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Sample records for microsatellite genetic map

  1. A Microsatellite Genetic Map of the Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

    Bouza, Carmen; Hermida, Miguel; Pardo, Belén G.; Fernández, Carlos; Fortes, Gloria G.; Castro, Jaime; Sánchez, Laura; Presa, Pablo; Pérez, Montse; Sanjuán, Andrés; de Carlos, Alejandro; Álvarez-Dios, José Antonio; Ezcurra, Susana; Cal, Rosa M.; Piferrer, Francesc; Martínez, Paulino

    2007-01-01

    A consensus microsatellite-based linkage map of the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) was constructed from two unrelated families. The mapping panel was derived from a gynogenetic family of 96 haploid embryos and a biparental diploid family of 85 full-sib progeny with known linkage phase. A total of 242 microsatellites were mapped in 26 linkage groups, six markers remaining unlinked. The consensus map length was 1343.2 cM, with an average distance between markers of 6.5 ± 0.5 cM. Similar length of female and male maps was evidenced. However, the mean recombination at common intervals throughout the genome revealed significant differences between sexes, ∼1.6 times higher in the female than in the male. The comparison of turbot microsatellite flanking sequences against the Tetraodon nigroviridis genome revealed 55 significant matches, with a mean length of 102 bp and high sequence similarity (81–100%). The comparative mapping revealed significant syntenic regions among fish species. This study represents the first linkage map in the turbot, one of the most important flatfish in European aquaculture. This map will be suitable for QTL identification of productive traits in this species and for further evolutionary studies in fish and vertebrate species. PMID:18073440

  2. An annotated genetic map of loblolly pine based on microsatellite and cDNA markers

    Craig S. Echt; Surya Saha; Konstantin V. Krutovsky; Kokulapalan Wimalanathan; John E. Erpelding; Chun Liang; C Dana Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Previous loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genetic linkage maps have been based on a variety of DNA polymorphisms, such as AFLPs, RAPDs, RFLPs, and ESTPs, but only a few SSRs (simple sequence repeats), also known as simple tandem repeats or microsatellites, have been mapped in P. taeda. The objective of this study was to integrate a large set of SSR markers from a variety...

  3. An annotated genetic map of loblolly pine based on microsatellite and cDNA markers

    Previous loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genetic linkage maps have been based on a variety of DNA polymorphisms, such as AFLPs, RAPDs, RFLPs, and ESTPs, but only a few SSRs (simple sequence repeats), also known as simple tandem repeats or microsatellites, have been mapped in P. taeda. The objective o...

  4. An annotated genetic map of loblolly pine based on microsatellite and cDNA markers

    Wimalanathan Kokulapalan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. genetic linkage maps have been based on a variety of DNA polymorphisms, such as AFLPs, RAPDs, RFLPs, and ESTPs, but only a few SSRs (simple sequence repeats, also known as simple tandem repeats or microsatellites, have been mapped in P. taeda. The objective of this study was to integrate a large set of SSR markers from a variety of sources and published cDNA markers into a composite P. taeda genetic map constructed from two reference mapping pedigrees. A dense genetic map that incorporates SSR loci will benefit complete pine genome sequencing, pine population genetics studies, and pine breeding programs. Careful marker annotation using a variety of references further enhances the utility of the integrated SSR map. Results The updated P. taeda genetic map, with an estimated genome coverage of 1,515 cM(Kosambi across 12 linkage groups, incorporated 170 new SSR markers and 290 previously reported SSR, RFLP, and ESTP markers. The average marker interval was 3.1 cM. Of 233 mapped SSR loci, 84 were from cDNA-derived sequences (EST-SSRs and 149 were from non-transcribed genomic sequences (genomic-SSRs. Of all 311 mapped cDNA-derived markers, 77% were associated with NCBI Pta UniGene clusters, 67% with RefSeq proteins, and 62% with functional Gene Ontology (GO terms. Duplicate (i.e., redundant accessory and paralogous markers were tentatively identified by evaluating marker sequences by their UniGene cluster IDs, clone IDs, and relative map positions. The average gene diversity, He, among polymorphic SSR loci, including those that were not mapped, was 0.43 for 94 EST-SSRs and 0.72 for 83 genomic-SSRs. The genetic map can be viewed and queried at http://www.conifergdb.org/pinemap. Conclusions Many polymorphic and genetically mapped SSR markers are now available for use in P. taeda population genetics, studies of adaptive traits, and various germplasm management applications. Annotating mapped

  5. Development and Integration of Genome-Wide Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers onto a Reference Linkage Map for Constructing a High-Density Genetic Map of Chickpea.

    Yash Paul Khajuria

    Full Text Available The identification of informative in silico polymorphic genomic and genic microsatellite markers by comparing the genome and transcriptome sequences of crop genotypes is a rapid, cost-effective and non-laborious approach for large-scale marker validation and genotyping applications, including construction of high-density genetic maps. We designed 1494 markers, including 1016 genomic and 478 transcript-derived microsatellite markers showing in-silico fragment length polymorphism between two parental genotypes (Cicer arietinum ICC4958 and C. reticulatum PI489777 of an inter-specific reference mapping population. High amplification efficiency (87%, experimental validation success rate (81% and polymorphic potential (55% of these microsatellite markers suggest their effective use in various applications of chickpea genetics and breeding. Intra-specific polymorphic potential (48% detected by microsatellite markers in 22 desi and kabuli chickpea genotypes was lower than inter-specific polymorphic potential (59%. An advanced, high-density, integrated and inter-specific chickpea genetic map (ICC4958 x PI489777 having 1697 map positions spanning 1061.16 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 0.625 cM was constructed by assigning 634 novel informative transcript-derived and genomic microsatellite markers on eight linkage groups (LGs of our prior documented, 1063 marker-based genetic map. The constructed genome map identified 88, including four major (7-23 cM longest high-resolution genomic regions on LGs 3, 5 and 8, where the maximum number of novel genomic and genic microsatellite markers were specifically clustered within 1 cM genetic distance. It was for the first time in chickpea that in silico FLP analysis at genome-wide level was carried out and such a large number of microsatellite markers were identified, experimentally validated and further used in genetic mapping. To best of our knowledge, in the presently constructed genetic map, we mapped

  6. A microsatellite linkage map of Drosophila mojavensis

    Schully Sheri

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drosophila mojavensis has been a model system for genetic studies of ecological adaptation and speciation. However, despite its use for over half a century, no linkage map has been produced for this species or its close relatives. Results We have developed and mapped 90 microsatellites in D. mojavensis, and we present a detailed recombinational linkage map of 34 of these microsatellites. A slight excess of repetitive sequence was observed on the X-chromosome relative to the autosomes, and the linkage groups have a greater recombinational length than the homologous D. melanogaster chromosome arms. We also confirmed the conservation of Muller's elements in 23 sequences between D. melanogaster and D. mojavensis. Conclusions The microsatellite primer sequences and localizations are presented here and made available to the public. This map will facilitate future quantitative trait locus mapping studies of phenotypes involved in adaptation or reproductive isolation using this species.

  7. genetic diversity of microsatellit

    微软用户

    with inhabit inland dry gypsum soils, coastal cliffs and salt marshes (Palacios .... Twenty microsatellite loci generated a total of 117 alleles in the 102 samples of 6 .... self-incompatibility is thought to take important part in the maintenance of the ...

  8. Annotated genetic linkage maps of Pinus pinaster Ait. from a Central Spain population using microsatellite and gene based markers.

    de Miguel, Marina; de Maria, Nuria; Guevara, M Angeles; Diaz, Luis; Sáez-Laguna, Enrique; Sánchez-Gómez, David; Chancerel, Emilie; Aranda, Ismael; Collada, Carmen; Plomion, Christophe; Cabezas, José-Antonio; Cervera, María-Teresa

    2012-10-04

    Pinus pinaster Ait. is a major resin producing species in Spain. Genetic linkage mapping can facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) through the identification of Quantitative Trait Loci and selection of allelic variants of interest in breeding populations. In this study, we report annotated genetic linkage maps for two individuals (C14 and C15) belonging to a breeding program aiming to increase resin production. We use different types of DNA markers, including last-generation molecular markers. We obtained 13 and 14 linkage groups for C14 and C15 maps, respectively. A total of 211 and 215 markers were positioned on each map and estimated genome length was between 1,870 and 2,166 cM respectively, which represents near 65% of genome coverage. Comparative mapping with previously developed genetic linkage maps for P. pinaster based on about 60 common markers enabled aligning linkage groups to this reference map. The comparison of our annotated linkage maps and linkage maps reporting QTL information revealed 11 annotated SNPs in candidate genes that co-localized with previously reported QTLs for wood properties and water use efficiency. This study provides genetic linkage maps from a Spanish population that shows high levels of genetic divergence with French populations from which segregating progenies have been previously mapped. These genetic maps will be of interest to construct a reliable consensus linkage map for the species. The importance of developing functional genetic linkage maps is highlighted, especially when working with breeding populations for its future application in MAS for traits of interest.

  9. Annotated genetic linkage maps of Pinus pinaster Ait. from a Central Spain population using microsatellite and gene based markers

    de Miguel Marina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pinus pinaster Ait. is a major resin producing species in Spain. Genetic linkage mapping can facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS through the identification of Quantitative Trait Loci and selection of allelic variants of interest in breeding populations. In this study, we report annotated genetic linkage maps for two individuals (C14 and C15 belonging to a breeding program aiming to increase resin production. We use different types of DNA markers, including last-generation molecular markers. Results We obtained 13 and 14 linkage groups for C14 and C15 maps, respectively. A total of 211 and 215 markers were positioned on each map and estimated genome length was between 1,870 and 2,166 cM respectively, which represents near 65% of genome coverage. Comparative mapping with previously developed genetic linkage maps for P. pinaster based on about 60 common markers enabled aligning linkage groups to this reference map. The comparison of our annotated linkage maps and linkage maps reporting QTL information revealed 11 annotated SNPs in candidate genes that co-localized with previously reported QTLs for wood properties and water use efficiency. Conclusions This study provides genetic linkage maps from a Spanish population that shows high levels of genetic divergence with French populations from which segregating progenies have been previously mapped. These genetic maps will be of interest to construct a reliable consensus linkage map for the species. The importance of developing functional genetic linkage maps is highlighted, especially when working with breeding populations for its future application in MAS for traits of interest.

  10. Identification and genetic mapping of highly polymorphic microsatellite loci from an EST database of the septoria tritici blotch pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola.

    Goodwin, Stephen B; van der Lee, Theo A J; Cavaletto, Jessica R; Te Lintel Hekkert, Bas; Crane, Charles F; Kema, Gert H J

    2007-05-01

    A database of 30,137 EST sequences from Mycosphaerella graminicola, the septoria tritici blotch fungus of wheat, was scanned with a custom software pipeline for di- and trinucleotide units repeated tandemly six or more times. The bioinformatics analysis identified 109 putative SSR loci, and for 99 of them, flanking primers were developed successfully and tested for amplification and polymorphism by PCR on five field isolates of diverse origin, including the parents of the standard M. graminicola mapping population. Seventy-seven of the 99 primer pairs generated an easily scored banding pattern and 51 were polymorphic, with up to four alleles per locus, among the isolates tested. Among these 51 loci, 23 were polymorphic between the parents of the mapping population. Twenty-one of these as well as two previously published microsatellite loci were positioned on the existing genetic linkage map of M. graminicola on 13 of the 24 linkage groups. Most (66%) of the primer pairs also amplified bands in the closely related barley pathogen Septoria passerinii, but only six were polymorphic among four isolates tested. A subset of the primer pairs also revealed polymorphisms when tested with DNA from the related banana black leaf streak (Black Sigatoka) pathogen, M. fijiensis. The EST database provided an excellent source of new, highly polymorphic microsatellite markers that can be multiplexed for high-throughput genetic analyses of M. graminicola and related species.

  11. Microsatellites for the genus Cucurbita and an SSR-based genetic linkage map of Cucurbita pepo L.

    Gong, L.; Stift, G.; Kofler, R.; Pachner, M.

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, only a few microsatellites have been available for Cucurbita, thus their development is highly desirable. The Austrian oil-pumpkin variety Gleisdorfer Ölkürbis (C. pepo subsp. pepo) and the C. moschata cultivar Soler (Puerto Rico) were used for SSR development. SSR-enriched partial genomic libraries were established and 2,400 clones were sequenced. Of these 1,058 (44%) contained an SSR at least four repeats long. Primers were designed for 532 SSRs; 500 primer pairs produced fragments of expected size. Of these, 405 (81%) amplified polymorphic fragments in a set of 12 genotypes: three C. moschata, one C. ecuadorensis, and eight C. pepo representing all eight cultivar groups. On an average, C. pepo and C. moschata produced 3.3 alleles per primer pair, showing high inter-species transferability. There were 187 SSR markers detecting polymorphism between the USA oil-pumpkin variety “Lady Godiva” (O5) and the Italian crookneck variety “Bianco Friulano” (CN), which are the parents of our previous F2 mapping population. It has been used to construct the first published C. pepo map, containing mainly RAPD and AFLP markers. Now the updated map comprises 178 SSRs, 244 AFLPs, 230 RAPDs, five SCARs, and two morphological traits (h and B). It contains 20 linkage groups with a map density of 2.9 cM. The observed genome coverage (Co) is 86.8%. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-008-0750-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18379753

  12. Genetic Mapping

    ... greatly advanced genetics research. The improved quality of genetic data has reduced the time required to identify a ... cases, a matter of months or even weeks. Genetic mapping data generated by the HGP's laboratories is freely accessible ...

  13. A high density barley microsatellite consensus map with 775 SSR loci

    Varshney, R.K.; Marcel, T.C.; Ramsay, L.; Russell, J.; Roder, M.S.; Stein, N.; Waugh, R.; Langridge, P.; Niks, R.E.; Graner, A.

    2007-01-01

    A microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) consensus map of barley was constructed by joining six independent genetic maps based on the mapping populations 'Igri x Franka', 'Steptoe x Morex', 'OWBRec x OWBDom', 'Lina x Canada Park', 'L94 x Vada' and 'SusPtrit x Vada'. Segregation data for

  14. Dense genetic linkage maps of three Populus species (Populus deltoides, P. nigra and P. trichocarpa) based on AFLP and microsatellite markers.

    Cervera, M T; Storme, V; Ivens, B; Gusmão, J; Liu, B H; Hostyn, V; Van Slycken, J; Van Montagu, M; Boerjan, W

    2001-06-01

    Populus deltoides, P. nigra, and P. trichocarpa are the most important species for poplar breeding programs worldwide. In addition, Populus has become a model for fundamental research on trees. Linkage maps were constructed for these three species by analyzing progeny of two controlled crosses sharing the same female parent, Populus deltoides cv. S9-2 x P. nigra cv. Ghoy and P. deltoides cv. S9-2 x P. trichocarpa cv. V24. The two-way pseudotestcross mapping strategy was used to construct the maps. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers that segregated 1:1 were used to form the four parental maps. Microsatellites and sequence-tagged sites were used to align homoeologous groups between the maps and to merge linkage groups within the individual maps. Linkage analysis and alignment of the homoeologous groups resulted in 566 markers distributed over 19 groups for P. deltoides covering 86% of the genome, 339 markers distributed over 19 groups for P. trichocarpa covering 73%, and 369 markers distributed over 28 groups for P. nigra covering 61%. Several tests for randomness showed that the AFLP markers were randomly distributed over the genome.

  15. Microsatellite DNA typing for assessment of genetic variability in ...

    these microsatellite loci in measurement of genetic diversity indices in other Indian cattle breeds too. Various .... enced a recent reduction in the effective population size or a genetic ... by using the m p val.exe program (Garza and Williamson.

  16. Microsatellite analysis of the genetic relationships between wild

    In the present study, we isolated 11 microsatellite DNA markers, and analysed the genetic diversity and differentiation between cultured stocks and wild populations of the giant grouper originating from the South China Sea. A total of 390 alleles at 11 microsatellite loci were detected in 130 individuals from five different ...

  17. Spatial and population genetic structure of microsatellites in white pine

    Paula E. Marquardt; Bryan K. Epperson

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the population genetic structure of seven microsatellite loci for old growth and second growth populations of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus). From each population, located within Hartwick Pines State Park, Grayling, Michigan, USA, 120-122 contiguous trees were sampled for genetic analysis. Within each population, genetic diversity...

  18. Genetic Diversity of Three Spotted Seahorse, Hippocampus trimaculatus (Leach, 1814 in India Using Four Microsatellite Loci

    Muthusamy THANGARAJ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Seahorse populations are declining year by year not only in India but also throughout the world, because of over-fishing and increasing demand in Chinese market. The three spotted seahorse, Hippocampus trimaculatus is one of the dominant species and distributed all along the Indian coast. To study the genetic structure is very essential to conserve these species effectively. Hippocampus trimaculatus samples (n = 60/population were collected from Mullimunai in Palk Bay, Tuticorin in Gulf of Mannar and Vizhinjam in south Malabar in India as by-catch in small trawlnets. Microsatellites are being widely applied in animal genome mapping and phylogenetic analysis because of their co-dominant inheritance and high degree of polymorphism. The molecular polymorphism of microsatellite DNA has proved to be a potent tool in the analysis of several aspects of population genetics. In the present study, four microsatellite primers were used to investigate the genetic difference and structure of three selected populations of H. trimaculatus. The result showed the overall FST value (0.0989 of the microsatellite loci between Mullimunai and Vizhinjam was significantly different. The genetic distance between Mullimunai and Tuticorin was 0.183; between Tuticorin and Vizhinjam was 0.461; and Mullimunai and Vizhinjam was 0.837. There was no statistical evidence of recent severe bottlenecks in any of the three populations. Continuous monitoring of microsatellite variations within the populations of all the three locations was suggested to determine whether genetic variation within the populations is stabilized between year classes.

  19. Development of a microsatellite primer set to investigate the genetic ...

    Development of a microsatellite primer set to investigate the genetic population structure of Armadillidium nasatum (Crustacea, Oniscidea). Séverine Masson, Cédric Faivre, Isabelle Giraud, Catherine Souty-Grosset, Richard Cordaux, Carine Delaunay,. Didier Bouchon and Nicolas Bech. J. Genet. 93, 545-549. Table 1.

  20. Genetic diversity of Najdi sheep based on microsatellite analysis ...

    The prime objective of this research was to measure the genetic polymorphism of main sheep breed of Saudi Arabia, Najdi. Randomly selected 49 blood samples were used to extract the DNA followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using 19 microsatellite markers, which were used to investigate the genetic ...

  1. The Ventasso Horse: genetic characterization by microsatellites markers

    M. Blasi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The genetic structure of Ventasso Horse (VH was investigated using 12 microsatellites. The analyses were carried out on 117 VH individuals and the results were compared with those obtained analysing 11 other breeds reared in Italy. All microsatellites were polymorphic in VH and in the other breeds. A total of 124 alleles (from 6 to 19 alleles per microsatellite were detected. Average heterozygosity was 0.743 in VH and ranged from 0.613 to 0.759 in the other breeds. The mean FST value had an average value of 0.0932. Genetic distances were calculated using Nei’s standard genetic distance (Ds. The smallest Ds values were found between VH and Anglo-Arab, Thoroughbred, Maremmano and Lipizzan horse breeds. Phylogenetic trees constructed using neighbour-joining method showed two clear separate clusters: the first includes Bardigiano, Haflinger and Italian Heavy Draught Horse, the second contains the other 9 breeds.

  2. Microsatellite marker analysis of the genetic variability in Hanoverian Hounds.

    Lüpke, L; Distl, O

    2005-04-01

    Genetic variability of the dog breed Hanoverian Hound was analysed using a set of 16 microsatellites. The sample of 92 dogs was representative for the total current population [n=334, inbreeding coefficient 9.2%, relationship coefficient 11.2%] with respect to the level and distribution of the inbreeding and relationship coefficients. All microsatellites used were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The average number of alleles was 6.4. The average observed heterozygosity (H(O)) was slightly higher than the expected heterozygosity (H(E)). Dinucleotide microsatellites exhibited lower polymorphism information content (PIC) than tetranucleotide microsatellites (0.52 versus 0.66). The average PIC was 0.61. The individual inbreeding coefficient was negatively related to the average H(O) of all microsatellites, whereas the proportion of genes from introducing of Hanoverian Hounds from abroad showed no relationships to H(O). We found that the genetic variability in the Hanoverian Hounds analysed here was unexpectedly higher than that previously published for dog breeds of similar population size. Even in dog breeds of larger population size heterogyzosity was seldom higher than that observed here. The rather high genetic variability as quantified by polymorphic microsatellites in Hanoverian Hounds may be due to a large genetic variation in the founder animals of this breed and to the fact that this genetic diversity could be maintained despite genetic bottlenecks experienced by this breed in the 1920s and 1950s and despite the presence of high inbreeding and relationship coefficients for more than 50 years.

  3. Preliminary genetic linkage map of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita ...

    2015-06-10

    Jun 10, 2015 ... (i) the development of microsatellite markers; (ii) the use of these markers ... libraries were subjected to sequencing using 454 GS FLX. Keywords. ..... 1996 A comprehensive genetic map of the human genome based on 5,264 ...

  4. The use of microsatellite markers for genetic diversity assessment of ...

    In this study, gene diversity and genetic relationships among 30 genotypes of genus Hordeum from Kerman province (Iran) were assessed using 10 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. Seven of these markers were highly polymorphic. A total of 96 alleles were detected. The number of alleles per microsatellite marker ...

  5. Genetic variation among pelt sheep population using microsatellite ...

    Genetic variation in three Iranian pelt sheep breeds namely: Gray Shiraz, Zandi and Karakul were investigated using fifteen microsatellite loci. Genomic DNA was extracted from 360 blood samples by extraction kits and salting-out procedure with some modifications. The total number of alleles ranged from 6 to12 in loci.

  6. Microsatellite data analysis for population genetics

    Theories and analytical tools of population genetics have been widely applied for addressing various questions in the fields of ecological genetics, conservation biology, and any context where the role of dispersal or gene flow is important. Underlying much of population genetics is the analysis of ...

  7. Survey of genetic structure of geese using novel microsatellite markers

    Fang-Yu Lai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to create a set of microsatellite markers with high polymorphism for the genetic monitoring and genetic structure analysis of local goose populations. Methods Novel microsatellite markers were isolated from the genomic DNA of white Roman geese using short tandem repeated probes. The DNA segments, including short tandem repeats, were tested for their variability among four populations of geese from the Changhua Animal Propagation Station (CAPS. The selected microsatellite markers could then be used to monitor genetic variability and study the genetic structures of geese from local geese farms. Results 14 novel microsatellite loci were isolated. In addition to seven known loci, two multiplex sets were constructed for the detection of genetic variations in geese populations. The average of allele number, the effective number of alleles, the observed heterozygosity, the expected heterozygosity, and the polymorphism information content were 11.09, 5.145, 0.499, 0.745, and 0.705, respectively. The results of analysis of molecular variance and principal component analysis indicated a contracting white Roman cluster and a spreading Chinese cluster. In white Roman populations, the CAPS populations were depleted to roughly two clusters when K was set equal to 6 in the Bayesian cluster analysis. The founders of private farm populations had a similar genetic structure. Among the Chinese geese populations, the CAPS populations and private populations represented different clads of the phylogenetic tree and individuals from the private populations had uneven genetic characteristics according to various analyses. Conclusion Based on this study’s analyses, we suggest that the CAPS should institute a proper breeding strategy for white Roman geese to avoid further clustering. In addition, for preservation and stable quality, the Chinese geese in the CAPS and the aforementioned proper breeding scheme should be introduced to

  8. Genetic variability in local Brazilian horse lines using microsatellite markers.

    Silva, A C M; Paiva, S R; Albuquerque, M S M; Egito, A A; Santos, S A; Lima, F C; Castro, S T; Mariante, A S; Correa, P S; McManus, C M

    2012-04-10

    Genetic variability at 11 microsatellite markers was analyzed in five naturalized/local Brazilian horse breeds or genetic groups. Blood samples were collected from 328 animals of the breeds Campeira (Santa Catarina State), Lavradeira (Roraima State), Pantaneira (Pantanal Mato-Grossense), Mangalarga Marchador (Minas Gerais State), as well as the genetic group Baixadeiro (Maranhão State), and the exotic breeds English Thoroughbred and Arab. We found significant genetic variability within evaluated microsatellite loci, with observed heterozygosis varying between 0.426 and 0.768 and polymorphism information content values of 0.751 to 0.914. All breeds showed high inbreeding coefficients and were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The smallest genetic distance was seen between the Pantaneira and Arab breeds. The principal component analyzes and Bayesian approach demonstrated that the exotic breeds have had a significant influence on the genetic formation of the local breeds, with introgression of English Throroughbred in Pantaneira and Lavradeira, as well as genetic proximity between the Arab, Pantaneira and Mangalarga Marchador populations. This study shows the need to conserve traits acquired by naturalized horse breeds over centuries of natural selection in Brazil due to the genetic uniqueness of each group, suggesting a reduced gene flow between them. These results reinforce the need to include these herds in animal genetic resource conservation programs to maximize the genetic variability and conserve useful allele combinations.

  9. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers and analysis of genetic variability in Curculigo latifolia Dryand.

    Babaei, Nahid; Abdullah, Nur Ashikin Psyquay; Saleh, Ghizan; Abdullah, Thohirah Lee

    2012-11-01

    Curculin, a sweet protein found in Curculigo latifolia fruit has great potential for the pharmaceutical industry. This protein interestingly has been found to have both sweet taste and taste-modifying capacities comparable with other natural sweeteners. According to our knowledge this is the first reported case on the isolation of microsatellite loci in this genus. Hence, the current development of microsatellite markers for C. latifolia will facilitate future population genetic studies and breeding programs for this valuable plant. In this study 11 microsatellite markers were developed using 3' and 5' ISSR markers. The primers were tested on 27 accessions from all states of Peninsular Malaysia. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to seven, with allele size ranging from 141 to 306 bp. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged between 0.00-0.65 and 0.38-0.79, respectively. The polymorphic information content ranged from 0.35 to 0.74 and the Shannon's information index ranged from 0.82 to 1.57. These developed polymorphic microsatellites were used for constructing a dendrogram by unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster analysis using the Dice's similarity coefficient. Accessions association according to their geographical origin was observed. Based on characteristics of isolated microsatellites for C. latifolia accessions all genotype can be distinguished using these 11 microsatellite markers. These polymorphic markers could also be applied to studies on uniformity determination and somaclonal variation of tissue culture plantlets, varieties identification, genetic diversity, analysis of phylogenetic relationship, genetic linkage maps and quantitative trait loci in C. latifolia.

  10. A consensus linkage map of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella based on microsatellites and SNPs

    Li Jiale

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella belongs to the family Cyprinidae which includes more than 2000 fish species. It is one of the most important freshwater food fish species in world aquaculture. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step towards understanding genome evolution. The aim of this study is to construct a first generation genetic map of grass carp using microsatellites and SNPs to generate a new resource for mapping QTL for economically important traits and to conduct a comparative mapping analysis to shed new insights into the evolution of fish genomes. Results We constructed a first generation linkage map of grass carp with a mapping panel containing two F1 families including 192 progenies. Sixteen SNPs in genes and 263 microsatellite markers were mapped to twenty-four linkage groups (LGs. The number of LGs was corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of grass carp. The sex-specific map was 1149.4 and 888.8 cM long in females and males respectively whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 1176.1 cM. The average resolution of the map was 4.2 cM/locus. BLAST searches of sequences of mapped markers of grass carp against the whole genome sequence of zebrafish revealed substantial macrosynteny relationship and extensive colinearity of markers between grass carp and zebrafish. Conclusions The linkage map of grass carp presented here is the first linkage map of a food fish species based on co-dominant markers in the family Cyprinidae. This map provides a valuable resource for mapping phenotypic variations and serves as a reference to approach comparative genomics and understand the evolution of fish genomes and could be complementary to grass carp genome sequencing project.

  11. Microsatellites and agronomic traits for assessing genetic ...

    GRACE

    2006-05-16

    May 16, 2006 ... genetic relationships among 18 New Rice for Africa. (NERICA) varieties .... but two other modifications were later included as described in the discussion ..... markers and their application in wheat breeding: a review. Plant.

  12. Microsatellite markers reveal low genetic differentiation among ...

    Ben

    Assignment. 1* Khai Apple Game Reserve, Kathu, Northern Cape ... Previous genetic studies on Camelidae in Dubai, Germany, Australia, Kenya and Ethiopia mainly reporting the ... All the biological samples were deposited in the Bio-Bank at.

  13. Genetic diversity in Spanish donkey breeds using microsatellite DNA markers

    Jordana Jordi

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic diversity at 13 equine microsatellite loci was compared in five endangered Spanish donkey breeds: Andaluza, Catalana, Mallorquina, Encartaciones and Zamorano-Leonesa. All of the equine microsatellites used in this study were amplified and were polymorphic in the domestic donkey breeds with the exception of HMS1, which was monomorphic, and ASB2, which failed to amplify. Allele number, frequency distributions and mean heterozygosities were very similar among the Spanish donkey breeds. The unbiased expected heterozygosity (HE over all the populations varied between 0.637 and 0.684 in this study. The low GST value showed that only 3.6% of the diversity was between breeds (P A distance matrix showed little differentiation between Spanish breeds, but great differentiation between them and the Moroccan ass and also with the horse, used as an outgroup. These results confirm the potential use of equine microsatellite loci as a tool for genetic studies in domestic donkey populations, which could also be useful for conservation plans.

  14. Formal genetic maps

    Mohammad Saad Zaghloul Salem

    2014-12-24

    Dec 24, 2014 ... ome/transcriptome/proteome, experimental induced maps that are intentionally designed and con- ... genetic maps imposed their application in nearly all fields of medical genetics including ..... or genes located adjacent to, or near, them. ...... types of markers, e.g., clinical markers (eye color), genomic.

  15. Genetic structure of Balearic honeybee populations based on microsatellite polymorphism

    Moritz Robin FA

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic variation of honeybee colonies collected in 22 localities on the Balearic Islands (Spain was analysed using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci. Previous studies have demonstrated that these colonies belong either to the African or west European evolutionary lineages. These populations display low variability estimated from both the number of alleles and heterozygosity values, as expected for the honeybee island populations. Although genetic differentiation within the islands is low, significant heterozygote deficiency is present, indicating a subpopulation genetic structure. According to the genetic differentiation test, the honeybee populations of the Balearic Islands cluster into two groups: Gimnesias (Mallorca and Menorca and Pitiusas (Ibiza and Formentera, which agrees with the biogeography postulated for this archipelago. The phylogenetic analysis suggests an Iberian origin of the Balearic honeybees, thus confirming the postulated evolutionary scenario for Apis mellifera in the Mediterranean basin. The microsatellite data from Formentera, Ibiza and Menorca show that ancestral populations are threatened by queen importations, indicating that adequate conservation measures should be developed for protecting Balearic bees.

  16. Genetic variability of watermelon accessions based on microsatellite markers.

    de S Gama, R N C; Santos, C A F; de C S Dias, R

    2013-03-13

    We analyzed the genetic variability of 40 watermelon accessions collected from 8 regions of Northeastern Brazil using microsatellite markers, in order to suggest strategies of conservation and utilization of genetic variability in this species. These accessions are not commercial cultivars. They were sampled in areas of traditional farmers that usually keep their own seeds for future plantings year after year. An UPGMA dendrogram was generated from a distance matrix of the Jaccard coefficient, based on 41 alleles of 13 microsatellite loci. Analysis of molecular variance was made by partitioning between and within geographical regions. The similarity coefficient between accessions ranged from 37 to 96%; the dendrogram gave a co-phenetic value of 0.80. The among population genetic variability was high ( (^)ϕST = 0.319). Specific clusters of accessions sampled in 3 regions of Maranhão were observed while the other 5 regions did not presented specific clusters by regions. We conclude that watermelon genetic variability is not uniformly dispersed in the regions analyzed, indicating that geographical barriers or edaphoclimatic conditions have limited open mating. We suggest sampling a greater number of populations, so regional species diversity will be better represented and preserved in the germplasm bank.

  17. Research on formation of microsatellite communication with genetic algorithm.

    Wu, Guoqiang; Bai, Yuguang; Sun, Zhaowei

    2013-01-01

    For the formation of three microsatellites which fly in the same orbit and perform three-dimensional solid mapping for terra, this paper proposes an optimizing design method of space circular formation order based on improved generic algorithm and provides an intersatellite direct spread spectrum communication system. The calculating equation of LEO formation flying satellite intersatellite links is guided by the special requirements of formation-flying microsatellite intersatellite links, and the transmitter power is also confirmed throughout the simulation. The method of space circular formation order optimizing design based on improved generic algorithm is given, and it can keep formation order steady for a long time under various absorb impetus. The intersatellite direct spread spectrum communication system is also provided. It can be found that, when the distance is 1 km and the data rate is 1 Mbps, the input wave matches preferably with the output wave. And LDPC code can improve the communication performance. The correct capability of (512, 256) LDPC code is better than (2, 1, 7) convolution code, distinctively. The design system can satisfy the communication requirements of microsatellites. So, the presented method provides a significant theory foundation for formation-flying and intersatellite communication.

  18. An evaluation of sequence tagged microsatellite site markers for genetic analysis within Citrus and related species.

    Kijas, J M; Fowler, J C; Thomas, M R

    1995-04-01

    Microsatellites, also called sequence tagged microsatellite sites (STMSs), have become important markers for genome analysis but are currently little studied in plants. To assess the value of STMSs for analysis within the Citrus plant species, two example STMSs were isolated from an intergeneric cross between rangpur lime (Citrus x limonia Osbeck) and trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.). Unique flanking primers were constructed for polymerase chain reaction amplification both within the test cross and across a broad range of citrus and related species. Both loci showed length variation between test cross parents with alleles segregating in a Mendelian fashion to progeny. Amplification across species showed the STMS flanking primers to be conserved in every genome tested. The traits of polymorphism, inheritance, and conservation across species mean that STMS markers are ideal for genome mapping within Citrus, which contains high levels of genetic variability.

  19. Genetic variability in Brazilian wheat cultivars assessed by microsatellite markers

    Ivan Schuster

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum is one of the most important food staples in the south of Brazil. Understanding genetic variability among the assortment of Brazilian wheat is important for breeding. The aim of this work was to molecularly characterize the thirty-six wheat cultivars recommended for various regions of Brazil, and to assess mutual genetic distances, through the use of microsatellite markers. Twenty three polymorphic microsatellite markers (PMM delineated all 36 of the samples, revealing a total of 74 simple sequence repeat (SSR alleles, i.e. an average of 3.2 alleles per locus. Polymorphic information content (PIC value calculated to assess the informativeness of each marker ranged from 0.20 to 0.79, with a mean of 0.49. Genetic distances among the 36 cultivars ranged from 0.10 (between cultivars Ocepar 18 and BRS 207 to 0.88 (between cultivars CD 101 and Fudancep 46, the mean distance being 0.48. Twelve groups were obtained by using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means analysis (UPGMA, and thirteen through the Tocher method. Both methods produced similar clusters, with one to thirteen cultivars per group. The results indicate that these tools may be used to protect intellectual property and for breeding and selection programs.

  20. Identification, genetic localization, and allelic diversity of selectively amplified microsatellite polymorphic loci in lettuce and wild relatives (Lactuca spp.).

    Witsenboer, H; Michelmore, R W; Vogel, J

    1997-12-01

    Selectively amplified microsatellite polymorphic locus (SAMPL) analysis is a method of amplifying microsatellite loci using generic PCR primers. SAMPL analysis uses one AFLP primer in combination with a primer complementary to microsatellite sequences. SAMPL primers based on compound microsatellite sequences provided the clearest amplification patterns. We explored the potential of SAMPL analysis in lettuce to detect PCR-based codominant microsatellite markers. Fifty-eight SAMPLs were identified and placed on the genetic map. Seventeen were codominant. SAMPLs were dispersed with RFLP markers on 11 of the 12 main linkage groups in lettuce, indicating that they have a similar genomic distribution. Some but not all fragments amplified by SAMPL analysis were confirmed to contain microsatellite sequences by Southern hybridization. Forty-five cultivars of lettuce and five wild species of Lactuca were analyzed to determine the allelic diversity for codominant SAMPLs. From 3 to 11 putative alleles were found for each SAMPL; 2-6 alleles were found within Lactuca sativa and 1-3 alleles were found among the crisphead genotypes, the most genetically homogeneous plant type of L. sativa. This allelic diversity is greater than that found for RFLP markers. Numerous new alleles were observed in the wild species; however, there were frequent null alleles. Therefore, SAMPL analysis is more applicable to intraspecific than to interspecific comparisons. A phenetic analysis based on SAMPLs resulted in a dendrogram similar to those based on RFLP and AFLP markers.

  1. Construction of microsatellite-based linkage map and mapping of ...

    Gossypium tomentosum, a wild tetraploid cotton species with AD genomes, possesses genes conferring strong fibers and high heat tolerance. ... State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Cotton Research Institute, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, People's Republic of China ...

  2. Construction of microsatellite-based linkage map and mapping of nectarilessness and hairiness genes in Gossypium tomentosum.

    Hou, Meiying; Cai, Caiping; Zhang, Shuwen; Guo, Wangzhen; Zhang, Tianzhen; Zhou, Baoliang

    2013-12-01

    Gossypium tomentosum, a wild tetraploid cotton species with AD genomes, possesses genes conferring strong fibers and high heat tolerance. To effectively transfer these genes into Gossypium hirsutum, an entire microsatellite (simple sequence repeat, SSR)-based genetic map was constructed using the interspecific cross of G. hirsutum x G. tomentosum (HT). We detected 1800 loci from 1347 pairs of polymorphic primers. Of these, 1204 loci were grouped into 35 linkage groups at LOD ≥ 4. The map covers 3320.8 cM, with a mean density of 2.76 cM per locus. We detected 420 common loci (186 in the At subgenome and 234 in Dt) between the HT map and the map of TM-1 (G. hirsutum) and Hai 7124 (G. barbadense; HB map). The linkage groups were assigned chromosome numbers based on location of common loci and the HB map as reference. A comparison of common markers revealed that no significant chromosomal rearrangement exist between G. tomentosum and G. barbadense. Interestingly, however, we detected numerous (33.7%) segregation loci deviating from 3:1 ratio (P constructed in this study will be useful for further genetic studies on cotton breeding, including mapping loci controlling quantitative traits associated with fiber quality, stress tolerance and developing chromosome segment specific introgression lines from G. tomentosum into G. hirsutum using marker-assisted selection.

  3. A second generation genetic map for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Gahr Scott A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic maps characterizing the inheritance patterns of traits and markers have been developed for a wide range of species and used to study questions in biomedicine, agriculture, ecology and evolutionary biology. The status of rainbow trout genetic maps has progressed significantly over the last decade due to interest in this species in aquaculture and sport fisheries, and as a model research organism for studies related to carcinogenesis, toxicology, comparative immunology, disease ecology, physiology and nutrition. We constructed a second generation genetic map for rainbow trout using microsatellite markers to facilitate the identification of quantitative trait loci for traits affecting aquaculture production efficiency and the extraction of comparative information from the genome sequences of model fish species. Results A genetic map ordering 1124 microsatellite loci spanning a sex-averaged distance of 2927.10 cM (Kosambi and having 2.6 cM resolution was constructed by genotyping 10 parents and 150 offspring from the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture (NCCCWA reference family mapping panel. Microsatellite markers, representing pairs of loci resulting from an evolutionarily recent whole genome duplication event, identified 180 duplicated regions within the rainbow trout genome. Microsatellites associated with genes through expressed sequence tags or bacterial artificial chromosomes produced comparative assignments with tetraodon, zebrafish, fugu, and medaka resulting in assignments of homology for 199 loci. Conclusion The second generation NCCCWA genetic map provides an increased microsatellite marker density and quantifies differences in recombination rate between the sexes in outbred populations. It has the potential to integrate with cytogenetic and other physical maps, identifying paralogous regions of the rainbow trout genome arising from the evolutionarily recent genome duplication event, and

  4. Development and characterization of highly polymorphic long TC repeat microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of peanut

    Macedo Selma E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. is a crop of economic and social importance, mainly in tropical areas, and developing countries. Its molecular breeding has been hindered by a shortage of polymorphic genetic markers due to a very narrow genetic base. Microsatellites (SSRs are markers of choice in peanut because they are co-dominant, highly transferrable between species and easily applicable in the allotetraploid genome. In spite of substantial effort over the last few years by a number of research groups, the number of SSRs that are polymorphic for A. hypogaea is still limiting for routine application, creating the demand for the discovery of more markers polymorphic within cultivated germplasm. Findings A plasmid genomic library enriched for TC/AG repeats was constructed and 1401 clones sequenced. From the sequences obtained 146 primer pairs flanking mostly TC microsatellites were developed. The average number of repeat motifs amplified was 23. These 146 markers were characterized on 22 genotypes of cultivated peanut. In total 78 of the markers were polymorphic within cultivated germplasm. Most of those 78 markers were highly informative with an average of 5.4 alleles per locus being amplified. Average gene diversity index (GD was 0.6, and 66 markers showed a GD of more than 0.5. Genetic relationship analysis was performed and corroborated the current taxonomical classification of A. hypogaea subspecies and varieties. Conclusions The microsatellite markers described here are a useful resource for genetics and genomics in Arachis. In particular, the 66 markers that are highly polymorphic in cultivated peanut are a significant step towards routine genetic mapping and marker-assisted selection for the crop.

  5. Identification of 10 882 porcine microsatellite sequences and virtual mapping of 4528 of these sequences

    Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Hu, Z.L.; Gorodkin, Jan

    2007-01-01

    the human genome (BLAST cut-off threshold = 1 x 10-5). All microsatellite sequences placed on the comparative map are accessible at http://www.animalgenome.org/QTLdb/pig.html . These sequences increase the number of identified microsatellites in the porcine genome by several orders of magnitude...

  6. Genetic diversity assessed by microsatellite markers in sweet corn cultivars

    Ana Daniela Lopes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information on genetic diversity is essential to the characterization and utilization of germplasm. The genetic diversity of twenty-two sweet corn cultivars (seventeen open-pollinated varieties, OPV, and five hybrids, H was investigated by applying simple sequence repeat markers. A total of 257 primers were tested, of which 160 were found to be usable in terms of high reproducibility for all the samples tested; 45 were polymorphic loci, of which 30 were used to assess the genetic diversity of sweet corn cultivars. We detected a total of 86 alleles using 30 microsatellite primers. The mean polymorphism was 82 %. The highest heterozygosity values (Ho = 0.20 were found in the PR030-Doce Flor da Serra and BR427 III OPVs, whereas the lowest values (0.14 were recorded in the MG161-Branco Doce and Doce Cubano OPVs. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.19 (Umc2319 to 0.71 (Umc2205. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that most of the genetic variability was concentrated within the cultivars of sweet corn (75 %, with less variability between them (25 %. The consensus tree derived from the neighbor-joining (NJ algorithm using 1,000 bootstrapping replicates revealed seven genetically different groups. Nei’s diversity values varied between 0.103 (Doce do Hawai × CNPH-1 cultivars and 0.645 (Amarelo Doce × Lili cultivars, indicating a narrow genetic basis. The Lili hybrid was the most distant cultivar, as revealed by Principal Coordinates Analysis and the NJ tree. This study on genetic diversity will be useful for planning future studies on sweet corn genetic resources and can complement the breeding programs for this crop.

  7. Genetic characterization of the Bardigiano horse using microsatellite markers

    Claudio Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at investigating the genetic structure of the Bardigiano horse and its relationships with the Haflinger, Maremmano and Arabian breeds using 11 microsatellite markers. A total of 94 alleles were detected across the breeds, with a mean of 8.5 alleles per locus and a mean observed heterozygosity of 0.69. Compared to the other breeds, the Bardigiano horse showed quite a high genetic variability, as indicated by the mean number of alleles (7.0 vs 6.1÷7.6 and by the observed heterozygosity (0.72 vs 0.66÷0.71. Moreover, the genotype distributions in the Bardigiano groups of different sex and age were not significantly different. The overall FST value showed that the genetic differences among breeds accounted for 7.8% (P=0.001 of the total variation, and the pairwise FST values were all significant. The assignment test allocated between 96.8 and 98.9% of the individuals to the population they were collected from, with a mean probability of assignment of about 97% for all breeds, except for the Arabian, where it approached 100%. The results have highlighted that the Bardigiano breed has a high within and between breed variability, which is considerably more than could be expected by looking at its evolution history. This justifies the need for the development of additional breeding strategies to preserve the existing genetic variability.

  8. Analysis of genetic diversity in Bolivian llama populations using microsatellites.

    Barreta, J; Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Iñiguez, V; Romero, F; Saavedra, V; Chiri, R; Rodríguez, T; Arranz, J J

    2013-08-01

    South American camelids (SACs) have a major role in the maintenance and potential future of rural Andean human populations. More than 60% of the 3.7 million llamas living worldwide are found in Bolivia. Due to the lack of studies focusing on genetic diversity in Bolivian llamas, this analysis investigates both the genetic diversity and structure of 12 regional groups of llamas that span the greater part of the range of distribution for this species in Bolivia. The analysis of 42 microsatellite markers in the considered regional groups showed that, in general, there were high levels of polymorphism (a total of 506 detected alleles; average PIC across per marker: 0.66), which are comparable with those reported for other populations of domestic SACs. The estimated diversity parameters indicated that there was high intrapopulational genetic variation (average number of alleles and average expected heterozygosity per marker: 12.04 and 0.68, respectively) and weak genetic differentiation among populations (FST range: 0.003-0.052). In agreement with these estimates, Bolivian llamas showed a weak genetic structure and an intense gene flow between all the studied regional groups, which is due to the exchange of reproductive males between the different flocks. Interestingly, the groups for which the largest pairwise FST estimates were observed, Sud Lípez and Nor Lípez, showed a certain level of genetic differentiation that is probably due to the pattern of geographic isolation and limited communication infrastructures of these southern localities. Overall, the population parameters reported here may serve as a reference when establishing conservation policies that address Bolivian llama populations. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Genetic diversity of Colombian sheep by microsatellite markers

    Ricardo Ocampo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia the sheep production systems are managed under extensive conditions and mainly correspond to peasant production systems so their genetic management has led to increased homozygosity and hence productivity loss. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity in 549 individuals corresponding to 13 sheep breeds in Colombia, using a panel of 11 microsatellite molecular markers. One hundred and fifty seven alleles were found (average of 14.27 alleles/locus, with a range of observed and expected heterozygosity from 0.44 to 0.84 and 0.67 to 0.86, respectively. Thirty-three of 143 Hardy Weinberg tests performed showed significant deviations (p < 0.05 due to a general lack of heterozygous individuals. The Fis ranged from 0.01 in Corriedale to 0.15 for the Persian Black Head breed, suggesting that there are presenting low to moderate levels of inbreeding. Overall, Colombian sheep showed high levels of genetic diversity which is very important for future selection and animal breeding programs.

  10. Constraints on Allele size at microsatellite loci : Implications for genetic differentiation

    Nauta, M.J.; Weissing, F.J.

    Microsatellites are promising genetic markers for studying the demographic structure and phylogenetic history of populations. We present theoretical arguments indicating that the usefulness of microsatellite data for these purposes may be limited to a short time perspective and to relatively small

  11. Development of Pineapple Microsatellite Markers and Germplasm Genetic Diversity Analysis

    Suping Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two methods were used to develop pineapple microsatellite markers. Genomic library-based SSR development: using selectively amplified microsatellite assay, 86 sequences were generated from pineapple genomic library. 91 (96.8% of the 94 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR loci were dinucleotide repeats (39 AC/GT repeats and 52 GA/TC repeats, accounting for 42.9% and 57.1%, resp., and the other three were mononucleotide repeats. Thirty-six pairs of SSR primers were designed; 24 of them generated clear bands of expected sizes, and 13 of them showed polymorphism. EST-based SSR development: 5659 pineapple EST sequences obtained from NCBI were analyzed; among 1397 nonredundant EST sequences, 843 were found containing 1110 SSR loci (217 of them contained more than one SSR locus. Frequency of SSRs in pineapple EST sequences is 1SSR/3.73 kb, and 44 types were found. Mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats dominate, accounting for 95.6% in total. AG/CT and AGC/GCT were the dominant type of dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats, accounting for 83.5% and 24.1%, respectively. Thirty pairs of primers were designed for each of randomly selected 30 sequences; 26 of them generated clear and reproducible bands, and 22 of them showed polymorphism. Eighteen pairs of primers obtained by the one or the other of the two methods above that showed polymorphism were selected to carry out germplasm genetic diversity analysis for 48 breeds of pineapple; similarity coefficients of these breeds were between 0.59 and 1.00, and they can be divided into four groups accordingly. Amplification products of five SSR markers were extracted and sequenced, corresponding repeat loci were found and locus mutations are mainly in copy number of repeats and base mutations in the flanking region.

  12. Development of Pineapple Microsatellite Markers and Germplasm Genetic Diversity Analysis

    Tong, Helin; Chen, You; Wang, Jingyi; Chen, Yeyuan; Sun, Guangming; He, Junhu; Wu, Yaoting

    2013-01-01

    Two methods were used to develop pineapple microsatellite markers. Genomic library-based SSR development: using selectively amplified microsatellite assay, 86 sequences were generated from pineapple genomic library. 91 (96.8%) of the 94 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) loci were dinucleotide repeats (39 AC/GT repeats and 52 GA/TC repeats, accounting for 42.9% and 57.1%, resp.), and the other three were mononucleotide repeats. Thirty-six pairs of SSR primers were designed; 24 of them generated clear bands of expected sizes, and 13 of them showed polymorphism. EST-based SSR development: 5659 pineapple EST sequences obtained from NCBI were analyzed; among 1397 nonredundant EST sequences, 843 were found containing 1110 SSR loci (217 of them contained more than one SSR locus). Frequency of SSRs in pineapple EST sequences is 1SSR/3.73 kb, and 44 types were found. Mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats dominate, accounting for 95.6% in total. AG/CT and AGC/GCT were the dominant type of dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats, accounting for 83.5% and 24.1%, respectively. Thirty pairs of primers were designed for each of randomly selected 30 sequences; 26 of them generated clear and reproducible bands, and 22 of them showed polymorphism. Eighteen pairs of primers obtained by the one or the other of the two methods above that showed polymorphism were selected to carry out germplasm genetic diversity analysis for 48 breeds of pineapple; similarity coefficients of these breeds were between 0.59 and 1.00, and they can be divided into four groups accordingly. Amplification products of five SSR markers were extracted and sequenced, corresponding repeat loci were found and locus mutations are mainly in copy number of repeats and base mutations in the flanking region. PMID:24024187

  13. Genetic diversity analysis of Cuban traditional rice (Oryza sativa L. varieties based on microsatellite markers

    Alba Alvarez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite polymorphism was studied in a sample of 39 traditional rice (Oryza sativa L. varieties and 11 improved varieties widely planted in Cuba. The study was aimed at assessing the extent of genetic variation in traditional and improved varieties and to establish their genetic relationship for breeding purposes. Heterozygosity was analyzed at each microsatellite loci and for each genotype using 10 microsatellite primer pairs. Between varieties genetic relationship was estimated. The number of alleles per microsatellite loci was 4 to 8, averaging 6.6 alleles per locus. Higher heterozygosity (H was found in traditional varieties (H TV = 0.72 than in improved varieties (H IV = 0.42, and 68% of the total microsatellite alleles were found exclusively in the traditional varieties. Genetic diversity, represented by cluster analysis, indicated three different genetic groups based on their origin. Genetic relationship estimates based on the proportion of microsatellite loci with shared alleles indicated that the majority of traditional varieties were poorly related to the improved varieties. We also discuss the more efficient use of the available genetic diversity in future programs involving genetic crosses.

  14. [Prospect and application of microsatellite population genetics in study of geoherbs].

    Zhang, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Yong-Qing; Yuan, Qing-Jun; Huang, Lu-Qi; Jiang, Dan; Jing, Li

    2013-12-01

    The author introduces the basic concepts of microsatellite and population genetics and its characteristics, expounds the application of these theories for population genetic structure and genetic diversity, gene flow and evolutionary significant unit ESU division research. This paper discuss its applicationin study of genetic causes, origin of cultivation, different regional origins of geoherbs, aiming at providing a new theory and method for geoherbs.

  15. A microsatellite linkage map for Drosophila montana shows large variation in recombination rates, and a courtship song trait maps to an area of low recombination.

    Schäfer, M A; Mazzi, D; Klappert, K; Kauranen, H; Vieira, J; Hoikkala, A; Ritchie, M G; Schlötterer, C

    2010-03-01

    Current advances in genetic analysis are opening up our knowledge of the genetics of species differences, but challenges remain, particularly for out-bred natural populations. We constructed a microsatellite-based linkage map for two out-bred lines of Drosophila montana derived from divergent populations by taking advantage of the Drosophila virilis genome and available cytological maps of both species. Although the placement of markers was quite consistent with cytological predictions, the map indicated large heterogeneity in recombination rates along chromosomes. We also performed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis on a courtship song character (carrier frequency), which differs between populations and is subject to strong sexual selection. Linkage mapping yielded two significant QTLs, which explained 3% and 14% of the variation in carrier frequency, respectively. Interestingly, as in other recent studies of traits which can influence speciation, the strongest QTL mapped to a genomic region partly covered by an inversion polymorphism.

  16. Genetic variation analysis of the Bali street dog using microsatellites

    Wilton Alan N

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 800,000 primarily feral dogs live on the small island of Bali. To analyze the genetic diversity in this population, forty samples were collected at random from dogs in the Denpasar, Bali region and tested using 31 polymorphic microsatellites. Australian dingoes and 28 American Kennel Club breeds were compared to the Bali Street Dog (BSD for allelic diversity, heterozygosities, F-statistics, GST estimates, Nei's DA distance and phylogenetic relationships. Results The BSD proved to be the most heterogeneous, exhibiting 239 of the 366 total alleles observed across all groups and breeds and had an observed heterozygosity of 0.692. Thirteen private alleles were observed in the BSD with an additional three alleles observed only in the BSD and the Australian dingo. The BSD was related most closely to the Chow Chow with a FST of 0.088 and also with high bootstrap support to the Australian dingo and Akita in the phylogenetic analysis. Conclusions This preliminary study into the diversity and relationship of the BSD to other domestic and feral dog populations shows the BSD to be highly heterogeneous and related to populations of East Asian origin. These results indicate that a viable and diverse population of dogs existed on the island of Bali prior to its geographic isolation approximately 12,000 years ago and has been little influenced by domesticated European dogs since that time.

  17. An integrated genetic, physical, and transcriptional map of chromosome 13

    Scheffer, H.; Kooy, R.F.; Wijngaard, A. [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    In this study a genetic map containing 20 markers and typed in 40 CEPH families is presented. It includes 7 thusfar untyped microsatellite markers, 7 that have previously been mapped on a subset of 8 CEPH families, one reference marker, D13S71, and three telomeric VNTR markers. Also, 4 intragenic RB1 markers were typed. The markers have an average heterozygosity of 73% (80%, excluding the three RFLPs). The total sex average length of the map is 140 cM. The mean female to male ratio is 1.54. For the non-telomeric part of the chromosome between the markers D13S221 in 13q12 and D13S173 in 13q33-q34, this ratio is 1.99. This ratio is reversed in the telomeric part of the chromosome between D13S173 and D13S234 in distal 13q34, where it is 0.47. A high new mutation frequency of 1% was detected in the (CTTT(T)){sub n} repeat in intron 20 of the RB1 gene. The map has been integrated with 7 microsatellite markers and 2 RFLP markers from CEPH database version 7.0, resulting in a map with 32 markers (28 loci) of chromosome 13q. In addition, a deletion hybrid breakpoint map ordering 50 markers in 18 intervals is constructed. It includes 32 microsatellite markers, 4 genes, 5 STSs, and 9 ESTs. Each of 18 intervals contains at least one microsatellite marker included in the extended genetic map. These data allow a correlation between the genetic and physical map of chromosome 13. New ESTs are currently being identified and localized at this integrated map.

  18. Molecular Detection of Bladder Cancer by Fluorescence Microsatellite Analysis and an Automated Genetic Analyzing System

    Sarel Halachmi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the ability of an automated fluorescent analyzing system to detect microsatellite alterations, in patients with bladder cancer. We investigated 11 with pathology proven bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC for microsatellite alterations in blood, urine, and tumor biopsies. DNA was prepared by standard methods from blood, urine and resected tumor specimens, and was used for microsatellite analysis. After the primers were fluorescent labeled, amplification of the DNA was performed with PCR. The PCR products were placed into the automated genetic analyser (ABI Prism 310, Perkin Elmer, USA and were subjected to fluorescent scanning with argon ion laser beams. The fluorescent signal intensity measured by the genetic analyzer measured the product size in terms of base pairs. We found loss of heterozygocity (LOH or microsatellite alterations (a loss or gain of nucleotides, which alter the original normal locus size in all the patients by using fluorescent microsatellite analysis and an automated analyzing system. In each case the genetic changes found in urine samples were identical to those found in the resected tumor sample. The studies demonstrated the ability to detect bladder tumor non-invasively by fluorescent microsatellite analysis of urine samples. Our study supports the worldwide trend for the search of non-invasive methods to detect bladder cancer. We have overcome major obstacles that prevented the clinical use of an experimental system. With our new tested system microsatellite analysis can be done cheaper, faster, easier and with higher scientific accuracy.

  19. Genetic Variation of 28 microsatellite markers in Australian merino ...

    ratiyat

    2016-02-26

    Feb 26, 2016 ... Microsatellite-based estimation of inbreeding level in sheep populations .... progeny testing system used in sheep lineage analysis at McMaster Laboratory- ..... are less related than one might expect under a model of random.

  20. Genetic diversity of Halla horses using microsatellite markers

    Joo-Hee Seo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently about 26,000 horses are breeding in Korea and 57.2% (14,776 horses of them are breeding in Jeju island. According to the statistics published in 2010, the horses breeding in Jeju island are subdivided into Jeju horse (6.1%, Thoroughbred (18.8% and Halla horse (75.1%. Halla horses are defined as a crossbreed between Jeju and Thoroughbred horses and are used for horse racing, horse riding and horse meat production. However, little research has been conducted on Halla horses because of the perception of crossbreed and people’s weighted interest toward Jeju horses. Method Using 17 Microsatellite (MS Markers recommended by International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG, genomic DNAs were extracted from the hair roots of 3,880 Halla horses breeding in Korea and genetic diversity was identified by genotyping after PCR was performed. Results and conclusion In average, 10.41 alleles (from 6 alleles in HTG7 to 17 alleles in ASB17 were identified after the analysis using 17 MS Markers. The mean value of Hobs was 0.749 with a range from 0.612(HMS1 to 0.857(ASB2. Also, it was found that Hexp and PIC values were lowest in HMS1 (0.607 and 0.548, respectively, and highest in LEX3(0.859 and 0.843, respectively, and the mean value of Hexp was 0.760 and that of PIC was 0.728. 17 MS markers used in this studies were considered as appropriate markers for the polymorphism analysis of Halla horses. The frequency for the appearance of identical individuals was 5.90 × 10−20 when assumed as random mating population and when assumed as half-sib and full-sib population, frequencies were 4.08 × 10−15 and 3.56 × 10−8, respectively. Based on these results, the 17 MS markers can be used adequately for the Individual Identification and Parentage Verification of Halla horses. Remarkably, allele M and Q of ASB23 marker, G of HMS2 marker, H and L of HTG6 marker, L of HTG7 marker, E of LEX3 marker were the specific alleles

  1. Isolation of novel microsatellites using FIASCO by dual probe enrichment from Jatropha curcas L. and study on genetic equilibrium and diversity of Indian population revealed by isolated microsatellites

    Pamidimarri, D. V N N Sudheer

    2010-03-11

    Jatropha curcas L. belongs to family Euphorbiaceae, native to South America attained significant importance for its seed oil which can be converted to biodiesel, a renewable energy source alternative to conventional petrodiesel. Very few attempts were made to isolate novel microsatellite markers and assessment of the extent of genetic equilibrium and diversity that exists in J. curcas. Therefore, the present investigation was undertaken to isolate the novel microsatellites and access genetic equilibrium, diversity that exists among 44 diverse germplasm collected from distinct geographical areas in India using isolated microsatellites. The overall efficiency of the enrichment of microsatellite by dual probe in the present study found to be 54% and among the sequences obtained the percentage of sequences having suitable flanking regions for the primer designing was found to be 89.58%. The mean co-efficient of genetic similarity (CGS) was found to be 0.97. The overall diversity obtained by microsatellites was found to be low in comparison with the diversity reported by multilocus markers systems observed in earlier studies; however, the good allele polymorphism was observed. The overall dendrogram of microsatellite analysis resulted in random clustering of germplasm and not in accordance to geographical area of collection. The present study, diversity analysis using microsatellite markers concludes the low genetic diversity and genetic disequlibrium of J. curcas in India and will provide pavement for further intra-population studies on narrow geographical areas to understand the population genetic structure, phylogeography and molecular ecological studies. The germplasm characterized, and the microsatellite markers isolated and characterized in the present study can be employed efficiently in breeding programs for genetic improvement of the species through marker assisted selection and QTL analysis, for further genetic resource management and help in making the J

  2. Analysis of genetic variability in the Czech Dachshund population using microsatellite markers

    Přibáňová, M.; Horák, Pavel; Schröffelová, D.; Urban, T.; Bechyňová, Renata; Musilová, L.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 126, - (2009), s. 311-318 ISSN 0931-2668 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500450578; GA ČR GD523/03/H076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : dachshund * dog * genetic variability * microsatellite Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.706, year: 2009

  3. Rangewide Genetic Variation in Coast Redwood Populations at a Chloroplast Microsatellite Locus

    Chris Brinegar

    2012-01-01

    Old growth and second growth populations of coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) were sampled at 10 locations throughout its range and analyzed at a highly variable chloroplast microsatellite locus. Very low FST values indicated that there was no significant genetic differentiation between adjacent old growth and second growth populations at each location. Genetic...

  4. Detection of Sequence Polymorphism in Rubus Occidentalis L. Monomorphic Microsatellite Markers by High Resolution Melting

    Microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, are valuable as co-dominant genetic markers with a variety of applications such as DNA fingerprinting, linkage mapping, and population structure analysis. Development of microsatellite primers through the identification of appropriate repeate...

  5. THE USE OF MICROSATELLITE MARKERS TO STUDY GENETIC DIVERSITY IN INDONESIAN SHEEP

    Jakaria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study genetic diversity in Indonesian sheep population using microsatellite markers. A total of 18 microsatellite loci have been used for genotyping Indonesian sheep. Total sheep blood 200 samples were extracted from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep populations by using a salting out method. Microsatellite loci data were analyzed using POPGENE 3.2 software. Based on this study obtained 180 alleles from 17 microsatellite loci, while average number of alleles was 6.10 alleles (6 to 18 alleles from five Indonesian sheep populations (garut sheep of fighting type, garut sheep of meat type, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population. The average of observed heterozygosity (Ho and expected heterozygosity (He values were 0.5749 and 0.6896, respectively, while the genetic differentiation for inbreeding among population (FIS, within population (FIT and average genetic differentiation (FST were 0.1006, 0.1647 and 0.0712, respectively. Genetic distance and genetic tree showed that Indonesian sheep population was distinct from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population. Based on this results were needed a strategy for conservation and breeding programs in each Indonesian sheep population.

  6. Microsatellite variability reveals high genetic diversity and low genetic differentiation in a critical giant panda population

    Jiandong YANG, Zhihe ZHANG, Fujun SHEN, Xuyu YANG, Liang ZHANG, Limin CHEN, Wenping ZHANG, Qing ZHU, Rong HOU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding present patterns of genetic diversity is critical in order to design effective conservation and management strategies for endangered species. Tangjiahe Nature Reserve (NR is one of the most important national reserves for giant pandas Ailuropoda melanoleuca in China. Previous studies have shown that giant pandas in Tangjiahe NR may be threatened by population decline and fragmentation. Here we used 10 microsatellite DNA markers to assess the genetic variability in the Tangjiahe population. The results indicate a low level of genetic differentiation between the Hongshihe and Motianling subpopulations in the reserve. Assignment tests using the Bayesian clustering method in STRUCTURE identified one genetic cluster from 42 individuals of the two subpopulations. All individuals from the same subpopulation were assigned to one cluster. This indicates high gene flow between subpopulations. F statistic analyses revealed a low FIS-value of 0.024 in the total population and implies a randomly mating population in Tangjiahe NR. Additionally, our data show a high level of genetic diversity for the Tangjiahe population. Mean allele number (A, Allelic richness (AR and mean expected heterozygosity (HE for the Tangjiahe population was 5.9, 5.173 and 0.703, respectively. This wild giant panda population can be restored through concerted effort [Current Zoology 57 (6: 717–724, 2011].

  7. Analysis of the genetic relationships and diversity among 11 populations of Xanthoceras sorbifolia using phenotypic and microsatellite marker data

    Zhan Shen

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Microsatellite markers can be used to efficiently distinguish X. sorbifolia populations and assess their genetic diversity. The information we have provided will contribute to the conservation and management of this important plant genetic resource.

  8. Usefulness of microsatellite typing in population genetic studies of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Macedo Andrea M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Through microsatellite analysis of 53 monoclonal populations of Trypanosoma cruzi, we found a remarkable degree of genetic polymorphism with no single multilocus genotype being observed more than once. The microsatellite profile proved to be stable during 70 generations of the CL Brener clone in culture. The microsatellite profiling presented also high diagnostic sensitivity since DNA amplifications could be achieved with less than 100 fg DNA, corresponding to half parasite total DNA content. Based on these technical attributes the microsatellite assay turns out to be an important tool for direct typing T. cruzi in biological samples. By using this approach we were able to type T. cruzi in feces of artificially infected bugs and in single cells sorted by FACS. The microsatellites have shown to be excellent markers for T. cruzi phylogenetic reconstruction. We used maximum parsimony based on the minimum number of mutational steps to build an unrooted Wagner network, which confirms previous conclusions based on the analysis of the D7 domain of the LSU rDNA gene that T. cruzi is composed by two major groups. We also obtained evidence that strains belonging to rRNA group 2 are subdivided into two genetically distant clusters, and that one of these clusters is more related to rRNA group 1/2. These results suggest different origins for these strains.

  9. Admixture analysis of stocked brown trout populations using mapped microsatellite DNA markers: indigenous trout persist in introgressed populations

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    2009-01-01

    , but resolution is low if genetic differentiation is weak. Here, we analyse stocked brown trout populations represented by historical (1943-1956) and contemporary (2000s) samples, where genetic differentiation between wild populations and stocked trout is weak (pair-wise F-ST of 0.047 and 0.053). By analysing...... a high number of microsatellite DNA markers (50) and making use of linkage map information, we achieve clear identification of admixed and non-admixed trout. Moreover, despite strong population-level admixture by hatchery strain trout in one of the populations (70.8%), non-admixed individuals...... nevertheless persist (7 out of 53 individuals). These remnants of the indigenous population are characterized by later spawning time than the majority of the admixed individuals. We hypothesize that isolation by time mediated by spawning time differences between wild and hatchery strain trout is a major factor...

  10. Chloroplast microsatellites reveal population genetic diversity in red pine, Pinus resinosa Ait

    Craig S. Echt; L.L. DeVerno; M. Anzidei; G.G. Vendramin

    1998-01-01

    Variation in paternally inherited chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) DNA was used to study population genetic structure in red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.), a species characterized by morphological uniformity, no allozyme variation, and limited RAPD variation. Using nine cpSSR loci, a total of 23 chloroplast haplotypes and 25 cpSSR alleles were were...

  11. Genetic structure of Polytrichum formosum in relation to the breeding system as revealed by microsatellites

    Van der Velde, M; Van de Zande, L; Bijlsma, R

    Microsatellite variation was determined for three Danish and three Dutch populations of the haploid moss species Polytrichum formosum to gain insight into the relative importance of sexual vs. asexual reproduction for the amount and structure of genetic variation. In general, low levels of

  12. Microsatellite based genetic diversity study in indigenous chicken ecotypes of Karnataka

    B. H. Rudresh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study was the first of its kind taken upon indigenous ecotypes of the Karnataka in order to unravel the diversity details at 20 chicken microsatellite regions. Materials and Methods: 210 indigenous chicken belonging to six districts of Bangalore and Mysore division formed the target sample for the present study. The genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was isolated by phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method. A panel of 20 microsatellite regions, including 14 recommended by FAO and six identified from published scientific literature became the targeted chicken genomic region. 27-33 samples were successfully genotyped in each of the six ecotypes through simplex or multiplex polymerase chain reactions, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining for the selected microsatellite panel. Results: The chickens of Ramanagara and Chamrajnagara were most distant with a Nei’s genetic distance value of 0.22. The chickens of Bangalore rural and Mysore were least distant with a value of 0.056. The Ramanagara and Chamrajnagara pair had Nei’s genetic identity value of 0.802, which is least among all pairs of ecotypes. There were five main nodes from which the six ecotypes evolved on the basis 20 microsatellite markers used in this study. This study indicates that the four ecotypes Ramnagara, Bangalore Rural, Chickaballapura and Mysore are genetically identical due to their common ancestral evolution while, Mandya and Chamrajnagara ecotypes formed a relatively different cluster due to a separate common ancestral chicken population and less number of generations since drifting from bifurcation node. Conclusion: Twenty microsatellite markers based genetic diversity study on six indigenous ecotypes indicated lower genetic distances as well as lower FST values compared to the distinguished breeds reported. There were two main clusters, which differentiated into six ecotypes. They may differentiate into more distinct varieties if bred in

  13. Association Mapping for Important Agronomic Traits in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. Core Collection Using Microsatellite Markers

    Heena Ambreen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Carthamus tinctorius L. (safflower is an important oilseed crop producing seed oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Scarcity of identified marker-trait associations is a major limitation toward development of successful marker-assisted breeding programs in safflower. In the present study, a safflower panel (CartAP comprising 124 accessions derived from two core collections was assayed for its suitability for association mapping. Genotyping of CartAP using microsatellite markers revealed significant genetic diversity indicated by Shannon information index (H = 0.7537 and Nei's expected heterozygosity (I = 0.4432. In Principal Coordinate Analysis, the CartAP accessions were distributed homogeneously in all quadrants indicating their diverse nature. Distance-based Neighbor Joining analysis did not delineate the CartAP accessions in consonance with their geographical origin. Bayesian analysis of population structure of CartAP demonstrated the unstructured nature of the association panel. Kinship analysis at population (Gij and individual level (Fij revealed absence of or weak relatedness between the CartAP accessions. The above parameters established the suitability of CartAP for association mapping. We performed association mapping using phenotypic data for eight traits of agronomic value (viz., seed oil content, oleic acid, linoleic acid, plant height, number of primary branches, number of capitula per plant, 100-seed weight and days to 50% flowering available for two growing seasons (2011–2012 and 2012–2013 through General Linear Model and Mixed Linear Model. Our study identified ninety-six significant marker-trait associations (MTAs; P < 0.05 of which, several MTAs with correlation coefficient (R2 > 10% were consistently represented in both models and in both seasons for traits viz., oil content, oleic acid content, linoleic acid content and number of primary branches. Several MTAs with high R2-values were detected either in a majority or in

  14. Association Mapping for Important Agronomic Traits in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Core Collection Using Microsatellite Markers.

    Ambreen, Heena; Kumar, Shivendra; Kumar, Amar; Agarwal, Manu; Jagannath, Arun; Goel, Shailendra

    2018-01-01

    Carthamus tinctorius L. (safflower) is an important oilseed crop producing seed oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Scarcity of identified marker-trait associations is a major limitation toward development of successful marker-assisted breeding programs in safflower. In the present study, a safflower panel (CartAP) comprising 124 accessions derived from two core collections was assayed for its suitability for association mapping. Genotyping of CartAP using microsatellite markers revealed significant genetic diversity indicated by Shannon information index ( H = 0.7537) and Nei's expected heterozygosity ( I = 0.4432). In Principal Coordinate Analysis, the CartAP accessions were distributed homogeneously in all quadrants indicating their diverse nature. Distance-based Neighbor Joining analysis did not delineate the CartAP accessions in consonance with their geographical origin. Bayesian analysis of population structure of CartAP demonstrated the unstructured nature of the association panel. Kinship analysis at population ( G ij ) and individual level ( F ij ) revealed absence of or weak relatedness between the CartAP accessions. The above parameters established the suitability of CartAP for association mapping. We performed association mapping using phenotypic data for eight traits of agronomic value ( viz ., seed oil content, oleic acid, linoleic acid, plant height, number of primary branches, number of capitula per plant, 100-seed weight and days to 50% flowering) available for two growing seasons (2011-2012 and 2012-2013) through General Linear Model and Mixed Linear Model. Our study identified ninety-six significant marker-trait associations (MTAs; P 10% were consistently represented in both models and in both seasons for traits viz ., oil content, oleic acid content, linoleic acid content and number of primary branches. Several MTAs with high R 2 -values were detected either in a majority or in some environments (models and/or seasons). Many MTAs were also

  15. Characterization of genetic diversity of native 'Ancho' chili populations of Mexico using microsatellite markers

    Rocío Toledo-Aguilar; Higinio López-Sánchez; Amalio Santacruz-Varela; Ernestina Valadez-Moctezuma; Pedro A López; Víctor H Aguilar-Rincón; Víctor A González-Hernández; Humberto Vaquera-Huerta

    2016-01-01

    'Ancho' type chilis (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) are an important ingredient in the traditional cuisine of Mexico and so are in high demand. It includes six native sub-types with morphological and fruit color differences. However, the genetic diversity of the set of these sub­types has not been determined. The objective of this study was to characterize the genetic diversity of native Mexican ancho chili populations using microsatellites and to determine the relationship among these popul...

  16. Genetic diversity of six populations of red hybrid tilapia, using microsatellites genetic markers

    Boris Briñez R.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine and evaluate the genetic diversity of six populations of red hybrid tilapia, with the purpose to assess the potential benefit of a future breeding program conducted at the Research Center for Aquaculture (Ceniacua, Colombia. Material and methods. A total of 300 individuals, representing a wide genetic variability, were genotyped using a fluorescent microsatellite marker set of 5 gene-based SSRs in 6 different farms belonging to 4 States of Colombia. Results. The result showed that the mean number of alleles per locus per population was 8.367. The population 5 had the highest mean number of alleles with 9.6 alleles, followed by population 4 with 9.4 alleles, population 2 with 9.2, population 3 with 8.0, population 1 with 7.2 and population 6 with 6.8 alleles. The analysis of the distribution of genetic variation was (17.32% among population, while among individuals within populations was (28.55% and within individuals was high (54.12%. The standard diversity indices showed that population 4 was the more variable (mean He=0.837 followed by population 1 (mean He=0.728, population 3 (mean He=0.721, population 5 (mean He=0.705, population 2 (mean He=0.690, population 6 (mean He=0.586. Highly significant deviations from Hardy–Weinberg, exhibited all of the populations, mostly due to deficits of heterozygotes. Genotype frequencies at loci UNH 106 of population 5 and loci UNH 172 of population 6 were Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE. Conclusions. The results of this study, contribute to the genetic breeding program of Tilapia, conduced by the Research Center for Aquaculture. The Fst distance showed that the samples are differentiated genetically and it is possible to use at the beginning of the genetic program. However, it is recommended to introduce others individuals to the crossbreeding program.

  17. Association Mapping for Important Agronomic Traits in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Core Collection Using Microsatellite Markers

    Heena Ambreen; Shivendra Kumar; Amar Kumar; Manu Agarwal; Arun Jagannath; Shailendra Goel

    2018-01-01

    Carthamus tinctorius L. (safflower) is an important oilseed crop producing seed oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Scarcity of identified marker-trait associations is a major limitation toward development of successful marker-assisted breeding programs in safflower. In the present study, a safflower panel (CartAP) comprising 124 accessions derived from two core collections was assayed for its suitability for association mapping. Genotyping of CartAP using microsatellite markers revealed sig...

  18. Polymorphic microsatellite markers for genetic studies of African ...

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... Many wild animal species lack informative genetic markers for analysing genetic variation and ... which act as important buffer zones between human and wildlife. ..... amplification tests of ungulate primers in the endangered.

  19. Genetic diversity of grape germplasm as revealed by microsatellite ...

    aghomotsegin

    In this work, cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to study the genetic ... Key words: Vitis vinifera L., simple sequence repeat (SSR), genetic diversity, .... The data were used for the following statistical analyses.

  20. Genetic Diversity of Acacia mangium Seed Orchard in Wonogiri Indonesia Using Microsatellite Markers

    VIVI YUSKIANTI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity is important in tree improvement programs. To evaluate levels of genetic diversity of first generation Acacia mangium seedling seed orchard in Wonogiri, Central Java, Indonesia, three populations from each region of Papua New Guinea (PNG and Queensland, Australia (QLD were selected and analyzed using 25 microsatellite markers. Statistical analysis showed that PNG populations have higher number of detected alleles and level of genetic diversity than QLD populations. This study provides a basic information about the genetic background of the populations used in the development of an A. mangium seed orchard in Indonesia.

  1. Genetic diversity in Egyptian and Italian goat breeds measured with microsatellite polymorphism.

    Agha, S H; Pilla, F; Galal, S; Shaat, I; D'Andrea, M; Reale, S; Abdelsalam, A Z A; Li, M H

    2008-06-01

    Seven microsatellite markers were used to study genetic diversity of three Egyptian (Egyptian Baladi, Barki and Zaraibi) and two Italian (Maltese and Montefalcone) goat breeds. The microsatellites showed a high polymorphic information content (PIC) of more than 0.5 in most of the locus-breed combinations and indicated that the loci were useful in assessing within- and between-breed variability of domestic goat (Capra hircus). The expected heterozygosity of the breeds varied from 0.670 to 0.792. In the geographically wider distributed Egyptian Baladi breed there were indications for deviations from random breeding. Analysis of genetic distances and population structure grouped the three Egyptian goat breeds together, and separated them from the two Italian breeds. The studied Mediterranean breeds sampled from African and European populations seem to have differentiated from each other with only little genetic exchange between the geographically isolated populations.

  2. Microsatellite markers to determine population genetic structure in the golden anchovy, Coilia dussumieri.

    Kathirvelpandian, A; Gopalakrishnan, A; Lakra, W S; Krishna, Gopal; Sharma, Rupam; Musammilu, K K; Basheer, V S; Jena, J K

    2014-06-01

    Coilia dussumieri (Valenciennes, 1848) commonly called as golden anchovy, constitutes a considerable fishery in the northern part of both the west and east coasts of India. Despite its clear-cut geographic isolation, the species is treated as a unit stock for fishery management purposes. We evaluated 32 microsatellite primer pairs from three closely related species (resource species) belonging to the family Engraulidae through cross-species amplification in C. dussumieri. Successful cross-priming was obtained with 10 loci, which were sequenced for confirmation of repeats. Loci were tested for delineating the genetic stock structure of four populations of C. dussumieri from both the coasts of India. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 8 to 18, with a mean of 12.3. Results of pairwise F ST indicated genetic stock structuring between the east and west coast populations of India and also validated the utilization of identified microsatellite markers in population genetic structure analysis.

  3. Cross species amplification ability of novel microsatellites isolated from Jatropha curcas and genetic relationship with sister taxa : Cross species amplification and genetic relationship of Jatropha using novel microsatellites

    Pamidimarri, D. V N N Sudheer

    2010-07-30

    The present investigation was undertaken with an aim to check the ability of cross species amplification of microsatellite markers isolated from Jatropha curcas-a renewable source of biodiesel to deduce the generic relationship with its six sister taxa (J. glandulifera, J. gossypifolia, J. integerrima, J. multifida, J. podagrica, and J. tanjorensis). Out of the 49 markers checked 31 markers showed cross species amplification in all the species studied. JCDS-30, JCDS-69, JCDS-26, JCMS-13 and JCMS-21 amplified in J. curcas. However, these markers did not show any cross species amplification. Overall percentage of polymorphism (PP) among the species studied was 38% and the mean genetic similarity (GS) was found to be 0.86. The highest PP (24) and least GS (0.76) was found between J. curcas/J. podagrica and J. curcas/J. multifida and least PP (4.44) and highest GS (0.96) was found between J. integerrima/J. tanjorensis. Dendrogram analysis showed good congruence to RAPD and AFLP than nrDNA ITS data reported earlier. The characterized microsatellites will pave way for intraspecies molecular characterization which can be further utilized in species differentiation, molecular identification, characterization of interspecific hybrids, exploitation of genetic resource management and genetic improvement of the species through marker assisted breeding for economically important traits. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  4. Genetic Diversity of Bali Cattle Based on Microsatellite Marker in Indonesian Breeding Centre

    W. A. Septian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetics characterization in livestock based on microsatellite has been widely implemented including for Bali cattle in three different breeding centres in Indonesia. This study aimed to determine diversity of Bali cattle microsatellites in three breeding centers namely BPTU Bali cattle in Bali, BPT-HMT Serading Sumbawa in West Nusa Tenggara, and Village Breeding Center in South Sulawesi. The number of animals used in this study was 95 head of cattle consisted of 32 heads from BPTU Bali Province, 32 heads from BPT-HMT Serading Sumbawa, and 31 heads from Village Barru Breeding Center Barru distric. Microsatellite loci used to determine the diversity was the locus SPS115, INRA037, MM12, and ETH185 based on flourescently labeled fragment method. Data analysis of microsatellite in Bali cattle at three different locations was performed by using POPGEN 1.2, Cervus, and POPTREE2 programs. The results showed that microsatellite diversity in Bali cattle detected 32 alleles from three different locations, and there were specific alleles at each location. Average values of observed heterozygosity (Ho and expected heterozygosity (He were 0.418 and 0.604 respectively, while the average value of polymorphism informative content (PIC was 0.579. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in general suggested that the loci used in the Bali cattle in three populations were in equilibrium, except INRA037 and ETH185. The genetic diversity between populations of Bali cattle was 0.033 (3%, while the inbreeding coefficient index in all populations was 0.296 (29.6 %. Bali cattle phylogeny tree with three populations showed that the populations of Bali cattle in BPTU Bali and VBC Barru had close genetic distance compared to the population of Bali cattle in BPT-HMT Serading Sumbawa. The results of this study provide information that the characteristics of Bali cattle breeding centers in three locations are different, so we need a directed breeding program in each population.

  5. The Genetic Relationship between Leishmania aethiopica and Leishmania tropica Revealed by Comparing Microsatellite Profiles.

    Krayter, Lena; Schnur, Lionel F; Schönian, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) aethiopica and L. (L.) tropica cause cutaneous leishmaniases and appear to be related. L. aethiopica is geographically restricted to Ethiopia and Kenya; L. tropica is widely dispersed from the Eastern Mediterranean, through the Middle East into eastern India and in north, east and south Africa. Their phylogenetic inter-relationship is only partially revealed. Some studies indicate a close relationship. Here, eight strains of L. aethiopica were characterized genetically and compared with 156 strains of L. tropica from most of the latter species' geographical range to discern the closeness. Twelve unlinked microsatellite markers previously used to genotype strains of L. tropica were successfully applied to the eight strains of L. aethiopica and their microsatellite profiles were compared to those of 156 strains of L. tropica from various geographical locations that were isolated from human cases of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, hyraxes and sand fly vectors. All the microsatellite profiles were subjected to various analytical algorithms: Bayesian statistics, distance-based and factorial correspondence analysis, revealing: (i) the species L. aethiopica, though geographically restricted, is genetically very heterogeneous; (ii) the strains of L. aethiopica formed a distinct genetic cluster; and (iii) strains of L. aethiopica are closely related to strains of L. tropica and more so to the African ones, although, by factorial correspondence analysis, clearly separate from them. The successful application of the 12 microsatellite markers, originally considered species-specific for the species L. tropica, to strains of L. aethiopica confirmed the close relationship between these two species. The Bayesian and distance-based methods clustered the strains of L. aethiopica among African strains of L. tropica, while the factorial correspondence analysis indicated a clear separation between the two species. There was no correlation between

  6. Construction of an integrated genetic map for Capsicum baccatum L.

    Moulin, M M; Rodrigues, R; Ramos, H C C; Bento, C S; Sudré, C P; Gonçalves, L S A; Viana, A P

    2015-06-18

    Capsicum baccatum L. is one of the five Capsicum domesticated species and has multiple uses in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. This species is also a valuable source of genes for chili pepper breeding, especially genes for disease resistance and fruit quality. However, knowledge of the genetic structure of C. baccatum is limited. A reference map for C. baccatum (2n = 2x = 24) based on 42 microsatellite, 85 inter-simple sequence repeat, and 56 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers was constructed using an F2 population consisting of 203 individuals. The map was generated using the JoinMap software (version 4.0) and the linkage groups were formed and ordered using a LOD score of 3.0 and maximum of 40% recombination. The genetic map consisted of 12 major and four minor linkage groups covering a total genome distance of 2547.5 cM with an average distance of 14.25 cM between markers. Of the 152 pairs of microsatellite markers available for Capsicum annuum, 62 were successfully transferred to C. baccatum, generating polymorphism. Forty-two of these markers were mapped, allowing the introduction of C. baccatum in synteny studies with other species of the genus Capsicum.

  7. Genetic diversity studies of Kherigarh cattle based on microsatellite ...

    agricultural plant species, most or all genetic diversity in live- stock exists within ..... African cattle breeds (0.506–0.697; Ibeagha-Awemu et al. 2004). However .... relationships among populations of Asian goats (Capra hircus). J. Anim. Breed. ... 120,. 73–87. Kim K. S., Yeo J. S. and Choi C. B. 2002 Genetic diversity of north-.

  8. Microsatellite genotyping reveals high genetic diversity but low ...

    JMwacharos

    2016-03-16

    Mar 16, 2016 ... diversity and (2) Investigate population structure and extent of admixture .... to estimate and partition genetic variation within and ... K between 1 and 40 and inferred its most optimal value ... populations of 0.84 ± 0.021 with the lowest mean in ..... on population stratification and the distribution of genetic.

  9. Microsatellite markers for population genetic studies of the blowfly Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Rosangela Aparecida Rodrigues

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the genetic variation and population structure of Chrysomya species is of great interest for both basic and applied research. However, very limited genetic information is available for this genus across its geographical distribution. Here, we describe 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci isolated from Chrysomya putoria with expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.1402-0.8312. These markers are of potential applied interest for forensic entomologists and for the characterisation of the genetic structure of C. putoria from recently colonised regions, with great promise for understanding the colonisation dynamics and spread of the genus Chrysomya in the New World.

  10. Genetic divergence of rubber tree estimated by multivariate techniques and microsatellite markers

    Lígia Regina Lima Gouvêa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity of 60 Hevea genotypes, consisting of Asiatic, Amazonian, African and IAC clones, and pertaining to the genetic breeding program of the Agronomic Institute (IAC, Brazil, was estimated. Analyses were based on phenotypic multivariate parameters and microsatellites. Five agronomic descriptors were employed in multivariate procedures, such as Standard Euclidian Distance, Tocher clustering and principal component analysis. Genetic variability among the genotypes was estimated with 68 selected polymorphic SSRs, by way of Modified Rogers Genetic Distance and UPGMA clustering. Structure software in a Bayesian approach was used in discriminating among groups. Genetic diversity was estimated through Nei's statistics. The genotypes were clustered into 12 groups according to the Tocher method, while the molecular analysis identified six groups. In the phenotypic and microsatellite analyses, the Amazonian and IAC genotypes were distributed in several groups, whereas the Asiatic were in only a few. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.05 to 0.96. Both high total diversity (H T' = 0.58 and high gene differentiation (Gst' = 0.61 were observed, and indicated high genetic variation among the 60 genotypes, which may be useful for breeding programs. The analyzed agronomic parameters and SSRs markers were effective in assessing genetic diversity among Hevea genotypes, besides proving to be useful for characterizing genetic variability.

  11. Genetic diversity as assessed by morphological and microsatellite ...

    lap

    2012-10-18

    Oct 18, 2012 ... Genetic diversity in 20 elite greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek] ... bean and cowpea were successfully amplified across 20 greengram genotypes of .... PCR amplified products were subjected to electrophoresis in a.

  12. Genetic maps and physical units

    Karunakaran, V.; Holt, G.

    1976-01-01

    The relationships between physical and genetic units are examined. Genetic mapping involves the detection of linkage of genes and the measurement of recombination frequencies. The genetic distance is measured in map units and is proportional to the recombination frequencies between linked markers. Physical mapping of genophores, particularly the simple genomes of bacteriophages and bacterial plasmids can be achieved through heteroduplex analysis. Genetic distances are dependent on recombination frequencies and, therefore, can only be correlated accurately with physical unit lengths if the recombination frequency is constant throughout the entire genome. Methods are available to calculate the equivalent length of DNA per average map unit in different organisms. Such estimates indicate significant differences from one organism to another. Gene lengths can also be calculated from the number of amino acids in a specified polypeptide and relating this to the number of nucleotides required to code for such a polypeptide. Many attempts have been made to relate microdosimetric measurements to radiobiological data. For irradiation effects involving deletion of genetic material such a detailed correlation may be possible in systems where heteroduplex analysis or amino acid sequencing can be performed. The problems of DNA packaging and other functional associations within the cell in interpreting data is discussed

  13. Analysis of genetic diversity and differentiation of seven stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei using microsatellite markers

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Weiji; Li, Weiya; Zhang, Quanqi; Kong, Jie

    2014-08-01

    Seven microsatellite markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity and differentiation of seven stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei, which were introduced from Central and South America to China. All seven microsatellite loci were polymorphic, with polymorphism information content ( PIC) values ranging from 0.593 to 0.952. Totally 92 alleles were identified, and the number of alleles ( Na) and effective alleles ( Ne) varied between 4 and 21 and 2.7 and 14.6, respectively. Observed heterozygosity ( H o) values were lower than the expected heterozygosity ( H e) values (0.526-0.754), which indicated that the seven stocks possessed a rich genetic diversity. Thirty-seven tests were detected for reasonable significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. F is values were positive at five loci, suggesting that there was a relatively high degree of inbreeding within stocks. Pairwise F st values ranged from 0.0225 to 0.151, and most of the stock pairs were moderately differentiated. Genetic distance and cluster analysis using UPGMA revealed a close genetic relationship of L. vannamei between Pop2 and Pop3. AMOVA indicated that the genetic variation among stocks (11.3%) was much lower than that within stocks (88.7%). Although the seven stocks had a certain degree of genetic differentiation and a rich genetic diversity, there is an increasing risk of decreased performance due to inbreeding in subsequent generations.

  14. Assessment of Genetic Diversity, Relationships and Structure among Korean Native Cattle Breeds Using Microsatellite Markers

    Sangwon Suh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Four Korean native cattle (KNC breeds—Hanwoo, Chikso, Heugu, and Jeju black—are entered in the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and population structure of these KNC breeds (n = 120 and exotic breeds (Holstein and Charolais, n = 56. Thirty microsatellite loci recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics/FAO were genotyped. These genotypes were used to determine the allele frequencies, allelic richness, heterozygosity and polymorphism information content per locus and breed. Genetic diversity was lower in Heugu and Jeju black breeds. Phylogenetic analysis, Factorial Correspondence Analysis and genetic clustering grouped each breed in its own cluster, which supported the genetic uniqueness of the KNC breeds. These results will be useful for conservation and management of KNC breeds as animal genetic resources.

  15. Genetic diversity of indigenous chickens from selected areas in Kenya using microsatellite markers

    Okoth Noah Okumu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, indigenous chickens were collected from eight different regions in Kenya and kept at InCIP-Egerton University. These were studied using eighteen microsatellite markers to determine genetic variation. Statistics related to genetic variation were estimated using GenALEx6. Mean percentage polymorphic loci (PPL was 96.71% and 4% genetic variance (p ≥ 0.003 was seen between the eight populations. MCW0123 marker had the highest genetic variance of 13% among populations (p ≥ 0.003 at 95% CI. Mean He ranged from 0.351 ± 0.031 (SIB to 0.434 ± 0.022 (BM with a grand mean He of 0.399 ± 0.011 across the populations using the microsatellite markers. Nei’s genetic distance ranged from 0.016 (SIB and WP to 0.126 (NR and SIB. DARwin6.501 analysis software was used to draw the population dendrogram and two major population clusters were observed, also seen with PCoA. This study found a lot of genetic variation and relatedness within and among populations. Based on the phylogenetic tree result, it is concluded that the clustering of the chicken populations in the present study is not based on geographical proximity. The microsatellite markers used in this study were suitable for the measurement of the genetic biodiversity and relationship of Kenyan chicken populations. These results can therefore serve as an initial step to plan the conservation of indigenous chickens in Kenya.

  16. Development of polymorphic microsatellite markers in Sardinella ...

    differentiation of S. aurita are available, which has limited the proper management and utilization of S. aurita (Kinsey et al. ... 5 -anchored PCR; Sardinella aurita. Journal of Genetics Vol. 93, Online Resources .... 2012 Construction of a high density microsatellite genetic linkage map and mapping of sexual and growthrelated ...

  17. Microsatellite markers suggest high genetic diversity in an urban ...

    FRANCISCO MORINHA

    diversity in an urban population of Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii). J. Genet. 95, e19–e24. ... high quality habitat for this species (Boggie and Mannan. 2014) and the rapid ... The high densities of birds in urban populations can result in the ..... comparing urban and rural Cooper's hawk populations are mandatory to ...

  18. Microsatellite marker-based genetic analysis of relatedness between commercial and heritage turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Kamara, D; Gyenai, K B; Geng, T; Hammade, H; Smith, E J

    2007-01-01

    The turkey is second only to the chicken in importance as an agriculturally important poultry species. Unlike the chicken, however, genetic studies of the turkey continue to be limited. For example, to date, many genomic investigations have been conducted to characterize genetic relationships between commercial (CO) and non-CO chicken breeds, whereas the nature of the genetic relatedness between CO and heritage turkeys remains unknown. The objective of the current research was to use microsatellites to analyze the genetic relatedness between CO and heritage domestic turkeys including Narragansett, Bourbon Red, Blue Slate, Spanish Black, and Royal Palm. Primer pairs specific for 10 previously described turkey microsatellite markers were used. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the Blue Slate, Bourbon Red, and Narragansett were genetically closely related to the CO strain, with a Nei distance of 0.30, and the Royal Palm and Spanish Black were the least related to the CO strain, with Nei distances of 0.41 and 0.40, respectively. The present work provides a foundation for the basis of using heritage turkeys to genetically improve CO populations by introgression.

  19. Mapping public policy on genetics.

    Weisfeld, N E

    2002-06-01

    The mapping of the human genome and related advances in genetics are stimulating the development of public policies on genetics. Certain notions that currently prevail in public policy development overall--including the importance of protecting privacy of information, an interest in cost-effectiveness, and the power of the anecdote--will help determine the future of public policy on genetics. Information areas affected include discrimination by insurers and employers, confidentiality, genetic databanks, genetic testing in law enforcement, and court-ordered genetic testing in civil cases. Service issues address clinical standards, insurance benefits, allocation of resources, and screening of populations at risk. Supply issues encompass funding of research and clinical positions. Likely government actions include, among others: (1) Requiring individual consent for the disclosure of personal information, except when such consent would impose inordinate costs; (2) licensing genetic databases; (3) allowing courts to use personal information in cases where a refusal to use such information would offend the public; (4) mandating health insurers to pay for cost-effective genetic services; (5) funding pharmaceutical research to develop tailored products to prevent or treat diseases; and (6) funding training programs.

  20. Genetic Diversity and Geographic Population Structure of Bovine Neospora caninum Determined by Microsatellite Genotyping Analysis

    Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Díez-Fuertes, Francisco; García-Culebras, Alicia; Moore, Dadín P.; González-Warleta, Marta; Cuevas, Carmen; Schares, Gereon; Katzer, Frank; Pedraza-Díaz, Susana; Mezo, Mercedes; Ortega-Mora, Luis M.

    2013-01-01

    The cyst-forming protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is one of the main causes of bovine abortion worldwide and is of great economic importance in the cattle industry. Recent studies have revealed extensive genetic variation among N . caninum isolates based on microsatellite sequences (MSs). MSs may be suitable molecular markers for inferring the diversity of parasite populations, molecular epidemiology and the basis for phenotypic variations in N . caninum , which have been poorly defined. In this study, we evaluated nine MS markers using a panel of 11 N . caninum -derived reference isolates from around the world and 96 N . caninum bovine clinical samples and one ovine clinical sample collected from four countries on two continents, including Spain, Argentina, Germany and Scotland, over a 10-year period. These markers were used as molecular tools to investigate the genetic diversity, geographic distribution and population structure of N . caninum . Multilocus microsatellite genotyping based on 7 loci demonstrated high levels of genetic diversity in the samples from all of the different countries, with 96 microsatellite multilocus genotypes (MLGs) identified from 108 N . caninum samples. Geographic sub-structuring was present in the country populations according to pairwise F ST. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Neighbor Joining tree topologies also suggested MLG segregation partially associated with geographical origin. An analysis of the MLG relationships, using eBURST, confirmed that the close genetic relationship observed between the Spanish and Argentinean populations may be the result of parasite migration (i.e., the introduction of novel MLGs from Spain to South America) due to cattle movement. The eBURST relationships also revealed genetically different clusters associated with the abortion. The presence of linkage disequilibrium, the co-existence of specific MLGs to individual farms and eBURST MLG relationships suggest a predominant clonal

  1. Genetic Variation and Population Structure in Jamunapari Goats Using Microsatellites, Mitochondrial DNA, and Milk Protein Genes

    Rout, P. K.; Thangraj, K.; Mandal, A.; Roy, R.

    2012-01-01

    Jamunapari, a dairy goat breed of India, has been gradually declining in numbers in its home tract over the years. We have analysed genetic variation and population history in Jamunapari goats based on 17 microsatellite loci, 2 milk protein loci, mitochondrial hypervariable region I (HVRI) sequencing, and three Y-chromosomal gene sequencing. We used the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mismatch distribution, microsatellite data, and bottleneck tests to infer the population history and demography. The mean number of alleles per locus was 9.0 indicating that the allelic variation was high in all the loci and the mean heterozygosity was 0.769 at nuclear loci. Although the population size is smaller than 8,000 individuals, the amount of variability both in terms of allelic richness and gene diversity was high in all the microsatellite loci except ILST 005. The gene diversity and effective number of alleles at milk protein loci were higher than the 10 other Indian goat breeds that they were compared to. Mismatch analysis was carried out and the analysis revealed that the population curve was unimodal indicating the expansion of population. The genetic diversity of Y-chromosome genes was low in the present study. The observed mean M ratio in the population was above the critical significance value (Mc) and close to one indicating that it has maintained a slowly changing population size. The mode-shift test did not detect any distortion of allele frequency and the heterozygosity excess method showed that there was no significant departure from mutation-drift equilibrium detected in the population. However, the effects of genetic bottlenecks were observed in some loci due to decreased heterozygosity and lower level of M ratio. There were two observed genetic subdivisions in the population supporting the observations of farmers in different areas. This base line information on genetic diversity, bottleneck analysis, and mismatch analysis was obtained to assist the conservation

  2. Genetic similarity among commercial oil palm materials based on microsatellite markers

    Diana Arias

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite markers are used to determine genetic similarities among individuals and might be used in various applications in breeding programs. For example, knowing the genetic similarity relationships of commercial planting materials helps to better understand their responses to environmental, agronomic and plant health factors. This study assessed 17 microsatellite markers in 9 crosses (D x P of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. from various commercial companies in Malaysia, France, Costa Rica and Colombia, in order to find possible genetic differences and/or similarities. Seventy-seven alleles were obtained, with an average of 4.5 alleles per primer and a range of 2-8 amplified alleles. The results show a significant reduction of alleles, compared to the number of alleles reported for wild oil palm populations. The obtained dendrogram shows the formation of two groups based on their genetic similarity. Group A, with ~76% similarity, contains the commercial material of 3 codes of Deli x La Mé crosses produced in France and Colombia, and group B, with ~66% genetic similarity, includes all the materials produced by commercial companies in Malaysia, France, Costa Rica and Colombia

  3. Genic non-coding microsatellites in the rice genome: characterization, marker design and use in assessing genetic and evolutionary relationships among domesticated groups

    Singh Nagendra

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Completely sequenced plant genomes provide scope for designing a large number of microsatellite markers, which are useful in various aspects of crop breeding and genetic analysis. With the objective of developing genic but non-coding microsatellite (GNMS markers for the rice (Oryza sativa L. genome, we characterized the frequency and relative distribution of microsatellite repeat-motifs in 18,935 predicted protein coding genes including 14,308 putative promoter sequences. Results We identified 19,555 perfect GNMS repeats with densities ranging from 306.7/Mb in chromosome 1 to 450/Mb in chromosome 12 with an average of 357.5 GNMS per Mb. The average microsatellite density was maximum in the 5' untranslated regions (UTRs followed by those in introns, promoters, 3'UTRs and minimum in the coding sequences (CDS. Primers were designed for 17,966 (92% GNMS repeats, including 4,288 (94% hypervariable class I types, which were bin-mapped on the rice genome. The GNMS markers were most polymorphic in the intronic region (73.3% followed by markers in the promoter region (53.3% and least in the CDS (26.6%. The robust polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification efficiency and high polymorphic potential of GNMS markers over genic coding and random genomic microsatellite markers suggest their immediate use in efficient genotyping applications in rice. A set of these markers could assess genetic diversity and establish phylogenetic relationships among domesticated rice cultivar groups. We also demonstrated the usefulness of orthologous and paralogous conserved non-coding microsatellite (CNMS markers, identified in the putative rice promoter sequences, for comparative physical mapping and understanding of evolutionary and gene regulatory complexities among rice and other members of the grass family. The divergence between long-grained aromatics and subspecies japonica was estimated to be more recent (0.004 Mya compared to short

  4. Genome-based polymorphic microsatellite development and validation in the mosquito Aedes aegypti and application to population genetics in Haiti

    Streit Thomas G

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellite markers have proven useful in genetic studies in many organisms, yet microsatellite-based studies of the dengue and yellow fever vector mosquito Aedes aegypti have been limited by the number of assayable and polymorphic loci available, despite multiple independent efforts to identify them. Here we present strategies for efficient identification and development of useful microsatellites with broad coverage across the Aedes aegypti genome, development of multiplex-ready PCR groups of microsatellite loci, and validation of their utility for population analysis with field collections from Haiti. Results From 79 putative microsatellite loci representing 31 motifs identified in 42 whole genome sequence supercontig assemblies in the Aedes aegypti genome, 33 microsatellites providing genome-wide coverage amplified as single copy sequences in four lab strains, with a range of 2-6 alleles per locus. The tri-nucleotide motifs represented the majority (51% of the polymorphic single copy loci, and none of these was located within a putative open reading frame. Seven groups of 4-5 microsatellite loci each were developed for multiplex-ready PCR. Four multiplex-ready groups were used to investigate population genetics of Aedes aegypti populations sampled in Haiti. Of the 23 loci represented in these groups, 20 were polymorphic with a range of 3-24 alleles per locus (mean = 8.75. Allelic polymorphic information content varied from 0.171 to 0.867 (mean = 0.545. Most loci met Hardy-Weinberg expectations across populations and pairwise FST comparisons identified significant genetic differentiation between some populations. No evidence for genetic isolation by distance was observed. Conclusion Despite limited success in previous reports, we demonstrate that the Aedes aegypti genome is well-populated with single copy, polymorphic microsatellite loci that can be uncovered using the strategy developed here for rapid and efficient

  5. Genetic characterization of local Criollo pig breeds from the Americas using microsatellite markers.

    Revidatti, M A; Delgado Bermejo, J V; Gama, L T; Landi Periati, V; Ginja, C; Alvarez, L A; Vega-Pla, J L; Martínez, A M

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about local Criollo pig genetic resources and relationships among the various populations. In this paper, genetic diversity and relationships among 17 Criollo pig populations from 11 American countries were assessed with 24 microsatellite markers. Heterozygosities, F-statistics, and genetic distances were estimated, and multivariate, genetic structure and admixture analyses were performed. The overall means for genetic variability parameters based on the 24 microsatellite markers were the following: mean number of alleles per locus of 6.25 ± 2.3; effective number of alleles per locus of 3.33 ± 1.56; allelic richness per locus of 4.61 ± 1.37; expected and observed heterozygosity of 0.62 ± 0.04 and 0.57 ± 0.02, respectively; within-population inbreeding coefficient of 0.089; and proportion of genetic variability accounted for by differences among breeds of 0.11 ± 0.01. Genetic differences were not significantly associated with the geographical location to which breeds were assigned or their country of origin. Still, the NeighborNet dendrogram depicted the clustering by geographic origin of several South American breeds (Criollo Boliviano, Criollo of northeastern Argentina wet, and Criollo of northeastern Argentina dry), but some unexpected results were also observed, such as the grouping of breeds from countries as distant as El Salvador, Mexico, Ecuador, and Cuba. The results of genetic structure and admixture analyses indicated that the most likely number of ancestral populations was 11, and most breeds clustered separately when this was the number of predefined populations, with the exception of some closely related breeds that shared the same cluster and others that were admixed. These results indicate that Criollo pigs represent important reservoirs of pig genetic diversity useful for local development as well as for the pig industry.

  6. Is early-onset microsatellite and chromosomally stable colorectal cancer a hallmark of a genetic susceptibility syndrome?

    Kets, C M; van Krieken, J H J M; van Erp, P E J; Feuth, T; Jacobs, Y H A; Brunner, H G; Ligtenberg, M J L; Hoogerbrugge, N

    2008-02-15

    Most colorectal cancers show either microsatellite or chromosomal instability. A subset of colorectal cancers, especially those diagnosed at young age, is known to show neither of these forms of genetic instability and thus might have a distinct pathogenesis. Colorectal cancers diagnosed at young age are suggestive for hereditary predisposition. We investigate whether such early-onset microsatellite and chromosomally stable colorectal cancers are a hallmark of a genetic susceptibility syndrome. The ploidy status of microsatellite stable (familial) colorectal cancers of patients diagnosed before age 50 (n = 127) was analyzed in relation to the histopathological characteristics and family history. As a control the ploidy status of sporadic colorectal cancer, with normal staining of mismatch repair proteins, diagnosed at the age of 69 years or above (n = 70) was determined. A diploid DNA content was used as a marker for chromosomal stability. Within the group of patients with (familial) early onset microsatellite stable colorectal cancer the chromosomally stable tumors did not differ from chromosomally unstable tumors with respect to mean age at diagnosis, fulfillment of Amsterdam criteria or pathological characteristics. Segregation analysis did not reveal any family with microsatellite and chromosomally stable colorectal cancer in 2 relatives. The prevalence of microsatellite and chromosomally stable colorectal cancer was not significantly different for the early and late onset group (28 and 21%, respectively). We find no evidence that early-onset microsatellite and chromosomally stable colorectal cancer is a hallmark of a hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. A genetic linkage map for the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus

    Lance Stacey L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome elucidation is now in high gear for many organisms, and whilst genetic maps have been developed for a broad array of species, surprisingly, no such maps exist for a crocodilian, or indeed any other non-avian member of the Class Reptilia. Genetic linkage maps are essential tools for the mapping and dissection of complex quantitative trait loci (QTL, and in order to permit systematic genome scans for the identification of genes affecting economically important traits in farmed crocodilians, a comprehensive genetic linage map will be necessary. Results A first-generation genetic linkage map for the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus was constructed using 203 microsatellite markers amplified across a two-generation pedigree comprising ten full-sib families from a commercial population at Darwin Crocodile Farm, Northern Territory, Australia. Linkage analyses identified fourteen linkage groups comprising a total of 180 loci, with 23 loci remaining unlinked. Markers were ordered within linkage groups employing a heuristic approach using CRIMAP v3.0 software. The estimated female and male recombination map lengths were 1824.1 and 319.0 centimorgans (cM respectively, revealing an uncommonly large disparity in recombination map lengths between sexes (ratio of 5.7:1. Conclusion We have generated the first genetic linkage map for a crocodilian, or indeed any other non-avian reptile. The uncommonly large disparity in recombination map lengths confirms previous preliminary evidence of major differences in sex-specific recombination rates in a species that exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD. However, at this point the reason for this disparity in saltwater crocodiles remains unclear. This map will be a valuable resource for crocodilian researchers, facilitating the systematic genome scans necessary for identifying genes affecting complex traits of economic importance in the crocodile industry. In addition

  8. Genetic diversity of a large set of horse breeds raised in France assessed by microsatellite polymorphism

    2009-01-01

    The genetic diversity and structure of horses raised in France were investigated using 11 microsatellite markers and 1679 animals belonging to 34 breeds. Between-breed differences explained about ten per cent of the total genetic diversity (Fst = 0.099). Values of expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.43 to 0.79 depending on the breed. According to genetic relationships, multivariate and structure analyses, breeds could be classified into four genetic differentiated groups: warm-blooded, draught, Nordic and pony breeds. Using complementary maximisation of diversity and aggregate diversity approaches, we conclude that particular efforts should be made to conserve five local breeds, namely the Boulonnais, Landais, Merens, Poitevin and Pottok breeds. PMID:19284689

  9. Genetic diversity of a large set of horse breeds raised in France assessed by microsatellite polymorphism

    Mériaux Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic diversity and structure of horses raised in France were investigated using 11 microsatellite markers and 1679 animals belonging to 34 breeds. Between-breed differences explained about ten per cent of the total genetic diversity (Fst = 0.099. Values of expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.43 to 0.79 depending on the breed. According to genetic relationships, multivariate and structure analyses, breeds could be classified into four genetic differentiated groups: warm-blooded, draught, Nordic and pony breeds. Using complementary maximisation of diversity and aggregate diversity approaches, we conclude that particular efforts should be made to conserve five local breeds, namely the Boulonnais, Landais, Merens, Poitevin and Pottok breeds.

  10. Genetic variation of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Florida and the Caribbean using microsatellite DNA markers.

    Boykin, Laura M; Shatters, Robert G; Hall, David G; Dean, David; Beerli, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the Caribbean fruit fly, is indigenous to Florida and the Greater Antilles where it causes economic losses in fruit crops, including citrus. Because of the geographic separation of many of its native locations and anecdotal descriptions of regional differences in host preferences, there have been questions about the population structure of A. suspensa. Seven DNA microsatellite markers were used to characterize the population genetic structure of A. suspensa, in Florida and the Caribbean from a variety of hosts, including citrus. We genotyped 729 A. suspensa individuals from Florida, Puerto Rico, Cayman Island, Dominican Republic, and Jamaica. The investigated seven loci displayed from 5 to 19 alleles, with expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.05 to 0.83. There were five unique alleles in Florida and three unique alleles in the Caribbean samples; however, no microsatellite alleles were specific to a single host plant. Genetic diversity was analyzed using F(ST) and analysis of molecular variance and revealed low genetic diversity between Florida and Caribbean samples and also between citrus and noncitrus samples. Analyses using migrate revealed there is continuous gene flow between sampling sites in Florida and the Caribbean and among different hosts. These results support previous comparisons based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I locus indicating there is no genetic differentiation among locations in Florida and the Caribbean and that there is no separation into host races.

  11. MICROSATELLITE GENETIC VARIATION IN CULTURED POPULATIONS OF AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus IN INDONESIA

    Imron Imron

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, is one of economically important farmed species in Indonesia. To support the development of aquaculture industry, high genetic quality of both broodstock and seeds is required and breeding program is considered as viable option. Information on genetic variation of the populations being considered to form a base population may give insight toward the appropriate strategy to be implemented in breeding program. This study was aimed to assess genetic variation in farmed populations of catfish in Indonesia using microsatellite markers with special emphasis on their use to develop breeding program. Three populations of farmed catfish, namely Dumbo, Paiton, and Sangkuriang were collected. Fifteen individuals representing each population were screened for microsatellite variability using seven primer sets (cga01, cga02, cga03, cga05, cga06, cga09, cga10. Results found that with exception of two loci (cga01 and cg02 which had a slight increase, the other four loci showed reduction in the number of alleles ranging from 35% to 80% depending on loci. Farmed populations also showed heterozygote deficient and inbreeding level, being the highest was found in Sangkuriang and the least was observed in Dumbo population. Individuals within populations contributed most (95% while interpopulation variation accounted for only 5% of the total genetic variation. Populations of Dumbo and Sangkuriang were genetically similar while populations of Paiton were genetically different from both Dumbo and Sangkuriang. Viewed from genetic perspective, by combining all information emerging from this study, the best possible strategy to establish a base population with broad genetic base and less inbreeding would be to combine all the populations into a synthetic base population.

  12. Genetic changes of MLH1 and MSH2 genes could explain constant findings on microsatellite instability in intracranial meningioma.

    Pećina-Šlaus, Nives; Kafka, Anja; Bukovac, Anja; Vladušić, Tomislav; Tomas, Davor; Hrašćan, Reno

    2017-07-01

    Postreplicative mismatch repair safeguards the stability of our genome. The defects in its functioning will give rise to microsatellite instability. In this study, 50 meningiomas were investigated for microsatellite instability. Two major mismatch repair genes, MLH1 and MSH2, were analyzed using microsatellite markers D1S1611 and BAT26 amplified by polymerase chain reaction and visualized by gel electrophoresis on high-resolution gels. Furthermore, genes DVL3 (D3S1262), AXIN1 (D16S3399), and CDH1 (D16S752) were also investigated for microsatellite instability. Our study revealed constant presence of microsatellite instability in meningioma patients when compared to their autologous blood DNA. Altogether 38% of meningiomas showed microsatellite instability at one microsatellite locus, 16% on two, and 13.3% on three loci. The percent of detected microsatellite instability for MSH2 gene was 14%, and for MLH1, it was 26%, for DVL3 22.9%, for AXIN1 17.8%, and for CDH1 8.3%. Since markers also allowed for the detection of loss of heterozygosity, gross deletions of MLH1 gene were found in 24% of meningiomas. Genetic changes between MLH1 and MSH2 were significantly positively correlated (p = 0.032). We also noted a positive correlation between genetic changes of MSH2 and DVL3 genes (p = 0.034). No significant associations were observed when MLH1 or MSH2 was tested against specific histopathological meningioma subtype or World Health Organization grade. However, genetic changes in DVL3 were strongly associated with anaplastic histology of meningioma (χ 2  = 9.14; p = 0.01). Our study contributes to better understanding of the genetic profile of human intracranial meningiomas and suggests that meningiomas harbor defective cellular DNA mismatch repair mechanisms.

  13. Genetic characterization of Gaddi goat breed of Western Himalayas using microsatellite markers

    Gurdeep Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In the present study, genetic characterization of Gaddi goat breed, a native to north temperate western Himalayan region of India, was carried out for the purpose of breed characterization and assessing existing intra-population genetic diversity. Materials and Methods: Totally, 75 blood samples procured at random from genetically unrelated animals of two sexes and different age groups and true to breed type were collected from different locations in the breeding tract of these goats in Himachal Pradesh, of which only 51 samples with desired quantity and quality were subjected to further processing for DNA isolation. The multi-locus genotype data were generated on 51 Gaddi goats sampled across different regions of the breeding tract in Himachal Pradesh using 15 FAO recommended goat specific microsatellite markers, which gave amplification and observed and effective number of alleles, gene frequency, observed and expected heterozygosity were estimated through PopGene software (1.3.1. Results: A total of 135 distinct alleles were observed with mean observed and effective number of alleles as 9.0000±0.82 and 6.5874±0.56 respectively across all 15 studied loci. The maximum (15 alleles were contributed by loci DRBP1 and P19/DYA and the least (5 by SRCRSP5. The mean heterozygosity was observed to be 0.8347±0.01 ranging from 0.7584 (SRCRSP5 to 0.9156 (P19-DYA across all loci. The mean observed (HO and expected (HE heterozygosities across all loci were 0.7484±0.02 and 0.8431±0.01 respectively. The polymorphism information content (PIC value ranged from 0.7148 (SRCPS5 to 0.909 (P19-DYA with mean PIC of 0.8105±0.01 in the present study. The average heterozygosity was observed to be 0.8347±0.01 ranging from 0.7584 (SRCRSP5 to 0.9156 P19 (DYA across all loci. Conclusion: Microsatellite analysis revealed high level of polymorphism across studied microsatellite markers and informativeness of the markers for genetic diversity analysis studies in

  14. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of consecutive breeding generations of golden mandarin fish (Siniperca scherzeri Steindachner) using microsatellite markers.

    Luo, X N; Yang, M; Liang, X F; Jin, K; Lv, L Y; Tian, C X; Yuan, Y C; Sun, J

    2015-09-25

    In this study, 12 polymorphic microsatellites were inves-tigated to determine the genetic diversity and structure of 5 consecu-tive selected populations of golden mandarin fish (Siniperca scherzeri Steindachner). The total numbers of alleles, average heterozyosity, and average polymorphism information content showed that the genetic diversity of these breeding populations was decreasing. Additionally, pairwise fixation index FST values among populations and Da values in-creased from F1 generation to subsequent generations (FST values from 0.0221-0.1408; Da values from 0.0608-0.1951). Analysis of molecular variance indicated that most genetic variations arise from individuals within populations (about 92.05%), while variation among populations accounted for only 7.95%. The allele frequency of the loci SC75-220 and SC101-222 bp changed regularly in the 5 breeding generations. Their frequencies were gradually increased and showed an enrichment trend, indicating that there may be genetic correlations between these 2 loci and breeding traits. Our study indicated that microsatellite markers are effective for assessing the genetic variability in the golden mandarin fish breeding program.

  15. Genetic Characterization of Five Hatchery Populations of the Pacific Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Using Microsatellite Markers

    Jeong-In Myeong

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, is a popular food in Eastern Asia. Aquacultural production of this species has increased because of recent resource declines, the growing consumption, and ongoing government-operated stock release programs. Therefore, the genetic characterization of hatchery populations is necessary to maintain the genetic diversity of this species and to develop more effective aquaculture practices. We analyzed the genetic structures of five cultured populations in Korea using six microsatellite markers. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 15 to 64, with an average of 23.5. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.797 and 0.904, respectively. The inbreeding coefficient FIS ranged from 0.054 to 0.184 (mean FIS = 0.121 ± 0.056. The genetic differentiation across all populations was low but significant (overall FST = 0.009, P < 0.01. Pairwise multilocus FST tests, estimates of genetic distance, and phylogenetic and principal component analyses did not show a consistent relationship between geographic and genetic distances. These results could reflect extensive aquaculture, the exchange of breeds and eggs between hatcheries and/or genetic drift due to intensive breeding practices. Thus, for optimal resource management, the genetic variation of hatchery stocks should be monitored and inbreeding controlled within the abalone stocks that are being released every year. This genetic information will be useful for the management of both H. discus hannai fisheries and the aquaculture industry.

  16. Genetic diversity of the Northern Morocco goat population assessed with microsatellite markers

    Najat El Moutchou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work was to study the genetic diversity of the Northern Morocco goat population through the analysis of 19 microsatellites in 144 animals from 61 herds. To detect a possible population structure, three distinct geographic subpopulations were characterized as a function of climate and environmental influences. Most of the markers were highly polymorphic, and the results revealed considerable genetic variation across the studied loci. A total of 204 alleles were detected, with an average number of 10.7 per locus. The PIC average was 0.728, and four microsatellites showed a significant deviation (p< 0.05 from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA indicated that only 0.5% of the variation corresponded to differences among subpopulations, and 99.5% corresponded to differences among individuals. Factorial correspondence analysis showed intense admixtures across the putative subpopulations, and the subdivision related to geographical or environmental adaptation was undetectable. The Northern Morocco goat population presented high genetic diversity and a lack of population structure. The main reason for these findings is the absence of the breed concept (reproductively closed population, resulting in uncontrolled crossbreeding with exotic breeds and other local goats.

  17. Genetic diversity of the Northern Morocco goat population assessed with microsatellite markers

    El Moutchou, N.; González-Martínez, A.M.; Chentouf, M.; Lairini, K.; Rodero, E.

    2017-07-01

    The main goal of this work was to study the genetic diversity of the Northern Morocco goat population through the analysis of 19 microsatellites in 144 animals from 61 herds. To detect a possible population structure, three distinct geographic subpopulations were characterized as a function of climate and environmental influences. Most of the markers were highly polymorphic, and the results revealed considerable genetic variation across the studied loci. A total of 204 alleles were detected, with an average number of 10.7 per locus. The PIC average was 0.728, and four microsatellites showed a significant deviation (p< 0.05) from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that only 0.5% of the variation corresponded to differences among subpopulations, and 99.5% corresponded to differences among individuals. Factorial correspondence analysis showed intense admixtures across the putative subpopulations, and the subdivision related to geographical or environmental adaptation was undetectable. The Northern Morocco goat population presented high genetic diversity and a lack of population structure. The main reason for these findings is the absence of the breed concept (reproductively closed population), resulting in uncontrolled crossbreeding with exotic breeds and other local goats.

  18. Genetic diversity of the Northern Morocco goat population assessed with microsatellite markers

    El Moutchou, N.; González-Martínez, A.M.; Chentouf, M.; Lairini, K.; Rodero, E.

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to study the genetic diversity of the Northern Morocco goat population through the analysis of 19 microsatellites in 144 animals from 61 herds. To detect a possible population structure, three distinct geographic subpopulations were characterized as a function of climate and environmental influences. Most of the markers were highly polymorphic, and the results revealed considerable genetic variation across the studied loci. A total of 204 alleles were detected, with an average number of 10.7 per locus. The PIC average was 0.728, and four microsatellites showed a significant deviation (p< 0.05) from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that only 0.5% of the variation corresponded to differences among subpopulations, and 99.5% corresponded to differences among individuals. Factorial correspondence analysis showed intense admixtures across the putative subpopulations, and the subdivision related to geographical or environmental adaptation was undetectable. The Northern Morocco goat population presented high genetic diversity and a lack of population structure. The main reason for these findings is the absence of the breed concept (reproductively closed population), resulting in uncontrolled crossbreeding with exotic breeds and other local goats.

  19. Genetic diversity and geographical dispersal in grapevine clones revealed by microsatellite markers.

    Moncada, Ximena; Pelsy, Frédérique; Merdinoglu, Didier; Hinrichsen, Patricio

    2006-11-01

    Intravarietal genetic diversification associated with geographical dispersal of a vegetatively propagated species was studied using grapevine Vitis vinifera L. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' as a model. Fifty-nine clonal samples obtained from 7 countries (France, Chile, Spain, Australia, Hungary, USA, and Italy) were analyzed using 84 microsatellite markers. Eighteen polymorphic microsatellite loci (21.4%) were detected, finding 22 different genotypes in the population analyzed with a genetic similarity of over 97%. The presence of chimeric clones was evidenced at locus VMC5g7 by means of a segregation analysis of descendants by self-pollination of a triallelic Chilean clone and by somatic embryogenesis analysis, showing a mutation in L2 cell layer. Only 2 clones (obtained from France and Australia) presented the ancestral genotype, and the most divergent genotype was exhibited by another French clone, which had accumulated 5 somatic mutations. The 2 largest populations considered (from France and Chile) showed a clear divergency in the polymorphisms detected. These antecedents enabled the tracing of geographical dispersal with a phylogenetic hypothesis supporting France as the center of origin of diversification of Cabernet Sauvignon. The results obtained could help to explain diversification processes in other grapevine cultivars. The possibility that this kind of genetic variability occurs in other vegetatively propagated species is discussed, focusing on possible fingerprinting applications.

  20. Identification of seventeen microsatellite loci for conservation genetic studies of the endemic wrasse Coris bulbifrons

    Van Der Meer, Martin H.

    2012-11-08

    Coral reefs around the world are in decline, in part due to various anthropogenic factors, including fishing pressure. Coris bulbifrons is a large wrasse endemic to only four oceanic locations off Australia\\'s east coast: Middleton Reef, Elizabeth Reef, Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island. The species is listed as vulnerable by the IUCN due to the potential threat of overfishing. Although these remote locations, some within Marine protected Areas, experience limited fishing pressure, populations may quickly decline with minimal fishing effort as seen in the overfishing of other large wrasses. We developed primers for 17 microsatellite loci to examine gene flow, population genetic structure, and genetic diversity within and among these four locations. Observed heterozygosities ranged 0. 126-0. 752 in 37 individuals from Lord Howe Island indicating that these loci will be useful in C. bulbifrons population genetic studies. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  1. MONITORING OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN FARMED DEER POPULATIONS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS

    Pavol Bajzík

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Deer (Cervidaei belong to the most important species used as farmed animals. We focused on assesing the genetic diversity among five deer populations. Analysis has been performed on a total of 183 animals originating from Czech Republic, Hungary, New Zealand, Poland and Slovak Republic. Genetic variability were investigated using 8 microsatellite markers used in deer. Statistical data of all populations we obtained on the basis of Nei statistics, using by POWERMARKER 3.23 programme. Graphical view of relationships among populations and individuals in the populations was obtained using the Dendroscope software. Molecular genetic data combinated with evaluation in statistical programmes could lead to a complex view of populations and diffrences among them.doi:10.5219/172

  2. Characterization of new microsatellite loci for population genetic studies in the Smooth Cauliflower Coral (Stylophora sp.)

    Banguera-Hinestroza, E.

    2013-01-09

    A total of one hundred microsatellites loci were selected from the draft genome of Stylophora pistillata and evaluated in previously characterized samples of Stylophora cf pistillata from the Red Sea. 17 loci were amplified successfully and tested in 24 individuals from samples belonging to a single population from the central region of the Red Sea. The number of alleles ranged from 3 to 15 alleles per locus, while observed heterozygosity ranged from 0. 292 to 0. 95. Six of these loci showed significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) expectations, and 4/136 paired loci comparisons suggested linkage disequilibrium after Bonferroni corrections. After excluding loci with significant HWE deviation and evidence of null alleles, average genetic diversity over loci in the population studied (N = 24, Nloci = 11) was 0. 701 ± 0. 380. This indicates that these loci can be used effectively to evaluate genetic diversity and undertake population genetics studies in Stylophora sp. populations. 2013 The Author(s).

  3. Genetic diversity among Juglans regia L. genotypes assessed by morphological traits and microsatellite markers

    Mahmoodi, R.; Rahmani, F.; Rezaee, R.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, genetic diversity was assayed among 16 accessions and five cultivars of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) using morphological traits and nine simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Samples were collected from Agriculture Research Center of Urmia city (North West Iran). Study on important morphological traits revealed genetic similarity of -0.6 to 0.99 based on CORR coefficient. The microsatellite marker system produced 34 alleles in range of 160-290 bp. The minimum (2) and maximum (7) number of alleles were obtained from WGA71 and WGA202 genetic loci, respectively. The mean number of alleles per locus was 4.25. Jaccards similarity coefficient ranged from 0.13 to 0.76. The results of this paper indicate high diversity among these genotypes which could be used for breeding management. (Author) 28 refs.

  4. Characterization of Microsatellites in Pseudogymnoascus destructans for White-nose Syndrome Genetic Analysis.

    Drees, Kevin P; Parise, Katy L; Rivas, Stephanie M; Felton, Lindsey L; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Keim, Paul; Foster, Jeffrey T

    2017-10-01

    Despite only emerging in the past decade, white-nose syndrome has become among the most devastating wildlife diseases known. The pathogenic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans infects hibernating bats and typically leads to high rates of mortality at hibernacula during winter in North America. We developed a set of genetic markers to better differentiate P. destructans isolates. We designed and successfully characterized these 23 microsatellite markers of P. destructans for use in disease ecology and epidemiology research. We validated these loci with DNA extracted from a collection of P. destructans isolates from the US and Canada, as well as from Europe (the likely introduction source based on currently available data). Genetic diversity calculated for each locus and for the multilocus panel as a whole indicates sufficient allelic diversity to differentiate among and between samples from both Europe and North America. Indices of genetic diversity indicate a loss of allelic diversity that is consistent with the recent introduction and rapid spread of an emerging pathogen.

  5. Genetic structure and gene flow among Komodo dragon populations inferred by microsatellite loci analysis.

    Ciofi, C; Bruford, M W

    1999-12-01

    A general concern for the conservation of endangered species is the maintenance of genetic variation within populations, particularly when they become isolated and reduced in size. Estimates of gene flow and effective population size are therefore important for any conservation initiative directed to the long-term persistence of a species in its natural habitat. In the present study, 10 microsatellite loci were used to assess the level of genetic variability among populations of the Komodo dragon Varanus komodoensis. Effective population size was calculated and gene flow estimates were compared with palaeogeographic data in order to assess the degree of vulnerability of four island populations. Rinca and Flores, currently separated by an isthmus of about 200 m, retained a high level of genetic diversity and showed a high degree of genetic similarity, with gene flow values close to one migrant per generation. The island of Komodo showed by far the highest levels of genetic divergence, and its allelic distinctiveness was considered of great importance in the maintenance of genetic variability within the species. A lack of distinct alleles and low levels of gene flow and genetic variability were found for the small population of Gili Motang island, which was identified as vulnerable to stochastic threats. Our results are potentially important for both the short- and long-term management of the Komodo dragon, and are critical in view of future re-introduction or augmentation in areas where the species is now extinct or depleted.

  6. Assessment of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Korean native chicken breeds using microsatellite markers

    Joo Hee Seo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to investigate the basic information on genetic structure and characteristics of Korean Native chickens (NC and foreign breeds through the analysis of the pure chicken populations and commercial chicken lines of the Hanhyup Company which are popular in the NC market, using the 20 microsatellite markers. Methods In this study, the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of 445 NC from five different breeds (NC, Leghorn [LH], Cornish [CS], Rhode Island Red [RIR], and Hanhyup [HH] commercial line were investigated by performing genotyping using 20 microsatellite markers. Results The highest genetic distance was observed between RIR and LH (18.9%, whereas the lowest genetic distance was observed between HH and NC (2.7%. In the principal coordinates analysis (PCoA illustrated by the first component, LH was clearly separated from the other groups. The correspondence analysis showed close relationship among individuals belonging to the NC, CS, and HH lines. From the STRUCTURE program, the presence of 5 clusters was detected and it was found that the proportion of membership in the different clusters was almost comparable among the breeds with the exception of one breed (HH, although it was highest in LH (0.987 and lowest in CS (0.578. For the cluster 1 it was high in HH (0.582 and in CS (0.368, while for the cluster 4 it was relatively higher in HH (0.392 than other breeds. Conclusion Our study showed useful genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship data that can be utilized for NC breeding and development by the commercial chicken industry to meet consumer demands.

  7. Using microsatellite markers to analyze genetic diversity in 14 sheep types in Iran

    M. T. Vajed Ebrahimi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of genetic relationship among populations has been traditionally based on the analysis of allele frequencies at different loci. The prime objective of this research was to measure the genetic polymorphism of five microsatellite markers (McMA2, BM6444, McMA26, HSC, and OarHH35 and study genetic diversity of 14 sheep types in Iran. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of 565 individuals using an optimized salting-out DNA extraction procedure. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR was successfully performed with the specific primers. Some locus–population combinations were not at Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0. 05. The microsatellite analysis revealed high allelic and gene diversity in all 14 breeds. Pakistani and Arabi breeds showed the highest mean number of alleles (11.8 and 11 respectively, while the highest value for polymorphic information content was observed for the Arabi breed (0.88. A UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram based on the Nei's standard genetic distance among studied breeds showed a separate cluster for Arabi and Pakistani breeds and another cluster for other breeds. The Shannon index (H0 for McMA2, BM6444, McMA26, HSC, and OarHH35 was 2.31, 2.17, 2.27, 2.04 and 2.18, respectively, and polymorphic information content (PIC values were 0.88, 0.92, 0.87, 0.84, and 0.86 for McMA2, BM6444, McMA26, HSC, and OarHH35, respectively. The high degree of variability demonstrated within the studied sheep types implies that these populations are rich reservoirs of genetic diversity that must be preserved.

  8. Microsatellite based genetic diversity and population structure of the endangered Spanish Guadarrama goat breed

    Jurado Juan J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessing genetic biodiversity and population structure of minor breeds through the information provided by neutral molecular markers, allows determination of their extinction risk and to design strategies for their management and conservation. Analysis of microsatellite loci is known to be highly informative in the reconstruction of the historical processes underlying the evolution and differentiation of animal populations. Guadarrama goat is a threatened Spanish breed which actual census (2008 consists of 3057 females and 203 males distributed in 22 populations more or less isolated. The aim of this work is to study the genetic status of this breed through the analysis of molecular data from 10 microsatellites typed in historic and actual live animals. Results The mean expected heterozygosity across loci within populations ranged from 0.62 to 0.77. Genetic differentiation measures were moderate, with a mean FST of 0.074, GST of 0.081 and RST of 0.085. Percentages of variation among and within populations were 7.5 and 92.5, respectively. Bayesian clustering analyses pointed out a population subdivision in 16 clusters, however, no correlation between geographical distances and genetic differences was found. Management factors such as the limited exchange of animals between farmers (estimated gene flow Nm = 3.08 mostly due to sanitary and social constraints could be the major causes affecting Guadarrama goat population subdivision. Conclusion Genetic diversity measures revealed a good status of biodiversity in the Guadarrama goat breed. Since diseases are the first cause affecting the census in this breed, population subdivision would be an advantage for its conservation. However, to maintain private alleles present at low frequencies in such small populations minimizing the inbreeding rate, it would necessitate some mating designs of animals carrying such alleles among populations. The systematic use of molecular markers will

  9. A microsatellite linkage map of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) reveals conserved synteny with the hree-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    Background: The striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and its relatives (genus Morone) are of great importance to fisheries and aquaculture in North America. As part of a collaborative effort to employ molecular genetic technologies in striped bass breeding programs, nearly 500 microsatellite markers were...

  10. Genetic diversity and domestication origin of tea plant Camellia taliensis (Theaceae) as revealed by microsatellite markers.

    Zhao, Dong-Wei; Yang, Jun-Bo; Yang, Shi-Xiong; Kato, Kenji; Luo, Jian-Ping

    2014-01-09

    Tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. Many species in the Thea section of the Camellia genus can be processed for drinking and have been domesticated. However, few investigations have focused on the genetic consequence of domestication and geographic origin of landraces on tea plants using credible wild and planted populations of a single species. Here, C. taliensis provides us with a unique opportunity to explore these issues. Fourteen nuclear microsatellite loci were employed to determine the genetic diversity and domestication origin of C. taliensis, which were represented by 587 individuals from 25 wild, planted and recently domesticated populations. C. taliensis showed a moderate high level of overall genetic diversity. The greater reduction of genetic diversity and stronger genetic drift were detected in the wild group than in the recently domesticated group, indicating the loss of genetic diversity of wild populations due to overexploitation and habitat fragmentation. Instead of the endangered wild trees, recently domesticated individuals were used to compare with the planted trees for detecting the genetic consequence of domestication. A little and non-significant reduction in genetic diversity was found during domestication. The long life cycle, selection for leaf traits and gene flow between populations will delay the emergence of bottleneck in planted trees. Both phylogenetic and assignment analyses suggested that planted trees may have been domesticated from the adjacent central forest of western Yunnan and dispersed artificially to distant places. This study contributes to the knowledge about levels and distribution of genetic diversity of C. taliensis and provides new insights into genetic consequence of domestication and geographic origin of planted trees of this species. As an endemic tea source plant, wild, planted and recently domesticated C. taliensis trees should all be protected for their unique genetic characteristics, which

  11. Genetic diversity and relationship of Indian cattle inferred from microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers.

    Sharma, Rekha; Kishore, Amit; Mukesh, Manishi; Ahlawat, Sonika; Maitra, Avishek; Pandey, Ashwni Kumar; Tantia, Madhu Sudan

    2015-06-30

    Indian agriculture is an economic symbiosis of crop and livestock production with cattle as the foundation. Sadly, the population of indigenous cattle (Bos indicus) is declining (8.94% in last decade) and needs immediate scientific management. Genetic characterization is the first step in the development of proper management strategies for preserving genetic diversity and preventing undesirable loss of alleles. Thus, in this study we investigated genetic diversity and relationship among eleven Indian cattle breeds using 21 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial D loop sequence. The analysis of autosomal DNA was performed on 508 cattle which exhibited sufficient genetic diversity across all the breeds. Estimates of mean allele number and observed heterozygosity across all loci and population were 8.784 ± 0.25 and 0.653 ± 0.014, respectively. Differences among breeds accounted for 13.3% of total genetic variability. Despite high genetic diversity, significant inbreeding was also observed within eight populations. Genetic distances and cluster analysis showed a close relationship between breeds according to proximity in geographic distribution. The genetic distance, STRUCTURE and Principal Coordinate Analysis concluded that the Southern Indian Ongole cattle are the most distinct among the investigated cattle populations. Sequencing of hypervariable mitochondrial DNA region on a subset of 170 cattle revealed sixty haplotypes with haplotypic diversity of 0.90240, nucleotide diversity of 0.02688 and average number of nucleotide differences as 6.07407. Two major star clusters for haplotypes indicated population expansion for Indian cattle. Nuclear and mitochondrial genomes show a similar pattern of genetic variability and genetic differentiation. Various analyses concluded that the Southern breed 'Ongole' was distinct from breeds of Northern/ Central India. Overall these results provide basic information about genetic diversity and structure of Indian cattle which

  12. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers ...

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is the third largest natural fiber crop and one of the five major oil crops in the world. ... These novel polymorphic microsatellite loci will be useful in genetic linkage map construction, germplasm classification and identification, gene identification and QTL mapping, and marker-assisted selection ...

  13. Genetic affinity between diverse ethnoreligious communities of Tamil Nadu, India: a microsatellite study.

    Eaaswarkhanth, M; Vasulu, T S; Haque, Ikramul

    2008-12-01

    Historically, a number of local Hindu caste groups have converted to Islam and formed religious endogamous groups. Therefore the local caste groups and religious communities in a region are expected to show genetic relatedness. In this study we investigate the genetic relationship between Tamil-speaking (Dravidian language) Muslims (Sunni), six endogamous Hindu castes, and a tribal ethnic group (Irulars) using 13 CODIS (Combined DNA Index System) autosomal microsatellite markers. Muslims show the highest average heterozygosity (0.405) compared to the other groups. The neighbor-joining tree and the multidimensional-scaling plot show clustering of Tamil-speaking Muslims with three caste groups (Gounder, Paraiyar, and Vanniyar), whereas the Irular tribe is separated out of the cluster.

  14. Understanding the genetic diversity and population structure of yam (Dioscorea alata L.) using microsatellite markers

    Arnau, Gemma; MN, Sheela; Chair, Hana; Lebot, Vincent; K, Abraham; Perrier, Xavier; Petro, Dalila; Penet, Laurent; Pavis, Claudie

    2017-01-01

    Yams (Dioscorea sp.) are staple food crops for millions of people in tropical and subtropical regions. Dioscorea alata, also known as greater yam, is one of the major cultivated species and most widely distributed throughout the tropics. Despite its economic and cultural importance, very little is known about its origin, diversity and genetics. As a consequence, breeding efforts for resistance to its main disease, anthracnose, have been fairly limited. The objective of this study was to contribute to the understanding of D. alata genetic diversity by genotyping 384 accessions from different geographical regions (South Pacific, Asia, Africa and the Caribbean), using 24 microsatellite markers. Diversity structuration was assessed via Principal Coordinate Analysis, UPGMA analysis and the Bayesian approach implemented in STRUCTURE. Our results revealed the existence of a wide genetic diversity and a significant structuring associated with geographic origin, ploidy levels and morpho-agronomic characteristics. Seventeen major groups of genetically close cultivars have been identified, including eleven groups of diploid cultivars, four groups of triploids and two groups of tetraploids. STRUCTURE revealed the existence of six populations in the diploid genetic pool and a few admixed cultivars. These results will be very useful for rationalizing D. alata genetic resources in breeding programs across different regions and for improving germplasm conservation methods. PMID:28355293

  15. Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents

    Chapman, Duane C.; Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Jinlian; Lu, Guoqing; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Si-Fa

    2012-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp.

  16. The genetic structure of fermentative vineyard-associated Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations revealed by microsatellite analysis.

    Schuller, Dorit; Casal, Margarida

    2007-02-01

    From the analysis of six polymorphic microsatellite loci performed in 361 Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates, 93 alleles were identified, 52 of them being described for the first time. All these isolates have a distinct mtDNA RFLP pattern. They are derived from a pool of 1620 isolates obtained from spontaneous fermentations of grapes collected in three vineyards of the Vinho Verde Region in Portugal, during the 2001-2003 harvest seasons. For all loci analyzed, observed heterozygosity was 3-4 times lower than the expected value supposing a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (random mating and no evolutionary mechanisms acting), indicating a clonal structure and strong populational substructuring. Genetic differences among S. cerevisiae populations were apparent mainly from gradations in allele frequencies rather than from distinctive "diagnostic" genotypes, and the accumulation of small allele-frequency differences across six loci allowed the identification of population structures. Genetic differentiation in the same vineyard in consecutive years was of the same order of magnitude as the differences verified among the different vineyards. Correlation of genetic differentiation with the distance between sampling points within a vineyard suggested a pattern of isolation-by-distance, where genetic divergence in a vineyard increased with size. The continuous use of commercial yeasts has a limited influence on the autochthonous fermentative yeast population collected from grapes and may just slightly change populational structures of strains isolated from sites very close to the winery where they have been used. The present work is the first large-scale approach using microsatellite typing allowing a very fine resolution of indigenous S. cerevisiae populations isolated from vineyards.

  17. Characterization of genetic diversity of native 'Ancho' chili populations of Mexico using microsatellite markers

    Rocío Toledo-Aguilar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available 'Ancho' type chilis (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum are an important ingredient in the traditional cuisine of Mexico and so are in high demand. It includes six native sub-types with morphological and fruit color differences. However, the genetic diversity of the set of these sub­types has not been determined. The objective of this study was to characterize the genetic diversity of native Mexican ancho chili populations using microsatellites and to determine the relationship among these populations. Twenty-four microsatellite loci were used to analyze 38 native populations of 'Ancho' chilis collected in seven states of Mexico; three populations different from the ancho type ('Piquin', 'Guajillo', and 'Chilaca' and three hybrids (Capulin, Abedul, and green pepper were included as controls. The number of alleles per locus, number and percentage of polymorphic loci, polymorphic information content (PIC, expected heterozygosity, and Wright F statistics were obtained. Moreover, an analysis of principal components and a cluster analysis were carried out. We detected 220 alleles, with an average of 9.2 alleles per locus; PIC varied between 0.07 and 1, and expected heterozygosity was between 0.36 and 0.59. Also we identified 59 unique alleles and eight alleles common to all of the populations. The F statistics revealed broad genetic differentiation among populations. Both the analysis of principal components and the cluster analysis were able to separate the populations by origin (southern, central, and northern Mexico. The broad genetic diversity detected in the native ancho chili populations of Mexico was found in greater proportion within the populations than between populations.

  18. Population genetic structure and demographic history of Atrina pectinata based on mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers.

    Dong-Xiu Xue

    Full Text Available The pen shell, Atrina pectinata, is one of the commercial bivalves in East Asia and thought to be recently affected by anthropogenic pressure (habitat destruction and/or fishing pressure. Information on its population genetic structure is crucial for the conservation of A. pectinata. Considering its long pelagic larval duration and iteroparity with high fecundity, the genetic structure for A. pectinata could be expected to be weak at a fine scale. However, the unusual oceanography in the coasts of China and Korea suggests potential for restricted dispersal of pelagic larvae and geographical differentiation. In addition, environmental changes associated with Pleistocene sea level fluctuations on the East China Sea continental shelf may also have strongly influenced historical population demography and genetic diversity of marine organisms. Here, partial sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene and seven microsatellite loci were used to estimate population genetic structure and demographic history of seven samples from Northern China coast and one sample from North Korea coast. Despite high levels of genetic diversity within samples, there was no genetic differentiation among samples from Northern China coast and low but significant genetic differentiation between some of the Chinese samples and the North Korean sample. A late Pleistocene population expansion, probably after the Last Glacial Maximum, was also demonstrated for A. pectinata samples. No recent genetic bottleneck was detected in any of the eight samples. We concluded that both historical recolonization (through population range expansion and demographic expansion in the late Pleistocene and current gene flow (through larval dispersal were responsible for the weak level of genetic structure detected in A. pectinata.

  19. Genetic Diversity Analysis of South and East Asian Duck Populations Using Highly Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers

    Dongwon Seo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market.

  20. Genetic characterization of natural populations of pineapple guava (Acca sellowiana, with heterologous microsatellites markers

    Karine Louise dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple guava (Acca sellowiana is a native species from south Brazil and northeast Uruguay, and due to the unique flavor of its fruits, it is an income-generating alternative to small farmers. Knowledge on genetic diversity is an important tool for genetic improvement and conservation. Aiming to increase the knowledge with regarde to the species genetic diversity, fi ve natural populations of A. sellowiana were analyzed through microsatellites markers developed from Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden x E. urophylla S.T. Blake complex. Using 10 pairs of selected markers, 122 plants were characterized. The mean values for expected and observed heterozigosity were 0.42 and 0.47, respectively. The fˆ estimates did not differ from zero to four out of the five populations evaluated, suggesting a small inbreeding effect. In addition, private alleles and high genetic divergence was observed. the average genetic divergence among the populations was st Fˆ = 0,13 e st Rˆ = 0,14, mostly due to the incidenceof rare or exclusive alleles among some populations.

  1. Use of microsatellites for evaluation of genetic diversity in cherry tomato

    Nelson Ceballos Aguirre

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Much of the diversity of tomato is found in wild forms, the most important being the Solanum lycopersicum L. var. cerasiforme and S. pimpinellifolium. The objective of this research was to assess the genetic diversity of 30 introductions of cherry tomato with 36 microsatellite molecular markers. The study was conducted at the Plant Transformation Research Center (PTRC of the University of California. A dendrogram was built using the Dice-Nei and Li similarity index and the UPGMA clustering method, where introductions were differentiated without preserving a distribution pattern obeying the geographical area of origin. A coefficient of genetic differentiation was found (Fst = 0.3474, showing a high genetic differentiation of the introductions; those from Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru were the most genetically diverse, presenting 100% of polymorphic loci. The molecular variance analysis indicated a variation of 11% between the groups and 89% within the same. The broad genotypic variability of the evaluated introductions favors the possibility of selecting those for genetic improvement and sustainable use of the species.

  2. Mapping Smallholder Wheat Yields and Sowing Dates Using Micro-Satellite Data

    Meha Jain

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing offers a low-cost method for developing spatially continuous crop production statistics across large areas and through time. Nevertheless, it has been difficult to characterize the production of individual smallholder farms, given that the land-holding size in most areas of South Asia (<2 ha is smaller than the spatial resolution of most freely available satellite imagery, like Landsat and MODIS. In addition, existing methods to map yield require field-level data to develop and parameterize predictive algorithms that translate satellite vegetation indices to yield, yet these data are costly or difficult to obtain in many smallholder systems. To overcome these challenges, this study explores two issues. First, we employ new high spatial (2 m and temporal (bi-weekly resolution micro-satellite SkySat data to map sowing dates and yields of smallholder wheat fields in Bihar, India in the 2014–2015 and 2015–2016 growing seasons. Second, we compare how well we predict sowing date and yield when using ground data, like crop cuts and self-reports, versus using crop models, which require no on-the-ground data, to develop and parameterize prediction models. Overall, sow dates were predicted well (R2 = 0.41 in 2014–2015 and R2 = 0.62 in 2015–2016, particularly when using models that were parameterized using self-report sow dates collected close to the time of planting and when using imagery that spanned the entire growing season. We were also able to map yields fairly well (R2 = 0.27 in 2014–2015 and R2 = 0.33 in 2015–2016, with crop cut parameterized models resulting in the highest accuracies. While less accurate, we were able to capture the large range in sow dates and yields across farms when using models parameterized with crop model data and these estimates were able to detect known relationships between management factors (e.g., sow date, fertilizer, and irrigation and yield. While these results are specific to our study

  3. Dispersal capacity and genetic structure of Arapaima gigas on different geographic scales using microsatellite markers.

    Juliana Araripe

    Full Text Available Despite the ecological and economic importance of the Arapaima gigas (Cuvier 1817, few data about its dispersal capacity are available. The present study was based on the analysis of microsatellite markers in order to estimate the dispersal capacity of the species on fine, meso, and large geographic scales. For this, 561 specimens obtained from stocks separated by distances of up to 25 km (fine scale, 100 km (meso scale, and 1300-2300 km (large scale were analyzed. The fine scale analysis indicated a marked genetic similarity between lakes, with low genetic differentiation, and significant differences between only a few pairs of sites. Low to moderate genetic differentiation was observed between pairs of sites on a meso scale (100 km, which could be explained by the distances between sites. By contrast, major genetic differentiation was recorded in the large scale analysis, that is, between stocks separated by distances of over 1300 km, with the analysis indicating that differentiation was not related solely to distance. The genetic structuring analysis indicated the presence of two stocks, one represented by the arapaimas of the Mamirauá Reserve, and the other by those of Santarém and Tucuruí. The dispersal of arapaimas over short distances indicates a process of lateral migration within the várzea floodplains, which may be the principal factor determining the considerable homogeneity observed among the várzea lakes. The populations separated by distances of approximately 100 km were characterized by reduced genetic differentiation, which was associated with the geographic distances between sites. Populations separated by distances of over 1300 km were characterized by a high degree of genetic differentiation, which may be related primarily to historical bottlenecks in population size and the sedentary behavior of the species. Evidence was found of asymmetric gene flow, resulting in increasing genetic variability in the population of the

  4. Dispersal capacity and genetic structure of Arapaima gigas on different geographic scales using microsatellite markers.

    Araripe, Juliana; do Rêgo, Péricles Sena; Queiroz, Helder; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of the Arapaima gigas (Cuvier 1817), few data about its dispersal capacity are available. The present study was based on the analysis of microsatellite markers in order to estimate the dispersal capacity of the species on fine, meso, and large geographic scales. For this, 561 specimens obtained from stocks separated by distances of up to 25 km (fine scale), 100 km (meso scale), and 1300-2300 km (large scale) were analyzed. The fine scale analysis indicated a marked genetic similarity between lakes, with low genetic differentiation, and significant differences between only a few pairs of sites. Low to moderate genetic differentiation was observed between pairs of sites on a meso scale (100 km), which could be explained by the distances between sites. By contrast, major genetic differentiation was recorded in the large scale analysis, that is, between stocks separated by distances of over 1300 km, with the analysis indicating that differentiation was not related solely to distance. The genetic structuring analysis indicated the presence of two stocks, one represented by the arapaimas of the Mamirauá Reserve, and the other by those of Santarém and Tucuruí. The dispersal of arapaimas over short distances indicates a process of lateral migration within the várzea floodplains, which may be the principal factor determining the considerable homogeneity observed among the várzea lakes. The populations separated by distances of approximately 100 km were characterized by reduced genetic differentiation, which was associated with the geographic distances between sites. Populations separated by distances of over 1300 km were characterized by a high degree of genetic differentiation, which may be related primarily to historical bottlenecks in population size and the sedentary behavior of the species. Evidence was found of asymmetric gene flow, resulting in increasing genetic variability in the population of the Mamirau

  5. Genetic Background and Population Genetics of Hungarian Brown Trout Populations Using PCR-RFLP and Microsatellite Markers

    Ágnes Ősz

    2015-12-01

    4 University of West Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár Vár 2., 9200 Mosonmagyaróvár, Hungary Based on the analyses of the mitochondrial DNA of several European brown trout populations, five evolutionary lineages of brown trout were indentified (Atlantic, Danubian, Mediterranean, Adriatic, Marble. The species is bred primarily for stock enhancement of natural waters, however the most hatchery-maintained broodstocks originate from the Atlantic lineage. Due to the hydrogeography of Hungary our stocks should theoretically belong to the Danubian lineage; however, this has not been investigated earlier by genetic studies. For our genetic analysis, 702 fin clips were collected from two brown trout broodstocks (Lillafüred and Szilvásvárad as well as populations of natural streams (Bán, Jósva, Kemence, Apátkút, Bittva and Kölöntés in Hungary. Sequencing of the control region in mitochondrial DNA, three PCR-RFLP (mitochondrial DNA control region, lactate dehydrogenase and somatolactin genes and five microsatellite markers were used to distinguish between Danubian and Atlantic lineages of brown trout. The proportion of the mitochondrial haplotype of the Danubian lineage was low, with the exception of the Apátkúti, Kölöntés streams and Szilvásvárad broodstock. Analyses of nuclear PCR-RFLP and microsatellites markers showed various distributions of alleles characteristic of the Atlantic or Danubian lineages, although the Atlantic genotype has dominated in all population. In case of the analyses of microsatellites the polymorphism varied greatly at all locations. In addition we found several alleles that were not described earlier in other populations. Those alleles probably would be typical of Hungarian brown trout populations. Overall the populations were effectively in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for both PCR-RFLP and microsatellite markers. The remarkably high proportion of allochthonous Atlantic alleles in the analyzed sites is a clear indicator of the import

  6. Is early-onset microsatellite and chromosomally stable colorectal cancer a hallmark of a genetic susceptibility syndrome?

    Kets, C.M.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Erp, P.E.J. van; Feuth, T.; Jacobs, Y.H.A.; Brunner, H.G.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Hoogerbrugge, N.

    2008-01-01

    Most colorectal cancers show either microsatellite or chromosomal instability. A subset of colorectal cancers, especially those diagnosed at young age, is known to show neither of these forms of genetic instability and thus might have a distinct pathogenesis. Colorectal cancers diagnosed at young

  7. Genetic characterization of commercial honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) populations in the United States by using mitochondrial and microsatellite markers

    D. A. Delaney; M.D. Meixner; N.M. Schiff; W.S. Sheppard

    2009-01-01

    Genetic diversity levels within and between the two commercial breeding areas in theUnited States were analyzed using the DraI restriction fragment length polymorphism of the COICOII mitochondrial region and 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci. The western commercial breeding population (WCBP) and the southeastern commercial...

  8. Present and past microsatellite variation and assessment of genetic structure in Eurasian badger (Meles meles) in Denmark

    Pertoldi, C; Loeschcke, [No Value; Randi, E; Madsen, AB; Hansen, MM; Bijlsma, R; Van De Zande, L

    During the past 50 years the number of badgers (Meles meles) in Denmark has declined by c. 50%. To assess the genetic consequences of the demographic decline, six DNA-microsatellite loci were used to analyse 139 badger tissue-samples, which were collected in 1995-98 from three zones (1, 2 and 3) in

  9. Use of microsatellites to evaluate genetic diversity and species relationships in the genus Lycopersicon

    Alvarez, A.; Wiel, van de C.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Vosman, B.

    2001-01-01

    In order to determine how informative a set of microsatellites from tomato is across the genus Lycopersicon, 17 microsatellite loci, derived from regions in and around genes, were tested on 31 accessions comprising the nine species of the genus. The microsatellite polymorphisms were used to estimate

  10. Genetic diversity of turmeric germplasm (Curcuma longa; Zingiberaceae) identified by microsatellite markers.

    Sigrist, M S; Pinheiro, J B; Filho, J A Azevedo; Zucchi, M I

    2011-03-09

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a triploid, vegetatively propagated crop introduced early during the colonization of Brazil. Turmeric rhizomes are ground into a powder used as a natural dye in the food industry, although recent research suggests a greater potential for the development of drugs and cosmetics. In Brazil, little is known about the genetic variability available for crop improvement. We examined the genetic diversity among turmeric accessions from a Brazilian germplasm collection comprising 39 accessions collected from the States of Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Pará. For comparison, 18 additional genotypes were analyzed, including samples from India and Puerto Rico. Total DNA was extracted from lyophilized leaf tissue and genetic analysis was performed using 17 microsatellite markers (single-sequence repeats). Shannon-Weiner indexes ranged from 0.017 (Minas Gerais) to 0.316 (São Paulo). Analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA) demonstrated major differences between countries (63.4%) and that most of the genetic diversity in Brazil is found within states (75.3%). Genotypes from São Paulo State were the most divergent and potentially useful for crop improvement. Structure analysis indicated two main groups of accessions. These results can help target future collecting efforts for introduction of new materials needed to develop more productive and better adapted cultivars.

  11. Genetic differentiation of chinese indigenous meat goats ascertained using microsatellite information.

    Ling, Y H; Zhang, X D; Yao, N; Ding, J P; Chen, H Q; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, Y H; Ren, C H; Ma, Y H; Zhang, X R

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the genetic diversity of seven Chinese indigenous meat goat breeds (Tibet goat, Guizhou white goat, Shannan white goat, Yichang white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat), explain their genetic relationship and assess their integrity and degree of admixture, 302 individuals from these breeds and 42 Boer goats introduced from Africa as reference samples were genotyped for 11 microsatellite markers. Results indicated that the genetic diversity of Chinese indigenous meat goats was rich. The mean heterozygosity and the mean allelic richness (AR) for the 8 goat breeds varied from 0.697 to 0.738 and 6.21 to 7.35, respectively. Structure analysis showed that Tibet goat breed was genetically distinct and was the first to separate and the other Chinese goats were then divided into two sub-clusters: Shannan white goat and Yichang white goat in one cluster; and Guizhou white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat in the other cluster. This grouping pattern was further supported by clustering analysis and Principal component analysis. These results may provide a scientific basis for the characteristization, conservation and utilization of Chinese meat goats.

  12. Microsatellite based genetic structure of regional transboundary Istrian sheep breed populations in Croatia and Slovenia

    Beatriz Gutierrez-Gil

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Istrian dairy sheep is a local breed essential for the identity and development of the Northern- Adriatic karstic region through high-quality products, primarily the hard sheep artisanal cheese. Border changes fragmented the initial Istrian dairy sheep population in three genetically isolated sub-populations in Italy (1000 animals, Slovenia (1150 animals and Croatia (2500 animals. Due to the drastic reduction of their population sizes and fragmentation, the populations in Croatia and Slovenia are included in governmentally supported conservation programs. The initial subpopulation in Italy was restored after near extinction with stock from Slovenia, and is used today in meat production. The aim of this study was to provide an initial understanding of the current genetic structure and distribution of the genetic variability that exists in Istrian sheep by analysing individuals sampled in two regional groups of Istrian sheep from Croatia and Slovenia. Cres island sheep and Lika pramenka sheep were used as out-groups for comparison. Genetic differentiation was analysed using factorial correspondence analysis and structure clustering over 26 microsatellite loci for a total of 104 sheep belonging to three breeds from Croatia and Slovenia. Factorial correspondence analysis and clustering-based structure analysis both showed three distinct populations: Lika pramenka sheep, Cres island sheep and Istrian sheep. We did not find a marked genetic divergence of the regional groups of Istrian sheep. Istrian sheep regional group from Slovenia showed lower genetic variability compared to the one from Croatia. Variability and structure information obtained in this study considered alongside with socio-cultural-contexts and economic goals for the Istrian sheep reared in Croatia and Slovenia indicate that the cross-border exchange of genetic material of animals carrying private alleles among populations would maintain these alleles at low frequencies and minimize

  13. Genetic profile based upon 15 microsatellites of four caste groups of the eastern Indian state, Bihar.

    Ashma, R; Kashyap, V K

    2003-01-01

    The formation of caste groups among the Hindu community and the practice of endogamy exert a great impact on the genetic structure and diversity of the Indian population. Allele frequency data of 15 microsatellite loci clearly portray the genetic diversity and relatedness among four socio-culturally advanced caste groups: Brahmin, Bhumihar, Rajput and Kayasth of Caucasoid ethnicity of Bihar. The study seeks to understand the impact of the man-made caste system on the genetic profile of the four major caste groups of Bihar. Computation of average heterozygosity, most frequent allele, allele diversity and coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst), along with genetic distance (DA)and principal coordinate analysis were performed to assess intra-population and inter-population diversity. The average Gst value for all the loci was 0.012 +/- 0.0033, and the level of average heterozygosity was approximately 75.5%, indicating genetic similarity and intra-population diversity. Genetic distance (DA) values and the phylogenetic tree along with other higher caste groups of India indicate the relative distance between them. The present study clearly depicts the genetic profile of these caste groups, their inherent closeness in the past, and the impact of the imposed caste system that later restricted the gene flow. The study highlights the status of Bhumihar and Kayasth in the Hindu caste system. The former was found clustering with the Brahmin group (as expected, since Bhumihar is known to be a subclass of Brahmin), whereas the distance between the Brahmin and Kayasth caste groups was found to be large. North-eastern Indian Mongoloids form a separate cluster.

  14. Development of polymorphic microsatellite loci for conservation genetic studies of the coral reef fish Centropyge bicolor

    Herrera Sarrias, Marcela

    2015-08-14

    A total of 23 novel polymorphic microsatellite marker loci were developed for the angelfish Centropyge bicolor through 454 sequencing, and further tested on two spatially separated populations (90 individuals each) from Kimbe Bay in Papua New Guinea. The mean ± s.e. number of alleles per locus was 14·65 ± 1·05, and mean ± s.e. observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosity frequencies were 0·676 ± 0·021 and 0·749 ± 0·018, respectively. The markers reported here constitute the first specific set for this genus and will be useful for future conservation genetic studies in the Indo-Pacific region. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Development of polymorphic microsatellite loci for conservation genetic studies of the coral reef fish Centropyge bicolor

    Herrera Sarrias, Marcela; Saenz-Agudelo, P.; Nanninga, Gerrit B.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    A total of 23 novel polymorphic microsatellite marker loci were developed for the angelfish Centropyge bicolor through 454 sequencing, and further tested on two spatially separated populations (90 individuals each) from Kimbe Bay in Papua New Guinea. The mean ± s.e. number of alleles per locus was 14·65 ± 1·05, and mean ± s.e. observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosity frequencies were 0·676 ± 0·021 and 0·749 ± 0·018, respectively. The markers reported here constitute the first specific set for this genus and will be useful for future conservation genetic studies in the Indo-Pacific region. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. A suite of microsatellite markers for genetic management of captive cracids (Aves, Galliformes).

    Costa, M C; Camargo, C; Laganaro, N M; Oliveira, P R R; Davanço, P V; Azeredo, R M A; Simpson, J G P; Silveira, L F; Francisco, M R

    2014-11-27

    Cracids are medium to large frugivorous birds that are endemic to the Neotropics. Because of deforestation and overhunting, many species are threatened. The conservation of several species has relied on captive breeding and reintroduction in the wild, but captive populations may be inbred. Microsatellite tools can permit the construction of genetic pedigrees to reduce inbreeding, but only a few loci are available for this group of birds. Here, we present 10 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci and the cross-amplification of these and of 10 additional loci available in the literature in a panel of 5 cracid species, including 3 species with high conservation concern. We provide the first polymorphic loci for the jacutinga, Aburria jacutinga (N = 8), and red-billed curassow, Crax blumenbachii (N = 9), and additional loci for bare-faced curassow, C. fasciolata (N = 8), Alagoas curassow, Pauxi mitu (N = 5), and razor-billed curassow, P. tuberosa (N = 5). The average number of alleles was 2.9 for A. jacutinga, 2.7 for C. blumenbachii, 3.5 for C. fasciolata, 2.6 for P. mitu, and 5.7 for P. tuberosa. The mean expected heterozygosities were 0.42, 0.40, 0.48, 0.37, and 0.59, respectively. The average probabilities that the set of loci would not exclude a pair of parents of an arbitrary offspring were 2.9% in A. jacutinga, 1% in C. blumenbachii, 0.5% in C. fasciolata, 0.4% in P. mitu, and 0.002% in P. tuberosa suggesting that these loci may be adequate for parentage analysis and to implement ex situ genetic management plans.

  17. Genetic architecture and bottleneck analyses of Salem Black goat breed based on microsatellite markers

    A. K. Thiruvenkadan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken in Salem Black goat population for genetic analysis at molecular level to exploit the breed for planning sustainable improvement, conservation and utilization, which subsequently can improve the livelihood of its stakeholders. Materials and Methods: Genomic DNA was isolated from blood samples of 50 unrelated Salem Black goats with typical phenotypic features in several villages in the breeding tract and the genetic characterization and bottleneck analysis in Salem Black goat was done using 25 microsatellite markers as recommended by the Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome, Italy. The basic measures of genetic variation were computed using bioinformatic software. To evaluate the Salem Black goats for mutation drift equilibrium, three tests were performed under three different mutation models, viz., infinite allele model (IAM, stepwise mutation model (SMM and two-phase model (TPM and the observed gene diversity (He and expected equilibrium gene diversity (Heq were estimated under different models of microsatellite evolution. Results: The study revealed that the observed number of alleles ranged from 4 (ETH10, ILSTS008 to 17 (BM64444 with a total of 213 alleles and mean of 10.14±0.83 alleles across loci. The overall observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, inbreeding estimate and polymorphism information content values were 0.631±0.041, 0.820±0.024, 0.233±0.044 and 0.786±0.023 respectively indicating high genetic diversity. The average observed gene diversities (He pooled over different markers was 0.829±0.024 and the average expected gene diversities under IAM, TPM and SMM models were 0.769±0.026, 0.808±0.024 and 0.837±0.020 respectively. The number of loci found to exhibit gene diversity excess under IAM, TPM and SMM models were 18, 17 and 12 respectively. Conclusion: All the three statistical tests, viz., sign test, standardized differences test and Wilcoxon sign rank test, revealed

  18. A genetic linkage map of the chromosome 4 short arm

    Locke, P.A.; MacDonald, M.E.; Srinidhi, J.; Tanzi, R.E.; Haines, J.L. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (United States)); Gilliam, T.C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Conneally, P.M. (Indiana Univ. Medical Center, Indianapolis (United States)); Wexler, N.S. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States) Hereditary Disease Foundation, Santa Monica, CA (United States)); Gusella, J.F. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (United States) Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The authors have generated an 18-interval contiguous genetic linkage map of human chromosome 4 spanning the entire short arm and proximal long arm. Fifty-seven polymorphisms, representing 42 loci, were analyzed in the Venezuelan reference pedigree. The markers included seven genes (ADRA2C, ALB, GABRB1, GC, HOX7, IDUA, QDPR), one pseudogene (RAF1P1), and 34 anonymous DNA loci. Four loci were represented by microsatellite polymorphisms and one (GC) was expressed as a protein polymorphism. The remainder were genotyped based on restriction fragment length polymorphism. The sex-averaged map covered 123 cM. Significant differences in sex-specific rates of recombination were observed only in the pericentromeric and proximal long arm regions, but these contributed to different overall map lengths of 115 cM in males and 138 cM in females. This map provides 19 reference points along chromosome 4 that will be particularly useful in anchoring and seeding physical mapping studies and in aiding in disease studies. 26 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Genetic relationships between six eastern Pyrenean sheep breeds assessed using microsatellites

    Ainhoa Ferrando

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the genetic composition and relationships among livestock breeds is a necessary step for the implementation of management and conservation plans. This study aims to characterise the genetic diversity and relationships among six sheep breeds of meat aptitude that are spread through the eastern Pyrenees: Tarasconnaise, Castillonnaise and Rouge du Roussillon from France, and Aranesa, Xisqueta and Ripollesa from Spain. All but Tarasconnaise are catalogued as endangered. These breeds do not share the same ancestral origin but commercial trades and gene flow between herds are known to have occurred for centuries. Additionally, two outgroup breeds were included: the Guirra, from a different geographical location, and the Lacaune, a highly selected breed of dairy aptitude. A total of 410 individuals were typed using a panel of 12 microsatellite markers. Statistical, phylogenetic and Bayesian analyses showed that eastern Pyrenean breeds retained high levels of genetic diversity and low, but significant, levels of genetic differentiation (FST = 4.1%. While outgroups were clearly differentiated from other breeds, Pyrenean breeds tended to form two clusters. The first encompassed Tarasconnaise and Aranesa, which probably descend from a common meta-population. The second tended to group the other four breeds. However, none reached high mean Q-values of membership to a discrete cluster. This is consistent with the recent past gene flow between breeds, despite different ancestral genetic origins. The genetic characterisation carried out of the eastern Pyrenean sheep populations provides useful information to support decision making on their conservation and focusing efforts and resources to more singular breeds.

  20. EWET: Data collection and interface for the genetic analysis of Echinococcus multilocularis based on EmsB microsatellite

    Damy, Sylvie; Brillaud, Jonathan; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Navion, Jérémy; Mélior, Raphael; Afonso, Eve; Hormaz, Vanessa; Gottstein, Bruno; Umhang, Gérald; Casulli, Adriano; Dadeau, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence; Raoul, Francis

    2017-01-01

    Evolution and dispersion history on Earth of organisms can best be studied through biological markers in molecular epidemiological studies. The biological diversity of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis was investigated in different cladistic approaches. First the morphological aspects were explored in connection with its ecology. More recently, molecular aspects were investigated to better understand the nature of the variations observed among isolates. The study of the tandemly repeated multilocus microsatellite EmsB allowed us to attain a high genetic diversity level where other classic markers have failed. Since 2006, EmsB data have been collected on specimens from various endemic foci of the parasite in Europe (in historic and newly endemic areas), Asia (China, Japan and Kyrgyzstan), and North America (Canada and Alaska). Biological data on the isolates and metadata were also recorded (e.g. host, geographical location, EmsB analysis, citation in the literature). In order to make available the data set of 1,166 isolates from classic and aberrant domestic and wild animal hosts (larval lesions and adult worms) and from human origin, an open web access interface, developed in PHP, and connected to a PostgreSQL database, was developed in the EmsB Website for the Echinococcus Typing (EWET) project. It allows researchers to access data collection, perform genetic analyses online (e.g. defining the genetic distance between their own samples and the samples in the database), consult distribution maps of EmsB profiles, and record and share their new EmsB genotyping data. In order to standardize the EmsB analyses performed in the different laboratories throughout the world, a calibrator was developed. The final aim of this project was to gather and arrange available data to permit to better understand the dispersion and transmission patterns of the parasite among definitive and intermediate hosts, in order to organize control strategies on the ground. PMID:28972978

  1. EWET: Data collection and interface for the genetic analysis of Echinococcus multilocularis based on EmsB microsatellite.

    Knapp, Jenny; Damy, Sylvie; Brillaud, Jonathan; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Navion, Jérémy; Mélior, Raphael; Afonso, Eve; Hormaz, Vanessa; Gottstein, Bruno; Umhang, Gérald; Casulli, Adriano; Dadeau, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence; Raoul, Francis

    2017-01-01

    Evolution and dispersion history on Earth of organisms can best be studied through biological markers in molecular epidemiological studies. The biological diversity of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis was investigated in different cladistic approaches. First the morphological aspects were explored in connection with its ecology. More recently, molecular aspects were investigated to better understand the nature of the variations observed among isolates. The study of the tandemly repeated multilocus microsatellite EmsB allowed us to attain a high genetic diversity level where other classic markers have failed. Since 2006, EmsB data have been collected on specimens from various endemic foci of the parasite in Europe (in historic and newly endemic areas), Asia (China, Japan and Kyrgyzstan), and North America (Canada and Alaska). Biological data on the isolates and metadata were also recorded (e.g. host, geographical location, EmsB analysis, citation in the literature). In order to make available the data set of 1,166 isolates from classic and aberrant domestic and wild animal hosts (larval lesions and adult worms) and from human origin, an open web access interface, developed in PHP, and connected to a PostgreSQL database, was developed in the EmsB Website for the Echinococcus Typing (EWET) project. It allows researchers to access data collection, perform genetic analyses online (e.g. defining the genetic distance between their own samples and the samples in the database), consult distribution maps of EmsB profiles, and record and share their new EmsB genotyping data. In order to standardize the EmsB analyses performed in the different laboratories throughout the world, a calibrator was developed. The final aim of this project was to gather and arrange available data to permit to better understand the dispersion and transmission patterns of the parasite among definitive and intermediate hosts, in order to organize control strategies on the ground.

  2. EWET: Data collection and interface for the genetic analysis of Echinococcus multilocularis based on EmsB microsatellite.

    Jenny Knapp

    Full Text Available Evolution and dispersion history on Earth of organisms can best be studied through biological markers in molecular epidemiological studies. The biological diversity of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis was investigated in different cladistic approaches. First the morphological aspects were explored in connection with its ecology. More recently, molecular aspects were investigated to better understand the nature of the variations observed among isolates. The study of the tandemly repeated multilocus microsatellite EmsB allowed us to attain a high genetic diversity level where other classic markers have failed. Since 2006, EmsB data have been collected on specimens from various endemic foci of the parasite in Europe (in historic and newly endemic areas, Asia (China, Japan and Kyrgyzstan, and North America (Canada and Alaska. Biological data on the isolates and metadata were also recorded (e.g. host, geographical location, EmsB analysis, citation in the literature. In order to make available the data set of 1,166 isolates from classic and aberrant domestic and wild animal hosts (larval lesions and adult worms and from human origin, an open web access interface, developed in PHP, and connected to a PostgreSQL database, was developed in the EmsB Website for the Echinococcus Typing (EWET project. It allows researchers to access data collection, perform genetic analyses online (e.g. defining the genetic distance between their own samples and the samples in the database, consult distribution maps of EmsB profiles, and record and share their new EmsB genotyping data. In order to standardize the EmsB analyses performed in the different laboratories throughout the world, a calibrator was developed. The final aim of this project was to gather and arrange available data to permit to better understand the dispersion and transmission patterns of the parasite among definitive and intermediate hosts, in order to organize control strategies on the ground.

  3. Development and application of microsatellites in Carcinus maenas: genetic differentiation between Northern and Central Portuguese populations.

    Sónia Pascoal

    Full Text Available Carcinus maenas, the common shore crab of European coastal waters, has recently gained notoriety due to its globally invasive nature associated with drastic ecological and economic effects. The native ubiquity and worldwide importance of C. maenas has resulted in it becoming one of the best-studied estuarine crustacean species globally. Accordingly, there is significant interest in investigating the population genetic structure of this broadly distributed crab along European and invaded coastlines. Here, we developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR primers for one dinucleotide and two trinucleotide microsatellite loci, resulting from an enrichment process based on Portuguese populations. Combining these three new markers with six existing markers, we examined levels of genetic diversity and population structure of C. maenas in two coastal regions from Northern and Central Portugal. Genotypes showed that locus polymorphism ranged from 10 to 42 alleles (N = 135 and observed heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.745 to 0.987 with expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.711 to 0.960; values typical of marine decapods. The markers revealed weak, but significant structuring among populations (global F(ST = 0.004 across a 450 km (over-water distance spatial scale. Combinations of these and existing markers will be useful for studying population genetic parameters at a range of spatial scales of C. maenas throughout its expanding species range.

  4. Microsatellite variation and genetic structuring in Mugil liza (Teleostei: Mugilidae) populations from Argentina and Brazil

    Mai, Ana C. G.; Miño, Carolina I.; Marins, Luis F. F.; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Miranda, Laura; Schwingel, Paulo R.; Lemos, Valéria M.; Gonzalez-Castro, Mariano; Castello, Jorge P.; Vieira, João P.

    2014-08-01

    The mullet Mugil liza is distributed along the Atlantic coast of South America, from Argentina to Venezuela, and it is heavily exploited in Brazil. We assessed patterns of distribution of neutral nuclear genetic variation in 250 samples from the Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul (latitudinal range of 23-31°S) and from Buenos Aires Province in Argentina (36°S). Nine microsatellite loci revealed 131 total alleles, 3-23 alleles per locus, He: 0.69 and Ho: 0.67. Significant genetic differentiation was observed between Rio de Janeiro samples (23°S) and those from all other locations, as indicated by FST, hierarchical analyses of genetic structure, Bayesian cluster analyses and assignment tests. The presence of two different demographic clusters better explains the allelic diversity observed in mullets from the southernmost portion of the Atlantic coast of Brazil and from Argentina. This may be taken into account when designing fisheries management plans involving Brazilian, Uruguayan and Argentinean M. liza populations.

  5. Genetic diversity among silkworm (Bombyx mori L., Lep., Bombycidae) germplasms revealed by microsatellites.

    Li, Muwang; Shen, Li; Xu, Anying; Miao, Xuexia; Hou, Chengxiang; Sun, Pingjiang; Zhang, Yuehua; Huang, Yongping

    2005-10-01

    To determine genetic relationships among strains of silkworm, Bombyx mori L., 31 strains with different origins, number of generations per year, number of molts per generation, and morphological characters were studied using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Twenty-six primer pairs flanking microsatellite sequences in the silkworm genome were assayed. All were polymorphic and unambiguously separated silkworm strains from each other. A total of 188 alleles were detected with a mean value of 7.2 alleles/locus (range 2-17). The average heterozygosity value for each SSR locus ranged from 0 to 0.60, and the highest one was 0.96 (Fl0516 in 4013). The mean polymorphism index content (PIC) was 0.66 (range 0.12-0.89). Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic means (UPGMA) cluster analysis of Nei's genetic distance grouped silkworm strains based on their origin. Seven major ecotypic silkworm groups were analyzed. Principal components analysis (PCA) for SSR data support their UPGMA clustering. The results indicated that SSR markers are an efficient tool for fingerprinting cultivars and conducting genetic-diversity studies in the silkworm.

  6. Microsatellite Analysis of the Population Genetic Structure of Anolis carolinensis Introduced to the Ogasawara Islands.

    Sugawara, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Hiroo; Hayashi, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    DNA analysis can reveal the origins and dispersal patterns of invasive species. The green anole Anolis carolinensis is one such alien animal, which has been dispersed widely by humans from its native North America to many Pacific Ocean islands. In the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, this anole was recorded from Chichi-jima at the end of the 1960s, and then from Haha-jima in the early 1980s. These two islands are inhabited. In 2013, it was also found on the uninhabited Ani-jima, close to Chichi-jima. Humans are thought to have introduced the anole to Haha-jima, while the mode of introduction to Ani-jima is unknown. To clarify its dispersal patterns within and among these three islands, we assessed the fine-scale population genetic structure using five microsatellite loci. The results show a homogeneous genetic structure within islands, but different genetic structures among islands, suggesting that limited gene flow occurs between islands. The recently established Ani-jima population may have originated from several individuals simultaneously, or by repeated immigration from Chichi-jima. We must consider frequent incursions among these islands to control these invasive lizard populations and prevent their negative impact on native biodiversity.

  7. Evaluation of Pulasan (Nephelium ramboutan-ake Genetic Diversity in Bogor, West Java, Using Microsatellite Markers

    Amelia Luisyane Puhili

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pulasan (Nephelium ramboutan-ake (Labill. Leenh fruit is highly similar to rambutan rapiah (Nephelium lappaceum fruit with ovate shape, sweet and sour fresh taste, but it has a thick rind. The diversity of pulasan is little informed including in Bogor. The objective of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of pulasan from Bogor revealed by microsatellite marker. The DNA of 63 individuals from 10 populations of pulasan were extracted using CTAB method and amplified using two primer sets, LMLY6 (GA9(CA2(GA4 dan LMLY12 (CT11. DNA amplification product was visualized and arranged in a matrix of binary data then analyzed the value of the number of different alleles (Na, the number of effective alleles (Ne, Shannon information index (I, heterozygosity (He, and the percentage of polymorphism (PLP. The results of the analysis showed the highest genetic diversity was found in North Bogor (He=0.313. The genetic diversity within a population (61% was higher than that among populations (39%. A dendrogram was constructed using the Unweighted Pair Group Method with arithmetic Mean (UPGMA. The similarity index ranged from 52 to 100% that means there are close relationships among individuals. Cluster analyses grouped some individuals originated from different locations in the same group. The levels of heterozygosity within a population was determined by the history of each individual in a population.

  8. Microsatellite markers of water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis - development, characterisation and linkage disequilibrium studies

    Vaidhegi R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellite markers are highly polymorphic and widely used in genome mapping and population genetic studies in livestock species. River buffalo, Bubalus bubalis is an economically important livestock species, though only a limited number of microsatellite markers have been reported thus far in this species. Results In the present study, using two different approaches 571 microsatellite markers have been characterized for water buffalo. Of the 571 microsatellite markers, 498 were polymorphic with average heterozygosity of 0.51 on a panel of 24 unrelated buffalo. Fisher exact test was used to detect LD between the marker pairs. Among the 137550 pairs of marker combination, 14.58% pairs showed significant LD (P Conclusion The high conservation of cattle microsatellite loci in water buffalo promises the usefulness of the cattle microsatellites markers on buffalo. The polymorphic markers characterised in this study will contribute to genetic linkage and radiation hybrid mapping of water buffalo and population genetic studies.

  9. Microsatellite based genetic diversity and relationships among ten Creole and commercial cattle breeds raised in Brazil

    Almeida Leonardo D

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil holds the largest commercial cattle populations worldwide. Local cattle breeds can be classified according to their origin, as exotic or Creole. Exotic breeds imported in the last 100 years, both zebuine and taurine, currently make up the bulk of the intensively managed populations. Locally adapted Creole breeds, originated from cattle introduced by the European conquerors derive from natural selection and events of breed admixture. While historical knowledge exists on the Brazilian Creole breeds very little is known on their genetic composition. The objective of this study was to assess the levels of genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and patterns of taurine/zebuine admixture among ten cattle breeds raised in Brazil. Results Significant reduction of heterozygosity exists due both to within-population inbreeding and to breed differentiation in both subspecies (taurine and zebuine. For taurine breeds the number of markers that contribute to breed differentiation is larger than for zebuine. A consistently similar number of alleles was seen in both subspecies for all microsatellites. Four Creole breeds were the most genetically diverse followed by the zebuine breeds, the two specialized taurine breeds and the Creole Caracu. Pairwise genetic differentiation were all significant indicating that all breeds can be considered as genetically independent entities. A STRUCTURE based diagram indicated introgression of indicine genes in the local Creole breeds and suggested that occasional Creole introgression can be detected in some Zebuine animals. Conclusion This study reports on a comprehensive study of the genetic structure and diversity of cattle breeds in Brazil. A significant amount of genetic variation is maintained in the local cattle populations. The genetic data show that Brazilian Creole breeds constitute an important and diverse reservoir of genetic diversity for bovine breeding and conservation. The

  10. Patterns of genetic differentiation at MHC class I genes and microsatellites identify conservation units in the giant panda.

    Zhu, Ying; Wan, Qiu-Hong; Yu, Bin; Ge, Yun-Fa; Fang, Sheng-Guo

    2013-10-22

    Evaluating patterns of genetic variation is important to identify conservation units (i.e., evolutionarily significant units [ESUs], management units [MUs], and adaptive units [AUs]) in endangered species. While neutral markers could be used to infer population history, their application in the estimation of adaptive variation is limited. The capacity to adapt to various environments is vital for the long-term survival of endangered species. Hence, analysis of adaptive loci, such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, is critical for conservation genetics studies. Here, we investigated 4 classical MHC class I genes (Aime-C, Aime-F, Aime-I, and Aime-L) and 8 microsatellites to infer patterns of genetic variation in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and to further define conservation units. Overall, we identified 24 haplotypes (9 for Aime-C, 1 for Aime-F, 7 for Aime-I, and 7 for Aime-L) from 218 individuals obtained from 6 populations of giant panda. We found that the Xiaoxiangling population had the highest genetic variation at microsatellites among the 6 giant panda populations and higher genetic variation at Aime-MHC class I genes than other larger populations (Qinling, Qionglai, and Minshan populations). Differentiation index (FST)-based phylogenetic and Bayesian clustering analyses for Aime-MHC-I and microsatellite loci both supported that most populations were highly differentiated. The Qinling population was the most genetically differentiated. The giant panda showed a relatively higher level of genetic diversity at MHC class I genes compared with endangered felids. Using all of the loci, we found that the 6 giant panda populations fell into 2 ESUs: Qinling and non-Qinling populations. We defined 3 MUs based on microsatellites: Qinling, Minshan-Qionglai, and Daxiangling-Xiaoxiangling-Liangshan. We also recommended 3 possible AUs based on MHC loci: Qinling, Minshan-Qionglai, and Daxiangling-Xiaoxiangling-Liangshan. Furthermore, we recommend

  11. High genetic diversity and fine-scale spatial structure in the marine flagellate Oxyrrhis marina (Dinophyceae uncovered by microsatellite loci.

    Chris D Lowe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Free-living marine protists are often assumed to be broadly distributed and genetically homogeneous on large spatial scales. However, an increasing application of highly polymorphic genetic markers (e.g., microsatellites has provided evidence for high genetic diversity and population structuring on small spatial scales in many free-living protists. Here we characterise a panel of new microsatellite markers for the common marine flagellate Oxyrrhis marina. Nine microsatellite loci were used to assess genotypic diversity at two spatial scales by genotyping 200 isolates of O. marina from 6 broad geographic regions around Great Britain and Ireland; in one region, a single 2 km shore line was sampled intensively to assess fine-scale genetic diversity. Microsatellite loci resolved between 1-6 and 7-23 distinct alleles per region in the least and most variable loci respectively, with corresponding variation in expected heterozygosities (H(e of 0.00-0.30 and 0.81-0.93. Across the dataset, genotypic diversity was high with 183 genotypes detected from 200 isolates. Bayesian analysis of population structure supported two model populations. One population was distributed across all sampled regions; the other was confined to the intensively sampled shore, and thus two distinct populations co-occurred at this site. Whilst model-based analysis inferred a single UK-wide population, pairwise regional F(ST values indicated weak to moderate population sub-division (0.01-0.12, but no clear correlation between spatial and genetic distance was evident. Data presented in this study highlight extensive genetic diversity for O. marina; however, it remains a substantial challenge to uncover the mechanisms that drive genetic diversity in free-living microorganisms.

  12. Genetic variability of Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from experimentally infected pigs and from naturally infected pigs using microsatellite markers.

    Pajuelo, Mónica J; Eguiluz, María; Roncal, Elisa; Quiñones-García, Stefany; Clipman, Steven J; Calcina, Juan; Gavidia, Cesar M; Sheen, Patricia; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Zimic, Mirko

    2017-12-01

    The adult Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, usually lives as a single worm in the small intestine of humans, its only known definitive host. Mechanisms of genetic variation in T. solium are poorly understood. Using three microsatellite markers previously reported [1], this study explored the genetic variability of T. solium from cysts recovered from experimentally infected pigs. It then explored the genetic epidemiology and transmission in naturally infected pigs and adult tapeworms recovered from human carriers from an endemic rural community in Peru. In an initial study on experimental infection, two groups of three piglets were each infected with proglottids from one of two genetically different tapeworms for each of the microsatellites. After 7 weeks, pigs were slaughtered and necropsy performed. Thirty-six (92.3%) out of 39 cysts originated from one tapeworm, and 27 (100%) out of 27 cysts from the other had exactly the same genotype as the parental tapeworm. This suggests that the microsatellite markers may be a useful tool for studying the transmission of T. solium. In the second study, we analyzed the genetic variation of T. solium in cysts recovered from eight naturally infected pigs, and from adult tapeworms recovered from four human carriers; they showed genetic variability. Four pigs had cysts with only one genotype, and four pigs had cysts with two different genotypes, suggesting that multiple infections of genetically distinct parental tapeworms are possible. Six pigs harbored cysts with a genotype corresponding to one of the identified tapeworms from the human carriers. In the dendrogram, cysts appeared to cluster within the corresponding pigs as well as with the geographical origin, but this association was not statistically significant. We conclude that genotyping of microsatellite size polymorphisms is a potentially important tool to trace the spread of infection and pinpoint sources of infection as pigs spread cysts with a shared parental genotype.

  13. Genetic variability of Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from experimentally infected pigs and from naturally infected pigs using microsatellite markers.

    Mónica J Pajuelo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The adult Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, usually lives as a single worm in the small intestine of humans, its only known definitive host. Mechanisms of genetic variation in T. solium are poorly understood. Using three microsatellite markers previously reported [1], this study explored the genetic variability of T. solium from cysts recovered from experimentally infected pigs. It then explored the genetic epidemiology and transmission in naturally infected pigs and adult tapeworms recovered from human carriers from an endemic rural community in Peru. In an initial study on experimental infection, two groups of three piglets were each infected with proglottids from one of two genetically different tapeworms for each of the microsatellites. After 7 weeks, pigs were slaughtered and necropsy performed. Thirty-six (92.3% out of 39 cysts originated from one tapeworm, and 27 (100% out of 27 cysts from the other had exactly the same genotype as the parental tapeworm. This suggests that the microsatellite markers may be a useful tool for studying the transmission of T. solium. In the second study, we analyzed the genetic variation of T. solium in cysts recovered from eight naturally infected pigs, and from adult tapeworms recovered from four human carriers; they showed genetic variability. Four pigs had cysts with only one genotype, and four pigs had cysts with two different genotypes, suggesting that multiple infections of genetically distinct parental tapeworms are possible. Six pigs harbored cysts with a genotype corresponding to one of the identified tapeworms from the human carriers. In the dendrogram, cysts appeared to cluster within the corresponding pigs as well as with the geographical origin, but this association was not statistically significant. We conclude that genotyping of microsatellite size polymorphisms is a potentially important tool to trace the spread of infection and pinpoint sources of infection as pigs spread cysts with a shared

  14. EuMicroSatdb: A database for microsatellites in the sequenced genomes of eukaryotes

    Grover Atul

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellites have immense utility as molecular markers in different fields like genome characterization and mapping, phylogeny and evolutionary biology. Existing microsatellite databases are of limited utility for experimental and computational biologists with regard to their content and information output. EuMicroSatdb (Eukaryotic MicroSatellite database http://ipu.ac.in/usbt/EuMicroSatdb.htm is a web based relational database for easy and efficient positional mining of microsatellites from sequenced eukaryotic genomes. Description A user friendly web interface has been developed for microsatellite data retrieval using Active Server Pages (ASP. The backend database codes for data extraction and assembly have been written using Perl based scripts and C++. Precise need based microsatellites data retrieval is possible using different input parameters like microsatellite type (simple perfect or compound perfect, repeat unit length (mono- to hexa-nucleotide, repeat number, microsatellite length and chromosomal location in the genome. Furthermore, information about clustering of different microsatellites in the genome can also be retrieved. Finally, to facilitate primer designing for PCR amplification of any desired microsatellite locus, 200 bp upstream and downstream sequences are provided. Conclusion The database allows easy systematic retrieval of comprehensive information about simple and compound microsatellites, microsatellite clusters and their locus coordinates in 31 sequenced eukaryotic genomes. The information content of the database is useful in different areas of research like gene tagging, genome mapping, population genetics, germplasm characterization and in understanding microsatellite dynamics in eukaryotic genomes.

  15. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of Indonesian Local goats using microsatellite DNA markers

    M Syamsul Arifin Zein

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity is important information in the process of conservation and sustainable utilization of animal genetic resources. Thirteen microsatellite markers were used to estimate the degree of genetic diversity on five Indonesian local goats. Results showed the highest average allele diversity present in the locus MAF70 (5.6 ± 2.9, and the lowest was in the locus MAF035 (1.6 ± 0.6, the average number of alleles per locus was 6 ± 2.3. The lowest average alleles diversity present was in the Gembrong goat (2.2 ± 1.1 and the highest was in the Jawarandu goat (4.9 ± 2.2. There is a unique alleles at loci MCM527 and present in all Indonesian local goat with the highest allele frequency on Peranakan Etawa (37.2% and lowest in Gembrong goat (7.9%. H0 ranged from 0.372 ± 0.173 (Gembrong to 0.540 ± 0.204 (Peranakan Etawa, and HE ranging from 0.249 ± 0.196 (Gembrong to 0.540 ± 0.212 (Peranakan Etawa.The genetic differentiation for inbreeding among population (FIS, within population (FIT, and average genetic differention (FST were 0,0208 (2,08%, 0,1532 (15,32%, and 0,1352 (13,52%, respectively. Locus ILSTS029, BMS1494, MAF035 and INRA0132 had a low PIC value (PIC 0.5. Phylogenetic relationship was consistent with the history of its development based on Kacang goat except was for Gembrong Goat. This research information can be used for conservation strategies and breeding programs on each population of Indonesian local goat.

  16. Unraveling the genetic structure of Brazilian commercial sugarcane cultivars through microsatellite markers.

    Manechini, João Ricardo Vieira; da Costa, Juliana Borges; Pereira, Bruna Turcatto; Carlini-Garcia, Luciana Aparecida; Xavier, Mauro Alexandre; Landell, Marcos Guimarães de Andrade; Pinto, Luciana Rossini

    2018-01-01

    The Brazilian sugarcane industry plays an important role in the worldwide supply of sugar and ethanol. Investigation into the genetic structure of current commercial cultivars and comparisons to the main ancestor species allow sugarcane breeding programs to better manage crosses and germplasm banks as well as to promote its rational use. In the present study, the genetic structure of a group of Brazilian cultivars currently grown by commercial producers was assessed through microsatellite markers and contrasted with a group of basic germplasm mainly composed of Saccharum officinarum and S. spontaneum accessions. A total of 285 alleles was obtained by a set of 12 SSRs primer pairs that taken together were able to efficiently distinguish and capture the genetic variability of sugarcane commercial cultivars and basic germplasm accessions allowing its application in a fast and cost-effective way for routine cultivar identification and management of sugarcane germplasm banks. Allelic distribution revealed that 97.6% of the cultivar alleles were found in the basic germplasm while 42% of the basic germplasm alleles were absent in cultivars. Of the absent alleles, 3% was exclusive to S. officinarum, 33% to S. spontaneum and 19% to other species/exotic hybrids. We found strong genetic differentiation between the Brazilian commercial cultivars and the two main species (S. officinarum: [Formula: see text] = 0.211 and S. spontaneum: [Formula: see text] = 0.216, Pcommercial cultivars. Average dissimilarity within cultivars was 1.2 and 1.4 times lower than that within S. officinarum and S. spontaneum. Genetic divergence found between cultivars and S. spontaneum accessions has practical applications for energy cane breeding programs as the choice of more divergent parents will maximize the frequency of transgressive individuals in the progeny.

  17. Present and past microsatellite variation and assessment of genetic structure in Eurasian badger ( Meles meles ) in Denmark

    Pertoldi, C.; Loeschcke, V.; Randi, E.

    2005-01-01

    During the past 50 years the number of badgers (Meles meles) in Denmark has declined by c. 50%. To assess the genetic consequences of the demographic decline, six DNA-microsatellite loci were used to analyse 139 badger tissue-samples, which were collected in 1995-98 from three zones (1, 2 and 3......) in Jutland (Denmark). Results from contemporary samples were compared to data obtained from DNA extracted from teeth belonging to 39 badgers collected from zones 1 and 2 in 1957-66. The microsatellites showed a low to moderate polymorphism, and the within area genetic diversity (H-E) was relatively low (0.......308 0.05). Despite the drastic recent decline, Danish badgers did not show apparent signs of genetic bottlenecks in both recent and historical samples. The use of molecular techniques which allowed us to work with small amounts of degraded DNA extracted from old teeth, allowed us to exclude...

  18. Genetic structure of Lutzomyia longipalpis populations in Mato Grosso Do Sul, Brazil, based on microsatellite markers.

    Mirella F C Santos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lutzomyialongipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae is the major vector of Leishmania (Leishmania infantum and thus plays a crucial role in the epidemiology of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL. This vector is the best studied species of sand fly in the Neotropical region. Many studies claim that this vector is in fact a species complex; however there is still no consensus regarding the number of species that belong into this complex or the geographical distribution of sibling species. The aim of the present study was to analyze the genetic relationships within Lu. longipalpis populations in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS, Brazil. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We collected 30 Lu. longipalpis (15 females and 15 males from five localities (Campo Grande, Três Lagoas, Aquidauana, Miranda and Bonito and 30 Lu. Cruzi from Corumbá, totaling 180 sandflies from MS, and 30 Lu. longipalpis from Estrela de Alagoas, state of Alagoas (AL, Northeast Brazil. We show that eight previously described microsatellite loci were sufficient in distinguishing Lu. longipalpis from Lu. Cruzi, which is a closely related species, and in differentiating between Lu. longipalpis collected in MS versus Estrela de Alagoas. Analyses of the genotypes revealed introgression between sympatric Lu. longipalpis and Lu. Cruzi. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings support the hypothesis of cryptic species within the Lu. longipalpis complex. Furthermore, our data revealed introgression between Lu. longipalpis and Lu. cruzi. This phenomenon should be further investigated to determine the level and incidence of hybridization between these two species. We also demonstrated that microsatellite markers are a powerful tool for differentiating sand fly populations and species. The present study has elucidated the population structure of Lu. longipalpis in MS and, by extension, the Neotropical Lu. longipalpis complex itself.

  19. Genetic structure of Lutzomyia longipalpis populations in Mato Grosso Do Sul, Brazil, based on microsatellite markers.

    Santos, Mirella F C; Ribolla, Paulo E M; Alonso, Diego P; Andrade-Filho, José D; Casaril, Aline E; Ferreira, Alda M T; Fernandes, Carlos E S; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Oliveira, Alessandra G

    2013-01-01

    Lutzomyialongipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the major vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and thus plays a crucial role in the epidemiology of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). This vector is the best studied species of sand fly in the Neotropical region. Many studies claim that this vector is in fact a species complex; however there is still no consensus regarding the number of species that belong into this complex or the geographical distribution of sibling species. The aim of the present study was to analyze the genetic relationships within Lu. longipalpis populations in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil. We collected 30 Lu. longipalpis (15 females and 15 males) from five localities (Campo Grande, Três Lagoas, Aquidauana, Miranda and Bonito) and 30 Lu. Cruzi from Corumbá, totaling 180 sandflies from MS, and 30 Lu. longipalpis from Estrela de Alagoas, state of Alagoas (AL), Northeast Brazil. We show that eight previously described microsatellite loci were sufficient in distinguishing Lu. longipalpis from Lu. Cruzi, which is a closely related species, and in differentiating between Lu. longipalpis collected in MS versus Estrela de Alagoas. Analyses of the genotypes revealed introgression between sympatric Lu. longipalpis and Lu. Cruzi. Our findings support the hypothesis of cryptic species within the Lu. longipalpis complex. Furthermore, our data revealed introgression between Lu. longipalpis and Lu. cruzi. This phenomenon should be further investigated to determine the level and incidence of hybridization between these two species. We also demonstrated that microsatellite markers are a powerful tool for differentiating sand fly populations and species. The present study has elucidated the population structure of Lu. longipalpis in MS and, by extension, the Neotropical Lu. longipalpis complex itself.

  20. Genetic Structure of Lutzomyia longipalpis Populations in Mato Grosso Do Sul, Brazil, Based on Microsatellite Markers

    Santos, Mirella F. C.; Ribolla, Paulo E. M.; Alonso, Diego P.; Andrade-Filho, José D.; Casaril, Aline E.; Ferreira, Alda M. T.; Fernandes, Carlos E. S.; Brazil, Reginaldo P.; Oliveira, Alessandra G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the major vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and thus plays a crucial role in the epidemiology of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). This vector is the best studied species of sand fly in the Neotropical region. Many studies claim that this vector is in fact a species complex; however there is still no consensus regarding the number of species that belong into this complex or the geographical distribution of sibling species. The aim of the present study was to analyze the genetic relationships within Lu. longipalpis populations in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected 30 Lu. longipalpis (15 females and 15 males) from five localities (Campo Grande, Três Lagoas, Aquidauana, Miranda and Bonito) and 30 Lu. Cruzi from Corumbá, totaling 180 sandflies from MS, and 30 Lu. longipalpis from Estrela de Alagoas, state of Alagoas (AL), Northeast Brazil. We show that eight previously described microsatellite loci were sufficient in distinguishing Lu. longipalpis from Lu. Cruzi, which is a closely related species, and in differentiating between Lu. longipalpis collected in MS versus Estrela de Alagoas. Analyses of the genotypes revealed introgression between sympatric Lu. longipalpis and Lu. Cruzi. Conclusions/Significance Our findings support the hypothesis of cryptic species within the Lu. longipalpis complex. Furthermore, our data revealed introgression between Lu. longipalpis and Lu. cruzi. This phenomenon should be further investigated to determine the level and incidence of hybridization between these two species. We also demonstrated that microsatellite markers are a powerful tool for differentiating sand fly populations and species. The present study has elucidated the population structure of Lu. longipalpis in MS and, by extension, the Neotropical Lu. longipalpis complex itself. PMID:24066129

  1. FISH mapping of microsatellite loci from Drosophila subobscura and its comparison to related species.

    Santos, Josiane; Serra, Lluis; Solé, Elisabet; Pascual, Marta

    2010-02-01

    Microsatellites are highly polymorphic markers that are distributed through all the genome being more abundant in non-coding regions. Whether they are neutral or under selection, these markers if localized can be used as co-dominant molecular markers to explore the dynamics of the evolutionary processes. Their cytological localization can allow identifying genes under selection, inferring recombination from a genomic point of view, or screening for the genomic reorganizations occurring during the evolution of a lineage, among others. In this paper, we report for the first time the localization of microsatellite loci by fluorescent in situ hybridization on Drosophila polytene chromosomes. In Drosophila subobscura, 72 dinucleotide microsatellite loci were localized by fluorescent in situ hybridization yielding unique hybridization signals. In the sex chromosome, microsatellite distribution was not uniform and its density was higher than in autosomes. We identified homologous segments to the sequence flanking the microsatellite loci by browsing the genome sequence of Drosophila pseudoobscura and Drosophila melanogaster. Their localization supports the conservation of Muller's chromosomal elements among Drosophila species and the existence of multiple intrachromosomal rearrangements within each evolutionary lineage. Finally, the lack of microsatellite repeats in the homologous D. melanogaster sequences suggests convergent evolution for high microsatellite density in the distal part of the X chromosome.

  2. Genetic algorithms for map labeling

    Dijk, Steven Ferdinand van

    2001-01-01

    Map labeling is the cartographic problem of placing the names of features (for example cities or rivers) on the map. A good labeling has no intersections between labels. Even basic versions of the problem are NP-hard. In addition, realistic map-labeling problems deal with many cartographic

  3. Population genetics of Leishmania infantum in Israel and the Palestinian Authority through microsatellite analysis.

    Amro, Ahmad; Schönian, Gabriele; Al-Sharabati, Mohamed Barakat; Azmi, Kifaya; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Abdeen, Ziad; Schnur, Lionel F; Baneth, Gad; Jaffe, Charles L; Kuhls, Katrin

    2009-04-01

    Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) was used to investigate the genetic variation among 44 Israeli and Palestinian strains of L. infantum isolated from infected dogs and human cases to determine their population structure and to compare them with strains isolated from different European countries. Most of the Israeli and Palestinian strains had their own individual MLMT profiles; a few shared the same profile. A Bayesian model-based approach and phylogenetic reconstructions based on genetic distances inferred two main populations that were significantly different from the European strains: population A, containing 16 strains from places in the West Bank and 11 strains from central Israel;and population B, containing 7 strains from northern Israel, 9 from central Israel, and one Palestinian strain from the Jenin District.Geographically distributed sub-populations were detected within population B. These results demonstrate similar disease dynamics in Israel and the Palestinian Authority. The re-emergence of VL in the case of population A is more likely owing to increased dog and human contact with sylvatic cycles of parasitic infection rather than to recent introduction from the older foci of northern Israel. The latter scenario could be true for population B found in few foci of Central Israel. (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Towards the Development of a Molecular Map in Switchgrass: I. Microsatellite Marker Development; ANNUAL

    Gunter, L.E.

    2001-01-01

    The long-term goal of the switchgrass breeding program is to improve regionally adapted varieties and increase biomass yield and feedstock quality. Although, to some extent, biomass yields are dependent on environmental constraints, increased yield can be achieved through the development of genotypes with improved seasonal adaptation, tolerance to unfavorable environmental conditions, and improved resistance to pest and disease. To date, improvement in switchgrass has relied on recurrent breeding strategies based on phenotypic or genotypic selection. Yield improvements have been modest by this method. If we expect to make significant increase in yields, we need tools that will allow us to map complex traits and uncover the genes that influence them. A genetic linkage map could be a powerful tool for accelerating switchgrass development through marker-assisted selection, breeding and recombination. This type of mapping requires the development of markers that can be associated with phenotypic traits in a population of known pedigree. The most commonly used markers for mapping include restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR). At ORNL, we have been concentrating on the development of SSR markers, while our colleagues at the University of Georgia are developing RFLP markers in order to select parents to produce a mapping population and from there to create a framework map from(approx)100 F1 progeny

  5. Microsatellite analysis of chloroquine resistance associated alleles and neutral loci reveal genetic structure of Indian Plasmodium falciparum

    Mallick, Prashant K.; Sutton, Patrick L.; Singh, Ruchi; Singh, Om P.; Dash, Aditya P.; Singh, Ashok K.; Carlton, Jane M.; Bhasin, Virendra K.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to control malignant malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum are hampered by the parasite’s acquisition of resistance to antimalarial drugs, e.g., chloroquine. This necessitates evaluating the spread of chloroquine resistance in any malaria-endemic area. India displays highly variable malaria epidemiology and also shares porous international borders with malaria-endemic Southeast Asian countries having multi-drug resistant malaria. Malaria epidemiology in India is believed to be affected by two major factors: high genetic diversity and evolving drug resistance in P. falciparum. How transmission intensity of malaria can influence the genetic structure of chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum population in India is unknown. Here, genetic diversity within and among P. falciparum populations is analyzed with respect to their prevalence and chloroquine resistance observed in 13 different locations in India. Microsatellites developed for P. falciparum, including three putatively neutral and seven microsatellites thought to be under a hitchhiking effect due to chloroquine selection were used. Genetic hitchhiking is observed in five of seven microsatellites flanking the gene responsible for chloroquine resistance. Genetic admixture analysis and F-statistics detected genetically distinct groups in accordance with transmission intensity of different locations and the probable use of chloroquine. A large genetic break between the chloroquine-resistant parasite of the Northeast-East-Island group and Southwest group (FST = 0.253, P<0.001) suggests a long period of isolation or a possibility of different origin between them. A pattern of significant isolation by distance was observed in low transmission areas (r = 0.49, P=0.003, N = 83, Mantel test). An unanticipated pattern of spread of hitchhiking suggests genetic structure for Indian P. falciparum population. Overall, the study suggests that transmission intensity can be an efficient driver for genetic differentiation

  6. Genetic diversity of Guangxi chicken breeds assessed with microsatellites and the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region.

    Liao, Yuying; Mo, Guodong; Sun, Junli; Wei, Fengying; Liao, Dezhong Joshua

    2016-05-01

    The domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is an excellent model for genetic studies of phenotypic diversity. The Guangxi Region of China possesses several native chicken breeds displaying a broad range of phenotypes well adapted to the extreme hot-and-wet environments in the region. We thus evaluated the genetic diversity and relationships among six native chicken populations of the Guangxi region and also evaluated two commercial breeds (Arbor Acres and Roman chickens). We analyzed the sequences of the D-loop region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and 18 microsatellite loci of 280 blood samples from six Guangxi native chicken breeds and from Arbor Acres and Roman chickens, and used the neighbor-joining method to construct the phylogenetic tree of these eight breeds. Our results showed that the genetic diversity of Guangxi native breeds was relatively rich. The phylogenetic tree using the unweighed pair-group method with arithmetic means (UPGAM) on microsatellite marks revealed two main clusters. Arbor Acres chicken and Roman chicken were in one cluster, while the Guangxi breeds were in the other cluster. Moreover, the UPGAM tree of Guangxi native breeds based on microsatellite loci was more consistent with the genesis, breeding history, differentiation and location than the mtDNA D-loop region. STRUCTURE analysis further confirmed the genetic structure of Guangxi native breeds in the Neighbor-Net dendrogram. The nomenclature of mtDNA sequence polymorphisms suggests that the Guangxi native chickens are distributed across four clades, but most of them are clustered in two main clades (B and E), with the other haplotypes within the clades A and C. The Guangxi native breeds revealed abundant genetic diversity not only on microsatellite loci but also on mtDNA D-loop region, and contained multiple maternal lineages, including one from China and another from Europe or the Middle East.

  7. Determination of genetic variability of traditional varieties of Brazilian rice using microsatellite markers

    Claudio Brondani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The rice (Oryza sativa breeding program of the Rice and Bean research center of the Brazilian agricultural company Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa is well established and provides new cultivars every year to attend the demand for improved high yielding varieties with tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the elite genitors used to compose new populations for selection are closely related, contributing to the yield plateau reached in the last 20 years. To overcome this limit, it is necessary to broaden the genetic basis of the cultivars using diverse germplasm such as wild relatives or traditional varieties, with the latter being more practical because they are more easily crossed with elite germplasm to accelerate the recovery of modern plant types in the breeding lines. The objective of our study was to characterize the allelic diversity of 192 traditional varieties of Brazilian rice using 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR or microsatellite markers. The germplasm was divided into 39 groups by common name similarity. A total of 176 alleles were detected, 30 of which (from 23 accessions were exclusive. The number of alleles per marker ranged from 6 to 22, with an average of 14.6 alleles per locus. We identified 16 accessions as a mixture of pure lines or heterozygous plants. Dendrogram analysis identified six clusters of identical accessions with different common names and just one cluster with identical accessions with the same common name, indicating that SSR markers are fundamental to determining the genetic relationship between landraces. A subset of 24 landraces, representatives of the 13 similarity groups plus the 11 accessions not grouped, was the most variable set of genotypes analyzed. These accessions can be used as genitors to increase the genetic variability available to rice breeding programs.

  8. The use (or misuse) of microsatellite allelic distances in the context of inbreeding and conservation genetics.

    Hansson, Bengt

    2010-03-01

    In line with inbreeding theory, genetic diversity at a set of molecular markers may explain variation in fitness-associated traits in partially inbred populations, and such associations will appear as 'genotype-fitness correlations'. An individual genetic diversity index specifically used for microsatellites is 'mean d(2)', i.e. the mean squared distance between alleles. The original hypothesis for mean d(2)-fitness correlations assumes that mean d(2) captures fitness effects at both ends of the inbreeding-outbreeding spectrum. This hypothesis received strong criticism from work showing that even a plain diversity estimate such as multi-locus heterozygosity (MLH) outperforms mean d(2) as a predictor of the inbreeding coefficient and fitness in most realistic situations. Despite this critique, the mean d(2)-approach is still used frequently in ecological and evolutionary research, producing results suggesting that mean d(2) sometimes provides a stronger prediction of fitness than does MLH. In light of the critique, such results are unexpected, but potential explanations for them may exist (at least hypothetically), including scenarios based on close linkage and recent admixture. Nevertheless, a major caveat is that it is very difficult to predict a priori if mean d(2) will improve the genotype-fitness correlation, which in turn makes objective interpretations difficult. Mean d(2)-fitness associations are potentially interesting, but the fact that we cannot easily understand them is problematic and should be thoroughly addressed in each study. Therefore, instead of hastily reached interpretations of mean d(2)-fitness correlations, conclusions need support from complementary analyses, e.g. verifying admixture of genetically structured populations.

  9. Development of microsatellite markers to genetically differentiate populations of Octopus minor from Korea and China.

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Kim, Yi-Kyung; Park, Jung-Youn; An, Chel-Min; Jun, Je-Chun

    2012-08-01

    Of the more than 300 octopus species, Octopus minor is one of the most popular and economically important species in Eastern Asia, including Korea, along with O. vulgaris, O. ocellatus, and O. aegina. We developed 19 microsatellite markers from Octopus minor and eight polymorphic markers were developed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationships among four octopus populations from Korea and three from China. The number of alleles per locus varied from 10 to 49, and allelic richness per locus ranged from 2 to 16.4 across all populations. The average allele number among the populations was 11.1, with a minimum of 8.3 and a maximum of 13.6. The mean allelic richness was 8.7 in all populations. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) test revealed significant deviation in 19 of the 56 single-locus sites, and null alleles were presumed in five of eight loci. The pairwise F ( ST ) values between populations from Korea and China differed significantly in all pairwise comparisons. The genetic distances between the China and Korea samples ranged from 0.161 to 0.454. The genetic distances among the populations from Korea ranged from 0.033 to 0.090, with an average of 0.062; those among populations from China ranged from 0.191 to 0.316, with an average of 0.254. The populations from Korea and China formed clearly separated into clusters via an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram. Furthermore, a population from muddy flats on the western coast of the Korean Peninsula and one from a rocky area on Jeju Island formed clearly separated subclusters. An assignment test based on the allele distribution discriminated between the Korean and Chinese origins with 96.9 % accuracy.

  10. Microsatellite analysis of chloroquine resistance associated alleles and neutral loci reveal genetic structure of Indian Plasmodium falciparum.

    Mallick, Prashant K; Sutton, Patrick L; Singh, Ruchi; Singh, Om P; Dash, Aditya P; Singh, Ashok K; Carlton, Jane M; Bhasin, Virendra K

    2013-10-01

    Efforts to control malignant malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum are hampered by the parasite's acquisition of resistance to antimalarial drugs, e.g., chloroquine. This necessitates evaluating the spread of chloroquine resistance in any malaria-endemic area. India displays highly variable malaria epidemiology and also shares porous international borders with malaria-endemic Southeast Asian countries having multi-drug resistant malaria. Malaria epidemiology in India is believed to be affected by two major factors: high genetic diversity and evolving drug resistance in P. falciparum. How transmission intensity of malaria can influence the genetic structure of chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum population in India is unknown. Here, genetic diversity within and among P. falciparum populations is analyzed with respect to their prevalence and chloroquine resistance observed in 13 different locations in India. Microsatellites developed for P. falciparum, including three putatively neutral and seven microsatellites thought to be under a hitchhiking effect due to chloroquine selection were used. Genetic hitchhiking is observed in five of seven microsatellites flanking the gene responsible for chloroquine resistance. Genetic admixture analysis and F-statistics detected genetically distinct groups in accordance with transmission intensity of different locations and the probable use of chloroquine. A large genetic break between the chloroquine-resistant parasite of the Northeast-East-Island group and Southwest group (FST=0.253, Pstructure for Indian P. falciparum population. Overall, the study suggests that transmission intensity can be an efficient driver for genetic differentiation at both neutral and adaptive loci across India. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genome-wide conserved non-coding microsatellite (CNMS) marker-based integrative genetical genomics for quantitative dissection of seed weight in chickpea.

    Bajaj, Deepak; Saxena, Maneesha S; Kujur, Alice; Das, Shouvik; Badoni, Saurabh; Tripathi, Shailesh; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Gowda, C L L; Sharma, Shivali; Singh, Sube; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Parida, Swarup K

    2015-03-01

    Phylogenetic footprinting identified 666 genome-wide paralogous and orthologous CNMS (conserved non-coding microsatellite) markers from 5'-untranslated and regulatory regions (URRs) of 603 protein-coding chickpea genes. The (CT)n and (GA)n CNMS carrying CTRMCAMV35S and GAGA8BKN3 regulatory elements, respectively, are abundant in the chickpea genome. The mapped genic CNMS markers with robust amplification efficiencies (94.7%) detected higher intraspecific polymorphic potential (37.6%) among genotypes, implying their immense utility in chickpea breeding and genetic analyses. Seventeen differentially expressed CNMS marker-associated genes showing strong preferential and seed tissue/developmental stage-specific expression in contrasting genotypes were selected to narrow down the gene targets underlying seed weight quantitative trait loci (QTLs)/eQTLs (expression QTLs) through integrative genetical genomics. The integration of transcript profiling with seed weight QTL/eQTL mapping, molecular haplotyping, and association analyses identified potential molecular tags (GAGA8BKN3 and RAV1AAT regulatory elements and alleles/haplotypes) in the LOB-domain-containing protein- and KANADI protein-encoding transcription factor genes controlling the cis-regulated expression for seed weight in the chickpea. This emphasizes the potential of CNMS marker-based integrative genetical genomics for the quantitative genetic dissection of complex seed weight in chickpea. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Population Genetics of European Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L. in the Seas of Turkey Based on Microsatellite DNA

    Fevzi Bardakci

    2014-06-01

    Results: In this study, 13 microsatellite loci in 541 samples were analysed for determination of genetic structure of anchovy along Turkish coasts. The genetic variability was high among population, the average alleles numbers per locus per population ranged from 11.0 to 22.8. Observed heterozygosity per population was ranged from 0.612 (Mersin to 0.733 (İstanbul while expected heterozygosity was ranged from 0.774 (Mersin to 0.823 (Perşembe. The highest genetic distance was found between Antalya and Trabzon populations (FST=0.06949, the lowest between Antalya and İskenderun populations (0,00010. Analyses of 13 microsatellite loci were showed that there was low population structuring among all anchovy population (Fst: 0,024; SE 0,005. Although high genetic diversities was detected, for most loci with most populations were showed Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium. Genetic distance analyses showed up Mediterranean specimens were highly distinct from Aegean and Black sea populations. Aegean populations were closer to Black sea populations because of higher gene flow between them rather than Mediterranean. A STRUCTURE computer program was indicated the presence of four possible genetic groups in Turkish territorial waters. Conclusions: Data to obtained from this study has found useful for the identification of genetic structuring of European anchovy distributed along the coasts of Turkish Seas. Results are also useful for planning of fishery management of anchovies in Turkey.

  13. A consensus microsatellite-based linkage map for the hermaphroditic bay scallop (Argopecten irradians and its application in size-related QTL analysis.

    Hongjun Li

    Full Text Available Bay scallop (Argopecten irradians is one of the most economically important aquaculture species in China. In this study, we constructed a consensus microsatellite-based genetic linkage map with a mapping panel containing two hybrid backcross-like families involving two subspecies of bay scallop, A. i. irradians and A. i. concentricus. One hundred sixty-one microsatellite and one phenotypic (shell color markers were mapped to 16 linkage groups (LGs, which corresponds to the haploid chromosome number of bay scallop. The sex-specific map was 779.2 cM and 781.6 cM long in female and male, respectively, whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 849.3 cM. The average resolution of integrated map was 5.9 cM/locus and the estimated coverage was 81.3%. The proportion of distorted markers occurred more in the hybrid parents, suggesting that the segregation distortion was possibly resulted from heterospecific interaction between genomes of two subspecies of bay scallop. The overall female-to-male recombination rate was 1.13:1 across all linked markers in common to both parents, and considerable differences in recombination also existed among different parents in both families. Four size-related traits, including shell length (SL, shell height (SH, shell width (SW and total weight (TW were measured for quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis. Three significant and six suggestive QTL were detected on five LGs. Among the three significant QTL, two (qSW-10 and qTW-10, controlling SW and TW, respectively were mapped on the same region near marker AiAD121 on LG10 and explained 20.5% and 27.7% of the phenotypic variance, while the third (qSH-7, controlling SH was located on LG7 and accounted for 15.8% of the phenotypic variance. Six suggestive QTL were detected on four different LGs. The linkage map and size-related QTL obtained in this study may facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS in bay scallop.

  14. A first linkage map of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L.) based on AFLP, S-SAP, M-AFLP and microsatellite markers.

    Lanteri, S; Acquadro, A; Comino, C; Mauro, R; Mauromicale, G; Portis, E

    2006-05-01

    We present the first genetic maps of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L. 2n=2x=34), constructed with a two-way pseudo-testcross strategy. A F1 mapping population of 94 individuals was generated between a late-maturing, non-spiny type and an early-maturing spiny type. The 30 AFLP, 13 M-AFLP and 9 S-SAP primer combinations chosen identified, respectively, 352, 38 and 41 polymorphic markers. Of 32 microsatellite primer pairs tested, 12 identified heterozygous loci in one or other parent, and 7 were fully informative as they segregated in both parents. The female parent map comprised 204 loci, spread over 18 linkage groups and spanned 1330.5 cM with a mean marker density of 6.5 cM. The equivalent figures for the male parent map were 180 loci, 17 linkage groups, 1239.4 and 6.9 cM. About 3% of the AFLP and AFLP-derived markers displayed segregation distortion with a P value below 0.01, and were not used for map construction. All the SSR loci were included in the linkage analysis, although one locus did show some segregation distortion. The presence of 78 markers in common to both maps allowed the alignment of 16 linkage groups. The maps generated provide a firm basis for the mapping of agriculturally relevant traits, which will then open the way for the application of a marker-assisted selection breeding strategy in this species.

  15. Microsatellite markers from tea green leafhopper Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii: a powerful tool for studying genetic structure in tea plantations.

    Zhang, Li; Dietrich, Christopher H; Qin, Daozheng

    2016-07-29

    Tea green leafhopper is one of the most dominant pests in Chinese tea plantations. Recent evidence, including morphological and molecular data, revealed that tea green leafhopper in China is the same species as in Japan, Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii Matsuda. Previous morphological study that revealed variation in the structure of the male genitalia within and among populations of this species suggested that there may be significant population-level genetic variation. To provide powerful molecular markers to explore the population genetic diversity and population genetic structure of this pest in China, microsatellite markers were obtained by AFLP of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO). Eighteen polymorphic markers were evaluated for five populations of E. (M.) onukii, Two related empoascine leafhopper species were selected to test the transferability of the markers. Population genetic structure of E. (M.) onukii was detected using Structure analysis, principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and variance analysis. The identified markers were polymorphic with total number of alleles ranging from 6 to 24 per locus, observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.133 to 0.9 and 0.183 to 0.926, respectively, and the polymorphic information content value over all populations varied from 0.429 to 0.911. This is the first study to demonstrate that microsatellite markers provide valuable information for genetic structure of E. (M.) onukii in Chinese tea plantations. There is obvious genetic differentiation between the two populations in the Southwest tea area. These microsatellite markers will be the powerful tools for genetic studies of E. (M.) onukii and improve understanding of the microevolution of this species.

  16. Population genetic analysis of a global collection of Fragaria vesca using microsatellite markers.

    Hilmarsson, Hrannar Smári; Hytönen, Timo; Isobe, Sachiko; Göransson, Magnus; Toivainen, Tuomas; Hallsson, Jón Hallsteinn

    2017-01-01

    The woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca, holds great promise as a model organism. It not only represents the important Rosaceae family that includes economically important species such as apples, pears, peaches and roses, but it also complements the well-known model organism Arabidopsis thaliana in key areas such as perennial life cycle and the development of fleshy fruit. Analysis of wild populations of A. thaliana has shed light on several important developmental pathways controlling, for example, flowering time and plant growth, suggesting that a similar approach using F. vesca might add to our understanding on the development of rosaceous species and perennials in general. As a first step, 298 F. vesca plants were analyzed using microsatellite markers with the primary aim of analyzing population structure and distribution of genetic diversity. Of the 68 markers tested, 56 were polymorphic, with an average of 4.46 alleles per locus. Our analysis partly confirms previous classification of F. vesca subspecies in North America and suggests two groups within the subsp. bracteata. In addition, F. vesca subsp. vesca forms a single global population with evidence that the Icelandic group is a separate cluster from the main Eurasian population.

  17. Population genetic analysis of a global collection of Fragaria vesca using microsatellite markers.

    Hrannar Smári Hilmarsson

    Full Text Available The woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca, holds great promise as a model organism. It not only represents the important Rosaceae family that includes economically important species such as apples, pears, peaches and roses, but it also complements the well-known model organism Arabidopsis thaliana in key areas such as perennial life cycle and the development of fleshy fruit. Analysis of wild populations of A. thaliana has shed light on several important developmental pathways controlling, for example, flowering time and plant growth, suggesting that a similar approach using F. vesca might add to our understanding on the development of rosaceous species and perennials in general. As a first step, 298 F. vesca plants were analyzed using microsatellite markers with the primary aim of analyzing population structure and distribution of genetic diversity. Of the 68 markers tested, 56 were polymorphic, with an average of 4.46 alleles per locus. Our analysis partly confirms previous classification of F. vesca subspecies in North America and suggests two groups within the subsp. bracteata. In addition, F. vesca subsp. vesca forms a single global population with evidence that the Icelandic group is a separate cluster from the main Eurasian population.

  18. Multi-Stage Hybrid Rocket Conceptual Design for Micro-Satellites Launch using Genetic Algorithm

    Kitagawa, Yosuke; Kitagawa, Koki; Nakamiya, Masaki; Kanazaki, Masahiro; Shimada, Toru

    The multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) is applied to the multi-disciplinary conceptual design problem for a three-stage launch vehicle (LV) with a hybrid rocket engine (HRE). MOGA is an optimization tool used for multi-objective problems. The parallel coordinate plot (PCP), which is a data mining method, is employed in the post-process in MOGA for design knowledge discovery. A rocket that can deliver observing micro-satellites to the sun-synchronous orbit (SSO) is designed. It consists of an oxidizer tank containing liquid oxidizer, a combustion chamber containing solid fuel, a pressurizing tank and a nozzle. The objective functions considered in this study are to minimize the total mass of the rocket and to maximize the ratio of the payload mass to the total mass. To calculate the thrust and the engine size, the regression rate is estimated based on an empirical model for a paraffin (FT-0070) propellant. Several non-dominated solutions are obtained using MOGA, and design knowledge is discovered for the present hybrid rocket design problem using a PCP analysis. As a result, substantial knowledge on the design of an LV with an HRE is obtained for use in space transportation.

  19. Genetic diversity analysis of brassica napus/brassica campestris progenies using microsatellite markers

    Fayyaz, L.; Farhatullah, A.; Iqbal, S.; Kanwal, M.; Nawaz, I.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic diversity and relationship of F2 segregating progenies of interspecific crosses between B. napus N-501/B. campestris C-118 were studied. A set of 90 genotypes (2 parental lines and their 88 F2 progenies) was characterized separately using 24 microsatellite or SSR markers to cover the diversity as broadly as possibly present in them. In initial screening only 12 out of 24 SSR primers combination amplified DNA fragments, while the remaining 12 SSR primers did not amplify DNA fragment therefore those 12 SSR molecular markers were not used for further analysis. The 12 SSR primer combinations generated a total of 33 alleles, of that 32 were polymorphic loci, whereas only one was monomorphic locus. Primers BRMS-19 and BRMS-40 were highly polymorphic producing 4 bands each. Primer Ra2-D04 was less polymorphic and it produced only one band. The proportion of polymorphic loci was 95.83% which indicates high genetic diversity among the progenies. The average number of polymorphic alleles per locus was 2.66. The PIC values ranged from 0.395 for primer Ra2-E03 to 0.726 for primer BRMS-019 with an average genetic diversity (PIC value) of 0.584 per locus. Seven primers showed PIC values above 0.5 (50%) indicating high genetic diversity in the studied plant materials. Pair-wise similarity indices among 90 genotypes ranged from 0.3 to 0.95. Dendrogram obtained through UPGMA clustering of F2 progenies depicted eight main groups using similarity coefficient of 0.70. The progenies could be similar to their parents if they have the same banding patterns as that of the parents and could be distinguished from each other by the combination of fragments which are repeatedly present in one progeny and absent in the other. Considerable genetic diversity has been found among the F2 segregating progenies and their parents using SSR markers thus, SSR analysis proved to be a useful tool. (author)

  20. Genetic diversity of five local Swedish chicken breeds detected by microsatellite markers.

    Abiye Shenkut Abebe

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the genetic diversity, relationship and population structure of 110 local Swedish chickens derived from five breeds (Gotlandshöna, Hedemorahöna, Öländsk dvärghöna, Skånsk blommehöna, and Bohuslän- Dals svarthöna, in the rest of the paper the shorter name Svarthöna is used using 24 microsatellite markers. In total, one hundred thirteen alleles were detected in all populations, with a mean of 4.7 alleles per locus. For the five chicken breeds, the observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.225 to 0.408 and from 0.231 to 0.515, with the lowest scores for the Svarthöna and the highest scores for the Skånsk blommehöna breeds, respectively. Similarly, the average within breed molecular kinship varied from 0.496 to 0.745, showing high coancestry, with Skånsk blommehöna having the lowest and Svarthöna the highest coancestry. Furthermore, all breeds showed significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Across the five breeds, the global heterozygosity deficit (FIT was 0.545, population differentiation index (FST was 0.440, and the global inbreeding of individuals within breed (FIS was 0.187. The phylogenetic relationships of chickens were examined using neighbor-joining trees constructed at the level of breeds and individual samples. The neighbor-joining tree constructed at breed level revealed two main clusters, with Hedemorahöna and Öländsk dvärghöna breeds in one cluster, and Gotlandshöna and Svarthöna breeds in the second cluster leaving the Skånsk blommehöna in the middle. Based on the results of the STRUCTURE analysis, the most likely number of clustering of the five breeds was at K = 4, with Hedemorahöna, Gotlandshöna and Svarthöna breeds forming their own distinct clusters, while Öländsk dvärghöna and Skånsk blommehöna breeds clustered together. Losses in the overall genetic diversity of local Swedish chickens due to breeds extinction varied from -1.46% to -6

  1. Construction of High Density Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. Linkage Maps Using Microsatellite Markers and SNPs Detected by Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS.

    Verónica Guajardo

    Full Text Available Linkage maps are valuable tools in genetic and genomic studies. For sweet cherry, linkage maps have been constructed using mainly microsatellite markers (SSRs and, recently, using single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs from a cherry 6K SNP array. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS, a new methodology based on high-throughput sequencing, holds great promise for identification of high number of SNPs and construction of high density linkage maps. In this study, GBS was used to identify SNPs from an intra-specific sweet cherry cross. A total of 8,476 high quality SNPs were selected for mapping. The physical position for each SNP was determined using the peach genome, Peach v1.0, as reference, and a homogeneous distribution of markers along the eight peach scaffolds was obtained. On average, 65.6% of the SNPs were present in genic regions and 49.8% were located in exonic regions. In addition to the SNPs, a group of SSRs was also used for construction of linkage maps. Parental and consensus high density maps were constructed by genotyping 166 siblings from a 'Rainier' x 'Rivedel' (Ra x Ri cross. Using Ra x Ri population, 462, 489 and 985 markers were mapped into eight linkage groups in 'Rainier', 'Rivedel' and the Ra x Ri map, respectively, with 80% of mapped SNPs located in genic regions. Obtained maps spanned 549.5, 582.6 and 731.3 cM for 'Rainier', 'Rivedel' and consensus maps, respectively, with an average distance of 1.2 cM between adjacent markers for both 'Rainier' and 'Rivedel' maps and of 0.7 cM for Ra x Ri map. High synteny and co-linearity was observed between obtained maps and with Peach v1.0. These new high density linkage maps provide valuable information on the sweet cherry genome, and serve as the basis for identification of QTLs and genes relevant for the breeding of the species.

  2. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOME IRANIAN SWEET CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM) CULTIVARS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS.

    Farsad, A; Esna-Ashari, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 23 important Iranian sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars collected from different provinces of Iran and 1 foreign cultivar, which was used as control, considered for breeding programs by using 21 microsatellite markers and 27 morphological traits. In sweet cherry (Prunus avium) accessions, leaf, fruit, and stone morphological characters were evaluated during two consecutive years. The study revealed a high variability in the set of evaluated sweet cherry accessions. The majority of important correlations were determined among variables representing fruit and leaf size and variables related to color. Cluster analysis distinguished sweet cherry accessions into two distinct groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) of qualitative and quantitative morphological parameters explained over 86.59% of total variability in the first seven axes. In PCA, leaf traits such as leaf length and width, and fruit traits such as length, width, and weight, and fruit flesh and juice color were predominant in the first two components, indicating that they were useful for the assessment of sweet cherry germplasm characterization. Out of 21 SSR markers, 16 were polymorphic, producing 177 alleles that varied from 4 to 16 alleles (9.35 on average) with a mean heterozygosity value of 0.82 that produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms. Allele size varied from 95 to 290 bp. Cluster analyses showed that the studied sweet cherry genotypes were classified intofive main groups based mainly on their species characteristics and SSR data. In general, our results did not show a clear structuring of genetic variability within the Iranian diffusion area of sweet cherry, so it was not possible to draw any indications on regions of provenance delimitation. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of sweet cherry genetic variations in Iran, thus making for more efficient programs aimed at preserving biodiversity and

  3. Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of hermaphrodite ridge gourd (Luffa hermaphrodita).

    Pandey, Sudhakar; Ansari, W A; Choudhary, B R; Pandey, Maneesh; Jena, S N; Singh, A K; Dubey, R K; Singh, Bijendra

    2018-01-01

    Out of 103 microsatellite markers used for studying the genetic diversity among local landraces of Luffa species, 56 were found polymorphic, including 38 gSSR and 18 eSSR, respectively. A total of 197 amplification products were obtained. The mean number of alleles per locus was 3.52. The PIC ranged from 0.037 to 0.986, while size of amplified product ranged from 105 to 500 bp. Cucumber-derived SSRs were amplified within L. acutangula (68%), L. aegyptiaca (61.16%), and L. hermaphrodita (60.2%), with an average of 63.12% cross-transferability. The Jaccard's coefficient ranged from 0.66 to 0.97, with an average of 0.81. High genetic variability was observed for node of 1st hermaphrodite flower (6.4-17), days to 1st hermaphrodite flower (38-52.1), days to 1st fruit harvest (43-65), number of fruit per cluster (1-5.9), fruit length (3.9-25 cm), fruit weight (18.4-175 g), number of fruit per plant (20-147.5), and yield per plant (2.2-4.7 kg). Two sub-populations were identified including 21 genotypes (sub-population I) and 06 genotypes (sub-population II), these two sub-populations showed 0.608-0.395% of the ancestral relationship to each other. This study provides information for future exploration, collection, and utilization of Luffa genotypes, as well as the polymorphic markers identified could be available for the study of landmarks in linkages, genomic structures, evolutionary ecology, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) in Luffa species.

  4. Genetic variation assessed with microsatellites in mass selection lines of the Pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) in China

    Wang, Xubo; Li, Qi; Yu, Hong; Kong, Lingfeng

    2016-12-01

    Four successive mass selection lines of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, selected for faster growth in breeding programs in China were examined at ten polymorphic microsatellite loci to assess the level of allelic diversity and estimate the effective population size. These data were compared with those of their base population. The results showed that the genetic variation of the four generations were maintained at high levels with an average allelic richness of 18.8-20.6, and a mean expected heterozygosity of 0.902-0.921. They were not reduced compared with those of their base population. Estimated effective population sizes based on temporal variances in microsatellite frequencies were smaller to that of sex ratio-corrected broodstock count estimates. Using a relatively large number of broodstock and keeping an equal sex ratio in the broodstock each generation may have contributed to retaining the original genetic diversity and maintaining relatively large effective population size. The results obtained in this study showed that the genetic variation was not affected greatly by mass selection progress and high genetic variation still existed in the mass selection lines, suggesting that there is still potential for increasing the gains in future generations of C. gigas. The present study provided important information for future genetic improvement by selective breeding, and for the design of suitable management guidelines for genetic breeding of C. gigas.

  5. Efficiency of semi-automated fluorescent multiplex PCRs with 11 microsatellite markers for genetic studies of deer populations.

    Bonnet, A; Thévenon, S; Maudet, F; Maillard, J C

    2002-10-01

    Thirty bovine and eight ovine microsatellite primer pairs were tested on four tropical deer species: Eld's and Swamp deer (highly threatened) and Rusa and Vietnamese Sika deer (economically important). Thirty markers gave an amplified product in all four species (78.9%). The number of polymorphic microsatellite markers varied among the species from 14 in Eld's deer (47%) to 20 in Swamp deer (67%). Among them, 11 microsatellite loci were multiplexed in three polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) and labelled with three different fluorochromes that can be loaded in one gel-lane. To test the efficiency of the multiplex, primary genetic studies (mean number of alleles, expected heterozygosities and Fis values) were carried out on four deer populations. Parentage exclusion probability and probability of identity were computed and discussed on a Swamp deer population. These multiplexes PCRs were also tested on several other deer species and subspecies. The aim of this study is to establish a tool useful for genetic studies of population structure and diversity in four tropical deer species which with few modifications can be applied to other species of the genus Cervus.

  6. De novo transcriptome analysis and microsatellite marker development for population genetic study of a serious insect pest, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Duan, Xinle; Wang, Kang; Su, Sha; Tian, Ruizheng; Li, Yuting; Chen, Maohua

    2017-01-01

    The bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), is one of the most abundant aphid pests of cereals and has a global distribution. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a rapid and efficient method for developing molecular markers. However, transcriptomic and genomic resources of R. padi have not been investigated. In this study, we used transcriptome information obtained by RNA-Seq to develop polymorphic microsatellites for investigating population genetics in this species. The transcriptome of R. padi was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 114.4 million raw reads with a GC content of 40.03% was generated. The raw reads were cleaned and assembled into 29,467 unigenes with an N50 length of 1,580 bp. Using several public databases, 82.47% of these unigenes were annotated. Of the annotated unigenes, 8,022 were assigned to COG pathways, 9,895 were assigned to GO pathways, and 14,586 were mapped to 257 KEGG pathways. A total of 7,936 potential microsatellites were identified in 5,564 unigenes, 60 of which were selected randomly and amplified using specific primer pairs. Fourteen loci were found to be polymorphic in the four R. padi populations. The transcriptomic data presented herein will facilitate gene discovery, gene analyses, and development of molecular markers for future studies of R. padi and other closely related aphid species.

  7. Genetics and the history of the Samaritans: Y-chromosomal microsatellites and genetic affinity between Samaritans and Cohanim.

    Oefner, Peter J; Hölzi, Georg; Shen, Piedong; Shpirer, Isaac; Gefel, Dov; Lavi, Tal; Woolf, Eilon; Cohen, Jonathan; Cinnioglu, Cengiz; Underhill, Peter A; Rosenberg, Noah A; Hochrein, Jochen; Granka, Julie M; Hillel, Jossi; Feldman, Marcus W

    2013-12-01

    The Samaritans are a group of some 750 indigenous Middle Eastern people, about half of whom live in Holon, a suburb of Tel Aviv, and the other half near Nablus. The Samaritan population is believed to have numbered more than a million in late Roman times but less than 150 in 1917. The ancestry of the Samaritans has been subject to controversy from late Biblical times to the present. In this study, liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry was used to allelotype 13 Y-chromosomal and 15 autosomal microsatellites in a sample of 12 Samaritans chosen to have as low a level of relationship as possible, and 461 Jews and non-Jews. Estimation of genetic distances between the Samaritans and seven Jewish and three non-Jewish populations from Israel, as well as populations from Africa, Pakistan, Turkey, and Europe, revealed that the Samaritans were closely related to Cohanim. This result supports the position of the Samaritans that they are descendants from the tribes of Israel dating to before the Assyrian exile in 722-720 BCE. In concordance with previously published single-nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes, each Samaritan family, with the exception of the Samaritan Cohen lineage, was observed to carry a distinctive Y-chromosome short tandem repeat haplotype that was not more than one mutation removed from the six-marker Cohen modal haplotype. Copyright © 2014 Wayne State University Press, Detroit, Michigan 48201-1309.

  8. YouGenMap: a web platform for dynamic multi-comparative mapping and visualization of genetic maps

    Keith Batesole; Kokulapalan Wimalanathan; Lin Liu; Fan Zhang; Craig S. Echt; Chun Liang

    2014-01-01

    Comparative genetic maps are used in examination of genome organization, detection of conserved gene order, and exploration of marker order variations. YouGenMap is an open-source web tool that offers dynamic comparative mapping capability of users' own genetic mapping between 2 or more map sets. Users' genetic map data and optional gene annotations are...

  9. A microsatellite-based linkage map of salt tolerant tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x Oreochromis spp.) and mapping of sex-determining loci

    2013-01-01

    Background Tilapia is the common name for a group of cichlid fishes and is one of the most important aquacultured freshwater food fish. Mozambique tilapia and its hybrids, including red tilapia are main representatives of salt tolerant tilapias. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping QTL for important traits, positional cloning of genes and understanding of genome evolution. Results We constructed a consensus linkage map of Mozambique tilapia and red tilapia using 95 individuals from two F1 families and 401 microsatellites including 282 EST-derived markers. In addition, we conducted comparative mapping and searched for sex-determining loci on the whole genome. These 401 microsatellites were assigned to 22 linkage groups. The map spanned 1067.6 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 3.3 cM. Comparative mapping between tilapia and stickleback, medaka, pufferfish and zebrafish revealed clear homologous relationships between chromosomes from different species. We found evidence for the fusion of two sets of two independent chromosomes forming two new chromosome pairs, leading to a reduction of 24 chromosome pairs in their ancestor to 22 pairs in tilapias. The XY sex determination locus in Mozambique tilapia was mapped on LG1, and verified in five families containing 549 individuals. The major XY sex determination locus in red tilapia was located on LG22, and verified in two families containing 275 individuals. Conclusions A first-generation linkage map of salt tolerant tilapia was constructed using 401 microsatellites. Two separate fusions of two sets of two independent chromosomes may lead to a reduction of 24 chromosome pairs in their ancestor to 22 pairs in tilapias. The XY sex-determining loci from Mozambique tilapia and red tilapia were mapped on LG1 and LG22, respectively. This map provides a useful resource for QTL mapping for important traits and comparative genome studies. The DNA markers linked to the sex-determining loci could be used in

  10. A microsatellite-based linkage map of salt tolerant tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x Oreochromis spp. and mapping of sex-determining loci

    Liu Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tilapia is the common name for a group of cichlid fishes and is one of the most important aquacultured freshwater food fish. Mozambique tilapia and its hybrids, including red tilapia are main representatives of salt tolerant tilapias. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping QTL for important traits, positional cloning of genes and understanding of genome evolution. Results We constructed a consensus linkage map of Mozambique tilapia and red tilapia using 95 individuals from two F1 families and 401 microsatellites including 282 EST-derived markers. In addition, we conducted comparative mapping and searched for sex-determining loci on the whole genome. These 401 microsatellites were assigned to 22 linkage groups. The map spanned 1067.6 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 3.3 cM. Comparative mapping between tilapia and stickleback, medaka, pufferfish and zebrafish revealed clear homologous relationships between chromosomes from different species. We found evidence for the fusion of two sets of two independent chromosomes forming two new chromosome pairs, leading to a reduction of 24 chromosome pairs in their ancestor to 22 pairs in tilapias. The XY sex determination locus in Mozambique tilapia was mapped on LG1, and verified in five families containing 549 individuals. The major XY sex determination locus in red tilapia was located on LG22, and verified in two families containing 275 individuals. Conclusions A first-generation linkage map of salt tolerant tilapia was constructed using 401 microsatellites. Two separate fusions of two sets of two independent chromosomes may lead to a reduction of 24 chromosome pairs in their ancestor to 22 pairs in tilapias. The XY sex-determining loci from Mozambique tilapia and red tilapia were mapped on LG1 and LG22, respectively. This map provides a useful resource for QTL mapping for important traits and comparative genome studies. The DNA markers linked to the sex

  11. Development of Microsatellite Markers in the Branched Broomrape Phelipanche ramosa L. (Pomel and Evidence for Host-Associated Genetic Divergence

    Valérie Le Corre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phelipanche ramosa is a parasitic plant that infects numerous crops worldwide. In Western Europe it recently expanded to a new host crop, oilseed rape, in which it can cause severe yield losses. We developed 13 microsatellite markers for P. ramosa using next-generation 454 sequencing data. The polymorphism at each locus was assessed in a sample of 96 individuals collected in France within 6 fields cultivated with tobacco, hemp or oilseed rape. Two loci were monomorphic. At the other 11 loci, the number of alleles and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 3 to 6 and from 0.31 to 0.60, respectively. Genetic diversity within each cultivated field was very low. The host crop from which individuals were collected was the key factor structuring genetic variation. Individuals collected on oilseed rape were strongly differentiated from individuals collected on hemp or tobacco, which suggests that P. ramosa infecting oilseed rape forms a genetically diverged race. The microsatellites we developed will be useful for population genetics studies and for elucidating host-associated genetic divergence in P. ramosa.

  12. Feasibility study on the FAO chicken microsatellite panel to assess genetic variability in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo

    Elena Colombo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO microsatellite panel developed for chickens to assess genetic variability in turkeys. Genomic DNA was extracted from a total of 37 blood samples collected from turkey of different breeds [15 Brianzolo (BR; 12 Colli Euganei (EU; 10 Nero d’Italia (NI], and all 31 chicken microsatellite markers recommended by the FAO were tested. The results show that 22 chicken markers out of 31 suggested by FAO guidelines can be applied to turkey populations. In particular, the multiplex groups confirmed in the turkey were the Multiplex Master Mix 1 (ADL0268, ADL0278, LEI0094, MCW0216, MCW0248 and the Master Mix 2 (MCW0034, MCW0069, MCW0081, MCW0222, MCW0295, whereas 13 microsatellites were amplified only under single polymerase chain reaction (PCR conditions. No PCR products were obtained for 9 markers (LEI0166, MCW0020, MCW0078, MCW0080, MCW0104, MCW0123, MCW0248, MCW0284 and MCW0330, which is 29% of the total markers used. A panel of 22 markers was used to assess genetic diversity in three turkey breeds and a total number of 63 alleles were found. Observed (Ho and expected (He heterozygosity and polymorphism information content (PIC values for each microsatellite and the relative mean values were also calculated. The mean values were 0.210, 0.250, 0.203 for Ho; 0.301, 0.348, 0.228 for He; and 0.265, 0.313, 0.199 for PIC in NI, BR and EU, respectively.

  13. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci from ...

    Administrator

    2011-09-19

    Sep 19, 2011 ... Page 1 ... information for the studies on genetic diversity and structure, construction of genetic linkage maps and the effectively management of S. paramamosain. Key words: Scylla paramamosain, microsatellite markers ... landing center in Hainan, China. Genomic DNA was extracted from the muscle tissue ...

  14. Identification of novel microsatellite markers preimplantation genetic diagnosis of beta-thalassemia.

    Chen, Min; Tan, Arnold S C; Cheah, Felicia S H; Saw, Eugene E L; Chong, Samuel S

    2015-12-01

    Beta (β)-thalassemia is one of the most common monogenic diseases worldwide. Affected pregnancies can be avoided through preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), which commonly involves customized assays to detect the different combinations of β-globin (HBB) gene mutations present in couples, in conjunction with linkage analysis of flanking microsatellite markers. Currently, the limited number of reported closely linked markers hampers their utility in indirect linkage-based PGD for this disorder. To increase the available markers closely flanking the HBB gene, an in silico search was performed to identify all markers within 1 Mb flanking the HBB gene. Fifteen markers with potentially high polymorphism information content (PIC) and heterozygosity values were selected and optimized into a single-tube pentadecaplex PCR panel. Allele frequencies and polymorphism and heterozygosity indices of each marker were assessed in five populations. A total of 238 alleles were observed from the 15 markers. PIC was >0.7 for all markers, with expected heterozygosity and observed heterozygosity values ranging from 0.74 to 0.90 and 0.72 to 0.88, respectively. Greater than 99% of individuals were heterozygous for at least seven markers, with at least two heterozygous markers on either side of the HBB gene. The pentadecaplex marker assay also performed reliably on single cells either directly or after whole genome amplification, thus validating its use in standalone linkage-based β-thalassemia PGD or in conjunction with HBB mutation detection. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Genetic diversity in two Japanese flounder populations from China seas inferred using microsatellite markers and COI sequences

    Xu, Dongdong; Li, Sanlei; Lou, Bao; Zhang, Yurong; Zhan, Wei; Shi, Huilai

    2012-07-01

    Japanese flounder is one of the most important commercial species in China; however, information on the genetic background of natural populations in China seas is scarce. The lack of genetic data has hampered fishery management and aquaculture development programs for this species. In the present study, we have analyzed the genetic diversity in natural populations of Japanese flounder sampled from the Yellow Sea (Qingdao population, QD) and East China Sea (Zhoushan population, ZS) using 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequencing data. A total of 68 different alleles were observed over 10 microsatellite loci. The total number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 9, and the number of genotypes per locus ranged from 3 to 45. The observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity in QD were 0.733 and 0.779, respectively, and in ZS the heterozygosity values were 0.708 and 0.783, respectively. Significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed in 7 of the 10 microsatellite loci in each of the two populations. The COI sequencing analysis revealed 25 polymorphic sites and 15 haplotypes in the two populations. The haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity in the QD population were 0.746±0.072 8 and 0.003 34±0.001 03 respectively, and in ZS population the genetic diversity values were 0.712±0.047 0 and 0.003 18±0.000 49, respectively. The microsatellite data ( F st =0.048 7, P <0.001) and mitochondrial DNA data ( F st =0.128, P <0.001) both revealed significant genetic differentiation between the two populations. The information on the genetic variation and differentiation in Japanese flounder obtained in this study could be used to set up suitable guidelines for the management and conservation of this species, as well as for managing artificial selection programs. In future studies, more geographically diverse stocks should be used to obtain a deeper understanding of the population structure of Japanese

  16. RAPID-COMMUNICATION Genetic diversity and differentiation in natural populations of Arapaima gigas from lower Amazon revealed by microsatellites.

    Fazzi-Gomes, P F; Melo, N; Palheta, G; Guerreiro, S; Amador, M; Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, A K; Santos, S; Hamoy, I

    2017-02-08

    Genetic variability is one of the important criteria for species conservation decisions. This study aimed to analyze the genetic diversity and the population differentiation of two natural populations of Arapaima gigas, a species with a long history of being commercially exploited. We collected 87 samples of A. gigas from Grande Curuai Lake and Paru Lake, located in the Lower Amazon region of Amazônia, Brazil, and genotyped these samples using a multiplex panel of microsatellite markers. Our results showed that the populations of A. gigas analyzed had high levels of genetic variability, which were similar to those described in previous studies. These two populations had a significant population differentiation supported by the estimates of F ST and R ST (0.06), by Bayesian analysis (K = 2), and by population assignment tests, which revealed a moderate genetic distance.

  17. Genetic analysis of basmati and non-basmati Pakistani rice (oryza sativa l.) cultivars using microsatellite markers

    Rabbani, M.A.; Masood, M.A.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2010-01-01

    Information of genetic variability and relatedness among rice genotypes is essential for future breeding programmes and derivation of superior cultivars. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genetic relationship among traditional and improved cultivars of Pakistani rice and to determine differences in the patterns of variation between two indica rice groups: basmati and nonbasmati. Forty-one cultivars were evaluated by means of 30 microsatellite markers distributed over the whole rice genome. A total of 104 alleles were detected by 30 markers, all of them (100%) were polymorphic. The number of alleles generated by each marker ranged from 2 to 6 with an average of 3.5 alleles marker-1. Polymorphism information content (PIC) varied from 0.259 to 0.782 with an average of 0.571. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.71) was found between the number of alleles at SSR locus and the PIC values. Pair-wise Nei and Li's similarity coefficients ranged from 0.10 to 0.99. A dendrogram based on cluster analysis by microsatellite polymorphism grouped 41 rice cultivars into 2 major groups effectively differentiating the late maturing, tall and slender-grain basmati and other aromatic rice cultivars from the early, short statured, short bold and long bold grain non-aromatic cultivars. Higher level of genetic diversity between basmati and non-basmati support the concept that former had a long history of independent evolution and diverged from nonbasmati rice a long time ago through human selection and patronage. Present investigation further indicated that genetically basmati rice is different from that of coarse indica and japonica type. The results suggested that microsatellite markers could efficiently be utilized for diversity analysis, and differentiation of basmati and non-basmati rice cultivars. In addition, marker-based identification of traditional basmati rice may help in maintaining the integrity of this high quality product to the benefit of both

  18. New chloroplast microsatellite markers suitable for assessing genetic diversity of Lolium perenne and other related grass species.

    Diekmann, Kerstin; Hodkinson, Trevor R; Barth, Susanne

    2012-11-01

    Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) is the most important forage grass species of temperate regions. We have previously released the chloroplast genome sequence of L. perenne 'Cashel'. Here nine chloroplast microsatellite markers are published, which were designed based on knowledge about genetically variable regions within the L. perenne chloroplast genome. These markers were successfully used for characterizing the genetic diversity in Lolium and different grass species. Chloroplast genomes of 14 Poaceae taxa were screened for mononucleotide microsatellite repeat regions and primers designed for their amplification from nine loci. The potential of these markers to assess genetic diversity was evaluated on a set of 16 Irish and 15 European L. perenne ecotypes, nine L. perenne cultivars, other Lolium taxa and other grass species. All analysed Poaceae chloroplast genomes contained more than 200 mononucleotide repeats (chloroplast simple sequence repeats, cpSSRs) of at least 7 bp in length, concentrated mainly in the large single copy region of the genome. Nucleotide composition varied considerably among subfamilies (with Pooideae biased towards poly A repeats). The nine new markers distinguish L. perenne from all non-Lolium taxa. TeaCpSSR28 was able to distinguish between all Lolium species and Lolium multiflorum due to an elongation of an A(8) mononucleotide repeat in L. multiflorum. TeaCpSSR31 detected a considerable degree of microsatellite length variation and single nucleotide polymorphism. TeaCpSSR27 revealed variation within some L. perenne accessions due to a 44-bp indel and was hence readily detected by simple agarose gel electrophoresis. Smaller insertion/deletion events or single nucleotide polymorphisms detected by these new markers could be visualized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or DNA sequencing, respectively. The new markers are a valuable tool for plant breeding companies, seed testing agencies and the wider scientific community due to

  19. Transference of microsatellite markers from Eucalyptus spp to Acca sellowiana and the successful use of this technique in genetic characterization

    Karine Louise dos Santos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The pineapple guava (Acca sellowiana, known in portuguese as the goiabeira-serrana or "Feijoa", is a native fruit tree from southern Brazil and northern Uruguay that has commercial potential due to the quality and unique flavor of its fruits. Knowledge of genetic variability is an important tool in various steps of a breeding program, which can be facilitated by the use of molecular markers. The conservation of repeated sequences among related species permits the transferability of microsatellite markers from Eucalyptus spp. to A. sellowiana for testing. We used primers developed for Eucalyptus to characterize A. sellowiana accessions. Out of 404 primers tested, 180 amplified visible products and 38 were polymorphic. A total of 48 alleles were detected with ten Eucalyptus primer pairs against DNA from 119 A. sellowiana accessions. The mean expected heterozygosity among accessions was 0.64 and the mean observed heterozygosity 0.55. A high level of genetic diversity was also observed in the dendrogram, where the degree of genetic dissimilarity ranged from 0 to 65% among the 119 genotypes tested. This study demonstrates the possibility of transferring microsatellite markers between species of different genera in addition to evaluating the extent of genetic variability among plant accessions.

  20. Genic Microsatellite Markers in Brassica rapa: Development, Characterization, Mapping, and Their Utility in Other Cultivated and Wild Brassica Relatives

    Ramchiary, Nirala; Nguyen, Van Dan; Li, Xiaonan; Hong, Chang Pyo; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Yu, Ge; Piao, Zhong Yun; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2011-01-01

    Genic microsatellite markers, also known as functional markers, are preferred over anonymous markers as they reveal the variation in transcribed genes among individuals. In this study, we developed a total of 707 expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers (EST-SSRs) and used for development of a high-density integrated map using four individual mapping populations of B. rapa. This map contains a total of 1426 markers, consisting of 306 EST-SSRs, 153 intron polymorphic markers, 395 bacterial artificial chromosome-derived SSRs (BAC-SSRs), and 572 public SSRs and other markers covering a total distance of 1245.9 cM of the B. rapa genome. Analysis of allelic diversity in 24 B. rapa germplasm using 234 mapped EST-SSR markers showed amplification of 2 alleles by majority of EST-SSRs, although amplification of alleles ranging from 2 to 8 was found. Transferability analysis of 167 EST-SSRs in 35 species belonging to cultivated and wild brassica relatives showed 42.51% (Sysimprium leteum) to 100% (B. carinata, B. juncea, and B. napus) amplification. Our newly developed EST-SSRs and high-density linkage map based on highly transferable genic markers would facilitate the molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci and the positional cloning of specific genes, in addition to marker-assisted selection and comparative genomic studies of B. rapa with other related species. PMID:21768136

  1. [Genetic diversity and kin relationships among wild and cultivated populations of the pejibaye palm (Bactris gasipaes, Palmae) using microsatellite markers].

    Ugalde, José Alfredo Hernández; Urpí, Jorge Mora; Nuñez, Oscar Rocha

    2008-03-01

    Genetic diversity and kin relationships among wild and cultivated populations of the pejibaye palm (Bactris gasipaes, Palmae) using microsatellite markers. The genetic diversity of the peach palm (Pejibaye, Bactris gasipaes Kunth) was evaluated using four nuclear DNA microsatellites in an effort to elucidate the evolution and domestication of this crop. A total of 258 samples from seven wild populations and eleven races were analyzed. All loci were polymorphic and a total of 50 alleles were identified. Average genetic diversity (0.67) and genetic differentiation among populations (Fst=0.16) were high when all populations were considered. Genetic differentiation was lower when the populations were grouped according to their origin into Western and Eastern populations (Fst=0.13 for both). Gene flow was slightly higher among Western populations (Nm=1.71) than among Eastern populations (Nm=1.62). The Putumayo, Yurimaguas, Vaupés, Tucurrique and Guatuso races seem to have been subjected to intense human selection. Hybrid populations exist in Azuero, Tuira, Cauca, Vaupés, Puerto Ayacucho and Solimões, probably resulting from exchange and introgressions among sympatric wild and cultivated populations. Genetic distance (Dm) was estimated to determine the degree of relationship among populations using the neighbor-joining method; the wild populations from Maracaibo were used as the outgroup. The populations were divided into three general groups: Maracaibo (B. caribaea, B. macana var veragua and B. macana var arapuey), Eastern Amazon (Tembe, Pará and Acre) and a third group with two subgroups, Western (Azuero, Chontilla, Tuira, Cauca, Tucurrique and Guatuso) and Upper Amazon (B. dahlgreniana, Puerto Ayacucho, Solimões, Vaupés and Putumayo). The genetic relationships strongly support the hypothesis that peach palm was brought into cultivation independently in no less than three areas: the Western Andes (extending into lower Central America); Upper Amazon (extending

  2. PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES: Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from the Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis).

    Ramey, A; Graziano, S L; Nielsen, J L

    2008-03-01

    Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for the Arctic cisco, Coregonus autumnalis. Loci were evaluated in 21 samples from the Colville River subsistence fishery. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 18. Observed heterozygosity of loci varied from 0.10 to 1.00, and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.09 to 0.92. All eight microsatellite markers were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The loci presented here will be useful in describing population structure and exploring populations of origin for Arctic cisco. © 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd No claim to original US government works.

  3. Rapid and inexpensive analysis of genetic variability in Arapaima gigas by PCR multiplex panel of eight microsatellites.

    Hamoy, I G; Santos, E J M; Santos, S E B

    2008-01-22

    The aim of the present study was the development of a multiplex genotyping panel of eight microsatellite markers of Arapaima gigas, previously described. Specific primer pairs were developed, each one of them marked with either FAM-6, HEX or NED. The amplification conditions using the new primers were standardized for a single reaction. The results obtained demonstrate high heterozygosity (average of 0.69) in a Lower Amazon population. The multiplex system described can thus be considered a fast, efficient and inexpensive method for the investigation of genetic variability in Arapaima populations.

  4. Microsatellite DNA analysis of northern pike ( Esox lucius L.) populations: insights into the genetic structure and demographic history of a genetically depauperate species

    Jacobsen, B. H.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Loeschcke, V.

    2005-01-01

    The northern pike Esox lucius L. is a freshwater fish exhibiting pronounced population subdivision and low genetic variability. However, there is limited knowledge on phylogeographical patterns within the species, and it is not known whether the low genetic variability reflects primarily current...... low effective population sizes or historical bottlenecks. We analysed six microsatellite loci in ten populations from Europe and North America. Genetic variation was low, with the average number of alleles within populations ranging from 2.3 to 4.0 per locus. Genetic differentiation among populations...... was high (overall theta(ST) = 0.51; overall rho(ST) = 0.50). Multidimensional scaling analysis of genetic distances between populations and spatial analysis of molecular variance suggested a single phylogeographical race within the sampled populations from northern Europe, whereas North American...

  5. Genetic structure and inferences on potential source areas for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel based on mitochondrial and microsatellite markers.

    Wei Shi

    Full Text Available Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae is mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical Asia and in the Pacific region. Despite its economic importance, very few studies have addressed the question of the wide genetic structure and potential source area of this species. This pilot study attempts to infer the native region of this pest and its colonization pathways in Asia. Combining mitochondrial and microsatellite markers, we evaluated the level of genetic diversity, genetic structure, and the gene flow among fly populations collected across Southeast Asia and China. A complex and significant genetic structure corresponding to the geographic pattern was found with both types of molecular markers. However, the genetic structure found was rather weak in both cases, and no pattern of isolation by distance was identified. Multiple long-distance dispersal events and miscellaneous host selection by this species may explain the results. These complex patterns may have been influenced by human-mediated transportation of the pest from one area to another and the complex topography of the study region. For both mitochondrial and microsatellite data, no signs of bottleneck or founder events could be identified. Nonetheless, maximal genetic diversity was observed in Myanmar, Vietnam and Guangdong (China and asymmetric migration patterns were found. These results provide indirect evidence that the tropical regions of Southeast Asia and southern coast of China may be considered as the native range of the species and the population expansion is northward. Yunnan (China is a contact zone that has been colonized from different sources. Regions along the southern coast of Vietnam and China probably served to colonize mainly the southern region of China. Southern coastal regions of China may also have colonized central parts of China and of central Yunnan.

  6. Genetic variation and phylogeographic structure of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, based on mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers.

    Wang, Xing-Ya; Yang, Xian-Ming; Lu, Bin; Zhou, Li-Hong; Wu, Kong-Ming

    2017-05-15

    Aphis gossypii, one of the most important agricultural pests in the world, can cause serious economic losses in the main crop-producing areas. To clarify issues such as the genetic differentiation, genetic structure, and demographic history of A. gossypii populations, we used 10 nuclear microsatellite loci (SSR) and two mitochondrial gene sequences (COI and Cytb) to investigate genetic diversity and population structure of A. gossypii populations that were collected from 33 sampling sites in China from different climatic zones. SSR and mtDNA data suggested low to moderate levels of genetic diversity. A star-shaped network of mtDNA haplotypes indicated that the maternal ancestor of China cotton aphids likely originated in Xinjiang. The POPTREE, STRUCTURE and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed two genetic clusters: an eastern and a western region group. Isolation by distance (IBD) results showed a positive correlation between geographic distance and genetic distance in the vast eastern region but not in the western region. Neutrality testing and mismatch distribution analysis provided strong evidence for a recent rapid expansion in most populations. Genetic bottleneck was not detected in A. gossypii populations of China. The present work can help us to develop strategies for managing this pest.

  7. Molecular characterization and genetic structure of the local criollo pig breeds (Sus scrofa domestica from Ecuador, using microsatellite markers

    Julio César Vargas Burgos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The molecular markers have shown their great utility in the characterization of the domestic animals, hence, the objective of this work was to characterize, genetically, the Creole pig of Ecuador by means of microsatellites. Samples of hair of 15 animals were gathered. A panel of 25 microsatellites, the amplification of the same was carried out by means of the reaction in chain of the polymerase and the amplified fragments, separated by electrophoresis in gels of polyacrylamide. In addition, were calculated the half number of alleles by locus (MNA, the allelic frequencies, the expected (He and the observed (Ho heterozygosity , the content of polymorphic information (PIC, as well as the balance Hardy-Weinberg (EHW and the FIS for marker. The half number of alleles found by locus has been of 6.2 and the percentage of individual heterozygote behaved above of 60%. Of the entirety of the studied loci the 68% showed a high PIC. These results show that the Ecuadorian Creole pig possesses a high genetic diversity, essential information to optimize the national strategies of conservation and it improvement of this genotype in Ecuador.

  8. Cross-species amplification of 41 microsatellites in European cyprinids: A tool for evolutionary, population genetics and hybridization studies

    Gilles André

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyprinids display the most abundant and widespread species among the European freshwater Teleostei and are known to hybridize quite commonly. Nevertheless, a limited number of markers for conducting comparative differentiation, evolutionary and hybridization dynamics studies are available to date. Findings Five multiplex PCR sets were optimized in order to assay 41 cyprinid-specific polymorphic microsatellite loci (including 10 novel loci isolated from Chondrostoma nasus nasus, Chondrostoma toxostoma toxostoma and Leuciscus leuciscus for 503 individuals (440 purebred specimens and 63 hybrids from 15 European cyprinid species. The level of genetic diversity was assessed in Alburnus alburnus, Alburnoides bipunctatus, C. genei, C. n. nasus, C. soetta, C. t. toxostoma, L. idus, L. leuciscus, Pachychilon pictum, Rutilus rutilus, Squalius cephalus and Telestes souffia. The applicability of the markers was also tested on Abramis brama, Blicca bjoerkna and Scardinius erythrophtalmus specimens. Overall, between 24 and 37 of these markers revealed polymorphic for the investigated species and 23 markers amplified for all the 15 European cyprinid species. Conclusions The developed set of markers demonstrated its performance in discriminating European cyprinid species. Furthermore, it allowed detecting and characterizing hybrid individuals. These microsatellites will therefore be useful to perform comparative evolutionary and population genetics studies dealing with European cyprinids, what is of particular interest in conservation issues and constitutes a tool of choice to conduct hybridization studies.

  9. Genetic variability of Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Puma concolor and Panthera onca (Mammalia, Felidae studied using Felis catus microsatellites

    Vanessa Roma Moreno

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We used four microsatellite loci (Fca08, Fca45, Fca77 and Fca96 from the domestic cat, Felis catus, to investigate genetic variability in specimens of Herpailurus yagouaroundi (jaguarundi, otter cat, eyra, Puma concolor (cougar, mountain lion, puma and Panthera onca (jaguar held in various Brazilian zoos. Samples of DNA from the cats were PCR amplified and then sequenced before being analyzed using the CERVUS program. Our results show a mean polymorphic information content (PIC of 0.83 for H. yagouaroundi, 0.66 for P. concolor and 0.69 for P. onca and a mean of 10.3 alleles for the Fca08 locus, 5.3 for Fca 45, 9 for Fca 77 and 14 for Fca 96. These results indicate a relatively high level of genetic diversity for the specimens studied.

  10. Genetic diversity analysis in the section Caulorrhizae (genus Arachis using microsatellite markers

    Darío A. Palmieri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity in 26 microsatellite loci from section Caulorrhizae germplasm was evaluated by using 33 accessions of A. pintoi Krapov. & W.C. Gregory and ten accessions of Arachis repens Handro. Twenty loci proved to be polymorphic and a total of 196 alleles were detected with an average of 9.8 alleles per locus. The variability found in those loci was greater than the variability found using morphological characters, seed storage proteins and RAPD markers previously used in this germplasm. The high potential of these markers to detect species-specific alleles and discriminate among accessions was demonstrated. The set of microsatellite primer pairs developed by our group for A. pintoi are useful molecular tools for evaluating Section Caulorrhizae germplasm, as well as that of species belonging to other Arachis sections.

  11. Genetic diversity analysis in the section Caulorrhizae (genus Arachis) using microsatellite markers.

    Palmieri, Darío A; Bechara, Marcelo D; Curi, Rogério A; Monteiro, Jomar P; Valente, Sérgio E S; Gimenes, Marcos A; Lopes, Catalina R

    2010-01-01

    Diversity in 26 microsatellite loci from section Caulorrhizae germplasm was evaluated by using 33 accessions of A. pintoi Krapov. & W.C. Gregory and ten accessions of Arachis repens Handro. Twenty loci proved to be polymorphic and a total of 196 alleles were detected with an average of 9.8 alleles per locus. The variability found in those loci was greater than the variability found using morphological characters, seed storage proteins and RAPD markers previously used in this germplasm. The high potential of these markers to detect species-specific alleles and discriminate among accessions was demonstrated. The set of microsatellite primer pairs developed by our group for A. pintoi are useful molecular tools for evaluating Section Caulorrhizae germplasm, as well as that of species belonging to other Arachis sections.

  12. Microsatellites in wheat and their applications

    Stephenson, P.; Bryan, G.J.; Kirby, J.; Gale, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    The development of large panels of simply analyzable genetic markers for diversity studies and tagging, agronomically important genes in hexaploid bread wheat is an important goal in applied cereal genetic research. We have isolated and sequenced over two-hundred clones containing microsatellites from the wheat genome, and have tested 150 primer pairs for genetic polymorphism using a panel of ten wheat varieties, including the parents of our main mapping cross. A total of 125 loci were detected by 82 primer pairs, of which 105 loci from 63 primer pairs can be unequivocally allocated to one of the wheat chromosomes. A relatively low frequency of the loci detected are from the D-genome (24%). Generally, the microsatellites show high levels of genetic polymorphism and an average 3.5 alleles per locus with an average polymorphism information content (PIC) value of 0.5. The observed levels of polymorphism are positively correlated with the length of the microsatellite repeats. A high proportion, approximately one half, of primer pairs designed to detect simple sequence repeat (SSR) variation in wheat do not generate the expected amplification products and, more significantly, often generate unresolvable Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) products. In general our results agree closely with those obtained from other recent studies using microsatellites in plants. (author)

  13. Genetic mapping and identification of QTL for earliness in the globe artichoke/cultivated cardoon complex.

    Portis, Ezio; Scaglione, Davide; Acquadro, Alberto; Mauromicale, Giovanni; Mauro, Rosario; Knapp, Steven J; Lanteri, Sergio

    2012-05-23

    The Asteraceae species Cynara cardunculus (2n = 2x = 34) includes the two fully cross-compatible domesticated taxa globe artichoke (var. scolymus L.) and cultivated cardoon (var. altilis DC). As both are out-pollinators and suffer from marked inbreeding depression, linkage analysis has focussed on the use of a two way pseudo-test cross approach. A set of 172 microsatellite (SSR) loci derived from expressed sequence tag DNA sequence were integrated into the reference C. cardunculus genetic maps, based on segregation among the F1 progeny of a cross between a globe artichoke and a cultivated cardoon. The resulting maps each detected 17 major linkage groups, corresponding to the species' haploid chromosome number. A consensus map based on 66 co-dominant shared loci (64 SSRs and two SNPs) assembled 694 loci, with a mean inter-marker spacing of 2.5 cM. When the maps were used to elucidate the pattern of inheritance of head production earliness, a key commercial trait, seven regions were shown to harbour relevant quantitative trait loci (QTL). Together, these QTL accounted for up to 74% of the overall phenotypic variance. The newly developed consensus as well as the parental genetic maps can accelerate the process of tagging and eventually isolating the genes underlying earliness in both the domesticated C. cardunculus forms. The largest single effect mapped to the same linkage group in each parental maps, and explained about one half of the phenotypic variance, thus representing a good candidate for marker assisted selection.

  14. Application of plant DNA markers in forensic botany: genetic comparison of Quercus evidence leaves to crime scene trees using microsatellites.

    Craft, Kathleen J; Owens, Jeffrey D; Ashley, Mary V

    2007-01-05

    As highly polymorphic DNA markers become increasingly available for a wide range of plant and animal species, there will be increasing opportunities for applications to forensic investigations. To date, however, relatively few studies have reported using DNA profiles of non-human species to place suspects at or near crime scenes. Here we describe an investigation of a double homicide of a female and her near-term fetus. Leaf material taken from a suspect's vehicle was identified to be that of sand live oak, Quercus geminata, the same tree species that occurred near a shallow grave where the victims were found. Quercus-specific DNA microsatellites were used to genotype both dried and fresh material from trees located near the burial site and from the material taken from the suspect's car. Samples from the local population of Q. geminata were also collected and genotyped in order to demonstrate that genetic variation at four microsatellite loci was sufficient to assign leaves to an individual tree with high statistical certainty. The cumulative average probability of identity for these four loci was 2.06x10(-6). DNA was successfully obtained from the dried leaf material although PCR amplification was more difficult than amplification of DNA from fresh leaves. The DNA profiles of the dried leaves from the suspect's car did not match those of the trees near the crime scene. Although this investigation did not provide evidence that could be used against the suspect, it does demonstrate the potential for plant microsatellite markers providing physical evidence that links plant materials to live plants at or near crime scenes.

  15. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Critically Endangered Yangtze Finless Porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis as Revealed by Mitochondrial and Microsatellite DNA

    Minmin Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological surveys have indicated that the population of the critically endangered Yangtze finless porpoise (YFP, Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis is becoming increasingly small and fragmented, and will be at high risk of extinction in the near future. Genetic conservation of this population will be an important component of the long-term conservation effort. We used a 597 base pair mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region and 11 microsatellite loci to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of the YFP. The analysis of both mtDNA and microsatellite loci suggested that the genetic diversity of the YFP will possibly decrease in the future if the population keeps declining at a rapid rate, even though these two types of markers revealed different levels of genetic diversity. In addition, mtDNA revealed strong genetic differentiation between one local population, Xingchang–Shishou (XCSS, and the other five downstream local populations; furthermore, microsatellite DNA unveiled fine but significant genetic differentiation between three of the local populations (not only XCSS but also Poyang Lake (PY and Tongling (TL and the other local populations. With an increasing number of distribution gaps appearing in the Yangtze main steam, the genetic differentiation of local populations will likely intensify in the future. The YFP is becoming a genetically fragmented population. Therefore, we recommend attention should be paid to the genetic conservation of the YFP.

  16. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Critically Endangered Yangtze Finless Porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) as Revealed by Mitochondrial and Microsatellite DNA

    Chen, Minmin; Zheng, Jinsong; Wu, Min; Ruan, Rui; Zhao, Qingzhong; Wang, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Ecological surveys have indicated that the population of the critically endangered Yangtze finless porpoise (YFP, Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) is becoming increasingly small and fragmented, and will be at high risk of extinction in the near future. Genetic conservation of this population will be an important component of the long-term conservation effort. We used a 597 base pair mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region and 11 microsatellite loci to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of the YFP. The analysis of both mtDNA and microsatellite loci suggested that the genetic diversity of the YFP will possibly decrease in the future if the population keeps declining at a rapid rate, even though these two types of markers revealed different levels of genetic diversity. In addition, mtDNA revealed strong genetic differentiation between one local population, Xingchang–Shishou (XCSS), and the other five downstream local populations; furthermore, microsatellite DNA unveiled fine but significant genetic differentiation between three of the local populations (not only XCSS but also Poyang Lake (PY) and Tongling (TL)) and the other local populations. With an increasing number of distribution gaps appearing in the Yangtze main steam, the genetic differentiation of local populations will likely intensify in the future. The YFP is becoming a genetically fragmented population. Therefore, we recommend attention should be paid to the genetic conservation of the YFP. PMID:24968271

  17. Cross species amplification ability of novel microsatellites isolated from Jatropha curcas and genetic relationship with sister taxa : Cross species amplification and genetic relationship of Jatropha using novel microsatellites

    Pamidimarri, D. V N N Sudheer; Mastan, Shaik G.; Rahman, Hifzur; Ravi Prakash, Ch; Singh, Sweta V.; Reddy, Muppala P.

    2010-01-01

    -21 amplified in J. curcas. However, these markers did not show any cross species amplification. Overall percentage of polymorphism (PP) among the species studied was 38% and the mean genetic similarity (GS) was found to be 0.86. The highest PP (24

  18. Inferring Genetic Variation and Demographic History of Michelia yunnanensis Franch. (Magnoliaceae from Chloroplast DNA Sequences and Microsatellite Markers

    Shikang Shen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Michelia yunnanensis Franch., is a traditional ornamental, aromatic, and medicinal shrub that endemic to Yunnan Province in southwest China. Although the species has a large distribution pattern and is abundant in Yunnan Province, the populations are dramatically declining because of overexploitation and habitat destruction. Studies on the genetic variation and demography of endemic species are necessary to develop effective conservation and management strategies. To generate such knowledge, we used 3 pairs of universal cpDNA markers and 10 pairs of microsatellite markers to assess the genetic diversity, genetic structure, and demographic history of 7 M. yunnanensis populations. We calculated a total of 88 alleles for 10 polymorphic loci and 10 haplotypes for a combined 2,089 bp of cpDNA. M. yunnanensis populations showed high genetic diversity (Ho = 0.551 for nuclear markers and Hd = 0.471 for cpDNA markers and low genetic differentiation (FST = 0.058. Geographical structure was not found among M. yunnanensis populations. Genetic distance and geographic distance were not correlated (P > 0.05, which indicated that geographic isolation is not the primary cause of the low genetic differentiation of M. yunnanensis. Additionally, M. yunnanensis populations contracted ~20,000–30,000 years ago, and no recent expansion occurred in current populations. Results indicated that the high genetic diversity of the species and within its populations holds promise for effective genetic resource management and sustainable utilization. Thus, we suggest that the conservation and management of M. yunnanensis should address exotic overexploitation and habitat destruction.

  19. SNPs selected by information content outperform randomly selected microsatellite loci for delineating genetic identification and introgression in the endangered dark European honeybee (Apis mellifera mellifera).

    Muñoz, Irene; Henriques, Dora; Jara, Laura; Johnston, J Spencer; Chávez-Galarza, Julio; De La Rúa, Pilar; Pinto, M Alice

    2017-07-01

    The honeybee (Apis mellifera) has been threatened by multiple factors including pests and pathogens, pesticides and loss of locally adapted gene complexes due to replacement and introgression. In western Europe, the genetic integrity of the native A. m. mellifera (M-lineage) is endangered due to trading and intensive queen breeding with commercial subspecies of eastern European ancestry (C-lineage). Effective conservation actions require reliable molecular tools to identify pure-bred A. m. mellifera colonies. Microsatellites have been preferred for identification of A. m. mellifera stocks across conservation centres. However, owing to high throughput, easy transferability between laboratories and low genotyping error, SNPs promise to become popular. Here, we compared the resolving power of a widely utilized microsatellite set to detect structure and introgression with that of different sets that combine a variable number of SNPs selected for their information content and genomic proximity to the microsatellite loci. Contrary to every SNP data set, microsatellites did not discriminate between the two lineages in the PCA space. Mean introgression proportions were identical across the two marker types, although at the individual level, microsatellites' performance was relatively poor at the upper range of Q-values, a result reflected by their lower precision. Our results suggest that SNPs are more accurate and powerful than microsatellites for identification of A. m. mellifera colonies, especially when they are selected by information content. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Rice genome mapping and its application in rice genetics and breeding

    Eun, M.Y.; Cho, Y.G.; Hahn, J.H.; Yoon, U.H.; Yi, B.Y.; Chung, T.Y.

    1998-01-01

    An 'MG' recombinant inbred population which consists of 164 F 13 lines has been developed from a cross between a Tongil type variety Milyang 23 and a Japonica type Gihobyeo by single seed descent. A Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) framework map using this population has been constructed. Morphological markers, isozyme loci, microsatellites, Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP), and new complementary DNA (cDNA) markers are being integrated in the framework map for a highly saturated comprehensive map. So far, 207 RFLPs, 89 microsatellites, 5 isozymes, 232 AFLPs, and 2 morphological markers have been mapped through international collaboration. The map contains 1,826 cM with an average interval size of 4.5 cM on the framework map and 3.4 cM overall (as of 29 October 1996). The framework map is being used for analyzing, quantitative trait loci (QTL) of agronomic characters and some physico-chemical properties relating to rice quality. The number of significant QTLs affecting each trait ranged from one to five, and 38 QTLs were detected for 17 traits. The percentage of variance explained by each QTL ranged from 5.6 to 66.9%. The isozyme marker, EstI-2, and two RFLP markers, RG109 and RG220, were linked most tightly at a distance less than 1 cM with the semidwarf (sd-1) gene on chromosome 1. These markers could be used for precise in vitro selection of individuals carrying the semidwarf gene using single seeds or very young leaf tissue, before this character is fully expressed. Appropriate application of marker-assisted selection, using EstI-2 and RFLP markers for the semidwarf character, in combination with other markers linked to genes of agronomic importance in rice, holds promise for improving, the efficiency of breeding, and the high-resolution genetic and physical mapping near sd-1, aimed at ultimately cloning this valuable gene

  1. Genetic diversity of Liza aurata (Risso, 1810 in the coastal regions of Golstan province, using microsatellite marker

    Zohreh Ghodsi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Golden grey mullet (Liza aurata is a commercially valuable fish with great demand due to its delicious taste in southern coastal parts of the Caspian Sea. Genetic diversity of marine resources is of vital importance in their management and protection, as this is the first prerequisite for maintaining the consistency of populations in an inconsistent environmental conditions. In this study, we have used six microsatellite locations to investigate the level of genetic variation of Liza aurata in Gomishan and Miyankale regions in Golestan province. The results showed no conspicuous genetic variations in these two regions using Fst, Rst and AMOVA and accordingly a relatively high level of gene flow was found among the populations. Genetic variations in Gomishan (mean number of alleles per locus, Na=14.667, mean effective number of alleles, Ne=10.355, observed heterozygosity, Ho=0.905 and expected heterozygosity, He=0.894 and Miyankale (Na=15, Ne=10.223, Ho=0.863 and He=0.892 were not statistically different. There were evidences for genetic bottleneck in the populations. Protection and restoration of habitats can help to increase the population size and decrease risk of vulnerability of the species in the future.

  2. Genetic Evaluation of Natural Populations of the Endangered Conifer Thuja koraiensis Using Microsatellite Markers by Restriction-Associated DNA Sequencing

    Lu Hou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Thuja koraiensis Nakai is an endangered conifer of high economic and ecological value in Jilin Province, China. However, studies on its population structure and conservation genetics have been limited by the lack of genomic data. Here, 37,761 microsatellites (simple sequence repeat, SSR were detected based on 875,792 de novo-assembled contigs using a restriction-associated DNA (RAD approach. Among these SSRs, 300 were randomly selected to test for polymorphisms and 96 obtained loci were able to amplify a fragment of expected size. Twelve polymorphic SSR markers were developed to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of three natural populations. High genetic diversity (mean NA = 5.481, HE = 0.548 and moderate population differentiation (pairwise Fst = 0.048–0.078, Nm = 2.940–4.958 were found in this species. Molecular variance analysis suggested that most of the variation (83% existed within populations. Combining the results of STRUCTURE, principal coordinate, and neighbor-joining analysis, the 232 individuals were divided into three genetic clusters that generally correlated with their geographical distributions. Finally, appropriate conservation strategies were proposed to protect this species. This study provides genetic information for the natural resource conservation and utilization of T. koraiensis and will facilitate further studies of the evolution and phylogeography of the species.

  3. [Evaluation of Molecular Genetic Diversity of Wild Apple Malus sieversii Populations from Zailiysky Alatau by Microsatellite Markers].

    Omasheva, M E; Chekalin, S V; Galiakparov, N N

    2015-07-01

    The territory of Kazakhstan is part of the distribution range of Malus sieversii, which is one of the ancestors of cultivated apple tree varieties. The collected samples of Sievers apple leaves from five populations growing in the Zailiysky Alatau region served as a source not only for the creation of a bank of genomic DNA but also for determination ofthe wild apple genetic polymorphism. The seven microsatellite markers used in this study revealed 86 alleles with different frequencies, as well as the characteristic pools of rare alleles for each of the populations. Molecular genetic analysis showed a high level of genetic diversity (H(o) = 0.704; PIC = 0.752; I = 1.617). Moreover, interpopulation variability accounted only for 7.5% of total variability, confirming the genetic closeness of the populations examined. Based on phylogenetic analysis, it was demonstrated that the Bel'bulak and Almaty Reserve populations were closest to each other, while the most distant were the Ketmen and Great Almaty gorge populations, which suggests the dependence of genetic distance on the geographical.

  4. A high-resolution genetic linkage map and QTL fine mapping for growth-related traits and sex in the Yangtze River common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus).

    Feng, Xiu; Yu, Xiaomu; Fu, Beide; Wang, Xinhua; Liu, Haiyang; Pang, Meixia; Tong, Jingou

    2018-04-02

    A high-density genetic linkage map is essential for QTL fine mapping, comparative genome analysis, identification of candidate genes and marker-assisted selection for economic traits in aquaculture species. The Yangtze River common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) is one of the most important aquacultured strains in China. However, quite limited genetics and genomics resources have been developed for genetic improvement of economic traits in such strain. A high-resolution genetic linkage map was constructed by using 7820 2b-RAD (2b-restriction site-associated DNA) and 295 microsatellite markers in a F2 family of the Yangtze River common carp (C. c. haematopterus). The length of the map was 4586.56 cM with an average marker interval of 0.57 cM. Comparative genome mapping revealed that a high proportion (70%) of markers with disagreed chromosome location was observed between C. c. haematopterus and another common carp strain (subspecies) C. c. carpio. A clear 2:1 relationship was observed between C. c. haematopterus linkage groups (LGs) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) chromosomes. Based on the genetic map, 21 QTLs for growth-related traits were detected on 12 LGs, and contributed values of phenotypic variance explained (PVE) ranging from 16.3 to 38.6%, with LOD scores ranging from 4.02 to 11.13. A genome-wide significant QTL (LOD = 10.83) and three chromosome-wide significant QTLs (mean LOD = 4.84) for sex were mapped on LG50 and LG24, respectively. A 1.4 cM confidence interval of QTL for all growth-related traits showed conserved synteny with a 2.06 M segment on chromosome 14 of D. rerio. Five potential candidate genes were identified by blast search in this genomic region, including a well-studied multi-functional growth related gene, Apelin. We mapped a set of suggestive and significant QTLs for growth-related traits and sex based on a high-density genetic linkage map using SNP and microsatellite markers for Yangtze River common carp. Several

  5. De novo development and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in a schilbid catfish, Silonia silondia (Hamilton, 1822) and their validation for population genetic studies.

    Mandal, Sangeeta; Jena, J K; Singh, Rajeev K; Mohindra, Vindhya; Lakra, W S; Deshmukhe, Geetanjali; Pathak, Abhinav; Lal, Kuldeep K

    2016-02-01

    The stock characterization of wild populations of Silonia silondia is important for its scientific management. At present, the information on genetic parameters of S. silondia is very limited. The species-specific microsatellite markers were developed in current study. The validated markers were used to genotype individuals from four distant rivers. To develop de novo microsatellite loci, an enriched genomic library was constructed for S. silondia using affinity-capture approach. The markers were validated for utility in population genetics. A total number of 76 individuals from four natural riverine populations were used to generate data for population analysis. The screening of isolated repeat sequences yielded eleven novel polymorphic microsatellite loci. The microsatellite loci exhibited high level of polymorphism, with 6-24 alleles per locus and the PIC value ranged from 0.604 to 0.927. The observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosities ranged from 0.081 to 0.84 and 0.66 to 0.938, respectively. The AMOVA analysis indicated significant genetic differentiation among riverine populations (overall FST = 0.075; P < 0.0001) with maximum variation (92.5%) within populations. Cross-priming assessment revealed successful amplification (35-38 %) of heterologous loci in four related species viz. Clupisoma garua, C. taakree, Ailia coila and Eutropiichthys vacha. The results demonstrated that these de novo polymorphic microsatellite loci are promising for population genetic variation and diversity studies in S. silondia. Cross-priming results indicated that these primers can help to get polymorphic microsatellite loci in the related catfish species of family Schilbidae.

  6. Genetic diversity and population differentiation of small giant clam Tridacna maxima in Comoros islands assessed by microsatellite markers.

    Ahmed Mohamed, Nadjim; Yu, Qian; Chanfi, Mohamed Ibrahim; Li, Yangping; Wang, Shi; Huang, Xiaoting; Bao, Zhenmin

    2016-01-01

    Small giant clam, Tridacna maxima , widely distributed from French Polynesia to East Africa, has faced population declines due to over-exploitation. Comoros islands are an important biogeographic region due to potential richness of marine species, but no relevant information is available. In order to facilitate devising effective conservation management plan for T. maxima , nine microsatellite markers were used to survey genetic diversity and population differentiation of 72 specimens collected from three Comoros islands, Grande Comore, Moheli and Anjouan. A total of 51 alleles were detected ranged from 2 to 8 per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosity varied from 0.260 to 0.790 and from 0.542 to 0.830, respectively. All populations have high genetic diversity, especially the population in Moheli, a protected area, has higher genetic diversity than the others. Significant heterozygote deficiencies were recorded, and null alleles were probably the main factor leading to these deficits. F ST value indicated medium genetic differentiation among the populations. Although significant, AMOVA revealed 48.9 % of genetic variation within individuals and only a small variation of 8.9 % was found between populations. Gene flow was high ( Nm  = 12.40) between Grande Comore and Moheli, while lower ( Nm  = 1.80) between Grande Comore and Anjouan, explaining geographic barriers to genetic exchanges might exist in these two islands. Global gene flow analysis ( Nm  = 5.50) showed that larval dispersal is enough to move between the islands. The high genetic diversity and medium population differentiation revealed in the present study offer useful information on genetic conservation of small giant clams.

  7. Genetic diversity and differentiation in reef-building Millepora species, as revealed by cross-species amplification of fifteen novel microsatellite loci

    Caroline E. Dubé

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the genetic diversity in natural populations is crucial to address ecological and evolutionary questions. Despite recent advances in whole-genome sequencing, microsatellite markers have remained one of the most powerful tools for a myriad of population genetic approaches. Here, we used the 454 sequencing technique to develop microsatellite loci in the fire coral Millepora platyphylla, an important reef-builder of Indo-Pacific reefs. We tested the cross-species amplification of these loci in five other species of the genus Millepora and analysed its success in correlation with the genetic distances between species using mitochondrial 16S sequences. We succeeded in discovering fifteen microsatellite loci in our target species M. platyphylla, among which twelve were polymorphic with 2–13 alleles and a mean observed heterozygosity of 0.411. Cross-species amplification in the five other Millepora species revealed a high probability of amplification success (71% and polymorphism (59% of the loci. Our results show no evidence of decreased heterozygosity with increasing genetic distance. However, only one locus enabled measures of genetic diversity in the Caribbean species M. complanata due to high proportions of null alleles for most of the microsatellites. This result indicates that our novel markers may only be useful for the Indo-Pacific species of Millepora. Measures of genetic diversity revealed significant linkage disequilibrium, moderate levels of observed heterozygosity (0.323–0.496 and heterozygote deficiencies for the Indo-Pacific species. The accessibility to new polymorphic microsatellite markers for hydrozoan Millepora species creates new opportunities for future research on processes driving the complexity of their colonisation success on many Indo-Pacific reefs.

  8. Microsatellite development and survey of genetic variation in skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis

    Menezes, M.R.; Noguchi, D.; Nakajima, M.; Taniguchi, N.

    of polymorphism in two samples off the west coast of India (Minicoy Island and Kochi coast) and one sample off the Japan coast. Although significant differentiation (P < 0C101) in the number of specific alleles was observed between Minicoy and Kochi samples, the F...-statistics values among the samples were very low (average ¼ 0C10014) and not significant (P ¼ 0C1284). # 2008 The Authors Journal compilation # 2008 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles Key words: genomic library; heterozygosity; microsatellites; private...

  9. PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES: Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in common evening primrose (Oenothera biennis).

    Larson, E L; Bogdanowicz, S M; Agrawal, A A; Johnson, M T J; Harrison, R G

    2008-03-01

    We developed nine polymorphic microsatellite loci for evening primrose (Oenothera biennis). These loci have two to 18 alleles per locus and observed heterozygosities ranging from 0 to 0.879 in a sample of 34 individuals. In a pattern consistent with the functionally asexual reproductive system of this species, 17/36 pairs of loci revealed significant linkage disequilibrium and three loci showed significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The loci will be informative in identifying genotypes in multigenerational field studies to assess changes in genotype frequencies. © 2007 The Authors.

  10. Whole-tree silvic identifications and the microsatellite genetic structure of a red oak species complex in an Indiana old-growth forest

    Preston R. Aldrich; George R. Parker; Charles H. Michler; Jeanne Romero-Severson

    2003-01-01

    The red oaks (Quercus section Lobatae) include important timber species, but we know little about their gene pools. Red oak species can be difficult to identify, possibly because of extensive interspecific hybridization, although most evidence of this is morphological. We used 15 microsatellite loci to examine the genetic...

  11. A core set of microsatellite markers for conservation genetics studies of Korean goral (Naemorhedus caudatus) and its cross-species amplification in Caprinae species

    An, J.; Choi, S-K.; Sommer, J.; Louis jr., E.; Brenneman, R.; Zemanová, Barbora; Hájková, Petra; Park, G.; Min, M-S.; Kim, K-S.; Lee, H.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2010), s. 351-353 ISSN 1229-845X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930609 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : genetic diversity * Korean goral * microsatellites * Naemorhedus caudatus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.153, year: 2010

  12. Development of a multiplex PCR assay for fine-scale population genetic analysis of the Komodo monitor Varanus komodoensis based on 18 polymorphic microsatellite loci.

    Ciofi, Claudio; Tzika, Athanasia C; Natali, Chiara; Watts, Phillip C; Sulandari, Sri; Zein, Moch S A; Milinkovitch, Michel C

    2011-05-01

    Multiplex PCR assays for the coamplification of microsatellite loci allow rapid and cost-effective genetic analyses and the production of efficient screening protocols for international breeding programs. We constructed a partial genomic library enriched for di-nucleotide repeats and characterized 14 new microsatellite loci for the Komodo monitor (or Komodo dragon, Varanus komodoensis). Using these novel microsatellites and four previously described loci, we developed multiplex PCR assays that may be loaded on a genetic analyser in three separate panels. We tested the novel set of microsatellites for polymorphism using 69 individuals from three island populations and evaluated the resolving power of the entire panel of 18 loci by conducting (i) a preliminary assignment test to determine population(s) of origin and (ii) a parentage analysis for 43 captive Komodo monitors. This panel of polymorphic loci proved useful for both purposes and thus can be exploited for fine-scale population genetic analyses and as part of international captive breeding programs directed at maintaining genetically viable ex situ populations and reintroductions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Transferability of Rubus Microsatellite Markers for use in Black Raspberry

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are valuable as co-dominant genetic markers with a variety of applications such as DNA fingerprinting, linkage mapping, and population structure analysis. To date, SSR marker development in Rubus has focused on red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L., subgenu...

  14. Multilocus Microsatellite Typing reveals intra-focal genetic diversity among strains of Leishmania tropica in Chichaoua Province, Morocco.

    Krayter, Lena; Alam, Mohammad Zahangir; Rhajaoui, Mohamed; Schnur, Lionel F; Schönian, Gabriele

    2014-12-01

    In Morocco, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania (L.) tropica is a major public health threat. Strains of this species have been shown to display considerable serological, biochemical, molecular biological and genetic heterogeneity; and Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE), has shown that in many countries including Morocco heterogenic variants of L. tropica can co-exist in single geographical foci. Here, the microsatellite profiles discerned by MLMT of nine Moroccan strains of L. tropica isolated in 2000 from human cases of CL from Chichaoua Province were compared to those of nine Moroccan strains of L. tropica isolated between 1988 and 1990 from human cases of CL from Marrakech Province, and also to those of 147 strains of L. tropica isolated at different times from different worldwide geographical locations within the range of distribution of the species. Several programs, each employing a different algorithm, were used for population genetic analysis. The strains from each of the two Moroccan foci separated into two phylogenetic clusters independent of their geographical origin. Genetic diversity and heterogeneity existed in both foci, which are geographically close to each other. This intra-focal distribution of genetic variants of L. tropica is not considered owing to in situ mutation. Rather, it is proposed to be explained by the importation of pre-existing variants of L. tropica into Morocco. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of the genetic diversity between Gentile di Puglia, Sopravissana and Sarda sheep breeds using microsatellite markers

    Gennaro Catillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two Italian sheep breeds – Gentile di Puglia and Sopravissana – have undergone a consistent decline in numbers and have been widely substituted by the Sarda breed, which gives higher milk yield. With the aim to provide a basis for con- servation decisions, the genetic variability of the three breeds was investigated in this study. DNA of 60 animals was PCR amplified at the following microsatellite loci: CSSM43, CSSM47, CSSM60, TGLA110, TGLA122, TGLA126, TGLA377, ETH3, ETH10, ETH225, NRAMP1, OARCP20 and SPS115. Allele frequencies, gene diversity and genetic distances were calculat- ed. The highest differences in allele frequencies were found at the following loci: TGLA377, TGLA122, NRAMP1, OARCP20 and ETH3, while at the other loci the most frequent alleles were the same. The average inbreeding rate was 0.156 in the Gentile di Puglia, 0.158 in the Sopravissana and 0.137 in the Sarda. Average gene diversity of the analysed microsatel- lites was 0.59. Genetic distance between Gentile di Puglia and Sopravissana (0.081 indicates moderate differentiation; distances between the Sarda and the endangered breeds – 0.111 from the Gentile di Puglia and 0.107 from the Sopravissana - indicate a medium-high differentiation rate. The disappearance of the two less productive breeds would entail a consistent loss of genetic diversity. The inbreeding values are low enough to allow the implementation of sound conservation programmes.

  16. Genetic comparison of Caspian Sea Rutilus frisii kutum (Kamenskii, 1901 in Gorganroud and Cheshmekile (Tonekabon rivers using microsatellite markers

    Mohammad Rezaei

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The population structure of Rutilus frisii kutum in southern coasts of Caspian Sea was investigated using microsatellite loci. 50 Kutum fish samples were collected from Gorganroud (Golestan province and Cheshmekile (Mazandaran province rivers in April 2006. All the 10 loci investigated in this study (Ca1, Ca3, CypG3, CypG24, CypG27, CypG30, Lid1, Rru2, Rru4, Z21908 were polymorphic. The mean number of alleles at the population level was 7.95 which is lower than the reported values for anadromous fishes. Both populations showed signs of bottleneck. The mean value of observed heterozygosity was 0.80 for Gorganroud and 0.74 for Cheshmekile, respectively. Among the 20 tests of population-loci, 11 samples showed significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Results from Fst (0.008 and Rst (0.04 values showed low genetic differentiation among the populations, also, AMOVA analysis indicated only 4% genetic diversity between populations. The values of genetic distance was 0.03 among the regions. It seems that mismanagement of kutum’restocking programs has had negative effects on the genetic structure of this species.

  17. Immune Genetic Learning of Fuzzy Cognitive Map

    LIN Chun-mei; HE Yue; TANG Bing-yong

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid methodology of automatically constructing fuzzy cognitive map (FCM). The method uses immune genetic algorithm to learn the connection matrix of FCM. In the algorithm, the DNA coding method is used and an immune operator based on immune mechanism is constructed. The characteristics of the system and the experts' knowledge are abstracted as vaccine for restraining the degenerative phenomena during evolution so as to improve the algorithmic efficiency. Finally, an illustrative example is provided, and its results suggest that the method is capable of automatically generating FCM model.

  18. Global and local genetic diversity at two microsatellite loci in Plasmodium vivax parasites from Asia, Africa and South America

    Schousboe, Mette L; Ranjitkar, Samir; Rajakaruna, Rupika S

    2014-01-01

    diversity are vital to the evaluation of drug and vaccine efficacy, tracking of P. vivax outbreaks, and assessing geographical differentiation between parasite populations. METHODS: The genetic diversity of eight P. vivax populations (n = 543) was investigated by using two microsatellites (MS), m1501 and m......3502, chosen because of their seven and eight base-pair (bp) repeat lengths, respectively. These were compared with published data of the same loci from six other P. vivax populations. RESULTS: In total, 1,440 P. vivax samples from 14 countries on three continents were compared. There was highest...... heterozygosity within Asian populations, where expected heterozygosity (He) was 0.92-0.98, and alleles with a high repeat number were more common. Pairwise FST revealed significant differentiation between most P. vivax populations, with the highest divergence found between Asian and South American populations...

  19. Genetic restoration of a stocked brown trout Salmo trutta population using microsatellite DNA analysis of historical and contemporary samples

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Bekkevold, Dorte; Jensen, L.F.

    2006-01-01

    1. Gene flow from domesticated to wild populations is a major threat to wild salmonid fish. However, few studies have addressed how populations could be restored after admixture has occurred. We analysed the prospects for restoring the previously intensively stocked brown trout population...... of the Skjern River, Denmark, by identifying remaining non-admixed individuals to be used for supportive breeding. 2. We analysed microsatellite DNA markers in historical (1940-50s) and contemporary (1992-2004) samples from the Skjern River system, from the strain of domesticated trout previously used...... for stocking, and from the neighbouring Stora River. We analysed admixture proportions to estimate the genetic contribution by domesticated trout. We identified non-admixed trout using assignment tests, and further analysed the possible sources of indigenous trout by estimating contemporary migration among...

  20. Genetic evidence for polygynandry in the black-striped pipefish Syngnathus abaster: a microsatellite-based parentage analysis.

    Hübner, Kerstin; Gonzalez-Wanguemert, Mercedes; Diekmann, Onno E; Serrão, Ester A

    2013-01-01

    Sexual selection theory predicts that, in organisms with reversed sex roles, more polyandrous species exhibit higher levels of sexual dimorphism. In the family Syngnathidae (pipefish, seahorses, and seadragons), males provide all parental care by carrying developing embryos on their ventral surfaces, and females develop secondary sex characters. Syngnathids exhibit a variety of genetic mating patterns, making them an ideal group to test predictions of sexual selection theory. Here, we describe the mating system of the black-striped pipefish Syngnathus abaster, using 4 highly variable microsatellites to analyze parentage of 102 embryos. Results revealed that 1) both sexes mate multiple times over the course of a pregnancy (polygynandrous mating system), 2) eggs are spatially segregated by maternity within each brood pouch, and 3) larger females have higher mating success (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test; P sexual dimorphism.

  1. Genetic structure of earthworm populations at a regional scale: inferences from mitochondrial and microsatellite molecular markers in Aporrectodea icterica (Savigny 1826.

    Magally Torres-Leguizamon

    Full Text Available Despite the fundamental role that soil invertebrates (e.g. earthworms play in soil ecosystems, the magnitude of their spatial genetic variation is still largely unknown and only a few studies have investigated the population genetic structure of these organisms. Here, we investigated the genetic structure of seven populations of a common endogeic earthworm (Aporrectodea icterica sampled in northern France to explore how historical species range changes, microevolutionary processes and human activities interact in shaping genetic variation at a regional scale. Because combining markers with distinct modes of inheritance can provide extra, complementary information on gene flow, we compared the patterns of genetic structure revealed using nuclear (7 microsatellite loci and mitochondrial markers (COI. Both types of markers indicated low genetic polymorphism compared to other earthworm species, a result that can be attributed to ancient bottlenecks, for instance due to species isolation in southern refugia during the ice ages with subsequent expansion toward northern Europe. Historical events can also be responsible for the existence of two divergent, but randomly interbreeding mitochondrial lineages within all study populations. In addition, the comparison of observed heterozygosity among microsatellite loci and heterozygosity expected under mutation-drift equilibrium suggested a recent decrease in effective size in some populations that could be due to contemporary events such as habitat fragmentation. The absence of relationship between geographic and genetic distances estimated from microsatellite allele frequency data also suggested that dispersal is haphazard and that human activities favour passive dispersal among geographically distant populations.

  2. A second-generation anchored genetic linkage map of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii

    Patel Hardip R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, a small kangaroo used for decades for studies of reproduction and metabolism, is the model Australian marsupial for genome sequencing and genetic investigations. The production of a more comprehensive cytogenetically-anchored genetic linkage map will significantly contribute to the deciphering of the tammar wallaby genome. It has great value as a resource to identify novel genes and for comparative studies, and is vital for the ongoing genome sequence assembly and gene ordering in this species. Results A second-generation anchored tammar wallaby genetic linkage map has been constructed based on a total of 148 loci. The linkage map contains the original 64 loci included in the first-generation map, plus an additional 84 microsatellite loci that were chosen specifically to increase coverage and assist with the anchoring and orientation of linkage groups to chromosomes. These additional loci were derived from (a sequenced BAC clones that had been previously mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, (b End sequence from BACs subsequently FISH-mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes, and (c tammar wallaby genes orthologous to opossum genes predicted to fill gaps in the tammar wallaby linkage map as well as three X-linked markers from a published study. Based on these 148 loci, eight linkage groups were formed. These linkage groups were assigned (via FISH-mapped markers to all seven autosomes and the X chromosome. The sex-pooled map size is 1402.4 cM, which is estimated to provide 82.6% total coverage of the genome, with an average interval distance of 10.9 cM between adjacent markers. The overall ratio of female/male map length is 0.84, which is comparable to the ratio of 0.78 obtained for the first-generation map. Conclusions Construction of this second-generation genetic linkage map is a significant step towards complete coverage of the tammar wallaby

  3. A second-generation anchored genetic linkage map of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii).

    Wang, Chenwei; Webley, Lee; Wei, Ke-jun; Wakefield, Matthew J; Patel, Hardip R; Deakin, Janine E; Alsop, Amber; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A; Cooper, Desmond W; Nicholas, Frank W; Zenger, Kyall R

    2011-08-19

    The tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, a small kangaroo used for decades for studies of reproduction and metabolism, is the model Australian marsupial for genome sequencing and genetic investigations. The production of a more comprehensive cytogenetically-anchored genetic linkage map will significantly contribute to the deciphering of the tammar wallaby genome. It has great value as a resource to identify novel genes and for comparative studies, and is vital for the ongoing genome sequence assembly and gene ordering in this species. A second-generation anchored tammar wallaby genetic linkage map has been constructed based on a total of 148 loci. The linkage map contains the original 64 loci included in the first-generation map, plus an additional 84 microsatellite loci that were chosen specifically to increase coverage and assist with the anchoring and orientation of linkage groups to chromosomes. These additional loci were derived from (a) sequenced BAC clones that had been previously mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), (b) End sequence from BACs subsequently FISH-mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes, and (c) tammar wallaby genes orthologous to opossum genes predicted to fill gaps in the tammar wallaby linkage map as well as three X-linked markers from a published study. Based on these 148 loci, eight linkage groups were formed. These linkage groups were assigned (via FISH-mapped markers) to all seven autosomes and the X chromosome. The sex-pooled map size is 1402.4 cM, which is estimated to provide 82.6% total coverage of the genome, with an average interval distance of 10.9 cM between adjacent markers. The overall ratio of female/male map length is 0.84, which is comparable to the ratio of 0.78 obtained for the first-generation map. Construction of this second-generation genetic linkage map is a significant step towards complete coverage of the tammar wallaby genome and considerably extends that of the first

  4. Mapping genetic factors controlling potato - cyst nematode interactions

    Rouppe van der Voort, J.N.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The thesis describes strategies for genetic mapping of the genomes of the potato cyst nematode and potato. Mapping in cyst nematodes was achieved by AFLP genotyping of single cysts and subsequent segregation analysis in a family of sibling populations. The genetic map of Globodera

  5. Construction of the first genetic linkage map of Japanese gentian (Gentianaceae

    Nakatsuka Takashi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese gentians (Gentiana triflora and Gentiana scabra are amongst the most popular floricultural plants in Japan. However, genomic resources for Japanese gentians have not yet been developed, mainly because of the heterozygous genome structure conserved by outcrossing, the long juvenile period, and limited knowledge about the inheritance of important traits. In this study, we developed a genetic linkage map to improve breeding programs of Japanese gentians. Results Enriched simple sequence repeat (SSR libraries from a G. triflora double haploid line yielded almost 20,000 clones using 454 pyrosequencing technology, 6.7% of which could be used to design SSR markers. To increase the number of molecular markers, we identified three putative long terminal repeat (LTR sequences using the recently developed inter-primer binding site (iPBS method. We also developed retrotransposon microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP markers combining retrotransposon and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers. In addition to SSR and REMAP markers, modified amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP and random amplification polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were developed. Using 93 BC1 progeny from G. scabra backcrossed with a G. triflora double haploid line, 19 linkage groups were constructed with a total of 263 markers (97 SSR, 97 AFLP, 39 RAPD, and 30 REMAP markers. One phenotypic trait (stem color and 10 functional markers related to genes controlling flower color, flowering time and cold tolerance were assigned to the linkage map, confirming its utility. Conclusions This is the first reported genetic linkage map for Japanese gentians and for any species belonging to the family Gentianaceae. As demonstrated by mapping of functional markers and the stem color trait, our results will help to explain the genetic basis of agronomic important traits, and will be useful for marker-assisted selection in gentian breeding programs. Our map

  6. Molecular Characterization and Genetic Diversity of the Macaw Palm Ex Situ Germplasm Collection Revealed by Microsatellite Markers

    Fekadu G. Mengistu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Macaw palm (Acrocomia aculeata is native to tropical forests in South America and highly abundant in Brazil. It is cited as a highly productive oleaginous palm tree presenting high potential for biodiesel production. The aim of this work was to characterize and study the genetic diversity of A. aculeata ex situ collections from different geographical states in Brazil using microsatellite (Simple Sequence Repeats, SSR markers. A total of 192 accessions from 10 provenances were analyzed with 10 SSR, and variations were detected in allelic diversity, polymorphism, and heterozygosity in the collections. Three major groups of accessions were formed using PCoA—principal coordinate analysis, UPGMA—unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean, and Tocher. The Mantel test revealed a weak correlation (r = 0.07 between genetic and geographic distances among the provenances reaffirming the result of the grouping. Reduced average heterozygosity (Ho < 50% per locus (or provenance confirmed the predominance of endogamy (or inbreeding in the germplasm collections as evidenced by positive inbreeding coefficient (F > 0 per locus (or per provenance. AMOVA—Analysis of Molecular Variance revealed higher (48.2% genetic variation within population than among populations (36.5%. SSR are useful molecular markers in characterizing A. aculeata germplasm and could facilitate the process of identifying, grouping, and selecting genotypes. Present results could be used to formulate appropriate conservation strategies in the genebank.

  7. Genetic diversity within and among four South European native horse breeds based on microsatellite DNA analysis: implications for conservation.

    Solis, A; Jugo, B M; Mériaux, J C; Iriondo, M; Mazón, L I; Aguirre, A I; Vicario, A; Estomba, A

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, genetic analyses of diversity and differentiation were performed on four Basque-Navarrese semiferal native horse breeds. In total, 417 animals were genotyped for 12 microsatellite markers. Mean heterozygosity was higher than in other horse breeds, surely as a consequence of management. Although the population size of some of these breeds has declined appreciably in the past century, no genetic bottleneck was detected in any of the breeds, possibly because it was not narrow enough to be detectable. In the phylogenetic tree, the Jaca Navarra breed was very similar to the Pottoka, but appeared to stand in an intermediate position between this and the meat breeds. Assuming that Pottoka is the breed less affected by admixture, the others gradually distanced themselves from it through varying influences from outside breeds, among other factors. In a comparative study with other breeds, the French breeds Ardanais, Comtois, and Breton were the closest to the four native breeds. Three different approaches for evaluating the distribution of genetic diversity were applied. The high intrabreed variability of Euskal Herriko Mendiko Zaldia (EHMZ) was pointed out in these analyses. In our opinion, cultural, economic, and scientific factors should also be considered in the management of these horse breeds.

  8. Genetic connectivity of the broadcast spawning reef coral Platygyra sinensis on impacted reefs, and the description of new microsatellite markers

    Tay, Y. C.; Noreen, A. M. E.; Suharsono; Chou, L. M.; Todd, P. A.

    2015-03-01

    As tropical coral reef habitats continue to be lost or degraded, understanding the genetic diversity and connectivity among populations is essential for making informed management decisions. This is particularly important in rapidly developing, land-scarce nations (such as Singapore) that require targeted conservation efforts. Sixty percentage of Singapore's coral cover has been lost over the past five decades, and with further coastal reclamation underway, it is imperative to understand the effects of development on coral connectivity. In this study, we used seven microsatellite markers, of which six are newly described here, to investigate the genetic diversity and connectivity of the massive hard coral Platygyra sinensis at nine sites in Singapore and three in the nearby Indonesian island of Bintan. Our results show that P. sinensis currently retains large effective population sizes, high genetic diversity, as well as high connectivity among sites within each locality, which suggest that these populations have good potential for continued survival provided that there are no island-wide disturbances. However, the Singapore Strait appears to be a mild barrier to gene flow, which may lead to an increased reliance on self-seeding at either location. We suggest some directions for their management based on these potential population boundaries, which can help pave the path for marine conservation planning in Singapore.

  9. A genetically diverse but distinct North American population of Sarcocystis neurona includes an overrepresented clone described by 12 microsatellite alleles.

    Asmundsson, Ingrid M; Dubey, J P; Rosenthal, Benjamin M

    2006-09-01

    The population genetics and systematics of most coccidians remain poorly defined despite their impact on human and veterinary health. Non-recombinant parasite clones characterized by distinct transmission and pathogenesis traits persist in the coccidian Toxoplasma gondii despite opportunities for sexual recombination. In order to determine whether this may be generally true for tissue-cyst forming coccidia, and to address evolutionary and taxonomic problems within the genus Sarcocystis, we characterized polymorphic microsatellite markers in Sarcocystis neurona, the major causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Bayesian statistical modeling, phylogenetic reconstruction based on genotypic chord distances, and analyses of linkage disequilibrium were employed to examine the population structure within S. neurona and closely related Sarcocystis falcatula isolates from North and South America. North American S. neurona were clearly differentiated from those of South America and also from isolates of S. falcatula. Although S. neurona is characterized by substantial allelic and genotypic diversity typical of interbreeding populations, one genotype occurs with significantly excessive frequency; thus, some degree of asexual propagation of S. neurona clones may naturally occur. Finally, S. neurona isolated from disparate North American localities and diverse hosts (opossums, a Southern sea otter, and horses) comprise a single genetic population. Isolates associated with clinical neurological disease bear no obvious distinction as measured by these presumably neutral genetic markers.

  10. A method for genotyping elite breeding stocks of leaf chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) by assaying mapped microsatellite marker loci.

    Ghedina, Andrea; Galla, Giulio; Cadalen, Thierry; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Caenazzo, Silvano Tiozzo; Barcaccia, Gianni

    2015-12-30

    Leaf chicory (Cichorium intybus subsp. intybus var. foliosum L.) is a diploid plant species (2n = 18) of the Asteraceae family. The term "chicory" specifies at least two types of cultivated plants: a leafy vegetable, which is highly differentiated with respect to several cultural types, and a root crop, whose current industrial utilization primarily addresses the extraction of inulin or the production of a coffee substitute. The populations grown are generally represented by local varieties (i.e., landraces) with high variation and adaptation to the natural and anthropological environment where they originated, and have been yearly selected and multiplied by farmers. Currently, molecular genetics and biotechnology are widely utilized in marker-assisted breeding programs in this species. In particular, molecular markers are becoming essential tools for developing parental lines with traits of interest and for assessing the specific combining ability of these lines to breed F1 hybrids. The present research deals with the implementation of an efficient method for genotyping elite breeding stocks developed from old landraces of leaf chicory, Radicchio of Chioggia, which are locally dominant in the Veneto region, using 27 microsatellite (SSR) marker loci scattered throughout the linkage groups. Information on the genetic diversity across molecular markers and plant accessions was successfully assessed along with descriptive statistics over all marker loci and inbred lines. Our overall data support an efficient method for assessing a multi-locus genotype of plant individuals and lineages that is useful for the selection of new varieties and the certification of local products derived from Radicchio of Chioggia. This method proved to be useful for assessing the observed degree of homozygosity of the inbred lines as a measure of their genetic stability; plus it allowed an estimate of the specific combining ability (SCA) between maternal and paternal inbred lines on the

  11. Novel microsatellite loci for studies of Thamnophis Gartersnake genetic identity and hybridization

    Sloss, Brian L.; Schuurman, Gregor W.; Paloski, Rori A.; Boyle, Owen D.; Kapfer, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    Butler’s Gartersnakes (BGS; Thamnophis butleri) are confined to open and semi-open canopy wetlands and adjacent uplands, habitats under threat of development in Wisconsin. To address issues of species identity and putative hybridization with congeneric snakes, a suite of 18 microsatellite loci capable of cross-species amplification of Plains Gartersnakes (T. radix) and Common Gartersnakes (T. sirtalis) was developed. All loci were polymorphic in BGS with mean number of alleles per locus of 16.11 (range = 3–41) and mean observed heterozygosity of 0.659 (range = 0.311–0.978). Loci amplified efficiently in the congeneric species with high levels of intra- and inter-specific variation. These loci will aid ongoing efforts to effectively identify and manage BGS in Wisconsin.

  12. A third-generation microsatellite-based linkage map of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, and its comparison with the sequence-based physical map.

    Solignac, Michel; Mougel, Florence; Vautrin, Dominique; Monnerot, Monique; Cornuet, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    The honey bee is a key model for social behavior and this feature led to the selection of the species for genome sequencing. A genetic map is a necessary companion to the sequence. In addition, because there was originally no physical map for the honey bee genome project, a meiotic map was the only resource for organizing the sequence assembly on the chromosomes. We present the genetic (meiotic) map here and describe the main features that emerged from comparison with the sequence-based physical map. The genetic map of the honey bee is saturated and the chromosomes are oriented from the centromeric to the telomeric regions. The map is based on 2,008 markers and is about 40 Morgans (M) long, resulting in a marker density of one every 2.05 centiMorgans (cM). For the 186 megabases (Mb) of the genome mapped and assembled, this corresponds to a very high average recombination rate of 22.04 cM/Mb. Honey bee meiosis shows a relatively homogeneous recombination rate along and across chromosomes, as well as within and between individuals. Interference is higher than inferred from the Kosambi function of distance. In addition, numerous recombination hotspots are dispersed over the genome. The very large genetic length of the honey bee genome, its small physical size and an almost complete genome sequence with a relatively low number of genes suggest a very promising future for association mapping in the honey bee, particularly as the existence of haploid males allows easy bulk segregant analysis.

  13. Genetic diversity analysis in Malaysian giant prawns using expressed sequence tag microsatellite markers for stock improvement program.

    Atin, K H; Christianus, A; Fatin, N; Lutas, A C; Shabanimofrad, M; Subha, B

    2017-08-17

    The Malaysian giant prawn is among the most commonly cultured species of the genus Macrobrachium. Stocks of giant prawns from four rivers in Peninsular Malaysia have been used for aquaculture over the past 25 years, which has led to repeated harvesting, restocking, and transplantation between rivers. Consequently, a stock improvement program is now important to avoid the depletion of wild stocks and the loss of genetic diversity. However, the success of such an improvement program depends on our knowledge of the genetic variation of these base populations. The aim of the current study was to estimate genetic variation and differentiation of these riverine sources using novel expressed sequence tag-microsatellite (EST-SSR) markers, which not only are informative on genetic diversity but also provide information on immune and metabolic traits. Our findings indicated that the tested stocks have inbreeding depression due to a significant deficiency in heterozygotes, and F IS was estimated as 0.15538 to 0.31938. An F-statistics analysis suggested that the stocks are composed of one large panmictic population. Among the four locations, stocks from Johor, in the southern region of the peninsular, showed higher allelic and genetic diversity than the other stocks. To overcome inbreeding problems, the Johor population could be used as a base population in a stock improvement program by crossing to the other populations. The study demonstrated that EST-SSR markers can be incorporated in future marker assisted breeding to aid the proper management of the stocks by breeders and stakeholders in Malaysia.

  14. Population genetic structure of the major malaria vector Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae from the Brazilian Amazon, using microsatellite markers

    Vera Margarete Scarpassa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The population genetic structure of Anopheles darlingi, the major human malaria vector in the Neotropics, was examined using seven microsatellite loci from nine localities in central and western Amazonian Brazil. High levels of genetic variability were detected (5-25 alleles per locus; H E = 0.519-0.949. There was deviation from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium for 59.79% of the tests due to heterozygote deficits, while the analysis of linkage disequilibrium was significant for only two of 189 (1.05% tests, most likely caused by null alleles. Genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.001-0.095; Nm = 4.7-363.8 indicates that gene flow is extensive among locations < 152 km apart (with two exceptions and reduced, but not absent, at a larger geographic scale. Genetic and geographic distances were significantly correlated (R² = 0.893, P < 0.0002, supporting the isolation by distance (IBD model. The overall estimate of Ne was 202.4 individuals under the linkage disequilibrium model, and 8 under the heterozygote excess model. Analysis of molecular variance showed that nearly all variation (~ 94% was within sample locations. The UPGMA phenogram clustered the samples geographically, with one branch including 5/6 of the state of Amazonas localities and the other branch the Acre, Rondônia, and remaining Amazonas localities. Taken together, these data suggest little genetic structure for An. darlingi from central and western Amazonian Brazil. These findings also imply that the IBD model explains nearly all of the differentiation detected. In practical terms, populations of An. darlingi at distances < 152 km should respond similarly to vector control measures, because of high gene flow.

  15. Microsatellite DNA fingerprinting, differentiation, and genetic relationships of clones, cultivars, and varieties of six poplar species from three sections of the genus Populus.

    Rahman, Muhammad H; Rajora, Om P

    2002-12-01

    Accurate identification of Populus clones and cultivars is essential for effective selection, breeding, and genetic resource management programs. The unit of cultivation and breeding in poplars is a clone, and individual cultivars are normally represented by a single clone. Microsatellite DNA markers of 10 simple sequence repeat loci were used for genetic fingerprinting and differentiation of 96 clones/cultivars and varieties belonging to six Populus species (P. deltoides, P. nigra, P. balsamifera, P. trichocarpa, P. grandidentata, and P maximowiczii) from three sections of the genus. All 96 clones/cultivars could be uniquely fingerprinted based on their single- or multilocus microsatellite genotypes. The five P. grandidentata clones could be differentiated based on their single-locus genotypes, while six clones of P. trichocarpa and 11 clones of P. maximowiczii could be identified by their two-locus genotypes. Twenty clones of P. deltoides and 25 clones of P. nigra could be differentiated by their multilocus genotypes employing three loci, and 29 clones of P. balsamifera required the use of multilocus genotypes at five loci for their genetic fingerprinting and differentiation. The loci PTR3, PTR5, and PTR7 were found to be the most informative for genetic fingerprinting and differentiation of the clones. The mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 2.9 in P. trichocarpa or P. grandidentata to 6.0 in P. balsamifera and 11.2 in 96 clones of the six species. The mean number of observed genotypes per locus ranged from 2.4 in P. grandidentata to 7.4 in P. balsamifera and 19.6 in 96 clones of the six species. The mean number of unique genotypes per locus ranged from 1.3 in P. grandidentata to 3.9 in P. deltoides and 8.8 in 96 clones of the six species. The power of discrimination of the microsatellite DNA markers in the 96 clones ranged from 0.726 for PTR4 to 0.939 for PTR7, with a mean of 0.832 over the 10 simple sequence repeat loci. Clones/cultivars from the same

  16. Advancing the STMS genomic resources for defining new locations on the intraspecific genetic linkage map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Shokeen Bhumika

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is an economically important cool season grain legume crop that is valued for its nutritive seeds having high protein content. However, several biotic and abiotic stresses and the low genetic variability in the chickpea genome have continuously hindered the chickpea molecular breeding programs. STMS (Sequence Tagged Microsatellite Sites markers which are preferred for the construction of saturated linkage maps in several crop species, have also emerged as the most efficient and reliable source for detecting allelic diversity in chickpea. However, the number of STMS markers reported in chickpea is still limited and moreover exhibit low rates of both inter and intraspecific polymorphism, thereby limiting the positions of the SSR markers especially on the intraspecific linkage maps of chickpea. Hence, this study was undertaken with the aim of developing additional STMS markers and utilizing them for advancing the genetic linkage map of chickpea which would have applications in QTL identification, MAS and for de novo assembly of high throughput whole genome sequence data. Results A microsatellite enriched library of chickpea (enriched for (GT/CAn and (GA/CTn repeats was constructed from which 387 putative microsatellite containing clones were identified. From these, 254 STMS primers were designed of which 181 were developed as functional markers. An intraspecific mapping population of chickpea, [ICCV-2 (single podded × JG-62 (double podded] and comprising of 126 RILs, was genotyped for mapping. Of the 522 chickpea STMS markers (including the double-podding trait, screened for parental polymorphism, 226 (43.3% were polymorphic in the parents and were used to genotype the RILs. At a LOD score of 3.5, eight linkage groups defining the position of 138 markers were obtained that spanned 630.9 cM with an average marker density of 4.57 cM. Further, based on the common loci present between the current map

  17. Advancing the STMS genomic resources for defining new locations on the intraspecific genetic linkage map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Gaur, Rashmi; Sethy, Niroj K; Choudhary, Shalu; Shokeen, Bhumika; Gupta, Varsha; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2011-02-17

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an economically important cool season grain legume crop that is valued for its nutritive seeds having high protein content. However, several biotic and abiotic stresses and the low genetic variability in the chickpea genome have continuously hindered the chickpea molecular breeding programs. STMS (Sequence Tagged Microsatellite Sites) markers which are preferred for the construction of saturated linkage maps in several crop species, have also emerged as the most efficient and reliable source for detecting allelic diversity in chickpea. However, the number of STMS markers reported in chickpea is still limited and moreover exhibit low rates of both inter and intraspecific polymorphism, thereby limiting the positions of the SSR markers especially on the intraspecific linkage maps of chickpea. Hence, this study was undertaken with the aim of developing additional STMS markers and utilizing them for advancing the genetic linkage map of chickpea which would have applications in QTL identification, MAS and for de novo assembly of high throughput whole genome sequence data. A microsatellite enriched library of chickpea (enriched for (GT/CA)n and (GA/CT)n repeats) was constructed from which 387 putative microsatellite containing clones were identified. From these, 254 STMS primers were designed of which 181 were developed as functional markers. An intraspecific mapping population of chickpea, [ICCV-2 (single podded) × JG-62 (double podded)] and comprising of 126 RILs, was genotyped for mapping. Of the 522 chickpea STMS markers (including the double-podding trait, screened for parental polymorphism, 226 (43.3%) were polymorphic in the parents and were used to genotype the RILs. At a LOD score of 3.5, eight linkage groups defining the position of 138 markers were obtained that spanned 630.9 cM with an average marker density of 4.57 cM. Further, based on the common loci present between the current map and the previously published chickpea

  18. Genetic characterization of Kenai brown bears (Ursus arctos): Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA control region variation in brown bears of the Kenai Peninsula, south central Alaska

    Jackson, J.V.; Talbot, S.L.; Farley, S.

    2008-01-01

    We collected data from 20 biparentally inherited microsatellite loci, and nucleotide sequence from the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, to determine levels of genetic variation of the brown bears (Ursus arctos L., 1758) of the Kenai Peninsula, south central Alaska. Nuclear genetic variation was similar to that observed in other Alaskan peninsular populations. We detected no significant inbreeding and found no evidence of population substructuring on the Kenai Peninsula. We observed a genetic signature of a bottleneck under the infinite alleles model (IAM), but not under the stepwise mutation model (SMM) or the two-phase model (TPM) of microsatellite mutation. Kenai brown bears have lower levels of mtDNA haplotypic diversity relative to most other brown bear populations in Alaska. ?? 2008 NRC.

  19. Population Genetics of Overwintering Monarch Butterflies, Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus), from Central Mexico Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA and Microsatellite Markers

    Pfeiler, Edward; Nazario-Yepiz, Nestor O.; Pérez-Gálvez, Fernan; Chávez-Mora, Cristina Alejandra; Laclette, Mariana Ramírez Loustalot; Rendón-Salinas, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Population genetic variation and demographic history in Danaus plexippus (L.), from Mexico were assessed based on analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI; 658 bp) and subunit II (COII; 503 bp) gene segments and 7 microsatellite loci. The sample of 133 individuals included both migratory monarchs, mainly from 4 overwintering sites within the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve (MBBR) in central Mexico (states of Michoacán and México), and a nonmigratory population from Irapuato, Guanajuato. Haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities were relatively low, averaging 0.466 and 0.00073, respectively, for COI, and 0.629 and 0.00245 for COII. Analysis of molecular variance of the COI data set, which included additional GenBank sequences from a nonmigratory Costa Rican population, showed significant population structure between Mexican migratory monarchs and nonmigratory monarchs from both Mexico and Costa Rica, suggesting limited gene flow between the 2 behaviorally distinct groups. Interestingly, while the COI haplotype frequencies of the nonmigratory populations differed from the migratory, they were similar to each other, despite the great physical distance between them. Microsatellite analyses, however, suggested a lack of structure between the 2 groups, possibly owing to the number of significant deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium resulting from heterzoygote deficiencies found for most of the loci. Estimates of demographic history of the combined migratory MBBR monarch population, based on the mismatch distribution and Bayesian skyline analyses of the concatenated COI and COII data set (n = 89) suggested a population expansion dating to the late Pleistocene (~35000–40000 years before present) followed by a stable effective female population size (Nef) of about 6 million over the last 10000 years. PMID:28003372

  20. Mining microsatellites in the peach genome: development of new long-core SSR markers for genetic analyses in five Prunus species.

    Dettori, Maria Teresa; Micali, Sabrina; Giovinazzi, Jessica; Scalabrin, Simone; Verde, Ignazio; Cipriani, Guido

    2015-01-01

    A wide inventory of molecular markers is nowadays available for individual fingerprinting. Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), play a relevant role due to their relatively ease of use, their abundance in the plant genomes, and their co-dominant nature, together with the availability of primer sequences in many important agricultural crops. Microsatellites with long-core motifs are more easily scored and were adopted long ago in human genetics but they were developed only in few crops, and Prunus species are not among them. In the present work the peach whole-genome sequence was used to select 216 SSRs containing long-core motifs with tri-, tetra- and penta-nucleotide repeats. Microsatellite primer pairs were designed and tested for polymorphism in the five diploid Prunus species of economic relevance (almond, apricot, Japanese plum, peach and sweet cherry). A set of 26 microsatellite markers covering all the eight chromosomes, was also selected and used in the molecular characterization, population genetics and structure analyses of a representative sample of the five diploid Prunus species, assessing their transportability and effectiveness. The combined probability of identity between two random individuals for the whole set of 26 SSRs was quite low, ranging from 2.30 × 10(-7) in peach to 9.48 × 10(-10) in almond, confirming the usefulness of the proposed set for fingerprinting analyses in Prunus species.

  1. Assessment of genetic diversity among Indian potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) collection using microsatellite and retrotransposon based marker systems.

    Sharma, Vishakha; Nandineni, Madhusudan R

    2014-04-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important non-cereal crop throughout the world and is highly recommended for ensuring global food security. Owing to the complexities in genetics and inheritance pattern of potato, the conventional method of cross breeding for developing improved varieties has been difficult. Identification and tagging of desirable traits with informative molecular markers would aid in the development of improved varieties. Insertional polymorphism of copia-like and gypsy-like long terminal repeat retrotransposons (RTN) were investigated among 47 potato varieties from India using Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) and Retrotransposon Microsatellite Amplified Polymorphism (REMAP) marker techniques and were compared with the DNA profiles obtained with simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The genetic polymorphism, efficiency of polymorphism and effectiveness of marker systems were evaluated to assess the extent of genetic diversity among Indian potato varieties. A total of 139 polymorphic SSR alleles, 270 IRAP and 98 REMAP polymorphic bands, showing polymorphism of 100%, 87.9% and 68.5%, respectively, were used for detailed characterization of the genetic relationships among potato varieties by using cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). IRAP analysis resulted in the highest number of polymorphic bands with an average of 15 polymorphic bands per assay unit when compared to the other two marker systems. Based on pair-wise comparison, the genetic similarity was calculated using Dice similarity coefficient. The SSRs showed a wide range in genetic similarity values (0.485-0.971) as compared to IRAP (0.69-0.911) and REMAP (0.713-0.947). A Mantel's matrix correspondence test showed a high positive correlation (r=0.6) between IRAP and REMAP, an intermediate value (r=0.58) for IRAP and SSR and the lowest value (r=0.17) for SSR and REMAP. Statistically significant cophenetic correlation coefficient values, of 0.961, 0.941 and 0

  2. Microsatellite characterization of Cimarron Uruguayo dogs

    Gagliardi,Rosa; Silvia,Llambí; García,Cristina; Arruga,María Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Various genetic markers, including microsatellites, have been used to analyze the genetic polymorphism and heterozygosity in canine breeds. In this work, we used nine microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic variability in Cimarron Uruguayo dogs, the only officially recognized native canine breed in Uruguay. DNA from 30 Cimarron Uruguayo dogs from northeastern and southern Uruguay was analyzed. The allelic frequencies for each micro-satellite, the genetic variability and the consangu...

  3. Genetic diversity and parentage in farmer selections of cacao from Southern Sulawesi, Indonesia revealed by microsatellite markers

    Dinarti, Diny; Susilo, Agung W.; Meinhardt, Lyndel W.; Ji, Kun; Motilal, Lambert A.; Mischke, Sue; Zhang, Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia is the third largest cocoa-producing country in the world. Knowledge of genetic diversity and parentage of farmer selections is important for effective selection and rational deployment of superior cacao clones in farmers’ fields. We assessed genetic diversity and parentage of 53 farmer selections of cacao in Sulawesi, Indonesia, using 152 international clones as references. Cluster analysis, based on 15 microsatellite markers, showed that these Sulawesi farmer selections are mainly comprised of hybrids derived from Trinitario and two Upper Amazon Forastero groups. Bayesian assignment and likelihood-based parentage analysis further demonstrated that only a small number of germplasm groups, dominantly Trinitario and Parinari, contributed to these farmer selections, in spite of diverse parental clones having been used in the breeding program and seed gardens in Indonesia since the 1950s. The narrow parentage predicts a less durable host resistance to cacao diseases. Limited access of the farmers to diverse planting materials or the strong preference for large pods and large bean size by local farmers, may have affected the selection outcome. Diverse sources of resistance, harbored in different cacao germplasm groups, need to be effectively incorporated to broaden the on-farm diversity and ensure sustainable cacao production in Sulawesi. PMID:26719747

  4. Diversity and genetic structure of white mullet populations in the Gulf of Mexico analyzed by microsatellite markers

    Pacheco-Almanzar, Eloisa; Ramírez-Saad, Hugo; Velázquez-Aragón, José A.; Serrato, Alejandra; Ibáñez, Ana L.

    2017-11-01

    The white mullet (Mugil curema) is a species of wide geographical distribution on both coasts of America, inhabiting coastal lagoons, estuaries and rivers. Adults form schools and migrate into the open sea to spawn, where both eggs and hatchlings are subject to transport by surface currents. In northern Gulf of Mexico, under the influence of temperate waters M. curema has a single spawning in spring and summer, while in southern Gulf of Mexico, with warmer environments, spawnings are in summer and winter. These asynchronous spawning may point to the existence of different populations, while the planktonic mobility of eggs and larvae open the possibility that the putative populations mix together. Aiming to address whether there are different genetic groups of M. curema, ten coastal sampling sites along the Gulf of Mexico plus one site in the NE Atlantic coast were selected. A total of 363 individuals comprising all sampling sites were analyzed by means of microsatellites. 10 loci were tested and the number of alleles per locus varied between 7 and 19. All loci showed significant genetic differentiation (FST = 0.287), while Evanno test resulted in a K = 3 value, suggesting that three is the most probable number of M. curema groups in the studied area. This grouping is possibly associated with spawning time, contrasting oceanographic conditions in the north, center, and south of the Gulf of Mexico, as well as ecological and geomorphologic differences between lagoon environments; giving as consequence variations in the history of life of M. curema populations.

  5. Genetic diversity and parentage in farmer selections of cacao from Southern Sulawesi, Indonesia revealed by microsatellite markers.

    Dinarti, Diny; Susilo, Agung W; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Ji, Kun; Motilal, Lambert A; Mischke, Sue; Zhang, Dapeng

    2015-12-01

    Indonesia is the third largest cocoa-producing country in the world. Knowledge of genetic diversity and parentage of farmer selections is important for effective selection and rational deployment of superior cacao clones in farmers' fields. We assessed genetic diversity and parentage of 53 farmer selections of cacao in Sulawesi, Indonesia, using 152 international clones as references. Cluster analysis, based on 15 microsatellite markers, showed that these Sulawesi farmer selections are mainly comprised of hybrids derived from Trinitario and two Upper Amazon Forastero groups. Bayesian assignment and likelihood-based parentage analysis further demonstrated that only a small number of germplasm groups, dominantly Trinitario and Parinari, contributed to these farmer selections, in spite of diverse parental clones having been used in the breeding program and seed gardens in Indonesia since the 1950s. The narrow parentage predicts a less durable host resistance to cacao diseases. Limited access of the farmers to diverse planting materials or the strong preference for large pods and large bean size by local farmers, may have affected the selection outcome. Diverse sources of resistance, harbored in different cacao germplasm groups, need to be effectively incorporated to broaden the on-farm diversity and ensure sustainable cacao production in Sulawesi.

  6. Genetic Analysis and Molecular Mapping of a Novel Chlorophyll-Deficit Mutant Gene in Rice

    Xiao-qun HUANG

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A rice etiolation mutant 824ys featured with chlorophyll deficiency was identified from a normal green rice variety 824B. It showed whole green-yellow plant from the seedling stage, reduced number of tillers and longer growth duration. The contents of chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and net photosynthetic rate in leaves of the mutant obviously decreased, as well as the number of spikelets per panicle, seed setting rate and 1000-grain weight compared with its wild-type parent. Genetic analyses on F1 and F2 generations of 824ys crossed with three normal green varieties showed that the chlorophyll-deficit mutant character was controlled by a pair of recessive nuclear gene. Genetic mapping of the mutant gene was conducted by using microsatellite markers and F2 mapping population of 495R/824ys, and the mutant gene of 824ys was mapped on the short arm of rice chromosome 3. The genetic distances from the target gene to the markers RM218, RM282 and RM6959 were 25.6 cM, 5.2 cM and 21.8 cM, respectively. It was considered to be a new chlorophyll-deficit mutant gene and tentatively named as chl11(t.

  7. Genetic diversity of five goat breeds in China based on microsatellite ...

    The mean heterozygosity (H) of the populations ranged from 0.7936 to 0.8202. The mean number of effective allele (Ne) of the populations ranged from 5.3373 to 5.8812 and the coefficient of genetic differentiation between breeds was 0.0620. It was suggested that the five goat populations have abundant genetic diversity ...

  8. Population genetic structure in a Robertsonian race of house mice: evidence from microsatellite polymorphism

    Dallas, J.F.; Bonhomme, F.; Boursot, P.; Britton-Davidian, J.; Bauchau, V.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic evidence was assessed for inbreeding and population subdivision in a Robertsonian fusion (Rb) race of the western European form of house mouse, Mus musculus domesticus, in central Belgium. Inbreeding, and the factors responsible for subdivision (genetic drift and extinction-recolonization)

  9. Population genetic structure in wild and aquaculture populations of Hemibarbus maculates inferred from microsatellites markers

    Linlin Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate 4 aquaculture populations Shanghai (SH, Hangzhou (HZ, Kaihua (KH and Xianju (XJ and one wild population Yingshan (YS of spotted barbell (Hemibarbus maculates to assess their genetic diversity level and investigate the genetic structure of the populations. The dendrogram and STRUCTURE revealed that the populations XJ, KH, and HZ jointly formed one cluster, to which the populations SH and YS were sequentially adhered. The genetic diversity of the cultured populations maintained better, possible due to favourable hatchery conditions that decreased the effect of environmental selection present in wild populations. The results of the present study will contribute to the management of spotted barbell genetic resources, but also demonstrates how the genetic diversity of freshwater species is vulnerable to human activity.

  10. Short communication: development and characterization of novel transcriptome-derived microsatellites for genetic analysis of persimmon.

    Luo, C; Zhang, Q L; Luo, Z R

    2014-04-16

    Oriental persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) (2n = 6x = 90) is a major commercial and deciduous fruit tree that is believed to have originated in China. However, rare transcriptomic and genomic information on persimmon is available. Using Roche 454 sequencing technology, the transcriptome from RNA of the flowers of D. kaki was analyzed. A total of 1,250,893 reads were generated and 83,898 unigenes were assembled. A total of 42,711 SSR loci were identified from 23,494 unigenes and 289 polymerase chain reaction primer pairs were designed. Of these 289 primers, 155 (53.6%) showed robust PCR amplification and 98 revealed polymorphism between 15 persimmon genotypes, indicating a polymorphic rate of 63.23% of the productive primers for characterization and genotyping of the genus Diospyros. Transcriptome sequence data generated from next-generation sequencing technology to identify microsatellite loci appears to be rapid and cost-efficient, particularly for species with no genomic sequence information available.

  11. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci for aseasonal reproduction in sheep.

    Mateescu, R G; Thonney, M L

    2010-10-01

    The productivity and economic prosperity of sheep farming could benefit greatly from more effective methods of selection for year-round lambing. Identification of QTL for aseasonal reproduction in sheep could lead to more accurate selection and faster genetic improvement. One hundred and twenty microsatellite markers were genotyped on 159 backcross ewes from a Dorset × East Friesian crossbred pedigree. Interval mapping was undertaken to map the QTL underlying several traits describing aseasonal reproduction including the number of oestrous cycles, maximum level of progesterone prior to breeding, pregnancy status determined by progesterone level, pregnancy status determined by ultrasound, lambing status and number of lambs born. Seven chromosomes (1, 3, 12, 17, 19, 20 and 24) were identified to harbour putative QTL for one or more component traits used to describe aseasonal reproduction. Ovine chromosomes 12, 17, 19 and 24 harbour QTL significant at the 5% chromosome-wide level, chromosomes 3 and 20 harbour QTL that exceeded the threshold at the 1% chromosome-wide level, while the QTL identified on chromosome 1 exceeded the 1% experiment-wide significance level. These results are a first step towards understanding the genetic mechanism of this complex trait and show that variation in aseasonal reproduction is associated with multiple chromosomal regions. © 2010 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2010 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  12. Genetic Diversity and Structure of Natural Quercus variabilis Population in China as Revealed by Microsatellites Markers

    Xiaomeng Shi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Quercus variabilis is a tree species of ecological and economic value that is widely distributed in China. To effectively evaluate, use, and conserve resources, we applied 25 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR primers to study its genetic diversity and genetic structure in 19 natural forest or natural secondary forest populations of Q. variabilis (a total of 879 samples. A total of 277 alleles were detected. Overall, the average expected heterozygosity (He was 0.707 and average allelic richness (AR was 7.79. Q. variabilis manifested a loss of heterozygosity, and the mean of inbreeding coefficient (FIS was 0.044. Less differentiation among populations was observed, and the genetic differentiation coefficient (FST was 0.063. Bayesian clustering analysis indicated that the 19 studied populations could be divided into three groups based on their genetic makeup, namely, the Southwest group, Central group, and Northeastern group. The Central group, compared to the populations of the Southwest and Northeast group, showed higher genetic diversities and lower genetic differentiations. As a widely distributed species, the historical migration of Q. variabilis contributed to its genetic differentiation.

  13. A comparative map viewer integrating genetic maps for Brassica and Arabidopsis

    Erwin Timothy A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular genetic maps provide a means to link heritable traits with underlying genome sequence variation. Several genetic maps have been constructed for Brassica species, yet to date, there has been no simple means to compare this information or to associate mapped traits with the genome sequence of the related model plant, Arabidopsis. Description We have developed a comparative genetic map database for the viewing, comparison and analysis of Brassica and Arabidopsis genetic, physical and trait map information. This web-based tool allows users to view and compare genetic and physical maps, search for traits and markers, and compare genetic linkage groups within and between the amphidiploid and diploid Brassica genomes. The inclusion of Arabidopsis data enables comparison between Brassica maps that share no common markers. Analysis of conserved syntenic blocks between Arabidopsis and collated Brassica genetic maps validates the application of this system. This tool is freely available over the internet on http://bioinformatics.pbcbasc.latrobe.edu.au/cmap. Conclusion This database enables users to interrogate the relationship between Brassica genetic maps and the sequenced genome of A. thaliana, permitting the comparison of genetic linkage groups and mapped traits and the rapid identification of candidate genes.

  14. Microsatellite organization in the grasshopper Abracris flavolineata (Orthoptera: Acrididae revealed by FISH mapping: remarkable spreading in the A and B chromosomes.

    Diogo Milani

    Full Text Available With the aim of acquiring deeper knowledge about repetitive DNAs chromosomal organization in grasshoppers, we used fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH to map the distribution of 16 microsatellite repeats, including mono-, di-, tri- and tetra-nucleotides, in the chromosomes of the species Abracris flavolineata (Acrididae, which harbors B chromosome. FISH revealed two main patterns: (i exclusively scattered signals, and (ii scattered and specific signals, forming evident blocks. The enrichment was observed in both euchromatic and heterochromatic areas and only the motif (C30 was absent in heterochromatin. The A and B chromosomes were enriched with all the elements that were mapped, being observed in the B chromosome more distinctive blocks for (GA15 and (GAG10. For A complement distinctive blocks were noticed for (A30, (CA15, (CG15, (GA15, (CAC10, (CAA10, (CGG10, (GAA10, (GAC10 and (GATA8. These results revealed an intense spreading of microsatellites in the A. flavolineata genome that was independent of the A+T or G+C enrichment in the repeats. The data indicate that the microsatellites compose the B chromosome and could be involved in the evolution of this element in this species, although no specific relationship with any A chromosome was observed to discuss about its origin. The systematic analysis presented here contributes to the knowledge of repetitive DNA chromosomal organization among grasshoppers including the B chromosomes.

  15. Analysis of genetic relationships of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) landraces from Zimbabwe, using microsatellites

    Chakauya, E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available and indigenous farmer given names. Analysis was done by PAGE stained with ethidium bromide. Simple matching coefficients were compared and the genetic relationships between genotypes were clarified on dendrograms by unweighted pair-group averages (UPGMA). Two...

  16. Molecular Genetic Diversity of Date (Phoenix dactylifera) Germplasm in Qatar based on Microsatellite Markers

    Ahmed, Talaat

    2016-01-01

    Depending on morphological traits alone, studying the genetic diversity of date palm is a very difficult task since morphological characteristics are highly affected by the environment. DNA markers are excellent option that can help and enhance

  17. Formal genetic maps | Salem | Egyptian Journal of Medical Human ...

    Formal genetic maps are databases, represented as text or graphic figures, that can be collected/organized/formulated and constructed for nearly any, and every, structural or functional region of the genetic material. Though these maps are basically descriptive, their analysis can provide relevant crucial data that can be ...

  18. Genetic variability and bottleneck analyses of Kanni adu goat population using microsatellite markers [Indian Veterinary Journal, 2015, 92(3): 24-27

    Thiruvenkadan, R.; Jeyakumar, M.; Saravana, R.; Periasamy, K.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The genetic characterization and bottleneck analysis in Kodi Adu goat was done using 25 FAO recommended microsatellite markers. The mean observed number of alleles and polymorphism information content (PIC) were estimated to be 11.52±-0.95 and 0.817±0.023 respectively. The mean observed and expected equilibrium hyterozygosities were 0.660±0.045 and 0.846±0.018 respectively. The mean expected equilibrium gene diversity across 21 microsatellite loci under TAM, SMM and TPM were 0.793±0.028, 0.854±0.023 and 0.827±0.026 respectively. All the three statistical tests revealed significant deviation of Kodi Adu goats from mutation-drift equilibrium under the IAM and TPM model. The mode shift analysis supported the results under SMM indicating the absence of genetic bottleneck in the recent past in Kodi Adu goats. (author)

  19. Genetic diversity of the Chinese goat in the littoral zone of the Yangtze River as assessed by microsatellite and mtDNA.

    E, Guang-Xin; Zhao, Yong-Ju; Chen, Li-Peng; Ma, Yue-Hui; Chu, Ming-Xing; Li, Xiang-Long; Hong, Qiong-Hua; Li, Lan-Hui; Guo, Ji-Jun; Zhu, Lan; Han, Yan-Guo; Gao, Hui-Jiang; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Jiang, Huai-Zhi; Jiang, Cao-De; Wang, Gao-Fu; Ren, Hang-Xing; Jin, Mei-Lan; Sun, Yuan-Zhi; Zhou, Peng; Huang, Yong-Fu

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of goats in the Yangtze River region using microsatellite and mtDNA to better understand the current status of those goat genetic diversity and the effects of natural landscape in fashion of domestic animal genetic diversity. The genetic variability of 16 goat populations in the littoral zone of the Yangtze River was estimated using 21 autosomal microsatellites, which revealed high diversity and genetic population clustering with a dispersed geographical distribution. A phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial D-loop region (482 bp) was conducted in 494 goats from the Yangtze River region. In total, 117 SNPs were reconstructed, and 173 haplotypes were identified, 94.5% of which belonged to lineages A and B. Lineages C, D, and G had lower frequencies (5.2%), and lineage F haplotypes were undetected. Several high-frequency haplotypes were shared by different ecogeographically distributed populations, and the close phylogenetic relationships among certain low-frequency haplotypes indicated the historical exchange of genetic material among these populations. In particular, the lineage G haplotype suggests that some west Asian goat genetic material may have been transferred to China via Muslim migration.

  20. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers for Genetic Mapping in Drosophila melanogaster

    Hoskins, Roger A.; Phan, Alexander C.; Naeemuddin, Mohammed; Mapa, Felipa A.; Ruddy, David A.; Ryan, Jessica J.; Young, Lynn M.; Wells, Trent; Kopczynski, Casey; Ellis, Michael C.

    2001-01-01

    For nearly a century, genetic analysis in Drosophila melanogaster has been a powerful tool for analyzing gene function, yet Drosophila lacks the molecular genetic mapping tools that recently have revolutionized human, mouse, and plant genetics. Here, we describe the systematic characterization of a dense set of molecular markers in Drosophila by using a sequence tagged site-based physical map of the genome. We identify 474 biallelic markers in standard laboratory strains of Drosophila that sp...

  1. Preliminary genetic linkage map of Miscanthus sinensis with RAPD markers

    Atienza, S.G.; Satovic, Z.; Petersen, K.K.; Dolstra, O.; Martin, A.

    2002-01-01

    We have used an "offspring cross" mapping strategy in combination with the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay to construct the first genetic map of the species Miscanthus sinensis (2n = 2x = 38). This map is based on an outbred population of 89 individuals resulting from the cross between

  2. Isolation of novel microsatellites using FIASCO by dual probe enrichment from Jatropha curcas L. and study on genetic equilibrium and diversity of Indian population revealed by isolated microsatellites

    Pamidimarri, D. V N N Sudheer; Rahman, Hifzur; Mastan, Shaik G.; Reddy, Muppala P.

    2010-01-01

    in the present study can be employed efficiently in breeding programs for genetic improvement of the species through marker assisted selection and QTL analysis, for further genetic resource management and help in making the J. curcas as potential crop

  3. Genetic mapping of canine fear and aggression.

    Zapata, Isain; Serpell, James A; Alvarez, Carlos E

    2016-08-08

    Fear/anxiety and anger/aggression greatly influence health, quality of life and social interactions. They are a huge burden to wellbeing, and personal and public economics. However, while much is known about the physiology and neuroanatomy of such emotions, little is known about their genetics - most importantly, why some individuals are more susceptible to pathology under stress. We conducted genomewide association (GWA) mapping of breed stereotypes for many fear and aggression traits across several hundred dogs from diverse breeds. We confirmed those findings using GWA in a second cohort of partially overlapping breeds. Lastly, we used the validated loci to create a model that effectively predicted fear and aggression stereotypes in a third group of dog breeds that were not involved in the mapping studies. We found that i) known IGF1 and HMGA2 loci variants for small body size are associated with separation anxiety, touch-sensitivity, owner directed aggression and dog rivalry; and ii) two loci, between GNAT3 and CD36 on chr18, and near IGSF1 on chrX, are associated with several traits, including touch-sensitivity, non-social fear, and fear and aggression that are directed toward unfamiliar dogs and humans. All four genome loci are among the most highly evolutionarily-selected in dogs, and each of those was previously shown to be associated with morphological traits. We propose that the IGF1 and HMGA2 loci are candidates for identical variation being associated with both behavior and morphology. In contrast, we show that the GNAT3-CD36 locus has distinct variants for behavior and morphology. The chrX region is a special case due to its extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD). Our evidence strongly suggests that sociability (which we propose is associated with HS6ST2) and fear/aggression are two distinct GWA loci within this LD block on chrX, but there is almost perfect LD between the peaks for fear/aggression and animal size. We have mapped many canine fear and

  4. Microsatellite-aided detection of genetic redundancy improves management of the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), the tree from which cocoa butter and chocolate is derived, is conserved in field genebanks. The largest of these ex situ collections in the public domain is the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T). Reduction of genetic redundancy is essential to improve the acc...

  5. Genetic characterization of guava (psidium guajava l.) Germplasm in the United States using microsatellite markers

    Genetic diversity of thirty five Psidium guajava accessions maintained at the USDA, National Plants Germplasm System, Hilo, HI, was characterized using 20 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Diversity analysis detected a total of 178 alleles ranging from four to 16. The observed mean heterozygosit...

  6. A microsatellite baseline for genetic stock identification of European Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    Gilbey, John; Coughlan, Jamie; Wennevik, Vidar

    2018-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) populations from different river origins mix in the North Atlantic during the marine life stage. To facilitate marine stock identification, we developed a genetic baseline covering the European component of the species' range excluding the Baltic Sea, from the Rus...

  7. Microsatellite variability in the entomopathogenic fungus Paeciolomyces fumosoroseus: genetic diversity and population structure

    The hyphomycete Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Pfr) is a geographically widespread fungus capable of infecting various insect hosts. The fungus has been used for the biological control of several important insect pests of agriculture. However knowledge of the fungus’ genetic diversity and population str...

  8. Molecular genetic diversity of Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) as revealed by microsatellite DNA markers

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the oldest known edible fruits and more and more it arouse interest of scientific community given its numerous biological activities. However, information about its genetic resources and characterization using reliable molecular markers are still scarce. In...

  9. Genetic differentiation of watermelon landrace types in Mali revealed by microsatellite (SSR) markers

    Nantoume, Aminata Dolo; Andersen, Sven Bode; Jensen, Brita Dahl

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the genetic differentiation of a collection of 134 watermelon landrace accessions from Mali, representing red fleshed dessert and white fleshed seed and cooking type watermelons from five regions, plus three commercial dessert type cultivars with red flesh. The material...... the accessions into use groups (dessert, cooking, seed processing) explained 25 % of the variation. When categorising the accessions further into 10 landrace types, differentiated on the basis of use groups, local accession name, flesh colour and seed phenotype, these landrace types explained 26......-groups. One group included again the red fleshed dessert types with local and commercial origin, while the remaining seven genetic sub-groups comprised the white fleshed landrace types used for seed processing and cooking, as well as white fleshed types of one dessert type. Some of the seed and cooking types...

  10. Application of microsatellite markers for breeding and genetic conservation of herds of Pantaneiro sheep

    Bruno do Amaral Crispim

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: The results of the statistical parameters indicated that populations of Pantaneiro sheep require special attention on herd management, and it's further necessary to implement breeder exchange programs in order to preserve the genetic variability of these populations. Furthermore, the maintenance of those populations in their typical habitats is rather required to allow different responses from the herds to the interactions between genotype and environment.

  11. [MapDraw: a microsoft excel macro for drawing genetic linkage maps based on given genetic linkage data].

    Liu, Ren-Hu; Meng, Jin-Ling

    2003-05-01

    MAPMAKER is one of the most widely used computer software package for constructing genetic linkage maps.However, the PC version, MAPMAKER 3.0 for PC, could not draw the genetic linkage maps that its Macintosh version, MAPMAKER 3.0 for Macintosh,was able to do. Especially in recent years, Macintosh computer is much less popular than PC. Most of the geneticists use PC to analyze their genetic linkage data. So a new computer software to draw the same genetic linkage maps on PC as the MAPMAKER for Macintosh to do on Macintosh has been crying for. Microsoft Excel,one component of Microsoft Office package, is one of the most popular software in laboratory data processing. Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) is one of the most powerful functions of Microsoft Excel. Using this program language, we can take creative control of Excel, including genetic linkage map construction, automatic data processing and more. In this paper, a Microsoft Excel macro called MapDraw is constructed to draw genetic linkage maps on PC computer based on given genetic linkage data. Use this software,you can freely construct beautiful genetic linkage map in Excel and freely edit and copy it to Word or other application. This software is just an Excel format file. You can freely copy it from ftp://211.69.140.177 or ftp://brassica.hzau.edu.cn and the source code can be found in Excel's Visual Basic Editor.

  12. Mapping of QTLs for frost tolerance and heading time using SSR ...

    Selection for complex genetic traits, such as frost tolerance, can be simplified in plant breeding programs when linked markers were detected. The use of microsatellite markers for tagging and mapping important genes or QTLs is a goal in wheat genetic projects. In this study, 200 microsatellite markers were studied and ...

  13. Assessing genetic diversity among six populations of Gossypium arboreum L. using microsatellites markers.

    Sethi, Khushboo; Siwach, Priyanka; Verma, Surender Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Among the four cultivated cotton species, G. hirsutum (allotetraploid) presently holds a primary place in cultivation. Efforts to further improve this primary cotton face the constraints of its narrow genetic base due to repeated selective breeding and hence demands enrichment of diversity in the gene pool. G. arboreum (diploid species) is an invaluable genetic resource with great potential in this direction. Based on the dispersal and domestication in different directions from Indus valley, different races of G. arboreum have evolved, each having certain traits like drought and disease resistance, which the tetraploid cotton lack. Due to lack of systematic, race wise characterization of G. arboreum germplasm, it  has not been explored fully. During the present study, 100 polymorphic SSR loci were  used to genotype 95 accessions belonging to 6 races of G. arboreum producing 246 polymorphic alleles; mean number of effective alleles was 1.505. AMOVA showed 14 % of molecular variance among population groups, 34 % among individuals and remaining 52 % within individuals. UPGMA dendrogram, based on Nei's genetic distance, distributed the six populations in two major clusters of 3 populations each; race 'bengalense' was found more close to 'cernuum' than the others. The clustering of 95 genotypes by UPGMA tree generation as well as PCoA analysis clustered 'bengalense' genotypes into one group along with some genotypes of 'cernuum', while rest of the genotypes made separate clusters. Outcomes of this research should be helpful in identifying the genotypes for their further utilization in hybridization program to obtain high level of germplasm diversity.

  14. The first genetic map of a synthesized allohexaploid Brassica with A, B and C genomes based on simple sequence repeat markers.

    Yang, S; Chen, S; Geng, X X; Yan, G; Li, Z Y; Meng, J L; Cowling, W A; Zhou, W J

    2016-04-01

    We present the first genetic map of an allohexaploid Brassica species, based on segregating microsatellite markers in a doubled haploid mapping population generated from a hybrid between two hexaploid parents. This study reports the first genetic map of trigenomic Brassica. A doubled haploid mapping population consisting of 189 lines was obtained via microspore culture from a hybrid H16-1 derived from a cross between two allohexaploid Brassica lines (7H170-1 and Y54-2). Simple sequence repeat primer pairs specific to the A genome (107), B genome (44) and C genome (109) were used to construct a genetic linkage map of the population. Twenty-seven linkage groups were resolved from 274 polymorphic loci on the A genome (109), B genome (49) and C genome (116) covering a total genetic distance of 3178.8 cM with an average distance between markers of 11.60 cM. This is the first genetic framework map for the artificially synthesized Brassica allohexaploids. The linkage groups represent the expected complement of chromosomes in the A, B and C genomes from the original diploid and tetraploid parents. This framework linkage map will be valuable for QTL analysis and future genetic improvement of a new allohexaploid Brassica species, and in improving our understanding of the genetic control of meiosis in new polyploids.

  15. Compilation of an informative microsatellite set for genetic characterisation of East African finger millet (Eleusine coracana

    Santie M. De Villiers

    2015-03-01

    Discussion: Five individual samples from an accession captured the largest number of alleles per locus compared to the four different bulked sampling strategies but this difference was not significant. The identified set comprised 20 markers: UGEP24, UGEP53, UGEP84, UGEP27, UGEP98, UGEP95, UGEP64, UGEP33, UGEP67, UGEP106, UGEP110, UGEP57, UGEP96, UGEP66, UGEP46, UGEP79, UGEP20, UGEP12, UGEP73 and UGEP5 and was since used to assess East African finger millet genetic diversity in two separate studies.

  16. Assessment of genetic diversity and population structure of Vietnamese indigenous cattle populations by microsatellites

    Pham, Lan Doan; Do, Duy Ngoc; Binh, Nguyen Trong

    2013-01-01

    Cattle play a very important role in agriculture and food security in Vietnam. A high level of cattle diversity exists and serves different needs of Vietnamese cattle keepers but has not yet been molecularly characterized. This study evaluates the genetic diversity and structure of Vietnamese...... geographic distances. Structure analysis indicated five homogeneous clusters. The Brahman, Lang Son, Ha Giang and U Dau Riu cattle were assigned to independent clusters while Nghe An, Thanh Hoa and Phu Yen cattle were grouped in a single cluster. We conclude that Vietnamese indigenous cattle have high levels...

  17. Genetic structure of Mount Huang honey bee (Apis cerana) populations: evidence from microsatellite polymorphism.

    Liu, Fang; Shi, Tengfei; Huang, Sisi; Yu, Linsheng; Bi, Shoudong

    2016-01-01

    The Mount Huang eastern honey bees ( Apis cerana ) are an endemic population, which is well adapted to the local agricultural and ecological environment. In this study, the genetic structure of seven eastern honey bees ( A. cerana ) populations from Mount Huang in China were analyzed by SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers. The results revealed that 16 pairs of primers used amplified a total of 143 alleles. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 13, with a mean value of 8.94 alleles per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosities showed mean values of 0.446 and 0.831 respectively. UPGMA cluster analysis grouped seven eastern honey bees in three groups. The results obtained show a high genetic diversity in the honey bee populations studied in Mount Huang, and high differentiation among all the populations, suggesting that scarce exchange of honey bee species happened in Mount Huang. Our study demonstrated that the Mount Huang honey bee populations still have a natural genome worth being protected for conservation.

  18. Microsatellite typing of clinical and environmental Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii isolates from Cuba shows multiple genetic lineages.

    Maria-Teresa Illnait-Zaragozi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human cryptococcal infections have been associated with bird droppings as a likely source of infection. Studies toward the local and global epidemiology of Cryptococcus spp. have been hampered by the lack of rapid, discriminatory, and exchangeable molecular typing methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We selected nine microsatellite markers for high-resolution fingerprinting from the genome of C. neoformans var. grubii. This panel of markers was applied to a collection of clinical (n = 122 and environmental (n = 68; from pigeon guano C. neoformans var. grubii isolates from Cuba. All markers proved to be polymorphic. The average number of alleles per marker was 9 (range 5-51. A total of 104 genotypes could be distinguished. The discriminatory power of this panel of markers was 0.993. Multiple clusters of related genotypes could be discriminated that differed in only one or two microsatellite markers. These clusters were assigned as microsatellite complexes. The majority of environmental isolates (>70% fell into 1 microsatellite complex containing only few clinical isolates (49 environmental versus 2 clinical. Clinical isolates were segregated over multiple microsatellite complexes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A large genotypic variation exists in C. neoformans var. grubii. The genotypic segregation between clinical and environmental isolates from pigeon guano suggests additional source(s of human cryptococcal infections. The selected panel of microsatellite markers is an excellent tool to study the epidemiology of C. neoformans var. grubii.

  19. Molecular Genetic Diversity of Date (Phoenix dactylifera) Germplasm in Qatar based on Microsatellite Markers

    Ahmed, Talaat

    2016-01-25

    Depending on morphological traits alone, studying the genetic diversity of date palm is a very difficult task since morphological characteristics are highly affected by the environment. DNA markers are excellent option that can help and enhance the discriminatory power of morphological characteristics. To study the genetic diversity among date palm cultivars grown in Qatar, fifteen Date palm samples were collected from Qatar University Experimental Farm. DNAs were extracted from fresh leaves by using commercial DNeasy Plant System Kit (Qiagen, Inc., Valencia, CA). Total of 18 (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat) ISSR single primers were used to amplify DNA fragments using genomic DNA of the 15 samples. First screening was done to test the ability of these primers to amplify clear bands using Date palm genomic DNA. All 18 ISSR primers successfully produced clear bands in the first screening. Then, each primer was used separately to genotype the whole set of 15 Date palm samples. Total of 4794 bands were generated using 18 ISSR primers for the 15 Date palm samples. On average, each primer generated 400 bands. The Number of amplified bands varied from cultivar to cultivar. The highest number of bands was obtained using Primers 2, 5 and 12 for the 15 (470 bands), while the lowest number of bands were obtained by Primers 1, 7 and 8 where they produced only 329 bands. Markers were scored for the presence and absence of the corresponding band among the different cultivars. Data were subjected to cluster analysis. A similarity matrix was constructed and the similarity values were used for cluster analysis.

  20. Genetic diversity of the Japanese wood pigeon, Columba janthina, endemic to islands of East Asia, estimated by newly developed microsatellite markers.

    Ando, Haruko; Kaneko, Shingo; Suzuki, Hajime; Horikoshi, Kazuo; Takano, Hajime; Ogawa, Hiroko; Isagi, Yuji

    2011-12-01

    The Japanese wood pigeon Columba janthina is endemic to islands of East Asia and is listed as Near Threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). One subspecies, C. janthina nitens, in particular, is at the greatest risk of extinction due to its small population size. To reduce the extinction risk of C. janthina, it is important to understand the species' present genetic status and to develop an appropriate conservation plan based on genetic data. We developed seven new microsatellite markers for two subspecies of C. janthina: C. janthina janthina and C. janthina nitens. We also confirmed the cross-use of one microsatellite marker developed for Columba livia var. domestica. Seven loci were polymorphic in C. janthina janthina, while two loci were polymorphic in C. janthina nitens. Using the markers, we performed preliminary analysis of genetic diversity and genetic structure within each subspecies. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.00 to 0.64 in C. janthina janthina and from 0.00 to 0.08 in C. janthina nitens. Each subspecies and each population within C. janthina janthina had different allele frequencies. C. janthina nitens exhibited far lower genetic diversity than C. janthina janthina. Furthermore, C. janthina nitens appears to have experienced strong genetic drift from a common ancestral population, inferred by STRUCTURE analysis. The markers described here may be useful for investigating genetic diversity and genetic structure of C. janthina populations, and could be used to estimate appropriate evolutionary significant unit and to guide development of a captive breeding program based on genetic information.

  1. Genetic relationships between interspecific lines derived from Oryza glaberrima and Oryza sativa crosses using microsatellites and agro-morphological markers

    Moukoumbi, Y.D.; Kolade, O.; Drame, K.N.; Sie, M.; Ndjiondjo, M.N.

    2015-07-01

    New Rice(s) for Africa (NERICA) are high yielding rice varieties mostly cultivated in Sub-Saharan Africa and developed by the Africa Rice Center. This study is aimed at investigating the proportion of introgression of parental genomic contribution of 60 lowland NERICA varieties and establishment of molecular profiling. Agro-morphological data from 17 characteristics was recorded and significant (p<0.05) to high significant (p<0.0001) differences were obtained with leaf length and width, plant height at maturity, days to heading, maturity, primary and secondary branching of panicles, and grain width and grain thickness. A total of 114 microsatellite polymorphic markers covering 2183.13 cM of the rice genome showed the proportions of alleles introgressed from the donor parent (Oryza glaberrima) into 52 lowland NERICA lines (TOG5681 and IR64) as follows: 11% for BC2, 6.07% for BC3, and 7.55% for BC4. The introgression proportions for the eight remaining lowland NERICA lines derived from other crosses ranged from 5.5 to 11.3%. The proportion recorded with the recurrent parent was 83.99%. The highest introgression proportions of the O. glaberrima allele for all 60 lowland NERICA lines were found on chromosomes 2, 6 and 12 (TOG5681/IR64) and on chromosome 3 with NERIC-L-29 (TOG5681/IR1529-680-3-2). Multivariate analyses performed using an association of agro-morphological and molecular data revealed two major groups according to the distribution of the lowland NERICAs including the lowland NERICAs released were found in cluster 1 of the dendrogram. Genetic and genomic studies, QTL identification and analysis using agro-morphologically significant traits revealed should be used to develop mega-varieties adapted in rice growth conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa. (Author)

  2. Genetic analyses involving microsatellite ETH10 genotypes on bovine chromosome 5 and performance trait measures in Angus- and Brahman-influenced cattle.

    DeAtley, K L; Rincon, G; Farber, C R; Medrano, J F; Luna-Nevarez, P; Enns, R M; VanLeeuwen, D M; Silver, G A; Thomas, M G

    2011-07-01

    ETH10 is a dinucleotide microsatellite within the promoter of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) gene on bovine chromosome 5. ETH10 is included in the panel of genetic markers used in parentage testing procedures of cattle breed associations. Allelic sizes of ETH10 PCR amplicons range from 199 to 225 bp. Objectives of this study were to use microsatellite data from beef cattle breed associations to investigate genetic distance and population stratification among Angus- and Brahman-influenced cattle and to use ETH10 genotypes and growth and ultrasound carcass data to investigate their statistical relationships. Three series of genotype to phenotype association analyses were conducted with 1) Angus data (n=5,094), 2) Brangus data (3/8 Brahman × 5/8 Angus; n=2,296), and 3) multibreed data (n=4,426) of Angus and Brangus cattle. Thirteen alleles and 38 genotypes were observed, but frequencies varied among breed groups. Tests of genetic identity and distance among 6 breed composition groups increasing in Brahman influence from 0 to 75% revealed that as Brahman-influence increased to ≥50%, genetic distance from Angus ranged from 18.3 to 43.5%. This was accomplished with 10 microsatellite loci. A mixed effects model involving genotype as a fixed effect and sire as a random source of variation suggested that Angus cattle with the 217/219 genotype tended to have 2.1% heavier (P=0.07) 205-d BW than other genotypes. In Brangus cattle, allele combinations were classified as small (≤215 bp) or large (≥217 bp). Brangus cattle with the small/large genotype had 2.0% heavier (PAngus and Brangus cattle. Results from this study provide support for STAT6 as one of the candidate genes underlying cattle growth QTL on chromosome 5. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

  3. Microsatellite DNA analysis revealed a drastic genetic change of Plasmodium vivax population in the Republic of Korea during 2002 and 2003.

    Moritoshi Iwagami

    Full Text Available Vivax malaria was successfully eliminated in the Republic of Korea (South Korea in the late 1970s, but it was found to have re-emerged from 1993. In order to control malaria and evaluate the effectiveness of malaria controls, it is important to develop a spatiotemporal understanding of the genetic structure of the parasite population. Here, we estimated the population structure and temporal dynamics of the transmission of Plasmodium vivax in South Korea by analyzing microsatellite DNA markers of the parasite.We analyzed 14 microsatellite DNA loci of the P. vivax genome from 163 South Korean isolates collected from 1994 to 2008. Allelic data were used to analyze linkage disequilibrium (LD, genetic differentiation and population structure, in order to make a detailed estimate of temporal change in the parasite population. The LD analysis showed a gradual decrease in LD levels, while the levels of genetic differentiation between successive years and analysis of the population structure based on the Bayesian approach suggested that a drastic genetic change occurred in the South Korean population during 2002 and 2003.Although relapse and asymptomatic parasite carriage might influence the population structure to some extent, our results suggested the continual introduction of P. vivax into South Korea through other parasite population sources. One possible source, particularly during 2002 and 2003, is North Korea. Molecular epidemiology using microsatellite DNA of the P. vivax population is effective for assessing the population structure and temporal dynamics of parasite transmission; information that can assist in the elimination of vivax malaria in endemic areas.

  4. Loss of genetic variability in a hatchery strain of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis revealed by sequence data of the mitochondrial DNA control region and microsatellite markers

    Pablo Sánchez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons of the levels of genetic variation within and between a hatchery F1 (FAR, n=116 of Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, and its wild donor population (ATL, n = 26, both native to the SW Atlantic coast of the Iberian peninsula, as well as between the wild donor population and a wild western Mediterranean sample (MED, n=18, were carried out by characterizing 412 base pairs of the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial DNA control region I, and six polymorphic microsatellite loci. FAR showed a substantial loss of genetic variability (haplotypic diversity, h=0.49±0.066; nucleotide diversity, π=0.006±0.004; private allelic richness, pAg=0.28 to its donor population ATL (h=0.69±0.114; π=0.009±0.006; pAg=1.21. Pairwise FST values of microsatellite data were highly significant (P < 0.0001 between FAR and ATL (0.053 and FAR and MED (0.055. The comparison of wild samples revealed higher values of genetic variability in MED than in ATL, but only with mtDNA CR-I sequence data (h=0.948±0.033; π=0.030±0.016. However, pairwise ΦST and FST values between ATL and MED were highly significant (P < 0.0001 with mtDNA CR-I (0.228 and with microsatellite data (0.095, respectively. While loss of genetic variability in FAR could be associated with the sampling error when the broodstock was established, the results of parental and sibship inference suggest that most of these losses can be attributed to a high variance in reproductive success among members of the broodstock, particularly among females.

  5. Loss of genetic variation in Greek hatchery populations of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. as revealed by microsatellite DNA analysis

    D. LOUKOVITIS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variation in four reared stocks of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax L., originating from Greek commercial farms, was assessed using five polymorphic microsatellite markers and was compared with that of three natural populations from Greece and France. The total number of alleles per marker ranged from 8 to 22 alleles, and hatchery samples showed the same levels of observed heterozygosity with samples from the wild but substantially smaller allelic richness and expected heterozygosity. The genetic differentiation of cultivated samples between them as well as from the wild origin fish was significant as indicated by Fst analysis. All population pairwise comparisons were statistically significant, except for the pair of the two natural Greek populations. Results of microsatellite DNA analysis herein showed a 37 % reduction of the mean allele number in the hatchery samples compared to the wild ones, suggesting random genetic drift and inbreeding events operating in the hatcheries. Knowledge of the genetic variation in D. labrax cultured populations compared with that in the wild ones is essential for setting up appropriate guidelines for proper monitoring and management of the stocks either under traditional practices or for the implementation of selective breeding programmes.

  6. Sequence-based novel genomic microsatellite markers for robust genotyping purposes in foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv].

    Gupta, Sarika; Kumari, Kajal; Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Vidapu, Sudhakar; Prasad, Manoj

    2012-02-01

    The unavailability of microsatellite markers and saturated genetic linkage map has restricted the genetic improvement of foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.], despite the fact that in recent times it has been documented as a new model species for biofuel grasses. With the objective to generate a good number of microsatellite markers in foxtail millet cultivar 'Prasad', 690 clones were sequenced which generated 112.95 kb high quality sequences obtained from three genomic libraries each enriched with different microsatellite repeat motifs. Microsatellites were identified in 512 (74.2%) of the 690 positive clones and 172 primer pairs (pp) were successfully designed from 249 (48.6%) unique SSR-containing clones. The efficacies of the microsatellite containing genomic sequences were established by superior primer designing ability (69%), PCR amplification efficiency (85.5%) and polymorphic potential (52%) in the parents of F(2) mapping population. Out of 172 pp, functional 147 markers showed high level of cross-species amplification (~74%) in six grass species. Higher polymorphism rate and broad range of genetic diversity (0.30-0.69 averaging 0.58) obtained in constructed phylogenetic tree using 52 microsatellite markers, demonstrated the utility of markers in germplasm characterizations. In silico comparative mapping of 147 foxtail millet microsatellite containing sequences against the mapping data of sorghum (~18%), maize (~16%) and rice (~5%) indicated the presence of orthologous sequences of the foxtail millet in the respective species. The result thus demonstrates the applicability of microsatellite markers in various genotyping applications, determining phylogenetic relationships and comparative mapping in several important grass species.

  7. Genetic mapping of the female mimic morph locus in the ruff

    2013-01-01

    Background Ruffs (Aves: Philomachus pugnax) possess a genetic polymorphism for male mating behaviour resulting in three permanent alternative male reproductive morphs: (i) territorial ‘Independents’, (ii) non-territorial ‘Satellites’, and (iii) female-mimicking ‘Faeders’. Development into independent or satellite morphs has previously been shown to be due to a single-locus, two-allele autosomal Mendelian mode of inheritance at the Satellite locus. Here, we use linkage analysis to map the chromosomal location of the Faeder locus, which controls development into the Faeder morph, and draw further conclusions about candidate genes, assuming shared synteny with other birds. Results Segregation data on the Faeder locus were obtained from captive-bred pedigrees comprising 64 multi-generation families (N = 381). There was no evidence that the Faeder locus was linked to the Satellite locus, but it was linked with microsatellite marker Ppu020. Comparative mapping of ruff microsatellite markers against the chicken (Gallus gallus) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) genomes places the Ppu020 and Faeder loci on a region of chromosome 11 that includes the Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene, which regulates colour polymorphisms in numerous birds and other vertebrates. Melanin-based colouration varies with life-history strategies in ruffs and other species, thus the MC1R gene is a strong candidate to play a role in alternative male morph determination. Conclusion Two unlinked loci appear to control behavioural development in ruffs. The Faeder locus is linked to Ppu020, which, assuming synteny, is located on avian chromosome 11. MC1R is a candidate gene involved in alternative male morph determination in ruffs. PMID:24256185

  8. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with effects on ...

    SERVER

    2008-02-05

    Feb 5, 2008 ... This paper reports on the development of a genetic ... RILs along with the two parental lines were evaluated in the screen- .... A genetic linkage map of cowpea showing the QTLs (in green) that is associated with the resistance.

  9. Genetic and radiation hybrid mapping of the hyperekplexia region on chromosome 5q

    Ryan, S.G.; O' Connell, P. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (United States)); Dixon, M.J. (Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)); Nigro, M.A. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)); Kelts, K.A. (Black Hills Neurology, Rapid City, SD (United States)); Markand, O.N. (Indiana Univ., Indianopolis (United States)); Shiang, R.; Wasmuth, J.J. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States)); Terry, J.C.

    1992-12-01

    Hyperekplexia, or startle disease (STHE), is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by muscular rigidity of central nervous system origin, particularly in the neonatal period, and by an exaggerated startle response to sudden, unexpected acoustic or tactile stimuli. STHE responds dramatically to the benzodiazepine drug clonazepam, which acts at gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA-A) receptors. The STHE locus (STHE) was recently assigned to chromosome 5q, on the basis of tight linkage to the colony-stimulating factor 1-receptor (CSF1-R) locus in a single large family. The authors performed linkage analysis in the original and three additional STHE pedigrees with eight chromosome 5q microsatellite markers and placed several of the most closely linked markers on an existing radiation hybrid (RH) map of the region. The results provide strong evidence for genetic locus homogeneity and assign STHE to a 5.9-cM interval defined by CSF1-R and D5S379, which are separated by an RH map distance of 74 centirays (roughly 2.2-3.7 Mb). Two polymorphic markers (D5S119 and D5S209) lie within this region, but they could not be ordered with respect to STHE. RH mapping eliminated the candidate genes GABRA1 and GABRG2, which encode GABA-A receptor components, by showing that they are telomeric to the target region. 45 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. New microsatellite markers for multi-scale genetic studies on Phlebotomus ariasi Tonnoir, vector of Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean area.

    Prudhomme, Jorian; Toty, Céline; Kasap, Ozge Erisoz; Rahola, Nil; Vergnes, Baptiste; Maia, Carla; Campino, Lenea; Antoniou, Maria; Jimenez, Maribel; Molina, Ricardo; Cannet, Arnaud; Alten, Bulent; Sereno, Denis; Bañuls, Anne-Laure

    2015-02-01

    The population structure of Phlebotomus ariasi, a proven vector of Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean area, is still poorly understood. Previously, only two microsatellite loci had been developed to study the population genetics of this species. Herein we use these loci and determined fourteen novel microsatellite loci, useful for the characterization of P. ariasi populations. These loci were tested on three populations of P. ariasi, two from France and one from Portugal. In addition, the usefulness of these markers was also evaluated on seven other sandfly species. We show, that for P. ariasi, 15 of the 16 loci selected were polymorphic, with a mean of 4.25 alleles and an observed heterozygosity of 0.299. Within the P. ariasi population of France, 11 loci were polymorphic, with an average of 2.44 alleles and an observed heterozygosity of 0.2177. The fixation index was moderate among the French populations but high between French and Portuguese populations. In addition, eight loci were also found to be amplifiable in six other Phlebotomus species. These results demonstrate the usefulness of this new set of microsatellite loci for population structure and molecular ecology studies of P. ariasi at various spatial scales, but also of other sandfly species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of novel polymorphic microsatellite loci identified in the Korean Pacific Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta (Haliotidae)) in the genetic characterization of wild and released populations.

    An, Hye Suck; Lee, Jang Wook; Hong, Seong Wan

    2012-01-01

    The small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, of the family Haliotidae, is one of the most important species of marine shellfish in eastern Asia. Over the past few decades, this species has drastically declined in Korea. Thus, hatchery-bred seeds have been released into natural coastal areas to compensate for the reduced fishery resources. However, information on the genetic background of the small abalone is scarce. In this study, 20 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers were identified using next-generation sequencing techniques and used to compare allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations in Korea. Using high-throughput genomic sequencing, a total of 1516 (2.26%; average length of 385 bp) reads containing simple sequence repeats were obtained from 86,011 raw reads. Among the 99 loci screened, 28 amplified successfully, and 20 were polymorphic. When comparing allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations, a total of 243 different alleles were observed, with 18.7 alleles per locus. High genetic diversity (mean heterozygosity = 0.81; mean allelic number = 15.5) was observed in both populations. A statistical analysis of the fixation index (F(ST)) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated limited genetic differences between the two populations (F(ST) = 0.002, p > 0.05). Although no significant reductions in the genetic diversity were found in the released population compared with the wild population (p > 0.05), the genetic diversity parameters revealed that the seeds released for stock abundance had a different genetic composition. These differences are likely a result of hatchery selection and inbreeding. Additionally, all the primer pair sets were effectively amplified in another congeneric species, H. diversicolor diversicolor, indicating that these primers are useful for both abalone species. These microsatellite loci may be valuable for future aquaculture and population genetic studies aimed at

  12. Rapid microsatellite marker development for African mahogany (Khaya senegalensis, Meliaceae) using next-generation sequencing and assessment of its intra-specific genetic diversity.

    Karan, M; Evans, D S; Reilly, D; Schulte, K; Wright, C; Innes, D; Holton, T A; Nikles, D G; Dickinson, G R

    2012-03-01

    Khaya senegalensis (African mahogany or dry-zone mahogany) is a high-value hardwood timber species with great potential for forest plantations in northern Australia. The species is distributed across the sub-Saharan belt from Senegal to Sudan and Uganda. Because of heavy exploitation and constraints on natural regeneration and sustainable planting, it is now classified as a vulnerable species. Here, we describe the development of microsatellite markers for K. senegalensis using next-generation sequencing to assess its intra-specific diversity across its natural range, which is a key for successful breeding programs and effective conservation management of the species. Next-generation sequencing yielded 93,943 sequences with an average read length of 234 bp. The assembled sequences contained 1030 simple sequence repeats, with primers designed for 522 microsatellite loci. Twenty-one microsatellite loci were tested with 11 showing reliable amplification and polymorphism in K. senegalensis. The 11 novel microsatellites, together with one previously published, were used to assess 73 accessions belonging to the Australian K. senegalensis domestication program, sampled from across the natural range of the species. STRUCTURE analysis shows two major clusters, one comprising mainly accessions from west Africa (Senegal to Benin) and the second based in the far eastern limits of the range in Sudan and Uganda. Higher levels of genetic diversity were found in material from western Africa. This suggests that new seed collections from this region may yield more diverse genotypes than those originating from Sudan and Uganda in eastern Africa. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Kosambi and the Genetic Mapping Function

    Research Centre, Indian. Agricultural ... Gregor Johann Mendel discovered that segregation of simple traits in pea ... Cytology furnishes mechanism that the experimental evidence demands” .... practice, however, the existence of interference may cause over .... Morgan's mapping function of true additivity; incomplete inter-.

  14. Gene flow and genetic structure of Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera, Tephritidae) among geographical differences and sister species, B. dorsalis, inferred from microsatellite DNA data.

    Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Isasawin, Siriwan; Sojikul, Punchapat; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2015-01-01

    The Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, is an invasive pest in Southeast Asia. It has been introduced into areas in South America such as Suriname and Brazil. Bactrocera carambolae belongs to the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, and seems to be separated from Bactrocera dorsalis based on morphological and multilocus phylogenetic studies. Even though the Carambola fruit fly is an important quarantine species and has an impact on international trade, knowledge of the molecular ecology of Bactrocera carambolae, concerning species status and pest management aspects, is lacking. Seven populations sampled from the known geographical areas of Bactrocera carambolae including Southeast Asia (i.e., Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand) and South America (i.e., Suriname), were genotyped using eight microsatellite DNA markers. Genetic variation, genetic structure, and genetic network among populations illustrated that the Suriname samples were genetically differentiated from Southeast Asian populations. The genetic network revealed that samples from West Sumatra (Pekanbaru, PK) and Java (Jakarta, JK) were presumably the source populations of Bactrocera carambolae in Suriname, which was congruent with human migration records between the two continents. Additionally, three populations of Bactrocera dorsalis were included to better understand the species boundary. The genetic structure between the two species was significantly separated and approximately 11% of total individuals were detected as admixed (0.100 ≤ Q ≤ 0.900). The genetic network showed connections between Bactrocera carambolae and Bactrocera dorsalis groups throughout Depok (DP), JK, and Nakhon Sri Thammarat (NT) populations. These data supported the hypothesis that the reproductive isolation between the two species may be leaky. Although the morphology and monophyly of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences in previous studies showed discrete entities, the hypothesis of semipermeable boundaries may not

  15. High resolution melting detects sequence polymorphism in rubus occidentalis L. monomorphic microsatellite markers

    Microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, are valuable as co-dominant genetic markers with a variety of applications such as DNA fingerprinting, linkage mapping, and population structure analysis. However, primer pairs designed from the regions that flank SSRs often generate fragment...

  16. Good news for conservation: mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA data detect limited genetic signatures of inter-basin fish transfer in Thymallus thymallus (Salmonidae from the Upper Drava River

    Meraner A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, numerous populations of European grayling, Thymallus thymallus, have been suffering from stocking-induced genetic admixture of foreign strains into wild populations. Concordantly, genetic introgression was also reportedfor grayling stocks inhabiting the Upper Drava River, but all published genetic data based on specimens caught at least a decade ago, when stocking load was strong. Here, we applied mitochondrial control region sequencing and nuclear microsatellite genotyping to Upper Drava grayling fry collections and reference samples to update patterns and extent of human-mediated introgression. In contrast to previous data, we highlighted an almost genetic integrity of Drava grayling, evidencing limited genetic signatures of trans-basin stocking for grayling of Northern Alpine Danubian origin. Recent hybridisation was detected only twice among sixty-nine samples, while several cases of later-generation hybrids were disclosed by linking mitochondrial sequence to nuclear genetic data. The observed past, but very limited recent genetic introgression in grayling from Upper Drava seems to reflect shifting stocking trends, changing from massive introduction of trans-basin fish to more conservation-oriented strategies during the last 27 years. In a conservation context, we encourage pursuing the use of local wild grayling for supportive- and captive-breeding, but underline the need for genetic approaches in brood-stock selection programs. Finally, our integrated results from sibship reconstruction validate our strictly fry-based sampling scheme, thus offering a reasonable alternative also for other rheophilic fish species with similar life-history characteristics.

  17. Genetic characterization of four native Italian shepherd dog breeds and analysis of their relationship to cosmopolitan dog breeds using microsatellite markers.

    Bigi, D; Marelli, S P; Randi, E; Polli, M

    2015-12-01

    Very little research into genetic diversity of Italian native dog breeds has been carried out so far. In this study we aimed to estimate and compare the genetic diversity of four native Italian shepherd dog breeds: the Maremma, Bergamasco, Lupino del Gigante and Oropa shepherds. Therefore, some cosmopolitan dog breeds, which have been widely raised in Italy for a long time past, have also been considered to check possible influence of these dog populations on the Italian autochthonous breeds considered here. A total of 212 individuals, belonging to 10 different dog breeds, were sampled and genotyped using 18 autosomal microsatellite loci. We analyzed the genetic diversity of these breeds, within breed diversity, breed relationship and population structure. The 10 breeds considered in this study were clearly genetically differentiated from each other, regardless of current population sizes and the onset of separate breeding history. The level of genetic diversity explained 20% of the total genetic variation. The level of H E found here is in agreement with that found by other studies. The native Italian breeds showed generally higher genetic diversity compared with the long established, well-defined cosmopolitan dog breeds. As the Border Collie seems closer to the Italian breeds than the other cosmopolitan shepherd dogs considered here, a possible utilization of this breed to improve working performance in Italian traditional working shepherd dogs cannot be ignored. The data and information found here can be utilized in the organization of conservation programs planned to reduce inbreeding and to minimize loss of genetic variability.

  18. Assessment of intra and interregional genetic variation in the Eastern Red-backed Salamander, Plethodon cinereus, via analysis of novel microsatellite markers.

    Alexander C Cameron

    Full Text Available The red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus has long-served as a model system in ecology, evolution, and behavior, and studies surveying molecular variation in this species have become increasingly common over the past decade. However, difficulties are commonly encountered when extending microsatellite markers to populations that are unstudied from a genetic perspective due to high levels of genetic differentiation across this species' range. To ameliorate this issue, we used 454 pyrosequencing to identify hundreds of microsatellite loci. We then screened 40 of our top candidate loci in populations in Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Ohio-including an isolated island population ~ 4.5 km off the shore of Lake Erie (South Bass Island. We identified 25 loci that are polymorphic in a well-studied region of Virginia and 11 of these loci were polymorphic in populations located in the genetically unstudied regions of Ohio and Pennsylvania. Use of these loci to examine patterns of variation within populations revealed that South Bass Island has low diversity in comparison to other sites. However, neither South Bass Island nor isolated populations around Cleveland are inbred. Assessment of variation between populations revealed three well defined genetic clusters corresponding to Virginia, mainland Ohio/Pennsylvania, and South Bass Island. Comparisons of our results to those of others working in various parts of the range are consistent with the idea that differentiation is lower in regions that were once glaciated. However, these comparisons also suggest that well differentiated isolated populations in the formerly glaciated portion of the range are not uncommon. This work provides novel genetic resources that will facilitate population genetic studies in a part of the red-backed salamander's range that has not previously been studied in this manner. Moreover, this work refines our understanding of how neutral variation is distributed in this ecologically

  19. Population structure and genetic diversity characterization of a sunflower association mapping population using SSR and SNP markers.

    Filippi, Carla V; Aguirre, Natalia; Rivas, Juan G; Zubrzycki, Jeremias; Puebla, Andrea; Cordes, Diego; Moreno, Maria V; Fusari, Corina M; Alvarez, Daniel; Heinz, Ruth A; Hopp, Horacio E; Paniego, Norma B; Lia, Veronica V

    2015-02-13

    Argentina has a long tradition of sunflower breeding, and its germplasm is a valuable genetic resource worldwide. However, knowledge of the genetic constitution and variability levels of the Argentinean germplasm is still scarce, rendering the global map of cultivated sunflower diversity incomplete. In this study, 42 microsatellite loci and 384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to characterize the first association mapping population used for quantitative trait loci mapping in sunflower, along with a selection of allied open-pollinated and composite populations from the germplasm bank of the National Institute of Agricultural Technology of Argentina. The ability of different kinds of markers to assess genetic diversity and population structure was also evaluated. The analysis of polymorphism in the set of sunflower accessions studied here showed that both the microsatellites and SNP markers were informative for germplasm characterization, although to different extents. In general, the estimates of genetic variability were moderate. The average genetic diversity, as quantified by the expected heterozygosity, was 0.52 for SSR loci and 0.29 for SNPs. Within SSR markers, those derived from non-coding regions were able to capture higher levels of diversity than EST-SSR. A significant correlation was found between SSR and SNP- based genetic distances among accessions. Bayesian and multivariate methods were used to infer population structure. Evidence for the existence of three different genetic groups was found consistently across data sets (i.e., SSR, SNP and SSR + SNP), with the maintainer/restorer status being the most prevalent characteristic associated with group delimitation. The present study constitutes the first report comparing the performance of SSR and SNP markers for population genetics analysis in cultivated sunflower. We show that the SSR and SNP panels examined here, either used separately or in conjunction, allowed consistent

  20. Cowpea–Soybean Synteny Clarified through an Improved Genetic Map

    Mitchell R. Lucas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Linkage mapping is relevant to modern plant biology and provides a framework for downstream analyses including quantitative trait loci identification, map-based cloning, assessment of diversity, association mapping, and molecular breeding. Here, we report a consensus genetic map of cowpea [ (L. Walp.] and synteny to other legumes based on expressed sequence tag (EST-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. In total, 1293 individuals representing 13 mapping populations were genotyped using an Illumina 1536 GoldenGate Assay. A consensus map containing 1107 EST-derived SNP markers (856 bins on 11 linkage groups (680 cM was constructed from 13 population-specific maps. This effort combined six new population-specific maps and seven revised population-specific maps to construct an improved consensus map with 33% more bins, 19% more markers, and improved marker order when compared to the previous cowpea SNP consensus map. Comparative and whole genome visualizations are presented as a framework for discussing map quality and synteny with soybean [ (L. Merr.].

  1. Postglacial recolonization patterns and genetic relationships among whitefish ( Coregonus sp.) populations in Denmark, inferred from mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons; Berg, Søren

    1999-01-01

    . The implications of these results for the conservation status of North Sea houting are discussed in the light of current definitions of evolutionary significant units. Both mtDNA and microsatellite data indicated that postglacial recolonization by C. lavaretus in Denmark was less likely to have taken place from...

  2. Toward fully automated genotyping: Genotyping microsatellite markers by deconvolution

    Perlin, M.W.; Lancia, G.; See-Kiong, Ng [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Dense genetic linkage maps have been constructed for the human and mouse genomes, with average densities of 2.9 cM and 0.35 cM, respectively. These genetic maps are crucial for mapping both Mendelian and complex traits and are useful in clinical genetic diagnosis. Current maps are largely comprised of abundant, easily assayed, and highly polymorphic PCR-based microsatellite markers, primarily dinucleotide (CA){sub n} repeats. One key limitation of these length polymorphisms is the PCR stutter (or slippage) artifact that introduces additional stutter bands. With two (or more) closely spaced alleles, the stutter bands overlap, and it is difficult to accurately determine the correct alleles; this stutter phenomenon has all but precluded full automation, since a human must visually inspect the allele data. We describe here novel deconvolution methods for accurate genotyping that mathematically remove PCR stutter artifact from microsatellite markers. These methods overcome the manual interpretation bottleneck and thereby enable full automation of genetic map construction and use. New functionalities, including the pooling of DNAs and the pooling of markers, are described that may greatly reduce the associated experimentation requirements. 32 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Evidence of Allopolyploidy in Urochloa humidicola Based on Cytological Analysis and Genetic Linkage Mapping.

    Bianca B Z Vigna

    Full Text Available The African species Urochloa humidicola (Rendle Morrone & Zuloaga (syn. Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle Schweick. is an important perennial forage grass found throughout the tropics. This species is polyploid, ranging from tetra to nonaploid, and apomictic, which makes genetic studies challenging; therefore, the number of currently available genetic resources is limited. The genomic architecture and evolution of U. humidicola and the molecular markers linked to apomixis were investigated in a full-sib F1 population obtained by crossing the sexual accession H031 and the apomictic cultivar U. humidicola cv. BRS Tupi, both of which are hexaploid. A simple sequence repeat (SSR-based linkage map was constructed for the species from 102 polymorphic and specific SSR markers based on simplex and double-simplex markers. The map consisted of 49 linkage groups (LGs and had a total length of 1702.82 cM, with 89 microsatellite loci and an average map density of 10.6 cM. Eight homology groups (HGs were formed, comprising 22 LGs, and the other LGs remained ungrouped. The locus that controls apospory (apo-locus was mapped in LG02 and was located 19.4 cM from the locus Bh027.c.D2. In the cytological analyses of some hybrids, bi- to hexavalents at diakinesis were observed, as well as two nucleoli in some meiocytes, smaller chromosomes with preferential allocation within the first metaphase plate and asynchronous chromosome migration to the poles during anaphase. The linkage map and the meiocyte analyses confirm previous reports of hybridization and suggest an allopolyploid origin of the hexaploid U. humidicola. This is the first linkage map of an Urochloa species, and it will be useful for future quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis after saturation of the map and for genome assembly and evolutionary studies in Urochloa spp. Moreover, the results of the apomixis mapping are consistent with previous reports and confirm the need for additional studies to search for

  4. Gene-based single nucleotide polymorphism markers for genetic and association mapping in common bean.

    Galeano, Carlos H; Cortés, Andrés J; Fernández, Andrea C; Soler, Álvaro; Franco-Herrera, Natalia; Makunde, Godwill; Vanderleyden, Jos; Blair, Matthew W

    2012-06-26

    In common bean, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are an underestimated source of gene-based markers such as insertion-deletions (Indels) or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, due to the nature of these conserved sequences, detection of markers is difficult and portrays low levels of polymorphism. Therefore, development of intron-spanning EST-SNP markers can be a valuable resource for genetic experiments such as genetic mapping and association studies. In this study, a total of 313 new gene-based markers were developed at target genes. Intronic variation was deeply explored in order to capture more polymorphism. Introns were putatively identified after comparing the common bean ESTs with the soybean genome, and the primers were designed over intron-flanking regions. The intronic regions were evaluated for parental polymorphisms using the single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique and Sequenom MassARRAY system. A total of 53 new marker loci were placed on an integrated molecular map in the DOR364 × G19833 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. The new linkage map was used to build a consensus map, merging the linkage maps of the BAT93 × JALO EEP558 and DOR364 × BAT477 populations. A total of 1,060 markers were mapped, with a total map length of 2,041 cM across 11 linkage groups. As a second application of the generated resource, a diversity panel with 93 genotypes was evaluated with 173 SNP markers using the MassARRAY-platform and KASPar technology. These results were coupled with previous SSR evaluations and drought tolerance assays carried out on the same individuals. This agglomerative dataset was examined, in order to discover marker-trait associations, using general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM). Some significant associations with yield components were identified, and were consistent with previous findings. In short, this study illustrates the power of intron-based markers for linkage and association mapping in

  5. Genetic mapping and annotation of genomic microsatellites isolated from globe artichoke

    Acquadro, A.; Lanteri, S.; Scaglione, D.; Arens, P.F.P.; Vosman, B.; Portis, E.

    2009-01-01

    Cynara cardunculus includes three taxa, the globe artichoke (subsp. scolymus L. Hegi), the cultivated cardoon (var. altilis) and their progenitor, the wild cardoon (var. sylvestris). Globe artichoke is an important component of the Mediterranean rural economy, but its improvement through breeding

  6. Lack of genetic structure among ecologically adapted populations of an Australian rainforest Drosophila species as indicated by microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Schiffer, Michele; Kennington, W J; Hoffmann, A A; Blacket, M J

    2007-04-01

    Although fragmented rainforest environments represent hotspots for invertebrate biodiversity, few genetic studies have been conducted on rainforest invertebrates. Thus, it is not known if invertebrate species in rainforests are highly genetically fragmented, with the potential for populations to show divergent selection responses, or if there are low levels of gene flow sufficient to maintain genetic homogeneity among fragmented populations. Here we use microsatellite markers and DNA sequences from the mitochondrial ND5 locus to investigate genetic differences among Drosophila birchii populations from tropical rainforests in Queensland, Australia. As found in a previous study, mitochondrial DNA diversity was low with no evidence for population differentiation among rainforest fragments. The pattern of mitochondrial haplotype variation was consistent with D. birchii having undergone substantial past population growth. Levels of nuclear genetic variation were high in all populations while F(ST) values were very low, even for flies from geographically isolated areas of rainforest. No significant differentiation was observed between populations on either side of the Burdekin Gap (a long-term dry corridor), although there was evidence for higher gene diversity in low-latitude populations. Spatial autocorrelation coefficients were low and did not differ significantly from random, except for one locus which revealed a clinal-like pattern. Comparisons of microsatellite differentiation contrasted with previously established clinal patterns in quantitative traits in D. birchii, and indicate that the patterns in quantitative traits are likely to be due to selection. These results suggest moderate gene flow in D. birchii over large distances. Limited population structure in this species appears to be due to recent range expansions or cycles of local extinctions followed by recolonizations/expansions. Nevertheless, patterns of local adaptation have developed in D. birchii that

  7. Low genetic variation in the MHC class II DRB gene and MHC-linked microsatellites in endangered island populations of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) in Japan.

    Saka, Toshinori; Nishita, Yoshinori; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2018-02-01

    Isolated populations of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) on Tsushima and Iriomote islands in Japan are classified as subspecies P. b. euptilurus and P. b. iriomotensis, respectively. Because both populations have decreased to roughly 100, an understanding of their genetic diversity is essential for conservation. We genotyped MHC class II DRB exon 2 and MHC-linked microsatellite loci to evaluate the diversity of MHC genes in the Tsushima and Iriomote cat populations. We detected ten and four DRB alleles in these populations, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis showed DRB alleles from both populations to be closely related to those in other felid DRB lineages, indicating trans-species polymorphism. The MHC-linked microsatellites were more polymorphic in the Tsushima than in the Iriomote population. The MHC diversity of both leopard cat populations is much lower than in the domestic cat populations on these islands, probably due to inbreeding associated with founder effects, geographical isolation, or genetic drift. Our results predict low resistance of the two endangered populations to new pathogens introduced to the islands.

  8. When GIS zooms in: spatio-genetic maps of multipaternity in Armadillidium vulgare.

    Bech, Nicolas; Depeux, Charlotte; Durand, Sylvine; Debenest, Catherine; Lafitte, Alexandra; Beltran-Bech, Sophie

    2017-12-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) tools are designed to illustrate, analyse and integrate geographic or spatial data, usually on a macroscopic scale. By contrast, genetic tools focus on a microscopic scale. Because in reality, landscapes have no predefined scale, our original study aims to develop a new approach, combining both cartographic and genetic approaches to explore microscopic landscapes. For this, we focused on Armadillidium vulgare, a terrestrial isopod model in which evolutionary pressures imposed by terrestrial life have led to the development of internal fertilisation and, consequently, to associated physiological changes. Among these, the emergence of internal receptacles, found in many taxa ranging from mammals to arthropods, allowed females to store sperm from several partners, enabling multipaternity. Among arthropods, terrestrial isopods like the polygynandrous A. vulgare present a female structure, the marsupium, in which fertilised eggs migrate and develop into mancae (larval stage). To test our innovative combined approach, we proposed different males to four independent females, and at the end of incubation in the marsupium, we mapped (using GIS methods) and genotyped (using 12 microsatellite markers) all the incubated mancae. This methodology permitted to obtain spatio-genetic maps describing heterozygosity and spatial distribution of mancae and of multipaternity within the marsupial landscape. We discussed the interest of this kind of multidisciplinary approach which could improve in this case our understanding of sexual selection mechanisms in this terrestrial crustacean. Beyond the interesting model-focused insights, the main challenge of this study was the transfer of GIS techniques to a microscopic scale and our results appear so as pioneers rendering GIS tools available for studies involving imagery whatever their study scale.

  9. Genome wide characterization of simple sequence repeats in watermelon genome and their application in comparative mapping and genetic diversity analysis.

    Zhu, Huayu; Song, Pengyao; Koo, Dal-Hoe; Guo, Luqin; Li, Yanman; Sun, Shouru; Weng, Yiqun; Yang, Luming

    2016-08-05

    Microsatellite markers are one of the most informative and versatile DNA-based markers used in plant genetic research, but their development has traditionally been difficult and costly. The whole genome sequencing with next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provides large amounts of sequence data to develop numerous microsatellite markers at whole genome scale. SSR markers have great advantage in cross-species comparisons and allow investigation of karyotype and genome evolution through highly efficient computation approaches such as in silico PCR. Here we described genome wide development and characterization of SSR markers in the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) genome, which were then use in comparative analysis with two other important crop species in the Cucurbitaceae family: cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and melon (Cucumis melo L.). We further applied these markers in evaluating the genetic diversity and population structure in watermelon germplasm collections. A total of 39,523 microsatellite loci were identified from the watermelon draft genome with an overall density of 111 SSRs/Mbp, and 32,869 SSR primers were designed with suitable flanking sequences. The dinucleotide SSRs were the most common type representing 34.09 % of the total SSR loci and the AT-rich motifs were the most abundant in all nucleotide repeat types. In silico PCR analysis identified 832 and 925 SSR markers with each having a single amplicon in the cucumber and melon draft genome, respectively. Comparative analysis with these cross-species SSR markers revealed complicated mosaic patterns of syntenic blocks among the genomes of three species. In addition, genetic diversity analysis of 134 watermelon accessions with 32 highly informative SSR loci placed these lines into two groups with all accessions of C.lanatus var. citorides and three accessions of C. colocynthis clustered in one group and all accessions of C. lanatus var. lanatus and the remaining accessions of C. colocynthis

  10. Genetic Map of Mango: A Tool for Mango Breeding

    David N. Kuhn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica is an economically and nutritionally important tropical/subtropical tree fruit crop. Most of the current commercial cultivars are selections rather than the products of breeding programs. To improve the efficiency of mango breeding, molecular markers have been used to create a consensus genetic map that identifies all 20 linkage groups in seven mapping populations. Polyembryony is an important mango trait, used for clonal propagation of cultivars and rootstocks. In polyembryonic mango cultivars, in addition to a zygotic embryo, several apomictic embryos develop from maternal tissue surrounding the fertilized egg cell. This trait has been associated with linkage group 8 in our consensus genetic map and has been validated in two of the seven mapping populations. In addition, we have observed a significant association between trait and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers for the vegetative trait of branch habit and the fruit traits of bloom, ground skin color, blush intensity, beak shape, and pulp color.

  11. Advances in sorghum genetic mapping with implications for sorghum improvement

    Lee, M.

    1998-01-01

    Despite the importance of the sorghum crop, comprehensive genetic characterization has been limited. Therefore, the primary goal of this research program was to develop basic genetic tools to facilitate research in the genetics and breeding of sorghum. The first phase of this project consisted of constructing a genetic map based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). The ISU sorghum map was created through linkage analysis of 78 F2 plants of an intraspecific cross between inbred CK60 and accession PI229828. Subsequent mapping, efforts in several labs have enriched the sorghum map to the point where it now contains over 1,500 loci defined by RFLPs and many others defined by mutant phenotypes and QTLs. The ISU map consists of 201 loci distributed among 10 linkage groups covering 1299 cM. Comparison of sorghum and maize RFLP maps on the basis of common sets of DNA probes revealed a high degree of conservation as reflected by homology, copy number, and colinearity. Examples of conserved and rearranged locus orders were observed. The same sorghum population was used to map genetic factors (mutants and QTLS) for several traits including vegetative and reproductive morphology, maturity, insect, and disease resistance. Four QTLs for plant height, an important character for sorghum adaptation in temperate latitudes for grain production, were identified in a sample of 152 F2 plants whereas 6 QTLs were detected among their F3 progeny. These observations and assessments of other traits at 4 QTLs common to F2 plants and their F3 progeny indicate some of these regions correspond to loci (dw) previously identified on the basis of alleles with highly qualitative effects. Four of the six sorghum plant height QTLs seem to be orthologous to plant height QTLs in maize. Other possible instances of orthologous QTLs included regions for maturity and tillering. These observations suggest that the conservation of the maize and sorghum genomes encompasses sequence homology

  12. Microsatellites Reveal Genetic Homogeneity among Outbreak Populations of Crown-of-Thorns Starfish (Acanthaster cf. solaris) on Australia’s Great Barrier Reef

    Harrison, Hugo

    2017-03-10

    Specific patterns in the initiation and spread of reef-wide outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish are important, both to understand potential causes (or triggers) of outbreaks and to develop more effective and highly targeted management and containment responses. Using analyses of genetic diversity and structure (based on 17 microsatellite loci), this study attempted to resolve the specific origin for recent outbreaks of crown-of-thorns on Australia’s Great Barrier Reef (GBR). We assessed the genetic structure amongst 2705 starfish collected from 13 coral reefs in four regions that spanned ~1000 km of the GBR. Our results indicate that populations sampled across the full length of the GBR are genetically homogeneous (G’ST = −0.001; p = 0.948) with no apparent genetic structure between regions. Approximate Bayesian computational analyses suggest that all sampled populations had a common origin and that current outbreaking populations of crown-of-thorns starfish (CoTS) in the Swains are not independent of outbreak populations in the northern GBR. Despite hierarchical sampling and large numbers of CoTS genotyped from individual reefs and regions, limited genetic structure meant we were unable to determine a putative source population for the current outbreak of CoTS on the GBR. The very high genetic homogeneity of sampled populations and limited evidence of inbreeding indicate rapid expansion in population size from multiple, undifferentiated latent populations.

  13. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis of the tropical pasture grass Brachiaria humidicola based on microsatellites, cytogenetics, morphological traits, and geographical origin.

    Jungmann, L; Vigna, B B Z; Boldrini, K R; Sousa, A C B; do Valle, C B; Resende, R M S; Pagliarini, M S; Zucchi, M I; de Souza, A P

    2010-09-01

    Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle) Schweick. is a warm-season grass commonly used as forage in the tropics. Accessions of this species were collected in eastern Africa and massively introduced into South America in the 1980s. Several of these accessions form a germplasm collection at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation. However, apomixis, ploidy, and limited knowledge of the genetic basis of this germplasm collection have constrained breeding activities. The objectives of this work were to identify genetic variability in the Brazilian B. humidicola germplasm collection using microsatellite markers and to compare the results with information on the following: (1) collection sites of the accessions; (2) reproductive mode and ploidy levels; and (3) genetic diversity revealed by morphological traits. The evaluated germplasm population is highly structured into four major groups. The sole sexual accession did not group with any of the clusters. Genetic dissimilarities did not correlate with either geographic distances or genetic distances inferred from morphological descriptors. Additionally, the genetic structure identified in this collection did not correspond to differences in ploidy level. Alleles exclusive to either sexual or apomictic accessions were identified, suggesting that further evaluation of the association of these loci with apospory should be carried out.

  14. Microsatellites Reveal Genetic Homogeneity among Outbreak Populations of Crown-of-Thorns Starfish (Acanthaster cf. solaris) on Australia’s Great Barrier Reef

    Harrison, Hugo; Pratchett, Morgan; Messmer, Vanessa; Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Berumen, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Specific patterns in the initiation and spread of reef-wide outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish are important, both to understand potential causes (or triggers) of outbreaks and to develop more effective and highly targeted management and containment responses. Using analyses of genetic diversity and structure (based on 17 microsatellite loci), this study attempted to resolve the specific origin for recent outbreaks of crown-of-thorns on Australia’s Great Barrier Reef (GBR). We assessed the genetic structure amongst 2705 starfish collected from 13 coral reefs in four regions that spanned ~1000 km of the GBR. Our results indicate that populations sampled across the full length of the GBR are genetically homogeneous (G’ST = −0.001; p = 0.948) with no apparent genetic structure between regions. Approximate Bayesian computational analyses suggest that all sampled populations had a common origin and that current outbreaking populations of crown-of-thorns starfish (CoTS) in the Swains are not independent of outbreak populations in the northern GBR. Despite hierarchical sampling and large numbers of CoTS genotyped from individual reefs and regions, limited genetic structure meant we were unable to determine a putative source population for the current outbreak of CoTS on the GBR. The very high genetic homogeneity of sampled populations and limited evidence of inbreeding indicate rapid expansion in population size from multiple, undifferentiated latent populations.

  15. Preliminary genetic linkage map of the abalone Haliotis diversicolor Reeve

    Shi, Yaohua; Guo, Ximing; Gu, Zhifeng; Wang, Aimin; Wang, Yan

    2010-05-01

    Haliotis diversicolor Reeve is one of the most important mollusks cultured in South China. Preliminary genetic linkage maps were constructed with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A total of 2 596 AFLP markers were obtained from 28 primer combinations in two parents and 78 offsprings. Among them, 412 markers (15.9%) were polymorphic and segregated in the mapping family. Chi-square tests showed that 151 (84.4%) markers segregated according to the expected 1:1 Mendelian ratio ( P<0.05) in the female parent, and 200 (85.8%) in the male parent. For the female map, 179 markers were used for linkage analysis and 90 markers were assigned to 17 linkage groups with an average interval length of 25.7 cm. For the male map, 233 markers were used and 94 were mapped into 18 linkage groups, with an average interval of 25.0 cm. The estimated genome length was 2 773.0 cm for the female and 2 817.1 cm for the male map. The observed length of the linkage map was 1 875.2 cm and 1 896.5 cm for the female and male maps, respectively. When doublets were considered, the map length increased to 2 152.8 cm for the female and 2 032.7 cm for the male map, corresponding to genome coverage of 77.6% and 72.2%, respectively.

  16. Characterization and transferability of microsatellite markers of the cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea

    Palmieri Dario A

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Arachis includes Arachis hypogaea (cultivated peanut and wild species that are used in peanut breeding or as forage. Molecular markers have been employed in several studies of this genus, but microsatellite markers have only been used in few investigations. Microsatellites are very informative and are useful to assess genetic variability, analyze mating systems and in genetic mapping. The objectives of this study were to develop A. hypogaea microsatellite loci and to evaluate the transferability of these markers to other Arachis species. Results Thirteen loci were isolated and characterized using 16 accessions of A. hypogaea. The level of variation found in A. hypogaea using microsatellites was higher than with other markers. Cross-transferability of the markers was also high. Sequencing of the fragments amplified using the primer pair Ah11 from 17 wild Arachis species showed that almost all wild species had similar repeated sequence to the one observed in A. hypogaea. Sequence data suggested that there is no correlation between taxonomic relationship of a wild species to A. hypogaea and the number of repeats found in its microsatellite loci. Conclusion These results show that microsatellite primer pairs from A. hypogaea have multiple uses. A higher level of variation among A. hypogaea accessions can be detected using microsatellite markers in comparison to other markers, such as RFLP, RAPD and AFLP. The microsatellite primers of A. hypogaea showed a very high rate of transferability to other species of the genus. These primer pairs provide important tools to evaluate the genetic variability and to assess the mating system in Arachis species.

  17. ANALYSIS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY OF GALICIAN CARP POPULATION ON THE BASE OF FISH FARM "VELYKYY LYUBIN´” WITH USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS

    I. Yarova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the genetic structure of the Galician carp population using microsatellite DNA markers. Methodology. Blood samples taken from the caudal vein of the specimens of the Galician carp farm "Velykyy Lyubin", Lviv region. (N = 15 persons. When landing, they were labeled with electronic chips of the brand Aqua Pump and A-CHIP. The total DNA was isolated using the standard method, using the Gene JET Whole Blood Genomik DNA Purification Mini Kit (USA. The concentration and quality of DNA were determined on an Eppendorf Bio Photometr biophotometer. To study the genetic structure of the Galician carp population, four microsatellite markers were used: MFW 06, MFW 15, MFW 23, MFW 31. Findings. Blood samples taken from the tail vein of fish (n = 15 oz. Were used as research material. In the course of work, optimal conditions for SSR-PCR analysis have been selected. The conducted studies allowed to determine the factors that have the greatest impact on the amplification efficiency, namely: the concentration of the DNA preparation, the concentration of the primer in the reaction mixture and the number of amplification cycles. In the study group, for all 4 microsatellite loci, only 18 alleles with a molecular weight of 130-343 ng were detected. The number of alleles per locus varied from 3 to 6. The most polymorphous was the locus MFW 23 (6 alleles were detected, and the least polymorphic was the locus MFW 31 (3 alleles were detected. The effective number of alleles in the sample of genotypes studied varied from 2.14 (MFW 31 to 5.23 (MFW 23. According to calculations of allelic frequencies, the main indicators of genetic variability are determined. The maximum level of available heterozygosity is fixed for the MFW 23 locus, the lowest for the MFW locus 31. Originality. For the first time in 65 years the genetic structure of the Galician carp population has been investigated. Practical value. The results will be used in further studies of

  18. Genetic characterization of 11 microsatellite loci in Egyptian pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and their cross-species amplification in other Columbidae populations.

    Ramadan, Sherif; Dawod, Ahmed; El-Garhy, Osama; Nowier, Amira M; Eltanany, Marwa; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationships of 10 Egyptian pigeon populations belonging to Columba livia domestica speciesusing 11 microsatellite markers and to investigate the success of these markers amplification across another eight pigeon species. Genomic DNA was isolated from feather samples of179 pigeon samples from 10 Egyptian breeds: Asfer Weraq (n=14), Austoraly (n=20), Reehani (n=21), Messawed (n=17), Nemssawy (n=27), Otatti (n=12), Morasla (n=17), Tumbler (n=22), Halaby Asfer (n=10), and Karakandy (n=19) in addition to Japanese feral pigeons (n=30). Genotyping was done using 11 specific polymorphic microsatellite makers. Moreover, 37 samples not belonging to C. livia domestica but belonging to another eight pigeon species were genotyped. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were electrophoresed on an ABI 3130xl DNA Sequencer. The basic measures of genetic diversity and phylogenetic trees were computed using bioinformatics software. Across the 10 studied Egyptian populations, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 19 and the average number of alleles observed was 9.091. The lowest value of expected heterozygosity (0.373) was obtained for the Reehani breed, and the highest value (0.706) was found for Morasla breed. The overall expected heterozygosity of Egyptian pigeons was 0.548. The F ST coefficient which indicates fixation coefficients of subpopulations within the total population for the 11 loci varied from 0.318 to 0.114 with a relatively high mean (0.226). In our study, the F IS showed a relatively high average(0.037). The pairwise Reynolds's genetic distance between the11 studied pigeon populations recorded lower values between Otatti and Austoraly (0.025) and between Morasla and Japanese feral pigeons (0.054). These results are supported by clustering pattern either by the neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree or by a Bayesian clustering of STRUCTURE with the admixture method. We confirm the applicability of

  19. Genetic characterization of 11 microsatellite loci in Egyptian pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and their cross-species amplification in other Columbidae populations

    Ramadan, Sherif; Dawod, Ahmed; El-Garhy, Osama; Nowier, Amira M.; Eltanany, Marwa; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2018-01-01

    Aim This study aimed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationships of 10 Egyptian pigeon populations belonging to Columba livia domestica speciesusing 11 microsatellite markers and to investigate the success of these markers amplification across another eight pigeon species. Methods Genomic DNA was isolated from feather samples of179 pigeon samples from 10 Egyptian breeds: Asfer Weraq (n=14), Austoraly (n=20), Reehani (n=21), Messawed (n=17), Nemssawy (n=27), Otatti (n=12), Morasla (n=17), Tumbler (n=22), Halaby Asfer (n=10), and Karakandy (n=19) in addition to Japanese feral pigeons (n=30). Genotyping was done using 11 specific polymorphic microsatellite makers. Moreover, 37 samples not belonging to C. livia domestica but belonging to another eight pigeon species were genotyped. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were electrophoresed on an ABI 3130xl DNA Sequencer. The basic measures of genetic diversity and phylogenetic trees were computed using bioinformatics software. Results Across the 10 studied Egyptian populations, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 19 and the average number of alleles observed was 9.091. The lowest value of expected heterozygosity (0.373) was obtained for the Reehani breed, and the highest value (0.706) was found for Morasla breed. The overall expected heterozygosity of Egyptian pigeons was 0.548. The FST coefficient which indicates fixation coefficients of subpopulations within the total population for the 11 loci varied from 0.318 to 0.114 with a relatively high mean (0.226). In our study, the FIS showed a relatively high average(0.037). The pairwise Reynolds’s genetic distance between the11 studied pigeon populations recorded lower values between Otatti and Austoraly (0.025) and between Morasla and Japanese feral pigeons (0.054). These results are supported by clustering pattern either by the neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree or by a Bayesian clustering of STRUCTURE with the admixture method. Conclusions

  20. BAC-end sequence-based SNPs and Bin mapping for rapid integration of physical and genetic maps in apple.

    Han, Yuepeng; Chagné, David; Gasic, Ksenija; Rikkerink, Erik H A; Beever, Jonathan E; Gardiner, Susan E; Korban, Schuyler S

    2009-03-01

    A genome-wide BAC physical map of the apple, Malus x domestica Borkh., has been recently developed. Here, we report on integrating the physical and genetic maps of the apple using a SNP-based approach in conjunction with bin mapping. Briefly, BAC clones located at ends of BAC contigs were selected, and sequenced at both ends. The BAC end sequences (BESs) were used to identify candidate SNPs. Subsequently, these candidate SNPs were genetically mapped using a bin mapping strategy for the purpose of mapping the physical onto the genetic map. Using this approach, 52 (23%) out of 228 BESs tested were successfully exploited to develop SNPs. These SNPs anchored 51 contigs, spanning approximately 37 Mb in cumulative physical length, onto 14 linkage groups. The reliability of the integration of the physical and genetic maps using this SNP-based strategy is described, and the results confirm the feasibility of this approach to construct an integrated physical and genetic maps for apple.

  1. A genetic linkage map of willow (Salix viminalis) based on AFLP and microsatelite markers

    Hanley, S.; Barker, J.H.A.; Ooijen, van J.W.; Aldam, C.; Harris, S.L.; Ahman, I.; Larsson, S.; Karp, A.

    2002-01-01

    The genus Salix (willow) contains a number of species of great value as biomass crops. Efforts to breed varieties with improved biomass yields and resistances to pests and diseases are limited by the lack of knowledge on the genetic basis of the traits. We have used AFLP and microsatellite markers

  2. Genetic linkage map of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) using ...

    DR.ADETUNMBI

    2016-05-18

    May 18, 2016 ... Constructed map provides basic information that could assist in genetic improvement of .... mix contains two universal (FRET) fluorescent resonance energy transfer cassettes. (FAM and HEX), ROX™ passive reference dye, Taq polymerase, free nucleotides and MgCl2 in an optimized buffer solution, while ...

  3. Genetic linkage map of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) using ...

    Genetic linkage maps provide a genomic framework for quantitative trait loci identification applied in marker assisted selection breeding in crops with limited resources. It serves as a powerful tool to breeders for analysing the mode of inheritance of genes of interest and monitoring of the transmission of target genes from ...

  4. Construction of intersubspecific molecular genetic map of lentil

    Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris), is a self-pollinating diploid ( 2 n = 2 x = 14 ), cool-season legume crop and is consumed worldwide as a rich source of protein (∼24.0%), largely in vegetarian diets. Here we report development of a genetic linkage map of Lens using 114 F2 plants derived from the intersubspecific cross ...

  5. Simple sequence repeat marker development and genetic mapping ...

    polymorphic SSR (simple sequence repeats) markers from libraries enriched for GA, CAA and AAT repeats, as well as 6 ... ers for quinoa was the development of a genetic linkage map ...... Weber J. L. 1990 Informativeness of human (dC-dA)n.

  6. A map of directional genetic interactions in a metazoan cell.

    Fischer, Bernd; Sandmann, Thomas; Horn, Thomas; Billmann, Maximilian; Chaudhary, Varun; Huber, Wolfgang; Boutros, Michael

    2015-03-06

    Gene-gene interactions shape complex phenotypes and modify the effects of mutations during development and disease. The effects of statistical gene-gene interactions on phenotypes have been used to assign genes to functional modules. However, directional, epistatic interactions, which reflect regulatory relationships between genes, have been challenging to map at large-scale. Here, we used combinatorial RNA interference and automated single-cell phenotyping to generate a large genetic interaction map for 21 phenotypic features of Drosophila cells. We devised a method that combines genetic interactions on multiple phenotypes to reveal directional relationships. This network reconstructed the sequence of protein activities in mitosis. Moreover, it revealed that the Ras pathway interacts with the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodelling complex, an interaction that we show is conserved in human cancer cells. Our study presents a powerful approach for reconstructing directional regulatory networks and provides a resource for the interpretation of functional consequences of genetic alterations.

  7. Novel tetra-nucleotide microsatellite DNA markers for assessing the evolutionary genetics and demographics of Northern Snakehead (Channa argus) invading North America

    King, Timothy L.; Johnson, Robin L.

    2011-01-01

    We document the isolation and characterization of 19 tetra-nucleotide microsatellite DNA markers in northern snakehead (Channa argus) fish that recently colonized Meadow Lake, New York City, New York. These markers displayed moderate levels of allelic diversity (averaging 6.8 alleles/locus) and heterozygosity (averaging 74.2%). Demographic analyses suggested that the Meadow Lake collection has not achieved mutation-drift equilibrium. These results were consistent with instances of deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium and the presence of some linkage disequilibrium. A comparison of individual pair-wise distances suggested the presence of multiple differentiated groups of related individuals. Results of all analyses are consistent with a pattern of multiple, recent introductions. The microsatellite markers developed for C. argus yielded sufficient genetic diversity to potentially: (1) delineate kinship; (2) elucidate fine-scale population structure; (3) define management (eradication) units; (4) estimate dispersal rates; (5) estimate population sizes; and (6) provide unique demographic perspectives of control or eradication effectiveness.

  8. Mitochondrial control region I and microsatellite analyses of endangered Philippine hornbill species (Aves; Bucerotidae) detect gene flow between island populations and genetic diversity loss.

    Sammler, Svenja; Ketmaier, Valerio; Havenstein, Katja; Krause, Ulrike; Curio, Eberhard; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2012-10-12

    The Visayan Tarictic Hornbill (Penelopides panini) and the Walden's Hornbill (Aceros waldeni) are two threatened hornbill species endemic to the western islands of the Visayas that constitute - between Luzon and Mindanao - the central island group of the Philippine archipelago. In order to evaluate their genetic diversity and to support efforts towards their conservation, we analyzed genetic variation in ~ 600 base pairs (bp) of the mitochondrial control region I and at 12-19 nuclear microsatellite loci. The sampling covered extant populations, still occurring only on two islands (P. panini: Panay and Negros, A. waldeni: only Panay), and it was augmented with museum specimens of extinct populations from neighboring islands. For comparison, their less endangered (= more abundant) sister taxa, the Luzon Tarictic Hornbill (P. manillae) from the Luzon and Polillo Islands and the Writhed Hornbill (A. leucocephalus) from Mindanao Island, were also included in the study. We reconstructed the population history of the two Penelopides species and assessed the genetic population structure of the remaining wild populations in all four species. Mitochondrial and nuclear data concordantly show a clear genetic separation according to the island of origin in both Penelopides species, but also unravel sporadic over-water movements between islands. We found evidence that deforestation in the last century influenced these migratory events. Both classes of markers and the comparison to museum specimens reveal a genetic diversity loss in both Visayan hornbill species, P. panini and A. waldeni, as compared to their more abundant relatives. This might have been caused by local extinction of genetically differentiated populations together with the dramatic decline in the abundance of the extant populations. We demonstrated a loss in genetic diversity of P. panini and A. waldeni as compared to their sister taxa P. manillae and A. leucocephalus. Because of the low potential for gene flow

  9. Mining online genomic resources in Anolis carolinensis facilitates rapid and inexpensive development of cross-species microsatellite markers for the Anolis lizard genus.

    Wordley, Claire; Slate, Jon; Stapley, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Online sequence databases can provide valuable resources for the development of cross-species genetic markers. In particular, mining expressed tag sequences (EST) for microsatellites and developing conserved cross-species microsatellite markers can provide a rapid and relatively inexpensive method to develop new markers for a range of species. Here, we adopt this approach to develop cross-species microsatellite markers in Anolis lizards, which is a model genus in evolutionary biology and ecology. Using EST sequences from Anolis carolinensis, we identified 127 microsatellites that satisfied our criteria, and tested 49 of these in five species of Anolis (carolinensis, distichus, apletophallus, porcatus and sagrei). We identified between 8 and 25 new variable genetic markers for five Anolis species. These markers will be a valuable resource for studies of population genetics, comparative mapping, mating systems, behavioural ecology and adaptive radiations in this diverse lineage. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. A novel genome-wide microsatellite resource for species of Eucalyptus with linkage-to-physical correspondence on the reference genome sequence.

    Grattapaglia, Dario; Mamani, Eva M C; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Faria, Danielle A

    2015-03-01

    Keystone species in their native ranges, eucalypts, are ecologically and genetically very diverse, growing naturally along extensive latitudinal and altitudinal ranges and variable environments. Besides their ecological importance, eucalypts are also the most widely planted trees for sustainable forestry in the world. We report the development of a novel collection of 535 microsatellites for species of Eucalyptus, 494 designed from ESTs and 41 from genomic libraries. A selected subset of 223 was evaluated for individual identification, parentage testing, and ancestral information content in the two most extensively studied species, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus globulus. Microsatellites showed high transferability and overlapping allele size range, suggesting they have arisen still in their common ancestor and confirming the extensive genome conservation between these two species. A consensus linkage map with 437 microsatellites, the most comprehensive microsatellite-only genetic map for Eucalyptus, was built by assembling segregation data from three mapping populations and anchored to the Eucalyptus genome. An overall colinearity between recombination-based and physical positioning of 84% of the mapped microsatellites was observed, with some ordering discrepancies and sporadic locus duplications, consistent with the recently described whole genome duplication events in Eucalyptus. The linkage map covered 95.2% of the 605.8-Mbp assembled genome sequence, placing one microsatellite every 1.55 Mbp on average, and an overall estimate of physical to recombination distance of 618 kbp/cM. The genetic parameters estimates together with linkage and physical position data for this large set of microsatellites should assist marker choice for genome-wide population genetics and comparative mapping in Eucalyptus. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Development of a SNP resource and a genetic linkage map for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua

    Higgins Brent

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua is a species with increasing economic significance for the aquaculture industry. The genetic improvement of cod will play a critical role in achieving successful large-scale aquaculture. While many microsatellite markers have been developed in cod, the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs is currently limited. Here we report the identification of SNPs from sequence data generated by a large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST program, focusing on fish originating from Canadian waters. Results A total of 97976 ESTs were assembled to generate 13448 contigs. We detected 4753 SNPs that met our selection criteria (depth of coverage ≥ 4 reads; minor allele frequency > 25%. 3072 SNPs were selected for testing. The percentage of successful assays was 75%, with 2291 SNPs amplifying correctly. Of these, 607 (26% SNPs were monomorphic for all populations tested. In total, 64 (4% of SNPs are likely to represent duplicated genes or highly similar members of gene families, rather than alternative alleles of the same gene, since they showed a high frequency of heterozygosity. The remaining polymorphic SNPs (1620 were categorised as validated SNPs. The mean minor allele frequency of the validated loci was 0.258 (± 0.141. Of the 1514 contigs from which validated SNPs were selected, 31% have a significant blast hit. For the SNPs predicted to occur in coding regions (141, we determined that 36% (51 are non-synonymous. Many loci (1033 SNPs; 64% are polymorphic in all populations tested. However a small number of SNPs (184 that are polymorphic in the Western Atlantic were monomorphic in fish tested from three European populations. A preliminary linkage map has been constructed with 23 major linkage groups and 924 mapped SNPs. Conclusions These SNPs represent powerful tools to accelerate the genetic improvement of cod aquaculture. They have been used to build a genetic linkage map that can be applied to

  12. Population genetic structure of the blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva, Psittacidae: Aves) based on nuclear microsatellite loci: implications for conservation.

    Leite, K C E; Seixas, G H F; Berkunsky, I; Collevatti, R G; Caparroz, R

    2008-09-09

    The blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) is a widely distributed Neotropical parrot and one of the most captured parrots in nature to supply the illegal trade of wild animals. The objectives of the present study were to analyze the genetic structure of A. aestiva to identify management units and support conservation planning and to verified if A. aestiva populations have undergone a recent bottleneck due to habitat loss and capture for the pet trade. The genetic structure was accessed by analyzing six microsatellite loci in 74 individuals of A. aestiva, including samples from the two subspecies (A. a. aestiva and A. a. xanthopteryx), from five populations: four in Brazil and one in Argentina. A significant genetic differentiation (theta = 0.007, p = 0.005) could be detected only between the most distant populations, Tocantins and Argentina, localized at the northeast and southwest limits of the sample sites, respectively. There was no evidence of inbreeding within or between populations, suggesting random mating among individuals. These results suggest a clinal distribution of genetic variability, as observed for variation in plumage color of the two A. aestiva subspecies. Bottleneck analysis did not show a recent reduction in population size. Thus, for the management and conservation of the species, the populations from Argentina and Tocantins should be considered as different management units, and the other populations from the center of the geographical distribution as another management unit.

  13. Genetic map of artichoke × wild cardoon: toward a consensus map for Cynara cardunculus.

    Sonnante, Gabriella; Gatto, Angela; Morgese, Anita; Montemurro, Francesco; Sarli, Giulio; Blanco, Emanuela; Pignone, Domenico

    2011-11-01

    An integrated consensus linkage map is proposed for globe artichoke. Maternal and paternal genetic maps were constructed on the basis of an F(1) progeny derived from crossing an artichoke genotype (Mola) with its progenitor, the wild cardoon (Tolfa), using EST-derived SSRs, genomic SSRs, AFLPs, ten genes, and two morphological traits. For most genes, mainly belonging to the chlorogenic acid pathway, new markers were developed. Five of these were SNP markers analyzed through high-resolution melt technology. From the maternal (Mola) and paternal (Tolfa) maps, an integrated map was obtained, containing 337 molecular and one morphological markers ordered in 17 linkage groups (LGs), linked between Mola and Tolfa. The integrated map covers 1,488.8 cM, with an average distance of 4.4 cM between markers. The map was aligned with already existing maps for artichoke, and 12 LGs were linked via 31 bridge markers. LG numbering has been proposed. A total of 124 EST-SSRs and two genes were mapped here for the first time, providing a framework for the construction of a functional map in artichoke. The establishment of a consensus map represents a necessary condition to plan a complete sequencing of the globe artichoke genome.

  14. Bayesian and maximum likelihood estimation of genetic maps

    York, Thomas L.; Durrett, Richard T.; Tanksley, Steven

    2005-01-01

    There has recently been increased interest in the use of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)-based Bayesian methods for estimating genetic maps. The advantage of these methods is that they can deal accurately with missing data and genotyping errors. Here we present an extension of the previous methods...... of genotyping errors. A similar advantage of the Bayesian method was not observed for missing data. We also re-analyse a recently published set of data from the eggplant and show that the use of the MCMC-based method leads to smaller estimates of genetic distances....

  15. The population genetics of Quechuas, the largest native South American group: autosomal sequences, SNPs, and microsatellites evidence high level of diversity.

    Scliar, Marilia O; Soares-Souza, Giordano B; Chevitarese, Juliana; Lemos, Livia; Magalhães, Wagner C S; Fagundes, Nelson J; Bonatto, Sandro L; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo

    2012-03-01

    Elucidating the pattern of genetic diversity for non-European populations is necessary to make the benefits of human genetics research available to individuals from these groups. In the era of large human genomic initiatives, Native American populations have been neglected, in particular, the Quechua, the largest South Amerindian group settled along the Andes. We characterized the genetic diversity of a Quechua population in a global setting, using autosomal noncoding sequences (nine unlinked loci for a total of 16 kb), 351 unlinked SNPs and 678 microsatellites and tested predictions of the model of the evolution of Native Americans proposed by (Tarazona-Santos et al.: Am J Hum Genet 68 (2001) 1485-1496). European admixture is Quechua or Melanesian populations, which is concordant with the African origin of modern humans and the fact that South America was the last part of the world to be peopled. The diversity in the Quechua population is comparable with that of Eurasian populations, and the allele frequency spectrum based on resequencing data does not reflect a reduction in the proportion of rare alleles. Thus, the Quechua population is a large reservoir of common and rare genetic variants of South Amerindians. These results are consistent with and complement our evolutionary model of South Amerindians (Tarazona-Santos et al.: Am J Hum Genet 68 (2001) 1485-1496), proposed based on Y-chromosome data, which predicts high genomic diversity due to the high level of gene flow between Andean populations and their long-term effective population size. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Genetic linkage maps of Japanese and European pears aligned to the apple consensus map

    Yamamoto, T.; Kimura, T.; Saito, T.; Kotobuki, K.; Matsuta, N.; Liebhard, R.; Gessler, C.; Weg, van de W.E.; Hayashi, T.

    2004-01-01

    Genetic linkage maps of the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivar `Housui¿ and the European pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar `Bartlett¿ were constructed based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism markers (AFLPs), Simple Sequence Repeat markers (SSRs) (from pear, apple and Prunus),

  17. Genome-wide development and use of microsatellite markers for large-scale genotyping applications in foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.)].

    Pandey, Garima; Misra, Gopal; Kumari, Kajal; Gupta, Sarika; Parida, Swarup Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Debasis; Prasad, Manoj

    2013-04-01

    The availability of well-validated informative co-dominant microsatellite markers and saturated genetic linkage map has been limited in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.). In view of this, we conducted a genome-wide analysis and identified 28 342 microsatellite repeat-motifs spanning 405.3 Mb of foxtail millet genome. The trinucleotide repeats (∼48%) was prevalent when compared with dinucleotide repeats (∼46%). Of the 28 342 microsatellites, 21 294 (∼75%) primer pairs were successfully designed, and a total of 15 573 markers were physically mapped on 9 chromosomes of foxtail millet. About 159 markers were validated successfully in 8 accessions of Setaria sp. with ∼67% polymorphic potential. The high percentage (89.3%) of cross-genera transferability across millet and non-millet species with higher transferability percentage in bioenergy grasses (∼79%, Switchgrass and ∼93%, Pearl millet) signifies their importance in studying the bioenergy grasses. In silico comparative mapping of 15 573 foxtail millet microsatellite markers against the mapping data of sorghum (16.9%), maize (14.5%) and rice (6.4%) indicated syntenic relationships among the chromosomes of foxtail millet and target species. The results, thus, demonstrate the immense applicability of developed microsatellite markers in germplasm characterization, phylogenetics, construction of genetic linkage map for gene/quantitative trait loci discovery, comparative mapping in foxtail millet, including other millets and bioenergy grass species.

  18. Mapping DNA damage-dependent genetic interactions in yeast via party mating and barcode fusion genetics.

    Díaz-Mejía, J Javier; Celaj, Albi; Mellor, Joseph C; Coté, Atina; Balint, Attila; Ho, Brandon; Bansal, Pritpal; Shaeri, Fatemeh; Gebbia, Marinella; Weile, Jochen; Verby, Marta; Karkhanina, Anna; Zhang, YiFan; Wong, Cassandra; Rich, Justin; Prendergast, D'Arcy; Gupta, Gaurav; Öztürk, Sedide; Durocher, Daniel; Brown, Grant W; Roth, Frederick P

    2018-05-28

    Condition-dependent genetic interactions can reveal functional relationships between genes that are not evident under standard culture conditions. State-of-the-art yeast genetic interaction mapping, which relies on robotic manipulation of arrays of double-mutant strains, does not scale readily to multi-condition studies. Here, we describe barcode fusion genetics to map genetic interactions (BFG-GI), by which double-mutant strains generated via en masse "party" mating can also be monitored en masse for growth to detect genetic interactions. By using site-specific recombination to fuse two DNA barcodes, each representing a specific gene deletion, BFG-GI enables multiplexed quantitative tracking of double mutants via next-generation sequencing. We applied BFG-GI to a matrix of DNA repair genes under nine different conditions, including methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO), bleomycin, zeocin, and three other DNA-damaging environments. BFG-GI recapitulated known genetic interactions and yielded new condition-dependent genetic interactions. We validated and further explored a subnetwork of condition-dependent genetic interactions involving MAG1 , SLX4, and genes encoding the Shu complex, and inferred that loss of the Shu complex leads to an increase in the activation of the checkpoint protein kinase Rad53. © 2018 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  19. Chromosomal localization of microsatellite loci in Drosophila mediopunctata

    Renato Cavasini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila mediopunctata has been used as a model organism for genetics and evolutionary studies in the last three decades. A linkage map with 48 microsatellite loci recently published for this species showed five syntenic groups, which had their homology determined to Drosophila melanogaster chromosomes. Then, by inference, each of the groups was associated with one of the five major chromosomes of D. mediopunctata. Our objective was to carry out a genetic (chromosomal analysis to increase the number of available loci with known chromosomal location. We made a simultaneous analysis of visible mutant phenotypes and microsatellite genotypes in a backcross of a standard strain and a mutant strain, which had each major autosome marked. Hence, we could establish the chromosomal location of seventeen loci; including one from each of the five major linkage groups previously published, and twelve new loci. Our results were congruent with the previous location and they open new possibilities to future work integrating microsatellites, chromosomal inversions, and genetic determinants of physiological and morphological variation.

  20. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Microsatellite Genotypes

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Currently ~2,400 Hawaiian monk seal specimens have been analyzed genetically, providing genotypes at 18 microsatellite loci. These data are organized by individual,...

  1. Mapping genetic influences on the corticospinal motor system in humans

    Cheeran, B J; Ritter, C; Rothwell, J C

    2009-01-01

    of the contribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and variable number tandem repeats. In humans, the corticospinal motor system is essential to the acquisition of fine manual motor skills which require a finely tuned coordination of activity in distal forelimb muscles. Here we review recent brain mapping......It is becoming increasingly clear that genetic variations account for a certain amount of variance in the acquisition and maintenance of different skills. Until now, several levels of genetic influences were examined, ranging from global heritability estimates down to the analysis...... studies that have begun to explore the influence of functional genetic variation as well as mutations on function and structure of the human corticospinal motor system, and also the clinical implications of these studies. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the primary motor hand area revealed...

  2. Analysis of genetic distance between Peruvian Alpaca (Vicugna Pacos showing two distinct fleece phenotypes, Suri and Huacaya, by means of microsatellite markers

    Carlo Renieri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Two coat phenotypes exist in Alpaca, Huacaya and Suri. The two coats show different fleece structure, textile characteristics and prices on the market. Although present scientific knowledge suggests a simple genetic model of inheritance, there is a tendency to manage and consider the two phenotypes as two different breeds. A 13 microsatellite panel was used in this study to assess genetic distance between Suri and Huacaya alpacas in a sample of non-related animals from two phenotypically pure flocks at the Illpa-Puno experimental station in Quimsachata, Peru. The animals are part of a germplasm established approximately 20 years ago and have been bred separately according to their coat type since then. Genetic variability parameters were also calculated. The data were statistically analyzed using the software Genalex 6.3, Phylip 3.69 and Fstat 2.9.3.2. The sample was tested for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE and after strict Bonferroni correction only one locus (LCA37 showed deviation from equilibrium (Ploci associations showed significant disequilibrium. Observed heterozygosis (Ho= 0.766; SE=0.044, expected heterozygosis (He=0.769; SE=0.033, number of alleles (Na=9.667, SE=0.772 and Fixation index (F=0.004; SE=0.036 are comparable to data from previous studies. Measures of genetic distance were 0.06 for Nei’s and 0.03 for Cavalli-Sforza’s. The analysis of molecular variance reported no existing variance between populations. Considering the origin of the animals, their post domestication evolution and the reproductive practices in place, the results do not show genetic differentiation between the two populations for the studied loci.

  3. Genetic dissection of powdery mildew resistance in interspecific half-sib grapevine families using SNP-based maps.

    Teh, Soon Li; Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Clark, Matthew D; Gadoury, David M; Sun, Qi; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Luby, James J

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) identification in perennial fruit crops is impeded largely by their lengthy generation time, resulting in costly and labor-intensive maintenance of breeding programs. In a grapevine (genus Vitis ) breeding program, although experimental families are typically unreplicated, the genetic backgrounds may contain similar progenitors previously selected due to their contribution of favorable alleles. In this study, we investigated the utility of joint QTL identification provided by analyzing half-sib families. The genetic control of powdery mildew was studied using two half-sib F 1 families, namely GE0711/1009 (MN1264 × MN1214; N  = 147) and GE1025 (MN1264 × MN1246; N  = 125) with multiple species in their ancestry. Maternal genetic maps consisting of 1077 and 1641 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, respectively, were constructed using a pseudo-testcross strategy. Ratings of field resistance to powdery mildew were obtained based on whole-plant evaluation of disease severity. This 2-year analysis uncovered two QTLs that were validated on a consensus map in these half-sib families with improved precision relative to the parental maps. Examination of haplotype combinations based on the two QTL regions identified strong association of haplotypes inherited from 'Seyval blanc', through MN1264, with powdery mildew resistance. This investigation also encompassed the use of microsatellite markers to establish a correlation between 206-bp (UDV-015b) and 357-bp (VViv67) fragment sizes with resistance-carrying haplotypes. Our work is one of the first reports in grapevine demonstrating the use of SNP-based maps and haplotypes for QTL identification and tagging of powdery mildew resistance in half-sib families.

  4. Identification of Genetic Loci Associated with Quality Traits in Almond via Association Mapping.

    Carolina Font i Forcada

    Full Text Available To design an appropriate association study, we need to understand population structure and the structure of linkage disequilibrium within and among populations as well as in different regions of the genome in an organism. In this study, we have used a total of 98 almond accessions, from five continents located and maintained at the Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón (CITA; Spain, and 40 microsatellite markers. Population structure analysis performed in 'Structure' grouped the accessions into two principal groups; the Mediterranean (Western-Europe and the non-Mediterranean, with K = 3, being the best fit for our data. There was a strong subpopulation structure with linkage disequilibrium decaying with increasing genetic distance resulting in lower levels of linkage disequilibrium between more distant markers. A significant impact of population structure on linkage disequilibrium in the almond cultivar groups was observed. The mean r2 value for all intra-chromosomal loci pairs was 0.040, whereas, the r2 for the inter-chromosomal loci pairs was 0.036. For analysis of association between the markers and phenotypic traits, five models comprising both general linear models and mixed linear models were selected to test the marker trait associations. The mixed linear model (MLM approach using co-ancestry values from population structure and kinship estimates (K model as covariates identified a maximum of 16 significant associations for chemical traits and 12 for physical traits. This study reports for the first time the use of association mapping for determining marker-locus trait associations in a world-wide almond germplasm collection. It is likely that association mapping will have the most immediate and largest impact on the tier of crops such as almond with the greatest economic value.

  5. Ontology and diversity of transcript-associated microsatellites mined from a globe artichoke EST database

    Scaglione, Davide; Acquadro, Alberto; Portis, Ezio; Taylor, Christopher A; Lanteri, Sergio; Knapp, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    Background The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L.) is a significant crop in the Mediterranean basin. Despite its commercial importance and its both dietary and pharmaceutical value, knowledge of its genetics and genomics remains scant. Microsatellite markers have become a key tool in genetic and genomic analysis, and we have exploited recently acquired EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence data (Composite Genome Project - CGP) to develop an extensive set of microsatellite markers. Results A unigene assembly was created from over 36,000 globe artichoke EST sequences, containing 6,621 contigs and 12,434 singletons. Over 12,000 of these unigenes were functionally assigned on the basis of homology with Arabidopsis thaliana reference proteins. A total of 4,219 perfect repeats, located within 3,308 unigenes was identified and the gene ontology (GO) analysis highlighted some GO term's enrichments among different classes of microsatellites with respect to their position. Sufficient flanking sequence was available to enable the design of primers to amplify 2,311 of these microsatellites, and a set of 300 was tested against a DNA panel derived from 28 C. cardunculus genotypes. Consistent amplification and polymorphism was obtained from 236 of these assays. Their polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.04 to 0.90 (mean 0.66). Between 176 and 198 of the assays were informative in at least one of the three available mapping populations. Conclusion EST-based microsatellites have provided a large set of de novo genetic markers, which show significant amounts of polymorphism both between and within the three taxa of C. cardunculus. They are thus well suited as assays for phylogenetic analysis, the construction of genetic maps, marker-assisted breeding, transcript mapping and other genomic applications in the species. PMID:19785740

  6. Ancient conservation of trinucleotide microsatellite loci in polistine wasps

    Ezenwa, V O; Peters, J M; Zhu, Y

    1998-01-01

    Microsatellites have proven to be very useful genetic markers for studies of kinship, parentage, and gene mapping. If microsatellites are conserved among species, then those developed for one species can be used on related species, which would save the time and effort of developing new loci. We...... evaluated conservation of 27 trinucleotide loci that were derived from 2 species of Polistes wasps in cross-species applications on 27 species chosen from the major lineages of the Vespidae, which diverged as much as 144 million years ago. We further investigated cross-species polymorphism levels for 18...... of the loci. There was a clear relationship between cladistic distance and both conservation of the priming sites and heterozygosity. However the loci derived from P. bellicosus were much more widely conserved and polymorphic than were those derived from P. annularis. The disparity in cross-species utility...

  7. The genetic map of finger millet, Eleusine coracana.

    Dida, Mathews M; Srinivasachary; Ramakrishnan, Sujatha; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Gale, Mike D; Devos, Katrien M

    2007-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), expressed-sequenced tag (EST), and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to generate a genetic map of the tetraploid finger millet (Eleusine coracana subsp. coracana) genome (2n = 4x = 36). Because levels of variation in finger millet are low, the map was generated in an inter-subspecific F(2) population from a cross between E. coracana subsp. coracana cv. Okhale-1 and its wild progenitor E. coracana subsp. africana acc. MD-20. Duplicated loci were used to identify homoeologous groups. Assignment of linkage groups to the A and B genome was done by comparing the hybridization patterns of probes in Okhale-1, MD-20, and Eleusine indica acc. MD-36. E. indica is the A genome donor to E. coracana. The maps span 721 cM on the A genome and 787 cM on the B genome and cover all 18 finger millet chromosomes, at least partially. To facilitate the use of marker-assisted selection in finger millet, a first set of 82 SSR markers was developed. The SSRs were identified in small-insert genomic libraries generated using methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes. Thirty-one of the SSRs were mapped. Application of the maps and markers in hybridization-based breeding programs will expedite the improvement of finger millet.

  8. Genetic maps of polymorphic DNA loci on rat chromosome 1

    Ding, Yan-Ping; Remmers, E.F.; Longman, R.E. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Genetic linkage maps of loci defined by polymorphic DNA markers on rat chromosome 1 were constructed by genotyping F2 progeny of F344/N x LEW/N, BN/SsN x LEW/N, and DA/Bkl x F344/Hsd inbred rat strains. In total, 43 markers were mapped, of which 3 were restriction fragment length polymorphisms and the others were simple sequence length polymorphisms. Nineteen of these markers were associated with genes. Six markers for five genes, {gamma}-aminobutyric acid receptor {beta}3 (Gabrb3), syntaxin 2 (Stx2), adrenergic receptor {beta}3 (Gabrb3), syntaxin 2 (Stx2), adrenergic receptor {beta}1 (Adrb1), carcinoembryonic antigen gene family member 1 (Cgm1), and lipogenic protein S14 (Lpgp), and 20 anonymous loci were not previously reported. Thirteen gene loci (Myl2, Aldoa, Tnt, Igf2, Prkcg, Cgm4, Calm3, Cgm3, Psbp1, Sa, Hbb, Ins1, and Tcp1) were previously mapped. Comparative mapping analysis indicated that the large portion of rat chromosome 1 is homologous to mouse chromosome 7, although the homologous to mouse chromosome 7, although the homologs of two rat genes are located on mouse chromosomes 17 and 19. Homologs of the rat chromosome 1 genes that we mapped are located on human chromosomes 6, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, and 19. 38 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  9. Genetic mapping and QTL analysis for body weight in Jian carp ( Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) compared with mirror carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Gu, Ying; Lu, Cuiyun; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Li, Chao; Yu, Juhua; Sun, Xiaowen

    2015-05-01

    We report the genetic linkage map of Jian carp ( Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). An F1 population comprising 94 Jian carp individuals was mapped using 254 microsatellite markers. The genetic map spanned 1 381.592 cM and comprised 44 linkage groups, with an average marker distance of 6.58 cM. We identified eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for body weight (BW) in seven linkage groups, explaining 12.6% to 17.3% of the phenotypic variance. Comparative mapping was performed between Jian carp and mirror carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.), which both have 50 chromosomes. One hundred and ninety-eight Jian carp marker loci were found in common with the mirror carp map, with 186 (93.94%) showing synteny. All 44 Jian carp linkage groups could be one-to-one aligned to the 44 mirror carp linkage groups, mostly sharing two or more common loci. Three QTLs for BW in Jian carp were conserved in mirror carp. QTL comparison suggested that the QTL confidence interval in mirror carp was more precise than the homologous interval in Jian carp, which was contained within the QTL interval in Jian carp. The syntenic relationship and consensus QTLs between the two varieties provide a foundation for genomic research and genetic breeding in common carp.

  10. Mitochondrial control region I and microsatellite analyses of endangered Philippine hornbill species (Aves; Bucerotidae detect gene flow between island populations and genetic diversity loss

    Sammler Svenja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Visayan Tarictic Hornbill (Penelopides panini and the Walden’s Hornbill (Aceros waldeni are two threatened hornbill species endemic to the western islands of the Visayas that constitute - between Luzon and Mindanao - the central island group of the Philippine archipelago. In order to evaluate their genetic diversity and to support efforts towards their conservation, we analyzed genetic variation in ~ 600 base pairs (bp of the mitochondrial control region I and at 12–19 nuclear microsatellite loci. The sampling covered extant populations, still occurring only on two islands (P. panini: Panay and Negros, A. waldeni: only Panay, and it was augmented with museum specimens of extinct populations from neighboring islands. For comparison, their less endangered (= more abundant sister taxa, the Luzon Tarictic Hornbill (P. manillae from the Luzon and Polillo Islands and the Writhed Hornbill (A. leucocephalus from Mindanao Island, were also included in the study. We reconstructed the population history of the two Penelopides species and assessed the genetic population structure of the remaining wild populations in all four species. Results Mitochondrial and nuclear data concordantly show a clear genetic separation according to the island of origin in both Penelopides species, but also unravel sporadic over-water movements between islands. We found evidence that deforestation in the last century influenced these migratory events. Both classes of markers and the comparison to museum specimens reveal a genetic diversity loss in both Visayan hornbill species, P. panini and A. waldeni, as compared to their more abundant relatives. This might have been caused by local extinction of genetically differentiated populations together with the dramatic decline in the abundance of the extant populations. Conclusions We demonstrated a loss in genetic diversity of P. panini and A. waldeni as compared to their sister taxa P. manillae and A

  11. Origin and genetic diversity of Western European populations of the potato cyst nematode (Globodera pallida) inferred from mitochondrial sequences and microsatellite loci.

    Plantard, O; Picard, D; Valette, S; Scurrah, M; Grenier, E; Mugniéry, D

    2008-05-01

    Native to South America, the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida is one of the principal pests of Andean potato crops and is also an important global pest following its introduction to Europe, Africa, North America, Asia and Oceania. Building on earlier work showing a clear south to north phylogeographic pattern in Peruvian populations, we have been able to identify the origin of Western European populations with high accuracy. They are all derived from a single restricted area in the extreme south of Peru, located between the north shore of the Lake Titicaca and Cusco. Only four cytochrome b haplotypes are found in Western Europe, one of them being also found in some populations of this area of southern Peru. The allelic richness at seven microsatellite loci observed in the Western European populations, although only one-third of that observed in this part of southern Peru, is comparable to the allelic richness observed in the northern region of Peru. This result could be explained by the fact that most of the genetic variability observed at the scale of a field or even of a region is already observed at the scale of a single plant within a field. Thus, even introduction via a single infected potato plant could result in the relatively high genetic variability observed in Western Europe. This finding has important consequences for the control of this pest and the development of quarantine measures.

  12. Genetic diversity in German draught horse breeds compared with a group of primitive, riding and wild horses by means of microsatellite DNA markers.

    Aberle, K S; Hamann, H; Drögemüller, C; Distl, O

    2004-08-01

    We compared the genetic diversity and distance among six German draught horse breeds to wild (Przewalski's Horse), primitive (Icelandic Horse, Sorraia Horse, Exmoor Pony) or riding horse breeds (Hanoverian Warmblood, Arabian) by means of genotypic information from 30 microsatellite loci. The draught horse breeds included the South German Coldblood, Rhenish German Draught Horse, Mecklenburg Coldblood, Saxon Thuringa Coldblood, Black Forest Horse and Schleswig Draught Horse. Despite large differences in population sizes, the average observed heterozygosity (H(o)) differed little among the heavy horse breeds (0.64-0.71), but was considerably lower than in the Hanoverian Warmblood or Icelandic Horse population. The mean number of alleles (N(A)) decreased more markedly with declining population sizes of German draught horse breeds (5.2-6.3) but did not reach the values of Hanoverian Warmblood (N(A) = 6.7). The coefficient of differentiation among the heavy horse breeds showed 11.6% of the diversity between the heavy horse breeds, as opposed to 21.2% between the other horse populations. The differentiation test revealed highly significant genetic differences among all draught horse breeds except the Mecklenburg and Saxon Thuringa Coldbloods. The Schleswig Draught Horse was the most distinct draught horse breed. In conclusion, the study demonstrated a clear distinction among the German draught horse breeds and even among breeds with a very short history of divergence like Rhenish German Draught Horse and its East German subpopulations Mecklenburg and Saxon Thuringa Coldblood.

  13. Evaluation of algorithms used to order markers on genetic maps.

    Mollinari, M; Margarido, G R A; Vencovsky, R; Garcia, A A F

    2009-12-01

    When building genetic maps, it is necessary to choose from several marker ordering algorithms and criteria, and the choice is not always simple. In this study, we evaluate the efficiency of algorithms try (TRY), seriation (SER), rapid chain delineation (RCD), recombination counting and ordering (RECORD) and unidirectional growth (UG), as well as the criteria PARF (product of adjacent recombination fractions), SARF (sum of adjacent recombination fractions), SALOD (sum of adjacent LOD scores) and LHMC (likelihood through hidden Markov chains), used with the RIPPLE algorithm for error verification, in the construction of genetic linkage maps. A linkage map of a hypothetical diploid and monoecious plant species was simulated containing one linkage group and 21 markers with fixed distance of 3 cM between them. In all, 700 F(2) populations were randomly simulated with 100 and 400 individuals with different combinations of dominant and co-dominant markers, as well as 10 and 20% of missing data. The simulations showed that, in the presence of co-dominant markers only, any combination of algorithm and criteria may be used, even for a reduced population size. In the case of a smaller proportion of dominant markers, any of the algorithms and criteria (except SALOD) investigated may be used. In the presence of high proportions of dominant markers and smaller samples (around 100), the probability of repulsion linkage increases between them and, in this case, use of the algorithms TRY and SER associated to RIPPLE with criterion LHMC would provide better results.

  14. Role of microsatellite instability in colon cancer

    M. Yu. Fedyanin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coloncancer is among leading causes of cancer morbidity and mortality both inRussiaand worldwide. Development of molecular biology lead to decoding of carcinogenesis and tumor progression mechanisms. These processes require accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in a tumor cell.Coloncancer carcinogenesis is characterized by mutations cumulation in genes controlling growth and differentiation of epithelial cells, which leads to their genetic instability. Microsatellite instability is a type of genetic instability characterized by deterioration of mismatch DNA repair. This leads to faster accumulation of mutations in DNA. Loss of mismatch repair mechanism can easily be diagnosed by length of DNA microsatellites. These alterations are termed microsatellite instability. They can be found both in hereditary and sporadic colon cancers. This review covers the questions of microsatellite instability, its prognostic and predictive value in colon cancer.

  15. SNP and haplotype mapping for genetic analysis in the rat

    Saar, K.; Beck, A.; Bihoreau, M. T.; Birney, E.; Brocklebank, D.; Chen, Y.; Cuppen, E.; Demonchy, S.; Dopazo, J.; Flicek, P.; Foglio, M.; Fujiyama, A.; Gut, I. G.; Gauguier, D.; Guigo, R.; Guryev, V.; Heinig, M.; Hummel, O.; Jahn, N.; Klages, S.; Křen, Vladimír; Kube, M.; Kuhl, H.; Kuramoto, T.; Pravenec, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 5 (2008), s. 560-566 ISSN 1061-4036 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05ME791; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA MŠk(CZ) ME08006 Grant - others:HHMI(US) 55005624; -(XE) LSHG-CT-2005-019015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Source of funding: N - neverejné zdroje ; R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : SNP * rat * complete map Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 30.259, year: 2008

  16. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Broomcorn Millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) Cultivars and Landraces in China Based on Microsatellite Markers

    Liu, Minxuan; Xu, Yue; He, Jihong; Zhang, Shuang; Wang, Yinyue; Lu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.), one of the first domesticated crops, has been grown in Northern China for at least 10,000 years. The species is presently a minor crop, and evaluation of its genetic diversity has been very limited. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity of 88 accessions of broomcorn millet collected from various provinces of China. Amplification with 67 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers revealed moderate levels of diversity in the investigated accessions. A total of 179 alleles were detected, with an average of 2.7 alleles per locus. Polymorphism information content and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.043 to 0.729 (mean = 0.376) and 0.045 to 0.771 (mean = 0.445), respectively. Cluster analysis based on the unweighted pair group method of mathematical averages separated the 88 accessions into four groups at a genetic similarity level of 0.633. A genetic structure assay indicated a close correlation between geographical regions and genetic diversity. The uncovered information will be valuable for defining gene pools and developing breeding programs for broomcorn millet. Furthermore, the millet-specific SSR markers developed in this study should serve as useful tools for assessment of genetic diversity and elucidation of population structure in broomcorn millet. PMID:26985894

  17. You Can't Unscramble an Egg: Population Genetic Structure of Oncorhynchus mykiss in the California Central Valley Inferred from Combined Microsatellite and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Data

    Devon E. Pearse

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2015v13iss4art3Steelhead/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss are found in all of the major tributaries of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, which flow through California’s Central Valley and enter the ocean through San Francisco Bay and the Golden Gate. This river system is heavily affected by water development, agriculture, and invasive species, and salmon and trout hatchery propagation has been occurring for over 100 years. We collected genotype data for 18 highly variable microsatellite loci and 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from more than 1,900 fish from Central Valley drainages to analyze genetic diversity, population structure, differentiation between populations above and below dams, and the relationship of Central Valley O. mykiss populations to coastal California steelhead. In addition, we evaluate introgression by both hatchery rainbow trout strains, which have primarily native Central Valley ancestry, and imported coastal steelhead stocks. In contrast to patterns typical of coastal steelhead, Central Valley O. mykiss above and below dams within the same tributary were not found to be each others’ closest relatives, and we found no relationship between genetic and geographic distance among below-barrier populations. While introgression by hatchery rainbow trout strains does not appear to be widespread among above-barrier populations, steelhead in the American River and some neighboring tributaries have been introgressed by coastal steelhead. Together, these results demonstrate that the ancestral population genetic structure that existed among Central Valley tributaries has been significantly altered in contemporary populations. Future conservation, restoration, and mitigation efforts should take this into account when working to meet recovery planning goals.

  18. OGDD (Olive Genetic Diversity Database): a microsatellite markers' genotypes database of worldwide olive trees for cultivar identification and virgin olive oil traceability.

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Ben Marzoug, Riadh; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea), whose importance is mainly due to nutritional and health features, is one of the most economically significant oil-producing trees in the Mediterranean region. Unfortunately, the increasing market demand towards virgin olive oil could often result in its adulteration with less expensive oils, which is a serious problem for the public and quality control evaluators of virgin olive oil. Therefore, to avoid frauds, olive cultivar identification and virgin olive oil authentication have become a major issue for the producers and consumers of quality control in the olive chain. Presently, genetic traceability using SSR is the cost effective and powerful marker technique that can be employed to resolve such problems. However, to identify an unknown monovarietal virgin olive oil cultivar, a reference system has become necessary. Thus, an Olive Genetic Diversity Database (OGDD) (http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/) is presented in this work. It is a genetic, morphologic and chemical database of worldwide olive tree and oil having a double function. In fact, besides being a reference system generated for the identification of unkown olive or virgin olive oil cultivars based on their microsatellite allele size(s), it provides users additional morphological and chemical information for each identified cultivar. Currently, OGDD is designed to enable users to easily retrieve and visualize biologically important information (SSR markers, and olive tree and oil characteristics of about 200 cultivars worldwide) using a set of efficient query interfaces and analysis tools. It can be accessed through a web service from any modern programming language using a simple hypertext transfer protocol call. The web site is implemented in java, JavaScript, PHP, HTML and Apache with all major browsers supported. Database URL: http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Sequence determinants of human microsatellite variability

    Jakobsson Mattias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellite loci are frequently used in genomic studies of DNA sequence repeats and in population studies of genetic variability. To investigate the effect of sequence properties of microsatellites on their level of variability we have analyzed genotypes at 627 microsatellite loci in 1,048 worldwide individuals from the HGDP-CEPH cell line panel together with the DNA sequences of these microsatellites in the human RefSeq database. Results Calibrating PCR fragment lengths in individual genotypes by using the RefSeq sequence enabled us to infer repeat number in the HGDP-CEPH dataset and to calculate the mean number of repeats (as opposed to the mean PCR fragment length, under the assumption that differences in PCR fragment length reflect differences in the numbers of repeats in the embedded repeat sequences. We find the mean and maximum numbers of repeats across individuals to be positively correlated with heterozygosity. The size and composition of the repeat unit of a microsatellite are also important factors in predicting heterozygosity, with tetra-nucleotide repeat units high in G/C content leading to higher heterozygosity. Finally, we find that microsatellites containing more separate sets of repeated motifs generally have higher heterozygosity. Conclusions These results suggest that sequence properties of microsatellites have a significant impact in determining the features of human microsatellite variability.

  20. Microsatellite mapping of QTLs affecting resistance to coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella) in a Fayoumi x White Leghorn cross.

    Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Hélène; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Coville, Jean-Luc; Pitel, Frédérique; Feve, Katia; Leroux, Sophie; Legros, Hélène; Thomas, Aurélie; Gourichon, David; Repérant, Jean-Michel; Rault, Paul

    2009-01-20

    Avian coccidiosis is a major parasitic disease of poultry, causing severe economical loss to poultry production by affecting growth and feed efficiency of infected birds. Current control strategies using mainly drugs and more recently vaccination are showing drawbacks and alternative strategies are needed. Using genetic resistance that would limit the negative and very costly effects of the disease would be highly relevant. The purpose of this work was to detect for the first time QTL for disease resistance traits to Eimeria tenella in chicken by performing a genome scan in an F2 cross issued from a resistant Fayoumi line and a susceptible Leghorn line. The QTL analysis detected 21 chromosome-wide significant QTL for the different traits related to disease resistance (body weight growth, plasma coloration, hematocrit, rectal temperature and lesion) on 6 chromosomes. Out of these, a genome-wide very significant QTL for body weight growth was found on GGA1, five genome-wide significant QTL for body weight growth, plasma coloration and hematocrit and one for plasma coloration were found on GGA1 and GGA6, respectively. Two genome-wide suggestive QTL for plasma coloration and rectal temperature were found on GGA1 and GGA2, respectively. Other chromosme-wide significant QTL were identified on GGA2, GGA3, GGA6, GGA15 and GGA23. Parent-of-origin effects were found for QTL for body weight growth and plasma coloration on GGA1 and GGA3. Several QTL for different resistance phenotypes were identified as co-localized on the same location. Using an F2 cross from resistant and susceptible chicken lines proved to be a successful strategy to identify QTL for different resistance traits to Eimeria tenella, opening the way for further gene identification and underlying mechanisms and hopefully possibilities for new breeding strategies for resistance to coccidiosis in the chicken. From the QTL regions identified, several candidate genes and relevant pathways linked to innate immune

  1. Microsatellite mapping of QTLs affecting resistance to coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella in a Fayoumi × White Leghorn cross

    Gourichon David

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian coccidiosis is a major parasitic disease of poultry, causing severe economical loss to poultry production by affecting growth and feed efficiency of infected birds. Current control strategies using mainly drugs and more recently vaccination are showing drawbacks and alternative strategies are needed. Using genetic resistance that would limit the negative and very costly effects of the disease would be highly relevant. The purpose of this work was to detect for the first time QTL for disease resistance traits to Eimeria tenella in chicken by performing a genome scan in an F2 cross issued from a resistant Fayoumi line and a susceptible Leghorn line. Results The QTL analysis detected 21 chromosome-wide significant QTL for the different traits related to disease resistance (body weight growth, plasma coloration, hematocrit, rectal temperature and lesion on 6 chromosomes. Out of these, a genome-wide very significant QTL for body weight growth was found on GGA1, five genome-wide significant QTL for body weight growth, plasma coloration and hematocrit and one for plasma coloration were found on GGA1 and GGA6, respectively. Two genome-wide suggestive QTL for plasma coloration and rectal temperature were found on GGA1 and GGA2, respectively. Other chromosme-wide significant QTL were identified on GGA2, GGA3, GGA6, GGA15 and GGA23. Parent-of-origin effects were found for QTL for body weight growth and plasma coloration on GGA1 and GGA3. Several QTL for different resistance phenotypes were identified as co-localized on the same location. Conclusion Using an F2 cross from resistant and susceptible chicken lines proved to be a successful strategy to identify QTL for different resistance traits to Eimeria tenella, opening the way for further gene identification and underlying mechanisms and hopefully possibilities for new breeding strategies for resistance to coccidiosis in the chicken. From the QTL regions identified, several

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers in Beilschmiedia roxburghiana (Lauraceae

    Lu Liu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Although there are as many as 250 species in the genus Beilschmiedia, their genetic diversity has been poorly investigated. Our objective was to develop microsatellite markers for B. roxburghiana to study its genetic diversity for the sustainable management of this species. Methods and Results: Using the microsatellite-enriched library and PCR-based screening method, 22 microsatellite markers were developed and 10 showed high polymorphism in a population. The number of alleles per locus for these 10 microsatellites ranged from five to 19. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.298 to 1.000 and from 0.314 to 0.878, respectively. Conclusions: Our results from the 10 highly polymorphic microsatellites indicate that the principal reproductive mode of B. roxburghiana is clonal in the studied population. These microsatellites will facilitate further studies on genetic diversity and structure in B. roxburghiana.

  3. Close genetic proximity between cultivated and wild Bactris gasipaes Kunth. revealed by microsatellite markers in Western Ecuador.

    Couvreur, T.L.P.; Billotte, N.; Lara, C.; Vigouroux, Y.; Ludena, B.; Pham, J.L.; Pintaud, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Bactris gasipaes Kunth (peach palm or Pejibaye) is the only domesticated palm of the Neotropics. The genetic relationships between the crop and its wild relatives are still unclear. We undertook field and laboratory work in order to describe differentiation and relationships between the wild and

  4. Allozyme and microsatellite data reveal small clone size and high genetic diversity in aspen in the southern Cascade Mountains

    Jennifer DeWoody; Thomas H. Rickman; Bobette E. Jones; Valerie D. Hipkins

    2009-01-01

    The most widely distributed tree in North America, quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides, Michx.), reproduces sexually via seed and clonally via suckers. The size of aspen clones varies geographically, generally smaller in the east and large in the arid Intermountain West. In order to describe clone size and genetic structure of aspen in the southern Cascade...

  5. High Levels of Genetic Diversity in Salix viminalis of the Czech Republic as Revealed by Microsatellite Markers

    Trybush, S. O.; Jahodová, Šárka; Čížková, L.; Karp, A.; Hanley, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2012), s. 969-977 ISSN 1939-1234 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : bioenergy * short rotation coppice * genetic diversity * population structure Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.250, year: 2012

  6. Mapping of A1 conferring resistance to the aphid Amphorophora idaei and dw (dwarfing habit in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. using AFLP and microsatellite markers

    Knight Victoria H

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Raspberry breeding programmes worldwide aim to produce improved cultivars to satisfy market demands and within these programmes there are many targets, including increased fruit quality, yield and season, and improved pest and disease resistance and plant habit. The large raspberry aphid, Amphorophora idaei, transmits four viruses and vector resistance is an objective in raspberry breeding. The development of molecular tools that discriminate between aphid resistance genes from different sources will allow the pyramiding of such genes and the development of raspberry varieties with superior pest resistance. We have raised a red raspberry (Rubus idaeus F1 progeny from the cross 'Malling Jewel' × 'Malling Orion' (MJ × MO, which segregates for resistance to biotype 1 of the aphid Amphorophora idaei and for a second phenotypic trait, dwarf habit. These traits are controlled by single genes, denoted (A1 and (dw respectively. Results The progeny of 94 seedlings was scored for the segregation of 95 AFLP and 22 SSR markers and a linkage map was constructed that covers a total genetic distance of 505 cM over seven linkage groups. The average linkage group length was 72.2 cM and there was an average of 17 markers per linkage group, of which at least two were codominant SSRs, allowing comparisons with previously published maps of raspberry. The two phenotypic traits, A1 and dw, mapped to linkage groups 3 and 6 respectively. Conclusion The mapping of A1 will facilitate the discrimination of resistance genes from different sources and the pyramiding of aphid resistance genes in new raspberry cultivars; the mapping of dw will allow further investigations into the genetics of dwarfing habit in Rubus.

  7. Molecular genetic alterations in egfr CA-SSR-1 microsatellite and egfr copy number changes are associated with aggressiveness in thymoma.

    Conti, Salvatore; Gallo, Enzo; Sioletic, Stefano; Facciolo, Francesco; Palmieri, Giovannella; Lauriola, Libero; Evoli, Amelia; Martucci, Robert; Di Benedetto, Anna; Novelli, Flavia; Giannarelli, Diana; Deriu, Gloria; Granone, Pierluigi; Ottaviano, Margaret; Muti, Paola; Pescarmona, Edoardo; Marino, Mirella

    2016-03-01

    The key role of egfr in thymoma pathogenesis has been questioned following the failure in identifying recurrent genetic alterations of egfr coding sequences and relevant egfr amplification rate. We investigated the role of the non-coding egfr CA simple sequence repeat 1 (CA-SSR-1) in a thymoma case series. We used sequencing and egfr-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to genotype 43 thymomas; (I) for polymorphisms and somatic loss of heterozygosity of the non-coding egfr CA-SSR-1 microsatellite and (II) for egfr gene copy number changes. We found two prevalent CA-SSR-1 genotypes: a homozygous 16 CA repeat and a heterozygous genotype, bearing alleles with 16 and 20 CA repeats. The average combined allele length was correlated with tumor subtype: shorter sequences were significantly associated with the more aggressive WHO thymoma subtype group including B2/B3, B3 and B3/C histotypes. Four out of 29 informative cases analysed for somatic CA-SSR-1 loss of heterozygosity showed allelic imbalance (AI), 3/4 with loss of the longer allele. By egfr-FISH analysis, 9 out of 33 cases were FISH positive. Moreover, the two integrated techniques demonstrated that 3 out of 4 CA-SSR-1-AI positive cases with short allele relative prevalence showed significantly low or high chromosome 7 "polysomy"/increased gene copy number by egfr-FISH. Our molecular and genetic and follow up data indicated that CA-SSR-1-allelic imbalance with short allele relative prevalence significantly correlated with EGFR 3+ immunohistochemical score, increased egfr Gene Copy Number, advanced stage and with relapsing/metastatic behaviour in thymomas.

  8. Toward allotetraploid cotton genome assembly: integration of a high-density molecular genetic linkage map with DNA sequence information

    2012-01-01

    Background Cotton is the world’s most important natural textile fiber and a significant oilseed crop. Decoding cotton genomes will provide the ultimate reference and resource for research and utilization of the species. Integration of high-density genetic maps with genomic sequence information will largely accelerate the process of whole-genome assembly in cotton. Results In this paper, we update a high-density interspecific genetic linkage map of allotetraploid cultivated cotton. An additional 1,167 marker loci have been added to our previously published map of 2,247 loci. Three new marker types, InDel (insertion-deletion) and SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) developed from gene information, and REMAP (retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism), were used to increase map density. The updated map consists of 3,414 loci in 26 linkage groups covering 3,667.62 cM with an average inter-locus distance of 1.08 cM. Furthermore, genome-wide sequence analysis was finished using 3,324 informative sequence-based markers and publicly-available Gossypium DNA sequence information. A total of 413,113 EST and 195 BAC sequences were physically anchored and clustered by 3,324 sequence-based markers. Of these, 14,243 ESTs and 188 BACs from different species of Gossypium were clustered and specifically anchored to the high-density genetic map. A total of 2,748 candidate unigenes from 2,111 ESTs clusters and 63 BACs were mined for functional annotation and classification. The 337 ESTs/genes related to fiber quality traits were integrated with 132 previously reported cotton fiber quality quantitative trait loci, which demonstrated the important roles in fiber quality of these genes. Higher-level sequence conservation between different cotton species and between the A- and D-subgenomes in tetraploid cotton was found, indicating a common evolutionary origin for orthologous and paralogous loci in Gossypium. Conclusion This study will serve as a valuable genomic resource

  9. Rapid Recombination Mapping for High-Throughput Genetic Screens in Drosophila

    Sapiro, Anne L.; Ihry, Robert J.; Buhr, Derek L.; Konieczko, Kevin M.; Ives, Sarah M.; Engstrom, Anna K.; Wleklinski, Nicholas P.; Kopish, Kristin J.; Bashirullah, Arash

    2013-01-01

    Mutagenesis screens are a staple of classical genetics. Chemical-induced mutations, however, are often difficult and time-consuming to identify. Here, we report that recombination analysis with pairs of dominant visible markers provides a rapid and reliable strategy to map mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. This method requires only two generations and a total of six crosses in vials to estimate the genetic map position of the responsible lesion with high accuracy. This genetic map positio...

  10. Comparison of single nucleotide polymorphisms and microsatellites in non-invasive genetic monitoring of a wolf population

    Fabbri, Elena; Caniglia, R.; Mucci, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which represent the most widespread source of sequence variation in genomes, are becoming a routine application in several fields such as forensics, ecology and conservation genetics. Their use, requiring short amplifications, may allow a more efficient geno....... We evaluated the cost, laboratory effort and reliability of these different markers and discuss the possible future use of VeraCode, SNPlex and Fluidigm EP1 system in wild population monitoring....

  11. Range-wide population genetic structure of the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus) based on microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analysis

    Bryja, Josef; Smith, C.; Konečný, Adam; Reichard, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 21 (2010), s. 4708-4722 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930802; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : co-evolution * conservation * fish * intraspecific introduction * non-native populations Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.457, year: 2010

  12. A microarray-based genotyping and genetic mapping approach for highly heterozygous outcrossing species enables localization of a large fraction of the unassembled Populus trichocarpa genome sequence.

    Drost, Derek R; Novaes, Evandro; Boaventura-Novaes, Carolina; Benedict, Catherine I; Brown, Ryan S; Yin, Tongming; Tuskan, Gerald A; Kirst, Matias

    2009-06-01

    Microarrays have demonstrated significant power for genome-wide analyses of gene expression, and recently have also revolutionized the genetic analysis of segregating populations by genotyping thousands of loci in a single assay. Although microarray-based genotyping approaches have been successfully applied in yeast and several inbred plant species, their power has not been proven in an outcrossing species with extensive genetic diversity. Here we have developed methods for high-throughput microarray-based genotyping in such species using a pseudo-backcross progeny of 154 individuals of Populus trichocarpa and P. deltoides analyzed with long-oligonucleotide in situ-synthesized microarray probes. Our analysis resulted in high-confidence genotypes for 719 single-feature polymorphism (SFP) and 1014 gene expression marker (GEM) candidates. Using these genotypes and an established microsatellite (SSR) framework map, we produced a high-density genetic map comprising over 600 SFPs, GEMs and SSRs. The abundance of gene-based markers allowed us to localize over 35 million base pairs of previously unplaced whole-genome shotgun (WGS) scaffold sequence to putative locations in the genome of P. trichocarpa. A high proportion of sampled scaffolds could be verified for their placement with independently mapped SSRs, demonstrating the previously un-utilized power that high-density genotyping can provide in the context of map-based WGS sequence reassembly. Our results provide a substantial contribution to the continued improvement of the Populus genome assembly, while demonstrating the feasibility of microarray-based genotyping in a highly heterozygous population. The strategies presented are applicable to genetic mapping efforts in all plant species with similarly high levels of genetic diversity.

  13. Development of twenty-nine polymorphic microsatellite loci from ...

    genetic management decisions for artificial propagation populations. ... Genomic DNA for genomic library construction was ..... the research of population dynamics and genetic structure of Cor- ... genotyping errors in microsatellite data. Mol.

  14. Genetic Mapping of Novel Loci Affecting Canine Blood Phenotypes.

    Michelle E White

    Full Text Available Since the publication of the dog genome and the construction of high-quality genome-wide SNP arrays, thousands of dogs have been genotyped for disease studies. For many of these dogs, additional clinical phenotypes are available, such as hematological and clinical chemistry results collected during routine veterinary care. Little is known about the genetic basis of variation in blood phenotypes, but this variation may play an important role in the etiology and progression of many diseases. From a cohort of dogs that had been previously genotyped on a semi-custom Illumina CanineHD array for various genome-wide association studies (GWAS at Cornell University Hospital for Animals, we chose 353 clinically healthy, adult dogs for our analysis of clinical pathologic test results (14 hematological tests and 25 clinical chemistry tests. After correcting for age, body weight and sex, genetic associations were identified for amylase, segmented neutrophils, urea nitrogen, glucose, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Additionally, a strong genetic association (P = 8.1×10-13 was evident between a region of canine chromosome 13 (CFA13 and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, explaining 23% of the variation in ALT levels. This region of CFA13 encompasses the GPT gene that encodes the transferase. Dogs homozygous for the derived allele exhibit lower ALT activity, making increased ALT activity a less useful marker of hepatic injury in these individuals. Overall, these associations provide a roadmap for identifying causal variants that could improve interpretation of clinical blood tests and understanding of genetic risk factors associated with diseases such as canine diabetes and anemia, and demonstrate the utility of holistic phenotyping of dogs genotyped for disease mapping studies.

  15. Genetic Mapping of Novel Loci Affecting Canine Blood Phenotypes.

    White, Michelle E; Hayward, Jessica J; Stokol, Tracy; Boyko, Adam R

    2015-01-01

    Since the publication of the dog genome and the construction of high-quality genome-wide SNP arrays, thousands of dogs have been genotyped for disease studies. For many of these dogs, additional clinical phenotypes are available, such as hematological and clinical chemistry results collected during routine veterinary care. Little is known about the genetic basis of variation in blood phenotypes, but this variation may play an important role in the etiology and progression of many diseases. From a cohort of dogs that had been previously genotyped on a semi-custom Illumina CanineHD array for various genome-wide association studies (GWAS) at Cornell University Hospital for Animals, we chose 353 clinically healthy, adult dogs for our analysis of clinical pathologic test results (14 hematological tests and 25 clinical chemistry tests). After correcting for age, body weight and sex, genetic associations were identified for amylase, segmented neutrophils, urea nitrogen, glucose, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Additionally, a strong genetic association (P = 8.1×10-13) was evident between a region of canine chromosome 13 (CFA13) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), explaining 23% of the variation in ALT levels. This region of CFA13 encompasses the GPT gene that encodes the transferase. Dogs homozygous for the derived allele exhibit lower ALT activity, making increased ALT activity a less useful marker of hepatic injury in these individuals. Overall, these associations provide a roadmap for identifying causal variants that could improve interpretation of clinical blood tests and understanding of genetic risk factors associated with diseases such as canine diabetes and anemia, and demonstrate the utility of holistic phenotyping of dogs genotyped for disease mapping studies.

  16. Mapping Determinants of Gene Expression Plasticity by Genetical Genomics in C. elegans

    Li, Y.; Alda Alvarez, O.; Gutteling, E.W.; Tijsterman, M.; Fu, J.; Riksen, J.A.G.; Hazendonk, E.; Prins, J.C.P.; Plasterk, R.H.A.; Jansen, R.C.; Breitling, R.; Kammenga, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Recent genetical genomics studies have provided intimate views on gene regulatory networks. Gene expression variations between genetically different individuals have been mapped to the causal regulatory regions, termed expression quantitative trait loci. Whether the environment-induced plastic

  17. Mapping determinants of gene expression plasticity by genetical genomics in C. elegans.

    Li, Y.; Alvarez, O.A.; Gutteling, E.W.; Tijsterman, M.; Fu, J.; Riksen, J.A.; Hazendonk, M.G.A.; Prins, P.; Plasterk, R.H.A.; Jansen, R.C.; Breitling, R.; Kammenga, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Recent genetical genomics studies have provided intimate views on gene regulatory networks. Gene expression variations between genetically different individuals have been mapped to the causal regulatory regions, termed expression quantitative trait loci. Whether the environment-induced plastic

  18. Genetic linkage map and comparative genome analysis for the estuarine Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Genetic linkage maps are valuable tools in evolutionary biology; however, their availability for wild populations is extremely limited. Fundulus heteroclitus...

  19. Mapping Genetic Diversity of Cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.): Application of Spatial Analysis for Conservation and Use of Plant Genetic Resources

    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Scheldeman, Xavier; Escribano, Pilar; Viruel, María A.; Van Damme, Patrick; Garcia, Willman; Tapia, César; Romero, José; Sigueñas, Manuel; Hormaza, José I.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing call for inventories that evaluate geographic patterns in diversity of plant genetic resources maintained on farm and in species' natural populations in order to enhance their use and conservation. Such evaluations are relevant for useful tropical and subtropical tree species, as many of these species are still undomesticated, or in incipient stages of domestication and local populations can offer yet-unknown traits of high value to further domestication. For many outcrossing species, such as most trees, inbreeding depression can be an issue, and genetic diversity is important to sustain local production. Diversity is also crucial for species to adapt to environmental changes. This paper explores the possibilities of incorporating molecular marker data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to allow visualization and better understanding of spatial patterns of genetic diversity as a key input to optimize conservation and use of plant genetic resources, based on a case study of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.), a Neotropical fruit tree species. We present spatial analyses to (1) improve the understanding of spatial distribution of genetic diversity of cherimoya natural stands and cultivated trees in Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru based on microsatellite molecular markers (SSRs); and (2) formulate optimal conservation strategies by revealing priority areas for in situ conservation, and identifying existing diversity gaps in ex situ collections. We found high levels of allelic richness, locally common alleles and expected heterozygosity in cherimoya's putative centre of origin, southern Ecuador and northern Peru, whereas levels of diversity in southern Peru and especially in Bolivia were significantly lower. The application of GIS on a large microsatellite dataset allows a more detailed prioritization of areas for in situ conservation and targeted collection across the Andean distribution range of cherimoya than previous studies could do, i.e. at

  20. The study of genetic diversity and population structure of Vimba vimba persa (Pallas, 1814 populations in the Eastern and Western coastline of the Caspian sea (Havigh River and GorganRoud River using microsatellite markers

    Samira Mohamadian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity of Vimba vimba persa was investigated using microsatellite markers from two regions of the Iranian coastline of southern Caspian sea (Havigh River in Guilan province, GorganRoud River in Golestan province. The purpose of this research was the study of Vimba vimba persa’s possible populations related to genetic diversity and population structure in the Caspian sea and introducing the useful genetic markers. To investigate the genetic structure of Vimba vimba persa populations, we sampled 50 specimens of Vimba vimba persa caught by beach seine from GorganRoud River in Golestan Province (30 specimens and Havigh River in the Guilan Province (20 specimens. Genomic DNA was extracted from fin tissue by phenol-Chlorophorm method and PCR reaction was accomplished with 17 microsatellite primers 10 of which were amplified with reasonable polymorphism. Means of alleles were on 6.75 averages, observed and expected heterozygosity averages were 0.817 and 0.735, respectively. Most cases, significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p≤0.01. According to the Fst values, there are two significant populations of Vimba vimba persa in the eastern and western coasts of the Caspian Sea which restocking of these species should be considered. Based on the survey revealed, since the population of this species is decreasing with its high genetic diversity, the Caspian Vimba had an enormous diversity in the past.

  1. Genetic variability and forensic efficiency of 39 microsatellite loci in the Li ethnic group from Hainan Island in the South China Sea.

    Chen, Jing; Xie, Bingbing; Yang, Yaran; Yang, Meng; Liu, Chao; Lv, Yuexin; Chen, Chuguang; Liu, Xu; Fang, Xiangdong; Wu, Huijuan; Yan, Jiangwei

    2017-08-01

    Investigation of allele and genotype frequencies of microsatellite loci in various populations is an essential pre-requisite in forensic application. The present study obtained population genetic data and forensic parameters of 39 autosomal Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) loci from a Chinese Li ethnic group and estimated the genetic relationships between Li and other reference populations. Thirty-nine STR loci, which include D19S433, D5S818, D21S11, D18S51, D6S1043, D3S1358, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539, CSF1PO, Penta D, D2S441, vWA, D8S1179, TPOX, Penta E, TH01, D12S391, D2S1338, FGA, D6S477, D18S535, D19S253, D15S659, D11S2368, D20S470, D1S1656, D22-GATA198B05, D8S1132, D4S2366, D21S1270, D13S325, D9S925, D3S3045, D14S608, D10S1435, D7S3048, D17S1290 and D5S2500, were amplified in two multiplex DNA-STR fluorescence detection systems for 189 unrelated healthy individuals of the Chinese Li ethnic group. The allele frequency distribution and several parameters commonly used in forensic science were statistically analysed. A total of 378 alleles were observed with corresponding allelic frequencies ranging from 0.0026-0.5899. The power of discrimination and power of exclusion ranged from 0.7569-0.9672 and 0.2513-0.7355, respectively. The power of exclusion (PE) ranged from 0.2580-0.7943 for trio paternity cases and 0.1693-0.5940 for duo paternity cases. The polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.5001-0.8611. The cumulative match probability across these 39 loci was 2.4242 × 10 -38 . The results indicate that 39 STR loci are polymorphic among the Li ethnic group in Hainan Island in the South China Sea. This set of polymorphic STR loci provide highly polymorphic information and forensic efficiency for forensic individual identification and paternity testing, as well as basic population data for population genetics and anthropological research.

  2. Microsatellite analysis of Fasciola spp. in Egypt.

    Dar, Yasser; Amer, Said; Courtioux, Bertrand; Dreyfuss, Gilles

    2011-12-01

    Recently, the topic of diversity in Fasciola population in Egypt is controversial. The present study was performed to study the genetic diversity of isolated flukes based on microsatellites markers. Fasciola worms were collected from different hosts and geographical locations in Egypt. Control samples of Fasciola hepatica from France as well as Fasciola gigantica from Cameroon were included in the study. Collected flukes were identified morphologically and subjected for analysis using four microsatellite markers. Results of microsatellite profile (FM1 and FM2) proved that both species of Fasciola are distributed in Egypt irrespective of geographical location and host. Nevertheless, the microsatellite profile of some analyzed loci (FM2 and FM3) proved that Egyptian flukes showed more alleles compared to the reference ones. Differences of microsatellite profile in Egyptian isolates than that of corresponding reference samples indicate the remarkable diversity of these isolates. The present results highlighted the utility of microsatellite profile to discriminate between Fasciola species and to elucidate the diversity within the species. To our knowledge, this is the first time to study microsatellite polymorphism in Fasciola populations in Egypt.

  3. Population genetic analysis of Theileria parva isolated in cattle and buffaloes in Tanzania using minisatellite and microsatellite markers.

    Rukambile, Elpidius; Machuka, Eunice; Njahira, Moses; Kyalo, Martina; Skilton, Robert; Mwega, Elisa; Chota, Andrew; Mathias, Mkama; Sallu, Raphael; Salih, Diaeldin

    2016-07-15

    A population genetic study of Theileria parva was conducted on 103 cattle and 30 buffalo isolates from Kibaha, Lushoto, Njombe Districts and selected National parks in Tanzania. Bovine blood samples were collected from these study areas and categorized into 5 populations; Buffalo, Cattle which graze close to buffalo, Kibaha, Lushoto and Njombe. Samples were tested by nested PCR for T. parva DNA and positives were compared for genetic diversity to the T. parva Muguga vaccine reference strain, using 3micro and 11 minisatellite markers selected from all 4 chromosomes of the parasite genome. The diversity across populations was determined by the mean number of different alleles, mean number of effective alleles, mean number of private allele and expected heterozygosity. The mean number of allele unique to populations for Cattle close to buffalo, Muguga, Njombe, Kibaha, Lushoto and Buffalo populations were 0.18, 0.24, 0.63, 0.71, 1.63 and 3.37, respectively. The mean number of different alleles ranged from 6.97 (Buffalo) to 0.07 (Muguga). Mean number of effective alleles ranged from 4.49 (Buffalo) to 0.29 (Muguga). The mean expected heterozygosity were 0.07 0.29, 0.45, 0.48, 0.59 and 0.64 for Muguga, cattle close to buffalo, Kibaha, Njombe, Lushoto and Buffalo populations, respectively. The Buffalo and Lushoto isolates possessed a close degree of diversity in terms of mean number of different alleles, effective alleles, private alleles and expected heterozygosity. The study revealed more diversity in buffalo isolates and further studies are recommended to establish if there is sharing of parasites between cattle and buffaloes which may affect the effectiveness of the control methods currently in use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Genome Survey Sequencing of Luffa Cylindrica L. and Microsatellite High Resolution Melting (SSR-HRM) Analysis for Genetic Relationship of Luffa Genotypes.

    An, Jianyu; Yin, Mengqi; Zhang, Qin; Gong, Dongting; Jia, Xiaowen; Guan, Yajing; Hu, Jin

    2017-09-11

    Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roem. is an economically important vegetable crop in China. However, the genomic information on this species is currently unknown. In this study, for the first time, a genome survey of L. cylindrica was carried out using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. In total, 43.40 Gb sequence data of L. cylindrica , about 54.94× coverage of the estimated genome size of 789.97 Mb, were obtained from HiSeq 2500 sequencing, in which the guanine plus cytosine (GC) content was calculated to be 37.90%. The heterozygosity of genome sequences was only 0.24%. In total, 1,913,731 contigs (>200 bp) with 525 bp N 50 length and 1,410,117 scaffolds (>200 bp) with 885.01 Mb total length were obtained. From the initial assembled L. cylindrica genome, 431,234 microsatellites (SSRs) (≥5 repeats) were identified. The motif types of SSR repeats included 62.88% di-nucleotide, 31.03% tri-nucleotide, 4.59% tetra-nucleotide, 0.96% penta-nucleotide and 0.54% hexa-nucleotide. Eighty genomic SSR markers were developed, and 51/80 primers could be used in both "Zheda 23" and "Zheda 83". Nineteen SSRs were used to investigate the genetic diversity among 32 accessions through SSR-HRM analysis. The unweighted pair group method analysis (UPGMA) dendrogram tree was built by calculating the SSR-HRM raw data. SSR-HRM could be effectively used for genotype relationship analysis of Luffa species.

  5. Construction of the High-Density Genetic Linkage Map and Chromosome Map of Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea

    Jingqun Ao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High-density genetic maps are essential for genome assembly, comparative genomic analysis and fine mapping of complex traits. In this study, 31,191 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs evenly distributed across the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea genome were identified using restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq. Among them, 10,150 high-confidence SNPs were assigned to 24 consensus linkage groups (LGs. The total length of the genetic linkage map was 5451.3 cM with an average distance of 0.54 cM between loci. This represents the densest genetic map currently reported for large yellow croaker. Using 2889 SNPs to target specific scaffolds, we assigned 533 scaffolds, comprising 421.44 Mb (62.04% of the large yellow croaker assembled sequence, to the 24 linkage groups. The mapped assembly scaffolds in large yellow croaker were used for genome synteny analyses against the stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus and medaka (Oryzias latipes. Greater synteny was observed between large yellow croaker and stickleback. This supports the hypothesis that large yellow croaker is more closely related to stickleback than to medaka. Moreover, 1274 immunity-related genes and 195 hypoxia-related genes were mapped to the 24 chromosomes of large yellow croaker. The integration of the high-resolution genetic map and the assembled sequence provides a valuable resource for fine mapping and positional cloning of quantitative trait loci associated with economically important traits in large yellow croaker.

  6. Microsatellite Markers for Russian Olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia; Elaeagnaceae

    John F. Gaskin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for the plant species Elaeagnus angustifolia to assist in future investigations of genetic variability in its native and invasive ranges and the precise origins of the United States/Canada invasion. Methods and Results: Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed. The number of alleles observed for each locus ranged from three to 11. Conclusions: These microsatellites have sufficient potential variability to define population structure and origins of the Russian olive invasion.

  7. Genetic and physical mapping of two centromere-proximal regions of chromosome IV in Aspergillus nidulans

    Aleksenko, Alexei Y.; Nielsen, Michael Lynge; Clutterbuck, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    revision of the genetic map of the chromosome, including the position of the centromere, Comparison of physical and genetic maps indicates that meiotic recombination is low in subcentromeric DNA, its frequency being reduced from 1 crossover per 0.8 Mb to approximately 1 crossover per 5 Mb per meiosis...

  8. Polytene chromosomal maps of 11 Drosophila species: the order of genomic scaffolds inferred from genetic and physical maps.

    Schaeffer, Stephen W; Bhutkar, Arjun; McAllister, Bryant F; Matsuda, Muneo; Matzkin, Luciano M; O'Grady, Patrick M; Rohde, Claudia; Valente, Vera L S; Aguadé, Montserrat; Anderson, Wyatt W; Edwards, Kevin; Garcia, Ana C L; Goodman, Josh; Hartigan, James; Kataoka, Eiko; Lapoint, Richard T; Lozovsky, Elena R; Machado, Carlos A; Noor, Mohamed A F; Papaceit, Montserrat; Reed, Laura K; Richards, Stephen; Rieger, Tania T; Russo, Susan M; Sato, Hajime; Segarra, Carmen; Smith, Douglas R; Smith, Temple F; Strelets, Victor; Tobari, Yoshiko N; Tomimura, Yoshihiko; Wasserman, Marvin; Watts, Thomas; Wilson, Robert; Yoshida, Kiyohito; Markow, Therese A; Gelbart, William M; Kaufman, Thomas C

    2008-07-01

    The sequencing of the 12 genomes of members of the genus Drosophila was taken as an opportunity to reevaluate the genetic and physical maps for 11 of the species, in part to aid in the mapping of assembled scaffolds. Here, we present an overview of the importance of cytogenetic maps to Drosophila biology and to the concepts of chromosomal evolution. Physical and genetic markers were used to anchor the genome assembly scaffolds to the polytene chromosomal maps for each species. In addition, a computational approach was used to anchor smaller scaffolds on the basis of the analysis of syntenic blocks. We present the chromosomal map data from each of the 11 sequenced non-Drosophila melanogaster species as a series of sections. Each section reviews the history of the polytene chromosome maps for each species, presents the new polytene chromosome maps, and anchors the genomic scaffolds to the cytological maps using genetic and physical markers. The mapping data agree with Muller's idea that the majority of Drosophila genes are syntenic. Despite the conservation of genes within homologous chromosome arms across species, the karyotypes of these species have changed through the fusion of chromosomal arms followed by subsequent rearrangement events.

  9. Chicken microsatellite markers isolated from libraries enriched for simple tandem repeats.

    Gibbs, M; Dawson, D A; McCamley, C; Wardle, A F; Armour, J A; Burke, T

    1997-12-01

    The total number of microsatellite loci is considered to be at least 10-fold lower in avian species than in mammalian species. Therefore, efficient large-scale cloning of chicken microsatellites, as required for the construction of a high-resolution linkage map, is facilitated by the construction of libraries using an enrichment strategy. In this study, a plasmid library enriched for tandem repeats was constructed from chicken genomic DNA by hybridization selection. Using this technique the proportion of recombinant clones that cross-hybridized to probes containing simple tandem repeats was raised to 16%, compared with < 0.1% in a non-enriched library. Primers were designed from 121 different sequences. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of two chicken reference pedigrees enabled 72 loci to be localized within the collaborative chicken genetic map, and at least 30 of the remaining loci have been shown to be informative in these or other crosses.

  10. Microsatélites amplificados al azar (RAM en estudios de diversidad genética vegetal Random amplified microsatellites (RAM´s in plant genetic diversity studies

    Jaime Eduardo Muñoz Flórez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se revisó el uso e importancia, ventajas, desventajas y características de la técnica Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAM en uchuva Physalis peruviana, mora Rubus spp, guayaba Psidium guajava y heliconias Heliconia spp. En mora se diferenciaron las especies R. glaucus, R. robustus y R. urticifolius, se detectaron duplicados y se encontró alta variabilidad genética en R. glaucus, la especie más importante. En uchuva se encontró alta diversidad y dos accesiones de fruto rojo que se diferenciaron genéticamente de las amarillas y una región geográfica con alta variabilidad. En guayaba los cebadores fueron altamente polimórficos y se encontró alta variabilidad en el Valle del Cauca. En heliconias y especies relacionadas se diferenciaron las familias del orden Zingiberales, algunos subgéneros y variaciones en la especie. La técnica es de bajo costo, utiliza un cebador, no requiere información previa, es altamente polimórfica y diferencia especies en los taxones evaluados.The use and importance, advantages, disadvantages and features of the Random Amplified Microsatellites RAMs technique, were reviewed in Cape gooseberry Physalis peruviana, blackberry Rubus spp, guava Psidium guajava and heliconias Heliconia spp. In blackberry, we differentiated the species R. glaucus, R. robustus y R. urticifolius, detected duplicated accessions and found high genetic diversity in R. glaucus, the most important specie. In cape gooseberry we found high diversity and two red fruit accessions genetically differentiated from the yellow fruit ones and a geographical region with high variability. In guava, primers were highly polymorphic and found high variability in Valle del Cauca region. In Heliconia and related species we differentiated families belonging to Zingiberal order, between some sub genera and variation among specie. The technique has low cost of implementation, use a single primer, do not require previous information, is highly

  11. Construction of a reference genetic linkage map for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Yagi, Masafumi; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Isobe, Sachiko; Hirakawa, Hideki; Tabata, Satoshi; Tanase, Koji; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Onozaki, Takashi

    2013-10-26

    Genetic linkage maps are important tools for many genetic applications including mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), identifying DNA markers for fingerprinting, and map-based gene cloning. Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is an important ornamental flower worldwide. We previously reported a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-based genetic linkage map derived from Dianthus capitatus ssp. andrezejowskianus and a simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based genetic linkage map constructed using data from intraspecific F2 populations; however, the number of markers was insufficient, and so the number of linkage groups (LGs) did not coincide with the number of chromosomes (x = 15). Therefore, we aimed to produce a high-density genetic map to improve its usefulness for breeding purposes and genetic research. We improved the SSR-based genetic linkage map using SSR markers derived from a genomic library, expression sequence tags, and RNA-seq data. Linkage analysis revealed that 412 SSR loci (including 234 newly developed SSR loci) could be mapped to 17 linkage groups (LGs) covering 969.6 cM. Comparison of five minor LGs covering less than 50 cM with LGs in our previous RAPD-based genetic map suggested that four LGs could be integrated into two LGs by anchoring common SSR loci. Consequently, the number of LGs corresponded to the number of chromosomes (x = 15). We added 192 new SSRs, eight RAPD, and two sequence-tagged site loci to refine the RAPD-based genetic linkage map, which comprised 15 LGs consisting of 348 loci covering 978.3 cM. The two maps had 125 SSR loci in common, and most of the positions of markers were conserved between them. We identified 635 loci in carnation using the two linkage maps. We also mapped QTLs for two traits (bacterial wilt resistance and anthocyanin pigmentation in the flower) and a phenotypic locus for flower-type by analyzing previously reported genotype and phenotype data. The improved genetic linkage maps and SSR markers developed

  12. Application of mapping crossover genetic algorithm in nuclear power equipment optimization design

    Li Guijiang; Yan Changqi; Wang Jianjun; Liu Chengyang

    2013-01-01

    Genetic algorithm (GA) has been widely applied in nuclear engineering. An improved method, named the mapping crossover genetic algorithm (MCGA), was developed aiming at improving the shortcomings of traditional genetic algorithm (TGA). The optimal results of benchmark problems show that MCGA has better optimizing performance than TGA. MCGA was applied to the reactor coolant pump optimization design. (authors)

  13. Genetic mapping of species differences via in vitro crosses in mouse embryonic stem cells

    Lazzarano, S. (Stefano); Kučka, M. (Marek); Castro, J.P.L. (João P. L.); Naumann, R. (Ronald); Medina, P. (Paloma); Fletcher, M.N.C. (Michael N. C.); Wombacher, R. (Rebecka); J.H. Gribnau (Joost); Hochepied, T. (Tino); Van Montagu, M. (Marc); C. Libert; Chan, Y.F. (Yingguang Frank)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractDiscovering the genetic changes underlying species differences is a central goal in evolutionary genetics. However, hybrid crosses between species in mammals often suffer from hybrid sterility, greatly complicating genetic mapping of trait variation across species. Here, we describe a

  14. Genetic progression in microsatellite instability high (MSI-H) colon cancers correlates with clinico-pathological parameters: A study of the TGRbetaRII, BAX, hMSH3, hMSH6, IGFIIR and BLM genes.

    Calin, G A; Gafà, R; Tibiletti, M G; Herlea, V; Becheanu, G; Cavazzini, L; Barbanti-Brodano, G; Nenci, I; Negrini, M; Lanza, G

    2000-05-20

    Colon carcinomas with microsatellite mutator phenotype exhibit specific genetic and clinico-pathological features. This report describes the analysis of 63 "microsatellite instability-high" (MSI-H) tumors for the presence of mutations in microsatellites located in the coding regions (CDRs) of 6 genes: TGFbetaRII, BAX, hMSH3, hMSH6, IGFIIR, and BLM. The following frequencies of mutations were detected: TGFbetaRII (70%), BAX (54%), hMSH3 (36.5%), IGFIIR (22%), hMSH6 (17.5%), and BLM (16%). The overall picture revealed combinations of mutations suggestive of a progressive order of accumulation, with mutations of TGFbetaRII and BAX first, followed by frameshifts in hMSH3, hMSH6, IGFIIR, and BLM. Correlations with 12 clinico-pathological parameters revealed that tumors with frameshifts in 1 or 2 CDRs were significantly better differentiated than tumors with frameshifts in more than 2 CDRs. We also found that mutations in the hMSH3 gene were significantly associated with decreased wall invasiveness and aneuploidy, and frameshifts in the BLM gene were significantly associated with the mucinous histotype. A trend toward an association between hMSH3 and IGFIIR with the medullary and conventional adenocarcinoma histotypes, respectively, was seen. Our results strengthen the concept that mutations in target genes have a role in the tumorigenic process of MSI-H tumors, and indicate that frameshifts in microsatellites located in CDRs occur in a limited number of combinations that could determine distinct clinico-pathological traits. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Genetic mapping uncovers cis-regulatory landscape of RNA editing.

    Ramaswami, Gokul; Deng, Patricia; Zhang, Rui; Anna Carbone, Mary; Mackay, Trudy F C; Li, Jin Billy

    2015-09-16

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing, catalysed by ADAR enzymes conserved in metazoans, plays an important role in neurological functions. Although the fine-tuning mechanism provided by A-to-I RNA editing is important, the underlying rules governing ADAR substrate recognition are not well understood. We apply a quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping approach to identify genetic variants associated with variability in RNA editing. With very accurate measurement of RNA editing levels at 789 sites in 131 Drosophila melanogaster strains, here we identify 545 editing QTLs (edQTLs) associated with differences in RNA editing. We demonstrate that many edQTLs can act through changes in the local secondary structure for edited dsRNAs. Furthermore, we find that edQTLs located outside of the edited dsRNA duplex are enriched in secondary structure, suggesting that distal dsRNA structure beyond the editing site duplex affects RNA editing efficiency. Our work will facilitate the understanding of the cis-regulatory code of RNA editing.

  16. Training manual on the analysis of microsatellite repeats in human DNA for diagnostic applications

    Ioannou, P.

    1998-01-01

    The recent discovery that simple sequence length polymorphisms (SSLPs), or microsatellites, are highly polymorphic has provided a rich source of genetic markers for the development of high-resolution maps. SSLPs are ideal markers because they are widely distributed throughout eukrayotic genomes and can be efficiently analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The recent development of moderate-resolution maps of both human and mouse genomes built entirely with SSLPs reflects the rapid conversion from manual Southern blot-based markers to semi-automated PCR-amplified markers during the last few years. Furthermore, these markers can also be used as 'sequence-tagged sites' (STS) in physical maps and provide a direct connection between the genetic and physical maps of eukaryotic chromosomes

  17. A global genetic interaction network maps a wiring diagram of cellular function.

    Costanzo, Michael; VanderSluis, Benjamin; Koch, Elizabeth N; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Pons, Carles; Tan, Guihong; Wang, Wen; Usaj, Matej; Hanchard, Julia; Lee, Susan D; Pelechano, Vicent; Styles, Erin B; Billmann, Maximilian; van Leeuwen, Jolanda; van Dyk, Nydia; Lin, Zhen-Yuan; Kuzmin, Elena; Nelson, Justin; Piotrowski, Jeff S; Srikumar, Tharan; Bahr, Sondra; Chen, Yiqun; Deshpande, Raamesh; Kurat, Christoph F; Li, Sheena C; Li, Zhijian; Usaj, Mojca Mattiazzi; Okada, Hiroki; Pascoe, Natasha; San Luis, Bryan-Joseph; Sharifpoor, Sara; Shuteriqi, Emira; Simpkins, Scott W; Snider, Jamie; Suresh, Harsha Garadi; Tan, Yizhao; Zhu, Hongwei; Malod-Dognin, Noel; Janjic, Vuk; Przulj, Natasa; Troyanskaya, Olga G; Stagljar, Igor; Xia, Tian; Ohya, Yoshikazu; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Raught, Brian; Boutros, Michael; Steinmetz, Lars M; Moore, Claire L; Rosebrock, Adam P; Caudy, Amy A; Myers, Chad L; Andrews, Brenda; Boone, Charles

    2016-09-23

    We generated a global genetic interaction network for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, constructing more than 23 million double mutants, identifying about 550,000 negative and about 350,000 positive genetic interactions. This comprehensive network maps genetic interactions for essential gene pairs, highlighting essential genes as densely connected hubs. Genetic interaction profiles enabled assembly of a hierarchical model of cell function, including modules corresponding to protein complexes and pathways, biological processes, and cellular compartments. Negative interactions connected functionally related genes, mapped core bioprocesses, and identified pleiotropic genes, whereas positive interactions often mapped general regulatory connections among gene pairs, rather than shared functionality. The global network illustrates how coherent sets of genetic interactions connect protein complex and pathway modules to map a functional wiring diagram of the cell. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Towards a unified genetic map of diploid roses

    Spiller, M.; Hibrand-Saint Oyant, L.; Tsai, C.; Byrne, D.H.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Foucher, A.L.J.L.; Debener, T.

    2011-01-01

    We have constructed the first integrated consensus map (ICM) for rose, based on the information of four diploid populations and more than 1,000 initial markers. The single population maps are linked via 59 bridge markers, on average 8.4 per linkage group (LG). The integrated map comprises 597

  19. Construction of a genetic linkage map in Lilium using a RIL mapping population based on SRAP marker

    Chen Li-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A genetic linkage map of lily was constructed using RILs (recombinant inbred lines population of 180 individuals. This mapping population was developed by crossing Raizan No.1 (Formolongo and Gelria (Longiflomm cultivars through single-seed descent (SSD. SRAPs were generated by using restriction enzymes EcoRI in combination with either MseI. The resulting products were separated by electrophoresis on 6% denaturing polyacrylamide gel and visualized by silver staining. The segregation of each marker and linkage analysis was done using the program Mapmaker3.0. With 50 primer pairs, a total of 189 parental polymorphic bands were detected and 78 were used for mapping. The total map length was 2,135.5 cM consisted of 16 linkage groups. The number of markers in the linkage groups varied from 1 to 12. The length of linkage groups was range from 11.2 cM to 425.9 cM and mean marker interval distance range from 9.4 cM to 345.4 cM individually. The mean marker interval distance between markers was 27.4 cM. The map developed in the present study was the first sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers map of lily constructed with recombinant inbred lines, it could be used for genetic mapping and molecular marker assisted breeding and quantitative trait locus mapping of Lilium.

  20. Development of microsatellite loci in Scrophularia incisa (Scrophulariaceae) and cross-amplification in congeneric species.

    Wang, Rui-Hong; Chen, Chuan; Ma, Qing; Li, Pan; Fu, Cheng-Xin

    2014-02-01

    To elucidate the population genetics and phylogeography of Scrophularia incisa, microsatellite primers were developed. We also applied these microsatellite markers to its closely related species S. dentata and S. kiriloviana. • Using the compound microsatellite marker technique, 12 microsatellite primers were identified in S. incisa. The number of alleles ranged from 14 to 26 when assessed in 78 individuals from four populations. With high cross-species transferability, these primers also amplified in S. dentata and S. kiriloviana. • These results indicate that these microsatellite markers are adequate for detecting and characterizing population genetic structure in the Chinese species of sect. Tomiophyllum at fine and range-wide geographical scales.

  1. Supplementary data: Eucalyptus microsatellites mined in silico ...

    Supplementary data: Eucalyptus microsatellites mined in silico: survey and evaluation. R. Yasodha, R. Sumathi, P. Chezhian, S. Kavitha and M. Ghosh. J. Genet. 87, XX-XX. Tm. CT. 2222. NA. 60 125. 192. Table 1. List of EST-SSR primers developed for E. globulus. No. of. Tm Product. Acc. no. SSR repeats. Forward primer.

  2. Development of microsatellite markers for Helopeltis theivora ...

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... are highly polymorphic, neutral and show Mendelian inheritance, they therefore represent one of the most powerful tools for population genetic studies (Bruford and. Wayne, 1993). Microsatellites have also been analysed extensively in Drosophila melanogaster (Bachtrog et al.,. 1999), Drosophila simulans ...

  3. Genetic mapping of 14 avirulence genes in an EU-B04 × 1639 progeny of Venturia inaequalis.

    Broggini, Giovanni A L; Bus, Vincent G M; Parravicini, Gabriella; Kumar, Satish; Groenwold, Remmelt; Gessler, Cesare

    2011-02-01

    Durable resistance to apple scab (Venturia inaequalis (Cke) Wint; anamorph Spilocaea pomi Fries) is one of the major goals of apple (Malus) breeding programs. Since current scab resistance breeding is heavily reliant on genes with gene-for-gene relationships, a good understanding of the genetic basis of host-pathogen interactions needs to be developed for this strategy to be successful. While the genomic organization of apple scab resistance genes has been studied extensively, little is known about the avirulence genes in the pathogen. The progeny of a cross of European V. inaequalis race (1) isolate EU-B04 and race (1,2,8,9) isolate 1639 was used to generate a genetic map based on microsatellite and AFLP markers, and investigated for inheritance of avirulence traits on 20 Malus accessions representing 17 scab resistance genes. The accessions comprised scab differential hosts (0), (1), (2), (8), and (9), and hosts carrying known as well as not previously reported secondary resistance genes, including some identified in crosses that have resistant accessions 'Geneva', 'Dolgo', Malus baccata jackii, M. micromalus, or 'Antonovka' in their pedigree. The latter genes appear to be narrow spectrum genes that showed gene-for-gene relationships as a segregation ratio of Avr:avr=1:1 was observed on 12 accessions, while a ratio of 3:1 was observed on five accessions and a ratio of 7:1 on one host. All progenies were shown to be pathogenic, as all of them were able to infect hosts (0) and (1). A genetic map consisting of 15 major linkage groups (LGs) and spanning 972cM was generated with the aid of 156 markers. The map position of 12 avirulence traits was determined: eight avirulence genes mapped into two separate clusters (1: AvrVdg2, AvrVv1, AvrVu1, AvrVrjrd; and 2: AvrVu2, AvrVh3.2, AvrVs1, AvrVu4), while four avirulence genes (AvrRvi8, AvrVv2, AvrVt57 and AvrVsv) mapped to different LGs. AvrRvi2 and AvrRvi9 also are genetically linked, but showed an interaction with Avr

  4. A new electrophoresis technique to separate microsatellite alleles ...

    A new electrophoresis technique to separate microsatellite alleles* ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... with the CEQTM 8000 Genetic Analysis System and ABI 3130xl DNA Sequencer easily separated products and determined allelic size, ...

  5. Isolation and characterization of ten microsatellite loci from Korean ...

    Leguminosae) and its cytotaxonomic signifi- cance. Cathaya 2, 139–150. Estoup A., Garnery L., Solignac M. and Cornuet J. M. 1995. Microsatellite variation in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) popula- tions: hierarchical genetic structure and test of ...

  6. Development and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in Dysosma pleiantha (Berberidaceae).

    Guan, Bi-Cai; Gong, Xi; Zhou, Shi-Liang

    2011-08-01

    The development of compound microsatellite markers was conducted in Dysosma pleiantha to investigate genetic diversity and population genetic structure of this threatened medicinal plant. Using the compound microsatellite marker technique, 14 microsatellite markers that were successfully amplified showed polymorphism when tested on 38 individuals from three populations in eastern China. Overall, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 14, with an average of 7.71 alleles per locus. These results indicate that these microsatellite markers are adequate for detecting and characterizing population genetic structure and genetic diversity in Dysosma pleiantha.

  7. Genetic analysis and fine mapping of a rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) resistance gene bph19(t).

    Chen, J W; Wang, L; Pang, X F; Pan, Q H

    2006-04-01

    Genetic analysis and fine mapping of a resistance gene against brown planthopper (BPH) biotype 2 in rice was performed using two F(2) populations derived from two crosses between a resistant indica cultivar (cv.), AS20-1, and two susceptible japonica cvs., Aichi Asahi and Lijiangxintuanheigu. Insect resistance was evaluated using F(1) plants and the two F(2) populations. The results showed that a single recessive gene, tentatively designated as bph19(t), conditioned the resistance in AS20-1. A linkage analysis, mainly employing microsatellite markers, was carried out in the two F(2) populations through bulked segregant analysis and recessive class analysis (RCA), in combination with bioinformatics analysis (BIA). The resistance gene locus bph19(t) was finely mapped to a region of about 1.0 cM on the short arm of chromosome 3, flanked by markers RM6308 and RM3134, where one known marker RM1022, and four new markers, b1, b2, b3 and b4, developed in the present study were co-segregating with the locus. To physically map this locus, the bph19(t)-linked markers were landed on bacterial artificial chromosome or P1 artificial chromosome clones of the reference cv., Nipponbare, released by the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project. Sequence information of these clones was used to construct a physical map of the bph19(t) locus, in silico, by BIA. The bph19(t) locus was physically defined to an interval of about 60 kb. The detailed genetic and physical maps of the bph19(t) locus will facilitate marker-assisted gene pyramiding and cloning.

  8. SSR-enriched genetic linkage maps of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × transvaalensis), and their comparison with allied plant genomes.

    Khanal, Sameer; Kim, Changsoo; Auckland, Susan A; Rainville, Lisa K; Adhikari, Jeevan; Schwartz, Brian M; Paterson, Andrew H

    2017-04-01

    We report SSR-enriched genetic maps of bermudagrass that: (1) reveal partial residual polysomic inheritance in the tetraploid species, and (2) provide insights into the evolution of chloridoid genomes. This study describes genetic linkage maps of two bermudagrass species, Cynodon dactylon (T89) and Cynodon transvaalensis (T574), that integrate heterologous microsatellite markers from sugarcane into frameworks built with single-dose restriction fragments (SDRFs). A maximum likelihood approach was used to construct two separate parental maps from a population of 110 F 1 progeny of a cross between the two parents. The T89 map is based on 291 loci on 34 cosegregating groups (CGs), with an average marker spacing of 12.5 cM. The T574 map is based on 125 loci on 14 CGs, with an average marker spacing of 10.7 cM. Six T89 and one T574 CG(s) deviated from disomic inheritance. Furthermore, marker segregation data and linkage phase analysis revealed partial residual polysomic inheritance in T89, suggesting that common bermudagrass is undergoing diploidization following whole genome duplication (WGD). Twenty-six T89 CGs were coalesced into 9 homo(eo)logous linkage groups (LGs), while 12 T574 CGs were assembled into 9 LGs, both putatively representing the basic chromosome complement (x = 9) of the species. Eight T89 and two T574 CGs remain unassigned. The marker composition of bermudagrass ancestral chromosomes was inferred by aligning T89 and T574 homologs, and used in comparisons to sorghum and rice genome sequences based on 108 and 91 significant blast hits, respectively. Two nested chromosome fusions (NCFs) shared by two other chloridoids (i.e., zoysiagrass and finger millet) and at least three independent translocation events were evident during chromosome number reduction from 14 in the polyploid common ancestor of Poaceae to 9 in Cynodon.

  9. Comprehensive Clinical Phenotyping and Genetic Mapping for the Discovery of Autism Susceptibility Genes

    2013-03-14

    behavioral teaching strategies and best practice for teaching students with autism spectrum disorders 4.52 Learn strategies for incorporating IEP goals...AFRL-SA-WP-TR-2013-0013 Comprehensive Clinical Phenotyping and Genetic Mapping for the Discovery of Autism Susceptibility Genes...Genetic Mapping for the Discovery of Autism Susceptibility Genes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6

  10. Mapping QTL for Seed Germinability under Low Temperature Using a New High-Density Genetic Map of Rice

    Ningfei Jiang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mapping major quantitative trait loci (QTL responsible for rice seed germinability under low temperature (GULT can provide valuable genetic source for improving cold tolerance in rice breeding. In this study, 124 rice backcross recombinant inbred lines (BRILs derived from a cross indica cv. Changhui 891 and japonica cv. 02428 were genotyped through re-sequencing technology. A bin map was generated which includes 3057 bins covering distance of 1266.5 cM with an average of 0.41 cM between markers. On the basis of newly constructed high-density genetic map, six QTL were detected ranging from 40 to 140 kb on Nipponbare genome. Among these, two QTL qCGR8 and qGRR11 alleles shared by 02428 could increase GULT and seed germination recovery rate after cold stress, respectively. However, qNGR1 and qNGR4 may be two major QTL affecting indica Changhui 891germination under normal condition. QTL qGRR1 and qGRR8 affected the seed germination recovery rate after cold stress and the alleles with increasing effects were shared by the Changhui 891 could improve seed germination rate after cold stress dramatically. These QTL could be a highly valuable genetic factors for cold tolerance improvement in rice lines. Moreover, the BRILs developed in this study will serve as an appropriate choice for mapping and studying genetic basis of rice complex traits.

  11. Inheritance and genetic mapping of resistance to Asian soybean rust in cultivar TMG 803

    Éder Matsuo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the inheritance and identified microsatellite markers linked to the resistance gene to Phakopsora pachyrhizi in soybean cultivar TMG 803. Hybridization between the cultivars TMG 803 and BRS Valiosa RR was performed to obtain F1 progenies and the F2 population. The response of the parents ‘TMG 803’ and ‘BRS Valiosa RR’ to P. pachyrhizi was, respectively, resistant and susceptible, and among the 116 F2 plants, 93 were resistant and 23 susceptible, under natural infection and field conditions. It was found that the resistance of cultivar TMG 803 is controlled by one gene with complete dominance, mapped as resistance locus Rpp4 of linkage group G. Of the 16 tested, one microsatellite marker, sc21_3420, was completely linked to the resistance gene (distance 0.0cM and the favorable allelic form was present in cultivar TMG 803, which may therefore be useful in assisted selection in segregating populations.

  12. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  13. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  14. Genetic linkage mapping in an F2 perennial ryegrass population using DArT markers

    Tomaszewski, C.; Byrne, S. L.; Foito, A.; Kildea, S.; Kopecký, David; Doležel, Jaroslav; Heslop-Harrison, J. S.; Stewart, D.; Barth, S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 2 (2012), s. 345-349 ISSN 0179-9541 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Lolium perenne * perennial ryegrass * genetic map Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.175, year: 2012

  15. Genetic mapping of retinitis pigmentosa implications for South ...

    of hereditary degenerative disorders of the retina, which are both genetically and clinically heterogeneous. The finding of ... causes of genetic blindness. The condition may be transmitted as an autosomal dominant, .... throughout the country conduct home visits in order to obtain blood specimens and collect pedigree data.

  16. An Integrated Genetic and Cytogenetic Map of the Cucumber Genome

    The Cucurbitaceae includes important crops as cucumber, melon, watermelon, and squash and pumpkin. However, few genetic and genomic resources are available for plant improvement. Some cucurbit species such as cucumber have a narrow genetic base, which impedes construction of saturated molecular li...

  17. Genetic mapping in a full-sib family of apple

    Maliepaard, C.

    2000-01-01

    Genetic analysis in strictly outcrossing species is far more complicated than in species that can be selfed. When, in addition to that, a species has a long generation cycle, and when progenies from crosses require much space, as is the case for apple trees, then acquiring genetic knowledge

  18. A 1.7-Mb YAC contig around the human BDNF gene (11p13): integration of the physical, genetic, and cytogenetic maps in relation to WAGR syndrome

    Rosier, M.F.; Martin, A.; Houlgatte, R. [Genetique Moleculaire et Biologie du Development, Villejuif (France)] [and others

    1994-11-01

    WAGR (Wilms tumor, aniridia, genito-urinary abnormalities, mental retardation) syndrome in humans is associated with deletions of the 11p13 region. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene maps to this region, and its deletion seems to contribute to the severity of the patient`s mental retardation. Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) carrying the BDNF gene have been isolated and characterized. Localization of two known exons of this gene leads to a minimal estimation of its size of about 40 kb. Chimerism of the BDNF YACs has been investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization and chromosome assignment on somatic cell hybrids. Using the BDNF gene, YAC end sequence tagged sites (STS), and Genethon microsatellite markers, the authors constructed a 1.7-Mb contig and refined the cytogenetic map at 11p13. The resulting integrated physical, genetic, and cytogenetic map constitutes a resource for the characterization of genes that may be involved in the WAGR syndrome. 42 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Eguchipsammia fistula Microsatellite Development and Population Analysis

    Mughal, Mehreen

    2012-12-01

    Deep water corals are an understudied yet biologically important and fragile ecosystem under threat from recent increasing temperatures and high carbon dioxide emissions. Using 454 sequencing, we develop 14 new microsatellite markers for the deep water coral Eguchipsammia fistula, collected from the Red Sea but found in deep water coral ecosystems globally. We tested these microsatellite primers on 26 samples of this coral collected from a single population. Results show that these corals are highly clonal within this population stemming from a high level of asexual reproduction. Mitochondrial studies back up microsatellite findings of high levels of genetic similarity. CO1, ND1 and ATP6 mitochondrial sequences of E. fistula and 11 other coral species were used to build phylogenetic trees which grouped E. fistula with shallow water coral Porites rather than deep sea L. Petusa.

  20. Genetic Mapping in Papillon-Lefèvre Syndrome: A Report of Two Cases

    Kaustubh Suresh Thakare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillon-Lefevre syndrome (PLS is a rare autosomal recessive heterogeneous trait which is characterized by erythematous palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, early-onset periodontitis, and associated calcification of dura mater. The etiology of PLS is multifactorial with genetic, immunological, and microbial factors playing a role in etiopathogenesis. Recently identified genetic defect in PLS has been mapped to chromosome 11q14–q21, which involves mutations of cathepsin C. This paper presents a report of 2 cases of Papillon-lefevre syndrome in which diagnosis is based on clinical presentation and genetic mapping.

  1. Drosophila transposon insertions as unknowns for structured inquiry recombination mapping exercises in an undergraduate genetics course.

    Marcus, Jeffrey M; Hughes, Tia M

    2009-06-01

    Structured inquiry approaches, in which students receive a Drosophila strain of unknown genotype to analyze and map the constituent mutations, are a common feature of many genetics teaching laboratories. The required crosses frustrate many students because they are aware that they are participating in a fundamentally trivial exercise, as the map locations of the genes are already established and have been recalculated thousands of times by generations of students. We modified the traditional structured inquiry approach to include a novel research experience for the students in our undergraduate genetics laboratories. Students conducted crosses with Drosophila strains carrying P[lacW] transposon insertions in genes without documented recombination map positions, representing a large number of unique, but equivalent genetic unknowns. Using the eye color phenotypes associated with the inserts as visible markers, it is straightforward to calculate recombination map positions for the interrupted loci. Collectively, our students mapped 95 genetic loci on chromosomes 2 and 3. In most cases, the calculated 95% confidence interval for meiotic map location overlapped with the predicted map position based on cytology. The research experience evoked positive student responses and helped students better understand the nature of scientific research for little additional cost or instructor effort.

  2. Application of Novel Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci Identified in the Korean Pacific Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta (Haliotidae in the Genetic Characterization of Wild and Released Populations

    Seong Wan Hong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, of the family Haliotidae, is one of the most important species of marine shellfish in eastern Asia. Over the past few decades, this species has drastically declined in Korea. Thus, hatchery-bred seeds have been released into natural coastal areas to compensate for the reduced fishery resources. However, information on the genetic background of the small abalone is scarce. In this study, 20 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers were identified using next-generation sequencing techniques and used to compare allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations in Korea. Using high-throughput genomic sequencing, a total of 1516 (2.26%; average length of 385 bp reads containing simple sequence repeats were obtained from 86,011 raw reads. Among the 99 loci screened, 28 amplified successfully, and 20 were polymorphic. When comparing allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations, a total of 243 different alleles were observed, with 18.7 alleles per locus. High genetic diversity (mean heterozygosity = 0.81; mean allelic number = 15.5 was observed in both populations. A statistical analysis of the fixation index (FST and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA indicated limited genetic differences between the two populations (FST = 0.002, p > 0.05. Although no significant reductions in the genetic diversity were found in the released population compared with the wild population (p > 0.05, the genetic diversity parameters revealed that the seeds released for stock abundance had a different genetic composition. These differences are likely a result of hatchery selection and inbreeding. Additionally, all the primer pair sets were effectively amplified in another congeneric species, H. diversicolor diversicolor, indicating that these primers are useful for both abalone species. These microsatellite loci

  3. Expression of the MAP kinase phosphatase DUSP4 is associated with microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer (CRC) and causes increased cell proliferation.

    Gröschl, Benedikt; Bettstetter, Marcus; Giedl, Christian; Woenckhaus, Matthias; Edmonston, Tina; Hofstädter, Ferdinand; Dietmaier, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    DUSP4 (MKP-2), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase (MKP) family and potential tumor suppressor, negatively regulates the MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases) ERK, p38 and JNK. MAPKs play a crucial role in cancer development and progression. Previously, using microarray analyses we found a conspicuously frequent overexpression of DUSP4 in colorectal cancer (CRC) with high frequent microsatellite instability (MSI-H) compared to microsatellite stable (MSS) CRC. Here we studied DUSP4 expression on mRNA level in 38 CRC (19 MSI-H and 19 MSS) compared to matched normal tissue as well as in CRC cell lines by RT-qPCR. DUSP4 was overexpressed in all 19 MSI-H tumors and in 14 MSS tumors. Median expression levels in MSI-H tumors were significantly higher than in MSS-tumors (p CRC cell lines showed 6.8-fold higher DUSP4 mRNA levels than MSS cell lines. DUSP4 expression was not regulated by promoter methylation since no methylation was found by quantitative methylation analysis of DUSP4 promoter in CRC cell lines neither in tumor samples. Furthermore, no DUSP4 mutation was found on genomic DNA level in four CRC cell lines. DUSP4 overexpression in CRC cell lines through DUSP4 transfection caused upregulated expression of MAPK targets CDC25A, CCND1, EGR1, FOS, MYC and CDKN1A in HCT116 as well as downregulation of mismatch repair gene MSH2 in SW480. Furthermore, DUSP4 overexpression led to increased proliferation in CRC cell lines. Our findings suggest that DUSP4 acts as an important regulator of cell growth within the MAPK pathway and causes enhanced cell growth in MSI-H CRC. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  4. Construction of genetic linkage map of the medicinal and ...

    semidwarf habit, more salt and drought tolerance, low in al- .... Designed, designed forward/reverse + RAPD and EST-SSR primer sequences investigated for use in genetic ..... cell biology, molecular regulation and metabolic engineering ap-.

  5. Genomewide mapping reveals a combination of different genetic ...

    could not investigate all kinds of genetic effects, especially epistatic effects, simultaneously on the whole genome. ... consistent with different loci affecting heterosis for different ...... Jones D. F. 1917 Dominance of linked factors as a means of.

  6. Identification and characterization of genic microsatellites in Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook (Taxodiaceae

    Xu Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomic resources for conventional breeding programs are extremely limited for coniferous trees, and existing simple sequence repeat markers are usually identified through the laborious process of hybridization screening. Therefore, this study aimed to identify gene-based microsatellites in the Chinese fir, Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook by screening transcript data. We identified 5200 microsatellites. Trinucleotide motifs were most common (47.94% and were followed by tetranucleotide motifs (24.92%. The AG/CT motif (43.93% was the most abundant dinucleotide repeat, whereas AAG/CTT (25.07% was the most common trinucleotide repeat. A total of 411 microsatellite primer pairs were designed and 97 polymorphic loci were identified by 8 genotypes. The number of alleles per locus (Na in these polymorphic loci ranged from 2 to 5 (mean, 2.640, the Ho values were 0.000-1.000 (mean, 0.479, and the HE values were 0.125-0.775 (mean, 0.462. The polymorphic information content (PIC values were 0.110-0.715 (mean, 0.383. Seventy-two of the 97 polymorphic markers (74.23% were present within genes with predicted functions. In addition, in genetic diversity and segregation analyses of 16 genotypes, only 5.88% of the polymorphic loci displayed segregation distortion at the p<0.05 level. Transferable amplification of a randomly selected set of 30 genic microsatellites showed that transferability decreased with increasing evolutionary distance between C. lanceolata and target conifers. Thus, these 97 genic markers will be useful for genetic diversity analysis, germplasm characterization, genome mapping and marker-assisted breeding in C. lanceolata, and evolutionary genetic analysis in Taxodiaceae.

  7. Molecular diversity of Pakistani mango (Mangifera indica L.) varieties based on microsatellite markers.

    Nazish, T; Shabbir, G; Ali, A; Sami-Ul-Allah, S; Naeem, M; Javed, M; Batool, S; Arshad, H; Hussain, S B; Aslam, K; Seher, R; Tahir, M; Baber, M

    2017-04-05

    Understanding the genetic diversity of different Pakistani mango varieties is important for germplasm management and varietal characterization. Microsatellites are efficient and highly polymorphic markers for comparative genome mapping, and were used in the present study to determine the genetic relatedness and variability among 15 indigenous mango cultivars (Mangifera indica L.). Overall, 181 bands were produced using 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. Out of the 12 primers used, 10 were polymorphic and two were monomorphic. Genetic relatedness among cultivars was assessed by constructing a dendrogram using the unweighted pair group method of arithmetic means. The accessions exhibited coefficients of similarity ranging from 75 to 100%, indicating the frequent use of only a few parent cultivars and the presence of inbreeding. The primers used in the present study were found to be valuable for identifying genetic relationships among mango cultivars.

  8. Short Communication: Genetic linkage map of Cucurbita maxima with molecular and morphological markers.

    Ge, Y; Li, X; Yang, X X; Cui, C S; Qu, S P

    2015-05-22

    Cucurbita maxima is one of the most widely cultivated vegetables in China and exhibits distinct morphological characteristics. In this study, genetic linkage analysis with 57 simple-sequence repeats, 21 amplified fragment length polymorphisms, 3 random-amplified polymorphic DNA, and one morphological marker revealed 20 genetic linkage groups of C. maxima covering a genetic distance of 991.5 cM with an average of 12.1 cM between adjacent markers. Genetic linkage analysis identified the simple-sequence repeat marker 'PU078072' 5.9 cM away from the locus 'Rc', which controls rind color. The genetic map in the present study will be useful for better mapping, tagging, and cloning of quantitative trait loci/gene(s) affecting economically important traits and for breeding new varieties of C. maxima through marker-assisted selection.

  9. Genetic variability and bottleneck analyses of Kanni adu goat population using microsatellite markers [Also published in The Indian Journal of Small Ruminants, 2015, 21(2): 216-22

    Jeyakumar, M.; Thiruvenkadan, R.; Saravana, R.; Periasamy, K.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Microsatellite data on 25 loci were generated and utilized to evaluate the genetic architecture and mutation drift equilibrium of Kanni Adu goats of southern Tamil Nadu. The genetic diversity analysis of Kanni Adu goats displayed higher level of within breed variability in terms of mean number of alleles per locus (11.24±0.87) and heterozygosity values (Ho= 0.677±0.041, He=0.857±0.016). Within population inbreeding estimate (FIS=0.215±0.040) showed moderate level of inbreeding, which warrant adoption of appropriate breeding strategies under field conditions. The polymorphism information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.531 to 0.915 suggested higher polymorphism in this breed. In general, the sign, standardized differences and Wilcoxon rank tests indicated heterozygosity excess in Kanni Adu goat population in infinite alleles and two-phase model and non-significant in stepwise mutation model. Hence, the mode-shift indicator test was utilized and it indicated the absence of genetic bottleneck in the recent past in Kanni Adu goats. It suggests that any unique alleles present in this breed may not have been lost. The study indicated that Kanni adu goats exhibited substantial amount of genetic variation as reflected from the heterozygosity and number of alleles per locus. (author)

  10. High-resolution genetic maps of Eucalyptus improve Eucalyptus grandis genome assembly.

    Bartholomé, Jérôme; Mandrou, Eric; Mabiala, André; Jenkins, Jerry; Nabihoudine, Ibouniyamine; Klopp, Christophe; Schmutz, Jeremy; Plomion, Christophe; Gion, Jean-Marc

    2015-06-01

    Genetic maps are key tools in genetic research as they constitute the framework for many applications, such as quantitative trait locus analysis, and support the assembly of genome sequences. The resequencing of the two parents of a cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis was used to design a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array of 6000 markers evenly distributed along the E. grandis genome. The genotyping of 1025 offspring enabled the construction of two high-resolution genetic maps containing 1832 and 1773 markers with an average marker interval of 0.45 and 0.5 cM for E. grandis and E. urophylla, respectively. The comparison between genetic maps and the reference genome highlighted 85% of collinear regions. A total of 43 noncollinear regions and 13 nonsynthetic regions were detected and corrected in the new genome assembly. This improved version contains 4943 scaffolds totalling 691.3 Mb of which 88.6% were captured by the 11 chromosomes. The mapping data were also used to investigate the effect of population size and number of markers on linkage mapping accuracy. This study provides the most reliable linkage maps for Eucalyptus and version 2.0 of the E. grandis genome. © 2014 CIRAD. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. A High Resolution Genetic Map Anchoring Scaffolds of the Sequenced Watermelon Genome

    Kou, Qinghe; Jiang, Jiao; Guo, Shaogui; Zhang, Haiying; Hou, Wenju; Zou, Xiaohua; Sun, Honghe; Gong, Guoyi; Levi, Amnon; Xu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    As part of our ongoing efforts to sequence and map the watermelon (Citrullus spp.) genome, we have constructed a high density genetic linkage map. The map positioned 234 watermelon genome sequence scaffolds (an average size of 1.41 Mb) that cover about 330 Mb and account for 93.5% of the 353 Mb of the assembled genomic sequences of the elite Chinese watermelon line 97103 (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus). The genetic map was constructed using an F8 population of 103 recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The RILs are derived from a cross between the line 97103 and the United States Plant Introduction (PI) 296341-FR (C. lanatus var. citroides) that contains resistance to fusarium wilt (races 0, 1, and 2). The genetic map consists of eleven linkage groups that include 698 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 219 insertion-deletion (InDel) and 36 structure variation (SV) markers and spans ∼800 cM with a mean marker interval of 0.8 cM. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 11 BACs that produced chromosome-specifc signals, we have depicted watermelon chromosomes that correspond to the eleven linkage groups constructed in this study. The high resolution genetic map developed here should be a useful platform for the assembly of the watermelon genome, for the development of sequence-based markers used in breeding programs, and for the identification of genes associated with important agricultural traits. PMID:22247776

  12. A double-mutant collection targeting MAP kinase related genes in Arabidopsis for studying genetic interactions.

    Su, Shih-Heng; Krysan, Patrick J

    2016-12-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades are conserved in all eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana there are approximately 80 genes encoding MAP kinase kinase kinases (MAP3K), 10 genes encoding MAP kinase kinases (MAP2K), and 20 genes encoding MAP kinases (MAPK). Reverse genetic analysis has failed to reveal abnormal phenotypes for a majority of these genes. One strategy for uncovering gene function when single-mutant lines do not produce an informative phenotype is to perform a systematic genetic interaction screen whereby double-mutants are created from a large library of single-mutant lines. Here we describe a new collection of 275 double-mutant lines derived from a library of single-mutants targeting genes related to MAP kinase signaling. To facilitate this study, we developed a high-throughput double-mutant generating pipeline using a system for growing Arabidopsis seedlings in 96-well plates. A quantitative root growth assay was used to screen for evidence of genetic interactions in this double-mutant collection. Our screen revealed four genetic interactions, all of which caused synthetic enhancement of the root growth defects observed in a MAP kinase 4 (MPK4) single-mutant line. Seeds for this double-mutant collection are publicly available through the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center. Scientists interested in diverse biological processes can now screen this double-mutant collection under a wide range of growth conditions in order to search for additional genetic interactions that may provide new insights into MAP kinase signaling. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Quantitative trait loci mapping and genetic dissection for lint ...

    2014-08-01

    Aug 1, 2014 ... hirsutum, as parents to construct a mapping populations in upland ... that could be candidate markers affecting cotton fibre development. .... F2:3 family line seeds were harvested. ... long). All activities were performed as per the normal mana- ... times, and the QTL with a LOD value of more than the LOD.

  14. The first genetic linkage map of Primulina eburnea (Gesneriaceae)

    Primulina eburneais a promising candidate for domestication and floriculture, since it is easy to culture and has beautiful flow-ers. An F2population of 189 individuals was established for the construction of first-generation linkage maps based onexpressed sequence tags-derived single-nucleotide polymorphism markers ...

  15. A genetic linkage map for the apicomplexan protozoan parasite Eimeria maxima and comparison with Eimeria tenella.

    Blake, Damer P; Oakes, Richard; Smith, Adrian L

    2011-02-01

    Eimeria maxima is one of the seven Eimeria spp. that infect the chicken and cause the disease coccidiosis. The well characterised immunogenicity and genetic diversity associated with E. maxima promote its use in genetics-led studies on avian coccidiosis. The development of a genetic map for E. maxima, presented here based upon 647 amplified fragment length polymorphism markers typed from 22 clonal hybrid lines and assembled into 13 major linkage groups, is a major new resource for work with this parasite. Comparison with genetic maps produced for other coccidial parasites indicates relatively high levels of genetic recombination. Conversion of ∼14% of the markers representing the major linkage groups to sequence characterised amplified region markers can provide a scaffold for the assembly of future genomic sequences as well as providing a foundation for more detailed genetic maps. Comparison with the Eimeria tenella genetic map produced 10years ago has revealed a less biased marker distribution, with no more than nine markers mapped within any unresolved heritable unit. Nonetheless, preliminary bioinformatic characterisation of the three largest publicly available genomic E. maxima sequences suggest that the feature-poor/feature-rich structure which has previously been found to define the first sequenced E. tenella chromosome also defines the E. maxima genome. The significance of such a segmented genome and the apparent potential for variation in genetic recombination will be relevant to haplotype stability and the longevity of future anticoccidial strategies based upon multiple loci targeted by novel chemotherapeutic drugs or recombinant subunit vaccines. Copyright © 2010 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The first genetic linkage map of Eucommia ulmoides

    Eucommia ulmoides Oliv., also called Du-Zhong, is the .... The polymorphic markers were analysed by a chi-square test ... ratio of a dominant locus in an F1 population (P < 0.05). ..... loss, viability per lethal genes, genetic isolation mech-.

  17. Characterization of new Schistosoma mansoni microsatellite loci in sequences obtained from public DNA databases and microsatellite enriched genomic libraries

    Rodrigues NB

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade microsatellites have become one of the most useful genetic markers used in a large number of organisms due to their abundance and high level of polymorphism. Microsatellites have been used for individual identification, paternity tests, forensic studies and population genetics. Data on microsatellite abundance comes preferentially from microsatellite enriched libraries and DNA sequence databases. We have conducted a search in GenBank of more than 16,000 Schistosoma mansoni ESTs and 42,000 BAC sequences. In addition, we obtained 300 sequences from CA and AT microsatellite enriched genomic libraries. The sequences were searched for simple repeats using the RepeatMasker software. Of 16,022 ESTs, we detected 481 (3% sequences that contained 622 microsatellites (434 perfect, 164 imperfect and 24 compounds. Of the 481 ESTs, 194 were grouped in 63 clusters containing 2 to 15 ESTs per cluster. Polymorphisms were observed in 16 clusters. The 287 remaining ESTs were orphan sequences. Of the 42,017 BAC end sequences, 1,598 (3.8% contained microsatellites (2,335 perfect, 287 imperfect and 79 compounds. The 1,598 BAC end sequences 80 were grouped into 17 clusters containing 3 to 17 BAC end sequences per cluster. Microsatellites were present in 67 out of 300 sequences from microsatellite enriched libraries (55 perfect, 38 imperfect and 15 compounds. From all of the observed loci 55 were selected for having the longest perfect repeats and flanking regions that allowed the design of primers for PCR amplification. Additionally we describe two new polymorphic microsatellite loci.

  18. Determinants of Virulence and In Vitro Development Colocalize on a Genetic Map of Setosphaeria turcica.

    Mideros, Santiago X; Chung, Chia-Lin; Wiesner-Hanks, Tyr; Poland, Jesse A; Wu, Dongliang; Fialko, Ariel A; Turgeon, B Gillian; Nelson, Rebecca J

    2018-02-01

    Generating effective and stable strategies for resistance breeding requires an understanding of the genetics of host-pathogen interactions and the implications for pathogen dynamics and evolution. Setosphaeria turcica causes northern leaf blight (NLB), an important disease of maize for which major resistance genes have been deployed. Little is known about the evolutionary dynamics of avirulence (AVR) genes in S. turcica. To test the hypothesis that there is a genetic association between avirulence and in vitro development traits, we (i) created a genetic map of S. turcica, (ii) located candidate AVRHt1 and AVRHt2 regions, and (iii) identified genetic regions associated with several in vitro development traits. A cross was generated between a race 1 and a race 23N strain, and 221 progeny were isolated. Genotyping by sequencing was used to score 2,078 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers. A genetic map spanning 1,981 centimorgans was constructed, consisting of 21 linkage groups. Genetic mapping extended prior evidence for the location and identity of the AVRHt1 gene and identified a region of interest for AVRHt2. The genetic location of AVRHt2 colocalized with loci influencing radial growth and mycelial abundance. Our data suggest a trade-off between virulence on Ht1 and Ht2 and the pathogen's vegetative growth rate. In addition, in-depth analysis of the genotypic data suggests the presence of significant duplication in the genome of S. turcica.

  19. Microsatellites in varied arenas of research

    K S Remya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites known as simple-sequence repeats (SSRs or short-tandem repeats (STRs, represent specific sequences of DNA consisting of tandemly repeated units of one to six nucleotides. The repetitive nature of microsatellites makes them particularly prone to grow or shrink in length and these changes can have both good and bad consequences for the organisms that possess them. They are responsible for various neurological diseases and hence the same cause is now utilized for the early detection of various diseases, such as, Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder, Congenital generalized Hypertrichosis, Asthma, and Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness. These agents are widely used for forensic identification and relatedness testing, and are predominant genetic markers in this area of application. The application of microsatellites is an extending web and covers the varied scenarios of science, such as, conservation biology, plant genetics, and population studies. At present, researches are progressing round the globe to extend the use of these genetic repeaters to unmask the hidden genetic secrets behind the creation of the world.

  20. Microsatellite Primers in the Lichen Symbiotic Alga Trebouxia decolorans (Trebouxiophyceae

    Francesco Dal Grande

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the symbiotic green alga Trebouxia decolorans to study fine-scale population structure and clonal diversity. Methods and Results: Using Illumina pyrosequencing, 20 microsatellite primer sets were developed for T. decolorans. The primer sets were tested on 43 individuals sampled from four subpopulations in Germany. The primers amplified di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats with three to 15 alleles per locus, and the unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.636 to 0.821. Conclusions: The identified microsatellite markers will be useful to study the genetic diversity, dispersal, and reproductive mode of this common lichen photobiont.

  1. Dissecting Genetic Network of Fruit Branch Traits in Upland Cotton by Association Mapping Using SSR Markers.

    Yongjun Mei

    Full Text Available Genetic architecture of branch traits has large influences on the morphological structure, photosynthetic capacity, planting density, and yield of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.. This research aims to reveal the genetic effects of six branch traits, including bottom fruit branch node number (BFBNN, bottom fruit branch length (BFBL, middle fruit branch node number (MFBNN, middle fruit branch length (MFBL, upper fruit branch node number (UFBNN, and upper fruit branch length (UFBL. Association mapping was conducted for these traits of 39 lines and their 178 F1 hybrids in three environments. There were 20 highly significant Quantitative Trait SSRs (QTSs detected by mixed linear model approach analyzing a full genetic model with genetic effects of additive, dominance, epistasis and their environment interaction. The phenotypic variation explained by genetic effects ranged from 32.64 ~ 91.61%, suggesting these branch traits largely influenced by genetic factors.

  2. Building high resolution genetic variation map for Mongolians

    Guo, Xiaosen

    the paternal or maternal transmission, or carrying out the genetic disease studies based on the data of a small number of variants or partial genomic regions. In the study plan, first, we collected the genomic DNA of a representative Mongolian male individual, performed high coverage whole genome sequencing...... the pigmentation gene OCA2 play an important role in the convergent skin lightening of East Asians during recent human evolution. However, the genomics research on Mongolians, which attract strong research interests, still remains the levels of using the data of Y chromosome or Mitochondrial genome to explore...... the individual possesses a risk allele that may cause carnitine deficiency. Y haplogroup analysis located the paternal inheritance to the clade D3a, which is the one of oldest lineage in East Asians and present the most common in Tibeto- Burman populations. Through final population genetics analyses, we roughly...

  3. Drosophila Transposon Insertions as Unknowns for Structured Inquiry Recombination Mapping Exercises in an Undergraduate Genetics Course

    Marcus, Jeffrey M.; Hughes, Tia M.

    2009-01-01

    Structured inquiry approaches, in which students receive a Drosophila strain of unknown genotype to analyze and map the constituent mutations, are a common feature of many genetics teaching laboratories. The required crosses frustrate many students because they are aware that they are participating in a fundamentally trivial exercise, as the map locations of the genes are already established and have been recalculated thousands of times by generations of students. We modified the traditional ...

  4. Genetic Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Two Interspecific Reproductive Isolation Traits in Sponge Gourd

    Wu, Haibin; He, Xiaoli; Gong, Hao; Luo, Shaobo; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Junqiu; Zhang, Changyuan; Yu, Ting; Huang, Wangping; Luo, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    The hybrids between Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. and L.cylindrica (L.) Roem. have strong heterosis effects. However, some reproductive isolation traits hindered their normal hybridization and fructification, which was mainly caused by the flowering time and hybrid pollen sterility. In order to study the genetic basis of two interspecific reproductive isolation traits, we constructed a genetic linkage map using an F2 population derived from a cross between S1174 [L. acutangula (L.) Roxb.] and 9...

  5. An integrated genetic map based on four mapping populations and quantitative trait loci associated with economically important traits in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)

    2014-01-01

    Background Modern watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) cultivars share a narrow genetic base due to many years of selection for desirable horticultural qualities. Wild subspecies within C. lanatus are important potential sources of novel alleles for watermelon breeding, but successful trait introgression into elite cultivars has had limited success. The application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in watermelon is yet to be realized, mainly due to the past lack of high quality genetic maps. Recently, a number of useful maps have become available, however these maps have few common markers, and were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making integration and comparative analysis among maps difficult. The objective of this research was to use single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) anchor markers to construct an integrated genetic map for C. lanatus. Results Under the framework of the high density genetic map, an integrated genetic map was constructed by merging data from four independent mapping experiments using a genetically diverse array of parental lines, which included three subspecies of watermelon. The 698 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 219 insertion-deletion (InDel), 36 structure variation (SV) and 386 SNP markers from the four maps were used to construct an integrated map. This integrated map contained 1339 markers, spanning 798 cM with an average marker interval of 0.6 cM. Fifty-eight previously reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 12 traits in these populations were also integrated into the map. In addition, new QTL identified for brix, fructose, glucose and sucrose were added. Some QTL associated with economically important traits detected in different genetic backgrounds mapped to similar genomic regions of the integrated map, suggesting that such QTL are responsible for the phenotypic variability observed in a broad array of watermelon germplasm. Conclusions The integrated map described herein enhances the utility of genomic tools over

  6. An integrated genetic map based on four mapping populations and quantitative trait loci associated with economically important traits in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Ren, Yi; McGregor, Cecilia; Zhang, Yan; Gong, Guoyi; Zhang, Haiying; Guo, Shaogui; Sun, Honghe; Cai, Wantao; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Yong

    2014-01-20

    Modern watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) cultivars share a narrow genetic base due to many years of selection for desirable horticultural qualities. Wild subspecies within C. lanatus are important potential sources of novel alleles for watermelon breeding, but successful trait introgression into elite cultivars has had limited success. The application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in watermelon is yet to be realized, mainly due to the past lack of high quality genetic maps. Recently, a number of useful maps have become available, however these maps have few common markers, and were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making integration and comparative analysis among maps difficult. The objective of this research was to use single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) anchor markers to construct an integrated genetic map for C. lanatus. Under the framework of the high density genetic map, an integrated genetic map was constructed by merging data from four independent mapping experiments using a genetically diverse array of parental lines, which included three subspecies of watermelon. The 698 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 219 insertion-deletion (InDel), 36 structure variation (SV) and 386 SNP markers from the four maps were used to construct an integrated map. This integrated map contained 1339 markers, spanning 798 cM with an average marker interval of 0.6 cM. Fifty-eight previously reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 12 traits in these populations were also integrated into the map. In addition, new QTL identified for brix, fructose, glucose and sucrose were added. Some QTL associated with economically important traits detected in different genetic backgrounds mapped to similar genomic regions of the integrated map, suggesting that such QTL are responsible for the phenotypic variability observed in a broad array of watermelon germplasm. The integrated map described herein enhances the utility of genomic tools over previous watermelon genetic maps. A

  7. Characterization of novel microsatellite markers in Musa acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4

    Amorim Edson P

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Banana is a nutritionally important crop across tropical and sub-tropical countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Central and South America and Asia. Although cultivars have evolved from diploid, triploid and tetraploid wild Asian species of Musa acuminata (A genome and Musa balbisiana (B genome, many of today's commercial cultivars are sterile triploids or diploids, with fruit developing via parthenocarpy. As a result of restricted genetic variation, improvement has been limited, resulting in a crop frequently lacking resistance to pests and disease. Considering the importance of molecular tools to facilitate development of disease resistant genotypes, the objectives of this study were to develop polymorphic microsatellite markers from BAC clone sequences for M. acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4. This wild diploid species is used as a donor cultivar in breeding programs as a source of resistance to diverse biotic stresses. Findings Microsatellite sequences were identified from five Calcutta 4 BAC consensi datasets. Specific primers were designed for 41 loci. Isolated di-nucleotide repeat motifs were the most abundant, followed by tri-nucleotides. From 33 tested loci, 20 displayed polymorphism when screened across 21 diploid M. acuminata accessions, contrasting in resistance to Sigatoka diseases. The number of alleles per SSR locus ranged from two to four, with a total of 56. Six repeat classes were identified, with di-nucleotides the most abundant. Expected heterozygosity values for polymorphic markers ranged from 0.31 to 0.75. Conclusions This is the first report identifying polymorphic microsatellite markers from M. acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4 across accessions contrasting in resistance to Sigatoka diseases. These BAC-derived polymorphic microsatellite markers are a useful resource for banana, applicable for genetic map development, germplasm characterization, evolutionary studies and marker

  8. Characterization of novel microsatellite markers in Musa acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4.

    Miller, Robert Ng; Passos, Marco An; Menezes, Natalia Np; Souza, Manoel T; do Carmo Costa, Marcos M; Rennó Azevedo, Vânia C; Amorim, Edson P; Pappas, Georgios J; Ciampi, Ana Y

    2010-05-27

    Banana is a nutritionally important crop across tropical and sub-tropical countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Central and South America and Asia. Although cultivars have evolved from diploid, triploid and tetraploid wild Asian species of Musa acuminata (A genome) and Musa balbisiana (B genome), many of today's commercial cultivars are sterile triploids or diploids, with fruit developing via parthenocarpy. As a result of restricted genetic variation, improvement has been limited, resulting in a crop frequently lacking resistance to pests and disease. Considering the importance of molecular tools to facilitate development of disease resistant genotypes, the objectives of this study were to develop polymorphic microsatellite markers from BAC clone sequences for M. acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4. This wild diploid species is used as a donor cultivar in breeding programs as a source of resistance to diverse biotic stresses. Microsatellite sequences were identified from five Calcutta 4 BAC consensi datasets. Specific primers were designed for 41 loci. Isolated di-nucleotide repeat motifs were the most abundant, followed by tri-nucleotides. From 33 tested loci, 20 displayed polymorphism when screened across 21 diploid M. acuminata accessions, contrasting in resistance to Sigatoka diseases. The number of alleles per SSR locus ranged from two to four, with a total of 56. Six repeat classes were identified, with di-nucleotides the most abundant. Expected heterozygosity values for polymorphic markers ranged from 0.31 to 0.75. This is the first report identifying polymorphic microsatellite markers from M. acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4 across accessions contrasting in resistance to Sigatoka diseases. These BAC-derived polymorphic microsatellite markers are a useful resource for banana, applicable for genetic map development, germplasm characterization, evolutionary studies and marker assisted selection for traits.

  9. Microsatellite loci in Japanese quail and cross-species amplification in chicken and guinea fowl

    Mizutani Makoto

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In line with the Gifu University's initiative to map the Japanese quail genome, a total of 100 Japanese quail microsatellite markers isolated in our laboratory were evaluated in a population of 20 unrelated quails randomly sampled