif LxxPTPh Targets Diverse Proteins to Growing Microtubule Ends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Anil; Manatschal, Cristina; Rai, Ankit; Grigoriev, Ilya; Degen, Miriam Steiner; Jaussi, Rolf; Kretzschmar, Ines; Prota, Andrea E; Volkmer, Rudolf; Kammerer, Richard A.; Akhmanova, Anna; Steinmetz, Michel O.

    2017-01-01

    Microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) are involved in virtually all microtubule-based processes. End-binding (EB) proteins are considered master regulators of +TIP interaction networks, since they autonomously track growing microtubule ends and recruit a plethora of proteins to this

  13. Shaping the tracks : Regulation of microtubule dynamics by kinesins KIF21A and KIF21B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Riel, W.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338772634

    2016-01-01

    Control of microtubule dynamics is important for cell morphogenesis. Kinesins, motor proteins known to function in cargo transport, were recently also implicated in altering the microtubule network. Several kinesins are described to cause microtubule network reorganization or stabilization, either

  14. TCS1, a Microtubule-Binding Protein, Interacts with KCBP/ZWICHEL to Regulate Trichome Cell Shape in Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Liangliang Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available How cell shape is controlled is a fundamental question in developmental biology, but the genetic and molecular mechanisms that determine cell shape are largely unknown. Arabidopsis trichomes have been used as a good model system to investigate cell shape at the single-cell level. Here we describe the trichome cell shape 1 (tcs1 mutants with the reduced trichome branch number in Arabidopsis. TCS1 encodes a coiled-coil domain-containing protein. Pharmacological analyses and observations of microtubule dynamics show that TCS1 influences the stability of microtubules. Biochemical analyses and live-cell imaging indicate that TCS1 binds to microtubules and promotes the assembly of microtubules. Further results reveal that TCS1 physically associates with KCBP/ZWICHEL, a microtubule motor involved in the regulation of trichome branch number. Genetic analyses indicate that kcbp/zwi is epistatic to tcs1 with respect to trichome branch number. Thus, our findings define a novel genetic and molecular mechanism by which TCS1 interacts with KCBP to regulate trichome cell shape by influencing the stability of microtubules.

  15. Atomic-resolution structure of the CAP-Gly domain of dynactin on polymeric microtubules determined by magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Si; Guo, Changmiao; Hou, Guangjin; Zhang, Huilan; Lu, Xingyu; Williams, John Charles; Polenova, Tatyana

    2015-11-24

    Microtubules and their associated proteins perform a broad array of essential physiological functions, including mitosis, polarization and differentiation, cell migration, and vesicle and organelle transport. As such, they have been extensively studied at multiple levels of resolution (e.g., from structural biology to cell biology). Despite these efforts, there remain significant gaps in our knowledge concerning how microtubule-binding proteins bind to microtubules, how dynamics connect different conformational states, and how these interactions and dynamics affect cellular processes. Structures of microtubule-associated proteins assembled on polymeric microtubules are not known at atomic resolution. Here, we report a structure of the cytoskeleton-associated protein glycine-rich (CAP-Gly) domain of dynactin motor on polymeric microtubules, solved by magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy. We present the intermolecular interface of CAP-Gly with microtubules, derived by recording direct dipolar contacts between CAP-Gly and tubulin using double rotational echo double resonance (dREDOR)-filtered experiments. Our results indicate that the structure adopted by CAP-Gly varies, particularly around its loop regions, permitting its interaction with multiple binding partners and with the microtubules. To our knowledge, this study reports the first atomic-resolution structure of a microtubule-associated protein on polymeric microtubules. Our approach lays the foundation for atomic-resolution structural analysis of other microtubule-associated motors.

  16. Kinesin-8 effects on mitotic microtubule dynamics contribute to spindle function in fission yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, Zachary R.; Crapo, Ammon; Hough, Loren E.; McIntosh, J. Richard; Betterton, Meredith D.

    2016-01-01

    Kinesin-8 motor proteins destabilize microtubules. Their absence during cell division is associated with disorganized mitotic chromosome movements and chromosome loss. Despite recent work studying effects of kinesin-8s on microtubule dynamics, it remains unclear whether the kinesin-8 mitotic phenotypes are consequences of their effect on microtubule dynamics, their well-established motor activity, or additional, unknown functions. To better understand the role of kinesin-8 proteins in mitosis, we studied the effects of deletion of the fission yeast kinesin-8 proteins Klp5 and Klp6 on chromosome movements and spindle length dynamics. Aberrant microtubule-driven kinetochore pushing movements and tripolar mitotic spindles occurred in cells lacking Klp5 but not Klp6. Kinesin-8–deletion strains showed large fluctuations in metaphase spindle length, suggesting a disruption of spindle length stabilization. Comparison of our results from light microscopy with a mathematical model suggests that kinesin-8–induced effects on microtubule dynamics, kinetochore attachment stability, and sliding force in the spindle can explain the aberrant chromosome movements and spindle length fluctuations seen. PMID:27146110

  17. Cep169, a Novel Microtubule Plus-End-Tracking Centrosomal Protein, Binds to CDK5RAP2 and Regulates Microtubule Stability.

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    Yusuke Mori

    Full Text Available The centrosomal protein, CDK5RAP2, is a microcephaly protein that regulates centrosomal maturation by recruitment of a γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC onto centrosomes. In this report, we identified a novel human centrosomal protein, Cep169, as a binding partner of CDK5RAP2, a member of microtubule plus-end-tracking proteins (+TIPs. Cep169 interacts directly with CDK5RAP2 through CM1, an evolutionarily conserved domain, and colocalizes at the pericentriolar matrix (PCM around centrioles with CDK5RAP2. In addition, Cep169 interacts with EB1 through SxIP-motif responsible for EB1 binding, and colocalizes with CDK5RAP2 at the microtubule plus-end. EB1-binding-deficient Cep169 abolishes EB1 interaction and microtubule plus-end attachment, indicating Cep169 as a novel member of +TIPs. We further show that ectopic expression of either Cep169 or CDK5RAP2 induces microtubule bundling and acetylation in U2OS cells, and depletion of Cep169 induces microtubule depolymerization in HeLa cells, although Cep169 is not required for assembly of γ-tubulin onto centrosome by CDK5RAP2. These results show that Cep169 targets microtubule tips and regulates stability of microtubules with CDK5RAP2.

  18. Long-range cargo transport on crowded microtubules: The motor jamming mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Lucas W.; Radtke, Paul K.; Goldman, Carla

    2014-05-01

    The hopping model for cargo transport by molecular motors introduced in Goldman and Sena (2009), Goldman (2010) is extended here in order to incorporate the movement of cargo-motor complexes (C-MC). Hopping processes in this context express the possibility for cargo to be exchanged between neighboring motors at a microtubule where the transport takes place. Jamming of motors is essential for cargos to execute long-range movement in this way. Results from computer simulations accompanied by a mean-field analysis of the extended model confirm our previous analytical results and suggests that an interplay between cargo hopping and the movement of the C-MC’s would control the efficiency of cargo transfer and cargo delivery in these model systems.

  19. GIT1/βPIX signaling proteins and PAK1 kinase regulate microtubule nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černohorská, Markéta; Sulimenko, Vadym; Hájková, Zuzana; Sulimenko, Tetyana; Sládková, Vladimíra; Vinopal, Stanislav; Dráberová, Eduarda; Dráber, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Microtubule nucleation from γ-tubulin complexes, located at the centrosome, is an essential step in the formation of the microtubule cytoskeleton. However, the signaling mechanisms that regulate microtubule nucleation in interphase cells are largely unknown. In this study, we report that γ-tubulin is in complexes containing G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein 1 (GIT1), p21-activated kinase interacting exchange factor (βPIX), and p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) in various cell lines. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed association of GIT1, βPIX and activated PAK1 with centrosomes. Microtubule regrowth experiments showed that depletion of βPIX stimulated microtubule nucleation, while depletion of GIT1 or PAK1 resulted in decreased nucleation in the interphase cells. These data were confirmed for GIT1 and βPIX by phenotypic rescue experiments, and counting of new microtubules emanating from centrosomes during the microtubule regrowth. The importance of PAK1 for microtubule nucleation was corroborated by the inhibition of its kinase activity with IPA-3 inhibitor. GIT1 with PAK1 thus represent positive regulators, and βPIX is a negative regulator of microtubule nucleation from the interphase centrosomes. The regulatory roles of GIT1, βPIX and PAK1 in microtubule nucleation correlated with recruitment of γ-tubulin to the centrosome. Furthermore, in vitro kinase assays showed that GIT1 and βPIX, but not γ-tubulin, serve as substrates for PAK1. Finally, direct interaction of γ-tubulin with the C-terminal domain of βPIX and the N-terminal domain of GIT1, which targets this protein to the centrosome, was determined by pull-down experiments. We propose that GIT1/βPIX signaling proteins with PAK1 kinase represent a novel regulatory mechanism of microtubule nucleation in interphase cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanisms for focusing mitotic spindle poles by minus end-directed motor proteins.

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    Goshima, Gohta; Nédélec, François; Vale, Ronald D

    2005-10-24

    During the formation of the metaphase spindle in animal somatic cells, kinetochore microtubule bundles (K fibers) are often disconnected from centrosomes, because they are released from centrosomes or directly generated from chromosomes. To create the tightly focused, diamond-shaped appearance of the bipolar spindle, K fibers need to be interconnected with centrosomal microtubules (C-MTs) by minus end-directed motor proteins. Here, we have characterized the roles of two minus end-directed motors, dynein and Ncd, in such processes in Drosophila S2 cells using RNA interference and high resolution microscopy. Even though these two motors have overlapping functions, we show that Ncd is primarily responsible for focusing K fibers, whereas dynein has a dominant function in transporting K fibers to the centrosomes. We also report a novel localization of Ncd to the growing tips of C-MTs, which we show is mediated by the plus end-tracking protein, EB1. Computer modeling of the K fiber focusing process suggests that the plus end localization of Ncd could facilitate the capture and transport of K fibers along C-MTs. From these results and simulations, we propose a model on how two minus end-directed motors cooperate to ensure spindle pole coalescence during mitosis.

  1. The Microtubule Regulatory Protein Stathmin Is Required to Maintain the Integrity of Axonal Microtubules in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Jason E.; Lytle, Nikki K.; Zuniga, Alfredo; Goldstein, Lawrence S. B.

    2013-01-01

    Axonal transport, a form of long-distance, bi-directional intracellular transport that occurs between the cell body and synaptic terminal, is critical in maintaining the function and viability of neurons. We have identified a requirement for the stathmin (stai) gene in the maintenance of axonal microtubules and regulation of axonal transport in Drosophila . The stai gene encodes a cytosolic phosphoprotein that regulates microtubule dynamics by partitioning tubulin dimers between pools of soluble tubulin and polymerized microtubules, and by directly binding to microtubules and promoting depolymerization. Analysis of stai function in Drosophila , which has a single stai gene, circumvents potential complications with studies performed in vertebrate systems in which mutant phenotypes may be compensated by genetic redundancy of other members of the stai gene family. This has allowed us to identify an essential function for stai in the maintenance of the integrity of axonal microtubules. In addition to the severe disruption in the abundance and architecture of microtubules in the axons of stai mutant Drosophila , we also observe additional neurological phenotypes associated with loss of stai function including a posterior paralysis and tail-flip phenotype in third instar larvae, aberrant accumulation of transported membranous organelles in stai deficient axons, a progressive bang-sensitive response to mechanical stimulation reminiscent of the class of Drosophila mutants used to model human epileptic seizures, and a reduced adult lifespan. Reductions in the levels of Kinesin-1, the primary anterograde motor in axonal transport, enhance these phenotypes. Collectively, our results indicate that stai has an important role in neuronal function, likely through the maintenance of microtubule integrity in the axons of nerves of the peripheral nervous system necessary to support and sustain long-distance axonal transport. PMID:23840848

  2. Prion protein inhibits microtubule assembly by inducing tubulin oligomerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieznanski, Krzysztof; Podlubnaya, Zoya A.; Nieznanska, Hanna

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of evidence points to an association of prion protein (PrP) with microtubular cytoskeleton. Recently, direct binding of PrP to tubulin has also been found. In this work, using standard light scattering measurements, sedimentation experiments, and electron microscopy, we show for First time the effect of a direct interaction between these proteins on tubulin polymerization. We demonstrate that full-length recombinant PrP induces a rapid increase in the turbidity of tubulin diluted below the critical concentration for microtubule assembly. This effect requires magnesium ions and is weakened by NaCl. Moreover, the PrP-induced light scattering structures of tubulin are cold-stable. In preparations of diluted tubulin incubated with PrP, electron microscopy revealed the presence of ∼50 nm disc-shaped structures not reported so far. These unique tubulin oligomers may form large aggregates. The effect of PrP is more pronounced under the conditions promoting microtubule formation. In these tubulin samples, PrP induces formation of the above oligomers associated with short protofilaments and sheets of protofilaments into aggregates. Noticeably, this is accompanied by a significant reduction of the number and length of microtubules. Hence, we postulate that prion protein may act as an inhibitor of microtubule assembly by inducing formation of stable tubulin oligomers

  3. Motor protein traffic regulation by supply–demand balance of resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciandrini, Luca; Dauloudet, Olivier; Parmeggiani, Andrea; Neri, Izaak; Walter, Jean Charles

    2014-01-01

    In cells and in in vitro assays the number of motor proteins involved in biological transport processes is far from being unlimited. The cytoskeletal binding sites are in contact with the same finite reservoir of motors (either the cytosol or the flow chamber) and hence compete for recruiting the available motors, potentially depleting the reservoir and affecting cytoskeletal transport. In this work we provide a theoretical framework in which to study, analytically and numerically, how motor density profiles and crowding along cytoskeletal filaments depend on the competition of motors for their binding sites. We propose two models in which finite processive motor proteins actively advance along cytoskeletal filaments and are continuously exchanged with the motor pool. We first look at homogeneous reservoirs and then examine the effects of free motor diffusion in the surrounding medium. We consider as a reference situation recent in vitro experimental setups of kinesin-8 motors binding and moving along microtubule filaments in a flow chamber. We investigate how the crowding of linear motor proteins moving on a filament can be regulated by the balance between supply (concentration of motor proteins in the flow chamber) and demand (total number of polymerized tubulin heterodimers). We present analytical results for the density profiles of bound motors and the reservoir depletion, and propose novel phase diagrams that present the formation of jams of motor proteins on the filament as a function of two tuneable experimental parameters: the motor protein concentration and the concentration of tubulins polymerized into cytoskeletal filaments. Extensive numerical simulations corroborate the analytical results for parameters in the experimental range and also address the effects of diffusion of motor proteins in the reservoir. We then propose experiments for validating our models and discuss how the ‘supply–demand’ effects can regulate motor traffic also in in vivo

  4. Calcium regulates ATP-sensitive microtubule binding by Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakato, Miho; King, Stephen M

    2003-10-31

    The Chlamydomonas outer dynein arm contains three distinct heavy chains (alpha, beta, and gamma) that exhibit different motor properties. The LC4 protein, which binds 1-2 Ca2+ with KCa = 3 x 10-5 m, is associated with the gamma heavy chain and has been proposed to act as a sensor to regulate dynein motor function in response to alterations in intraflagellar Ca2+ levels. Here we genetically dissect the outer arm to yield subparticles containing different motor unit combinations and assess the microtubule-binding properties of these complexes both prior to and following preincubation with tubulin and ATP, which was used to inhibit ATP-insensitive (structural) microtubule binding. We observed that the alpha heavy chain exhibits a dominant Ca2+-independent ATP-sensitive MT binding activity in vitro that is inhibited by attachment of tubulin to the structural microtubule-binding domain. Furthermore, we show that ATP-sensitive microtubule binding by a dynein subparticle containing only the beta and gamma heavy chains does not occur at Ca2+ concentrations below pCa 6 but is maximally activated above pCa 5. This activity was not observed in mutant dyneins containing small deletions in the microtubule-binding region of the beta heavy chain or in dyneins that lack both the alpha heavy chain and the motor domain of the beta heavy chain. These findings strongly suggest that Ca2+ binding directly to a component of the dynein complex regulates ATP-sensitive interactions between the beta heavy chain and microtubules and lead to a model for how individual motor units are controlled within the outer dynein arm.

  5. TgICMAP1 is a novel microtubule binding protein in Toxoplasma gondii.

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    Aoife T Heaslip

    Full Text Available The microtubule cytoskeleton provides essential structural support for all eukaryotic cells and can be assembled into various higher order structures that perform drastically different functions. Understanding how microtubule-containing assemblies are built in a spatially and temporally controlled manner is therefore fundamental to understanding cell physiology. Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan parasite, contains at least five distinct tubulin-containing structures, the spindle pole, centrioles, cortical microtubules, the conoid, and the intra-conoid microtubules. How these five structurally and functionally distinct sets of tubulin containing structures are constructed and maintained in the same cell is an intriguing problem. Previously, we performed a proteomic analysis of the T. gondii apical complex, a cytoskeletal complex located at the apical end of the parasite that is composed of the conoid, three ring-like structures, and the two short intra-conoid microtubules. Here we report the characterization of one of the proteins identified in that analysis, TgICMAP1. We show that TgICMAP1 is a novel microtubule binding protein that can directly bind to microtubules in vitro and stabilizes microtubules when ectopically expressed in mammalian cells. Interestingly, in T. gondii, TgICMAP1 preferentially binds to the intra-conoid microtubules, providing us the first molecular tool to investigate the intra-conoid microtubule assembly process during daughter construction.

  6. Moonlighting microtubule-associated proteins: regulatory functions by day and pathological functions at night.

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    Oláh, J; Tőkési, N; Lehotzky, A; Orosz, F; Ovádi, J

    2013-11-01

    The sensing, integrating, and coordinating features of the eukaryotic cells are achieved by the complex ultrastructural arrays and multifarious functions of the cytoskeletal network. Cytoskeleton comprises fibrous protein networks of microtubules, actin, and intermediate filaments. These filamentous polymer structures are highly dynamic and undergo constant and rapid reorganization during cellular processes. The microtubular system plays a crucial role in the brain, as it is involved in an enormous number of cellular events including cell differentiation and pathological inclusion formation. These multifarious functions of microtubules can be achieved by their decoration with proteins/enzymes that exert specific effects on the dynamics and organization of the cytoskeleton and mediate distinct functions due to their moonlighting features. This mini-review focuses on two aspects of the microtubule cytoskeleton. On the one hand, we describe the heteroassociation of tubulin/microtubules with metabolic enzymes, which in addition to their catalytic activities stabilize microtubule structures via their cross-linking functions. On the other hand, we focus on the recently identified moonlighting tubulin polymerization promoting protein, TPPP/p25. TPPP/p25 is a microtubule-associated protein and it displays distinct physiological or pathological (aberrant) functions; thus it is a prototype of Neomorphic Moonlighting Proteins. The expression of TPPP/p25 is finely controlled in the human brain; this protein is indispensable for the development of projections of oligodendrocytes that are responsible for the ensheathment of axons. The nonphysiological, higher or lower TPPP/p25 level leads to distinct CNS diseases. Mechanisms contributing to the control of microtubule stability and dynamics by metabolic enzymes and TPPP/p25 will be discussed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Buckling analysis of orthotropic protein microtubules under axial and radial compression based on couple stress theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beni, Yaghoub Tadi; Zeverdejani, M Karimi; Mehralian, Fahimeh

    2017-10-01

    Protein microtubules (MTs) are one of the important intercellular components and have a vital role in the stability and strength of the cells. Due to applied external loads, protein microtubules may be involved buckling phenomenon. Due to impact of protein microtubules in cell reactions, it is important to determine their critical buckling load. Considering nature of protein microtubules, various parameters are effective on microtubules buckling. The small size of microtubules and also lack of uniformity of MTs properties in different directions caused the necessity of accuracy in the analysis of these bio-structure. In fact, microtubules must be considered as a size dependent cylinder, which behave as an orthotropic material. Hence, in the present work using first-order shear deformation model (FSDT), the buckling equations of anisotropic MTs are derived based on new modified couple stress theory (NMCST). After solving the stability equations, the influences of various parameters are measured on the MTs critical buckling load. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tubulation of class II MHC compartments is microtubule dependent and involves multiple endolysosomal membrane proteins in primary dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Jatin M; Kim, You-Me; Artavanis-Tsakonas, Katerina; Love, J Christopher; Van der Veen, Annemarthe G; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2007-06-01

    Immature dendritic cells (DCs) capture exogenous Ags in the periphery for eventual processing in endolysosomes. Upon maturation by TLR agonists, DCs deliver peptide-loaded class II MHC molecules from these compartments to the cell surface via long tubular structures (endolysosomal tubules). The nature and rules that govern the movement of these DC compartments are unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the tubules contain multiple proteins including the class II MHC molecules and LAMP1, a lysosomal resident protein, as well as CD63 and CD82, members of the tetraspanin family. Endolysosomal tubules can be stained with acidotropic dyes, indicating that they are extensions of lysosomes. However, the proper trafficking of class II MHC molecules themselves is not necessary for endolysosomal tubule formation. DCs lacking MyD88 can also form endolysosomal tubules, demonstrating that MyD88-dependent TLR activation is not necessary for the formation of this compartment. Endolysosomal tubules in DCs exhibit dynamic and saltatory movement, including bidirectional travel. Measured velocities are consistent with motor-based movement along microtubules. Indeed, nocodazole causes the collapse of endolysosomal tubules. In addition to its association with microtubules, endolysosomal tubules follow the plus ends of microtubules as visualized in primary DCs expressing end binding protein 1 (EB1)-enhanced GFP.

  9. Microtubule–microtubule sliding by kinesin-1 is essential for normal cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen; Winding, Michael; Lakonishok, Margot; Wildonger, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes is a microtubule-based bulk cytoplasmic movement. Streaming efficiently circulates and localizes mRNAs and proteins deposited by the nurse cells across the oocyte. This movement is driven by kinesin-1, a major microtubule motor. Recently, we have shown that kinesin-1 heavy chain (KHC) can transport one microtubule on another microtubule, thus driving microtubule–microtubule sliding in multiple cell types. To study the role of microtubule sliding in oocyte cytoplasmic streaming, we used a Khc mutant that is deficient in microtubule sliding but able to transport a majority of cargoes. We demonstrated that streaming is reduced by genomic replacement of wild-type Khc with this sliding-deficient mutant. Streaming can be fully rescued by wild-type KHC and partially rescued by a chimeric motor that cannot move organelles but is active in microtubule sliding. Consistent with these data, we identified two populations of microtubules in fast-streaming oocytes: a network of stable microtubules anchored to the actin cortex and free cytoplasmic microtubules that moved in the ooplasm. We further demonstrated that the reduced streaming in sliding-deficient oocytes resulted in posterior determination defects. Together, we propose that kinesin-1 slides free cytoplasmic microtubules against cortically immobilized microtubules, generating forces that contribute to cytoplasmic streaming and are essential for the refinement of posterior determinants. PMID:27512034

  10. Tubulation of Class II MHC Compartments Is Microtubule Dependent and Involves Multiple Endolysosomal Membrane Proteins in Primary Dendritic Cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Jatin M.; Kim, You-Me; Artavanis-Tsakonas, Katerina; Love, J. Christopher; Van der Veen, Annemarthe G.; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2009-01-01

    Immature dendritic cells (DCs) capture exogenous Ags in the periphery for eventual processing in endolysosomes. Upon maturation by TLR agonists, DCs deliver peptide-loaded class II MHC molecules from these compartments to the cell surface via long tubular structures (endolysosomal tubules). The nature and rules that govern the movement of these DC compartments are unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the tubules contain multiple proteins including the class II MHC molecules and LAMP1, a lysosomal resident protein, as well as CD63 and CD82, members of the tetraspanin family. Endolysosomal tubules can be stained with acidotropic dyes, indicating that they are extensions of lysosomes. However, the proper trafficking of class II MHC molecules themselves is not necessary for endolysosomal tubule formation. DCs lacking MyD88 can also form endolysosomal tubules, demonstrating that MyD88-dependent TLR activation is not necessary for the formation of this compartment. Endolysosomal tubules in DCs exhibit dynamic and saltatory movement, including bidirectional travel. Measured velocities are consistent with motor-based movement along microtubules. Indeed, nocodazole causes the collapse of endolysosomal tubules. In addition to its association with microtubules, endolysosomal tubules follow the plus ends of microtubules as visualized in primary DCs expressing end binding protein 1 (EB1)-enhanced GFP. PMID:17513769

  11. S. pombe kinesins-8 promote both nucleation and catastrophe of microtubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Erent

    Full Text Available The kinesins-8 were originally thought to be microtubule depolymerases, but are now emerging as more versatile catalysts of microtubule dynamics. We show here that S. pombe Klp5-436 and Klp6-440 are non-processive plus-end-directed motors whose in vitro velocities on S. pombe microtubules at 7 and 23 nm s(-1 are too slow to keep pace with the growing tips of dynamic interphase microtubules in living S. pombe. In vitro, Klp5 and 6 dimers exhibit a hitherto-undescribed combination of strong enhancement of microtubule nucleation with no effect on growth rate or catastrophe frequency. By contrast in vivo, both Klp5 and Klp6 promote microtubule catastrophe at cell ends whilst Klp6 also increases the number of interphase microtubule arrays (IMAs. Our data support a model in which Klp5/6 bind tightly to free tubulin heterodimers, strongly promoting the nucleation of new microtubules, and then continue to land as a tubulin-motor complex on the tips of growing microtubules, with the motors then dissociating after a few seconds residence on the lattice. In vivo, we predict that only at cell ends, when growing microtubule tips become lodged and their growth slows down, will Klp5/6 motor activity succeed in tracking growing microtubule tips. This mechanism would allow Klp5/6 to detect the arrival of microtubule tips at cells ends and to amplify the intrinsic tendency for microtubules to catastrophise in compression at cell ends. Our evidence identifies Klp5 and 6 as spatial regulators of microtubule dynamics that enhance both microtubule nucleation at the cell centre and microtubule catastrophe at the cell ends.

  12. Identification of a lysosome membrane protein which could mediate ATP-dependent stable association of lysosomes to microtubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mithieux, G.; Rousset, B.

    1989-01-01

    We have previously reported that purified thyroid lysosomes bind to reconstituted microtubules to form stable complexes, a process which is inhibited by ATP. Among detergent-solubilized lysosomal membrane protein, we identified a 50-kDa molecular component which binds to preassembled microtubules. The binding of this polypeptide to microtubules was decreased in the presence of ATP. We purified this 50-kDa protein by affinity chromatography on immobilized ATP. The 50-kDa protein bound to the ATP column was eluted by 1 mM ATP. The purified protein, labeled with 125I, exhibited the ability of interacting with microtubules. The binding process was inhibited by increasing concentrations of ATP, the half-maximal inhibitory effect being obtained at an ATP concentration of 0.35 mM. The interaction of the 50-kDa protein with microtubules is a saturable phenomenon since the binding of the 125I-labeled 50-kDa protein was inhibited by unlabeled solubilized lysosomal membrane protein containing the 50-kDa polypeptide but not by the same protein fraction from which the 50-kDa polypeptide had been removed by the ATP affinity chromatography procedure. The 50-kDa protein has the property to bind to pure tubulin coupled to an insoluble matrix. The 50-kDa protein was eluted from the tubulin affinity column by ATP. These findings support the conclusion that a protein inserted into the lysosomal membrane is able to bind directly to microtubules in a process which can be regulated by ATP. We propose that this protein could account for the association of lysosomes to microtubules demonstrated both in vitro and in intact cells

  13. GTSE1 is a microtubule plus-end tracking protein that regulates EB1-dependent cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimilano Scolz

    Full Text Available The regulation of cell migration is a highly complex process that is often compromised when cancer cells become metastatic. The microtubule cytoskeleton is necessary for cell migration, but how microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins regulate multiple pathways promoting cell migration remains unclear. Microtubule plus-end binding proteins (+TIPs are emerging as important players in many cellular functions, including cell migration. Here we identify a +TIP, GTSE1, that promotes cell migration. GTSE1 accumulates at growing microtubule plus ends through interaction with the EB1+TIP. The EB1-dependent +TIP activity of GTSE1 is required for cell migration, as well as for microtubule-dependent disassembly of focal adhesions. GTSE1 protein levels determine the migratory capacity of both nontransformed and breast cancer cell lines. In breast cancers, increased GTSE1 expression correlates with invasive potential, tumor stage, and time to distant metastasis, suggesting that misregulation of GTSE1 expression could be associated with increased invasive potential.

  14. Reassessing the roles of PIN proteins and anticlinal microtubules during pavement cell morphogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belteton, Samuel; Sawchuk, Megan G.; Donohoe, Bryon S.; Scarpella, Enrico; Szymanski, Daniel B.

    2017-11-30

    The leaf epidermis is a biomechanical shell that influences the size and shape of the organ. Its morphogenesis is a multiscale process in which nanometer-scale cytoskeletal protein complexes, individual cells, and groups of cells pattern growth and define macroscopic leaf traits. Interdigitated growth of neighboring cells is an evolutionarily conserved developmental strategy. Understanding how signaling pathways and cytoskeletal proteins pattern cell walls during this form of tissue morphogenesis is an important research challenge. The cellular and molecular control of a lobed cell morphology is currently thought to involve PIN-FORMED (PIN)-type plasma membrane efflux carriers that generate subcellular auxin gradients. Auxin gradients were proposed to function across cell boundaries to encode stable offset patterns of cortical microtubules and actin filaments between adjacent cells. Many models suggest that long-lived microtubules along the anticlinal cell wall generate local cell wall heterogeneities that restrict local growth and specify the timing and location of lobe formation. Here we used Arabidopsis reverse genetics and multivariate long-term time-lapse imaging to test current cell shape control models. We found that neither PIN proteins nor microtubules along the anticlinal wall predict the patterns of lobe formation. In fields of lobing cells, anticlinal microtubules are not correlated with cell shape and are unstable at the time scales of cell expansion. Our analyses indicate that anticlinal microtubules have multiple functions in pavement cells, and that lobe initiation is likely controlled by complex interactions among cell geometry, cell wall stress patterns, and transient microtubule networks that span the anticlinal and periclinal walls.

  15. Wood cell-wall structure requires local 2D-microtubule disassembly by a novel plasma membrane-anchored protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Yoshihisa; Iida, Yuki; Kondo, Yuki; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2010-07-13

    Plant cells have evolved cortical microtubules, in a two-dimensional space beneath the plasma membrane, that regulate patterning of cellulose deposition. Although recent studies have revealed that several microtubule-associated proteins facilitate self-organization of transverse cortical microtubules, it is still unknown how diverse patterns of cortical microtubules are organized in different xylem cells, which are the major components of wood. Using our newly established in vitro xylem cell differentiation system, we found that a novel microtubule end-tracking protein, microtubule depletion domain 1 (MIDD1), was anchored to distinct plasma membrane domains and promoted local microtubule disassembly, resulting in pits on xylem cell walls. The introduction of RNA interference for MIDD1 resulted in the failure of local microtubule depletion and the formation of secondary walls without pits. Conversely, the overexpression of MIDD1 reduced microtubule density. MIDD1 has two coiled-coil domains for the binding to microtubules and for the anchorage to plasma membrane domains, respectively. Combination of the two coils caused end tracking of microtubules during shrinkage and suppressed their rescue events. Our results indicate that MIDD1 integrates spatial information in the plasma membrane with cortical microtubule dynamics for determining xylem cell wall pattern. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reassessing the Roles of PIN Proteins and Anticlinal Microtubules during Pavement Cell Morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belteton, Samuel A; Sawchuk, Megan G; Donohoe, Bryon S; Scarpella, Enrico; Szymanski, Daniel B

    2018-01-01

    The leaf epidermis is a biomechanical shell that influences the size and shape of the organ. Its morphogenesis is a multiscale process in which nanometer-scale cytoskeletal protein complexes, individual cells, and groups of cells pattern growth and define macroscopic leaf traits. Interdigitated growth of neighboring cells is an evolutionarily conserved developmental strategy. Understanding how signaling pathways and cytoskeletal proteins pattern cell walls during this form of tissue morphogenesis is an important research challenge. The cellular and molecular control of a lobed cell morphology is currently thought to involve PIN-FORMED (PIN)-type plasma membrane efflux carriers that generate subcellular auxin gradients. Auxin gradients were proposed to function across cell boundaries to encode stable offset patterns of cortical microtubules and actin filaments between adjacent cells. Many models suggest that long-lived microtubules along the anticlinal cell wall generate local cell wall heterogeneities that restrict local growth and specify the timing and location of lobe formation. Here, we used Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) reverse genetics and multivariate long-term time-lapse imaging to test current cell shape control models. We found that neither PIN proteins nor long-lived microtubules along the anticlinal wall predict the patterns of lobe formation. In fields of lobing cells, anticlinal microtubules are not correlated with cell shape and are unstable at the time scales of cell expansion. Our analyses indicate that anticlinal microtubules have multiple functions in pavement cells and that lobe initiation is likely controlled by complex interactions among cell geometry, cell wall stress patterns, and transient microtubule networks that span the anticlinal and periclinal walls. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Dietary flavonoid fisetin binds to β-tubulin and disrupts microtubule dynamics in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtar, Eiman; Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Sechi, Mario; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2015-10-28

    Microtubule targeting based therapies have revolutionized cancer treatment; however, resistance and side effects remain a major limitation. Therefore, novel strategies that can overcome these limitations are urgently needed. We made a novel discovery that fisetin, a hydroxyflavone, is a microtubule stabilizing agent. Fisetin binds to tubulin and stabilizes microtubules with binding characteristics far superior than paclitaxel. Surface plasmon resonance and computational docking studies suggested that fisetin binds to β-tubulin with superior affinity compared to paclitaxel. Fisetin treatment of human prostate cancer cells resulted in robust up-regulation of microtubule associated proteins (MAP)-2 and -4. In addition, fisetin treated cells were enriched in α-tubulin acetylation, an indication of stabilization of microtubules. Fisetin significantly inhibited PCa cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Nudc, a protein associated with microtubule motor dynein/dynactin complex that regulates microtubule dynamics, was inhibited with fisetin treatment. Further, fisetin treatment of a P-glycoprotein overexpressing multidrug-resistant cancer cell line NCI/ADR-RES inhibited the viability and colony formation. Our results offer in vitro proof-of-concept for fisetin as a microtubule targeting agent. We suggest that fisetin could be developed as an adjuvant for treatment of prostate and other cancer types. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of the CLASP2 Protein Interaction Network Identifies SOGA1 as a Microtubule-Associated Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Kruse; Krantz, James; Barker, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    . The GTPase-activating proteins AGAP1 and AGAP3 were also enriched in the CLASP2 interactome, although subsequent AGAP3 and CLIP2 interactome analysis suggests a preference of AGAP3 for CLIP2. Follow-up MARK2 interactome analysis confirmed reciprocal co-IP of CLASP2 and also revealed MARK2 can co-IP SOGA1......, glycogen synthase, and glycogenin. Investigating the SOGA1 interactome confirmed SOGA1 can reciprocal co-IP both CLASP2 and MARK2 as well as glycogen synthase and glycogenin. SOGA1 was confirmed to colocalize with CLASP2 and also with tubulin, which identifies SOGA1 as a new microtubule-associated protein....... These results introduce the metabolic function of these proposed novel protein networks and their relationship with microtubules as new fields of cytoskeleton-associated protein biology....

  19. Motoring through: the role of kinesin superfamily proteins in female meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camlin, Nicole J; McLaughlin, Eileen A; Holt, Janet E

    2017-07-01

    The kinesin motor protein family consists of 14 distinct subclasses and 45 kinesin proteins in humans. A large number of these proteins, or their orthologues, have been shown to possess essential function(s) in both the mitotic and the meiotic cell cycle. Kinesins have important roles in chromosome separation, microtubule dynamics, spindle formation, cytokinesis and cell cycle progression. This article contains a review of the literature with respect to the role of kinesin motor proteins in female meiosis in model species. Throughout, we discuss the function of each class of kinesin proteins during oocyte meiosis, and where such data are not available their role in mitosis is considered. Finally, the review highlights the potential clinical importance of this family of proteins for human oocyte quality. To examine the role of kinesin motor proteins in oocyte meiosis. A search was performed on the Pubmed database for journal articles published between January 1970 and February 2017. Search terms included 'oocyte kinesin' and 'meiosis kinesin' in addition to individual kinesin names with the terms oocyte or meiosis. Within human cells 45 kinesin motor proteins have been discovered, with the role of only 13 of these proteins, or their orthologues, investigated in female meiosis. Furthermore, of these kinesins only half have been examined in mammalian oocytes, despite alterations occurring in gene transcripts or protein expression with maternal ageing, cryopreservation or behavioral conditions, such as binge drinking, for many of them. Kinesin motor proteins have distinct and important roles throughout oocyte meiosis in many non-mammalian model species. However, the functions these proteins have in mammalian meiosis, particularly in humans, are less clear owing to lack of research. This review brings to light the need for more experimental investigation of kinesin motor proteins, particularly those associated with maternal ageing, cryopreservation or exposure to

  20. Glucose regulated proteins 78 and 75 bind to the receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility in interphase microtubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Hiroko; Yoneda, Masahiko; Hayasaki, Hana; Nakamura, Toshiya; Mori, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility (RHAMM), which is a hyaluronan-binding protein, is a centrosomal and microtubal protein. Here, we have identified two RHAMM-binding proteins, glucose regulated protein (GRP) 78 and GRP75, using co-immunoprecipitation analysis. These two proteins directly bound to glutathione-S-transferase-RHAMM fusion proteins. By double immunostaining, GRP78 and GRP75 colocalized with RHAMM in interphase microtubules, but were separated in mitotic spindles. Prevention of microtubule polymerization by TN-16 and vincristine sulfate induced RHAMM overexpression without a significant change in GRP78/75. Taken together, GRP78/75 and RHAMM complexes may stabilize microtubules in the interphase, associated with a downregulation of RHAMM. These results reveal a new biochemical activity of RHAMM

  1. Microtubule-Organizing Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingchao; Akhmanova, Anna

    2017-10-06

    The organization of microtubule networks is crucial for controlling chromosome segregation during cell division, for positioning and transport of different organelles, and for cell polarity and morphogenesis. The geometry of microtubule arrays strongly depends on the localization and activity of the sites where microtubules are nucleated and where their minus ends are anchored. Such sites are often clustered into structures known as microtubule-organizing centers, which include the centrosomes in animals and spindle pole bodies in fungi. In addition, other microtubules, as well as membrane compartments such as the cell nucleus, the Golgi apparatus, and the cell cortex, can nucleate, stabilize, and tether microtubule minus ends. These activities depend on microtubule-nucleating factors, such as γ-tubulin-containing complexes and their activators and receptors, and microtubule minus end-stabilizing proteins with their binding partners. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on how such factors work together to control microtubule organization in different systems.

  2. Dynein is the motor for retrograde axonal transport of organelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnapp, B.J.; Reese, T.S.

    1989-01-01

    Vesicular organelles in axons of nerve cells are transported along microtubules either toward their plus ends (fast anterograde transport) or toward their minus ends (retrograde transport). Two microtubule-based motors were previously identified by examining plastic beads induced to move along microtubules by cytosol fractions from the squid giant axon: (i) an anterograde motor, kinesin, and (ii) a retrograde motor, which is characterized here. The retrograde motor, a cytosolic protein previously termed HMW1, was purified from optic lobes and extruded axoplasm by nucleotide-dependent microtubule affinity and release; microtubule gliding was used as the assay of motor activity. The following properties of the retrograde motor suggest that it is cytoplasmic dynein: (i) sedimentation at 20-22 S with a heavy chain of Mr greater than 200,000 that coelectrophoreses with the alpha and beta subunits of axonemal dynein, (ii) cleavage by UV irradiation in the presence of ATP and vanadate, and (iii) a molecular structure resembling two-headed dynein from axonemes. Furthermore, bead movement toward the minus end of microtubules was blocked when axoplasmic supernatants were treated with UV/vanadate. Treatment of axoplasmic supernatant with UV/vanadate also blocks the retrograde movement of purified organelles in vitro without changing the number of anterograde moving organelles, indicating that dynein interacts specifically with a subgroup of organelles programmed to move toward the cell body. However, purified optic lobe dynein, like purified kinesin, does not by itself promote the movement of purified organelles along microtubules, suggesting that additional axoplasmic factors are necessary for retrograde as well as anterograde transport

  3. Changes in microtubule-associated protein tau during peripheral nerve injury and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-bin Zha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tau, a primary component of microtubule-associated protein, promotes microtubule assembly and/or disassembly and maintains the stability of the microtubule structure. Although the importance of tau in neurodegenerative diseases has been well demonstrated, whether tau is involved in peripheral nerve regeneration remains unknown. In the current study, we obtained sciatic nerve tissue from adult rats 0, 1, 4, 7, and 14 days after sciatic nerve crush and examined tau mRNA and protein expression levels and the location of tau in the sciatic nerve following peripheral nerve injury. The results from our quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that compared with the uninjured control sciatic nerve, mRNA expression levels for both tau and tau tubulin kinase 1, a serine/threonine kinase that regulates tau phosphorylation, were decreased following peripheral nerve injury. Our western blot assay results suggested that the protein expression levels of tau and phosphorylated tau initially decreased 1 day post nerve injury but then gradually increased. The results of our immunohistochemical labeling showed that the location of tau protein was not altered by nerve injury. Thus, these results showed that the expression of tau was changed following sciatic nerve crush, suggesting that tau may be involved in peripheral nerve repair and regeneration.

  4. Biophysics of filament length regulation by molecular motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuan, Hui-Shun; Betterton, M D

    2013-01-01

    Regulating physical size is an essential problem that biological organisms must solve from the subcellular to the organismal scales, but it is not well understood what physical principles and mechanisms organisms use to sense and regulate their size. Any biophysical size-regulation scheme operates in a noisy environment and must be robust to other cellular dynamics and fluctuations. This work develops theory of filament length regulation inspired by recent experiments on kinesin-8 motor proteins, which move with directional bias on microtubule filaments and alter microtubule dynamics. Purified kinesin-8 motors can depolymerize chemically-stabilized microtubules. In the length-dependent depolymerization model, the rate of depolymerization tends to increase with filament length, because long filaments accumulate more motors at their tips and therefore shorten more quickly. When balanced with a constant filament growth rate, this mechanism can lead to a fixed polymer length. However, the mechanism by which kinesin-8 motors affect the length of dynamic microtubules in cells is less clear. We study the more biologically realistic problem of microtubule dynamic instability modulated by a motor-dependent increase in the filament catastrophe frequency. This leads to a significant decrease in the mean filament length and a narrowing of the filament length distribution. The results improve our understanding of the biophysics of length regulation in cells. (paper)

  5. Microtubule reorganization in tobacco BY-2 cells stably expressing GFP-MBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, C. L.; Cyr, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    Microtubule organization plays an important role in plant morphogenesis; however, little is known about how microtubule arrays transit from one organized state to another. The use of a genetically incorporated fluorescent marker would allow long-term observation of microtubule behavior in living cells. Here, we have characterized a Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2) cell line that had been stably transformed with a gfp-mbd construct previously demonstrated to label microtubules (J. Marc et al., 1998, Plant Cell 10: 1927-1939). Fluorescence levels were low, but interphase and mitotic microtubule arrays, as well as the transitions between these arrays, could be observed in individual gfp-mbd-transformed cells. By comparing several attributes of transformed and untransformed cells it was concluded that the transgenic cells are not adversely affected by low-level expression of the transgene and that these cells will serve as a useful and accurate model system for observing microtubule reorganization in vivo. Indeed, some initial observations were made that are consistent with the involvement of motor proteins in the transition between the spindle and phragmoplast arrays. Our observations also support the role of the perinuclear region in nucleating microtubules at the end of cell division with a progressive shift of these microtubules and/or nucleating activity to the cortex to form the interphase cortical array.

  6. Dynamic release of nuclear RanGTP triggers TPX2-dependent microtubule assembly during the apoptotic execution phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, David K; Wilde, Andrew; Lane, Jon D

    2009-03-01

    During apoptosis, the interphase microtubule network is dismantled then later replaced by a novel, non-centrosomal microtubule array. These microtubules assist in the peripheral redistribution of nuclear fragments in the apoptotic cell; however, the regulation of apoptotic microtubule assembly is not understood. Here, we demonstrate that microtubule assembly depends upon the release of nuclear RanGTP into the apoptotic cytoplasm because this process is blocked in apoptotic cells overexpressing dominant-negative GDP-locked Ran (T24N). Actin-myosin-II contractility provides the impetus for Ran release and, consequently, microtubule assembly is blocked in blebbistatin- and Y27632-treated apoptotic cells. Importantly, the spindle-assembly factor TPX2 (targeting protein for Xklp2), colocalises with apoptotic microtubules, and siRNA silencing of TPX2, but not of the microtubule motors Mklp1 and Kid, abrogates apoptotic microtubule assembly. These data provide a molecular explanation for the assembly of the apoptotic microtubule network, and suggest important similarities with the process of RanGTP- and TPX2-mediated mitotic spindle formation.

  7. Regulation of motor proteins, axonal transport deficits and adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Scott T; Morfini, Gerardo A

    2017-09-01

    Neurons affected in a wide variety of unrelated adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases (AONDs) typically exhibit a "dying back" pattern of degeneration, which is characterized by early deficits in synaptic function and neuritic pathology long before neuronal cell death. Consistent with this observation, multiple unrelated AONDs including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and several motor neuron diseases feature early alterations in kinase-based signaling pathways associated with deficits in axonal transport (AT), a complex cellular process involving multiple intracellular trafficking events powered by microtubule-based motor proteins. These pathogenic events have important therapeutic implications, suggesting that a focus on preservation of neuronal connections may be more effective to treat AONDs than addressing neuronal cell death. While the molecular mechanisms underlying AT abnormalities in AONDs are still being analyzed, evidence has accumulated linking those to a well-established pathological hallmark of multiple AONDs: altered patterns of neuronal protein phosphorylation. Here, we present a short overview on the biochemical heterogeneity of major motor proteins for AT, their regulation by protein kinases, and evidence revealing cell type-specific AT specializations. When considered together, these findings may help explain how independent pathogenic pathways can affect AT differentially in the context of each AOND. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reassessing the Roles of PIN Proteins and Anticlinal Microtubules during Pavement Cell Morphogenesis1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Megan G.; Scarpella, Enrico

    2018-01-01

    The leaf epidermis is a biomechanical shell that influences the size and shape of the organ. Its morphogenesis is a multiscale process in which nanometer-scale cytoskeletal protein complexes, individual cells, and groups of cells pattern growth and define macroscopic leaf traits. Interdigitated growth of neighboring cells is an evolutionarily conserved developmental strategy. Understanding how signaling pathways and cytoskeletal proteins pattern cell walls during this form of tissue morphogenesis is an important research challenge. The cellular and molecular control of a lobed cell morphology is currently thought to involve PIN-FORMED (PIN)-type plasma membrane efflux carriers that generate subcellular auxin gradients. Auxin gradients were proposed to function across cell boundaries to encode stable offset patterns of cortical microtubules and actin filaments between adjacent cells. Many models suggest that long-lived microtubules along the anticlinal cell wall generate local cell wall heterogeneities that restrict local growth and specify the timing and location of lobe formation. Here, we used Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) reverse genetics and multivariate long-term time-lapse imaging to test current cell shape control models. We found that neither PIN proteins nor long-lived microtubules along the anticlinal wall predict the patterns of lobe formation. In fields of lobing cells, anticlinal microtubules are not correlated with cell shape and are unstable at the time scales of cell expansion. Our analyses indicate that anticlinal microtubules have multiple functions in pavement cells and that lobe initiation is likely controlled by complex interactions among cell geometry, cell wall stress patterns, and transient microtubule networks that span the anticlinal and periclinal walls. PMID:29192026

  9. How molecular motors are arranged on a cargo is important for vesicular transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Erickson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial organization of the cell depends upon intracellular trafficking of cargos hauled along microtubules and actin filaments by the molecular motor proteins kinesin, dynein, and myosin. Although much is known about how single motors function, there is significant evidence that cargos in vivo are carried by multiple motors. While some aspects of multiple motor function have received attention, how the cargo itself--and motor organization on the cargo--affects transport has not been considered. To address this, we have developed a three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation of motors transporting a spherical cargo, subject to thermal fluctuations that produce both rotational and translational diffusion. We found that these fluctuations could exert a load on the motor(s, significantly decreasing the mean travel distance and velocity of large cargos, especially at large viscosities. In addition, the presence of the cargo could dramatically help the motor to bind productively to the microtubule: the relatively slow translational and rotational diffusion of moderately sized cargos gave the motors ample opportunity to bind to a microtubule before the motor/cargo ensemble diffuses out of range of that microtubule. For rapidly diffusing cargos, the probability of their binding to a microtubule was high if there were nearby microtubules that they could easily reach by translational diffusion. Our simulations found that one reason why motors may be approximately 100 nm long is to improve their 'on' rates when attached to comparably sized cargos. Finally, our results suggested that to efficiently regulate the number of active motors, motors should be clustered together rather than spread randomly over the surface of the cargo. While our simulation uses the specific parameters for kinesin, these effects result from generic properties of the motors, cargos, and filaments, so they should apply to other motors as well.

  10. Kinesin expands and stabilizes the GDP-microtubule lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peet, Daniel R.; Burroughs, Nigel J.; Cross, Robert A.

    2018-05-01

    Kinesin-1 is a nanoscale molecular motor that walks towards the fast-growing (plus) ends of microtubules, hauling molecular cargo to specific reaction sites in cells. Kinesin-driven transport is central to the self-organization of eukaryotic cells and shows great promise as a tool for nano-engineering1. Recent work hints that kinesin may also play a role in modulating the stability of its microtubule track, both in vitro2,3 and in vivo4, but the results are conflicting5-7 and the mechanisms are unclear. Here, we report a new dimension to the kinesin-microtubule interaction, whereby strong-binding state (adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-bound and apo) kinesin-1 motor domains inhibit the shrinkage of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) microtubules by up to two orders of magnitude and expand their lattice spacing by 1.6%. Our data reveal an unexpected mechanism by which the mechanochemical cycles of kinesin and tubulin interlock, and so allow motile kinesins to influence the structure, stability and mechanics of their microtubule track.

  11. TIPsy tour guides: How microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs facilitate axon guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Bearce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth cone is a dynamic cytoskeletal vehicle, which drives the end of a developing axon. It serves to interpret and navigate through the complex landscape and guidance cues of the early nervous system. The growth cone’s distinctive cytoskeletal organization offers a fascinating platform to study how extracellular cues can be translated into mechanical outgrowth and turning behaviors. While many studies of cell motility highlight the importance of actin networks in signaling, adhesion, and propulsion, both seminal and emerging works in the field have highlighted a unique and necessary role for microtubules in growth cone navigation. Here, we focus on the role of singular pioneer microtubules, which extend into the growth cone periphery and are regulated by a diverse family of microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs. These +TIPs accumulate at the dynamic ends of microtubules, where they are well-positioned to encounter and respond to key signaling events downstream of guidance receptors, catalyzing immediate changes in microtubule stability and actin cross-talk, that facilitate both axonal outgrowth and turning events.

  12. Bidirectional transport of organelles: unity and struggle of opposing motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryantseva, Sofiya A; Zhapparova, Olga N

    2012-01-01

    Bidirectional transport along microtubules is ensured by opposing motor proteins: cytoplasmic dynein that drives cargo to the minus-ends and various kinesins that generally move to the plus-ends of microtubules. Regulation of motor proteins that are simultaneously bound to the same organelle is required to maintain directional transport and prevent pausing of cargo pulled away by motors of opposite polarity. Debates of the recent decade have been focused on two possible mechanisms of such regulation: (i) coordination, which implies that only one type of motors is active at a given time, and (ii) tug-of-war, which assumes that both motors are active at the same time and that direction of transport depends on the outcome of motor's confrontation. The initial idea of coordination has been challenged by observations of simultaneous activity of plus- and minus-end-directed motors applied to the same cargo. Analysis of the available data indicates that coordination and tug-of-war theories rather complement than contradict each other: cargo interacts with two teams of active motors, the resulting direction and the winner team are determined by coordination complexes, but the activity of the loser team is never completely inhibited and remains at some background level. Such persisting activity might enhance the overall efficiency of transport by increasing processivity or helping to overcome the obstacles on microtubule track. © The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2012 Portland Press Limited

  13. The C-terminal region of A-kinase anchor protein 350 (AKAP350A) enables formation of microtubule-nucleation centers and interacts with pericentriolar proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolobova, Elena; Roland, Joseph T; Lapierre, Lynne A; Williams, Janice A; Mason, Twila A; Goldenring, James R

    2017-12-15

    Microtubules in animal cells assemble (nucleate) from both the centrosome and the cis-Golgi cisternae. A-kinase anchor protein 350 kDa (AKAP350A, also called AKAP450/CG-NAP/AKAP9) is a large scaffolding protein located at both the centrosome and Golgi apparatus. Previous findings have suggested that AKAP350 is important for microtubule dynamics at both locations, but how this scaffolding protein assembles microtubule nucleation machinery is unclear. Here, we found that overexpression of the C-terminal third of AKAP350A, enhanced GFP-AKAP350A(2691-3907), induces the formation of multiple microtubule-nucleation centers (MTNCs). Nevertheless, these induced MTNCs lacked "true" centriole proteins, such as Cep135. Mapping analysis with AKAP350A truncations demonstrated that AKAP350A contains discrete regions responsible for promoting or inhibiting the formation of multiple MTNCs. Moreover, GFP-AKAP350A(2691-3907) recruited several pericentriolar proteins to MTNCs, including γ-tubulin, pericentrin, Cep68, Cep170, and Cdk5RAP2. Proteomic analysis indicated that Cdk5RAP2 and Cep170 both interact with the microtubule nucleation-promoting region of AKAP350A, whereas Cep68 interacts with the distal C-terminal AKAP350A region. Yeast two-hybrid assays established a direct interaction of Cep170 with AKAP350A. Super-resolution and deconvolution microscopy analyses were performed to define the association of AKAP350A with centrosomes, and these studies disclosed that AKAP350A spans the bridge between centrioles, co-localizing with rootletin and Cep68 in the linker region. siRNA-mediated depletion of AKAP350A caused displacement of both Cep68 and Cep170 from the centrosome. These results suggest that AKAP350A acts as a scaffold for factors involved in microtubule nucleation at the centrosome and coordinates the assembly of protein complexes associating with the intercentriolar bridge.

  14. Expansion and Polarity Sorting in Microtubule-Dynein Bundles(WHAT IS LIFE? THE NEXT 100 YEARS OF YUKAWA'S DREAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Assaf, ZEMEL; Alex, MOGILNER; Department of Neurobiology, Physiology and Behavior, University of California; Department of Neurobiology, Physiology and Behavior, University of California

    2008-01-01

    Interactions of multiple molecular motors with dynamic polymers, such as actin and microtubules, form the basis for many processes in the cell cytoskeleton. One example is the active 'sorting' of microtubule bundles by dynein molecular motors into aster-like arrays of microtubules; in these bundles dynein motors cross-link and slide neighboring microtubules apart. A number of models have been suggested to quantify the active dynamics of cross-linked bundles of polar filaments. In the case of ...

  15. Interaction of the Tobacco mosaic virus movement protein with microtubules during the cell cycle in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutant, Emmanuel; Fitterer, Chantal; Ritzenthaler, Christophe; Heinlein, Manfred

    2009-10-01

    Cell-to-cell movement of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) involves the interaction of virus-encoded 30-kDa movement protein (MP) with microtubules. In cells behind the infection front that accumulate high levels of MP, this activity is reflected by the formation of stabilized MP/microtubule complexes. The ability of MP to bind along and stabilize microtubules is conserved upon expression in mammalian cells. In mammalian cells, the protein also leads to inhibition of mitosis and cell division through a microtubule-independent process correlated with the loss of centrosomal gamma-tubulin and of centrosomal microtubule-nucleation activity. Since MP has the capacity to interact with plant factors involved in microtubule nucleation and dynamics, we used inducible expression in BY-2 cells to test whether MP expression inhibits mitosis and cell division also in plants. We demonstrate that MP:GFP associates with all plant microtubule arrays and, unlike in mammalian cells, does not interfere with mitosis. Thus, MP function and the interaction of MP with factors of the cytoskeleton do not entail an inhibition of mitosis in plants. We also report that the protein targets primary plasmodesmata in BY-2 cells immediately upon or during cytokinesis and that the accumulation of MP in plasmodesmata occurs in the presence of inhibitors of the cytoskeleton and the secretory pathway.

  16. Importance of anisotropy in detachment rates for force production and cargo transport by a team of motor proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takshak, Anjneya; Kunwar, Ambarish

    2016-05-01

    Many cellular processes are driven by collective forces generated by a team consisting of multiple molecular motor proteins. One aspect that has received less attention is the detachment rate of molecular motors under mechanical force/load. While detachment rate of kinesin motors measured under backward force increases rapidly for forces beyond stall-force; this scenario is just reversed for non-yeast dynein motors where detachment rate from microtubule decreases, exhibiting a catch-bond type behavior. It has been shown recently that yeast dynein responds anisotropically to applied load, i.e. detachment rates are different under forward and backward pulling. Here, we use computational modeling to show that these anisotropic detachment rates might help yeast dynein motors to improve their collective force generation in the absence of catch-bond behavior. We further show that the travel distance of cargos would be longer if detachment rates are anisotropic. Our results suggest that anisotropic detachment rates could be an alternative strategy for motors to improve the transport properties and force production by the team. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  17. Characterization of mitosis-specific phosphorylation of tumor-associated microtubule-associated protein

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Kyung Uk; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Bae, Chang-Dae; Park, Joobae

    2009-01-01

    Tumor-associated microtubule-associated protein (TMAP), also known as cytoskeleton associated protein 2 (CKAP2), has been recently shown to be involved in the assembly and maintenance of mitotic spindle and also plays an essential role in maintaining the fidelity of chromosome segregation during mitosis. We have previously reported that TMAP is phosphorylated at multiple residues specifically during mitosis, and characterized the mechanism and functional importance of phosphorylation at one o...

  18. Mechanical coupling of microtubule-dependent motor teams during peroxisome transport in Drosophila S2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rossi, María Cecilia; Wetzler, Diana E; Benseñor, Lorena; De Rossi, María Emilia; Sued, Mariela; Rodríguez, Daniela; Gelfand, Vladimir; Bruno, Luciana; Levi, Valeria

    2017-12-01

    Intracellular transport requires molecular motors that step along cytoskeletal filaments actively dragging cargoes through the crowded cytoplasm. Here, we explore the interplay of the opposed polarity motors kinesin-1 and cytoplasmic dynein during peroxisome transport along microtubules in Drosophila S2 cells. We used single particle tracking with nanometer accuracy and millisecond time resolution to extract quantitative information on the bidirectional motion of organelles. The transport performance was studied in cells expressing a slow chimeric plus-end directed motor or the kinesin heavy chain. We also analyzed the influence of peroxisomes membrane fluidity in methyl-β-ciclodextrin treated cells. The experimental data was also confronted with numerical simulations of two well-established tug of war scenarios. The velocity distributions of retrograde and anterograde peroxisomes showed a multimodal pattern suggesting that multiple motor teams drive transport in either direction. The chimeric motors interfered with the performance of anterograde transport and also reduced the speed of the slowest retrograde team. In addition, increasing the fluidity of peroxisomes membrane decreased the speed of the slowest anterograde and retrograde teams. Our results support the existence of a crosstalk between opposed-polarity motor teams. Moreover, the slowest teams seem to mechanically communicate with each other through the membrane to trigger transport. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of colchicine treatment on the microtubule cytoskeleton and total protein during microsporogenesis in ginkgo biloba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Q.J.; Mei, F.F.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of colchicine treatment on the microtubule cytoskeleton and the expression of proteins during microsporogenesis in G. biloba, as observed by immunofluorescence and 2-DE analysis in microsporangia treated with colchicine. The results showed the microtubule structures were affected by the colchicine in Ginkgo biloba, but the treatment effect of the colchicine had certain limitation in G. biloba. The percentage of microsporocytes whose microtubule structures were affected by the colchicine treatment was less than that observed in other plant species, not higher than 10 %. It was also found that the expression level of several endogenous proteins were changed in G. biloba when the microsporangia were treated with colchicine. Although we only tested colchicines was only tested in the present study, G. biloba appeared to possess factors that restricted the effect of such chemical agents. Our observations led us to speculate that the endogenous proteins are possibly responsible for the reduced effects of colchicine treatment in G. biloba. (author)

  20. Collective behavior of minus-ended motors in mitotic microtubule asters gliding toward DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athale, Chaitanya A; Dinarina, Ana; Nedelec, Francois; Karsenti, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Microtubules (MTs) nucleated by centrosomes form star-shaped structures referred to as asters. Aster motility and dynamics is vital for genome stability, cell division, polarization and differentiation. Asters move either toward the cell center or away from it. Here, we focus on the centering mechanism in a membrane independent system of Xenopus cytoplasmic egg extracts. Using live microscopy and single particle tracking, we find that asters move toward chromatinized DNA structures. The velocity and directionality profiles suggest a random-walk with drift directed toward DNA. We have developed a theoretical model that can explain this movement as a result of a gradient of MT length dynamics and MT gliding on immobilized dynein motors. In simulations, the antagonistic action of the motor species on the radial array of MTs leads to a tug-of-war purely due to geometric considerations and aster motility resembles a directed random-walk. Additionally, our model predicts that aster velocities do not change greatly with varying initial distance from DNA. The movement of asymmetric asters becomes increasingly super-diffusive with increasing motor density, but for symmetric asters it becomes less super-diffusive. The transition of symmetric asters from superdiffusive to diffusive mobility is the result of number fluctuations in bound motors in the tug-of-war. Overall, our model is in good agreement with experimental data in Xenopus cytoplasmic extracts and predicts novel features of the collective effects of motor-MT interactions. (paper)

  1. Microtubule bundling plays a role in ethylene-mediated cortical microtubule reorientation in etiolated Arabidopsis hypocotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qianqian; Sun, Jingbo; Mao, Tonglin

    2016-05-15

    The gaseous hormone ethylene is known to regulate plant growth under etiolated conditions (the 'triple response'). Although organization of cortical microtubules is essential for cell elongation, the underlying mechanisms that regulate microtubule organization by hormone signaling, including ethylene, are ambiguous. In the present study, we demonstrate that ethylene signaling participates in regulation of cortical microtubule reorientation. In particular, regulation of microtubule bundling is important for this process in etiolated hypocotyls. Time-lapse analysis indicated that selective stabilization of microtubule-bundling structures formed in various arrays is related to ethylene-mediated microtubule orientation. Bundling events and bundle growth lifetimes were significantly increased in oblique and longitudinal arrays, but decreased in transverse arrays in wild-type cells in response to ethylene. However, the effects of ethylene on microtubule bundling were partially suppressed in a microtubule-bundling protein WDL5 knockout mutant (wdl5-1). This study suggests that modulation of microtubule bundles that have formed in certain orientations plays a role in reorienting microtubule arrays in response to ethylene-mediated etiolated hypocotyl cell elongation. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Genetic analysis of a Drosophila microtubule-associated protein

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    The 205-kD microtubule-associated protein (205K MAP) is one of the principal MAPs in Drosophila. 205K MAP is similar to the HeLa 210K/MAP4 family of MAPs since it shares the following biochemical properties: it is present in several isoforms, has a molecular mass of approximately 200 kD, and is thermostable. Furthermore, immuno-crossreactivity has been observed between mouse MAP4, HeLa 210K, and Drosophila 205K MAP. Currently, there is little information concerning the biological function of ...

  3. C-terminal region of MAP7 domain containing protein 3 (MAP7D3 promotes microtubule polymerization by binding at the C-terminal tail of tubulin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Yadav

    Full Text Available MAP7 domain containing protein 3 (MAP7D3, a newly identified microtubule associated protein, has been shown to promote microtubule assembly and stability. Its microtubule binding region has been reported to consist of two coiled coil motifs located at the N-terminus. It possesses a MAP7 domain near the C-terminus and belongs to the microtubule associated protein 7 (MAP7 family. The MAP7 domain of MAP7 protein has been shown to bind to kinesin-1; however, the role of MAP7 domain in MAP7D3 remains unknown. Based on the bioinformatics analysis of MAP7D3, we hypothesized that the MAP7 domain of MAP7D3 may have microtubule binding activity. Indeed, we found that MAP7 domain of MAP7D3 bound to microtubules as well as enhanced the assembly of microtubules in vitro. Interestingly, a longer fragment MDCT that contained the MAP7 domain (MD with the C-terminal tail (CT of the protein promoted microtubule polymerization to a greater extent than MD and CT individually. MDCT stabilized microtubules against dilution induced disassembly. MDCT bound to reconstituted microtubules with an apparent dissociation constant of 3.0 ± 0.5 µM. An immunostaining experiment showed that MDCT localized along the length of the preassembled microtubules. Competition experiments with tau indicated that MDCT shares its binding site on microtubules with tau. Further, we present evidence indicating that MDCT binds to the C-terminal tail of tubulin. In addition, MDCT could bind to tubulin in HeLa cell extract. Here, we report a microtubule binding region in the C-terminal region of MAP7D3 that may have a role in regulating microtubule assembly dynamics.

  4. Microtubule plus end-tracking proteins play critical roles in directional growth of hyphae by regulating the dynamics of cytoplasmic microtubules in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Cui J Tracy; Kim, Hye-Ryun; Vargas Arispuro, Irasema; Kim, Jung-Mi; Huang, An-Chi; Liu, Bo

    2014-11-01

    Cytoplasmic microtubules (MTs) serve as a rate-limiting factor for hyphal tip growth in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. We hypothesized that this function depended on the MT plus end-tracking proteins (+TIPs) including the EB1 family protein EBA that decorated the MT plus ends undergoing polymerization. The ebAΔ mutation reduced colony growth and the mutant hyphae appeared in an undulating pattern instead of exhibiting unidirectional growth in the control. These phenotypes were enhanced by a mutation in another +TIP gene clipA. EBA was required for plus end-tracking of CLIPA, the Kinesin-7 motor KipA, and the XMAP215 homologue AlpA. In addition, cytoplasmic dynein also depended on EBA to track on most polymerizing MT plus ends, but not for its conspicuous appearance at the MT ends near the hyphal apex. The loss of EBA reduced the number of cytoplasmic MTs and prolonged dwelling times for MTs after reaching the hyphal apex. Finally, we found that colonies were formed in the absence of EBA, CLIPA, and NUDA together, suggesting that they were dispensable for fundamental functions of MTs. This study provided a comprehensive delineation of the relationship among different +TIPs and their contributions to MT dynamics and unidirectional hyphal expansion in filamentous fungi. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Assessing the Impact of Electrostatic Drag on Processive Molecular Motor Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J Darby; McKinley, Scott A

    2018-06-04

    The bidirectional movement of intracellular cargo is usually described as a tug-of-war among opposite-directed families of molecular motors. While tug-of-war models have enjoyed some success, recent evidence suggests underlying motor interactions are more complex than previously understood. For example, these tug-of-war models fail to predict the counterintuitive phenomenon that inhibiting one family of motors can decrease the functionality of opposite-directed transport. In this paper, we use a stochastic differential equations modeling framework to explore one proposed physical mechanism, called microtubule tethering, that could play a role in this "co-dependence" among antagonistic motors. This hypothesis includes the possibility of a trade-off: weakly bound trailing molecular motors can serve as tethers for cargoes and processing motors, thereby enhancing motor-cargo run lengths along microtubules; however, this introduces a cost of processing at a lower mean velocity. By computing the small- and large-time mean-squared displacement of our theoretical model and comparing our results to experimental observations of dynein and its "helper protein" dynactin, we find some supporting evidence for microtubule tethering interactions. We extrapolate these findings to predict how dynein-dynactin might interact with the opposite-directed kinesin motors and introduce a criterion for when the trade-off is beneficial in simple systems.

  6. Centromere Protein (CENP)-W Interacts with Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) U and May Contribute to Kinetochore-Microtubule Attachment in Mitotic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Younghwa; Kim, Raehyung; Lee, Soojin

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP U), a component of the hnRNP complex, contributes to stabilize the kinetochore-microtubule interaction during mitosis. CENP-W was identified as an inner centromere component that plays crucial roles in the formation of a functional kinetochore complex. Results We report that hnRNP U interacts with CENP-W, and the interaction between hnRNP U and CENP-W mutually increased each other’s protein stability by inhibiting the proteasome-mediated degradation. Further, their co-localization was observed chiefly in the nuclear matrix region and at the microtubule-kinetochore interface during interphase and mitosis, respectively. Both microtubule-stabilizing and microtubule-destabilizing agents significantly decreased the protein stability of CENP-W. Furthermore, loss of microtubules and defects in microtubule organization were observed in CENP-W-depleted cells. Conclusion Our data imply that CENP-W plays an important role in the attachment and interaction between microtubules and kinetochore during mitosis. PMID:26881882

  7. Centriolar CPAP/SAS-4 Imparts Slow Processive Microtubule Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, Ashwani; Aher, Amol; Dynes, Nicola J; Frey, Daniel; Katrukha, Eugene A; Jaussi, Rolf; Grigoriev, Ilya; Croisier, Marie; Kammerer, Richard A; Akhmanova, Anna; Gönczy, Pierre; Steinmetz, Michel O

    2016-01-01

    Centrioles are fundamental and evolutionarily conserved microtubule-based organelles whose assembly is characterized by microtubule growth rates that are orders of magnitude slower than those of cytoplasmic microtubules. Several centriolar proteins can interact with tubulin or microtubules, but how

  8. Melanophores for microtubule dynamics and motility assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kazuho; Semenova, Irina; Zhapparova, Olga; Rodionov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are cytoskeletal structures essential for cell division, locomotion, intracellular transport, and spatial organization of the cytoplasm. In most interphase cells, MTs are organized into a polarized radial array with minus-ends clustered at the centrosome and plus-ends extended to the cell periphery. This array directs transport of organelles driven by MT-based motor proteins that specifically move either to plus- or to minus-ends. Along with using MTs as tracks for cargo, motor proteins can organize MTs into a radial array in the absence of the centrosome. Transport of organelles and motor-dependent radial organization of MTs require MT dynamics, continuous addition and loss of tubulin subunits at minus- and plus-ends. A unique experimental system for studying the role of MT dynamics in these processes is the melanophore, which provides a useful tool for imaging of both dynamic MTs and moving membrane organelles. Melanophores are filled with pigment granules that are synchronously transported by motor proteins in response to hormonal stimuli. The flat shape of the cell and the radial organization of MTs facilitate imaging of dynamic MT plus-ends and monitoring of their interaction with membrane organelles. Microsurgically produced cytoplasmic fragments of melanophores are used to study the centrosome-independent rearrangement of MTs into a radial array. Here we describe the experimental approaches to study the role of MT dynamics in intracellular transport and centrosome-independent MT organization in melanophores. We focus on the preparation of cell cultures, microsurgery and microinjection, fluorescence labeling, and live imaging of MTs. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Automated Learning of Subcellular Variation among Punctate Protein Patterns and a Generative Model of Their Relation to Microtubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R Johnson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the spatial distribution of proteins directly from microscopy images is a difficult problem with numerous applications in cell biology (e.g. identifying motor-related proteins and clinical research (e.g. identification of cancer biomarkers. Here we describe the design of a system that provides automated analysis of punctate protein patterns in microscope images, including quantification of their relationships to microtubules. We constructed the system using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy images from the Human Protein Atlas project for 11 punctate proteins in three cultured cell lines. These proteins have previously been characterized as being primarily located in punctate structures, but their images had all been annotated by visual examination as being simply "vesicular". We were able to show that these patterns could be distinguished from each other with high accuracy, and we were able to assign to one of these subclasses hundreds of proteins whose subcellular localization had not previously been well defined. In addition to providing these novel annotations, we built a generative approach to modeling of punctate distributions that captures the essential characteristics of the distinct patterns. Such models are expected to be valuable for representing and summarizing each pattern and for constructing systems biology simulations of cell behaviors.

  10. Cdk1-Cyclin B1-mediated Phosphorylation of Tumor-associated Microtubule-associated Protein/Cytoskeleton-associated Protein 2 in Mitosis*

    OpenAIRE

    Uk Hong, Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Hyo-Sil; Seong, Yeon-Sun; Hong, Kyeong-Man; Bae, Chang-Dae; Park, Joobae

    2009-01-01

    During mitosis, establishment of structurally and functionally sound bipolar spindles is necessary for maintaining the fidelity of chromosome segregation. Tumor-associated microtubule-associated protein (TMAP), also known as cytoskeleton-associated protein 2 (CKAP2), is a mitotic spindle-associated protein whose level is frequently up-regulated in various malignancies. Previous reports have suggested that TMAP is a potential regulator of mitotic spindle assembly and dynamics and that it is re...

  11. Dissecting the nanoscale distributions and functions of microtubule-end-binding proteins EB1 and ch-TOG in interphase HeLa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Nakamura

    Full Text Available Recently, the EB1 and XMAP215/TOG families of microtubule binding proteins have been demonstrated to bind autonomously to the growing plus ends of microtubules and regulate their behaviour in in vitro systems. However, their functional redundancy or difference in cells remains obscure. Here, we compared the nanoscale distributions of EB1 and ch-TOG along microtubules using high-resolution microscopy techniques, and also their roles in microtubule organisation in interphase HeLa cells. The ch-TOG accumulation sites protruded ∼100 nm from the EB1 comets. Overexpression experiments showed that ch-TOG and EB1 did not interfere with each other's localisation, confirming that they recognise distinct regions at the ends of microtubules. While both EB1 and ch-TOG showed similar effects on microtubule plus end dynamics and additively increased microtubule dynamicity, only EB1 exhibited microtubule-cell cortex attachment activity. These observations indicate that EB1 and ch-TOG regulate microtubule organisation differently via distinct regions in the plus ends of microtubules.

  12. Structural insights into microtubule doublet interactions inaxonemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, Kenneth H.; Sui, Haixin

    2007-06-06

    Coordinated sliding of microtubule doublets, driven by dynein motors, produces periodic beating of the axoneme. Recent structural studies of the axoneme have used cryo-electron tomography to reveal new details of the interactions among some of the multitude of proteins that form the axoneme and regulate its movement. Connections among the several sets of dyneins, in particular, suggest ways in which their actions may be coordinated. Study of the molecular architecture of isolated doublets has provided a structural basis for understanding the doublet's mechanical properties that are related to the bending of the axoneme, and has also offered insight into its potential role in the mechanism of dynein activity regulation.

  13. Cdk1-cyclin B1-mediated phosphorylation of tumor-associated microtubule-associated protein/cytoskeleton-associated protein 2 in mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kyung Uk; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Hyo-Sil; Seong, Yeon-Sun; Hong, Kyeong-Man; Bae, Chang-Dae; Park, Joobae

    2009-06-12

    During mitosis, establishment of structurally and functionally sound bipolar spindles is necessary for maintaining the fidelity of chromosome segregation. Tumor-associated microtubule-associated protein (TMAP), also known as cytoskeleton-associated protein 2 (CKAP2), is a mitotic spindle-associated protein whose level is frequently up-regulated in various malignancies. Previous reports have suggested that TMAP is a potential regulator of mitotic spindle assembly and dynamics and that it is required for chromosome segregation to occur properly. So far, there have been no reports on how its mitosis-related functions are regulated. Here, we report that TMAP is hyper-phosphorylated at the C terminus specifically during mitosis. At least four different residues (Thr-578, Thr-596, Thr-622, and Ser-627) were responsible for the mitosis-specific phosphorylation of TMAP. Among these, Thr-622 was specifically phosphorylated by Cdk1-cyclin B1 both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, compared with the wild type, a phosphorylation-deficient mutant form of TMAP, in which Thr-622 had been replaced with an alanine (T622A), induced a significant increase in the frequency of metaphase cells with abnormal bipolar spindles, which often displayed disorganized, asymmetrical, or narrow and elongated morphologies. Formation of these abnormal bipolar spindles subsequently resulted in misalignment of metaphase chromosomes and ultimately caused a delay in the entry into anaphase. Moreover, such defects resulting from the T622A mutation were associated with a decrease in the rate of protein turnover at spindle microtubules. These findings suggest that Cdk1-cyclin B1-mediated phosphorylation of TMAP is important for and contributes to proper regulation of microtubule dynamics and establishment of functional bipolar spindles during mitosis.

  14. Cdk1-Cyclin B1-mediated Phosphorylation of Tumor-associated Microtubule-associated Protein/Cytoskeleton-associated Protein 2 in Mitosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uk Hong, Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Hyo-Sil; Seong, Yeon-Sun; Hong, Kyeong-Man; Bae, Chang-Dae; Park, Joobae

    2009-01-01

    During mitosis, establishment of structurally and functionally sound bipolar spindles is necessary for maintaining the fidelity of chromosome segregation. Tumor-associated microtubule-associated protein (TMAP), also known as cytoskeleton-associated protein 2 (CKAP2), is a mitotic spindle-associated protein whose level is frequently up-regulated in various malignancies. Previous reports have suggested that TMAP is a potential regulator of mitotic spindle assembly and dynamics and that it is required for chromosome segregation to occur properly. So far, there have been no reports on how its mitosis-related functions are regulated. Here, we report that TMAP is hyper-phosphorylated at the C terminus specifically during mitosis. At least four different residues (Thr-578, Thr-596, Thr-622, and Ser-627) were responsible for the mitosis-specific phosphorylation of TMAP. Among these, Thr-622 was specifically phosphorylated by Cdk1-cyclin B1 both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, compared with the wild type, a phosphorylation-deficient mutant form of TMAP, in which Thr-622 had been replaced with an alanine (T622A), induced a significant increase in the frequency of metaphase cells with abnormal bipolar spindles, which often displayed disorganized, asymmetrical, or narrow and elongated morphologies. Formation of these abnormal bipolar spindles subsequently resulted in misalignment of metaphase chromosomes and ultimately caused a delay in the entry into anaphase. Moreover, such defects resulting from the T622A mutation were associated with a decrease in the rate of protein turnover at spindle microtubules. These findings suggest that Cdk1-cyclin B1-mediated phosphorylation of TMAP is important for and contributes to proper regulation of microtubule dynamics and establishment of functional bipolar spindles during mitosis. PMID:19369249

  15. The polarity protein Par6 is coupled to the microtubule network during molluscan early embryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, Taihei [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shimizu, Miho [Kuroda Chiromorphology Team, ERATO-SORST, JST, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Kuroda, Reiko, E-mail: ckuroda@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kuroda Chiromorphology Team, ERATO-SORST, JST, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} The cDNAs encoding Par6 and aPKC homologues were cloned from the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. {yields} L. stagnalis Par6 directly interacts with tubulin and microtubules and localizes to the microtubule cytoskeleton during the early embryogenesis. {yields} Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of body handedness. -- Abstract: Cell polarity, which directs the orientation of asymmetric cell division and segregation of fate determinants, is a fundamental feature of development and differentiation. Regulators of polarity have been extensively studied, and the critical importance of the Par (partitioning-defective) complex as the polarity machinery is now recognized in a wide range of eukaryotic systems. The Par polarity module is evolutionarily conserved, but its mechanism and cooperating factors vary among different systems. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of a pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis homologue of partitioning-defective 6 (Lspar6). The protein product LsPar6 shows high affinity for microtubules and localizes to the mitotic apparatus during embryonic cell division. In vitro assays revealed direct binding of LsPar6 to tubulin and microtubules, which is the first evidence of the direct interaction between the two proteins. The interaction is mediated by two distinct regions of LsPar6 both located in the N-terminal half. Atypical PKC, a functional partner of Par6, was also found to localize to the mitotic spindle. These results suggest that the L. stagnalis Par complex employs the microtubule network in cell polarity processes during the early embryogenesis. Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of handedness.

  16. The polarity protein Par6 is coupled to the microtubule network during molluscan early embryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Taihei; Shimizu, Miho; Kuroda, Reiko

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The cDNAs encoding Par6 and aPKC homologues were cloned from the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. → L. stagnalis Par6 directly interacts with tubulin and microtubules and localizes to the microtubule cytoskeleton during the early embryogenesis. → Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of body handedness. -- Abstract: Cell polarity, which directs the orientation of asymmetric cell division and segregation of fate determinants, is a fundamental feature of development and differentiation. Regulators of polarity have been extensively studied, and the critical importance of the Par (partitioning-defective) complex as the polarity machinery is now recognized in a wide range of eukaryotic systems. The Par polarity module is evolutionarily conserved, but its mechanism and cooperating factors vary among different systems. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of a pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis homologue of partitioning-defective 6 (Lspar6). The protein product LsPar6 shows high affinity for microtubules and localizes to the mitotic apparatus during embryonic cell division. In vitro assays revealed direct binding of LsPar6 to tubulin and microtubules, which is the first evidence of the direct interaction between the two proteins. The interaction is mediated by two distinct regions of LsPar6 both located in the N-terminal half. Atypical PKC, a functional partner of Par6, was also found to localize to the mitotic spindle. These results suggest that the L. stagnalis Par complex employs the microtubule network in cell polarity processes during the early embryogenesis. Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of handedness.

  17. Models for microtubule cargo transport coupling the Langevin equation to stochastic stepping motor dynamics: Caring about fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzat, Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    One-dimensional models coupling a Langevin equation for the cargo position to stochastic stepping dynamics for the motors constitute a relevant framework for analyzing multiple-motor microtubule transport. In this work we explore the consistence of these models focusing on the effects of the thermal noise. We study how to define consistent stepping and detachment rates for the motors as functions of the local forces acting on them in such a way that the cargo velocity and run-time match previously specified functions of the external load, which are set on the base of experimental results. We show that due to the influence of the thermal fluctuations this is not a trivial problem, even for the single-motor case. As a solution, we propose a motor stepping dynamics which considers memory on the motor force. This model leads to better results for single-motor transport than the approaches previously considered in the literature. Moreover, it gives a much better prediction for the stall force of the two-motor case, highly compatible with the experimental findings. We also analyze the fast fluctuations of the cargo position and the influence of the viscosity, comparing the proposed model to the standard one, and we show how the differences on the single-motor dynamics propagate to the multiple motor situations. Finally, we find that the one-dimensional character of the models impede an appropriate description of the fast fluctuations of the cargo position at small loads. We show how this problem can be solved by considering two-dimensional models.

  18. Intracellular Transport: How Do Motors Work Together?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Roop; Gross, Steven P.

    2010-01-01

    How many motors move cargos on microtubules inside a cell, and how do they work together to achieve regulated transport? A new study uses an optical trap to investigate the motion of protein-bound beads on the surface of flagella to address these questions and comes up with some intriguing answers. PMID:19467211

  19. Ferritin associates with marginal band microtubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infante, Anthony A.; Infante, Dzintra; Chan, M.-C.; How, P.-C.; Kutschera, Waltraud; Linhartova, Irena; Muellner, Ernst W.; Wiche, Gerhard; Propst, Friedrich

    2007-01-01

    We characterized chicken erythrocyte and human platelet ferritin by biochemical studies and immunofluorescence. Erythrocyte ferritin was found to be a homopolymer of H-ferritin subunits, resistant to proteinase K digestion, heat stable, and contained iron. In mature chicken erythrocytes and human platelets, ferritin was localized at the marginal band, a ring-shaped peripheral microtubule bundle, and displayed properties of bona fide microtubule-associated proteins such as tau. Red blood cell ferritin association with the marginal band was confirmed by temperature-induced disassembly-reassembly of microtubules. During erythrocyte differentiation, ferritin co-localized with coalescing microtubules during marginal band formation. In addition, ferritin was found in the nuclei of mature erythrocytes, but was not detectable in those of bone marrow erythrocyte precursors. These results suggest that ferritin has a function in marginal band formation and possibly in protection of the marginal band from damaging effects of reactive oxygen species by sequestering iron in the mature erythrocyte. Moreover, our data suggest that ferritin and syncolin, a previously identified erythrocyte microtubule-associated protein, are identical. Nuclear ferritin might contribute to transcriptional silencing or, alternatively, constitute a ferritin reservoir

  20. Four-stranded mini microtubules formed by Prosthecobacter BtubAB show dynamic instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xian; Fink, Gero; Bharat, Tanmay A M; He, Shaoda; Kureisaite-Ciziene, Danguole; Löwe, Jan

    2017-07-18

    Microtubules, the dynamic, yet stiff hollow tubes built from αβ-tubulin protein heterodimers, are thought to be present only in eukaryotic cells. Here, we report a 3.6-Å helical reconstruction electron cryomicroscopy structure of four-stranded mini microtubules formed by bacterial tubulin-like Prosthecobacter dejongeii BtubAB proteins. Despite their much smaller diameter, mini microtubules share many key structural features with eukaryotic microtubules, such as an M-loop, alternating subunits, and a seam that breaks overall helical symmetry. Using in vitro total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we show that bacterial mini microtubules treadmill and display dynamic instability, another hallmark of eukaryotic microtubules. The third protein in the btub gene cluster, BtubC, previously known as "bacterial kinesin light chain," binds along protofilaments every 8 nm, inhibits BtubAB mini microtubule catastrophe, and increases rescue. Our work reveals that some bacteria contain regulated and dynamic cytomotive microtubule systems that were once thought to be only useful in much larger and sophisticated eukaryotic cells.

  1. NanoShuttles: Harnessing Motor Proteins to Transport Cargo in Synthetic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, V.; Hess, H.

    Motors have become a crucial commodity in our daily lives, from transportation to driving conveyor belts that enable the sequential assembly of cars and other industrial machines. For the sequential assembly of building blocks at the nanoscale that would not assemble spontaneously into larger functional systems, however, active transport systems are not yet available. In contrast, cells have evolved sophisticated molecular machinery that drives movement and active transport. Driven by the conversion of chemical into mechanical energy, namely through hydrolysis of the biological fuel ATP, molecular motors enable cells to operate far away from equilibrium by transporting organelles and molecules to designated locations within the cell, often against concentration gradients. Inspired by the biological concept of active transport, major efforts are underway to learn how to build nanoscale transport systems that are driven by molecular motors. Emerging engineering principles are discussed of how to build tracks and junctions to guide such nanoshuttles, how to load them with cargo and control their speed, how to use active transport to assemble mesoscopic structures that would otherwise not assemble spontaneously and what polymeric materials to choose to integrate motors into MEMS and other biohybrid devices. Finally, two applications that exploit the physical properties of microtubules are discussed, surface imaging by a swarm of microtubules and a self-assembled picoNewton force meter to probe receptor-ligand interactions.

  2. Arabidopsis GCP3-interacting protein 1/MOZART 1 is an integral component of the γ-tubulin-containing microtubule nucleating complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masayoshi; Yagi, Noriyoshi; Kato, Takehide; Fujita, Satoshi; Kawashima, Noriyuki; Ehrhardt, David W; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2012-07-01

    Microtubules in eukaryotic cells are nucleated from ring-shaped complexes that contain γ-tubulin and a family of homologous γ-tubulin complex proteins (GCPs), but the subunit composition of the complexes can vary among fungi, animals and plants. Arabidopsis GCP3-interacting protein 1 (GIP1), a small protein with no homology to the GCP family, interacts with GCP3 in vitro, and is a plant homolog of vertebrate mitotic-spindle organizing protein associated with a ring of γ-tubulin 1 (MOZART1), a recently identified component of the γ-tubulin complex in human cell lines. In this study, we characterized two closely related Arabidopsis GIP1s: GIP1a and GIP1b. Single mutants of gip1a and gip1b were indistinguishable from wild-type plants, but their double mutant was embryonic lethal, and showed impaired development of male gametophytes. Functional fusions of GIP1a with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were used to purify GIP1a-containing complexes from Arabidopsis plants, which contained all the subunits (except NEDD1) previously identified in the Arabidopsis γ-tubulin complexes. GIP1a and GIP1b interacted specifically with Arabidopsis GCP3 in yeast. GFP-GIP1a labeled mitotic microtubule arrays in a pattern largely consistent with, but partly distinct from, the localization of the γ-tubulin complex containing GCP2 or GCP3 in planta. In interphase cortical arrays, the labeled complexes were preferentially recruited to existing microtubules, from which new microtubules were efficiently nucleated. However, in contrast to complexes labeled with tagged GCP2 or GCP3, their recruitment to cortical areas with no microtubules was rarely observed. These results indicate that GIP1/MOZART1 is an integral component of a subset of the Arabidopsis γ-tubulin complexes. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. TCTEX1D4, a novel protein phosphatase 1 interactor: connecting the phosphatase to the microtubule network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korrodi-Gregório, Luís; Vieira, Sandra I.; Esteves, Sara L. C.; Silva, Joana V.; Freitas, Maria João; Brauns, Ann-Kristin; Luers, Georg; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J.; da Cruz e Silva, Odete A. B.; Fardilha, Margarida; da Cruz e Silva, Edgar F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Reversible phosphorylation plays an important role as a mechanism of intracellular control in eukaryotes. PPP1, a major eukaryotic Ser/Thr-protein phosphatase, acquires its specificity by interacting with different protein regulators, also known as PPP1 interacting proteins (PIPs). In the present work we characterized a physiologically relevant PIP in testis. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen with a human testis cDNA library, we identified a novel PIP of PPP1CC2 isoform, the T-complex testis expressed protein 1 domain containing 4 (TCTEX1D4) that has recently been described as a Tctex1 dynein light chain family member. The overlay assays confirm that TCTEX1D4 interacts with the different spliced isoforms of PPP1CC. Also, the binding domain occurs in the N-terminus, where a consensus PPP1 binding motif (PPP1BM) RVSF is present. The distribution of TCTEX1D4 in testis suggests its involvement in distinct functions, such as TGFβ signaling at the blood–testis barrier and acrosome cap formation. Immunofluorescence in human ejaculated sperm shows that TCTEX1D4 is present in the flagellum and in the acrosome region of the head. Moreover, TCTEX1D4 and PPP1 co-localize in the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) and microtubules in cell cultures. Importantly, the TCTEX1D4 PPP1BM seems to be relevant for complex formation, for PPP1 retention in the MTOC and movement along microtubules. These novel results open new avenues to possible roles of this dynein, together with PPP1. In essence TCTEX1D4/PPP1C complex appears to be involved in microtubule dynamics, sperm motility, acrosome reaction and in the regulation of the blood–testis barrier. PMID:23789093

  4. The plant microtubule-associated protein AtMAP65-3/PLE is essential for cytokinetic phragmoplast function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sabine; Smertenko, Andrei; Wagner, Vera; Heinrich, Maria; Hussey, Patrick J; Hauser, Marie-Theres

    2004-03-09

    Directional cell expansion in interphase and nuclear and cell division in M-phase are mediated by four microtubule arrays, three of which are unique to plants: the interphase array, the preprophase band, and the phragmoplast. The plant microtubule-associated protein MAP65 has been identified as a key structural component in these arrays. The Arabidopsis genome has nine MAP65 genes, and here we show that one, AtMAP65-3/PLE, locates only to the mitotic arrays and is essential for cytokinesis. The Arabidopsis pleiade (ple) alleles are single recessive mutations, and we show that these mutations are in the AtMAP65-3 gene. Moreover, these mutations cause C-terminal truncations that abolish microtubule binding. In the ple mutants the anaphase spindle is normal, and the cytokinetic phragmoplast can form but is distorted; not only is it wider, but the midline, the region where oppositely oriented microtubules overlap, is unusually expanded. Here we present data that demonstrate an essential role for AtMAP65-3/PLE in cytokinesis in plant cells.

  5. The influence of protein kinases and microtubule binding proteins on cerebellar motor learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. Branco Madeira

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe cerebellum (from the latin - little brain) is located at the posterior end of the brain. It is known to be involved in vital functions like the control of heart beat and respiration and also in motor coordination, a function involving balance and equilibrium, which also requires the

  6. Mechanical splitting of microtubules into protofilament bundles by surface-bound kinesin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDelinder, Virginia; Adams, Peter G; Bachand, George D

    2016-12-21

    The fundamental biophysics of gliding microtubule (MT) motility by surface-tethered kinesin-1 motor proteins has been widely studied, as well as applied to capture and transport analytes in bioanalytical microdevices. In these systems, phenomena such as molecular wear and fracture into shorter MTs have been reported due the mechanical forces applied on the MT during transport. In the present work, we show that MTs can be split longitudinally into protofilament bundles (PFBs) by the work performed by surface-bound kinesin motors. We examine the properties of these PFBs using several techniques (e.g., fluorescence microscopy, SEM, AFM), and show that the PFBs continue to be mobile on the surface and display very high curvature compared to MT. Further, higher surface density of kinesin motors and shorter kinesin-surface tethers promote PFB formation, whereas modifying MT with GMPCPP or higher paclitaxel concentrations did not affect PFB formation.

  7. Mechanics of microtubules: effects of protofilament orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donhauser, Zachary J; Jobs, William B; Binka, Edem C

    2010-09-08

    Microtubules are hollow cylindrical polymers of the protein tubulin that play a number of important dynamic and structural roles in eukaryotic cells. Both in vivo and in vitro microtubules can exist in several possible configurations, differing in the number of protofilaments, helical rise of tubulin dimers, and protofilament skew angle with respect to the main tube axis. Here, finite element modeling is applied to examine the mechanical response of several known microtubule types when subjected to radial deformation. The data presented here provide an important insight into microtubule stiffness and reveal that protofilament orientation does not affect radial stiffness. Rather, stiffness is primarily dependent on the effective Young's modulus of the polymerized material and the effective radius of the microtubule. These results are also directly correlated to atomic force microscopy nanoindentation measurements to allow a more detailed interpretation of previous experiments. When combined with experimental data that show a significant difference between microtubules stabilized with a slowly hydrolyzable GTP analog and microtubules stabilized with paclitaxel, the finite element data suggest that paclitaxel increases the overall radial flexibility of the microtubule wall. Copyright 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Microtubules Growth Rate Alteration in Human Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina B. Alieva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand how microtubules contribute to the dynamic reorganization of the endothelial cell (EC cytoskeleton, we established an EC model expressing EB3-GFP, a protein that marks microtubule plus-ends. Using this model, we were able to measure microtubule growth rate at the centrosome region and near the cell periphery of a single human EC and in the EC monolayer. We demonstrate that the majority of microtubules in EC are dynamic, the growth rate of their plus-ends is highest in the internal cytoplasm, in the region of the centrosome. Growth rate of microtubule plus-ends decreases from the cell center toward the periphery. Our data suggest the existing mechanism(s of local regulation of microtubule plus-ends growth in EC. Microtubule growth rate in the internal cytoplasm of EC in the monolayer is lower than that of single EC suggesting the regulatory effect of cell-cell contacts. Centrosomal microtubule growth rate distribution in single EC indicated the presence of two subpopulations of microtubules with “normal” (similar to those in monolayer EC and “fast” (three times as much growth rates. Our results indicate functional interactions between cell-cell contacts and microtubules.

  9. The Microtubule Plus-End Tracking Protein CLASP2 Is Required for Hematopoiesis and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Drabek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian CLASPs are microtubule plus-end tracking proteins whose essential function as regulators of microtubule behavior has been studied mainly in cultured cells. We show here that absence of murine CLASP2 in vivo results in thrombocytopenia, progressive anemia, and pancytopenia, due to defects in megakaryopoiesis, in erythropoiesis, and in the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cell activity. Furthermore, microtubule stability and organization are affected upon attachment of Clasp2 knockout hematopoietic stem-cell-enriched populations, and these cells do not home efficiently toward their bone marrow niche. Strikingly, CLASP2-deficient hematopoietic stem cells contain severely reduced mRNA levels of c-Mpl, which encodes the thrombopoietin receptor, an essential factor for megakaryopoiesis and hematopoietic stem cell maintenance. Our data suggest that thrombopoietin signaling is impaired in Clasp2 knockout mice. We propose that the CLASP2-mediated stabilization of microtubules is required for proper attachment, homing, and maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells and that this is necessary to sustain c-Mpl transcription.

  10. An exact approach for studying cargo transport by an ensemble of molecular motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materassi, Donatello; Roychowdhury, Subhrajit; Hays, Thomas; Salapaka, Murti

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular transport is crucial for many cellular processes where a large fraction of the cargo is transferred by motor-proteins over a network of microtubules. Malfunctions in the transport mechanism underlie a number of medical maladies. Existing methods for studying how motor-proteins coordinate the transfer of a shared cargo over a microtubule are either analytical or are based on Monte-Carlo simulations. Approaches that yield analytical results, while providing unique insights into transport mechanism, make simplifying assumptions, where a detailed characterization of important transport modalities is difficult to reach. On the other hand, Monte-Carlo based simulations can incorporate detailed characteristics of the transport mechanism; however, the quality of the results depend on the number and quality of simulation runs used in arriving at results. Here, for example, it is difficult to simulate and study rare-events that can trigger abnormalities in transport. In this article, a semi-analytical methodology that determines the probability distribution function of motor-protein behavior in an exact manner is developed. The method utilizes a finite-dimensional projection of the underlying infinite-dimensional Markov model, which retains the Markov property, and enables the detailed and exact determination of motor configurations, from which meaningful inferences on transport characteristics of the original model can be derived. Under this novel probabilistic approach new insights about the mechanisms of action of these proteins are found, suggesting hypothesis about their behavior and driving the design and realization of new experiments. The advantages provided in accuracy and efficiency make it possible to detect rare events in the motor protein dynamics, that could otherwise pass undetected using standard simulation methods. In this respect, the model has allowed to provide a possible explanation for possible mechanisms under which motor proteins could

  11. Microtubules are organized independently of the centrosome in Drosophila neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Michelle M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The best-studied arrangement of microtubules is that organized by the centrosome, a cloud of microtubule nucleating and anchoring proteins is clustered around centrioles. However, noncentrosomal microtubule arrays are common in many differentiated cells, including neurons. Although microtubules are not anchored at neuronal centrosomes, it remains unclear whether the centrosome plays a role in organizing neuronal microtubules. We use Drosophila as a model system to determine whether centrosomal microtubule nucleation is important in mature neurons. Results In developing and mature neurons, centrioles were not surrounded by the core nucleation protein γ-tubulin. This suggests that the centrioles do not organize functional centrosomes in Drosophila neurons in vivo. Consistent with this idea, centriole position was not correlated with a specific region of the cell body in neurons, and growing microtubules did not cluster around the centriole, even after axon severing when the number of growing plus ends is dramatically increased. To determine whether the centrosome was required for microtubule organization in mature neurons, we used two approaches. First, we used DSas-4 centriole duplication mutants. In these mutants, centrioles were present in many larval sensory neurons, but they were not fully functional. Despite reduced centriole function, microtubule orientation was normal in axons and dendrites. Second, we used laser ablation to eliminate the centriole, and again found that microtubule polarity in axons and dendrites was normal, even 3 days after treatment. Conclusion We conclude that the centrosome is not a major site of microtubule nucleation in Drosophila neurons, and is not required for maintenance of neuronal microtubule organization in these cells.

  12. Lateral motion and bending of microtubules studied with a new single-filament tracking routine in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavicini, Carla; Levi, Valeria; Wetzler, Diana E; Angiolini, Juan F; Benseñor, Lorena; Despósito, Marcelo A; Bruno, Luciana

    2014-06-17

    The cytoskeleton is involved in numerous cellular processes such as migration, division, and contraction and provides the tracks for transport driven by molecular motors. Therefore, it is very important to quantify the mechanical behavior of the cytoskeletal filaments to get a better insight into cell mechanics and organization. It has been demonstrated that relevant mechanical properties of microtubules can be extracted from the analysis of their motion and shape fluctuations. However, tracking individual filaments in living cells is extremely complex due, for example, to the high and heterogeneous background. We introduce a believed new tracking algorithm that allows recovering the coordinates of fluorescent microtubules with ∼9 nm precision in in vitro conditions. To illustrate potential applications of this algorithm, we studied the curvature distributions of fluorescent microtubules in living cells. By performing a Fourier analysis of the microtubule shapes, we found that the curvatures followed a thermal-like distribution as previously reported with an effective persistence length of ∼20 μm, a value significantly smaller than that measured in vitro. We also verified that the microtubule-associated protein XTP or the depolymerization of the actin network do not affect this value; however, the disruption of intermediate filaments decreased the persistence length. Also, we recovered trajectories of microtubule segments in actin or intermediate filament-depleted cells, and observed a significant increase of their motion with respect to untreated cells showing that these filaments contribute to the overall organization of the microtubule network. Moreover, the analysis of trajectories of microtubule segments in untreated cells showed that these filaments presented a slower but more directional motion in the cortex with respect to the perinuclear region, and suggests that the tracking routine would allow mapping the microtubule dynamical organization in cells

  13. Microtubule heterogeneity of Ornithogalum umbellatum ovary epidermal cells: non-stable cortical microtubules and stable lipotubuloid microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowska, Maria; Stępiński, Dariusz; Polit, Justyna T; Popłońska, Katarzyna; Wojtczak, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    Lipotubuloids, structures containing lipid bodies and microtubules, are described in ovary epidermal cells of Ornithogalum umbellatum. Microtubules of lipotubuloids can be fixed in electron microscope fixative containing only buffered OsO(4) or in glutaraldehyde with OsO(4) post-fixation, or in a mixture of OsO(4) and glutaraldehyde. None of these substances fixes cortical microtubules of ovary epidermis of this plant which is characterized by dynamic longitudinal growth. However, cortical microtubules can be fixed with cold methanol according immunocytological methods with the use of β-tubulin antibodies and fluorescein. The existence of cortical microtubules has also been evidenced by EM observations solely after the use of taxol, microtubule stabilizer, and fixation in a glutaraldehyde/OsO(4) mixture. These microtubules mostly lie transversely, sometimes obliquely, and rarely parallel to the cell axis. Staining, using Ruthenium Red and silver hexamine, has revealed that lipotubuloid microtubules surface is covered with polysaccharides. The presumption has been made that the presence of a polysaccharide layer enhances the stability of lipotubuloid microtubules.

  14. Cyclin G2 is a centrosome-associated nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein that influences microtubule stability and induces a p53-dependent cell cycle arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arachchige Don, Aruni S.; Dallapiazza, Robert F.; Bennin, David A.; Brake, Tiffany; Cowan, Colleen E.; Horne, Mary C.

    2006-01-01

    Cyclin G2 is an atypical cyclin that associates with active protein phosphatase 2A. Cyclin G2 gene expression correlates with cell cycle inhibition; it is significantly upregulated in response to DNA damage and diverse growth inhibitory stimuli, but repressed by mitogenic signals. Ectopic expression of cyclin G2 promotes cell cycle arrest, cyclin dependent kinase 2 inhibition and the formation of aberrant nuclei [Bennin, D. A., Don, A. S., Brake, T., McKenzie, J. L., Rosenbaum, H., Ortiz, L., DePaoli-Roach, A. A., and Horne, M. C. (2002). Cyclin G2 associates with protein phosphatase 2A catalytic and regulatory B' subunits in active complexes and induces nuclear aberrations and a G 1 /S-phase cell cycle arrest. J Biol Chem 277, 27449-67]. Here we report that endogenous cyclin G2 copurifies with centrosomes and microtubules (MT) and that ectopic G2 expression alters microtubule stability. We find exogenous and endogenous cyclin G2 present at microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) where it colocalizes with centrosomal markers in a variety of cell lines. We previously reported that cyclin G2 forms complexes with active protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and colocalizes with PP2A in a detergent-resistant compartment. We now show that cyclin G2 and PP2A colocalize at MTOCs in transfected cells and that the endogenous proteins copurify with isolated centrosomes. Displacement of the endogenous centrosomal scaffolding protein AKAP450 that anchors PP2A at the centrosome resulted in the depletion of centrosomal cyclin G2. We find that ectopic expression of cyclin G2 induces microtubule bundling and resistance to depolymerization, inhibition of polymer regrowth from MTOCs and a p53-dependent cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we determined that a 100 amino acid carboxy-terminal region of cyclin G2 is sufficient to both direct GFP localization to centrosomes and induce cell cycle inhibition. Colocalization of endogenous cyclin G2 with only one of two GFP-centrin-tagged centrioles, the

  15. Motor proteins and molecular motors: how to operate machines at the nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomeisky, Anatoly B

    2013-01-01

    Several classes of biological molecules that transform chemical energy into mechanical work are known as motor proteins or molecular motors. These nanometer-sized machines operate in noisy stochastic isothermal environments, strongly supporting fundamental cellular processes such as the transfer of genetic information, transport, organization and functioning. In the past two decades motor proteins have become a subject of intense research efforts, aimed at uncovering the fundamental principles and mechanisms of molecular motor dynamics. In this review, we critically discuss recent progress in experimental and theoretical studies on motor proteins. Our focus is on analyzing fundamental concepts and ideas that have been utilized to explain the non-equilibrium nature and mechanisms of molecular motors. (topical review)

  16. Dissecting the function and assembly of acentriolar microtubule organizing centers in Drosophila cells in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Baumbach

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Acentriolar microtubule organizing centers (aMTOCs are formed during meiosis and mitosis in several cell types, but their function and assembly mechanism is unclear. Importantly, aMTOCs can be overactive in cancer cells, enhancing multipolar spindle formation, merotelic kinetochore attachment and aneuploidy. Here we show that aMTOCs can form in acentriolar Drosophila somatic cells in vivo via an assembly pathway that depends on Asl, Cnn and, to a lesser extent, Spd-2--the same proteins that appear to drive mitotic centrosome assembly in flies. This finding enabled us to ablate aMTOC formation in acentriolar cells, and so perform a detailed genetic analysis of the contribution of aMTOCs to acentriolar mitotic spindle formation. Here we show that although aMTOCs can nucleate microtubules, they do not detectably increase the efficiency of acentriolar spindle assembly in somatic fly cells. We find that they are required, however, for robust microtubule array assembly in cells without centrioles that also lack microtubule nucleation from around the chromatin. Importantly, aMTOCs are also essential for dynein-dependent acentriolar spindle pole focusing and for robust cell proliferation in the absence of centrioles and HSET/Ncd (a kinesin essential for acentriolar spindle pole focusing in many systems. We propose an updated model for acentriolar spindle pole coalescence by the molecular motors Ncd/HSET and dynein in conjunction with aMTOCs.

  17. Chemical and thermal modulation of molecular motor activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Weili

    Molecular motors of kinesin and dynein families are responsible for various intracellular activities, from long distance movement of organelles, vesicles, protein complexes, and mRNAs to powering mitotic processes. They can take nanometer steps using chemical energy from the hydrolysis of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), and their dysfunction is involved in many neurodegenerative diseases that require long distance transport of cargos. Here I report on the study of the properties of molecular motors at a single-molecule level using optical trappings. I first studied the inhibition properties of kinesin motors by marine natural compound adociasulfates. I showed that adociasulfates compete with microtubules for binding to kinesins and thus inhibit kinesins' activity. Although adociasulfates are a strong inhibitor for all kinesin members, they show a much higher inhibition effect for conventional kinesins than for mitotic kinesins. Thus adociasulfates can be used to specifically inhibit conventional kinesins. By comparing the inhibition of kinesins by two structurally similar adociasulfates, one can see that the negatively charged sulfate residue of adociasulfates can be replaced by other negative residues and thus make it possible for adociasulfate-derived compounds to be more cell permeable. Kinesins and dyneins move cargos towards opposite directions along a microtubule. Cargos with both kinesins and dyneins attached often move bidirectionally due to undergoing a tug-of-war between the oppositely moving kinesin and dynein motors. Here I studied the effect of temperature on microtubule-based kinesin and dynein motor transport. While kinesins' and dyneins' velocities are closely matched above 15 °C, below this temperature the dyneins' velocity decreases much faster than the kinesins'. The kinesins' and dyneins' forces do not measurably change with temperature. The results suggest that temperature has significant effects on bidirectional transport and can be used to

  18. Mathematical modeling of alignment dynamics in active motor-filament systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Sumanth

    The formation of the cytoskeleton, via motor-mediated microtubule self-organization, is an important subject of study in the biological sciences as well as in nonequilibrium, soft matter physics. Accurate modeling of the dynamics is a formidable task as it involves intrinsic nonlinearities, structural anisotropies, nonequilibrium processes, and a broad window of time scales, length scales, and densities. In this thesis, we study the ordering dynamics and pattern formations arising from motor-mediated microtubule self-organization in dilute and semi-dilute filament solutions. In the dilute case, we use a probabilistic model in which microtubules interact through motor induced, inelastic binary collisions. This model shows that initially disordered filament solutions exhibit an ordering transition resulting in the emergence of well aligned rod bundles. We study the existence and dynamic interaction of microtubule bundles analytically and numerically. Our results show a long term attraction and coalescing of bundles indicating a clear coarsening in the system; microtubule bundles concentrate into fewer orientations on a slow logarithmic time scale. In the semi-dilute case, multiple motors can bind a filament to several others and, for a critical motor density, induce a transition to an ordered state with a nonzero mean orientation. We develop a spatially homogeneous, mean-field theory that explicitly accounts for motor forcing and thermal fluctuations which enter into the model as multiplicative and additive noises respectively. Our model further incorporates a force-dependent detachment rate of motors, which in turn affects the mean and the fluctuations of the net force acting on a filament. We demonstrate that the transition to the oriented state changes from second order to first order when the force-dependent detachment becomes important. In our final analysis, we add complex spatial inhomogeneities to our mean field theory. The revised model consists of a system

  19. Spindles and active vortices in a model of confined filament-motor mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, David A; Briels, Wj; Gompper, Gerhard

    2011-11-16

    Robust self-organization of subcellular structures is a key principle governing the dynamics and evolution of cellular life. In fission yeast cells undergoing division, the mitotic spindle spontaneously emerges from the interaction of microtubules, motor proteins and the confining cell walls, and asters and vortices have been observed to self-assemble in quasi-two dimensional microtubule-kinesin assays. There is no clear microscopic picture of the role of the active motors driving this pattern formation, and the relevance of continuum modeling to filament-scale structures remains uncertain. Here we present results of numerical simulations of a discrete filament-motor protein model confined to a pressurised cylindrical box. Stable spindles, nematic configurations, asters and high-density semi-asters spontaneously emerge, the latter pair having also been observed in cytosol confined within emulsion droplets. State diagrams are presented delineating each stationary state as the pressure, motor speed and motor density are varied. We further highlight a parameter regime where vortices form exhibiting collective rotation of all filaments, but have a finite life-time before contracting to a semi-aster. Quantifying the distribution of life-times suggests this contraction is a Poisson process. Equivalent systems with fixed volume exhibit persistent vortices with stochastic switching in the direction of rotation, with switching times obeying similar statistics to contraction times in pressurised systems. Furthermore, we show that increasing the detachment rate of motors from filament plus-ends can both destroy vortices and turn some asters into vortices. We have shown that discrete filament-motor protein models provide new insights into the stationary and dynamical behavior of active gels and subcellular structures, because many phenomena occur on the length-scale of single filaments. Based on our findings, we argue the need for a deeper understanding of the microscopic

  20. GIT1/beta PIX signaling proteins and PAK1 kinase regulate microtubule nucleation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černohorská, Markéta; Sulimenko, Vadym; Hájková, Zuzana; Sulimenko, Tetyana; Sládková, Vladimíra; Vinopal, Stanislav; Dráberová, Eduarda; Dráber, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1863, č. 6 (2016), s. 1282-1297 ISSN 0167-4889 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP302/12/1673; GA ČR GA15-22194S; GA MŠk LH12050; GA MZd NT14467; GA ČR GA16-23702S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Centrosome * Microtubule nucleation * gamma-tubulin * GIT1/beta PIX signaling proteins * PAK1 kinase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.521, year: 2016

  1. Random intermittent search and the tug-of-war model of motor-driven transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newby, Jay; Bressloff, Paul C

    2010-01-01

    We formulate the 'tug-of-war' model of microtubule cargo transport by multiple molecular motors as an intermittent random search for a hidden target. A motor complex consisting of multiple molecular motors with opposing directional preference is modeled using a discrete Markov process. The motors randomly pull each other off of the microtubule so that the state of the motor complex is determined by the number of bound motors. The tug-of-war model prescribes the state transition rates and corresponding cargo velocities in terms of experimentally measured physical parameters. We add space to the resulting Chapman–Kolmogorov (CK) equation so that we can consider delivery of the cargo to a hidden target at an unknown location along the microtubule track. The target represents some subcellular compartment such as a synapse in a neuron's dendrites, and target delivery is modeled as a simple absorption process. Using a quasi-steady-state (QSS) reduction technique we calculate analytical approximations of the mean first passage time (MFPT) to find the target. We show that there exists an optimal adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration that minimizes the MFPT for two different cases: (i) the motor complex is composed of equal numbers of kinesin motors bound to two different microtubules (symmetric tug-of-war model) and (ii) the motor complex is composed of different numbers of kinesin and dynein motors bound to a single microtubule (asymmetric tug-of-war model)

  2. Random intermittent search and the tug-of-war model of motor-driven transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Jay; Bressloff, Paul C.

    2010-04-01

    We formulate the 'tug-of-war' model of microtubule cargo transport by multiple molecular motors as an intermittent random search for a hidden target. A motor complex consisting of multiple molecular motors with opposing directional preference is modeled using a discrete Markov process. The motors randomly pull each other off of the microtubule so that the state of the motor complex is determined by the number of bound motors. The tug-of-war model prescribes the state transition rates and corresponding cargo velocities in terms of experimentally measured physical parameters. We add space to the resulting Chapman-Kolmogorov (CK) equation so that we can consider delivery of the cargo to a hidden target at an unknown location along the microtubule track. The target represents some subcellular compartment such as a synapse in a neuron's dendrites, and target delivery is modeled as a simple absorption process. Using a quasi-steady-state (QSS) reduction technique we calculate analytical approximations of the mean first passage time (MFPT) to find the target. We show that there exists an optimal adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration that minimizes the MFPT for two different cases: (i) the motor complex is composed of equal numbers of kinesin motors bound to two different microtubules (symmetric tug-of-war model) and (ii) the motor complex is composed of different numbers of kinesin and dynein motors bound to a single microtubule (asymmetric tug-of-war model).

  3. Random intermittent search and the tug-of-war model of motor-driven transport

    KAUST Repository

    Newby, Jay

    2010-04-16

    We formulate the \\'tug-of-war\\' model of microtubule cargo transport by multiple molecular motors as an intermittent random search for a hidden target. A motor complex consisting of multiple molecular motors with opposing directional preference is modeled using a discrete Markov process. The motors randomly pull each other off of the microtubule so that the state of the motor complex is determined by the number of bound motors. The tug-of-war model prescribes the state transition rates and corresponding cargo velocities in terms of experimentally measured physical parameters. We add space to the resulting Chapman-Kolmogorov (CK) equation so that we can consider delivery of the cargo to a hidden target at an unknown location along the microtubule track. The target represents some subcellular compartment such as a synapse in a neuron\\'s dendrites, and target delivery is modeled as a simple absorption process. Using a quasi-steady-state (QSS) reduction technique we calculate analytical approximations of the mean first passage time (MFPT) to find the target. We show that there exists an optimal adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration that minimizes the MFPT for two different cases: (i) the motor complex is composed of equal numbers of kinesin motors bound to two different microtubules (symmetric tug-of-war model) and (ii) the motor complex is composed of different numbers of kinesin and dynein motors bound to a single microtubule (asymmetric tug-of-war model). © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Random intermittent search and the tug-of-war model of motor-driven transport

    KAUST Repository

    Newby, Jay; Bressloff, Paul C

    2010-01-01

    We formulate the 'tug-of-war' model of microtubule cargo transport by multiple molecular motors as an intermittent random search for a hidden target. A motor complex consisting of multiple molecular motors with opposing directional preference is modeled using a discrete Markov process. The motors randomly pull each other off of the microtubule so that the state of the motor complex is determined by the number of bound motors. The tug-of-war model prescribes the state transition rates and corresponding cargo velocities in terms of experimentally measured physical parameters. We add space to the resulting Chapman-Kolmogorov (CK) equation so that we can consider delivery of the cargo to a hidden target at an unknown location along the microtubule track. The target represents some subcellular compartment such as a synapse in a neuron's dendrites, and target delivery is modeled as a simple absorption process. Using a quasi-steady-state (QSS) reduction technique we calculate analytical approximations of the mean first passage time (MFPT) to find the target. We show that there exists an optimal adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration that minimizes the MFPT for two different cases: (i) the motor complex is composed of equal numbers of kinesin motors bound to two different microtubules (symmetric tug-of-war model) and (ii) the motor complex is composed of different numbers of kinesin and dynein motors bound to a single microtubule (asymmetric tug-of-war model). © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  5. A mutation of the fission yeast EB1 overcomes negative regulation by phosphorylation and stabilizes microtubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iimori, Makoto; Ozaki, Kanako; Chikashige, Yuji; Habu, Toshiyuki; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Maki, Takahisa; Hayashi, Ikuko; Obuse, Chikashi; Matsumoto, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    Mal3 is a fission yeast homolog of EB1, a plus-end tracking protein (+ TIP). We have generated a mutation (89R) replacing glutamine with arginine in the calponin homology (CH) domain of Mal3. Analysis of the 89R mutant in vitro has revealed that the mutation confers a higher affinity to microtubules and enhances the intrinsic activity to promote the microtubule-assembly. The mutant Mal3 is no longer a + TIP, but binds strongly the microtubule lattice. Live cell imaging has revealed that while the wild type Mal3 proteins dissociate from the tip of the growing microtubules before the onset of shrinkage, the mutant Mal3 proteins persist on microtubules and reduces a rate of shrinkage after a longer pausing period. Consequently, the mutant Mal3 proteins cause abnormal elongation of microtubules composing the spindle and aster. Mal3 is phosphorylated at a cluster of serine/threonine residues in the linker connecting the CH and EB1-like C-terminal motif domains. The phosphorylation occurs in a microtubule-dependent manner and reduces the affinity of Mal3 to microtubules. We propose that because the 89R mutation is resistant to the effect of phosphorylation, it can associate persistently with microtubules and confers a stronger stability of microtubules likely by reinforcing the cylindrical structure. -- Highlights: ► We characterize a mutation (mal3-89R) in fission yeast homolog of EB1. ► The mutation enhances the activity to assemble microtubules. ► Mal3 is phosphorylated in a microtubule-dependent manner. ► The phosphorylation negatively regulates the Mal3 activity.

  6. A mutation of the fission yeast EB1 overcomes negative regulation by phosphorylation and stabilizes microtubules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iimori, Makoto; Ozaki, Kanako [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Chikashige, Yuji [Kobe Advanced ICT Research Center, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Kobe, 651-2492 (Japan); Habu, Toshiyuki [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Radiation Biology Center, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8501 (Japan); Hiraoka, Yasushi [Kobe Advanced ICT Research Center, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Kobe, 651-2492 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 1-3 Yamadaoka, Suita, 565-0871 (Japan); Maki, Takahisa; Hayashi, Ikuko [Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University, Tsurumi, Yokohama, 230-0045 (Japan); Obuse, Chikashi [Graduate School of Life Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Matsumoto, Tomohiro, E-mail: tmatsumo@house.rbc.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Radiation Biology Center, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8501 (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    Mal3 is a fission yeast homolog of EB1, a plus-end tracking protein (+ TIP). We have generated a mutation (89R) replacing glutamine with arginine in the calponin homology (CH) domain of Mal3. Analysis of the 89R mutant in vitro has revealed that the mutation confers a higher affinity to microtubules and enhances the intrinsic activity to promote the microtubule-assembly. The mutant Mal3 is no longer a + TIP, but binds strongly the microtubule lattice. Live cell imaging has revealed that while the wild type Mal3 proteins dissociate from the tip of the growing microtubules before the onset of shrinkage, the mutant Mal3 proteins persist on microtubules and reduces a rate of shrinkage after a longer pausing period. Consequently, the mutant Mal3 proteins cause abnormal elongation of microtubules composing the spindle and aster. Mal3 is phosphorylated at a cluster of serine/threonine residues in the linker connecting the CH and EB1-like C-terminal motif domains. The phosphorylation occurs in a microtubule-dependent manner and reduces the affinity of Mal3 to microtubules. We propose that because the 89R mutation is resistant to the effect of phosphorylation, it can associate persistently with microtubules and confers a stronger stability of microtubules likely by reinforcing the cylindrical structure. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We characterize a mutation (mal3-89R) in fission yeast homolog of EB1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mutation enhances the activity to assemble microtubules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mal3 is phosphorylated in a microtubule-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phosphorylation negatively regulates the Mal3 activity.

  7. Hypergravity signal transduction in HeLa cells with concomitant phosphorylation of proteins immunoprecipitated with anti-microtubule-associated protein antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumei, Yasuhiro; Whitson, Peggy A.; Sato, Atsushige; Cintron, Nitza M.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that hypergravity (35g) stimulates the production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and decreases adenosine 3-prime,5-prime-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) levels in HeLa cells. It is proposed that IP3 and cAMP may act as second messengers in hypergravity signal transduction. Phosphorylation of microtubule-associated proteins in both the detergent-soluble and -insoluble fractions suggests that cytoskeletal structures may be influenced by gravity.

  8. Modelling the role of intrinsic electric fields in microtubules as an additional control mechanism of bi-directional intracellular transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sataric, M V; Budinski-Petkovic, L; Loncarevic, I; Tuszynski, J A

    2008-01-01

    Active transport is essential for cellular function, while impaired transport has been linked to diseases such as neuronal degeneration. Much long distance transport in cells uses opposite polarity molecular motors of the kinesin and dynein families to move cargos along microtubules. It is clear that many types of cargo are moved by both sets of motors, and frequently in a reverse direction. The general question of how the direction of transport is regulated is still open. The mechanism of the cell's differential control of diverse cargos within the same cytoplasmic background is still unclear as is the answer to the question how endosomes and mitochondria move to different locations within the same cell. To answer these questions we postulate the existence of a local signaling mechanism used by the cell to specifically control different cargos. In particular, we propose an additional physical mechanism that works through the use of constant and alternating intrinsic (endogenous) electric fields as a means of controlling the speed and direction of microtubule-based transport. A specific model is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The model involves the rotational degrees of freedom of the C-termini of tubulin, their interactions and the coupling between elastic and dielectric degrees of freedom. Viscosity of the solution is also included and the resultant equation of motion is found as a nonlinear elliptic equation with dissipation. A particular analytical solution of this equation is obtained in the form of a kink whose properties are analyzed. It is concluded that this solution can be modulated by the presence of electric fields and hence may correspond to the observed behavior of motor protein transport along microtubules.

  9. Transient phosphorylation of tumor associated microtubule associated protein (TMAP)/cytoskeleton associated protein 2 (CKAP2) at Thr-596 during early phases of mitosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Kyung Uk; Choi, Yong-Bock; Lee, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Kwon, Hye-Rim; Seong, Yeon-Sun; Kim, Heung Tae; Park, Joobae; Bae, Chang-Dae; Hong, Kyeong-Man

    2008-01-01

    Tumor associated microtubule associated protein (TMAP), also known as cytoskeleton associated protein 2 (CKAP2) is a mitotic spindle-associated protein whose expression is cell cycle-regulated and also frequently deregulated in cancer cells. Two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against TMAP/CKAP2 were produced: B-1-13 and D-12-3. Interestingly, the reactivity of mAb D-12-3 to TMAP/CKAP2 was markedly decreased specifically in mitotic cell lysate. The epitope mapping study showed that mAb D-12-3 re...

  10. Vaccinia protein F12 has structural similarity to kinesin light chain and contains a motor binding motif required for virion export.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth W Morgan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV uses microtubules for export of virions to the cell surface and this process requires the viral protein F12. Here we show that F12 has structural similarity to kinesin light chain (KLC, a subunit of the kinesin-1 motor that binds cargo. F12 and KLC share similar size, pI, hydropathy and cargo-binding tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs. Moreover, molecular modeling of F12 TPRs upon the crystal structure of KLC2 TPRs showed a striking conservation of structure. We also identified multiple TPRs in VACV proteins E2 and A36. Data presented demonstrate that F12 is critical for recruitment of kinesin-1 to virions and that a conserved tryptophan and aspartic acid (WD motif, which is conserved in the kinesin-1-binding sequence (KBS of the neuronal protein calsyntenin/alcadein and several other cellular kinesin-1 binding proteins, is essential for kinesin-1 recruitment and virion transport. In contrast, mutation of WD motifs in protein A36 revealed they were not required for kinesin-1 recruitment or IEV transport. This report of a viral KLC-like protein containing a KBS that is conserved in several cellular proteins advances our understanding of how VACV recruits the kinesin motor to virions, and exemplifies how viruses use molecular mimicry of cellular components to their advantage.

  11. An ELMO2-RhoG-ILK network modulates microtubule dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bradley C; Ivanova, Iordanka A; Dagnino, Lina

    2015-07-15

    ELMO2 belongs to a family of scaffold proteins involved in phagocytosis and cell motility. ELMO2 can simultaneously bind integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and RhoG, forming tripartite ERI complexes. These complexes are involved in promoting β1 integrin-dependent directional migration in undifferentiated epidermal keratinocytes. ELMO2 and ILK have also separately been implicated in microtubule regulation at integrin-containing focal adhesions. During differentiation, epidermal keratinocytes cease to express integrins, but ERI complexes persist. Here we show an integrin-independent role of ERI complexes in modulation of microtubule dynamics in differentiated keratinocytes. Depletion of ERI complexes by inactivating the Ilk gene in these cells reduces microtubule growth and increases the frequency of catastrophe. Reciprocally, exogenous expression of ELMO2 or RhoG stabilizes microtubules, but only if ILK is also present. Mechanistically, activation of Rac1 downstream from ERI complexes mediates their effects on microtubule stability. In this pathway, Rac1 serves as a hub to modulate microtubule dynamics through two different routes: 1) phosphorylation and inactivation of the microtubule-destabilizing protein stathmin and 2) phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3β, which leads to the activation of CRMP2, promoting microtubule growth. At the cellular level, the absence of ERI species impairs Ca(2+)-mediated formation of adherens junctions, critical to maintaining mechanical integrity in the epidermis. Our findings support a key role for ERI species in integrin-independent stabilization of the microtubule network in differentiated keratinocytes. © 2015 Jackson et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  12. GIT1 enhances neurite outgrowth by stimulating microtubule assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-sheng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available GIT1, a G-protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein, has been reported to be involved in neurite outgrowth. However, the neurobiological functions of the protein remain unclear. In this study, we found that GIT1 was highly expressed in the nervous system, and its expression was maintained throughout all stages of neuritogenesis in the brain. In primary cultured mouse hippocampal neurons from GIT1 knockout mice, there was a significant reduction in total neurite length per neuron, as well as in the average length of axon-like structures, which could not be prevented by nerve growth factor treatment. Overexpression of GIT1 significantly promoted axon growth and fully rescued the axon outgrowth defect in the primary hippocampal neuron cultures from GIT1 knockout mice. The GIT1 N terminal region, including the ADP ribosylation factor-GTPase activating protein domain, the ankyrin domains and the Spa2 homology domain, were sufficient to enhance axonal extension. Importantly, GIT1 bound to many tubulin proteins and microtubule-associated proteins, and it accelerated microtubule assembly in vitro. Collectively, our findings suggest that GIT1 promotes neurite outgrowth, at least partially by stimulating microtubule assembly. This study provides new insight into the cellular and molecular pathogenesis of GIT1-associated neurological diseases.

  13. Microtubule catastrophe and rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Melissa K; Zanic, Marija; Howard, Jonathon

    2013-02-01

    Microtubules are long cylindrical polymers composed of tubulin subunits. In cells, microtubules play an essential role in architecture and motility. For example, microtubules give shape to cells, serve as intracellular transport tracks, and act as key elements in important cellular structures such as axonemes and mitotic spindles. To accomplish these varied functions, networks of microtubules in cells are very dynamic, continuously remodeling through stochastic length fluctuations at the ends of individual microtubules. The dynamic behavior at the end of an individual microtubule is termed 'dynamic instability'. This behavior manifests itself by periods of persistent microtubule growth interrupted by occasional switching to rapid shrinkage (called microtubule 'catastrophe'), and then by switching back from shrinkage to growth (called microtubule 'rescue'). In this review, we summarize recent findings which provide new insights into the mechanisms of microtubule catastrophe and rescue, and discuss the impact of these findings in regards to the role of microtubule dynamics inside of cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Brassinosteroids regulate pavement cell growth by mediating BIN2-induced microtubule stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolei; Yang, Qin; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Linhai; Fu, Ying; Wang, Xuelu

    2018-02-23

    Brassinosteroids (BRs), a group of plant steroid hormones, play important roles in regulating plant development. The cytoskeleton also affects key developmental processes and a deficiency in BR biosynthesis or signaling leads to abnormal phenotypes similar to those of microtubule-defective mutants. However, how BRs regulate microtubule and cell morphology remains unknown. Here, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we identified tubulin proteins that interact with Arabidopsis BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE2 (BIN2), a negative regulator of BR responses in plants. In vitro and in vivo pull-down assays confirmed that BIN2 interacts with tubulin proteins. High-speed co-sedimentation assays demonstrated that BIN2 also binds microtubules. The Arabidopsis genome also encodes two BIN2 homologs, BIN2-LIKE 1 (BIL1) and BIL2, which function redundantly with BIN2. In the bin2-3 bil1 bil2 triple mutant, cortical microtubules were more sensitive to treatment with the microtubule-disrupting drug oryzalin than in wild-type, whereas in the BIN2 gain-of-function mutant bin2-1, cortical microtubules were insensitive to oryzalin treatment. These results provide important insight into how BR regulates plant pavement cell and leaf growth by mediating the stabilization of microtubules by BIN2.

  15. Cytoplasmic Dynein Is Required for the Spatial Organization of Protein Aggregates in Filamentous Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Egan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotes have evolved multiple strategies for maintaining cellular protein homeostasis. One such mechanism involves neutralization of deleterious protein aggregates via their defined spatial segregation. Here, using the molecular disaggregase Hsp104 as a marker for protein aggregation, we describe the spatial and temporal dynamics of protein aggregates in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Filamentous fungi, such as A. nidulans, are a diverse group of species of major health and economic importance and also serve as model systems for studying highly polarized eukaryotic cells. We find that microtubules promote the formation of Hsp104-positive aggregates, which coalesce into discrete subcellular structures in a process dependent on the microtubule-based motor cytoplasmic dynein. Finally, we find that impaired clearance of these inclusions negatively impacts retrograde trafficking of endosomes, a conventional dynein cargo, indicating that microtubule-based transport can be overwhelmed by chronic cellular stress.

  16. Cell cycle-dependent changes in localization of a 210-kDa microtubule-interacting protein in .I.Leishmania./I..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Libusová, Lenka; Dráberová, Eduarda; Juliano, C.; Viklický, Vladimír; Fiori, P. L.; Cappuccinelli, P.; Dráber, Petr

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 266, č. 2 (2001), s. 270-278 ISSN 0014-4827 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/00/0553; GA AV ČR IAA5052004 Keywords : microtubule-associated proteins * Leishmania-antibody Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.096, year: 2001

  17. Chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-oxon, and diisopropylfluorophosphate inhibit kinesin-dependent microtubule motility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gearhart, Debra A.; Sickles, Dale W.; Buccafusco, Jerry J.; Prendergast, Mark A.; Terry, Alvin V.

    2007-01-01

    Diisopropylfluorophosphate, originally developed as a chemical warfare agent, is structurally similar to nerve agents, and chlorpyrifos has extensive worldwide use as an agricultural pesticide. While inhibition of cholinesterases underlies the acute toxicity of these organophosphates, we previously reported impaired axonal transport in the sciatic nerves from rats treated chronically with subthreshold doses of chlorpyrifos. Those data indicate that chlorpyrifos (and/or its active metabolite, chlorpyrifos-oxon) might directly affect the function of kinesin and/or microtubules-the principal proteins that mediate anterograde axonal transport. The current report describes in vitro assays to assess the concentration-dependent effects of chlorpyrifos (0-10 μM), chlorpyrifos-oxon (0-10 μM), and diisopropylfluorophosphate (0-0.59 nM) on kinesin-dependent microtubule motility. Preincubating bovine brain microtubules with the organophosphates did not alter kinesin-mediated microtubule motility. In contrast, preincubation of bovine brain kinesin with diisopropylfluorophosphate, chlorpyrifos, or chlorpyrifos-oxon produced a concentration-dependent increase in the number of locomoting microtubules that detached from the kinesin-coated glass cover slip. Our data suggest that the organophosphates-chlorpyrifos-oxon, chlorpyrifos, and diisopropylfluorophosphate-directly affect kinesin, thereby disrupting kinesin-dependent transport on microtubules. Kinesin-dependent movement of vesicles, organelles, and other cellular components along microtubules is fundamental to the organization of all eukaryotic cells, especially in neurons where organelles and proteins synthesized in the cell body must move down long axons to pre-synaptic sites in nerve terminals. We postulate that disruption of kinesin-dependent intracellular transport could account for some of the long-term effects of organophosphates on the peripheral and central nervous system

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Tau-Microtubule Interaction Using FRET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle L. Di Maïo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between the microtubule associated protein, tau and the microtubules is investigated. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET assay was used to determine the distance separating tau to the microtubule wall, as well as the binding parameters of the interaction. By using microtubules stabilized with Flutax-2 as donor and tau labeled with rhodamine as acceptor, a donor-to-acceptor distance of 54 ± 1 Å was found. A molecular model is proposed in which Flutax-2 is directly accessible to tau-rhodamine molecules for energy transfer. By titration, we calculated the stoichiometric dissociation constant to be equal to 1.0 ± 0.5 µM. The influence of the C-terminal tails of αβ-tubulin on the tau-microtubule interaction is presented once a procedure to form homogeneous solution of cleaved tubulin has been determined. The results indicate that the C-terminal tails of α- and β-tubulin by electrostatic effects and of recruitment seem to be involved in the binding mechanism of tau.

  19. Nonstructural protein 5A is incorporated into hepatitis C virus low-density particle through interaction with core protein and microtubules during intracellular transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Kuen Lai

    Full Text Available Nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A of hepatitis C virus (HCV serves dual functions in viral RNA replication and virus assembly. Here, we demonstrate that HCV replication complex along with NS5A and Core protein was transported to the lipid droplet (LD through microtubules, and NS5A-Core complexes were then transported from LD through early-to-late endosomes to the plasma membrane via microtubules. Further studies by cofractionation analysis and immunoelectron microscopy of the released particles showed that NS5A-Core complexes, but not NS4B, were present in the low-density fractions, but not in the high-density fractions, of the HCV RNA-containing virions and associated with the internal virion core. Furthermore, exosomal markers CD63 and CD81 were also detected in the low-density fractions, but not in the high-density fractions. Overall, our results suggest that HCV NS5A is associated with the core of the low-density virus particles which exit the cell through a preexisting endosome/exosome pathway and may contribute to HCV natural infection.

  20. Structural differences between yeast and mammalian microtubules revealed by cryo-EM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howes, Stuart C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Biophysics Graduate Group; Geyer, Elisabeth A. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Biophysics; Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry; LaFrance, Benjamin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular and Cell Biology Graduate Program; Zhang, Rui [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Howard Hughes Medical Inst.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division; Kellogg, Elizabeth H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Howard Hughes Medical Inst.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division; Westermann, Stefan [Univ. of Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany). Dept. of Molecular Genetics, Center for Medical Biotechnology; Rice, Luke M. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Biophysics; Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry; Nogales, Eva [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Howard Hughes Medical Inst.; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Molecular Biology and California Inst. for Quantitative Biosciences; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division

    2017-06-26

    Microtubules are polymers of αβ-tubulin heterodimers essential for all eukaryotes. Despite sequence conservation, there are significant structural differences between microtubules assembled in vitro from mammalian or budding yeast tubulin. Yeast MTs were not observed to undergo compaction at the interdimer interface as seen for mammalian microtubules upon GTP hydrolysis. Lack of compaction might reflect slower GTP hydrolysis or a different degree of allosteric coupling in the lattice. The microtubule plus end–tracking protein Bim1 binds yeast microtubules both between αβ-tubulin heterodimers, as seen for other organisms, and within tubulin dimers, but binds mammalian tubulin only at interdimer contacts. At the concentrations used in cryo-electron microscopy, Bim1 causes the compaction of yeast microtubules and induces their rapid disassembly. In conclusion, our studies demonstrate structural differences between yeast and mammalian microtubules that likely underlie their differing polymerization dynamics. These differences may reflect adaptations to the demands of different cell size or range of physiological growth temperatures.

  1. KIAA0100 Modulates Cancer Cell Aggression Behavior of MDA-MB-231 through Microtubule and Heat Shock Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Zhong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The KIAA0100 gene was identified in the human immature myeloid cell line cDNA library. Recent studies have shown that its expression is elevated in breast cancer and associated with more aggressive cancer types as well as poor outcomes. However, its cellular and molecular function is yet to be understood. Here we show that silencing KIAA0100 by siRNA in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 significantly reduced the cancer cells’ aggressive behavior, including cell aggregation, reattachment, cell metastasis and invasion. Most importantly, silencing the expression of KIAA0100 particularly sensitized the quiescent cancer cells in suspension culture to anoikis. Immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry and immunofluorescence analysis revealed that KIAA0100 may play multiple roles in the cancer cells, including stabilizing microtubule structure as a microtubule binding protein, and contributing to MDA-MB-231 cells Anoikis resistance by the interaction with stress protein HSPA1A. Our study also implies that the interaction between KIAA0100 and HSPA1A may be targeted for new drug development to specifically induce anoikis cell death in the cancer cell.

  2. Molecular architecture of axonemal microtubule doublets revealedby cryo-electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Haixin; Downing, Kenneth H.

    2006-05-22

    The axoneme, which forms the core of eukaryotic flagella and cilia, is one of the largest macromolecular machines with a structure that is largely conserved from protists to mammals. Microtubule doublets are structural components of axonemes containing a number of proteins besides tubulin, and are usually found in arrays of nine doublets arranged around two singlet microtubules. Coordinated sliding of adjacent doublets, which involves a host of other proteins in the axoneme, produces periodic beating movements of the axoneme. We have obtained a 3D density map of intact microtubule doublets using cryo-electron tomography and image averaging. Our map, with a resolution of about 3 nm, provides insights into locations of particular proteins within the doublets and the structural features of the doublets that define their mechanical properties. We identify likely candidates for several of these non-tubulin components of the doublets. This work offers novel insight on how tubulin protofilaments and accessory proteins attach together to form the doublets and provides a structural basis for understanding doublet function in axonemes.

  3. Microtubules move the nucleus to quiescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Damien; Sagot, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The nucleus is a cellular compartment that hosts several macro-molecular machines displaying a highly complex spatial organization. This tight architectural orchestration determines not only DNA replication and repair but also regulates gene expression. In budding yeast microtubules play a key role in structuring the nucleus since they condition the Rabl arrangement in G1 and chromosome partitioning during mitosis through their attachment to centromeres via the kinetochore proteins. Recently, we have shown that upon quiescence entry, intranuclear microtubules emanating from the spindle pole body elongate to form a highly stable bundle that spans the entire nucleus. Here, we examine some molecular mechanisms that may underlie the formation of this structure. As the intranuclear microtubule bundle causes a profound re-organization of the yeast nucleus and is required for cell survival during quiescence, we discuss the possibility that the assembly of such a structure participates in quiescence establishment.

  4. Spindles and active vortices in a model of confined filament-motor mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Head David A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robust self-organization of subcellular structures is a key principle governing the dynamics and evolution of cellular life. In fission yeast cells undergoing division, the mitotic spindle spontaneously emerges from the interaction of microtubules, motor proteins and the confining cell walls, and asters and vortices have been observed to self-assemble in quasi-two dimensional microtubule-kinesin assays. There is no clear microscopic picture of the role of the active motors driving this pattern formation, and the relevance of continuum modeling to filament-scale structures remains uncertain. Results Here we present results of numerical simulations of a discrete filament-motor protein model confined to a pressurised cylindrical box. Stable spindles, nematic configurations, asters and high-density semi-asters spontaneously emerge, the latter pair having also been observed in cytosol confined within emulsion droplets. State diagrams are presented delineating each stationary state as the pressure, motor speed and motor density are varied. We further highlight a parameter regime where vortices form exhibiting collective rotation of all filaments, but have a finite life-time before contracting to a semi-aster. Quantifying the distribution of life-times suggests this contraction is a Poisson process. Equivalent systems with fixed volume exhibit persistent vortices with stochastic switching in the direction of rotation, with switching times obeying similar statistics to contraction times in pressurised systems. Furthermore, we show that increasing the detachment rate of motors from filament plus-ends can both destroy vortices and turn some asters into vortices. Conclusions We have shown that discrete filament-motor protein models provide new insights into the stationary and dynamical behavior of active gels and subcellular structures, because many phenomena occur on the length-scale of single filaments. Based on our findings, we argue

  5. A structural model for microtubule minus-end recognition and protection by CAMSAP proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atherton, Joseph; Jiang, Kai; Stangier, Marcel M.; Luo, Yanzhang; Hua, Shasha; Houben, Klaartje; Van Hooff, Jolien J.E.; Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Scarabelli, Guido; Grant, Barry J.; Roberts, Anthony J.; Topf, Maya; Steinmetz, Michel O.; Baldus, Marc; Moores, Carolyn A.; Akhmanova, Anna

    2017-01-01

    CAMSAP and Patronin family members regulate microtubule minus-end stability and localization and thus organize noncentrosomal microtubule networks, which are essential for cell division, polarization and differentiation. Here, we found that the CAMSAP C-terminal CKK domain is widely present among

  6. Immunohistochemical detection of autophagy-related microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) in the cerebellums of dogs naturally infected with canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabak, Y B; Sozmen, M; Yarim, M; Guvenc, T; Karayigit, M O; Gulbahar, M Y

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) protein in the cerebellums of dogs infected with canine distemper virus (CDV) using immunohistochemistry to detect autophagy. The cerebellums of 20 dogs infected with CDV were used. Specimens showing demyelination of white matter were considered to have an acute infection, whereas specimens showing signs of severe perivascular cuffing and demyelination of white matter were classified as having chronic CDV. Cerebellar sections were immunostained with CDV and LC3 antibodies. The cytoplasm of Purkinje cells, granular layer cells, motor neurons in large cerebellar ganglia and some neurons in white matter were positive for the LC3 antibody in both the control and CDV-infected dogs. In the infected cerebellums, however, white matter was immunostained more intensely, particularly the neurons and gemistocytic astrocytes in the demyelinated areas, compared to controls. Autophagy also was demonstrated in CDV-positive cells using double immunofluorescence staining. Our findings indicate that increased autophagy in the cerebellum of dogs naturally infected with CDV may play a role in transferring the virus from cell to cell.

  7. Dynamic properties of motor proteins with two subunits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomeisky, Anatoly B; III, Hubert Phillips

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics of motor protein molecules consisting of two subunits is investigated using simple discrete stochastic models. Exact steady-state analytical expressions are obtained for velocities and dispersions for any number of intermediate states and conformations between the corresponding binding states of proteins. These models enable us to provide a detailed description and comparison of two different mechanisms of the motion of motor proteins along the linear tracks: the hand-over-hand mechanism, when the motion of subunits alternate; and the inchworm mechanism, when one subunit is always trailing another one. It is shown that the proteins in the hand-over-hand mechanism move faster and fluctuate more than the molecules in the inchworm mechanism. The effect of external forces on dynamic properties of motor proteins is also discussed. Finally, a quantitative method, based on experimental observations for single motor proteins, is proposed for distinguishing between two mechanisms of motion

  8. The dynamic interplay of plasma membrane domains and cortical microtubules in secondary cell wall patterning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa eOda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Patterning of the cellulosic cell wall underlies the shape and function of plant cells. The cortical microtubule array plays a central role in the regulation of cell wall patterns. However, the regulatory mechanisms by which secondary cell wall patterns are established through cortical microtubules remain to be fully determined. Our recent study in xylem vessel cells revealed that a mutual inhibitory interaction between cortical microtubules and distinct plasma membrane domains leads to distinctive patterning in secondary cell walls. Our research revealed that the recycling of active and inactive ROP proteins by a specific GAP and GEF pair establishes distinct de novo plasma membrane domains. Active ROP recruits a plant-specific microtubule-associated protein, MIDD1, which mediates the mutual interaction between cortical microtubules and plasma membrane domains. In this mini review, we summarize recent research regarding secondary wall patterning, with a focus on the emerging interplay between plasma membrane domains and cortical microtubules through MIDD1 and ROP.

  9. Interactive domains in the molecular chaperone human alphaB crystallin modulate microtubule assembly and disassembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy G Ghosh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Small heat shock proteins regulate microtubule assembly during cell proliferation and in response to stress through interactions that are poorly understood.Novel functions for five interactive sequences in the small heat shock protein and molecular chaperone, human alphaB crystallin, were investigated in the assembly/disassembly of microtubules and aggregation of tubulin using synthetic peptides and mutants of human alphaB crystallin.The interactive sequence (113FISREFHR(120 exposed on the surface of alphaB crystallin decreased microtubule assembly by approximately 45%. In contrast, the interactive sequences, (131LTITSSLSSDGV(142 and (156ERTIPITRE(164, corresponding to the beta8 strand and the C-terminal extension respectively, which are involved in complex formation, increased microtubule assembly by approximately 34-45%. The alphaB crystallin peptides, (113FISREFHR(120 and (156ERTIPITRE(164, inhibited microtubule disassembly by approximately 26-36%, and the peptides (113FISREFHR(120 and (131LTITSSLSSDGV(142 decreased the thermal aggregation of tubulin by approximately 42-44%. The (131LTITSSLSSDGV(142 and (156ERTIPITRE(164 peptides were more effective than the widely used anti-cancer drug, Paclitaxel, in modulating tubulinmicrotubule dynamics. Mutagenesis of these interactive sequences in wt human alphaB crystallin confirmed the effects of the alphaB crystallin peptides on microtubule assembly/disassembly and tubulin aggregation. The regulation of microtubule assembly by alphaB crystallin varied over a narrow range of concentrations. The assembly of microtubules was maximal at alphaB crystallin to tubulin molar ratios between 1:4 and 2:1, while molar ratios >2:1 inhibited microtubule assembly.Interactive sequences on the surface of human alphaB crystallin collectively modulate microtubule assembly through a dynamic subunit exchange mechanism that depends on the concentration and ratio of alphaB crystallin to tubulin. These are the first

  10. Cationic membranes complexed with oppositely charged microtubules: hierarchical self-assembly leading to bio-nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raviv, Uri; Needleman, Daniel J; Safinya, Cyrus R

    2006-01-01

    The self-assembly of microtubules and charged membranes has been studied, using x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. Polyelectrolyte lipid complexes usually form structures templated by the lipid phase, when the polyelectrolyte curvature is much larger than the membrane spontaneous curvature. When the polyelectrolyte curvature approaches the membrane spontaneous curvature, as in microtubules, two types of new structures emerge. Depending on the conditions, vesicles either adsorb onto the microtubule, forming a 'beads on a rod' structure, or coat the microtubule, which now forms the template. Tubulin oligomers then coat the external lipid layer, forming a lipid protein nanotube. The tubulin oligomer coverage at the external layer is determined by the membrane charge density. The energy barrier between the beads on a rod and the lipid-protein nanotube states depends on the membrane bending rigidity and membrane charge density. By controlling the lipid/tubulin stoichiometry we can switch between lipid-protein nanotubes with open ends to lipid-protein nanotubes with closed end with lipid cups. This forms the basis for controlled drug encapsulation and release

  11. Specific chlamydial inclusion membrane proteins associate with active Src family kinases in microdomains that interact with the host microtubule network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mital, Jeffrey; Miller, Natalie J; Fischer, Elizabeth R; Hackstadt, Ted

    2010-09-01

    Chlamydiae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria that cause diseases with significant medical and economic impact. Chlamydia trachomatis replicates within a vacuole termed an inclusion, which is extensively modified by the insertion of a number of bacterial effector proteins known as inclusion membrane proteins (Incs). Once modified, the inclusion is trafficked in a dynein-dependent manner to the microtubule-organizing centre (MTOC), where it associates with host centrosomes. Here we describe a novel structure on the inclusion membrane comprised of both host and bacterial proteins. Members of the Src family of kinases are recruited to the chlamydial inclusion in an active form. These kinases display a distinct, localized punctate microdomain-like staining pattern on the inclusion membrane that colocalizes with four chlamydial inclusion membrane proteins (Incs) and is enriched in cholesterol. Biochemical studies show that at least two of these Incs stably interact with one another. Furthermore, host centrosomes associate with these microdomain proteins in C. trachomatis-infected cells and in uninfected cells exogenously expressing one of the chlamydial effectors. Together, the data suggest that a specific structure on the C. trachomatis inclusion membrane may be responsible for the known interactions of chlamydiae with the microtubule network and resultant effects on centrosome stability.

  12. Katanin: A Sword Cutting Microtubules for Cellular, Developmental, and Physiological Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Luptovčiak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available KATANIN is a well-studied microtubule severing protein affecting microtubule organization and dynamic properties in higher plants. By regulating mitotic and cytokinetic and cortical microtubule arrays it is involved in the progression of cell division and cell division plane orientation. KATANIN is also involved in cell elongation and morphogenesis during plant growth. In this way KATANIN plays critical roles in diverse plant developmental processes including the development of pollen, embryo, seed, meristem, root, hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf, shoot, and silique. KATANIN-dependent microtubule regulation seems to be under the control of plant hormones. This minireview provides an overview on available KATANIN mutants and discusses advances in our understanding of KATANIN biological roles in plants.

  13. Local synaptic signaling enhances the stochastic transport of motor-driven cargo in neurons

    KAUST Repository

    Newby, Jay

    2010-08-23

    The tug-of-war model of motor-driven cargo transport is formulated as an intermittent trapping process. An immobile trap, representing the cellular machinery that sequesters a motor-driven cargo for eventual use, is located somewhere within a microtubule track. A particle representing a motor-driven cargo that moves randomly with a forward bias is introduced at the beginning of the track. The particle switches randomly between a fast moving phase and a slow moving phase. When in the slow moving phase, the particle can be captured by the trap. To account for the possibility that the particle avoids the trap, an absorbing boundary is placed at the end of the track. Two local signaling mechanisms-intended to improve the chances of capturing the target-are considered by allowing the trap to affect the tug-of-war parameters within a small region around itself. The first is based on a localized adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration gradient surrounding a synapse, and the second is based on a concentration of tau-a microtubule-associated protein involved in Alzheimer\\'s disease-coating the microtubule near the synapse. It is shown that both mechanisms can lead to dramatic improvements in the capture probability, with a minimal increase in the mean capture time. The analysis also shows that tau can cause a cargo to undergo random oscillations, which could explain some experimental observations. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  14. An agent-based model contrasts opposite effects of dynamic and stable microtubules on cleavage furrow positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, Garrett M; Foe, Victoria E

    2008-11-03

    From experiments by Foe and von Dassow (Foe, V.E., and G. von Dassow. 2008. J. Cell Biol. 183:457-470) and others, we infer a molecular mechanism for positioning the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. Computer simulations reveal how this mechanism depends on quantitative motor-behavior details and explore how robustly this mechanism succeeds across a range of cell sizes. The mechanism involves the MKLP1 (kinesin-6) component of centralspindlin binding to and walking along microtubules to stimulate cortical contractility where the centralspindlin complex concentrates. The majority of astral microtubules are dynamically unstable. They bind most MKLP1 and suppress cortical Rho/myosin II activation because the tips of unstable microtubules usually depolymerize before MKLP1s reach the cortex. A subset of astral microtubules stabilizes during anaphase, becoming effective rails along which MKLP1 can actually reach the cortex. Because stabilized microtubules aim statistically at the equatorial spindle midplane, that is where centralspindlin accumulates to stimulate furrow formation.

  15. Regulation of microtubule nucleation mediated by gamma-tubulin complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sulimenko, Vadym; Hájková, Zuzana; Klebanovych, Anastasiya; Dráber, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 254, č. 3 (2017), s. 1187-1199 ISSN 0033-183X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13015 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : mitotic spindle formation * ring complex * fission yeast * organizing centers * protein complex * golgi-complex * cell-cycle * pole body * augmin * centrosome * Centrosomes * Microtubule nucleation * Microtubule-organizing centers * Non-centrosomal nucleation sites * Spindle pole bodies * gamma-Tubulin complexes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 2.870, year: 2016

  16. Autocatalytic microtubule nucleation determines the size and mass of Xenopus laevis egg extract spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Franziska; Oriola, David; Dalton, Benjamin; Brugués, Jan

    2018-01-11

    Regulation of size and growth is a fundamental problem in biology. A prominent example is the formation of the mitotic spindle, where protein concentration gradients around chromosomes are thought to regulate spindle growth by controlling microtubule nucleation. Previous evidence suggests that microtubules nucleate throughout the spindle structure. However, the mechanisms underlying microtubule nucleation and its spatial regulation are still unclear. Here, we developed an assay based on laser ablation to directly probe microtubule nucleation events in Xenopus laevis egg extracts. Combining this method with theory and quantitative microscopy, we show that the size of a spindle is controlled by autocatalytic growth of microtubules, driven by microtubule-stimulated microtubule nucleation. The autocatalytic activity of this nucleation system is spatially regulated by the limiting amounts of active microtubule nucleators, which decrease with distance from the chromosomes. This mechanism provides an upper limit to spindle size even when resources are not limiting. © 2018, Decker et al.

  17. Modulation of microtubule assembly by the HIV-1 Tat protein is strongly dependent on zinc binding to Tat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muller Sylviane

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During HIV-1 infection, the Tat protein plays a key role by transactivating the transcription of the HIV-1 proviral DNA. In addition, Tat induces apoptosis of non-infected T lymphocytes, leading to a massive loss of immune competence. This apoptosis is notably mediated by the interaction of Tat with microtubules, which are dynamic components essential for cell structure and division. Tat binds two Zn2+ ions through its conserved cysteine-rich region in vitro, but the role of zinc in the structure and properties of Tat is still controversial. Results To investigate the role of zinc, we first characterized Tat apo- and holo-forms by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Both of the Tat forms are monomeric and poorly folded but differ by local conformational changes in the vicinity of the cysteine-rich region. The interaction of the two Tat forms with tubulin dimers and microtubules was monitored by analytical ultracentrifugation, turbidity measurements and electron microscopy. At 20°C, both of the Tat forms bind tubulin dimers, but only the holo-Tat was found to form discrete complexes. At 37°C, both forms promoted the nucleation and increased the elongation rates of tubulin assembly. However, only the holo-Tat increased the amount of microtubules, decreased the tubulin critical concentration, and stabilized the microtubules. In contrast, apo-Tat induced a large amount of tubulin aggregates. Conclusion Our data suggest that holo-Tat corresponds to the active form, responsible for the Tat-mediated apoptosis.

  18. Mapping the structural and dynamical features of kinesin motor domains.

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    Guido Scarabelli

    Full Text Available Kinesin motor proteins drive intracellular transport by coupling ATP hydrolysis to conformational changes that mediate directed movement along microtubules. Characterizing these distinct conformations and their interconversion mechanism is essential to determining an atomic-level model of kinesin action. Here we report a comprehensive principal component analysis of 114 experimental structures along with the results of conventional and accelerated molecular dynamics simulations that together map the structural dynamics of the kinesin motor domain. All experimental structures were found to reside in one of three distinct conformational clusters (ATP-like, ADP-like and Eg5 inhibitor-bound. These groups differ in the orientation of key functional elements, most notably the microtubule binding α4-α5, loop8 subdomain and α2b-β4-β6-β7 motor domain tip. Group membership was found not to correlate with the nature of the bound nucleotide in a given structure. However, groupings were coincident with distinct neck-linker orientations. Accelerated molecular dynamics simulations of ATP, ADP and nucleotide free Eg5 indicate that all three nucleotide states could sample the major crystallographically observed conformations. Differences in the dynamic coupling of distal sites were also evident. In multiple ATP bound simulations, the neck-linker, loop8 and the α4-α5 subdomain display correlated motions that are absent in ADP bound simulations. Further dissection of these couplings provides evidence for a network of dynamic communication between the active site, microtubule-binding interface and neck-linker via loop7 and loop13. Additional simulations indicate that the mutations G325A and G326A in loop13 reduce the flexibility of these regions and disrupt their couplings. Our combined results indicate that the reported ATP and ADP-like conformations of kinesin are intrinsically accessible regardless of nucleotide state and support a model where neck

  19. Microtubule Catastrophe and Rescue

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Melissa K.; Zanic, Marija; Howard, Jonathon

    2012-01-01

    Microtubules are long cylindrical polymers composed of tubulin subunits. In cells, microtubules play an essential role in architecture and motility. For example, microtubules give shape to cells, serve as intracellular transport tracks, and act as key elements in important cellular structures such as axonemes and mitotic spindles. To accomplish these varied functions, networks of microtubules in cells are very dynamic, continuously remodeling through stochastic length fluctuations at the ends...

  20. Prickle isoforms control the direction of tissue polarity by microtubule independent and dependent mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Sharp

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Planar cell polarity signaling directs the polarization of cells within the plane of many epithelia. While these tissues exhibit asymmetric localization of a set of core module proteins, in Drosophila, more than one mechanism links the direction of core module polarization to the tissue axes. One signaling system establishes a polarity bias in the parallel, apical microtubules upon which vesicles containing core proteins traffic. Swapping expression of the differentially expressed Prickle isoforms, Prickle and Spiny-legs, reverses the direction of core module polarization. Studies in the proximal wing and the anterior abdomen indicated that this results from their differential control of microtubule polarity. Prickle and Spiny-legs also control the direction of polarization in the distal wing (D-wing and the posterior abdomen (P-abd. We report here that this occurs without affecting microtubule polarity in these tissues. The direction of polarity in the D-wing is therefore likely determined by a novel mechanism independent of microtubule polarity. In the P-abd, Prickle and Spiny-legs interpret at least two directional cues through a microtubule-polarity-independent mechanism.

  1. Life without double-headed non-muscle myosin II motor proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betapudi, Venkaiah

    2014-07-01

    Non-muscle myosin II motor proteins (myosin IIA, myosin IIB, and myosin IIC) belong to a class of molecular motor proteins that are known to transduce cellular free-energy into biological work more efficiently than man-made combustion engines. Nature has given a single myosin II motor protein for lower eukaryotes and multiple for mammals but none for plants in order to provide impetus for their life. These specialized nanomachines drive cellular activities necessary for embryogenesis, organogenesis, and immunity. However, these multifunctional myosin II motor proteins are believed to go awry due to unknown reasons and contribute for the onset and progression of many autosomal-dominant disorders, cataract, deafness, infertility, cancer, kidney, neuronal, and inflammatory diseases. Many pathogens like HIV, Dengue, hepatitis C, and Lymphoma viruses as well as Salmonella and Mycobacteria are now known to take hostage of these dedicated myosin II motor proteins for their efficient pathogenesis. Even after four decades since their discovery, we still have a limited knowledge of how these motor proteins drive cell migration and cytokinesis. We need to enrich our current knowledge on these fundamental cellular processes and develop novel therapeutic strategies to fix mutated myosin II motor proteins in pathological conditions. This is the time to think how to relieve the hijacked myosins from pathogens in order to provide a renewed impetus for patients’ life. Understanding how to steer these molecular motors in proliferating and differentiating stem cells will improve stem cell based-therapeutics development. Given the plethora of cellular activities non-muscle myosin motor proteins are involved in, their importance is apparent for human life.

  2. Life without double-headed non-muscle myosin II motor proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkaiah eBetapudi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-muscle myosin II motor proteins (myosin IIA, myosin IIB, and myosin IIC belong to a class of molecular motor proteins that are known to transduce cellular free-energy into biological work more efficiently than man-made combustion engines. Nature has given a single myosin II motor protein for lower eukaryotes and multiple for mammals but none for plants in order to provide impetus for their life. These specialized nanomachines drive cellular activities necessary for embryogenesis, organogenesis, and immunity. However, these multifunctional myosin II motor proteins are believed to go awry due to unknown reasons and contribute for the onset and progression of many autosomal-dominant disorders, cataract, deafness, infertility, cancer, kidney, neuronal, and inflammatory diseases. Many pathogens like HIV, Dengue, hepatitis C, and Lymphoma viruses as well as Salmonella and Mycobacteria are now known to take hostage of these dedicated myosin II motor proteins for their efficient pathogenesis. Even after four decades since their discovery, we still have a limited knowledge of how these motor proteins drive cell migration and cytokinesis. We need to enrich our current knowledge on these fundamental cellular processes and develop novel therapeutic strategies to fix mutated myosin II motor proteins in pathological conditions. This is the time to think how to relieve the hijacked myosins from pathogens in order to provide a renewed impetus for patients’ life. Understanding how to steer these molecular motors in proliferating and differentiating stem cells will improve stem cell based-therapeutics development. Given the plethora of cellular activities non-muscle myosin motor proteins are involved in, their importance is apparent for human life.

  3. Regulation of microtubule-based transport by MAP4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, Irina; Ikeda, Kazuho; Resaul, Karim; Kraikivski, Pavel; Aguiar, Mike; Gygi, Steven; Zaliapin, Ilya; Cowan, Ann; Rodionov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Microtubule (MT)-based transport of organelles driven by the opposing MT motors kinesins and dynein is tightly regulated in cells, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we tested the regulation of MT transport by the ubiquitous protein MAP4 using Xenopus melanophores as an experimental system. In these cells, pigment granules (melanosomes) move along MTs to the cell center (aggregation) or to the periphery (dispersion) by means of cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin-2, respectively. We found that aggregation signals induced phosphorylation of threonine residues in the MT-binding domain of the Xenopus MAP4 (XMAP4), thus decreasing binding of this protein to MTs. Overexpression of XMAP4 inhibited pigment aggregation by shortening dynein-dependent MT runs of melanosomes, whereas removal of XMAP4 from MTs reduced the length of kinesin-2–dependent runs and suppressed pigment dispersion. We hypothesize that binding of XMAP4 to MTs negatively regulates dynein-dependent movement of melanosomes and positively regulates kinesin-2–based movement. Phosphorylation during pigment aggregation reduces binding of XMAP4 to MTs, thus increasing dynein-dependent and decreasing kinesin-2–dependent motility of melanosomes, which stimulates their accumulation in the cell center, whereas dephosphorylation of XMAP4 during dispersion has an opposite effect. PMID:25143402

  4. Complementary activities of TPX2 and chTOG constitute an efficient importin-regulated microtubule nucleation module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostalu, Johanna; Cade, Nicholas I; Surrey, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Spindle assembly and function require precise control of microtubule nucleation and dynamics. The chromatin-driven spindle assembly pathway exerts such control locally in the vicinity of chromosomes. One of the key targets of this pathway is TPX2. The molecular mechanism of how TPX2 stimulates microtubule nucleation is not understood. Using microscopy-based dynamic in vitro reconstitution assays with purified proteins, we find that human TPX2 directly stabilizes growing microtubule ends and stimulates microtubule nucleation by stabilizing early microtubule nucleation intermediates. Human microtubule polymerase chTOG (XMAP215/Msps/Stu2p/Dis1/Alp14 homologue) only weakly promotes nucleation, but acts synergistically with TPX2. Hence, a combination of distinct and complementary activities is sufficient for efficient microtubule formation in vitro. Importins control the efficiency of the microtubule nucleation by selectively blocking the interaction of TPX2 with microtubule nucleation intermediates. This in vitro reconstitution reveals the molecular mechanism of regulated microtubule formation by a minimal nucleation module essential for chromatin-dependent microtubule nucleation in cells.

  5. Duplication in the microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1 gene causes a novel neuromuscular condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise H; Mosbech, Mai-Britt; Færgeman, Nils J

    2014-01-01

    Spectrins and plakins are important communicators linking cytoskeletal components to each other and to cellular junctions. Microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1 (MACF1) belongs to the spectraplakin family and is involved in control of microtubule dynamics. Complete knock out of MACF1 in mice...... muscles and diminished motor skills, with heterogeneous presentation among the affected family members. To corroborate these findings we used RNA interference to knock down the VAB-10 locus containing the MACF1 homologue in C. elegans, and we could show that this also causes movement disturbances...

  6. The growth speed of microtubules with XMAP215-coated beads coupled to their ends is increased by tensile force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushko, Anastasiya; Schäffer, Erik; Howard, Jonathon

    2013-01-01

    The generation of pulling and pushing forces is one of the important functions of microtubules, which are dynamic and polarized structures. The ends of dynamic microtubules are able to form relatively stable links to cellular structures, so that when a microtubule grows it can exert a pushing force and when it shrinks it can exert a pulling force. Microtubule growth and shrinkage are tightly regulated by microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) that bind to microtubule ends. Given their localization, MAPs may be exposed to compressive and tensile forces. The effect of such forces on MAP function, however, is poorly understood. Here we show that beads coated with the microtubule polymerizing protein XMAP215, the Xenopus homolog of Dis1 and chTOG, are able to link stably to the plus ends of microtubules, even when the ends are growing or shrinking; at growing ends, the beads increase the polymerization rate. Using optical tweezers, we found that tensile force further increased the microtubule polymerization rate. These results show that physical forces can regulate the activity of MAPs. Furthermore, our results show that XMAP215 can be used as a handle to sense and mechanically manipulate the dynamics of the microtubule tip. PMID:23964126

  7. Clostridium difficile toxin CDT induces formation of microtubule-based protrusions and increases adherence of bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Schwan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis by production of the Rho GTPase-glucosylating toxins A and B. Recently emerging hypervirulent Clostridium difficile strains additionally produce the binary ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin CDT (Clostridium difficile transferase, which ADP-ribosylates actin and inhibits actin polymerization. Thus far, the role of CDT as a virulence factor is not understood. Here we report by using time-lapse- and immunofluorescence microscopy that CDT and other binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxins, including Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin and Clostridium perfringens iota toxin, induce redistribution of microtubules and formation of long (up to >150 microm microtubule-based protrusions at the surface of intestinal epithelial cells. The toxins increase the length of decoration of microtubule plus-ends by EB1/3, CLIP-170 and CLIP-115 proteins and cause redistribution of the capture proteins CLASP2 and ACF7 from microtubules at the cell cortex into the cell interior. The CDT-induced microtubule protrusions form a dense meshwork at the cell surface, which wrap and embed bacterial cells, thereby largely increasing the adherence of Clostridia. The study describes a novel type of microtubule structure caused by less efficient microtubule capture and offers a new perspective for the pathogenetic role of CDT and other binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxins in host-pathogen interactions.

  8. Regulation of developmental and environmental signaling by interaction between microtubules and membranes in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cell division and expansion require the ordered arrangement of microtubules, which are subject to spatial and temporal modifications by developmental and environmental factors. Understanding how signals translate to changes in cortical microtubule organization is of fundamental importance. A defining feature of the cortical microtubule array is its association with the plasma membrane; modules of the plasma membrane are thought to play important roles in the mediation of microtubule organization. In this review, we highlight advances in research on the regulation of cortical microtubule organization by membrane-associated and membrane-tethered proteins and lipids in response to phytohormones and stress. The transmembrane kinase receptor Rho-like guanosine triphosphatase, phospholipase D, phosphatidic acid, and phosphoinositides are discussed with a focus on their roles in microtubule organization.

  9. Direct incorporation of guanosine 5'-diphosphate into microtubules without guanosine 5'-triphosphate hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, E.; Batra, J.K.; Lin, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Using highly purified calf brain tubulin bearing [8- 14 C]guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP) in the exchangeable nucleotide site and heat-treated microtubule-associated proteins, the authors have found that a significant proportion of exchangeable-site GDP in microtubules can be incorporated directly during guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) dependent polymerization of tubulin, without an initial exchange of GDP for GTP and subsequent GTP hydrolysis during assembly. The precise amount of GDP incorporated directly into microtubules is highly dependent on specific reaction conditions, being favored by high tubulin concentrations, low GTP and Mg 2+ concentrations, and exogenous GDP in the reaction mixture. Minimum effects were observed with changes in reaction pH or temperature, changes in concentration of microtubule-associated proteins, alteration of the sulfonate buffer, or the presence of a calcium chelator in the reaction mixture. Under conditions most favorable for direct GDP incorporation, about one-third of the GDP in microtubules is incorporated directly (without GTP hydrolysis) and two-thirds is incorporated hydrolytically (as a consequence of GTP hydrolysis). Direct incorporation of GDP occurs in a constant proportion throughout elongation, and the amount of direct incorporation probably reflects the rapid equilibration of GDP and GTP at the exchangeable site that occurs before the onset of assembly

  10. Dinitroaniline herbicide resistance and the microtubule cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony; Hussey

    1999-03-01

    Dinitroaniline herbicides have been used for pre-emergence weed control for the past 25 years in cotton, soybean, wheat and oilseed crops. Considering their long persistence and extensive use, resistance to dinitroanilines is fairly rare. However, the most widespread dinitroaniline-resistant weeds, the highly resistant (R) and the intermediate (I) biotypes of the invasive goosegrass Eleusine indica, are now infesting more than 1000 cotton fields in the southern states of the USA. The molecular basis of this resistance has been identified, and found to be a point mutation in a major microtubule cytoskeletal protein, alpha-tubulin. These studies have served both to explain the establishment of resistance and to reveal fundamental properties of tubulin gene expression and microtubule structure.

  11. The effects of 60Co γ-ray irradiation on cytoplasmic microtubules of mouse macrophages and lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qianqian; Mao Zijun; Yin Zhiwei; Hu Yumin

    1989-05-01

    The effects of 60 Co γ-ray irradiation on cytoplasmic microtubules of mouse macrophages and lymphocytes were investigated by immunofluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscope. The results indicated. (1) microtubule organization of the irradiated cells remarkably differed from that of the control since the doses over 4 Gy; (2) 144 hours after irradiation the alterations of microtubules have been shown to be basically r epaired ; (3) the cytoplasmic microtubules and centrioles disappeared under transmission electron microscope, the membranes irradiated and microvilli showed changes under scanning electron microscope too. From these observations and those of other workers who studied the radiation effect on extracted microtubule proteins in vitro, the authors support that 60 Co γ-ray irradiation can inhabits cytoplasmic microtubule assembling

  12. Goldberg-Shprintzen megacolon syndrome with associated sensory motor axonal neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafsari, Hormos Salimi; Byrne, Susan; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Pitt, Matthew; Jongbloed, Jan Dh; Flinter, Frances; Jungbluth, Heinz

    2015-06-01

    Goldberg-Shprintzen megacolon syndrome (GOSHS) (OMIM 609460) is characterized by a combination of learning difficulties, characteristic dysmorphic features and Hirschsprung's disease. Variable clinical features include iris coloboma, congenital heart defects and central nervous system abnormalities, in particular polymicrogyria. GOSHS has been attributed to recessive mutations in KIAA1279, encoding kinesin family member (KIF)-binding protein (KBP) with a crucial role in neuronal microtubule dynamics. Here we report on a 7-year-old girl with GOSHS as a result of a homozygous deletion of exons 5 and 6 of the KIAA1279 gene. She had been referred with the suspicion of an underlying neuromuscular disorder before the genetic diagnosis was established, prompted by the findings of motor developmental delay, hypotonia, ptosis and absent reflexes. Neurophysiological studies revealed unequivocal evidence of a peripheral axonal sensory motor neuropathy. We hypothesize that an axonal sensory motor neuropathy may be part of the phenotypical spectrum of KIAA1279-related GOSHS, probably reflecting the effects of reduced KBP protein expression on peripheral neuronal function. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Cep192 controls the balance of centrosome and non-centrosomal microtubules during interphase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P O'Rourke

    Full Text Available Cep192 is a centrosomal protein that contributes to the formation and function of the mitotic spindle in mammalian cells. Cep192's mitotic activities stem largely from its role in the recruitment to the centrosome of numerous additional proteins such as gamma-tubulin and Pericentrin. Here, we examine Cep192's function in interphase cells. Our data indicate that, as in mitosis, Cep192 stimulates the nucleation of centrosomal microtubules thereby regulating the morphology of interphase microtubule arrays. Interestingly, however, cells lacking Cep192 remain capable of generating normal levels of MTs as the loss of centrosomal microtubules is augmented by MT nucleation from other sites, most notably the Golgi apparatus. The depletion of Cep192 results in a significant decrease in the level of centrosome-associated gamma-tubulin, likely explaining its impact on centrosome microtubule nucleation. However, in stark contrast to mitosis, Cep192 appears to maintain an antagonistic relationship with Pericentrin at interphase centrosomes. Interphase cells depleted of Cep192 display significantly higher levels of centrosome-associated Pericentrin while overexpression of Cep192 reduces the levels of centrosomal Pericentrin. Conversely, depletion of Pericentrin results in elevated levels of centrosomal Cep192 and enhances microtubule nucleation at centrosomes, at least during interphase. Finally, we show that depletion of Cep192 negatively impacts cell motility and alters normal cell polarization. Our current working hypothesis is that the microtubule nucleating capacity of the interphase centrosome is determined by an antagonistic balance of Cep192, which promotes nucleation, and Pericentrin, which inhibits nucleation. This in turn determines the relative abundance of centrosomal and non-centrosomal microtubules that tune cell movement and shape.

  14. Ase1p Organizes Antiparallel Microtubule Arrays during Interphase and Mitosis in Fission YeastV⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Loïodice, Isabelle; Staub, Jayme; Setty, Thanuja Gangi; Nguyen, Nam-Phuong T.; Paoletti, Anne; Tran, P. T.

    2005-01-01

    Proper microtubule organization is essential for cellular processes such as organelle positioning during interphase and spindle formation during mitosis. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe presents a good model for understanding microtubule organization. We identify fission yeast ase1p, a member of the conserved ASE1/PRC1/MAP65 family of microtubule bundling proteins, which functions in organizing the spindle midzone during mitosis. Using fluorescence live cell imaging, we show that ...

  15. Novel mitochondrial extensions provide evidence for a link between microtubule-directed movement and mitochondrial fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowes, Timothy; Gupta, Radhey S.

    2008-01-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics play an important role in a large number of cellular processes. Previously, we reported that treatment of mammalian cells with the cysteine-alkylators, N-ethylmaleimide and ethacrynic acid, induced rapid mitochondrial fusion forming a large reticulum approximately 30 min after treatment. Here, we further investigated this phenomenon using a number of techniques including live-cell confocal microscopy. In live cells, drug-induced fusion coincided with a cessation of fast mitochondrial movement which was dependent on microtubules. During this loss of movement, thin mitochondrial tubules extending from mitochondria were also observed, which we refer to as 'mitochondrial extensions'. The formation of these mitochondrial extensions, which were not observed in untreated cells, depended on microtubules and was abolished by pretreatment with nocodazole. In this study, we provide evidence that these extensions result from of a block in mitochondrial fission combined with continued application of motile force by microtubule-dependent motor complexes. Our observations strongly suggest the existence of a link between microtubule-based mitochondrial trafficking and mitochondrial fission

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis inclusion membrane protein CT850 interacts with the dynein light chain DYNLT1 (Tctex1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mital, Jeffrey; Lutter, Erika I; Barger, Alexandra C; Dooley, Cheryl A; Hackstadt, Ted

    2015-06-26

    Chlamydia trachomatis actively subverts the minus-end directed microtubule motor, dynein, to traffic along microtubule tracks to the Microtubule Organizing Center (MTOC) where it remains within a membrane bound replicative vacuole for the duration of its intracellular development. Unlike most substrates of the dynein motor, disruption of the dynactin cargo-linking complex by over-expression of the p50 dynamitin subunit does not inhibit C. trachomatis transport. A requirement for chlamydial protein synthesis to initiate this process suggests that a chlamydial product supersedes a requirement for p50 dynamitin. A yeast 2-hybrid system was used to screen the chlamydia inclusion membrane protein CT850 against a HeLa cell cDNA library and identified an interaction with the dynein light chain DYNLT1 (Tctex1). This interaction was at least partially dependent upon an (R/K-R/K-X-X-R/K) motif that is characteristic of DYNLT1 binding domains. CT850 expressed ectopically in HeLa cells localized at the MTOC and this localization is similarly dependent upon the predicted DYNLT1 binding domain. Furthermore, DYNLT1 is enriched at focal concentrations of CT850 on the chlamydial inclusion membrane that are known to interact with dynein and microtubules. Depletion of DYNLT1 disrupts the characteristic association of the inclusion membrane with centrosomes. Collectively, the results suggest that CT850 interacts with DYNLT1 to promote appropriate positioning of the inclusion at the MTOC. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Phosphatase PP2A and microtubule-mediated pulling forces disassemble centrosomes during mitotic exit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Enos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrosomes are microtubule-nucleating organelles that facilitate chromosome segregation and cell division in metazoans. Centrosomes comprise centrioles that organize a micron-scale mass of protein called pericentriolar material (PCM from which microtubules nucleate. During each cell cycle, PCM accumulates around centrioles through phosphorylation-mediated assembly of PCM scaffold proteins. During mitotic exit, PCM swiftly disassembles by an unknown mechanism. Here, we used Caenorhabditis elegans embryos to determine the mechanism and importance of PCM disassembly in dividing cells. We found that the phosphatase PP2A and its regulatory subunit SUR-6 (PP2ASUR-6, together with cortically directed microtubule pulling forces, actively disassemble PCM. In embryos depleted of these activities, ∼25% of PCM persisted from one cell cycle into the next. Purified PP2ASUR-6 could dephosphorylate the major PCM scaffold protein SPD-5 in vitro. Our data suggest that PCM disassembly occurs through a combination of dephosphorylation of PCM components and force-driven fragmentation of the PCM scaffold.

  18. YB-1 promotes microtubule assembly in vitro through interaction with tubulin and microtubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baconnais Sonia

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background YB-1 is a major regulator of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. In addition to its role in transcription, YB-1 plays a key role in translation and stabilization of mRNAs. Results We show here that YB-1 interacts with tubulin and microtubules and stimulates microtubule assembly in vitro. High resolution imaging via electron and atomic force microscopy revealed that microtubules assembled in the presence of YB-1 exhibited a normal single wall ultrastructure and indicated that YB-1 most probably coats the outer microtubule wall. Furthermore, we found that YB-1 also promotes the assembly of MAPs-tubulin and subtilisin-treated tubulin. Finally, we demonstrated that tubulin interferes with RNA:YB-1 complexes. Conclusion These results suggest that YB-1 may regulate microtubule assembly in vivo and that its interaction with tubulin may contribute to the control of mRNA translation.

  19. Katanin localization requires triplet microtubules in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Esparza

    Full Text Available Centrioles and basal bodies are essential for a variety of cellular processes that include the recruitment of proteins to these structures for both centrosomal and ciliary function. This recruitment is compromised when centriole/basal body assembly is defective. Mutations that cause basal body assembly defects confer supersensitivity to Taxol. These include bld2, bld10, bld12, uni3, vfl1, vfl2, and vfl3. Flagellar motility mutants do not confer sensitivity with the exception of mutations in the p60 (pf19 and p80 (pf15 subunits of the microtubule severing protein katanin. We have identified additional pf15 and bld2 (ε-tubulin alleles in screens for Taxol sensitivity. Null pf15 and bld2 alleles are viable and are not essential genes in Chlamydomonas. Analysis of double mutant strains with the pf15-3 and bld2-6 null alleles suggests that basal bodies in Chlamydomonas may recruit additional proteins beyond katanin that affect spindle microtubule stability. The bld2-5 allele is a hypomorphic allele and its phenotype is modulated by nutritional cues. Basal bodies in bld2-5 cells are missing proximal ends. The basal body mutants show aberrant localization of an epitope-tagged p80 subunit of katanin. Unlike IFT proteins, katanin p80 does not localize to the transition fibers of the basal bodies based on an analysis of the uni1 mutant as well as the lack of colocalization of katanin p80 with IFT74. We suggest that the triplet microtubules are likely to play a key role in katanin p80 recruitment to the basal body of Chlamydomonas rather than the transition fibers that are needed for IFT localization.

  20. In vivo FRET imaging revealed a regulatory role of RanGTP in kinetochore-microtubule attachments via Aurora B kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoke-Peng Lee

    Full Text Available Under the fluctuating circumstances provided by the innate dynamics of microtubules and opposing tensions resulted from microtubule-associated motors, it is vital to ensure stable kinetochore-microtubule attachments for accurate segregation. However, a comprehensive understanding of how this regulation is mechanistically achieved remains elusive. Using our newly designed live cell FRET time-lapse imaging, we found that post-metaphase RanGTP is crucial in the maintenance of stable kinetochore-microtubule attachments by regulating Aurora B kinase via the NES-bearing Mst1. More importantly, our study demonstrates that by ensuring stable alignment of metaphase chromosomes prior to segregation, RanGTP is indispensible in governing the genomic integrity and the fidelity of cell cycle progression. Our findings suggest an additional role of RanGTP beyond its known function in mitotic spindle assembly during the prometaphase-metaphase transition.

  1. and its allicin on microtubule and cancer cell lines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... microtubule protein polymer that treated by A. hirtifolium. (A), and allicin (B) in .... with a chromogenic thiol: reaction of 4-mercaptopyridine with ... transformed tumor growth in vivo by diallyl disulfide is associated with inhibition ...

  2. Microtubule nucleation and organization in dendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delandre, Caroline; Amikura, Reiko; Moore, Adrian W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dendrite branching is an essential process for building complex nervous systems. It determines the number, distribution and integration of inputs into a neuron, and is regulated to create the diverse dendrite arbor branching patterns characteristic of different neuron types. The microtubule cytoskeleton is critical to provide structure and exert force during dendrite branching. It also supports the functional requirements of dendrites, reflected by differential microtubule architectural organization between neuron types, illustrated here for sensory neurons. Both anterograde and retrograde microtubule polymerization occur within growing dendrites, and recent studies indicate that branching is enhanced by anterograde microtubule polymerization events in nascent branches. The polarities of microtubule polymerization events are regulated by the position and orientation of microtubule nucleation events in the dendrite arbor. Golgi outposts are a primary microtubule nucleation center in dendrites and share common nucleation machinery with the centrosome. In addition, pre-existing dendrite microtubules may act as nucleation sites. We discuss how balancing the activities of distinct nucleation machineries within the growing dendrite can alter microtubule polymerization polarity and dendrite branching, and how regulating this balance can generate neuron type-specific morphologies. PMID:27097122

  3. TBCD links centriologenesis, spindle microtubule dynamics, and midbody abscission in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica López Fanarraga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microtubule-organizing centers recruit alpha- and beta-tubulin polypeptides for microtubule nucleation. Tubulin synthesis is complex, requiring five specific cofactors, designated tubulin cofactors (TBCs A-E, which contribute to various aspects of microtubule dynamics in vivo. Here, we show that tubulin cofactor D (TBCD is concentrated at the centrosome and midbody, where it participates in centriologenesis, spindle organization, and cell abscission. TBCD exhibits a cell-cycle-specific pattern, localizing on the daughter centriole at G1 and on procentrioles by S, and disappearing from older centrioles at telophase as the protein is recruited to the midbody. Our data show that TBCD overexpression results in microtubule release from the centrosome and G1 arrest, whereas its depletion produces mitotic aberrations and incomplete microtubule retraction at the midbody during cytokinesis. TBCD is recruited to the centriole replication site at the onset of the centrosome duplication cycle. A role in centriologenesis is further supported in differentiating ciliated cells, where TBCD is organized into "centriolar rosettes". These data suggest that TBCD participates in both canonical and de novo centriolar assembly pathways.

  4. Mto2 multisite phosphorylation inactivates non-spindle microtubule nucleation complexes during mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borek, Weronika E.; Groocock, Lynda M.; Samejima, Itaru; Zou, Juan; de Lima Alves, Flavia; Rappsilber, Juri; Sawin, Kenneth E.

    2015-01-01

    Microtubule nucleation is highly regulated during the eukaryotic cell cycle, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. During mitosis in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cytoplasmic microtubule nucleation ceases simultaneously with intranuclear mitotic spindle assembly. Cytoplasmic nucleation depends on the Mto1/2 complex, which binds and activates the γ-tubulin complex and also recruits the γ-tubulin complex to both centrosomal (spindle pole body) and non-centrosomal sites. Here we show that the Mto1/2 complex disassembles during mitosis, coincident with hyperphosphorylation of Mto2 protein. By mapping and mutating multiple Mto2 phosphorylation sites, we generate mto2-phosphomutant strains with enhanced Mto1/2 complex stability, interaction with the γ-tubulin complex and microtubule nucleation activity. A mutant with 24 phosphorylation sites mutated to alanine, mto2[24A], retains interphase-like behaviour even in mitotic cells. This provides a molecular-level understanding of how phosphorylation ‘switches off' microtubule nucleation complexes during the cell cycle and, more broadly, illuminates mechanisms regulating non-centrosomal microtubule nucleation. PMID:26243668

  5. Microtubules as mechanical force sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karafyllidis, Ioannis G; Lagoudas, Dimitris C

    2007-03-01

    Microtubules are polymers of tubulin subunits (dimers) arranged on a hexagonal lattice. Each tubulin dimer comprises two monomers, the alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin, and can be found in two states. In the first state a mobile negative charge is located into the alpha-tubulin monomer and in the second into the beta-tubulin monomer. Each tubulin dimer is modeled as an electrical dipole coupled to its neighbors by electrostatic forces. The location of the mobile charge in each dimer depends on the location of the charges in the dimer's neighborhood. Mechanical forces that act on the microtubule affect the distances between the dimers and alter the electrostatic potential. Changes in this potential affect the mobile negative charge location in each dimer and the charge distribution in the microtubule. The net effect is that mechanical forces affect the charge distribution in microtubules. We propose to exploit this effect and use microtubules as mechanical force sensors. We model each dimer as a two-state quantum system and, following the quantum computation paradigm, we use discrete quantum random walk on the hexagonal microtubule lattice to determine the charge distribution. Different forces applied on the microtubule are modeled as different coin biases leading to different probability distributions of the quantum walker location, which are directly connected to different charge distributions. Simulation results show that there is a strong indication that microtubules can be used as mechanical force sensors and that they can also detect the force directions and magnitudes.

  6. Microtubule-targeting drugs rescue axonal swellings in cortical neurons from spastin knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Fassier

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in SPG4, encoding the microtubule-severing protein spastin, are responsible for the most frequent form of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP, a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases characterized by degeneration of the corticospinal tracts. We previously reported that mice harboring a deletion in Spg4, generating a premature stop codon, develop progressive axonal degeneration characterized by focal axonal swellings associated with impaired axonal transport. To further characterize the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this mutant phenotype, we have assessed microtubule dynamics and axonal transport in primary cultures of cortical neurons from spastin-mutant mice. We show an early and marked impairment of microtubule dynamics all along the axons of spastin-deficient cortical neurons, which is likely to be responsible for the occurrence of axonal swellings and cargo stalling. Our analysis also reveals that a modulation of microtubule dynamics by microtubule-targeting drugs rescues the mutant phenotype of cortical neurons. Together, these results contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of SPG4-linked HSP and ascertain the influence of microtubule-targeted drugs on the early axonal phenotype in a mouse model of the disease.

  7. Biallelic Mutations in TBCD, Encoding the Tubulin Folding Cofactor D, Perturb Microtubule Dynamics and Cause Early-Onset Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flex, Elisabetta; Niceta, Marcello; Cecchetti, Serena; Thiffault, Isabelle; Au, Margaret G; Capuano, Alessandro; Piermarini, Emanuela; Ivanova, Anna A; Francis, Joshua W; Chillemi, Giovanni; Chandramouli, Balasubramanian; Carpentieri, Giovanna; Haaxma, Charlotte A; Ciolfi, Andrea; Pizzi, Simone; Douglas, Ganka V; Levine, Kara; Sferra, Antonella; Dentici, Maria Lisa; Pfundt, Rolph R; Le Pichon, Jean-Baptiste; Farrow, Emily; Baas, Frank; Piemonte, Fiorella; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Graham, John M; Saunders, Carol J; Bertini, Enrico; Kahn, Richard A; Koolen, David A; Tartaglia, Marco

    2016-10-06

    Microtubules are dynamic cytoskeletal elements coordinating and supporting a variety of neuronal processes, including cell division, migration, polarity, intracellular trafficking, and signal transduction. Mutations in genes encoding tubulins and microtubule-associated proteins are known to cause neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Growing evidence suggests that altered microtubule dynamics may also underlie or contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegeneration. We report that biallelic mutations in TBCD, encoding one of the five co-chaperones required for assembly and disassembly of the αβ-tubulin heterodimer, the structural unit of microtubules, cause a disease with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative features characterized by early-onset cortical atrophy, secondary hypomyelination, microcephaly, thin corpus callosum, developmental delay, intellectual disability, seizures, optic atrophy, and spastic quadriplegia. Molecular dynamics simulations predicted long-range and/or local structural perturbations associated with the disease-causing mutations. Biochemical analyses documented variably reduced levels of TBCD, indicating relative instability of mutant proteins, and defective β-tubulin binding in a subset of the tested mutants. Reduced or defective TBCD function resulted in decreased soluble α/β-tubulin levels and accelerated microtubule polymerization in fibroblasts from affected subjects, demonstrating an overall shift toward a more rapidly growing and stable microtubule population. These cells displayed an aberrant mitotic spindle with disorganized, tangle-shaped microtubules and reduced aster formation, which however did not alter appreciably the rate of cell proliferation. Our findings establish that defective TBCD function underlies a recognizable encephalopathy and drives accelerated microtubule polymerization and enhanced microtubule stability, underscoring an additional cause of altered microtubule dynamics with

  8. A microtubule inhibitor, ABT-751, induces autophagy and delays apoptosis in Huh-7 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Ren-Jie [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Pathology, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Su-Shuan [Department of Pathology, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Wu, Wen-Ren [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Lih-Ren [Department of Biotechnology, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Division of Physiology, Livestock Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, Taiwan (China); Li, Chien-Feng [Department of Biotechnology, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Pathology, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan (China); National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institute, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Institute of Clinical Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Han-De; Chou, Chien-Ting; Chen, Ya-Chun [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Liang, Shih-Shin [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chien, Shang-Tao [Department of Pathology, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Shiue, Yow-Ling, E-mail: ylshiue@mail.nsysu.edu.tw [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Doctoral Degree Program in Marine Biotechnology, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2016-11-15

    The objective was to investigate the upstream mechanisms of apoptosis which were triggered by a novel anti-microtubule drug, ABT-751, in hepatocellular carcinoma-derived Huh-7 cells. Effects of ABT-751 were evaluated by immunocytochemistry, flow cytometric, alkaline comet, soft agar, immunoblotting, CytoID, green fluorescent protein-microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta detection, plasmid transfection, nuclear/cytosol fractionation, coimmunoprecipitation, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, small-hairpin RNA interference and mitochondria/cytosol fractionation assays. Results showed that ABT-751 caused dysregulation of microtubule, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, G{sub 2}/M cell cycle arrest, inhibition of anchorage-independent cell growth and apoptosis in Huh-7 cells. ABT-751 also induced early autophagy via upregulation of nuclear TP53 and downregulation of the AKT serine/threonine kinase (AKT)/mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) pathway. Through modulation of the expression levels of DNA damage checkpoint proteins and G{sub 2}/M cell cycle regulators, ABT-751 induced G{sub 2}/M cell cycle arrest. Subsequently, ABT-751 triggered apoptosis with marked downregulation of B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2, upregulation of mitochondrial BCL2 antagonist/killer 1 and BCL2 like 11 protein levels, and cleavages of caspase 8 (CASP8), CASP9, CASP3 and DNA fragmentation factor subunit alpha proteins. Suppression of ROS significantly decreased ABT-751-induced autophagic and apoptotic cells. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy significantly increased the percentages of ABT-751-induced apoptotic cells. The autophagy induced by ABT-751 plays a protective role to postpone apoptosis by exerting adaptive responses following microtubule damage, ROS and/or impaired mitochondria. - Highlights: • An anti-microtubule agent, ABT-751, induces autophagy and apoptosis in Huh-7 cells.

  9. Biallelic Mutations in TBCD, Encoding the Tubulin Folding Cofactor D, Perturb Microtubule Dynamics and Cause Early-Onset Encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flex, Elisabetta; Niceta, Marcello; Cecchetti, Serena; Thiffault, Isabelle; Au, Margaret G.; Capuano, Alessandro; Piermarini, Emanuela; Ivanova, Anna A.; Francis, Joshua W.; Chillemi, Giovanni; Chandramouli, Balasubramanian; Carpentieri, Giovanna; Haaxma, Charlotte A.; Ciolfi, Andrea; Pizzi, Simone; Douglas, Ganka V.; Levine, Kara; Sferra, Antonella; Dentici, Maria Lisa; Pfundt, Rolph R.; Le Pichon, Jean-Baptiste; Farrow, Emily; Baas, Frank; Piemonte, Fiorella; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Graham, John M.; Saunders, Carol J.; Bertini, Enrico; Kahn, Richard A.; Koolen, David A.; Tartaglia, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules are dynamic cytoskeletal elements coordinating and supporting a variety of neuronal processes, including cell division, migration, polarity, intracellular trafficking, and signal transduction. Mutations in genes encoding tubulins and microtubule-associated proteins are known to cause

  10. Microtubule array reorientation in response to hormones does not involve changes in microtubule nucleation modes at the periclinal cell surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Samantha; Kirik, Angela; Kirik, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Aligned microtubule arrays spatially organize cell division, trafficking, and determine the direction of cell expansion in plant cells. In response to changes in environmental and developmental signals, cells reorganize their microtubule arrays into new configurations. Here, we tested the role of microtubule nucleation during hormone-induced microtubule array reorientation. We have found that in the process of microtubule array reorientation the ratios between branching, parallel, and de-novo nucleations remained constant, suggesting that the microtubule reorientation mechanism does not involve changes in nucleation modes. In the ton2/fass mutant, which has reduced microtubule branching nucleation frequency and decreased nucleation activity of the γ-tubulin complexes, microtubule arrays were able to reorient. Presented data suggest that reorientation of microtubules into transverse arrays in response to hormones does not involve changes in microtubule nucleation at the periclinal cell surface PMID:25135522

  11. Kinesin-3 and dynein cooperate in long-range retrograde endosome motility along a nonuniform microtubule array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuster, M.; Kilaru, S.; Fink, G.; Collemare, J.A.R.; Roger, Y.; Steinberg, G.

    2011-01-01

    The polarity of microtubules (MTs) determines the motors for intracellular motility, with kinesins moving to plus ends and dynein to minus ends. In elongated cells of Ustilago maydis, dynein is thought to move early endosomes (EEs) toward the septum (retrograde), whereas kinesin-3 transports them to

  12. Localization of the kinesin adaptor proteins trafficking kinesin proteins 1 and 2 in primary cultures of hippocampal pyramidal and cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Omar; Stephenson, F Anne

    2015-07-01

    Neuronal function requires regulated anterograde and retrograde trafficking of mitochondria along microtubules by using the molecular motors kinesin and dynein. Previous work has established that trafficking kinesin proteins (TRAKs),TRAK1 and TRAK2, are kinesin adaptor proteins that link mitochondria to kinesin motor proteins via an acceptor protein in the mitochondrial outer membrane, etc. the Rho GTPase Miro. Recent studies have shown that TRAK1 preferentially controls mitochondrial transport in axons of hippocampal neurons by virtue of its binding to both kinesin and dynein motor proteins, whereas TRAK2 controls mitochondrial transport in dendrites resulting from its binding to dynein. This study further investigates the subcellular localization of TRAK1 and TRAK2 in primary cultures of hippocampal and cortical neurons by using both commercial antibodies and anti-TRAK1 and anti-TRAK2 antibodies raised in our own laboratory (in-house). Whereas TRAK1 was prevalently localized in axons of hippocampal and cortical neurons, TRAK2 was more prevalent in dendrites of hippocampal neurons. In cortical neurons, TRAK2 was equally distributed between axons and dendrites. Some qualitative differences were observed between commercial and in-house-generated antibody immunostaining. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The plant formin AtFH4 interacts with both actin and microtubules, and contains a newly identified microtubule-binding domain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Deeks, M.J.; Fendrych, Matyáš; Smertenko, A.; Bell, K.S.; Oparka, K.; Cvrčková, F.; Žárský, Viktor; Hussey, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 8 (2010), s. 1209-1215 ISSN 0021-9533 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004; GA ČR GAP305/10/0433 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Actin regulating proteins * Membrane * Microtubule Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.290, year: 2010

  14. EWSR1 regulates mitosis by dynamically influencing microtubule acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Long; Chen, Hui; Zhan, Yi-Qun; Yin, Rong-Hua; Li, Chang-Yan; Ge, Chang-Hui; Yu, Miao; Yang, Xiao-Ming

    2016-08-17

    EWSR1, participating in transcription and splicing, has been identified as a translocation partner for various transcription factors, resulting in translocation, which in turn plays crucial roles in tumorigenesis. Recent studies have investigated the role of EWSR1 in mitosis. However, the effect of EWSR1 on mitosis is poorly understood. Here, we observed that depletion of EWSR1 resulted in cell cycle arrest in the mitotic phase, mainly due to an increase in the time from nuclear envelope breakdown to metaphase, resulting in a high percentage of unaligned chromosomes and multipolar spindles. We also demonstrated that EWSR1 is a spindle-associated protein that interacts with α-tubulin during mitosis. EWSR1 depletion increased the cold-sensitivity of spindle microtubules, and decreased the rate of spindle assembly. EWSR1 regulated the level of microtubule acetylation in the mitotic spindle; microtubule acetylation was rescued in EWSR1-depleted mitotic cells following suppression of HDAC6 activity by its specific inhibitor or siRNA treatment. In summary, these results suggest that EWSR1 regulates the acetylation of microtubules in a cell cycle-dependent manner through its dynamic location on spindle MTs, and may be a novel regulator for mitosis progress independent of its translocation.

  15. Feeding cells induced by phytoparasitic nematodes require γ-tubulin ring complex for microtubule reorganization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Youssef Banora

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Reorganization of the microtubule network is important for the fast isodiametric expansion of giant-feeding cells induced by root-knot nematodes. The efficiency of microtubule reorganization depends on the nucleation of new microtubules, their elongation rate and activity of microtubule severing factors. New microtubules in plants are nucleated by cytoplasmic or microtubule-bound γ-tubulin ring complexes. Here we investigate the requirement of γ-tubulin complexes for giant feeding cells development using the interaction between Arabidopsis and Meloidogyne spp. as a model system. Immunocytochemical analyses demonstrate that γ-tubulin localizes to both cortical cytoplasm and mitotic microtubule arrays of the giant cells where it can associate with microtubules. The transcripts of two Arabidopsis γ-tubulin (TUBG1 and TUBG2 and two γ-tubulin complex proteins genes (GCP3 and GCP4 are upregulated in galls. Electron microscopy demonstrates association of GCP3 and γ-tubulin as part of a complex in the cytoplasm of giant cells. Knockout of either or both γ-tubulin genes results in the gene dose-dependent alteration of the morphology of feeding site and failure of nematode life cycle completion. We conclude that the γ-tubulin complex is essential for the control of microtubular network remodelling in the course of initiation and development of giant-feeding cells, and for the successful reproduction of nematodes in their plant hosts.

  16. Spindle pole body-anchored Kar3 drives the nucleus along microtubules from another nucleus in preparation for nuclear fusion during yeast karyogamy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibeaux, Romain; Politi, Antonio Z; Nédélec, François; Antony, Claude; Knop, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Nuclear migration during yeast karyogamy, termed nuclear congression, is required to initiate nuclear fusion. Congression involves a specific regulation of the microtubule minus end-directed kinesin-14 motor Kar3 and a rearrangement of the cytoplasmic microtubule attachment sites at the spindle pole bodies (SPBs). However, how these elements interact to produce the forces necessary for nuclear migration is less clear. We used electron tomography, molecular genetics, quantitative imaging, and first principles modeling to investigate how cytoplasmic microtubules are organized during nuclear congression. We found that Kar3, with the help of its light chain, Cik1, is anchored during mating to the SPB component Spc72 that also serves as a nucleator and anchor for microtubules via their minus ends. Moreover, we show that no direct microtubule-microtubule interactions are required for nuclear migration. Instead, SPB-anchored Kar3 exerts the necessary pulling forces laterally on microtubules emanating from the SPB of the mating partner nucleus. Therefore, a twofold symmetrical application of the core principle that drives nuclear migration in higher cells is used in yeast to drive nuclei toward each other before nuclear fusion.

  17. Impact of fluorescent protein fusions on the bacterial flagellar motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, M; Nord, A L; Chamousset, D; van Rijn, E; Beaumont, H J E; Pedaci, F

    2017-10-03

    Fluorescent fusion proteins open a direct and unique window onto protein function. However, they also introduce the risk of perturbation of the function of the native protein. Successful applications of fluorescent fusions therefore rely on a careful assessment and minimization of the side effects, but such insight is still lacking for many applications. This is particularly relevant in the study of the internal dynamics of motor proteins, where both the chemical and mechanical reaction coordinates can be affected. Fluorescent proteins fused to the stator of the Bacterial Flagellar Motor (BFM) have previously been used to unveil the motor subunit dynamics. Here we report the effects on single motors of three fluorescent proteins fused to the stators, all of which altered BFM behavior. The torque generated by individual stators was reduced while their stoichiometry remained unaffected. MotB fusions decreased the switching frequency and induced a novel bias-dependent asymmetry in the speed in the two directions. These effects could be mitigated by inserting a linker at the fusion point. These findings provide a quantitative account of the effects of fluorescent fusions to the stator on BFM dynamics and their alleviation- new insights that advance the use of fluorescent fusions to probe the dynamics of protein complexes.

  18. Stabilization, not polymerization, of microtubules inhibits the nuclear translocation of STATs in adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleason, Evanna L.; Hogan, Jessica C.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.

    2004-01-01

    Signal transducers and activators of transcriptions (STATs) are a family of latent transcription factors which are activated by a variety of growth factors and cytokines in many cell types. However, the mechanism by which these transcription factors translocate to the nucleus is poorly understood. The goal of this study was to determine the requirement of microfilaments and microtubules for cytokine induced STAT activation in cultured adipocytes. We used seven different actin-specific and microtubule-specific agents that are well-established effectors of these cytoskeletal networks. Our results clearly demonstrate that inhibition of microfilaments or the prevention of microtubule polymerization has no effect on the ability of STATs to be tyrosine phosphorylated or to translocate to the nucleus. However, we observed that paclitaxel, a microtubule stabilizer, resulted in a significant decrease in the nuclear translocation of STATs without affecting the cytosolic tyrosine phosphorylation of these transcription factors. In summary, our results demonstrate that the dynamic instability, but not the polymerization, of microtubules contributes to nuclear translocation of STAT proteins in adipocytes

  19. Arabidopsis Microtubule-Associated Protein MAP65-3 Cross-Links Antiparallel Microtubules toward Their Plus Ends in the Phragmoplast via Its Distinct C-Terminal Microtubule Binding Domain[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chin-Min Kimmy; Lee, Yuh-Ru Julie; Kiyama, Lindsay D.; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P.; Liu, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Plant cytokinesis is brought about by the phragmoplast, which contains an antiparallel microtubule (MT) array. The MT-associated protein MAP65-3 acts as an MT-bundling factor that specifically cross-links antiparallel MTs near their plus ends. MAP65 family proteins contain an N-terminal dimerization domain and C-terminal MT interaction domain. Compared with other MAP65 isoforms, MAP65-3 contains an extended C terminus. A MT binding site was discovered in the region between amino acids 496 and 588 and found to be essential for the organization of phragmoplast MTs. The frequent cytokinetic failure caused by loss of MAP65-3 was not rescued by ectopic expression of MAP65-1 under the control of the MAP65-3 promoter, indicating nonoverlapping functions between the two isoforms. In the presence of MAP65-3, however, ectopic MAP65-1 appeared in the phragmoplast midline. We show that MAP65-1 could acquire the function of MAP65-3 when the C terminus of MAP65-3, which contains the MT binding site, was grafted to it. Our results also show that MAP65-1 and MAP65-3 may share redundant functions in MT stabilization. Such a stabilization effect was likely brought about by MT binding and bundling. We conclude that MAP65-3 contains a distinct C-terminal MT binding site with a specific role in cross-linking antiparallel MTs toward their plus ends in the phragmoplast. PMID:22570443

  20. Clustering of Nuclei in Multinucleated Hyphae Is Prevented by Dynein-Driven Bidirectional Nuclear Movements and Microtubule Growth Control in Ashbya gossypii ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grava, Sandrine; Keller, Miyako; Voegeli, Sylvia; Seger, Shanon; Lang, Claudia; Philippsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    During filamentous fungus development, multinucleated hyphae employ a system for long-range nuclear migration to maintain an equal nuclear density. A decade ago the microtubule motor dynein was shown to play a central role in this process. Previous studies with Ashbya gossypii revealed extensive bidirectional movements and bypassings of nuclei, an autonomous cytoplasmic microtubule (cMT) cytoskeleton emanating from each nucleus, and pulling of nuclei by sliding of cMTs along the cortex. Here, we show that dynein is the sole motor for bidirectional movements and bypassing because these movements are concomitantly decreased in mutants carrying truncations of the dynein heavy-chain DYN1 promoter. The dynactin component Jnm1, the accessory proteins Dyn2 and Ndl1, and the potential dynein cortical anchor Num1 are also involved in the dynamic distribution of nuclei. In their absence, nuclei aggregate to different degrees, whereby the mutants with dense nuclear clusters grow extremely long cMTs. As in budding yeast, we found that dynein is delivered to cMT plus ends, and its activity or processivity is probably controlled by dynactin and Num1. Together with its role in powering nuclear movements, we propose that dynein also plays (directly or indirectly) a role in the control of cMT length. Those combined dynein actions prevent nuclear clustering in A. gossypii and thus reveal a novel cellular role for dynein. PMID:21642510

  1. Synchronous Oscillations in Microtubule Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, M. F.; Melki, R.; Pantaloni, D.; Hill, T. L.; Chen, Y.

    1987-08-01

    Under conditions where microtubule nucleation and growth are fast (i.e., high magnesium ion and tubulin concentrations and absence of glycerol), microtubule assembly in vitro exhibits an oscillatory regime preceding the establishment of steady state. The amplitude of the oscillations can represent >50% of the maximum turbidity change and oscillations persist for up to 20 periods of 80 s each. Oscillations are accompanied by extensive length redistribution of microtubules. Preliminary work suggests that the oscillatory kinetics can be simulated using a model in which many microtubules undergo synchronous transitions between growing and rapidly depolymerizing phases, complicated by the kinetically limiting rate of nucleotide exchange on free tubulin.

  2. Microtubule Regulation of Kv7 Channels Orchestrates cAMP-Mediated Vasorelaxations in Rat Arterial Smooth Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindman, Johanna; Khammy, Makhala M; Lundegaard, Pia R

    2018-01-01

    Microtubules can regulate GPCR (G protein-coupled receptor) signaling in various cell types. In vascular smooth muscle, activation of the β-adrenoceptor leads to production of cAMP to mediate a vasorelaxation. Little is known about the role of microtubules in smooth muscle, and given the importance...... of renal and mesenteric arteries that the microtubule stabilizer, paclitaxel, prevented. Sharp microelectrode experiments showed that colchicine treatment caused increased hyperpolarization of mesenteric artery segments in response to isoprenaline. Application of the Kv7 channel blocker, XE991, attenuated...

  3. Challenges and opportunities in the high-resolution cryo-EM visualization of microtubules and their binding partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales, Eva; Kellogg, Elizabeth H

    2017-10-01

    As non-crystallizable polymers, microtubules have been the target of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) studies since the technique was first established. Over the years, image processing strategies have been developed that take care of the unique, pseudo-helical symmetry of the microtubule. With recent progress in data quality and data processing, cryo-EM reconstructions are now reaching resolutions that allow the generation of atomic models of microtubules and the factors that bind them. These include cellular partners that contribute to microtubule cellular functions, or small ligands that interfere with those functions in the treatment of cancer. The stage is set to generate a family portrait for all identified microtubule interacting proteins and to use cryo-EM as a drug development tool in the targeting of tubulin. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanical design of translocating motor proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wonmuk; Lang, Matthew J

    2009-01-01

    Translocating motors generate force and move along a biofilament track to achieve diverse functions including gene transcription, translation, intracellular cargo transport, protein degradation, and muscle contraction. Advances in single molecule manipulation experiments, structural biology, and computational analysis are making it possible to consider common mechanical design principles of these diverse families of motors. Here, we propose a mechanical parts list that include track, energy conversion machinery, and moving parts. Energy is supplied not just by burning of a fuel molecule, but there are other sources or sinks of free energy, by binding and release of a fuel or products, or similarly between the motor and the track. Dynamic conformational changes of the motor domain can be regarded as controlling the flow of free energy to and from the surrounding heat reservoir. Multiple motor domains are organized in distinct ways to achieve motility under imposed physical constraints. Transcending amino acid sequence and structure, physically and functionally similar mechanical parts may have evolved as nature's design strategy for these molecular engines.

  5. Intracellular and extracellular microtubule associated protein tau as a therapeutic target in Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Jesús; Pallas, Noemí; Bolós, Marta; Sayas, C Laura; Hernandez, Felix

    2016-06-01

    Microtubule associated protein tau, a protein mainly expressed in neurons, plays an important role in several diseases related to dementia, named tauopathies. Alzheimer disease is the most relevant tauopathy. The role of tau protein in dementia is now a topic under discussion, and is the focus of this review. We have covered two major areas: tau pathology and tau as a therapeutic target. Tau pathology is mainly related to a gain of toxic function due to an abnormal accumulation, aberrant modifications (such as hyperphosphorylation and truncation, among others) and self-aggregation of tau into oligomers or larger structures. Also, tau can be found extracellularly in a toxic form. Tau-based therapy is mainly centered on avoiding the gain of these toxic functions of tau. Tau therapies are focused on lowering tau levels, mainly of modified tau species that could be toxic for neurons (phosphorylated, truncated or aggregated tau), in intracellular or extracellular form. Decreasing the levels of those toxic species is a possible therapeutic strategy.

  6. Spatiotemporal Regulation of Nuclear Transport Machinery and Microtubule Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Naoyuki; Sato, Masamitsu

    2015-01-01

    Spindle microtubules capture and segregate chromosomes and, therefore, their assembly is an essential event in mitosis. To carry out their mission, many key players for microtubule formation need to be strictly orchestrated. Particularly, proteins that assemble the spindle need to be translocated at appropriate sites during mitosis. A small GTPase (hydrolase enzyme of guanosine triphosphate), Ran, controls this translocation. Ran plays many roles in many cellular events: nucleocytoplasmic shuttling through the nuclear envelope, assembly of the mitotic spindle, and reorganization of the nuclear envelope at the mitotic exit. Although these events are seemingly distinct, recent studies demonstrate that the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are substantially the same as explained by molecular interplay of the master regulator Ran, the transport factor importin, and its cargo proteins. Our review focuses on how the transport machinery regulates mitotic progression of cells. We summarize translocation mechanisms governed by Ran and its regulatory proteins, and particularly focus on Ran-GTP targets in fission yeast that promote spindle formation. We also discuss the coordination of the spatial and temporal regulation of proteins from the viewpoint of transport machinery. We propose that the transport machinery is an essential key that couples the spatial and temporal events in cells. PMID:26308057

  7. Mathematical modeling of molecular motors

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Amongst the many complex processes taking place in living cells, transport of cargoes across the cytosceleton is fundamental to cell viability and activity. To move cargoes between the different cell parts, cells employ Molecular Motors. The motors operate by transporting cargoes along the so-called cellular micro-tubules, namely rope-like structures that connect, for instance, the cell-nucleus and outer membrane. We introduce a new Markov Chain, the killed Quasi-Random-Walk, for such transpo...

  8. Conformational dynamics of ATP/Mg:ATP in motor proteins via data mining and molecular simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojovschi, A.; Liu, Ming S.; Sadus, Richard J.

    2012-08-01

    The conformational diversity of ATP/Mg:ATP in motor proteins was investigated using molecular dynamics and data mining. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) conformations were found to be constrained mostly by inter cavity motifs in the motor proteins. It is demonstrated that ATP favors extended conformations in the tight pockets of motor proteins such as F1-ATPase and actin whereas compact structures are favored in motor proteins such as RNA polymerase and DNA helicase. The incorporation of Mg2+ leads to increased flexibility of ATP molecules. The differences in the conformational dynamics of ATP/Mg:ATP in various motor proteins was quantified by the radius of gyration. The relationship between the simulation results and those obtained by data mining of motor proteins available in the protein data bank is analyzed. The data mining analysis of motor proteins supports the conformational diversity of the phosphate group of ATP obtained computationally.

  9. Assembly and control of large microtubule complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Kirill; Ishihara, Keisuke; Mitchison, Timothy

    Motility, division, and other cellular processes require rapid assembly and disassembly of microtubule structures. We report a new mechanism for the formation of asters, radial microtubule complexes found in very large cells. The standard model of aster growth assumes elongation of a fixed number of microtubules originating from the centrosomes. However, aster morphology in this model does not scale with cell size, and we found evidence for microtubule nucleation away from centrosomes. By combining polymerization dynamics and auto-catalytic nucleation of microtubules, we developed a new biophysical model of aster growth. The model predicts an explosive transition from an aster with a steady-state radius to one that expands as a travelling wave. At the transition, microtubule density increases continuously, but aster growth rate discontinuously jumps to a nonzero value. We tested our model with biochemical perturbations in egg extract and confirmed main theoretical predictions including the jump in the growth rate. Our results show that asters can grow even though individual microtubules are short and unstable. The dynamic balance between microtubule collapse and nucleation could be a general framework for the assembly and control of large microtubule complexes. NIH GM39565; Simons Foundation 409704; Honjo International 486 Scholarship Foundation.

  10. Microtubules self-repair in response to mechanical stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaedel, Laura; John, Karin; Gaillard, Jérémie; Nachury, Maxence V.; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Microtubules--which define the shape of axons, cilia and flagella, and provide tracks for intracellular transport--can be highly bent by intracellular forces, and microtubule structure and stiffness are thought to be affected by physical constraints. Yet how microtubules tolerate the vast forces exerted on them remains unknown. Here, by using a microfluidic device, we show that microtubule stiffness decreases incrementally with each cycle of bending and release. Similar to other cases of material fatigue, the concentration of mechanical stresses on pre-existing defects in the microtubule lattice is responsible for the generation of more extensive damage, which further decreases microtubule stiffness. Strikingly, damaged microtubules were able to incorporate new tubulin dimers into their lattice and recover their initial stiffness. Our findings demonstrate that microtubules are ductile materials with self-healing properties, that their dynamics does not exclusively occur at their ends, and that their lattice plasticity enables the microtubules' adaptation to mechanical stresses.

  11. Cloning and sequencing of the cDNA encoding a core protein of the paired helical filament of Alzheimer's disease: Identification as the microtubule-associated protein tau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedert, M.; Wischik, C.M.; Crowther, R.A.; Walker, J.E.; Klug, A.

    1988-01-01

    Screening of cDNA libraries prepared from the frontal cortex of an Alzheimer's disease patient and from fetal human brain has led to isolation of the cDNA for a core protein of the paired helical filament of Alzheimer's disease. The partial amino acid sequence of this core protein was used to design synthetic oligonucleotide probes. The cDNA encodes a protein of 352 amino acids that contains a characteristic amino acid repeat in its carboxyl-terminal half. This protein is highly homologous to the sequence of the mouse microtubule-associated protein tau and thus constitutes the human equivalent of mouse tau. RNA blot analysis indicates the presence of two major transcripts, 6 and 2 kilobases long, with a wide distribution in normal human brain. Tau protein mRNAs were found in normal amounts in the frontal cortex from patients with Alzheimer's disease. The proof that at least part of tau protein forms a component of the paired helical filament core opens the way to understanding the mode of formation of paired helical filaments and thus, ultimately, the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease

  12. TONNEAU2/FASS Regulates the Geometry of Microtubule Nucleation and Cortical Array Organization in Interphase Arabidopsis Cells[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirik, Angela; Ehrhardt, David W.; Kirik, Viktor

    2012-01-01

    Organization of microtubules into ordered arrays involves spatial and temporal regulation of microtubule nucleation. Here, we show that acentrosomal microtubule nucleation in plant cells involves a previously unknown regulatory step that determines the geometry of microtubule nucleation. Dynamic imaging of interphase cortical microtubules revealed that the ratio of branching to in-bundle microtubule nucleation on cortical microtubules is regulated by the Arabidopsis thaliana B′′ subunit of protein phosphatase 2A, which is encoded by the TONNEAU2/FASS (TON2) gene. The probability of nucleation from γ-tubulin complexes localized at the cell cortex was not affected by a loss of TON2 function, suggesting a specific role of TON2 in regulating the nucleation geometry. Both loss of TON2 function and ectopic targeting of TON2 to the plasma membrane resulted in defects in cell shape, suggesting the importance of TON2-mediated regulation of the microtubule cytoskeleton in cell morphogenesis. Loss of TON2 function also resulted in an inability for cortical arrays to reorient in response to light stimulus, suggesting an essential role for TON2 and microtubule branching nucleation in reorganization of microtubule arrays. Our data establish TON2 as a regulator of interphase microtubule nucleation and provide experimental evidence for a novel regulatory step in the process of microtubule-dependent nucleation. PMID:22395485

  13. A novel mechanism important for the alignment of microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Raymond; Turner, Simon R

    2008-04-01

    Using a live-cell imaging approach to study individual micro-tubules, we have compared microtubule behavior between net-like and aligned cortical arrays. In contrast to previous studies, a steep angled collision between the growing end of a microtubule and a preexisting microtubule was found to favor crossover. Frequencies of microtubule crossovers, bundling and catastrophes are similar regardless of whether the cell exhibited a net-like or aligned microtubule array. In the predominantly aligned array of petiole cells, severing occurs at the sites of microtubule crossovers and serves to remove unaligned microtubules and to increase microtubule density. Severing was observed to be rare in net-like arrays. Microtubule severing is carried out by the katanin enzyme. In this addendum, we present new insights into the possible mechanism of crossing over and preliminary data looking at organization of the array in a katanin mutant.

  14. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from a patient with frontotemporal dementia caused by a R406W mutation in microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel A.; Hjermind, Lena E.; Hasholt, Lis F.

    2016-01-01

    Skin fibroblasts were obtained from a 59-year-old woman diagnosed with frontotemporal dementia. The disease is caused by a R406W mutation in microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT). Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were established by electroporation with episomal plasmids containing hOCT4...

  15. A ROP2-RIC1 pathway fine-tunes microtubule reorganization for salt tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changjiang; Lu, Hanmei; Li, Wei; Yuan, Ming; Fu, Ying

    2017-07-01

    The reorganization of microtubules induced by salt stress is required for Arabidopsis survival under high salinity conditions. RIC1 is an effector of Rho-related GTPase from plants (ROPs) and a known microtubule-associated protein. In this study, we demonstrated that RIC1 expression decreased with long-term NaCl treatment, and ric1-1 seedlings exhibited a higher survival rate under salt stress. We found that RIC1 reduced the frequency of microtubule transition from shortening to growing status and knockout of RIC1 improved the reassembly of depolymerized microtubules caused by either oryzalin treatment or salt stress. Further investigation showed that constitutively active ROP2 promoted the reassembly of microtubules and the survival of seedlings under salt stress. A rop2-1 ric1-1 double mutant rescued the salt-sensitive phenotype of rop2-1, indicating that ROP2 functions in salt tolerance through RIC1. Although ROP2 did not regulate RIC1 expression upon salt stress, a quick but mild increase of ROP2 activity was induced, led to reduction of RIC1 on microtubules. Collectively, our study reveals an ROP2-RIC1 pathway that fine-tunes microtubule dynamics in response to salt stress in Arabidopsis. This finding not only reveals a new regulatory mechanism for microtubule reorganization under salt stress but also the importance of ROP signalling for salinity tolerance. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. GDP-tubulin incorporation into growing microtubules modulates polymer stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiron, Odile; Arnal, Isabelle; Caudron, Nicolas; Job, Didier

    2010-06-04

    Microtubule growth proceeds through the endwise addition of nucleotide-bound tubulin dimers. The microtubule wall is composed of GDP-tubulin subunits, which are thought to come exclusively from the incorporation of GTP-tubulin complexes at microtubule ends followed by GTP hydrolysis within the polymer. The possibility of a direct GDP-tubulin incorporation into growing polymers is regarded as hardly compatible with recent structural data. Here, we have examined GTP-tubulin and GDP-tubulin incorporation into polymerizing microtubules using a minimal assembly system comprised of nucleotide-bound tubulin dimers, in the absence of free nucleotide. We find that GDP-tubulin complexes can efficiently co-polymerize with GTP-tubulin complexes during microtubule assembly. GDP-tubulin incorporation into microtubules occurs with similar efficiency during bulk microtubule assembly as during microtubule growth from seeds or centrosomes. Microtubules formed from GTP-tubulin/GDP-tubulin mixtures display altered microtubule dynamics, in particular a decreased shrinkage rate, apparently due to intrinsic modifications of the polymer disassembly properties. Thus, although microtubules polymerized from GTP-tubulin/GDP-tubulin mixtures or from homogeneous GTP-tubulin solutions are both composed of GDP-tubulin subunits, they have different dynamic properties, and this may reveal a novel form of microtubule "structural plasticity."

  17. Dynamic microtubule organization and mitochondrial transport are regulated by distinct Kinesin-1 pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Melkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The microtubule (MT plus-end motor kinesin heavy chain (Khc is well known for its role in long distance cargo transport. Recent evidence showed that Khc is also required for the organization of the cellular MT network by mediating MT sliding. We found that mutations in Khc and the gene of its adaptor protein, kinesin light chain (Klc resulted in identical bristle morphology defects, with the upper part of the bristle being thinner and flatter than normal and failing to taper towards the bristle tip. We demonstrate that bristle mitochondria transport requires Khc but not Klc as a competing force to dynein heavy chain (Dhc. Surprisingly, we demonstrate for the first time that Dhc is the primary motor for both anterograde and retrograde fast mitochondria transport. We found that the upper part of Khc and Klc mutant bristles lacked stable MTs. When following dynamic MT polymerization via the use of GFP-tagged end-binding protein 1 (EB1, it was noted that at Khc and Klc mutant bristle tips, dynamic MTs significantly deviated from the bristle parallel growth axis, relative to wild-type bristles. We also observed that GFP-EB1 failed to concentrate as a focus at the tip of Khc and Klc mutant bristles. We propose that the failure of bristle tapering is due to defects in directing dynamic MTs at the growing tip. Thus, we reveal a new function for Khc and Klc in directing dynamic MTs during polarized cell growth. Moreover, we also demonstrate a novel mode of coordination in mitochondrial transport between Khc and Dhc.

  18. Vault mobility depends in part on microtubules and vaults can be recruited to the nuclear envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zon, Arend van; Mossink, Marieke H.; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B.; Schoester, Martijn; Scheffer, George L.; Scheper, Rik J.; Sonneveld, Pieter; Wiemer, Erik A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Vaults are ribonucleoproteins that may function in intracellular transport processes. We investigated the intracellular distribution and dynamics of vaults in non-small cell lung cancer cells in which vaults are labeled with the green fluorescent protein. Immunofluorescence experiments showed that vaults are dispersed throughout the cytoplasm; a small fraction is found in close proximity to microtubules. Immunoprecipitation experiments corroborated these results showing co-precipitation of MVP and β-tubulin. Using quantitative fluorescence-recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), we demonstrated that vault mobility over longer distances in part depends on intact microtubules; vaults moving slower when microtubules are depolymerized by nocodazole. Biochemical fractionation indicated a small fraction of MVP associated with the nucleus, however, no GFP-tagged vaults could be observed inside the nucleus. We observed an accumulation of vaults at the nuclear envelope upon treatment of cells with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Analysis of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport using a fluorescent substrate containing a classical NLS and NES expressed in MVP +/+ and MVP -/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts indicated no differences in nuclear import/export kinetics, suggesting no role for vaults in these processes. We hypothesize that a subset of vaults moves directionally via microtubules, possibly towards the nucleus

  19. Characterization of mitosis-specific phosphorylation of tumor-associated microtubule-associated protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kyung Uk; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Bae, Chang-Dae; Park, Joobae

    2009-11-30

    Tumor-associated microtubule-associated protein (TMAP), also known as cytoskeleton associated protein 2 (CKAP2), has been recently shown to be involved in the assembly and maintenance of mitotic spindle and also plays an essential role in maintaining the fidelity of chromosome segregation during mitosis. We have previously reported that TMAP is phosphorylated at multiple residues specifically during mitosis, and characterized the mechanism and functional importance of phosphorylation at one of the mitosis-specific phosphorylation residues (i.e., Thr-622). However, the phosphorylation events at the remaining mitotic phosphorylation sites of TMAP have not been fully characterized in detail. Here, we report on generation and characterization of phosphorylated Thr-578- and phosphorylated Thr-596-specific antibodies. Using the antibodies, we show that phosphorylation of TMAP at Thr-578 and Thr-596 indeed occurs specifically during mitosis. Immunofluorescent staining using the antibodies shows that these residues become phosphorylated starting at prophase and then become rapidly dephosphorylated soon after initiation of anaphase. Subtle differences in the kinetics of phosphorylation between Thr-578 and Thr-596 imply that they may be under different mechanisms of phosphorylation during mitosis. Unlike the phosphorylation-deficient mutant form for Thr-622, the mutant in which both Thr-578 and Thr-596 had been mutated to alanines did not induce significant delay in progression of mitosis. These results show that the majority of mitosis-specific phosphorylation of TMAP is limited to pre-anaphase stages and suggest that the multiple phosphorylation may not act in concert but serve diverse functions.

  20. Bacillus anthracis TIR Domain-Containing Protein Localises to Cellular Microtubule Structures and Induces Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Emil; Thwaite, Joanne E; Jenner, Dominic C; Spear, Abigail M; Flick-Smith, Helen; Atkins, Helen S; Byrne, Bernadette; Ding, Jeak Ling

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognise invading pathogens and mediate downstream immune signalling via Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domains. TIR domain proteins (Tdps) have been identified in multiple pathogenic bacteria and have recently been implicated as negative regulators of host innate immune activation. A Tdp has been identified in Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. Here we present the first study of this protein, designated BaTdp. Recombinantly expressed and purified BaTdp TIR domain interacted with several human TIR domains, including that of the key TLR adaptor MyD88, although BaTdp expression in cultured HEK293 cells had no effect on TLR4- or TLR2- mediated immune activation. During expression in mammalian cells, BaTdp localised to microtubular networks and caused an increase in lipidated cytosolic microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3), indicative of autophagosome formation. In vivo intra-nasal infection experiments in mice showed that a BaTdp knockout strain colonised host tissue faster with higher bacterial load within 4 days post-infection compared to the wild type B. anthracis. Taken together, these findings indicate that BaTdp does not play an immune suppressive role, but rather, its absence increases virulence. BaTdp present in wild type B. anthracis plausibly interact with the infected host cell, which undergoes autophagy in self-defence.

  1. Interplay between microtubule bundling and sorting factors ensures acentriolar spindle stability during C. elegans oocyte meiosis.

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    Timothy J Mullen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In many species, oocyte meiosis is carried out in the absence of centrioles. As a result, microtubule organization, spindle assembly, and chromosome segregation proceed by unique mechanisms. Here, we report insights into the principles underlying this specialized form of cell division, through studies of C. elegans KLP-15 and KLP-16, two highly homologous members of the kinesin-14 family of minus-end-directed kinesins. These proteins localize to the acentriolar oocyte spindle and promote microtubule bundling during spindle assembly; following KLP-15/16 depletion, microtubule bundles form but then collapse into a disorganized array. Surprisingly, despite this defect we found that during anaphase, microtubules are able to reorganize into a bundled array that facilitates chromosome segregation. This phenotype therefore enabled us to identify factors promoting microtubule organization during anaphase, whose contributions are normally undetectable in wild-type worms; we found that SPD-1 (PRC1 bundles microtubules and KLP-18 (kinesin-12 likely sorts those bundles into a functional orientation capable of mediating chromosome segregation. Therefore, our studies have revealed an interplay between distinct mechanisms that together promote spindle formation and chromosome segregation in the absence of structural cues such as centrioles.

  2. Effects of the KIF2C neck peptide on microtubules: lateral disintegration of microtubules and β-structure formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Youské; Shimizu, Takashi; Nara, Masayuki; Kikumoto, Mahito; Kojima, Hiroaki; Morii, Hisayuki

    2013-04-01

    Members of the kinesin-13 sub-family, including KIF2C, depolymerize microtubules. The positive charge-rich 'neck' region extending from the N-terminus of the catalytic head is considered to be important in the depolymerization activity. Chemically synthesized peptides, covering the basic region (A182-E200), induced a sigmoidal increase in the turbidity of a microtubule suspension. The increase was suppressed by salt addition or by reduction of basicity by amino acid substitutions. Electron microscopic observations revealed ring structures surrounding the microtubules at high peptide concentrations. Using the peptide A182-D218, we also detected free thin straight filaments, probably protofilaments disintegrated from microtubules. Therefore, the neck region, even without the catalytic head domain, may induce lateral disintegration of microtubules. With microtubules lacking anion-rich C-termini as a result of subtilisin treatment, addition of the peptide induced only a moderate increase in turbidity, and rings and protofilaments were rarely detected, while aggregations, also thought to be caused by lateral disintegration, were often observed in electron micrographs. Thus, the C-termini are not crucial for the action of the peptides in lateral disintegration but contribute to structural stabilization of the protofilaments. Previous structural studies indicated that the neck region of KIF2C is flexible, but our IR analysis suggests that the cation-rich region (K190-A204) forms β-structure in the presence of microtubules, which may be of significance with regard to the action of the neck region. Therefore, the neck region of KIF2C is sufficient to cause disintegration of microtubules into protofilaments, and this may contribute to the ability of KIF2C to cause depolymerization of microtubules. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  3. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from af pre-symptomatic carrier of a R406W mutation in microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) causing frontotemporal dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel A.; Hjermind, Lena Elisabeth; Hasholt, Lis Frydenreich

    2016-01-01

    Skin fibroblasts were obtained from a 28-year-old pre-symptomatic woman carrying a R406W mutation in microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT), known to cause frontotemporal dementia. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSCs) were established by electroporation with episomal plasmids containing hOCT4...

  4. Hippocampal synapsin I, growth-associated protein-43, and microtubule-associated protein-2 immunoreactivity in learned helplessness rats and antidepressant-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, M; Shirayama, Y; Ishida, H; Kawahara, R

    2006-09-01

    Learned helplessness rats are thought to be an animal model of depression. To study the role of synapse plasticity in depression, we examined the effects of learned helplessness and antidepressant treatments on synapsin I (a marker of presynaptic terminals), growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43; a marker of growth cones), and microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2; a marker of dendrites) in the hippocampus by immunolabeling. (1) Learned helplessness rats showed significant increases in the expression of synapsin I two days after the attainment of learned helplessness, and significant decreases in the protein expression eight days after the achievement of learned helplessness. Subchronic treatment of naïve rats with imipramine or fluvoxamine significantly decreased the expression of synapsin I. (2) Learned helplessness increased the expression of GAP-43 two days and eight days after learned helplessness training. Subchronic treatment of naïve rats with fluvoxamine but not imipramine showed a tendency to decrease the expression of synapsin I. (3) Learned helplessness rats showed increased expression of MAP-2 eight days after the attainment of learned helplessness. Naïve rats subchronically treated with imipramine showed a tendency toward increased expression of MAP-2, but those treated with fluvoxamine did not. These results indicate that the neuroplasticity-related proteins synapsin I, GAP-43, and MAP-2 may play a role in the pathophysiology of depression and the mechanisms of antidepressants.

  5. Interaction between the flagellar pocket collar and the hook complex via a novel microtubule-binding protein in Trypanosoma brucei.

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    Anna Albisetti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei belongs to a group of unicellular, flagellated parasites that are responsible for human African trypanosomiasis. An essential aspect of parasite pathogenicity is cytoskeleton remodelling, which occurs during the life cycle of the parasite and is accompanied by major changes in morphology and organelle positioning. The flagellum originates from the basal bodies and exits the cell body through the flagellar pocket (FP but remains attached to the cell body via the flagellum attachment zone (FAZ. The FP is an invagination of the pellicular membrane and is the sole site for endo- and exocytosis. The FAZ is a large complex of cytoskeletal proteins, plus an intracellular set of four specialised microtubules (MtQ that elongate from the basal bodies to the anterior end of the cell. At the distal end of the FP, an essential, intracellular, cytoskeletal structure called the flagellar pocket collar (FPC circumvents the flagellum. Overlapping the FPC is the hook complex (HC (a sub-structure of the previously named bilobe that is also essential and is thought to be involved in protein FP entry. BILBO1 is the only functionally characterised FPC protein and is necessary for FPC and FP biogenesis. Here, we used a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches to identify and characterize a new BILBO1 partner protein-FPC4. We demonstrate that FPC4 localises to the FPC, the HC, and possibly to a proximal portion of the MtQ. We found that the C-terminal domain of FPC4 interacts with the BILBO1 N-terminal domain, and we identified the key amino acids required for this interaction. Interestingly, the FPC4 N-terminal domain was found to bind microtubules. Over-expression studies highlight the role of FPC4 in its association with the FPC, HC and FPC segregation. Our data suggest a tripartite association between the FPC, the HC and the MtQ.

  6. Small heat shock proteins mediate cell-autonomous and -nonautonomous protection in a Drosophila model for environmental-stress-induced degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Fumiko; Koonce, Noelle L; Guo, Linda; Fatima, Shahroz; Qiu, Catherine; Moon, Mackenzie T; Zheng, Yunzhen; Ordway, Richard W

    2016-09-01

    Cell and tissue degeneration, and the development of degenerative diseases, are influenced by genetic and environmental factors that affect protein misfolding and proteotoxicity. To better understand the role of the environment in degeneration, we developed a genetic model for heat shock (HS)-stress-induced degeneration in Drosophila This model exhibits a unique combination of features that enhance genetic analysis of degeneration and protection mechanisms involving environmental stress. These include cell-type-specific failure of proteostasis and degeneration in response to global stress, cell-nonautonomous interactions within a simple and accessible network of susceptible cell types, and precise temporal control over the induction of degeneration. In wild-type flies, HS stress causes selective loss of the flight ability and degeneration of three susceptible cell types comprising the flight motor: muscle, motor neurons and associated glia. Other motor behaviors persist and, accordingly, the corresponding cell types controlling leg motor function are resistant to degeneration. Flight motor degeneration was preceded by a failure of muscle proteostasis characterized by diffuse ubiquitinated protein aggregates. Moreover, muscle-specific overexpression of a small heat shock protein (HSP), HSP23, promoted proteostasis and protected muscle from HS stress. Notably, neurons and glia were protected as well, indicating that a small HSP can mediate cell-nonautonomous protection. Cell-autonomous protection of muscle was characterized by a distinct distribution of ubiquitinated proteins, including perinuclear localization and clearance of protein aggregates associated with the perinuclear microtubule network. This network was severely disrupted in wild-type preparations prior to degeneration, suggesting that it serves an important role in muscle proteostasis and protection. Finally, studies of resistant leg muscles revealed that they sustain proteostasis and the microtubule

  7. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from a symptomatic carrier of a S305I mutation in the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT)-gene causing frontotemporal dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimsanor, Natakarn; Jørring, Ida; Rasmussen, Mikkel A.

    2016-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17q21.2 (FTDP-17) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder. Mutations in the gene coding the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) can cause FTDP-17 but the underlying mechanisms of the disease are still unknown. Induced...

  8. Microtubules become more dynamic but not shorter during preprophase band formation: A possible "search-and-capture" mechanism for microtubule translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.W.; Dogterom, M.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2004-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of the microtubule cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in cellular organization, but the physical mechanisms underlying microtubule (re)organization in plant cells are poorly understood. We investigated microtubule dynamics in tobacco BY-2 suspension cells during interphase and

  9. Capture of microtubule plus-ends at the actin cortex promotes axophilic neuronal migration by enhancing microtubule tension in the leading process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, B Ian; Wray, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Microtubules are a critical part of neuronal polarity and leading process extension, thus microtubule movement plays an important role in neuronal migration. However, the dynamics of microtubules during the forward movement of the nucleus into the leading process (nucleokinesis) is unclear and may be dependent on the cell type and mode of migration used. In particular, little is known about cytoskeletal changes during axophilic migration, commonly used in anteroposterior neuronal migration. We recently showed that leading process actin flow in migrating GnRH neurons is controlled by a signaling cascade involving IP3 receptors, CaMKK, AMPK, and RhoA. In the present study, microtubule dynamics were examined in GnRH neurons. Failure of the migration of these cells leads to the neuroendocrine disorder Kallmann Syndrome. Microtubules translocated forward along the leading process shaft during migration, but reversed direction and moved toward the nucleus when migration stalled. Blocking calcium release through IP3 receptors halted migration and induced the same reversal of microtubule translocation, while blocking cortical actin flow prevented microtubules from translocating toward the distal leading process. Super-resolution imaging revealed that microtubule plus-end tips are captured at the actin cortex through calcium-dependent mechanisms. This work shows that cortical actin flow draws the microtubule network forward through calcium-dependent capture in order to promote nucleokinesis, revealing a novel mechanism engaged by migrating neurons to facilitate movement.

  10. Deficiency of the Survival of Motor Neuron Protein Impairs mRNA Localization and Local Translation in the Growth Cone of Motor Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallini, Claudia; Donlin-Asp, Paul G; Rouanet, Jeremy P; Bassell, Gary J; Rossoll, Wilfried

    2016-03-30

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disease primarily affecting spinal motor neurons. It is caused by reduced levels of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein, which plays an essential role in the biogenesis of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoproteins in all tissues. The etiology of the specific defects in the motor circuitry in SMA is still unclear, but SMN has also been implicated in mediating the axonal localization of mRNA-protein complexes, which may contribute to the axonal degeneration observed in SMA. Here, we report that SMN deficiency severely disrupts local protein synthesis within neuronal growth cones. We also identify the cytoskeleton-associated growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43) mRNA as a new target of SMN and show that motor neurons from SMA mouse models have reduced levels ofGAP43mRNA and protein in axons and growth cones. Importantly, overexpression of two mRNA-binding proteins, HuD and IMP1, restoresGAP43mRNA and protein levels in growth cones and rescues axon outgrowth defects in SMA neurons. These findings demonstrate that SMN plays an important role in the localization and local translation of mRNAs with important axonal functions and suggest that disruption of this function may contribute to the axonal defects observed in SMA. The motor neuron disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by reduced levels of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein, which plays a key role in assembling RNA/protein complexes that are essential for mRNA splicing. It remains unclear whether defects in this well characterized housekeeping function cause the specific degeneration of spinal motor neurons observed in SMA. Here, we describe an additional role of SMN in regulating the axonal localization and local translation of the mRNA encoding growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43). This study supports a model whereby SMN deficiency impedes transport and local translation of mRNAs important for neurite outgrowth and stabilization

  11. MTB-3, a microtubule plus-end tracking protein (+TIP of Neurospora crassa.

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    Rosa R Mouriño-Pérez

    Full Text Available The microtubule (MT "plus end" constitutes the platform for the accumulation of a structurally and functionally diverse group of proteins, collectively called "MT plus-end tracking proteins" (+TIPs. +TIPs control MT dynamics and link MTs to diverse sub-cellular structures. Neurospora crassaMicroTubule Binding protein-3 (MTB-3 is the homolog of yeast EB1, a highly conserved +TIP. To address the function of MTB-3, we examined strains with mtb-3 deletions, and we tagged MTB-3 with GFP to assess its dynamic behavior. MTB-3-GFP was present as comet-like structures distributed more or less homogeneously within the hyphal cytoplasm, and moving mainly towards the apex at speeds up to 4× faster than the normal hyphal elongation rates. MTB-3-GFP comets were present in all developmental stages, but were most abundant in mature hyphae. MTB-3-GFP comets were observed moving in anterograde and retrograde direction along the hypha. Retrograde movement was also observed as originating from the apical dome. The integrity of the microtubular cytoskeleton affects the presence and dynamics of MTB-3-GFP comets, while actin does not seem to play a role. The size of MTB-3-GFP comets is affected by the absence of dynactin and conventional kinesin. We detected no obvious morphological phenotypes in Δmtb-3 mutants but there were fewer MTs in Δmtb-3, MTs were less bundled and less organized. Compared to WT, both MT polymerization and depolymerization rates were significantly decreased in Δmtb-3. In summary, the lack of MTB-3 affects overall growth and morphological phenotypes of N. crassa only slightly, but deletion of mtb-3 has strong effect on MT dynamics.

  12. Tau protein and adult hippocampal neurogenesis

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    Almudena eFuster-Matanzo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tau protein is a microtubule associated protein found in the axonal compartment that stabilizes neuronal microtubules under normal physiological conditions. Tau metabolism has attracted much attention because of its role in neurodegenerative disorders called tauopathies, mainly Alzheimer disease. Here, we review recent findings suggesting that axonal outgrowth in subgranular zone during adult hippocampal neurogenesis requires a dynamic microtubule network and tau protein facilitates to maintain that dynamic cytoskeleton. Those functions are carried out in part by tau isoform with only three microtubule-binding domains (without exon 10 and by presence of hypherphosphorylated tau forms. Thus, tau is a good marker and a valuable tool to study new axons in adult neurogenesis.

  13. Survival motor neuron protein in motor neurons determines synaptic integrity in spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Tara L; Kong, Lingling; Wang, Xueyong; Osborne, Melissa A; Crowder, Melissa E; Van Meerbeke, James P; Xu, Xixi; Davis, Crystal; Wooley, Joe; Goldhamer, David J; Lutz, Cathleen M; Rich, Mark M; Sumner, Charlotte J

    2012-06-20

    The inherited motor neuron disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by deficient expression of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein and results in severe muscle weakness. In SMA mice, synaptic dysfunction of both neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and central sensorimotor synapses precedes motor neuron cell death. To address whether this synaptic dysfunction is due to SMN deficiency in motor neurons, muscle, or both, we generated three lines of conditional SMA mice with tissue-specific increases in SMN expression. All three lines of mice showed increased survival, weights, and improved motor behavior. While increased SMN expression in motor neurons prevented synaptic dysfunction at the NMJ and restored motor neuron somal synapses, increased SMN expression in muscle did not affect synaptic function although it did improve myofiber size. Together these data indicate that both peripheral and central synaptic integrity are dependent on motor neurons in SMA, but SMN may have variable roles in the maintenance of these different synapses. At the NMJ, it functions at the presynaptic terminal in a cell-autonomous fashion, but may be necessary for retrograde trophic signaling to presynaptic inputs onto motor neurons. Importantly, SMN also appears to function in muscle growth and/or maintenance independent of motor neurons. Our data suggest that SMN plays distinct roles in muscle, NMJs, and motor neuron somal synapses and that restored function of SMN at all three sites will be necessary for full recovery of muscle power.

  14. A Novel Plasma Membrane-Anchored Protein Regulates Xylem Cell-Wall Deposition through Microtubule-Dependent Lateral Inhibition of Rho GTPase Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Yuki; Wakazaki, Mayumi; Toyooka, Kiminori; Fukuda, Hiroo; Oda, Yoshihisa

    2017-08-21

    Spatial control of cell-wall deposition is essential for determining plant cell shape [1]. Rho-type GTPases, together with the cortical cytoskeleton, play central roles in regulating cell-wall patterning [2]. In metaxylem vessel cells, which are the major components of xylem tissues, active ROP11 Rho GTPases form oval plasma membrane domains that locally disrupt cortical microtubules, thereby directing the formation of oval pits in secondary cell walls [3-5]. However, the regulatory mechanism that determines the planar shape of active Rho of Plants (ROP) domains is still unknown. Here we show that IQD13 associates with cortical microtubules and the plasma membrane to laterally restrict the localization of ROP GTPase domains, thereby directing the formation of oval secondary cell-wall pits. Loss and overexpression of IQD13 led to the formation of abnormally round and narrow secondary cell-wall pits, respectively. Ectopically expressed IQD13 increased the presence of parallel cortical microtubules by promoting microtubule rescue. A reconstructive approach revealed that IQD13 confines the area of active ROP domains within the lattice of the cortical microtubules, causing narrow ROP domains to form. This activity required the interaction of IQD13 with the plasma membrane. These findings suggest that IQD13 positively regulates microtubule dynamics as well as their linkage to the plasma membrane, which synergistically confines the area of active ROP domains, leading to the formation of oval secondary cell-wall pits. This finding sheds light on the role of microtubule-plasma membrane linkage as a lateral fence that determines the planar shape of Rho GTPase domains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cytoskeleton Molecular Motors: Structures and Their Functions in Neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qingpin; Hu, Xiaohui; Wei, Zhiyi; Tam, Kin Yip

    2016-01-01

    Cells make use of molecular motors to transport small molecules, macromolecules and cellular organelles to target region to execute biological functions, which is utmost important for polarized cells, such as neurons. In particular, cytoskeleton motors play fundamental roles in neuron polarization, extension, shape and neurotransmission. Cytoskeleton motors comprise of myosin, kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein. F-actin filaments act as myosin track, while kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein move on microtubules. Cytoskeleton motors work together to build a highly polarized and regulated system in neuronal cells via different molecular mechanisms and functional regulations. This review discusses the structures and working mechanisms of the cytoskeleton motors in neurons.

  16. Protein Synthesis Inhibition in the Peri-Infarct Cortex Slows Motor Recovery in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubring-Giese, Maximilian; Leemburg, Susan; Luft, Andreas Rüdiger; Hosp, Jonas Aurel

    2016-01-01

    Neuroplasticity and reorganization of brain motor networks are thought to enable recovery of motor function after ischemic stroke. Especially in the cortex surrounding the ischemic scar (i.e., peri-infarct cortex), evidence for lasting reorganization has been found at the level of neurons and networks. This reorganization depends on expression of specific genes and subsequent protein synthesis. To test the functional relevance of the peri-infarct cortex for recovery we assessed the effect of protein synthesis inhibition within this region after experimental stroke. Long-Evans rats were trained to perform a skilled-reaching task (SRT) until they reached plateau performance. A photothrombotic stroke was induced in the forelimb representation of the primary motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the trained paw. The SRT was re-trained after stroke while the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin (ANI) or saline were injected into the peri-infarct cortex through implanted cannulas. ANI injections reduced protein synthesis within the peri-infarct cortex by 69% and significantly impaired recovery of reaching performance through re-training. Improvement of motor performance within a single training session remained intact, while improvement between training sessions was impaired. ANI injections did not affect infarct size. Thus, protein synthesis inhibition within the peri-infarct cortex impairs recovery of motor deficits after ischemic stroke by interfering with consolidation of motor memory between training sessions but not short-term improvements within one session.

  17. Transient phosphorylation of tumor associated microtubule associated protein (TMAP)/cytoskeleton associated protein 2 (CKAP2) at Thr-596 during early phases of mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kyung Uk; Choi, Yong-Bock; Lee, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Kwon, Hye-Rim; Seong, Yeon-Sun; Kim, Heung Tae; Park, Joobae; Bae, Chang-Dae; Hong, Kyeong-Man

    2008-08-31

    Tumor associated microtubule associated protein (TMAP), also known as cytoskeleton associated protein 2 (CKAP2) is a mitotic spindle-associated protein whose expression is cell cycle-regulated and also frequently deregulated in cancer cells. Two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against TMAP/CKAP2 were produced: B-1-13 and D-12-3. Interestingly, the reactivity of mAb D-12-3 to TMAP/CKAP2 was markedly decreased specifically in mitotic cell lysate. The epitope mapping study showed that mAb D-12-3 recognizes the amino acid sequence between 569 and 625 and that phosphorylation at T596 completely abolishes the reactivity of the antibody, suggesting that the differential reactivity originates from the phosphorylation status at T596. Immunofluorescence staining showed that mAb D-12-3 fails to detect TMAP/CKAP2 in mitotic cells between prophase and metaphase, but the staining becomes evident again in anaphase, suggesting that phosphorylation at T596 occurs transiently during early phases of mitosis. These results suggest that the cellular functions of TMAP/CKAP2 might be regulated by timely phosphorylation and dephosphorylation during the course of mitosis.

  18. Influence of carbon nanotubes on the buckling of microtubule bundles in viscoelastic cytoplasm using nonlocal strain gradient theory

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    A. Farajpour

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes are a new class of microtubule-stabilizing agents since they interact with protein microtubules in living cells, interfering with cell division and inducing apoptosis. In the present work, a modified beam model is developed to investigate the effect of carbon nanotubes on the buckling of microtubule bundles in living cell. A realistic interaction model is employed using recent experimental data on the carbon nanotube-stabilized microtubules. Small scale and surface effects are taken into account applying the nonlocal strain gradient theory and surface elasticity theory. Pasternak model is used to describe the normal and shearing effects of enclosing filament matrix on the buckling behavior of the system. An exact solution is obtained for the buckling growth rates of the mixed bundle in viscoelastic surrounding cytoplasm. The present results are compared with those reported in the open literature for single microtubules and an excellent agreement is found. Finally, the effects of different parameters such as the size, chirality, position and surface energy of carbon nanotubes on the buckling growth rates of microtubule bundles are studied. It is found that the buckling growth rate may increase or decrease by adding carbon nanotubes, depending on the diameter and chirality of carbon nanotubes. Keywords: Microtubules, Carbon nanotubes, Buckling, Size effects

  19. Producing Conditional Mutants for Studying Plant Microtubule Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Cyr

    2009-09-29

    The cytoskeleton, and in particular its microtubule component, participates in several processes that directly affect growth and development in higher plants. Normal cytoskeletal function requires the precise and orderly arrangement of microtubules into several cell cycle and developmentally specific arrays. One of these, the cortical array, is notable for its role in directing the deposition of cellulose (the most prominent polymer in the biosphere). An understanding of how these arrays form, and the molecular interactions that contribute to their function, is incomplete. To gain a better understanding of how microtubules work, we have been working to characterize mutants in critical cytoskeletal genes. This characterization is being carried out at the subcellular level using vital microtubule gene constructs. In the last year of funding colleagues have discovered that gamma-tubulin complexes form along the lengths of cortical microtubules where they act to spawn new microtubules at a characteristic 40 deg angle. This finding complements nicely the finding from our lab (which was funded by the DOE) showing that microtubule encounters are angle dependent; high angles encounters results in catastrophic collisions while low angle encounters result in favorable zippering. The finding of a 40 deg spawn of new microtubules from extant microtubule, together with aforementioned rules of encounters, insures favorable co-alignment in the array. I was invited to write a New and Views essay on this topic and a PDF is attached (News and Views policy does not permit funding acknowledgments and so I was not allowed to acknowledge support from the DOE).

  20. A simple theory of motor protein kinetics and energetics. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, H

    2000-01-10

    A three-state stochastic model of motor protein [Qian, Biophys. Chem. 67 (1997) pp. 263-267] is further developed to illustrate the relationship between the external load on an individual motor protein in aqueous solution with various ATP concentrations and its steady-state velocity. A wide variety of dynamic motor behavior are obtained from this simple model. For the particular case of free-load translocation being the most unfavorable step within the hydrolysis cycle, the load-velocity curve is quasi-linear, V/Vmax = (cF/Fmax-c)/(1-c), in contrast to the hyperbolic relationship proposed by A.V. Hill for macroscopic muscle. Significant deviation from the linearity is expected when the velocity is less than 10% of its maximal (free-load) value--a situation under which the processivity of motor diminishes and experimental observations are less certain. We then investigate the dependence of load-velocity curve on ATP (ADP) concentration. It is shown that the free load Vmax exhibits a Michaelis-Menten like behavior, and the isometric Fmax increases linearly with ln([ATP]/[ADP]). However, the quasi-linear region is independent of the ATP concentration, yielding an apparently ATP-independent maximal force below the true isometric force. Finally, the heat production as a function of ATP concentration and external load are calculated. In simple terms and solved with elementary algebra, the present model provides an integrated picture of biochemical kinetics and mechanical energetics of motor proteins.

  1. Survivin counteracts the therapeutic effect of microtubule de-stabilizers by stabilizing tubulin polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Hsing-Pang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survivin is a dual function protein. It inhibits the apoptosis of cells by inhibiting caspases, and also promotes cell growth by stabilizing microtubules during mitosis. Over-expression of survivin has been demonstrated to induce drug-resistance to various chemo-therapeutic agents such as cisplatin (DNA damaging agent and paclitaxel (microtubule stabilizer in cancers. However, survivin-induced resistance to microtubule de-stabilizers such as Vinca alkaloids and Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4-related compounds were seldom demonstrated in the past. Furthermore, the question remains as to whether survivin plays a dominant role in processing cytokinesis or inhibiting caspases activity in cells treated with anti-mitotic compounds. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of survivin on the resistance and susceptibility of human cancer cells to microtubule de-stabilizer-induced cell death. Results BPR0L075 is a CA-4 analog that induces microtubule de-polymerization and subsequent caspase-dependent apoptosis. To study the relationship between the expression of survivin and the resistance to microtubule de-stabilizers, a KB-derived BPR0L075-resistant cancer cell line, KB-L30, was generated for this study. Here, we found that survivin was over-expressed in the KB-L30 cells. Down-regulation of survivin by siRNA induced hyper-sensitivity to BPR0L075 in KB cells and partially re-stored sensitivity to BPR0L075 in KB-L30 cells. Western blot analysis revealed that down-regulation of survivin induced microtubule de-stabilization in both KB and KB-L30 cells. However, the same treatment did not enhance the down-stream caspase-3/-7 activities in BPR0L075-treated KB cells. Translocation of a caspase-independent apoptosis-related molecule, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF, from cytoplasm to the nucleus was observed in survivin-targeted KB cells under BPR0L075 treatment. Conclusion In this study, survivin plays an important role in the

  2. Biological Information Processing in Single Microtubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-05

    generated by synchronized oscillations of microtubules, centrosomes and chromosomes regulate the dynamics of mitosis and meiosis, Yue Zhao and Qimin...of frequency by a single microtubule. Green arrows depict the peaks that appear in absorption and disappear in transmission. Purple arrows show

  3. The microtubule associated protein END BINDING 1 represses root responses to mechanical cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Laura; Squires, Shannon; Bisgrove, Sherryl R

    2012-05-01

    The ability of roots to navigate around rocks and other debris as they grow through the soil requires a mechanism for detecting and responding to input from both touch and gravity sensing systems. The microtubule associated protein END BINDING 1b (EB1b) is involved in this process as mutants have defects responding to combinations of touch and gravity cues. This study investigates the role of EB1b in root responses to mechanical cues. We find that eb1b-1 mutant roots exhibit an increase over wild type in their response to touch and that the expression of EB1b genes in transgenic mutants restores the response to wild type levels, indicating that EB1b is an inhibitor of the response. Mutant roots are also hypersensitive to increased levels of mechanical stimulation, revealing the presence of another process that activates the response. These findings are supported by analyses of double mutants between eb1b-1 and seedlings carrying mutations in PHOSPHOGLUCOMUTASE (PGM), ALTERED RESPONSE TO GRAVITY1 (ARG1), or TOUCH3 (TCH3), genes that encode proteins involved in gravity sensing, signaling, or touch responses, respectively. A model is proposed in which root responses to mechanical cues are modulated by at least two competing regulatory processes, one that promotes touch-mediated growth and another, regulated by EB1b, which dampens root responses to touch and enhances gravitropism. © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Microtubule dynamics of the centrosome-like polar organizers from the basal land plant Marchantia polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Henrik; Holtmannspötter, Michael; Borchers, Agnes; O'Donoghue, Martin-Timothy; Zachgo, Sabine

    2016-02-01

    The liverwort Marchantia employs both modern and ancestral devices during cell division: it forms preprophase bands and in addition it shows centrosome-like polar organizers. We investigated whether polar organizers and preprophase bands cooperate to set up the division plane. To this end, two novel green fluorescent protein-based microtubule markers for dividing cells of Marchantia were developed. Cells of the apical notch formed polar organizers first and subsequently assembled preprophase bands. Polar organizers were formed de novo from multiple mobile microtubule foci localizing to the nuclear envelope. The foci then became concentrated by bipolar aggregation. We determined the comet production rate of polar organizers and show that microtubule plus ends of astral microtubules polymerize faster than those found on cortical microtubules. Importantly, it was observed that conditions increasing polar organizer numbers interfere with preprophase band formation. The data show that polar organizers have much in common with centrosomes, but that they also have specialized features. The results suggest that polar organizers contribute to preprophase band formation and in this way are involved in controlling the division plane. Our analyses of the basal land plant Marchantia shed new light on the evolution of plant cell division. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. SDF1 Reduces Interneuron Leading Process Branching through Dual Regulation of Actin and Microtubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysko, Daniel E.; Putt, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Normal cerebral cortical function requires a highly ordered balance between projection neurons and interneurons. During development these two neuronal populations migrate from distinct progenitor zones to form the cerebral cortex, with interneurons originating in the more distant ganglionic eminences. Moreover, deficits in interneurons have been linked to a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders underscoring the importance of understanding interneuron development and function. We, and others, have identified SDF1 signaling as one important modulator of interneuron migration speed and leading process branching behavior in mice, although how SDF1 signaling impacts these behaviors remains unknown. We previously found SDF1 inhibited leading process branching while increasing the rate of migration. We have now mechanistically linked SDF1 modulation of leading process branching behavior to a dual regulation of both actin and microtubule organization. We find SDF1 consolidates actin at the leading process tip by de-repressing calpain protease and increasing proteolysis of branched-actin-supporting cortactin. Additionally, SDF1 stabilizes the microtubule array in the leading process through activation of the microtubule-associated protein doublecortin (DCX). DCX stabilizes the microtubule array by bundling microtubules within the leading process, reducing branching. These data provide mechanistic insight into the regulation of interneuron leading process dynamics during neuronal migration in mice and provides insight into how cortactin and DCX, a known human neuronal migration disorder gene, participate in this process. PMID:24695713

  6. SDF1 reduces interneuron leading process branching through dual regulation of actin and microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysko, Daniel E; Putt, Mary; Golden, Jeffrey A

    2014-04-02

    Normal cerebral cortical function requires a highly ordered balance between projection neurons and interneurons. During development these two neuronal populations migrate from distinct progenitor zones to form the cerebral cortex, with interneurons originating in the more distant ganglionic eminences. Moreover, deficits in interneurons have been linked to a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders underscoring the importance of understanding interneuron development and function. We, and others, have identified SDF1 signaling as one important modulator of interneuron migration speed and leading process branching behavior in mice, although how SDF1 signaling impacts these behaviors remains unknown. We previously found SDF1 inhibited leading process branching while increasing the rate of migration. We have now mechanistically linked SDF1 modulation of leading process branching behavior to a dual regulation of both actin and microtubule organization. We find SDF1 consolidates actin at the leading process tip by de-repressing calpain protease and increasing proteolysis of branched-actin-supporting cortactin. Additionally, SDF1 stabilizes the microtubule array in the leading process through activation of the microtubule-associated protein doublecortin (DCX). DCX stabilizes the microtubule array by bundling microtubules within the leading process, reducing branching. These data provide mechanistic insight into the regulation of interneuron leading process dynamics during neuronal migration in mice and provides insight into how cortactin and DCX, a known human neuronal migration disorder gene, participate in this process.

  7. GPNMB ameliorates mutant TDP-43-induced motor neuron cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Yuki; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Ohuchi, Kazuki; Ito, Junko; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Hara, Hideaki

    2017-08-01

    Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) aggregates are observed in the spinal cord of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, but the detailed localization is still unclear. Mutations of transactive response DNA binding protein 43kDa (TDP-43) are associated with neurodegenerative diseases including ALS. In this study, we evaluated the localization of GPNMB aggregates in the spinal cord of ALS patients and the effect of GPNMB against mutant TDP-43 induced motor neuron cell death. GPNMB aggregates were not localized in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocyte and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba1)-positive microglia. GPNMB aggregates were localized in the microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2)-positive neuron and neurofilament H non-phosphorylated (SMI-32)-positive neuron, and these were co-localized with TDP-43 aggregates in the spinal cord of ALS patients. Mock or TDP-43 (WT, M337V, and A315T) plasmids were transfected into mouse motor neuron cells (NSC34). The expression level of GPNMB was increased by transfection of mutant TDP-43 plasmids. Recombinant GPNMB ameliorated motor neuron cell death induced by transfection of mutant TDP-43 plasmids and serum-free stress. Furthermore, the expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and phosphorylated Akt were decreased by this stress, and these expressions were increased by recombinant GPNMB. These results indicate that GPNMB has protective effects against mutant TDP-43 stress via activating the ERK1/2 and Akt pathways, and GPNMB may be a therapeutic target for TDP-43 proteinopathy in familial and sporadic ALS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Cell cycle-dependent microtubule-based dynamic transport of cytoplasmic dynein in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Kobayashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cytoplasmic dynein complex is a large multi-subunit microtubule (MT-associated molecular motor involved in various cellular functions including organelle positioning, vesicle transport and cell division. However, regulatory mechanism of the cell-cycle dependent distribution of dynein has not fully been understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report live-cell imaging of cytoplasmic dynein in HeLa cells, by expressing multifunctional green fluorescent protein (mfGFP-tagged 74-kDa intermediate chain (IC74. IC74-mfGFP was successfully incorporated into functional dynein complex. In interphase, dynein moved bi-directionally along with MTs, which might carry cargos such as transport vesicles. A substantial fraction of dynein moved toward cell periphery together with EB1, a member of MT plus end-tracking proteins (+TIPs, suggesting +TIPs-mediated transport of dynein. In late-interphase and prophase, dynein was localized at the centrosomes and the radial MT array. In prometaphase and metaphase, dynein was localized at spindle MTs where it frequently moved from spindle poles toward chromosomes or cell cortex. +TIPs may be involved in the transport of spindle dyneins. Possible kinetochore and cortical dyneins were also observed. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that cytoplasmic dynein is transported to the site of action in preparation for the following cellular events, primarily by the MT-based transport. The MT-based transport may have greater advantage than simple diffusion of soluble dynein in rapid and efficient transport of the limited concentration of the protein.

  9. Mutation of Rice BC12/GDD1, Which Encodes a Kinesin-Like Protein That Binds to a GA Biosynthesis Gene Promoter, Leads to Dwarfism with Impaired Cell Elongation[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Jiang, Jiafu; Qian, Qian; Xu, Yunyuan; Zhang, Cui; Xiao, Jun; Du, Cheng; Luo, Wei; Zou, Guoxing; Chen, Mingluan; Huang, Yunqing; Feng, Yuqi; Cheng, Zhukuan; Yuan, Ming; Chong, Kang

    2011-01-01

    The kinesins are a family of microtubule-based motor proteins that move directionally along microtubules and are involved in many crucial cellular processes, including cell elongation in plants. Less is known about kinesins directly regulating gene transcription to affect cellular physiological processes. Here, we describe a rice (Oryza sativa) mutant, gibberellin-deficient dwarf1 (gdd1), that has a phenotype of greatly reduced length of root, stems, spikes, and seeds. This reduced length is due to decreased cell elongation and can be rescued by exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment. GDD1 was cloned by a map-based approach, was expressed constitutively, and was found to encode the kinesin-like protein BRITTLE CULM12 (BC12). Microtubule cosedimentation assays revealed that BC12/GDD1 bound to microtubules in an ATP-dependent manner. Whole-genome microarray analysis revealed the expression of ent-kaurene oxidase (KO2), which encodes an enzyme involved in GA biosynthesis, was downregulated in gdd1. Electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that GDD1 bound to the element ACCAACTTGAA in the KO2 promoter. In addition, GDD1 was shown to have transactivation activity. The level of endogenous GAs was reduced in gdd1, and the reorganization of cortical microtubules was altered. Therefore, BC12/GDD1, a kinesin-like protein with transcription regulation activity, mediates cell elongation by regulating the GA biosynthesis pathway in rice. PMID:21325138

  10. Daple Coordinates Planar Polarized Microtubule Dynamics in Ependymal Cells and Contributes to Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Takagishi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Motile cilia in ependymal cells, which line the cerebral ventricles, exhibit a coordinated beating motion that drives directional cerebrospinal fluid (CSF flow and guides neuroblast migration. At the apical cortex of these multi-ciliated cells, asymmetric localization of planar cell polarity (PCP proteins is required for the planar polarization of microtubule dynamics, which coordinates cilia orientation. Daple is a disheveled-associating protein that controls the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway and cell motility. Here, we show that Daple-deficient mice present hydrocephalus and their ependymal cilia lack coordinated orientation. Daple regulates microtubule dynamics at the anterior side of ependymal cells, which in turn orients the cilial basal bodies required for the directional cerebrospinal fluid flow. These results demonstrate an important role for Daple in planar polarity in motile cilia and provide a framework for understanding the mechanisms and functions of planar polarization in the ependymal cells.

  11. Centrosome and microtubule instability in aging Drosophila cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, H.; Chakrabarti, A.; Hedrick, J.

    1999-01-01

    Several cytoskeletal changes are associated with aging which includes alterations in muscle structure leading to muscular atrophy, and weakening of the microtubule network which affects cellular secretion and maintenance of cell shape. Weakening of the microtubule network during meiosis in aging oocytes can result in aneuploidy or trisomic zygotes with increasing maternal age. Imbalances of cytoskeletal organization can lead to disease such as Alzheimer's, muscular disorders, and cancer. Because many cytoskeletal diseases are related to age we investigated the effects of aging on microtubule organization in cell cultures of the Drosophila cell model system (Schneider S-1 and Kc23 cell lines). This cell model is increasingly being used as an alternative system to mammalian cell cultures. Drosophila cells are amenable to genetic manipulations and can be used to identify and manipulate genes which are involved in the aging processes. Immunofluorescence, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy were employed for the analysis of microtubule organizing centers (centrosomes) and microtubules at various times after subculturing cells in fresh medium. Our results reveal that centrosomes and the microtubule network becomes significantly affected in aging cells after 5 days of subculture. At 5-14 days of subculture, 1% abnormal out of 3% mitoses were noted which were clearly distinguishable from freshly subcultured control cells in which 3% of cells undergo normal mitosis with bipolar configurations. Microtubules are also affected in the midbody during cell division. The midbody in aging cells becomes up to 10 times longer when compared with midbodies in freshly subcultured cells. During interphase, microtubules are often disrupted and disorganized, which may indicate improper function related to transport of cell organelles along microtubules. These results are likely to help explain some cytoskeletal disorders and diseases related to aging.

  12. Taxol crystals can masquerade as stabilized microtubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Foss

    Full Text Available Taxol is a potent anti-mitotic drug used in chemotherapy, angioplastic stents, and cell biology research. By binding and stabilizing microtubules, Taxol inhibits their dynamics, crucial for cell division, motility, and survival. The drug has also been reported to induce formation of asters and bundles composed of stabilized microtubules. Surprisingly, at commonly used concentrations, Taxol forms crystals that rapidly bind fluorescent tubulin subunits, generating structures with an uncanny resemblance to microtubule asters and bundles. Kinetic and topological considerations suggest that tubulin subunits, rather than microtubules, bind the crystals. This sequestration of tubulin from the subunit pool would be expected to shift the equilibrium of free to polymerized tubulin to disfavor assembly. Our results imply that some previously reported Taxol-induced asters or bundles could include or be composed of tubulin-decorated Taxol crystals. Thus, reevaluation of certain morphological, chemical, and physical properties of Taxol-treated microtubules may be necessary. Moreover, our findings suggest a novel mechanism for chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity in non-dividing cells, with far-reaching medical implications.

  13. Effect of radiation on microtubule structure in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripath, Shambhoo Sharan; Panda, Dulal; Jayakumar, S.; Maikho, Thoh; Sandur, Santosh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Microtubules (MT) are dynamic structural cellular components. In proliferating cells, they are essential components in cell division through the formation of the mitotic spindle. Radiotherapy is an integral part of cancer treatment for most of the solid cancers. Scanty data exists in the literature related to how ionizing radiation affects microtubule reorganization in tumor cells. In the present study, breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 cells) was exposed to different doses of radiation (2-10Gy). Cells were cultured for 24 h, fixed and stained with antitubulin antibody and subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. In another experiment, cells were subjected to cold treatment for 5 min or 30 min for studying the disassembly of microtubules after 24 h of irradiation. Further, these cells were incubated at 37°C for 20 min for studying the reassembly of microtubules. Acetylation of microtubule was also examined after exposure of cells to radiation. Experiments were also performed by combining radiation with low concentration of CXI-Benzo 84 (MT destabilizing agent 1 and 2.5 uM). Exposure of MCF-7 cells to radiation lead to destabilization of microtubules. Interestingly, destabilization of microtubule was faster upon cold treatment in irradiated group as compared to control group. These cells failed to re-stabilize at 37°C. Radiation also reduced the acetylation level of microtubule. Combination treatment of CXI-Benzo 84 with radiation exhibited additive effect in terms of depolymerization of MT. Our results suggest that ionizing radiation indeed modulates microtubule dynamics. (author)

  14. Intracellular transport driven by cytoskeletal motors: General mechanisms and defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appert-Rolland, C.; Ebbinghaus, M.; Santen, L.

    2015-09-01

    Cells are the elementary units of living organisms, which are able to carry out many vital functions. These functions rely on active processes on a microscopic scale. Therefore, they are strongly out-of-equilibrium systems, which are driven by continuous energy supply. The tasks that have to be performed in order to maintain the cell alive require transportation of various ingredients, some being small, others being large. Intracellular transport processes are able to induce concentration gradients and to carry objects to specific targets. These processes cannot be carried out only by diffusion, as cells may be crowded, and quite elongated on molecular scales. Therefore active transport has to be organized. The cytoskeleton, which is composed of three types of filaments (microtubules, actin and intermediate filaments), determines the shape of the cell, and plays a role in cell motion. It also serves as a road network for a special kind of vehicles, namely the cytoskeletal motors. These molecules can attach to a cytoskeletal filament, perform directed motion, possibly carrying along some cargo, and then detach. It is a central issue to understand how intracellular transport driven by molecular motors is regulated. The interest for this type of question was enhanced when it was discovered that intracellular transport breakdown is one of the signatures of some neuronal diseases like the Alzheimer. We give a survey of the current knowledge on microtubule based intracellular transport. Our review includes on the one hand an overview of biological facts, obtained from experiments, and on the other hand a presentation of some modeling attempts based on cellular automata. We present some background knowledge on the original and variants of the TASEP (Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process), before turning to more application oriented models. After addressing microtubule based transport in general, with a focus on in vitro experiments, and on cooperative effects in the

  15. Dephosphorylation of microtubule-binding sites at the neurofilament-H tail domain by alkaline, acid, and protein phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisanaga, S; Yasugawa, S; Yamakawa, T; Miyamoto, E; Ikebe, M; Uchiyama, M; Kishimoto, T

    1993-06-01

    The dephosphorylation-induced interaction of neurofilaments (NFs) with microtubules (MTs) was investigated by using several phosphatases. Escherichia coli alkaline and wheat germ acid phosphatases increased the electrophoretic mobility of NF-H and NF-M by dephosphorylation, and induced the binding of NF-H to MTs. The binding of NFs to MTs was observed only after the electrophoretic mobility of NF-H approached the exhaustively dephosphorylated level when alkaline phosphatase was used. The number of phosphate remaining when NF-H began to bind to MTs was estimated by measuring phosphate bound to NF-H. NF-H did not bind to MTs even when about 40 phosphates from the total of 51 had been removed by alkaline phosphatase. The removal of 6 further phosphates finally resulted in the association of NF-H with MTs. A similar finding, that the restricted phosphorylation sites in the NF-H tail domain, but not the total amount of phosphates, were important for binding to MTs, was also obtained with acid phosphatases. In contrast to alkaline and acid phosphatases, four classes of protein phosphatases (protein phosphatases 1, 2A, 2B, and 2C) were ineffective for shifting the electrophoretic mobility of NF proteins and for inducing the association of NFs to MTs.

  16. Aggregation of SND1 in Stress Granules is Associated with the Microtubule Cytoskeleton During Heat Shock Stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jie; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Bingbing; Zhao, Meng; Zhou, Yunli; He, Jinyan; Ren, Li; Yao, Zhi; Yang, Jie; Su, Chao; Gao, Xingjie

    2017-12-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are dynamic dense structures in the cytoplasm that form in response to a variety of environmental stress stimuli. Staphylococcal nuclease and Tudor domain containing 1 (SND1) is a type of RNA-binding protein and has been identified as a transcriptional co-activator. Our previous studies have shown that SND1 is a component of the stress granule, which forms under stress conditions. Here, we observed that SND1 granules were often surrounded by ɑ-tubulin-microtubules in 45°C-treated HeLa cells at 15 min or colocalized with microtubules at 30 or 45 min. Furthermore, Nocodazole-mediated microtubule depolymerization could significantly affect the efficient recruitment of SND1 proteins to the SGs during heat shock stress. In addition, the 45°C heat shock mediated the enhancement of eIF2α phosphorylation, which was not affected by treatment with Nocodazole, an agent that disrupts the cytoskeleton. The intact microtubule cytoskeletal tracks are important for the efficient assembly of SND1 granules under heat shock stress and may facilitate SND1 shuttling between cytoplasmic RNA foci. Anat Rec, 300:2192-2199, 2017. © 2017 The Authors The Anatomical Record published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Anatomists. Copyright © 2017 The Authors The Anatomical Record published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Anatomists.

  17. KATNAL1 regulation of sertoli cell microtubule dynamics is essential for spermiogenesis and male fertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee B Smith

    Full Text Available Spermatogenesis is a complex process reliant upon interactions between germ cells (GC and supporting somatic cells. Testicular Sertoli cells (SC support GCs during maturation through physical attachment, the provision of nutrients, and protection from immunological attack. This role is facilitated by an active cytoskeleton of parallel microtubule arrays that permit transport of nutrients to GCs, as well as translocation of spermatids through the seminiferous epithelium during maturation. It is well established that chemical perturbation of SC microtubule remodelling leads to premature GC exfoliation demonstrating that microtubule remodelling is an essential component of male fertility, yet the genes responsible for this process remain unknown. Using a random ENU mutagenesis approach, we have identified a novel mouse line displaying male-specific infertility, due to a point mutation in the highly conserved ATPase domain of the novel KATANIN p60-related microtubule severing protein Katanin p60 subunit A-like1 (KATNAL1. We demonstrate that Katnal1 is expressed in testicular Sertoli cells (SC from 15.5 days post-coitum (dpc and that, consistent with chemical disruption models, loss of function of KATNAL1 leads to male-specific infertility through disruption of SC microtubule dynamics and premature exfoliation of spermatids from the seminiferous epithelium. The identification of KATNAL1 as an essential regulator of male fertility provides a significant novel entry point into advancing our understanding of how SC microtubule dynamics promotes male fertility. Such information will have resonance both for future treatment of male fertility and the development of non-hormonal male contraceptives.

  18. Invited review: Frontotemporal dementia caused by microtubule-associated protein tau gene (MAPT) mutations: a chameleon for neuropathology and neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, B; Oblak, A L; Boeve, B F; Johnson, K A; Dickerson, B C; Goedert, M

    2015-02-01

    Hereditary frontotemporal dementia associated with mutations in the microtubule-associated protein tau gene (MAPT) is a protean disorder. Three neuropathologic subtypes can be recognized, based on the presence of inclusions made of tau isoforms with three and four repeats, predominantly three repeats and mostly four repeats. This is relevant for establishing a correlation between structural magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography using tracers specific for aggregated tau. Longitudinal studies will be essential to determine the evolution of anatomical alterations from the asymptomatic stage to the various phases of disease following the onset of symptoms. © 2014 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Neuropathological Society.

  19. The Ndc80 internal loop is required for recruitment of the Ska complex to establish end-on microtubule attachment to kinetochores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Gang; Kelstrup, Christian D; Hu, Xiao-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The Ndc80 complex establishes end-on attachment of kinetochores to microtubules essential for chromosome segregation. The Ndc80 subunit is characterized by an N-terminal region, that binds directly to microtubules, and a long coiled-coil region that interacts with Nuf2. A loop region in Ndc80 tha...... chromosome segregation through the recruitment of specific proteins to the kinetochore....

  20. Decreased function of survival motor neuron protein impairs endocytic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadi, Maria; Derdowski, Aaron; Kalloo, Geetika; Maginnis, Melissa S; O'Hern, Patrick; Bliska, Bryn; Sorkaç, Altar; Nguyen, Ken C Q; Cook, Steven J; Poulogiannis, George; Atwood, Walter J; Hall, David H; Hart, Anne C

    2016-07-26

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by depletion of the ubiquitously expressed survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, with 1 in 40 Caucasians being heterozygous for a disease allele. SMN is critical for the assembly of numerous ribonucleoprotein complexes, yet it is still unclear how reduced SMN levels affect motor neuron function. Here, we examined the impact of SMN depletion in Caenorhabditis elegans and found that decreased function of the SMN ortholog SMN-1 perturbed endocytic pathways at motor neuron synapses and in other tissues. Diminished SMN-1 levels caused defects in C. elegans neuromuscular function, and smn-1 genetic interactions were consistent with an endocytic defect. Changes were observed in synaptic endocytic proteins when SMN-1 levels decreased. At the ultrastructural level, defects were observed in endosomal compartments, including significantly fewer docked synaptic vesicles. Finally, endocytosis-dependent infection by JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) was reduced in human cells with decreased SMN levels. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that SMN depletion causes defects in endosomal trafficking that impair synaptic function, even in the absence of motor neuron cell death.

  1. SAS-6 engineering reveals interdependence between cartwheel and microtubules in determining centriole architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Manuel; Noga, Akira; Frey, Daniel; Hamel, Virginie; Guichard, Paul; Kraatz, Sebastian H W; Pfreundschuh, Moritz; Hosner, Sarah; Flückiger, Isabelle; Jaussi, Rolf; Wieser, Mara M; Thieltges, Katherine M; Deupi, Xavier; Müller, Daniel J; Kammerer, Richard A; Gönczy, Pierre; Hirono, Masafumi; Steinmetz, Michel O

    2016-04-01

    Centrioles are critical for the formation of centrosomes, cilia and flagella in eukaryotes. They are thought to assemble around a nine-fold symmetric cartwheel structure established by SAS-6 proteins. Here, we have engineered Chlamydomonas reinhardtii SAS-6-based oligomers with symmetries ranging from five- to ten-fold. Expression of a SAS-6 mutant that forms six-fold symmetric cartwheel structures in vitro resulted in cartwheels and centrioles with eight- or nine-fold symmetries in vivo. In combination with Bld10 mutants that weaken cartwheel-microtubule interactions, this SAS-6 mutant produced six- to eight-fold symmetric cartwheels. Concurrently, the microtubule wall maintained eight- and nine-fold symmetries. Expressing SAS-6 with analogous mutations in human cells resulted in nine-fold symmetric centrioles that exhibited impaired length and organization. Together, our data suggest that the self-assembly properties of SAS-6 instruct cartwheel symmetry, and lead us to propose a model in which the cartwheel and the microtubule wall assemble in an interdependent manner to establish the native architecture of centrioles.

  2. Microtubule dynamics: Caps, catastrophes, and coupled hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, H.; Holy, T.E.; Leibler, S.

    1996-01-01

    An effective theory is formulated for the dynamics of the guanosine triphosphate (GTP) cap believed to stabilize growing microtubules. The theory provides a ''coarse-grained'' description of the cap's dynamics. ''Microscopic'' details, such as the microtubule lattice structure and the fate of its...

  3. Branching microtubule nucleation in Xenopus egg extracts mediated by augmin and TPX2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Sabine; Groen, Aaron C.; Ishihara, Keisuke; Mitchison, Timothy J.; Vale, Ronald D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The microtubules that comprise mitotic spindles in animal cells are nucleated at centrosomes and by spindle assembly factors that are activated in the vicinity of chromatin. Indirect evidence also has suggested that microtubules might be nucleated from pre-existing microtubules throughout the spindle, but this process has not been observed directly. Here, we demonstrate microtubule nucleation from the sides of existing microtubules in meiotic Xenopus egg extracts. Daughter microtubules grow at a low branch angle and with the same polarity as mother filaments. Branching microtubule nucleation requires gamma-tubulin and augmin and is stimulated by GTP-bound Ran and its effector TPX2, factors previously implicated in chromatin-stimulated nucleation. Because of the rapid amplification of microtubule numbers and the preservation of microtubule polarity, microtubule-dependent microtubule nucleation is well suited for spindle assembly and maintenance. PMID:23415226

  4. Deformation pattern in vibrating microtubule: Structural mechanics study based on an atomistic approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelka, Daniel; Deriu, M.A.; Cifra, Michal; Kučera, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 4227. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-17102S Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Continuum model * Protein microtubules * Molecular-dymamics Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  5. Protein translocation channel of mitochondrial inner membrane and matrix-exposed import motor communicate via two-domain coupling protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rupa; Gladkova, Christina; Mapa, Koyeli; Witte, Gregor; Mokranjac, Dejana

    2015-12-29

    The majority of mitochondrial proteins are targeted to mitochondria by N-terminal presequences and use the TIM23 complex for their translocation across the mitochondrial inner membrane. During import, translocation through the channel in the inner membrane is coupled to the ATP-dependent action of an Hsp70-based import motor at the matrix face. How these two processes are coordinated remained unclear. We show here that the two domain structure of Tim44 plays a central role in this process. The N-terminal domain of Tim44 interacts with the components of the import motor, whereas its C-terminal domain interacts with the translocation channel and is in contact with translocating proteins. Our data suggest that the translocation channel and the import motor of the TIM23 complex communicate through rearrangements of the two domains of Tim44 that are stimulated by translocating proteins.

  6. Microtubule nucleation in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells is regulated by the concerted action of GIT1/βPIX proteins and calcium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sulimenko, Vadym; Hájková, Zuzana; Černohorská, Markéta; Sulimenko, Tetyana; Sládková, Vladimíra; Dráberová, Lubica; Vinopal, Stanislav; Dráberová, Eduarda; Dráber, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 194, č. 9 (2015), s. 4099-4111 ISSN 0022-1767 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP302/12/1673; GA ČR GPP302/11/P709; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-09807S; GA ČR GA15-22194S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13015; GA MŠk LH12050; GA MZd NT14467 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Bone Marrow-Derived Mast Cells * Microtubule Nucleation * GIT1/beta PIX Proteins * Calcium Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.985, year: 2015

  7. Spastin-Interacting Protein NA14/SSNA1 Functions in Cytokinesis and Axon Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jaerak; Blackstone, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a genetically diverse group of inherited neurological disorders (SPG1-72) with the cardinal feature of prominent lower-extremity spasticity due to a length-dependent axonopathy of corticospinal motor neurons. The most frequent form of autosomal dominant HSP results from mutations of the SPG4 gene product spastin. This is an ATPase associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA) protein that binds to and severs microtubules. While spastin participates in crucial cellular processes such as cytokinesis, endosomal tubulation, and axon development, its role in HSP pathogenesis remains unclear. Spastin interacts in cells with the NA14 protein, a major target for auto-antibodies in Sjögren's syndrome (nuclear autoantigen 1; SSNA1). Our analysis of endogenous spastin and NA14 proteins in HeLa cells and rat cortical neurons in primary culture revealed a clear distribution of both proteins to centrosomes, with NA14 localizing specifically to centrioles. Stable NA14 knockdown in cell lines dramatically affected cell division, in particular cytokinesis. Furthermore, overexpression of NA14 in neurons significantly increased axon outgrowth and branching, while also enhancing neuronal differentiation. We postulate that NA14 may act as an adaptor protein regulating spastin localization to centrosomes, temporally and spatially regulating the microtubule-severing activity of spastin that is particularly critical during the cell cycle and neuronal development. PMID:25390646

  8. Spastin-interacting protein NA14/SSNA1 functions in cytokinesis and axon development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Goyal

    Full Text Available Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs are a genetically diverse group of inherited neurological disorders (SPG1-72 with the cardinal feature of prominent lower-extremity spasticity due to a length-dependent axonopathy of corticospinal motor neurons. The most frequent form of autosomal dominant HSP results from mutations of the SPG4 gene product spastin. This is an ATPase associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA protein that binds to and severs microtubules. While spastin participates in crucial cellular processes such as cytokinesis, endosomal tubulation, and axon development, its role in HSP pathogenesis remains unclear. Spastin interacts in cells with the NA14 protein, a major target for auto-antibodies in Sjögren's syndrome (nuclear autoantigen 1; SSNA1. Our analysis of endogenous spastin and NA14 proteins in HeLa cells and rat cortical neurons in primary culture revealed a clear distribution of both proteins to centrosomes, with NA14 localizing specifically to centrioles. Stable NA14 knockdown in cell lines dramatically affected cell division, in particular cytokinesis. Furthermore, overexpression of NA14 in neurons significantly increased axon outgrowth and branching, while also enhancing neuronal differentiation. We postulate that NA14 may act as an adaptor protein regulating spastin localization to centrosomes, temporally and spatially regulating the microtubule-severing activity of spastin that is particularly critical during the cell cycle and neuronal development.

  9. Vectorial loading of processive motor proteins: implementing a landscape picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young C; Fisher, Michael E

    2005-01-01

    Individual processive molecular motors, of which conventional kinesin is the most studied quantitatively, move along polar molecular tracks and, by exerting a force F = (F x ,F y ,F z ) on a tether, drag cellular cargoes, in vivo, or spherical beads, in vitro, taking up to hundreds of nanometre-scale steps. From observations of velocities and the dispersion of displacements with time, under measured forces and controlled fuel supply (typically ATP), one may hope to obtain insight into the molecular motions undergone in the individual steps. In the simplest situation, the load force F may be regarded as a scalar resisting force, F x z >0, while more recently Block and co-workers (2002 Biophys. J. 83 491, 2003 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 100 2351) and Carter and Cross (2005 Nature 435 308) have studied assisting (or reverse) loads, F x >0, and also sideways (or transverse) loads F y ≠ 0. We extend previous mechanochemical kinetic models by explicitly implementing a free-energy landscape picture in order to allow for the full vectorial nature of the force F transmitted by the tether. The load-dependence of the various forward and reverse transition rates is embodied in load distribution vectors, θ j + and θ j - , which relate to substeps of the motor, and in next order, in compliance matrices η j + and η j - . The approach is applied specifically to discuss the experiments of Howard and co-workers (1996 Biophys.?J. 70 418) in which the buckling of partially clamped microtubules was measured under the action of bound kinesin molecules which induced determined perpendicular loads. But in the normal single-bead assay it also proves imperative to allow for F z >0: the appropriate analysis for kinesin, suggesting that the motor 'crouches' on binding ATP prior to stepping, is sketched. It yields an expression for the velocity, V (F x ,F z ;[ATP]), needed to address the buckling experiments

  10. The Arabidopsis microtubule-associated protein MAP65-3 supports infection by filamentous biotrophic pathogens by down-regulating salicylic acid-dependent defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentin, Michaël; Baurès, Isabelle; Hoefle, Caroline; Caillaud, Marie-Cécile; Allasia, Valérie; Panabières, Franck; Abad, Pierre; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Keller, Harald; Favery, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    The oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis and the ascomycete Erysiphe cruciferarum are obligate biotrophic pathogens causing downy mildew and powdery mildew, respectively, on Arabidopsis. Upon infection, the filamentous pathogens induce the formation of intracellular bulbous structures called haustoria, which are required for the biotrophic lifestyle. We previously showed that the microtubule-associated protein AtMAP65-3 plays a critical role in organizing cytoskeleton microtubule arrays during mitosis and cytokinesis. This renders the protein essential for the development of giant cells, which are the feeding sites induced by root knot nematodes. Here, we show that AtMAP65-3 expression is also induced in leaves upon infection by the downy mildew oomycete and the powdery mildew fungus. Loss of AtMAP65-3 function in the map65-3 mutant dramatically reduced infection by both pathogens, predominantly at the stages of leaf penetration. Whole-transcriptome analysis showed an over-represented, constitutive activation of genes involved in salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis, signaling, and defense execution in map65-3, whereas jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated signaling was down-regulated. Preventing SA synthesis and accumulation in map65-3 rescued plant susceptibility to pathogens, but not the developmental phenotype caused by cytoskeleton defaults. AtMAP65-3 thus has a dual role. It positively regulates cytokinesis, thus plant growth and development, and negatively interferes with plant defense against filamentous biotrophs. Our data suggest that downy mildew and powdery mildew stimulate AtMAP65-3 expression to down-regulate SA signaling for infection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Identification of interphase functions for the NIMA kinase involving microtubules and the ESCRT pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Govindaraghavan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Never in Mitosis A (NIMA kinase (the founding member of the Nek family of kinases has been considered a mitotic specific kinase with nuclear restricted roles in the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans. By extending to A. nidulans the results of a synthetic lethal screen performed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the NIMA ortholog KIN3, we identified a conserved genetic interaction between nimA and genes encoding proteins of the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT pathway. Absence of ESCRT pathway functions in combination with partial NIMA function causes enhanced cell growth defects, including an inability to maintain a single polarized dominant cell tip. These genetic insights suggest NIMA potentially has interphase functions in addition to its established mitotic functions at nuclei. We therefore generated endogenously GFP-tagged NIMA (NIMA-GFP which was fully functional to follow its interphase locations using live cell spinning disc 4D confocal microscopy. During interphase some NIMA-GFP locates to the tips of rapidly growing cells and, when expressed ectopically, also locates to the tips of cytoplasmic microtubules, suggestive of non-nuclear interphase functions. In support of this, perturbation of NIMA function either by ectopic overexpression or through partial inactivation results in marked cell tip growth defects with excess NIMA-GFP promoting multiple growing cell tips. Ectopic NIMA-GFP was found to locate to the plus ends of microtubules in an EB1 dependent manner, while impairing NIMA function altered the dynamic localization of EB1 and the cytoplasmic microtubule network. Together, our genetic and cell biological analyses reveal novel non-nuclear interphase functions for NIMA involving microtubules and the ESCRT pathway for normal polarized fungal cell tip growth. These insights extend the roles of NIMA both spatially and temporally and indicate that this conserved protein kinase could help integrate cell

  12. Simultaneous nano-tracking of multiple motor proteins via spectral discrimination of quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakizuka, Taishi; Ikezaki, Keigo; Kaneshiro, Junichi; Fujita, Hideaki; Watanabe, Tomonobu M; Ichimura, Taro

    2016-07-01

    Simultaneous nanometric tracking of multiple motor proteins was achieved by combining multicolor fluorescent labeling of target proteins and imaging spectroscopy, revealing dynamic behaviors of multiple motor proteins at the sub-diffraction-limit scale. Using quantum dot probes of distinct colors, we experimentally verified the localization precision to be a few nanometers at temporal resolution of 30 ms or faster. One-dimensional processive movement of two heads of a single myosin molecule and multiple myosin molecules was successfully traced. Furthermore, the system was modified for two-dimensional measurement and applied to tracking of multiple myosin molecules. Our approach is useful for investigating cooperative movement of proteins in supramolecular nanomachinery.

  13. PMA synergistically enhances apicularen A-induced cytotoxicity by disrupting microtubule networks in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Kang-Sik; Hwang, Byung-Doo; Kim, Jong-Seok; Park, Ji-Hoon; Song, Kyoung-Sub; Yun, Eun-Jin; Park, Jong-Il; Kweon, Gi Ryang; Yoon, Wan-Hee; Lim, Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Combination therapy is key to improving cancer treatment efficacy. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a well-known PKC activator, increases the cytotoxicity of several anticancer drugs. Apicularen A induces cytotoxicity in tumor cells through disrupting microtubule networks by tubulin down-regulation. In this study, we examined whether PMA increases apicularen A-induced cytotoxicity in HeLa cells. Cell viability was examined by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium (MTT) assays. To investigate apoptotic potential of apicularen A, DNA fragmentation assays were performed followed by extracting genomic DNA, and caspase-3 activity assays were performed by fluorescence assays using fluorogenic substrate. The cell cycle distribution induced by combination with PMA and apicularen A was examined by flow cytometry after staining with propidium iodide (PI). The expression levels of target proteins were measured by Western blotting analysis using specific antibodies, and α-tubulin mRNA levels were assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). To examine the effect of combination of PMA and apicularen A on the microtubule architecture, α-tubulin protein and nuclei were visualized by immunofluorescence staining using an anti-α-tubulin antibody and PI, respectively. We found that apicularen A induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in HeLa cells. PMA synergistically increased cytotoxicity and apoptotic sub-G 1 population induced by apicularen A. These effects were completely blocked by the PKC inhibitors Ro31-8220 and Go6983, while caspase inhibition by Z-VAD-fmk did not prevent cytotoxicity. RNA interference using siRNA against PKCα, but not PKCβ and PKCγ, inhibited cytotoxicity induced by combination PMA and apicularen A. PMA increased the apicularen A-induced disruption of microtubule networks by further decreasing α- and β-tubulin protein levels in a PKC-dependent manner. These results suggest that the synergy between PMA and apicularen A is involved by

  14. Model for the orientational ordering of the plant microtubule cortical array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Rhoda J.; Tindemans, Simon H.; Mulder, Bela M.

    2010-07-01

    The plant microtubule cortical array is a striking feature of all growing plant cells. It consists of a more or less homogeneously distributed array of highly aligned microtubules connected to the inner side of the plasma membrane and oriented transversely to the cell growth axis. Here, we formulate a continuum model to describe the origin of orientational order in such confined arrays of dynamical microtubules. The model is based on recent experimental observations that show that a growing cortical microtubule can interact through angle dependent collisions with pre-existing microtubules that can lead either to co-alignment of the growth, retraction through catastrophe induction or crossing over the encountered microtubule. We identify a single control parameter, which is fully determined by the nucleation rate and intrinsic dynamics of individual microtubules. We solve the model analytically in the stationary isotropic phase, discuss the limits of stability of this isotropic phase, and explicitly solve for the ordered stationary states in a simplified version of the model.

  15. Live visualizations of single isolated tubulin protein self-assembly via tunneling current: effect of electromagnetic pumping during spontaneous growth of microtubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Satyajit; Ghosh, Subrata; Fujita, Daisuke; Bandyopadhyay, Anirban

    2014-12-03

    As we bring tubulin protein molecules one by one into the vicinity, they self-assemble and entire event we capture live via quantum tunneling. We observe how these molecules form a linear chain and then chains self-assemble into 2D sheet, an essential for microtubule, --fundamental nano-tube in a cellular life form. Even without using GTP, or any chemical reaction, but applying particular ac signal using specially designed antenna around atomic sharp tip we could carry out the self-assembly, however, if there is no electromagnetic pumping, no self-assembly is observed. In order to verify this atomic scale observation, we have built an artificial cell-like environment with nano-scale engineering and repeated spontaneous growth of tubulin protein to its complex with and without electromagnetic signal. We used 64 combinations of plant, animal and fungi tubulins and several doping molecules used as drug, and repeatedly observed that the long reported common frequency region where protein folds mechanically and its structures vibrate electromagnetically. Under pumping, the growth process exhibits a unique organized behavior unprecedented otherwise. Thus, "common frequency point" is proposed as a tool to regulate protein complex related diseases in the future.

  16. Spatiotemporal relationships between growth and microtubule orientation as revealed in living root cells of Arabidopsis thaliana transformed with green-fluorescent-protein gene construct GFP-MBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, C. L.; Cyr, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana plants were transformed with GFP-MBD (J. Marc et al., Plant Cell 10: 1927-1939, 1998) under the control of a constitutive (35S) or copper-inducible promoter. GFP-specific fluorescence distributions, levels, and persistence were determined and found to vary with age, tissue type, transgenic line, and individual plant. With the exception of an increased frequency of abnormal roots of 35S GFP-MBD plants grown on kanamycin-containing media, expression of GFP-MBD does not appear to affect plant phenotype. The number of leaves, branches, bolts, and siliques as well as overall height, leaf size, and seed set are similar between wild-type and transgenic plants as is the rate of root growth. Thus, we conclude that the transgenic plants can serve as a living model system in which the dynamic behavior of microtubules can be visualized. Confocal microscopy was used to simultaneously monitor growth and microtubule behavior within individual cells as they passed through the elongation zone of the Arabidopsis root. Generally, microtubules reoriented from transverse to oblique or longitudinal orientations as growth declined. Microtubule reorientation initiated at the ends of the cell did not necessarily occur simultaneously in adjacent neighboring cells and did not involve complete disintegration and repolymerization of microtubule arrays. Although growth rates correlated with microtubule reorientation, the two processes were not tightly coupled in terms of their temporal relationships, suggesting that other factor(s) may be involved in regulating both events. Additionally, microtubule orientation was more defined in cells whose growth was accelerating and less stringent in cells whose growth was decelerating, indicating that microtubule-orienting factor(s) may be sensitive to growth acceleration, rather than growth per se.

  17. KIF7 Controls the Proliferation of Cells of the Respiratory Airway through Distinct Microtubule Dependent Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry L Coles

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The cell cycle must be tightly coordinated for proper control of embryonic development and for the long-term maintenance of organs such as the lung. There is emerging evidence that Kinesin family member 7 (Kif7 promotes Hedgehog (Hh signaling during embryonic development, and its misregulation contributes to diseases such as ciliopathies and cancer. Kif7 encodes a microtubule interacting protein that controls Hh signaling through regulation of microtubule dynamics within the primary cilium. However, whether Kif7 has a function in nonciliated cells remains largely unknown. The role Kif7 plays in basic cell biological processes like cell proliferation or cell cycle progression also remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that Kif7 is required for coordination of the cell cycle, and inactivation of this gene leads to increased cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Immunostaining and transmission electron microscopy experiments show that Kif7dda/dda mutant lungs are hyperproliferative and exhibit reduced alveolar epithelial cell differentiation. KIF7 depleted C3H10T1/2 fibroblasts and Kif7dda/dda mutant mouse embryonic fibroblasts have increased growth rates at high cellular densities, suggesting that Kif7 may function as a general regulator of cellular proliferation. We ascertained that in G1, Kif7 and microtubule dynamics regulate the expression and activity of several components of the cell cycle machinery known to control entry into S phase. Our data suggest that Kif7 may function to regulate the maintenance of the respiratory airway architecture by controlling cellular density, cell proliferation, and cycle exit through its role as a microtubule associated protein.

  18. The cAMP-induced G protein subunits dissociation monitored in live Dictyostelium cells by BRET reveals two activation rates, a positive effect of caffeine and potential role of microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariqul Islam, A F M; Yue, Haicen; Scavello, Margarethakay; Haldeman, Pearce; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Charest, Pascale G

    2018-08-01

    To study the dynamics and mechanisms controlling activation of the heterotrimeric G protein Gα2βγ in Dictyostelium in response to stimulation by the chemoattractant cyclic AMP (cAMP), we monitored the G protein subunit interaction in live cells using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). We found that cAMP induces the cAR1-mediated dissociation of the G protein subunits to a similar extent in both undifferentiated and differentiated cells, suggesting that only a small number of cAR1 (as expressed in undifferentiated cells) is necessary to induce the full activation of Gα2βγ. In addition, we found that treating cells with caffeine increases the potency of cAMP-induced Gα2βγ activation; and that disrupting the microtubule network but not F-actin inhibits the cAMP-induced dissociation of Gα2βγ. Thus, microtubules are necessary for efficient cAR1-mediated activation of the heterotrimeric G protein. Finally, kinetics analyses of Gα2βγ subunit dissociation induced by different cAMP concentrations indicate that there are two distinct rates at which the heterotrimeric G protein subunits dissociate when cells are stimulated with cAMP concentrations above 500 nM versus only one rate at lower cAMP concentrations. Quantitative modeling suggests that the kinetics profile of Gα2βγ subunit dissociation results from the presence of both uncoupled and G protein pre-coupled cAR1 that have differential affinities for cAMP and, consequently, induce G protein subunit dissociation through different rates. We suggest that these different signaling kinetic profiles may play an important role in initial chemoattractant gradient sensing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Oscillatory fluid flow influences primary cilia and microtubule mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinha, Lina C; Hoey, David A; Fernandes, Paulo R; Rodrigues, Hélder C; Jacobs, Christopher R

    2014-07-01

    Many tissues are sensitive to mechanical stimuli; however, the mechanotransduction mechanism used by cells remains unknown in many cases. The primary cilium is a solitary, immotile microtubule-based extension present on nearly every mammalian cell which extends from the basal body. The cilium is a mechanosensitive organelle and has been shown to transduce fluid flow-induced shear stress in tissues, such as the kidney and bone. The majority of microtubules assemble from the mother centriole (basal body), contributing significantly to the anchoring of the primary cilium. Several studies have attempted to quantify the number of microtubules emanating from the basal body and the results vary depending on the cell type. It has also been shown that cellular response to shear stress depends on microtubular integrity. This study hypothesizes that changing the microtubule attachment of primary cilia in response to a mechanical stimulus could change primary cilia mechanics and, possibly, mechanosensitivity. Oscillatory fluid flow was applied to two different cell types and the microtubule attachment to the ciliary base was quantified. For the first time, an increase in microtubules around primary cilia both with time and shear rate in response to oscillatory fluid flow stimulation was demonstrated. Moreover, it is presented that the primary cilium is required for this loading-induced cellular response. This study has demonstrated a new role for the cilium in regulating alterations in the cytoplasmic microtubule network in response to mechanical stimulation, and therefore provides a new insight into how cilia may regulate its mechanics and thus the cells mechanosensitivity. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Tubulinlike protein from Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudes, D.; Fracek, S. P. Jr; Laursen, R. A.; Margulis, L.; Obar, R.; Tzertzinis, G.

    1987-01-01

    Tubulin proteins are the fundamental subunits of all polymeric microtubule-based eukaryotic structures. Long, hollow structures each composed of 13 protofilaments as revealed by electron microscopy, microtubules (240 angstroms in diameter) are nearly ubiquitous in eukaryotes. These proteins have been the subject of intense biochemical and biophyiscal interest since the early 1970s and are of evolutionary interest as well. If tubulin-based structures (i.e., neurotubules, mitotic spindle tubules, centrioles, kinetosomes, axonemes, etc.) evolved from spirochetes by way of motility symbioses, tubulin homologies with spirochete proteins should be detectable. Tubulin proteins are widely thought to be limited to eukaryotes. Yet both azotobacters and spirochetes have shown immunological cross-reactivity with antitubulin antibodies. In neither of these studies was tubulin isolated nor any specific antigen identified as responsible for the immunoreactivity. Furthermore, although far less uniform in structure than eukaryotic microtubules, various cytoplasmic fibers and tubules (as seen by electron microscopy) have been reported in several types of prokaryotes (e.g., Spirochaeta; large termite spirochetes; treponemes; cyanobacteria; and Azotobacter. This work forms a part of our long-range study of the possible prokaryotic origin of tubulin and microtubules. Spirochetes are helically shaped gram-negative motile prokaryotes. They differ from all other bacterial in that the position of their flagella is periplasmic: their flagella lie between the inner and outer membranes of the gram-negative cell wall. Some of the largest spirochetes have longitudinally aligned 240 angstrom microtubules. Unfortunately, in spite of many attempts, all of the larger spirochetes (family Pillotaceae) with well-defined cytoplasmic tubules and antitubulin immunoreactivity are not cultivable. However, a newly described spirochete species (Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis) possessing cytoplasmic fibers

  1. Phosphorylation of the yeast γ-tubulin Tub4 regulates microtubule function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Tien-chen; Gombos, Linda; Neuner, Annett

    2011-01-01

    The yeast ¿-tubulin Tub4 is assembled with Spc97 and Spc98 into the small Tub4 complex. The Tub4 complex binds via the receptor proteins Spc72 and Spc110 to the spindle pole body (SPB), the functional equivalent of the mammalian centrosome, where the Tub4 complex organizes cytoplasmic and nuclear...... microtubules. Little is known about the regulation of the Tub4 complex. Here, we isolated the Tub4 complex with the bound receptors from yeast cells. Analysis of the purified Tub4 complex by mass spectrometry identified more than 50 phosphorylation sites in Spc72, Spc97, Spc98, Spc110 and Tub4. To examine...... the functional relevance of the phosphorylation sites, phospho-mimicking and non-phosphorylatable mutations in Tub4, Spc97 and Spc98 were analyzed. Three phosphorylation sites in Tub4 were found to be critical for Tub4 stability and microtubule organization. One of the sites is highly conserved in ¿-tubulins...

  2. Quantitative analysis of microtubule orientation in interdigitated leaf pavement cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, Kae; Higaki, Takumi; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2015-01-01

    Leaf pavement cells are shaped like a jigsaw puzzle in most dicotyledon species. Molecular genetic studies have identified several genes required for pavement cells morphogenesis and proposed that microtubules play crucial roles in the interdigitation of pavement cells. In this study, we performed quantitative analysis of cortical microtubule orientation in leaf pavement cells in Arabidopsis thaliana. We captured confocal images of cortical microtubules in cotyledon leaf epidermis expressing GFP-tubulinβ and quantitatively evaluated the microtubule orientations relative to the pavement cell growth axis using original image processing techniques. Our results showed that microtubules kept parallel orientations to the growth axis during pavement cell growth. In addition, we showed that immersion treatment of seed cotyledons in solutions containing tubulin polymerization and depolymerization inhibitors decreased pavement cell complexity. Treatment with oryzalin and colchicine inhibited the symmetric division of guard mother cells.

  3. Lysosomes are associated with microtubules and not with intermediate filaments in cultured fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Collot, M; Louvard, D; Singer, S J

    1984-01-01

    Double immunofluorescent labeling experiments for lysosomes and either microtubules or vimentin intermediate filaments in cultured well-spread fibroblasts show a remarkable degree of superposition of the lysosomes and the microtubules. Under two different sets of conditions where the microtubules and intermediate filaments are well segregated from one another, the lysosomes remain codistributed with the microtubules. It is suggested that this specific association of lysosomes with microtubule...

  4. Heuristic consequences of a load of oxygen in microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Pierre A

    2014-04-01

    The current cell oxygen paradigm shows some major gaps that have not yet been resolved. Something seems to be lacking for the comprehensive statement of the oxygen distribution in the cell, especially the low cytoplasmic oxygen level. The entrapment of oxygen in microtubules (MTs) resolves the latter observation, as well as the occurrence of an extensive cytoplasmic foam formation. It leads to a novel oxygen paradigm for cells. During the steady-state treadmilling, the mobile cavity would absorb oxygenated cytoplasm forward, entrap gas nuclei and concentrate them. A fluorescence method is described to confirm the in vitro load of oxygen in MTs during their periodic growths and shrinkages. The latter operating mechanism is called the gas dynamic instability (GDI) of MTs. Several known biosystems could rest on the GDI. (1) The GTP-cap is linked with the gas meniscus encountered in a tube filled with gas. The GTP hydrolysis is linked to the conformational change of the GTPase domain according to the bubble pressure, and to the shaking of protofilaments with gas particles (soliton-like waves). (2) The GDI provides a free energy water pump because water molecules have to escape from MT pores when foam concentrates within the MT. Beside ATP hydrolysis in motor proteins, the GDI provides an additional driving force in intracellular transport of cargo. The water streams flowing from the MT through slits organize themselves as water layers between the cargo and the MT surface, and break ionic bridges. It makes the cargo glide over a water rail. (3) The GDI provides a universal motor for chromosome segregation because the depolymerization of kinetochorial MTs is expected to generate a strong cytoplasmic foam. Chromosomes are sucked up according to the pressure difference (or density difference) applied to opposite sides of the kinetochore, which is in agreement with Archimedes' principle of buoyancy. Non-kinetochorial MTs reabsorb foam during GDI. Last, the mitotic spindle

  5. On the nature and shape of tubulin trails: implications on microtubule self-organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glade, Nicolas

    2012-06-01

    Microtubules, major elements of the cell skeleton are, most of the time, well organized in vivo, but they can also show self-organizing behaviors in time and/or space in purified solutions in vitro. Theoretical studies and models based on the concepts of collective dynamics in complex systems, reaction-diffusion processes and emergent phenomena were proposed to explain some of these behaviors. In the particular case of microtubule spatial self-organization, it has been advanced that microtubules could behave like ants, self-organizing by 'talking to each other' by way of hypothetic (because never observed) concentrated chemical trails of tubulin that are expected to be released by their disassembling ends. Deterministic models based on this idea yielded indeed like-looking spatio-temporal self-organizing behaviors. Nevertheless the question remains of whether microscopic tubulin trails produced by individual or bundles of several microtubules are intense enough to allow microtubule self-organization at a macroscopic level. In the present work, by simulating the diffusion of tubulin in microtubule solutions at the microscopic scale, we measure the shape and intensity of tubulin trails and discuss about the assumption of microtubule self-organization due to the production of chemical trails by disassembling microtubules. We show that the tubulin trails produced by individual microtubules or small microtubule arrays are very weak and not elongated even at very high reactive rates. Although the variations of concentration due to such trails are not significant compared to natural fluctuations of the concentration of tubuline in the chemical environment, the study shows that heterogeneities of biochemical composition can form due to microtubule disassembly. They could become significant when produced by numerous microtubule ends located in the same place. Their possible formation could play a role in certain conditions of reaction. In particular, it gives a mesoscopic

  6. Wolbachia utilizes host microtubules and Dynein for anterior localization in the Drosophila oocyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M Ferree

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of the host cytoskeleton in the maternal transmission of the endoparasitic bacteria Wolbachia, we have characterized their distribution in the female germ line of Drosophila melanogaster. In the germarium, Wolbachia are distributed to all germ cells of the cyst, establishing an early infection in the cell destined to become the oocyte. During mid-oogenesis, Wolbachia exhibit a distinct concentration between the anterior cortex and the nucleus in the oocyte, where many bacteria appear to contact the nuclear envelope. Following programmed rearrangement of the microtubule network, Wolbachia dissociate from this anterior position and become dispersed throughout the oocyte. This localization pattern is distinct from mitochondria and all known axis determinants. Manipulation of microtubules and cytoplasmic Dynein and Dynactin, but not Kinesin-1, disrupts anterior bacterial localization in the oocyte. In live egg chambers, Wolbachia exhibit movement in nurse cells but not in the oocyte, suggesting that the bacteria are anchored by host factors. In addition, we identify mid-oogenesis as a period in the life cycle of Wolbachia in which bacterial replication occurs. Total bacterial counts show that Wolbachia increase at a significantly higher rate in the oocyte than in the average nurse cell, and that normal Wolbachia levels in the oocyte depend on microtubules. These findings demonstrate that Wolbachia utilize the host microtubule network and associated proteins for their subcellular localization in the Drosophila oocyte. These interactions may also play a role in bacterial motility and replication, ultimately leading to the bacteria's efficient maternal transmission.

  7. ATP-binding motifs play key roles in Krp1p, kinesin-related protein 1, function for bi-polar growth control in fission yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Dong Keun; Cho, Bon A; Kim, Hyong Bai

    2005-01-01

    Kinesin is a microtubule-based motor protein with various functions related to the cell growth and division. It has been reported that Krp1p, kinesin-related protein 1, which belongs to the kinesin heavy chain superfamily, localizes on microtubules and may play an important role in cytokinesis. However, the function of Krp1p has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we overexpressed an intact form and three different mutant forms of Krp1p in fission yeast constructed by site-directed mutagenesis in two ATP-binding motifs or by truncation of the leucine zipper-like motif (LZiP). We observed hyper-extended microtubules and the aberrant nuclear shape in Krp1p-overexpressed fission yeast. As a functional consequence, a point mutation of ATP-binding domain 1 (G89E) in Krp1p reversed the effect of Krp1p overexpression in fission yeast, whereas the specific mutation in ATP-binding domain 2 (G238E) resulted in the altered cell polarity. Additionally, truncation of the leucine zipper-like domain (LZiP) at the C-terminal of Krp1p showed a normal nuclear division. Taken together, we suggest that krp1p is involved in regulation of cell-polarized growth through ATP-binding motifs in fission yeast

  8. Two Types of Genetic Interaction Implicate the Whirligig Gene of Drosophila Melanogaster in Microtubule Organization in the Flagellar Axoneme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, L. L.; Wolf, N.; McDonald, K. L.; Fuller, M. T.

    1990-01-01

    The mutant nc4 allele of whirligig (3-54.4) of Drosophila melanogaster fails to complement mutations in an α-tubulin locus, α1t, mutations in a β-tubulin locus, B2t, or a mutation in the haywire locus. However, wrl fails to map to any of the known α- or β-tubulin genes. The extragenic failure to complement could indicate that the wrl product participates in structural interactions with microtubule proteins. The whirligig locus appears to be haploinsufficient for male fertility. Both a deficiency of wrl and possible loss of function alleles obtained by reverting the failure to complement between wrl(nc4) and B2t(n) are dominant male sterile in a genetic background wild type for tubulin. The dominant male sterility of the revertant alleles is suppressed if the flies are also heterozygous for B2t(n), for a deficiency of α1t, or for the hay(nc2) allele. These results suggest that it is not the absolute level of wrl gene product but its level relative to tubulin or microtubule function that is important for normal spermatogenesis. The phenotype of homozygous wrl mutants suggests that the whirligig product plays a role in postmeiotic spermatid differentiation, possibly in organizing the microtubules of the sperm flagellar axoneme. Flies homozygous for either wrl(nc4) or revertant alleles are viable and female fertile but male sterile. Premeiotic and meiotic stages of spermatogenesis appear normal. However, in post-meiotic stages, flagellar axonemes show loss of the accessory microtubule on the B-subfiber of outer doublet microtubules, outer triplet instead of outer doublet microtubules, and missing central pair microtubules. PMID:2127579

  9. Alcohol-induced defects in hepatic transcytosis may be explained by impaired dynein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groebner, Jennifer L; Fernandez, David J; Tuma, Dean J; Tuma, Pamela L

    2014-12-01

    Alcoholic liver disease has been clinically well described, but the molecular mechanisms leading to hepatotoxicity have not been fully elucidated. Previously, we determined that microtubules are hyperacetylated and more stable in ethanol-treated WIF-B cells, VL-17A cells, liver slices, and in livers from ethanol-fed rats. From our recent studies, we believe that these modifications can explain alcohol-induced defects in microtubule motor-dependent protein trafficking including nuclear translocation of a subset of transcription factors. Since cytoplasmic dynein/dynactin is known to mediate both microtubule-dependent translocation and basolateral to apical/canalicular transcytosis, we predicted that transcytosis is impaired in ethanol-treated hepatic cells. We monitored transcytosis of three classes of newly synthesized canalicular proteins in polarized, hepatic WIF-B cells, an emerging model system for the study of liver disease. As predicted, canalicular delivery of all proteins tested was impaired in ethanol-treated cells. Unlike in control cells, transcytosing proteins were observed in discrete sub-canalicular puncta en route to the canalicular surface that aligned along acetylated microtubules. We further determined that the stalled transcytosing proteins colocalized with dynein/dynactin in treated cells. No changes in vesicle association were observed for either dynein or dynactin in ethanol-treated cells, but significantly enhanced dynein binding to microtubules was observed. From these results, we propose that enhanced dynein binding to microtubules in ethanol-treated cells leads to decreased motor processivity resulting in vesicle stalling and in impaired canalicular delivery. Our studies also importantly indicate that modulating cellular acetylation levels with clinically tolerated deacetylase agonists may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating alcoholic liver disease.

  10. Microtubule's conformational cap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, H.

    1999-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that allow elongation of the unstable microtubule lattice remain unclear. It is usually thought that the GDP-liganded tubulin lattice is capped by a small layer of GTP- or GDP-P(i)-liganded molecules, the so called "GTP-cap". Here, we point-out that the elastic properties...

  11. Microtubules: A network for solitary waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Slobodan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we deal with nonlinear dynamics of microtubules. The structure and role of microtubules in cells are explained as well as one of models explaining their dynamics. Solutions of the crucial nonlinear differential equation depend on used mathematical methods. Two commonly used procedures, continuum and semi-discrete approximations, are explained. These solutions are solitary waves usually called as kink solitons, breathers and bell-type solitons. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III45010

  12. One-Dimensional Brownian Motion of Charged Nanoparticles along Microtubules: A Model System for Weak Binding Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Minoura, Itsushi; Katayama, Eisaku; Sekimoto, Ken; Muto, Etsuko

    2010-01-01

    Various proteins are known to exhibit one-dimensional Brownian motion along charged rodlike polymers, such as microtubules (MTs), actin, and DNA. The electrostatic interaction between the proteins and the rodlike polymers appears to be crucial for one-dimensional Brownian motion, although the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. We examined the interactions of positively-charged nanoparticles composed of polyacrylamide gels with MTs. These hydrophilic nanoparticles bound to MTs ...

  13. Plasma membrane factor XIIIA transglutaminase activity regulates osteoblast matrix secretion and deposition by affecting microtubule dynamics.

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    Hadil F Al-Jallad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transglutaminase activity, arising potentially from transglutaminase 2 (TG2 and Factor XIIIA (FXIIIA, has been linked to osteoblast differentiation where it is required for type I collagen and fibronectin matrix deposition. In this study we have used an irreversible TG-inhibitor to 'block -and-track' enzyme(s targeted during osteoblast differentiation. We show that the irreversible TG-inhibitor is highly potent in inhibiting osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and reduces secretion of both fibronectin and type I collagen and their release from the cell surface. Tracking of the dansyl probe by Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that the inhibitor targets plasma membrane-associated FXIIIA. TG2 appears not to contribute to crosslinking activity on the osteoblast surface. Inhibition of FXIIIA with NC9 resulted in defective secretory vesicle delivery to the plasma membrane which was attributable to a disorganized microtubule network and decreased microtubule association with the plasma membrane. NC9 inhibition of FXIIIA resulted in destabilization of microtubules as assessed by cellular Glu-tubulin levels. Furthermore, NC9 blocked modification of Glu-tubulin into 150 kDa high-molecular weight Glu-tubulin form which was specifically localized to the plasma membrane. FXIIIA enzyme and its crosslinking activity were colocalized with plasma membrane-associated tubulin, and thus, it appears that FXIIIA crosslinking activity is directed towards stabilizing the interaction of microtubules with the plasma membrane. Our work provides the first mechanistic cues as to how transglutaminase activity could affect protein secretion and matrix deposition in osteoblasts and suggests a novel function for plasma membrane FXIIIA in microtubule dynamics.

  14. Direct Cytoplasmic Delivery and Nuclear Targeting Delivery of HPMA-MT Conjugates in a Microtubules Dependent Fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jiaju; Zhu, Xi; Luo, Kui; Li, Lian; Tang, Manlin; Liu, Yanxi; Zhou, Zhou; Huang, Yuan

    2016-09-06

    As the hearts of tumor cells, the nucleus is the ultimate target of many chemotherapeutic agents and genes. However, nuclear drug delivery is always hampered by multiple intracellular obstacles, such as low efficiency of lysosome escape and insufficient nuclear trafficking. Herein, an N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) polymer-based drug delivery system was designed, which could achieve direct cytoplasmic delivery by a nonendocytic pathway and transport into the nucleus in a microtubules dependent fashion. A special targeting peptide (MT), derived from an endogenic parathyroid hormone-related protein, was conjugated to the polymer backbone, which could accumulate into the nucleus a by microtubule-mediated pathway. The in vitro studies found that low temperature and NaN3 could not influence the cell internalization of the conjugates. Besides, no obvious overlay of the conjugates with lysosome demonstrated that the polymer conjugates could enter the tumor cell cytoplasm by a nonendocytic pathway, thus avoiding the drug degradation in the lysosome. Furthermore, after suppression of the microtubule dynamics with microtubule stabilizing docetaxel (DTX) and destabilizing nocodazole (Noc), the nuclear accumulation of polymeric conjugates was significantly inhibited. Living cells fluorescence recovery after photobleaching study found that the nuclear import rate of conjugates was 2-fold faster compared with the DTX and Noc treated groups. These results demonstrated that the conjugates transported into the nucleus in a microtubules dependent way. Therefore, in addition to direct cytoplasmic delivery, our peptide conjugated polymeric platform could simultaneously mediate nuclear drug accumulation, which may open a new path for further intracellular genes/peptides delivery.

  15. The nucleation of microtubules in Aspergillus nidulans germlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina de Andrade-Monteiro

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Microtubules are filaments composed of dimers of alpha- and beta-tubulins, which have a variety of functions in living cells. In fungi, the spindle pole bodies usually have been considered to be microtubule-organizing centers. We used the antimicrotubule drug Benomyl in block/release experiments to depolymerize and repolymerize microtubules in Aspergillus nidulans germlings to learn more about the microtubule nucleation process in this filamentous fungus. Twenty seconds after release from Benomyl short microtubules were formed from several bright (immunofluorescent dots distributed along the germlings, suggesting that microtubule nucleation is randomly distributed in A. nidulans germlings. Since nuclear movement is dependent on microtubules in A. nidulans we analyzed whether mutants defective in nuclear distribution along the growing hyphae (nud mutants have some obvious microtubule defect. Cytoplasmic, astral and spindle microtubules were present and appeared to be normal in all nud mutants. However, significant changes in the percentage of short versus long mitotic spindles were observed in nud mutants. This suggests that some of the nuclei of nud mutants do not reach the late stage of cell division at normal temperatures.Microtúbulos são filamentos compostos por dímeros das tubulinas a e b e têm uma variedade de funções nas células vivas. Em fungos, os corpúsculos polares dos fusos são geralmente considerados os centros organizadores dos microtúbulos. Com o objetivo de contribuir para uma melhor compreensão dos processos de nucleação dos microtúbulos no fungo filamentoso A. nidulans, nós utilizamos a droga antimicrotúbulo Benomil em experimentos de bloqueio e liberação para depolimerizar e repolimerizar os microtúbulos. Após 20 segundos de reincubação em meio sem Benomil, pequenos microtúbulos foram formados a partir de pontos distribuídos pela célula, sugerindo que os pontos de nucleação de microtúbulos s

  16. The neurosteroid pregnenolone reverts microtubule derangement induced by the loss of a functional CDKL5-IQGAP1 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiero, Isabella; Peroni, Diana; Tramarin, Marco; Chandola, Chetan; Rusconi, Laura; Landsberger, Nicoletta; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte

    2017-09-15

    CDKL5 is a protein kinase that plays a key role for neuronal functions as testified by the onset of complex neuronal dysfunctions in patients with genetic lesions in CDKL5. Here we identify a novel interactor of CDKL5, IQGAP1, a fundamental regulator of cell migration and polarity. In accordance with a functional role of this interaction, depletion of CDKL5 impairs cell migration and impedes the localization of IQGAP1 at the leading edge. Moreover, we demonstrate that CDKL5 is required for IQGAP1 to form a functional complex with its effectors, Rac1 and the microtubule plus end tracking protein CLIP170. These defects eventually impact on the microtubule association of CLIP170, thus deranging their dynamics. CLIP170 is a cellular target of the neurosteroid pregnenolone; by blocking CLIP170 in its active conformation, pregnenolone is capable of restoring the microtubule association of CLIP170 in CDKL5 deficient cells and rescuing morphological defects in neurons devoid of CDKL5. These findings provide novel insights into CDKL5 functions and pave the way for target-specific therapeutic strategies for individuals affected with CDKL5-disorder. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Intracellular Transport and Kinesin Superfamily Proteins: Structure, Function and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, N.; Takemura, R.

    Using various molecular cell biological and molecular genetic approaches, we identified kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) and characterized their significant functions in intracellular transport, which is fundamental for cellular morphogenesis, functioning, and survival. We showed that KIFs not only transport various membranous organelles, proteins complexes and mRNAs fundamental for cellular functions but also play significant roles in higher brain functions such as memory and learning, determination of important developmental processes such as left-right asymmetry formation and brain wiring. We also elucidated that KIFs recognize and bind to their specific cargoes using scaffolding or adaptor protein complexes. Concerning the mechanism of motility, we discovered the simplest unique monomeric motor KIF1A and determined by molecular biophysics, cryoelectron microscopy and X-ray crystallography that KIF1A can move on a microtubule processively as a monomer by biased Brownian motion and by hydolyzing ATP.

  18. Curcumin alters the cytoskeleton and microtubule organization on trophozoites of Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Filiberto; Palomo-Ligas, Lissethe; Hernández-Hernández, José Manuel; Pérez-Rangel, Armando; Aguayo-Ortiz, Rodrigo; Hernández-Campos, Alicia; Castillo, Rafael; González-Pozos, Sirenia; Cortés-Zárate, Rafael; Ramírez-Herrera, Mario Alberto; Mendoza-Magaña, María Luisa; Castillo-Romero, Araceli

    2017-08-01

    Giardia lamblia is a worldwide protozoan responsible for a significant number of intestinal infections. There are several drugs for the treatment of giardiasis, but they often cause side effects. Curcumin, a component of turmeric, has antigiardial activity; however, the molecular target and mechanism of antiproliferative activity are not clear. The effects of curcumin on cellular microtubules have been widely investigated. Since tubulin is the most abundant protein in the cytoskeleton of Giardia, to elucidate whether curcumin has activity against the microtubules of this parasite, we treated trophozoites with curcumin and the cells were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. Curcumin inhibited Giardia proliferation and adhesion in a time-concentration-dependent mode. The higher inhibitory concentrations of curcumin (3 and 15μM) disrupted the cytoskeletal structures of trophozoites; the damage was evident on the ventral disk, flagella and in the caudal region, also the membrane was affected. The immunofluorescence images showed altered distribution of tubulin staining on ventral disk and flagella. Additionally, we found that curcumin caused a clear reduction of tubulin expression. By docking analysis and molecular dynamics we showed that curcumin has a high probability to bind at the interface of the tubulin dimer close to the vinblastine binding site. All the data presented indicate that curcumin may inhibit Giardia proliferation by perturbing microtubules. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Ibuprofen regulation of microtubule dynamics in cystic fibrosis epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymut, Sharon M; Kampman, Claire M; Corey, Deborah A; Endres, Tori; Cotton, Calvin U; Kelley, Thomas J

    2016-08-01

    High-dose ibuprofen, an effective anti-inflammatory therapy for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF), has been shown to preserve lung function in a pediatric population. Despite its efficacy, few patients receive ibuprofen treatment due to potential renal and gastrointestinal toxicity. The mechanism of ibuprofen efficacy is also unclear. We have previously demonstrated that CF microtubules are slower to reform after depolymerization compared with respective wild-type controls. Slower microtubule dynamics in CF cells are responsible for impaired intracellular transport and are related to inflammatory signaling. Here, it is identified that high-dose ibuprofen treatment in both CF cell models and primary CF nasal epithelial cells restores microtubule reformation rates to wild-type levels, as well as induce extension of microtubules to the cell periphery. Ibuprofen treatment also restores microtubule-dependent intracellular transport monitored by measuring intracellular cholesterol transport. These effects are specific to ibuprofen as other cyclooxygenase inhibitors have no effect on these measures. Effects of ibuprofen are mimicked by stimulation of AMPK and blocked by the AMPK inhibitor compound C. We conclude that high-dose ibuprofen treatment enhances microtubule formation in CF cells likely through an AMPK-related pathway. These findings define a potential mechanism to explain the efficacy of ibuprofen therapy in CF. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. An antitubulin agent BCFMT inhibits proliferation of cancer cells and induces cell death by inhibiting microtubule dynamics.

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    Ankit Rai

    Full Text Available Using cell based screening assay, we identified a novel anti-tubulin agent (Z-5-((5-(4-bromo-3-chlorophenylfuran-2-ylmethylene-2-thioxothiazolidin-4-one (BCFMT that inhibited proliferation of human cervical carcinoma (HeLa (IC(50, 7.2 ± 1.8 µM, human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7 (IC(50, 10.0 ± 0.5 µM, highly metastatic breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-231 (IC(50, 6.0 ± 1 µM, cisplatin-resistant human ovarian carcinoma (A2780-cis (IC(50, 5.8 ± 0.3 µM and multi-drug resistant mouse mammary tumor (EMT6/AR1 (IC(50, 6.5 ± 1 µM cells. Using several complimentary strategies, BCFMT was found to inhibit cancer cell proliferation at G2/M phase of the cell cycle apparently by targeting microtubules. In addition, BCFMT strongly suppressed the dynamics of individual microtubules in live MCF-7 cells. At its half maximal proliferation inhibitory concentration (10 µM, BCFMT reduced the rates of growing and shortening phases of microtubules in MCF-7 cells by 37 and 40%, respectively. Further, it increased the time microtubules spent in the pause (neither growing nor shortening detectably state by 135% and reduced the dynamicity (dimer exchange per unit time of microtubules by 70%. In vitro, BCFMT bound to tubulin with a dissociation constant of 8.3 ± 1.8 µM, inhibited tubulin assembly and suppressed GTPase activity of microtubules. BCFMT competitively inhibited the binding of BODIPY FL-vinblastine to tubulin with an inhibitory concentration (K(i of 5.2 ± 1.5 µM suggesting that it binds to tubulin at the vinblastine site. In cultured cells, BCFMT-treatment depolymerized interphase microtubules, perturbed the spindle organization and accumulated checkpoint proteins (BubR1 and Mad2 at the kinetochores. BCFMT-treated MCF-7 cells showed enhanced nuclear accumulation of p53 and its downstream p21, which consequently activated apoptosis in these cells. The results suggested that BCFMT inhibits proliferation of several types of cancer cells including drug

  1. Direct measurement of conformational strain energy in protofilaments curling outward from disassembling microtubule tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Jonathan W; Geyer, Elisabeth A; Bailey, Megan E; Rice, Luke M; Asbury, Charles L

    2017-06-19

    Disassembling microtubules can generate movement independently of motor enzymes, especially at kinetochores where they drive chromosome motility. A popular explanation is the 'conformational wave' model, in which protofilaments pull on the kinetochore as they curl outward from a disassembling tip. But whether protofilaments can work efficiently via this spring-like mechanism has been unclear. By modifying a previous assay to use recombinant tubulin and feedback-controlled laser trapping, we directly demonstrate the spring-like elasticity of curling protofilaments. Measuring their mechanical work output suggests they carry ~25% of the energy of GTP hydrolysis as bending strain, enabling them to drive movement with efficiency similar to conventional motors. Surprisingly, a β-tubulin mutant that dramatically slows disassembly has no effect on work output, indicating an uncoupling of disassembly speed from protofilament strain. These results show the wave mechanism can make a major contribution to kinetochore motility and establish a direct approach for measuring tubulin mechano-chemistry.

  2. Tau can switch microtubule network organizations: from random networks to dynamic and stable bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezel, Elea; Elie, Auréliane; Delaroche, Julie; Stoppin-Mellet, Virginie; Bosc, Christophe; Serre, Laurence; Fourest-Lieuvin, Anne; Andrieux, Annie; Vantard, Marylin; Arnal, Isabelle

    2018-01-15

    In neurons, microtubule networks alternate between single filaments and bundled arrays under the influence of effectors controlling their dynamics and organization. Tau is a microtubule bundler that stabilizes microtubules by stimulating growth and inhibiting shrinkage. The mechanisms by which tau organizes microtubule networks remain poorly understood. Here, we studied the self-organization of microtubules growing in the presence of tau isoforms and mutants. The results show that tau's ability to induce stable microtubule bundles requires two hexapeptides located in its microtubule-binding domain and is modulated by its projection domain. Site-specific pseudophosphorylation of tau promotes distinct microtubule organizations: stable single microtubules, stable bundles, or dynamic bundles. Disease-related tau mutations increase the formation of highly dynamic bundles. Finally, cryo-electron microscopy experiments indicate that tau and its variants similarly change the microtubule lattice structure by increasing both the protofilament number and lattice defects. Overall, our results uncover novel phosphodependent mechanisms governing tau's ability to trigger microtubule organization and reveal that disease-related modifications of tau promote specific microtubule organizations that may have a deleterious impact during neurodegeneration. © 2018 Prezel, Elie, et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  3. Ubiquitin–Synaptobrevin Fusion Protein Causes Degeneration of Presynaptic Motor Terminals in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Li, Hongqiao; Sugiura, Yoshie; Han, Weiping; Gallardo, Gilbert; Khvotchev, Mikhail; Zhang, Yinan; Kavalali, Ege T.; Südhof, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    Protein aggregates containing ubiquitin (Ub) are commonly observed in neurodegenerative disorders, implicating the involvement of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) in their pathogenesis. Here, we aimed to generate a mouse model for monitoring UPS function using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based substrate that carries a “noncleavable” N-terminal ubiquitin moiety (UbG76V). We engineered transgenic mice expressing a fusion protein, consisting of the following: (1) UbG76V, GFP, and a synaptic vesicle protein synaptobrevin-2 (UbG76V-GFP-Syb2); (2) GFP-Syb2; or (3) UbG76V-GFP-Syntaxin1, all under the control of a neuron-specific Thy-1 promoter. As expected, UbG76V-GFP-Syb2, GFP-Syb2, and UbG76V-GFP-Sytaxin1 were highly expressed in neurons, such as motoneurons and motor nerve terminals of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Surprisingly, UbG76V-GFP-Syb2 mice developed progressive adult-onset degeneration of motor nerve terminals, whereas GFP-Syb2 and UbG76V-GFP-Syntaxin1 mice were normal. The degeneration of nerve terminals in UbG76V-GFP-Syb2 mice was preceded by a progressive impairment of synaptic transmission at the NMJs. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that UbG76V-GFP-Syb2 interacted with SNAP-25 and Syntaxin1, the SNARE partners of synaptobrevin. Ultrastructural analyses revealed a marked reduction in synaptic vesicle density, accompanying an accumulation of tubulovesicular structures at presynaptic nerve terminals. These morphological defects were largely restricted to motor nerve terminals, as the ultrastructure of motoneuron somata appeared to be normal at the stages when synaptic nerve terminals degenerated. Furthermore, synaptic vesicle endocytosis and membrane trafficking were impaired in UbG76V-GFP-Syb2 mice. These findings indicate that UbG76V-GFP-Syb2 may compete with endogenous synaptobrevin, acting as a gain-of-function mutation that impedes SNARE function, resulting in the depletion of synaptic vesicles and degeneration of the nerve

  4. APC and Smad7 link TGFβ type I receptors to the microtubule system to promote cell migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Maria; Mu, Yabing; Lee, So Young; Edlund, Sofia; Kozakai, Takaharu; Thakur, Noopur; Tran, Hoanh; Qian, Jiang; Groeden, Joanna; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Landström, Maréne

    2012-01-01

    Cell migration occurs by activation of complex regulatory pathways that are spatially and temporally integrated in response to extracellular cues. Binding of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) to the microtubule plus ends in polarized cells is regulated by glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β). This event is crucial for establishment of cell polarity during directional migration. However, the role of APC for cellular extension in response to extracellular signals is less clear. Smad7 is a direct target gene for transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) and is known to inhibit various TGFβ-induced responses. Here we report a new function for Smad7. We show that Smad7 and p38 mitogen–activated protein kinase together regulate the expression of APC and cell migration in prostate cancer cells in response to TGFβ stimulation. In addition, Smad7 forms a complex with APC and acts as an adaptor protein for p38 and GSK-3β kinases to facilitate local TGFβ/p38–dependent inactivation of GSK-3β, accumulation of β-catenin, and recruitment of APC to the microtubule plus end in the leading edge of migrating prostate cancer cells. Moreover, the Smad7–APC complex links the TGFβ type I receptor to the microtubule system to regulate directed cellular extension and migratory responses evoked by TGFβ. PMID:22496417

  5. Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) protein controls microtubule dynamics in a novel signaling pathway that regulates cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Alice V; Steel, Rohan; Bernard, Ora

    2012-12-21

    The two members of the Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK1 and 2) family are established regulators of actin dynamics that are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle as well as cell motility and invasion. Here, we discovered a novel signaling pathway whereby ROCK regulates microtubule (MT) acetylation via phosphorylation of the tubulin polymerization promoting protein 1 (TPPP1/p25). We show that ROCK phosphorylation of TPPP1 inhibits the interaction between TPPP1 and histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), which in turn results in increased HDAC6 activity followed by a decrease in MT acetylation. As a consequence, we show that TPPP1 phosphorylation by ROCK increases cell migration and invasion via modulation of cellular acetyl MT levels. We establish here that the ROCK-TPPP1-HDAC6 signaling pathway is important for the regulation of cell migration and invasion.

  6. Cellular effects of curcumin on Plasmodium falciparum include disruption of microtubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimi Chakrabarti

    Full Text Available Curcumin has been widely investigated for its myriad cellular effects resulting in reduced proliferation of various eukaryotic cells including cancer cells and the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Studies with human cancer cell lines HT-29, Caco-2, and MCF-7 suggest that curcumin can bind to tubulin and induce alterations in microtubule structure. Based on this finding, we investigated whether curcumin has any effect on P. falciparum microtubules, considering that mammalian and parasite tubulin are 83% identical. IC50 of curcumin was found to be 5 µM as compared to 20 µM reported before. Immunofluorescence images of parasites treated with 5 or 20 µM curcumin showed a concentration-dependent effect on parasite microtubules resulting in diffuse staining contrasting with the discrete hemispindles and subpellicular microtubules observed in untreated parasites. The effect on P. falciparum microtubules was evident only in the second cycle for both concentrations tested. This diffuse pattern of tubulin fluorescence in curcumin treated parasites was similar to the effect of a microtubule destabilizing drug vinblastine on P. falciparum. Molecular docking predicted the binding site of curcumin at the interface of alpha and beta tubulin, similar to another destabilizing drug colchicine. Data from predicted drug binding is supported by results from drug combination assays showing antagonistic interactions between curcumin and colchicine, sharing a similar binding site, and additive/synergistic interactions of curcumin with paclitaxel and vinblastine, having different binding sites. This evidence suggests that cellular effects of curcumin are at least, in part, due to its perturbing effect on P. falciparum microtubules. The action of curcumin, both direct and indirect, on P. falciparum microtubules is discussed.

  7. Polyamine sharing between tubulin dimers favours microtubule nucleation and elongation via facilitated diffusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Mechulam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We suggest for the first time that the action of multivalent cations on microtubule dynamics can result from facilitated diffusion of GTP-tubulin to the microtubule ends. Facilitated diffusion can promote microtubule assembly, because, upon encountering a growing nucleus or the microtubule wall, random GTP-tubulin sliding on their surfaces will increase the probability of association to the target sites (nucleation sites or MT ends. This is an original explanation for understanding the apparent discrepancy between the high rate of microtubule elongation and the low rate of tubulin association at the microtubule ends in the viscous cytoplasm. The mechanism of facilitated diffusion requires an attraction force between two tubulins, which can result from the sharing of multivalent counterions. Natural polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine are present in all living cells and are potent agents to trigger tubulin self-attraction. By using an analytical model, we analyze the implication of facilitated diffusion mediated by polyamines on nucleation and elongation of microtubules. In vitro experiments using pure tubulin indicate that the promotion of microtubule assembly by polyamines is typical of facilitated diffusion. The results presented here show that polyamines can be of particular importance for the regulation of the microtubule network in vivo and provide the basis for further investigations into the effects of facilitated diffusion on cytoskeleton dynamics.

  8. Direct evidence for GTP and GDP-Pi intermediates in microtubule assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melki, R.; Carlier, M.F.; Pantaloni, D.

    1990-01-01

    Identification of the kinetic intermediates in GTP hydrolysis on microtubules and characterization of their assembly properties is essential in understanding microtubule dynamics. By using an improved glass filter assay that selectively traps microtubules with a dead time of 2 s and monitoring taxol-induced rapid assembly of microtubules from [γ- 32 P, 3 H]GTP-tubulin 1:1 complex, direct evidence has been obtained for GTP- and GDP-P i -microtubule transient states in the early stages of the polymerization process. A simple kinetic analysis of GTP hydrolysis on microtubules within two sequential pseudo-first-order processes led to apparent first-order rate constants of 0.065 s -1 for the cleavage of the γ-phosphate and 0.02 s -1 for the liberation of P i , assuming a simple random model. Apparent rate constants for GTP hydrolysis and P i release were independent of the composition of the buffer used to polymerize tubulin. The significance of these values with respect to those derived from previous studies from this and other laboratories and the possibility of a vectorial model for GTP hydrolysis are discussed

  9. Measuring and modeling polymer concentration profiles near spindle boundaries argues that spindle microtubules regulate their own nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Bryan; Stiehl, Olivia; Foster, Peter J.; Shelley, Michael J.; Needleman, Daniel J.; Fürthauer, Sebastian

    2018-05-01

    Spindles are self-organized microtubule-based structures that segregate chromosomes during cell division. The mass of the spindle is controlled by the balance between microtubule turnover and nucleation. The mechanisms that control the spatial regulation of microtubule nucleation remain poorly understood. While previous work found that microtubule nucleators bind to pre-existing microtubules in the spindle, it is still unclear whether this binding regulates the activity of those nucleators. Here we use a combination of experiments and mathematical modeling to investigate this issue. We measured the concentration of microtubules and soluble tubulin in and around the spindle. We found a very sharp decay in the concentration of microtubules at the spindle interface. This is inconsistent with a model in which the activity of nucleators is independent of their association with microtubules but consistent with a model in which microtubule nucleators are only active when bound to pre-existing microtubules. This argues that the activity of microtubule nucleators is greatly enhanced when bound to pre-existing microtubules. Thus, microtubule nucleators are both localized and activated by the microtubules they generate.

  10. Dynein Heavy Chain, Encoded by Two Genes in Agaricomycetes, Is Required for Nuclear Migration in Schizophyllum commune.

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    Melanie Brunsch

    Full Text Available The white-rot fungus Schizophyllum commune (Agaricomycetes was used to study the cell biology of microtubular trafficking during mating interactions, when the two partners exchange nuclei, which are transported along microtubule tracks. For this transport activity, the motor protein dynein is required. In S. commune, the dynein heavy chain is encoded in two parts by two separate genes, dhc1 and dhc2. The N-terminal protein Dhc1 supplies the dimerization domain, while Dhc2 encodes the motor machinery and the microtubule binding domain. This split motor protein is unique to Basidiomycota, where three different sequence patterns suggest independent split events during evolution. To investigate the function of the dynein heavy chain, the gene dhc1 and the motor domain in dhc2 were deleted. Both resulting mutants were viable, but revealed phenotypes in hyphal growth morphology and mating behavior as well as in sexual development. Viability of strain Δdhc2 is due to the higher expression of kinesin-2 and kinesin-14, which was proven via RNA sequencing.

  11. Pigment granule translocation in red ovarian chromatophores from the palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium olfersi (Weigmann, 1836): functional roles for the cytoskeleton and its molecular motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milograna, Sarah Ribeiro; Ribeiro, Márcia Regina; Baqui, Munira Muhammad Abdel; McNamara, John Campbell

    2014-12-01

    The binding of red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH) to membrane receptors in crustacean chromatophores triggers Ca²⁺/cGMP signaling cascades that activate cytoskeletal motors, driving pigment granule translocation. We investigate the distributions of microfilaments and microtubules and their associated molecular motors, myosin and dynein, by confocal and transmission electron microscopy, evaluating a functional role for the cytoskeleton in pigment translocation using inhibitors of polymer turnover and motor activity in vitro. Microtubules occupy the chromatophore cell extensions whether the pigment granules are aggregated or dispersed. The inhibition of microtubule turnover by taxol induces pigment aggregation and inhibits re-dispersion. Phalloidin-FITC actin labeling, together with tannic acid fixation and ultrastructural analysis, reveals that microfilaments form networks associated with the pigment granules. Actin polymerization induced by jasplaquinolide strongly inhibits RPCH-induced aggregation, causes spontaneous pigment dispersion, and inhibits pigment re-dispersion. Inhibition of actin polymerization by latrunculin-A completely impedes pigment aggregation and re-dispersion. Confocal immunocytochemistry shows that non-muscle myosin II (NMMII) co-localizes mainly with pigment granules while blebbistatin inhibition of NMMII strongly reduces the RPCH response, also inducing spontaneous pigment dispersion. Myosin II and dynein also co-localize with the pigment granules. Inhibition of dynein ATPase by erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine induces aggregation, inhibits RPCH-triggered aggregation, and inhibits re-dispersion. Granule aggregation and dispersion depend mainly on microfilament integrity although microtubules may be involved. Both cytoskeletal polymers are functional only when subunit turnover is active. Myosin and dynein may be the molecular motors that drive pigment aggregation. These mechanisms of granule translocation in crustacean

  12. FRET measurements of kinesin neck orientation reveal a structural basis for processivity and asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Douglas S; Fathi, Reza; Mitchison, Timothy J; Gelles, Jeff

    2010-03-23

    As the smallest and simplest motor enzymes, kinesins have served as the prototype for understanding the relationship between protein structure and mechanochemical function of enzymes in this class. Conventional kinesin (kinesin-1) is a motor enzyme that transports cargo toward the plus end of microtubules by a processive, asymmetric hand-over-hand mechanism. The coiled-coil neck domain, which connects the two kinesin motor domains, contributes to kinesin processivity (the ability to take many steps in a row) and is proposed to be a key determinant of the asymmetry in the kinesin mechanism. While previous studies have defined the orientation and position of microtubule-bound kinesin motor domains, the disposition of the neck coiled-coil remains uncertain. We determined the neck coiled-coil orientation using a multidonor fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique to measure distances between microtubules and bound kinesin molecules. Microtubules were labeled with a new fluorescent taxol donor, TAMRA-X-taxol, and kinesin derivatives with an acceptor fluorophore attached at positions on the motor and neck coiled-coil domains were used to reconstruct the positions and orientations of the domains. FRET measurements to positions on the motor domain were largely consistent with the domain orientation determined in previous studies, validating the technique. Measurements to positions on the neck coiled-coil were inconsistent with a radial orientation and instead demonstrated that the neck coiled-coil is parallel to the microtubule surface. The measured orientation provides a structural explanation for how neck surface residues enhance processivity and suggests a simple hypothesis for the origin of kinesin step asymmetry and "limping."

  13. Imaging Flow Cytometry Analysis to Identify Differences of Survival Motor Neuron Protein Expression in Patients With Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Reiko; Arakawa, Masayuki; Kaneko, Kaori; Otsuki, Noriko; Aoki, Ryoko; Saito, Kayoko

    2016-08-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the deficient expression of survival motor neuron protein in motor neurons. A major goal of disease-modifying therapy is to increase survival motor neuron expression. Changes in survival motor neuron protein expression can be monitored via peripheral blood cells in patients; therefore we tested the sensitivity and utility of imaging flow cytometry for this purpose. After the immortalization of peripheral blood lymphocytes from a human healthy control subject and two patients with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 with two and three copies of SMN2 gene, respectively, we used imaging flow cytometry analysis to identify significant differences in survival motor neuron expression. A bright detail intensity analysis was used to investigate differences in the cellular localization of survival motor neuron protein. Survival motor neuron expression was significantly decreased in cells derived from patients with spinal muscular atrophy relative to those derived from a healthy control subject. Moreover, survival motor neuron expression correlated with the clinical severity of spinal muscular atrophy according to SMN2 copy number. The cellular accumulation of survival motor neuron protein was also significantly decreased in cells derived from patients with spinal muscular atrophy relative to those derived from a healthy control subject. The benefits of imaging flow cytometry for peripheral blood analysis include its capacities for analyzing heterogeneous cell populations; visualizing cell morphology; and evaluating the accumulation, localization, and expression of a target protein. Imaging flow cytometry analysis should be implemented in future studies to optimize its application as a tool for spinal muscular atrophy clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Aggregation propensity of critical regions of the protein Tau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthee, Micaiah; Ahmed, Azka; Larini, Luca

    The Alzheimer's disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills, which eventually leads to the ability to not able to carry out the simplest tasks. The Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the formation of protein aggregates both within and outside of the brain's cells, the neurons. Within the neurons, the aggregation of the protein tau leads to the destruction of the microtubules in the axon of the neuron. Tau belongs to a group of proteins referred to as Microtubule-Associated Proteins. It is extremely flexible and is classified as an intrinsically unstructured protein due to its low propensity to form secondary structure. Tau promotes tubulin assembly into microtubules thereby stabilizing the cytoskeleton of the axon of the neurons. The microtubule binding region of tau consists of 4 pseudo-repeats. In this study, we will focus on the aggregation propensity of two fragments. In this study we will focus on the PHF43 fragment that contains the third pseudo-repeat and has been shown experimentally to aggregate readily. Another fragment that contains the second pseudo-repeat will be considered as well. Mutations in this region are associated with various form of dementia and for this reason we will consider the mutant P301L.

  15. Stable and dynamic microtubules coordinately shape the myosin activation zone during cytokinetic furrow formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foe, Victoria E.; von Dassow, George

    2008-01-01

    The cytokinetic furrow arises from spatial and temporal regulation of cortical contractility. To test the role microtubules play in furrow specification, we studied myosin II activation in echinoderm zygotes by assessing serine19-phosphorylated regulatory light chain (pRLC) localization after precisely timed drug treatments. Cortical pRLC was globally depressed before cytokinesis, then elevated only at the equator. We implicated cell cycle biochemistry (not microtubules) in pRLC depression, and differential microtubule stability in localizing the subsequent myosin activation. With no microtubules, pRLC accumulation occurred globally instead of equatorially, and loss of just dynamic microtubules increased equatorial pRLC recruitment. Nocodazole treatment revealed a population of stable astral microtubules that formed during anaphase; among these, those aimed toward the equator grew longer, and their tips coincided with cortical pRLC accumulation. Shrinking the mitotic apparatus with colchicine revealed pRLC suppression near dynamic microtubule arrays. We conclude that opposite effects of stable versus dynamic microtubules focuses myosin activation to the cell equator during cytokinesis. PMID:18955555

  16. ATX-2, the C. elegans Ortholog of Human Ataxin-2, Regulates Centrosome Size and Microtubule Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Stubenvoll

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Centrosomes are critical sites for orchestrating microtubule dynamics, and exhibit dynamic changes in size during the cell cycle. As cells progress to mitosis, centrosomes recruit more microtubules (MT to form mitotic bipolar spindles that ensure proper chromosome segregation. We report a new role for ATX-2, a C. elegans ortholog of Human Ataxin-2, in regulating centrosome size and MT dynamics. ATX-2, an RNA-binding protein, forms a complex with SZY-20 in an RNA-independent fashion. Depleting ATX-2 results in embryonic lethality and cytokinesis failure, and restores centrosome duplication to zyg-1 mutants. In this pathway, SZY-20 promotes ATX-2 abundance, which inversely correlates with centrosome size. Centrosomes depleted of ATX-2 exhibit elevated levels of centrosome factors (ZYG-1, SPD-5, γ-Tubulin, increasing MT nucleating activity but impeding MT growth. We show that ATX-2 influences MT behavior through γ-Tubulin at the centrosome. Our data suggest that RNA-binding proteins play an active role in controlling MT dynamics and provide insight into the control of proper centrosome size and MT dynamics.

  17. Integrins Regulate Apical Constriction via Microtubule Stabilization in the Drosophila Eye Disc Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilaiwan M. Fernandes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During morphogenesis, extracellular signals trigger actomyosin contractility in subpopulations of cells to coordinate changes in cell shape. To illuminate the link between signaling-mediated tissue patterning and cytoskeletal remodeling, we study the progression of the morphogenetic furrow (MF, the wave of apical constriction that traverses the Drosophila eye imaginal disc preceding photoreceptor neurogenesis. Apical constriction depends on actomyosin contractility downstream of the Hedgehog (Hh and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP pathways. We identify a role for integrin adhesion receptors in MF progression. We show that Hh and BMP regulate integrin expression, the loss of which disrupts apical constriction and slows furrow progression; conversely, elevated integrins accelerate furrow progression. We present evidence that integrins regulate MF progression by promoting microtubule stabilization, since reducing microtubule stability rescues integrin-mediated furrow acceleration. Thus, integrins act as a genetic link between tissue-level signaling events and morphological change at the cellular level, leading to morphogenesis and neurogenesis in the eye.

  18. The centrosomal linker and microtubules provide dual levels of spatial coordination of centrosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Panic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The centrosome is the principal microtubule organizing center in most animal cells. It consists of a pair of centrioles surrounded by pericentriolar material. The centrosome, like DNA, duplicates exactly once per cell cycle. During interphase duplicated centrosomes remain closely linked by a proteinaceous linker. This centrosomal linker is composed of rootletin filaments that are anchored to the centrioles via the protein C-Nap1. At the onset of mitosis the linker is dissolved by Nek2A kinase to support the formation of the bipolar mitotic spindle. The importance of the centrosomal linker for cell function during interphase awaits characterization. Here we assessed the phenotype of human RPE1 C-Nap1 knockout (KO cells. The absence of the linker led to a modest increase in the average centrosome separation from 1 to 2.5 μm. This small impact on the degree of separation is indicative of a second level of spatial organization of centrosomes. Microtubule depolymerisation or stabilization in C-Nap1 KO cells dramatically increased the inter-centrosomal separation (> 8 μm. Thus, microtubules position centrosomes relatively close to one another in the absence of linker function. C-Nap1 KO cells had a Golgi organization defect with a two-fold expansion of the area occupied by the Golgi. When the centrosomes of C-Nap1 KO cells showed considerable separation, two spatially distinct Golgi stacks could be observed. Furthermore, migration of C-Nap1 KO cells was slower than their wild type RPE1 counterparts. These data show that the spatial organization of centrosomes is modulated by a combination of centrosomal cohesion and microtubule forces. Furthermore a modest increase in centrosome separation has major impact on Golgi organization and cell migration.

  19. Crystal structure of the Candida albicans Kar3 kinesin motor domain fused to maltose-binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, Caroline; Joshi, Monika; Allingham, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The Candida albicans Kar3 motor domain structure was solved as a maltose-binding protein fusion. ► The electrostatic surface and part of the ATPase pocket of the motor domain differs markedly from other kinesins. ► The MBP–Kar3 interface highlights a new site for intramolecular or intermolecular interactions. -- Abstract: In the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, the Kinesin-14 motor protein Kar3 (CaKar3) is critical for normal mitotic division, nuclear fusion during mating, and morphogenic transition from the commensal yeast form to the virulent hyphal form. As a first step towards detailed characterization of this motor of potential medical significance, we have crystallized and determined the X-ray structure of the motor domain of CaKar3 as a maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion. The structure shows strong conservation of overall motor domain topology to other Kar3 kinesins, but with some prominent differences in one of the motifs that compose the nucleotide-binding pocket and the surface charge distribution. The MBP and Kar3 modules are arranged such that MBP interacts with the Kar3 motor domain core at the same site where the neck linker of conventional kinesins docks during the “ATP state” of the mechanochemical cycle. This site differs from the Kar3 neck–core interface in the recent structure of the ScKar3Vik1 heterodimer. The position of MBP is also completely distinct from the Vik1 subunit in this complex. This may suggest that the site of MBP interaction on the CaKar3 motor domain provides an interface for the neck, or perhaps a partner subunit, at an intermediate state of its motile cycle that has not yet been observed for Kinesin-14 motors.

  20. Crystal structure of the Candida albicans Kar3 kinesin motor domain fused to maltose-binding protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delorme, Caroline; Joshi, Monika [Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada); Allingham, John S., E-mail: allinghj@queensu.ca [Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Candida albicans Kar3 motor domain structure was solved as a maltose-binding protein fusion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrostatic surface and part of the ATPase pocket of the motor domain differs markedly from other kinesins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MBP-Kar3 interface highlights a new site for intramolecular or intermolecular interactions. -- Abstract: In the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, the Kinesin-14 motor protein Kar3 (CaKar3) is critical for normal mitotic division, nuclear fusion during mating, and morphogenic transition from the commensal yeast form to the virulent hyphal form. As a first step towards detailed characterization of this motor of potential medical significance, we have crystallized and determined the X-ray structure of the motor domain of CaKar3 as a maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion. The structure shows strong conservation of overall motor domain topology to other Kar3 kinesins, but with some prominent differences in one of the motifs that compose the nucleotide-binding pocket and the surface charge distribution. The MBP and Kar3 modules are arranged such that MBP interacts with the Kar3 motor domain core at the same site where the neck linker of conventional kinesins docks during the 'ATP state' of the mechanochemical cycle. This site differs from the Kar3 neck-core interface in the recent structure of the ScKar3Vik1 heterodimer. The position of MBP is also completely distinct from the Vik1 subunit in this complex. This may suggest that the site of MBP interaction on the CaKar3 motor domain provides an interface for the neck, or perhaps a partner subunit, at an intermediate state of its motile cycle that has not yet been observed for Kinesin-14 motors.

  1. BORC Functions Upstream of Kinesins 1 and 3 to Coordinate Regional Movement of Lysosomes along Different Microtubule Tracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardia, Carlos M; Farías, Ginny G; Jia, Rui; Pu, Jing; Bonifacino, Juan S

    2016-11-15

    The multiple functions of lysosomes are critically dependent on their ability to undergo bidirectional movement along microtubules between the center and the periphery of the cell. Centrifugal and centripetal movement of lysosomes is mediated by kinesin and dynein motors, respectively. We recently described a multi-subunit complex named BORC that recruits the small GTPase Arl8 to lysosomes to promote their kinesin-dependent movement toward the cell periphery. Here, we show that BORC and Arl8 function upstream of two structurally distinct kinesin types: kinesin-1 (KIF5B) and kinesin-3 (KIF1Bβ and KIF1A). Remarkably, KIF5B preferentially moves lysosomes on perinuclear tracks enriched in acetylated α-tubulin, whereas KIF1Bβ and KIF1A drive lysosome movement on more rectilinear, peripheral tracks enriched in tyrosinated α-tubulin. These findings establish BORC as a master regulator of lysosome positioning through coupling to different kinesins and microtubule tracks. Common regulation by BORC enables coordinate control of lysosome movement in different regions of the cell. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Template-free electrosynthesis of aligned poly(p-phenylene) microtubules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Poly(p-phenylene) (PPP) microtubules with diameters of 0.2-0.8μm and lengths of~10 (m have been synthesized by direct oxidation of benzene in the mixed electrolyte of boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BFEE) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) (BFEE:TFA= 2:1, by volume), containing a certain amount of sodium dodecylbenzene- sulfonate (SDBS) as surfactant. The microtubules were grown vertically on the working electrode surface. The tubular morphology has been confirmed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies and the chain structure of the skin of the tubules has been characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The electrode property, monomer/surfactant molar ratio and the value of applied potential have strong effects on the morphology of the microtubules.

  3. Stabilizing versus Destabilizing the Microtubules: A Double-Edge Sword for an Effective Cancer Treatment Option?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Fanale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microtubules are dynamic and structural cellular components involved in several cell functions, including cell shape, motility, and intracellular trafficking. In proliferating cells, they are essential components in the division process through the formation of the mitotic spindle. As a result of these functions, tubulin and microtubules are targets for anticancer agents. Microtubule-targeting agents can be divided into two groups: microtubule-stabilizing, and microtubule-destabilizing agents. The former bind to the tubulin polymer and stabilize microtubules, while the latter bind to the tubulin dimers and destabilize microtubules. Alteration of tubulin-microtubule equilibrium determines the disruption of the mitotic spindle, halting the cell cycle at the metaphase-anaphase transition and, eventually, resulting in cell death. Clinical application of earlier microtubule inhibitors, however, unfortunately showed several limits, such as neurological and bone marrow toxicity and the emergence of drug-resistant tumor cells. Here we review several natural and synthetic microtubule-targeting agents, which showed antitumor activity and increased efficacy in comparison to traditional drugs in various preclinical and clinical studies. Cryptophycins, combretastatins, ombrabulin, soblidotin, D-24851, epothilones and discodermolide were used in clinical trials. Some of them showed antiangiogenic and antivascular activity and others showed the ability to overcome multidrug resistance, supporting their possible use in chemotherapy.

  4. Effects of Obstacles on the Dynamics of Kinesins, Including Velocity and Run Length, Predicted by a Model of Two Dimensional Motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woochul Nam

    Full Text Available Kinesins are molecular motors which walk along microtubules by moving their heads to different binding sites. The motion of kinesin is realized by a conformational change in the structure of the kinesin molecule and by a diffusion of one of its two heads. In this study, a novel model is developed to account for the 2D diffusion of kinesin heads to several neighboring binding sites (near the surface of microtubules. To determine the direction of the next step of a kinesin molecule, this model considers the extension in the neck linkers of kinesin and the dynamic behavior of the coiled-coil structure of the kinesin neck. Also, the mechanical interference between kinesins and obstacles anchored on the microtubules is characterized. The model predicts that both the kinesin velocity and run length (i.e., the walking distance before detaching from the microtubule are reduced by static obstacles. The run length is decreased more significantly by static obstacles than the velocity. Moreover, our model is able to predict the motion of kinesin when other (several motors also move along the same microtubule. Furthermore, it suggests that the effect of mechanical interaction/interference between motors is much weaker than the effect of static obstacles. Our newly developed model can be used to address unanswered questions regarding degraded transport caused by the presence of excessive tau proteins on microtubules.

  5. Growth-arrest-specific protein 2 inhibits cell division in Xenopus embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhang

    Full Text Available Growth-arrest-specific 2 gene was originally identified in murine fibroblasts under growth arrest conditions. Furthermore, serum stimulation of quiescent, non-dividing cells leads to the down-regulation of gas2 and results in re-entry into the cell cycle. Cytoskeleton rearrangements are critical for cell cycle progression and cell division and the Gas2 protein has been shown to co-localize with actin and microtubules in interphase mammalian cells. Despite these findings, direct evidence supporting a role for Gas2 in the mechanism of cell division has not been reported.To determine whether the Gas2 protein plays a role in cell division, we over-expressed the full-length Gas2 protein and Gas2 truncations containing either the actin-binding CH domain or the tubulin-binding Gas2 domain in Xenopus laevis embryos. We found that both the full-length Gas2 protein and the Gas2 domain, but not the CH domain, inhibited cell division and resulted in multinucleated cells. The observation that Gas2 domain alone can arrest cell division suggests that Gas2 function is mediated by microtubule binding. Gas2 co-localized with microtubules at the cell cortex of Gas2-injected Xenopus embryos using cryo-confocal microscopy and co-sedimented with microtubules in cytoskeleton co-sedimentation assays. To investigate the mechanism of Gas2-induced cell division arrest, we showed, using a wound-induced contractile array assay, that Gas2 stabilized microtubules. Finally, electron microscopy studies demonstrated that Gas2 bundled microtubules into higher-order structures.Our experiments show that Gas2 inhibits cell division in Xenopus embryos. We propose that Gas2 function is mediated by binding and bundling microtubules, leading to cell division arrest.

  6. Microtubules Enable the Planar Cell Polarity of Airway Cilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladar, Eszter K.; Bayly, Roy D.; Sangoram, Ashvin; Scott, Matthew P.; Axelrod, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Airway cilia must be physically oriented along the longitudinal tissue axis for concerted, directional motility that is essential for proper mucociliary clearance. Results We show that Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) signaling specifies directionality and orients respiratory cilia. Within all airway epithelial cells a conserved set of PCP proteins shows interdependent, asymmetric junctional localization; non-autonomous signaling coordinates polarization between cells; and a polarized microtubule (MT) network is likely required for asymmetric PCP protein localization. We find that basal bodies dock after polarity of PCP proteins is established, are polarized nearly simultaneously, and refinement of basal body/cilium orientation continues during airway epithelial development. Unique to mature multiciliated cells, we identify PCP-regulated, planar polarized MTs that originate from basal bodies and interact, via their plus ends, with membrane domains associated with the PCP proteins Frizzled and Dishevelled. Disruption of MTs leads to misoriented cilia. Conclusions A conserved PCP pathway orients airway cilia by communicating polarity information from asymmetric membrane domains at the apical junctions, through MTs, to orient the MT and actin based network of ciliary basal bodies below the apical surface. PMID:23122850

  7. NAD+ and SIRT3 control microtubule dynamics and reduce susceptibility to antimicrotubule agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkcom, William T.; Ghosh, Ananda K.; Sung, Matthew S.; Matov, Alexandre; Brown, Kevin D.; Giannakakou, Paraskevi; Jaffrey, Samie R.

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an endogenous enzyme cofactor and cosubstrate that has effects on diverse cellular and physiologic processes, including reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial function, apoptosis, and axonal degeneration. A major goal is to identify the NAD+-regulated cellular pathways that may mediate these effects. Here we show that the dynamic assembly and disassembly of microtubules is markedly altered by NAD+. Furthermore, we show that the disassembly of microtubule polymers elicited by microtubule depolymerizing agents is blocked by increasing intracellular NAD+ levels. We find that these effects of NAD+ are mediated by the activation of the mitochondrial sirtuin sirtuin-3 (SIRT3). Overexpression of SIRT3 prevents microtubule disassembly and apoptosis elicited by antimicrotubule agents and knockdown of SIRT3 prevents the protective effects of NAD+ on microtubule polymers. Taken together, these data demonstrate that NAD+ and SIRT3 regulate microtubule polymerization and the efficacy of antimicrotubule agents. PMID:24889606

  8. A structural analysis of the AAA+ domains in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytoplasmic dynein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleave, Emma S; Schmidt, Helgo; Carter, Andrew P

    2014-06-01

    Dyneins are large protein complexes that act as microtubule based molecular motors. The dynein heavy chain contains a motor domain which is a member of the AAA+ protein family (ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities). Proteins of the AAA+ family show a diverse range of functionalities, but share a related core AAA+ domain, which often assembles into hexameric rings. Dynein is unusual because it has all six AAA+ domains linked together, in one long polypeptide. The dynein motor domain generates movement by coupling ATP driven conformational changes in the AAA+ ring to the swing of a motile element called the linker. Dynein binds to its microtubule track via a long antiparallel coiled-coil stalk that emanates from the AAA+ ring. Recently the first high resolution structures of the dynein motor domain were published. Here we provide a detailed structural analysis of the six AAA+ domains using our Saccharomycescerevisiae crystal structure. We describe how structural similarities in the dynein AAA+ domains suggest they share a common evolutionary origin. We analyse how the different AAA+ domains have diverged from each other. We discuss how this is related to the function of dynein as a motor protein and how the AAA+ domains of dynein compare to those of other AAA+ proteins. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. γ-Tubulin complex in Trypanosoma brucei: molecular composition, subunit interdependence and requirement for axonemal central pair protein assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Li, Ziyin

    2015-11-01

    γ-Tubulin complex constitutes a key component of the microtubule-organizing center and nucleates microtubule assembly. This complex differs in complexity in different organisms: the budding yeast contains the γ-tubulin small complex (γTuSC) composed of γ-tubulin, gamma-tubulin complex protein (GCP)2 and GCP3, whereas animals contain the γ-tubulin ring complex (γTuRC) composed of γTuSC and three additional proteins, GCP4, GCP5 and GCP6. In Trypanosoma brucei, the composition of the γ-tubulin complex remains elusive, and it is not known whether it also regulates assembly of the subpellicular microtubules and the spindle microtubules. Here we report that the γ-tubulin complex in T. brucei is composed of γ-tubulin and three GCP proteins, GCP2-GCP4, and is primarily localized in the basal body throughout the cell cycle. Depletion of GCP2 and GCP3, but not GCP4, disrupted the axonemal central pair microtubules, but not the subpellicular microtubules and the spindle microtubules. Furthermore, we showed that the γTuSC is required for assembly of two central pair proteins and that γTuSC subunits are mutually required for stability. Together, these results identified an unusual γ-tubulin complex in T. brucei, uncovered an essential role of γTuSC in central pair protein assembly, and demonstrated the interdependence of individual γTuSC components for maintaining a stable complex. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. TRESK background K(+ channel is inhibited by PAR-1/MARK microtubule affinity-regulating kinases in Xenopus oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Braun

    Full Text Available TRESK (TWIK-related spinal cord K(+ channel, KCNK18 is a major background K(+ channel of sensory neurons. Dominant-negative mutation of TRESK is linked to familial migraine. This important two-pore domain K(+ channel is uniquely activated by calcineurin. The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase directly binds to the channel and activates TRESK current several-fold in Xenopus oocytes and HEK293 cells. We have recently shown that the kinase, which is responsible for the basal inhibition of the K(+ current, is sensitive to the adaptor protein 14-3-3. Therefore we have examined the effect of the 14-3-3-inhibited PAR-1/MARK, microtubule-associated-protein/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase on TRESK in the Xenopus oocyte expression system. MARK1, MARK2 and MARK3 accelerated the return of TRESK current to the resting state after the calcium-dependent activation. Several other serine-threonine kinase types, generally involved in the modulation of other ion channels, failed to influence TRESK current recovery. MARK2 phosphorylated the primary determinant of regulation, the cluster of three adjacent serine residues (S274, 276 and 279 in the intracellular loop of mouse TRESK. In contrast, serine 264, the 14-3-3-binding site of TRESK, was not phosphorylated by the kinase. Thus MARK2 selectively inhibits TRESK activity via the S274/276/279 cluster, but does not affect the direct recruitment of 14-3-3 to the channel. TRESK is the first example of an ion channel phosphorylated by the dynamically membrane-localized MARK kinases, also known as general determinants of cellular polarity. These results raise the possibility that microtubule dynamics is coupled to the regulation of excitability in the neurons, which express TRESK background potassium channel.

  11. The microtubule-associated protein 1A (MAP1A) is an early molecular target of soluble Aβ-peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, C; Aznar, S; Knudsen, G M

    2012-01-01

    that microtubule rearrangements may be proximate to neuritic degeneration and deficits in episodic declarative memory. Here, we examined primary cortical neurons for changes in markers associated with synaptic function following exposure to sublethal concentrations of non-aggregated Aβ-peptide. This data show...

  12. Protein Synthesis Inhibition Blocks Consolidation of an Acrobatic Motor Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaelin-Lang, Alain; Dichgans, Johannes; Schulz, Jorg B.; Luft, Andreas R.; Buitrago, Manuel M.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether motor skill learning depends on de novo protein synthesis, adult rats were trained in an acrobatic locomotor task (accelerating rotarod) for 7 d. Animals were systemically injected with cycloheximide (CHX, 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h before sessions 1 and 2 or sessions 2 and 3. Control rats received vehicle injections before…

  13. The Physics of the Metaphase Spindle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriola, David; Needleman, Daniel J; Brugués, Jan

    2018-05-20

    The assembly of the mitotic spindle and the subsequent segregation of sister chromatids are based on the self-organized action of microtubule filaments, motor proteins, and other microtubule-associated proteins, which constitute the fundamental force-generating elements in the system. Many of the components in the spindle have been identified, but until recently it remained unclear how their collective behaviors resulted in such a robust bipolar structure. Here, we review the current understanding of the physics of the metaphase spindle that is only now starting to emerge.

  14. The kinetochore proteins CENP-E and CENP-F directly and specifically interact with distinct BUB mitotic checkpoint Ser/Thr kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciossani, Giuseppe; Overlack, Katharina; Petrovic, Arsen; Huis In 't Veld, Pim J; Koerner, Carolin; Wohlgemuth, Sabine; Maffini, Stefano; Musacchio, Andrea

    2018-05-10

    The segregation of chromosomes during cell division relies on the function of the kinetochores, protein complexes that physically connect chromosomes with microtubules of the spindle. The metazoan proteins, centromere protein E (CENP-E) and CENP-F, are components of a fibrous layer of mitotic kinetochores named the corona. Several of their features suggest that CENP-E and CENP-F are paralogs: they are very large (comprising approximately 2700 and 3200 residues, respectively), contain abundant predicted coiled-coil structures, are C-terminally prenylated, and are endowed with microtubule-binding sites at their termini. Moreover, CENP-E contains an ATP-hydrolyzing motor domain that promotes microtubule plus end-directed motion. Here, we show that both CENP-E and CENP-F are recruited to mitotic kinetochores independently of the main corona constituent, the Rod-Zwilch-ZW10 (RZZ) complex. We identified specific interactions of CENP-F and CENP-E with budding uninhibited by benzimidazole 1 (BUB1) and BUB1-related (BUBR1) mitotic checkpoint Ser/Thr kinases, respectively, paralogous proteins involved in mitotic checkpoint control and chromosome alignment. Whereas BUBR1 was dispensable for kinetochore localization of CENP-E, BUB1 was stringently required for CENP-F localization. Through biochemical reconstitution, we demonstrated that the CENP-E-BUBR1 and CENP-F-BUB1 interactions are direct and require similar determinants, a dimeric coiled-coil in CENP-E or CENP-F and a kinase domain in BUBR1 or BUB1. Our findings are consistent with the existence of structurally similar BUB1-CENP-F and BUBR1-CENP-E complexes, supporting the notion that CENP-E and CENP-F are evolutionarily related. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Motor coordination defects in mice deficient for the Sam68 RNA-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukong, Kiven E; Richard, Stéphane

    2008-06-03

    The role of RNA-binding proteins in the central nervous system and more specifically their role in motor coordination and learning are poorly understood. We previously reported that ablation of RNA-binding protein Sam68 in mice results in male sterility and delayed mammary gland development and protection against osteoporosis in females. Sam68 however is highly expressed in most regions of the brain especially the cerebellum and thus we investigated the cerebellar-related manifestations in Sam68-null mice. We analyzed the mice for motor function, sensory function, and learning and memory abilities. Herein, we report that Sam68-null mice have motor coordination defects as assessed by beam walking and rotorod performance. Forty-week-old Sam68-null mice (n=12) were compared to their wild-type littermates (n=12). The Sam68-null mice exhibited more hindpaw faults in beam walking tests and fell from the rotating drum at lower speeds and prematurely compared to the wild-type controls. The Sam68-null mice were, however, normal for forelimb strength, tail-hang reflex, balance test, grid walking, the Morris water task, recognition memory, visual discrimination, auditory stimulation and conditional taste aversion. Our findings support a role for Sam68 in the central nervous system in the regulation of motor coordination.

  16. Simultaneous 3D tracking of passive tracers and microtubule bundles in an active gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yi; Breuer, Kenneth S.; Fluids Team

    Kinesin-driven microtubule bundles generate a spontaneous flow in unconfined geometries. They exhibit properties of active matter, including the emergence of collective motion, reduction of apparent viscosity and consumption of local energy. Here we present results from 3D tracking of passive tracers (using Airy rings and 3D scanning) synchronized with 3D measurement of the microtubule bundles motion. This technique is applied to measure viscosity variation and collective flow in a confined geometry with particular attention paid to the self-pumping system recently reported by Wu et al. (2016). Results show that the viscosity in an equilibrium microtubule network is around half that of the isotropic unbundled microtubule solution. Cross-correlations of the active microtubule network and passive tracers define a neighborhood around microtubule bundles in which passive tracers are effectively transported. MRSEC NSF.

  17. Myosins 1 and 6, myosin light chain kinase, actin and microtubules cooperate during antibody-mediated internalisation and trafficking of membrane-expressed viral antigens in feline infectious peritonitis virus infected monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewerchin, Hannah L; Desmarets, Lowiese M; Noppe, Ytse; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2014-02-12

    Monocytes infected with feline infectious peritonitis virus, a coronavirus, express viral proteins in their plasma membranes. Upon binding of antibodies, these proteins are quickly internalised through a new clathrin- and caveolae-independent internalisation pathway. By doing so, the infected monocytes can escape antibody-dependent cell lysis. In the present study, we investigated which kinases and cytoskeletal proteins are of importance during internalisation and subsequent intracellular transport. The experiments showed that myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin 1 are crucial for the initiation of the internalisation. With co-localisation stainings, it was found that MLCK and myosin 1 co-localise with antigens even before internalisation started. Myosin 6 co-localised with the internalising complexes during passage through the cortical actin, were it might play a role in moving or disintegrating actin filaments, to overcome the actin barrier. One minute after internalisation started, vesicles had passed the cortical actin, co-localised with microtubules and association with myosin 6 was lost. The vesicles were further transported over the microtubules and accumulated at the microtubule organising centre after 10 to 30 min. Intracellular trafficking over microtubules was mediated by MLCK, myosin 1 and a small actin tail. Since inhibiting MLCK with ML-7 was so efficient in blocking the internalisation pathway, this target can be used for the development of a new treatment for FIPV.

  18. Self-Sustained Oscillatory Sliding Movement of Doublet Microtubules and Flagellar Bend Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumio Ishijima

    Full Text Available It is well established that the basis for flagellar and ciliary movements is ATP-dependent sliding between adjacent doublet microtubules. However, the mechanism for converting microtubule sliding into flagellar and ciliary movements has long remained unresolved. The author has developed new sperm models that use bull spermatozoa divested of their plasma membrane and midpiece mitochondrial sheath by Triton X-100 and dithiothreitol. These models enable the observation of both the oscillatory sliding movement of activated doublet microtubules and flagellar bend formation in the presence of ATP. A long fiber of doublet microtubules extruded by synchronous sliding of the sperm flagella and a short fiber of doublet microtubules extruded by metachronal sliding exhibited spontaneous oscillatory movements and constructed a one beat cycle of flagellar bending by alternately actuating. The small sliding displacement generated by metachronal sliding formed helical bends, whereas the large displacement by synchronous sliding formed planar bends. Therefore, the resultant waveform is a half-funnel shape, which is similar to ciliary movements.

  19. Potential mechanisms of resistance to microtubule inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavallaris, Maria; Annereau, Jean-Philippe; Barret, Jean-Marc

    2008-06-01

    Antimitotic drugs targeting the microtubules, such as the taxanes and vinca alkaloids, are widely used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. Development of drug resistance over time, however, limits the efficacy of these agents and poses a clinical challenge to long-term improvement of patient outcomes. Understanding the mechanism(s) of drug resistance becomes paramount to allowing for alternative, if not improved, therapeutic options that might circumvent this challenge. Vinflunine, a novel microtubule inhibitor, has shown superior preclinical antitumor activity, and displays a different pattern of resistance, compared with other agents in the vinca alkaloid class.

  20. Cell cycle-dependent changes in localization of a 210 k Da microtubule-interacting protein in Leishmania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Libusová, Lenka; Dráberová, Eduarda; Juliano, C.; Viklický, Vladimír; Fiori, P.; Cappuccinelli, P.; Dráber, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 4 (2002), s. 226-227 [Sigma-Aldrich konference mladých chemiků, biochemiků a molekulárních biologů. 22.05.2002-25.05.2002, Velké Meziříčí] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/00/0553; GA AV ČR IAA5052004 Keywords : Leishmania * cell cycle * microtubule Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  1. A mutation in human VAP-B--MSP domain, present in ALS patients, affects the interaction with other cellular proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitne-Neto, M; Ramos, C R R; Pimenta, D C; Luz, J S; Nishimura, A L; Gonzales, F A; Oliveira, C C; Zatz, M

    2007-09-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult-onset Motor Neuron Disease (MND), characterized by motor neurons death in the cortex, brainstem and spinal cord. Ten loci linked to Familial ALS have been mapped. ALS8 is caused by a substitution of a proline by a serine in the Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein-Associated protein-B/C (VAP-B/C). VAP-B belongs to a highly conserved family of proteins implicated in Endoplasmic Reticulum-Golgi and intra-Golgi transport and microtubules stabilization. Previous studies demonstrated that the P56S mutation disrupts the subcellular localization of VAP-B and that this position would be essential for Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) induced by VAP-B. In the present work we expressed and purified recombinant wild-type and P56S mutant VAP-B-MSP domain for the analysis of its interactions with other cellular proteins. Our findings suggest that the P56S mutation may lead to a less stable interaction of this endoplasmic reticulum protein with at least two other proteins: tubulin and GAPDH. These two proteins have been previously related to other forms of neurodegenerative diseases and are potential key points to understand ALS8 pathogenesis and other forms of MND. Understanding the role of these protein interactions may help the treatment of this devastating disease in the future.

  2. Protein Synthesis Inhibition in the Peri-Infarct Cortex Slows Motor Recovery in Rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Schubring-Giese Maximilian; Leemburg Susan; Luft Andreas Rüdiger; Hosp Jonas Aurel

    2016-01-01

    Neuroplasticity and reorganization of brain motor networks are thought to enable recovery of motor function after ischemic stroke. Especially in the cortex surrounding the ischemic scar (i.e., peri-infarct cortex), evidence for lasting reorganization has been found at the level of neurons and networks. This reorganization depends on expression of specific genes and subsequent protein synthesis. To test the functional relevance of the peri-infarct cortex for recovery we assessed the effect of ...

  3. Emerging roles for microtubules in angiosperm pollen tube growth highlight new research cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eMoscatelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In plants, actin filaments have an important role in organelle movement and cytoplasmic streaming. Otherwise microtubules have a role in restricting organelles to specific areas of the cell and in maintaining organelle morphology. In somatic plant cells, microtubules also participate in cell division and morphogenesis, allowing cells to take their definitive shape in order to perform specific functions. In the latter case, microtubules influence assembly of the cell wall, controlling the delivery of enzymes involved in cellulose synthesis and of wall modulation material to the proper sites.In angiosperm pollen tubes, organelle movement is generally attributed to the acto-myosin system, the main role of which is in distributing organelles in the cytoplasm and in carrying secretory vesicles to the apex for polarized growth. Recent data on membrane trafficking suggests a role of microtubules in fine delivery and repositioning of vesicles to sustain pollen tube growth. This review examines the role of microtubules in secretion and endocytosis, highlighting new research cues regarding cell wall construction and pollen tube-pistil crosstalk, that help unravel the role of microtubules in polarized growth.

  4. Electrodynamic effects on microtubules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Ondřej; Havelka, Daniel; Deriu, M.A.; Cifra, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 44, Jul (2015), s. 169-169 ISSN 0175-7571. [10th European-Biophysical-Societies-Association (EBSA) European Biophysics Congress. 18.07.2015-22.07.2015, Dresden] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-17102S Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Microtubules * Electric al polarity Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electric al Engineering

  5. HSPB1 facilitates the formation of non-centrosomal microtubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Almeida-Souza

    Full Text Available The remodeling capacity of microtubules (MT is essential for their proper function. In mammals, MTs are predominantly formed at the centrosome, but can also originate from non-centrosomal sites, a process that is still poorly understood. We here show that the small heat shock protein HSPB1 plays a role in the control of non-centrosomal MT formation. The HSPB1 expression level regulates the balance between centrosomal and non-centrosomal MTs. The HSPB1 protein can be detected specifically at sites of de novo forming non-centrosomal MTs, while it is absent from the centrosomes. In addition, we show that HSPB1 binds preferentially to the lattice of newly formed MTs in vitro, suggesting that its function occurs by stabilizing MT seeds. Our findings open new avenues for the understanding of the role of HSPB1 in the development, maintenance and protection of cells with specialized non-centrosomal MT arrays.

  6. Time-Dependent Measure of a Nano-Scale Force-Pulse Driven by the Axonemal Dynein Motors in Individual Live Sperm Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, M J; Rudd, R E; McElfresh, M W; Balhorn, R

    2009-04-23

    Nano-scale mechanical forces generated by motor proteins are crucial to normal cellular and organismal functioning. The ability to measure and exploit such forces would be important to developing motile biomimetic nanodevices powered by biological motors for Nanomedicine. Axonemal dynein motors positioned inside the sperm flagellum drive microtubule sliding giving rise to rhythmic beating of the flagellum. This force-generating action makes it possible for the sperm cell to move through viscous media. Here we report new nano-scale information on how the propulsive force is generated by the sperm flagellum and how this force varies over time. Single cell recordings reveal discrete {approx}50 ms pulses oscillating with amplitude 9.8 {+-} 2.6 nN independent of pulse frequency (3.5-19.5 Hz). The average work carried out by each cell is 4.6 x 10{sup -16} J per pulse, equivalent to the hydrolysis of {approx}5,500 ATP molecules. The mechanochemical coupling at each active dynein head is {approx}2.2 pN/ATP, and {approx}3.9 pN per dynein arm, in agreement with previously published values obtained using different methods.

  7. Neuronal plasticity in hibernation and the proposed role of the microtubule-associated protein tau as a "master switch" regulating synaptic gain in neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Thomas; Bullmann, Torsten

    2013-09-01

    The present paper provides an overview of adaptive changes in brain structure and learning abilities during hibernation as a behavioral strategy used by several mammalian species to minimize energy expenditure under current or anticipated inhospitable environmental conditions. One cellular mechanism that contributes to the regulated suppression of metabolism and thermogenesis during hibernation is reversible phosphorylation of enzymes and proteins, which limits rates of flux through metabolic pathways. Reversible phosphorylation during hibernation also affects synaptic membrane proteins, a process known to be involved in synaptic plasticity. This mechanism of reversible protein phosphorylation also affects the microtubule-associated protein tau, thereby generating a condition that in the adult human brain is associated with aggregation of tau protein to paired helical filaments (PHFs), as observed in Alzheimer's disease. Here, we put forward the concept that phosphorylation of tau is a neuroprotective mechanism to escape NMDA-mediated hyperexcitability of neurons that would otherwise occur during slow gradual cooling of the brain. Phosphorylation of tau and its subsequent targeting to subsynaptic sites might, thus, work as a kind of "master switch," regulating NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic gain in a wide array of neuronal networks, thereby enabling entry into torpor. If this condition lasts too long, however, it may eventually turn into a pathological trigger, driving a cascade of events leading to neurodegeneration, as in Alzheimer's disease or other "tauopathies".

  8. Distribution of tubulin, kinesin, and dynein in light- and dark-adapted octopus retinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, J M; Elfarissi, H; De Velasco, B; Ochoa, G H; Miller, A M; Clark, Y M; Matsumoto, B; Robles, L J

    2000-01-01

    Cephalopod retinas exhibit several responses to light and dark adaptation, including rhabdom size changes, photopigment movements, and pigment granule migration. Light- and dark-directed rearrangements of microfilament and microtubule cytoskeletal transport pathways could drive these changes. Recently, we localized actin-binding proteins in light-/dark-adapted octopus rhabdoms and suggested that actin cytoskeletal rearrangements bring about the formation and degradation of rhabdomere microvilli subsets. To determine if the microtubule cytoskeleton and associated motor proteins control the other light/dark changes, we used immunoblotting and immunocytochemical procedures to map the distribution of tubulin, kinesin, and dynein in dorsal and ventral halves of light- and dark-adapted octopus retinas. Immunoblots detected alpha- and beta-tubulin, dynein intermediate chain, and kinesin heavy chain in extracts of whole retinas. Epifluorescence and confocal microscopy showed that the tubulin proteins were distributed throughout the retina with more immunoreactivity in retinas exposed to light. Kinesin localization was heavy in the pigment layer of light- and dark-adapted ventral retinas but was less prominent in the dorsal region. Dynein distribution also varied in dorsal and ventral retinas with more immunoreactivity in light- and dark-adapted ventral retinas and confocal microscopy emphasized the granular nature of this labeling. We suggest that light may regulate the distribution of microtubule cytoskeletal proteins in the octopus retina and that position, dorsal versus ventral, also influences the distribution of motor proteins. The microtubule cytoskeleton is most likely involved in pigment granule migration in the light and dark and with the movement of transport vesicles from the photoreceptor inner segments to the rhabdoms.

  9. CENTROSOMES AND MICROTUBULES DURING MEIOSIS IN THE MUSHROOM BOLETUS RUBINELLUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, David J.

    1971-01-01

    The double centrosome in the basidium of Boletus rubinellus has been observed in three planes with the electron microscope at interphase preceding nuclear fusion, at prophase I, and at interphase I. It is composed of two components connected by a band-shaped middle part. At anaphase I a single, enlarged centrosome is found at the spindle pole, which is attached to the cell membrane. Microtubules mainly oriented parallel to the longitudinal axis of the basidium are present at prefusion, prophase I and interphase I. Cytoplasmic microtubules are absent when the spindle is present. The relationship of the centrosome in B. rubinellus to that in other organisms and the role of the cytoplasmic microtubules are discussed. PMID:4329156

  10. S. pombe CLASP needs dynein, not EB1 or CLIP170, to induce microtubule instability and slows polymerization rates at cell tips in a dynein-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grallert, Agnes; Beuter, Christoph; Craven, Rachel A.; Bagley, Steve; Wilks, Deepti; Fleig, Ursula; Hagan, Iain M.

    2006-01-01

    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe CLIP170-associated protein (CLASP) Peg1 was identified in a screen for mutants with spindle formation defects and a screen for molecules that antagonized EB1 function. The conditional peg1.1 mutant enabled us to identify key features of Peg1 function. First, Peg1 was required to form a spindle and astral microtubules, yet destabilized interphase microtubules. Second, Peg1 was required to slow the polymerization rate of interphase microtubules that establish end-on contact with the cortex at cell tips. Third, Peg1 antagonized the action of S. pombe CLIP170 (Tip1) and EB1 (Mal3). Fourth, although Peg1 resembled higher eukaryotic CLASPs by physically associating with both Mal3 and Tip1, neither Tip1 nor Mal3 was required for Peg1 to destabilize interphase microtubules or for it to associate with microtubules. Conversely, neither Mal3 nor Tip1 required Peg1 to associate with microtubules or cell tips. Consistently, while mal3.Δ and tip1.Δ disrupted linear growth, corrupting peg1 + did not. Fifth, peg1.1 phenotypes resembled those arising from deletion of the single heavy or both light chains of fission yeast dynein. Furthermore, all interphase phenotypes arising from peg1 + manipulation relied on dynein function. Thus, the impact of S. pombe CLASP on interphase microtubule behavior is more closely aligned to dynein than EB1 or CLIP170. PMID:16951255

  11. Fission yeast cells undergo nuclear division in the absence of spindle microtubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Castagnetti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitosis in eukaryotic cells employs spindle microtubules to drive accurate chromosome segregation at cell division. Cells lacking spindle microtubules arrest in mitosis due to a spindle checkpoint that delays mitotic progression until all chromosomes have achieved stable bipolar attachment to spindle microtubules. In fission yeast, mitosis occurs within an intact nuclear membrane with the mitotic spindle elongating between the spindle pole bodies. We show here that in fission yeast interference with mitotic spindle formation delays mitosis only briefly and cells proceed to an unusual nuclear division process we term nuclear fission, during which cells perform some chromosome segregation and efficiently enter S-phase of the next cell cycle. Nuclear fission is blocked if spindle pole body maturation or sister chromatid separation cannot take place or if actin polymerization is inhibited. We suggest that this process exhibits vestiges of a primitive nuclear division process independent of spindle microtubules, possibly reflecting an evolutionary intermediate state between bacterial and Archeal chromosome segregation where the nucleoid divides without a spindle and a microtubule spindle-based eukaryotic mitosis.

  12. Microtubule association of EML proteins and the EML4-ALK variant 3 oncoprotein require an N-terminal trimerization domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Mark W; O'Regan, Laura; Roth, Daniel; Montgomery, Jessica M; Straube, Anne; Fry, Andrew M; Bayliss, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Proteins of the echinoderm microtubule (MT)-associated protein (EMAP)-like (EML) family contribute to formation of the mitotic spindle and interphase MT network. EML1-4 consist of Trp-Asp 40 (WD40) repeats and an N-terminal region containing a putative coiled-coil. Recurrent gene rearrangements in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) fuse EML4 to anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) causing expression of several oncogenic fusion variants. The fusions have constitutive ALK activity due to self-association through the EML4 coiled-coil. We have determined crystal structures of the coiled-coils from EML2 and EML4, which describe the structural basis of both EML self-association and oncogenic EML4-ALK activation. The structures reveal a trimeric oligomerization state directed by a conserved pattern of hydrophobic residues and salt bridges. We show that the trimerization domain (TD) of EML1 is necessary and sufficient for self-association. The TD is also essential for MT binding; however, this property requires an adjacent basic region. These observations prompted us to investigate MT association of EML4-ALK and EML1-ABL1 (Abelson 1) fusions in which variable portions of the EML component are present. Uniquely, EML4-ALK variant 3, which includes the TD and basic region of EML4 but none of the WD40 repeats, was localized to MTs, both when expressed recombinantly and when expressed in a patient-derived NSCLC cell line (H2228). This raises the question of whether the mislocalization of ALK activity to MTs might influence downstream signalling and malignant properties of cells. Furthermore, the structure of EML4 TD may enable the development of protein-protein interaction inhibitors targeting the trimerization interface, providing a possible avenue towards therapeutic intervention in EML4-ALK NSCLC.

  13. Microtubule and Cell Contact Dependency of ER-bound PTP1B Localization in Growth Cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Federico

    2009-01-01

    PTP1B is an ER-bound protein tyrosine phosphatase implied in the regulation of cell adhesion. Here we investigated mechanisms involved in the positioning and dynamics of PTP1B in axonal growth cones and evaluated the role of this enzyme in axons. In growth cones, PTP1B consistently localizes in the central domain, and occasionally at the peripheral region and filopodia. Live imaging of GFP-PTP1B reveals dynamic excursions of fingerlike processes within the peripheral region and filopodia. PTP1B and GFP-PTP1B colocalize with ER markers and coalign with microtubules at the peripheral region and redistribute to the base of the growth cone after treatment with nocodazole, a condition that is reversible. Growth cone contact with cellular targets is accompanied by invasion of PTP1B and stable microtubules in the peripheral region aligned with the contact axis. Functional impairment of PTP1B causes retardation of axon elongation, as well as reduction of growth cone filopodia lifetime and Src activity. Our results highlight the role of microtubules and cell contacts in the positioning of ER-bound PTP1B to the peripheral region of growth cones, which may be required for the positive role of PTP1B in axon elongation, filopodia stabilization, and Src activity. PMID:19158394

  14. JNK1 Controls Dendritic Field Size in L2/3 and L5 of the Motor Cortex, Constrains Soma Size and Influences Fine Motor Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia eKomulainen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic anomalies on the JNK pathway confer susceptibility to autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia and intellectual disability. The mechanism whereby a gain or loss of function in JNK signaling predisposes to these prevalent dendrite disorders, with associated motor dysfunction, remains unclear. Here we find that JNK1 regulates the dendritic field of L2/3 and L5 pyramidal neurons of the mouse motor cortex (M1, the main excitatory pathway controlling voluntary movement. In Jnk1-/- mice, basal dendrite branching of L5 pyramidal neurons is increased in M1, as is cell soma size, whereas in L2/3, dendritic arborization is decreased. We show that JNK1 phosphorylates rat HMW-MAP2 on T1619, T1622 and T1625 (Uniprot P15146 corresponding to mouse T1617, T1620, T1623, to create a binding motif, that is critical for MAP2 interaction with and stabilization of microtubules, and dendrite growth control. Targeted expression in M1 of GFP-HMW-MAP2 that is pseudo-phosphorylated on T1619, T1622 and T1625 increases dendrite complexity in L2/3 indicating that JNK1 phosphorylation of HMW-MAP2 regulates the dendritic field. Consistent with the morphological changes observed in L2/3 and L5, Jnk1-/- mice exhibit deficits in limb placement and motor coordination, while stride length is reduced in older animals. In summary, JNK1 phosphorylates HMW-MAP2 to increase its stabilization of microtubules while at the same time controlling dendritic fields in the main excitatory pathway of M1. Moreover, JNK1 contributes to normal functioning of fine motor coordination. We report for the first time, a quantitative sholl analysis of dendrite architecture, and of motor behavior in Jnk1-/- mice. Our results illustrate the molecular and behavioral consequences of interrupted JNK1 signaling and provide new ground for mechanistic understanding of those prevalent neuropyschiatric disorders where genetic disruption of the JNK pathway is central.

  15. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on microtubule organisation and morphogenesis in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staxen, I.

    1994-09-01

    The involvement of the cytoskeleton in the development of somatic embryos was studied in Larix x eurolepis. Protoplasts were isolated from both somatic embryo-regenerating and non-generating cultures and fractionated on a discontinuous Percoll density gradient, whereby a highly embryogenic protoplast fraction could be enriched. Protoplasts of two cell lines of Larix eurolepis, one with regenerating potential and one lacking this potential, were compared. In contrast to the non-regenerating line were a protoplast-like organisation of the cortical microtubules was maintained, re-organisation of this microtubular network occurred in the regenerable line after only three days of culture, indicating that organised growth was occurring. However, this early organisation of cortical microtubules may not always be a valid marker for regenerable and non-regenerable material. In order to investigate the effect of ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation on the microtubule cytoskeleton, protoplasts were isolated from leaves of Petunia hybrida and subjected to four different doses of UV-B radiation. The organisation of the microtubules and the progression of the cells through the cell cycle was observed at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after irradiation. UV-B induced breaks in the cortical microtubules resulting in shorter fragments with increasing amounts of radiation. Also, the division of the protoplasts was delayed, which was related to the absence of an microtubule network. Whole Petunia plants were grown in growth chambers in the presence and absence of UV-B. The plants responded to UV-B with increased rates of CO 2 assimilation, a 60% increase in UV-screening compounds and the changes in the morphology of the leaves that were reflected in a 70-100% increase in leaf area and 20% decrease in leaf thickness. The microtubules of the epidermal cells was not affected by UV-B, nor was the number of epidermal cells (per unit area). The increase in leaf area in the UV-treated plants

  16. Microtubule-dependent association of AKAP350A and CCAR1 with RNA stress granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolobova, Elena; Efimov, Andrey; Kaverina, Irina; Rishi, Arun K.; Schrader, John W.; Ham, Amy-Joan; Larocca, M. Cecilia; Goldenring, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Recent investigations have highlighted the importance of subcellular localization of mRNAs to cell function. While AKAP350A, a multifunctional scaffolding protein, localizes to the Golgi apparatus and centrosomes, we have now identified a cytosolic pool of AKAP350A. Analysis of AKAP350A scaffolded complexes revealed two novel interacting proteins, CCAR1 and caprin-1. CCAR1, caprin-1 and AKAP350A along with G3BP, a stress granule marker, relocate to RNA stress granules after arsenite treatment. Stress also caused loss of AKAP350 from the Golgi and fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus. Disruption of microtubules with nocodazole altered stress granule formation and changed their morphology by preventing fusion of stress granules. In the presence of nocodazole, arsenite induced smaller granules with the vast majority of AKAP350A and CCAR1 separated from G3BP-containing granules. Similar to nocodazole treatment, reduction of AKAP350A or CCAR1 expression also altered the size and number of G3BP-containing stress granules induced by arsenite treatment. A limited set of 69 mRNA transcripts was immunoisolated with AKAP350A even in the absence of stress, suggesting the association of AKAP350A with mRNA transcripts. These results provide the first evidence for the microtubule dependent association of AKAP350A and CCAR1 with RNA stress granules

  17. Learning-induced and stathmin-dependent changes in microtubule stability are critical for memory and disrupted in ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Shusaku; Martel, Guillaume; Pavlowsky, Alice; Takizawa, Shuichi; Hevi, Charles; Watanabe, Yoshifumi; Kandel, Eric R.; Alarcon, Juan Marcos; Shumyatsky, Gleb P.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the stability of microtubules regulate many biological processes, but their role in memory remains unclear. Here we show that learning causes biphasic changes in the microtubule-associated network in the hippocampus. In the early phase, stathmin is dephosphorylated, enhancing its microtubule-destabilizing activity by promoting stathmin-tubulin binding, whereas in the late phase these processes are reversed leading to an increase in microtubule/KIF5-mediated localization of the GluA2 subunit of AMPA receptors at synaptic sites. A microtubule stabilizer paclitaxel decreases or increases memory when applied at the early or late phases, respectively. Stathmin mutations disrupt changes in microtubule stability, GluA2 localization, synaptic plasticity and memory. Aged wild-type mice show impairments in stathmin levels, changes in microtubule stability, and GluA2 localization. Blocking GluA2 endocytosis rescues memory deficits in stathmin mutant and aged wild-type mice. These findings demonstrate a role for microtubules in memory in young adult and aged individuals. PMID:25007915

  18. The γ-tubulin complex in Trypanosoma brucei: molecular composition, subunit interdependence and requirement for axonemal central pair protein assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Li, Ziyin

    2015-01-01

    The γ-tubulin complex constitutes a key component of the microtubule-organizing center and nucleates microtubule assembly. This complex differs in complexity in different organisms: the budding yeast contains the γ-tubulin small complex (γTuSC) composed of γ-tubulin, GCP2 and GCP3, whereas animals contain the γ-tubulin ring complex (γTuRC) composed of γTuSC and three additional proteins, GCP4, GCP5 and GCP6. In Trypanosoma brucei, the composition of the γ-tubulin complex remains elusive, and it is not known whether it also regulates assembly of the subpellicular microtubules and the spindle microtubules. Here we report that the γ-tubulin complex in T. brucei is composed of γ-tubulin and three GCP proteins, GCP2-GCP4, and is primarily localized in the basal body throughout the cell cycle. Depletion of GCP2 and GCP3, but not GCP4, disrupted the axonemal central pair microtubules, but not the subpellicular microtubules and the spindle microtubules. Furthermore, we showed that the γTuSC is required for assembly of two central pair proteins and that γTuSC subunits are mutually required for stability. Together, these results identified an unusual γ-tubulin complex in T. brucei, uncovered an essential role of γTuSC in central pair protein assembly, and demonstrated the interdependence of individual γTuSC components for maintaining a stable complex. PMID:26224545

  19. Optical properties of template synthesized nanowalled ZnS microtubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Chakarvarti, S. K.

    2007-12-01

    Electrodeposition is a versatile technique combining low processing cost with ambient conditions that can be used to prepare metallic, polymeric and semiconducting nano/micro structures. In the present work, track-etch membranes (TEMs) of makrofol (KG) have been used as templates for synthesis of ZnS nanowalled microtubules using electrodeposition technique. The morphology of the microtubules was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Size effects on the band gap of tubules have also been studied by UV-visible spectrophotometer.

  20. A FYVE zinc finger domain protein specifically links mRNA transport to endosome trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, Thomas; Baumann, Sebastian; Haag, Carl; Albrecht, Mario; Feldbrügge, Michael

    2015-05-18

    An emerging theme in cellular logistics is the close connection between mRNA and membrane trafficking. A prominent example is the microtubule-dependent transport of mRNAs and associated ribosomes on endosomes. This coordinated process is crucial for correct septin filamentation and efficient growth of polarised cells, such as fungal hyphae. Despite detailed knowledge on the key RNA-binding protein and the molecular motors involved, it is unclear how mRNAs are connected to membranes during transport. Here, we identify a novel factor containing a FYVE zinc finger domain for interaction with endosomal lipids and a new PAM2-like domain required for interaction with the MLLE domain of the key RNA-binding protein. Consistently, loss of this FYVE domain protein leads to specific defects in mRNA, ribosome, and septin transport without affecting general functions of endosomes or their movement. Hence, this is the first endosomal component specific for mRNP trafficking uncovering a new mechanism to couple mRNPs to endosomes.

  1. Tubulin cofactor B regulates microtubule densities during microglia transition to the reactive states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanarraga, M.L.; Villegas, J.C.; Carranza, G.; Castano, R.; Zabala, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Microglia are highly dynamic cells of the CNS that continuously survey the welfare of the neural parenchyma and play key roles modulating neurogenesis and neuronal cell death. In response to injury or pathogen invasion parenchymal microglia transforms into a more active cell that proliferates, migrates and behaves as a macrophage. The acquisition of these extra skills implicates enormous modifications of the microtubule and actin cytoskeletons. Here we show that tubulin cofactor B (TBCB), which has been found to contribute to various aspects of microtubule dynamics in vivo, is also implicated in microglial cytoskeletal changes. We find that TBCB is upregulated in post-lesion reactive parenchymal microglia/macrophages, in interferon treated BV-2 microglial cells, and in neonate amoeboid microglia where the microtubule densities are remarkably low. Our data demonstrate that upon TBCB downregulation both, after microglia differentiation to the ramified phenotype in vivo and in vitro, or after TBCB gene silencing, microtubule densities are restored in these cells. Taken together these observations support the view that TBCB functions as a microtubule density regulator in microglia during activation, and provide an insight into the understanding of the complex mechanisms controlling microtubule reorganization during microglial transition between the amoeboid, ramified, and reactive phenotypes

  2. NAT10, a nucleolar protein, localizes to the midbody and regulates cytokinesis and acetylation of microtubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Qi; Zheng, Xingzheng; McNutt, Michael A.; Guang, Lizhao; Sun, Ying; Wang, Jiaochen; Gong, Yilei; Hou, Lin; Zhang, Bo

    2009-01-01

    The midbody is a structural organelle formed in late phase mitosis which is responsible for completion of cytokinesis. Although various kinds of proteins have been found to distribute or immigrate to this organelle, their functions have still not been completely worked out. In this study, we demonstrated that NAT10 (N-acetyltransferase 10, NAT10) is not only predominantly distributed in the nucleolus in interphase, but is also concentrated in the mitotic midbody during telophase. The domain in N-terminal residues 549-834 of NAT10 specifically mediated its subcellular localization. Treatment with genotoxic agents or irradiation increased concentration of NAT10 in both the nucleolus and midbody. Moreover, DNA damage induced increase of NAT10 in the midbody apparently accompanied by in situ elevation of the level of acetylated α-tubulin, suggesting that it plays a role in maintaining or enhancing stability of α-tubulin. The depletion of NAT10 induced defects in nucleolar assembly, cytokinesis and decreased acetylated α-tubulin, leading to G2/M cell cycle arrest or delay of mitotic exit. In addition, over-expression of NAT10 was found in a variety of soft tissue sarcomas, and correlated with tumor histological grading. These results indicate that NAT10 may play an important role in cell division through facilitating reformation of the nucleolus and midbody in the late phase of cell mitosis, and stabilization of microtubules.

  3. NAT10, a nucleolar protein, localizes to the midbody and regulates cytokinesis and acetylation of microtubules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Qi; Zheng, Xingzheng; McNutt, Michael A.; Guang, Lizhao; Sun, Ying; Wang, Jiaochen; Gong, Yilei; Hou, Lin [Department of Pathology, Health Science Center of Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Bo, E-mail: zhangbo@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Pathology, Health Science Center of Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2009-06-10

    The midbody is a structural organelle formed in late phase mitosis which is responsible for completion of cytokinesis. Although various kinds of proteins have been found to distribute or immigrate to this organelle, their functions have still not been completely worked out. In this study, we demonstrated that NAT10 (N-acetyltransferase 10, NAT10) is not only predominantly distributed in the nucleolus in interphase, but is also concentrated in the mitotic midbody during telophase. The domain in N-terminal residues 549-834 of NAT10 specifically mediated its subcellular localization. Treatment with genotoxic agents or irradiation increased concentration of NAT10 in both the nucleolus and midbody. Moreover, DNA damage induced increase of NAT10 in the midbody apparently accompanied by in situ elevation of the level of acetylated {alpha}-tubulin, suggesting that it plays a role in maintaining or enhancing stability of {alpha}-tubulin. The depletion of NAT10 induced defects in nucleolar assembly, cytokinesis and decreased acetylated {alpha}-tubulin, leading to G2/M cell cycle arrest or delay of mitotic exit. In addition, over-expression of NAT10 was found in a variety of soft tissue sarcomas, and correlated with tumor histological grading. These results indicate that NAT10 may play an important role in cell division through facilitating reformation of the nucleolus and midbody in the late phase of cell mitosis, and stabilization of microtubules.

  4. Dictyoceratidan poisons: Defined mark on microtubule-tubulin dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanambal K, Mary Elizabeth; Lakshmipathy, Shailaja Vommi

    2016-03-01

    Tubulin/microtubule assembly and disassembly is characterized as one of the chief processes during cell growth and division. Hence drugs those perturb these process are considered to be effective in killing fast multiplying cancer cells. There is a collection of natural compounds which disturb microtubule/tubulin dis/assemblage and there have been a lot of efforts concerted in the marine realm too, to surveying such killer molecules. Close to half the natural compounds shooting out from marine invertebrates are generally with no traceable definite mechanisms of action though may be tough anti-cancerous hits at nanogram levels, hence fatefully those discoveries conclude therein without a capacity of translation from laboratory to pharmacy. Astoundingly at least 50% of natural compounds which have definite mechanisms of action causing disorders in tubulin/microtubule kinetics have an isolation history from sponges belonging to the Phylum: Porifera. Poriferans have always been a wonder worker to treat cancers with a choice of, yet precise targets on cancerous tissues. There is a specific order: Dictyoceratida within this Phylum which has contributed to yielding at least 50% of effective compounds possessing this unique mechanism of action mentioned above. However, not much notice is driven to Dictyoceratidans alongside the order: Demospongiae thus dictating the need to know its select microtubule/tubulin irritants since the unearthing of avarol in the year 1974 till date. Hence this review selectively pinpoints all the compounds, noteworthy derivatives and analogs stemming from order: Dictyoceratida focusing on the past, present and future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Msd1/SSX2IP-dependent microtubule anchorage ensures spindle orientation and primary cilia formation

    OpenAIRE

    Hori, Akiko; Ikebe, Chiho; Tada, Masazumi; Toda, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Anchoring microtubules to the centrosome is critical for cell geometry and polarity, yet the molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here we show that the conserved human Msd1/SSX2IP is required for microtubule anchoring. hMsd1/SSX2IP is delivered to the centrosome in a centriolar satellite-dependent manner and binds the microtubule-nucleator ?-tubulin complex. hMsd1/SSX2IP depletion leads to disorganised interphase microtubules and misoriented mitotic spindles with reduced length and intensity....

  6. ATPase Cycle of the Nonmotile Kinesin NOD Allows Microtubule End Tracking and Drives Chromosome Movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.; Sindelar, C; Mulko, N; Collins, K; Kong, S; Hawley, R; Kull, F

    2009-01-01

    Segregation of nonexchange chromosomes during Drosophila melanogaster meiosis requires the proper function of NOD, a nonmotile kinesin-10. We have determined the X-ray crystal structure of the NOD catalytic domain in the ADP- and AMPPNP-bound states. These structures reveal an alternate conformation of the microtubule binding region as well as a nucleotide-sensitive relay of hydrogen bonds at the active site. Additionally, a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of the nucleotide-free microtubule-NOD complex shows an atypical binding orientation. Thermodynamic studies show that NOD binds tightly to microtubules in the nucleotide-free state, yet other nucleotide states, including AMPPNP, are weakened. Our pre-steady-state kinetic analysis demonstrates that NOD interaction with microtubules occurs slowly with weak activation of ADP product release. Upon rapid substrate binding, NOD detaches from the microtubule prior to the rate-limiting step of ATP hydrolysis, which is also atypical for a kinesin. We propose a model for NOD's microtubule plus-end tracking that drives chromosome movement.

  7. The engine of microtubule dynamics comes into focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchison, T J

    2014-05-22

    In this issue, Alushin et al. report high-resolution structures of three states of the microtubule lattice: GTP-bound, which is stable to depolymerization; unstable GDP-bound; and stable Taxol and GDP-bound. By comparing these structures at near-atomic resolution, they are able to propose a detailed model for how GTP hydrolysis destabilizes the microtubule and thus powers dynamic instability and chromosome movement. Destabilization of cytoskeleton filaments by nucleotide hydrolysis is an important general principle in cell dynamics, and this work represents a major step forward on a problem with a long history. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reversible control of kinesin activity and microtubule gliding speeds by switching the doping states of a conducting polymer support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Brett D [US Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6930, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Velea, Luminita M [US Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6930, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Soto, Carissa M [US Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6930, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Whitaker, Craig M [US Naval Academy, Department of Chemistry, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States); Gaber, Bruce P [US Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6930, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Ratna, Banahalli [US Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6930, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2007-02-07

    We describe a method for reversibly controlling the ATPase activity of streptavidin-linked kinesin by changing the doping states of a conducting polymer support. When the polymer (poly(CH{sub 2}OH-EDOT)) was electrochemically switched from its dedoped (semiconducting) state to its doped (conducting) state, the ATPase activity of the adsorbed kinesin complex decreased by 35% with a concomitant decrease in the gliding speeds of kinesin-driven microtubules. When the polymer was switched back to its original dedoped state, nearly identical increases were observed in the kinesin ATPase activity and microtubule speeds. Use of a fluorescent ATP substrate analogue showed that the total amount of kinesin adsorbed on the poly(CH{sub 2}OH-EDOT) surface remained constant as the doping state of the polymer was switched. The microtubules exhibited nearly identical speed differences on the doped and dedoped surfaces for both chemical and electrochemical doping methods. Michaelis-Menten modelling suggests that the doped surface acts as an 'uncompetitive inhibitor' of kinesin. This work represents an investigation into the phenomenon of an electrically switchable surface exerting a moderating effect on the activity of an adsorbed protein that does not contain a bound, electroactive metal ion.

  9. Microtubules Nonlinear Models Dynamics Investigations through the exp(−Φ(ξ-Expansion Method Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Alam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research article, we present exact solutions with parameters for two nonlinear model partial differential equations(PDEs describing microtubules, by implementing the exp(−Φ(ξ-Expansion Method. The considered models, describing highly nonlinear dynamics of microtubules, can be reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations. While the first PDE describes the longitudinal model of nonlinear dynamics of microtubules, the second one describes the nonlinear model of dynamics of radial dislocations in microtubules. The acquired solutions are then graphically presented, and their distinct properties are enumerated in respect to the corresponding dynamic behavior of the microtubules they model. Various patterns, including but not limited to regular, singular kink-like, as well as periodicity exhibiting ones, are detected. Being the method of choice herein, the exp(−Φ(ξ-Expansion Method not disappointing in the least, is found and declared highly efficient.

  10. Centriole triplet microtubules are required for stable centriole formation and inheritance in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jennifer T; Kong, Dong; Hoerner, Christian R; Loncarek, Jadranka; Stearns, Tim

    2017-09-14

    Centrioles are composed of long-lived microtubules arranged in nine triplets. However, the contribution of triplet microtubules to mammalian centriole formation and stability is unknown. Little is known of the mechanism of triplet microtubule formation, but experiments in unicellular eukaryotes indicate that delta-tubulin and epsilon-tubulin, two less-studied tubulin family members, are required. Here, we report that centrioles in delta-tubulin and epsilon-tubulin null mutant human cells lack triplet microtubules and fail to undergo centriole maturation. These aberrant centrioles are formed de novo each cell cycle, but are unstable and do not persist to the next cell cycle, leading to a futile cycle of centriole formation and disintegration. Disintegration can be suppressed by paclitaxel treatment. Delta-tubulin and epsilon-tubulin physically interact, indicating that these tubulins act together to maintain triplet microtubules and that these are necessary for inheritance of centrioles from one cell cycle to the next.

  11. Disruption of microtubule network rescues aberrant actin comets in dynamin2-depleted cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Henmi

    Full Text Available A large GTPase dynamin, which is required for endocytic vesicle formation, regulates the actin cytoskeleton through its interaction with cortactin. Dynamin2 mutants impair the formation of actin comets, which are induced by Listeria monocytogenes or phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase. However, the role of dynamin2 in the regulation of the actin comet is still unclear. Here we show that aberrant actin comets in dynamin2-depleted cells were rescued by disrupting of microtubule networks. Depletion of dynamin2, but not cortactin, significantly reduced the length and the speed of actin comets induced by Listeria. This implies that dynamin2 may regulate the actin comet in a cortactin-independent manner. As dynamin regulates microtubules, we investigated whether perturbation of microtubules would rescue actin comet formation in dynamin2-depleted cells. Treatment with taxol or colchicine created a microtubule-free space in the cytoplasm, and made no difference between control and dynamin2 siRNA cells. This suggests that the alteration of microtubules by dynamin2 depletion reduced the length and the speed of the actin comet.

  12. Modeling microtubule oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jobs, E.; Wolf, D.E.; Flyvbjerg, H.

    1997-01-01

    Synchronization of molecular reactions in a macroscopic volume may cause the volume's physical properties to change dynamically and thus reveal much about the reactions. As an example, experimental time series for so-called microtubule oscillations are analyzed in terms of a minimal model...... for this complex polymerization-depolymerization cycle. The model reproduces well the qualitatively different time series that result from different experimental conditions, and illuminates the role and importance of individual processes in the cycle. Simple experiments are suggested that can further test...... and define the model and the polymer's reaction cycle....

  13. Luminal localization of α-tubulin K40 acetylation by cryo-EM analysis of fab-labeled microtubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virupakshi Soppina

    Full Text Available The αβ-tubulin subunits of microtubules can undergo a variety of evolutionarily-conserved post-translational modifications (PTMs that provide functional specialization to subsets of cellular microtubules. Acetylation of α-tubulin residue Lysine-40 (K40 has been correlated with increased microtubule stability, intracellular transport, and ciliary assembly, yet a mechanistic understanding of how acetylation influences these events is lacking. Using the anti-acetylated tubulin antibody 6-11B-1 and electron cryo-microscopy, we demonstrate that the K40 acetylation site is located inside the microtubule lumen and thus cannot directly influence events on the microtubule surface, including kinesin-1 binding. Surprisingly, the monoclonal 6-11B-1 antibody recognizes both acetylated and deacetylated microtubules. These results suggest that acetylation induces structural changes in the K40-containing loop that could have important functional consequences on microtubule stability, bending, and subunit interactions. This work has important implications for acetylation and deacetylation reaction mechanisms as well as for interpreting experiments based on 6-11B-1 labeling.

  14. Human myosin VIIa is a very slow processive motor protein on various cellular actin structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Osamu; Komatsu, Satoshi; Sakai, Tsuyoshi; Tsukasaki, Yoshikazu; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Mizutani, Takeomi; Watanabe, Tomonobu M; Ikebe, Reiko; Ikebe, Mitsuo

    2017-06-30

    Human myosin VIIa (MYO7A) is an actin-linked motor protein associated with human Usher syndrome (USH) type 1B, which causes human congenital hearing and visual loss. Although it has been thought that the role of human myosin VIIa is critical for USH1 protein tethering with actin and transportation along actin bundles in inner-ear hair cells, myosin VIIa's motor function remains unclear. Here, we studied the motor function of the tail-truncated human myosin VIIa dimer (HM7AΔTail/LZ) at the single-molecule level. We found that the HM7AΔTail/LZ moves processively on single actin filaments with a step size of 35 nm. Dwell-time distribution analysis indicated an average waiting time of 3.4 s, yielding ∼0.3 s -1 for the mechanical turnover rate; hence, the velocity of HM7AΔTail/LZ was extremely slow, at 11 nm·s -1 We also examined HM7AΔTail/LZ movement on various actin structures in demembranated cells. HM7AΔTail/LZ showed unidirectional movement on actin structures at cell edges, such as lamellipodia and filopodia. However, HM7AΔTail/LZ frequently missed steps on actin tracks and exhibited bidirectional movement at stress fibers, which was not observed with tail-truncated myosin Va. These results suggest that the movement of the human myosin VIIa motor protein is more efficient on lamellipodial and filopodial actin tracks than on stress fibers, which are composed of actin filaments with different polarity, and that the actin structures influence the characteristics of cargo transportation by human myosin VIIa. In conclusion, myosin VIIa movement appears to be suitable for translocating USH1 proteins on stereocilia actin bundles in inner-ear hair cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Association of TCTP with Centrosome and Microtubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz K. Jaglarz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Translationally Controlled Tumour Protein (TCTP associates with microtubules (MT, however, the details of this association are unknown. Here we analyze the relationship of TCTP with MTs and centrosomes in Xenopus laevis and mammalian cells using immunofluorescence, tagged TCTP expression and immunoelectron microscopy. We show that TCTP associates both with MTs and centrosomes at spindle poles when detected by species-specific antibodies and by Myc-XlTCTP expression in Xenopus and mammalian cells. However, when the antibodies against XlTCTP were used in mammalian cells, TCTP was detected exclusively in the centrosomes. These results suggest that a distinct pool of TCTP may be specific for, and associate with, the centrosomes. Double labelling for TCTP and γ-tubulin with immuno-gold electron microscopy in Xenopus laevis oogonia shows localization of TCTP at the periphery of the γ-tubulin-containing pericentriolar material (PCM enveloping the centriole. TCTP localizes in the close vicinity of, but not directly on the MTs in Xenopus ovary suggesting that this association requires unidentified linker proteins. Thus, we show for the first time: (1 the association of TCTP with centrosomes, (2 peripheral localization of TCTP in relation to the centriole and the γ-tubulin-containing PCM within the centrosome, and (3 the indirect association of TCTP with MTs.

  16. Near-atomic model of microtubule-tau interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Elizabeth H; Hejab, Nisreen M A; Poepsel, Simon; Downing, Kenneth H; DiMaio, Frank; Nogales, Eva

    2018-06-15

    Tau is a developmentally regulated axonal protein that stabilizes and bundles microtubules (MTs). Its hyperphosphorylation is thought to cause detachment from MTs and subsequent aggregation into fibrils implicated in Alzheimer's disease. It is unclear which tau residues are crucial for tau-MT interactions, where tau binds on MTs, and how it stabilizes them. We used cryo-electron microscopy to visualize different tau constructs on MTs and computational approaches to generate atomic models of tau-tubulin interactions. The conserved tubulin-binding repeats within tau adopt similar extended structures along the crest of the protofilament, stabilizing the interface between tubulin dimers. Our structures explain the effect of phosphorylation on MT affinity and lead to a model of tau repeats binding in tandem along protofilaments, tethering together tubulin dimers and stabilizing polymerization interfaces. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  17. The Ndc80 internal loop is required for recruitment of the Ska complex to establish end-on microtubule attachment to kinetochores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Kelstrup, Christian D; Hu, Xiao-Wen; Kaas Hansen, Mathilde J; Singleton, Martin R; Olsen, Jesper V; Nilsson, Jakob

    2012-07-01

    The Ndc80 complex establishes end-on attachment of kinetochores to microtubules, which is essential for chromosome segregation. The Ndc80 subunit is characterized by an N-terminal region that binds directly to microtubules, and a long coiled-coil region that interacts with Nuf2. A loop region in Ndc80 that generates a kink in the structure disrupts the long coiled-coil region but the exact function of this loop, has until now, not been clear. Here we show that this loop region is essential for end-on attachment of kinetochores to microtubules in human cells. Cells expressing loop mutants of Ndc80 are unable to align the chromosomes, and stable kinetochore fibers are absent. Through quantitative mass spectrometry and immunofluorescence we found that the binding of the spindle and kinetochore associated (Ska) complex depends on the loop region, explaining why end-on attachment is defective. This underscores the importance of the Ndc80 loop region in coordinating chromosome segregation through the recruitment of specific proteins to the kinetochore.

  18. A Mechanism for Cytoplasmic Streaming: Kinesin-Driven Alignment of Microtubules and Fast Fluid Flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Corey E; Brunner, Matthew E; Djagaeva, Inna; Bielecki, Anthony M; Deutsch, Joshua M; Saxton, William M

    2016-05-10

    The transport of cytoplasmic components can be profoundly affected by hydrodynamics. Cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes offers a striking example. Forces on fluid from kinesin-1 are initially directed by a disordered meshwork of microtubules, generating minor slow cytoplasmic flows. Subsequently, to mix incoming nurse cell cytoplasm with ooplasm, a subcortical layer of microtubules forms parallel arrays that support long-range, fast flows. To analyze the streaming mechanism, we combined observations of microtubule and organelle motions with detailed mathematical modeling. In the fast state, microtubules tethered to the cortex form a thin subcortical layer and undergo correlated sinusoidal bending. Organelles moving in flows along the arrays show velocities that are slow near the cortex and fast on the inward side of the subcortical microtubule layer. Starting with fundamental physical principles suggested by qualitative hypotheses, and with published values for microtubule stiffness, kinesin velocity, and cytoplasmic viscosity, we developed a quantitative coupled hydrodynamic model for streaming. The fully detailed mathematical model and its simulations identify key variables that can shift the system between disordered (slow) and ordered (fast) states. Measurements of array curvature, wave period, and the effects of diminished kinesin velocity on flow rates, as well as prior observations on f-actin perturbation, support the model. This establishes a concrete mechanistic framework for the ooplasmic streaming process. The self-organizing fast phase is a result of viscous drag on kinesin-driven cargoes that mediates equal and opposite forces on cytoplasmic fluid and on microtubules whose minus ends are tethered to the cortex. Fluid moves toward plus ends and microtubules are forced backward toward their minus ends, resulting in buckling. Under certain conditions, the buckling microtubules self-organize into parallel bending arrays, guiding varying directions

  19. Centriole triplet microtubules are required for stable centriole formation and inheritance in human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jennifer T; Kong, Dong; Hoerner, Christian R; Loncarek, Jadranka

    2017-01-01

    Centrioles are composed of long-lived microtubules arranged in nine triplets. However, the contribution of triplet microtubules to mammalian centriole formation and stability is unknown. Little is known of the mechanism of triplet microtubule formation, but experiments in unicellular eukaryotes indicate that delta-tubulin and epsilon-tubulin, two less-studied tubulin family members, are required. Here, we report that centrioles in delta-tubulin and epsilon-tubulin null mutant human cells lack triplet microtubules and fail to undergo centriole maturation. These aberrant centrioles are formed de novo each cell cycle, but are unstable and do not persist to the next cell cycle, leading to a futile cycle of centriole formation and disintegration. Disintegration can be suppressed by paclitaxel treatment. Delta-tubulin and epsilon-tubulin physically interact, indicating that these tubulins act together to maintain triplet microtubules and that these are necessary for inheritance of centrioles from one cell cycle to the next. PMID:28906251

  20. Sailing to and Docking at the Immune Synapse: Role of Tubulin Dynamics and Molecular Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Beatriz Martín-Cófreces

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The different cytoskeleton systems and their connecting molecular motors move vesicles and intracellular organelles to shape cells. Polarized cells with specialized functions display an exquisite spatio-temporal regulation of both cytoskeletal and organelle arrangements that support their specific tasks. In particular, T cells rapidly change their shape and cellular function through the establishment of cell surface and intracellular polarity in response to a variety of cues. This review focuses on the contribution of the microtubule-based dynein/dynactin motor complex, the tubulin and actin cytoskeletons, and different organelles to the formation of the antigen-driven immune synapse.

  1. Taking directions: the role of microtubule-bound nucleation in the self-organization of the plant cortical array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deinum, Eva E; Tindemans, Simon H; Mulder, Bela M

    2011-01-01

    The highly aligned cortical microtubule array of interphase plant cells is a key regulator of anisotropic cell expansion. Recent computational and analytical work has shown that the non-equilibrium self-organization of this structure can be understood on the basis of experimentally observed collisional interactions between dynamic microtubules attached to the plasma membrane. Most of these approaches assumed that new microtubules are homogeneously and isotropically nucleated on the cortical surface. Experimental evidence, however, shows that nucleation mostly occurs from other microtubules and under specific relative angles. Here, we investigate the impact of directed microtubule-bound nucleations on the alignment process using computer simulations. The results show that microtubule-bound nucleations can increase the degree of alignment achieved, decrease the timescale of the ordering process and widen the regime of dynamic parameters for which the system can self-organize. We establish that the major determinant of this effect is the degree of co-alignment of the nucleations with the parent microtubule. The specific role of sideways branching nucleations appears to allow stronger alignment while maintaining a measure of overall spatial homogeneity. Finally, we investigate the suggestion that observed persistent rotation of microtubule domains can be explained through a handedness bias in microtubule-bound nucleations, showing that this is possible only for an extreme bias and over a limited range of parameters

  2. Taking directions: the role of microtubule-bound nucleation in the self-organization of the plant cortical array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deinum, Eva E.; Tindemans, Simon H.; Mulder, Bela M.

    2011-10-01

    The highly aligned cortical microtubule array of interphase plant cells is a key regulator of anisotropic cell expansion. Recent computational and analytical work has shown that the non-equilibrium self-organization of this structure can be understood on the basis of experimentally observed collisional interactions between dynamic microtubules attached to the plasma membrane. Most of these approaches assumed that new microtubules are homogeneously and isotropically nucleated on the cortical surface. Experimental evidence, however, shows that nucleation mostly occurs from other microtubules and under specific relative angles. Here, we investigate the impact of directed microtubule-bound nucleations on the alignment process using computer simulations. The results show that microtubule-bound nucleations can increase the degree of alignment achieved, decrease the timescale of the ordering process and widen the regime of dynamic parameters for which the system can self-organize. We establish that the major determinant of this effect is the degree of co-alignment of the nucleations with the parent microtubule. The specific role of sideways branching nucleations appears to allow stronger alignment while maintaining a measure of overall spatial homogeneity. Finally, we investigate the suggestion that observed persistent rotation of microtubule domains can be explained through a handedness bias in microtubule-bound nucleations, showing that this is possible only for an extreme bias and over a limited range of parameters.

  3. GDP-to-GTP exchange on the microtubule end can contribute to the frequency of catastrophe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedra, Felipe-Andrés; Kim, Tae; Garza, Emily S; Geyer, Elisabeth A; Burns, Alexander; Ye, Xuecheng; Rice, Luke M

    2016-11-07

    Microtubules are dynamic polymers of αβ-tubulin that have essential roles in chromosome segregation and organization of the cytoplasm. Catastrophe-the switch from growing to shrinking-occurs when a microtubule loses its stabilizing GTP cap. Recent evidence indicates that the nucleotide on the microtubule end controls how tightly an incoming subunit will be bound (trans-acting GTP), but most current models do not incorporate this information. We implemented trans-acting GTP into a computational model for microtubule dynamics. In simulations, growing microtubules often exposed terminal GDP-bound subunits without undergoing catastrophe. Transient GDP exposure on the growing plus end slowed elongation by reducing the number of favorable binding sites on the microtubule end. Slower elongation led to erosion of the GTP cap and an increase in the frequency of catastrophe. Allowing GDP-to-GTP exchange on terminal subunits in simulations mitigated these effects. Using mutant αβ-tubulin or modified GTP, we showed experimentally that a more readily exchangeable nucleotide led to less frequent catastrophe. Current models for microtubule dynamics do not account for GDP-to-GTP exchange on the growing microtubule end, so our findings provide a new way of thinking about the molecular events that initiate catastrophe. © 2016 Piedra et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  4. Diabetes alters KIF1A and KIF5B motor proteins in the hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa I Baptista

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder in humans. Diabetic encephalopathy is characterized by cognitive and memory impairments, which have been associated with changes in the hippocampus, but the mechanisms underlying those impairments triggered by diabetes, are far from being elucidated. The disruption of axonal transport is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases and might also play a role in diabetes-associated disorders affecting nervous system. We investigated the effect of diabetes (2 and 8 weeks duration on KIF1A, KIF5B and dynein motor proteins, which are important for axonal transport, in the hippocampus. The mRNA expression of motor proteins was assessed by qRT-PCR, and also their protein levels by immunohistochemistry in hippocampal slices and immunoblotting in total extracts of hippocampus from streptozotocin-induced diabetic and age-matched control animals. Diabetes increased the expression and immunoreactivity of KIF1A and KIF5B in the hippocampus, but no alterations in dynein were detected. Since hyperglycemia is considered a major player in diabetic complications, the effect of a prolonged exposure to high glucose on motor proteins, mitochondria and synaptic proteins in hippocampal neurons was also studied, giving particular attention to changes in axons. Hippocampal cell cultures were exposed to high glucose (50 mM or mannitol (osmotic control; 25 mM plus 25 mM glucose for 7 days. In hippocampal cultures incubated with high glucose no changes were detected in the fluorescence intensity or number of accumulations related with mitochondria in the axons of hippocampal neurons. Nevertheless, high glucose increased the number of fluorescent accumulations of KIF1A and synaptotagmin-1 and decreased KIF5B, SNAP-25 and synaptophysin immunoreactivity specifically in axons of hippocampal neurons. These changes suggest that anterograde axonal transport mediated by these kinesins may be impaired in hippocampal

  5. A computational framework for cortical microtubule dynamics in realistically shaped plant cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandan Chakrabortty

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant morphogenesis is strongly dependent on the directional growth and the subsequent oriented division of individual cells. It has been shown that the plant cortical microtubule array plays a key role in controlling both these processes. This ordered structure emerges as the collective result of stochastic interactions between large numbers of dynamic microtubules. To elucidate this complex self-organization process a number of analytical and computational approaches to study the dynamics of cortical microtubules have been proposed. To date, however, these models have been restricted to two dimensional planes or geometrically simple surfaces in three dimensions, which strongly limits their applicability as plant cells display a wide variety of shapes. This limitation is even more acute, as both local as well as global geometrical features of cells are expected to influence the overall organization of the array. Here we describe a framework for efficiently simulating microtubule dynamics on triangulated approximations of arbitrary three dimensional surfaces. This allows the study of microtubule array organization on realistic cell surfaces obtained by segmentation of microscopic images. We validate the framework against expected or known results for the spherical and cubical geometry. We then use it to systematically study the individual contributions of global geometry, cell-edge induced catastrophes and cell-face induced stability to array organization in a cuboidal geometry. Finally, we apply our framework to analyze the highly non-trivial geometry of leaf pavement cells of Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana benthamiana and Hedera helix. We show that our simulations can predict multiple features of the microtubule array structure in these cells, revealing, among others, strong constraints on the orientation of division planes.

  6. A computational framework for cortical microtubule dynamics in realistically shaped plant cells

    KAUST Repository

    Chakrabortty, Bandan; Blilou, Ikram; Scheres, Ben; Mulder, Bela M.

    2018-01-01

    Plant morphogenesis is strongly dependent on the directional growth and the subsequent oriented division of individual cells. It has been shown that the plant cortical microtubule array plays a key role in controlling both these processes. This ordered structure emerges as the collective result of stochastic interactions between large numbers of dynamic microtubules. To elucidate this complex self-organization process a number of analytical and computational approaches to study the dynamics of cortical microtubules have been proposed. To date, however, these models have been restricted to two dimensional planes or geometrically simple surfaces in three dimensions, which strongly limits their applicability as plant cells display a wide variety of shapes. This limitation is even more acute, as both local as well as global geometrical features of cells are expected to influence the overall organization of the array. Here we describe a framework for efficiently simulating microtubule dynamics on triangulated approximations of arbitrary three dimensional surfaces. This allows the study of microtubule array organization on realistic cell surfaces obtained by segmentation of microscopic images. We validate the framework against expected or known results for the spherical and cubical geometry. We then use it to systematically study the individual contributions of global geometry, cell-edge induced catastrophes and cell-face induced stability to array organization in a cuboidal geometry. Finally, we apply our framework to analyze the highly non-trivial geometry of leaf pavement cells of Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana benthamiana and Hedera helix. We show that our simulations can predict multiple features of the microtubule array structure in these cells, revealing, among others, strong constraints on the orientation of division planes.

  7. A computational framework for cortical microtubule dynamics in realistically shaped plant cells

    KAUST Repository

    Chakrabortty, Bandan

    2018-02-02

    Plant morphogenesis is strongly dependent on the directional growth and the subsequent oriented division of individual cells. It has been shown that the plant cortical microtubule array plays a key role in controlling both these processes. This ordered structure emerges as the collective result of stochastic interactions between large numbers of dynamic microtubules. To elucidate this complex self-organization process a number of analytical and computational approaches to study the dynamics of cortical microtubules have been proposed. To date, however, these models have been restricted to two dimensional planes or geometrically simple surfaces in three dimensions, which strongly limits their applicability as plant cells display a wide variety of shapes. This limitation is even more acute, as both local as well as global geometrical features of cells are expected to influence the overall organization of the array. Here we describe a framework for efficiently simulating microtubule dynamics on triangulated approximations of arbitrary three dimensional surfaces. This allows the study of microtubule array organization on realistic cell surfaces obtained by segmentation of microscopic images. We validate the framework against expected or known results for the spherical and cubical geometry. We then use it to systematically study the individual contributions of global geometry, cell-edge induced catastrophes and cell-face induced stability to array organization in a cuboidal geometry. Finally, we apply our framework to analyze the highly non-trivial geometry of leaf pavement cells of Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana benthamiana and Hedera helix. We show that our simulations can predict multiple features of the microtubule array structure in these cells, revealing, among others, strong constraints on the orientation of division planes.

  8. CERKL, a retinal disease gene, encodes an mRNA-binding protein that localizes in compact and untranslated mRNPs associated with microtubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alihamze Fathinajafabadi

    Full Text Available The function of CERKL (CERamide Kinase Like, a causative gene of retinitis pigmentosa and cone-rod dystrophy, still awaits characterization. To approach its cellular role we have investigated the subcellular localization and interaction partners of the full length CERKL isoform, CERKLa of 532 amino acids, in different cell lines, including a photoreceptor-derived cell line. We demonstrate that CERKLa is a main component of compact and untranslated mRNPs and that associates with other RNP complexes such as stress granules, P-bodies and polysomes. CERKLa is a protein that binds through its N-terminus to mRNAs and interacts with other mRNA-binding proteins like eIF3B, PABP, HSP70 and RPS3. Except for eIF3B, these interactions depend on the integrity of mRNAs but not of ribosomes. Interestingly, the C125W CERKLa pathological mutant does not interact with eIF3B and is absent from these complexes. Compact mRNPs containing CERKLa also associate with microtubules and are found in neurites of neural differentiated cells. These localizations had not been reported previously for any member of the retinal disorders gene family and should be considered when investigating the pathogenic mechanisms and therapeutical approaches in these diseases.

  9. Magnolol Inhibits the Growth of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer via Inhibiting Microtubule Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Shen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tubulin/microtubule system, which is an integral component of the cytoskeleton, plays an essential role in mitosis. Targeting mitotic progression by disturbing microtubule dynamics is a rational strategy for cancer treatment. Methods: Microtubule polymerization assay was performed to examine the effect of Magnolol (a novel natural phenolic compound isolated from Magnolia obovata on cellular microtubule polymerization in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cells. Cell cycle analysis, mitotic index assay, cell proliferation assay, colony formation assay, western blotting analysis of cell cycle regulators, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, and live/dead viability staining were carried out to investigate the Magnolol’s inhibitory effect on proliferation and viability of NSCLS cells in vitro. Xenograft model of human A549 NSCLC tumor was used to determine the Magnolol’s efficacy in vivo. Results: Magnolol treatment effectively inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation of NSCLC cells. Further study proved that Magnolol induced the mitotic phase arrest and inhibited G2/M progression in a dose-dependent manner, which were mechanistically associated with expression alteration of a series of cell cycle regulators. Furthermore, Magnolol treatment disrupted the cellular microtubule organization via inhibiting the polymerization of microtubule. We also found treatment with NSCLC cells with Magnolol resulted in apoptosis activation through a p53-independent pathway, and autophgy induction via down-regulation of the Akt/mTOR pathway. Finally, Magnolol treatment significantly suppressed the NSCLC tumor growth in mouse xenograft model in vivo. Conclusion: These findings identify Magnolol as a promising candidate with anti-microtubule polymerization activity for NSCLC treatment.

  10. Validate Mitotic Checkpoint and Kinetochore Motor Proteins in Breast Cancer Cells as Targets for the Development of Novel Anti-Mitotic Drugs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yen, Timothy J

    2005-01-01

    .... Taxol and vincristine are microtubule poisons that block the proper function of microtubules that are essential for a broad spectrum of motile biological processes that include cell division, vesicle...

  11. Immunohistochemical identification of messenger RNA-related proteins in basophilic inclusions of adult-onset atypical motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Kengo; Ito, Hidefumi; Nakano, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Yoshimi; Wate, Reika; Kusaka, Hirofumi

    2008-10-01

    This report concerns an immunohistochemical investigation on RNA-related proteins in the basophilic inclusions (BIs) from patients with adult-onset atypical motor neuron disease. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of the motor cortex and the lumbar spinal cord were examined. The BIs appeared blue in color with H&E and Nissl stain, and pink with methylgreen-pyronin stain. Ribonuclease pretreatment abolished the methylgreen-pyronin staining, suggesting that the BIs contained RNA. Immunohistochemically, the BIs were distinctly labeled with the antibodies against poly(A)-binding protein 1, T cell intracellular antigen 1, and ribosomal protein S6. These proteins are essential constituents of stress granules. In contrast, the BIs were not immunoreactive for ribosomal protein L28 and decapping enzyme 1, which are core components of transport ribonucleoprotein particles and processing bodies, respectively. Moreover, the BIs were not immunopositive for TDP-43. Our results imply that translation attenuation could be involved in the processes of BI formation in this disorder.

  12. Shortening actin filaments cause force generation in actomyosin network to change from contractile to extensile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nitin; Gardel, Margaret

    Motor proteins in conjunction with filamentous proteins convert biochemical energy into mechanical energy which serves a number of cellular processes including cell motility, force generation and intracellular cargo transport. In-vitro experiments suggest that the forces generated by kinesin motors on microtubule bundles are extensile in nature whereas myosin motors on actin filaments are contractile. It is not clear how qualitatively similar systems can show completely different behaviors in terms of the nature of force generation. In order to answer this question, we carry out in vitro experiments where we form quasi 2D filamentous actomyosin networks and vary the length of actin filaments by adding capping protein. We show that when filaments are much shorter than their typical persistence length (approximately 10 microns), the forces generated are extensile and we see active nematic defect propagation, as seen in the microtubule-kinesin system. Based on this observation, we claim that the rigidity of rods plays an important role in dictating the nature of force generation in such systems. In order to understand this transition, we selectively label individual filaments and find that longer filaments show considerable bending and buckling, making them difficult to slide and extend along their length.

  13. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on microtubule organisation and morphogenesis in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staxen, I.

    1994-09-01

    The involvement of the cytoskeleton in the development of somatic embryos was studied in Larix x eurolepis. Protoplasts were isolated from both somatic embryo-regenerating and non-generating cultures and fractionated on a discontinuous Percoll density gradient. Protoplasts of two cell lines of Larix eurolepis, one with regenerating potential and one lacking this potential, were compared. In contrast to the non-regenerating line were a protoplast-like organisation of the cortical microtubules was maintained, re-organisation of this microtubular network occurred in the regenerable line after only three days of culture, indicating that organised growth was occurring. However, this early organisation of cortical microtubules may not always be a valid marker for regenerable and non-regenerable material. In order to investigate the effect of ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation on the microtubule cytoskeleton, protoplasts were isolated from leaves of Petunia hybrida and subjected to four different doses of UV-B radiation. The organisation of the microtubules and the progression of the cells through the cell cycle was observed at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after irradiation. UV-B induced breaks in the cortical microtubules resulting in shorter fragments with increasing amounts of radiation. Also, the division of the protoplasts was delayed. Whole Petunia plants were grown in growth chambers in the presence and absence of UV-B. The plants responded to UV-B with increased rates of CO{sub 2} assimilation, a 60% increase in UV-screening compounds and the changes in the morphology of the leaves that were reflected in a 70-100% increase in leaf area and 20% decrease in leaf thickness. The microtubules of the epidermal cells was not affected by UV-B, nor was the number of epidermal cells (per unit area). The increase in leaf area in the UV-treated plants appeared due to stimulation of cell division in the leaf meristems. 111 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs.

  14. Meiotic Clade AAA ATPases: Protein Polymer Disassembly Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Nicole; Hill, Christopher P

    2016-05-08

    Meiotic clade AAA ATPases (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities), which were initially grouped on the basis of phylogenetic classification of their AAA ATPase cassette, include four relatively well characterized family members, Vps4, spastin, katanin and fidgetin. These enzymes all function to disassemble specific polymeric protein structures, with Vps4 disassembling the ESCRT-III polymers that are central to the many membrane-remodeling activities of the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) pathway and spastin, katanin p60 and fidgetin affecting multiple aspects of cellular dynamics by severing microtubules. They share a common domain architecture that features an N-terminal MIT (microtubule interacting and trafficking) domain followed by a single AAA ATPase cassette. Meiotic clade AAA ATPases function as hexamers that can cycle between the active assembly and inactive monomers/dimers in a regulated process, and they appear to disassemble their polymeric substrates by translocating subunits through the central pore of their hexameric ring. Recent studies with Vps4 have shown that nucleotide-induced asymmetry is a requirement for substrate binding to the pore loops and that recruitment to the protein lattice via MIT domains also relieves autoinhibition and primes the AAA ATPase cassettes for substrate binding. The most striking, unifying feature of meiotic clade AAA ATPases may be their MIT domain, which is a module that is found in a wide variety of proteins that localize to ESCRT-III polymers. Spastin also displays an adjacent microtubule binding sequence, and the presence of both ESCRT-III and microtubule binding elements may underlie the recent findings that the ESCRT-III disassembly function of Vps4 and the microtubule-severing function of spastin, as well as potentially katanin and fidgetin, are highly coordinated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary flavonoid fisetin binds to β-tubulin and disrupts microtubule dynamics in prostate cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhtar, Eiman; Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Sechi, Mario; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Microtubule targeting based therapies have revolutionized cancer treatment; however, resistance and side effects remain a major limitation. Therefore, novel strategies that can overcome these limitations are urgently needed. We made a novel discovery that fisetin, a hydroxyflavone, is a microtubule stabilizing agent. Fisetin binds to tubulin and stabilizes microtubules with binding characteristics far superior than paclitaxel. Surface plasmon resonance and computational docking studies sugges...

  16. Actin and microtubule networks contribute differently to cell response for small and large strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubitschke, H.; Schnauss, J.; Nnetu, K. D.; Warmt, E.; Stange, R.; Kaes, J.

    2017-09-01

    Cytoskeletal filaments provide cells with mechanical stability and organization. The main key players are actin filaments and microtubules governing a cell’s response to mechanical stimuli. We investigated the specific influences of these crucial components by deforming MCF-7 epithelial cells at small (≤5% deformation) and large strains (>5% deformation). To understand specific contributions of actin filaments and microtubules, we systematically studied cellular responses after treatment with cytoskeleton influencing drugs. Quantification with the microfluidic optical stretcher allowed capturing the relative deformation and relaxation of cells under different conditions. We separated distinctive deformational and relaxational contributions to cell mechanics for actin and microtubule networks for two orders of magnitude of drug dosages. Disrupting actin filaments via latrunculin A, for instance, revealed a strain-independent softening. Stabilizing these filaments by treatment with jasplakinolide yielded cell softening for small strains but showed no significant change at large strains. In contrast, cells treated with nocodazole to disrupt microtubules displayed a softening at large strains but remained unchanged at small strains. Stabilizing microtubules within the cells via paclitaxel revealed no significant changes for deformations at small strains, but concentration-dependent impact at large strains. This suggests that for suspended cells, the actin cortex is probed at small strains, while at larger strains; the whole cell is probed with a significant contribution from the microtubules.

  17. Regulation of retinoschisin secretion in Weri-Rb1 cells by the F-actin and microtubule cytoskeleton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiko Kitamura

    Full Text Available Retinoschisin is encoded by the gene responsible for X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS, an early onset macular degeneration that results in a splitting of the inner layers of the retina and severe loss in vision. Retinoschisin is predominantly expressed and secreted from photoreceptor cells as a homo-oligomer protein; it then associates with the surface of retinal cells and maintains the retina cellular architecture. Many missense mutations in the XLRS1 gene are known to cause intracellular retention of retinoschisin, indicating that the secretion process of the protein is a critical step for its normal function in the retina. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying retinoschisin's secretion remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of the F-actin cytoskeleton in the secretion of retinoschisin by treating Weri-Rb1 cells, which are known to secrete retinoschisin, with cytochalasin D, jasplakinolide, Y-27632, and dibutyryl cGMP. Our results show that cytochalasin D and jasplakinolide inhibit retinoschisin secretion, whereas Y-27632 and dibutyryl cGMP enhance secretion causing F-actin alterations. We also demonstrate that high concentrations of taxol, which hyperpolymerizes microtubules, inhibit retinoschisin secretion. Our data suggest that retinoschisin secretion is regulated by the F-actin cytoskeleton, that cGMP or inhibition of ROCK alters F-actin structure enhancing the secretion, and that the microtubule cytoskeleton is also involved in this process.

  18. Regulation of Retinoschisin Secretion in Weri-Rb1 Cells by the F-Actin and Microtubule Cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Eiko; Gribanova, Yekaterina E.; Farber, Debora B.

    2011-01-01

    Retinoschisin is encoded by the gene responsible for X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS), an early onset macular degeneration that results in a splitting of the inner layers of the retina and severe loss in vision. Retinoschisin is predominantly expressed and secreted from photoreceptor cells as a homo-oligomer protein; it then associates with the surface of retinal cells and maintains the retina cellular architecture. Many missense mutations in the XLRS1 gene are known to cause intracellular retention of retinoschisin, indicating that the secretion process of the protein is a critical step for its normal function in the retina. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying retinoschisin's secretion remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of the F-actin cytoskeleton in the secretion of retinoschisin by treating Weri-Rb1 cells, which are known to secrete retinoschisin, with cytochalasin D, jasplakinolide, Y-27632, and dibutyryl cGMP. Our results show that cytochalasin D and jasplakinolide inhibit retinoschisin secretion, whereas Y-27632 and dibutyryl cGMP enhance secretion causing F-actin alterations. We also demonstrate that high concentrations of taxol, which hyperpolymerizes microtubules, inhibit retinoschisin secretion. Our data suggest that retinoschisin secretion is regulated by the F-actin cytoskeleton, that cGMP or inhibition of ROCK alters F-actin structure enhancing the secretion, and that the microtubule cytoskeleton is also involved in this process. PMID:21738583

  19. Disruption of the mouse Jhy gene causes abnormal ciliary microtubule patterning and juvenile hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbe, Oliver K.; Bollman, Bryan; Attarwala, Ali; Triebes, Lindy A.; Muniz-Talavera, Hilmarie; Curry, Daniel J.; Schmidt, Jennifer V.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Congenital hydrocephalus, the accumulation of excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles of the brain, affects one of every 1,000 children born today, making it one of the most common human developmental disorders. Genetic causes of hydrocephalus are poorly understood in humans, but animal models suggest a broad genetic program underlying the regulation of CSF balance. In this study, the random integration of a transgene into the mouse genome led to the development of an early onset and rapidly progressive hydrocephalus. Juvenile hydrocephalus transgenic mice (JhylacZ) inherit communicating hydrocephalus in an autosomal recessive fashion with dilation of the lateral ventricles observed as early as postnatal day 1.5. Ventricular dilation increases in severity over time, becoming fatal at 4-8 weeks of age. The ependymal cilia lining the lateral ventricles are morphologically abnormal and reduced in number in JhylacZ/lacZ brains, and ultrastructural analysis revealed disorganization of the expected 9+2 microtubule pattern. Rather, the majority of JhylacZ/lacZ cilia develop axonemes with 9+0 or 8+2 microtubule structures. Disruption of an unstudied gene, 4931429I11Rik (now named Jhy) appears to underlie the hydrocephalus of JhylacZ/lacZ mice, and the Jhy transcript and protein are decreased in JhylacZ/lacZ mice. Partial phenotypic rescue was achieved in JhylacZ/lacZ mice by the introduction of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) carrying 60-70% of the JHY protein coding sequence. Jhy is evolutionarily conserved from humans to basal vertebrates, but the predicted JHY protein lacks identifiable functional domains. Ongoing studies are directed at uncovering the physiological function of JHY and its role in CSF homeostasis. PMID:23906841

  20. The structure of tubulin-binding cofactor A from Leishmania major infers a mode of association during the early stages of microtubule assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrack, Keri L.; Fyfe, Paul K.; Hunter, William N., E-mail: w.n.hunter@dundee.ac.uk [University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-21

    The structure of a tubulin-binding cofactor from L. major is reported and compared with yeast, plant and human orthologues. Tubulin-binding cofactor A (TBCA) participates in microtubule formation, a key process in eukaryotic biology to create the cytoskeleton. There is little information on how TBCA might interact with β-tubulin en route to microtubule biogenesis. To address this, the protozoan Leishmania major was targeted as a model system. The crystal structure of TBCA and comparisons with three orthologous proteins are presented. The presence of conserved features infers that electrostatic interactions that are likely to involve the C-terminal tail of β-tubulin are key to association. This study provides a reagent and template to support further work in this area.

  1. Distinct Mechanisms of Recognizing Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport III (ESCRT-III) Protein IST1 by Different Microtubule Interacting and Trafficking (MIT) Domains*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Emily Z.; Xu, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is responsible for membrane remodeling in a number of biological processes including multivesicular body biogenesis, cytokinesis, and enveloped virus budding. In mammalian cells, efficient abscission during cytokinesis requires proper function of the ESCRT-III protein IST1, which binds to the microtubule interacting and trafficking (MIT) domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin via its C-terminal MIT-interacting motif (MIM). Here, we studied the molecular interactions between IST1 and the three MIT domain-containing proteins to understand the structural basis that governs pairwise MIT-MIM interaction. Crystal structures of the three molecular complexes revealed that IST1 binds to the MIT domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin using two different mechanisms (MIM1 mode versus MIM3 mode). Structural comparison revealed that structural features in both MIT and MIM contribute to determine the specific binding mechanism. Within the IST1 MIM sequence, two phenylalanine residues were shown to be important in discriminating MIM1 versus MIM3 binding. These observations enabled us to deduce a preliminary binding code, which we applied to provide CHMP2A, a protein that normally only binds the MIT domain in the MIM1 mode, the additional ability to bind the MIT domain of Spartin in the MIM3 mode. PMID:25657007

  2. Distinct mechanisms of recognizing endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT-III) protein IST1 by different microtubule interacting and trafficking (MIT) domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Emily Z; Xu, Zhaohui

    2015-03-27

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is responsible for membrane remodeling in a number of biological processes including multivesicular body biogenesis, cytokinesis, and enveloped virus budding. In mammalian cells, efficient abscission during cytokinesis requires proper function of the ESCRT-III protein IST1, which binds to the microtubule interacting and trafficking (MIT) domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin via its C-terminal MIT-interacting motif (MIM). Here, we studied the molecular interactions between IST1 and the three MIT domain-containing proteins to understand the structural basis that governs pairwise MIT-MIM interaction. Crystal structures of the three molecular complexes revealed that IST1 binds to the MIT domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin using two different mechanisms (MIM1 mode versus MIM3 mode). Structural comparison revealed that structural features in both MIT and MIM contribute to determine the specific binding mechanism. Within the IST1 MIM sequence, two phenylalanine residues were shown to be important in discriminating MIM1 versus MIM3 binding. These observations enabled us to deduce a preliminary binding code, which we applied to provide CHMP2A, a protein that normally only binds the MIT domain in the MIM1 mode, the additional ability to bind the MIT domain of Spartin in the MIM3 mode. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Stabilization of Microtubule-Unbound Tau via Tau Phosphorylation at Ser262/356 by Par-1/MARK Contributes to Augmentation of AD-Related Phosphorylation and Aβ42-Induced Tau Toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanae Ando

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal accumulation of the microtubule-interacting protein tau is associated with neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD. β-amyloid (Aβ lies upstream of abnormal tau behavior, including detachment from microtubules, phosphorylation at several disease-specific sites, and self-aggregation into toxic tau species in AD brains. To prevent the cascade of events leading to neurodegeneration in AD, it is essential to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the initial events of tau mismetabolism. Currently, however, these mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, using transgenic Drosophila co-expressing human tau and Aβ, we found that tau phosphorylation at AD-related Ser262/356 stabilized microtubule-unbound tau in the early phase of tau mismetabolism, leading to neurodegeneration. Aβ increased the level of tau detached from microtubules, independent of the phosphorylation status at GSK3-targeted SP/TP sites. Such mislocalized tau proteins, especially the less phosphorylated species, were stabilized by phosphorylation at Ser262/356 via PAR-1/MARK. Levels of Ser262 phosphorylation were increased by Aβ42, and blocking this stabilization of tau suppressed Aβ42-mediated augmentation of tau toxicity and an increase in the levels of tau phosphorylation at the SP/TP site Thr231, suggesting that this process may be involved in AD pathogenesis. In contrast to PAR-1/MARK, blocking tau phosphorylation at SP/TP sites by knockdown of Sgg/GSK3 did not reduce tau levels, suppress tau mislocalization to the cytosol, or diminish Aβ-mediated augmentation of tau toxicity. These results suggest that stabilization of microtubule-unbound tau by phosphorylation at Ser262/356 via the PAR-1/MARK may act in the initial steps of tau mismetabolism in AD pathogenesis, and that such tau species may represent a potential therapeutic target for AD.

  4. Quantitative measurements and modeling of cargo–motor interactions during fast transport in the living axon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seamster, Pamela E; Loewenberg, Michael; Pascal, Jennifer; Chauviere, Arnaud; Gonzales, Aaron; Cristini, Vittorio; Bearer, Elaine L

    2012-01-01

    The kinesins have long been known to drive microtubule-based transport of sub-cellular components, yet the mechanisms of their attachment to cargo remain a mystery. Several different cargo-receptors have been proposed based on their in vitro binding affinities to kinesin-1. Only two of these—phosphatidyl inositol, a negatively charged lipid, and the carboxyl terminus of the amyloid precursor protein (APP-C), a trans-membrane protein—have been reported to mediate motility in living systems. A major question is how these many different cargo, receptors and motors interact to produce the complex choreography of vesicular transport within living cells. Here we describe an experimental assay that identifies cargo–motor receptors by their ability to recruit active motors and drive transport of exogenous cargo towards the synapse in living axons. Cargo is engineered by derivatizing the surface of polystyrene fluorescent nanospheres (100 nm diameter) with charged residues or with synthetic peptides derived from candidate motor receptor proteins, all designed to display a terminal COOH group. After injection into the squid giant axon, particle movements are imaged by laser-scanning confocal time-lapse microscopy. In this report we compare the motility of negatively charged beads with APP-C beads in the presence of glycine-conjugated non-motile beads using new strategies to measure bead movements. The ensuing quantitative analysis of time-lapse digital sequences reveals detailed information about bead movements: instantaneous and maximum velocities, run lengths, pause frequencies and pause durations. These measurements provide parameters for a mathematical model that predicts the spatiotemporal evolution of distribution of the two different types of bead cargo in the axon. The results reveal that negatively charged beads differ from APP-C beads in velocity and dispersion, and predict that at long time points APP-C will achieve greater progress towards the presynaptic

  5. Motor skills training promotes motor functional recovery and induces synaptogenesis in the motor cortex and striatum after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamakoshi, Keigo; Ishida, Akimasa; Takamatsu, Yasuyuki; Hamakawa, Michiru; Nakashima, Hiroki; Shimada, Haruka; Ishida, Kazuto

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the effects of motor skills training on several types of motor function and synaptic plasticity following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. Male Wistar rats were injected with collagenase into the left striatum to induce ICH, and they were randomly assigned to the ICH or sham groups. Each group was divided into the motor skills training (acrobatic training) and control (no exercise) groups. The acrobatic group performed acrobatic training from 4 to 28 days after surgery. Motor functions were assessed by motor deficit score, the horizontal ladder test and the wide or narrow beam walking test at several time points after ICH. The number of ΔFosB-positive cells was counted using immunohistochemistry to examine neuronal activation, and the PSD95 protein levels were analyzed by Western blotting to examine synaptic plasticity in the bilateral sensorimotor cortices and striata at 14 and 29 days after ICH. Motor skills training following ICH significantly improved gross motor function in the early phase after ICH and skilled motor coordinated function in the late phase. The number of ΔFosB-positive cells in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex in the acrobatic group significantly increased compared to the control group. PSD95 protein expression in the motor cortex significantly increased in the late phase, and in the striatum, the protein level significantly increased in the early phase by motor skills training after ICH compared to no training after ICH. We demonstrated that motor skills training improved motor function after ICH in rats and enhanced the neural activity and synaptic plasticity in the striatum and sensorimotor cortex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. CEP295 interacts with microtubules and is required for centriole elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Wen; Hsu, Wen-Bin; Tsai, Jhih-Jie; Tang, Chieh-Ju C; Tang, Tang K

    2016-07-01

    Centriole duplication is a tightly ordered process during which procentrioles are assembled in G1-S and elongate during S and G2. Here, we show that human CEP295 (Drosophila Ana1) is not essential for initial cartwheel assembly, but is required to build distal half centrioles during S and G2. Using super-resolution and immunogold electron microscopy, we demonstrate that CEP295 is recruited to the proximal end of procentrioles in early S phase, when it is also localized at the centriolar microtubule wall that surrounds the human SAS6 cartwheel hub. Interestingly, depletion of CEP295 not only inhibits the recruitments of POC5 and POC1B to the distal half centrioles in G2, resulting in shorter centrioles, it also blocks the post-translational modification of centriolar microtubules (e.g. acetylation and glutamylation). Importantly, our results indicate that CEP295 directly interacts with microtubules, and that excess CEP295 could induce the assembly of overly long centrioles. Furthermore, exogenous expression of the N-terminal domain of CEP295 exerts a dominant-negative effect on centriole elongation. Collectively, these findings suggest that CEP295 is essential for building the distal half centrioles and for post-translational modification of centriolar microtubules. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Looping in on Ndc80 - how does a protein loop at the kinetochore control chromosome segregation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Segregation of chromosomes during mitosis requires the interaction of dynamic microtubules with the kinetochore, a large protein structure established on the centromere region of sister chromatids. The core microtubule-binding activity of the kinetochore resides in the KMN network, an outer...

  8. The Monopolin Complex Crosslinks Kinetochore Components to Regulate Chromosome-Microtubule Attachments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, Kevin D.; Yip, Calvin K.; Ee, Ly-Sha; Walz, Thomas; Amon, Angelika; Harrison, Stephen C. (Harvard-Med); (MIT)

    2010-09-27

    The monopolin complex regulates different types of kinetochore-microtubule attachments in fungi, ensuring sister chromatid co-orientation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae meiosis I and inhibiting merotelic attachment in Schizosaccharomyces pombe mitosis. In addition, the monopolin complex maintains the integrity and silencing of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeats in the nucleolus. We show here that the S. cerevisiae Csm1/Lrs4 monopolin subcomplex has a distinctive V-shaped structure, with two pairs of protein-protein interaction domains positioned {approx}10 nm apart. Csm1 presents a conserved hydrophobic surface patch that binds two kinetochore proteins: Dsn1, a subunit of the outer-kinetochore MIND/Mis12 complex, and Mif2/CENP-C. Csm1 point-mutations that disrupt kinetochore-subunit binding also disrupt sister chromatid co-orientation in S. cerevisiae meiosis I. We further show that the same Csm1 point-mutations affect rDNA silencing, probably by disrupting binding to the rDNA-associated protein Tof2. We propose that Csm1/Lrs4 functions as a molecular clamp, crosslinking kinetochore components to enforce sister chromatid co-orientation in S. cerevisiae meiosis I and to suppress merotelic attachment in S. pombe mitosis, and crosslinking rDNA repeats to aid rDNA silencing.

  9. Characterization of gold nanoparticle binding to microtubule filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jing C.; Wang Xianghuai; Xue Mei; Xu Zheng; Hamasaki, Toshikazu; Yang, Yang; Wang Kang; Dunn, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Microtubule (MT) protein filaments were used as templates for fabricating Au nanowires as a bottom-up approach for fabricating building blocks for future integrated circuits. Photochemical reduction methods were employed to form Au nanoparticles which bind and uniformly cover the MT filaments. Synthesis of the MT-templated Au nanowires was characterized using UV/vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, binding between the MT filaments and Au nanoparticles was investigated using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to establish the nature of the binding sites. A variety of functional groups were identified by SERS to interact with the Au including imidazole, sulfur, aromatic rings, amine, and carboxylate. The imidazole ring in the histidine is the most prominent functional group for Au binding. The results from these studies provide better understanding of the binding between Au and the biotemplate and give insight concerning methods to improve Au coverage for MT-templated Au nanowires.

  10. TIP maker and TIP marker; EB1 as a master controller of microtubule plus ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Kevin T

    2005-10-24

    The EB1 protein is a member of the exciting and enigmatic family of microtubule (MT) tip-tracking proteins. EB1 acts as an exquisite marker of dynamic MT plus ends in some cases, whereas in others EB1 is thought to directly dictate the behavior of the plus ends. How EB1 differentiates between these two roles remains unclear; however, a growing list of interactions between EB1 and other MT binding proteins suggests there may be a single mechanism. Adding another layer of complexity to these interactions, two studies published in this issue implicate EB1 in cross-talk between mitotic MTs and between MTs and actin filaments (Goshima et al., p. 229; Wu et al., p. 201). These results raise the possibility that EB1 is a central player in MT-based transport, and that the activity of MT-binding proteins depends on their ability or inability to interact with EB1.

  11. Stabilization of microtubules by inorganic phosphate and its structural analogues, the fluoride complexes of aluminum and beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlier, M.F.; Didry, D.; Melki, R.; Chabre, M.; Pantaloni, D.

    1988-01-01

    In order to elucidate how the elementary reactions of GTP cleavage and subsequent inorganic phosphate (P/sub i/) release, which accompany microtubule assembly, regulate microtubule dynamics, the effect of P/sub i/ and of its structural analogues AlF 4 - and BeF 3 - on the stability of GDP-microtubules has been investigated. Inorganic phosphate binds to microtubules with a low affinity (K/sub D/ = 25 mM) and slows down the rate of GDP-subunit dissociation by about 2 orders of magnitude. AlF 4 - and BeF 3 - exhibit phosphate-like effects with 1000-fold higher affinity. Evidence has been obtained for direct binding of BeF 3 - to microtubules with a stoichiometry of 1 mol of BeF 3 - per mole of GDP-subunit and an equilibrium dissociation constant of 12-15 μM. AlF 4 - and P/sub i/ compete for this site. Phosphate analogues abolish oscillatory polymerization kinetics and slow down microtubule turnover at steady state. In view of these results, the authors propose that P/sub i/ and its structural analogues bind to the site of the γ-phosphate of GTP in the E site and reconstitute a GDP-P/sub i/-microtubule, from which tubulin subunits dissociate very slowly. They therefore understand that, following GTP cleavage on microtubules, P/sub i/ release in the medium is accompanied by a structural change resulting in a large destabilization of the polymer. A cap of slowly dissociating GDP-P/sub i/-subunits prevents depolymerization of the microtubule GDP-core at steady state. The similarity with the actin system is studied

  12. A FYVE zinc finger domain protein specifically links mRNA transport to endosome trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, Thomas; Baumann, Sebastian; Haag, Carl; Albrecht, Mario; Feldbrügge, Michael

    2015-01-01

    An emerging theme in cellular logistics is the close connection between mRNA and membrane trafficking. A prominent example is the microtubule-dependent transport of mRNAs and associated ribosomes on endosomes. This coordinated process is crucial for correct septin filamentation and efficient growth of polarised cells, such as fungal hyphae. Despite detailed knowledge on the key RNA-binding protein and the molecular motors involved, it is unclear how mRNAs are connected to membranes during transport. Here, we identify a novel factor containing a FYVE zinc finger domain for interaction with endosomal lipids and a new PAM2-like domain required for interaction with the MLLE domain of the key RNA-binding protein. Consistently, loss of this FYVE domain protein leads to specific defects in mRNA, ribosome, and septin transport without affecting general functions of endosomes or their movement. Hence, this is the first endosomal component specific for mRNP trafficking uncovering a new mechanism to couple mRNPs to endosomes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06041.001 PMID:25985087

  13. Microtubule-Mediated Inositol Lipid Signaling Plays Critical Roles in Regulation of Blebbing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuroh Sugiyama

    Full Text Available Cells migrate by extending pseudopods such as lamellipodia and blebs. Although the signals leading to lamellipodia extension have been extensively investigated, those for bleb extension remain unclear. Here, we investigated signals for blebbing in Dictyostelium cells using a newly developed assay to induce blebbing. When cells were cut into two pieces with a microneedle, the anucleate fragments vigorously extended blebs. This assay enabled us to induce blebbing reproducibly, and analyses of knockout mutants and specific inhibitors identified candidate molecules that regulate blebbing. Blebs were also induced in anucleate fragments of leukocytes, indicating that this assay is generally applicable to animal cells. After cutting, microtubules in the anucleate fragments promptly depolymerized, followed by the extension of blebs. Furthermore, when intact cells were treated with a microtubule inhibitor, they frequently extended blebs. The depolymerization of microtubules induced the delocalization of inositol lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate from the cell membrane. PI3 kinase-null cells frequently extended blebs, whereas PTEN-null cells extended fewer blebs. From these observations, we propose a model in which microtubules play a critical role in bleb regulation via inositol lipid metabolism.

  14. Na(v)1.8 channelopathy in mutant mice deficient for myelin protein zero is detrimental to motor axons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Alvarez Herrero, Susana; Pinchenko, Volodymyr

    2011-01-01

    Myelin protein zero mutations were found to produce Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease phenotypes with various degrees of myelin impairment and axonal loss, ranging from the mild 'demyelinating' adult form to severe and early onset forms. Protein zero deficient homozygous mice ( ) show a severe and prog......Myelin protein zero mutations were found to produce Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease phenotypes with various degrees of myelin impairment and axonal loss, ranging from the mild 'demyelinating' adult form to severe and early onset forms. Protein zero deficient homozygous mice ( ) show a severe...... and progressive dysmyelinating neuropathy from birth with compromised myelin compaction, hypomyelination and distal axonal degeneration. A previous study using immunofluorescence showed that motor nerves deficient of myelin protein zero upregulate the Na(V)1.8 voltage gated sodium channel isoform, which...... is normally present only in restricted populations of sensory axons. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of motor axons in protein zero-deficient mice with particular emphasis on ectopic Na(V)1.8 voltage gated sodium channel. We combined 'threshold tracking' excitability studies...

  15. Microtubule-Targeting Agents Enter the Central Nervous System (CNS): Double-edged Swords for Treating CNS Injury and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Eun-Mi; Lee, Byoung Dae

    2014-12-01

    Microtubules have been among the most successful targets in anticancer therapy and a large number of microtubule-targeting agents (MTAs) are in various stages of clinical development for the treatment of several malignancies. Given that injury and diseases in the central nervous system (CNS) are accompanied by acute or chronic disruption of the structural integrity of neurons and that microtubules provide structural support for the nervous system at cellular and intracellular levels, microtubules are emerging as potential therapeutic targets for treating CNS disorders. It has been postulated that exogenous application of MTAs might prevent the breakdown or degradation of microtubules after injury or during neurodegeneration, which will thereby aid in preserving the structural integrity and function of the nervous system. Here we review recent evidence that supports this notion and also discuss potential risks of targeting microtubules as a therapy for treating nerve injury and neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. Microtubule-Targeting Agents Enter the Central Nervous System (CNS: Double-edged Swords for Treating CNS Injury and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Mi Hur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Microtubules have been among the most successful targets in anticancer therapy and a large number of microtubule-targeting agents (MTAs are in various stages of clinical development for the treatment of several malignancies. Given that injury and diseases in the central nervous system (CNS are accompanied by acute or chronic disruption of the structural integrity of neurons and that microtubules provide structural support for the nervous system at cellular and intracellular levels, microtubules are emerging as potential therapeutic targets for treating CNS disorders. It has been postulated that exogenous application of MTAs might prevent the breakdown or degradation of microtubules after injury or during neurodegeneration, which will thereby aid in preserving the structural integrity and function of the nervous system. Here we review recent evidence that supports this notion and also discuss potential risks of targeting microtubules as a therapy for treating nerve injury and neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Synthesis and biological evaluation of structurally simplified noscapine analogues as microtubule binding agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ghaly, P.E.; Churchill, C.D.M.; Abou El-Magd, R.M.; Hájková, Zuzana; Dráber, Pavel; West, F.G.; Tuszyński, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 6 (2017), s. 649-655 ISSN 0008-4042 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-22194S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : noscapine * microtubule * tubulin * cytotoxicity * microtubule dynamics * docking Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 1.080, year: 2016

  18. SOCS-1 localizes to the microtubule organizing complex-associated 20S proteasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Bao Q; Arenzana, Teresita L; Showalter, Brian M; Losman, Julie; Chen, X Peter; Mostecki, Justin; Banks, Alexander S; Limnander, Andre; Fernandez, Neil; Rothman, Paul B

    2004-10-01

    The regulation of cytokine signaling is critical for controlling cellular proliferation and activation during an immune response. SOCS-1 is a potent inhibitor of Jak kinase activity and of signaling initiated by several cytokines. SOCS-1 protein levels are tightly regulated, and recent data suggest that SOCS-1 may regulate the protein levels of some signaling proteins by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway; however, the cellular mechanism by which SOCS-1 directs proteins for degradation is unknown. In this report, SOCS-1 is found to colocalize and biochemically copurify with the microtubule organizing complex (MTOC) and its associated 20S proteasome. The SOCS-1 SH2 domain is required for the localization of SOCS-1 to the MTOC. Overexpression of SOCS-1 targets Jak1 in an SH2-dependent manner to a perinuclear distribution resembling the MTOC-associated 20S proteasome. Analysis of MTOCs fractionated from SOCS-1-deficient cells demonstrates that SOCS-1 may function redundantly to regulate the localization of Jak1 to the MTOC. Nocodazole inhibits the protein turnover of SOCS-1, demonstrating that the minus-end transport of SOCS-1 to the MTOC-associated 20S proteasome is required to regulate SOCS-1 protein levels. These data link SOCS-1 directly with the proteasome pathway and suggest another function for the SH2 domain of SOCS-1 in the regulation of Jak/STAT signaling.

  19. Characterization of tetratricopeptide repeat-containing proteins critical for cilia formation and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Xu

    Full Text Available Cilia formation and function require a special set of trafficking machinery termed intraflagellar transport (IFT, consisting mainly of protein complexes IFT-A, IFT-B, BBSome, and microtubule-dependent molecular motors. Tetratricopeptide repeat-containing (TTC proteins are widely involved in protein complex formation. Nine of them are known to serve as components of the IFT or BBSome complexes. How many TTC proteins are cilia-related and how they function, however, remain unclear. Here we show that twenty TTC genes were upregulated by at least 2-fold during the differentiation of cultured mouse tracheal epithelial cells (MTECs into multiciliated cells. Our systematic screen in zebrafish identified four novel TTC genes, ttc4, -9c, -36, and -39c, that are critical for cilia formation and motility. Accordingly, their zebrafish morphants displayed typical ciliopathy-related phenotypes, including curved body, abnormal otolith, hydrocephalus, and defective left-right patterning. The morphants of ttc4 and ttc25, a known cilia-related gene, additionally showed pronephric cyst formation. Immunoprecipitation indicated associations of TTC4, -9c, -25, -36, and -39c with components or entire complexes of IFT-A, IFT-B, or BBSome, implying their participations in IFT or IFT-related activities. Our results provide a global view for the relationship between TTC proteins and cilia.

  20. Rho proteins − the key regulators of cytoskeleton in the progression of mitosis and cytokinesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Klimaszewska

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Rho proteins are members of the Ras superfamily of small GTPases. They are thought to be crucial regulators of multiple signal transduction pathways that influence a wide range of cellular functions, including migration, membrane trafficking, adhesion, polarity and cell shape changes. Thanks to their ability to control the assembly and organization of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons, Rho GTPases are known to regulate mitosis and cytokinesis progression. These proteins are required for formation and rigidity of the cortex during mitotic cell rounding, mitotic spindle formation and attachment of the spindle microtubules to the kinetochore. In addition, during cytokinesis, they are involved in promoting division plane determination, contractile ring and cleavage furrow formation and abscission. They are also known as regulators of cell cycle progression at the G1/S and G2/M transition. Thus, the signal transduction pathways in which Rho proteins participate, appear to connect dynamics of actin and microtubule cytoskeletons to cell cycle progression. We review the current state of knowledge concerning the molecular mechanisms by which Rho GTPase signaling regulates remodeling of actin and microtubule cytoskeletons in order to control cell division progression.

  1. Gestational Age-Dependent Increase of Survival Motor Neuron Protein in Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Iwatani, Sota; Harahap, Nur Imma Fatimah; Nurputra, Dian Kesumapramudya; Tairaku, Shinya; Shono, Akemi; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Yamana, Keiji; Thwin, Khin Kyae Mon; Yoshida, Makiko; Mizobuchi, Masami; Koda, Tsubasa; Fujioka, Kazumichi; Taniguchi-Ikeda, Mariko; Yamada, Hideto; Morioka, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Background: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common genetic neurological disease leading to infant death. It is caused by loss of survival motor neuron (SMN) 1 gene and subsequent reduction of SMN protein in motor neurons. Because SMN is ubiquitously expressed and functionally linked to general RNA metabolism pathway, fibroblasts (FBs) are most widely used for the assessment of SMN expression in SMA patients but usually isolated from skin biopsy samples after the onset of overt sympt...

  2. Versatile microsphere attachment of GFP-labeled motors and other tagged proteins with preserved functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bugiel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Microspheres are often used as handles for protein purification or force spectroscopy. For example, optical tweezers apply forces on trapped particles to which motor proteins are attached. However, even though many attachment strategies exist, procedures are often limited to a particular biomolecule and prone to non-specific protein or surface attachment. Such interactions may lead to loss of protein functionality or microsphere clustering. Here, we describe a versatile coupling procedure for GFP-tagged proteins via a polyethylene glycol linker preserving the functionality of the coupled proteins. The procedure combines well-established protocols, is highly reproducible, reliable, and can be used for a large variety of proteins. The coupling is efficient and can be tuned to the desired microsphere-to-protein ratio. Moreover, microspheres hardly cluster or adhere to surfaces. Furthermore, the procedure can be adapted to different tags providing flexibility and a promising attachment strategy for any tagged protein.

  3. GSK3 controls axon growth via CLASP-mediated regulation of growth cone microtubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Eun-Mi; Saijilafu; Lee, Byoung Dae; Kim, Seong-Jin; Xu, Wen-Lin; Zhou, Feng-Quan

    2011-01-01

    Suppression of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) activity in neurons yields pleiotropic outcomes, causing both axon growth promotion and inhibition. Previous studies have suggested that specific GSK3 substrates, such as adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2), support axon growth by regulating the stability of axonal microtubules (MTs), but the substrate(s) and mechanisms conveying axon growth inhibition remain elusive. Here we show that CLIP (cytoplasmic linker protein)-associated protein (CLASP), originally identified as a MT plus end-binding protein, displays both plus end-binding and lattice-binding activities in nerve growth cones, and reveal that the two MT-binding activities regulate axon growth in an opposing manner: The lattice-binding activity mediates axon growth inhibition induced by suppression of GSK3 activity via preventing MT protrusion into the growth cone periphery, whereas the plus end-binding property supports axon extension via stabilizing the growing ends of axonal MTs. We propose a model in which CLASP transduces GSK3 activity levels to differentially control axon growth by coordinating the stability and configuration of growth cone MTs. PMID:21937714

  4. Finding the Cell Center by a Balance of Dynein and Myosin Pulling and Microtubule Pushing: A Computational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Burakov, Anton; Rodionov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    The centrosome position in many types of interphase cells is actively maintained in the cell center. Our previous work indicated that the centrosome is kept at the center by pulling force generated by dynein and actin flow produced by myosin contraction and that an unidentified factor that depends on microtubule dynamics destabilizes position of the centrosome. Here, we use modeling to simulate the centrosome positioning based on the idea that the balance of three forces—dyneins pulling along microtubule length, myosin-powered centripetal drag, and microtubules pushing on organelles—is responsible for the centrosome displacement. By comparing numerical predictions with centrosome behavior in wild-type and perturbed interphase cells, we rule out several plausible hypotheses about the nature of the microtubule-based force. We conclude that strong dynein- and weaker myosin-generated forces pull the microtubules inward competing with microtubule plus-ends pushing the microtubule aster outward and that the balance of these forces positions the centrosome at the cell center. The model also predicts that kinesin action could be another outward-pushing force. Simulations demonstrate that the force-balance centering mechanism is robust yet versatile. We use the experimental observations to reverse engineer the characteristic forces and centrosome mobility. PMID:20980619

  5. Three-dimensional fine structure of the organization of microtubules in neurite varicosities by ultra-high voltage electron microscope tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Tomoki; Yoshimura, Ryoichi; Endo, Yasuhisa

    2017-09-01

    Neurite varicosities are highly specialized compartments that are involved in neurotransmitter/ neuromodulator release and provide a physiological platform for neural functions. However, it remains unclear how microtubule organization contributes to the form of varicosity. Here, we examine the three-dimensional structure of microtubules in varicosities of a differentiated PC12 neural cell line using ultra-high voltage electron microscope tomography. Three-dimensional imaging showed that a part of the varicosities contained an accumulation of organelles that were separated from parallel microtubule arrays. Further detailed analysis using serial sections and whole-mount tomography revealed microtubules running in a spindle shape of swelling in some other types of varicosities. These electron tomographic results showed that the structural diversity and heterogeneity of microtubule organization supported the form of varicosities, suggesting that a different distribution pattern of microtubules in varicosities is crucial to the regulation of varicosities development.

  6. Proteomic analysis of trans-hemispheric motor cortex reorganization following contralateral C7 nerve transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yin; Xu, Xiu-yue; Lao, Jie; Zhao, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Nerve transfer is the most common treatment for total brachial plexus avulsion injury. After nerve transfer, the movement of the injured limb may be activated by certain movements of the healthy limb at the early stage of recovery, i.e., trans-hemispheric reorganization. Previous studies have focused on functional magnetic resonance imaging and changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and growth associated protein 43, but there have been no proteomics studies. In this study, we designed a rat model of total brachial plexus avulsion injury involving contralateral C7 nerve transfer. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation and western blot assay were then used to screen differentially expressed proteins in bilateral motor cortices. We found that most differentially expressed proteins in both cortices of upper limb were associated with nervous system development and function (including neuron differentiation and development, axonogenesis, and guidance), microtubule and cytoskeleton organization, synapse plasticity, and transmission of nerve impulses. Two key differentially expressed proteins, neurofilament light (NFL) and Thy-1, were identified. In contralateral cortex, the NFL level was upregulated 2 weeks after transfer and downregulated at 1 and 5 months. The Thy-1 level was upregulated from 1 to 5 months. In the affected cortex, the NFL level increased gradually from 1 to 5 months. Western blot results of key differentially expressed proteins were consistent with the proteomic findings. These results indicate that NFL and Thy-1 play an important role in trans-hemispheric organization following total brachial plexus root avulsion and contralateral C7 nerve transfer. PMID:29557385

  7. Casein Kinase 2 Reverses Tail-Independent Inactivation of Kinesin-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing

    2013-03-01

    Kinesin-1 is a plus-end microtubule-based motor, and defects in kinesin-based transport are linked to diseases including neurodegeneration. Kinesin can auto-inhibit via a head-tail interaction, but is believed to be active otherwise. Here we report a tail-independent inactivation of kinesin, reversible by the disease-relevant signalling protein, casein kinase 2 (CK2). The majority of initially active kinesin (native or tail-less) loses its ability to interact with microtubules in vitro, and CK2 reverses this inactivation (approximately fourfold) without altering kinesin's single motor properties. This activation pathway does not require motor phosphorylation, and is independent of head-tail auto-inhibition. In cultured mammalian cells, reducing CK2 expression, but not its kinase activity, decreases the force required to stall lipid droplet transport, consistent with a decreased number of active kinesin motors. Our results (Nat. Commun., 3:754, 2012) provide the first direct evidence of a protein kinase upregulating kinesin-based transport, and suggest a novel pathway for regulating the activity of cargo-bound kinesin. Work supported by NIGMS grants GM64624 to SPG, GM74830-06A1 to LH, GM76516 to LB, NS048501 to SJK, and AHA grant 825278F to JX.

  8. Erucin, the major isothiocyanate in arugula (Eruca sativa, inhibits proliferation of MCF7 tumor cells by suppressing microtubule dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Azarenko

    Full Text Available Consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with reduced risk of various types of cancer. Isothiocyanates including sulforaphane and erucin are believed to be responsible for this activity. Erucin [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylthiobutane], which is metabolically and structurally related to sulforaphane, is present in large quantities in arugula (Eruca sativa, Mill., kohlrabi and Chinese cabbage. However, its cancer preventive mechanisms remain poorly understood. We found that erucin inhibits proliferation of MCF7 breast cancer cells (IC50 = 28 µM in parallel with cell cycle arrest at mitosis (IC50 = 13 µM and apoptosis, by a mechanism consistent with impairment of microtubule dynamics. Concentrations of 5-15 µM erucin suppressed the dynamic instability of microtubules during interphase in the cells. Most dynamic instability parameters were inhibited, including the rates and extents of growing and shortening, the switching frequencies between growing and shortening, and the overall dynamicity. Much higher erucin concentrations were required to reduce the microtubule polymer mass. In addition, erucin suppressed dynamic instability of microtubules reassembled from purified tubulin in similar fashion. The effects of erucin on microtubule dynamics, like those of sulforaphane, are similar qualitatively to those of much more powerful clinically-used microtubule-targeting anticancer drugs, including taxanes and the vinca alkaloids. The results suggest that suppression of microtubule dynamics by erucin and the resulting impairment of critically important microtubule-dependent cell functions such as mitosis, cell migration and microtubule-based transport may be important in its cancer preventive activities.

  9. Identification and characterization of SSE15206, a microtubule depolymerizing agent that overcomes multidrug resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Manzoor, Safia

    2018-02-13

    Microtubules are highly dynamic structures that form spindle fibres during mitosis and are one of the most validated cancer targets. The success of drugs targeting microtubules, however, is often limited by the development of multidrug resistance. Here we describe the discovery and characterization of SSE15206, a pyrazolinethioamide derivative [3-phenyl-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothioamide] that has potent antiproliferative activities in cancer cell lines of different origins and overcomes resistance to microtubule-targeting agents. Treatment of cells with SSE15206 causes aberrant mitosis resulting in G2/M arrest due to incomplete spindle formation, a phenotype often associated with drugs that interfere with microtubule dynamics. SSE15206 inhibits microtubule polymerization both in biochemical and cellular assays by binding to colchicine site in tubulin as shown by docking and competition studies. Prolonged treatment of cells with the compound results in apoptotic cell death [increased Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and Annexin V/PI staining] accompanied by p53 induction. More importantly, we demonstrate that SSE15206 is able to overcome resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs in different cancer cell lines including multidrug-resistant KB-V1 and A2780-Pac-Res cell lines overexpressing MDR-1, making it a promising hit for the lead optimization studies to target multidrug resistance.

  10. Artificial molecular motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassem, Salma; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Lubbe, Anouk S.; Wilson, Miriam R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Leigh, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Motor proteins are nature's solution for directing movement at the molecular level. The field of artificial molecular motors takes inspiration from these tiny but powerful machines. Although directional motion on the nanoscale performed by synthetic molecular machines is a relatively new

  11. DNA-assisted swarm control in a biomolecular motor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keya, Jakia Jannat; Suzuki, Ryuhei; Kabir, Arif Md Rashedul; Inoue, Daisuke; Asanuma, Hiroyuki; Sada, Kazuki; Hess, Henry; Kuzuya, Akinori; Kakugo, Akira

    2018-01-31

    In nature, swarming behavior has evolved repeatedly among motile organisms because it confers a variety of beneficial emergent properties. These include improved information gathering, protection from predators, and resource utilization. Some organisms, e.g., locusts, switch between solitary and swarm behavior in response to external stimuli. Aspects of swarming behavior have been demonstrated for motile supramolecular systems composed of biomolecular motors and cytoskeletal filaments, where cross-linkers induce large scale organization. The capabilities of such supramolecular systems may be further extended if the swarming behavior can be programmed and controlled. Here, we demonstrate that the swarming of DNA-functionalized microtubules (MTs) propelled by surface-adhered kinesin motors can be programmed and reversibly regulated by DNA signals. Emergent swarm behavior, such as translational and circular motion, can be selected by tuning the MT stiffness. Photoresponsive DNA containing azobenzene groups enables switching between solitary and swarm behavior in response to stimulation with visible or ultraviolet light.

  12. Bidirectional motility of the fission yeast kinesin-5, Cut7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edamatsu, Masaki, E-mail: cedam@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Motile properties of Cut7 (fission yeast kinesin-5) were studied for the first time. • Half-length Cut7 moved toward plus-end direction of microtubule. • Full-length Cut7 moved toward minus-end direction of microtubule. • N- and C-terminal microtubule binding sites did not switch the motile direction. - Abstract: Kinesin-5 is a homotetrameric motor with its motor domain at the N-terminus. Kinesin-5 crosslinks microtubules and functions in separating spindle poles during mitosis. In this study, the motile properties of Cut7, fission yeast kinesin-5, were examined for the first time. In in vitro motility assays, full-length Cut7 moved toward minus-end of microtubules, but the N-terminal half of Cut7 moved toward the opposite direction. Furthermore, additional truncated constructs lacking the N-terminal or C-terminal regions, but still contained the motor domain, did not switch the motile direction. These indicated that Cut7 was a bidirectional motor, and microtubule binding regions at the N-terminus and C-terminus were not involved in its directionality.

  13. Nesprin-1α-Dependent Microtubule Nucleation from the Nuclear Envelope via Akap450 Is Necessary for Nuclear Positioning in Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimpel, Petra; Lee, Yin Loon; Sobota, Radoslaw M; Calvi, Alessandra; Koullourou, Victoria; Patel, Rutti; Mamchaoui, Kamel; Nédélec, François; Shackleton, Sue; Schmoranzer, Jan; Burke, Brian; Cadot, Bruno; Gomes, Edgar R

    2017-10-09

    The nucleus is the main microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) in muscle cells due to the accumulation of centrosomal proteins and microtubule (MT) nucleation activity at the nuclear envelope (NE) [1-4]. The relocalization of centrosomal proteins, including Pericentrin, Pcm1, and γ-tubulin, depends on Nesprin-1, an outer nuclear membrane (ONM) protein that connects the nucleus to the cytoskeleton via its N-terminal region [5-7]. Nesprins are also involved in the recruitment of kinesin to the NE and play a role in nuclear positioning in skeletal muscle cells [8-12]. However, a function for MT nucleation from the NE in nuclear positioning has not been established. Using the proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID) method [13, 14], we found several centrosomal proteins, including Akap450, Pcm1, and Pericentrin, whose association with Nesprin-1α is increased in differentiated myotubes. We show that Nesprin-1α recruits Akap450 to the NE independently of kinesin and that Akap450, but not other centrosomal proteins, is required for MT nucleation from the NE. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this mechanism is disrupted in congenital muscular dystrophy patient myotubes carrying a nonsense mutation within the SYNE1 gene (23560 G>T) encoding Nesprin-1 [15, 16]. Finally, using computer simulation and cell culture systems, we provide evidence for a role of MT nucleation from the NE on nuclear spreading in myotubes. Our data thus reveal a novel function for Nesprin-1α/Nesprin-1 in nuclear positioning through recruitment of Akap450-mediated MT nucleation activity to the NE. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Cucurbitacin B inhibits human breast cancer cell proliferation through disruption of microtubule polymerization and nucleophosmin/B23 translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangmano Suwit

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucurbitacin B, an oxygenated tetracyclic triterpenoid compound extracted from the Thai medicinal plant Trichosanthes cucumerina L., has been reported to have several biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anticancer. Cucurbitacin B is great of interest because of its biological activity. This agent inhibits growth of various types of human cancer cells lines. Methods In this study, we explored the novel molecular response of cucurbitacin B in human breast cancer cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. The growth inhibitory effect of cucurbitacin B on breast cancer cells was assessed by MTT assay. The effects of cucurbitacin B on microtubules morphological structure and tubulin polymerization were analyzed using immunofluorescence technique and tubulin polymerization assay kit, respectively. Proteomic analysis was used to identify the target-specific proteins that involved in cucurbitacin B treatment. Some of the differentially expressed genes and protein products were validated by real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Cell cycle distributions and apoptosis were investigated using flow cytometry. Results Cucurbitacin B exhibited strong antiproliferative effects against breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. We show that cucurbitacin B prominently alters the cytoskeletal network of breast cancer cells, inducing rapid morphologic changes and improper polymerization of the microtubule network. Moreover, the results of 2D-PAGE, real-time RT-PCR, and western blot analysis revealed that the expression of nucleophosmin/B23 and c-Myc decreased markedly after cucurbitacin B treatment. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that cucurbitacin B induced translocation of nucleophosmin/B23 from the nucleolus to nucleoplasm. Treatment with cucurbitacin B resulted in cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and the enhancement of apoptosis. Conclusions Our findings suggest that cucurbitacin B may inhibit the

  15. Katanin spiral and ring structures shed light on power stroke for microtubule severing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehr, Elena; Szyk, Agnieszka; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Szczesna, Ewa; Zuo, Xiaobing; Roll-Mecak, Antonina

    2017-08-07

    Microtubule-severing enzymes katanin, spastin and fidgetin are AAA ATPases critical for the biogenesis and maintenance of complex microtubule arrays in axons, spindles and cilia. Because of a lack of 3D structures, their mechanism has remained poorly understood. We report the first X-ray structure of the monomeric AAA katanin module and cryo-EM reconstructions of the hexamer in two conformations. These reveal an unexpected asymmetric arrangement of the AAA domains mediated by structural elements unique to severing enzymes and critical for their function. Our reconstructions show that katanin cycles between open spiral and closed ring conformations, depending on the ATP occupancy of a gating protomer that tenses or relaxes inter-protomer interfaces. Cycling of the hexamer between these conformations would provide the power stroke for microtubule severing.

  16. Generation of an isogenic, gene-corrected iPSC line from a pre-symptomatic 28-year-old woman with an R406W mutation in the microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimsanor, Natakarn; Poulsen, Ulla; Rasmussen, Mikkel A.

    2016-01-01

    pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise to model FTDP-17 as such cells can be differentiated in vitro to the required cell type. Furthermore, gene-editing approaches allow generating isogenic gene-corrected controls that can be used as a very specific control. Here, we report the generation......Frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17q21.2 (FTDP-17) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder. Mutations in the MAPT (microtubule-associated protein tau) gene can cause FTDP-17, but the underlying pathomechanisms of the disease are still unknown. Induced...... of genetically corrected iPSCs from a pre-symptomatic carrier of the R406W mutation in the MAPT-gene....

  17. Cortical movement of Bicoid in early Drosophila embryos is actin- and microtubule-dependent and disagrees with the SDD diffusion model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Cai

    Full Text Available The Bicoid (Bcd protein gradient in Drosophila serves as a paradigm for gradient formation in textbooks. The SDD model (synthesis, diffusion, degradation was proposed to explain the formation of the gradient. The SDD model states that the bcd mRNA is located at the anterior pole of the embryo at all times and serves a source for translation of the Bicoid protein, coupled with diffusion and uniform degradation throughout the embryo. Recently, the ARTS model (active RNA transport, synthesis challenged the SDD model. In this model, the mRNA is transported at the cortex along microtubules to form a mRNA gradient which serves as template for the production of Bcd, hence little Bcd movement is involved. To test the validity of the SDD model, we developed a sensitive assay to monitor the movement of Bcd during early nuclear cycles. We observed that Bcd moved along the cortex and not in a broad front towards the posterior as the SDD model would have predicted. We subjected embryos to hypoxia where the mRNA remained strictly located at the tip at all times, while the protein was allowed to move freely, thus conforming to an ideal experimental setup to test the SDD model. Unexpectedly, Bcd still moved along the cortex. Moreover, cortical Bcd movement was sparse, even under longer hypoxic conditions. Hypoxic embryos treated with drugs compromising microtubule and actin function affected Bcd cortical movement and stability. Vinblastine treatment allowed the simulation of an ideal SDD model whereby the protein moved throughout the embryo in a broad front. In unfertilized embryos, the Bcd protein followed the mRNA which itself was transported into the interior of the embryo utilizing a hitherto undiscovered microtubular network. Our data suggest that the Bcd gradient formation is probably more complex than previously anticipated.

  18. Protein synthesis is essential not only for consolidation but also for maintenance and post-retrieval reconsolidation of acrobatic motor skill in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ji-Yun; Li, Bao-Ming

    2009-05-28

    It has been reported that consolidation of motor skill, a type of non-declarative memories, requires protein synthesis, as hippocampus-dependent declarative memory does. However, little is known about the importance of protein synthesis in maintenance and especially post-retrieval reconsolidation of acrobatic motor skill. Here, we show that protein synthesis is essential not only for the consolidation but also for the maintenance and reconsolidation of a rotarod-running skill. Intra-ventricle infusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin 0 h but not 2 h post-training caused a severe deficit in the acquisition of the rotarod-running skill. Protein synthesis inhibition (PSI) also caused a deficit in the maintenance of the rotarod-running skill, as well-trained rats demonstrated a deficit in the rotarod-running performance upon treatment with anisomycin. Similarly, PSI impaired the post-retrieval reconsolidation of the rotarod-running skill: well-trained rats treated with anisomycin 0 h but not 0.5, 2 and 4 h after the task performance exhibited amnesia for the running skill later on. Interestingly, rats treated with anisomycin 6 and 12 h post-retrieval exhibited amnesia for the running skill. Thus, protein synthesis is essential not only for the consolidation but also for the maintenance and post-retrieval reconsolidation of rotarod-running acrobatic motor skill.

  19. Controllable molecular motors engineered from myosin and RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omabegho, Tosan; Gurel, Pinar S.; Cheng, Clarence Y.; Kim, Laura Y.; Ruijgrok, Paul V.; Das, Rhiju; Alushin, Gregory M.; Bryant, Zev

    2018-01-01

    Engineering biomolecular motors can provide direct tests of structure-function relationships and customized components for controlling molecular transport in artificial systems1 or in living cells2. Previously, synthetic nucleic acid motors3-5 and modified natural protein motors6-10 have been developed in separate complementary strategies to achieve tunable and controllable motor function. Integrating protein and nucleic-acid components to form engineered nucleoprotein motors may enable additional sophisticated functionalities. However, this potential has only begun to be explored in pioneering work harnessing DNA scaffolds to dictate the spacing, number and composition of tethered protein motors11-15. Here, we describe myosin motors that incorporate RNA lever arms, forming hybrid assemblies in which conformational changes in the protein motor domain are amplified and redirected by nucleic acid structures. The RNA lever arm geometry determines the speed and direction of motor transport and can be dynamically controlled using programmed transitions in the lever arm structure7,9. We have characterized the hybrid motors using in vitro motility assays, single-molecule tracking, cryo-electron microscopy and structural probing16. Our designs include nucleoprotein motors that reversibly change direction in response to oligonucleotides that drive strand-displacement17 reactions. In multimeric assemblies, the controllable motors walk processively along actin filaments at speeds of 10-20 nm s-1. Finally, to illustrate the potential for multiplexed addressable control, we demonstrate sequence-specific responses of RNA variants to oligonucleotide signals.

  20. Dynein Clusters into Lipid Microdomains on Phagosomes to Drive Rapid Transport toward Lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Ashim; Pathak, Divya; Thakur, Shreyasi; Singh, Shampa; Dubey, Alok Kumar; Mallik, Roop

    2016-02-11

    Diverse cellular processes are driven by motor proteins that are recruited to and generate force on lipid membranes. Surprisingly little is known about how membranes control the force from motors and how this may impact specific cellular functions. Here, we show that dynein motors physically cluster into microdomains on the membrane of a phagosome as it matures inside cells. Such geometrical reorganization allows many dyneins within a cluster to generate cooperative force on a single microtubule. This results in rapid directed transport of the phagosome toward microtubule minus ends, likely promoting phagolysosome fusion and pathogen degradation. We show that lipophosphoglycan, the major molecule implicated in immune evasion of Leishmania donovani, inhibits phagosome motion by disrupting the clustering and therefore the cooperative force generation of dynein. These findings appear relevant to several pathogens that prevent phagosome-lysosome fusion by targeting lipid microdomains on phagosomes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Microtubule self-organisation by reaction-diffusion processes causes collective transport and organisation of cellular particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demongeot Jacques

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transport of intra-cellular particles by microtubules is a major biological function. Under appropriate in vitro conditions, microtubule preparations behave as a 'complex' system and show 'emergent' phenomena. In particular, they form dissipative structures that self-organise over macroscopic distances by a combination of reaction and diffusion. Results Here, we show that self-organisation also gives rise to a collective transport of colloidal particles along a specific direction. Particles, such as polystyrene beads, chromosomes, nuclei, and vesicles are carried at speeds of several microns per minute. The process also results in the macroscopic self-organisation of these particles. After self-organisation is completed, they show the same pattern of organisation as the microtubules. Numerical simulations of a population of growing and shrinking microtubules, incorporating experimentally realistic reaction dynamics, predict self-organisation. They forecast that during self-organisation, macroscopic parallel arrays of oriented microtubules form which cross the reaction space in successive waves. Such travelling waves are capable of transporting colloidal particles. The fact that in the simulations, the aligned arrays move along the same direction and at the same speed as the particles move, suggest that this process forms the underlying mechanism for the observed transport properties. Conclusions This process constitutes a novel physical chemical mechanism by which chemical energy is converted into collective transport of colloidal particles along a given direction. Self-organisation of this type provides a new mechanism by which intra cellular particles such as chromosomes and vesicles can be displaced and simultaneously organised by microtubules. It is plausible that processes of this type occur in vivo.

  2. Microtubule self-organisation by reaction-diffusion processes causes collective transport and organisation of cellular particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glade, Nicolas; Demongeot, Jacques; Tabony, James

    2004-01-01

    Background The transport of intra-cellular particles by microtubules is a major biological function. Under appropriate in vitro conditions, microtubule preparations behave as a 'complex' system and show 'emergent' phenomena. In particular, they form dissipative structures that self-organise over macroscopic distances by a combination of reaction and diffusion. Results Here, we show that self-organisation also gives rise to a collective transport of colloidal particles along a specific direction. Particles, such as polystyrene beads, chromosomes, nuclei, and vesicles are carried at speeds of several microns per minute. The process also results in the macroscopic self-organisation of these particles. After self-organisation is completed, they show the same pattern of organisation as the microtubules. Numerical simulations of a population of growing and shrinking microtubules, incorporating experimentally realistic reaction dynamics, predict self-organisation. They forecast that during self-organisation, macroscopic parallel arrays of oriented microtubules form which cross the reaction space in successive waves. Such travelling waves are capable of transporting colloidal particles. The fact that in the simulations, the aligned arrays move along the same direction and at the same speed as the particles move, suggest that this process forms the underlying mechanism for the observed transport properties. Conclusions This process constitutes a novel physical chemical mechanism by which chemical energy is converted into collective transport of colloidal particles along a given direction. Self-organisation of this type provides a new mechanism by which intra cellular particles such as chromosomes and vesicles can be displaced and simultaneously organised by microtubules. It is plausible that processes of this type occur in vivo. PMID:15176973

  3. Mechanisms of protein misfolding: Novel therapeutic approaches to protein-misfolding diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salahuddin, Parveen; Siddiqi, Mohammad Khursheed; Khan, Sanaullah

    2016-01-01

    ’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Prion disease and Amylo lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Furthermore, tau protein shows intrinsically disorder conformation; therefore its interaction with microtubule is impaired and this protein undergoes aggregation. This is also underlying cause of Alzheimers and other......In protein misfolding, protein molecule acquires wrong tertiary structure, thereby induces protein misfolding diseases. Protein misfolding can occur through various mechanisms. For instance, changes in environmental conditions, oxidative stress, dominant negative mutations, error in post......-translational modifications, increase in degradation rate and trafficking error. All of these factors cause protein misfolding thereby leading to diseases conditions. Both in vitro and in vivo observations suggest that partially unfolded or misfolded intermediates are particularly prone to aggregation. These partially...

  4. Microtubule organization in three-dimensional confined geometries: Evaluating the role of elasticity through a combined in vitro and modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosentino Lagomarsino, M.; Tanase, C.; Vos, J.W.; Emons, A.M.C.; Mulder, B.; Dogterom, M.

    2007-01-01

    Microtubules or microtubule bundles in cells often grow longer than the size of the cell, which causes their shape and organization to adapt to constraints imposed by the cell geometry. We test the reciprocal role of elasticity and confinement in the organization of growing microtubules in a

  5. In vivo collection of rare proteins using kinesin-based "nano-harvesters".

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachand, Marlene; Bachand, George David; Greene, Adrienne Celeste; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda

    2008-11-01

    In this project, we have developed a novel platform for capturing, transport, and separating target analytes using the work harnessed from biomolecular transport systems. Nanoharvesters were constructed by co-organizing kinesin motor proteins and antibodies on a nanocrystal quantum dot (nQD) scaffold. Attachment of kinesin and antibodies to the nQD was achieved through biotin-streptavidin non-covalent bonds. Assembly of the nanoharvesters was characterized using a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that confirmed attachment of both proteins. Nanoharvesters selective against tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and nuclear transcription factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) were capable of detecting target antigens at <100 ng/mL in ELISAs. A motility-based assay was subsequently developed using an antibody-sandwich approach in which the target antigen (TNF-{alpha}) formed a sandwich with the red-emitting nanoharvester and green-emitting detection nQD. In this format, successful sandwich formation resulted in a yellow emission associated with surface-bound microtubules. Step-wise analysis of sandwich formation suggested that the motility function of the kinesin motors was not adversely affected by either antigen capture or the subsequent binding of the detection nQDs. TNF-{alpha} was detected as low as {approx}1.5 ng/mL TNF-{alpha}, with 5.2% of the nanoharvesters successfully capturing the target analyte and detection nQDs. Overall, these results demonstrate the ability to capture target protein analytes in vitro using the kinesin-based nanoharvesters in nanofluidic environments. This system has direct relevance for lab-on-a-chip applications where pressure-driven or electrokinetic movement of fluids is impractical, and offers potential application for in vivo capture of rare proteins within the cytoplasmic domain of live cells.

  6. GPR55, a G-protein coupled receptor for lysophosphatidylinositol, plays a role in motor coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Shan Wu

    Full Text Available The G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55 is activated by lysophosphatidylinositols and some cannabinoids. Recent studies found prominent roles for GPR55 in neuropathic/inflammatory pain, cancer and bone physiology. However, little is known about the role of GPR55 in CNS development and function. To address this question, we performed a detailed characterization of GPR55 knockout mice using molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral assays. Quantitative PCR studies found that GPR55 mRNA was expressed (in order of decreasing abundance in the striatum, hippocampus, forebrain, cortex, and cerebellum. GPR55 deficiency did not affect the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids or mRNA levels for several components of the endocannabinoid system in the hippocampus. Normal synaptic transmission and short-term as well as long-term synaptic plasticity were found in GPR55 knockout CA1 pyramidal neurons. Deleting GPR55 function did not affect behavioral assays assessing muscle strength, gross motor skills, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, anxiety or depressive behaviors. In addition, GPR55 null mutant mice exhibited normal contextual and auditory-cue conditioned fear learning and memory in a Pavlovian conditioned fear test. In contrast, when presented with tasks requiring more challenging motor responses, GPR55 knockout mice showed impaired movement coordination. Taken together, these results suggest that GPR55 plays a role in motor coordination, but does not strongly regulate CNS development, gross motor movement or several types of learned behavior.

  7. GPR55, a G-protein coupled receptor for lysophosphatidylinositol, plays a role in motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Shan; Chen, Hongmei; Sun, Hao; Zhu, Jie; Jew, Chris P; Wager-Miller, James; Straiker, Alex; Spencer, Corinne; Bradshaw, Heather; Mackie, Ken; Lu, Hui-Chen

    2013-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is activated by lysophosphatidylinositols and some cannabinoids. Recent studies found prominent roles for GPR55 in neuropathic/inflammatory pain, cancer and bone physiology. However, little is known about the role of GPR55 in CNS development and function. To address this question, we performed a detailed characterization of GPR55 knockout mice using molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral assays. Quantitative PCR studies found that GPR55 mRNA was expressed (in order of decreasing abundance) in the striatum, hippocampus, forebrain, cortex, and cerebellum. GPR55 deficiency did not affect the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids or mRNA levels for several components of the endocannabinoid system in the hippocampus. Normal synaptic transmission and short-term as well as long-term synaptic plasticity were found in GPR55 knockout CA1 pyramidal neurons. Deleting GPR55 function did not affect behavioral assays assessing muscle strength, gross motor skills, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, anxiety or depressive behaviors. In addition, GPR55 null mutant mice exhibited normal contextual and auditory-cue conditioned fear learning and memory in a Pavlovian conditioned fear test. In contrast, when presented with tasks requiring more challenging motor responses, GPR55 knockout mice showed impaired movement coordination. Taken together, these results suggest that GPR55 plays a role in motor coordination, but does not strongly regulate CNS development, gross motor movement or several types of learned behavior.

  8. Xyloglucan Deficiency Disrupts Microtubule Stability and Cellulose Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, Altering Cell Growth and Morphogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Chaowen; Zhang, Tian; Zheng, Yunzhen; Cosgrove, Daniel J.; Anderson, Charles T.

    2015-11-02

    Xyloglucan constitutes most of the hemicellulose in eudicot primary cell walls and functions in cell wall structure and mechanics. Although Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) xxt1 xxt2 mutants lacking detectable xyloglucan are viable, they display growth defects that are suggestive of alterations in wall integrity. To probe the mechanisms underlying these defects, we analyzed cellulose arrangement, microtubule patterning and dynamics, microtubule- and wall-integrity-related gene expression, and cellulose biosynthesis in xxt1 xxt2 plants. We found that cellulose is highly aligned in xxt1 xxt2 cell walls, that its three-dimensional distribution is altered, and that microtubule patterning and stability are aberrant in etiolated xxt1 xxt2 hypocotyls. We also found that the expression levels of microtubule-associated genes, such as MAP70-5 and CLASP, and receptor genes, such as HERK1 and WAK1, were changed in xxt1 xxt2 plants and that cellulose synthase motility is reduced in xxt1 xxt2 cells, corresponding with a reduction in cellulose content. Our results indicate that loss of xyloglucan affects both the stability of the microtubule cytoskeleton and the production and patterning of cellulose in primary cell walls. These findings establish, to our knowledge, new links between wall integrity, cytoskeletal dynamics, and wall synthesis in the regulation of plant morphogenesis.

  9. Capu and Spire Assemble a Cytoplasmic Actin~Mesh that Maintains Microtubule Organization in the Drosophila Oocyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, K.; Raposo, A.A.S.F.; Niccoli, T.

    2007-01-01

    Mutants in the actin nucleators Cappuccino and Spire disrupt the polarized microtubule network in the Drosophila oocyte that defines the anterior-posterior axis, suggesting that microtubule organization depends on actin. Here, we show that Cappuccino and Spire organize an isotropic mesh of actin...

  10. Dynamics of actin cables in polarized growth of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eBergs

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Highly polarized growth of filamentous fungi requires a continuous supply of proteins and lipids to the hyphal tip. This transport is managed by vesicle trafficking via the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons and their associated motor proteins. Particularly, actin cables originating from the hyphal tip are essential for hyphal growth. Although specific marker proteins to visualize actin cables have been developed in filamentous fungi, the exact organization and dynamics of actin cables has remained elusive. Here we visualized actin cables using tropomyosin (TpmA and Lifeact fused to fluorescent proteins in Aspergillus nidulans and studied the dynamics and regulation. GFP tagged TpmA visualized dynamic actin cables formed from the hyphal tip with cycles of elongation and shrinkage. The elongation and shrinkage rates of actin cables were similar and approximately 0.6 μm/s. Comparison of actin markers revealed that high concentrations of Lifeact reduced actin dynamics. Simultaneous visualization of actin cables and microtubules suggests temporally and spatially coordinated polymerization and depolymerization between the two cytoskeletons. Our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of ordered polarized growth regulated by actin cables and microtubules.

  11. Nuclear translocation of doublecortin-like protein kinase and phosphorylation of a transcription factor JDP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagamine, Tadashi; Nomada, Shohgo; Onouchi, Takashi; Kameshita, Isamu; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki, E-mail: sueyoshi@ag.kagawa-u.ac.jp

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Doublecortin-like protein kinase (DCLK) is a microtubule-associated protein kinase. • In living cells, DCLK was cleaved into two functional fragments. • zDCLK(kinase) was translocated into the nucleus by osmotic stresses. • Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2) was identified as zDCLK(kinase)-binding protein. • JDP2 was efficiently phosphorylated by zDCLK(kinase) only when histone was present. - Abstract: Doublecortin-like protein kinase (DCLK) is a microtubule-associated protein kinase predominantly expressed in brain. In a previous paper, we reported that zebrafish DCLK2 (zDCLK) was cleaved into two functional fragments; the N-terminal zDCLK(DC + SP) with microtubule-binding activity and the C-terminal zDCLK(kinase) with a Ser/Thr protein kinase activity. In this study, we demonstrated that zDCLK(kinase) was widely distributed in the cytoplasm and translocated into the nucleus when the cells were treated under hyperosmotic conditions with NaCl or mannitol. By two-hybrid screening using the C-terminal domain of DCLK, Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2), a nuclear transcription factor, was identified as zDCLK(kinase)-binding protein. Furthermore, JDP2 served as an efficient substrate for zDCLK(kinase) only when histone was present. These results suggest that the kinase fragment of DCLK is translocated into the nucleus upon hyperosmotic stresses and that the kinase efficiently phosphorylates JDP2, a possible target in the nucleus, with the aid of histones.

  12. α-Tubulin Tyrosination and CLIP-170 Phosphorylation Regulate the Initiation of Dynein-Driven Transport in Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. Nirschl

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Motor-cargo recruitment to microtubules is often the rate-limiting step of intracellular transport, and defects in this recruitment can cause neurodegenerative disease. Here, we use in vitro reconstitution assays with single-molecule resolution, live-cell transport assays in primary neurons, computational image analysis, and computer simulations to investigate the factors regulating retrograde transport initiation in the distal axon. We find that phosphorylation of the cytoskeletal-organelle linker protein CLIP-170 and post-translational modifications of the microtubule track combine to precisely control the initiation of retrograde transport. Computer simulations of organelle dynamics in the distal axon indicate that while CLIP-170 primarily regulates the time to microtubule encounter, the tyrosination state of the microtubule lattice regulates the likelihood of binding. These mechanisms interact to control transport initiation in the axon in a manner sensitive to the specialized cytoskeletal architecture of the neuron.

  13. Functional recovery of regenerating motor axons is delayed in mice heterozygously deficient for the myelin protein P(0) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosberg, Mette Romer; Alvarez, Susana; Krarup, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Mice with a heterozygous knock-out of the myelin