WorldWideScience

Sample records for microporous pe matrices

  1. Microporous silica membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermal stability is a crucial factor for the application of microporous silica-based membranes in industrial processes. Indeed, it is well established that steam exposure may cause densification and defect formation in microporous silica membranes, which are detrimental to both membrane...... permeability and selectivity. Numerous previous studies show that microporous transition metal doped-silica membranes are hydrothermally more stable than pure silica membranes, but less permeable. Here we present a quantitative study on the impact of type and concentration of transition metal ions...... on the microporous structure, stability and permeability of amorphous silica-based membranes, providing information on how to design chemical compositions and synthetic paths for the fabrication of silica-based membranes with a well accessible and highly stabile microporous structure....

  2. Electromagnetic micropores: fabrication and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basore, Joseph R; Lavrik, Nickolay V; Baker, Lane A

    2010-12-21

    We describe the fabrication and characterization of electromagnetic micropores. These devices consist of a micropore encompassed by a microelectromagnetic trap. Fabrication of the device involves multiple photolithographic steps, combined with deep reactive ion etching and subsequent insulation steps. When immersed in an electrolyte solution, application of a constant potential across the micropore results in an ionic current. Energizing the electromagnetic trap surrounding the micropore produces regions of high magnetic field gradients in the vicinity of the micropore that can direct motion of a ferrofluid onto or off of the micropore. This results in dynamic gating of the ion current through the micropore structure. In this report, we detail fabrication and characterize the electrical and ionic properties of the prepared electromagnetic micropores.

  3. Panels of microporous insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliams, J.A.; Morgan, D.E.; Jackson, J.D.J.

    1990-08-07

    Microporous thermal insulation materials have a lattice structure in which the average interstitial dimension is less than the mean free path of the molecules of air or other gas in which the material is arranged. This results in a heat flow which is less than that attributable to the molecular heat diffusion of the gas. According to this invention, a method is provided for manufacturing panels of microporous thermal insulation, in particular such panels in which the insulation material is bonded to a substrate. The method comprises the steps of applying a film of polyvinyl acetate emulsion to a non-porous substrate, and compacting powdery microporous thermal insulation material against the film so as to cause the consolidated insulation material to bond to the substrate and form a panel. The polyvinyl acetate may be applied by brushing or spraying, and is preferably allowed to dry prior to compacting the insulation material. 1 fig.

  4. Sorption and leaching properties of the composites and humic complexes of natural microporous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masasek, F.

    1998-01-01

    This contribution deals with scientific basis and engineering practices of natural microporous materials (NMM) which are projected for a millennia horizon of the environmental protection. Microcrystalline structure of inorganic microporous sorbents is discussed. Artificial formation composites and both inorganic and organic complexes of NMM is applied for> (1) field barriers, fills or supporting structures, (2) reagents and organic coating supports, (3) granules, pellets and column packings, (4) additives to cementitious fixation matrices, and (4) glass formulations

  5. Study of zirconia microporous structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, V.Yu.

    2000-01-01

    Microporous structure of zirconium dioxide obtained by precipitation at variation of precipitating pH and time of gel aging was investigated with use of data on physical adsorption of nitrogen, oxygen and molecular hydrogen. Proportional increase of the supermicropore surface value measured on adsorption of O 2 over the value measured on adsorption of N 2 depending on the value of properly supermicropore detected earlier was shown to be held for zirconium dioxide. Formation of ZrO 2 microporous structure is precipitation pH dependent. Increase of pH on the 4 - 7 interval leads to decrease of volume of micropores during synchronous increase of supermicropore surface value, and mesopore at pH > 5. Gel aging is followed by additional reconstruction involving increase of sizes of micropores at minor increase of their common volume. Limit volume of sorption space of xerogel and common porosity grow take place too [ru

  6. Self-assembly of an electronically conductive network through microporous scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, H Bri; Bryant, Steven L

    2017-06-15

    Electron transfer spanning significant distances through a microporous structure was established via the self-assembly of an electronically conductive iridium oxide nanowire matrix enveloping the pore walls. Microporous formations were simulated using two scaffold materials of varying physical and chemical properties; paraffin wax beads, and agar gel. Following infiltration into the micropores, iridium nanoparticles self-assembled at the pore wall/ethanol interface. Subsequently, cyclic voltammetry was employed to electrochemically crosslink the metal, erecting an interconnected, and electronically conductive metal oxide nanowire matrix. Electrochemical and spectral characterization techniques confirmed the formation of oxide nanowire matrices encompassing lengths of at least 1.6mm, 400× distances previously achieved using iridium nanoparticles. Nanowire matrices were engaged as biofuel cell anodes, where electrons were donated to the nanowires by a glucose oxidizing enzyme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Emulsification using microporous membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran T. Vladisavljević

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Membrane emulsification is a process of injecting a pure dispersed phase or pre-emulsion through a microporous membrane into the continuous phase. As a result of the immiscibility of the two phases, droplets of the dispersed phase are formed at the outlets of membrane pores. The droplets formed in the process are removed from the membrane surface by applying cross-flow or stirring of the continuous phase or using a dynamic (rotating or vibrating membrane. The most commonly used membrane for emulsification is the Shirasu Porous Glass (SPG membrane, fabricated through spinodal decomposition in a melt consisting of Japanese volcanic ash (Shirasu, boric acid and calcium carbonate. Microsieve membranes are increasingly popular as an alternative to highly tortuous glass and ceramic membranes. Microsieves are usually fabricated from nickel by photolithography and electroplating or they can be manufactured from silicon nitride via Reactive Ion Etching (RIE. An advantage of microsieves compared to the SPG membrane is in much higher transmembrane fluxes and higher tolerance to fouling by the emulsion ingredients due to the existence of short, straight through pores. Unlike conventional emulsification devices such as high-pressure valve homogenisers and rotor-stator devices, membrane emulsification devices permit a precise control over the mean pore size over a wide range and during the process insignificant amount of energy is dissipated as heat. The drop size is primarily determined by the pore size, but it depends also on other parameters, such as membrane wettability, emulsion formulation, shear stress on the membrane surface, transmembrane pressure, etc.

  8. PE 100 pipe systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brömstrup, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    English translation of the 3rd edition ""Rohrsysteme aus PE 100"". Because of the considerably increased performance, pipe and pipe systems made from 100 enlarge the range of applications in the sectors of gas and water supply, sewage disposal, industrial pipeline construction and in the reconstruction and redevelopment of defective pipelines (relining). This book applies in particular to engineers, technicians and foremen working in the fields of supply, disposal and industry. Subject matters of the book are all practice-relevant questions regarding the construction, operation and maintenance

  9. Formal matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Krylov, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is a comprehensive account of formal matrices, examining homological properties of modules over formal matrix rings and summarising the interplay between Morita contexts and K theory. While various special types of formal matrix rings have been studied for a long time from several points of view and appear in various textbooks, for instance to examine equivalences of module categories and to illustrate rings with one-sided non-symmetric properties, this particular class of rings has, so far, not been treated systematically. Exploring formal matrix rings of order 2 and introducing the notion of the determinant of a formal matrix over a commutative ring, this monograph further covers the Grothendieck and Whitehead groups of rings. Graduate students and researchers interested in ring theory, module theory and operator algebras will find this book particularly valuable. Containing numerous examples, Formal Matrices is a largely self-contained and accessible introduction to the topic, assuming a sol...

  10. Computer modelling of microporous materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catlow, C.R.A.; Santen, van R.A.; Smit, B.

    2004-01-01

    Microporous materials, including both zeolites and aluminophosphates are amongst the most fascinating classes of materials, with wide ranging important applications in catalysis, gas separation and ion exchange. The breadth of the field has, moreover, been extended in the last ten years by the

  11. Averaging operations on matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-03

    Jul 3, 2014 ... Role of Positive Definite Matrices. • Diffusion Tensor Imaging: 3 × 3 pd matrices model water flow at each voxel of brain scan. • Elasticity: 6 × 6 pd matrices model stress tensors. • Machine Learning: n × n pd matrices occur as kernel matrices. Tanvi Jain. Averaging operations on matrices ...

  12. Microporous ceramic coated separators with superior wettability for enhancing the electrochemical performance of sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suharto, Yustian; Lee, Yongho; Yu, Ji-Sang; Choi, Wonchang; Kim, Ki Jae

    2018-02-01

    Finding an alternative to glass fiber (GF) separators is a crucial factor for the fast commercialization of sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), because GF separators are too thick for use in SIBs, thereby decreasing the volumetric and gravimetric energy density. Here we propose a microporous composite separator prepared by introducing a polymeric coating layer of polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP co-polymer) with ZrO2 nanoparticles to a polyethylene (PE) separator. The coated separator efficiently enhances the cell performance of SIBs. The ZrO2 nanoparticles, finely dispersed on the polymeric coating layer, induce the formation of many micropores on the polymeric coating layer, suggesting that micropore formation on the coating layer renders the composite separator more open in structure. An ethylene carbonate/propylene carbonate liquid electrolyte for SIBs is not absorbed by PE separators even after 1 h of electrolyte droplet testing, while the proposed separator with many micropores is completely wetted by the electrolyte. Sodium ion migration across the composite separator is therefore effectively enhanced by the formation of ion transfer pathways, which improve ionic conductivity. As a result, the microporous composite separator affords stable cycle performances and excellent specific capacity retention (95.8%) after 50 cycles, comparable to those offered by a SIB with a GF separator.

  13. Manufacturing microporous membrane by polymerisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanny, G.B.

    1984-01-01

    The starting materials for the practice of the present invention are (1) one or more organic monomers or oligomers which upon irradiation very rapidly undergo a polymerization reaction to form a solid polymer; and (2) a liquid vehicle in which the one or more organic monomers or oligomers are soluble but in which the polymer formed is insoluble. For the manufacture of microporous membrane in accordance with the invention the monomers or oligomers are dissolved in the liquid vehicle, the resulting solution is formed into a thin layer, and the thin layer of the solution is then irradiated as with ultraviolet or electron beam radiation whereupon the rapid polymerization reaction immediately ensues and the polymer formed immediately segregates from the vehicle thereby resulting in microporous membrane from which the vehicle can be removed as by evaporation or washing. Because the radiation-induced polymerization reaction and the segregation of the polymer formed are so rapid, the membrane formed has cells and communications therebetween of very small dimensions thereby providing the microporous structure. Where ultra-violet radiation is used the solution also includes a photo-initiator. (author)

  14. Characterization of Microporous Insulation, Microsil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Microsil microporous insulation has been characterized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for possible use in structural and thermal applications in the DPP-1 design. Qualitative test results have provided mechanical behavioral characteristics for DPP-1 design studies and focused on the material behavioral response to being crushed, cyclically loaded, and subjected to vibration for a confined material with an interference fit or a radial gap. Quantitative test results have provided data to support the DPP-1 FEA model analysis and verification and were used to determine mechanical property values for the material under a compression load. The test results are documented within this report.

  15. Inverse m-matrices and ultrametric matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Dellacherie, Claude; San Martin, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The study of M-matrices, their inverses and discrete potential theory is now a well-established part of linear algebra and the theory of Markov chains. The main focus of this monograph is the so-called inverse M-matrix problem, which asks for a characterization of nonnegative matrices whose inverses are M-matrices. We present an answer in terms of discrete potential theory based on the Choquet-Deny Theorem. A distinguished subclass of inverse M-matrices is ultrametric matrices, which are important in applications such as taxonomy. Ultrametricity is revealed to be a relevant concept in linear algebra and discrete potential theory because of its relation with trees in graph theory and mean expected value matrices in probability theory. Remarkable properties of Hadamard functions and products for the class of inverse M-matrices are developed and probabilistic insights are provided throughout the monograph.

  16. Microporous and meso porous molecular sieves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Antonio Souza de

    1999-01-01

    In this work, general aspects on the microporous and mesoporous molecular sieves using inorganic sources of aluminium, silicon, phosphorous, water and structural organic templates are reviewed. The nomenclature, synthesis, structure, acidity and chemical functionality of microporous zeolites and silico alumino phosphate, besides mesoporous MCM-41 material, will be emphasized. (author)

  17. Amorphous ice. A microporous solid: astrophysical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, E.; Pletzer, R.

    1987-01-01

    Vapour deposited amorphous ice, investigated by N 2 -adsorption at 77 K, was found to be a microporous solid. Micropore volumes between 0.21 and 0.12 cm 3 /g were determined by comparison plots and Dubinin-Radushkevich plots. Warming of the adsorbent to 113 K caused sintering and reduction of apparent surface area by about an order of magnitude; in the presence of adsorbed gas, large amounts of gas were enclosed in the solid. The influence of micropores on the H 2 recombination rate on amorphous ice in interstellar dust and on adsorption of volatile gases in comets is discussed briefly

  18. Microporous glasses for pro-ecological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procyk, B.; Stoch, L.; Kubacki, M.; Rewilak, M.; Soltysiak, J.

    1994-01-01

    Microporous glasses are obtained by appropriate thermal and chemical treatment. On account of their sorptive properties microporous glasses represent an excellent material for storing high-energy radioactive waste products in nuclear power engineering and for binding toxins in natural environment. Microporous glasses may be used as membranes non-organic, as gel filling in chromatography. They may find application in biochemistry, chemical, metallurgical, electrochemical and other industries. The above applications depend on the internal arrangement, size and shape of pores. (author). 4 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  19. The New P.E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandertie, Joan; Corner, Amy B.; Corner, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Marana Middle School in Tucson, Ariz., scrapped its traditional P.E. program that emphasized team sports and shifted to a program that focuses on lifetime fitness, student choice in activities, and nutrition and health education. The program also includes student leadership development and informal community service. As a result, Marana students…

  20. Functionalized polymer networks: synthesis of microporous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    were characterized by IR spectroscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry, for determination of epoxy num- ber and specific ... The self-propagating frontal polymerization also generates microporous material with ..... Theory Simul. 12 276.

  1. Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2013-12-05

    Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.

  2. Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.

  3. Matrices and linear transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Charles G

    1990-01-01

    ""Comprehensive . . . an excellent introduction to the subject."" - Electronic Engineer's Design Magazine.This introductory textbook, aimed at sophomore- and junior-level undergraduates in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, offers a smooth, in-depth treatment of linear algebra and matrix theory. The major objects of study are matrices over an arbitrary field. Contents include Matrices and Linear Systems; Vector Spaces; Determinants; Linear Transformations; Similarity: Part I and Part II; Polynomials and Polynomial Matrices; Matrix Analysis; and Numerical Methods. The first

  4. Improved Fibroblast Functionalities by Microporous Pattern Fabricated by Microelectromechanical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Hongbo; Zhao, Lingzhou; Chen, Bangdao; Bai, Shizhu; Zhao, Yimin

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblasts, which play an important role in biological seal formation and maintenance, determine the long-term success of percutaneous implants. In this study, well-defined microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm were fabricated by microelectromechanical systems and their influence on the fibroblast functionalities was observed. The results show that the microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm did not influence the initial adherent fibroblast number; ...

  5. A study on ion microporous membrane and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hongying; Huang Zhengde

    2002-01-01

    The author depicted the physical, chemical character and the applied fields of ion microporous membrane. The technological procedure of making ion microporous membrane, applications in microporous counter-feinting trademark by heavy ion imaging and medical filtrater in authors' institute were stated

  6. Molecular Simulation of Adsorption in Microporous Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Yiannourakou M.; Ungerer P.; Leblanc B.; Rozanska X.; Saxe P.; Vidal-Gilbert S.; Gouth F.; Montel F.

    2013-01-01

    The development of industrial software, the decreasing cost of computing time, and the availability of well-tested forcefields make molecular simulation increasingly attractive for chemical engineers. We present here several applications of Monte-Carlo simulation techniques, applied to the adsorption of fluids in microporous solids such as zeolites and model carbons (pores < 2 nm). Adsorption was computed in the Grand Canonical ensemble ...

  7. Determination of phosphatidylethanolamine molecular species in various food matrices by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Zhao, Minjie; Ennahar, Saïd; Bindler, Françoise; Marchioni, Eric

    2012-04-01

    A liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS(2)) method has been developed for determination of the molecular species of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in four food matrices (soy, egg yolk, ox liver, and krill oil). The extraction and purification method consisted of a pressurized liquid extraction procedure for total lipid (TL) extraction, purification of phospholipids (PLs) by adsorption on a silica gel column, and separation of PL classes by semi-preparative normal-phase HPLC. Separation and identification of PE molecular species were performed by reversed-phase HPLC coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(2)). Methanol containing 5 mmol L(-1) ammonium formate was used as the mobile phase. A variety of PE molecular species were detected in the four food matrices. (C16:0-C18:2)PE, (C18:2-C18:2)PE, and (C16:0-C18:1)PE were the major PE molecular species in soy. Egg yolk PE contained (C16:0-C18:1)PE, (C18:0-C18:1)PE, (C18:0-C18:2)PE, and (C16:0-C18:2)PE as the major molecular species. Ox liver PE was rich in the species (C18:0-C18:1)PE, (C18:0-C20:4)PE, and (C18:0-C18:2)PE. Finally, krill oil which was particularly rich in (C16:0(alkyl)-C22:6(acyl))plasmanylethanolamine (PakE), (C16:0-C22:6)PE, and (C16:0-C20:5)PE, seemed to be an interesting potential source for supplementation of food with eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid.

  8. Realm of Matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    harmonic analysis and complex analysis, in ... gebra describes not only the study of linear transforma- tions and .... special case of the Jordan canonical form of matrices. ..... Richard Bronson, Schaum's Outline Series Theory And Problems Of.

  9. A compact PE memory for vision chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Shi; Zhe, Chen; Jie, Yang; Nanjian, Wu; Zhihua, Wang

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a novel compact memory in the processing element (PE) for single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) vision chips. The PE memory is constructed with 8 × 8 register cells, where one latch in the slave stage is shared by eight latches in the master stage. The memory supports simultaneous read and write on the same address in one clock cycle. Its compact area of 14.33 μm2/bit promises a higher integration level of the processor. A prototype chip with a 64 × 64 PE array is fabricated in a UMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Five types of the PE memory cell structure are designed and compared. The testing results demonstrate that the proposed PE memory architecture well satisfies the requirement of the vision chip in high-speed real-time vision applications, such as 1000 fps edge extraction.

  10. A compact PE memory for vision chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Cong; Chen Zhe; Yang Jie; Wu Nanjian; Wang Zhihua

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel compact memory in the processing element (PE) for single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) vision chips. The PE memory is constructed with 8 × 8 register cells, where one latch in the slave stage is shared by eight latches in the master stage. The memory supports simultaneous read and write on the same address in one clock cycle. Its compact area of 14.33 μm 2 /bit promises a higher integration level of the processor. A prototype chip with a 64 × 64 PE array is fabricated in a UMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Five types of the PE memory cell structure are designed and compared. The testing results demonstrate that the proposed PE memory architecture well satisfies the requirement of the vision chip in high-speed real-time vision applications, such as 1000 fps edge extraction. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  11. Electron transfer reactions in microporous solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallouk, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    Basic thrust the research program involves use of microporous solids (zeolites, clays, layered and tunnel structure oxide semiconductors) as organizing media for artificial photosynthetic systems. Purpose of the microporous solid is twofold. First, it induces spatial organization of photoactive and electroactive components (sensitizers, semiconductor particles, electron relays, and catalysts) at the solid-solution interface, enhancing the quantum efficiency of charge separation and separating physically the ultimate electron donor and acceptor in the electron transport chain. Second, since the microcrystalline solid admits only molecules of a certain charge and size, it is possible to achieve permanent charge separation by sieving chemical photoproducts (e.g., H[sub 2] and I[sub 3][sup [minus

  12. Improved Fibroblast Functionalities by Microporous Pattern Fabricated by Microelectromechanical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongbo; Zhao, Lingzhou; Chen, Bangdao; Bai, Shizhu; Zhao, Yimin

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblasts, which play an important role in biological seal formation and maintenance, determine the long-term success of percutaneous implants. In this study, well-defined microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm were fabricated by microelectromechanical systems and their influence on the fibroblast functionalities was observed. The results show that the microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm did not influence the initial adherent fibroblast number; however, those with diameters of 40 and 50 µm improved the spread, actin stress fiber organization, proliferation and fibronectin secretion of the fibroblasts. The microporous structures with micropore diameters of 40–50 µm may be promising for application in the percutaneous part of an implant. PMID:25054322

  13. Improved Fibroblast Functionalities by Microporous Pattern Fabricated by Microelectromechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Wei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblasts, which play an important role in biological seal formation and maintenance, determine the long-term success of percutaneous implants. In this study, well-defined microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm were fabricated by microelectromechanical systems and their influence on the fibroblast functionalities was observed. The results show that the microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm did not influence the initial adherent fibroblast number; however, those with diameters of 40 and 50 µm improved the spread, actin stress fiber organization, proliferation and fibronectin secretion of the fibroblasts. The microporous structures with micropore diameters of 40–50 µm may be promising for application in the percutaneous part of an implant.

  14. Micropores and methods of making and using thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroud, Thomas D.; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Meagher, Robert J.

    2016-08-02

    Disclosed herein are methods of making micropores of a desired height and/or width between two isotropic wet etched features in a substrate which comprises single-level isotropic wet etching the two features using an etchant and a mask distance that is less than 2.times. a set etch depth. Also disclosed herein are methods using the micropores and microfluidic devices comprising the micropores.

  15. Measuring hydrophobic micropore volumes in geosorbents from trichloroethylene desorption data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa; Reinhard, Martin

    2006-06-01

    Hydrophobic micropores can play a significant role in controlling the long-term release of organic contaminants from geosorbents. We describe a technique for quantifying the total and the hydrophobic mineral micropore volumes based on the mass of trichloroethylene (TCE) sorbed in the slow-releasing pores under dry and wet conditions, respectively. Micropore desorption models were used to differentiate the fast- and slow-desorbing fractions in desorption profiles. The micropore environment in which organic molecules were sorbed in the presence of water was probed by studying the transformation of a water-reactive compound (2,2-dichloropropane or 2,2-DCP). For sediment from an alluvial aquifer, the total and hydrophobic micropore volumes estimated using this technique were 4.65 microL/g and 0.027 microL/g (0.58% of total), respectively. In microporous silica gel A, a hydrophobic micropore volume of 0.038 microL/g (0.035% of reported total) was measured. The dehydrohalogenation rate of 2,2-DCP sorbed in hydrophobic micropores of the sediment was slower than that reported in bulk water, indicating an environment of low water activity. The results suggest that hydrolyzable organic contaminants sorbed in hydrophobic micropores react slower than in bulk water, consistent with the reported persistence of reactive contaminants in natural soils.

  16. Chemiluminescence in cryogenic matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotnik, S. V.; Kazakov, Valeri P.

    1989-04-01

    The literature data on chemiluminescence (CL) in cryogenic matrices have been classified and correlated for the first time. The role of studies on phosphorescence and CL at low temperatures in the development of cryochemistry is shown. The features of low-temperature CL in matrices of nitrogen and inert gases (fine structure of spectra, matrix effects) and the data on the mobility and reactivity of atoms and radicals at very low temperatures are examined. The trends in the development of studies on CL in cryogenic matrices, such as the search for systems involving polyatomic molecules and extending the forms of CL reactions, are followed. The reactions of active nitrogen with hydrocarbons that are accompanied by light emission and CL in the oxidation of carbenes at T >= 77 K are examined. The bibliography includes 112 references.

  17. Matrices in Engineering Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Tobias, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    This book is intended as an undergraduate text introducing matrix methods as they relate to engineering problems. It begins with the fundamentals of mathematics of matrices and determinants. Matrix inversion is discussed, with an introduction of the well known reduction methods. Equation sets are viewed as vector transformations, and the conditions of their solvability are explored. Orthogonal matrices are introduced with examples showing application to many problems requiring three dimensional thinking. The angular velocity matrix is shown to emerge from the differentiation of the 3-D orthogo

  18. Infinite matrices and sequence spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Richard G

    2014-01-01

    This clear and correct summation of basic results from a specialized field focuses on the behavior of infinite matrices in general, rather than on properties of special matrices. Three introductory chapters guide students to the manipulation of infinite matrices, covering definitions and preliminary ideas, reciprocals of infinite matrices, and linear equations involving infinite matrices.From the fourth chapter onward, the author treats the application of infinite matrices to the summability of divergent sequences and series from various points of view. Topics include consistency, mutual consi

  19. Capture Matrices Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    materials, the affinity ligand would need identification , as well as chemistries that graft the affinity ligand onto the surface of magnetic...ACTIVE CAPTURE MATRICES FOR THE DETECTION/ IDENTIFICATION OF PHARMACEUTICALS...6 As shown in Figure 2.3-1a, the spectra exhibit similar baselines and the spectral peaks lineup . Under these circumstances, the spectral

  20. Investigation into the Catalytic Activity of Microporous and Mesoporous Catalysts in the Pyrolysis of Waste Polyethylene and Polypropylene Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaixin Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic pyrolysis behavior of synthesized microporous catalysts (conventional Zeolite Socony Mobil–5 (C-ZSM-5, highly uniform nanocrystalline ZSM-5 (HUN-ZSM-5 and β-zeolite, Mesoporous catalysts (highly hydrothermally stable Al-MCM-41 with accessible void defects (Al-MCM-41(hhs, Kanemite-derived folded silica (KFS-16B and well-ordered Al-SBA-15 (Al-SBA-15(wo were studied with waste polyethylene (PE and polypropylene (PP mixture which are the main constituents in municipal solid waste. All the catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, and NH3-temperature programmed desorption (TPD. The results demonstrated that microporous catalysts exhibited high yields of gas products and high selectivity for aromatics and alkene, whereas the mesoporous catalysts showed high yields of liquid products with considerable amounts of aliphatic compounds. The differences between the microporous and mesoporous catalysts could be attributed to their characteristic acidic and textural properties. A significant amount of C2–C4 gases were produced from both types of catalysts. The composition of the liquid and gas products from catalytic pyrolysis is similar to petroleum-derived fuels. In other words, products of catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste can be potential alternatives to the petroleum-derived fuels.

  1. Elastomer modified polypropylene–polyethylene blends as matrices for wood flour–plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Clemons

    2010-01-01

    Blends of polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) could potentially be used as matrices for wood–plastic composites (WPCs). The mechanical performance and morphology of both the unfilled blends and wood-filled composites with various elastomers and coupling agents were investigated. Blending of the plastics resulted in either small domains of the minor phase in a...

  2. Attractive forces in microporous carbon electrodes for capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Porada, S.; Levi, M.; Bazant, M.Z.

    2014-01-01

    The recently developed modified Donnan (mD) model provides a simple and useful description of the electrical double layer in microporous carbon electrodes, suitable for incorporation in porous electrode theory. By postulating an attractive excess chemical potential for each ion in the micropores

  3. Introduction to matrices and vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Jacob T

    2001-01-01

    In this concise undergraduate text, the first three chapters present the basics of matrices - in later chapters the author shows how to use vectors and matrices to solve systems of linear equations. 1961 edition.

  4. Microporous Silica Based Membranes for Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C. Diniz da Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This review provides a global overview of microporous silica based membranes for desalination via pervaporation with a focus on membrane synthesis and processing, transport mechanisms and current state of the art membrane performance. Most importantly, the recent development and novel concepts for improving the hydro-stability and separating performance of silica membranes for desalination are critically examined. Research into silica based membranes for desalination has focussed on three primary methods for improving the hydro-stability. These include incorporating carbon templates into the microporous silica both as surfactants and hybrid organic-inorganic structures and incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles into the silica matrix. The literature examined identified that only metal oxide silica membranes have demonstrated high salt rejections under a variety of feed concentrations, reasonable fluxes and unaltered performance over long-term operation. As this is an embryonic field of research several target areas for researchers were discussed including further improvement of the membrane materials, but also regarding the necessity of integrating waste or solar heat sources into the final process design to ensure cost competitiveness with conventional reverse osmosis processes.

  5. Physicochemical studies of silicoaluminophosphate microporous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, S.K.; Chughtai, N.A.; Akhtar, J.; Saeed, K.; Arif, M.; Moughal, M.J.; Ahmad, M.

    2000-01-01

    Crystalline microporous molecular sieve materials such as alumino phosphates (AlPO/sub 4/-n) and silicoaluminophosphates (SAPO-n) are gaining tremendous importance for petroleum refining and petrochemical industries due to its fascinating catalytic and ion exchange properties. Some selected silicoaluminophosphate crystalline microporous materials topologically related to the zeolites chabazite (SAPO-34), faujasite (SAPO-37) structure and to the novel structure Pentasil-types ( SAPO-5 and SAPO-11) have been synthesized hydrothermally at an autogenous pressure and different temperatures in PTFE-lined stainless steel digestion bomb. The physico-chemical characteristics of as-synthesized and calcined products were studied using different analytical techniques such as the differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Pore size was measured by the sorption of hydrocarbon molecules (n-hexane, neopentane). The surface area, porosity, particle size and particle size distribution were resolved using BET volumetric system and laser particle size analyzer. Crystallinity and unit cell parameters of these materials were also ascertained. (author)

  6. Effective permeability in micropores from molecular simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botan, A.; Vermorel, R.; Brochard, L.; Hantal, G.; Pellenq, R.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Despite many years' efforts and a large numbers of proposed models, the description of transport properties in clays is still an open question. The reason for this is that structurally clay is an extremely heterogeneous material. The pore size varies from a few to 20 angstroms for interlayer (micro) porosity, from 20 A to 500 A for interparticle (meso) porosity, and 500 A to μm and more for natural (macro) fractures. One further problem with the description of the transport properties is the presence of adsorption/desorption processes onto clay particles, which are coupled with swelling/shrinkage of the particles. Any volumetric changes in the particles affect the meso-pore aperture, and thus, the total permeability of the system. The various processes affecting the permeability occur on different spatial and temporal scales, that requires a multi-scale modeling approach. The most complete model to date is a dual porosity mode. Here the total flow is often written as a sum of the macropore flow and micropore flow. The flow through macro-pores is generally considered to be laminar and obeys Darcy's law, whereas flow through the matrix (micropore flow) may be modeled using Fick's law. The micropore flow involves both Knudsen and surface diffusion mechanisms. An accurate accounting of adsorption-desorption processes or the consideration of binary mixture greatly complicate analytical description. The goal of this study is to improve macro-scale model, the dual porosity model, for the transport properties of fluids in micropores from molecular simulations. The main idea is that we reproduce an experimental set-up used for permeability measurements, as illustrated in Figure 1. High density and low density regions are settled at each end of the membrane that allows to attain a steady flow. The densities in these regions are controlled by Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulation; the molecular motions are described by

  7. Graphs and matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Bapat, Ravindra B

    2014-01-01

    This new edition illustrates the power of linear algebra in the study of graphs. The emphasis on matrix techniques is greater than in other texts on algebraic graph theory. Important matrices associated with graphs (for example, incidence, adjacency and Laplacian matrices) are treated in detail. Presenting a useful overview of selected topics in algebraic graph theory, early chapters of the text focus on regular graphs, algebraic connectivity, the distance matrix of a tree, and its generalized version for arbitrary graphs, known as the resistance matrix. Coverage of later topics include Laplacian eigenvalues of threshold graphs, the positive definite completion problem and matrix games based on a graph. Such an extensive coverage of the subject area provides a welcome prompt for further exploration. The inclusion of exercises enables practical learning throughout the book. In the new edition, a new chapter is added on the line graph of a tree, while some results in Chapter 6 on Perron-Frobenius theory are reo...

  8. Hierarchical quark mass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasin, A.

    1998-02-01

    I define a set of conditions that the most general hierarchical Yukawa mass matrices have to satisfy so that the leading rotations in the diagonalization matrix are a pair of (2,3) and (1,2) rotations. In addition to Fritzsch structures, examples of such hierarchical structures include also matrices with (1,3) elements of the same order or even much larger than the (1,2) elements. Such matrices can be obtained in the framework of a flavor theory. To leading order, the values of the angle in the (2,3) plane (s 23 ) and the angle in the (1,2) plane (s 12 ) do not depend on the order in which they are taken when diagonalizing. We find that any of the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix parametrizations that consist of at least one (1,2) and one (2,3) rotation may be suitable. In the particular case when the s 13 diagonalization angles are sufficiently small compared to the product s 12 s 23 , two special CKM parametrizations emerge: the R 12 R 23 R 12 parametrization follows with s 23 taken before the s 12 rotation, and vice versa for the R 23 R 12 R 23 parametrization. (author)

  9. Studies on flame retardancy of radiation crosslinked PE foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huili; Yao Zhanhai; Xu Jun

    1996-01-01

    CPE, DBDPO and Sb 2 O 3 were used as flame-retardant of PE foam. Effect of CPE on PE foam under radiation and it's flame-retardancy were studied. The result showed that CPE can enhance radiation cross-linking of PE, and trinary of addition being made of CPE, DBDPO and Sb 2 O 3 made oxygen index of PE foam achieve over 30, and self-extinguish, it did not influence manufacture and mechanical properties of PE foam

  10. Modelling drug flux through microporated skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzhevskiy, Alexey S; Guy, Richard H; Anissimov, Yuri G

    2016-11-10

    A simple mathematical equation has been developed to predict drug flux through microporated skin. The theoretical model is based on an approach applied previously to water evaporation through leaf stomata. Pore density, pore radius and drug molecular weight are key model parameters. The predictions of the model were compared with results derived from a simple, intuitive method using porated area alone to estimate the flux enhancement. It is shown that the new approach predicts significantly higher fluxes than the intuitive analysis, with transport being proportional to the total pore perimeter rather than area as intuitively anticipated. Predicted fluxes were in good general agreement with experimental data on drug delivery from the literature, and were quantitatively closer to the measured values than those derived from the intuitive, area-based approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The state of physically adsorbed substances in microporous adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomkin, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    Xe, Kr, Ar, CF 3 Cl, CH 4 adsorption in NaX microporous zeolite of 0.98 Na 2 OxAl 2 O 3 x2.36SiO 2 x0.02H 2 O is studied. Some properties of adsorbates (density, coefficients of expansion, enthalpy, heat capacity) are determined and discussed. The adsorbate in the microporous adsorbent is shown to be a particular state of a substance. Liniarity of adsorption isosteres and sharp changes during isosteric heat capacity of the adsorbate points to the fact that in microporous adsorbents phase transformations of the second type are possible

  12. In-line gas chromatographic apparatus for measuring the hydrophobic micropore volume (HMV) and contaminant transformation in mineral micropores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Hefa; Reinhard, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Desorption of hydrophobic organic compounds from micropores is characteristically slow compared to surface adsorption and partitioning. The slow-desorbing mass of a hydrophobic probe molecule can be used to calculate the hydrophobic micropore volume (HMV) of microporous solids. A gas chromatographic apparatus is described that allows characterization of the sorbed mass with respect to the desorption rate. The method is demonstrated using a dealuminated zeolite and an aquifer sand as the model and reference sorbents, respectively, and trichloroethylene (TCE) as the probe molecule. A glass column packed with the microporous sorbent is coupled directly to a gas chromatograph that is equipped with flame ionization and electron capture detectors. Sorption and desorption of TCE on the sorbent was measured by sampling the influent and effluent of the column using a combination of switching and injection valves. For geosorbents, the HMV is quantified based on Gurvitsch's rule from the mass of TCE desorbed at a rate that is characteristic for micropores. Instrumental requirements, design considerations, hardware details, detector calibration, performance, and data analysis are discussed along with applications. The method is novel and complements traditional vacuum gravimetric and piezometric techniques, which quantify the total pore volume under vacuum conditions. The HMV is more relevant than the total micropore volume for predicting the fate and transport of organic contaminants in the subsurface. Sorption in hydrophobic micropores strongly impacts the mobility of organic contaminants, and their chemical and biological transformations. The apparatus can serve as a tool for characterizing microprous solids and investigating contaminant-solid interactions.

  13. Lectures on matrices

    CERN Document Server

    M Wedderburn, J H

    1934-01-01

    It is the organization and presentation of the material, however, which make the peculiar appeal of the book. This is no mere compendium of results-the subject has been completely reworked and the proofs recast with the skill and elegance which come only from years of devotion. -Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society The very clear and simple presentation gives the reader easy access to the more difficult parts of the theory. -Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik In 1937, the theory of matrices was seventy-five years old. However, many results had only recently evolved from sp

  14. Matrices and linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Hans

    1989-01-01

    Linear algebra is one of the central disciplines in mathematics. A student of pure mathematics must know linear algebra if he is to continue with modern algebra or functional analysis. Much of the mathematics now taught to engineers and physicists requires it.This well-known and highly regarded text makes the subject accessible to undergraduates with little mathematical experience. Written mainly for students in physics, engineering, economics, and other fields outside mathematics, the book gives the theory of matrices and applications to systems of linear equations, as well as many related t

  15. Intermittency and random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, Dmitry; Illarionov, E. A.

    2015-08-01

    A spectacular phenomenon of intermittency, i.e. a progressive growth of higher statistical moments of a physical field excited by an instability in a random medium, attracted the attention of Zeldovich in the last years of his life. At that time, the mathematical aspects underlying the physical description of this phenomenon were still under development and relations between various findings in the field remained obscure. Contemporary results from the theory of the product of independent random matrices (the Furstenberg theory) allowed the elaboration of the phenomenon of intermittency in a systematic way. We consider applications of the Furstenberg theory to some problems in cosmology and dynamo theory.

  16. Dimension from covariance matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, T L; Byers, J M

    2017-02-01

    We describe a method to estimate embedding dimension from a time series. This method includes an estimate of the probability that the dimension estimate is valid. Such validity estimates are not common in algorithms for calculating the properties of dynamical systems. The algorithm described here compares the eigenvalues of covariance matrices created from an embedded signal to the eigenvalues for a covariance matrix of a Gaussian random process with the same dimension and number of points. A statistical test gives the probability that the eigenvalues for the embedded signal did not come from the Gaussian random process.

  17. Effect of HALS on radiation discoloration of PE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huiliang; Wang Chun; Chen Wenxiu

    2001-01-01

    The effects of hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS) on the radiation-induced discoloration of polyethylene (PE) are studied by measuring the yellowness index (YI) of PE. It is found that all the HALS used are effective in preventing PE from radiation-induced discoloration. The YI of PE added pentamethyl HALS (PMPM, PPMPM) is a little higher than that of PE added corresponding tetramethyl HALS (TMPM, PTMPM) when radiation dose is low than 100 kGy, but when the radiation dose is higher than 100 kGy, the YI of PE added pentamethyl HALS is lower. Pentamethyl HALS is more effective in preventing PE from radiation-induced discoloration when radiation dose is higher. It is also found that polymeric HALS is more effective in preventing PE from radiation-induced discoloration than corresponding monomeric HALS when radiation dose is higher than 200 kGy. The formation of alkyl free radical, carbonyl after irradiation is measured. It is found that the relative concentration of free radical formed in PE added TMPM is higher than that of PE added PMPM when radiation dose is relatively high. The carbonyl index of PE containing pentamethyl HALS is less than that of PE containing tetramethyl HALS when radiation is relatively low, but the results is contrary when radiation dose is relatively high. It is believed that HALS prevents PE from radiation-induced discoloration by scavenging free radicals formed in irradiated PE

  18. Effect of the interfacial adhesion on the tensile and impact properties of carbon fiber reinforced polypropylene matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Leal Nogueira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic composites have been applied in a wide variety of industrial products, showing recently a great potential to be used in aeronautical field. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the fiber/matrix interface of carbon fiber reinforced polypropylene-based matrices after tensile and impact tests and also to compare the mechanical test results of the manufactured laminates. The laminates were prepared by stacking carbon fiber fabric style Plain Weave (CF and films of four different polypropylene matrices, described as (a polypropylene-PP, (b polypropylene-polyethylene copolymer-PP-PE, (c PP-PE with an interfacial compatibilizer-AM1 and (d PP-PE containing an elastomeric modifier-AM2. The composites were processed using hot compression molding. The mechanical testing results showed that the CF-AM1 laminate family presented the lowest impact strength and the highest tensile strength values when compared to the other laminates. SEM analysis observations of both tensile and impact fractured specimens of the CF-PP/PE-AM1 specimens revealed a stronger fiber/matrix interface. The CF-PP/PE-AM2 laminate showed a lower tensile strength and higher impact strength values when compared to the CF-PP/PE-AM1 one. PP-PE and PP laminates presented the lowest impact strength values.

  19. Microporous polyurethane-acrylamide film cured by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masayuki; Goto, Takakazu; Tsuchiya, Mitsuru; Uryu, Toshiyuki

    1988-01-01

    The morphology and aggregation structure of electron beam (EB)-cured microporous polyurethane-acrylamide film was investigated. The urethane-acrylamide prepolymer was synthesized by the reaction of poly(butylene adipate)diol, diphenylmethane diisocyanate, and N-(hydroxymethyl)acrylamide. It was found from scanning electron microscopy that the urethane-acrylamide film, which was prepared by using a methyl ethyl ketone and dimethylformamide (3:1 v/v) mixture as casting solvent, had a microporous structure with pore size of several micrometers, and that the morphology was fixed by EB irradiation. The pore volume of the EB-cured microporous film was determined to be about 460 mm 3 g -1 by mercury porosimetry. The micropores were not destroyed even after immersing in solvent, possibly because the cured film had high crystallinity and dense crosslinking. Moreover, it was found by X-ray photelectron spectroscopy that terminal portions of urethane-acrylamide were localized at the film surface. (author)

  20. Characterization of the microporous HDPE film with alpha alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Seok; Sung, Hae Jun; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Lim, Youn Mook; Nho, Young Chang

    2010-01-01

    The effects of the addition of the alpha alumina on the properties of the microporous high density polyethylene (HDPE) films were investigated. The particle size and the specific surface area of alpha alumina were 400 nm and 7.3 m 2 g -1 . The HDPE and the alpha alumina were mixed to obtain the precursor film in the twin extruder. The precursor films were uni-axially stretched up to 600% in oven 120 .deg. C and then the stretched HDPE films were irradiated by gamma rays. The pore volume of the microporous HDPE films was increased with an increasing content of the alpha alumina. The mechanical characteristics of the microporous HDPE films were increased with a content of alpha alumina up to 15%, but decreased at 20%. The electrochemical stability of the microporous HDPE film containing alpha alumia was increased with an increased irradiation dose up ti 50 kGy

  1. Preparation of micro-pored silicone elastomer through radiation crosslinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xiaoling; Gu Mei; Xie Xubing; Huang Wei

    2013-01-01

    The radiation crosslinking was adopted to prepare the micro-pored silicone elastomer, which was performed by vulcanization and foaming respectively. Radiation crosslinking is a new method to prepare micro-pored material with high performance by use of radiation technology. Silicon dioxide was used as filler, and silicone elastomer was vulcanized by electron beams, then the micro-pored material was made by heating method at a high temperature. The effects of absorbed dose and filler content on the performance and morphology were investigated. The structure and distribution of pores were observed by SEM. The results show that the micro-pored silicon elastomer can be prepared successfully by controlling the absorbed dose and filler content. It has a smooth surface similar to a rubber meanwhile the pores are round and unconnected to each other with the minimum size of 14 μm. And the good mechanical performance can be suitable for further uses. (authors)

  2. Intrinsically Microporous Polymer Membranes for High Performance Gas Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Raja

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the rational design of intrinsically microporous solutionprocessable polyimides and ladder polymers for highly permeable and highly selective gas transport in cornerstone applications of membrane-based gas separation

  3. Electrochemically induced maskless metal deposition on micropore wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Hébert, Clément; Pham, Pascale; Sauter-Starace, Fabien; Haguet, Vincent; Livache, Thierry; Mailley, Pascal

    2012-05-07

    By applying an external electric field across a micropore via an electrolyte, metal ions in the electrolyte can be reduced locally onto the inner wall of the micropore, which was fabricated in a silica-covered silicon membrane. This maskless metal deposition on the silica surface is a result of the pore membrane polarization in the electric field. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Tritium labelling of molecules constrained in microporous catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, M.A.; Garnett, J.L.; Than, Chit

    1989-01-01

    The use of microporous aluminophosphate catalysts for exchange between tritium gas or tritiated water and organic substrates is described. The results are compared with those of microporous zeolites. Results are interpreted in terms of the influence of the constraints imposed on molecular configuration by the catalyst pore geometry. The use of these porous structures for minimising byproduct formation in radiation induced labelling processes with tritium gas is described. (author). 10 refs.; 3 tabs

  5. Diclofenac delays micropore closure following microneedle treatment in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, Nicole K; Milewski, Mikolaj; Ghosh, Priyanka; Hardi, Lucia; Crofford, Leslie J; Stinchcomb, Audra L

    2012-10-28

    Drugs absorbed poorly through the skin are commonly delivered via injection with a hypodermic needle, which is painful and increases the risk of transmitting infectious diseases. Microneedles (MNs) selectively and painlessly permeabilize the outermost skin layer, allowing otherwise skin-impermeable drugs to cross the skin through micron-sized pores and reach therapeutic concentrations. However, rapid healing of the micropores prevents further drug delivery, blunting the clinical utility of this unique transdermal technique. We present the first human study demonstrating that micropore lifetime can be extended following MN treatment. Subjects received one-time MN treatment and daily topical application of diclofenac sodium. Micropore closure was measured with impedance spectroscopy, and area under the admittance-time curve (AUC) was calculated. AUC was significantly higher at MN+diclofenac sodium sites vs. placebo, suggesting slower rates of micropore healing. Colorimetry measurements confirmed the absence of local erythema and irritation. This mechanistic human proof-of-concept study demonstrates that micropore lifetime can be prolonged with simple topical administration of a non-specific cyclooxygenase inhibitor, suggesting the involvement of subclinical inflammation in micropore healing. These results will allow for longer patch wear time with MN-enhanced delivery, thus increasing patient compliance and expanding the transdermal field to a wider variety of clinical conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Diclofenac delays micropore closure following microneedle treatment in human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, Nicole K.; Milewski, Mikolaj; Ghosh, Priyanka; Hardi, Lucia; Crofford, Leslie J.; Stinchcomb, Audra L.

    2013-01-01

    Drugs absorbed poorly through the skin are commonly delivered via injection with a hypodermic needle, which is painful and increases the risk of transmitting infectious diseases. Microneedles (MNs) selectively and painlessly permeabilize the outermost skin layer, allowing otherwise skin-impermeable drugs to cross the skin through micron-sized pores and reach therapeutic concentrations. However, rapid healing of the micropores prevents further drug delivery, blunting the clinical utility of this unique transdermal technique. We present the first human study demonstrating that micropore lifetime can be extended following MN treatment. Subjects received one-time MN treatment and daily topical application of diclofenac sodium. Micropore closure was measured with impedance spectroscopy, and area under the admittance–time curve (AUC) was calculated. AUC was significantly higher at MN + diclofenac sodium sites vs. placebo, suggesting slower rates of micropore healing. Colorimetry measurements confirmed the absence of local erythema and irritation. This mechanistic human proof-of-concept study demonstrates that micropore lifetime can be prolonged with simple topical administration of a non-specific cyclooxygenase inhibitor, suggesting the involvement of subclinical inflammation in micropore healing. These results will allow for longer patch wear time with MN-enhanced delivery, thus increasing patient compliance and expanding the transdermal field to a wider variety of clinical conditions. PMID:22929967

  7. Complex Wedge-Shaped Matrices: A Generalization of Jacobi Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hnětynková, Iveta; Plešinger, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 487, 15 December (2015), s. 203-219 ISSN 0024-3795 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06684S Keywords : eigenvalues * eigenvector * wedge-shaped matrices * generalized Jacobi matrices * band (or block) Krylov subspace methods Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.965, year: 2015

  8. In-line gas chromatographic apparatus for measuring the hydrophobic micropore volume (HMV) and contaminant transformation in mineral micropores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa; Reinhard, Martin

    2010-07-15

    Desorption of hydrophobic organic compounds from micropores is characteristically slow compared to surface adsorption and partitioning. The slow-desorbing mass of a hydrophobic probe molecule can be used to calculate the hydrophobic micropore volume (HMV) of microporous solids. A gas chromatographic apparatus is described that allows characterization of the sorbed mass with respect to the desorption rate. The method is demonstrated using a dealuminated zeolite and an aquifer sand as the model and reference sorbents, respectively, and trichloroethylene (TCE) as the probe molecule. A glass column packed with the microporous sorbent is coupled directly to a gas chromatograph that is equipped with flame ionization and electron capture detectors. Sorption and desorption of TCE on the sorbent was measured by sampling the influent and effluent of the column using a combination of switching and injection valves. For geosorbents, the HMV is quantified based on Gurvitsch's rule from the mass of TCE desorbed at a rate that is characteristic for micropores. Instrumental requirements, design considerations, hardware details, detector calibration, performance, and data analysis are discussed along with applications. The method is novel and complements traditional vacuum gravimetric and piezometric techniques, which quantify the total pore volume under vacuum conditions. The HMV is more relevant than the total micropore volume for predicting the fate and transport of organic contaminants in the subsurface. Sorption in hydrophobic micropores strongly impacts the mobility of organic contaminants, and their chemical and biological transformations. The apparatus can serve as a tool for characterizing microporous solids and investigating contaminant-solid interactions. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Generalisations of Fisher Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Heavens

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fisher matrices play an important role in experimental design and in data analysis. Their primary role is to make predictions for the inference of model parameters—both their errors and covariances. In this short review, I outline a number of extensions to the simple Fisher matrix formalism, covering a number of recent developments in the field. These are: (a situations where the data (in the form of ( x , y pairs have errors in both x and y; (b modifications to parameter inference in the presence of systematic errors, or through fixing the values of some model parameters; (c Derivative Approximation for LIkelihoods (DALI - higher-order expansions of the likelihood surface, going beyond the Gaussian shape approximation; (d extensions of the Fisher-like formalism, to treat model selection problems with Bayesian evidence.

  10. Random volumes from matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sugishita, Sotaro; Umeda, Naoya [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2015-07-17

    We propose a class of models which generate three-dimensional random volumes, where each configuration consists of triangles glued together along multiple hinges. The models have matrices as the dynamical variables and are characterized by semisimple associative algebras A. Although most of the diagrams represent configurations which are not manifolds, we show that the set of possible diagrams can be drastically reduced such that only (and all of the) three-dimensional manifolds with tetrahedral decompositions appear, by introducing a color structure and taking an appropriate large N limit. We examine the analytic properties when A is a matrix ring or a group ring, and show that the models with matrix ring have a novel strong-weak duality which interchanges the roles of triangles and hinges. We also give a brief comment on the relationship of our models with the colored tensor models.

  11. Current Status and Prediction on Development of PE Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jiao

    2003-01-01

    This article comprehensively analyzes the status of market demand/supply and import/export volumes of PE in the world and in China, and predicts the future development trends in the fields of PE production and consumption.

  12. Hydrogen adsorption on partially oxidised microporous carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J B Parra; C O Ania; C J Duran Valle; M L Sanchez; C Otero Arean

    2005-01-01

    The search for cost effective adsorbents for large scale gas separation, storage and transport constitutes a present day strategic issue in the energy sector, propelled mainly by the potential use of hydrogen as an energy vector in a sustainable (and cleaner) energy scenario. Both, activated carbons and carbon based nano-structured materials have been proposed as potential candidates for reversible hydrogen storage in cryogenically cooled vessels. For that purpose, surface modification so as to enhance the gas solid interaction energy is desirable. We report on hydrogen adsorption on microporous (active) carbons which have been partially oxidised with nitric acid and ammonium persulfate. From the corresponding hydrogen adsorption isotherms (Fig. 1) an isosteric heat of about 3 kJ mol -1 was derived. This value is in agreement with that of about 3 to 4 kJ mol -1 obtained by quantum chemical calculations on the interaction between the hydrogen molecule and simple model systems (Fig. 2) of both, hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. Further research is in progress with a view to further increases the gas solid interaction energy. However, the values so far obtained are significantly larger than the liquefaction enthalpy of hydrogen: 0.90 kJ mol -1 ; and this is relevant to both, hydrogen separation from gas mixtures and cryogenic hydrogen storage. (authors)

  13. VanderLaan Circulant Type Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulant matrices have become a satisfactory tools in control methods for modern complex systems. In the paper, VanderLaan circulant type matrices are presented, which include VanderLaan circulant, left circulant, and g-circulant matrices. The nonsingularity of these special matrices is discussed by the surprising properties of VanderLaan numbers. The exact determinants of VanderLaan circulant type matrices are given by structuring transformation matrices, determinants of well-known tridiagonal matrices, and tridiagonal-like matrices. The explicit inverse matrices of these special matrices are obtained by structuring transformation matrices, inverses of known tridiagonal matrices, and quasi-tridiagonal matrices. Three kinds of norms and lower bound for the spread of VanderLaan circulant and left circulant matrix are given separately. And we gain the spectral norm of VanderLaan g-circulant matrix.

  14. Diagonalization of the mass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    It is possible to make 20 types of 3x3 mass matrices which are hermitian. We have obtained unitary matrices which could diagonalize each mass matrix. Since the three elements of mass matrix can be expressed in terms of the three eigenvalues, msub(i), we can also express the unitary matrix in terms of msub(i). (Author)

  15. Enhancing Understanding of Transformation Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jonathan; Childrey, Maria

    2012-01-01

    With the Common Core State Standards' emphasis on transformations, teachers need a variety of approaches to increase student understanding. Teaching matrix transformations by focusing on row vectors gives students tools to create matrices to perform transformations. This empowerment opens many doors: Students are able to create the matrices for…

  16. Hierarchical matrices algorithms and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hackbusch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained monograph presents matrix algorithms and their analysis. The new technique enables not only the solution of linear systems but also the approximation of matrix functions, e.g., the matrix exponential. Other applications include the solution of matrix equations, e.g., the Lyapunov or Riccati equation. The required mathematical background can be found in the appendix. The numerical treatment of fully populated large-scale matrices is usually rather costly. However, the technique of hierarchical matrices makes it possible to store matrices and to perform matrix operations approximately with almost linear cost and a controllable degree of approximation error. For important classes of matrices, the computational cost increases only logarithmically with the approximation error. The operations provided include the matrix inversion and LU decomposition. Since large-scale linear algebra problems are standard in scientific computing, the subject of hierarchical matrices is of interest to scientists ...

  17. Intrinsic character of Stokes matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Jean-François; Rousseau, Christiane

    2017-02-01

    Two germs of linear analytic differential systems x k + 1Y‧ = A (x) Y with a non-resonant irregular singularity are analytically equivalent if and only if they have the same eigenvalues and equivalent collections of Stokes matrices. The Stokes matrices are the transition matrices between sectors on which the system is analytically equivalent to its formal normal form. Each sector contains exactly one separating ray for each pair of eigenvalues. A rotation in S allows supposing that R+ lies in the intersection of two sectors. Reordering of the coordinates of Y allows ordering the real parts of the eigenvalues, thus yielding triangular Stokes matrices. However, the choice of the rotation in x is not canonical. In this paper we establish how the collection of Stokes matrices depends on this rotation, and hence on a chosen order of the projection of the eigenvalues on a line through the origin.

  18. PLA/Bio-PE blends: effect of the Bio-PE content on the crystallinity rheological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Aylanna P.M. de; Agrawal, Pankaj; Cavalcanti, Shirley N.; Alves, Amanda M.; Melo, Tomas J.A. de; Brito, Gustavo F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of the Bio-PE content on the crystallinity and rheological properties of PLA/Bio-PE blend. The blends containing 05 and 15% of Bio-PE were prepared by extrusion followed by injection molding and characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and rheological properties at low and high shear rates. XRD results indicated that the PLA present low crystallinity and this behavior was not changed with the addition of Bio-PE, regardless of Bio-PE content. Rheological properties results indicated that at low shear rates the viscosity of the PLA/Bio-PE increased with the increase in the Bio-PE content while at high shear rates the viscosities where almost similar, which may be ascribed to the orientation of Bio-PE particles in the flow direction or by the viscous dissipation. (author)

  19. In-line gas chromatographic apparatus for measuring the hydrophobic micropore volume (HMV) and contaminant transformation in mineral micropores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Hefa [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Reinhard, Martin, E-mail: reinhard@stanford.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4020 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Desorption of hydrophobic organic compounds from micropores is characteristically slow compared to surface adsorption and partitioning. The slow-desorbing mass of a hydrophobic probe molecule can be used to calculate the hydrophobic micropore volume (HMV) of microporous solids. A gas chromatographic apparatus is described that allows characterization of the sorbed mass with respect to the desorption rate. The method is demonstrated using a dealuminated zeolite and an aquifer sand as the model and reference sorbents, respectively, and trichloroethylene (TCE) as the probe molecule. A glass column packed with the microporous sorbent is coupled directly to a gas chromatograph that is equipped with flame ionization and electron capture detectors. Sorption and desorption of TCE on the sorbent was measured by sampling the influent and effluent of the column using a combination of switching and injection valves. For geosorbents, the HMV is quantified based on Gurvitsch's rule from the mass of TCE desorbed at a rate that is characteristic for micropores. Instrumental requirements, design considerations, hardware details, detector calibration, performance, and data analysis are discussed along with applications. The method is novel and complements traditional vacuum gravimetric and piezometric techniques, which quantify the total pore volume under vacuum conditions. The HMV is more relevant than the total micropore volume for predicting the fate and transport of organic contaminants in the subsurface. Sorption in hydrophobic micropores strongly impacts the mobility of organic contaminants, and their chemical and biological transformations. The apparatus can serve as a tool for characterizing microprous solids and investigating contaminant-solid interactions.

  20. Molecular Simulation of Adsorption in Microporous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiannourakou M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of industrial software, the decreasing cost of computing time, and the availability of well-tested forcefields make molecular simulation increasingly attractive for chemical engineers. We present here several applications of Monte-Carlo simulation techniques, applied to the adsorption of fluids in microporous solids such as zeolites and model carbons (pores < 2 nm. Adsorption was computed in the Grand Canonical ensemble with the MedeA®-GIBBS software, using energy grids to decrease computing time. MedeA®-GIBBS has been used for simulations in the NVT or NPT ensembles to obtain the density and fugacities of fluid phases. Simulation results are compared with experimental pure component isotherms in zeolites (hydrocarbon gases, water, alkanes, aromatics, ethanethiol, etc., and mixtures (methane-ethane, n-hexane-benzene, over a large range of temperatures. Hexane/benzene selectivity inversions between silicalite and Na-faujasites are well predicted with published forcefields, providing an insight on the underlying mechanisms. Also, the adsorption isotherms in Na-faujasites for light gases or ethane-thiol are well described. Regarding organic adsorbents, models of mature kerogen or coal were built in agreement with known chemistry of these systems. Obtaining realistic kerogen densities with the simple relaxation approach considered here is encouraging for the investigation of other organic systems. Computing excess sorption curves in qualitative agreement with those recently measured on dry samples of gas shale is also favorable. Although still preliminary, such applications illustrate the strength of molecular modeling in understanding complex systems in conditions where experiments are difficult.

  1. Numerical simulation of fluid flow in microporous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Ruina; Jiang Peixue

    2008-01-01

    The flow characteristics of water and air in microporous media with average diameters of 200 μm, 125 μm, 90 μm, 40 μm, 20 μm, and 10 μm were studied numerically. The calculated friction factors for water and air in the non-slip-flow regime in the microporous media agree well with the known correlation suitable for normal size porous media. The numerically predicted friction factors for air in the slip-flow regime in the microporous media with 90 μm, 40 μm, 20 μm, and 10 μm diameter particles were less than the correlation for normal size porous media but close to experimental data and a modified correlation that accounts for rarefaction. Comparisons of the numerical results with the experimental data and the modified correlations show that rarefaction effects occur in air flows in the microporous media with particle diameters less than 90 μm and that the numerical calculations with velocity slip on the boundary can properly simulate the fluid flow in microporous media

  2. Special matrices of mathematical physics stochastic, circulant and Bell matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Aldrovandi, R

    2001-01-01

    This book expounds three special kinds of matrices that are of physical interest, centering on physical examples. Stochastic matrices describe dynamical systems of many different types, involving (or not) phenomena like transience, dissipation, ergodicity, nonequilibrium, and hypersensitivity to initial conditions. The main characteristic is growth by agglomeration, as in glass formation. Circulants are the building blocks of elementary Fourier analysis and provide a natural gateway to quantum mechanics and noncommutative geometry. Bell polynomials offer closed expressions for many formulas co

  3. The characterisation of two different degradable polyethylene (PE) sacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.

    2006-01-01

    The compostability of two different polyethylene (PE) products on the UK market under open-windrow composting conditions is explored within this paper. Chemical analysis of the PE bags has established their constituents in order to examine how the PE bags have an increased degradability depending on additives. Weight loss of the two different PE products within open-windrow composting conditions was recorded in order to establish the percentage weight loss as an indication of the degradability of the two products and their relative suitability for open-windrow composting. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the PE products over the composting duration established the degradation processes for the PE products within the compost. These analyses concluded that one of the PE product mixes was more degradable than the other. However, neither product completed degraded within the timeframe of 12-14 weeks generally accepted for open-windrow composting in the UK

  4. Micropore and nanopore fabrication in hollow antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Matthew R; Shang, Tao; Hawkins, Aaron R; Rudenko, Mikhail; Measor, Philip; Schmidt, Holger

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of micropore and nanopore features in hollow antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides to create an electrical and optical analysis platform that can size select and detect a single nanoparticle. Micropores (4 μm diameter) are reactive-ion etched through the top SiO(2) and SiN layers of the waveguides, leaving a thin SiN membrane above the hollow core. Nanopores are formed in the SiN membranes using a focused ion-beam etch process that provides control over the pore size. Openings as small as 20 nm in diameter are created. Optical loss measurements indicate that micropores did not significantly alter the loss along the waveguide.

  5. Microporous Organic Materials for Membrane-Based Gas Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaoqin; Zhu, Guangshan

    2018-01-01

    Membrane materials with excellent selectivity and high permeability are crucial to efficient membrane gas separation. Microporous organic materials have evolved as an alternative candidate for fabricating membranes due to their inherent attributes, such as permanent porosity, high surface area, and good processability. Herein, a unique pore-chemistry concept for the designed synthesis of microporous organic membranes, with an emphasis on the relationship between pore structures and membrane performances, is introduced. The latest advances in microporous organic materials for potential membrane application in gas separation of H 2 , CO 2 , O 2 , and other industrially relevant gases are summarized. Representative examples of the recent progress in highly selective and permeable membranes are highlighted with some fundamental analyses from pore characteristics, followed by a brief perspective on future research directions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Temperature-regulated guest admission and release in microporous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang (Kevin); Shang, Jin; Gu, Qinfen; Awati, Rohan V.; Jensen, Nathan; Grant, Andrew; Zhang, Xueying; Sholl, David S.; Liu, Jefferson Z.; Webley, Paul A.; May, Eric F.

    2017-06-01

    While it has long been known that some highly adsorbing microporous materials suddenly become inaccessible to guest molecules below certain temperatures, previous attempts to explain this phenomenon have failed. Here we show that this anomalous sorption behaviour is a temperature-regulated guest admission process, where the pore-keeping group's thermal fluctuations are influenced by interactions with guest molecules. A physical model is presented to explain the atomic-level chemistry and structure of these thermally regulated micropores, which is crucial to systematic engineering of new functional materials such as tunable molecular sieves, gated membranes and controlled-release nanocontainers. The model was validated experimentally with H2, N2, Ar and CH4 on three classes of microporous materials: trapdoor zeolites, supramolecular host calixarenes and metal-organic frameworks. We demonstrate how temperature can be exploited to achieve appreciable hydrogen and methane storage in such materials without sustained pressure. These findings also open new avenues for gas sensing and isotope separation.

  7. Ordered macro-microporous metal-organic framework single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kui; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Lingmei; Zhang, Daliang; Han, Yu; Chen, Junying; Long, Jilan; Luque, Rafael; Li, Yingwei; Chen, Banglin

    2018-01-01

    We constructed highly oriented and ordered macropores within metal-organic framework (MOF) single crystals, opening up the area of three-dimensional–ordered macro-microporous materials (that is, materials containing both macro- and micropores) in single-crystalline form. Our methodology relies on the strong shaping effects of a polystyrene nanosphere monolith template and a double-solvent–induced heterogeneous nucleation approach. This process synergistically enabled the in situ growth of MOFs within ordered voids, rendering a single crystal with oriented and ordered macro-microporous structure. The improved mass diffusion properties of such hierarchical frameworks, together with their robust single-crystalline nature, endow them with superior catalytic activity and recyclability for bulky-molecule reactions, as compared with conventional, polycrystalline hollow, and disordered macroporous ZIF-8.

  8. Ordered macro-microporous metal-organic framework single crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Kui

    2018-01-16

    We constructed highly oriented and ordered macropores within metal-organic framework (MOF) single crystals, opening up the area of three-dimensional-ordered macro-microporous materials (that is, materials containing both macro- and micropores) in single-crystalline form. Our methodology relies on the strong shaping effects of a polystyrene nanosphere monolith template and a double-solvent-induced heterogeneous nucleation approach. This process synergistically enabled the in situ growth of MOFs within ordered voids, rendering a single crystal with oriented and ordered macro-microporous structure. The improved mass diffusion properties of such hierarchical frameworks, together with their robust single-crystalline nature, endow them with superior catalytic activity and recyclability for bulky-molecule reactions, as compared with conventional, polycrystalline hollow, and disordered macroporous ZIF-8.

  9. Ordered macro-microporous metal-organic framework single crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Kui; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Lingmei; Zhang, Daliang; Han, Yu; Chen, Junying; Long, Jilan; Luque, Rafael; Li, Yingwei; Chen, Banglin

    2018-01-01

    We constructed highly oriented and ordered macropores within metal-organic framework (MOF) single crystals, opening up the area of three-dimensional-ordered macro-microporous materials (that is, materials containing both macro- and micropores) in single-crystalline form. Our methodology relies on the strong shaping effects of a polystyrene nanosphere monolith template and a double-solvent-induced heterogeneous nucleation approach. This process synergistically enabled the in situ growth of MOFs within ordered voids, rendering a single crystal with oriented and ordered macro-microporous structure. The improved mass diffusion properties of such hierarchical frameworks, together with their robust single-crystalline nature, endow them with superior catalytic activity and recyclability for bulky-molecule reactions, as compared with conventional, polycrystalline hollow, and disordered macroporous ZIF-8.

  10. Dielectric Properties of PE/Clay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. David

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene/nanoclay specimens containing from 0 to 5% nanoclays were prepared from a commercially available premixed PE/nanoclay masterbatch containing 50% wt of nanoclay. The masterbatch was diluted to the desired concentration by adding PE along with various amounts of compatibilizer in order to achieve the best possible dispersion of the nanoclay platelets. The dielectric response of the compounded samples was investigated using a combination of time and frequency-domain spectroscopy in order to cover a wide frequency window. Both techniques were in good agreement when the time-domain data was transformed into frequency-domain data. Despite their low concentration, the addition of the dispersed nanoclays led to a significant alteration of the material dielectric response in the form of the appearance of various interfacial relaxation processes and an increase of charge carrier transport within the insulation material. Moreover, an onset of nonlinear charge transport process was observed at moderate fields for specimens containing a relatively low level of nanoclays. The high-field breakdown strength was shown to have been improved by the incorporation of the nanoparticles, particularly when the exfoliation was enhanced by the use of a maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene compatibilizer.

  11. The invariant theory of matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Concini, Corrado De

    2017-01-01

    This book gives a unified, complete, and self-contained exposition of the main algebraic theorems of invariant theory for matrices in a characteristic free approach. More precisely, it contains the description of polynomial functions in several variables on the set of m\\times m matrices with coefficients in an infinite field or even the ring of integers, invariant under simultaneous conjugation. Following Hermann Weyl's classical approach, the ring of invariants is described by formulating and proving the first fundamental theorem that describes a set of generators in the ring of invariants, and the second fundamental theorem that describes relations between these generators. The authors study both the case of matrices over a field of characteristic 0 and the case of matrices over a field of positive characteristic. While the case of characteristic 0 can be treated following a classical approach, the case of positive characteristic (developed by Donkin and Zubkov) is much harder. A presentation of this case...

  12. Quantum matrices in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewen, H.; Ogievetsky, O.; Wess, J.

    1991-01-01

    Quantum matrices in two-dimensions, admitting left and right quantum spaces, are classified: they fall into two families, the 2-parametric family GL p,q (2) and a 1-parametric family GL α J (2). Phenomena previously found for GL p,q (2) hold in this general situation: (a) powers of quantum matrices are again quantum and (b) entries of the logarithm of a two-dimensional quantum matrix form a Lie algebra. (orig.)

  13. Manin matrices and Talalaev's formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chervov, A; Falqui, G

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study properties of Lax and transfer matrices associated with quantum integrable systems. Our point of view stems from the fact that their elements satisfy special commutation properties, considered by Yu I Manin some 20 years ago at the beginning of quantum group theory. These are the commutation properties of matrix elements of linear homomorphisms between polynomial rings; more explicitly these read: (1) elements of the same column commute; (2) commutators of the cross terms are equal: [M ij , M kl ] [M kj , M il ] (e.g. [M 11 , M 22 ] = [M 21 , M 12 ]). The main aim of this paper is twofold: on the one hand we observe and prove that such matrices (which we call Manin matrices in short) behave almost as well as matrices with commutative elements. Namely, the theorems of linear algebra (e.g., a natural definition of the determinant, the Cayley-Hamilton theorem, the Newton identities and so on and so forth) have a straightforward counterpart in the case of Manin matrices. On the other hand, we remark that such matrices are somewhat ubiquitous in the theory of quantum integrability. For instance, Manin matrices (and their q-analogs) include matrices satisfying the Yang-Baxter relation 'RTT=TTR' and the so-called Cartier-Foata matrices. Also, they enter Talalaev's remarkable formulae: det(∂ z -L gaudin (z)), det(1-e -∂z T Yangian (z)) for the 'quantum spectral curve', and appear in the separation of variables problem and Capelli identities. We show that theorems of linear algebra, after being established for such matrices, have various applications to quantum integrable systems and Lie algebras, e.g. in the construction of new generators in Z(U crit (gl-hat n )) (and, in general, in the construction of quantum conservation laws), in the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equation, and in the problem of Wick ordering. We propose, in the appendix, a construction of quantum separated variables for the XXX-Heisenberg system

  14. Potential application of microporous structured poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) composite nonwoven separators to high-voltage and high-power lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyun-Seok; Choi, Eun-Sun; Kim, Jong Hun; Lee, Sang-Young

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Microporous-structured PVdF-HFP/PET composite nonwoven separators for Li-batteries. → Well-developed microporous structure and liquid electrolyte wettability. → Provision of facile ion transport and suppressed growth of cell impedance. → Superior cell performance at high-voltages/high-current densities. - Abstract: We demonstrate potential application of a new composite non-woven separator, which is comprised of a phase inversion-controlled, microporous polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP) gel polymer electrolyte and a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) non-woven support, to high-voltage and high-power lithium-ion batteries. In comparison to a commercialized polyethylene (PE) separator, the composite non-woven separator exhibits distinct improvements in microporous structure and liquid electrolyte wettability. Based on the understanding of the composite non-woven separator, cell performances of the separator at challenging charge/discharge conditions are investigated and discussed in terms of ion transport of the separator and AC impedance of the cell. The aforementioned advantageous features of the composite non-woven separator play a key role in providing facile ion transport and suppressing growth of cell impedance during cycling, which in turn contribute to superior cell performances at harsh charge/discharge conditions such as high voltages and high current densities.

  15. On reflectionless equi-transmitting matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kurasov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflectionless equi-transmitting unitary matrices are studied in connection to matching conditions in quantum graphs. All possible such matrices of size 6 are described explicitly. It is shown that such matrices form 30 six-parameter families intersected along 12 five-parameter families closely connected to conference matrices.

  16. Management performance warehousing in PE 'Post Serbia'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidović Dragana R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a general model for the strategic management of postal infrastructure and resources, focused on development of warehousing service. The model was developed according to the characteristics of the public enterprise 'Pošte Srbije'. A set of indicators is developed for the purpose of analysis of external and internal environment of PE 'Post Serbia'. For positioning the focal postal enterprise among other, selected European posts, the benchmarking method is used, whereby indicators are determined by using eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Analysis of internal environment additionally includes survey and Delphi method to obtain the values of coefficients in the model. With small modifications, the model could be applicable to all postal operators and logistics companies which consider to develop warehouse service in logistics market.

  17. Morphology and parameters of crystallization the blend PE/Epoxy/PE-co-PEG; Morfologia e parametros de cristalizacao da blenda PE/epoxi/PE-co-PEG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Daniela; Coelho, Luiz Antonio Ferreira; Nack, Fernanda; Silva, Bruna Louise, E-mail: dep2db@joinville.udesc.br [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Joinville, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the morphology and crystallization parameters of high density polyethylene (HDPE) with different concentrations of epoxy (DGEBA / OTBG), and the compatibility of this system was used and the copolymer polyethylene-block-poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG-co-PE). The blends were obtained by mechanical mixing on a torque rheometer (Haake). Determined the crystallization parameters of the test matrix differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology of the system was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was observed by XRD analysis that the addition of compatibilizer and epoxy resins do not interfere with the crystal structure of HDPE, indicating that the increase in crystallinity associated with the crystallization kinetics. It was observed that the compatibilizing helped the adhesion, reducing the size of the dispersed phase becomes a more stable morphology and obtaining a distribution of the dispersed epoxy phase. (author)

  18. Protein adsorption onto nanozeolite: effect of micropore openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiamin; Li, Xiang; Yan, Yueer; Hu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yahong; Tang, Yi

    2013-09-15

    A clear and deep understanding of protein adsorption on porous surfaces is desirable for the reasonable design and applications of porous materials. In this study, the effect of surface micropores on protein adsorption was systematically investigated by comparing adsorption behavior of cytochrome c (Cyto-c) and Candida antarctica Lipase B (CALB) on porous and non-porous nanozeolites silicalite-1 and Beta. It was found that micropore openings on the surface of nanozeolites played a key role in determining adsorption affinity, conformations, and activities of proteins. Both Cyto-c and CALB showed higher affinity to porous nanozeolites than to non-porous ones, resulting in greater conformational change of proteins on porous surfaces which in turn affected their bio-catalytic performance. The activity of Cyto-c improved while that of CALB decreased on porous nanozeolites. Recognition of certain amino acid residues or size-matching secondary structures by micropore openings on the surface of nanozeolites was proposed to be the reason. Moreover, the pore opening effect of porous nanozeolites on protein behavior could be altered by changing protein coverage on them. This study gives a novel insight into the interaction between proteins and microporous materials, which will help to guide the rational fabrication and bio-applications of porous materials in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Anisotropic microporous supports impregnated with polymeric ion-exchange materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Dwayne; Babcock, Walter C.; Tuttle, Mark

    1985-05-07

    Novel ion-exchange media are disclosed, the media comprising polymeric anisotropic microporous supports containing polymeric ion-exchange or ion-complexing materials. The supports are anisotropic, having small exterior pores and larger interior pores, and are preferably in the form of beads, fibers and sheets.

  20. Unusual Coordination Behavior of Cr3+ in Microporous Aluminophosphates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beale, AM; Grandjean, D; Kornatowski, J; Glatzel, P; de Groot, FMF; Weckhuysen, BM

    2006-01-01

    A CrAPO-5 molecular sieve has been investigated with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS-XANES) as dehydrated material and after loading with water and ammonia to unravel the coordination geometries of Cr3+ in the framework of a microporous crystalline aluminophosphate, more particularly of the

  1. Microporous membranes from polyolefin-polyamide blend materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meier-Haack, J.; Valko, M.; Lunkwitz, K.; Bleha, Miroslav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 163, 1-3 (2004), s. 215-221 ISSN 0011-9164. [Membrane Science and Technology Conference PERMEA 2003. Tatranské Matliare, 07.09.2003-11.09.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : microporous membranes * polypropylene polyamide blends * reactive extrusion Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.057, year: 2004

  2. Experimental study of air evaporative cooling process using microporous membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Englart Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the potential use of microporous membranes in evaporative cooling applications for air conditioning. The structure of membrane contractor and the measuring device are described. On the basis of the results of the measurements air cooling effectiveness coefficient has been determined.

  3. Topo synthesis in the presence of microporous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meddour, L.; Hamidi, A.; Boudjellah-Nahnah, N.

    1997-02-01

    In the present work, we have done an amelioration of TOPO synthesis based on the PC13, with introducing the differents microporous materials in the synthesis mixture. The catalysts used are the Faujasite Y,ZSM-5, SAPO-11. From the results of this work, we estabilished that some catalyst are performed

  4. Hydrothermal stability of microporous silica and niobia-silica membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffa, V.; Blank, David H.A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2008-01-01

    The hydrothermal stability of microporous niobia–silica membranes was investigated and compared with silica membranes. The membranes were exposed to hydrothermal conditions at 150 and 200 °C for 70 h. The change of pore structure before and after exposure to steam was probed by single-gas permeation

  5. Spectra of sparse random matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, Reimer

    2008-01-01

    We compute the spectral density for ensembles of sparse symmetric random matrices using replica. Our formulation of the replica-symmetric ansatz shares the symmetries of that suggested in a seminal paper by Rodgers and Bray (symmetry with respect to permutation of replica and rotation symmetry in the space of replica), but uses a different representation in terms of superpositions of Gaussians. It gives rise to a pair of integral equations which can be solved by a stochastic population-dynamics algorithm. Remarkably our representation allows us to identify pure-point contributions to the spectral density related to the existence of normalizable eigenstates. Our approach is not restricted to matrices defined on graphs with Poissonian degree distribution. Matrices defined on regular random graphs or on scale-free graphs, are easily handled. We also look at matrices with row constraints such as discrete graph Laplacians. Our approach naturally allows us to unfold the total density of states into contributions coming from vertices of different local coordinations and an example of such an unfolding is presented. Our results are well corroborated by numerical diagonalization studies of large finite random matrices

  6. CMFD simulation of ERCOSAM PANDA spray tests PE1 and PE2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippov, A., E-mail: phil@ibrae.ac.ru [Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBRAE RAN) (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Grigoryev, S. [Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBRAE RAN) (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Drobyshevsky, N.; Kiselev, A.; Shyukin, A.; Yudina, T. [Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBRAE RAN) (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-01

    Highlights: • Successful modeling of gas mixtures and droplet flows in multicompartment system. • For pressure, modeling of gas-wall heat transfer (and heat radiation) is important. • Dependence of gas mixing time in spray vessel on the used nozzle may be essential. • Penetration of helium-enriched mixture into another vessel due to spray operation. • Effect on pressure of sump re-evaporation and gas heating (by walls) during spray. - Abstract: The ERCOSAM project (together with the SAMARA project) includes a set of multi-stage experiments carried out at different thermal-hydraulics facilities (TOSQAN, MISTRA, PANDA, SPOT) and their numerical simulation. The test sequences aim to investigate hydrogen concentration build-up and stratification during a postulated severe accident as well as the effect of activation of Severe Accident Management systems (SAMs) on stratification. At the initial Phases I–III of the tests stratification of the injected light gases (steam, helium) is established, pressure increases. The models of SAMs are activated at the final Phase IV. In the paper, two spray tests PE1 and PE2 performed at PANDA facility are numerically investigated aiming for code validation (FLUENT) and better understanding of physical processes. Phases I–IV of the tests were simulated. A satisfactory agreement with the experimental results on gas component mole fractions was obtained. The reasons of obtained some discrepancies in pressure and temperature were studied in multivariate calculations and discussed in the paper. The tests PE1 and PE2 were performed with different spray nozzles and initial conditions. In simulation that resulted in different flow patterns during spray operation. The sensitivity to nozzle angle and some other input parameters was investigated. Possible factors of depressurization rate caused by spray operation were also studied. The key features observed in the experiments and obtained numerically being of interest in terms of

  7. Free probability and random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Mingo, James A

    2017-01-01

    This volume opens the world of free probability to a wide variety of readers. From its roots in the theory of operator algebras, free probability has intertwined with non-crossing partitions, random matrices, applications in wireless communications, representation theory of large groups, quantum groups, the invariant subspace problem, large deviations, subfactors, and beyond. This book puts a special emphasis on the relation of free probability to random matrices, but also touches upon the operator algebraic, combinatorial, and analytic aspects of the theory. The book serves as a combination textbook/research monograph, with self-contained chapters, exercises scattered throughout the text, and coverage of important ongoing progress of the theory. It will appeal to graduate students and all mathematicians interested in random matrices and free probability from the point of view of operator algebras, combinatorics, analytic functions, or applications in engineering and statistical physics.

  8. Chequered surfaces and complex matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, T.R.; Southampton Univ.

    1991-01-01

    We investigate a large-N matrix model involving general complex matrices. It can be reinterpreted as a model of two hermitian matrices with specific couplings, and as a model of positive definite hermitian matrices. Large-N perturbation theory generates dynamical triangulations in which the triangles can be chequered (i.e. coloured so that neighbours are opposite colours). On a sphere there is a simple relation between such triangulations and those generated by the single hermitian matrix model. For the torus (and a quartic potential) we solve the counting problem for the number of triangulations that cannot be quechered. The critical physics of chequered triangulations is the same as that of the hermitian matrix model. We show this explicitly by solving non-perturbatively pure two-dimensional ''chequered'' gravity. The interpretative framework given here applies to a number of other generalisations of the hermitian matrix model. (orig.)

  9. PE-3 - a high class pipeline; PE-3 - um oleoduto high-class

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashiguchi, D Issao; Santos, J.A. Costa; Medeiros, A Roberto [GDK Engenharia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Garcia, Amaury [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, F Cesar [Superpesa Transportes Especiais e Intermodais, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Pipeline PE-3, with a length of approximately 17 Km mainly inside of Guanabara Bay, connects the refinery of Duque de Caxias to the terminal of the Ilha D'Agua. It is used to export dark products from the refinery. Product transfer, by operational necessity, is conducted at a temperature of 75 deg C. This introduces a considerable load of tension on the pipeline, in addition to creating a fatigue-inducing thermal cycle. Because of this, and unlike almost all other existing oil and gas pipelines, PE-3 posses a zig zag configuration, alternating a straight tube with a curve of 10 degrees. This stands out as an innovative concept. Their are only two other similar installations in the world, but in very different conditions, thus conferring a pioneering aspect on this pipeline. Due to its criticality, the pipeline is predicated on complete certification in its entirety, from design to operation and in adherence with the strictest requirements. The environmental conditions encountered along its right of way, and the constructive tolerances imposed by the project, obligate the adoption of constructive and technical solutions that are themselves innovative in the terrestrial and marine realms. The principal objective of this work is to present a general overview of the methodology employed in PE-3 construction, installation and assembly. (author)

  10. PE-3 - a high class pipeline; PE-3 - um oleoduto high-class

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashiguchi, D. Issao; Santos, J.A. Costa; Medeiros, A. Roberto [GDK Engenharia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Garcia, Amaury [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, F. Cesar [Superpesa Transportes Especiais e Intermodais, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Pipeline PE-3, with a length of approximately 17 Km mainly inside of Guanabara Bay, connects the refinery of Duque de Caxias to the terminal of the Ilha D'Agua. It is used to export dark products from the refinery. Product transfer, by operational necessity, is conducted at a temperature of 75 deg C. This introduces a considerable load of tension on the pipeline, in addition to creating a fatigue-inducing thermal cycle. Because of this, and unlike almost all other existing oil and gas pipelines, PE-3 posses a zig zag configuration, alternating a straight tube with a curve of 10 degrees. This stands out as an innovative concept. Their are only two other similar installations in the world, but in very different conditions, thus conferring a pioneering aspect on this pipeline. Due to its criticality, the pipeline is predicated on complete certification in its entirety, from design to operation and in adherence with the strictest requirements. The environmental conditions encountered along its right of way, and the constructive tolerances imposed by the project, obligate the adoption of constructive and technical solutions that are themselves innovative in the terrestrial and marine realms. The principal objective of this work is to present a general overview of the methodology employed in PE-3 construction, installation and assembly. (author)

  11. Loop diagrams without γ matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeon, D.G.C.; Rebhan, A.

    1993-01-01

    By using a quantum-mechanical path integral to compute matrix elements of the form left-angle x|exp(-iHt)|y right-angle, radiative corrections in quantum-field theory can be evaluated without encountering loop-momentum integrals. In this paper we demonstrate how Dirac γ matrices that occur in the proper-time ''Hamiltonian'' H lead to the introduction of a quantum-mechanical path integral corresponding to a superparticle analogous to one proposed recently by Fradkin and Gitman. Direct evaluation of this path integral circumvents many of the usual algebraic manipulations of γ matrices in the computation of quantum-field-theoretical Green's functions involving fermions

  12. Immanant Conversion on Symmetric Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificação Coelho M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Letr Σn(C denote the space of all n χ n symmetric matrices over the complex field C. The main objective of this paper is to prove that the maps Φ : Σn(C -> Σn (C satisfying for any fixed irre- ducible characters X, X' -SC the condition dx(A +aB = dχ·(Φ(Α + αΦ(Β for all matrices A,В ε Σ„(С and all scalars a ε C are automatically linear and bijective. As a corollary of the above result we characterize all such maps Φ acting on ΣИ(С.

  13. Sequence analysis corresponding to the PPE and PE proteins in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    AB repeats; Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome; PE-PPE domain; PPE, PE proteins; sequence analysis; surface antigens. J. Biosci. | Vol. ... bacterium tuberculosis genomes resulted in the identification of a previously uncharacterized 225 amino acid- ...... Vega Lopez F, Brooks L A, Dockrell H M, De Smet K A,. Thompson ...

  14. Flamenco guitarist Paco Peña tours CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Pauline Gagnon

    2013-01-01

    CERN continues to attract a wide variety of visitors. On 5 June, it was the turn of renowned flamenco guitarist Paco Peña. With a broad interest in science, Peña was here to celebrate his 60th birthday, accompanied by friends David Ashton and Chrissie Twigg, and his wife Karin.     Paco Peña during his visit to ATLAS. Paco Peña’s most famous compositions include Misa Flamenca, a Flamenco Mass, and Requiem for the Earth. In 1997, he was named Oficial de la Cruz de la Orden del Mérito Civil by King Juan Carlos of Spain. "This is truly amazing!" said Peña after seeing the ATLAS detector. His wife confessed that she had never seen him take so many pictures. The group asked numerous questions during their visit. It is not always easy to impress world travellers, but the ATLAS detector did the trick.

  15. Improvement of barrier properties of rotomolded PE containers with nanoclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamshidi, Shadi; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman, E-mail: u.sundararaj@ucalgary.ca [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2015-05-22

    Polyethylene (PE) is widely used to make bulk containers in rotational molding process. The challenge in this study is to improve permeation resistance of PE to hydrocarbon solvents and gases. Adding organomodified clay improves the thermal, barrier and mechanical properties of PE. In fact, clay layers create a tortuous path against the permeant, yielding better barrier properties. Due to the non-polar hydrophobic nature of PE and polar hydrophilic structure of clay minerals, the compatibilizer plays a crucial role to enhance the dispersion level of clay in the matrix. In this study High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) layered silicate nanocomposite were melt-compounded with two concentrations of organomodified clay (2 and 4 wt. %). The interaction between nanoclay, compatibilizer and rotomolding grade of PE were examined by using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and rheology test. Rheology was used to determine the performance of our material at low shear processing condition.

  16. On families of anticommuting matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubeš, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 493, March 15 (2016), s. 494-507 ISSN 0024-3795 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : anticommuting matrices * sum-of-squares formulas Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0024379515007296

  17. On families of anticommuting matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubeš, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 493, March 15 (2016), s. 494-507 ISSN 0024-3795 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : anticommuting matrices * sum -of-squares formulas Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0024379515007296

  18. Numerical simulation of diffuse double layer around microporous electrodes based on the Poisson–Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazumi, Yuki; Shirai, Osamu; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kano, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Diffuse double layers overlap with each other in the micropore. • The overlapping of the diffuse double layer affects the double layer capacitance. • The electric field becomes weak in the micropore. • The electroneutrality is unsatisfactory in the micropore. - Abstract: The structure of the diffuse double layer around a nm-sized micropore on porous electrodes has been studied by numerical simulation using the Poisson–Boltzmann equation. The double layer capacitance of the microporous electrode strongly depends on the electrode potential, the electrolyte concentration, and the size of the micropore. The potential and the electrolyte concentration dependence of the capacitance is different from that of the planner electrode based on the Gouy's theory. The overlapping of the diffuse double layer becomes conspicuous in the micropore. The overlapped diffuse double layer provides the mild electric field. The intensified electric field exists at the rim of the orifice of the micropore because of the expansion of the diffuse double layers. The characteristic features of microporous electrodes are caused by the heterogeneity of the electric field around the micropores

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis of silica rich zeolites and microporous martials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, S.K.; Chughtai, N.A.; Akhtar, J.; Arif, M.; Ahmed, M.

    1999-01-01

    A fast crystallization method for synthesis of silica rich aluminosilicate and ferro silicate zeotype materials has been reported. The method also permits for the complete crystallization of silico alumino phosphate microporous materials. Aluminosilicate and ferro silicate silica rich zeotype materials and silico alumino phosphate microporous materials have been synthesized from the reaction mixture of colloidal silica sol, reactive aluminum, ferrous and phosphorous salts, and the essential organic templates at 373-473 K and were characterized by TG/DTA/DSC, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and other analytical techniques. Crystallinity and unit cell parameters of the synthesized materials were found to be the function of Al and Fe content of zeolites. (author)

  20. Highly hydrothermally stable microporous silica membranes for hydrogen separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qi; Wang, Fei; Nie, Zuo-Ren; Song, Chun-Lin; Wang, Yan-Li; Li, Qun-Yan

    2008-08-07

    Fluorocarbon-modified silica membranes were deposited on gamma-Al2O3/alpha-Al2O3 supports by the sol-gel technique for hydrogen separation. The hydrophobic property, pore structure, gas transport and separation performance, and hydrothermal stability of the modified membranes were investigated. It is observed that the water contact angle increases from 27.2+/-1.5 degrees for the pure silica membranes to 115.0+/-1.2 degrees for the modified ones with a (trifluoropropyl)triethoxysilane (TFPTES)/tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) molar ratio of 0.6. The modified membranes preserve a microporous structure with a micropore volume of 0.14 cm3/g and a pore size of approximately 0.5 nm. A single gas permeation of H2 and CO2 through the modified membranes presents small positive apparent thermal activation energies, indicating a dominant microporous membrane transport. At 200 degrees C, a single H2 permeance of 3.1x10(-6) mol m(-2) s(-1) Pa(-1) and a H2/CO2 permselectivity of 15.2 were obtained after proper correction for the support resistance and the contribution from the defects. In the gas mixture measurement, the H2 permeance and the H2/CO2 separation factor almost remain constant at 200 degrees C with a water vapor pressure of 1.2x10(4) Pa for at least 220 h, indicating that the modified membranes are hydrothermally stable, benefiting from the integrity of the microporous structure due to the fluorocarbon modification.

  1. Microporous conjugated polymers via homopolymerization of 2,5-diethynylthiophene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bondarev, D.; Sivkova, Radoslava; Šuly, P.; Polášková, M.; Krejčí, O.; Křikavová, R.; Trávníček, Z.; Zukal, Arnošt; Kubů, Martin; Sedláček, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 92, July (2017), s. 213-219 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-09637S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : thiophene * microporous * catalysis Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UFCH-W) OBOR OECD: Polymer science; Polymer science (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 3.531, year: 2016

  2. The modified Gauss diagonalization of polynomial matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, K.

    1982-10-01

    The Gauss algorithm for diagonalization of constant matrices is modified for application to polynomial matrices. Due to this modification the diagonal elements become pure polynomials rather than rational functions. (author)

  3. Double stochastic matrices in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louck, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The general set of doubly stochastic matrices of order n corresponding to ordinary nonrelativistic quantum mechanical transition probability matrices is given. Lande's discussion of the nonquantal origin of such matrices is noted. Several concrete examples are presented for elementary and composite angular momentum systems with the focus on the unitary symmetry associated with such systems in the spirit of the recent work of Bohr and Ulfbeck. Birkhoff's theorem on doubly stochastic matrices of order n is reformulated in a geometrical language suitable for application to the subset of quantum mechanical doubly stochastic matrices. Specifically, it is shown that the set of points on the unit sphere in cartesian n'-space is subjective with the set of doubly stochastic matrices of order n. The question is raised, but not answered, as to what is the subset of points of this unit sphere that correspond to the quantum mechanical transition probability matrices, and what is the symmetry group of this subset of matrices

  4. Virial expansion for almost diagonal random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yevtushenko, Oleg; Kravtsov, Vladimir E.

    2003-08-01

    Energy level statistics of Hermitian random matrices hat H with Gaussian independent random entries Higeqj is studied for a generic ensemble of almost diagonal random matrices with langle|Hii|2rangle ~ 1 and langle|Hi\

  5. Interaction of actinides with natural microporous materials: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misaelides, P.; Godelitsas, A.

    1998-01-01

    Natural microporous materials include several types of minerals such as zeolites, clay minerals, micas, iron- and manganese-oxides/hydroxides/oxyhydroxides present in various geological environments and soil formations. The transport of the actinide elements in the environment is mainly performed through aquatic pathways (streams, rivers, underground waters) and their mobility is strongly related to the interaction of their dissolved species with geological materials and especially with the highly sorptive microporous minerals. The existing studies mainly concern the sorption of Th, U, Np, Pu and Am from aqueous media by clay minerals and zeolites as well as the determination of the corresponding chemical processes taking place at the mineral-water interface. The investigation techniques also include advanced spectroscopic methods such as Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy (EXAFS), Rutherford Backscattered Spectroscopy (RBS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman Spectroscopy. These techniques significantly contribute to the characterization of the reacted mineral surfaces and to the explanation of the structural and compositional characteristics of the sorbed actinide species. Theoretical models regarding the aqueous chemistry and speciation of the actinides have also been developed aiming the elucidation of the complex actinide sorption mechanisms. Finally, this contribution also includes some recently obtained data concerning the interaction of actinides with todorokite (a naturally occurring microporous manganese-oxide of technological importance) and granitic micas (biotite) correlated with the nuclear waste disposal in geological formations

  6. Development of new microporous silica membranes for gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camelia Barboiu; Alejandro Mourgues; Beatrice Sala; Serge de Perthuis; Camelia Barboiu; Alejandro Mourgues; Beatrice Sala; Anne Julbe; Jose Sanchez

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the synthesis and the application of molecular sieving ceramic membranes to purify hydrogen or helium from various gas mixtures. The membranes prepared in this work consist of an ultra-microporous silica-based separative layer produced via a sol-gel process. Ultra microporous silica containing boron is synthesized by the acid catalyzed hydrolysis and condensation of tetra-ethyl-ortho-silicate in ethanol. The layer is deposited inside a tubular asymmetric alumina support with a meso-porous y alumina inner layer. The thickness of the silica layers after treatment is about 200 nm, estimated from their cross-section SEM micrographs. Ultra-microporous membranes (with pore sizes less than 0.7 nm) are thus required to get high selectivity. Such membranes enable to carry out gas separation up to 500 deg C under a transmembrane pressure lower than 8 bars. He and H 2 permeance values close to 10 -7 mol.m -2 s -1 Pa -1 are obtained, associated with ideal selectivities α(He/CO 2 ) and α(H 2 /CO 2 ) between 10 and 20 at 300 deg C. (authors)

  7. Properties of electrolytes in the micropores of activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastening, Bertel; Heins, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    The dependence of the composition of aqueous electrolytes in the pore system of activated carbon on the potential has been determined by monitoring the amount of ions exchanged with the external electrolyte upon immersion and upon changing the electrode potential. From the investigation with KF solutions, a quantity δ/√ε = 4 x 10 -10 m is evaluated where δ is half the width of the micropores, and ε the (relative) permittivity. This is in accordance with δ ∼ 1 nm and ε ∼ 7 applying to essentially immobilized water and fits into the results with the other electrolytes. Anions are adsorbed in the cases of sodium perchlorate and potassium hydroxide, while protons are adsorbed in the case of acids (HCl, H 2 SO 4 ). The adsorption of ClO 4 - seems to result from electrostatic interaction with the solid, while H + and OH - are strongly chemisorbed, probably at surface groups like >CO. Ionic mobilities of ions in the micropores have been determined from conductance measurements concerning the pore electrolyte of a single spherical particle of activated carbon. Mobilities are more than one order of magnitude lower than those in bulk electrolyte, probably due to an increased viscosity of the liquid in the narrow pores and/or to the coulombic interaction with charged domains of the solid. The rate of charging of the capacitor (solid/micropore electrolyte) is assisted by macropores distributing ions throughout the carbon material

  8. Electron Transfer Strategies Regulate Carbonate Mineral and Micropore Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhirui; Tice, Michael M

    2018-01-01

    Some microbial carbonates are robust biosignatures due to their distinct morphologies and compositions. However, whether carbonates induced by microbial iron reduction have such features is unknown. Iron-reducing bacteria use various strategies to transfer electrons to iron oxide minerals (e.g., membrane-bound enzymes, soluble electron shuttles, nanowires, as well as different mechanisms for moving over or attaching to mineral surfaces). This diversity has the potential to create mineral biosignatures through manipulating the microenvironments in which carbonate precipitation occurs. We used Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, Geothrix fermentans, and Geobacter metallireducens GS-15, representing three different strategies, to reduce solid ferric hydroxide in order to evaluate their influence on carbonate and micropore formation (micro-size porosity in mineral rocks). Our results indicate that electron transfer strategies determined the morphology (rhombohedral, spherical, or long-chained) of precipitated calcium-rich siderite by controlling the level of carbonate saturation and the location of carbonate formation. Remarkably, electron transfer strategies also produced distinctive cell-shaped micropores in both carbonate and hydroxide minerals, thus producing suites of features that could potentially serve as biosignatures recording information about the sizes, shapes, and physiologies of iron-reducing organisms. Key Words: Microbial iron reduction-Micropore-Electron transfer strategies-Microbial carbonate. Astrobiology 18, 28-36.

  9. Track-Etched Magnetic Micropores for Immunomagnetic Isolation of Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluneh, Melaku; Shang, Wu

    2014-01-01

    A microfluidic chip is developed to selectively isolate magnetically tagged cells from heterogeneous suspensions, the track-etched magnetic micropore (TEMPO) filter. The TEMPO consists of an ion track-etched polycarbonate membrane coated with soft magnetic film (Ni20Fe80). In the presence of an applied field, provided by a small external magnet, the filter becomes magnetized and strong magnetic traps are created along the edges of the micropores. In contrast to conventional microfluidics, fluid flows vertically through the porous membrane allowing large flow rates while keeping the capture rate high and the chip compact. By utilizing track-etching instead of conventional semiconductor fabrication, TEMPOs can be fabricated with microscale pores over large areas A > 1 cm2 at little cost ( 500 at a flow rate of Φ = 5 mL h−1. Furthermore, the large density of micropores (ρ = 106 cm−2) allows the TEMPO to sort E. coli from unprocessed environmental and clinical samples, as the blockage of a few pores does not significantly change the behavior of the device. PMID:24535921

  10. Fabrication of interconnected microporous biomaterials with high hydroxyapatite nanoparticle loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Yao Donggang; Zhang Qingwei; Lelkes, Peter I; Zhou, Jack G

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is known to promote osteogenicity and enhance the mechanical properties of biopolymers. However, incorporating a large amount of HA into a porous biopolymer still remains a challenge. In the present work, a new method was developed to produce interconnected microporous poly(glycolic-co-lactic acid) (PLGA) with high HA nanoparticle loading. First, a ternary blend comprising PLGA/PS (polystyrene)/HA (40/40/20 wt%) was prepared by melt blending under conditions for formation of a co-continuous phase structure. Next, a dynamic annealing stage under small-strain oscillation was applied to the blend to facilitate nanoparticle redistribution. Finally, the PS phase was sacrificially extracted, leaving a porous matrix. The results from different characterizations suggested that the applied small-strain oscillation substantially accelerated the migration of HA nanoparticles during annealing from the PS phase to the PLGA phase; nearly all HA particles were uniformly presented in the PLGA phase after a short period of annealing. After dissolution of the PS phase, a PLGA material with interconnected microporous structure was successfully produced, with a high HA loading above 30 wt%. The mechanisms beneath the experimental observations, particularly on the enhanced particle migration process, were discussed, and strategies for producing highly particle loaded biopolymers with interconnected microporous structures were proposed.

  11. Development and evaluation of microporous osmotic tablets of diltiazem hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifa Bathool

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microporous osmotic tablet of diltiazem hydrochloride was developed for colon targeting. These prepared microporous osmotic pump tablet did not require laser drilling to deliver the drug to the specific site of action. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. The prepared tablets were coated with microporous semipermeable membrane and enteric polymer using conventional pan coating process. The incorporation of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS, a leachable pore-forming agent, could form in situ delivery pores while coming in contact with gastrointestinal medium. The effect of formulation variables was studied by changing the amounts of sodium alginate and NaCMC in the tablet core, osmogen, and that of pore-forming agent (SLS used in the semipermeable coating. As the amount of hydrophilic polymers increased, drug release rate prolonged. It was found that drug release was increased as the concentration of osmogen and pore-former was increased. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Differential scanning calorimetry results showed that there was no interaction between drug and polymers. Scanning electron microscopic studies showed the formation of pores after predetermined time of coming in contact with dissolution medium. The formation of pores was dependent on the amount of pore former used in the semipermeable membrane. in vitro results showed acid-resistant, timed release at an almost zero order up to 24 hours. The developed osmotic tablets could be effectively used for prolonged delivery of Diltiazem HCl.

  12. Microporous calcium phosphate ceramics driving osteogenesis through surface architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingwei; Barbieri, Davide; ten Hoopen, Hetty; de Bruijn, Joost D; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Yuan, Huipin

    2015-03-01

    The presence of micropores in calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics has shown its important role in initiating inductive bone formation in ectopic sites. To investigate how microporous CaP ceramics trigger osteoinduction, we optimized two biphasic CaP ceramics (i.e., BCP-R and BCP-S) to have the same chemical composition, equivalent surface area per volume, comparable protein adsorption, similar ion (i.e., calcium and phosphate) exchange and the same surface mineralization potential, but different surface architecture. In particular, BCP-R had a surface roughness (Ra) of 325.4 ± 58.9 nm while for BCP-S it was 231.6 ± 35.7 nm. Ceramic blocks with crossing or noncrossing channels of 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 µm were implanted in paraspinal muscle of dogs for 12 weeks. The percentage of bone volume in the channels was not affected by the type of pores (i.e., crossing vs. closed) or their size, but it was greatly influenced by the ceramic type (i.e., BCP-R vs. BCP-S). Significantly, more bone was formed in the channels of BCP-R than in those of BCP-S. Since the two CaP ceramics differed only in their surface architecture, the results hereby demonstrate that microporous CaP ceramics may induce ectopic osteogenesis through surface architecture. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Facile synthesis of microporous SiO2/triangular Ag composite nanostructures for photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, Sidhharth; Singh, Anandpreet; Dagar, Chakit; Saini, Gajender; Pani, Balaram; Nain, Ratyakshi

    2017-11-01

    In this article, we present a novel fabrication of microporous SiO2/triangular Ag nanoparticles for dye (methylene blue) adsorption and plasmon-mediated degradation. Microporous SiO2 nanoparticles with pore size aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane) to introduce amine groups. Amine-functionalized microporous silica was used for adsorption of triangular silver (Ag) nanoparticles. The synthesized microporous SiO2 nanostructures were investigated for adsorption of different dyes including methylene blue, congo red, direct green 26 and curcumin crystalline. Amine-functionalized microporous SiO2/triangular Ag nanostructures were used for plasmon-mediated photocatalysis of methylene blue. The experimental results revealed that the large surface area of microporous silica facilitated adsorption of dye. Triangular Ag nanoparticles, due to their better charge carrier generation and enhanced surface plasmon resonance, further enhanced the photocatalysis performance.

  14. Phenomenological mass matrices with a democratic warp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppe, A.

    2018-01-01

    Taking into account all available data on the mass sector, we obtain unitary rotation matrices that diagonalize the quark matrices by using a specific parametrization of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix. In this way, we find mass matrices for the up- and down-quark sectors of a specific, symmetric form, with traces of a democratic texture.

  15. Development and perspectives of PE for gas networks in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamino, R.; Cammelli, W.; Torre, C.

    1999-01-01

    After comparing the result of two large surveys carried out in 1998 and 1992 on the utilization of PE pipes for gas distribution, the features of PE pipe, which allow the adoption of innovative techniques such as 'rapid trenching' for the laying of new pipelines and 'NO-DIG' for the relining of old on, are described. The technical, operational and economical fea-activities developed in this field by AMGA SpA Genoa. Besides, the time behaviour of PE pipes welding is evaluated on the basis of values taken from AMGA's database [it

  16. Amino acids grafting of Ar+ ions modified PE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svorcik, V.; Hnatowicz, V.; Stopka, P.; Bacakova, L.; Heitz, J.; Oechsner, R.; Ryssel, H.

    2001-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) was irradiated with 63 keV Ar + ions to the fluences from 1x10 12 to 3x10 15 cm -2 and then grafted at room temperature from water solution with amino acids (alanine, leucine). Using various spectroscopic techniques (UV-VIS, FTIR, RBS and EPR) it was shown that the amino acids penetrate into PE where they are eventually captured either on double bonds or on free radicals created by the ion irradiation. Grafting with amino acids in the whole specimen layer modified by irradiation is observed. The ion-beam-modified and amino-acid grafted PE is supposed to exhibit increased biocompatibility. (author)

  17. S-matrices and integrability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombardelli, Diego

    2016-01-01

    In these notes we review the S-matrix theory in (1+1)-dimensional integrable models, focusing mainly on the relativistic case. Once the main definitions and physical properties are introduced, we discuss the factorization of scattering processes due to integrability. We then focus on the analytic properties of the two-particle scattering amplitude and illustrate the derivation of the S-matrices for all the possible bound states using the so-called bootstrap principle. General algebraic structures underlying the S-matrix theory and its relation with the form factors axioms are briefly mentioned. Finally, we discuss the S-matrices of sine-Gordon and SU (2), SU (3) chiral Gross–Neveu models. (topical review)

  18. Synthesised standards in natural matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of securing the most reliable standards for the accurate analysis of radionuclides is discussed in the paper and in the comment on the paper. It is contended in the paper that the best standards can be created by quantitative addition of accurately known spiking solutions into carefully selected natural matrices. On the other hand it is argued that many natural materials can be successfully standardized for numerous trace constituents. Both points of view are supported with examples. (U.K.)

  19. Four therapeutic cases of RS3PE syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Naoya; Fukuda, Yukiko; Yang, Kwang-Seok; Aiba, Miyoji; Tsuda, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    RS3PE syndrome (Remitting Seronegative Symmetrical Synovitis with Pitting Edema Syndrome) is one of the disorders which present as polyarthritis. It is important to be aware of RS3PE syndrome when encountering elderly patients with polyarthritis who are negative for rheumatoid factor. We report 4 cases of RS3PE syndrome. All cases shared common clinical findings, such as acute onset, symmetrical polyarthritis, pitting edema of the hands and feet, and being negative for rheumatoid factor in serum. Treatment with corticosteroid was very effective in all cases. However, two patients showed a deteriorated clinical condition during the tapering of corticosteroid. Corticosteroid should be tapered off cautiously in patients with RS3PE syndrome. (author)

  20. Study on radiation discoloration of PE and its mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huiliang; Wang Chun; Chen Wenxiu

    2001-01-01

    In order to find the major reason for the radiation discoloration of PE, the changes of yellow index (YI) of HDPE and LDPE under γ irradiation in air or N 2 and after irradiation are measured using colorimeter. The growth and decay of alkyl free radical formed in HDPE and LDPE, and the change of the absorbance of conjugated double bonds formed in PE are measured using ESR and UV-Visible spectrometer. The YI of HDPE is higher than that of LDPE at the same radiation dose. The YI of PE irradiated in air is higher than that of PE irradiated in N 2 at the same radiation dose. The YI of PE irradiated different dose decreases with post-irradiation storage time firstly, up to a certain time, it becomes stable. It is found that the formation and decay of free radicals is very similar to that of the change of YI, whereas, the change of the absorbance of conjugated double bonds formed in PE is different to the change of YI. The results are discussed, it is believed that the major reason for the radiation discoloration is the formation of trapped free radicals

  1. Secretoneurin and PE-11 immunoreactivity in the human dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, René; Fischer-Colbrie, Reiner; Bletsa, Athanasia; Laimer, Johannes; Troger, Josef

    2018-02-01

    To explore whether there are differences in the concentration of the secretogranin II-derived peptide secretoneurin and the chromogranin B-derived peptide PE-11 between the healthy and inflamed human dental pulps. Furthermore, colocalization studies with calcitonin gene-related peptide were performed to confirm the sensory origin of the peptidergic nerves in the dental pulp. The concentrations of secretoneurin and PE-11 were determined by highly sensitive radioimmunoassays in extracts of dental pulps, the molecular form of secretoneurin immunoreactivities by RP-HPLC with subsequent radioimmunoassay and colocalization studies with calcitonin gene-related peptide were performed by double immunofluorescence. Only secretoneurin but not PE-11 was detectable by radioimmunoassays whereas nerve fibers could be made visible for both secretoneurin and PE-11. Furthermore, there was a full colocalization of secretoneurin and PE-11 with calcitonin gene-related peptide in immunohistochemical experiments. There were no differences in the concentration of secretoneurin between the healthy and inflamed human dental pulp and moreover, the characterization of the secretoneurin immunoreactivities revealed that only authentic secretoneurin was detected with the secretoneurin antibody. There is unequivocal evidence that secretoneurin and PE-11 are constituents of the sensory innervation of the human dental pulp and although not exclusively but are yet present in unmyelinated C-fibers which transmit predominantly nociceptive impulses. Secretoneurin might be involved in local effector functions as well, particularly in neurogenic inflammation, given that this is the case despite of unaltered levels in inflamed tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Morphology and parameters of crystallization the blend PE/Epoxy/PE-co-PEG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Daniela; Coelho, Luiz Antonio Ferreira; Nack, Fernanda; Silva, Bruna Louise

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the morphology and crystallization parameters of high density polyethylene (HDPE) with different concentrations of epoxy (DGEBA / OTBG), and the compatibility of this system was used and the copolymer polyethylene-block-poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG-co-PE). The blends were obtained by mechanical mixing on a torque rheometer (Haake). Determined the crystallization parameters of the test matrix differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology of the system was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was observed by XRD analysis that the addition of compatibilizer and epoxy resins do not interfere with the crystal structure of HDPE, indicating that the increase in crystallinity associated with the crystallization kinetics. It was observed that the compatibilizing helped the adhesion, reducing the size of the dispersed phase becomes a more stable morphology and obtaining a distribution of the dispersed epoxy phase. (author)

  3. Silicon Micropore-Based Parallel Plate Membrane Oxygenator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharia, Ajay; Abada, Emily; Feinberg, Benjamin; Yeager, Torin; Moses, Willieford; Park, Jaehyun; Blaha, Charles; Wright, Nathan; Padilla, Benjamin; Roy, Shuvo

    2018-02-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life support system that circulates the blood through an oxygenating system to temporarily (days to months) support heart or lung function during cardiopulmonary failure until organ recovery or replacement. Currently, the need for high levels of systemic anticoagulation and the risk for bleeding are main drawbacks of ECMO that can be addressed with a redesigned ECMO system. Our lab has developed an approach using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication techniques to create novel gas exchange membranes consisting of a rigid silicon micropore membrane (SμM) support structure bonded to a thin film of gas-permeable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This study details the fabrication process to create silicon membranes with highly uniform micropores that have a high level of pattern fidelity. The oxygen transport across these membranes was tested in a simple water-based bench-top set-up as well in a porcine in vivo model. It was determined that the mass transfer coefficient for the system using SµM-PDMS membranes was 3.03 ± 0.42 mL O 2 min -1 m -2 cm Hg -1 with pure water and 1.71 ± 1.03 mL O 2 min -1 m -2 cm Hg -1 with blood. An analytic model to predict gas transport was developed using data from the bench-top experiments and validated with in vivo testing. This was a proof of concept study showing adequate oxygen transport across a parallel plate SµM-PDMS membrane when used as a membrane oxygenator. This work establishes the tools and the equipoise to develop future generations of silicon micropore membrane oxygenators. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Interface physics in microporous media : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaklin, Melissa A.; Knutson, Chad E.; Noble, David R.; Aragon, Alicia R.; Chen, Ken Shuang; Giordano, Nicholas J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Brooks, Carlton, F.; Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Liu, Yihong (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2008-09-01

    This document contains a summary of the work performed under the LDRD project entitled 'Interface Physics in Microporous Media'. The presence of fluid-fluid interfaces, which can carry non-zero stresses, distinguishes multiphase flows from more readily understood single-phase flows. In this work the physics active at these interfaces has been examined via a combined experimental and computational approach. One of the major difficulties of examining true microporous systems of the type found in filters, membranes, geologic media, etc. is the geometric uncertainty. To help facilitate the examination of transport at the pore-scale without this complication, a significant effort has been made in the area of fabrication of both two-dimensional and three-dimensional micromodels. Using these micromodels, multiphase flow experiments have been performed for liquid-liquid and liquid-gas systems. Laser scanning confocal microscopy has been utilized to provide high resolution, three-dimensional reconstructions as well as time resolved, two-dimensional reconstructions. Computational work has focused on extending lattice Boltzmann (LB) and finite element methods for probing the interface physics at the pore scale. A new LB technique has been developed that provides over 100x speed up for steady flows in complex geometries. A new LB model has been developed that allows for arbitrary density ratios, which has been a significant obstacle in applying LB to air-water flows. A new reduced order model has been developed and implemented in finite element code for examining non-equilibrium wetting in microchannel systems. These advances will enhance Sandia's ability to quantitatively probe the rich interfacial physics present in microporous systems.

  5. Sparse Matrices in Frame Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob; Krahmer, Felix; Kutyniok, Gitta

    2014-01-01

    Frame theory is closely intertwined with signal processing through a canon of methodologies for the analysis of signals using (redundant) linear measurements. The canonical dual frame associated with a frame provides a means for reconstruction by a least squares approach, but other dual frames...... yield alternative reconstruction procedures. The novel paradigm of sparsity has recently entered the area of frame theory in various ways. Of those different sparsity perspectives, we will focus on the situations where frames and (not necessarily canonical) dual frames can be written as sparse matrices...

  6. The Inverse of Banded Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    indexed entries all zeros. In this paper, generalizing a method of Mallik (1999) [5], we give the LU factorization and the inverse of the matrix Br,n (if it...r ≤ i ≤ r, 1 ≤ j ≤ r, with the remaining un-indexed entries all zeros. In this paper generalizing a method of Mallik (1999) [5...matrices and applications to piecewise cubic approximation, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 8 (4) (1982) 285–288. [5] R.K. Mallik , The inverse of a lower

  7. Fusion algebra and fusing matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yihong; Li Miao; Yu Ming.

    1989-09-01

    We show that the Wilson line operators in topological field theories form a fusion algebra. In general, the fusion algebra is a relation among the fusing (F) matrices. In the case of the SU(2) WZW model, some special F matrix elements are found in this way, and the remaining F matrix elements are then determined up to a sign. In addition, the S(j) modular transformation of the one point blocks on the torus is worked out. Our results are found to agree with those obtained from the quantum group method. (author). 24 refs

  8. Transfer matrices for multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baquero, R.

    1988-08-01

    We consider four of the transfer matrices defined to deal with multilayer structures. We deduce algorithms to calculate them numerically, in a simple and neat way. We illustrate their application to semi-infinite systems using SGFM formulae. These algorithms are of fast convergence and allow a calculation of bulk-, surface- and inner-layers band structure in good agreement with much more sophisticated calculations. Supermatrices, interfaces and multilayer structures can be calculated in this way with a small computational effort. (author). 10 refs

  9. Orthogonal polynomials and random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Deift, Percy

    2000-01-01

    This volume expands on a set of lectures held at the Courant Institute on Riemann-Hilbert problems, orthogonal polynomials, and random matrix theory. The goal of the course was to prove universality for a variety of statistical quantities arising in the theory of random matrix models. The central question was the following: Why do very general ensembles of random n {\\times} n matrices exhibit universal behavior as n {\\rightarrow} {\\infty}? The main ingredient in the proof is the steepest descent method for oscillatory Riemann-Hilbert problems.

  10. A superhard sp3 microporous carbon with direct bandgap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yilong; Xie, Chenlong; Xiong, Mei; Ma, Mengdong; Liu, Lingyu; Li, Zihe; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Gao, Guoying; Zhao, Zhisheng; Tian, Yongjun; Xu, Bo; He, Julong

    2017-12-01

    Carbon allotropes with distinct sp, sp2, and sp3 hybridization possess various different properties. Here, a novel all-sp3 hybridized tetragonal carbon, namely the P carbon, was predicted by the evolutionary particle swarm structural search. It demonstrated a low density among all-sp3 carbons, due to the corresponding distinctive microporous structure. P carbon is thermodynamically stable than the known C60 and could be formed through the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) compression. P carbon is a direct bandgap semiconductor displaying a strong and superhard nature. The unique combination of electrical and mechanical properties constitutes P carbon a potential superhard material for semiconductor industrial fields.

  11. Evidence of micropore filling for sorption of nonpolar organic contaminants by condensed organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Yong; Yang, Yu; Xing, Baoshan; Pignatello, Joseph J; Kwon, Seokjoo; Su, Wei; Zhou, Li

    2013-01-01

    Although microporosity and surface area of natural organic matter (NOM) are crucial for mechanistic evaluation of the sorption process for nonpolar organic contaminants (NOCs), they have been underestimated by the N adsorption technique. We investigated the CO-derived internal hydrophobic microporosity () and specific surface area (SSA) obtained on dry samples and related them to sorption behaviors of NOCs in water for a wide range of condensed NOM samples. The is obtained from the total CO-derived microporosity by subtracting out the contribution of the outer surfaces of minerals and NOM using N adsorption-derived parameters. The correlation between or CO-SSA and fractional organic carbon content () is very significant, demonstrating that much of the microporosity is associated with internal NOM matrices. The average and CO-SSA are, respectively, 75.1 μL g organic carbon (OC) and 185 m g OC from the correlation analysis. The rigid aliphatic carbon significantly contributes to the microporosity of the Pahokee peat. A strong linear correlation is demonstrated between / and the OC-normalized sorption capacity at the liquid or subcooled liquid-state water solubility calculated via the Freundlich equation for each of four NOCs (phenanthrene, naphthalene, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene, and 1,2-dichlorobenzene). We concluded that micropore filling ("adsorption") contributes to NOC sorption by condensed NOM, but the exact contribution requires knowing the relationship between the dry-state, CO-determined microporosity and the wet-state, NOC-available microporosity of the organic matter. The findings offer new clues for explaining the nonideal sorption behaviors of NOCs. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Flux studies on ion microporous membrane for the use of medical filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hongying; Huang Zhengde

    2002-01-01

    The influences of the irradiating condition (divergent and perpendicular irradiation) and hole shapes (cylinder and cone holes) on the flux are studied for ion microporous membrane. The results show that divergent irradiation and cone hole both can improve the flux of ion microporous membrane for the use of medical filtration

  13. Microporous carbon derived from polyaniline base as anode material for lithium ion secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Enhui; Huang, Zhengzheng; Shen, Haijie; Tian, Yingying; Xiao, Chengyi; Yang, Jingjing; Mao, Zhaohui

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Nitrogen-containing microporous carbon was prepared from polyaniline base by K 2 CO 3 activation, and used as anode material for lithium ion secondary battery. → K 2 CO 3 activation promotes the formation of amorphous and microporous structure. → High nitrogen content, and large surface area with micropores lead to strong intercalation between carbon and lithium ion, and thus improve the lithium storage capacity. -- Abstract: Microporous carbon with large surface area was prepared from polyaniline base using K 2 CO 3 as an activating agent. The physicochemical properties of the carbon were characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, elemental analyses and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement. The electrochemical properties of the microporous carbon as anode material in lithium ion secondary battery were evaluated. The first discharge capacity of the microporous carbon was 1108 mAh g -1 , whose first charge capacity was 624 mAh g -1 , with a coulombic efficiency of 56.3%. After 20 cycling tests, the microporous carbon retains a reversible capacity of 603 mAh g -1 at a current density of 100 mA g -1 . These results clearly demonstrated the potential role of microporous carbon as anode for high capacity lithium ion secondary battery.

  14. An analysis of burn-off impact on the structure microporous of activated carbons formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Mirosław; Kopac, Türkan

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents the results on the application of the LBET numerical method as a tool for analysis of the microporous structure of activated carbons obtained from a bituminous coal. The LBET method was employed particularly to evaluate the impact of the burn-off on the obtained microporous structure parameters of activated carbons.

  15. The nonlinear propagation of acoustic waves in a viscoelastic medium containing cylindrical micropores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Lin, Feng; Xiao-Zhou, Liu; Jie-Hui, Liu; Li, Ma

    2009-01-01

    Based on an equivalent medium approach, this paper presents a model describing the nonlinear propagation of acoustic waves in a viscoelastic medium containing cylindrical micropores. The influences of pores' nonlinear oscillations on sound attenuation, sound dispersion and an equivalent acoustic nonlinearity parameter are discussed. The calculated results show that the attenuation increases with an increasing volume fraction of micropores. The peak of sound velocity and attenuation occurs at the resonant frequency of the micropores while the peak of the equivalent acoustic nonlinearity parameter occurs at the half of the resonant frequency of the micropores. Furthermore, multiple scattering has been taken into account, which leads to a modification to the effective wave number in the equivalent medium approach. We find that these linear and nonlinear acoustic parameters need to be corrected when the volume fraction of micropores is larger than 0.1%

  16. Hypercyclic Abelian Semigroups of Matrices on Cn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayadi, Adlene; Marzougui, Habib

    2010-07-01

    We give a complete characterization of existence of dense orbit for any abelian semigroup of matrices on C n . For finitely generated semigroups, this characterization is explicit and is used to determine the minimal number of matrices in normal form over C which forms a hypercyclic abelian semigroup on C n . In particular, we show that no abelian semigroup generated by n matrices on C n can be hypercyclic. (author)

  17. Segregation to grain boundaries in nimonic PE16 superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nettleship, D.J.; Wild, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Nimonic PE16 alloy is a nickel-based superalloy containing 34 wt.% iron and 16wt.% chromium with additions of molybdenum, titanium and aluminium. It is used in the fuel assembly of the UK advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGR). This component supports significant loads in service and its mechanical integrity is therefore of paramount importance. Mechanical properties may be influenced by the grain size and grain boundary composition, both of which can themselves alter during service. Scanning Auger microscopy is a well-established method for investigating grain boundaries, and has now been applied to the study of PE16. In order to expose PE16 grain boundary surfaces it is necessary to hydrogen charge samples and fracture by pulling in tension at a slow strain rate within the ultra-high vacuum chamber of the Auger microprobe. A series of casts of nimonic PE16 alloy that have received a range of thermal ageing treatments have been fractured in an intergranular manner and the grain boundary composition determined. Segregation of trace and minority elements, particularly Mo and P, has been detected at grain boundaries. Significant variations between different as-manufactured casts were observed, whilst ageing brought about the growth of chromium-rich particles on the grain boundaries. Ductile fracture in PE16 followed a path through Ti(C, N) particles. Many of these particles incorporated large amounts of sulphur. (author)

  18. Microporous carbonaceous adsorbents for CO2 separation via selective adsorption

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    Selective adsorption of CO2 has important implications for many energy and environment-related processes, which require the separation of CO2 from other gases (e.g. N2 and CH4) with high uptakes and selectivity. The development of high-performance adsorbents is one of the most promising solutions to the success of these processes. The present review is focused on the state-of-the-art of carbon-based (carbonaceous) adsorbents, covering microporous inorganic carbons and microporous organic polymers, with emphasis on the correlation between their textural and compositional properties and their CO2 adsorption/separation performance. Special attention is given to the most recently developed materials that were not covered in previous reviews. We summarize various effective strategies (N-doping, surface functionalization, extra-framework ions, molecular design, and pore size engineering) for enhancing the CO2 adsorption capacity and selectivity of carbonaceous adsorbents. Our discussion focuses on CO2/N2 separation and CO2/CH4 separation, while including an introduction to the methods and criteria used for evaluating the performance of the adsorbents. Critical issues and challenges regarding the development of high-performance adsorbents as well as some overlooked facts and misconceptions are also discussed, with the aim of providing important insights into the design of novel carbonaceous porous materials for various selective adsorption based applications. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Microporous polystyrene particles for selective carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliva, Maria; Armatas, Gerasimos S; Vamvakaki, Maria

    2012-02-07

    This study presents the synthesis of microporous polystyrene particles and the potential use of these materials in CO(2) capture for biogas purification. Highly cross-linked polystyrene particles are synthesized by the emulsion copolymerization of styrene (St) and divinylbenzene (DVB) in water. The cross-link density of the polymer is varied by altering the St/DVB molar ratio. The size and the morphology of the particles are characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Following supercritical point drying with carbon dioxide or lyophilization from benzene, the polystyrene nanoparticles exhibit a significant surface area and permanent microporosity. The dried particles comprising 35 mol % St and 65 mol % DVB possess the largest surface area, ∼205 m(2)/g measured by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller and ∼185 m(2)/g measured by the Dubinin-Radushkevich method, and a total pore volume of 1.10 cm(3)/g. Low pressure measurements suggest that the microporous polystyrene particles exhibit a good separation performance of CO(2) over CH(4), with separation factors in the range of ∼7-13 (268 K, CO(2)/CH(4) = 5/95 gas mixture), which renders them attractive candidates for use in gas separation processes.

  20. Electron Transfer Strategies Regulate Carbonate Mineral and Micropore Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhirui; Tice, Michael M.

    2018-01-01

    Some microbial carbonates are robust biosignatures due to their distinct morphologies and compositions. However, whether carbonates induced by microbial iron reduction have such features is unknown. Iron-reducing bacteria use various strategies to transfer electrons to iron oxide minerals (e.g., membrane-bound enzymes, soluble electron shuttles, nanowires, as well as different mechanisms for moving over or attaching to mineral surfaces). This diversity has the potential to create mineral biosignatures through manipulating the microenvironments in which carbonate precipitation occurs. We used Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, Geothrix fermentans, and Geobacter metallireducens GS-15, representing three different strategies, to reduce solid ferric hydroxide in order to evaluate their influence on carbonate and micropore formation (micro-size porosity in mineral rocks). Our results indicate that electron transfer strategies determined the morphology (rhombohedral, spherical, or long-chained) of precipitated calcium-rich siderite by controlling the level of carbonate saturation and the location of carbonate formation. Remarkably, electron transfer strategies also produced distinctive cell-shaped micropores in both carbonate and hydroxide minerals, thus producing suites of features that could potentially serve as biosignatures recording information about the sizes, shapes, and physiologies of iron-reducing organisms.

  1. High PEC conversion efficiencies from CuSe film electrodes modified with metalloporphyrin/polyethylene matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyoud, Ahed; Al-Kerm, Rola S.; Al-Kerm, Rana S.; Waseem, Mansur; Mohammed, H.S. Helal; Park, DaeHoon; Campet, Guy; Sabli, Nordin; Hilal, Hikmat S.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancement of hole-transfer across CuSe electrode/liquid junction can be facilitated by coating with metalloporphyrin complexes embedded inside polyethylene matrices. - Highlights: • CuSe films were electrochemically deposited onto FTO/Glass • Annealing CuSe film electrodes enhanced PEC characteristics • PEC characteristics were further enhanced by metalloporphyrin/polyethylene matrices, yielding ∼15% efficiency • Matrix behavior as charge transfer mediator enhanced electrode conversion efficiency and stability - Abstract: Electrodeposited CuSe film electrodes have been prepared onto FTO/glass by a facile method based on earlier methods described for other systems. The films were characterized, modified by annealing and further characterized. The films were then modified by coating with tetra(-4-pyridyl) pophyrinato-manganese (MnTPyP) complexes embedded inside commercial polyethylene (PE) matrices. The effects of modifications on different film properties, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, surface morphology, photoluminescence (PL) spectra and electronic absorption spectra were investigated. Compared with other thin film electrode systems, very high photoelectrochemical (PEC) conversion efficiency values have been observed here. Pre-annealing the CuSe films at 150°C for 2 h, followed by attaching the MnTPyP/PE matrices remarkably enhanced their PEC characteristics. The conversion efficiency was significantly enhanced, from less than 1.0% to more than 15%. Fill factor (FF) was also enhanced from ∼30% to ∼80%. Values of open-circuit potential (V OC ) and short-circuit current (J SC ) were significantly enhanced. While annealing affects uniformity, particle inter-connection and surface texture of the CuSe films, the MnTPyP complex species behaves as an additional charge-transfer mediator across the film/electrolyte junction. Optimization of PEC characteristics, using different deposition times, different annealing temperatures, different

  2. Synthesis of microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticles with enhanced microwave absorption properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tong; Pang, Yu; Xie, Xiubo; Qi, Wen; Wu, Ying; Kobayashi, Satoru; Zheng, Jie; Li, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication of microporous metal materials with many potential applications is challenging due to their high chemical activities and the difficulty in controlling the pore size. By adjusting the reaction condition and the composition of the Ni–Al nanoparticle precursor, we have successfully produced the microporous Ni nanoparticles (NPs) of 22 nm by chemical dealloying method. During the passivation process, the microporous Ni NPs covered with NiO shell are generated as the result of surface oxidation. The micropores range from 0.6 to 1.2 nm in diameter with a large surface area of 68.9 m"2/g. Due to the elimination of Al atoms during dealloying process, the crystalline size of the microporous Ni NPs is sharply decreased to 2–5 nm. The specific architecture offers the microporous Ni/NiO NPs a small microwave reflection coefficient (RC) and a wide absorption bandwidth (RC ≤ −10 dB) of −49.1 dB and 5.8 GHz, much better than the nonporous counterpart of −24.1 dB and 3.7 GHz. The enhanced microwave absorption performance has been interpreted in terms of the micropore structure, core/shell structure and nanostructure effects. - Highlights: • Microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticles are prepared by chemical dealloying method. • They possess micropores of 0.6–1.2 nm with a surface area of 68.9 m"2/g. • They show minimum microwave reflection coefficient of −49.1 dB and bandwidth of 5.8 GHz. • Microwave absorption mechanism is explained by micropore and core/shell structures.

  3. Synthesis of microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticles with enhanced microwave absorption properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tong, E-mail: tongliu@buaa.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, No.37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100191 (China); Pang, Yu; Xie, Xiubo [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, No.37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100191 (China); Qi, Wen; Wu, Ying [China Iron & Steel Research Institute Group, Advanced Technology & Materials Co., Ltd, No.76 Xueyuannanlu, Haidian District, Beijing, 100081 (China); Kobayashi, Satoru [Faculty of Engineering, Iwate University, Ueda, Morioka, 020-8551 (Japan); Zheng, Jie; Li, Xingguo [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), The State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China)

    2016-05-15

    The fabrication of microporous metal materials with many potential applications is challenging due to their high chemical activities and the difficulty in controlling the pore size. By adjusting the reaction condition and the composition of the Ni–Al nanoparticle precursor, we have successfully produced the microporous Ni nanoparticles (NPs) of 22 nm by chemical dealloying method. During the passivation process, the microporous Ni NPs covered with NiO shell are generated as the result of surface oxidation. The micropores range from 0.6 to 1.2 nm in diameter with a large surface area of 68.9 m{sup 2}/g. Due to the elimination of Al atoms during dealloying process, the crystalline size of the microporous Ni NPs is sharply decreased to 2–5 nm. The specific architecture offers the microporous Ni/NiO NPs a small microwave reflection coefficient (RC) and a wide absorption bandwidth (RC ≤ −10 dB) of −49.1 dB and 5.8 GHz, much better than the nonporous counterpart of −24.1 dB and 3.7 GHz. The enhanced microwave absorption performance has been interpreted in terms of the micropore structure, core/shell structure and nanostructure effects. - Highlights: • Microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticles are prepared by chemical dealloying method. • They possess micropores of 0.6–1.2 nm with a surface area of 68.9 m{sup 2}/g. • They show minimum microwave reflection coefficient of −49.1 dB and bandwidth of 5.8 GHz. • Microwave absorption mechanism is explained by micropore and core/shell structures.

  4. Lambda-matrices and vibrating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lancaster, Peter; Stark, M; Kahane, J P

    1966-01-01

    Lambda-Matrices and Vibrating Systems presents aspects and solutions to problems concerned with linear vibrating systems with a finite degrees of freedom and the theory of matrices. The book discusses some parts of the theory of matrices that will account for the solutions of the problems. The text starts with an outline of matrix theory, and some theorems are proved. The Jordan canonical form is also applied to understand the structure of square matrices. Classical theorems are discussed further by applying the Jordan canonical form, the Rayleigh quotient, and simple matrix pencils with late

  5. Au-nanoparticles grafted on plasma treated PE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svorcik, V.; Chaloupka, A.; Rezanka, P.; Slepicka, P.; Kolska, Z.; Kasalkova, N.; Hubacek, T.; Siegel, J.

    2010-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) surface was treated with Ar plasma. Activated surface was grafted from methanol solution of 1,2-ethanedithiol. Then the sample was immersed into freshly prepared colloid solution of Au-nanoparticles. Finally Au layer was sputtered on the samples. Properties of the modified PE were studied using various methods: AFM, EPR, RBS and nanoindentation. It was shown that the plasma treatment results in degradation of polymer chain (AFM) and creation of free radicals by EPR. After grafting with dithiol, the concentration of free radicals declines. The presence of Au and S in the surface layer after the coating with Au-nanoparticles was proved by RBS. Plasma treatment changes PE surface morphology and increases surface roughness, too. Another significant change in surface morphology and roughness was observed after deposition of Au-nanoparticles. Nanoindentation measurements show that the grafting with Au-nanoparticles increases adhesion of subsequently sputtered Au layer.

  6. Pathological rate matrices: from primates to pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Rob

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous-time Markov models allow flexible, parametrically succinct descriptions of sequence divergence. Non-reversible forms of these models are more biologically realistic but are challenging to develop. The instantaneous rate matrices defined for these models are typically transformed into substitution probability matrices using a matrix exponentiation algorithm that employs eigendecomposition, but this algorithm has characteristic vulnerabilities that lead to significant errors when a rate matrix possesses certain 'pathological' properties. Here we tested whether pathological rate matrices exist in nature, and consider the suitability of different algorithms to their computation. Results We used concatenated protein coding gene alignments from microbial genomes, primate genomes and independent intron alignments from primate genomes. The Taylor series expansion and eigendecomposition matrix exponentiation algorithms were compared to the less widely employed, but more robust, Padé with scaling and squaring algorithm for nucleotide, dinucleotide, codon and trinucleotide rate matrices. Pathological dinucleotide and trinucleotide matrices were evident in the microbial data set, affecting the eigendecomposition and Taylor algorithms respectively. Even using a conservative estimate of matrix error (occurrence of an invalid probability, both Taylor and eigendecomposition algorithms exhibited substantial error rates: ~100% of all exonic trinucleotide matrices were pathological to the Taylor algorithm while ~10% of codon positions 1 and 2 dinucleotide matrices and intronic trinucleotide matrices, and ~30% of codon matrices were pathological to eigendecomposition. The majority of Taylor algorithm errors derived from occurrence of multiple unobserved states. A small number of negative probabilities were detected from the Pad�� algorithm on trinucleotide matrices that were attributable to machine precision. Although the Pad

  7. Performan reproduksi pada persilangan Kambing Boer dan Peranakan Etawah (PE)

    OpenAIRE

    F. Parasmawati; Suyadi Suyadi; Sri Wahyuningsih

    2014-01-01

    The study tends to evaluate the reproductive performances of Boer x PE goats crossbred in field laboratory “Sumber Sekar” of the Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Brawijaya University. Data covered the reproductive performance from 2010 – 2012 including data from 23 multipaorous does (11 does of pure Boer goats, 12 does of Boer x PE crossbred). The results shows that service per conception (S/C) of the pure Boer was 3.09 ± 1.57 and 2.75± 1.35 for the crossbred (P>0.05). The days open (DO) of the B...

  8. Performan Reproduksi Pada Persilangan Kambing Boer Dan Peranakan Etawah (PE)

    OpenAIRE

    Parasmawati, F; Suyadi, Suyadi; Wahyuningsih, Sri

    2013-01-01

    The study tends to evaluate the reproductive performances of Boer x PE goats crossbred in field laboratory “Sumber Sekar” of the Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Brawijaya University. Data covered the reproductive performance from 2010 – 2012 including data from 23 multipaorous does (11 does of pure Boer goats, 12 does of Boer x PE crossbred). The results shows that service per conception (S/C) of the pure Boer was 3.09 ± 1.57 and 2.75± 1.35 for the crossbred (P>0.05). The days open (DO) of th...

  9. Quantum Hilbert matrices and orthogonal polynomials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Berg, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Using the notion of quantum integers associated with a complex number q≠0 , we define the quantum Hilbert matrix and various extensions. They are Hankel matrices corresponding to certain little q -Jacobi polynomials when |q|<1 , and for the special value they are closely related to Hankel matrice...

  10. The construction of factorized S-matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.

    1981-01-01

    We study the relationships between factorized S-matrices given as representations of the Zamolodchikov algebra and exactly solvable models constructed using the Baxter method. Several new examples of symmetric and non-symmetric factorized S-matrices are proposed. (orig.)

  11. Skew-adjacency matrices of graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavers, M.; Cioaba, S.M.; Fallat, S.; Gregory, D.A.; Haemers, W.H.; Kirkland, S.J.; McDonald, J.J.; Tsatsomeros, M.

    2012-01-01

    The spectra of the skew-adjacency matrices of a graph are considered as a possible way to distinguish adjacency cospectral graphs. This leads to the following topics: graphs whose skew-adjacency matrices are all cospectral; relations between the matchings polynomial of a graph and the characteristic

  12. On Investigating GMRES Convergence using Unitary Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duintjer Tebbens, Jurjen; Meurant, G.; Sadok, H.; Strakoš, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 450, 1 June (2014), s. 83-107 ISSN 0024-3795 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100301201; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1202 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : GMRES convergence * unitary matrices * unitary spectra * normal matrices * Krylov residual subspace * Schur parameters Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2014

  13. Selective individual primary cell capture using locally bio-functionalized micropores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Solid-state micropores have been widely employed for 6 decades to recognize and size flowing unlabeled cells. However, the resistive-pulse technique presents limitations when the cells to be differentiated have overlapping dimension ranges such as B and T lymphocytes. An alternative approach would be to specifically capture cells by solid-state micropores. Here, the inner wall of 15-µm pores made in 10 µm-thick silicon membranes was covered with antibodies specific to cell surface proteins of B or T lymphocytes. The selective trapping of individual unlabeled cells in a bio-functionalized micropore makes them recognizable just using optical microscopy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We locally deposited oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN and ODN-conjugated antibody probes on the inner wall of the micropores by forming thin films of polypyrrole-ODN copolymers using contactless electro-functionalization. The trapping capabilities of the bio-functionalized micropores were validated using optical microscopy and the resistive-pulse technique by selectively capturing polystyrene microbeads coated with complementary ODN. B or T lymphocytes from a mouse splenocyte suspension were specifically immobilized on micropore walls functionalized with complementary ODN-conjugated antibodies targeting cell surface proteins. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results showed that locally bio-functionalized micropores can isolate target cells from a suspension during their translocation throughout the pore, including among cells of similar dimensions in complex mixtures.

  14. Selective Individual Primary Cell Capture Using Locally Bio-Functionalized Micropores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Bombera, Radoslaw; Leroy, Loïc; Roupioz, Yoann; Baganizi, Dieudonné R.; Marche, Patrice N.; Haguet, Vincent; Mailley, Pascal; Livache, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Background Solid-state micropores have been widely employed for 6 decades to recognize and size flowing unlabeled cells. However, the resistive-pulse technique presents limitations when the cells to be differentiated have overlapping dimension ranges such as B and T lymphocytes. An alternative approach would be to specifically capture cells by solid-state micropores. Here, the inner wall of 15-µm pores made in 10 µm-thick silicon membranes was covered with antibodies specific to cell surface proteins of B or T lymphocytes. The selective trapping of individual unlabeled cells in a bio-functionalized micropore makes them recognizable just using optical microscopy. Methodology/Principal Findings We locally deposited oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) and ODN-conjugated antibody probes on the inner wall of the micropores by forming thin films of polypyrrole-ODN copolymers using contactless electro-functionalization. The trapping capabilities of the bio-functionalized micropores were validated using optical microscopy and the resistive-pulse technique by selectively capturing polystyrene microbeads coated with complementary ODN. B or T lymphocytes from a mouse splenocyte suspension were specifically immobilized on micropore walls functionalized with complementary ODN-conjugated antibodies targeting cell surface proteins. Conclusions/Significance The results showed that locally bio-functionalized micropores can isolate target cells from a suspension during their translocation throughout the pore, including among cells of similar dimensions in complex mixtures. PMID:23469221

  15. Exact Inverse Matrices of Fermat and Mersenne Circulant Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpeng Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The well known circulant matrices are applied to solve networked systems. In this paper, circulant and left circulant matrices with the Fermat and Mersenne numbers are considered. The nonsingularity of these special matrices is discussed. Meanwhile, the exact determinants and inverse matrices of these special matrices are presented.

  16. Characterization of cellulose acetate micropore membrane immobilized acylase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Jie; Song, Xi-Jin

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes an innovative method for the immobilization of acylase I, which was entrapped into the CA-CTA micropore membrane. The most suitable casting solutions proportion for immobilizing the enzyme was obtained through orthogonal experiment. Properties of the enzyme membrane were investigated and compared with those of free enzyme and blank membrane. The thermal stability and pH stability of the enzyme inside the membrane were changed by immobilization. The optimum pH was found to be 6.0, which changes 1.0 unit compared with that of free acylase I. The optimum temperature was found to be about 90 degrees C, which is higher than that of free acylase I (60 degrees C). Experimental results showed that immobilization had effects on the kinetic parameters of acylase I.

  17. Microporous Cokes Formed in Zeolite Catalysts Enable Efficient Solar Evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jianjian

    2017-03-13

    Cokes are inevitably generated during zeolite-catalyzed reactions as deleterious side products that deactivate the catalyst. In this study, we in-situ converted cokes into carbons within the confined microporous zeolite structures and evaluated their performances as absorbing materials for solar-driven water evaporation. With a properly chosen zeolite, the cokederived carbons possessed ordered interconnected pores and tunable compositions. We found that the porous structure and the oxygen content in as-prepared carbons had important influences on their energy conversion efficiencies. Among various investigated carbon materials, the carbon derived from the methanol-to-olefins reaction over zeolite Beta gave the highest conversion efficiency of 72% under simulated sunlight with equivalent solar intensity of 2 suns. This study not only demonstrates the great potential of traditionally useless cokes for solar thermal applications but also provides new insights into the design of carbon-based absorbing materials for efficient solar evaporation.

  18. Nanoscale encapsulation: the structure of cations in hydrophobic microporous aluminosilicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, S.R.; Yuchs, S.E.; Giaquinta, D.; Soderholm, L.; Song, Kang.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrophobic microporous aluminosilicates, created by organic surface modification of inherently hydrophilic materials such as zeolites and clays, are currently being investigated as storage media for hazardous cations. Use of organic monolayers to modify the surface of an aluminosilicate after introducing an ion into the zeolite/clay reduces the interaction of water with the material. Resulting systems are about 20 times more resistant to leaching of stored ion. XAS spectra from the encapsulated ion demonstrate that byproducts from the organic modifier can complex with the stored cation. This complexation can result in a decreased affinity of the cation for the aluminosilicate matrix. Changing the organic modifier eliminates this problem. XAS spectra also indicate that the reactivity and speciation of the encapsulated ion may change upon application of the hydrophobic layer

  19. Gas sorption properties of microporous metal organic frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, JeongYong; Li Jing; Jagiello, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    A low-temperature gas sorption study has been carried out on four three-dimensional microporous metal organic framework (MMOF) structures and two two-dimensional layered structures. The pore characteristics are analyzed based on the argon adsorption-desorption isotherms at 87 K. The results from hydrogen sorption experiments conducted at 77 and 87 K show that all MMOFs have a relatively high hydrogen uptake, with adsorbed hydrogen densities falling in the range of liquid hydrogen. Isosteric heats of hydrogen adsorption data calculated based on the Clausius-Clapeyron equation are consistent with these observations, indicating strong sorbent-sorbate interactions. - Graphical abstract: Hydrogen adsorption isotherms measured at 77 and 87 K

  20. Magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles on microporous silica spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godsell, Jeffrey F.; Donegan, Keith P.; Tobin, Joseph M.; Copley, Mark P.; Rhen, Fernando M.F.; Otway, David J.; Morris, Michael A.; O'Donnell, Terence; Holmes, Justin D.; Roy, Saibal

    2010-01-01

    Ni nanoparticles (∼32 nm particle diameter) have been synthesized on the walls of microporous (∼1 nm pore diameter) silica spheres (∼2.6 μm sphere diameter) and characterised magnetically to potentially produce a new class of core (silica micro-spheres)-shell (nanometallic)-type nanocomposite material. These magnetic nanocomposite materials display a characteristic increase in coercivity with reducing temperature. The average particle size has been used to calculate the anisotropy constant for the system, K. The discussion postulates the potential mechanisms contributing to the difference between the calculated K value and the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant of bulk Ni. Various factors such as surface anisotropy and interparticle interactions are discussed as possible contributing factors to the anisotropy values calculated in the paper.

  1. Performan reproduksi pada persilangan Kambing Boer dan Peranakan Etawah (PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Parasmawati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study tends to evaluate the reproductive performances of Boer x PE goats crossbred in field laboratory “Sumber Sekar” of the Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Brawijaya University. Data covered the reproductive performance from 2010 – 2012 including data from 23 multipaorous does (11 does of pure Boer goats, 12 does of Boer x PE crossbred. The results shows that service per conception (S/C of the pure Boer was 3.09 ± 1.57 and 2.75± 1.35 for the crossbred (P>0.05. The days open (DO of the Boer goat was 202.71 ± 95.56 days this was not significantly difference to the crossbred goats (208.04 ±137.51days. The kidding interval (316.84 ± 125.64 days vs. 360.45 ± 148.96 days and the litter size (1.78 ±0.71 vs. 1.70 ± 0.86 were not significantly difference (P>0.05 between the respective groups. In conclusion, the crossing program between male Boer goats and male PE does did not influence the reproductive performances in both goats (pure Boer goats and their crosses with local PE goats. Key words: litter size, service per conception, days open, kidding interval, litter size

  2. Ring ductility of irradiated Inconel 706 and Nimonic PE16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.H.; Fish, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    The tensile ductility of fast neutron-irradiated, precipitation-hardened alloys Inconel 706 and Nimonic PE16 has been observed to be very low for certain test conditions. Explanations for the low ductility behavior have been sought by examination of broken tensile specimens with microscopy and other similar techniques. A ring compression test provides a method of evaluating the ductility of irradiated cladding specimens. Unlike the conventional uniaxial tensile testing in which the tensile specimen is deformed uniformly, the ring specimen is subjected to localized bending where the crack is initiated. The ductility can be estimated through an analysis of the bending of a ring in terms of strain hardening. Ring sections from irradiated, solution-treated Inconel 706 and Nimonic PE16 were compressed in the diametral direction to provide load-deflection records over a wide range of irradiation and test temperatures. Results showed that ductility in both alloys decreased with increasing test temperatures. The poorest ductility was exhibited at different irradiation temperatures in the two alloys - near 550 0 C for PE16 and 460 to 520 0 C for Inconel 706. The ring ductility data indicate that the grain boundary strength is a major factor in controlling the ductility of the PE16 alloy

  3. Nanowire-integrated microporous silicon membrane for continuous fluid transport in micro cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Hongyun; Pisano, Albert P.; Cheng, Jim C.

    2013-01-01

    We report an efficient passive micro pump system combining the physical properties of nanowires and micropores. This nanowire-integrated microporous silicon membrane was created to feed coolant continuously onto the surface of the wick in a micro cooling device to ensure it remains hydrated and in case of dryout, allow for regeneration of the system. The membrane was fabricated by photoelectrochemical etching to form micropores followed by hydrothermal growth of nanowires. This study shows a promising approach to address thermal management challenges for next generation electronic devices with absence of external power

  4. Property comparisons of commercially available silica-based microporous insulations I. Machinability and thermal dimensional stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Daniel P.; McNeil, Dennis C.; Ruhkamp, Joseph D.; Wells, Donna J.; Stringer, Robert L.; Howell, Edwin I.

    2002-01-01

    Maximizing the thermal to electrical conversion efficiency of a nuclear space power system requires that all of the available thermal energy be utilized in the most efficient manner. Microporous insulations are attractive for application in space power systems due to their very low thermal conductivity. Over the last few years, several new silica-based microporous insulating materials have become commercially available. Property comparisons of the various insulations obtained from company literature and experiments on microporous sample specimens are discussed. The results demonstrate that their machinability and thermal dimensional stability as a function of time at temperature and atmosphere are dependent on the particular material

  5. Community Detection for Correlation Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel MacMahon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A challenging problem in the study of complex systems is that of resolving, without prior information, the emergent, mesoscopic organization determined by groups of units whose dynamical activity is more strongly correlated internally than with the rest of the system. The existing techniques to filter correlations are not explicitly oriented towards identifying such modules and can suffer from an unavoidable information loss. A promising alternative is that of employing community detection techniques developed in network theory. Unfortunately, this approach has focused predominantly on replacing network data with correlation matrices, a procedure that we show to be intrinsically biased because of its inconsistency with the null hypotheses underlying the existing algorithms. Here, we introduce, via a consistent redefinition of null models based on random matrix theory, the appropriate correlation-based counterparts of the most popular community detection techniques. Our methods can filter out both unit-specific noise and system-wide dependencies, and the resulting communities are internally correlated and mutually anticorrelated. We also implement multiresolution and multifrequency approaches revealing hierarchically nested subcommunities with “hard” cores and “soft” peripheries. We apply our techniques to several financial time series and identify mesoscopic groups of stocks which are irreducible to a standard, sectorial taxonomy; detect “soft stocks” that alternate between communities; and discuss implications for portfolio optimization and risk management.

  6. Community Detection for Correlation Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahon, Mel; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2015-04-01

    A challenging problem in the study of complex systems is that of resolving, without prior information, the emergent, mesoscopic organization determined by groups of units whose dynamical activity is more strongly correlated internally than with the rest of the system. The existing techniques to filter correlations are not explicitly oriented towards identifying such modules and can suffer from an unavoidable information loss. A promising alternative is that of employing community detection techniques developed in network theory. Unfortunately, this approach has focused predominantly on replacing network data with correlation matrices, a procedure that we show to be intrinsically biased because of its inconsistency with the null hypotheses underlying the existing algorithms. Here, we introduce, via a consistent redefinition of null models based on random matrix theory, the appropriate correlation-based counterparts of the most popular community detection techniques. Our methods can filter out both unit-specific noise and system-wide dependencies, and the resulting communities are internally correlated and mutually anticorrelated. We also implement multiresolution and multifrequency approaches revealing hierarchically nested subcommunities with "hard" cores and "soft" peripheries. We apply our techniques to several financial time series and identify mesoscopic groups of stocks which are irreducible to a standard, sectorial taxonomy; detect "soft stocks" that alternate between communities; and discuss implications for portfolio optimization and risk management.

  7. The Antitriangular Factorization of Saddle Point Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, J.

    2014-01-01

    Mastronardi and Van Dooren [SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl., 34 (2013), pp. 173-196] recently introduced the block antitriangular ("Batman") decomposition for symmetric indefinite matrices. Here we show the simplification of this factorization for saddle point matrices and demonstrate how it represents the common nullspace method. We show that rank-1 updates to the saddle point matrix can be easily incorporated into the factorization and give bounds on the eigenvalues of matrices important in saddle point theory. We show the relation of this factorization to constraint preconditioning and how it transforms but preserves the structure of block diagonal and block triangular preconditioners. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  8. Polynomial sequences generated by infinite Hessenberg matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verde-Star Luis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that an infinite lower Hessenberg matrix generates polynomial sequences that correspond to the rows of infinite lower triangular invertible matrices. Orthogonal polynomial sequences are obtained when the Hessenberg matrix is tridiagonal. We study properties of the polynomial sequences and their corresponding matrices which are related to recurrence relations, companion matrices, matrix similarity, construction algorithms, and generating functions. When the Hessenberg matrix is also Toeplitz the polynomial sequences turn out to be of interpolatory type and we obtain additional results. For example, we show that every nonderogative finite square matrix is similar to a unique Toeplitz-Hessenberg matrix.

  9. Characterization of the microporous HDPE film with a stearyl alcohol and its physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Seok; Sung, Hae Jun; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Lim, Youn Mook; Nho, Young Chang

    2009-01-01

    The addition effects of the stearyl alcohol (STE) on the properties of the microporous high density polyethylene (HDPE) films were investigated. STE and dibuthyl phthalate (DBP) were premixed as a codiluent. The HDPE and the codiluent were mixed to obtain the precursor film in the twin extruder. The precursor films were uni-axially stretched up to 600% in a bath 80 .deg. C and then the stretched HDPE films were irradiated by gamma rays. The pore volume and pore size on the microporous HDPE films were increased with an increasing content of STE. The mechanical characteristics of the microporous HDPE films were increased with an irradiation dose up to 50 kGy. Also, the thermal shrinkage behavior of the microporous HDPE films was decreased with an increasing radiation dose up to 50 kGy

  10. Healing behavior of preexisting hydrogen micropores in aluminum alloys during plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, H.; Minami, K.; Koyama, K.; Ichitani, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Uesugi, K.; Suzuki, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray microtomography was used to observe the shrinkage and annihilation behaviors of hydrogen micropores in three dimensions during hot and cold plastic deformation of an Al-Mg alloy. Whether complete healing of micropores is achieved after plastic deformation was examined by exposing the material to a high temperature after plastic deformation. Although micropores generally show a pattern of shrinking and closing, closer inspection of a single specimen revealed a variety of geometrically variable behaviors. It is noteworthy that some of the micropores are reinitiated in positions identical to those before their annihilation, even after an 8-22% macroscopic strain has been further applied after annihilation. We attribute local variations such as these to significant local strain variation, which we measured in a series of tomographic volumes by tracking the microstructural features.

  11. Electrochemical Synthesis of a Microporous Conductive Polymer Based on a Metal-Organic Framework Thin Film

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Chunjing; Ben, Teng; Xu, Shixian; Qiu, Shilun

    2014-01-01

    A new approach to preparing 3D microporous conductive polymer has been demonstrated in the electrochemical synthesis of a porous polyaniline network with the utilization of a MOF thin film supported on a conducting substrate. The prepared porous

  12. Room temperature synthesis of heptazine-based microporous polymer networks as photocatalysts for hydrogen evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailasam, Kamalakannan; Schmidt, Johannes; Bildirir, Hakan; Zhang, Guigang; Blechert, Siegfried; Wang, Xinchen; Thomas, Arne

    2013-06-25

    Two emerging material classes are combined in this work, namely polymeric carbon nitrides and microporous polymer networks. The former, polymeric carbon nitrides, are composed of amine-bridged heptazine moieties and showed interesting performance as a metal-free photocatalyst. These materials have, however, to be prepared at high temperatures, making control of their chemical structure difficult. The latter, microporous polymer networks have received increasing interest due to their high surface area, giving rise to interesting applications in gas storage or catalysis. Here, the central building block of carbon nitrides, a functionalized heptazine as monomer, and tecton are used to create microporous polymer networks. The resulting heptazine-based microporous polymers show high porosity, while their chemical structure resembles the ones of carbon nitrides. The polymers show activity for the photocatalytic production of hydrogen from water, even under visible light illumination. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A MICROPOROUS COATING OR STRUCTURE AND A PROCESS FOR PRODUCING IT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A microporous coating or structure is established as a thin metallic layer by deposition of one or more alloys on a metallic substrate, each of said alloys consisting of two or more phases, one of which can be selectively dissolved in a solution that will not significantly attack the other phase...... or phases. Such microporous coatings or structures are useful in the production of various product types, such as fuel cells, catalysts, microfilters, heat exchangers, micro-components and heat transfer devices....

  14. Isotropically etched radial micropore for cell concentration, immobilization, and picodroplet generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroud, Thomas D; Meagher, Robert J; Kanouff, Michael P; Renzi, Ronald F; Wu, Meiye; Singh, Anup K; Patel, Kamlesh D

    2009-02-21

    To enable several on-chip cell handling operations in a fused-silica substrate, small shallow micropores are radially embedded in larger deeper microchannels using an adaptation of single-level isotropic wet etching. By varying the distance between features on the photolithographic mask (mask distance), we can precisely control the overlap between two etch fronts and create a zero-thickness semi-elliptical micropore (e.g. 20 microm wide, 6 microm deep). Geometrical models derived from a hemispherical etch front show that micropore width and depth can be expressed as a function of mask distance and etch depth. These models are experimentally validated at different etch depths (25.03 and 29.78 microm) and for different configurations (point-to-point and point-to-edge). Good reproducibility confirms the validity of this approach to fabricate micropores with a desired size. To illustrate the wide range of cell handling operations enabled by micropores, we present three on-chip functionalities: continuous-flow particle concentration, immobilization of single cells, and picoliter droplet generation. (1) Using pressure differentials, particles are concentrated by removing the carrier fluid successively through a series of 44 shunts terminated by 31 microm wide, 5 microm deep micropores. Theoretical values for the concentration factor determined by a flow circuit model in conjunction with finite volume modeling are experimentally validated. (2) Flowing macrophages are individually trapped in 20 microm wide, 6 microm deep micropores by hydrodynamic confinement. The translocation of transcription factor NF-kappaB into the nucleus upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation is imaged by fluorescence microscopy. (3) Picoliter-sized droplets are generated at a 20 microm wide, 7 microm deep micropore T-junction in an oil stream for the encapsulation of individual E. coli bacteria cells.

  15. Synchronous correlation matrices and Connes’ embedding conjecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykema, Kenneth J., E-mail: kdykema@math.tamu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3368 (United States); Paulsen, Vern, E-mail: vern@math.uh.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    In the work of Paulsen et al. [J. Funct. Anal. (in press); preprint arXiv:1407.6918], the concept of synchronous quantum correlation matrices was introduced and these were shown to correspond to traces on certain C*-algebras. In particular, synchronous correlation matrices arose in their study of various versions of quantum chromatic numbers of graphs and other quantum versions of graph theoretic parameters. In this paper, we develop these ideas further, focusing on the relations between synchronous correlation matrices and microstates. We prove that Connes’ embedding conjecture is equivalent to the equality of two families of synchronous quantum correlation matrices. We prove that if Connes’ embedding conjecture has a positive answer, then the tracial rank and projective rank are equal for every graph. We then apply these results to more general non-local games.

  16. Discrete canonical transforms that are Hadamard matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, John J; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    The group Sp(2,R) of symplectic linear canonical transformations has an integral kernel which has quadratic and linear phases, and which is realized by the geometric paraxial optical model. The discrete counterpart of this model is a finite Hamiltonian system that acts on N-point signals through N x N matrices whose elements also have a constant absolute value, although they do not form a representation of that group. Those matrices that are also unitary are Hadamard matrices. We investigate the manifolds of these N x N matrices under the Sp(2,R) equivalence imposed by the model, and find them to be on two-sided cosets. By means of an algorithm we determine representatives that lead to collections of mutually unbiased bases.

  17. ESTIMATION OF FUNCTIONALS OF SPARSE COVARIANCE MATRICES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Rigollet, Philippe; Wang, Weichen

    High-dimensional statistical tests often ignore correlations to gain simplicity and stability leading to null distributions that depend on functionals of correlation matrices such as their Frobenius norm and other ℓ r norms. Motivated by the computation of critical values of such tests, we investigate the difficulty of estimation the functionals of sparse correlation matrices. Specifically, we show that simple plug-in procedures based on thresholded estimators of correlation matrices are sparsity-adaptive and minimax optimal over a large class of correlation matrices. Akin to previous results on functional estimation, the minimax rates exhibit an elbow phenomenon. Our results are further illustrated in simulated data as well as an empirical study of data arising in financial econometrics.

  18. The Antitriangular Factorization of Saddle Point Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, J.; Wathen, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Mastronardi and Van Dooren [SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl., 34 (2013), pp. 173-196] recently introduced the block antitriangular ("Batman") decomposition for symmetric indefinite matrices. Here we show the simplification of this factorization for saddle

  19. A study on the dissymmetrical microporous layer structure of a direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tongtao; Lin Caishun; Fang Yong; Ye Feng; Miao Ruiying; Wang Xindong

    2008-01-01

    The effect of carbon type, carbon loading and microporous layer structure in the microporous layer on the performance of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) at low temperature was investigated using electrochemical polarization techniques, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and other methods. Vulcan XC-72 carbon was found to be most suitable as a microporous layer for low temperature DMFC. Maximum fuel cell performance was obtained utilizing a microporous layer with carbon loading of 1.0 mg cm -2 when air was used as an oxidant. A membrane electrode assembly with 1.0 mg cm -2 Vulcan XC-72 carbon with 20 wt.% Teflon in the cathode and no microporous layer in the anode showed a maximum power density of 36.7 mW cm -2 at 35 deg. C under atmospheric pressure. The AC impedance study proved that a cell with a dissymmetrical microporous layer structure had lower internal resistance and mass transfer resistance, thus obtaining better performance

  20. Asymmetric hydration structure around calcium ion restricted in micropores fabricated in activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Takahiro; Kusudo, Tomoko; Kuroda, Yasushige

    2016-01-01

    The adsorbed phase and hydration structure of an aqueous solution of Ca(NO 3 ) 2 restricted in micropores fabricated in activated carbons (ACs) having different average pore widths (0.63 and 1.1 nm) were investigated with the analysis of adsorption isotherms and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra on Ca K -edge. The adsorbed density of Ca 2+ per unit micropore volume in the narrower pore was higher than in the wider pore, while the adsorbed amount per unit mass of carbon with the narrower pore was half of the amount of ACs with the larger pore. On the other hand, variations in the bands assigned to double-electron ( KM I ) and 1s  →  3d excitations in XAFS spectra demonstrate the formation of a distorted hydration cluster around Ca 2+ in the micropore, although the structural parameters of hydrated Ca 2+ in the micropores were almost consistent with the bulk aqueous solution, as revealed by the analysis of extended XAFS (EXAFS) spectra. In contrast to the hydration structure of monovalent ions such as Rb + , which generally presents a dehydrated structure in smaller than 1 nm micropores in ACs, the present study clearly explains that the non-spherically-symmetric structure of hydrated Ca 2+ restricted in carbon micropores whose sizes are around 1 nm is experimentally revealed where any dehydration phenomena from the first hydration shell around Ca 2+ could not be observed. (paper)

  1. Water-Hydrogel Binding Affinity Modulates Freeze-Drying-Induced Micropore Architecture and Skeletal Myotube Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Max H; Lee, Min Kyung; Marshall, Nicholas; Clay, Nicholas; Chen, Jinrong; Mahmassani, Ziad; Boppart, Marni; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2015-08-10

    Freeze-dried hydrogels are increasingly used to create 3D interconnected micropores that facilitate biomolecular and cellular transports. However, freeze-drying is often plagued by variance in micropore architecture based on polymer choice. We hypothesized that water-polymer binding affinity plays a significant role in sizes and numbers of micropores formed through freeze-drying, influencing cell-derived tissue quality. Poly(ethylene glycol)diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels with alginate methacrylate (AM) were used due to AM's higher binding affinity for water than PEGDA. PEGDA-AM hydrogels with larger AM concentrations resulted in larger sizes and numbers of micropores than pure PEGDA hydrogels, attributed to the increased mass of water binding to the PEGDA-AM gel. Skeletal myoblasts loaded in microporous PEGDA-AM hydrogels were active to produce 3D muscle-like tissue, while those loaded in pure PEGDA gels were localized on the gel surface. We propose that this study will be broadly useful in designing and improving the performance of various microporous gels.

  2. Korekcija temperature v tunelski peči

    OpenAIRE

    DOLENC, PETER

    2016-01-01

    Cilj diplomske naloge je bil programsko odpraviti problem preveč zapečenih izdelkov v serijski proizvodnji peke kruha. Ta problem nastane, ko se zaradi določenega razloga, kot je npr. menjava vrste izdelka, pojavi večja luknja na tekočem traku. Vnos testa v peč je v tem primeru močno zmanjšan in posledično prihaja do dviga temperature v območju in okolici luknje. Programska logika peči teče na programirljivem logičnem krmilniku. Program je večinoma izdelan v lestvičnem diagramu, določene ...

  3. Absorbed energy for radiation crosslinking in stabilized PE systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, Lj.; Gal, O.; Charlesby, A.

    1990-01-01

    A quantitative consideration on the absorbed energy consumption in various γ-irradiated polyethylene systems is given. On the base of the increased gel dose values for the PE systems containing antioxidant, relative to the gel doses for the pure polymers, the surplus of the absorbed energy due to the presence of the particular antioxidant is calculated. The increasing of the energy consumption in the stabilized systems depends on both the type and the content of the basic polymer. The surplus in the absorbed energy decreases with the radiation dose increasing, reflecting both the diminishing of the antioxidant concentration in the irradiating PE systems and the crosslinking level. The findings can be of interest in the estimation of the absorbed doses for the specific radiation crosslinking processes. (author)

  4. Absorbed energy for radiation crosslinking in stabilized PE systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakovic, Lj; Gal, O [Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Charlesby, A

    1990-01-01

    A quantitative consideration on the absorbed energy consumption in various {gamma}-irradiated polyethylene systems is given. On the base of the increased gel dose values for the PE systems containing antioxidant, relative to the gel doses for the pure polymers, the surplus of the absorbed energy due to the presence of the particular antioxidant is calculated. The increasing of the energy consumption in the stabilized systems depends on both the type and the content of the basic polymer. The surplus in the absorbed energy decreases with the radiation dose increasing, reflecting both the diminishing of the antioxidant concentration in the irradiating PE systems and the crosslinking level. The findings can be of interest in the estimation of the absorbed doses for the specific radiation crosslinking processes. (author).

  5. Flux Jacobian Matrices For Equilibrium Real Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokur, Marcel

    1990-01-01

    Improved formulation includes generalized Roe average and extension to three dimensions. Flux Jacobian matrices derived for use in numerical solutions of conservation-law differential equations of inviscid flows of ideal gases extended to real gases. Real-gas formulation of these matrices retains simplifying assumptions of thermodynamic and chemical equilibrium, but adds effects of vibrational excitation, dissociation, and ionization of gas molecules via general equation of state.

  6. Supercritical fluid extraction behaviour of polymer matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujatha, K.; Kumar, R.; Sivaraman, N.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Organic compounds present in polymeric matrices such as neoprene, surgical gloves and PVC were co-extracted during the removal of uranium using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique. Hence SFE studies of these matrices were carried out to establish the extracted species using HPLC, IR and mass spectrometry techniques. The initial study indicated that uranium present in the extract could be purified from the co-extracted organic species. (author)

  7. SCoPE: an efficient method of Cosmological Parameter Estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Santanu; Souradeep, Tarun

    2014-01-01

    Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampler is widely used for cosmological parameter estimation from CMB and other data. However, due to the intrinsic serial nature of the MCMC sampler, convergence is often very slow. Here we present a fast and independently written Monte Carlo method for cosmological parameter estimation named as Slick Cosmological Parameter Estimator (SCoPE), that employs delayed rejection to increase the acceptance rate of a chain, and pre-fetching that helps an individual chain to run on parallel CPUs. An inter-chain covariance update is also incorporated to prevent clustering of the chains allowing faster and better mixing of the chains. We use an adaptive method for covariance calculation to calculate and update the covariance automatically as the chains progress. Our analysis shows that the acceptance probability of each step in SCoPE is more than 95% and the convergence of the chains are faster. Using SCoPE, we carry out some cosmological parameter estimations with different cosmological models using WMAP-9 and Planck results. One of the current research interests in cosmology is quantifying the nature of dark energy. We analyze the cosmological parameters from two illustrative commonly used parameterisations of dark energy models. We also asses primordial helium fraction in the universe can be constrained by the present CMB data from WMAP-9 and Planck. The results from our MCMC analysis on the one hand helps us to understand the workability of the SCoPE better, on the other hand it provides a completely independent estimation of cosmological parameters from WMAP-9 and Planck data

  8. The new geographic information system in ETVA VI.PE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xagoraris, Zafiris; Soulis, George

    2016-08-01

    ETVA VI.PE. S.A. is a member of the Piraeus Bank Group of Companies and its activities include designing, developing, exploiting and managing Industrial Areas throughout Greece. Inside ETVA VI.PE.'s thirty-one Industrial Parks there are currently 2,500 manufacturing companies established, with 40,000 employees and € 2.5 billion of invested funds. In each one of the industrial areas ETVA VI.PE guarantees the companies industrial lots of land (sites) with propitious building codes and complete infrastructure networks of water supply, sewerage, paved roads, power supply, communications, cleansing services, etc. The development of Geographical Information System for ETVA VI.PE.'s Industrial Parks started at the beginning of 1992 and consists of three subsystems: Cadastre, that manages the information for the land acquisition of Industrial Areas; Street Layout - Sites, that manages the sites sold to manufacturing companies; Networks, that manages the infrastructure networks (roads, water supply, sewerage etc). The mapping of each Industrial Park is made incorporating state-of-the-art photogrammetric, cartographic and surveying methods and techniques. Passing through the phases of initial design (hybrid GIS) and system upgrade (integrated Gis solution with spatial database), the system is currently operating on a new upgrade (integrated gIS solution with spatial database) that includes redesigning and merging the system's database schemas, along with the creation of central security policies, and the development of a new web GIS application for advanced data entry, highly customisable and standard reports, and dynamic interactive maps. The new GIS bring the company to advanced levels of productivity and introduce the new era for decision making and business management.

  9. Measurement of γ'precipitates in nimonic PE16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.; Lobb, R.C.

    1977-09-01

    γ' precipitates in Nimonic PE16 have been examined using bright and dark field imaging techniques in an electron microscope. The validity of these techniques to determine mean precipitate diameters, precipitate density and volume fraction is discussed. It is concluded that bright field imaging techniques are sufficiently accurate to measure γ' precipitate diameters but it is essential to use dark field imaging techniques to determine γ' precipitate density or volume fraction. (author)

  10. Dynamic behavior of PE-HD pipes grade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, Jan; Buchar, Jaroslav; Nezbedová, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 373, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 1700038. ISSN 1022-1360 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EF15_003/0000493 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : dynamic behavior * PE-HD * split Hopkinson pressure bar test * strain rate Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials OBOR OECD: Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/masy.201700038/full

  11. A blueprint for radioanalytical metrology CRMs, intercomparisons, and PE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inn, Kenneth G.W.; Kurosaki, Hiromu; Frechou, Carole; Gilligan, Chris; Jones, Robert; LaMont, Stephen; Leggitt, Jeff; Li Chunsheng; McCroan, Keith; Swatski, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    A workshop was held from 28 February to 2 March 2006 at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to evaluate the needs for new directions for complex matrix reference materials certified for radionuclide content, interlaboratory comparisons and performance evaluation (PE) programs. The workshop identified new radioanalytical metrology thrust areas needed for environmental, radiobioassay, emergency consequence management, and nuclear forensics, attribution, nonproliferation, and safeguards

  12. Copper nanoparticles functionalized PE: Preparation, characterization and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reznickova, A.; Orendac, M.; Kolska, Z.; Cizmar, E.; Dendisova, M.; Svorcik, V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Polyethylene (PE) surface was activated by argon plasma discharge. • Copper nanoparticles were coated on polyethylene via dithiol interlayer. • Prepared samples exhibit excellent structural and magnetic properties. • Studied properties may be utilized in design and fabrication of electronic devices. - Abstract: We report grafting of copper nanoparticles (CuNP) on plasma activated high density polyethylene (HDPE) via dithiol interlayer pointing out to the structural and magnetic properties of those composites. The as-synthesized Cu nanoparticles have been characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM/TEM) and UV–vis spectroscopy. Properties of pristine PE and their plasma treated counterparts were studied by different experimental techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), zeta potential, electron spin resonance (ESR) and SQUID magnetometry. From TEM and HRTEM analyses, it is found that the size of high purity Cu nanoparticles is (12.2 ± 5.2) nm. It was determined that in the CuNPs, the copper atoms are arranged mostly in the (111) and (200) planes. Absorption in UV–vis region by these nanoparticles is ranging from 570 to 670 nm. EDS revealed that after 1 h of grafting are Cu nanoparticles homogeneously distributed over the whole surface and after 24 h of grafting Cu nanoparticles tend to aggregate slightly. The combined investigation of magnetic properties using ESR spectrometry and SQUID magnetometry confirmed the presence of copper nanoparticles anchored on PE substrate and indicated ferromagnetic interactions.

  13. Copper nanoparticles functionalized PE: Preparation, characterization and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reznickova, A., E-mail: alena.reznickova@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Orendac, M., E-mail: martin.orendac@upjs.sk [Faculty of Science, P.J. Safarik University, Park Angelinum 9, 04013 Kosice (Slovakia); Kolska, Z., E-mail: zdenka.kolska@seznam.cz [Faculty of Science, J.E. Purkyne University, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Cizmar, E., E-mail: erik.cizmar@upjs.sk [Faculty of Science, P.J. Safarik University, Park Angelinum 9, 04013 Kosice (Slovakia); Dendisova, M., E-mail: vyskovsm@vscht.cz [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Svorcik, V., E-mail: vaclav.svorcik@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Polyethylene (PE) surface was activated by argon plasma discharge. • Copper nanoparticles were coated on polyethylene via dithiol interlayer. • Prepared samples exhibit excellent structural and magnetic properties. • Studied properties may be utilized in design and fabrication of electronic devices. - Abstract: We report grafting of copper nanoparticles (CuNP) on plasma activated high density polyethylene (HDPE) via dithiol interlayer pointing out to the structural and magnetic properties of those composites. The as-synthesized Cu nanoparticles have been characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM/TEM) and UV–vis spectroscopy. Properties of pristine PE and their plasma treated counterparts were studied by different experimental techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), zeta potential, electron spin resonance (ESR) and SQUID magnetometry. From TEM and HRTEM analyses, it is found that the size of high purity Cu nanoparticles is (12.2 ± 5.2) nm. It was determined that in the CuNPs, the copper atoms are arranged mostly in the (111) and (200) planes. Absorption in UV–vis region by these nanoparticles is ranging from 570 to 670 nm. EDS revealed that after 1 h of grafting are Cu nanoparticles homogeneously distributed over the whole surface and after 24 h of grafting Cu nanoparticles tend to aggregate slightly. The combined investigation of magnetic properties using ESR spectrometry and SQUID magnetometry confirmed the presence of copper nanoparticles anchored on PE substrate and indicated ferromagnetic interactions.

  14. Design of the PE-3 hot heavy oil loading line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayants, Alex; Lanan, Glenn; Janardhanan, K. [INTEC Engineering, Houston, TX (United States); Gomes, Marcelino; Garcia, Amaury [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The leaking of the PE-2 pipeline into Guanabara Bay. Rio de Janeiro, during late 2000 attracted widespread attention in Brazil and around the world. The safe design and operation of pipelines transporting hot, heavy hydrocarbons is critical for avoiding future oil spills. Conventional methods for designing pipelines that transport hot products rely on soil overburden to control upheaval buckling. However, extremely poor soil strength, combined with sediment mobility, led to the failure of the PE-2 pipeline. The serious consequences led TRANSPETRO to specify that the highest standards (DNV Safety Class High) were to be applied to the design and fabrication of the replacement PE-3 pipeline. The design was also required to withstand a large number of operational cycles, i.e. three (3) hot to cold cycles per week for the entire 40 years of the pipeline's design life. To meet these design challenges, several pipeline configurations were examined. A unique zigzag configuration was selected for this pipeline project. (author)

  15. Protein matrices for wound dressings =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Andreia Joana Costa

    Fibrous proteins such as silk fibroin (SF), keratin (K) and elastin (EL) are able to mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) that allows their recognition under physiological conditions. The impressive mechanical properties, the environmental stability, in combination with their biocompatibility and control of morphology, provide an important basis to use these proteins in biomedical applications like protein-based wound dressings. Along time the concept of wound dressings has changed from the traditional dressings such as honey or natural fibres, used just to protect the wound from external factors, to the interactive dressings of the present. Wounds can be classified in acute that heal in the expected time frame, and chronic, which fail to heal because the orderly sequence of events is disrupted at one or more stages of the healing process. Moreover, chronic wound exudates contain high levels of tissue destructive proteolytic enzymes such as human neutrophil elastase (HNE) that need to be controlled for a proper healing. The aim of this work is to exploit the self-assemble properties of silk fibroin, keratin and elastin for the development of new protein materials to be used as wound dressings: i) evaluation of the blending effect on the physical and chemical properties of the materials; ii) development of materials with different morphologies; iii) assessment of the cytocompatibility of the protein matrices; iv) ultimately, study the ability of the developed protein matrices as wound dressings through the use of human chronic wound exudate; v) use of innovative short peptide sequences that allow to target the control of high levels of HNE found on chronic wounds. Chapter III reports the preparation of silk fibroin/keratin (SF/K) blend films by solvent casting evaporation. Two solvent systems, aqueous and acidic, were used for the preparation of films from fibroin and keratin extracted from the respective silk and wool fibres. The effect of solvent system used was

  16. Electrochemically Produced Graphene for Microporous Layers in Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafabadi, Amin Taheri; Leeuwner, Magrieta J; Wilkinson, David P; Gyenge, Előd L

    2016-07-07

    The microporous layer (MPL) is a key cathodic component in proton exchange membrane fuel cells owing to its beneficial influence on two-phase mass transfer. However, its performance is highly dependent on material properties such as morphology, porous structure, and electrical resistance. To improve water management and performance, electrochemically exfoliated graphene (EGN) microsheets are considered as an alternative to the conventional carbon black (CB) MPLs. The EGN-based MPLs decrease the kinetic overpotential and the Ohmic potential loss, whereas the addition of CB to form a composite EGN+CB MPL improves the mass-transport limiting current density drastically. This is reflected by increases of approximately 30 and 70 % in peak power densities at 100 % relative humidity (RH) compared with those for CB- and EGN-only MPLs, respectively. The composite EGN+CB MPL also retains the superior performance at a cathode RH of 20 %, whereas the CB MPL shows significant performance loss. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Microporous uranyl chromates successively formed by evaporation from acidic solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siidra, Oleg I.; Nazarchuk, Evgeny V.; Bocharov, Sergey N.; Kayukov, Roman A. [St. Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Crystallography; Depmeier, Wulf [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geowissenschaften

    2018-04-01

    The first microporous framework structures containing uranium and chromium have been synthesized and characterized. Rb{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(CrO{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}](H{sub 2}O){sub 3} (1) was crystallized from uranyl chromate solution by evaporation. Further evaporation led to increased viscosity of the solution and overgrowing of Rb{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(CrO{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O)](H{sub 2}O) (2) on the crystals of 1. With respect to 1, the framework of 2 is partially dehydrated. Both frameworks differ compositionally by only one water molecule, but this seemingly small difference affects significantly the pore size and overall structural topology of the frameworks, which present very different flexibility of the U-O-Cr links. These are rigid in the pillared framework of 1, in contrast to 2 where the U-O-Cr angles range from 126.3 to 168.2 , reflecting the substantial flexibility of Cr-O-U connections which make them comparable to the corresponding Mo-O-U links in uranyl molybdates.

  18. Synthesis of Microporous Materials and Their VSC Adsorption Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokogawa, Y; Morikawa, H; Sakanishi, M; Utaka, H; Nakamura, A; Kishida, I, E-mail: yokogawa@imat.eng.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138, Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka, 558-8585 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    Oral malodor is caused by volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide produced in mouth. VSC induces permeability of mucous membrane and oral malodor formation. Thus, the adsorbent which highly adsorbs VSC should be useful for health in mouth and may prevent teeth from decaying. The microporous material, hydrotalcite, was synthesized by a wet method, and the H{sub 2}S adsorption was studied. The samples, identified by powder X-ray diffraction method, were put into glass flask filled with H{sub 2}S gas. The initial concentration of H{sub 2}S was 30 ppm. The change in concentrations of H{sub 2}S was measured at rt, and the amount of H{sub 2}S absorbed on the hydrotalcite for 24 h was 300 micro L/g. The samples were taken out from the above glass flask and put into a pyrolysis plant attached to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine the amount of H{sub 2}S desorbed from samples. Only 3% of H{sub 2}S was desorbed when heated at 500 deg. C. H{sub 2}S in water was also found to adsorb into hydrotalcite, which was confirmed by the headspace gas chromatography with flame photometric detector. The hydrotalcite material should be expected to be an adsorbent material, useful for health in mouth.

  19. Microporous Silico-Alumino Phosphate (SAPO) Compound For Uranium Sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti-Amini

    1998-01-01

    The zeotype novel materials I.e. SAPO structures have been prepared to have particular property such as sorption or cations exchanger which can accommodate the uranyl ions. The SAPO's model was built from certain mole ratio of SiO 2 +AIO 2 +PO 2 using various template compounds of tetra(alkyl)s aminium hydroxide viz. Tetra-methyl, tetra-ethyl and tetra-propyl aminium. Those formed materials have been analyzed using x-ray diffraction spectrometer , then the data have been complied using the supporting software videozeo package Ver.3.1. The result have shown that crystalline structures of microporous SAPO materials formed are SAPO-20, SAPO-34, and SAPO-40. The exchanger capacities of some zeolites, SAPOs and ASP(1:3) have been studied and their selectivity to uranyl ions in acid solution (ph<3.5) has been determined by static isotherm exchanger process. The result have revealed various selectivity factors and occurrence of absorption mechanism in SAPO-n materials. This promises that uranium separation could be more effective using SAPO-n than that using other zeolites . The chloride ions have slightly decreased the ion-exchange capacity, while that of fluoride ions increased the ion-exchange capacity of ASP(1:3) for the uranyl ions

  20. Making the Case for Developing New PE-for-Health Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Kathleen; Harris, Jo

    2013-01-01

    This article argues for a new direction in research on health education within physical education (PE). Governments are increasingly looking to schools as a convenient form of public health investment. PE is implicated in health because of its core focus on physical activity, but there is little evidence to suggest that PE improves health…

  1. Targeting the Body and the Mind: Evaluation of a P.E. Curriculum Intervention for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    P.E. classes are often the only opportunity for inner-city youth to engage in physical activity, but budget cuts and pressure to perform well on standardized tests has made P.E. an afterthought for many school administrators. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a new P.E. curriculum in five Los Angeles inner-city schools. Interviews were…

  2. MERSENNE AND HADAMARD MATRICES CALCULATION BY SCARPIS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Balonin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper deals with the problem of basic generalizations of Hadamard matrices associated with maximum determinant matrices or not optimal by determinant matrices with orthogonal columns (weighing matrices, Mersenne and Euler matrices, ets.; calculation methods for the quasi-orthogonal local maximum determinant Mersenne matrices are not studied enough sufficiently. The goal of this paper is to develop the theory of Mersenne and Hadamard matrices on the base of generalized Scarpis method research. Methods. Extreme solutions are found in general by minimization of maximum for absolute values of the elements of studied matrices followed by their subsequent classification according to the quantity of levels and their values depending on orders. Less universal but more effective methods are based on structural invariants of quasi-orthogonal matrices (Silvester, Paley, Scarpis methods, ets.. Results. Generalizations of Hadamard and Belevitch matrices as a family of quasi-orthogonal matrices of odd orders are observed; they include, in particular, two-level Mersenne matrices. Definitions of section and layer on the set of generalized matrices are proposed. Calculation algorithms for matrices of adjacent layers and sections by matrices of lower orders are described. Approximation examples of the Belevitch matrix structures up to 22-nd critical order by Mersenne matrix of the third order are given. New formulation of the modified Scarpis method to approximate Hadamard matrices of high orders by lower order Mersenne matrices is proposed. Williamson method is described by example of one modular level matrices approximation by matrices with a small number of levels. Practical relevance. The efficiency of developing direction for the band-pass filters creation is justified. Algorithms for Mersenne matrices design by Scarpis method are used in developing software of the research program complex. Mersenne filters are based on the suboptimal by

  3. A Brief Historical Introduction to Matrices and Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the ancient origin of matrices, and the system of linear equations. Included are algebraic properties of matrices, determinants, linear transformations, and Cramer's Rule for solving the system of algebraic equations. Special attention is given to some special matrices, including matrices in graph theory and electrical…

  4. Development of an alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process for microelectromechanical systems micropore x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riveros, Raul E.; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Takagi, Utako; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Kato, Fumiki; Sugiyama, Susumu; Yamasaki, Noriko; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2010-01-01

    X-ray astronomy research is often limited by the size, weight, complexity, and cost of functioning x-ray optics. Micropore optics promises an economical alternative to traditional (e.g., glass or foil) x-ray optics; however, many manufacturing difficulties prevent micropore optics from being a viable solution. Ezoe et al. introduced microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micropore optics having curvilinear micropores in 2008. Made by either deep reactive ion etching or x-ray lithography, electroforming, and molding (LIGA), MEMS micropore optics suffer from high micropore sidewall roughness (10-30nmrms) which, by current standards, cannot be improved. In this research, a new alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process was developed using a mixture of ferrofluid and microscale abrasive slurry. A machine was built, and a set of working process parameters including alternating frequency, abrasive size, and polishing time was selected. A polishing experiment on a LIGA-fabricated MEMS micropore optic was performed, and a change in micropore sidewall roughness of 9.3±2.5nmrms to 5.7±0.7nmrms was measured. An improvement in x-ray reflectance was also seen. This research shows the feasibility and confirms the effects of this new polishing process on MEMS micropore optics.

  5. Development of an alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process for microelectromechanical systems micropore x-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Raul E; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Takagi, Utako; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Kato, Fumiki; Sugiyama, Susumu; Yamasaki, Noriko; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2010-06-20

    X-ray astronomy research is often limited by the size, weight, complexity, and cost of functioning x-ray optics. Micropore optics promises an economical alternative to traditional (e.g., glass or foil) x-ray optics; however, many manufacturing difficulties prevent micropore optics from being a viable solution. Ezoe et al. introduced microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micropore optics having curvilinear micropores in 2008. Made by either deep reactive ion etching or x-ray lithography, electroforming, and molding (LIGA), MEMS micropore optics suffer from high micropore sidewall roughness (10-30nmrms) which, by current standards, cannot be improved. In this research, a new alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process was developed using a mixture of ferrofluid and microscale abrasive slurry. A machine was built, and a set of working process parameters including alternating frequency, abrasive size, and polishing time was selected. A polishing experiment on a LIGA-fabricated MEMS micropore optic was performed, and a change in micropore sidewall roughness of 9.3+/-2.5nmrms to 5.7+/-0.7nmrms was measured. An improvement in x-ray reflectance was also seen. This research shows the feasibility and confirms the effects of this new polishing process on MEMS micropore optics.

  6. Development of an alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process for microelectromechanical systems micropore x-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveros, Raul E.; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Takagi, Utako; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Kato, Fumiki; Sugiyama, Susumu; Yamasaki, Noriko; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2010-06-20

    X-ray astronomy research is often limited by the size, weight, complexity, and cost of functioning x-ray optics. Micropore optics promises an economical alternative to traditional (e.g., glass or foil) x-ray optics; however, many manufacturing difficulties prevent micropore optics from being a viable solution. Ezoe et al. introduced microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micropore optics having curvilinear micropores in 2008. Made by either deep reactive ion etching or x-ray lithography, electroforming, and molding (LIGA), MEMS micropore optics suffer from high micropore sidewall roughness (10-30nmrms) which, by current standards, cannot be improved. In this research, a new alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process was developed using a mixture of ferrofluid and microscale abrasive slurry. A machine was built, and a set of working process parameters including alternating frequency, abrasive size, and polishing time was selected. A polishing experiment on a LIGA-fabricated MEMS micropore optic was performed, and a change in micropore sidewall roughness of 9.3{+-}2.5nmrms to 5.7{+-}0.7nmrms was measured. An improvement in x-ray reflectance was also seen. This research shows the feasibility and confirms the effects of this new polishing process on MEMS micropore optics.

  7. Femtosecond laser surface texturing of 3D poly-ε-caprolactone matrices for bone tissue engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalova, A.; Bliznakova, I.; Zhelyazkova, A.; Ostrowska, B.; Trifonov, A.; Buchvarov, I.; Avramov, L.; Husinsky, W.

    2018-03-01

    Fibrous 3D matrices were fabricated from poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) by fused deposition modeling. Femtosecond laser irradiation was then used to demonstrate the possibility to affect the porosity of the 3D PCL fiber meshes. The surface characteristics were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal microscopy. The interrelationship was examined between the laser processing parameters (number of pulses, pulse energy applied) and the response of the biomaterial. The formation was demonstrated of well-defined micropores, while the original fiber structure was retained. The study of cells cultivation on the laser-modified scaffolds showed good adhesion compared to a non-modified scaffold. The results obtained showed that femtosecond laser processing can be used as an alternative non-contact tool in enhancing the porosity of artificial constructs, thus influencing the cell adhesion into fibrous meshes.

  8. Performance of a novel microwave-based treatment technology for atrazine removal and destruction: Sorbent reusability and chemical stability, and effect of water matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Erdan; Hu, Yuanan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Cheng, Hefa, E-mail: hefac@umich.edu [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); MOE Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Cu{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} in zeolite pores enhance atrazine sorption and MW-induced degradation. • Exchanged zeolites perform well over multiple sorption–regeneration cycles. • Fe{sup 3+} species in the zeolite micropores have much greater stability than those of Cu{sup 2+}. • DOC in natural waters can compromise the sorption capacity of exchanged zeolites. • Iron-exchanged dealuminated Y zeolites hold great promise for practical applications. - Abstract: Transition metal-exchanged dealuminated Y zeolites were used to adsorb atrazine from aqueous solutions, followed by regeneration of the sorbents and destruction of the sorbed atrazine with microwave irradiation. Exchange of copper and iron into the zeolite's micropores significantly enhanced its sorption capacity and selectivity toward atrazine, and increased the microwave-induced degradation rate of the sorbed atrazine by 3–4-folds. Both the copper- and iron-exchanged zeolites could be regenerated and reused multiple times, while the catalytic activity of the latter was more robust due to the much greater chemical stability of Fe{sup 3+} species in the micropores. The presence of humic acid, and common cations and anions had little impact on the sorption of atrazine on the transition metal-exchanged zeolites. In the treatment of atrazine spiked in natural surface water and groundwater samples, sorptive removal of atrazine was found to be impacted by the level of dissolved organic carbon, probably through competition for the micropore spaces and pore blocking, while the water matrices exhibited no strong effect on the microwave-induced degradation of sorbed atrazine. Overall, iron-exchanged dealuminated Y zeolites show great potential for removal and destruction of atrazine from contaminated surface water and groundwater in practical implementation of the novel treatment technology.

  9. Performance of a novel microwave-based treatment technology for atrazine removal and destruction: Sorbent reusability and chemical stability, and effect of water matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Erdan; Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu"2"+ and Fe"3"+ in zeolite pores enhance atrazine sorption and MW-induced degradation. • Exchanged zeolites perform well over multiple sorption–regeneration cycles. • Fe"3"+ species in the zeolite micropores have much greater stability than those of Cu"2"+. • DOC in natural waters can compromise the sorption capacity of exchanged zeolites. • Iron-exchanged dealuminated Y zeolites hold great promise for practical applications. - Abstract: Transition metal-exchanged dealuminated Y zeolites were used to adsorb atrazine from aqueous solutions, followed by regeneration of the sorbents and destruction of the sorbed atrazine with microwave irradiation. Exchange of copper and iron into the zeolite's micropores significantly enhanced its sorption capacity and selectivity toward atrazine, and increased the microwave-induced degradation rate of the sorbed atrazine by 3–4-folds. Both the copper- and iron-exchanged zeolites could be regenerated and reused multiple times, while the catalytic activity of the latter was more robust due to the much greater chemical stability of Fe"3"+ species in the micropores. The presence of humic acid, and common cations and anions had little impact on the sorption of atrazine on the transition metal-exchanged zeolites. In the treatment of atrazine spiked in natural surface water and groundwater samples, sorptive removal of atrazine was found to be impacted by the level of dissolved organic carbon, probably through competition for the micropore spaces and pore blocking, while the water matrices exhibited no strong effect on the microwave-induced degradation of sorbed atrazine. Overall, iron-exchanged dealuminated Y zeolites show great potential for removal and destruction of atrazine from contaminated surface water and groundwater in practical implementation of the novel treatment technology.

  10. The influence of micropore size on the mechanical properties of bulk hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordell, Jacqueline M; Vogl, Michelle L; Wagoner Johnson, Amy J

    2009-10-01

    While recognized as a promising bone substitute material, hydroxyapatite (HA) has had limited use in clinical settings because of its inherent brittle behavior. It is well established that macropores ( approximately 100 microm) in a HA implant, or scaffold, are required for bone ingrowth, but recent research has shown that ingrowth is enhanced when scaffolds also contain microporosity. HA is sensitive to synthesis and processing parameters and therefore characterization for specific applications is necessary for transition to the clinic. To that end, the mechanical behavior of bulk microporous HA and HA scaffolds with multi-scale porosity (macropores between rods in the range of 250-350 microm and micropores within the rods with average size of either 5.96 microm or 16.2 microm) was investigated in order to determine how strength and reliability were affected by micropore size (5.96 microm versus 16.2 microm). For the bulk microporous HA, strength increased with decreasing micropore size in both bending (19 MPa to 22 MPa) and compression (71 MPa to 110 MPa). To determine strength reliability, the Weibull moduli for the bulk microporous HA were determined. The Weibull moduli for bending increased (became more reliable) with decreasing pore size (7 to 10) while the Weibull moduli for compression decreased (became less reliable) with decreasing pore size (9 to 6). Furthermore, the elastic properties of the bulk microporous HA (elastic modulus of 30 GPa) and the compressive strengths of the HA scaffolds with multi-scale porosity (8 MPa) did not vary with pore size. The mechanisms responsible for the trends observed were discussed.

  11. Reconstruction of extensive air showers and measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum in the range of 1 - 80 PeV at the South Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepser, Stefan

    2008-06-24

    IceTop is a km{sup 2} scale detector array for highly energetic cosmic radiation. It is a part of the IceCube Observatory that is presently being built at the geographic South Pole. It aims for the detection of huge particle cascades induced by PeV cosmic rays in the atmosphere. These extensive air showers are detected by cylindrical ice tanks that collect the Cherenkov light produced by penetrating particles. The main goal of IceTop is the investigation of the energy distribution and chemical composition of PeV to EeV cosmic rays. This thesis presents the first analysis of highly energetic cosmic ray data taken with IceTop. First, the light response of the IceTop tanks is parametrised as a function of energy and particle type. An expectation function for the distribution of shower signals in the detector plane is developed. The likelihood fit based on that can reconstruct the recorded shower events with resolutions of 1.5 in direction, 9m in location of the shower center, and 12% in energy. This is well competitive with other experiments. The resulting energy response of the array is studied to set up response matrices for different primary nuclei and inclinations. These allow for a deconvolution of the distribution of reconstructed energies to derive the real energy spectrum. Two unfolding algorithms are implemented and studied, and response matrices are modeled for four different composition assumptions. With each assumption, energy spectra are unfolded for three different bins in inclination, using a data sample with an exposure of 3.86.10{sup 11} m{sup 2} s sr, taken in August 2007. The range of the spectrum is 1-80 PeV. Finally, a new analysis method is developed that uses the fact that cosmic rays in the PeV range are expected to be isotropic. It is shown that this requirement can be used for a likelihood estimation that is sensitive to composition without using additional information from other detector components. The analysis shows a clear preference of

  12. Reconstruction of extensive air showers and measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum in the range of 1 - 80 PeV at the South Pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepser, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    IceTop is a km 2 scale detector array for highly energetic cosmic radiation. It is a part of the IceCube Observatory that is presently being built at the geographic South Pole. It aims for the detection of huge particle cascades induced by PeV cosmic rays in the atmosphere. These extensive air showers are detected by cylindrical ice tanks that collect the Cherenkov light produced by penetrating particles. The main goal of IceTop is the investigation of the energy distribution and chemical composition of PeV to EeV cosmic rays. This thesis presents the first analysis of highly energetic cosmic ray data taken with IceTop. First, the light response of the IceTop tanks is parametrised as a function of energy and particle type. An expectation function for the distribution of shower signals in the detector plane is developed. The likelihood fit based on that can reconstruct the recorded shower events with resolutions of 1.5 in direction, 9m in location of the shower center, and 12% in energy. This is well competitive with other experiments. The resulting energy response of the array is studied to set up response matrices for different primary nuclei and inclinations. These allow for a deconvolution of the distribution of reconstructed energies to derive the real energy spectrum. Two unfolding algorithms are implemented and studied, and response matrices are modeled for four different composition assumptions. With each assumption, energy spectra are unfolded for three different bins in inclination, using a data sample with an exposure of 3.86.10 11 m 2 s sr, taken in August 2007. The range of the spectrum is 1-80 PeV. Finally, a new analysis method is developed that uses the fact that cosmic rays in the PeV range are expected to be isotropic. It is shown that this requirement can be used for a likelihood estimation that is sensitive to composition without using additional information from other detector components. The analysis shows a clear preference of the mixed

  13. Microstructure investigation on micropore formation in microporous silica materials prepared via a catalytic sol-gel process by small angle X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Wataru; Hokka, Junsuke; Sato, Takaaki; Usami, Hisanao; Murakami, Yasushi

    2011-08-04

    The so-called sol-gel technique has been shown to be a template-free, efficient way to create functional porous silica materials having uniform micropores. This appears to be closely linked with a postulation that the formation of weakly branched polymer-like aggregates in a precursor solution is a key to the uniform micropore generation. However, how such a polymer-like structure can precisely be controlled, and further, how the generated low-fractal dimension solution structure is imprinted on the solid silica materials still remain elusive. Here we present fabrication of microporous silica from tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) using a recently developed catalytic sol-gel process based on a nonionic hydroxyacetone (HA) catalyst. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), nitrogen adsorption porosimetry, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) allowed us to observe the whole structural evolution, ranging from polymer-like aggregates in the precursor solution to agglomeration with heat treatment and microporous morphology of silica powders after drying and hydrolysis. Using the HA catalyst with short chain monohydric alcohols (methanol or ethanol) in the precursor solution, polymer-like aggregates having microscopic correlation length (or mesh-size) micropores with diameters 2 nm) in the solid product due to apertures between the particle-like aggregates. The data demonstrate that the extremely fine porous silica architecture comes essentially from a gaussian polymer-like nature of the silica aggregates in the precursor having the microscopic mesh-size and their successful imprint on the solid product. The result offers a general but significantly efficient route to creating precisely designed fine porous silica materials under mild condition that serve as low refractive index and efficient thermal insulation materials in their practical applications.

  14. Bayesian Nonparametric Clustering for Positive Definite Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Anoop; Morellas, Vassilios; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos

    2016-05-01

    Symmetric Positive Definite (SPD) matrices emerge as data descriptors in several applications of computer vision such as object tracking, texture recognition, and diffusion tensor imaging. Clustering these data matrices forms an integral part of these applications, for which soft-clustering algorithms (K-Means, expectation maximization, etc.) are generally used. As is well-known, these algorithms need the number of clusters to be specified, which is difficult when the dataset scales. To address this issue, we resort to the classical nonparametric Bayesian framework by modeling the data as a mixture model using the Dirichlet process (DP) prior. Since these matrices do not conform to the Euclidean geometry, rather belongs to a curved Riemannian manifold,existing DP models cannot be directly applied. Thus, in this paper, we propose a novel DP mixture model framework for SPD matrices. Using the log-determinant divergence as the underlying dissimilarity measure to compare these matrices, and further using the connection between this measure and the Wishart distribution, we derive a novel DPM model based on the Wishart-Inverse-Wishart conjugate pair. We apply this model to several applications in computer vision. Our experiments demonstrate that our model is scalable to the dataset size and at the same time achieves superior accuracy compared to several state-of-the-art parametric and nonparametric clustering algorithms.

  15. Decontamination of solid matrices using supercritical CO2: study of contaminant-additives-CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galy, J.

    2006-11-01

    This work deals with the decontamination of solid matrices by supercritical CO 2 and more particularly with the study of the interactions between the surfactants and the CO 2 in one part, and with the interactions between the contaminant and the surfactants in another part. The first part of this study has revealed the different interactions between the Pluronics molecules and the supercritical CO 2 . The diagrams graphs have shown that the pluronics (PE 6100, PE 8100 and PE 10100) present a solubility in the supercritical CO 2 low but sufficient (0.1% m/m at 25 MPa and 313 K) for the studied application: the treatment of weak quantities of cerium oxide (or plutonium). An empirical approach based on the evolutions of the slops value and of the origin ordinates of the PT diagrams has been carried out to simulate the phase diagrams PT of the Pluronics. A modeling based on the state equations 'SAFT' (Statistical Associating Fluid Theory) has been studied in order to confirm the experimental results of the disorder points and to understand the role of the different blocks 'PEO' and 'PPO' in the behaviour of Pluronics; this modeling confirms the evolution of the slopes value with the 'CO 2 -phily' of the system. The measure of the surface tension in terms of the Pluronics concentration (PE 6100, 81000 and 10100) has shown different behaviours. For the PE 6100, the surface tension decreases when the surfactant concentration increases (at constant pressure and temperature); on the other hand, for the PE 8100 a slop rupture appears and corresponds to the saturation of the interface water/CO 2 and allows then to determine the Interface Saturation Concentration (ISC). The ISC value (at constant pressure and temperature) increases with an increase of the 'CO 2 -phily'). The model hydrophilous medium being an approximation, it has been replaced by a solid polar phase of CeO 2 . A parallel has been established between the evolution of the surface tension between the water and

  16. Preparation of laser micropore porcine acellular dermal matrix for skin graft: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jia-Ke; Liang, Li-Ming; Yang, Hong-Ming; Feng, Rui; Yin, Hui-Nan; Li, Feng-Yu; Sheng, Zhi-Yong

    2007-09-01

    In our previous study, we used composite grafts consisting of meshed porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM) and thin split-thickness autologous epidermis to cover full thickness burn wounds in clinical practice. However, a certain degree of contraction might occur because the distribution of dermal matrix was not uniform in burn wound. In this study, we prepare a composite skin graft consisting of PADM with the aid of laser to improve the quality of healing of burn wound. PADM was prepared by the trypsin/Triton X-100 method. Micropores were produced on the PADM with a laser punch. The distance between micropores varied from 0.8, 1.0, 1.2 to 1.5mm. Full thickness defect wounds were created on the back of 144 SD rats. The rats were randomly divided into six groups: micropore groups I-IV in which the wound were grafted with PADM with micropores, in four different distances, respectively and split-thickness autograft; mesh group rats received meshed PADM graft and split-thickness autograft; control group received simple split-thickness autografting. The status of wound healing was histologically observed at regular time points after surgery. The wound healing rate and contraction rate were calculated. The wound healing rate in micropore groups I and II was not statistically different from that in control group, but was significantly higher than that in mesh group 6 weeks after grafting. The wound healing rate in micropore groups III and IV was lower than that in mesh and control groups 4 and 6 weeks after grafting. The wound contraction rate in micropore groups I and II was remarkably lower than that in control group 4 and 6 weeks after surgery and it was significantly much lower than that in mesh group 6 weeks after surgery. Histological examination revealed good epithelization, regularly arranged collagenous fibers and integral structure of basement membrane. Laser micropore PADM (0.8 or 1.0mm in distance) grafting in combination with split-thickness autografting can

  17. Casos autoctones de esquistossomose mansonica em criancas de Recife, PE

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Constanca Simoes; Barbosa, Veronica Santos; Melo, Fabio Lopes de; Melo, Mariana Sena Barreto de; Bezerra, Lydia; Campos, Julyana Viegas; Rodrigues, Bruno Ximenes; Nascimento, Wheverton Correia do; Gomes, Elainne Souza; Leal-Neto, Onicio; Domingues, Ana Lucia

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVO : Investigar criadouros com moluscos hospedeiros e casos humanos autóctones para esquistossomose. MÉTODOS : Entre julho de 2010 e setembro de 2012 foram realizados: (1) levantamento malacológico para busca ativa de criadouros, coleta e identificação de caramujos Biomphalaria positivos para Schistosoma mansoni em Recife, PE; (2) inquérito de prevalência com 2.718 escolares, de sete a 14 anos, para diagnóstico de casos de esquistossomose; (3) exame clínico e ultrassonografia nos ca...

  18. Efficiency tests on the pyrolysis gasifier stove Peko Pe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents results from water boiling tests on the pyrolysis gasifier stove Peko Pe, which has been developed by the Norwegian Paal Wendelbo. The stove efficiency determined vary between 21 and 29% when burning dry Danish woodchips (10% moisture) with an estimated caloric value of 16 MJ...... the water content in the grass. In Adjumani refugee camp it was furthermore found that the stove was able to provide sufficient energy from solid combustion, after the pyrolysis was stopped, to boil water for additional 25-30 minutes with lid. This effect was not seen in the tests on woodchips in Denmark...

  19. Local void and slip model used in BODYFIT-2PE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.C.J.; Chien, T.H.; Kim, J.H.; Lellouche, G.S.

    1983-01-01

    A local void and slip model has been proposed for a two-phase flow without the need of fitting any empirical parameters. This model is based on the assumption that all bubbles have reached their terminal rise velocities in the two-phase region. This simple model seems to provide reasonable calculational results when compared with the experimental data and other void and slip models. It provides a means to account for the void and slip of a two-phase flow on a local basis. This is particularly suitable for a fine mesh thermal-hydraulic computer program such as BODYFIT-2PE

  20. A scalable, micropore, platelet rich plasma separation device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Mary Nora; Amar, Levy; Hill, Michael; Schwartz, Joseph; Leonard, Edward F

    2012-12-01

    We have designed a novel, low energy platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) separator capable of producing 50 mL of PRP in 30 min, intended for military and emergency applications. Blood flows over a 3 mm length of sieve at high rates of shear. A plasma-platelet filtrate passes through the sieve's pores while erythrocytes remain. The filtrate is flowed over a second 3 mm length of smaller-pored sieve that withdraws plasma. Bulk blood volume is maintained by returning platelet-free plasma to the erythrocyte pool, enabling a nearly complete multi-pass platelet extraction. The total percentage of platelets extracted is:θ(T)=1-exp (-V(f)(T)Φ(P)/V) where V is the original plasma volume, V ( f )(T) is the total filtered volume, and ϕ ( P ) is platelet passage ratio (filtrate concentration/bulk average concentration) taken to be constant. Maximum θ(T) occurs at maximum V ( f )(T)× ϕ ( P ) Test microsieves, 3 mm long × 3 mm wide, were used. ϕ ( P ) values measured at various filtrate flow rates (20-100 uL/min) and utilizing various filter pore sizes (1.2-3.5 μm), was as high as 150 %. Maximum V ( f )(T)× ϕ ( P ) was achieved utilizing the 3.5 um filters at the highest flow rate, 100 uL/min. Erythrocyte leakages were always below 2,000/uL, far below the allowable limit stipulated by the American Association of Blood Banking. These data imply that a 13.7 cm(2) filter area is sufficient to achieve the target separation of 50 mL of platelet concentrate in 30 min. The filtration cartridge would consist of multiple microporous strips of 3 mm width arranged in parallel so that each element would see the conditions used in the prototype experiments presented here. Other microfiltration schemes suggest no method of scaling to practical levels.

  1. Efficacy of hemostatic matrix and microporous polysaccharide hemospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kevin M; Atlee, Holly; Mannone, Angela; Lin, Lawrence; Goppelt, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Microporous Polysaccharide Hemospheres (MPH) are a new plant-derived polysaccharide powder hemostat. Previous studies investigated MPH as a replacement to nonflowable hemostatic agents of different application techniques (e.g., oxidized cellulose, collagen); therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if MPH is a surrogate for flowable hemostatic agents of similar handling and application techniques, specifically a flowable thrombin-gelatin hemostatic matrix. Hemostatic efficacy was compared using a heparinized porcine abrasion model mimicking a capsular tear of a parenchymal organ. MPH (ARISTA, 1 g) and hemostatic matrix (Floseal, 1 mL) were applied, according to a randomized scheme, to paired hepatic abrasions (40 lesions per group). Hemostatic success, control of bleeding, and blood loss were assessed 2, 5, and 10 min after treatment. Hemostatic success and control of bleeding were analyzed using odds ratios and blood loss using mean differences. Hemostatic matrix provided superior hemostatic success relative to MPH at 5 (odds ratio: 0.035, 95% confidence interval: 0.004-0.278) and 10 min (0.032, 0.007-0.150), provided superior control of bleeding at 5 (0.006, <0.001-0.037) and 10 min (0.009, 0.001-0.051), and had significantly less blood loss at 5 (mean difference: 0.3118 mL/min, 95% confidence interval: 0.0939-0.5296) and 10 min (0.5025, 0.2489-0.7561). These findings corroborate other MPH investigations regarding its low-level efficacy and suggest that MPH is not an appropriate surrogate for hemostatic matrix despite similar application techniques. The lack of a procoagulant within MPH may likely be the reason for its lower efficacy and need for multiple applications. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Electronic and Ionic Conductors from Ordered Microporous Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dincă, Mircea [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-10-30

    The proposed work aimed to establish metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as new classes of high-surface area microporous electronic and ionic conductors. MOFs are crystalline materials with pore sizes ranging from 0.2 to ~ 2 nm (or larger for the latter) defined by inorganic or organic building blocks connected by rigid organic linkers. Myriad applications have been found or proposed for these materials, yet those that require electron transport or conductivity in combination with permanent porosity still lag behind because the vast majority of known frameworks are electrical insulators. Prior to our proposal and subsequent work, there were virtually no studies exploring the possibility of electronic delocalization in these materials. Therefore, our primary goal was to understand and control, at a fundamental level, the electron and ion transport properties of this class of materials, with no specific application proposed, although myriad applications could be envisioned for high surface area conductors. Our goals directly addressed one of the DOE-identified Grand Challenges for Basic Energy Sciences: designing perfect atom- and energy-efficient syntheses of revolutionary new forms of matter with tailored properties. Indeed, the proposed work is entirely synthetic in nature; owing to the molecular nature of the building blocks in MOFs, there is the possibility of unprecedented control over the structure and properties of solid crystalline matter. The goals also tangentially addressed the Grand Challenge of controlling materials processes at the level of electrons: the scope of our program is to create new materials where charges (electrons and/or ions) move according to predefined pathways.

  3. Microporous dermal-like electrospun scaffolds promote accelerated skin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvallet, Paul P; Culpepper, Bonnie K; Bain, Jennifer L; Schultz, Matthew J; Thomas, Steven J; Bellis, Susan L

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this study was to synthesize skin substitutes that blend native extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules with synthetic polymers which have favorable mechanical properties. To this end, scaffolds were electrospun from collagen I (col) and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), and then pores were introduced mechanically to promote fibroblast infiltration, and subsequent filling of the pores with ECM. A 70:30 col/PCL ratio was determined to provide optimal support for dermal fibroblast growth, and a pore diameter, 160 μm, was identified that enabled fibroblasts to infiltrate and fill pores with native matrix molecules, including fibronectin and collagen I. Mechanical testing of 70:30 col/PCL scaffolds with 160 μm pores revealed a tensile strength of 1.4 MPa, and the scaffolds also exhibited a low rate of contraction (pores. Keratinocytes formed a stratified layer on the surface of fibroblast-remodeled scaffolds, and staining for cytokeratin 10 revealed terminally differentiated keratinocytes at the apical surface. When implanted, 70:30 col/PCL scaffolds degraded within 3-4 weeks, an optimal time frame for degradation in vivo. Finally, 70:30 col/PCL scaffolds with or without 160 μm pores were implanted into full-thickness critical-sized skin defects. Relative to nonporous scaffolds or sham wounds, scaffolds with 160 μm pores induced accelerated wound closure, and stimulated regeneration of healthy dermal tissue, evidenced by a more normal-appearing matrix architecture, blood vessel in-growth, and hair follicle development. Collectively, these results suggest that microporous electrospun scaffolds are effective substrates for skin regeneration.

  4. Random matrices and random difference equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppuluri, V.R.R.

    1975-01-01

    Mathematical models leading to products of random matrices and random difference equations are discussed. A one-compartment model with random behavior is introduced, and it is shown how the average concentration in the discrete time model converges to the exponential function. This is of relevance to understanding how radioactivity gets trapped in bone structure in blood--bone systems. The ideas are then generalized to two-compartment models and mammillary systems, where products of random matrices appear in a natural way. The appearance of products of random matrices in applications in demography and control theory is considered. Then random sequences motivated from the following problems are studied: constant pulsing and random decay models, random pulsing and constant decay models, and random pulsing and random decay models

  5. Quantum Entanglement and Reduced Density Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanto, Agus; Sukamto, Heru; Yuwana, Lila

    2018-05-01

    We investigate entanglement and separability criteria of multipartite (n-partite) state by examining ranks of its reduced density matrices. Firstly, we construct the general formula to determine the criterion. A rank of origin density matrix always equals one, meanwhile ranks of reduced matrices have various ranks. Next, separability and entanglement criterion of multipartite is determined by calculating ranks of reduced density matrices. In this article we diversify multipartite state criteria into completely entangled state, completely separable state, and compound state, i.e. sub-entangled state and sub-entangledseparable state. Furthermore, we also shorten the calculation proposed by the previous research to determine separability of multipartite state and expand the methods to be able to differ multipartite state based on criteria above.

  6. Forecasting Covariance Matrices: A Mixed Frequency Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halbleib, Roxana; Voev, Valeri

    This paper proposes a new method for forecasting covariance matrices of financial returns. The model mixes volatility forecasts from a dynamic model of daily realized volatilities estimated with high-frequency data with correlation forecasts based on daily data. This new approach allows for flexi......This paper proposes a new method for forecasting covariance matrices of financial returns. The model mixes volatility forecasts from a dynamic model of daily realized volatilities estimated with high-frequency data with correlation forecasts based on daily data. This new approach allows...... for flexible dependence patterns for volatilities and correlations, and can be applied to covariance matrices of large dimensions. The separate modeling of volatility and correlation forecasts considerably reduces the estimation and measurement error implied by the joint estimation and modeling of covariance...

  7. Advanced incomplete factorization algorithms for Stiltijes matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il`in, V.P. [Siberian Division RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    The modern numerical methods for solving the linear algebraic systems Au = f with high order sparse matrices A, which arise in grid approximations of multidimensional boundary value problems, are based mainly on accelerated iterative processes with easily invertible preconditioning matrices presented in the form of approximate (incomplete) factorization of the original matrix A. We consider some recent algorithmic approaches, theoretical foundations, experimental data and open questions for incomplete factorization of Stiltijes matrices which are {open_quotes}the best{close_quotes} ones in the sense that they have the most advanced results. Special attention is given to solving the elliptic differential equations with strongly variable coefficients, singular perturbated diffusion-convection and parabolic equations.

  8. An activated microporous carbon prepared from phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin for lithium ion battery anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yinhai; Xiang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Enhui; Wu, Yuhu; Xie, Hui; Wu, Zhilian; Tian, Yingying

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Microporous carbon was prepared by chemical activation of phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin. ► Activation leads to high surface area, well-developed micropores. ► Micropores lead to strong intercalation between carbon and lithium ion. ► Large surface area promotes to improve the lithium storage capacity. -- Abstract: Microporous carbon anode materials were prepared from phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin by ZnCl 2 and KOH activation. The physicochemical properties of the obtained carbon materials were characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, and elemental analysis. The electrochemical properties of the microporous carbon as anode materials in lithium ion secondary batteries were evaluated. At a current density of 100 mA g −1 , the carbon without activation shows a first discharge capacity of 515 mAh g −1 . After activation, the capacity improved obviously. The first discharge capacity of the carbon prepared by ZnCl 2 and KOH activation was 1010 and 2085 mAh g −1 , respectively. The reversible capacity of the carbon prepared by KOH activation was still as high as 717 mAh g −1 after 20 cycles, which was much better than that activated by ZnCl 2 . These results demonstrated that it may be a promising candidate as an anode material for lithium ion secondary batteries.

  9. Micropore closure kinetics are delayed following microneedle insertion in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelchen, Megan N; Siefers, Kyle J; Converse, Courtney C; Farley, Matthew J; Holdren, Grant O; Brogden, Nicole K

    2016-03-10

    Transdermal delivery is an advantageous method of drug administration, particularly for an elderly population. Microneedles (MNs) allow transdermal delivery of otherwise skin-impermeable drugs by creating transient micropores that bypass the barrier function of the skin. The response of aging skin to MNs has not been explored, and we report for the first time that micropore closure is delayed in elderly subjects in a manner that is dependent upon MN length, number, and occlusion of the micropores. Twelve control subjects (25.6±2.8years) and 16 elderly subjects (77.3±6.8years) completed the study. Subjects were treated with MNs of 500μm or 750μm length, in arrays containing 10 or 50 MNs. Impedance measurements made at baseline, post-MN insertion, and at predetermined time points demonstrated that restoration of the skin barrier is significantly slower in elderly subjects under both occluded and non-occluded conditions. This was confirmed via calculation of the total permeable area created by the micropores (which would approximate the area available for drug delivery), as well as calculation of the micropore half-life. This pilot study demonstrates that longer timeframes are required to restore the barrier function of aged skin following MN insertion, suggesting that drug delivery windows could be longer following one treatment with a MN array. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Electrochemically deposited and etched membranes with precisely sized micropores for biological fluids microfiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzah, A A; Zainal Abidin, H E; Yeop Majlis, B; Mohd Nor, M; Ismardi, A; Sugandi, G; Tiong, T Y; Dee, C F; Yunas, J

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents simple and economical, yet reliable techniques to fabricate a micro-fluidic filter for MEMS lab-on-chip (LoC) applications. The microporous filter is a crucial component in a MEMS LoC system. Microsized components and contaminants in biological fluids are selectively filtered using copper and silicon membranes with precisely controlled microsized pores. Two techniques were explored in microporous membrane fabrication, namely copper electroplating and electrochemical etching (ECE) of silicon. In the first technique, a copper membrane with evenly distributed micropores was fabricated by electroplating the copper layer on the silicon nitride membrane, which was later removed to leave the freestanding microporous membrane structure. The second approach involves the thinning of bulk silicon down to a few micrometers thick using KOH and etching the resulting silicon membrane in 5% HF by ECE to create micropores. Upon testing with nanoparticles of various sizes, it was observed that electroplated copper membrane passes nanoparticles up to 200 nm wide, while porous silicon membrane passes nanoparticles up to 380 nm in size. Due to process compatibility, simplicity, and low-cost fabrication, electroplated copper and porous silicon membranes enable synchronized microfilter fabrication and integration into the MEMS LoC system. (paper)

  11. Influence of surface treatments on micropore structure and hydrogen adsorption behavior of nanoporous carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Joo; Park, Soo-Jin

    2007-07-15

    The scope of this work was to control the pore sizes of porous carbons by various surface treatments and to investigate the relation between pore structures and hydrogen adsorption capacity. The effects of various surface treatments (i.e., gas-phase ozone, anodic oxidation, fluorination, and oxygen plasma) on the micropore structures of porous carbons were investigated by N(2)/77 K isothermal adsorption. The hydrogen adsorption capacity was measured by H(2) isothermal adsorption at 77 K. In the result, the specific surface area and micropore volume of all of the treated samples were slightly decreased due to the micropore filling or pore collapsing behaviors. It was also found that in F(2)-treated carbons the center of the pore size distribution was shifted to left side, meaning that the average size of the micropores decreased. The F(2)- and plasma-treated samples showed higher hydrogen storage capacities than did the other samples, the F(2)-treated one being the best, indicating that the micropore size of the porous carbons played a key role in the hydrogen adsorption at 77 K.

  12. Random lasing of microporous surface of Cr2+:ZnSe crystal induced by femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xianheng; Feng, Guoying; Yao, Ke; Yi, Jiayu; Zhang, Hong; Zhou, Shouhuan

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a random lasing emission based on microporous surface of Cr 2+ :ZnSe crystal prepared by femtosecond pulsed laser ablation in high vacuum (below 5 × 10 −4 Pa). The scanning electron microscope results show that there are a mass of micropores with an average size of ∼13 μm and smaller ones with ∼1.2 μm on the surface of Cr 2+ :ZnSe crystal. The adjacent micropore spacing of the smaller micropores ranges from 1 μm to 5 μm. Under 1750 nm excitation of Nd:YAG (355 nm) pumped optical parametric oscillator, a random lasing emission with center wavelength of 2350 nm and laser-like threshold of 0.3 mJ/pulse is observed. The emission lifetime of 2350 nm laser reduces from 800 ns to 30 ns as the pump energy increases above threshold. The emission spectra and decay time of smooth surface, groove and microporous surface of Cr 2+ :ZnSe crystal are contrasted. The optional pump wavelength range is from 1500 nm to 1950 nm, which in accordance with the optical absorption property of Cr 2+ :ZnSe crystal. The peak position of excitation spectra is almost identical to the strongest absorption wavelength

  13. Development of in vivo impedance spectroscopy techniques for measurement of micropore formation following microneedle insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, Nicole K; Ghosh, Priyanka; Hardi, Lucia; Crofford, Leslie J; Stinchcomb, Audra L

    2013-06-01

    Microneedles (MNs) provide a minimally invasive means to enhance skin permeability by creating micron-scale channels (micropores) that provide a drug delivery pathway. Adequate formation of the micropores is critical to the success of this unique drug delivery technique. The objective of the current work was to develop sensitive and reproducible impedance spectroscopy techniques to monitor micropore formation in animal models and human subjects. Hairless guinea pigs, a Yucatan miniature pig, and human volunteers were treated with 100 MN insertions per site following an overnight prehydration period. Repeated measurements were made pre- and post-MN treatment using dry and gel Ag/AgCl electrodes applied with light verses direct pressure to hold the electrode to the skin surface. Impedance measurements dropped significantly post-MN application at all sites (p micropore formation. In the Yucatan pig and human subjects, gel electrodes with direct pressure yielded the lowest variability (demonstrated by lower %relative standard deviation), whereas dry electrodes with direct pressure were superior in the guinea pigs. These studies confirm that impedance measurements are suitable for use in both clinical and animal research environments to monitor the formation of new micropores that will allow for drug delivery through the impermeable skin layers. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Toward Increasing Micropore Volume between Hybrid Layered Perovskites with Silsesquioxane Interlayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Sho; Kamimura, Yoshihiro; Endo, Akira

    2018-04-10

    Hybrid organic-inorganic layered perovskites are typically nonporous solids. However, the incorporation of silsesquioxanes with a cubic cage structure as interlayer materials creates micropores between the perovskite layers. In this study, we increase in the micropore volume in layered perovskites by replacing a portion of the silsesquioxane interlayers with organic amines. In the proposed method, approximately 20% of the silsesquioxane interlayers can be replaced without changing the layer distance owing to the size of the silsesquioxane. When small amines (e.g., ethylamine) are used in this manner, the micropore volume of the obtained hybrid layered perovskites increases by as much as 44%; when large amines (e.g., phenethylamine) are used, their micropore volume decreases by as much as 43%. Through the variation of amine fraction, the micropore volume can be adjusted in the range. Finally, the magnetic moment measurements reveal that the layered perovskites with mixed interlayers exhibit ferromagnetic ordering at temperature below 20 K, thus indicating that the obtained perovskites maintain their functions as layered perovskites.

  15. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer from microporous surfaces in a small channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Sun; Li, Zhang; Hong, Xu; Xiaocheng, Zhong

    2011-01-01

    The continuously increasing requirement for high heat transfer rate in a compact space can be met by combining the small channel/microchannel and heat transfer enhancement methods during fluid subcooled flow boiling. In this paper, the sintered microporous coating, as an efficient means of enhancing nucleate boiling, was applied to a horizontal, rectangular small channel. Water flow boiling heat transfer characteristics from the small channel with/without the microporous coating were experimentally investigated. The small channel, even without the coating, presented flow boiling heat transfer enhancement at low vapor quality due to size effects of the channel. This enhancement was also verified by under-predictions from macro-scale correlations. In addition to the enhancement from the channel size, all six microporous coatings with various structural parameters were found to further enhance nucleate boiling significantly. Effects of the coating structural parameters, fluid mass flux and inlet subcooling were also investigated to identify the optimum condition for heat transfer enhancement. Under the optimum condition, the microporous coating could produce the heat transfer coefficients 2.7 times the smooth surface value in subcooled flow boiling and 3 times in saturated flow boiling. The combination of the microporous coating and small channel led to excellent heat transfer performance, and therefore was deemed to have promising application prospects in many areas such as air conditioning, chip cooling, refrigeration systems, and many others involving compact heat exchangers. (authors)

  16. Wishart and anti-Wishart random matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janik, Romuald A; Nowak, Maciej A

    2003-01-01

    We provide a compact exact representation for the distribution of the matrix elements of the Wishart-type random matrices A † A, for any finite number of rows and columns of A, without any large N approximations. In particular, we treat the case when the Wishart-type random matrix contains redundant, non-random information, which is a new result. This representation is of interest for a procedure for reconstructing the redundant information hidden in Wishart matrices, with potential applications to numerous models based on biological, social and artificial intelligence networks

  17. Topological expansion of the chain of matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eynard, B.; Ferrer, A. Prats

    2009-01-01

    We solve the loop equations to all orders in 1/N 2 , for the Chain of Matrices matrix model (with possibly an external field coupled to the last matrix of the chain). We show that the topological expansion of the free energy, is, like for the 1 and 2-matrix model, given by the symplectic invariants of [19]. As a consequence, we find the double scaling limit explicitly, and we discuss modular properties, large N asymptotics. We also briefly discuss the limit of an infinite chain of matrices (matrix quantum mechanics).

  18. Partitioning sparse rectangular matrices for parallel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolda, T.G.

    1998-05-01

    The authors are interested in partitioning sparse rectangular matrices for parallel processing. The partitioning problem has been well-studied in the square symmetric case, but the rectangular problem has received very little attention. They will formalize the rectangular matrix partitioning problem and discuss several methods for solving it. They will extend the spectral partitioning method for symmetric matrices to the rectangular case and compare this method to three new methods -- the alternating partitioning method and two hybrid methods. The hybrid methods will be shown to be best.

  19. Entrevista a Guillermo de la Peña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Rodríguez Cuevas

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Guilllermo de la Peña es uno de los más prestigiosos antropólogos mexicanos. Doctor en antropología por la Universidad de Manchester (Gran Bretaña, es miembro de la Academia Mexicana de Ciencias y ha recibido premios y becas del Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, la Fundación Ford, la Fundación Edward Larocque Tinker, la Asociación Mexicana de Estudios de Población y la Fundación Conmemorativa de John Simon Guggenheim. En 1991 recibió el Premio Nacional de Investigación Urbana y Regional, y en 1994 recibió el Premio Jalisco en el Area de Ciencia. Actualmente es profesor-investigador de la Unidad Occidente del Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social (CIESAS, institución donde ha recibido en tres ocasiones (1993, 1995 y 1998 el premio al mejor artículo de investigación. Ha realizado más de 140 publicaciones científicas. La presente entrevista tuvo lugar en la ciudad de Washington, tras la participación del Doctor de la Peña en el panel sobre Performing Sovereignties: Strategies for Representing Indigenous Land and Political Claims in Latin American, durante el 104 encuentro de la American Anthropological Association.

  20. Hierarchical mesoporous/microporous carbon with graphitized frameworks for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Lv

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical meso-/micro-porous graphitized carbon with uniform mesopores and ordered micropores, graphitized frameworks, and extra-high surface area of ∼2200 m2/g, was successfully synthesized through a simple one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The commercial mesoporous zeolite Y was utilized as a meso-/ micro-porous template, and the small-molecule methane was employed as a carbon precursor. The as-prepared hierarchical meso-/micro-porous carbons have homogeneously distributed mesopores as a host for electrolyte, which facilitate Li+ ions transport to the large-area micropores, resulting a high reversible lithium ion storage of 1000 mA h/g and a high columbic efficiency of 65% at the first cycle.

  1. Determination of Energy Characteristic and Microporous Volume by Immersion Calorimetry in Carbon Monoliths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Moreno-Piraján

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon monoliths disc and honeycomb type were prepared by chemical activation of coconut shell with zinc chloride at different concentrations, without using a binder. The structures were characterized by N2 adsorption at 77 K and immersion calorimetry into benzene. The experimental results showed that the activation with zinc chloride produces a wide microporous development, with micropore volume between 0,38 and 0,79 cm3g-1, apparent BET surface area between 725 and 1523 m2g-1 and immersion enthalpy between 73,5 and 164,2 Jg-1. We compared the experimental enthalpy with calculated enthalpy by equation Stoeckli-Kraehenbuehl finding a data dispersion from which can infer that the structures are not purely microporous; this fact is ratified with similar behavior that the evidence t the product EoWo.

  2. Methyllithium-Doped Naphthyl-Containing Conjugated Microporous Polymer with Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Sun, Lei; Li, Gang; Shang, Jin; Yang, Rui-Xia; Deng, Wei-Qiao

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen storage is a primary challenge for using hydrogen as a fuel. With ideal hydrogen storage kinetics, the weak binding strength of hydrogen to sorbents is the key barrier to obtain decent hydrogen storage performance. Here, we reported the rational synthesis of a methyllithium-doped naphthyl-containing conjugated microporous polymer with exceptional binding strength of hydrogen to the polymer guided by theoretical simulations. Meanwhile, the experimental results showed that isosteric heat can reach up to 8.4 kJ mol(-1) and the methyllithium-doped naphthyl-containing conjugated microporous polymer exhibited an enhanced hydrogen storage performance with 150 % enhancement compared with its counterpart naphthyl-containing conjugated microporous polymer. These results indicate that this strategy provides a direction for design and synthesis of new materials that meet the US Department of Energy (DOE) hydrogen storage target. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Numerical investigation of micro-pore formation during substrate impact of molten droplets in spraying processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.; Lavernia, E.J.; Rangel, R.H.; Muehlberger, E.; Sickinger, A.

    1994-01-01

    The porosity that is commonly associated with discrete droplet processes, such as plasma spraying and spray deposition, effectively degrades the quality of the sprayed material. In the present study, micro-pore formation during the deformation and interaction of molten tungsten droplets impinging onto a flat substrate in spraying processes is numerically investigated. The numerical simulation is accomplished on the basis of the full Navier-Stokes equations and the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) function by using a 2-domain method for the thermal field and solidification problem and a two-phase flow continuum model for the flow problem with a growing solid layer. The possible mechanisms governing the formation of micro-pores are discussed. The effects of important processing parameters, such as droplet impact velocity, droplet temperature, substrate temperature, and droplet viscosity, on the micro-pore formation are addressed

  4. Organic Microporous Nanofillers with Unique Alcohol Affinity for Superior Ethanol Recovery toward Sustainable Biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xi Quan; Konstas, Kristina; Doherty, Cara M; Wood, Colin D; Mulet, Xavier; Xie, Zongli; Ng, Derrick; Hill, Matthew R; Lau, Cher Hon; Shao, Lu

    2017-05-09

    To minimize energy consumption and carbon footprints, pervaporation membranes are fast becoming the preferred technology for alcohol recovery. However, this approach is confined to small-scale operations, as the flux of standard rubbery polymer membranes remain insufficient to process large solvent volumes, whereas membrane separations that use glassy polymer membranes are prone to physical aging. This study concerns how the alcohol affinity and intrinsic porosity of networked, organic, microporous polymers can simultaneously reduce physical aging and drastically enhance both flux and selectivity of a super glassy polymer, poly-[1-(trimethylsilyl)propyne] (PTMSP). Slight loss in alcohol transportation channels in PTMSP is compensated by the alcohol affinity of the microporous polymers. Even after continuous exposure to aqueous solutions of alcohols, PTMSP pervaporation membranes loaded with the microporous polymers outperform the state-of-the-art and commercial pervaporation membranes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The use of immersion calorimetry in the determination of micropore distribution of carbons in the course of activation

    OpenAIRE

    Kraehenbuehl, F.; Stoeckli, Fritz; Addoun, A.; Ehrburger, P.; Donnet, J. B.

    2007-01-01

    The combination of gas-solid adsorption experiments with immersion calorimetry of carbons into liquids of increasing molecular dimensions leads to accurate micropore distributions in the range 0.4-0.8 nm. This technique is used to study the development of the micropore structure during activation of carbons with CO2 or KOH.

  6. The synergistic effects of carbon coating and micropore structure on the microwave absorption properties of Co/CoO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiubo; Pang, Yu; Kikuchi, Hiroaki; Liu, Tong

    2016-11-09

    25 nm carbon-coated microporous Co/CoO nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by integrating chemical de-alloying and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods. The NPs possess micropores of 0.8-1.5 nm and display a homogeneous carbon shell of about 4 nm in thickness with a low graphitization degree. The saturation magnetization (M S ) and coercivity (H C ) of the NPs were 70.3 emu g -1 and 398.4 Oe, respectively. The microporous Co/CoO/C NPs exhibited enhanced microwave absorption performance with a minimum reflection coefficient (RC) of -78.4 dB and a wide absorption bandwidth of 8.1 GHz (RC ≤ -10 dB), larger than those of the nonporous counterparts of -68.3 dB and 5.8 GHz. The minimum RC values of the microporous Co/CoO/C NPs at different thicknesses were much smaller than the nonporous counterparts. The high microwave absorption mechanism of the microporous Co/CoO/C nanocomposite can be interpreted in terms of the interfacial polarization relaxation of the core/shell and micropore structures, the effective permittivity modification of the air in the micropores and the polarization relaxation of the defects in the low-graphitization carbon shell and the porous Co NPs. Our study demonstrates that the microporous Co/CoO/C nanocomposite is an efficient microwave absorber with high absorption intensity and wide absorption bandwidth.

  7. Response of MG63 osteoblast-like cells onto polycarbonate membrane surfaces with different micropore sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Choi, Jin San; Park, Ki Suk; Khang, Gilson; Lee, Young Moo; Lee, Hai Bang

    2004-08-01

    Response of different types of cells on materials is important for the applications of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. It is recognized that the behavior of the cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation on materials depends largely on surface characteristics such as wettability, chemistry, charge, rigidity, and roughness. In this study, we examined the behavior of MG63 osteoblast-like cells cultured on a polycarbonate (PC) membrane surfaces with different micropore sizes (0.2-8.0 microm in diameter). Cell adhesion and proliferation to the PC membrane surfaces were determined by cell counting and MTT assay. The effect of surface micropore on the MG63 cells was evaluated by cell morphology, protein content, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) specific activity. It seems that the cell adhesion and proliferation were progressively inhibited as the PC membranes had micropores with increasing size, probably due to surface discontinuities produced by track-etched pores. Increasing micropore size of the PC membrane results in improved protein synthesis and ALP specific activity in isolated cells. There was a statistically significant difference (Pmicropore sizes. The MG63 cells also maintained their phenotype under conditions that support a round cell shape. RT-PCR analysis further confirmed the osteogenic phenotype of the MG63 cells onto the PC membranes with different micropore sizes. In results, as micropore size is getting larger, cell number is reduced and cell differentiation and matrix production is increased. This study demonstrated that the surface topography plays an important role for phenotypic expression of the MG63 osteoblast-like cells.

  8. Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander; Genton, Marc G.; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    We approximate large non-structured Matérn covariance matrices of size n×n in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(kn log n), where rank k ≪ n is a small integer. Applications are: spatial statistics, machine learning and image analysis, kriging and optimal design.

  9. Theoretical origin of quark mass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical origin of specific quark mass matrices in the grand unified theories. The author discusses the first natural derivation of the Stech-type mass matrix in unified gauge theories. A solution to the strong CP-problem is provided

  10. Malware Analysis Using Visualized Image Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KyoungSoo Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel malware visual analysis method that contains not only a visualization method to convert binary files into images, but also a similarity calculation method between these images. The proposed method generates RGB-colored pixels on image matrices using the opcode sequences extracted from malware samples and calculates the similarities for the image matrices. Particularly, our proposed methods are available for packed malware samples by applying them to the execution traces extracted through dynamic analysis. When the images are generated, we can reduce the overheads by extracting the opcode sequences only from the blocks that include the instructions related to staple behaviors such as functions and application programming interface (API calls. In addition, we propose a technique that generates a representative image for each malware family in order to reduce the number of comparisons for the classification of unknown samples and the colored pixel information in the image matrices is used to calculate the similarities between the images. Our experimental results show that the image matrices of malware can effectively be used to classify malware families both statically and dynamically with accuracy of 0.9896 and 0.9732, respectively.

  11. Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Mourrain; J.B. Lasserre; M. Laurent (Monique); P. Rostalski; P. Trebuchet (Philippe)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is nte. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and

  12. Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lasserre, J.B.; Laurent, M.; Mourrain, B.; Rostalski, P.; Trébuchet, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming its complex (resp. real) variety is finite. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and semi-definite

  13. Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Mourrain; J.B. Lasserre; M. Laurent (Monique); P. Rostalski; P. Trebuchet (Philippe)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is nte. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and

  14. Malware analysis using visualized image matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, KyoungSoo; Kang, BooJoong; Im, Eul Gyu

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel malware visual analysis method that contains not only a visualization method to convert binary files into images, but also a similarity calculation method between these images. The proposed method generates RGB-colored pixels on image matrices using the opcode sequences extracted from malware samples and calculates the similarities for the image matrices. Particularly, our proposed methods are available for packed malware samples by applying them to the execution traces extracted through dynamic analysis. When the images are generated, we can reduce the overheads by extracting the opcode sequences only from the blocks that include the instructions related to staple behaviors such as functions and application programming interface (API) calls. In addition, we propose a technique that generates a representative image for each malware family in order to reduce the number of comparisons for the classification of unknown samples and the colored pixel information in the image matrices is used to calculate the similarities between the images. Our experimental results show that the image matrices of malware can effectively be used to classify malware families both statically and dynamically with accuracy of 0.9896 and 0.9732, respectively.

  15. Generation speed in Raven's Progressive Matrices Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verguts, T.; Boeck, P. De; Maris, E.G.G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the role of response fluency on a well-known intelligence test, Raven's (1962) Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) test. Critical in solving this test is finding rules that govern the items. Response fluency is conceptualized as generation speed or the speed at which a

  16. Inversion of General Cyclic Heptadiagonal Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Karawia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a reliable symbolic computational algorithm for inverting general cyclic heptadiagonal matrices by using parallel computing along with recursion. The computational cost of it is operations. The algorithm is implementable to the Computer Algebra System (CAS such as MAPLE, MATLAB, and MATHEMATICA. Two examples are presented for the sake of illustration.

  17. Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2015-11-30

    We approximate large non-structured Matérn covariance matrices of size n×n in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(kn log n), where rank k ≪ n is a small integer. Applications are: spatial statistics, machine learning and image analysis, kriging and optimal design.

  18. Micropore-induced capillarity enhances bone distribution in vivo in biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustom, Laurence E; Boudou, Thomas; Lou, Siyu; Pignot-Paintrand, Isabelle; Nemke, Brett W; Lu, Yan; Markel, Mark D; Picart, Catherine; Wagoner Johnson, Amy J

    2016-10-15

    The increasing demand for bone repair solutions calls for the development of efficacious bone scaffolds. Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds with both macropores and micropores (MP) have improved healing compared to those with macropores and no micropores (NMP), but the role of micropores is unclear. Here, we evaluate capillarity induced by micropores as a mechanism that can affect bone growth in vivo. Three groups of cylindrical scaffolds were implanted in pig mandibles for three weeks: MP were implanted either dry (MP-Dry), or after submersion in phosphate buffered saline, which fills pores with fluid and therefore suppresses micropore-induced capillarity (MP-Wet); NMP were implanted dry. The amount and distribution of bone in the scaffolds were quantified using micro-computed tomography. MP-Dry had a more homogeneous bone distribution than MP-Wet, although the average bone volume fraction, BVF‾, was not significantly different for these two groups (0.45±0.03 and 0.37±0.03, respectively). There was no significant difference in the radial bone distribution of NMP and MP-Wet, but the BVF‾, of NMP was significantly lower among the three groups (0.25±0.02). These results suggest that micropore-induced capillarity enhances bone regeneration by improving the homogeneity of bone distribution in BCP scaffolds. The explicit design and use of capillarity in bone scaffolds may lead to more effective treatments of large and complex bone defects. The increasing demand for bone repair calls for more efficacious bone scaffolds and calcium phosphate-based materials are considered suitable for this application. Macropores (>100μm) are necessary for bone ingrowth and vascularization. However, studies have shown that microporosity (micropore-induced capillarity had the potential to enhance bone growth in vivo. This work illustrates the positive effects of capillarity on bone regeneration in vivo; it demonstrates that micropore-induced capillarity significantly

  19. Hierarchical zeolites: Enhanced utilisation of microporous crystals in catalysis by advances in materials design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Ramirez, Javier; Christensen, Claus H.; Egeblad, Kresten

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of synthetic zeolites has led to a paradigm shift in catalysis, separations, and adsorption processes, due to their unique properties such as crystallinity, high-surface area, acidity, ion-exchange capacity, and shape-selective character. However, the sole presence of micropores...... the properties of the resulting materials and the catalytic function. We particularly dwell on the exciting field of hierarchical zeolites, which couple in a single material the catalytic power of micropores and the facilitated access and improved transport consequence of a complementary mesopore network...

  20. Functional microporous materials of metal carboxylate: Gas-occlusion properties and catalytic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Wasuke; Sato, Tomohiko; Ohmura, Tesushi; Nozaki Kato, Chika; Takei, Tohru

    2005-01-01

    Copper(II) terephthalate is the first transition metal complex found capable of adsorbing gases. This complex has opened the new field of adsorbent complex chemistry. It is recognized as the lead complex in the construction of microporous complexes. This specific system has been expanded to a systematic series of derivatives of other isomorphous transition metals, molybdenum(II), ruthenium(II, III), and rhodium(II). These complexes with open frameworks are widely recognized as very useful materials for applications to catalysis, separation at molecular level, and gas storage. - Graphical abstract: Novel microporous intramolecular reaction systems

  1. Application of new nuclear track microporous membrane in transdermal therapeutic system (TTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risheng Wu; Jian Zhou; Wei Ke

    1993-01-01

    Newly-developed Nuclear Track Microporous Membrane, which is formed by alpha particle irradiation with greatly reduced cost, is first used as the drug release rate controlling membrane for TTS patch. It shows good zero order release kinetics and its released quantity of drugs can be regulated conveniently by changing its porosity instead of changing the area of other control membrane used abroad. Its high benefit-cost ratio and improved TTS performances manifest the superiority and great potential of the newly developed Nuclear Track Microporous membrane. (Author)

  2. Micropore extrusion-induced alignment transition from perpendicular to parallel of cylindrical domains in block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ting; Zhao, Yongbin; Li, Zongbo; Wang, Pingping; Cao, Shubo; Xu, Yawei; Li, Yayuan; Chen, Aihua

    2016-02-14

    The orientation transition from perpendicular to parallel alignment of PEO cylindrical domains of PEO-b-PMA(Az) films has been demonstrated by extruding the block copolymer (BCP) solutions through a micropore of a plastic gastight syringe. The parallelized orientation of PEO domains induced by this micropore extrusion can be recovered to perpendicular alignment via ultrasonication of the extruded BCP solutions and subsequent annealing. A plausible mechanism is proposed in this study. The BCP films can be used as templates to prepare nanowire arrays with controlled layers, which has enormous potential application in the field of integrated circuits.

  3. Large-aperture focusing of x rays with micropore optics using dry etching of silicon wafers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, Yuichiro; Moriyama, Teppei; Ogawa, Tomohiro; Kakiuchi, Takuya; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Aoki, Tatsuhiko; Morishita, Kohei; Nakajima, Kazuo

    2012-03-01

    Large-aperture focusing of Al K(α) 1.49 keV x-ray photons using micropore optics made from a dry-etched 4 in. (100 mm) silicon wafer is demonstrated. Sidewalls of the micropores are smoothed with high-temperature annealing to work as x-ray mirrors. The wafer is bent to a spherical shape to collect parallel x rays into a focus. Our result supports that this new type of optics allows for the manufacturing of ultralight-weight and high-performance x-ray imaging optics with large apertures at low cost. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  4. 129Xe NMR spectroscopy in microporous solids: The effect of bulk properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripmeester, John A.; Ratcliffe, Christopher I.

    1993-01-01

    In this contribution we point out a number of factors related to the bulk properties of microporous solids which must be taken into account in order first of all to obtain meaningful 129 Xe NMR spectral data, and secondly to interpret the data properly. This sensitivity to bulk properties is especially important for microporous solids where there is little or no barrier to xenon passage from inside the particle to the interparticle space. We examine the effect of particle size, powder bulk density and particle anisotropy, and also the effect of low thermal conductivity of low density powders

  5. Crystal chemistry, properties and synthesis of microporous silicates containing transition elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chukanov, Nikita V; Pekov, Igor V; Rastsvetaeva, Ramiza K

    2004-01-01

    The review surveys and generalises recent data on synthesis methods, physicochemical properties and crystal chemistry of silicate microporous materials containing transition elements (amphoterosilicates). The frameworks of these materials, unlike those of usual aluminosilicate zeolites, are built from tetrahedrally coordinated atoms along with atoms of various elements (Ti, Nb, Zr, Ta, Sn, W, Fe, Mn, Zn, etc.) with coordination numbers of 6 or 5. Many amphoterosilicates possess ion-exchange properties and can serve as catalysts for redox reactions, sorbents, etc. The structural diversity of synthetic and natural amphoterosilicates provides the basis for the preparation of microporous materials with different properties.

  6. Preparation of micro-porous gel polymer for lithium ion polymer battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Je Young; Kim, Seok Koo; Lee, Seung-Jin; Lee, Sang Young; Lee, Hyang Mok; Ahn, Soonho

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a micro-porous gelling polymer layer which is formed on both the sides of support polyolefin separator with wet or dry processing technique. Morphologies of gel-coated layer are dependent on the compositions and process conditions, such as solvent/non-solvent combination and stretching ratios. The micro-porous gelling layer is used for the assembly of the lithium ion polymer battery of LG Chemical Ltd. The structure of battery is given elsewhere and the battery has excellent discharge performance with 94% of 2C discharge performance at room temperature

  7. Fabrication of microporous polymethacrylimide using γ-rays irradiation and characterization of its properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jianjun; Xu Yunshu; Xiong Liangping; Gao Xiaoling; Xu Guangliang

    2011-01-01

    Methylacrylic acid (MAA), acrylonitrile (AN), acrylamide (AM) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) were polymerized by γ-rays, and AN/AM/MAA copolymer as well as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) were synthesized. Then microporous structure of polymethacrylimide (PMI) was obtained by the degradation of PMMA using heat-treatment. FIR spectra showed that imide process and PMMA degradation were simultaneous at the selected temperature. TG-DSC analysis showed that the sample began to degrade at 345 degree C. And SEM indicated that microporous PMI with obturator foramen structure was obtained, whose aperture was about 100 μm. (authors)

  8. Electrochemical Synthesis of a Microporous Conductive Polymer Based on a Metal-Organic Framework Thin Film

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Chunjing

    2014-05-22

    A new approach to preparing 3D microporous conductive polymer has been demonstrated in the electrochemical synthesis of a porous polyaniline network with the utilization of a MOF thin film supported on a conducting substrate. The prepared porous polyaniline with well-defined uniform micropores of 0.84 nm exhibits a high BET surface area of 986 m2 g−1 and a high electric conductivity of 0.125 S cm−1 when doped with I2, which is superior to existing porous conducting materials of porous MOFs, CMPs, and COFs.

  9. Intrinsically Microporous Polymer Membranes for High Performance Gas Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Raja

    2014-11-01

    This dissertation addresses the rational design of intrinsically microporous solutionprocessable polyimides and ladder polymers for highly permeable and highly selective gas transport in cornerstone applications of membrane-based gas separation – that is, air enrichment, hydrogen recovery and natural gas sweetening. By virtue of rigid and contorted chains that pack inefficiently in the solid state, polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) have the potential to unite the solution-processability, mechanical flexibility and organic tunability of commercially relevant polymers with the microporosity characteristics of porous crystalline materials. The performance enhancements of PIMs over conventional low-free-volume polymers have been primarily permeability-driven, compromising the selectivity essential to commercial viability. An approach to unite high permeability with high selectivity for performance transcending the state-of-the-art in air and hydrogen separations was demonstrated via a fused-ring integration of a three-dimensional, shape persistent triptycene moiety optimally substituted with short, branched isopropyl chains at the 9,10-bridgeheads into a highly inflexible backbone. The resulting polymers exhibited selectivities (i.e., O2/N2, H2/N2, H2/CH4) similar to or higher than commercial materials matched with permeabilities up to three hundred times higher. However, the intra-chain rigidity central to such conventional PIM-design principles was not a singular solution to suppression of CO2-induced plasticization in CO2/CH4 mixedgas separations. Plasticization diminishes the sieving capacity of the membrane, resulting in costly hydrocarbon losses that have significantly limited the commercialization of new polymers. Unexpectedly, the most permeable and selective PIMs designed for air and hydrogen separations strongly plasticized in 50:50 CO2/CH4 mixtures, enduring up to three-fold increases in mixed-gas CH4 permeability by 30 bar and strong drops in

  10. Natural Gas Sweetening by Ultra-Microporous Polyimides Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Alghunaimi, Fahd

    2017-05-01

    Most natural gas fields in Saudi Arabia contain around 10 mol.% carbon dioxide. The present technology to remove carbon dioxide is performed by chemical absorption, which has many drawbacks. Alternatively, membrane-based gas separation technology has attracted great interest in recent years due to: (i) simple modular design, (ii) potential cost effectiveness, (iii) ease of scale-up, and (iv) environmental friendliness. The state-of-the-art membrane materials for natural gas sweetening are glassy cellulose acetate and polyimide, which were introduced in the 1980s. In the near future, the kingdom is planning to boost its production of natural gas for power generation and increase the feedstock for new petrochemical plants. Therefore, the kingdom and worldwide market has an urgent need for better membrane materials to remove carbon dioxide from raw natural gas. The focus of this dissertation was to design new polyimide membrane materials for CO2/CH4 separation exhibiting high permeability and high selectivity relative to the standard commercial materials tested under realistic mixed-gas feed conditions. Furthermore, this study provided a fundamental understanding of structure/gas transport property relationships of triptycene-based PIM-polyimides. Optimally designed intrinsically microporous polyimide (PIM-PIs) membranes in this work exhibited drastically increased CO2/CH4 selectivities of up to ~75. In addition, a novel triptycene-based hydroxyl-containing polyimide (TDA1-APAF) showed 5-fold higher permeabilities over benchmark commercial materials such as cellulose acetate. Furthermore, this polyimide had a N2/CH4 selectivity of 2.3, thereby making it possible to simultaneously treat CO2- and N2-contaminated natural gas. Also, TDA1-APAF showed a CO2 permeability of 21 Barrer under binary 1:1 CO2/CH4 mixed-gas feed with a selectivity of 72 at a partial CO2 pressure of 10 bar which are significantly better than cellulose triacetate. These results suggest that TDA1

  11. Pengaruh Determinan P/e Dan P/e Rasio Terhadap Kepemilikan Institusi : Studi Di Bursa Efek Indonesia Tahun 2004-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Anggraini, Mita; Mahastanti, Linda Ariany

    2012-01-01

    Institutional investors needs analysis in making decisions for investing activities. Analysis of the most widely used is the fundamental analysis approach is through a P/E ratio. P/E (price earnings ratio) can be interpreted as an indicator of market confidence in the company's growth prospects in the future. High P/E indicates that the better performance of the company and this caught a lot of institutional investors to buy shares so that the percentage of institutional ownership in the comp...

  12. But I Like PE: Factors Associated With Enjoyment of Physical Education Class in Middle School Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Ward, Dianne S.; Conway, Terry L.; Pratt, Charlotte; Baggett, Chris D.; Lytle, Leslie; Pate, Russell R.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined associations between physical education (PE) class enjoyment and sociodemographic, personal, and perceived school environment factors among early adolescent girls. Participants included 1,511 sixth-grade girls who completed baseline assessments for the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls, with 50% indicating they enjoyed PE class a lot. Variables positively associated with PE class enjoyment included physical activity level, perceived benefits of physical activity...

  13. Periodic flow hydrodynamic resistance parameters for woven screen matrices at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrella, M. D.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    The regenerator is a critical component in all Stirling and Pulse Tube cryocoolers. It generally consists of a microporous metallic or rare-earth filler material contained within a cylindrical shell. Accurate modelling of the hydrodynamic and thermal behaviour of different regenerator materials is crucial to the successful design of cryogenic systems. Previous investigations have used experimental measurements at steady and periodic flow conditions in conjunction with pore-level CFD analysis to determine the pertinent hydrodynamic parameters, namely the Darcy permeability and Forchheimer coefficients. Due to the difficulty associated with experimental measurement at cryogenic temperatures, past investigations were mostly performed at ambient conditions and their results are assumed to be appropriate for cryogenic temperatures. In this study, a regenerator filled with woven screen matrices such as 400 mesh T316 stainless steel were assembled and experimentally tested under periodic helium flow at cryogenic temperatures. The mass flow and pressure drop data were analysed using CFD to determine the dimensionless friction factor, Darcy Permeability and Forchheimer coefficients. These results are compared to previous investigations at ambient temperature conditions, and the relevance of room-temperature models and correlations to cryogenic temperatures is critically assessed.

  14. Fluctuation measurements at c/ωpe spatial scales in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, E.J.; Tan, I.H.; Prager, S.C.

    1994-07-01

    Magnetic and electrostatic fluctuations have been measured at the short scale length of the collisionless skin depth (c/ω pe using small magnetic and electrostatic probes in the Tokapole II tokamak. For certain conditions and at high frequency (MHz range) the amplitude is observed to increase as wavelength is decreased toward the c/ω pe scale. Wavelength dependence is inferred from measurements with probes of varying sizes. The amplitude of the turbulence at the c/ω pe scale is smaller than the dominant low frequency turbulence, and is thus not relevant to transport in Tokapole II. Comparison with theoretical treatments of c/ω pe turbulence is discussed

  15. But I like PE: factors associated with enjoyment of physical education class in middle school girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Ward, Dianne S; Conway, Terry L; Pratt, Charlotte; Baggett, Chris D; Lytle, Leslie; Pate, Russell R

    2008-03-01

    The current study examined associations between physical education (PE) class enjoyment and sociodemographic, personal, and perceived school environment factors among early adolescent girls. Participants included 1,511 sixth-grade girls who completed baseline assessments for the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls, with 50% indicating they enjoyed PE class a lot. Variables positively associated with PE class enjoyment included physical activity level, perceived benefits of physical activity, self-efficacy for leisure time physical activity, and perceived school climate for girls' physical activity as influenced by teachers, while body mass index was inversely associated with PE class enjoyment. After adjusting for all variables in the model, PE class enjoyment was significantly greater in Blacks than in Whites. In model testing, with mutual adjustment for all variables, self-efficacy was the strongest correlate of PE class enjoyment, followed by perceived benefits, race/ethnicity, and teachers' support for girls' physical activity, as compared to boys, at school. The overall model explained 11% of the variance in PE class enjoyment. Findings suggest that efforts to enhance girls' self-efficacy and perceived benefits and to provide a supportive PE class environment that promotes gender equality can potentially increase PE class enjoyment among young girls.

  16. On Skew Circulant Type Matrices Involving Any Continuous Fibonacci Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Jiang

    2014-01-01

    inverse matrices of them by constructing the transformation matrices. Furthermore, the maximum column sum matrix norm, the spectral norm, the Euclidean (or Frobenius norm, and the maximum row sum matrix norm and bounds for the spread of these matrices are given, respectively.

  17. Preparation and characterization of PMMA graded microporous foams via one-step supercritical carbon dioxide foaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Huan; Li Junguo; Xiong Yuanlu; Luo Guoqiang; Shen Qiang; Zhang Lianmeng

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO 2 ) foaming which is inexpensive and environmental friendly has been widely used to prepare polymer-based microporous materials. In this paper, PMMA graded microporous materials were foamed by PMMA matrix after an unstable saturation process which was done under supercritical condition of 28MPa and 50 °C. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to observe the morphology of the graded foam. A gas adsorption model was proposed to predict the graded gas concentration in the different region of the polymer matrix. The SEM results showed that the solid and foam region of the graded foam can be connected without laminated layers. With the increasing thickness position of the graded microporous foam, the cell size increased from 3.4 to 27.5 μm, while the cell density decreased from 1.04 × 10 9 to 1.96 × 10 7 cells/cm 3 . It also found that the gradient microporous structure of the foam came from graded gas concentration which was obtained in the initial saturation process.

  18. Macroscale and microscale fracture toughness of microporous sintered Ag for applications in power electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chuantong; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Jiu, Jinting; Sugahara, Tohru; Zhang, Hao; Iwashige, Tomohito; Sugiura, Kazuhiko; Tsuruta, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    The application of microporous sintered silver (Ag) as a bonding material to replace conventional die-bonding materials in power electronic devices has attracted considerable interest. Characterization of the mechanical properties of microporous Ag will enable its use in applications such as lead-free solder electronics and provide a fundamental understanding of its design principles. However, the material typically suffers from thermal and mechanical stress during its production fabrication, and service. In this work, we have studied the effect of microporous Ag specimen size on fracture toughness from the microscale to the macroscale. A focused ion beam was used to fabricate 20-, 10- and 5-μm-wide microscale specimens, which were of the same order of magnitude as the pore networks in the microporous Ag. Micro-cantilever bending tests revealed that fracture toughness decreased as the specimen size decreased. Conventional middle-cracked tensile tests were performed to determine the fracture toughness of the macroscale specimens. The microscale and macroscale fracture toughness results showed a clear size effect, which is discussed in terms of both the deformation behavior of crack tip and the influence of pore networks within Ag with different specimen sizes. Finite element model simulations showed that stress at the crack tip increased as the specimen size increased, which led to larger plastic deformation and more energy being consumed when the specimen fractured.

  19. Analysis and theory of gas transport in microporous sol-gel derived ceramic membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, R.S.A.; de Lange, Rob; Keizer, Klaas; Burggraaf, Anthonie; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Sol-gel modification of mesoporous alumina membranes is a very successful technique to improve gas separation performance. Due to the formed microporous top layer, the membranes show activated transport and molecular sieve-like separation factors. This paper concentrates on the mechanism of

  20. Sorption of phenanthrene and benzene on differently structural kerogen: Important role of micropore-filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yulong; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Ran, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Shale was thermally treated to obtain a series of kerogen with varied maturation. Their chemical, structural and porous properties were related to the sorption and/or desorption behaviors of phenanthrene and benzene. As the treatment temperature increases, aliphatic and carbonyl carbon of the kerogen samples decrease, while their aromaticity and maturation increase. Meanwhile, the isothermal nonlinearity of phenanthrene and benzene increases whereas the sorption capacity and micropore adsorption volumes (V o,d ) initially increase and then decrease. The V o,d of benzene is significantly correlated with, but higher than that of phenanthrene, suggesting similar micropore filling mechanism and molecular sieve effect. The benzene desorption exhibits hysteresis, which is related to the pore deformation of the kerogen and the entrapment of solute in the kerogen matrix. The V o,d of phenanthrene and benzene on the kerogen samples accounts for 23–46% and 36–65% of the maximum sorption volumes, respectively, displaying the importance of the micropore filling. -- Highlights: • The microporosity estimated by benzene vapor differs greatly from that by N 2 . • The micropore volume changes with kerogen maturation. • The phenanthrene or benzene sorption is related to the microporosity of kerogen. • Higher adsorption volume for benzene than for phenanthrene suggests molecular sieve effect. • The pore-filling plays an important role in the sorption of phenanthrene and benzene. -- The sorption behaviors of benzene and phenanthrene are related to the microporosity of the differently matured kerogen, indicating the importance of pore-filling

  1. The function of microporous layers and the interaction between the anode and cathode in DMFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, H. F.; Wang, SY; Pei, PC

    2008-01-01

    A combined effect of microporous layers (MPLs) on direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) is investigated. From the distribution of the outstanding carbon loading combinations of the cathode MPL and anode MPL as well as the evolutions of polarization curves, a combined effect in which the contributions...

  2. Size and spatial distribution of micropores in SBA-15 using CM-SANS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, Rachel A.; Walsh, Brenna R.; Fry, Jason A.; Ghampson, Tyrone; Centikol, Ozgul; Melnichenko, Yuri B.; Kaiser, Helmut; Pynn, Roger; Frederick, Brian G.

    2011-01-01

    Diffraction intensity analysis of small-angle neutron scattering measurements of dry SBA-15 have been combined with nonlocal density functional theory (NLDFT) analysis of nitrogen desorption isotherms to characterize the micropore, secondary mesopore, and primary mesopore structure. The radial dependence of the scattering length density, which is sensitive to isolated surface hydroxyls, can only be modeled if the NLDFT pore size distribution is distributed relatively uniformly throughout the silica framework, not localized in a 'corona' around the primary mesopores. Contrast matching-small angle neutron scattering (CM-SANS) measurements, using water, decane, tributylamine, cyclohexane, and isooctane as direct probes of the size of micropores indicate that the smallest pores in SBA-15 have diameter between 5.7 and 6.2 (angstrom). Correlation of the minimum pore size with the onset of the micropore size distribution provides direct evidence that the shape of the smallest micropores is cylinderlike, which is consistent with their being due to unraveling of the polymer template.

  3. Modeling water flux and salt rejection of mesoporous γ-alumina and microporous organosilica membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farsi, A.; Boffa, V.; Qureshi, H.F.; Nijmeijer, Arian; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Lykkegaard Christensen, M.

    2014-01-01

    The water and ion transport through a mesoporous γ-alumina membrane and a microporous organosilica membrane was simulated using the extended Nernst Planck equation combined with models for Donnan, steric and dielectric interfacial exclusion mechanisms. Due to the surface charge within the pore, the

  4. Straightforward Generation of Pillared, Microporous Graphene Frameworks for Use in Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai; Xu, Yazhou; Uihlein, Johannes; Brunklaus, Gunther; Shi, Lei; Heiderhoff, Ralf; Que, Mingming; Forster, Michael; Chassé, Thomas; Pichler, Thomas; Riedl, Thomas; Chen, Yiwang; Scherf, Ullrich

    2015-11-01

    Microporous, pillared graphene-based frameworks are generated in a simple functionalization/coupling procedure starting from reduced graphene oxide. They are used for the fabrication of high-performance supercapacitor devices. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Effect of a Traveling Magnetic Field on Micropore Formation in Al-Cu Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjin Xu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of traveling magnetic fields (TMFs on the grain and micro-pore formation in an Al alloy was studied by scanning electron microscope and X-ray microtomography in this work. The results show that with the increasing magnetic flux density, the three-dimensional morphology of the micro-pores transformed from dendrite to a relatively equiaxed structure. Quantified results show that both the micro-pore volume fraction and the average grain size of the primary phase decreased as the TMF density increased. The analyses show that the forced convection induced by TMF can break the dendrites, refine the grain size, and promote the liquid feeding, leading to the decrease in the volume fraction of the porosity and improved mechanical property. The TMF performed at different stages during solidification reveal that the maximum effect of TMF on reducing the micro-pore formation was found when TMF was applied in the stage of nucleation and the early stage of grain growth during solidification.

  6. Evaluation of procedures for estimation of the isosteric heat of adsorption in microporous materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishna, R.

    2014-01-01

    The major objective of this communication is to evaluate procedures for estn. of the isosteric heat of adsorption, Qst, in microporous materials such as zeolites, metal org. frameworks (MOFs)​, and zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs)​. For this purpose we have carefully analyzed published exptl.

  7. Synergistic effects of dendritic cell targeting and laser-microporation on enhancing epicutaneous skin vaccination efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Yoan; Duinkerken, Sanne; Hoepflinger, Veronika; Mayr, Melissa; Korotchenko, Evgeniia; Kurtaj, Almedina; Pablos, Isabel; Steiner, Markus; Stoecklinger, Angelika; Lübbers, Joyce; Schmid, Maximillian; Ritter, Uwe; Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Ablinger, Michael; Wally, Verena; Hochmann, Sarah; Raninger, Anna M; Strunk, Dirk; van Kooyk, Yvette; Thalhamer, Josef; Weiss, Richard

    2017-11-28

    Due to its unique immunological properties, the skin is an attractive target tissue for allergen-specific immunotherapy. In our current work, we combined a dendritic cell targeting approach with epicutaneous immunization using an ablative fractional laser to generate defined micropores in the upper layers of the skin. By coupling the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 to mannan from S. cerevisiae via mild periodate oxidation we generated hypoallergenic Bet-mannan neoglycoconjugates, which efficiently targeted CD14 + dendritic cells and Langerhans cells in human skin explants. Mannan conjugation resulted in sustained release from the skin and retention in secondary lymphoid organs, whereas unconjugated antigen showed fast renal clearance. In a mouse model, Bet-mannan neoglycoconjugates applied via laser-microporated skin synergistically elicited potent humoral and cellular immune responses, superior to intradermal injection. The induced antibody responses displayed IgE-blocking capacity, highlighting the therapeutic potential of the approach. Moreover, application via micropores, but not by intradermal injection, resulted in a mixed TH1/TH17-biased immune response. Our data clearly show that applying mannan-neoglycoconjugates to an organ rich in dendritic cells using laser-microporation is superior to intradermal injection. Due to their low IgE binding capacity and biodegradability, mannan neoglycoconjugates therefore represent an attractive formulation for allergen-specific epicutaneous immunotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Parallel recognition of cancer cells using an addressable array of solid-state micropores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Azhar; Asghar, Waseem; Kim, Young-tae; Iqbal, Samir M

    2014-12-15

    Early stage detection and precise quantification of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the peripheral blood of cancer patients are important for early diagnosis. Early diagnosis improves the effectiveness of the therapy and results in better prognosis. Several techniques have been used for CTC detection but are limited by their need for dye tagging, low throughput and lack of statistical reliability at single cell level. Solid-state micropores can characterize each cell in a sample providing interesting information about cellular populations. We report a multi-channel device which utilized solid-state micropores array assembly for simultaneous measurement of cell translocation. This increased the throughput of measurement and as the cells passed the micropores, tumor cells showed distinctive current blockade pulses, when compared to leukocytes. The ionic current across each micropore channel was continuously monitored and recorded. The measurement system not only increased throughput but also provided on-chip cross-relation. The whole blood was lysed to get rid of red blood cells, so the blood dilution was not needed. The approach facilitated faster processing of blood samples with tumor cell detection efficiency of about 70%. The design provided a simple and inexpensive method for rapid and reliable detection of tumor cells without any cell staining or surface functionalization. The device can also be used for high throughput electrophysiological analysis of other cell types. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Morphology and characterization of 3D micro-porous structured chitosan scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Chuan; Chang, Chih-Pong; Lin, Shang-Ming

    2007-06-15

    This research studies the morphology and characterization of three-dimensional (3D) micro-porous structures produced from biodegradable chitosan for use as scaffolds for cells culture. The chitosan 3D micro-porous structures were produced by a simple liquid hardening method, which includes the processes of foaming by mechanical stirring without any chemical foaming agent added, and hardening by NaOH cross linking. The pore size and porosity were controlled with mechanical stirring strength. This study includes the morphology of chitosan scaffolds, the characterization of mechanical properties, water absorption properties and in vitro enzymatic degradation of the 3D micro-porous structures. The results show that chitosan 3D micro-porous structures were successfully produced. Better formation samples were obtained when chitosan concentration is at 1-3%, and concentration of NaOH is at 5%. Faster stirring rate would produce samples of smaller pore diameter, but when rotation speed reaches 4000 rpm and higher the changes in pore size is minimal. Water absorption would reduce along with the decrease of chitosan scaffolds' pore diameter. From stress-strain analysis, chitosan scaffolds' mechanical properties are improved when it has smaller pore diameter. From in vitro enzymatic degradation results, it shows that the disintegration rate of chitosan scaffolds would increase along with the processing time increase, but approaching equilibrium when the disintegration rate reaches about 20%.

  10. Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging of local fluid flow and shear stress within microporous scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yali; Bagnaninchi, Pierre O.; Yang, Ying; Haj, Alicia El; Hinds, Monica T.; Kirkpatrick, Sean J.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2009-05-01

    Establishing a relationship between perfusion rate and fluid shear stress in a 3D cell culture environment is an ongoing and challenging task faced by tissue engineers. We explore Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) as a potential imaging tool for in situ monitoring of local fluid flow profiles inside porous chitosan scaffolds. From the measured fluid flow profiles, the fluid shear stresses are evaluated. We examine the localized fluid flow and shear stress within low- and high-porosity chitosan scaffolds, which are subjected to a constant input flow rate of 0.5 ml.min-1. The DOCT results show that the behavior of the fluid flow and shear stress in micropores is strongly dependent on the micropore interconnectivity, porosity, and size of pores within the scaffold. For low-porosity and high-porosity chitosan scaffolds examined, the measured local fluid flow and shear stress varied from micropore to micropore, with a mean shear stress of 0.49+/-0.3 dyn.cm-2 and 0.38+/-0.2 dyn.cm-2, respectively. In addition, we show that the scaffold's porosity and interconnectivity can be quantified by combining analyses of the 3D structural and flow images obtained from DOCT.

  11. Implementation of the Service for Radiological Emergency Response of CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE, Recife, PE, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Claudio J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In 1998, it was created in the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE) - the Brazilian regional center of nuclear sciences -, Recife, PE, Brazil, the Service for Radiological Emergency Response with the objective of providing the population of Pernambuco and neighboring States a team of professionals specialized in emergency situations and radiological protection. This action has the purpose of decentralization of actions of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), an agency responsible for licensing and safety of radioactive sources in Brazil. With this study we can conclude that the settlement of SAER/CRCN came to meet initial expectations, having in the last years provided assistance in situations with suspected radioactive material and participated actively: with radioactive load simulation; of the Exercicio de Emergencia Aeronautica Completo (EXEAC) - an emergency simulated training in airports- from the Guararapes-Gilberto Freire Airport; trained, every two years, the services of emergency for accidents and participated in events of the area

  12. Fungible Correlation Matrices: A Method for Generating Nonsingular, Singular, and Improper Correlation Matrices for Monte Carlo Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Niels G

    2016-01-01

    For a fixed set of standardized regression coefficients and a fixed coefficient of determination (R-squared), an infinite number of predictor correlation matrices will satisfy the implied quadratic form. I call such matrices fungible correlation matrices. In this article, I describe an algorithm for generating positive definite (PD), positive semidefinite (PSD), or indefinite (ID) fungible correlation matrices that have a random or fixed smallest eigenvalue. The underlying equations of this algorithm are reviewed from both algebraic and geometric perspectives. Two simulation studies illustrate that fungible correlation matrices can be profitably used in Monte Carlo research. The first study uses PD fungible correlation matrices to compare penalized regression algorithms. The second study uses ID fungible correlation matrices to compare matrix-smoothing algorithms. R code for generating fungible correlation matrices is presented in the supplemental materials.

  13. Evolutionary Games with Randomly Changing Payoff Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushkina, Tatiana; Saakian, David B.; Bratus, Alexander; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-06-01

    Evolutionary games are used in various fields stretching from economics to biology. In most of these games a constant payoff matrix is assumed, although some works also consider dynamic payoff matrices. In this article we assume a possibility of switching the system between two regimes with different sets of payoff matrices. Potentially such a model can qualitatively describe the development of bacterial or cancer cells with a mutator gene present. A finite population evolutionary game is studied. The model describes the simplest version of annealed disorder in the payoff matrix and is exactly solvable at the large population limit. We analyze the dynamics of the model, and derive the equations for both the maximum and the variance of the distribution using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation formalism.

  14. An algorithmic characterization of P-matricity

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Gharbia , Ibtihel; Gilbert , Jean Charles

    2013-01-01

    International audience; It is shown that a matrix M is a P-matrix if and only if, whatever is the vector q, the Newton-min algorithm does not cycle between two points when it is used to solve the linear complementarity problem 0 ≤ x ⊥ (Mx+q) ≥ 0.; Nous montrons dans cet article qu'une matrice M est une P-matrice si, et seulement si, quel que soit le vecteur q, l'algorithme de Newton-min ne fait pas de cycle de deux points lorsqu'il est utilisé pour résoudre le problème de compl\\émentarité lin...

  15. Introduction to random matrices theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Livan, Giacomo; Vivo, Pierpaolo

    2018-01-01

    Modern developments of Random Matrix Theory as well as pedagogical approaches to the standard core of the discipline are surprisingly hard to find in a well-organized, readable and user-friendly fashion. This slim and agile book, written in a pedagogical and hands-on style, without sacrificing formal rigor fills this gap. It brings Ph.D. students in Physics, as well as more senior practitioners, through the standard tools and results on random matrices, with an eye on most recent developments that are not usually covered in introductory texts. The focus is mainly on random matrices with real spectrum. The main guiding threads throughout the book are the Gaussian Ensembles. In particular, Wigner’s semicircle law is derived multiple times to illustrate several techniques  (e.g., Coulomb gas approach, replica theory). Most chapters are accompanied by Matlab codes (stored in an online repository) to guide readers through the numerical check of most analytical results.

  16. Teaching Fourier optics through ray matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, I; Sanchez-Lopez, M M; Ferreira, C; Davis, J A; Mateos, F

    2005-01-01

    In this work we examine the use of ray-transfer matrices for teaching and for deriving some topics in a Fourier optics course, exploiting the mathematical simplicity of ray matrices compared to diffraction integrals. A simple analysis of the physical meaning of the elements of the ray matrix provides a fast derivation of the conditions to obtain the optical Fourier transform. We extend this derivation to fractional Fourier transform optical systems, and derive the order of the transform from the ray matrix. Some examples are provided to stress this point of view, both with classical and with graded index lenses. This formulation cannot replace the complete explanation of Fourier optics provided by the wave theory, but it is a complementary tool useful to simplify many aspects of Fourier optics and to relate them to geometrical optics

  17. The recurrence sequences via Sylvester matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaduman, Erdal; Deveci, Ömür

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we define the Pell-Jacobsthal-Slyvester sequence and the Jacobsthal-Pell-Slyvester sequence by using the Slyvester matrices which are obtained from the characteristic polynomials of the Pell and Jacobsthal sequences and then, we study the sequences defined modulo m. Also, we obtain the cyclic groups and the semigroups from the generating matrices of these sequences when read modulo m and then, we derive the relationships among the orders of the cyclic groups and the periods of the sequences. Furthermore, we redefine Pell-Jacobsthal-Slyvester sequence and the Jacobsthal-Pell-Slyvester sequence by means of the elements of the groups and then, we examine them in the finite groups.

  18. Joint Matrices Decompositions and Blind Source Separation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chabriel, G.; Kleinsteuber, M.; Moreau, E.; Shen, H.; Tichavský, Petr; Yeredor, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2014), s. 34-43 ISSN 1053-5888 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/09/1278 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : joint matrices decomposition * tensor decomposition * blind source separation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 5.852, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/SI/tichavsky-0427607.pdf

  19. Tensor Permutation Matrices in Finite Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Christian, Rakotonirina

    2005-01-01

    We have generalised the properties with the tensor product, of one 4x4 matrix which is a permutation matrix, and we call a tensor commutation matrix. Tensor commutation matrices can be constructed with or without calculus. A formula allows us to construct a tensor permutation matrix, which is a generalisation of tensor commutation matrix, has been established. The expression of an element of a tensor commutation matrix has been generalised in the case of any element of a tensor permutation ma...

  20. Fast Approximate Joint Diagonalization Incorporating Weight Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichavský, Petr; Yeredor, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2009), s. 878-891 ISSN 1053-587X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : autoregressive processes * blind source separation * nonstationary random processes Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.212, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/SI/tichavsky-fast approximate joint diagonalization incorporating weight matrices.pdf

  1. Photoluminescence of nanocrystals embedded in oxide matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, C.; Gonzalez, J.A.; Kunold, A.; Reyes-Esqueda, J.A.; Pereyra, P.

    2006-12-01

    We used the theory of finite periodic systems to explain the photoluminescence spectra dependence on the average diameter of nanocrystals embedded in oxide matrices. Because of the broad matrix band gap, the photoluminescence response is basically determined by isolated nanocrystals and sequences of a few of them. With this model we were able to reproduce the shape and displacement of the experimentally observed photoluminescence spectra. (author)

  2. Equiangular tight frames and unistochastic matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goyeneche, D.; Turek, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 24 (2017), č. článku 245304. ISSN 1751-8113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-01706S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : equiangular tight frames * unistochastic matrices * SIC POVM Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 1.857, year: 2016

  3. Simplifications of rational matrices by using UML

    OpenAIRE

    Tasić, Milan B.; Stanimirović, Ivan P.

    2013-01-01

    The simplification process on rational matrices consists of simplifying each entry represented by a rational function. We follow the classic approach of dividing the numerator and denominator polynomials by their common GCD polynomial, and provide the activity diagram in UML for this process. A rational matrix representation as the quotient of a polynomial matrix and a polynomial is also discussed here and illustrated via activity diagrams. Also, a class diagram giving the links between the c...

  4. Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2015-01-07

    We approximate large non-structured covariance matrices in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(n log n). We compute inverse, Cholesky decomposition and determinant in H-format. As an example we consider the class of Matern covariance functions, which are very popular in spatial statistics, geostatistics, machine learning and image analysis. Applications are: kriging and optimal design

  5. Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2015-01-05

    We approximate large non-structured covariance matrices in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(nlogn). We compute inverse, Cholesky decomposition and determinant in H-format. As an example we consider the class of Matern covariance functions, which are very popular in spatial statistics, geostatistics, machine learning and image analysis. Applications are: kriging and op- timal design.

  6. PHAGOCYTOSIS AND REMODELING OF COLLAGEN MATRICES

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Leah C.; Dice, J Fred.; Lee, Kyongbum; Kaplan, David L.

    2007-01-01

    The biodegradation of collagen and the deposition of new collagen-based extracellular matrices are of central importance in tissue remodeling and function. Similarly, for collagen-based biomaterials used in tissue engineering, the degradation of collagen scaffolds with accompanying cellular infiltration and generation of new extracellular matrix is critical for integration of in vitro grown tissues in vivo. In earlier studies we observed significant impact of collagen structure on primary lun...

  7. Preconditioners for regularized saddle point matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2011), s. 91-112 ISSN 1570-2820 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : saddle point matrices * preconditioning * regularization * eigenvalue clustering Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.533, year: 2011 http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jnma.2011.19.issue-2/jnum.2011.005/jnum.2011.005. xml

  8. Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander; Genton, Marc G.; Sun, Ying; Tempone, Raul

    2015-01-01

    We approximate large non-structured covariance matrices in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(n log n). We compute inverse, Cholesky decomposition and determinant in H-format. As an example we consider the class of Matern covariance functions, which are very popular in spatial statistics, geostatistics, machine learning and image analysis. Applications are: kriging and optimal design

  9. Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander; Genton, Marc G.; Sun, Ying; Tempone, Raul

    2015-01-01

    We approximate large non-structured covariance matrices in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(nlogn). We compute inverse, Cholesky decomposition and determinant in H-format. As an example we consider the class of Matern covariance functions, which are very popular in spatial statistics, geostatistics, machine learning and image analysis. Applications are: kriging and op- timal design.

  10. Quantitative profiling of PE, MMPE, DMPE, and PC lipid species by multiple precursor ion scanning: A tool for monitoring PE metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgin, Mesut; Markgraf, Daniel F; Duchoslav, Eva

    2011-01-01

    We report a method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), monomethyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (MMPE), dimethyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), and phosphatidylcholine (PC) species in lipid extracts. The method employs a specific "mass-tag" strategy...... where DMPE, MMPE, and PE species are chemically methylated with deuterated methyliodide (CD(3)I) to produce PC molecules having class-specific mass offsets of 3, 6 and 9Da, respectively. The derivatized aminoglycerophospholipids release characteristic phosphorylcholine-like fragment ions having specific...... and DMPE, and abundant PE and PC species in a single mass spectrometric analysis. We demonstrated the efficacy of the methodology by conducting a series of biochemical experiments using stable isotope labeled ethanolamine to survey the activities and substrate specificities of enzymes involved in PE...

  11. Fractional ablative erbium YAG laser: histological characterization of relationships between laser settings and micropore dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taudorf, Elisabeth H; Haak, Christina S; Erlendsson, Andrés M; Philipsen, Peter A; Anderson, R Rox; Paasch, Uwe; Haedersdal, Merete

    2014-04-01

    Treatment of a variety of skin disorders with ablative fractional lasers (AFXL) is driving the development of portable AFXLs. This study measures micropore dimensions produced by a small 2,940 nm AFXL using a variety of stacked pulses, and determines a model correlating laser parameters with tissue effects. Ex vivo pig skin was exposed to a miniaturized 2,940 nm AFXL, spot size 225 µm, density 5%, power levels 1.15-2.22 W, pulse durations 50-225 microseconds, pulse repetition rates 100-500 Hz, and 2, 20, or 50 stacked pulses, resulting in pulse energies of 2.3-12.8 mJ/microbeam and total energy levels of 4.6-640 mJ/microchannel. Histological endpoints were ablation depth (AD), coagulation zone (CZ) and ablation width (AW). Data were logarithmically transformed if required prior to linear regression analyses. Results for histological endpoints were combined in a mathematical model. In 138 sections from 91 biopsies, AD ranged from 16 to a maximum of 1,348 µm and increased linearly with the logarithm of total energy delivered by stacked pulses, but also depended on variations in power, pulse duration, pulse repetition rate, and pulse energy (r(2)  = 0.54-0.85, P micropores of specific ADs with an associated range of CZs and AWs, for example, 300 µm ADs were associated with CZs from 27 to 73 µm and AWs from 190 to 347 µm. Pulse stacking with a small, low power 2,940 nm AFXL created reproducible shallow to deep micropores, and influenced micropore configuration. Mathematical modeling established relations between laser settings and micropore dimensions, which assists in choosing laser settings for desired tissue effects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Pool boiling characteristics and critical heat flux mechanisms of microporous surfaces and enhancement through structural modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Minseok; Graham, Samuel

    2017-08-01

    Experimental studies have shown that microporous surfaces induce one of the highest enhancements in critical heat flux (CHF) during pool boiling. However, microporous surfaces may also induce a very large surface superheat (>100 °C) which is not desirable for applications such as microelectronics cooling. While the understanding of the CHF mechanism is the key to enhancing boiling heat transfer, a comprehensive understanding is not yet available. So far, three different theories for the CHF of microporous surfaces have been suggested: viscous-capillary model, hydrodynamic instability model, and dryout of the porous coatings. In general, all three theories account for some aspects of boiling phenomena. In this study, the theories are examined through their correlations with experimental data on microporous surfaces during pool boiling using deionized (DI) water. It was found that the modulation of the vapor-jet through the pore network enables a higher CHF than that of a flat surface based on the hydrodynamic instability theory. In addition, it was found that as the heat flux increases, a vapor layer grows in the porous coatings described by a simple thermal resistance model which is responsible for the large surface superheat. Once the vapor layer grows to fill the microporous structure, transition to film boiling occurs and CHF is reached. By disrupting the formation of this vapor layer through the fabrication of channels to allow vapor escape, an enhancement in the CHF and heat transfer coefficient was observed, allowing CHF greater than 3500 kW/m2 at a superheat less than 50 °C.

  13. Group inverses of M-matrices and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkland, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Group inverses for singular M-matrices are useful tools not only in matrix analysis, but also in the analysis of stochastic processes, graph theory, electrical networks, and demographic models. Group Inverses of M-Matrices and Their Applications highlights the importance and utility of the group inverses of M-matrices in several application areas. After introducing sample problems associated with Leslie matrices and stochastic matrices, the authors develop the basic algebraic and spectral properties of the group inverse of a general matrix. They then derive formulas for derivatives of matrix f

  14. Deterministic matrices matching the compressed sensing phase transitions of Gaussian random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monajemi, Hatef; Jafarpour, Sina; Gavish, Matan; Donoho, David L.; Ambikasaran, Sivaram; Bacallado, Sergio; Bharadia, Dinesh; Chen, Yuxin; Choi, Young; Chowdhury, Mainak; Chowdhury, Soham; Damle, Anil; Fithian, Will; Goetz, Georges; Grosenick, Logan; Gross, Sam; Hills, Gage; Hornstein, Michael; Lakkam, Milinda; Lee, Jason; Li, Jian; Liu, Linxi; Sing-Long, Carlos; Marx, Mike; Mittal, Akshay; Monajemi, Hatef; No, Albert; Omrani, Reza; Pekelis, Leonid; Qin, Junjie; Raines, Kevin; Ryu, Ernest; Saxe, Andrew; Shi, Dai; Siilats, Keith; Strauss, David; Tang, Gary; Wang, Chaojun; Zhou, Zoey; Zhu, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    In compressed sensing, one takes samples of an N-dimensional vector using an matrix A, obtaining undersampled measurements . For random matrices with independent standard Gaussian entries, it is known that, when is k-sparse, there is a precisely determined phase transition: for a certain region in the (,)-phase diagram, convex optimization typically finds the sparsest solution, whereas outside that region, it typically fails. It has been shown empirically that the same property—with the same phase transition location—holds for a wide range of non-Gaussian random matrix ensembles. We report extensive experiments showing that the Gaussian phase transition also describes numerous deterministic matrices, including Spikes and Sines, Spikes and Noiselets, Paley Frames, Delsarte-Goethals Frames, Chirp Sensing Matrices, and Grassmannian Frames. Namely, for each of these deterministic matrices in turn, for a typical k-sparse object, we observe that convex optimization is successful over a region of the phase diagram that coincides with the region known for Gaussian random matrices. Our experiments considered coefficients constrained to for four different sets , and the results establish our finding for each of the four associated phase transitions. PMID:23277588

  15. Use of Mobile Testing System PeLe for Developing Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titova, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    One of the objectives of this paper is to investigate the pedagogical impact of both the mobile testing system PeLe (Norway, HiST) and the enquiry-based learning approach on language skills development in the context of mobile-assisted learning. The research aims to work out a methodological framework of PeLe implementation into the language…

  16. A review of factors affecting the attractiveness of Angola to private equity (PE investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefania Jover

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Angola’s attractiveness to PE investors and the potential to increase PE investments in the country are explored. Primary data were collected using a survey of 18 PE funds that invest or have considered investing in Angola, followed by 10 expert interviews to gain deeper insight into the country’s institutional and economic environment, and its potential for PE investments. It is found that most PE funds are attracted to Angola by its rapid economic growth and high potential returns. The country is also vastly undersupplied, and many key economic sectors are fast developing, presenting exciting opportunities for investors. Nevertheless, PE in Angola remains limited, mainly owing to the difficulty of doing business in Angola, and owing particularly to the unfavourable regulatory environment. There is no regulation or process when it comes to the registration of PE funds in Angola, and any new regulation that applies to foreign investments is marred by unnecessary red tape, making it difficult for the investment to enter the market. Only two funds are authorised to operate in Angola: Fundo de Investimento Privado de Angola (FIPA, and BESA Activ. Streamlining regulation is critical to increasing PE flows to Angola in order to advance the country’s economic and social objectives.

  17. Reproducibility of [123I]PE2I binding to dopamine transporters with SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebell, Morten; Thomsen, Gerda; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2007-01-01

    The iodinated cocaine derivative [(123)I]PE2I is a new selective ligand for in vivo studies of the dopamine transporter (DAT) with SPECT. Recently, a bolus/infusion (B/I) protocol for [(123)I]PE2I measurements of DAT density was established [Pinborg LH et al. J Nucl Med 2005;46:1119-271]. The aims...

  18. Whole-School Management Issues Concerning the PE Department: "A Natural Division of Labour?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gareth Mark; Williams, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Utilising the labour ideas of Adam Smith and Emile Durkheim as a theoretical basis, the main objective of this study was to investigate the perception that Heads of Physical Education (HoPE) face unique management and leadership challenges. Results showed that HoPE believe that they are overburdened with tasks primarily involving the delegation of…

  19. Casos autoctones de esquistossomose mansonica em criancas de Recife, PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanca Simoes Barbosa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO : Investigar criadouros com moluscos hospedeiros e casos humanos autóctones para esquistossomose. MÉTODOS : Entre julho de 2010 e setembro de 2012 foram realizados: (1 levantamento malacológico para busca ativa de criadouros, coleta e identificação de caramujos Biomphalaria positivos para Schistosoma mansoni em Recife, PE; (2 inquérito de prevalência com 2.718 escolares, de sete a 14 anos, para diagnóstico de casos de esquistossomose; (3 exame clínico e ultrassonografia nos casos positivos para S. mansoni. Os casos foram investigados quanto à sua autoctonia e avaliados clinicamente. Os casos e criadouros foram georreferenciados e espacializados. RESULTADOS : Foram identificados 30 criadouros de B. straminea , quatro deles potenciais focos de transmissão, uma vez que os testes moleculares identificaram DNA de S. mansoni nos caramujos coletados. Foram diagnosticadas 14 crianças com esquistossomose; entre elas, cinco foram consideradas casos autóctones da doença. CONCLUSÕES : Ações emergenciais pela vigilância em saúde são necessárias para evitar que a esquistossomose se endemize em Recife, como acontece em localidades litorâneas do estado de Pernambuco.

  20. The Balkan gurbet/pečalbarstvo - past and present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Petko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an observation on the various traditional forms of cross-border seasonal labour mobility on the Balkans, both as agricultural works away from the home place, and as large-scale temporary craftsmen’s migrations of builders, bakers, dairy workers, confectioners and so on. In countries like Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia and Serbia, traditional cultural models of trans-border labour mobility that encompasses the majority of the male population of entire regions have existed for centuries. These migrant groups created the specific subculture of gurbet, which the men carried with them in the big city, at the same time altering the entire model of traditional culture in their home regions. The annual journeys of men from the various mountain parts of the Balkans “at work” and “for gain” (pečalba in the course of the years developed specific features of the feast-ritual system and folklore in the villages of these regions. At the same time, the traditional Balkan gurbet is an important condition for mutual penetration between various cultures and peoples and for creating new cultural patterns and various multidimentional identities.

  1. Low energy probes of PeV scale sfermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Harnik, Roni; Zupan, Jure

    2013-11-27

    We derive bounds on squark and slepton masses in mini-split supersymmetry scenario using low energy experiments. In this setup gauginos are at the TeV scale, while sfermions are heavier by a loop factor. We cover the most sensitive low energy probes including electric dipole moments (EDMs), meson oscillations and charged lepton flavor violation (LFV) transitions. A leading log resummation of the large logs of gluino to sfermion mass ratio is performed. A sensitivity to PeV squark masses is obtained at present from kaon mixing measurements. A number of observables, including neutron EDMs, mu->e transitions and charmed meson mixing, will start probing sfermion masses in the 100 TeV-1000 TeV range with the projected improvements in the experimental sensitivities. We also discuss the implications of our results for a variety of models that address the flavor hierarchy of quarks and leptons. We find that EDM searches will be a robust probe of models in which fermion masses are generated radiatively, while LFV searches remain sensitive to simple-texture based flavor models.

  2. Scintigraphic evidence for overdiagnosis of small PE on CT pulmonary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    A 68-year-old man with recent history of a fall presented with dyspnea on exertion, and underwent computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for possible pulmonary embolism (PE). The CTPA was first read by the radiology resident as nondiagnostic for segmental PE. Subsequent planar perfusion (Q) images were normal; meanwhile, the attending radiologist revised the CTPA results as subsegmental PE in the left upper lobe. Further Q-SPECT images were obtained and fused with CTPA for clarification, which showed normal perfusion in the region of PE. The patient was monitored without anticoagulation treatment and remained uneventful for 12 months. This case illustrates that CTPA can lead to overdiagnosis and overtreatment of nonocclusive subsegmental PE

  3. Ultrasonic testing standard of fusion joint for polythylene(PE) pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Euy Jong; Hur, Sam Suk; Chae, Gug Byeong

    2006-01-01

    The polyethylene(PE) pipes are widely used to transport city gas worldwide with steel pipes. Generally, Steel pipe are used for high pressure line and PE pipe for low pressure line whose pressure is less than 4 kg/m 2 . The steel pipe line are subject to 100 percent Radiographic Testing(RT) during installation stage, on the contrary, there has been no the established testing method for the welding fusion joint of polyethylene pipes, so all quality control is limited only Visual Testing(VT) or management of Fusion welding equipment. Even though PE pipeline is exposed to lower pressure than steel pipeline, the gas leakage from PE pipe may result in almost the same serious consequence from steel pipeline. So, it is necessary to develop the reliable testing standard for PE pipeline from the point of view of NDT engineers.

  4. Earnings quality and P/E ratio: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the impacts of earnings quality criteria on the ratio of price to earnings per share (P/E on 88 accepted companies in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE over the period 2007- 2012. The results indicate that there was a positive and significant relationship between the P/E ratio and cash dividend. There is also a positive and significant relationship between P/E ratio as dependent variable and the gross profit ratio to sales. On the other hand, there is a significant reverse relationship between P/E ratio and the profit variability. However, no significant relationship exists between P/E as dependent variable and deferrals (accruals variable.

  5. Meso- and micropore characteristics of coal lithotypes: Implications for CO2 adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Rupp, J.

    2008-01-01

    Lithotypes (vitrain, clarain, and fusain) of high volatile bituminous Pennsylvanian coals (Ro of 0.56-0.62%) from Indiana (the Illinois Basin) have been studied with regard to meso- and micropore characteristics using low-pressure nitrogen and carbon dioxide adsorption techniques, respectively. High-pressure CO2 adsorption isotherms were obtained from lithotypes of the Lower Block Coal Member (the Brazil Formation) and the Springfield Coal Member (the Petersburg Formation), and after evacuation of CO2, the lithotypes were re-analyzed for meso- and micropore characteristics to investigate changes related to high-pressure CO2 adsorption. Coal lithotypes have differing Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas and mesopore volumes, with significantly lower values in fusains than in vitrains or clarains. Fusains have very limited pore volume in the pore size width of 4-10 nm, and the volume, increases with an increase in pore size, in contrast to vitrain, for which a 4-10 nm range is the dominant pore'Wlidth. For clarain, both pores of 4-10 nm and pores larger than 20 nm contribute substantially to the mesoporosity. Micropore surface areas are the smallest for fusain (from 72.8 to 98.2 m2/g), largest for vitrain (from 125.0 to,158.4 m2 /g), and intermediate for clarain (from 110.5 to 124.4 m2/g). Similar relationships are noted for micropore volumes, and the lower values of these parameters in fusains are related to smaller volumes of all incremental micropore sizes. In the Springfield and the Lower Block Coal Members, among lithotypes studied, fusain has the lowest adsorption capacity. For the Lower Block, vitrain has significantly higher adsorption capacity than fusain and clarain, whereas for the Springfield, vitrain and clarain have comparable but still significantly higher adsorption capacities than fusain. The Lower Block vitrain and fusain have much higher adsorption capacities than those in the Springfield, whereas the clarains of the two coals are comparable

  6. [Measurement and analysis of micropore aeration system's oxygenating ability under operation condition in waste water treatment plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Shi, Han-Chang; Qiu, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Using the aeration pool in the fourth-stage at Wuxi Lucun Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) as experimental setup, off-gas method was selected to measure the oxygenating ability parameters of micropore aerators in a real WWTP operating condition and these values were compared with those in fresh water to evaluate the performance of the micropore aerators. Results showed that the micropore aerators which were distributed in different galleries of the aeration pool had significantly different oxygenating abilities under operation condition. The oxygenating ability of the micropore aerators distributed in the same gallery changed slightly during one day. Comparing with the oxygenating ability in fresh water, it decreased a lot in the real aeration pool, in more details, under the real WWTP operating condition, the values of oxygen transfer coefficient K(La) oxygenation capacity OC and oxygen utilization E(a) decreased by 43%, 57% and 76%, respectively.

  7. A Novel Non-Planar Transverse Stretching Process for Micro-Porous PTFE Membranes and Resulting Characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Y.-H.; Chen, S.-C.; Wang, T.-J.; Guo, J.

    2018-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) micro-porous membranes were prepared from PTFE fine powder through extruding, rolling, and uniaxial longitudinally stretching. In contrast to conventional planar transverse stretching, a novel 3D mold design of non

  8. Assessment of the role of micropore size and N-doping in CO2 capture by porous carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla, Marta; Parra, Jose B; Fuertes, Antonio B

    2013-07-10

    The role of micropore size and N-doping in CO2 capture by microporous carbons has been investigated by analyzing the CO2 adsorption properties of two types of activated carbons with analogous textural properties: (a) N-free carbon microspheres and (b) N-doped carbon microspheres. Both materials exhibit a porosity made up exclusively of micropores ranging in size between micropores with a size below 0.8 nm. It was also observed that the CO2 capture capacities of undoped and N-doped carbons are analogous which shows that the nitrogen functionalities present in these N-doped samples do not influence CO2 adsorption. Taking into account the temperature invariance of the characteristic curve postulated by the Dubinin theory, we show that CO2 uptakes can be accurately predicted by using the adsorption data measured at just one temperature.

  9. Superior capture of CO2 achieved by introducing extra-framework cations into N-doped microporous carbon

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yunfeng; Liu, Xin; Yao, Kexin; Zhao, Lan; Han, Yu

    2012-01-01

    We designed and prepared a novel microporous carbon material (KNC-A-K) for selective CO2 capture. The combination of a high N-doping concentration (>10 wt %) and extra-framework cations, which were introduced into carbonaceous sorbents

  10. High-performance carbon molecular sieve membranes for ethylene/ethane separation derived from an intrinsically microporous polyimide

    KAUST Repository

    Salinas, Octavio; Ma, Xiaohua; Litwiller, Eric; Pinnau, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    An intrinsically microporous polymer with hydroxyl functionalities, PIM-6FDA-OH, was used as a precursor for various types of carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membranes for ethylene/ethane separation. The pristine polyimide films were heated under

  11. Facile synthesis of triazine-triphenylamine-based microporous covalent polymer adsorbent for flue gas CO2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Swapan Kumar; Wang, Xinbo; Lai, Zhiping

    2017-01-01

    The sustainable capture and sequestration of CO2 from flue gas emission is an important and unavoidable challenge to control greenhouse gas release and climate change. In this report, we describe a triazine-triphenylamine-based microporous covalent

  12. Facile synthesis of microporous carbon through a soft-template pathway and its performance in desulfurization and denitrogenation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Sun; Gang Li; Xiaoxing Wang

    2010-01-01

    Wormlike/lamellar microporous carbons were prepared by using long alkyl chain primary amine hydrochloride as the template and resorcinol/formaldehyde as the carbon source under highly acidic conditions. The template can be eliminated by high temperature treatment under an inert atmosphere. The obtained carbon materials were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that dodecylamine hydrochloride surfactant can be used as the template of wormlike micropores structure while octadecylamine hydrochloride results in both lamellar and wormlike micropores. The obtained carbon materials have the similar pore size in the range of 0.5~0.59 nm, but with various morphologies such as monolith, spheres, and coralline. The microporous carbon obtained from dodecytamine hydrochloride surfactant shows good "adsorption performance to remove the refractory sulfur compounds and nitrogen-containing compounds in fuel.

  13. Determination of coefficient matrices for ARMA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Dinh Tri.

    1990-10-01

    A new recursive algorithm for determining coefficient matrices of ARMA model from measured data is presented. The Yule-Walker equations for the case of ARMA model are derived from the ARMA innovation equation. The recursive algorithm is based on choosing appropriate form of the operator functions and suitable representation of the (n+1)-th order operator functions according to ones with the lower order. Two cases, when the order of the AR part is equal to one of the MA part, and the optimal case, were considered. (author) 5 refs

  14. Algebraic Graph Theory Morphisms, Monoids and Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Knauer, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    This is a highly self-contained book about algebraic graph theory which iswritten with a view to keep the lively and unconventional atmosphere of a spoken text to communicate the enthusiasm the author feels about this subject. The focus is on homomorphisms and endomorphisms, matrices and eigenvalues. Graph models are extremely useful for almost all applications and applicators as they play an important role as structuring tools. They allow to model net structures -like roads, computers, telephones -instances of abstract data structures -likelists, stacks, trees -and functional or object orient

  15. Coherence and extensions of stochastic matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Gilio

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a review of some general results on coherence of conditional probability assessments is given. Then, a necessary and sufficient condition on coherence of two finite families of discrete conditianal probability distributions, represented by two stochastic matrices P and Q, is obtained. Moreover, the possible extensions of the assessment (P,Q to the marginal distributions are examined and explicit formulas for them are given in some special case. Finally, a general algorithm to check coherence of (P,Q and to derive its extensions is proposed.

  16. 2D gravity and random matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinn-Justin, J.

    1990-01-01

    Recent progress in 2D gravity coupled to d ≤ 1 matter, based on a representation of discrete gravity in terms of random matrices, is reported. The matrix problem can be solved in many cases by the introduction of suitable orthogonal polynomials. Alternatively in the continuum limit the orthogonal polynomial method can be shown to be equivalent to the construction of representation of the canonical commutation relations in terms of differential operators. In the case of pure gravity or discrete Ising-like matter the sum over topologies is reduced to the solution of non-linear differential equations. The d = 1 problem can be solved by semiclassical methods

  17. Teatro Depressinha. 5 Pequenas Peças de Teatro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Martins Coelho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Artefacto plural e educativo, o último livro de recepção infantil de José Viale Moutinho vem porfiar a ideia de como o teatro pode e deve ser entendido como uma arte expressiva, descomplexada e eficaz, enquanto experiência formativa intensa. Com essa arte performativa, é, então, possível instruir, divertindo, o jovem receptor. Dirigido, sensivelmente, a um leitor de 5 aos 10 anos, o livro que veio a lume em 2012, reúne três linguagens distintas mas convergentes. Em primeiro lugar, o texto colocado no começo do livro, em jeito de prefácio, intitulado “De Élvio Camacho, encenador e ator”, apresenta-se como um “modo de instrução” para explorar os meios dramatúrgicos que as cinco pequenas peças de Viale Moutinho reclamam. Quanto aos textos para teatro propriamente ditos, estes recuperam ora o tema do menino traquinas (“O menino lá do fundo da sala” e “aquele menino que se porta tão mal”, ora o tópico do teatro-circo (“Dom Adivinhão”, ora o universo da literatura oral e tradicional, de que o autor é um acérrimo defensor (“O tesouro do cego” e “Um favorzinho”. Na verdade, o engenho do autor consiste em fazer cruzar nas suas “pequenas comédias” todas essas fantasias e discursos.

  18. Multifunction Sr, Co and F co-doped microporous coating on titanium of antibacterial, angiogenic and osteogenic activities

    OpenAIRE

    Jianhong Zhou; Lingzhou Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Advanced multifunction titanium (Ti) based bone implant with antibacterial, angiogenic and osteogenic activities is stringently needed in clinic, which may be accomplished via incorporation of proper inorganic bioactive elements. In this work, microporous TiO2/calcium-phosphate coating on Ti doped with strontium, cobalt and fluorine (SCF-TiCP) was developed, which had a hierarchical micro/nano-structure with a microporous structure evenly covered with nano-grains. SCF-TiCP greatly inhibited t...

  19. Decontamination of solid matrices using supercritical CO{sub 2}: study of contaminant-additives-CO{sub 2}; Decontamination de matrices organiques solides par CO{sub 2} supercritique: etude des interactions contaminant-additifs-CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galy, J

    2006-11-15

    This work deals with the decontamination of solid matrices by supercritical CO{sub 2} and more particularly with the study of the interactions between the surfactants and the CO{sub 2} in one part, and with the interactions between the contaminant and the surfactants in another part. The first part of this study has revealed the different interactions between the Pluronics molecules and the supercritical CO{sub 2}. The diagrams graphs have shown that the pluronics (PE 6100, PE 8100 and PE 10100) present a solubility in the supercritical CO{sub 2} low but sufficient (0.1% m/m at 25 MPa and 313 K) for the studied application: the treatment of weak quantities of cerium oxide (or plutonium). An empirical approach based on the evolutions of the slops value and of the origin ordinates of the PT diagrams has been carried out to simulate the phase diagrams PT of the Pluronics. A modeling based on the state equations 'SAFT' (Statistical Associating Fluid Theory) has been studied in order to confirm the experimental results of the disorder points and to understand the role of the different blocks 'PEO' and 'PPO' in the behaviour of Pluronics; this modeling confirms the evolution of the slopes value with the 'CO{sub 2}-phily' of the system. The measure of the surface tension in terms of the Pluronics concentration (PE 6100, 81000 and 10100) has shown different behaviours. For the PE 6100, the surface tension decreases when the surfactant concentration increases (at constant pressure and temperature); on the other hand, for the PE 8100 a slop rupture appears and corresponds to the saturation of the interface water/CO{sub 2} and allows then to determine the Interface Saturation Concentration (ISC). The ISC value (at constant pressure and temperature) increases with an increase of the 'CO{sub 2}-phily'). The model hydrophilous medium being an approximation, it has been replaced by a solid polar phase of CeO{sub 2}. A parallel has

  20. Frequency filtering decompositions for unsymmetric matrices and matrices with strongly varying coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, C.

    1996-12-31

    In 1992, Wittum introduced the frequency filtering decompositions (FFD), which yield a fast method for the iterative solution of large systems of linear equations. Based on this method, the tangential frequency filtering decompositions (TFFD) have been developed. The TFFD allow the robust and efficient treatment of matrices with strongly varying coefficients. The existence and the convergence of the TFFD can be shown for symmetric and positive definite matrices. For a large class of matrices, it is possible to prove that the convergence rate of the TFFD and of the FFD is independent of the number of unknowns. For both methods, schemes for the construction of frequency filtering decompositions for unsymmetric matrices have been developed. Since, in contrast to Wittums`s FFD, the TFFD needs only one test vector, an adaptive test vector can be used. The TFFD with respect to the adaptive test vector can be combined with other iterative methods, e.g. multi-grid methods, in order to improve the robustness of these methods. The frequency filtering decompositions have been successfully applied to the problem of the decontamination of a heterogeneous porous medium by flushing.

  1. Tadalafil inclusion in microporous silica as effective dissolution enhancer: optimization of loading procedure and molecular state characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanna, Mohammed M; Motawaa, Adel M; Samaha, Magda W

    2011-05-01

    Tadalafil is an efficient drug used to treat erectile dysfunction characterized by poor water solubility, which has a negative influence on its bioavailability. Utilization of microporous silica represents an effective and facile technology to increase the dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs. Our strategy involved directly introducing tadalafil as guest molecule into microporous silica as host material by incipient wetness impregnation method. To optimize tadalafil inclusion, response surface methodology (RSM) using 3(3) factorial design was utilized. Furthermore, to investigate the molecular state of tadalafil, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetery, thermal gravimetrical analysis, nitrogen adsorption, and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) were carried out. The results obtained pointed out that the quantity of microporous silica was the predominant factor that increased the loading efficiency. For the optimized formula, the loading efficiency was 42.50 wt %. Adsorption-desorption experiments indicated that tadalafil has been introduced into the micropores. Powder XRD and differential scanning calorimetry analyses revealed that tadalafil is arranged in amorphous form. In addition, the dissolution rate of tadalafil from the microporous silica was faster than that of free drug. Amorphous tadalafil occluded in microporous silica did not crystallize over 3 months. These findings contributed in opening a new strategy concerning the utilization of porous silica for the dissolution rate enhancement. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Structural study and fluorescent property of a novel organic microporous crystalline material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Zhao; Yang, Bingqin; Yang, Meipan; Zhang, Binglin

    2014-01-01

    A novel microporous organic material [(2-{2-[2-(bis-methoxycarbonylmethylamino)phenoxy] ethoxy}-4-benzimidazole-phenyl)methoxycarbonylmethylamino]acetic acid methyl ester 6 was synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS), X-ray powder diffraction (PXRD), 1 H and 13 C NMR. 6 crystallizes in the centrosymmetric monoclinic space group C2/c, with unit cell parameters a = 35.648(3) Å, b = 14.3240(12) Å, c = 15.3693(13) Å, α = 90.00, β = 94.8190(10), γ = 90.00, V = 7820.16 Å 3 and Z = 8 at 296(2) K. As indicated by crystal packing, the molecular conjugation planes arrange along the c axis to form micropores due to the hydrogen bonds. In addition, the fluorescent spectrum and luminescence lifetime were studied for 6. (author)

  3. [Micropore filters for measuring red blood cell deformability and their pore diameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, X; Yan, Z

    2001-09-01

    Micropore filters are the most important components in micropore filtration testes for assessing red blood cell (RBC) deformability. With regard to their appearance and filtration behaviors, comparisons are made for different kinds of filters currently in use. Nickel filters with regular geometric characteristics are found to be more sensitive to the effects of physical, chemical, especially pathological factors on the RBC deformability. We have critically reviewed the following viewpoint that filters with 3 microns pore diameter are more sensitive to cell volume than to internal viscosity while filters with 5 microns pore diameter are just the opposite. After analyzing the experiment results with 3 microns and 5 microns filters, we point out that filters with smaller pore diameters are more suitable for assessing the RBC deformability.

  4. An ultrasonic analysis of the comparative efficiency of various cardiotomy reservoirs and micropore blood filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, D T; Watson, B G; Waterhouse, P S

    1978-01-01

    The ability of 12 commercially available cardiotomy reservoirs to remove bubbles from aspirated blood was investigated by means of a simulated cardiopulmonary bypass circuit and an ultrasonic microbubble detector. Performance varied considerably. The number of gaseous microemboli remaining after passage of blood through the reservoir was reduced by (a) holding the blood in the reservoir, (b) reducing the volume of air mixed with the aspirated blood, and (c) using a reservoir that did not induce turbulence and that contained integral micropore filtration material. Further micropore filtration of the blood after passage through the cardiotomy reservoir was beneficial, and significantly more bubbles were extracted when the microfilter was sited below the reservoir than when it was placed in the arterial line. PMID:684672

  5. Importance of Ion Packing on the Dynamics of Ionic Liquids during Micropore Charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yadong; Qiao, Rui; Vatamanu, Jenel; Borodin, Oleg; Bedrov, Dmitry; Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2016-01-07

    Molecular simulations of the diffusion of EMIM(+) and TFSI(-) ions in slit-shaped micropores under conditions similar to those during charging show that in pores that accommodate only a single layer of ions, ions diffuse increasingly faster as the pore becomes charged (with diffusion coefficients even reaching ∼5 × 10(-9) m(2)/s), unless the pore becomes very highly charged. In pores wide enough to fit more than one layer of ions, ion diffusion is slower than in the bulk and changes modestly as the pore becomes charged. Analysis of these results revealed that the fast (or slow) diffusion of ions inside a micropore during charging is correlated most strongly with the dense (or loose) ion packing inside the pore. The molecular details of the ions and the precise width of the pores modify these trends weakly, except when the pore is so narrow that the ion conformation relaxation is strongly constrained by the pore walls.

  6. Micropore sintering in UO2 irradiated below 11000C in the Winfrith SGHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, D.A.; Clough, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The densification behaviour of UO 2 irradiated in the Winfrith steam generating heavy water reactor has been examined using optical and scanning electron microscope techniques and by measuring the densities of whole pellets and small cores removed from pellet sections. Micrography has shown that in the temperature range 400 to 1000 0 C densification is due to the in-factor sintering of micropores (approximately< 2 m in diameter) with a temperature dependency defined by an activation energy of 21.7 kJ/mol. Pore area measurements, allied to previously published work, have led to the derivation of an equation which can be used to predict micropore volume changes occurring during irradiation and takes account of both the temperature and burn-up dependency of pore sintering. (author)

  7. Detecting a single molecule using a micropore-nanopore hybrid chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhu, Lizhong; Ni, Zhonghua; Chen, Yunfei

    2013-11-21

    Nanopore-based DNA sequencing and biomolecule sensing have attracted more and more attention. In this work, novel sensing devices were built on the basis of the chips containing nanopore arrays in polycarbonate (PC) membranes and micropores in Si3N4 films. Using the integrated chips, the transmembrane ionic current induced by biomolecule's translocation was recorded and analyzed, which suggested that the detected current did not change linearly as commonly expected with increasing biomolecule concentration. On the other hand, detailed translocation information (such as translocation gesture) was also extracted from the discrete current blockages in basic current curves. These results indicated that the nanofluidic device based on the chips integrated by micropores and nanopores possessed comparative potentials in biomolecule sensing.

  8. Selective removal of methyl mercaptan in coffee aroma using oxidized microporous carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakano, T. [Ajinomoto General Foods Inc., Tokyo (Japan). Central Research Laboratoties; Tamon, H.; Okazaki, M. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-10-01

    Coffee aroma recovered from the extraction process of roasted coffee beans is used to improve the quality of soluble coffee products. Coffee aroma often has an irritating sulfurous odor. In the present work, it is experimentally elucidated that methyl mercaptan could be selectively removed from the coffee aroma-containing gas by the oxidized microporous carbon. Breakthrough curves of coffee aroma-containing gas on zeolite 5A, microporous carbon (MSC 5A), and MSC 5A oxidized with 13.2N HNO{sub 3} aqueous solution revealed that the adsorption capacity of methyl mercaptan on the oxidized carbon was 4.2 times of that on the zeolite. The loss of desired coffee aroma was decreased using the oxidized carbon in the removal of methyl mercaptan. (author)

  9. Freestanding, heat resistant microporous film for use in energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekala, Richard W.; Cherukupalli, Srinivas; Waterhouse, Robert R.

    2018-02-20

    Preferred embodiments of a freestanding, heat resistant microporous polymer film (10) constructed for use in an energy storage device (70, 100) implements one or more of the following approaches to exhibit excellent high temperature mechanical and dimensional stability: incorporation into a porous polyolefin film of sufficiently high loading levels of inorganic or ceramic filler material (16) to maintain porosity (18) and achieve low thermal shrinkage; use of crosslinkable polyethylene to contribute to crosslinking the polymer matrix (14) in a highly inorganic material-filled polyolefin film; and heat treating or annealing of biaxially oriented, highly inorganic material-filled polyolefin film above the melting point temperature of the polymer matrix to reduce residual stress while maintaining high porosity. The freestanding, heat resistant microporous polymer film embodiments exhibit extremely low resistance, as evidenced by MacMullin numbers of less than 4.5.

  10. Structural study and fluorescent property of a novel organic microporous crystalline material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Zhao; Yang, Bingqin; Yang, Meipan; Zhang, Binglin, E-mail: yangbq@nwu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University (China)

    2014-01-15

    A novel microporous organic material [(2-{2-[2-(bis-methoxycarbonylmethylamino)phenoxy] ethoxy}-4-benzimidazole-phenyl)methoxycarbonylmethylamino]acetic acid methyl ester 6 was synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS), X-ray powder diffraction (PXRD), {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. 6 crystallizes in the centrosymmetric monoclinic space group C2/c, with unit cell parameters a = 35.648(3) Å, b = 14.3240(12) Å, c = 15.3693(13) Å, a = 90.00, ß = 94.8190(10), γ = 90.00, V = 7820.16 Å{sup 3} and Z = 8 at 296(2) K. As indicated by crystal packing, the molecular conjugation planes arrange along the c axis to form micropores due to the hydrogen bonds. In addition, the fluorescent spectrum and luminescence lifetime were studied for 6. (author)

  11. Synthesis of material microporous using raw materials alternative as a source of silica and alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, E.A.; Silva, T.L.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic zeolites have important properties of a technological viewpoint. Thus, this work aims at the use of natural raw materials such as kaolin waste and wood ash in order to produce these microporous materials. The starting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence (XRF); the phases formed as synthesis products were identified by XRD and gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (DTA/TG). Hydrothermal synthesis took place by mixing the raw materials in stoichiometrically calculated batches with NaOH (3M) at 90 °C and time of 6, 20, 24 and 48 hours. The results show the formation of phases of type zeolite A and sodalite, demonstrating the raw materials be an efficient and low cost alternative to producing microporous materials. (author)

  12. Electron transfer reactions in microporous solids. Progress report, September 1990--January 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallouk, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    Basic thrust the research program involves use of microporous solids (zeolites, clays, layered and tunnel structure oxide semiconductors) as organizing media for artificial photosynthetic systems. Purpose of the microporous solid is twofold. First, it induces spatial organization of photoactive and electroactive components (sensitizers, semiconductor particles, electron relays, and catalysts) at the solid-solution interface, enhancing the quantum efficiency of charge separation and separating physically the ultimate electron donor and acceptor in the electron transport chain. Second, since the microcrystalline solid admits only molecules of a certain charge and size, it is possible to achieve permanent charge separation by sieving chemical photoproducts (e.g., H{sub 2} and I{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, or H{sub 2} and O{sub 2)} from each other. Spectroscopic and electrochemical methods are used to study the kinetics of electron transfer reactions in these hybrid molecular/solid state assemblies.

  13. Covalent organic framework-derived microporous carbon nanoparticles coated with conducting polypyrrole as an electrochemical capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Jun; Yoon, Jung Woon; Lee, Chang Soo; Bae, Youn-Sang; Kim, Jong Hak

    2018-05-01

    We report a high-performance electrochemical capacitor based on covalent organic framework (COF)-derived microporous carbon (MPC) nanoparticles and electrochemically polymerized polypyrrole (Ppy) as a pseudocapacitive material. The COF, Schiff-based network-1 (SNW-1) nanoparticles are prepared via a condensation reaction between melamine and terephthalaldehyde, and the resultant MPC film is prepared via a screen-printing method. The MPC film exhibits a bimodal porous structure with micropores and macropores, resulting in both a large surface area and good electrolyte infiltration. Ppy is synthesized potentio-statically (0.8 V vs. Ag/AgCl) by varying the reaction time, and successful synthesis of Ppy is confirmed via Raman spectroscopy. The specific capacitance with the Ppy coating is enhanced by up to 2.55 F cm-2 due to the synergetic effect of pseudocapacitance and reduced resistance.

  14. Ordered microporous layered lanthanide 1,3,5-benzenetriphosphonates pillared with cationic organic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Takahiro; Kondo, Atsushi; Maeda, Kazuyuki

    2015-04-13

    Novel isomorphous pillared-layer-type crystalline lanthanide 1,3,5-benzenetriphosphonates were prepared with bpy and dbo as organic pillars (LnBP-bpy and LnBP-dbo; Ln: Ce, Pr, and Nd). Ab initio crystal structure solution using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data revealed that the organic pillars do not exist as neutral coordinating ligands but as cationic molecules. Especially the LnBP-dbo phases have ordered interlayer space filled with water molecules between the dbo pillars, and the interlayer water is successfully removed by heating under vacuum with slightly distorted but basically retained pillared layer structures. Microporosity of the materials is confirmed by adsorption of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen gases. Such microporous layered metal phosphonates pillared with cationic molecules should be unprecedented and should offer new strategies to design ordered microporous materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Critical statistics for non-Hermitian matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Garcia, A.M.; Verbaarschot, J.J.M.; Nishigaki, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a generalized ensemble of non-Hermitian matrices interpolating between the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble, the Ginibre ensemble, and the Poisson ensemble. The joint eigenvalue distribution of this model is obtained by means of an extension of the Itzykson-Zuber formula to general complex matrices. Its correlation functions are studied both in the case of weak non-Hermiticity and in the case of strong non-Hermiticity. In the weak non-Hermiticity limit we show that the spectral correlations in the bulk of the spectrum display critical statistics: the asymptotic linear behavior of the number variance is already approached for energy differences of the order of the eigenvalue spacing. To lowest order, its slope does not depend on the degree of non-Hermiticity. Close the edge, the spectral correlations are similar to the Hermitian case. In the strong non-Hermiticity limit the crossover behavior from the Ginibre ensemble to the Poisson ensemble first appears close to the surface of the spectrum. Our model may be relevant for the description of the spectral correlations of an open disordered system close to an Anderson transition

  16. Tensor Dictionary Learning for Positive Definite Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivalingam, Ravishankar; Boley, Daniel; Morellas, Vassilios; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos

    2015-11-01

    Sparse models have proven to be extremely successful in image processing and computer vision. However, a majority of the effort has been focused on sparse representation of vectors and low-rank models for general matrices. The success of sparse modeling, along with popularity of region covariances, has inspired the development of sparse coding approaches for these positive definite descriptors. While in earlier work, the dictionary was formed from all, or a random subset of, the training signals, it is clearly advantageous to learn a concise dictionary from the entire training set. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for dictionary learning over positive definite matrices. The dictionary is learned by alternating minimization between sparse coding and dictionary update stages, and different atom update methods are described. A discriminative version of the dictionary learning approach is also proposed, which simultaneously learns dictionaries for different classes in classification or clustering. Experimental results demonstrate the advantage of learning dictionaries from data both from reconstruction and classification viewpoints. Finally, a software library is presented comprising C++ binaries for all the positive definite sparse coding and dictionary learning approaches presented here.

  17. Virial expansion for almost diagonal random matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yevtushenko, Oleg; Kravtsov, Vladimir E

    2003-01-01

    Energy level statistics of Hermitian random matrices H-circumflex with Gaussian independent random entries H i≥j is studied for a generic ensemble of almost diagonal random matrices with (vertical bar H ii vertical bar 2 ) ∼ 1 and (vertical bar H i≠j vertical bar 2 ) bF(vertical bar i - j vertical bar) parallel 1. We perform a regular expansion of the spectral form-factor K(τ) = 1 + bK 1 (τ) + b 2 K 2 (τ) + c in powers of b parallel 1 with the coefficients K m (τ) that take into account interaction of (m + 1) energy levels. To calculate K m (τ), we develop a diagrammatic technique which is based on the Trotter formula and on the combinatorial problem of graph edges colouring with (m + 1) colours. Expressions for K 1 (τ) and K 2 (τ) in terms of infinite series are found for a generic function F(vertical bar i - j vertical bar ) in the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE), the Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) and in the crossover between them (the almost unitary Gaussian ensemble). The Rosenzweig-Porter and power-law banded matrix ensembles are considered as examples

  18. Generalized Eigenvalues for pairs on heritian matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rublein, George

    1988-01-01

    A study was made of certain special cases of a generalized eigenvalue problem. Let A and B be nxn matrics. One may construct a certain polynomial, P(A,B, lambda) which specializes to the characteristic polynomial of B when A equals I. In particular, when B is hermitian, that characteristic polynomial, P(I,B, lambda) has real roots, and one can ask: are the roots of P(A,B, lambda) real when B is hermitian. We consider the case where A is positive definite and show that when N equals 3, the roots are indeed real. The basic tools needed in the proof are Shur's theorem on majorization for eigenvalues of hermitian matrices and the interlacing theorem for the eigenvalues of a positive definite hermitian matrix and one of its principal (n-1)x(n-1) minors. The method of proof first reduces the general problem to one where the diagonal of B has a certain structure: either diag (B) = diag (1,1,1) or diag (1,1,-1), or else the 2 x 2 principal minors of B are all 1. According as B has one of these three structures, we use an appropriate method to replace A by a positive diagonal matrix. Since it can be easily verified that P(D,B, lambda) has real roots, the result follows. For other configurations of B, a scaling and a continuity argument are used to prove the result in general.

  19. Recombination in pe/ppe genes contributes to genetic variation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages

    KAUST Repository

    Phelan, Jody E.

    2016-02-29

    Background Approximately 10 % of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome is made up of two families of genes that are poorly characterized due to their high GC content and highly repetitive nature. The PE and PPE families are typified by their highly conserved N-terminal domains that incorporate proline-glutamate (PE) and proline-proline-glutamate (PPE) signature motifs. They are hypothesised to be important virulence factors involved with host-pathogen interactions, but their high genetic variability and complexity of analysis means they are typically disregarded in genome studies. Results To elucidate the structure of these genes, 518 genomes from a diverse international collection of clinical isolates were de novo assembled. A further 21 reference M. tuberculosis complex genomes and long read sequence data were used to validate the approach. SNP analysis revealed that variation in the majority of the 168 pe/ppe genes studied was consistent with lineage. Several recombination hotspots were identified, notably pe_pgrs3 and pe_pgrs17. Evidence of positive selection was revealed in 65 pe/ppe genes, including epitopes potentially binding to major histocompatibility complex molecules. Conclusions This, the first comprehensive study of the pe and ppe genes, provides important insight into M. tuberculosis diversity and has significant implications for vaccine development.

  20. Small-angle neutron scattering study of micropore collapse in amorphous solid water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitterdorfer, Christian; Bauer, Marion; Youngs, Tristan G A; Bowron, Daniel T; Hill, Catherine R; Fraser, Helen J; Finney, John L; Loerting, Thomas

    2014-08-14

    Vapor-deposited amorphous solid water (ASW) is the most abundant solid molecular material in space, where it plays a direct role in both the formation of more complex chemical species and the aggregation of icy materials in the earliest stages of planet formation. Nevertheless, some of its low temperature physics such as the collapse of the micropore network upon heating are still far from being understood. Here we characterize the nature of the micropores and their collapse using neutron scattering of gram-quantities of D2O-ASW of internal surface areas up to 230 ± 10 m(2) g(-1) prepared at 77 K. The model-free interpretation of the small-angle scattering data suggests micropores, which remain stable up to 120-140 K and then experience a sudden collapse. The exact onset temperature to pore collapse depends on the type of flow conditions employed in the preparation of ASW and, thus, the specific surface area of the initial deposit, whereas the onset of crystallization to cubic ice is unaffected by the flow conditions. Analysis of the small-angle neutron scattering signal using the Guinier-Porod model suggests that a sudden transition from three-dimensional cylindrical pores with 15 Å radius of gyration to two-dimensional lamellae is the mechanism underlying the pore collapse. The rather high temperature of about 120-140 K of micropore collapse and the 3D-to-2D type of the transition unraveled in this study have implications for our understanding of the processing and evolution of ices in various astrophysical environments.

  1. N-Doped carbon spheres with hierarchical micropore-nanosheet networks for high performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shoupei; Zhang, Jianan; Shang, Pei; Li, Yuanyuan; Chen, Zhimin; Xu, Qun

    2014-10-18

    N-doped carbon spheres with hierarchical micropore-nanosheet networks (HPSCSs) were facilely fabricated by a one-step carbonization and activation process of N containing polymer spheres by KOH. With the synergy effect of the multiple structures, HPSCSs exhibit a very high specific capacitance of 407.9 F g(-1) at 1 mV s(-1) (1.2 times higher than that of porous carbon spheres) and a robust cycling stability for supercapacitors.

  2. Neutrophil-endothelial cell interactions on endothelial monolayers grown on micropore filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R F; Price, T H; Schwartz, S M; Dale, D C

    1981-01-01

    We have developed a technique for growing endothelial monolayers on micropore filters. These monolayers demonstrate confluence by phase and electron microscopy and provide a functional barrier to passage of radiolabeled albumin. Neutrophils readily penetrate the monolayer in response to chemotaxin, whereas there is little movement in the absence of chemotaxin. This system offers unique advantages over available chemotaxis assays and may have wider applications in the study of endothelial function. Images PMID:7007441

  3. Graft-copolymerization of polyethersulfone microporous membrane with electron beam simultaneous irradiation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Zhaolei; Meng Fanxia; Wang Yongxia; Liu Xiaoguang; Wang Rong

    2010-01-01

    Polyethersulfone(PES) microporous membrane was grafted with methacrylic acid under electron beam irradiation. Controlling the monomer concentration or the absorbed dose, the relationships of the degree of grafting with the monomer concentration and the absorbed dose were obtained for optimum the monomer concentration and absorbed dose. The grafted membrane was characterized by FT-IR and SEM, and the hydrophilicity contact angle of the membrane was tested. (authors)

  4. Design of porphyrin-based conjugated microporous polymers with enhanced singlet oxygen productivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hynek, Jan; Rathouský, Jiří; Demel, Jan; Lang, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 50 (2016), s. 44279-44287 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-15020S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : Conjugated microporous polymers * Crystalline materials * Metal organic framework * biomimetic catalysis Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  5. Finite element simulation of a novel composite light-weight microporous cladding panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lida; Wang, Dongyan

    2018-04-01

    A novel composite light-weight microporous cladding panel with matched connection detailing is developed. Numerical simulation on the experiment is conducted by ABAQUS. The accuracy and rationality of the finite element model is verified by comparison between the simulation and the experiment results. It is also indicated that the novel composite cladding panel is of desirable bearing capacity, stiffness and deformability under out-of-plane load.

  6. Synthesis of metalloporphyrin-based conjugated microporous polymer spheres directed by bipyridine-type ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Guipeng; Yang, Zhenzhen; Zhao, Yanfei; Zhang, Hongye; Yu, Bo; Xu, Jilei; Xu, Huanjun; Liu, Zhimin

    2015-04-30

    Zinc porphyrin (TP-Zn)-based conjugated microporous polymer (Zn-CMP) spheres were obtained via Sonagashira-Hagihara cross coupling reactions between 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-ethynylphenyl)porphyrin-Zn(II) and brominated monomers directed by bidentate bipyridine (BP)-type ligands for the first time, and the sphere diameters could be adjusted from 320 to 740 nm. The coordination between BP and TP-Zn was proved to be the key to forming spheres.

  7. Laser Control of Self-Organization Process in Microscopic Region and Fabrication of Fine Microporous Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumura, Yukimasa; Inami, Wataru; Kawata, Yoshimasa

    2012-01-01

    We present a controlling technique of microporous structure by laser irradiation during self-organization process. Self-organization process is fabrication method of microstructure. Polymer solution was dropped on the substrate at high humid condition. Water in air appears dropping air temperature below the dew point. The honeycomb structure with regularly aligned pores on the film was fabricated by attaching water droplets onto the solution surface. We demonstrate that it was possible to pre...

  8. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies on novel microporous copper containing catalytic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, Suresh K.; Akolekar, Deepak B.; Foran, Garry

    2006-01-01

    Novel copper metal modified microporous aluminosilicate and aluminophosphate catalysts with the high phase purity were synthesized and characterized. CuK-edge XAS measurements were carried out over a series of copper containing SAPO-34 and ZSM-5 catalysts. EXAFS technique was used to obtain specific climacteric information related to the copper atomic distances, coordination and near neighbour environments. EXAFS studies indicated the presence of different of Cu species on ZSM-5/SAPO34 catalysts

  9. Meet and Join Matrices in the Poset of Exponential Divisors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... exponential divisor ( G C E D ) and the least common exponential multiple ( L C E M ) do not always exist. In this paper we embed this poset in a lattice. As an application we study the G C E D and L C E M matrices, analogues of G C D and L C M matrices, which are both special cases of meet and join matrices on lattices.

  10. The 'golden' matrices and a new kind of cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stakhov, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    We consider a new class of square matrices called the 'golden' matrices. They are a generalization of the classical Fibonacci Q-matrix for continuous domain. The 'golden' matrices can be used for creation of a new kind of cryptography called the 'golden' cryptography. The method is very fast and simple for technical realization and can be used for cryptographic protection of digital signals (telecommunication and measurement systems)

  11. Generalized Perron--Frobenius Theorem for Nonsquare Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Avin, Chen; Borokhovich, Michael; Haddad, Yoram; Kantor, Erez; Lotker, Zvi; Parter, Merav; Peleg, David

    2013-01-01

    The celebrated Perron--Frobenius (PF) theorem is stated for irreducible nonnegative square matrices, and provides a simple characterization of their eigenvectors and eigenvalues. The importance of this theorem stems from the fact that eigenvalue problems on such matrices arise in many fields of science and engineering, including dynamical systems theory, economics, statistics and optimization. However, many real-life scenarios give rise to nonsquare matrices. A natural question is whether the...

  12. A single-ligand ultra-microporous MOF for precombustion CO2 capture and hydrogen purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Shyamapada; De Luna, Phil; Daff, Thomas D; Rother, Jens; Liu, Ming; Buchanan, William; Hawari, Ayman I; Woo, Tom K; Vaidhyanathan, Ramanathan

    2015-12-01

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) built from a single small ligand typically have high stability, are rigid, and have syntheses that are often simple and easily scalable. However, they are normally ultra-microporous and do not have large surface areas amenable to gas separation applications. We report an ultra-microporous (3.5 and 4.8 Å pores) Ni-(4-pyridylcarboxylate)2 with a cubic framework that exhibits exceptionally high CO2/H2 selectivities (285 for 20:80 and 230 for 40:60 mixtures at 10 bar, 40°C) and working capacities (3.95 mmol/g), making it suitable for hydrogen purification under typical precombustion CO2 capture conditions (1- to 10-bar pressure swing). It exhibits facile CO2 adsorption-desorption cycling and has CO2 self-diffusivities of ~3 × 10(-9) m(2)/s, which is two orders higher than that of zeolite 13X and comparable to other top-performing MOFs for this application. Simulations reveal a high density of binding sites that allow for favorable CO2-CO2 interactions and large cooperative binding energies. Ultra-micropores generated by a small ligand ensures hydrolytic, hydrostatic stabilities, shelf life, and stability toward humid gas streams.

  13. Engineered Transport in Microporous Materials and Membranes for Clean Energy Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changyi; Meckler, Stephen M; Smith, Zachary P; Bachman, Jonathan E; Maserati, Lorenzo; Long, Jeffrey R; Helms, Brett A

    2018-02-01

    Many forward-looking clean-energy technologies hinge on the development of scalable and efficient membrane-based separations. Ongoing investment in the basic research of microporous materials is beginning to pay dividends in membrane technology maturation. Specifically, improvements in membrane selectivity, permeability, and durability are being leveraged for more efficient carbon capture, desalination, and energy storage, and the market adoption of membranes in those areas appears to be on the horizon. Herein, an overview of the microporous materials chemistry driving advanced membrane development, the clean-energy separations employing them, and the theoretical underpinnings tying membrane performance to membrane structure across multiple length scales is provided. The interplay of pore architecture and chemistry for a given set of analytes emerges as a critical design consideration dictating mass transport outcomes. Opportunities and outstanding challenges in the field are also discussed, including high-flux 2D molecular-sieving membranes, phase-change adsorbents as performance-enhancing components in composite membranes, and the need for quantitative metrologies for understanding mass transport in heterophasic materials and in micropores with unusual chemical interactions with analytes of interest. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Sorption of phenanthrene and benzene on differently structural kerogen: important role of micropore-filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulong; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Ran, Yong

    2014-02-01

    Shale was thermally treated to obtain a series of kerogen with varied maturation. Their chemical, structural and porous properties were related to the sorption and/or desorption behaviors of phenanthrene and benzene. As the treatment temperature increases, aliphatic and carbonyl carbon of the kerogen samples decrease, while their aromaticity and maturation increase. Meanwhile, the isothermal nonlinearity of phenanthrene and benzene increases whereas the sorption capacity and micropore adsorption volumes (Vo,d) initially increase and then decrease. The Vo,d of benzene is significantly correlated with, but higher than that of phenanthrene, suggesting similar micropore filling mechanism and molecular sieve effect. The benzene desorption exhibits hysteresis, which is related to the pore deformation of the kerogen and the entrapment of solute in the kerogen matrix. The Vo,d of phenanthrene and benzene on the kerogen samples accounts for 23-46% and 36-65% of the maximum sorption volumes, respectively, displaying the importance of the micropore filling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An Ideal Electrode Material, 3D Surface-Microporous Graphene for Supercapacitors with Ultrahigh Areal Capacitance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Liang; Stacchiola, Dario J.; Hu, Yun Hang

    2017-01-01

    The efficient charge accumulation of an ideal supercapacitor electrode requires abundant micropores and its fast electrolyte-ions transport prefers meso/macropores. But, current electrode materials cannot meet both requirements, resulting in poor performance. We creatively constructed three-dimensional cabbage-coral-like graphene as an ideal electrode material, in which meso/macro channels are formed by graphene walls and rich micropores are incorporated in the surface layer of the graphene walls. The unique 3D graphene material can achieve a high gravimetric capacitance of 200 F/g with aqueous electrolyte, 3 times larger than that of commercially used activated carbon (70.8 F/g). Furthermore, it can reach an ultrahigh areal capacitance of 1.28 F/cm"2 and excellent rate capability (83.5% from 0.5 to 10 A/g) as well as high cycling stability (86.2% retention after 5000 cycles). The excellent electric double-layer performance of the 3D graphene electrode can be attributed to the fast electrolyte ion transport in the meso/macro channels and the rapid and reversible charge adsorption with negligible transport distance in the surface micropores.

  16. Influence of size, shape, and flexibility on bacterial passage through micropore membrane filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingying; Hammes, Frederik; Düggelin, Marcel; Egli, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    Sterilization of fluids by means of microfiltration is commonly applied in research laboratories as well as in pharmaceutical and industrial processes. Sterile micropore filters are subject to microbiological validation, where Brevundimonas diminuta is used as a standard test organism. However, several recent reports on the ubiquitous presence of filterable bacteria in aquatic environments have cast doubt on the accuracy and validity of the standard filter-testing method. Six different bacterial species of various sizes and shapes (Hylemonella gracilis, Escherichia coli, Sphingopyxis alaskensis, Vibrio cholerae, Legionella pneumophila, and B. diminuta) were tested for their filterability through sterile micropore filters. In all cases, the slender spirillum-shaped Hylemonella gracilis cells showed a superior ability to pass through sterile membrane filters. Our results provide solid evidence that the overall shape (including flexibility), instead of biovolume, is the determining factor for the filterability of bacteria, whereas cultivation conditions also play a crucial role. Furthermore, the filtration volume has a more important effect on the passage percentage in comparison with other technical variables tested (including flux and filter material). Based on our findings, we recommend a re-evaluation of the grading system for sterile filters, and suggest that the species Hylemonella should be considered as an alternative filter-testing organism for the quality assessment of micropore filters.

  17. Pt thermal atomic layer deposition for silicon x-ray micropore optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Kazuma; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Ishikawa, Kumi; Numazawa, Masaki; Terada, Masaru; Ishi, Daiki; Fujitani, Maiko; Sowa, Mark J; Ohashi, Takaya; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2018-04-20

    We fabricated a silicon micropore optic using deep reactive ion etching and coated by Pt with atomic layer deposition (ALD). We confirmed that a metal/metal oxide bilayer of Al 2 O 3 ∼10  nm and Pt ∼20  nm was successfully deposited on the micropores whose width and depth are 20 μm and 300 μm, respectively. An increase of surface roughness of sidewalls of the micropores was observed with a transmission electron microscope and an atomic force microscope. X-ray reflectivity with an Al Kα line at 1.49 keV before and after the deposition was measured and compared to ray-tracing simulations. The surface roughness of the sidewalls was estimated to increase from 1.6±0.2  nm rms to 2.2±0.2  nm rms. This result is consistent with the microscope measurements. Post annealing of the Pt-coated optic at 1000°C for 2 h showed a sign of reduced surface roughness and better angular resolution. To reduce the surface roughness, possible methods such as the annealing after deposition and a plasma-enhanced ALD are discussed.

  18. Development of highly microporous activated carbon from the alcoholic beverage industry organic by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto-Delgado, C.; Terrones, M.; Rangel-Mendez, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    This work has the aim to employ the agave bagasse, a waste from Tequila and Mescal industries, to obtain a product of high commercial value such as activated carbon. The activated carbon production methodology was based on a chemical activation, by using ZnCl 2 and H 3 PO 4 as activating agent and agave bagasse as a natural source of carbon. The activation temperature (150-450 o C), activation time (0-60 min) and weight ratio of activating agent to precursor (0.2-4) were studied. The produced carbon materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and nitrogen physisorption at -196 o C. In addition, the activating agent recovery was evaluated. We were able to obtain highly microporous activated carbons with micropore volumes between 0.24 and 1.20 cm 3 /g and a surface area within 300 and 2139 m 2 /g. These results demonstrated the feasibility to treat the industrial wastes of the Tequila and Mescal industries, being this wastes an excellent precursor to produce highly microporous activated carbons that can be processed at low activation temperatures in short times, with the possibility of recycling the activating agent.

  19. The movement of solutes through aqueous fissures in micro-porous rock during borehole experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glueckauf, E.

    1981-02-01

    When a tracer is injected for a short period into a solution flowing through a fissure in micro-porous rock, that tracer is not only carried along by the aqueous stream, but its local concentration is also markedly affected by hydro-dynamic dispersion and by sideway diffusion and adsorption in the micro-porous rock. The process has been simulated by computer calculations and these have made it possible to obtain from the concentration-time curves observed in borehole experiments an assessment of the physical parameters involving the water velocity and the hydro-dynamic dispersion in the fissure, and the diffusion and adsorption in the micro-porous rock. With these parameters it was then possible to recalculate quantitatively the local concentration-time history. However, in actual borehole experiments, the velocity of the water stream in the fissure is not known, and numerous side effects can distort the shape of the observed tracer curves. In order to test the theoretical interpretation more thoroughly, it is therefore proposed to carry out a laboratory experiment which simulates the borehole test under strictly defined conditions. (author)

  20. Adsorption of pharmaceuticals to microporous activated carbon treated with potassium hydroxide, carbon dioxide, and steam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Heyun; Yang, Liuyan; Wan, Yuqiu; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2011-01-01

    Adsorption of sulfapyridine, tetracycline, and tylosin to a commercial microporous activated carbon (AC) and its potassium hydroxide (KOH)-, CO-, and steam-treated counterparts (prepared by heating at 850°C) was studied to explore efficient adsorbents for the removal of selected pharmaceuticals from water. Phenol and nitrobenzene were included as additional adsorbates, and nonporous graphite was included as a model adsorbent. The activation treatments markedly increased the specific surface area and enlarged the pore sizes of the mesopores of AC (with the strongest effects shown on the KOH-treated AC). Adsorption of large-size tetracycline and tylosin was greatly enhanced, especially for the KOH-treated AC (more than one order of magnitude), probably due to the alleviated size-exclusion effect. However, the treatments had little effect on adsorption of low-size phenol and nitrobenzene due to the predominance of micropore-filling effect in adsorption and the nearly unaffected content of small micropores causative to such effect. These hypothesized mechanisms on pore-size dependent adsorption were further tested by comparing surface area-normalized adsorption data and adsorbent pore size distributions with and without the presence of adsorbed antibiotics. The findings indicate that efficient adsorption of bulky pharmaceuticals to AC can be achieved by enlarging the adsorbent pore size through suitable activation treatments. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Towards high water permeability in triazine-framework-based microporous membranes for dehydration of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu Pan; Wang, Huan; Chung, Tai Shung

    2015-01-01

    The microstructural evolution of a series of triazine framework-based microporous (TFM) membranes under different conditions has been explored in this work. The pristine TFM membrane is in situ fabricated in the course of polymer synthesis via a facile Brønsted-acid-catalyzed cyclotrimerizaiton reaction. The as-synthesized polymer exhibits a microporous network with high thermal stability. The free volume size of the TFM membranes gradually evolved from a unimodal distribution to a bimodal distribution under annealing, as analyzed by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The emergence of the bimodal distribution is probably ascribed to the synergetic effect of quenching and thermal cyclization reaction. In addition, the fractional free volume (FFV) of the membranes presents a concave trend with increasing annealing temperature. Vapor sorption tests reveal that the mass transport properties are closely associated with the free volume evolution, which provides an optimal condition for dehydration of biofuels. A promising separation performance with extremely high water permeability has been attained for dehydration of an 85 wt % ethanol aqueous solution at 45 °C. The study on the free volume evolution of the TFM membranes may provide useful insights about the microstructure and mass transport behavior of the microporous polymeric materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Fabrication of high-transmission microporous membranes by proton beam writing-based molding technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liping; Meyer, Clemens; Guibert, Edouard; Homsy, Alexandra; Whitlow, Harry J.

    2017-08-01

    Porous membranes are widely used as filters in a broad range of micro and nanofluidic applications, e.g. organelle sorters, permeable cell growth substrates, and plasma filtration. Conventional silicon fabrication approaches are not suitable for microporous membranes due to the low mechanical stability of thin film substrates. Other techniques like ion track etching are limited to the production of randomly distributed and randomly orientated pores with non-uniform pore sizes. In this project, we developed a procedure for fabricating high-transmission microporous membranes by proton beam writing (PBW) with a combination of spin-casting and soft lithography. In this approach, focused 2 MeV protons were used to lithographically write patterns consisting of hexagonal arrays of high-density pillars of few μm size in a SU-8 layer coated on a silicon wafer. After development, the pillars were conformably coated with a thin film of poly-para-xylylene (Parylene)-C release agent and spin-coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). To facilitate demolding, a special technique based on the use of a laser-cut sealing tape ring was developed. This method facilitated the successful delamination of 20-μm thick PDMS membrane with high-density micropores from the mold without rupture or damage.

  3. Intrinsic Density Matrices of the Nuclear Shell Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deveikis, A.; Kamuntavichius, G.

    1996-01-01

    A new method for calculation of shell model intrinsic density matrices, defined as two-particle density matrices integrated over the centre-of-mass position vector of two last particles and complemented with isospin variables, has been developed. The intrinsic density matrices obtained are completely antisymmetric, translation-invariant, and do not employ a group-theoretical classification of antisymmetric states. They are used for exact realistic density matrix expansion within the framework of the reduced Hamiltonian method. The procedures based on precise arithmetic for calculation of the intrinsic density matrices that involve no numerical diagonalization or orthogonalization have been developed and implemented in the computer code. (author). 11 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Noisy covariance matrices and portfolio optimization II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pafka, Szilárd; Kondor, Imre

    2003-03-01

    Recent studies inspired by results from random matrix theory (Galluccio et al.: Physica A 259 (1998) 449; Laloux et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 (1999) 1467; Risk 12 (3) (1999) 69; Plerou et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 (1999) 1471) found that covariance matrices determined from empirical financial time series appear to contain such a high amount of noise that their structure can essentially be regarded as random. This seems, however, to be in contradiction with the fundamental role played by covariance matrices in finance, which constitute the pillars of modern investment theory and have also gained industry-wide applications in risk management. Our paper is an attempt to resolve this embarrassing paradox. The key observation is that the effect of noise strongly depends on the ratio r= n/ T, where n is the size of the portfolio and T the length of the available time series. On the basis of numerical experiments and analytic results for some toy portfolio models we show that for relatively large values of r (e.g. 0.6) noise does, indeed, have the pronounced effect suggested by Galluccio et al. (1998), Laloux et al. (1999) and Plerou et al. (1999) and illustrated later by Laloux et al. (Int. J. Theor. Appl. Finance 3 (2000) 391), Plerou et al. (Phys. Rev. E, e-print cond-mat/0108023) and Rosenow et al. (Europhys. Lett., e-print cond-mat/0111537) in a portfolio optimization context, while for smaller r (around 0.2 or below), the error due to noise drops to acceptable levels. Since the length of available time series is for obvious reasons limited in any practical application, any bound imposed on the noise-induced error translates into a bound on the size of the portfolio. In a related set of experiments we find that the effect of noise depends also on whether the problem arises in asset allocation or in a risk measurement context: if covariance matrices are used simply for measuring the risk of portfolios with a fixed composition rather than as inputs to optimization, the

  5. Biological function evaluation and effects of laser micro-pore burn-denatured acellular dermal matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youlai; Zeng, Yuanlin; Xin, Guohua; Zou, Lijin; Ding, Yuewei; Duyin, Jiang

    2018-03-01

    In the field of burns repairs, many problems exist in the shortage of donor skin, the expense of allograft or xenograft skin, temporary substitution and unsatisfactory extremity function after wound healing. Previous studies showed that burn-denatured skin could return to normal dermis formation and function. This study investigates the application of laser micro-pore burn-denatured acellular dermis matrix (DADM) from an escharotomy in the repair of burn wounds and evaluates the biological properties and wound repair effects of DADM in implantation experiments in Kunming mice. Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) Kunming mice were used in this study. A deep II° burn wound was created on the dorsum of the mice by an electric heated water bath. The full-thickness wound tissue was harvested. The necrotic tissue and subcutaneous tissue were removed. The denatured dermis was preserved and treated with 0.25% trypsin, 0.5% Triton X-100. The DADM was drilled by laser micro-pore. The biological properties and grafting effects of laser micro-pore burn-DADM were evaluated by morphology, cytokine expression levels and subcutaneous implantation experiments in Kunming mice. We found statistical significance (Ppore burn-DADM (experimental group) compared to the control group (no laser micro-pore burn-DADM). Cytokine expression level was different in the dermal matrixes harvested at various time points after burn (24h, 48h, 72h and infected wound group). Comparing the dermal matrix from 24h burn tissue to infected wound tissue, the expression level of IL-6, MMP-24, VE-cadherin and VEGF were decreased. We found no inflammatory cells infiltration in the dermal matrix were observed in both experimental and control groups (24h burn group), while the obviously vascular infiltration and fiber fusion were observed in the experimental group after subcutaneous implantation experiments. There was better bio-performance, low immunogenicity and better dermal incorporation after treated by laser

  6. Equiangular tight frames and unistochastic matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyeneche, Dardo; Turek, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate that a complex equiangular tight frame composed of N vectors in dimension d , denoted ETF ( d , N ), exists if and only if a certain bistochastic matrix, univocally determined by N and d , belongs to a special class of unistochastic matrices. This connection allows us to find new complex ETFs in infinitely many dimensions and to derive a method to introduce non-trivial free parameters in ETFs. We present an explicit six-parametric family of complex ETF(6,16), which defines a family of symmetric POVMs. Minimal and maximal possible average entanglement of the vectors within this qubit–qutrit family are described. Furthermore, we propose an efficient numerical procedure to compute the unitary matrix underlying a unistochastic matrix, which we apply to find all existing classes of complex ETFs containing up to 20 vectors. (paper)

  7. Colonization of bone matrices by cellular components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchelkunova, E. I.; Voropaeva, A. A.; Korel, A. V.; Mayer, D. A.; Podorognaya, V. T.; Kirilova, I. A.

    2017-09-01

    Practical surgery, traumatology, orthopedics, and oncology require bioengineered constructs suitable for replacement of large-area bone defects. Only rigid/elastic matrix containing recipient's bone cells capable of mitosis, differentiation, and synthesizing extracellular matrix that supports cell viability can comply with these requirements. Therefore, the development of the techniques to produce structural and functional substitutes, whose three-dimensional structure corresponds to the recipient's damaged tissues, is the main objective of tissue engineering. This is achieved by developing tissue-engineering constructs represented by cells placed on the matrices. Low effectiveness of carrier matrix colonization with cells and their uneven distribution is one of the major problems in cell culture on various matrixes. In vitro studies of the interactions between cells and material, as well as the development of new techniques for scaffold colonization by cellular components are required to solve this problem.

  8. Computing with linear equations and matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchhouse, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    Systems of linear equations and matrices arise in many disciplines. The equations may accurately represent conditions satisfied by a system or, more likely, provide an approximation to a more complex system of non-linear or differential equations. The system may involve a few or many thousand unknowns and each individual equation may involve few or many of them. Over the past 50 years a vast literature on methods for solving systems of linear equations and the associated problems of finding the inverse or eigenvalues of a matrix has been produced. These lectures cover those methods which have been found to be most useful for dealing with such types of problem. References are given where appropriate and attention is drawn to the possibility of improved methods for use on vector and parallel processors. (orig.)

  9. Matrices over runtime systems at exascale

    KAUST Repository

    Agullo, Emmanuel

    2012-11-01

    The goal of Matrices Over Runtime Systems at Exascale (MORSE) project is to design dense and sparse linear algebra methods that achieve the fastest possible time to an accurate solution on large-scale multicore systems with GPU accelerators, using all the processing power that future high end systems can make available. In this poster, we propose a framework for describing linear algebra algorithms at a high level of abstraction and delegating the actual execution to a runtime system in order to design software whose performance is portable accross architectures. We illustrate our methodology on three classes of problems: dense linear algebra, sparse direct methods and fast multipole methods. The resulting codes have been incorporated into Magma, Pastix and ScalFMM solvers, respectively. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Sparse random matrices: The eigenvalue spectrum revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerjian, Guilhem; Cugliandolo, Leticia F.

    2003-08-01

    We revisit the derivation of the density of states of sparse random matrices. We derive a recursion relation that allows one to compute the spectrum of the matrix of incidence for finite trees that determines completely the low concentration limit. Using the iterative scheme introduced by Biroli and Monasson [J. Phys. A 32, L255 (1999)] we find an approximate expression for the density of states expected to hold exactly in the opposite limit of large but finite concentration. The combination of the two methods yields a very simple geometric interpretation of the tails of the spectrum. We test the analytic results with numerical simulations and we suggest an indirect numerical method to explore the tails of the spectrum. (author)

  11. From Pauli Matrices to Quantum Ito Formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautrat, Yan

    2005-01-01

    This paper answers important questions raised by the recent description, by Attal, of a robust and explicit method to approximate basic objects of quantum stochastic calculus on bosonic Fock space by analogues on the state space of quantum spin chains. The existence of that method justifies a detailed investigation of discrete-time quantum stochastic calculus. Here we fully define and study that theory and obtain in particular a discrete-time quantum Ito formula, which one can see as summarizing the commutation relations of Pauli matrices.An apparent flaw in that approximation method is the difference in the quantum Ito formulas, discrete and continuous, which suggests that the discrete quantum stochastic calculus differs fundamentally from the continuous one and is therefore not a suitable object to approximate subtle phenomena. We show that flaw is only apparent by proving that the continuous-time quantum Ito formula is actually a consequence of its discrete-time counterpart

  12. Valor preditivo dos escores de SNAP e SNAP-PE na mortalidade neonatal Predictive value of SNAP and SNAP-PE for neonatal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita C. Silveira

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar os escores SNAP e SNAP-PE como preditores de mortalidade neonatal na nossa UTI neonatal, comparando seus resultados. MÉTODOS: todos os recém-nascidos admitidos na UTI neonatal no período de março de 1997 a dezembro de 1998 foram avaliados prospectivamente quanto ao SNAP e SNAP-PE com 24 horas de vida. Foram critérios de exclusão o óbito ou alta da UTI nas primeiras 24 horas de vida, as malformações congênitas incompatíveis com a vida, e recém-nascidos transferidos de outros hospitais. RESULTADOS: 553 recém-nascidos foram incluídos, 54 faleceram. Os valores das medianas do SNAP e SNAP-PE foram mais elevados naqueles que não sobreviveram. Os recém-nascidos foram divididos em cinco faixas de gravidade crescente de SNAP e SNAP-PE. SNAP: até 6, 7-11, 12-15, 16-24, acima de 24 (mortalidade: 3%, 11%, 29%, 48%, 75%, respectivamente. SNAP-PE: até 11, 12-23, 24-32, 33-50, acima de 50 (mortalidade: 3%, 10%, 53%, 78%, 83%, respectivamente. A partir da Curva ROC, os pontos de corte foram 12 para SNAP e 24 para SNAP-PE, obtendo-se sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo (VPP e valor preditivo negativo (VPN para mortalidade. SNAP 12: sensibilidade 79,6%, especificidade 71,7%, VPP 23,4%, VPN 97%. SNAP-PE 24: sensibilidade 79,6%, especificidade 80%, VPP 30%, VPN 97,3%. A área abaixo da Curva ROC (Az para SNAP foi 81,4% e para SNAP-PE 85,1%, ambas estatisticamente significativas. A comparação entre as áreas das duas curvas não evidenciou diferença estatisticamente significativa. CONCLUSÕES: os escores SNAP e SNAP-PE são excelentes preditores de sobrevida neonatal, recomendamos sua utilização rotineiramente na admissão de recém-nascidos nas Unidades de Tratamento Intensivo Neonatal.OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology and the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology Perinatal Extension as neonatal mortality predictors in our neonatal intensive care unit, and to compare their

  13. Preliminary study on radiation crosslinking of PE-NBR multiple phase system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hong; Zhang Wanxi; Sun Jiazhen

    1989-01-01

    The effect of radiation crosslinking on the structure and properties of PE-NBR (polyethylene-acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber) multiple phase system was studied in this paper. The relationship of sol fraction and irradiated dose to multiplephase system was demonstrated

  14. Recombination in pe/ppe genes contributes to genetic variation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages

    KAUST Repository

    Phelan, Jody E.; Coll, Francesc; Bergval, Indra; Anthony, Richard M.; Warren, Rob; Sampson, Samantha L.; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C.; Glynn, Judith R.; Crampin, Amelia C.; Alves, Adriana; Bessa, Theolis Barbosa; Campino, Susana; Dheda, Keertan; Grandjean, Louis; Hasan, Rumina; Hasan, Zahra; Miranda, Anabela; Moore, David; Panaiotov, Stefan; Perdigao, Joao; Portugal, Isabel; Sheen, Patricia; de Oliveira Sousa, Erivelton; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; van Helden, Paul D.; Viveiros, Miguel; Hibberd, Martin L.; Pain, Arnab; McNerney, Ruth; Clark, Taane G.

    2016-01-01

    . tuberculosis complex genomes and long read sequence data were used to validate the approach. SNP analysis revealed that variation in the majority of the 168 pe/ppe genes studied was consistent with lineage. Several recombination hotspots were identified

  15. Dirac matrices for Chern-Simons gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaurieta, Fernando; Ramirez, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Eduardo [Departamento de Matematica y Fisica Aplicadas, Universidad Catolica de la Santisima Concepcion, Alonso de Ribera 2850, 4090541 Concepcion (Chile)

    2012-10-06

    A genuine gauge theory for the Poincare, de Sitter or anti-de Sitter algebras can be constructed in (2n- 1)-dimensional spacetime by means of the Chern-Simons form, yielding a gravitational theory that differs from General Relativity but shares many of its properties, such as second order field equations for the metric. The particular form of the Lagrangian is determined by a rank n, symmetric tensor invariant under the relevant algebra. In practice, the calculation of this invariant tensor can be reduced to the computation of the trace of the symmetrized product of n Dirac Gamma matrices {Gamma}{sub ab} in 2n-dimensional spacetime. While straightforward in principle, this calculation can become extremely cumbersome in practice. For large enough n, existing computer algebra packages take an inordinate long time to produce the answer or plainly fail having used up all available memory. In this talk we show that the general formula for the trace of the symmetrized product of 2n Gamma matrices {Gamma}{sub ab} can be written as a certain sum over the integer partitions s of n, with every term being multiplied by a numerical cofficient {alpha}{sub s}. We then give a general algorithm that computes the {alpha}-coefficients as the solution of a linear system of equations generated by evaluating the general formula for different sets of tensors B{sup ab} with random numerical entries. A recurrence relation between different coefficients is shown to hold and is used in a second, 'minimal' algorithm to greatly speed up the computations. Runtime of the minimal algorithm stays below 1 min on a typical desktop computer for up to n = 25, which easily covers all foreseeable applications of the trace formula.

  16. Viscous hydrophilic injection matrices for serial crystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Kovácsová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Serial (femtosecond crystallography at synchrotron and X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL sources distributes the absorbed radiation dose over all crystals used for data collection and therefore allows measurement of radiation damage prone systems, including the use of microcrystals for room-temperature measurements. Serial crystallography relies on fast and efficient exchange of crystals upon X-ray exposure, which can be achieved using a variety of methods, including various injection techniques. The latter vary significantly in their flow rates – gas dynamic virtual nozzle based injectors provide very thin fast-flowing jets, whereas high-viscosity extrusion injectors produce much thicker streams with flow rates two to three orders of magnitude lower. High-viscosity extrusion results in much lower sample consumption, as its sample delivery speed is commensurate both with typical XFEL repetition rates and with data acquisition rates at synchrotron sources. An obvious viscous injection medium is lipidic cubic phase (LCP as it is used for in meso membrane protein crystallization. However, LCP has limited compatibility with many crystallization conditions. While a few other viscous media have been described in the literature, there is an ongoing need to identify additional injection media for crystal embedding. Critical attributes are reliable injection properties and a broad chemical compatibility to accommodate samples as heterogeneous and sensitive as protein crystals. Here, the use of two novel hydrogels as viscous injection matrices is described, namely sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and the thermo-reversible block polymer Pluronic F-127. Both are compatible with various crystallization conditions and yield acceptable X-ray background. The stability and velocity of the extruded stream were also analysed and the dependence of the stream velocity on the flow rate was measured. In contrast with previously characterized injection media, both new

  17. Active Bilayer PE/PCL Films for Food Packaging Modified with Zinc Oxide and Casein

    OpenAIRE

    Rešček, Ana; Kratofil Krehula, Ljerka; Katančić, Zvonimir; Hrnjak-Murgić, Zlata

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the properties of active polymer food packaging bilayer polyethylene/polycaprolactone (PE/PCL) films. Such packaging material consists of primary PE layer coated with thin film of PCL coating modified with active component (zinc oxide or zinc oxide/casein complex) with intention to extend the shelf life of food and to maintain the quality and health safety. The influence of additives as active components on barrier, mechanical, thermal and antimicrobial properties of such m...

  18. Comparison of BIASI and Columbia CHF correlations using BODYFIT-2PE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.C.J.; Chien, T.H.; Sha, W.T.; Kim, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper compares the BIASI critical heat flux (CHF) correlation with the Columbia CHF correlation by using both the homogeneous equilibrium two-phase model with algebraic slip and the drift flux model in BODYFIT-2PE. All calculations were compared with the GE 3 x 3 CHF experiment. This comparison serves as a qualification process for the CHF correlations in the framework of BODYFIT-2PE

  19. Synthesis of nitrogen doped microporous carbons prepared by activation-free method and their high electrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki-Seok [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo-Jin, E-mail: sjpark@inha.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-30

    Graphical abstract: This describes the increase of specific capacitance in hybrid electrodes as a function of melamine content. Display Omitted Highlights: > For N-enriched hybrid carbons, co-precursors, PVDF/melamine composites, were used. > Microporous carbons were formed by only carbonization without chemical activation. > The nitrogen content of microporous carbons was controlled by melamine content. > N-doped carbons showed higher specific capacitance compared to microporous carbons. > It was attributed to the easy electron transfer and pseudocapacitance. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped microporous carbons (N-MCs) were prepared by the carbonization of the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/melamine mixture without chemical activation. The electrochemical performance of the N-MCs was investigated as a function of PVDF/melamine ratio. It was found that, without additional activation, the N-MCs had a high specific surface area (greater than 560 m{sup 2}/g) because of the micropore formation by the release of fluorine groups. In addition, although the specific surface area decreased, nitrogen groups were increased with increasing melamine content, leading to an enhanced electrochemical performance. Indeed, the N-MCs showed a better electrochemical performance than that of microporous carbons (MCs) prepared by PVDF alone, and the highest specific capacitance (310 F/g) was obtained at a current density of 0.5 A/g, as compared to a value of 248 F/g for MCs. These results indicate that the microporous features of N-MC lead to feasible ion transfer during charge/discharge duration and the presence of nitrogen groups as strong electron donor on the N-MC electrode in electrolyte could provide a pseudocapacitance by the redox reaction.

  20. High surface area microporous activated carbons prepared from Fox nut (Euryale ferox) shell by zinc chloride activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Arvind; Mohan Jena, Hara

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Activated carbons have been prepared from Fox nutshell with chemical activation using ZnCl 2 . • The thermal behavior of the raw material and impregnated raw material has been carried out by thermogravimetric analysis. • The characterizations of the prepared activated carbons have been determined by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms, FTIR, XRD, and FESEM. • The BET surface area and total pore volume of prepared activated carbon has been obtained as 2869 m 2 /g, 2124 m 2 /g, and 1.96 cm 3 /g, respectively. • The microporous surface area, micropore volume, and microporosity percentage of prepared activated carbon has been obtained as 2124 m 2 /g, 1.68 cm 3 /g, and 85.71%, respectively. - Abstract: High surface area microporous activated carbon has been prepared from Fox nutshell (Euryale ferox) by chemical activation with ZnCl 2 as an activator. The process has been conducted at different impregnation (ZnCl 2 /Fox nutshell) ratios (1–2.5) and carbonization temperatures (500–700 °C). The thermal decomposition behavior of Fox nutshell and impregnated Fox nutshell has been carried out by thermogravimetric analysis. The pore properties including the BET surface area, micropore surface area, micropore volume, and pore size distribution of the activated carbons have been determined by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms at −196 °C using the BET, t-plot method, DR, and BJH methods. The BET surface area, the microporous surface area, total pore volume, and micropore volume have been obtained as 2869 m 2 /g, 2124 m 2 /g, 1.96 cm 3 /g, and 1.68 cm 3 /g, respectively, and the microporosity percentage of the prepared activated carbon is 85.71%. The prepared activated carbons have been also characterized with instrumental methods such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM).

  1. Synthesis of nitrogen doped microporous carbons prepared by activation-free method and their high electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki-Seok; Park, Soo-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: This describes the increase of specific capacitance in hybrid electrodes as a function of melamine content. Display Omitted Highlights: → For N-enriched hybrid carbons, co-precursors, PVDF/melamine composites, were used. → Microporous carbons were formed by only carbonization without chemical activation. → The nitrogen content of microporous carbons was controlled by melamine content. → N-doped carbons showed higher specific capacitance compared to microporous carbons. → It was attributed to the easy electron transfer and pseudocapacitance. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped microporous carbons (N-MCs) were prepared by the carbonization of the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/melamine mixture without chemical activation. The electrochemical performance of the N-MCs was investigated as a function of PVDF/melamine ratio. It was found that, without additional activation, the N-MCs had a high specific surface area (greater than 560 m 2 /g) because of the micropore formation by the release of fluorine groups. In addition, although the specific surface area decreased, nitrogen groups were increased with increasing melamine content, leading to an enhanced electrochemical performance. Indeed, the N-MCs showed a better electrochemical performance than that of microporous carbons (MCs) prepared by PVDF alone, and the highest specific capacitance (310 F/g) was obtained at a current density of 0.5 A/g, as compared to a value of 248 F/g for MCs. These results indicate that the microporous features of N-MC lead to feasible ion transfer during charge/discharge duration and the presence of nitrogen groups as strong electron donor on the N-MC electrode in electrolyte could provide a pseudocapacitance by the redox reaction.

  2. Microporous dermal-mimetic electrospun scaffolds pre-seeded with fibroblasts promote tissue regeneration in full-thickness skin wounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul P Bonvallet

    Full Text Available Electrospun scaffolds serve as promising substrates for tissue repair due to their nanofibrous architecture and amenability to tailoring of chemical composition. In this study, the regenerative potential of a microporous electrospun scaffold pre-seeded with dermal fibroblasts was evaluated. Previously we reported that a 70% collagen I and 30% poly(Ɛ-caprolactone electrospun scaffold (70:30 col/PCL containing 160 μm diameter pores had favorable mechanical properties, supported fibroblast infiltration and subsequent cell-mediated deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM, and promoted more rapid and effective in vivo skin regeneration when compared to scaffolds lacking micropores. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that the efficacy of the 70:30 col/PCL microporous scaffolds could be further enhanced by seeding scaffolds with dermal fibroblasts prior to implantation into skin wounds. To address this hypothesis, a Fischer 344 (F344 rat syngeneic model was employed. In vitro studies showed that dermal fibroblasts isolated from F344 rat skin were able to adhere and proliferate on 70:30 col/PCL microporous scaffolds, and the cells also filled the 160 μm pores with native ECM proteins such as collagen I and fibronectin. Additionally, scaffolds seeded with F344 fibroblasts exhibited a low rate of contraction (~14% over a 21 day time frame. To assess regenerative potential, scaffolds with or without seeded F344 dermal fibroblasts were implanted into full thickness, critical size defects created in F344 hosts. Specifically, we compared: microporous scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for 4 days; scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for only 1 day; acellular microporous scaffolds; and a sham wound (no scaffold. Scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for 4 days had the best response of all treatment groups with respect to accelerated wound healing, a more normal-appearing dermal matrix structure, and hair follicle regeneration

  3. Synthesis of Radiation Grafted Polymer Matrices for Separation and Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhardwaj, Y K; Virendra, K; Goel, N K; Sarma, K S.S.; Sabharwal, S [Radiation Technology Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085 (India)

    2012-09-15

    Grafting of acrylonitrile onto non-woven porous polypropylene fibre sheet using electron beam was carried out by post-irradiation grafting. Grafting extent of {approx}125% was achieved. The grafted nitrile groups were amidoximated and studied for uranium uptake from sea water and heavy metal ions (Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, and Cd{sup 2+}) from aqueous solutions. Adsorption and elution of adsorbed ions in suitable eluents was studied. The grafting process was upgraded to pilot scale to obtain 1x1 m{sup 2} sheets. Mutual radiation grafting technique was used for grafting of vinylbenzyltrimethyl ammonium chloride, [2- (methacryloyloxy)ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride and [2-(acryloyloxyethyl)]trimethylammonium chloride onto cotton cellulose substrate. The grafted matrices showed significantly higher water uptake and good water retention properties. The antibacterial efficacy of the grafted products was found to be a function of extent of grafting and the type of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas flourescens, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus). PVBT-g-cotton was studied for its protein adsorption behaviour in continuous column process using Bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein. Mutual radiation grafting technique was used to graft acrylic acid on micrometer thick micro-porous polypropylene membrane. Contact angle measurement studies showed that initial grafting as well as radiation treatment of poly(propylene) in aqueous medium and in presence of Mohr's salt enhances its affinity towards the grafting solution. The enhancement in the polar component of surface energy of treated polypropylene membrane is the primary cause of grafting enhancement. The membranes grafted to an extent of {approx}20% were found to perform comparably with the battery separator presently being used by battery industry. Acrylic acid was grafted to Teflon scrap by mutual radiation grafting technique. The grafting extent decreased with increasing dose rate and

  4. Optimization of esterification of oleic acid and trimethylolpropane (TMP) and pentaerythritol (PE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmud, Hamizah Ammarah; Salimon, Jumat [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Vegetable oil (VO) is the most potential alternative to replace mineral oil for lubricant due to better lubricating properties and great physicochemical properties. Chemical modification has to be done to overcome low temperature performance and low oxidation instability due to the presence of β-hydrogen atoms of glycerol molecule. The optimization of esterification of oleic acid and polyhydric alcohol with sulfuric acid catalyst was carried out to find the optimum conditions with the highest yield. Reeaction variables such as; molar ratio, temperature, duration and catalyst concentration. Two types of polyhydric alcohol have been used; TMP and PE. The optimum results showed oleic acid successfully converted 91.2% ester TMP and 92.7% ester PE at duration: 5 hours (Ester TMP), 6 hours (Ester PE); temperature: 150°C (ester TMP), 180°C (Ester PE); catalyst concentration: 1.5% (w/w); and mol ratio: 3.9:1 (ester TMP), 4.9:1 (ester PE). From the data obtained, mole ratio showed most influenced factors to the increasing yields of ester conversions.. The TMP/PE ester was confirmed using gas chromatography (GC-FID), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

  5. Rater reliability and concurrent validity of the Keyboard Personal Computer Style instrument (K-PeCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy A; Cook, James R; Redfern, Mark S

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability, and the concurrent validity of an observational instrument, the Keyboard Personal Computer Style instrument (K-PeCS), which assesses stereotypical postures and movements associated with computer keyboard use. Three trained raters independently rated the video clips of 45 computer keyboard users to ascertain inter-rater reliability, and then re-rated a sub-sample of 15 video clips to ascertain intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was assessed by comparing the ratings obtained using the K-PeCS to scores developed from a 3D motion analysis system. The overall K-PeCS had excellent reliability [inter-rater: intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC)=.90; intra-rater: ICC=.92]. Most individual items on the K-PeCS had from good to excellent reliability, although six items fell below ICC=.75. Those K-PeCS items that were assessed for concurrent validity compared favorably to the motion analysis data for all but two items. These results suggest that most items on the K-PeCS can be used to reliably document computer keyboarding style.

  6. An analytic approach to 2D electronic PE spectra of molecular systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szoecs, V.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The three-pulse photon echo (3P-PE) spectra of finite molecular systems using direct calculation from electronic Hamiltonians allows peak classification from 3P-PE spectra dynamics. Display Omitted Highlights: → RWA approach to electronic photon echo. → A straightforward calculation of 2D electronic spectrograms in finite molecular systems. → Importance of population time dynamics in relation to inter-site coherent coupling. - Abstract: The three-pulse photon echo (3P-PE) spectra of finite molecular systems and simplified line broadening models is presented. The Fourier picture of a heterodyne detected three-pulse rephasing PE signal in the δ-pulse limit of the external field is derived in analytic form. The method includes contributions of one and two-excitonic states and allows direct calculation of Fourier PE spectrogram from corresponding Hamiltonian. As an illustration, the proposed treatment is applied to simple systems, e.g. 2-site two-level system (TLS) and n-site TLS model of photosynthetic unit. The importance of relation between Fourier picture of 3P-PE dynamics (corresponding to nonzero population time, T) and coherent inter-state coupling is emphasized.

  7. Active Bilayer PE/PCL Films for Food Packaging Modified with Zinc Oxide and Casein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rešček

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the properties of active polymer food packaging bilayer polyethylene/polycaprolactone (PE/PCL films. Such packaging material consists of primary PE layer coated with thin film of PCL coating modified with active component (zinc oxide or zinc oxide/casein complex with intention to extend the shelf life of food and to maintain the quality and health safety. The influence of additives as active components on barrier, mechanical, thermal and antimicrobial properties of such materials was studied. The results show that, in comparison to the neat PE and PE/PCL films, some of PE/PCL bilayer films with additives exhibit improved barrier properties i.e. decreased water vapour permeability. Higher thermal stability of modified PE/PCL material is obtained due to a modified mechanism of thermal degradation. The samples with the additive nanoparticles homogeneously dispersed in the polymer matrix showed good mechanical properties. Addition of higher ZnO content contributes to the enhanced antibacterial activity of a material.

  8. Deterministic matrices matching the compressed sensing phase transitions of Gaussian random matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Monajemi, Hatef; Jafarpour, Sina; Gavish, Matan; Donoho, David L.; Ambikasaran, Sivaram; Bacallado, Sergio; Bharadia, Dinesh; Chen, Yuxin; Choi, Young; Chowdhury, Mainak; Chowdhury, Soham; Damle, Anil; Fithian, Will; Goetz, Georges; Grosenick, Logan

    2012-01-01

    In compressed sensing, one takes samples of an N-dimensional vector using an matrix A, obtaining undersampled measurements . For random matrices with independent standard Gaussian entries, it is known that, when is k-sparse, there is a precisely determined phase transition: for a certain region in the (,)-phase diagram, convex optimization typically finds the sparsest solution, whereas outside that region, it typically fails. It has been shown empirically that the same property—with the ...

  9. Las pinturas rupestres de Peña Mingubela (Avila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier GONZÁLEZ-TABLAS SASTRE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El abrigo de Pena Mingubela constituye lo que podríamos calificar un caso excepcional dentro del mundo esquemático de La Meseta, y más concretamente del Sistema Central. Este abrigo viene a enlazar dos zonas como son la Sierra de Francia y los abrigos segovianos; pero hemos de aclarar que la mayoría de las representaciones que en él encontramos pertenecen a un horizonte tardío dentro de la cronología general del arte esquemático. Dividimos las pinturas en cuatro fases, ateniéndonos a la técnica, color y distribución espacial. La primera fase, con representaciones esquemáticas puras, la situamos en un horizonre cultural del Bronce final. La segunda, y ante la aparición de elementos tipológicos claros, la situamos dentro del Hierro II de La Meseta (La Teñe I y II. La tercera fase pertenecería a este mismo horizonte cultural pero con una cronología ligeramente más tardía. La cuarta ocuparía un horizonte Bajomedieval, pero dada la carencia casi absoluta de elementos de juicio, no lo afirmamos rotundamente. Otro factor importante a tener en cuenta es la técnica especial que encontramos en la segunda fase, ya que ésta no encaja con la dominante en las representaciones esquemáticas, lo que convierte a este abrigo en algo único, por el momento, dentro de la pintura esquemática del Sistema Central.RÉSUMÉ: La caverne de «Peña Mingubela» constitue ce que l'on pourrait qualifier un cas excepeionnel dans le monde schématique de «La Meseta», et plus concret du «Sistema Central». Cette caverne sert d'union entre la Sierra de Francia et les cavernes Ségovinnes; mais il faut résoudre ce que la plupart des représentations que l'on y trouve appartiennent à un horizon retardé dans la chronologie général de l'art schématique. On peut diviser les peinrures en quatre phases, s'adaptant à la theenique, couleur et distribution d'espace. La première phase, avec des représentations schématiques pures, on la situe

  10. Binary Positive Semidefinite Matrices and Associated Integer Polytopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Letchford, Adam N.; Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    2012-01-01

    We consider the positive semidefinite (psd) matrices with binary entries, along with the corresponding integer polytopes. We begin by establishing some basic properties of these matrices and polytopes. Then, we show that several families of integer polytopes in the literature-the cut, boolean qua...

  11. CONVERGENCE OF POWERS OF CONTROLLABLE INTUITIONISTIC FUZZY MATRICES

    OpenAIRE

    Riyaz Ahmad Padder; P. Murugadas

    2016-01-01

    Convergences of powers of controllable intuitionistic fuzzy matrices have been stud¬ied. It is shown that they oscillate with period equal to 2, in general. Some equalities and sequences of inequalities about powers of controllable intuitionistic fuzzy matrices have been obtained.

  12. Propositional matrices as alternative representation of truth values ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper considered the subject of representation of truth values in symbolic logic. An alternative representation was given based on the rows and columns properties of matrices, with the operations involving the logical connectives subjected to the laws of algebra of propositions. Matrices of various propositions detailing ...

  13. The Modern Origin of Matrices and Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the modern development of matrices, linear transformations, quadratic forms and their applications to geometry and mechanics, eigenvalues, eigenvectors and characteristic equations with applications. Included are the representations of real and complex numbers, and quaternions by matrices, and isomorphism in order to show…

  14. Abel-grassmann's groupoids of modulo matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javaid, Q.; Awan, M.D.; Naqvi, S.H.A.

    2016-01-01

    The binary operation of usual addition is associative in all matrices over R. However, a binary operation of addition in matrices over Z/sub n/ of a nonassociative structures of AG-groupoids and AG-groups are defined and investigated here. It is shown that both these structures exist for every integer n >≥ 3. Various properties of these structures are explored like: (i) Every AG-groupoid of matrices over Z/sub n/ is transitively commutative AG-groupoid and is a cancellative AG-groupoid if n is prime. (ii) Every AG-groupoid of matrices over Z/sub n/ of Type-II is a T/sup 3/-AG-groupoid. (iii) An AG-groupoid of matrices over Z/sub n/ ; G /sub nAG/(t,u), is an AG-band, if t+u=1(mod n). (author)

  15. Swelling, ion uptake and biodegradation studies of PE film modified through radiation induced graft copolymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Inderjeet, E-mail: ij_kaur@hotmail.com [Department Chemistry, HPU Shimla 171005 (India); Gupta, Nitika; Kumari, Vandna [Department Chemistry, HPU Shimla 171005 (India)

    2011-09-15

    An attempt to develop biodegradable polyethylene film grafting of mixture of hydrophilic monomers methacrylic acid (MAAc) and acrylamide (AAm) onto PE film has been carried out by preirradiation method using benzoyl peroxide as the radical initiator. Since ether linkages are susceptible to easy cleavage during degradation process, PE film was irradiated before the grafting reactions by {gamma}-rays to introduce peroxidic linkages (PE-OO-PE) that offer sites for grafting. The effect of irradiation dose, monomer concentration, initiator concentration, temperature, time and amount of water on the grafting percent was determined. Maximum percentage of grafting of binary mixture (MAAc+AAm), (1792%) was obtained at a total concentration of binary monomer mixture=204.6x10{sup -2} mol/L ([MAAc]=176.5x10{sup -2} mol/L, [AAm]=28.1x10{sup -2} mol/L), [BPO]=8.3x10{sup -2} mol/L at 100 deg. C in 70 min. The grafted PE film was characterized by the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) methods. Some selective properties of grafted films such as swelling studies, ion uptake and biodegradation studies have been investigated. The grafted films show good swelling in water, ion uptake studies shows promising results for desalination of brackish water and the soil burial test shows that PE film grafted with binary monomer mixture degrades up to 47% within 50 days. - Highlights: > Binary mixture of methacrylic acid (MAAc) and acrylamide (AAm) onto PE film by preirradiation method was carried out. > Graft copolymers of MAAc+AAm and PE film were characterized by FTIR, TGA and SEM studies and was found to be thermally stable. > Grafting of MAAc+AAm improved swelling behavior giving maximum swelling (485.71%) in water as against PE with 0% swelling. > The grafted PE-g-poly (MAAc-co-AAm) behaves as an excellent material for ion separation. > Biodegradation studies by soil burial test showed 47.19% of

  16. Modification of UHMWPE membrane with a PE/clay/PE-G-MA nano composite film to treat oily effluents; Modificacao de membrana de PEUAPM com filme nanocomposito de PEAD/argila/PE-G-MA para o tratamento de efluentes oleosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Suelem S.L.; Silva, Caio M.B.; Leal, Tania L; Carvalho, Laura H; Costa, Anna R.M. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)], e-mail: tanlucleal@yahoo.com.br

    2011-07-01

    Interest in techniques of surface modification is evinced by the large number of studies in recent decades. In this work the internal surfaces of polymeric membranes of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were modified by impregnation of HDPE/organoclay/PE-g-MA nanocomposite film. The addition of PE-g-MA aims to increase polymer/clay interaction and to control and/or modify surface characteristics of UHMWPE membranes, such as permeability and pore size, so as to make the membranes more efficient and/or appropriate for effluent treatment, more specifically in the treatment of oil contaminated water. The films were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the modified membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their performance (permeate flux and selectivity) were measured using distilled water and an oil in water dispersion. (author)

  17. Bioprocess intensification of antibiotic production by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) in micro-porous culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndlovu, T.M., E-mail: tm.ndlovu@nutriss.com [NUTRISS Limited, INEX, Herschel Annex, Kings Road, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Ward, A.C. [School of Biology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Department of Microbiology, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Glassey, J. [School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Eskildsen, J. [NUTRISS Limited, INEX, Herschel Annex, Kings Road, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Akay, G. [School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    A novel functionalized micro-porous matrix was developed with well-controlled physicochemical proprieties such as pore size and surface chemistry. The matrix was used as a solid support in the growth of “Streptomyces coelicolor” A3(2) to enhance the production of antibiotics. The results shown support a higher production of prodigiosin and actinorhodin with overall production increase of 2–5 and 6–17, respectively, compared to conventional submerged liquid culture, offering a potential improvement in volumetric productivity. Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to evaluate pore size as well as bacterial adhesion, penetration, proliferation and migration within the micro-porous matrix. - Highlights: • Preparation of novel micro-porous matrix with different physiochemical proprieties • S. coelicolor A3(2) was cultured in those micro-porous and antibiotics was enhanced. • Matrix pore sizes and surface chemistry influenced bacterial signalling. • Bacterial signalling has a profound effect in the overproduction of Prodigiosin and actinorhodin. • Prodigiosin and actinorhodin production within micro-porous was 5–17 times higher compared with liquid growth.

  18. Highly efficient indoor air purification using adsorption-enhanced-photocatalysis-based microporous TiO2 at short residence time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jinze; Zhu, Lizhong

    2013-01-01

    A short residence time is a key design parameter for the removal of organic pollutants in catalyst-based indoor air purification systems. In this study, we synthesized a series of TiO2 with different micropore volumes and studied their removal efficiency of indoor carbonyl pollutants at a short residence time. Our results indicated that the superior adsorption capability of TiO2 with micropores improved its performance in the photocatalytic degradation of cyclohexanone, while the photocatalytic removal of the pollutant successfully kept porous TiO2 from becoming saturated. When treated with 1 mg m(-3) cyclohexanone at a relatively humidity of 18%, the adsorption amount on microporous TiO2 was 5.4-7.9 times higher than that on P25. Removal efficiency via photocatalysis followed'the same order as the adsorption amount: TiO2-5 > TiO2-20 > TiO2-60 > TiO2-180 > P25. The advantage of microporous TiO2 over P25 became more pronounced when the residence time declined from 0.072 to 0.036 s. Moreover, as the concentration of cyclohexanone deceased from 1000 ppb to 500 ppb, removal efficiency by microporous TiO2 increased more rapidly than P25.

  19. Random lasing of microporous surface of Cr{sup 2+}:ZnSe crystal induced by femtosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xianheng; Feng, Guoying, E-mail: guoing-feng@scu.edu.cn, E-mail: zhoush@scu.edu.cn; Yao, Ke; Yi, Jiayu; Zhang, Hong [College of Electronics and Information Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zhou, Shouhuan, E-mail: guoing-feng@scu.edu.cn, E-mail: zhoush@scu.edu.cn [College of Electronics and Information Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); North China Research Institute of Electro-Optics, Beijing 100015 (China)

    2015-06-15

    We demonstrate a random lasing emission based on microporous surface of Cr{sup 2+}:ZnSe crystal prepared by femtosecond pulsed laser ablation in high vacuum (below 5 × 10{sup −4} Pa). The scanning electron microscope results show that there are a mass of micropores with an average size of ∼13 μm and smaller ones with ∼1.2 μm on the surface of Cr{sup 2+}:ZnSe crystal. The adjacent micropore spacing of the smaller micropores ranges from 1 μm to 5 μm. Under 1750 nm excitation of Nd:YAG (355 nm) pumped optical parametric oscillator, a random lasing emission with center wavelength of 2350 nm and laser-like threshold of 0.3 mJ/pulse is observed. The emission lifetime of 2350 nm laser reduces from 800 ns to 30 ns as the pump energy increases above threshold. The emission spectra and decay time of smooth surface, groove and microporous surface of Cr{sup 2+}:ZnSe crystal are contrasted. The optional pump wavelength range is from 1500 nm to 1950 nm, which in accordance with the optical absorption property of Cr{sup 2+}:ZnSe crystal. The peak position of excitation spectra is almost identical to the strongest absorption wavelength.

  20. Influence of Micropore and Mesoporous in Activated Carbon Air-cathode Catalysts on Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Microbial Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yi; Li, Kexun; Ge, Baochao; Pu, Liangtao; Liu, Ziqi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, carbon samples with different micropore and mesoporous structures are prepared as air-cathode catalyst layer to explore the role of pore structure on oxygen reduction reaction. The results of linear sweep voltammetry and power density show that the commercially-produced activated carbon (CAC) has the best electrochemical performance, and carbon samples with only micropore or mesoporous show lower performance than CAC. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms analysis confirm that CAC has highest surface area (1616 m 2 g −1 ) and a certain amount of micropore and mesoporous. According to Tafel plot and rotating disk electrode, CAC behaves the highest kinetic activity and electron transfer number, leading to the improvement of oxygen reduction reaction. The air permeability test proves that mesoporous structure enhance oxygen permeation. Carbon materials are also analyzed by In situ Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and H 2 temperature programmed reduction, which indicate that micropore provide active sites for catalysis. In a word, micropore and mesoporous together would improve the electrochemical performance of carbon materials.

  1. Chelating agent-free, vapor-assisted crystallization method to synthesize hierarchical microporous/mesoporous MIL-125 (Ti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Nicholas D; Hicks, Jason C

    2015-03-11

    Titanium-based microporous heterogeneous catalysts are widely studied but are often limited by the accessibility of reactants to active sites. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), such as MIL-125 (Ti), exhibit enhanced surface areas due to their high intrinsic microporosity, but the pore diameters of most microporous MOFs are often too small to allow for the diffusion of larger reactants (>7 Å) relevant to petroleum and biomass upgrading. In this work, hierarchical microporous MIL-125 exhibiting significantly enhanced interparticle mesoporosity was synthesized using a chelating-free, vapor-assisted crystallization method. The resulting hierarchical MOF was examined as an active catalyst for the oxidation of dibenzothiophene (DBT) with tert-butyl hydroperoxide and outperformed the solely microporous analogue. This was attributed to greater access of the substrate to surface active sites, as the pores in the microporous analogues were of inadequate size to accommodate DBT. Moreover, thiophene adsorption studies suggested the mesoporous MOF contained larger amounts of unsaturated metal sites that could enhance the observed catalytic activity.

  2. Bioprocess intensification of antibiotic production by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) in micro-porous culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndlovu, T.M.; Ward, A.C.; Glassey, J.; Eskildsen, J.; Akay, G.

    2015-01-01

    A novel functionalized micro-porous matrix was developed with well-controlled physicochemical proprieties such as pore size and surface chemistry. The matrix was used as a solid support in the growth of “Streptomyces coelicolor” A3(2) to enhance the production of antibiotics. The results shown support a higher production of prodigiosin and actinorhodin with overall production increase of 2–5 and 6–17, respectively, compared to conventional submerged liquid culture, offering a potential improvement in volumetric productivity. Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to evaluate pore size as well as bacterial adhesion, penetration, proliferation and migration within the micro-porous matrix. - Highlights: • Preparation of novel micro-porous matrix with different physiochemical proprieties • S. coelicolor A3(2) was cultured in those micro-porous and antibiotics was enhanced. • Matrix pore sizes and surface chemistry influenced bacterial signalling. • Bacterial signalling has a profound effect in the overproduction of Prodigiosin and actinorhodin. • Prodigiosin and actinorhodin production within micro-porous was 5–17 times higher compared with liquid growth

  3. Global Gridded Emission Inventories of Pentabrominated Diphenyl Ether (PeBDE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Fan; Tian, Chongguo; Yang, Meng; Jia, Hongliang; Ma, Jianmin; Li, Dacheng

    2010-05-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants widely used in many everyday products such as cars, furniture, textiles, and other electronic equipment. The commercial PBDEs have three major technical mixtures: penta-(PeBDE), octa-(OBDE) and decabromodiphenyl ethers (DeBDE). PeBDE is a mixture of several BDE congeners, such as BDE-47, -99, and -100, and has been included as a new member of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the 2009 Stockholm Convention. In order to produce gridded emission inventories of PeBDE on a global scale, information of production, consumption, emission, and physiochemical properties of PeBDE have been searched for published papers, government reports, and internet publications. A methodology to estimate the emissions of PeBDE has been developed and global gridded emission inventories of 2 major congener in PeBDE mixture, BDE-47 and -99, on a 1 degree by 1degree latitude/longitude resolution for 2005 have been compiled. Using these emission inventories as input data, the Canadian Model for Environmental Transport of Organochlorine Pesticides (CanMETOP) model was used to simulate the transport of these chemicals and their concentrations in air were calculated for the year of 2005. The modeled air concentration of BDE-47 and -99 were compared with the monitoring air concentrations of these two congeners in the same year obtained from renowned international/national monitoring programs, such as Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS), the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network (IADN), and the Chinese POPs Soil and Air Monitoring Program (SAMP), and significant correlations between the modeled results and the monitoring data were found, indicating the high quality of the produced emission inventories of BDE-47 and -99. Keywords: Pentabrominated Diphenyl Ether (PeBDE), Emission Inventories, Global, Model

  4. A Li+-conductive microporous carbon–sulfur composite for Li-S batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenhua; Qiao, Dan; Pan, Jiaxin; Cao, Yuliang; Yang, Hanxi; Ai, Xinping

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A carbon–sulfur composite was prepared by vaporizing sulfur into the nanopores of Li + -conductive carbon microspheres. ► The redox reaction of S 8 molecules embedded in the nanopores of carbon microspheres proceeds through a solid–solid mechanism at the S/C interfaces. ► The carbon–sulfur composite exhibits a stable cycling performance and a superior high coulombic efficiency of 100%. - Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new strategy to develop high performance sulfur electrode by impregnating sulfur into the micropores of a Li + -insertable carbon matrix with the simultaneous use of a carbonate electrolyte, which does not dissolve polysulfides, to restrain the solution of the reaction intermediates of sulfur. To proof this concept, we prepared a Li + -insertable microporous carbon–sulfur composite by vaporizing sulfur into the micropores of the nanofiber-wired carbon microspheres. The experimental results demonstrate that, in the carbonate electrolyte of 1 M LiPF 6 /PC-EC-DEC, such S/C composite electrode exhibits not only stable cycling performance with a reversible capacity of 720 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles, but also superior high coulombic efficiency of ∼100% upon extended cycling (except the first three cycles). The structural and electrochemical analysis indicates that the improved electrochemical behaviors of the S/C composite arise from a new reaction mechanism, in which Li + ions and electrons transport through the carbon matrix into the interior of the cathode and then react with the embedded sulfur in the S/C solid–solid interfaces, avoiding the solution of the intermediates into the bulk electrolyte. More significantly, the structural design and working mechanism of such a sulfur cathode could be extended to a variety of poorly conductive and easily soluble redox-active materials for battery applications.

  5. Theory and computer simulation of structure, transport, and flow of fluid in micropores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, H.T.; Bitsanis, I.; Vanderlick, T.K.; Tirrell, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    An overview is given of recent progress made in our laboratory on this topic. The density profiles of fluid in micropores are found by solving numerically an approximate Yvon-Born-Green equation. A related local average density model (LADM) allows prediction of transport and flow in inhomogeneous fluids from density profiles. A rigorous extension of the Enskog theory of transport is also outlined. Simple results of this general approach for the tracer diffusion and Couette flow between planar micropore walls are presented. Equilibrium and flow (molecular dynamics) simulations are compared with the theoretical predictions. Simulated density profiles of the micropore fluid exhibit substantial fluid layering. The number and sharpness of fluid layers depend sensitively on the pore width. The solvation force and the pore average density and diffusivity are oscillating functions of the pore width. The theoretical predictions for these quantities agree qualitatively with the simulation results. The flow simulations indicate that the flow does not affect the fluid structure and diffusivity even at extremely high shear rates (10/sup 10/s/sup -1/). The fluid structure induces large deviations of the shear stress and the effective viscosity from the bulk fluid values. The flow velocity profiles are correlated with the density profiles and differ from those of a bulk fluid. The LADM and extended Enskog theory predictions for the velocity profiles and the pore average diffusivity agree very well with each other and with the simulation results. The LADM predictions for the shear stress and the effective viscosity agrees fairly well with the simulation results

  6. Microporous silica prepared by organic templating: relationship between the molecular template and pore structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Cao, Guozhong; Kale, Rahul P.; Lopez, Gabriel P.; Lu, Yunfeng; Prabakar, S.

    1999-01-01

    Microporous silica materials with a controlled pore size and a narrow pore size distribution have been prepared by sol-gel processing using an organic-templating approach. Microporous networks were formed by pyrolytic removal of organic ligands (methacryloxypropyl groups) from organic/inorganic hybrid materials synthesized by copolymerization of 3-methacryloxypropylsilane (MPS) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). Molecular simulations and experimental measurements were conducted to examine the relationship between the microstructural characteristics of the porous silica (e.g., pore size, total pore volume, and pore connectivity) and the size and amount of organic template ligands added. Adsorption measurements suggest that the final porosity of the microporous silica is due to both primary pores (those present in the hybrid materials prior to pyrolysis) and secondary pores (those created by pyrolytic removal of organic templates). Primary pores were inaccessible to N(sub 2) at 77 K but accessible to CO(sub 2) at 195 K; secondary pores were accessible to both N(sub 2) (at 77 K) and CO(sub 2) (at 195 K) in adsorption measurements. Primary porosity decreases with the amount of organic ligands added because of the enhanced densification of MPS/TEOS hybrid materials as the mole fraction of trifunctional MPS moieties increases. pore volumes measured by nitrogen adsorption experiments at 77 K suggest that the secondary (template-derived) porosity exhibits a percolation behavior as the template concentration is increased. Gas permeation experiments indicate that the secondary pores are approximately 5(angstrom) in diameter, consistent with predictions based on molecular simulations

  7. Photoelectrocatalytic property of microporous Pt-TiO2/Ti electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Chung-Hsuang; Wu, Kee-Rong; Yeh, Chung-Wei; Sun, Jui-Ching; Hsu, Chuan-Jen

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) property of microporous WO 3 -loaded TiO 2 /Ti layer, prepared via micro-arc oxidation (MAO) of Ti plate, followed by sputtering deposition of a thin Pt layer as a Pt-TiO 2 /Ti electrode. The WO 3 -loaded TiO 2 layer which is associated with a more acidic surface forms many local electrochemical cells on its micro-pores immersed in cationic dye solution. The electrocatalytic (EC) reactions can take place in the local cells by the applied electrons. A low resistivity that is accomplished by MAO technique and by platinization offers an easy path for the electron motions in the Pt-TiO 2 /Ti electrode. All these features make the EC oxidation of aqueous dye pollutants practically feasible without using counter electrodes and supporting electrolytes. Our experiments demonstrate that, under PEC condition, the Pt-TiO 2 /Ti shows the highest degradation rate constant of 0.83 h − 1 at an applied bias of 1.0 V and exhibits significantly high PEC and EC oxidation activities at a low applied bias of 0.25 V. This is attributable to high anodic currents generated in the Pt-TiO 2 /Ti even at low bias. The modified microporous electrodes conclusively reveal a very interesting EC property as a two double-sided device that functions the PEC and EC oxidation simultaneously without a need of supporting electrolyte and expensive Pt cathode. - Highlights: ► Pt-TiO 2 /Ti exhibits enhanced photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) activity at low applied bias. ► The proposed device uses low applied bias (< 1.0 V) with no explicit cathode. ► PEC oxidation can be performed without supporting electrolyte and Pt cathode

  8. Structure optimization of cathode microporous layer for direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guicheng; Ding, Xianan; Zhou, Hongwei; Chen, Ming; Wang, Manxiang; Zhao, Zhenxuan; Yin, Zhuang; Wang, Xindong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pore-forming technology was introduced to optimize microporous layer microstructure. • The water removal and gas mass transfer property of diffusion layer were improved. • The optimum DMFC performance reached 292 mW cm −2 at 80 °C. - Abstract: To obtain the cathode microporous layer (CML) with high mass transfer performance and high electronic conductivity, a pore-forming technology was introduced to optimize CML microstructure for direct methanol fuel cells. In this paper, the effects of carbon material type, carbon material loading and pore-forming agent loading in CML on fuel cell performance were discussed systematically. The results indicated that the optimized CML consisted of carbon nanotubes and ammonium oxalate with the loading of 1.5 and 3.5 mg cm −2 respectively. The fuel cell performance was improved by 30.3%, from 224 to 292 mW cm −2 at 80 °C under 0.3 MPa O 2 . Carbon nanotube was found to be the most suitable carbon material for the CML due to its great specific surface area and small particle size, resulting in increasing the number of the hydrophobic sites and the contact area between the support and the catalyst layer. The carbon material and pore-forming agent loading directly influenced the pore distribution and the contact resistance of membrane electrode assembly. The water removal capacity and the gas mass transfer property of diffusion layer were improved by optimizing the amount of micropore and macropore structures

  9. Comparison of adsorption of Remazol Black B and Acidol Red on microporous activated carbon felt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnaperna, L; Duclaux, L; Gadiou, R; Hirn, M-P; Merli, C; Pietrelli, L

    2009-11-15

    The adsorption of two anionic dyes, Remazol Black B (RB5) and Acidol Red 2BE-NW (AR42), onto a microporous activated carbon felt was investigated. The characterization of carbon surface chemistry by X-ray microanalysis, Boehm titrations, and pH-PZC measurements indicates that the surface oxygenated groups are mainly acidic. The rate of adsorption depends on the pH and the experimental data fit the intraparticle diffusion model. The pore size distribution obtained by DFT analysis shows that the mean pore size is close to 1nm, which indicates that a slow intraparticle diffusion process control the adsorption. The adsorption isotherms were measured for different pH values. The Khan and the Langmuir-Freundlich models lead to the best agreement with experimental data for RB5 and AR42, respectively. These isotherm simulations and the pH dependence of adsorption show that the adsorption capacity is mainly controlled by nondispersive electrostatic interactions for pH values below 4. The adsorption kinetics, the irreversibility of the process, and the influence of the pH indicate that the rate of adsorption in this microporous felt proceeds through two steps. The first one is fast and results from direct interaction of dye molecules with the external surface of the carbon material (which account for 10% of the whole surface area); in the second, slow step, the adsorption rate is controlled by the slow diffusion of dye molecules into the narrow micropores. The influence of temperature on the adsorption isotherms was studied and the thermodynamic parameters were obtained. They show that the process is spontaneous and exothermic.

  10. Highly selective and stable carbon dioxide uptake in polyindole-derived microporous carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Muhammad; Tiwari, Jitendra N; Kemp, K Christain; Yousuf, Muhammad; Kim, Kwang S

    2013-05-21

    Adsorption with solid sorbents is considered to be one of the most promising methods for the capture of carbon dioxide (CO₂) from power plant flue gases. In this study, microporous carbon materials used for CO₂ capture were synthesized by the chemical activation of polyindole nanofibers (PIF) at temperatures from 500 to 800 °C using KOH, which resulted in nitrogen (N)-doped carbon materials. The N-doped carbon materials were found to be microporous with an optimal adsorption pore size for CO₂ of 0.6 nm and a maximum (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) BET surface area of 1185 m(2) g(-1). The PIF activated at 600 °C (PIF6) has a surface area of 527 m(2) g(-1) and a maximum CO₂ storage capacity of 3.2 mmol g(-1) at 25 °C and 1 bar. This high CO₂ uptake is attributed to its highly microporous character and optimum N content. Additionally, PIF6 material displays a high CO₂ uptake at low pressure (1.81 mmol g(-1) at 0.2 bar and 25 °C), which is the best low pressure CO₂ uptake reported for carbon-based materials. The adsorption capacity of this material remained remarkably stable even after 10 cycles. The isosteric heat of adsorption was calculated to be in the range of 42.7-24.1 kJ mol(-1). Besides the excellent CO₂ uptake and stability, PIF6 also exhibits high selectivity values for CO₂ over N₂, CH₄, and H₂ of 58.9, 12.3, and 101.1 at 25 °C, respectively, and these values are significantly higher than reported values.

  11. Substituted amylose matrices for oral drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghadam, S H; Wang, H W; El-Leithy, E Saddar; Chebli, C; Cartilier, L

    2007-01-01

    High amylose corn starch was used to obtain substituted amylose (SA) polymers by chemically modifying hydroxyl groups by an etherification process using 1,2-epoxypropanol. Tablets for drug-controlled release were prepared by direct compression and their release properties assessed by an in vitro dissolution test (USP XXIII no 2). The polymer swelling was characterized by measuring gravimetrically the water uptake ability of polymer tablets. SA hydrophilic matrix tablets present sequentially a burst effect, typical of hydrophilic matrices, and a near constant release, typical of reservoir systems. After the burst effect, surface pores disappear progressively by molecular association of amylose chains; this allows the creation of a polymer layer acting as a diffusion barrier and explains the peculiar behaviour of SA polymers. Several formulation parameters such as compression force, drug loading, tablet weight and insoluble diluent concentration were investigated. On the other hand, tablet thickness, scanning electron microscope analysis and mercury intrusion porosimetry showed that the high crushing strength values observed for SA tablets were due to an unusual melting process occurring during tabletting although the tablet external layer went only through densification, deformation and partial melting. In contrast, HPMC tablets did not show any traces of a melting process

  12. LIBS analysis of artificial calcified tissues matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasem, M A; Gonzalez, J J; Russo, R E; Harith, M A

    2013-04-15

    In most laser-based analytical methods, the reproducibility of quantitative measurements strongly depends on maintaining uniform and stable experimental conditions. For LIBS analysis this means that for accurate estimation of elemental concentration, using the calibration curves obtained from reference samples, the plasma parameters have to be kept as constant as possible. In addition, calcified tissues such as bone are normally less "tough" in their texture than many samples, especially metals. Thus, the ablation process could change the sample morphological features rapidly, and result in poor reproducibility statistics. In the present work, three artificial reference sample sets have been fabricated. These samples represent three different calcium based matrices, CaCO3 matrix, bone ash matrix and Ca hydroxyapatite matrix. A comparative study of UV (266 nm) and IR (1064 nm) LIBS for these three sets of samples has been performed under similar experimental conditions for the two systems (laser energy, spot size, repetition rate, irradiance, etc.) to examine the wavelength effect. The analytical results demonstrated that UV-LIBS has improved reproducibility, precision, stable plasma conditions, better linear fitting, and the reduction of matrix effects. Bone ash could be used as a suitable standard reference material for calcified tissue calibration using LIBS with a 266 nm excitation wavelength. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Neutrino mass matrices with vanishing determinant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Bhag C.; Pulido, Joao; Picariello, Marco

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the prospects for neutrinoless double beta decay, texture zeros. and equalities between neutrino mass matrix elements in scenarios with vanishing determinant mass matrices for vanishing and finite θ 13 mixing angles in normal and inverse mass hierarchies. For normal hierarchy and both zero and finite θ 13 it is found that neutrinoless double beta decay cannot be observed by any of the present or next generation experiments, while for inverse hierarchy it is, on the contrary, accessible to experiments. Regarding texture zeros and equalities between mass matrix elements, we find that in both normal and inverse hierarchies with θ 13 =0 no texture zeros nor any such equalities can exist apart from the obvious ones. For θ 13 ≠0 some texture zeros become possible. In normal hierarchy two texture zeros occur if 8.1x10 -2 ≤sinθ 13 ≤9.1x10 -2 while in inverse hierarchy three are possible, one with sinθ 13 ≥7x10 -3 and two others with sinθ 13 ≥0.18. All equalities between mass matrix elements are impossible with θ 13 ≠0

  14. Calculating scattering matrices by wave function matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwierzycki, M.; Khomyakov, P.A.; Starikov, A.A.; Talanana, M.; Xu, P.X.; Karpan, V.M.; Marushchenko, I.; Brocks, G.; Kelly, P.J.; Xia, K.; Turek, I.; Bauer, G.E.W.

    2008-01-01

    The conductance of nanoscale structures can be conveniently related to their scattering properties expressed in terms of transmission and reflection coefficients. Wave function matching (WFM) is a transparent technique for calculating transmission and reflection matrices for any Hamiltonian that can be represented in tight-binding form. A first-principles Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian represented on a localized orbital basis or on a real space grid has such a form. WFM is based upon direct matching of the scattering-region wave function to the Bloch modes of ideal leads used to probe the scattering region. The purpose of this paper is to give a pedagogical introduction to WFM and present some illustrative examples of its use in practice. We briefly discuss WFM for calculating the conductance of atomic wires, using a real space grid implementation. A tight-binding muffin-tin orbital implementation very suitable for studying spin-dependent transport in layered magnetic materials is illustrated by looking at spin-dependent transmission through ideal and disordered interfaces. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Probing the Topology of Density Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles-Edouard Bardyn

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The mixedness of a quantum state is usually seen as an adversary to topological quantization of observables. For example, exact quantization of the charge transported in a so-called Thouless adiabatic pump is lifted at any finite temperature in symmetry-protected topological insulators. Here, we show that certain directly observable many-body correlators preserve the integrity of topological invariants for mixed Gaussian quantum states in one dimension. Our approach relies on the expectation value of the many-body momentum-translation operator and leads to a physical observable—the “ensemble geometric phase” (EGP—which represents a bona fide geometric phase for mixed quantum states, in the thermodynamic limit. In cyclic protocols, the EGP provides a topologically quantized observable that detects encircled spectral singularities (“purity-gap” closing points of density matrices. While we identify the many-body nature of the EGP as a key ingredient, we propose a conceptually simple, interferometric setup to directly measure the latter in experiments with mesoscopic ensembles of ultracold atoms.

  16. Visualizing complex (hydrological) systems with correlation matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    When trying to understand or visualize the connections of different aspects of a complex system, this often requires deeper understanding to start with, or - in the case of geo data - complicated GIS software. To our knowledge, correlation matrices have rarely been used in hydrology (e.g. Stoll et al., 2011; van Loon and Laaha, 2015), yet they do provide an interesting option for data visualization and analysis. We present a simple, python based way - using a river catchment as an example - to visualize correlations and similarities in an easy and colorful way. We apply existing and easy to use python packages from various disciplines not necessarily linked to the Earth sciences and can thus quickly show how different aquifers work or react, and identify outliers, enabling this system to also be used for quality control of large datasets. Going beyond earlier work, we add a temporal and spatial element, enabling us to visualize how a system reacts to local phenomena such as for example a river, or changes over time, by visualizing the passing of time in an animated movie. References: van Loon, A.F., Laaha, G.: Hydrological drought severity explained by climate and catchment characteristics, Journal of Hydrology 526, 3-14, 2015, Drought processes, modeling, and mitigation Stoll, S., Hendricks Franssen, H. J., Barthel, R., Kinzelbach, W.: What can we learn from long-term groundwater data to improve climate change impact studies?, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 15(12), 3861-3875, 2011

  17. Decellularized matrices for cardiovascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Francesco; Mirabella, Teodelinda

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death in the Western world. The replacement of damaged vessels and valves has been practiced since the 1950's. Synthetic grafts, usually made of bio-inert materials, are long-lasting and mechanically relevant, but fail when it comes to "biointegration". Decellularized matrices, instead, can be considered biological grafts capable of stimulating in vivo migration and proliferation of endothelial cells (ECs), recruitment and differentiation of mural cells, finally, culminating in the formation of a biointegrated tissue. Decellularization protocols employ osmotic shock, ionic and non-ionic detergents, proteolitic digestions and DNase/RNase treatments; most of them effectively eliminate the cellular component, but show limitations in preserving the native structure of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In this review, we examine the current state of the art relative to decellularization techniques and biological performance of decellularized heart, valves and big vessels. Furthermore, we focus on the relevance of ECM components, native and resulting from decellularization, in mediating in vivo host response and determining repair and regeneration, as opposed to graft corruption.

  18. On some Toeplitz matrices and their inversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dutta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, using the difference operator B(a[m], we introduce a lower triangular Toeplitz matrix T which includes several difference matrices such as Δ(1,Δ(m,B(r,s,B(r,s,t, and B(r̃,s̃,t̃,ũ in different special cases. For any x ∈ w and m∈N0={0,1,2,…}, the difference operator B(a[m] is defined by (B(a[m]xk=ak(0xk+ak-1(1xk-1+ak-2(2xk-2+⋯+ak-m(mxk-m,(k∈N0 where a[m] = {a(0, a(1, …, a(m} and a(i = (ak(i for 0 ⩽ i ⩽ m are convergent sequences of real numbers. We use the convention that any term with negative subscript is equal to zero. The main results of this article relate to the determination and applications of the inverse of the Toeplitz matrix T.

  19. Transport of Zn(OH)4(-2) ions across a polyolefin microporous membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejci, Ivan; Vanysek, Peter; Trojanek, Antonin

    1993-04-01

    Transport of ZN(OH)4(2-) ions through modified microporous polypropylene membranes (Celgard 3401, 350140) was studied using polarography and conductometry. Soluble Nafion as an ion exchange modifying agent was applied to the membrane by several techniques. The influence of Nafion and a surfactant on transport of zinc ions through the membrane was studied. A relationship between membrane impedance and the rate of Zn(OH)4(2-) transport was found. The found correlation between conductivity, ion permeability and Nafion coverage suggests a suitable technique of membrane preparation to obtain desired zinc ion barrier properties.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of microporous inorganic membranes for propylene/propane separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoli

    Membrane-based gas separation is promising for efficient propylene/propane (C3H6/C3H8) separation with low energy consumption and minimum environment impact. Two microporous inorganic membrane candidates, MFI-type zeolite membrane and carbon molecular sieve membrane (CMS) have demonstrated excellent thermal and chemical stability. Application of these membranes into C3H6/C3H 8 separation has not been well investigated. This dissertation presents fundamental studies on membrane synthesis, characterization and C3H 6/C3H8 separation properties of MFI zeolite membrane and CMS membrane. MFI zeolite membranes were synthesized on α-alumina supports by secondary growth method. Novel positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) techniques were used to non-destructively characterize the pore structure of these membranes. PAS reveals a bimodal pore structure consisting of intracrystalline zeolitic micropores of ~0.6 nm in diameter and irregular intercrystalline micropores of 1.4 to 1.8 nm in size for the membranes. The template-free synthesized membrane exhibited a high permeance but a low selectivity in C3H 6/C3H8 mixture separation. CMS membranes were synthesized by coating/pyrolysis method on mesoporous gamma-alumina support. Such supports allow coating of thin, high-quality polymer films and subsequent CMS membranes with no infiltration into support pores. The CMS membranes show strong molecular sieving effect, offering a high C3H 6/C3H8 mixture selectivity of ~30. Reduction in membrane thickness from 500 nm to 300 nm causes an increase in C3H8 permeance and He/N2 selectivity, but a decrease in the permeance of He, N 2 and C3H6 and C3H6/C 3H8 selectivity. This can be explained by the thickness dependent chain mobility of the polymer film resulting in final carbon membrane of reduced pore size with different effects on transport of gas of different sizes, including possible closure of C3H6-accessible micropores. CMS membranes demonstrate excellent C3H6/C 3H8 separation

  1. Importance of Micropore-Mesopore Interfaces in Carbon Dioxide Capture by Carbon-Based Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá, Gema; Budarin, Vitaliy L; Castro-Osma, José A; Shuttleworth, Peter S; Quek, Sophie C Z; Clark, James H; North, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Mesoporous carbonaceous materials (Starbons®) derived from low-value/waste bio-resources separate CO2 from CO2 /N2 mixtures. Compared to Norit activated charcoal (AC), Starbons® have much lower microporosities (8-32 % versus 73 %) yet adsorb up to 65 % more CO2 . The presence of interconnected micropores and mesopores is responsible for the enhanced CO2 adsorption. The Starbons® also showed three-four times higher selectivity for CO2 adsorption rather than N2 adsorption compared to AC. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Micropore x-ray optics using anisotropic wet etching of (110) silicon wafers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, Yuichiro; Koshiishi, Masaki; Mita, Makoto; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Hoshino, Akio; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Yang, Zhen; Takano, Takayuki; Maeda, Ryutaro

    2006-12-10

    To develop x-ray mirrors for micropore optics, smooth silicon (111) sidewalls obtained after anisotropic wet etching of a silicon (110) wafer were studied. A sample device with 19 microm wide (111) sidewalls was fabricated using a 220 microm thick silicon (110) wafer and potassium hydroxide solution. For what we believe to be the first time, x-ray reflection on the (111) sidewalls was detected in the angular response measurement. Compared to ray-tracing simulations, the surface roughness of the sidewalls was estimated to be 3-5 nm, which is consistent with the atomic force microscope and the surface profiler measurements.

  3. Inhibition of neutrophil migration by aggregated immunoglobulin attached to micropore membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, A S; Brown, S

    1980-01-01

    The effect of substrate-bound immunoglobulin on neutrophil migration was examined. Immunoglobulin aggregates bound to micropore membranes inhibited the neutrophil response to a chemotactic stimulus. This inhibition was reversed by the presence of aggregates in suspension suggesting competition between substrate-bound and free aggregates for neutrophil surface binding sites. The immobilization of neutrophils by substrate-bound aggregated immunoglobulin suggests a mechanism for the accumulation of neutrophils at sites of immune complex deposition and tissue-bound antibodies in vivo. PMID:7380477

  4. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE GAS-LIQUID FLOW IN THE MEMBRANE MICROPORE AERATION BIOREACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONG LIU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV has been developed to measure the typical two-phase flow of various work conditions in Membrane Micropore Aeration Bioreactor (MMAB. The fluid phase is separated out using image processing techniques, which provides accurate measurements for the Bioreactor’s flow field, and makes it possible for quantitative analysis of the momentum exchange, heat exchange and the process of micro-admixture. The experimental method PIV used in this paper can preferably measure the complex flow in the reactor and initiates a new approach for the bioreactor design which mainly depends on experience at present.

  5. [Study of New Micropore RF system on Lesion Formation and Complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuwen; Xu, Xiulin; Cai, Yameng

    2017-07-30

    To study the safety and effectiveness of a new type of micropore ablation catheter in vitro ablation system, and to provide reference for clinical practice. To evaluate two kinds of catheter in cardiac tissue ablation depth, tissue temperature and thrombosis situation by the same RF system. The power set 25 W, There was no significant difference in ablation depth between the two groups, and no Pop and thrombosis occurred. When the power is more than 40 W, two groups occurred more Pop and thrombosis. When using high power for Cardiac RF ablation, doctors should pay more attention to complications and thrombosis.

  6. Low-pressure argon adsorption assessment of micropore connectivities in activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimny, T; Villieras, F; Finqueneisel, G; Cossarutto, L; Weber, J V

    2006-01-01

    Low-pressure argon adsorption has been used to study the energetic distribution of microporous activated carbons differing by their burn-off. The collected isotherms were analyzed using the derivative isotherm summation method. Some oscillations on the experimental curves for very low partial pressures were detected. The results are analyzed and discussed according to the literature and could be attributed to local overheating caused by spontaneous mass transfer of argon through constrictions between former pores and the new opening pore or deadend pores. We used the dynamic character of the experimental method and mainly the discrepancy of the quasi-equilibrium state to deduce key parameters related to the porosity topology.

  7. Enhancement of micropore filling of water on carbon black by platinum loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyajima, Naoya, E-mail: miyajima@yamanashi.ac.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511 (Japan); Hatori, Hiroaki [Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Radovic, Ljubisa R. [Department of Energy and Geo-Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Yamada, Yoshio [Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Two kinds of typical carbons, carbon black and activated carbon fibers, were modified with platinum nanoparticles without changing their original pore structures. The surface properties of the modified carbons were investigated by measuring of water adsorption isotherms. Micropore filling of water was facilitated by the presence of platinum nanoparticles on the surface of the carbon black. On the other hand, such a filling effect was not observed in the case of the activated carbon fibers. A critical content and/or size of platinum nanoparticles could be required to promote efficiently the water adsorption.

  8. H{sub 2} storage in microporous materials: a comparison between zeolites and Mos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricchiardi, G.; Regli, L.; Vitillo, J. G.; Cocina, D.; Bordiga, S.; Lamberti, C.; Spoto, G.; Zecchina, A.; Bjorgen, M.; Lillerud, K. P.

    2005-07-01

    One of the main concerns about a hydrogen-based energy economy is the efficient storage and transport of this highly flammable gas. Many strategies have been followed or suggested in recent years to solve this problem. The most important ones are: 1) storage in metals and alloys; 2) storage in complex hydrides (alanates, borides); 3) storage by trapping in clathrates (ice and others); 4) storage in microporous materials (carbons, zeolitic materials, metal-organic frameworks, polymers). [1, 2] In this work we have focused our attention on microporous materials, where the crucial point is the strength of the interaction between the molecular hydrogen and the internal surfaces of micropores and/ or of cages of entrapping materials. It is known from fundamental studies that H2 strongly interacts with ions in the gas but that the presence of counterions decreases the interaction energy substantially. The most prominent class of microporous materials, which contains isolated and exposed cations, are zeolites and zeotypes: ideal systems to investigate the interaction of H2 with both dispersive and electrostatic forces [3]. So, even if they are not sufficiently light to represent the final solution to H2 storage, the availability of a large variety of frameworks and chemical compositions combined with low cost and superior mechanical and thermal stabilities increases the interest in these materials. In this work we have studied in detail, by means of volumetric and spectroscopic measurements, zeolites with CHA topology (as they are characterized by a strong acidity and by a big surface area). H-SSZ-13 zeolite, characterized by a low Al content (Si/Al = 11), has shown the best properties in hydrogen storage in respect to all the other zeolites and zeotypes with different compositions and topologies [4]. The results have been compared with those obtained for MOF-5 [5], a well known Metal-Organic Framework, indicated as a very good material for molecular hydrogen storage [6

  9. Copolyimide mixed matrix membranes with oriented microporous titanosilicate JDF-L1sheet particles

    OpenAIRE

    Galve, Alejandro; Vispe, Eugenio; Téllez, Carlos; Coronas, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    JDF-L1 is a microporous titanosilicate exhibiting a layer structure with pore size of about 3 Å. It is consequently an attractive material to separate H2-containing mixtures. This is the reason why JDF-L1, after disaggregation by means of hexadecyltrimethylammonium surfactant, has been combined with a carboxyl group containing copolyimide (6FDA-4MPD/6FDA-DABA 4:1) to produce mixed matrix membranes, which were applied to the separation of H2/CH4 and O2/N2 mixtures. Additionally, due to the she...

  10. Micropore x-ray optics using anisotropic wet etching of (110) silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezoe, Yuichiro; Koshiishi, Masaki; Mita, Makoto; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Hoshino, Akio; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Yang Zhen; Takano, Takayuki; Maeda, Ryutaro

    2006-01-01

    To develop x-ray mirrors for micropore optics, smooth silicon (111)sidewalls obtained after anisotropic wet etching of a silicon (110) wafer were studied. A sample device with 19 μm wide (111) sidewalls was fabricated using a 220 μm thick silicon (110) wafer and potassium hydroxide solution. For what we believe to be the first time,x-ray reflection on the (111) sidewalls was detected in the angular response measurement. Compared to ray-tracing simulations, the surface roughness of the sidewalls was estimated to be 3-5 nm, which is consistent with the atomic force microscope and the surface profiler measurements

  11. Emulsion preparation for novel micro-porous polymeric hemi-shells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Kersch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available -dichloromethane (DCM) oil phase , micro-porous hemi-shells formed as solvent evaporated. CO2 gas ) 252–254 www.elsevier.com/locate/matlet Polycaprolactone hemi-shells were prepared by using an O/W technique. PCL (15% w/v) was fully dissolved in 10ml DCM (oil 253K...-averaged particle size and hemi-shell yield with solvent evaporation time. (ImageJ, NIH), the number-average particle size and yield of hemi-shells were obtained with increasing time intervals (n=200). Scanning electron microscopy (LEO 1525 field emis- sion SEM...

  12. Catalytic Properties of 3D Graphene-Like Microporous Carbons Synthesized in a Zeolite Template

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sazama, Petr; Pastvová, Jana; Rizescu, C.; Tirsoaga, A.; Parvulescu, V. I.; Garcia, H.; Kobera, Libor; Seidel, J.; Rathouský, Jiří; Klein, Petr; Jirka, Ivan; Morávková, Jaroslava; Blechta, Václav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2018), s. 1779-1789 ISSN 2155-5435 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-12113S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015073 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_013/0001821 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : catalytic hydrogenation * zeolite-templated carbon * 3D graphene-like microporous carbons Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 10.614, year: 2016

  13. Response of the water status of soybean to changes in soil water potentials controlled by the water pressure in microporous tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, S. L.; Henninger, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    Water transport through a microporous tube-soil-plant system was investigated by measuring the response of soil and plant water status to step change reductions in the water pressure within the tubes. Soybeans were germinated and grown in a porous ceramic 'soil' at a porous tube water pressure of -0.5 kpa for 28 d. During this time, the soil matric potential was nearly in equilibrium with tube water pressure. Water pressure in the porous tubes was then reduced to either -1.0, -1.5 or -2.0 kPa. Sap flow rates, leaf conductance and soil, root and leaf water potentials were measured before and after this change. A reduction in porous tube water pressure from -0.5 to -1.0 or -1.5 kPa did not result in any significant change in soil or plant water status. A reduction in porous tube water pressure to -2.0 kPa resulted in significant reductions in sap flow, leaf conductance, and soil, root and leaf water potentials. Hydraulic conductance, calculated as the transpiration rate/delta psi between two points in the water transport pathway, was used to analyse water transport through the tube-soil-plant continuum. At porous tube water pressures of -0.5 to-1.5 kPa soil moisture was readily available and hydraulic conductance of the plant limited water transport. At -2.0 kPa, hydraulic conductance of the bulk soil was the dominant factor in water movement.

  14. Micropore analysis of polymer networks by gas sorption and 129Xe NMR spectroscopy: toward a better understanding of intrinsic microporosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jens; Schmidt, Johannes; Thomas, Arne; Böhlmann, Winfried

    2010-10-05

    The microporosity of two microporous polymer networks is investigated in detail. Both networks are based on a central spirobifluorene motif but have different linker groups, namely, imide and thiophene units. The microporosity of the networks is based on the "polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIM)" design strategy. Nitrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide were used as sorbates in order to analyze the microporosity in greater detail. The gas sorption data was analyzed with respect to important parameters such as specific surface area, pore volume, and pore size (distribution). It is shown that the results can be strongly model dependent and swelling effects have to be regarded. (129)Xe NMR was used as an independent technique for the estimation of the average pore size of the polymer networks. The results indicate that both networks are mainly ultramicroporous (pore sizes microporous matter might have a different micropore size in the solvent swollen/filled state that in the dry state.

  15. Effect of the platinum content on the microstructure and micropore size distribution of Pt/alumina-pillared clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Vargas, M; Valencia-Rios, J; Vicente, M A; Korili, S A; Gil, A

    2005-12-15

    The aim of this work is to study the effect of the platinum content (0-1.8 wt % Pt) on the microstructure of an alumina-pillared clay. For this purpose, the nitrogen physisorption data at -196 degrees C, the micropore size distributions of the supported platinum catalysts, and the hydrogen chemisorption results at 30 degrees C have been analyzed and compared. The preparation of the catalysts has modified the textural properties of the Al-pillared clay support, giving rise to a loss of surface area and micropore volume. After reduction at 420 degrees C, the presence of dispersed metallic platinum with mean crystallite size in the 22-55 A range has been found by hydrogen adsorption. Comparison of all results reveals that the platinum species block the micropore entrances by steric hindrance to nitrogen access as the platinum content increases.

  16. Formation Mechanism of Micropores on the Surface of Pure Aluminum Induced by High-Current Pulsed Electron Beam Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Yang; Cai Jie; Wan Ming-Zhen; Lv Peng; Guan Qing-Feng

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of micropores formed on the surface of polycrystalline pure aluminum under high-current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) irradiation is explained. It is discovered that dispersed micropores with sizes of 0.1–1 μm on the irradiated surface of pure aluminum can be successfully fabricated after HCPEB irradiation. The dominant formation mechanism of the surface micropores should be attributed to the formation of supersaturation vacancies within the near surface during the HCPEB irradiation and the migration of vacancies along grain boundaries and/or dislocations towards the irradiated surface. It is expected that the HCPEB technique will become a new method for the rapid synthesis of surface porous materials. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  17. Formation of a silicon micropore array of a two-dimension electron multiplier by photo electrochemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yanjun; Duanmu Qingduo; Wang Guozheng; Li Ye; Tian Jingquan

    2009-01-01

    A semiconductor PEC etching method is applied to fabricate the n-type silicon deep micropore channel array. In this method, it is important to arrange the direction of the micropore array along the crystal orientation of the Si substrate. Otherwise, serious lateral erosion will happen. The etching process is also relative to the light intensity and HF concentration. 5% HF concentration and 10-15 cm distance between the light source and the silicon wafer are demonstrated to be the best in our experiments. The n-type silicon deep micropore channel array with aperture of 3 μm and aspect ratio of 40-60, whose inner walls are smooth, is finally obtained.

  18. Hydrogen adsorption in microporous alkali-doped carbons (single-wall carbon nano-tubes and activated carbons)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent Duclaux; Szymon Los; Michel Letellier; Philippe Azais; Roland Pellenq; Thomas Roussel; Xavier Fuhr

    2006-01-01

    Doping of microporous carbon by Li or K leads to an increase in the energy of adsorption of H 2 or D 2 molecules. Thus, the room temperature sorption capacities (at P≤3 MPa) can be higher than the ones of the raw materials after slight doping. However, the maximum H 2 (or D 2 ) storage uptake measured at T≤ 77 K is lower than the one of pristine materials as the sites of adsorption are occupied by alkali ions inserted in the micropores. The microporous adsorption sites of doped single-walled carbon nano-tubes, identified by neutron diffraction, are both the interstitial voids (in electric-arc or HiPCO tubes) in between the tubes and the central canals of the tubes (only in HiPCO tubes). (authors)

  19. Effects of drying time on the surface morphology evolution of urushiol-formaldehyde diethylenetriamine polymer microporous films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yanlian; Bai Weibin; Luo Zhen; Jin Yao; Peng Bichen; Feng Lixia; Hu Binghuan; Lin Jinhuo

    2012-01-01

    Raw lacquer, a renewable and eco-friendly biopolymer material with excellent physico-mechanical properties, has been principally used to coat objects of high artistic and pleasing beauty for centuries. In previous reports, we studied microporous urushiol-based polymer (UBP) films by the water-assisted assembly method. The effect of drying time on the formation of breath figures with honeycomb patterns in the microporous films of urushiol-formaldehyde diethylenetriamine polymer (UFDP) was investigated in this paper. The pattern structure was studied with optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The drying time, which is influenced by the reflux time, plays a decisive role in the morphology, such as pore size and distribution periodicity, of the microporous UFDP films.

  20. Effects of drying time on the surface morphology evolution of urushiol-formaldehyde diethylenetriamine polymer microporous films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yanlian, E-mail: ylxu@fjnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Materials, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Fujian Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Bai Weibin; Luo Zhen; Jin Yao; Peng Bichen; Feng Lixia [College of Chemistry and Materials, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Hu Binghuan [Fujian Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Lin Jinhuo, E-mail: jhlin@fjnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Materials, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Fujian Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, Fuzhou 350007 (China)

    2012-04-01

    Raw lacquer, a renewable and eco-friendly biopolymer material with excellent physico-mechanical properties, has been principally used to coat objects of high artistic and pleasing beauty for centuries. In previous reports, we studied microporous urushiol-based polymer (UBP) films by the water-assisted assembly method. The effect of drying time on the formation of breath figures with honeycomb patterns in the microporous films of urushiol-formaldehyde diethylenetriamine polymer (UFDP) was investigated in this paper. The pattern structure was studied with optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The drying time, which is influenced by the reflux time, plays a decisive role in the morphology, such as pore size and distribution periodicity, of the microporous UFDP films.

  1. Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Chain-Growth Polymerization of 1,4-Diethynylbenzene into Microporous Crosslinked Poly(phenylacetylene)s: the Effect of Reaction Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slováková, E.; Zukal, Arnošt; Brus, Jiří; Balcar, Hynek; Brabec, Libor; Bondarev, D.; Sedláček, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 215, č. 19 (2014), s. 1855-1869 ISSN 1022-1352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1661 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : Conjugated microporous polymers * Conjugated polymers * Microporous organic polymers Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 2.616, year: 2014

  2. Environmental coupling and population dynamics in the PE545 light-harvesting complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghtar, Mortaza; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich, E-mail: u.kleinekathoefer@jacobs-university.de

    2016-01-15

    Long-lived quantum coherences have been shown experimentally in the Fenna–Matthews–Olson (FMO) complex of green sulfur bacteria as well as in the phycoerythrin 545 (PE545) photosynthetic antenna system of marine algae. A combination of classical molecular dynamics simulations, quantum chemistry and quantum dynamical calculations is employed to determine the excitation transfer dynamics in PE545. One key property of the light-harvesting system concerning the excitation transfer and dephasing phenomena is the spectral density. This quantity is determined from time series of the vertical excitation energies of the aggregate. In the present study we focus on the quantum dynamical simulations using the earlier QM/MM calculations as input. Employing an ensemble-averaged classical path-based wave packet dynamics, the excitation transfer dynamics between the different bilins in the PE545 complex is determined and analyzed. Furthermore, the nature of the environmental fluctuations determining the transfer dynamics is discussed. - Highlights: • Modeling of excitation energy transfer in the light-harvesting system PE545. • Combination of molecular dynamics simulations, quantum chemistry and quantum dynamics. • Spectral densities for bilins in the PE545 complex.

  3. Results of the speleological exploration on Pešter plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2006-2008, basic speleological research was done on Pešter Plateau in Southwestern Serbia. On that occasion, 40 caves were surveyed, 11 of which were measured in detail. Registered caves were grouped on the basis of landscape characteristics and morphogenetic relations. Based on the location and general characteristics of the Pešter karst, it is considered that the objects near Boljare and in the ponor (sinking area of Boroštica are connected to the drainage system of the Pećina nad Vražjim firovima (Vražiji firovi Cave. In morphological terms, the cave Bezdan Kaćunova ravan (Kaćunova Cave near Boljare with its imposing hall is the most important object on Pešter Plateau for the time being. Realized research on Pešter Plateau has the character of basic or initial speleological research, which should be continued in order to solve different problems of karst in this area.

  4. Information geometry of density matrices and state estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, Dorje C

    2011-01-01

    Given a pure state vector |x) and a density matrix ρ-hat, the function p(x|ρ-hat)= defines a probability density on the space of pure states parameterised by density matrices. The associated Fisher-Rao information measure is used to define a unitary invariant Riemannian metric on the space of density matrices. An alternative derivation of the metric, based on square-root density matrices and trace norms, is provided. This is applied to the problem of quantum-state estimation. In the simplest case of unitary parameter estimation, new higher-order corrections to the uncertainty relations, applicable to general mixed states, are derived. (fast track communication)

  5. Chain of matrices, loop equations and topological recursion

    CERN Document Server

    Orantin, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Random matrices are used in fields as different as the study of multi-orthogonal polynomials or the enumeration of discrete surfaces. Both of them are based on the study of a matrix integral. However, this term can be confusing since the definition of a matrix integral in these two applications is not the same. These two definitions, perturbative and non-perturbative, are discussed in this chapter as well as their relation. The so-called loop equations satisfied by integrals over random matrices coupled in chain is discussed as well as their recursive solution in the perturbative case when the matrices are Hermitean.

  6. Effects of CO{sub 2} activation on electrochemical performance of microporous carbons derived from poly(vinylidene fluoride)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seul-Yi; Park, Soo-Jin, E-mail: sjpark@inha.ac.kr

    2013-11-15

    In this work, we have prepared microporous carbons (MPCs) derived from poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), and the physical activation of MPCs using CO{sub 2} gas is subsequently carried out with various activation temperatures to investigate the electrochemical performance. PVDF is successfully converted into MPCs with a high specific surface area and well-developed micropores. After CO{sub 2} activation, the specific surface areas of MPCs (CA-MPCs) are enhanced by 12% compared with non-activated MPCs. With increasing activation temperature, the micropore size distributions of A-MPCs also become narrower and shift to larger pore size. It is also confirmed that the CO{sub 2} activation had developed the micropores and introduced the oxygen-containing groups to MPCs′ surfaces. From the results, the specific capacitances of the electrodes in electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) based on CA-MPCs are distinctly improved through CO{sub 2} activation. The highest specific capacitance of the A-MPCs activated at 700 °C is about 125 F/g, an enhancement of 74% in comparison with NA-MPCs, at a discharge current of 2 A/g in a 6 M KOH electrolyte solution. We also found that micropore size of 0.67 nm has a specific impact on the capacitance behaviors, besides the specific surface area of the electrode samples. - Graphical abstract: The A-MPC samples with high specific surface area (ranging from 1030 to 1082 m{sup 2}/g), corresponding to micropore sizes of 0.67 and 0.72 nm, and with the amount of oxygen-containing groups ranging from 3.2% to 4.4% have been evaluated as electrodes for EDLC applications. . Display Omitted - Highlights: • Microporous carbons (MPCs) were synthesized without activation process. • Next, we carried out the CO{sub 2} activation of MPCs with activation temperatures. • It had developed the micropores and introduced the O-functional groups to MPCs. • The highest specific capacitance: 125 F/g, an increase of 74% compared to MPCs.

  7. Using Microporous Polytetrafluoroethylene Thin Sheets as a Flexible Solar Diffuser to Minimize Sunlight Glint to Cameras in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    An innovative design of using microporous PTFE thin sheets as a solar diffuser for MLI blankets or mechanical structure has been developed. It minimizes sunlight or stray-light glint to cameras when it is incident on these components in space. A microporous black PTFE thin sheet solar diffuser has been qualified for flight at NASA GSFC and installed to the TAGSAM arm MLI, OCAMS PolyCam sunshade MLI and SamCam motor riser MLI in the NASA OSIRIS-REx mission to meet the SamCam camera BRDF requirement.

  8. Micropore Geometry Manipulation by Macroscopic Deformation Based on Shape Memory Effect in Porous PLLA Membrane and its Enhanced Separation Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingxin; Yang, Qiucheng; Wang, Tao; Wang, Lian; You, Jichun; Li, Yongjin

    2017-12-20

    An effective strategy to tailor the microporous structures has been developed based on the shape memory effect in porous poly(l-lactic acid) membranes in which tiny crystals and amorphous matrix play the roles of shape-fixed phase and reversible-phase, respectively. Our results indicate that not only PLLA membranes but micropores exhibit shape memory properties. The proportional deformations on two scales have been achieved by uniaxial or biaxial tension, providing a facile way to manipulate continuously the size and the orientation degree of pores on microscale. The enhanced separation performance has been validated by taking polystyrene colloids with varying diameters as an example.

  9. Effects of CO2 activation on electrochemical performance of microporous carbons derived from poly(vinylidene fluoride)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seul-Yi; Park, Soo-Jin

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we have prepared microporous carbons (MPCs) derived from poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), and the physical activation of MPCs using CO 2 gas is subsequently carried out with various activation temperatures to investigate the electrochemical performance. PVDF is successfully converted into MPCs with a high specific surface area and well-developed micropores. After CO 2 activation, the specific surface areas of MPCs (CA-MPCs) are enhanced by 12% compared with non-activated MPCs. With increasing activation temperature, the micropore size distributions of A-MPCs also become narrower and shift to larger pore size. It is also confirmed that the CO 2 activation had developed the micropores and introduced the oxygen-containing groups to MPCs′ surfaces. From the results, the specific capacitances of the electrodes in electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) based on CA-MPCs are distinctly improved through CO 2 activation. The highest specific capacitance of the A-MPCs activated at 700 °C is about 125 F/g, an enhancement of 74% in comparison with NA-MPCs, at a discharge current of 2 A/g in a 6 M KOH electrolyte solution. We also found that micropore size of 0.67 nm has a specific impact on the capacitance behaviors, besides the specific surface area of the electrode samples. - Graphical abstract: The A-MPC samples with high specific surface area (ranging from 1030 to 1082 m 2 /g), corresponding to micropore sizes of 0.67 and 0.72 nm, and with the amount of oxygen-containing groups ranging from 3.2% to 4.4% have been evaluated as electrodes for EDLC applications. . Display Omitted - Highlights: • Microporous carbons (MPCs) were synthesized without activation process. • Next, we carried out the CO 2 activation of MPCs with activation temperatures. • It had developed the micropores and introduced the O-functional groups to MPCs. • The highest specific capacitance: 125 F/g, an increase of 74% compared to MPCs

  10. Subnanopore filling during water vapor adsorption on microporous silica thin films as seen by low-energy positron annihilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kenji; Yoshimoto, Shigeru; O'Rourke, Brian E.; Oshima, Nagayasu; Kumagai, Kazuhiro

    2018-02-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) using a low-energy positron microbeam extracted into air was applied to elucidating molecular-level pore structures formed in silicon-oxide-backboned microporous thin films under controlled humidity conditions; as a result, a direct observation of the interstitial spaces in the micropores filled with water molecules was achieved. It was demonstrated that PALS using a microbeam extracted into air in combination with water vapor adsorption is a powerful tool for the in-situ elucidation of both open and closed subnanoscaled pores of functional thin materials under practical conditions.

  11. Calorimetry by immersion into liquid nitrogen and liquid argon: a better way to determine the internal surface area of micropores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Ricardo; Llewellyn, Philip; Rouquerol, Françoise; Denoyel, Renaud; Rouquerol, Jean

    2004-09-15

    The aim of this work is to assess the internal surface area of a set of samples (either carbons or oxides, either porous or nonporous, either microporous or mesoporous) by microcalorimetry via immersion into liquid nitrogen or argon. We have made use of an isothermal, heat-flux microcalorimeter, initially designed and built in our laboratory for the sake of gas adsorption experiments at 77 or 87 K. It seems that immersion calorimetry into liquid nitrogen and argon makes it possible to go one step further in the determination of the internal surface area of micropores.

  12. Using microporous polytetrafluoroethylene thin sheets as a flexible solar diffuser to minimize sunlight glint to cameras in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2016-09-01

    An innovative design of using microporous PTFE thin sheets as a solar diffuser for MLI blankets or mechanical structure has been developed. It minimizes sunlight or stray-light glint to cameras when it is incident on these components in space. A microporous black PTFE thin sheet solar diffuser has been qualified for flight at NASA GSFC and installed to the TAGSAM arm MLI, OCAMS PolyCam sunshade MLI and SamCam motor riser MLI in the NASA OSIRIS-REx mission to meet the SamCam camera BRDF requirement.

  13. Sol-gel route to synthesis of microporous ceramic membranes: Thermal stability of TiO2-ZrO2 mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qunyin Xu; Anderson, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper concerning the synthesis of microporous ceramic membranes, the authors focus on the preparation and thermal stability of unsupported microporous TiO 2 -ZrO 2 mixed-oxide membranes. It has been observed that, by adding up to 20% ZrO 2 into TiO 2 or up to 10% TiO 2 into ZrO 2 , these microporous membranes display improved thermal stability. They can be fired up to 500 C for 0.5 h without closing micropores. However, membranes containing almost equal percentages of each component have lost microporous features and have low surface areas and low porosities. A phase diagram of a two-component TiO 2 -ZrO 2 mixed-oxide membrane has been prepared based on DTA and X-ray diffraction data in order to better understand the microstructure changes upon firing

  14. Modular Extracellular Matrices: Solutions for the Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, Monica A.; Prestwich, Glenn D.

    2008-01-01

    The common technique of growing cells in two-dimensions (2-D) is gradually being replaced by culturing cells on matrices with more appropriate composition and stiffness, or by encapsulation of cells in three-dimensions (3-D). The universal acceptance of the new 3-D paradigm has been constrained by the absence of a commercially available, biocompatible material that offers ease of use, experimental flexibility, and a seamless transition from in vitro to in vivo applications. The challenge – the puzzle that needs a solution – is to replicate the complexity of the native extracellular matrix (ECM) environment with the minimum number of components necessary to allow cells to rebuild and replicate a given tissue. For use in drug discovery, toxicology, cell banking, and ultimately in reparative medicine, the ideal matrix would therefore need to be highly reproducible, manufacturable, approvable, and affordable. Herein we describe the development of a set of modular components that can be assembled into biomimetic materials that meet these requirements. These semi-synthetic ECMs, or sECMs, are based on hyaluronan derivatives that form covalently crosslinked, biodegradable hydrogels suitable for 3-D culture of primary and stem cells in vitro, and for tissue formation in vivo. The sECMs can be engineered to provide appropriate biological cues needed to recapitulate the complexity of a given ECM environment. Specific applications for different sECM compositions include stem cell expansion with control of differentiation, scar-free wound healing, growth factor delivery, cell delivery for osteochondral defect and liver repair, and development of vascularized tumor xenografts for personalized chemotherapy. PMID:18442709

  15. Comparison of eigensolvers for symmetric band matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldaschl, Michael; Gansterer, Wilfried N

    2014-09-15

    We compare different algorithms for computing eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a symmetric band matrix across a wide range of synthetic test problems. Of particular interest is a comparison of state-of-the-art tridiagonalization-based methods as implemented in Lapack or Plasma on the one hand, and the block divide-and-conquer (BD&C) algorithm as well as the block twisted factorization (BTF) method on the other hand. The BD&C algorithm does not require tridiagonalization of the original band matrix at all, and the current version of the BTF method tridiagonalizes the original band matrix only for computing the eigenvalues. Avoiding the tridiagonalization process sidesteps the cost of backtransformation of the eigenvectors. Beyond that, we discovered another disadvantage of the backtransformation process for band matrices: In several scenarios, a lot of gradual underflow is observed in the (optional) accumulation of the transformation matrix and in the (obligatory) backtransformation step. According to the IEEE 754 standard for floating-point arithmetic, this implies many operations with subnormal (denormalized) numbers, which causes severe slowdowns compared to the other algorithms without backtransformation of the eigenvectors. We illustrate that in these cases the performance of existing methods from Lapack and Plasma reaches a competitive level only if subnormal numbers are disabled (and thus the IEEE standard is violated). Overall, our performance studies illustrate that if the problem size is large enough relative to the bandwidth, BD&C tends to achieve the highest performance of all methods if the spectrum to be computed is clustered. For test problems with well separated eigenvalues, the BTF method tends to become the fastest algorithm with growing problem size.

  16. MATXTST, Basic Operations for Covariance Matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldo, Luiz P.; Smith, Donald

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: MATXTST and MATXTST1 perform the following operations for a covariance matrix: - test for singularity; - test for positive definiteness; - compute the inverse if the matrix is non-singular; - compute the determinant; - determine the number of positive, negative, and zero eigenvalues; - examine all possible 3 X 3 cross correlations within a sub-matrix corresponding to a leading principal minor which is non-positive definite. While the two programs utilize the same input, the calculational procedures employed are somewhat different and their functions are complementary. The available input options include: i) the full covariance matrix, ii) the basic variables plus the relative covariance matrix, or iii) uncertainties in the basic variables plus the correlation matrix. 2 - Method of solution: MATXTST employs LINPACK subroutines SPOFA and SPODI to test for positive definiteness and to perform further optional calculations. Subroutine SPOFA factors a symmetric matrix M using the Cholesky algorithm to determine the elements of a matrix R which satisfies the relation M=R'R, where R' is the transposed matrix of R. Each leading principal minor of M is tested until the first one is found which is not positive definite. MATXTST1 uses LINPACK subroutines SSICO, SSIFA, and SSIDI to estimate whether the matrix is near to singularity or not (SSICO), and to perform the matrix diagonalization process (SSIFA). The algorithm used in SSIFA is generalization of the Method of Lagrange Reduction. SSIDI is used to compute the determinant and inertia of the matrix. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Matrices of sizes up to 50 X 50 elements can be treated by present versions of the programs

  17. Relations among basic psychological needs, PE-motivation and fundamental movement skills in 9-12-year-old boys and girls in Physical Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aart, I.; Hartman, E.; Elferink-Gemser, M.; Mombarg, R.; Visscher, C.

    Background: Many children aged 9-12 appear to have low levels of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Physical education (PE) is important because PE-teachers can teach children a variety of FMS and can influence PE-motivation. However, declined levels of PE-motivation are reported in the final grades

  18. Relations among basic psychological needs, PE-motivation and fundamental movement skills in 9–12-year-old boys and girls in Physical Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aart, Ingrid; Hartman, E.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Mombarg, Remo; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    : Many children aged 9–12 appear to have low levels of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Physical education (PE) is important because PE-teachers can teach children a variety of FMS and can influence PE-motivation. However, declined levels of PE-motivation are reported in the final grades of

  19. Relations among Basic Psychological Needs, PE-Motivation and Fundamental Movement Skills in 9-12-Year-Old Boys and Girls in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aart, I.; Hartman, E.; Elferink-Gemser, M.; Mombarg, R.; Visscher, C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many children aged 9-12 appear to have low levels of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Physical education (PE) is important because PE-teachers can teach children a variety of FMS and can influence PE-motivation. However, declined levels of PE-motivation are reported in the final grades of elementary school. Therefore, more insight in…

  20. Characterization of genomic variations in SNPs of PE_PGRS genes reveals deletions and insertions in extensively drug resistant (XDR) M. tuberculosis strains from Pakistan

    KAUST Repository

    Kanji, Akbar; Hasan, Zahra; Ali, Asho M.; McNerney, Ruth; Mallard, Kim E.; Coll, Francesc; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Pain, Arnab; Nair, Mridul; Clark, Taane G.; Zaver, Ambreen; Jafri, Sana M Wasim; Hasan, Rumina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) PE_PGRS genes belong to the PE multi-gene family. Although the function of the members of the PE_PGRS multi-gene family is not yet known, it is hypothesized that the PE_PGRS genes may be associated