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Sample records for micromachined mems structures

  1. Design of Surface micromachined Compliant MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Joe Anthony [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The consideration of compliant mechanisms as Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is the focus of this research endeavor. MEMS are micron to millimeter devices that combine electrical, mechanical, and information processing capabilities on the same device. These MEMS need some mechanical motion or parts that move relative to each other. This relative motion, using multiple parts, is not desired because of the assembly requirement and the friction introduced. Compliant devices limits or eliminates friction and the need for multi-component assembly. Compliant devices improve designs by creating single piece mechanisms. The purpose of this research is to validate surface micromachining as a viable fabrication process for compliant MEMS designs. Specifically, this research has sought to fabricate a micro-compliant gripper and a micro-compliant clamp to illustrate the process. While other researchers have created compliant MEMS, most have used comb-drive actuation methods and bulk micromachining processes. This research focuses on fully-compliant devices that use device flexibility for motion and actuation. Validation of these compliant MEMS is achieved by structural optimization of device design and functional performance testing. This research contributes to the ongoing research in MEMS by evaluating the potential of using surface micromachining as a process for fabricating compliant micro-mechanisms.

  2. Design of Surface Micromachined Compliant MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Joe Anthony [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-12-31

    The consideration of compliant mechanisms as Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is the focus of this research endeavor. MEMS are micron to millimeter devices that combine electrical, mechanical, and information processing capabilities on the same device. These MEMS need some mechanical motion or parts that move relative to each other. This relative motion, using multiple parts, is not desired because of the assembly requirement and the friction introduced. Compliant devices limits or eliminates friction and the need for multi-component assembly. Compliant devices improve designs by creating single piece mechanisms. The purpose of this research is to validate surface micromachining as a viable fabrication process for compliant MEMS designs. Specifically, this research has sought to fabricate a micro-compliant gripper and a micro-compliant clamp to illustrate the process. While other researchers have created compliant MEMs, most have used comb-drive actuation methods and bulk micromachining processes. This research focused on fully-compliant devices that use device flexibility for motion and actuation. Validation of these compliant MEMS is achieved by structural optimization of device design and functional performance testing. This research contributes to the ongoing research in MEMS by evaluating the potential of using surface micromachining as a process for fabricating compliant micro-mechanisms.

  3. The Development of Micromachined Gyroscope Structure and Circuitry Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunzhu Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review surveys micromachined gyroscope structure and circuitry technology. The principle of micromachined gyroscopes is first introduced. Then, different kinds of MEMS gyroscope structures, materials and fabrication technologies are illustrated. Micromachined gyroscopes are mainly categorized into micromachined vibrating gyroscopes (MVGs, piezoelectric vibrating gyroscopes (PVGs, surface acoustic wave (SAW gyroscopes, bulk acoustic wave (BAW gyroscopes, micromachined electrostatically suspended gyroscopes (MESGs, magnetically suspended gyroscopes (MSGs, micro fiber optic gyroscopes (MFOGs, micro fluid gyroscopes (MFGs, micro atom gyroscopes (MAGs, and special micromachined gyroscopes. Next, the control electronics of micromachined gyroscopes are analyzed. The control circuits are categorized into typical circuitry and special circuitry technologies. The typical circuitry technologies include typical analog circuitry and digital circuitry, while the special circuitry consists of sigma delta, mode matching, temperature/quadrature compensation and novel special technologies. Finally, the characteristics of various typical gyroscopes and their development tendency are discussed and investigated in detail.

  4. Structure optimization and simulation analysis of the quartz micromachined gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhong Wu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Structure optimization and simulation analysis of the quartz micromachined gyroscope are reported in this paper. The relationships between the structure parameters and the frequencies of work mode were analysed by finite element analysis. The structure parameters of the quartz micromachined gyroscope were optimized to reduce the difference between the frequencies of the drive mode and the sense mode. The simulation results were proved by testing the prototype gyroscope, which was fabricated by micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS technology. Therefore, the frequencies of the drive mode and the sense mode can match each other by the structure optimization and simulation analysis of the quartz micromachined gyroscope, which is helpful in the design of the high sensitivity quartz micromachined gyroscope.

  5. Fabrication of a Micromachined Capacitive Switch Using the CMOS-MEMS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yang Lin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the design and fabrication of a micromachined radio frequency (RF capacitive switch using the complementary metal oxide semiconductor-microelectromechanical system (CMOS-MEMS technology. The structure of the micromachined switch is composed of a membrane, eight springs, four inductors, and coplanar waveguide (CPW lines. In order to reduce the actuation voltage of the switch, the springs are designed as low stiffness. The finite element method (FEM software CoventorWare is used to simulate the actuation voltage and displacement of the switch. The micromachined switch needs a post-CMOS process to release the springs and membrane. A wet etching is employed to etch the sacrificial silicon dioxide layer, and to release the membrane and springs of the switch. Experiments show that the pull-in voltage of the switch is 12 V. The switch has an insertion loss of 0.8 dB at 36 GHz and an isolation of 19 dB at 36 GHz.

  6. Intracardiac ultrasound scanner using a micromachine (MEMS) actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, J M; Bobbio, S M; Goodwin-Johansson, S; Smith, S W

    2000-01-01

    Catheter-based intracardiac ultrasound offers the potential for improved guidance of interventional cardiac procedures. The objective of this research is the development of catheter-based mechanical sector scanners incorporating high frequency ultrasound transducers operating at frequencies up to 20 MHz. The authors' current transducer assembly consists of a single 1.75 mm by 1.75 mm, 20 MHz, PZT element mounted on a 2 mm by 2 mm square, 75 mum thick polyimide table that pivots on 3-mum thick gold plated polyimide hinges. The hinges also serve as the electrical connections to the transducer. This table-mounted transducer is tilted using a miniature linear actuator to produce a sector scan. This linear actuator is an integrated force array (IFA), which is an example of a micromachine, i.e., a microelectromechanical system (MEMS). The IFA is a thin (2.2 mum) polyimide membrane, which consists of a network of hundreds of thousands of micron scale deformable capacitors made from pairs of metallized polyimide plates. IFAs contract with an applied voltage of 30-120 V and have been shown to produce strains as large as 20% and forces of up to 8 dynes. The prototype transducer and actuator assembly was fabricated and interfaced with a GagePCI analog to digital conversion board digitizing 12 bit samples at a rate of 100 MSamples/second housed in a personal computer to create a single channel ultrasound scanner. The deflection of the table transducer in a low viscosity insulating fluid (HFE 7100, 3M) is up to +/-10 degrees at scan rates of 10-60 Hz. Software has been developed to produce real-time sector scans on the PC monitor.

  7. Sensors and Micromachined Devices for the Automotive and New Markets: The Delphi Delco Electronics MEMS Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logsdon, James

    2002-03-01

    This presentation will provide a brief history of the development of MEMS products and technology, beginning with the manifold absolute pressure sensor in the late seventies through the current variety of Delphi Delco Electronics sensors available today. The technology development of micromachining from uncompensated P plus etch stops to deep reactive ion etching and the technology development of wafer level packaging from electrostatic bonding to glass frit sealing and silicon to silicon direct bonding will be reviewed.

  8. Finite element modeling of micromachined MEMS photon devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Boyd M., III; Schonberger, D. W.; Datskos, Panos G.

    1999-09-01

    The technology of microelectronics that has evolved over the past half century is one of great power and sophistication and can now be extended to many applications (MEMS and MOEMS) other than electronics. An interesting application of MEMS quantum devices is the detection of electromagnetic radiation. The operation principle of MEMS quantum devices is based on the photoinduced stress in semiconductors, and the photon detection results from the measurement of the photoinduced bending. These devices can be described as micromechanical photon detectors. In this work, we have developed a technique for simulating electronic stresses using finite element analysis. We have used our technique to model the response of micromechanical photon devices to external stimuli and compared these results with experimental data. Material properties, geometry, and bimaterial design play an important role in the performance of micromechanical photon detectors. We have modeled these effects using finite element analysis and included the effects of bimaterial thickness coating, effective length of the device, width, and thickness.

  9. Finite Element Modeling of Micromachined MEMS Photon Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datskos, P.G.; Evans, B.M.; Schonberger, D.

    1999-01-01

    The technology of microelectronics that has evolved over the past half century is one of great power and sophistication and can now be extended to many applications (MEMS and MOEMS) other than electronics. An interesting application of MEMS quantum devices is the detection of electromagnetic radiation. The operation principle of MEMS quantum devices is based on the photoinduced stress in semiconductors, and the photon detection results from the measurement of the photoinduced bending. These devices can be described as micromechanical photon detectors. In this work, we have developed a technique for simulating electronic stresses using finite element analysis. We have used our technique to model the response of micromechanical photon devices to external stimuli and compared these results with experimental data. Material properties, geometry, and bimaterial design play an important role in the performance of micromechanical photon detectors. We have modeled these effects using finite element analysis and included the effects of bimaterial thickness coating, effective length of the device, width, and thickness

  10. PECVD silicon carbide surface micromachining technology and selected MEMS applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaraman, V.; Pakula, L.S.; Yang, H.; French, P.J.; Sarro, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Attractive material properties of plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited (PECVD) silicon carbide (SiC) when combined with CMOS-compatible low thermal budget processing provides an ideal technology platform for developing various microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and merging them with

  11. Etching characteristics of Si{110} in 20 wt% KOH with addition of hydroxylamine for the fabrication of bulk micromachined MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A. V. Narasimha; Swarnalatha, V.; Pal, P.

    2017-12-01

    Anisotropic wet etching is a most widely employed for the fabrication of MEMS/NEMS structures using silicon bulk micromachining. The use of Si{110} in MEMS is inevitable when a microstructure with vertical sidewall is to be fabricated using wet anisotropic etching. In most commonly employed etchants (i.e. TMAH and KOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH) exhibits higher etch rate and provides improved anisotropy between Si{111} and Si{110} planes. In the manufacturing company, high etch rate is demanded to increase the productivity that eventually reduces the cost of end product. In order to modify the etching characteristics of KOH for the micromachining of Si{110}, we have investigated the effect of hydroxylamine (NH2OH) in 20 wt% KOH solution. The concentration of NH2OH is varied from 0 to 20% and the etching is carried out at 75 °C. The etching characteristics which are studied in this work includes the etch rates of Si{110} and silicon dioxide, etched surface morphology, and undercutting at convex corners. The etch rate of Si{110} in 20 wt% KOH + 15% NH2OH solution is measured to be four times more than that of pure 20 wt% KOH. Moreover, the addition of NH2OH increases the undercutting at convex corners and enhances the etch selectivity between Si and SiO2.

  12. Micromachined sensor for stress measurement and micromechanical study of free-standing thin films for MEMS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have a wide range of applications. In the field of wireless and microwave technology, considerable attention has been given to the development and integration of MEMS-based RF (radio frequency) components. An RF MEMS switch requires low insertion loss, high isolation, and low actuation voltage - electrical aspects that have been extensively studied. The mechanical requirements of the switch, such as low sensitivity to built-in stress and high reliability, greatly depend on the micromechanical properties of the switch materials, and have not been thoroughly explored. RF MEMS switches are typically in the form of a free-standing thin film structure. Large stress gradients and across-wafer stress variations developed during fabrication severely degrade their electrical performance. A micromachined stress measurement sensor has been developed that can potentially be employed for in-situ monitoring of stress evolution and stress variation. The sensors were micromachined using five masks on two wafer levels, each measuring 5x3x1 mm. They function by means of an electron tunneling mechanism, where a 2x2 mm silicon nitride membrane elastically deflects under an applied deflection voltage via an external feedback circuitry. For the current design, the sensors are capable of measuring tensile stresses up to the GPa range under deflection voltages of 50--100 V. Sensor functionality was studied by finite element modeling and a theoretical analysis of square membrane deflection. While the mechanical properties of thin films on substrates have been extensively studied, studies of free-standing thin films have been limited due to the practical difficulties in sample handling and testing. Free-standing Al and Al-Ti thin films specimens have been successfully fabricated and microtensile and stress relaxation tests have been performed using a custom-designed micromechanical testing apparatus. A dedicated TEM (transmission electron microscopy

  13. MEMS Reliability: Infrastructure, Test Structures, Experiments, and Failure Modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TANNER,DANELLE M.; SMITH,NORMAN F.; IRWIN,LLOYD W.; EATON,WILLIAM P.; HELGESEN,KAREN SUE; CLEMENT,J. JOSEPH; MILLER,WILLIAM M.; MILLER,SAMUEL L.; DUGGER,MICHAEL T.; WALRAVEN,JEREMY A.; PETERSON,KENNETH A.

    2000-01-01

    The burgeoning new technology of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) shows great promise in the weapons arena. We can now conceive of micro-gyros, micro-surety systems, and micro-navigators that are extremely small and inexpensive. Do we want to use this new technology in critical applications such as nuclear weapons? This question drove us to understand the reliability and failure mechanisms of silicon surface-micromachined MEMS. Development of a testing infrastructure was a crucial step to perform reliability experiments on MEMS devices and will be reported here. In addition, reliability test structures have been designed and characterized. Many experiments were performed to investigate failure modes and specifically those in different environments (humidity, temperature, shock, vibration, and storage). A predictive reliability model for wear of rubbing surfaces in microengines was developed. The root causes of failure for operating and non-operating MEMS are discussed. The major failure mechanism for operating MEMS was wear of the polysilicon rubbing surfaces. Reliability design rules for future MEMS devices are established.

  14. A versatile multi-user polyimide surface micromachinning process for MEMS applications

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports a versatile multi-user micro-fabrication process for MEMS devices, the \\'Polyimide MEMS Multi-User Process\\' (PiMMPs). The reported process uses polyimide as the structural material and three separate metallization layers that can be interconnected depending on the desired application. This process enables for the first time the development of out-of-plane compliant mechanisms that can be designed using six different physical principles for actuation and sensing on a wafer from a single fabrication run. These principles are electrostatic motion, thermal bimorph actuation, capacitive sensing, magnetic sensing, thermocouple-based sensing and radio frequency transmission and reception. © 2015 IEEE.

  15. Structured synthesis of MEMS using evolutionary approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun; Wang, Jiachuan; Achiche, Sofiane

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the hierarchy that is involved in a typical MEMS design and how evolutionary approaches can be used to automate the hierarchical synthesis process for MEMS. The paper first introduces the flow of a structured MEMS design process and emphasizes that system-level lumped...

  16. Complex three-dimensional structures in Si{1 0 0} using wet bulk micromachining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Prem; Sato, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    Complex three-dimensional structures for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are fabricated in Si{1 0 0} wafers using wet bulk micromachining. The structures are divided into two categories: fixed and freestanding. The fabrication processes for both types utilize single wafers with sequentially deposited nitride and oxide layers, local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS) and two steps of wet anisotropic etching. The fixed structures contain perfectly sharp edges. Thermally deposited oxide is used as the material for the freestanding structures. Wet etching is performed in tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) with and without Triton X-100 (C 14 H 22 O(C 2 H 4 O) n , n = 9–10). For the fixed structures, both etching steps are performed either in 25 wt% TMAH + Triton or pure TMAH or both, depending upon the type of the structures. In the case of freestanding systems, TMAH + Triton is utilized first, followed by pure TMAH. The fabrication methods enable densely arrayed structures, allowing the manufacture of corrugated diaphragms, compact size liquid (or gas) flow delivery systems, newly shaped mold for soft MEMS structures (e.g. PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane)) and other applications. The present research is an approach to fabricate advanced MEMS structures, extending the range of 3D structures fabricated by silicon anisotropic etching

  17. Fractal Structures For Mems Variable Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.; Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa Ahmed; Emira, Ahmed A.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with the present disclosure, one embodiment of a fractal variable capacitor comprises a capacitor body in a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) structure, wherein the capacitor body has an upper first metal plate with a fractal shape

  18. Optical inspection of hidden MEMS structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauter, Johann; Gronle, Marc; Osten, Wolfgang

    2017-06-01

    Micro-electro-mechanical system's (MEMS) applications have greatly expanded over the recent years, and the MEMS industry has grown almost exponentially. One of the strongest drivers are the automotive and consumer markets. A 100% test is necessary especially in the production of automotive MEMS sensors since they are subject to safety relevant functions. This inspection should be carried out before dicing and packaging since more than 90% of the production costs are incurred during these steps. An electrical test is currently being carried out with each MEMS component. In the case of a malfunction, the defect can not be located on the wafer because the MEMS are no longer optically accessible due to the encapsulation. This paper presents a low coherence interferometer for the topography measurement of MEMS structures located within the wafer stack. Here, a high axial and lateral resolution is necessary to identify defects such as stuck or bent MEMS fingers. First, the boundary conditions for an optical inspection system will be discussed. The setup is then shown with some exemplary measurements.

  19. Micromachined ultrasonic droplet generator based on a liquid horn structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, J. M.; Ejimofor, C.; Kumar, S.; Degertekin, F. L.; Fedorov, A. G.

    2004-05-01

    A micromachined ultrasonic droplet generator is developed and demonstrated for drop-on-demand fluid atomization. The droplet generator comprises a bulk ceramic piezoelectric transducer for ultrasound generation, a reservoir for the ejection fluid, and a silicon micromachined liquid horn structure as the nozzle. The nozzles are formed using a simple batch microfabrication process that involves wet etching of (100) silicon in potassium hydroxide solution. Device operation is demonstrated by droplet ejection of water through 30 μm orifices at 1.49 and 2.30 MHz. The finite-element simulations of the acoustic fields in the cavity and electrical impedance of the device are in agreement with the measurements and indicate that the device utilizes cavity resonances in the 1-5 MHz range in conjunction with acoustic wave focusing by the pyramidally shaped nozzles to achieve low power operation.

  20. Fractal Structures For Mems Variable Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.

    2014-08-28

    In accordance with the present disclosure, one embodiment of a fractal variable capacitor comprises a capacitor body in a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) structure, wherein the capacitor body has an upper first metal plate with a fractal shape separated by a vertical distance from a lower first metal plate with a complementary fractal shape; and a substrate above which the capacitor body is suspended.

  1. The Influence of Coating Structure on Micromachine Stiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushmerick, J.G.; Hankins, M.G.; De Boer, M.P.; Clews, P.J.; Carpick, R.W.; Bunker, B.C.

    2000-10-03

    We have clearly shown that the film morphology dictates the anti-stiction properties of FDTS coatings. Release stiction is not observed when ideal monolayer films are present but can be extensive when thicker aggregate structures are present. This finding is significant because it indicates that agglomerate formation during processing is a major source of irreproducible behavior when FDTS coatings are used to release micromachined parts. The results could also help explain why coatings that are aged at high. humidity start to stick to each other. (AFM results show that humid environments promote the formation of aggregates from monolayer films.) The reason why aggregate structures promote stiction is currently unknown. However, it appears that aggregates interfere with the ability of FDTS to form dense, well-ordered coatings under microstructures, leading to surfaces that are sufficiently hydrophilic to allow for release stiction via an attractive Laplace force during drying.

  2. Structural design considerations for micromachined solid-oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikar, V. T.; Turner, Kevin T.; Andrew Ie, Tze Yung; Spearing, S. Mark

    Micromachined solid-oxide fuel cells (μSOFCs) are among a class of devices being investigated for portable power generation. Optimization of the performance and reliability of such devices requires robust, scale-dependent, design methodologies. In this first analysis, we consider the structural design of planar, electrolyte-supported, μSOFCs from the viewpoints of electrochemical performance, mechanical stability and reliability, and thermal behavior. The effect of electrolyte thickness on fuel cell performance is evaluated using a simple analytical model. Design diagrams that account explicitly for thermal and intrinsic residual stresses are presented to identify geometries that are resistant to fracture and buckling. Analysis of energy loss due to in-plane heat conduction highlights the importance of efficient thermal isolation in microscale fuel cell design.

  3. Fractal Structures For Fixed Mems Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.

    2014-08-28

    An embodiment of a fractal fixed capacitor comprises a capacitor body in a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) structure. The capacitor body has a first plate with a fractal shape separated by a horizontal distance from a second plate with a fractal shape. The first plate and the second plate are within the same plane. Such a fractal fixed capacitor further comprises a substrate above which the capacitor body is positioned.

  4. Fractal Structures For Fixed Mems Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.; Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa Ahmed; Emira, Ahmed A.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    An embodiment of a fractal fixed capacitor comprises a capacitor body in a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) structure. The capacitor body has a first plate with a fractal shape separated by a horizontal distance from a second plate with a fractal shape. The first plate and the second plate are within the same plane. Such a fractal fixed capacitor further comprises a substrate above which the capacitor body is positioned.

  5. Demonstration of robust micromachined jet technology and its application to realistic flow control problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Sung Pil [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    This paper describes the demonstration of successful fabrication and initial characterization of micromachined pressure sensors and micromachined jets (microjets) fabricated for use in macro flow control and other applications. In this work, the microfabrication technology was investigated to create a micromachined fluidic control system with a goal of application in practical fluids problems, such as UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle)-scale aerodynamic control. Approaches of this work include : (1) the development of suitable micromachined synthetic jets (microjets) as actuators, which obviate the need to physically extend micromachined structures into an external flow ; and (2) a non-silicon alternative micromachining fabrication technology based on metallic substrates and lamination (in addition to traditional MEMS technologies) which will allow the realization of larger scale, more robust structures and larger array active areas for fluidic systems. As an initial study, an array of MEMS pressure sensors and an array of MEMS modulators for orifice-based control of microjets have been fabricated, and characterized. Both pressure sensors and modulators have been built using stainless steel as a substrate and a combination of lamination and traditional micromachining processes as fabrication technologies.

  6. Demonstration of robust micromachined jet technology and its application to realistic flow control problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Sung Pil

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the demonstration of successful fabrication and initial characterization of micromachined pressure sensors and micromachined jets (microjets) fabricated for use in macro flow control and other applications. In this work, the microfabrication technology was investigated to create a micromachined fluidic control system with a goal of application in practical fluids problems, such as UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle)-scale aerodynamic control. Approaches of this work include : (1) the development of suitable micromachined synthetic jets (microjets) as actuators, which obviate the need to physically extend micromachined structures into an external flow ; and (2) a non-silicon alternative micromachining fabrication technology based on metallic substrates and lamination (in addition to traditional MEMS technologies) which will allow the realization of larger scale, more robust structures and larger array active areas for fluidic systems. As an initial study, an array of MEMS pressure sensors and an array of MEMS modulators for orifice-based control of microjets have been fabricated, and characterized. Both pressure sensors and modulators have been built using stainless steel as a substrate and a combination of lamination and traditional micromachining processes as fabrication technologies

  7. Advancing MEMS Technology Usage through the MUMPS (Multi-User MEMS Processes) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, D. A.; Markus, K. W.; Dhuler, V.; Mahadevan, R.; Cowen, A.

    1995-01-01

    In order to help provide access to advanced micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technologies and lower the barriers for both industry and academia, the Microelectronic Center of North Carolina (MCNC) and ARPA have developed a program which provides users with access to both MEMS processes and advanced electronic integration techniques. The four distinct aspects of this program, the multi-user MEMS processes (MUMP's), the consolidated micro-mechanical element library, smart MEMS, and the MEMS technology network are described in this paper. MUMP's is an ARPA-supported program created to provide inexpensive access to MEMS technology in a multi-user environment. It is both a proof-of-concept and educational tool that aids in the development of MEMS in the domestic community. MUMP's technologies currently include a 3-layer poly-silicon surface micromachining process and LIGA (lithography, electroforming, and injection molding) processes that provide reasonable design flexibility within set guidelines. The consolidated micromechanical element library (CaMEL) is a library of active and passive MEMS structures that can be downloaded by the MEMS community via the internet. Smart MEMS is the development of advanced electronics integration techniques for MEMS through the application of flip chip technology. The MEMS technology network (TechNet) is a menu of standard substrates and MEMS fabrication processes that can be purchased and combined to create unique process flows. TechNet provides the MEMS community greater flexibility and enhanced technology accessibility.

  8. A method for manufacturing a hollow mems structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for manufacturing an at least partly hollow MEMS structure. In a first step one or more through-going openings is/are provided in core material. The one or more through-going openings is/are then covered by an etch-stop layer. After this step, a bottom...... further comprises the step of creating bottom and top conductors in the respective bottom and top layers. Finally, excess core material is removed in order to create the at least partly hollow MEMS structure which may include a MEMS inductor....

  9. Wafer level packaging of MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esashi, Masayoshi

    2008-01-01

    Wafer level packaging plays many important roles for MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems), including cost, yield and reliability. MEMS structures on silicon chips are encapsulated between bonded wafers or by surface micromachining, and electrical interconnections are made from the cavity. Bonding at the interface, such as glass–Si anodic bonding and metal-to-metal bonding, requires electrical interconnection through the lid vias in many cases. On the other hand, lateral electrical interconnections on the surface of the chip are used for bonding with intermediate melting materials, such as low melting point glass and solder. The cavity formed by surface micromachining is made using sacrificial etching, and the openings needed for the sacrificial etching are plugged using deposition sealing methods. Vacuum packaging methods and the structures for electrical feedthrough for the interconnection are discussed in this review. (topical review)

  10. Novel RF-MEMS capacitive switching structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottenberg, X.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Fiorini, P.; De Raedt, W.; Tilmans, H.A.C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on novel RF-MEMS capacitive switching devices implementing an electrically floating metal layer covering the dielectric to ensure intimate contact with the bridge in the down state. This results in an optimal switch down capacitance and allows optimisation of the down/up

  11. MEMS-based transmission lines for microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Fu, Jiahui; Gu, Xuemai; Shi, Huajuan; Lee, Jongchul

    2003-04-01

    This paper mainly presents a briefly review for recent progress in MEMS-based transmission lines for use in microwave and millimeterwave range. MEMS-based transmission lines including different transmission line structure such as membrane-supported microstrip line microstrip line, coplanar microshield transmission line, LIGA micromachined planar transmission line, micromachined waveguides and coplanar waveguide are discussed. MEMS-based transmission lines are characterized by low propagation loss, wide operation frequency band, low dispersion and high quality factor, in addition, the fabrication is compatible with traditional processing of integrated circuits (IC"s). The emergence of MEMS-based transmission lines provided a solution for miniaturizing microwave system and monolithic microwave integrated circuits.

  12. MEMS Accelerometer with Screen Printed Piezoelectric Thick Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Lau-Moeller, R.; Bove, T.

    2006-01-01

    A bulk-micromachined piezoelectric MEMS accelerometer with screen printed piezoelectric Pb(ZrxTil )O3(PZT) thick film (TF) as the sensing material has been fabricated and characterized. The accelerometer has a four beam structure with a central seismic mass (3600x3600x500 pm3) and a total chip size...

  13. Micromachining structured optical fibers using focused ion beam milling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martelli, C.; Olivero, P.; Canning, J.; Groothoff, N.; Gibson, B.; Huntington, S.

    2007-01-01

    A focused ion beam is used to mill side holes in air-silica structured fibers. By way of example, side holes are introduced in two types of air-structured fiber, (1) a photonic crystal four-ring fiber and (2) a six-hole single-ring step-index structured fiber. © 2007 Optical Society of America.

  14. Post-CMOS Micromachining of Surface and Bulk Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-06

    Structures iii Acknowledgements I would like to thank my advisors, Professor Gary K. Fedder and Professor Dave W. Greve, for their continuing support...Donnelly, Plasma Chem. Plasma Process, vol. 1, pp. 37, 1981. [54] J. L. Mauer, J. S. Logan, L. B. Zielinski , and G. S. Schwartz, J. Vac. Sci. Technol

  15. Nickel silicide thin films as masking and structural layers for silicon bulk micro-machining by potassium hydroxide wet etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskaran, M; Sriram, S; Sim, L W

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of using titanium and nickel silicide thin films as mask materials for silicon bulk micro-machining. Thin films of nickel silicide were found to be more resistant to wet etching in potassium hydroxide. The use of nickel silicide as a structural material, by fabricating micro-beams of varying dimensions, is demonstrated. The micro-structures were realized using these thin films with wet etching using potassium hydroxide solution on (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) silicon substrates. These results show that nickel silicide is a suitable alternative to silicon nitride for silicon bulk micro-machining

  16. A hinged-pad test structure for sliding friction measurement in micromachining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, M.P. de; Redmond, J.M.; Michalske, T.A.

    1998-08-01

    The authors describe the design, modeling, fabrication and initial testing of a new test structure for friction measurement in MEMS. The device consists of a cantilevered forked beam and a friction pad attached via a hinge. Compared to previous test structures, the proposed structure can measure friction over much larger pressure ranges, yet occupies one hundred times less area. The placement of the hinge is crucial to obtaining a well-known and constant pressure distribution in the device. Static deflections on the device were measured and modeled numerically, Preliminary results indicate that friction pad slip is sensitive to friction pad normal force.

  17. Modeling and identification of induction micromachines in microelectromechanical systems applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyshevski, S.E. [Purdue University at Indianapolis (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2002-11-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which integrate motion microstructures, radiating energy microdevices, controlling and signal processing integrated circuits (ICs), are widely used. Rotational and translational electromagnetic based micromachines are used in MEMS as actuators and sensors. Brushless high performance micromachines are the preferable choice in different MEMS applications, and therefore, synchronous and induction micromachines are the best candidates. Affordability, good performance characteristics (efficiency, controllability, robustness, reliability, power and torque densities etc.) and expanded operating envelopes result in a strong interest in the application of induction micromachines. In addition, induction micromachines can be easily fabricated using surface micromachining and high aspect ratio fabrication technologies. Thus, it is anticipated that induction micromachines, controlled using different control algorithms implemented using ICs, will be widely used in MEMS. Controllers can be implemented using specifically designed ICs to attain superior performance, maximize efficiency and controllability, minimize losses and electromagnetic interference, reduce noise and vibration, etc. In order to design controllers, the induction micromachine must be modeled, and its mathematical model parameters must be identified. Using microelectromechanics, nonlinear mathematical models are derived. This paper illustrates the application of nonlinear identification methods as applied to identify the unknown parameters of three phase induction micromachines. Two identification methods are studied. In particular, nonlinear error mapping technique and least squares identification are researched. Analytical and numerical results, as well as practical capabilities and effectiveness, are illustrated, identifying the unknown parameters of a three phase brushless induction micromotor. Experimental results fully support the identification methods. (author)

  18. MEMS-Based Fuel Reformer with Suspended Membrane Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuei-Sung; Tanaka, Shuji; Esashi, Masayoshi

    We report a MEMS-based fuel reformer for supplying hydrogen to micro-fuel cells for portable applications. A combustor and a reforming chamber are fabricated at either side of a suspended membrane structure. This design is used to improve the overall thermal efficiency, which is a critical issue to realize a micro-fuel reformer. The suspended membrane structure design provided good thermal isolation. The micro-heaters consumed 0.97W to maintain the reaction zone of the MEMS-based fuel reformer at 200°C, but further power saving is necessary by improving design and fabrication. The conversion rate of methanol to hydrogen was about 19% at 180°C by using evaporated copper as a reforming catalyst. The catalytic combustion of hydrogen started without any assistance of micro-heaters. By feeding the fuel mixture of an equivalence ratio of 0.35, the temperature of the suspended membrane structure was maintained stable at 100°C with a combustion efficiency of 30%. In future works, we will test a micro-fuel reformer by using a micro-combustor to supply heat.

  19. Micromachining process – current situation and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalakiya Meet Rajeshkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid progress in the scientific innovations and the hunt for the renewable energy increases the urge for producing the bio electronic products, solar cells, bio batteries, nano robots, MEMS, blood less surgical tools which can be possible with the aid of the micromachining. This article helps us to understand the evolution and the challenges faced by the micromachining process. Micro machining is an enabling technology that facilitates component miniaturization and improved performance characteristics. Growing demand for less weight, high accuracy, high precision, meagre lead time, reduced batch size, less human interference are the key drivers for the micromachining than the conventional machining process.

  20. A novel RF MEMS switch with novel mechanical structure modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K Y; Ramer, R

    2010-01-01

    A novel RF MEMS contact-type switch for RF and microwave applications is presented. The switch is designed with special mechanical structures for stiffness enhancement. A method of using dimple lines to reduce the stress sensitivity of a beam is shown with complete mathematical modeling and finite element mechanical simulation. A complete mathematical model is developed for the proposed switch. Limited fabrication resolution and non-uniformities in layer thickness and stress were taken into consideration for this design, concomitantly with the preservation of device miniaturization and functionalities. The novel mechanical modeling of the switch leads to the estimation of the actuation voltage and shows simplification from previously published analysis. The measured actuation voltage and RF performance of the novel RF MEMS switch are also reported. The switch actuated at 20 V achieved better than 22 dB return loss and less than 0.7 dB insertion loss in on state from dc–40 GHz; it provided better than 30 dB isolation in off state

  1. A wafer mapping technique for residual stress in surface micromachined films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiavone, G; Murray, J; Smith, S; Walton, A J; Desmulliez, M P Y; Mount, A R

    2016-01-01

    The design of MEMS devices employing movable structures is crucially dependant on the mechanical behaviour of the deposited materials. It is therefore important to be able to fully characterize the micromachined films and predict with confidence the mechanical properties of patterned structures. This paper presents a characterization technique that enables the residual stress in MEMS films to be mapped at the wafer level by using microstructures released by surface micromachining. These dedicated MEMS test structures and the associated measurement techniques are used to extract localized information on the strain and Young’s modulus of the film under investigation. The residual stress is then determined by numerically coupling this data with a finite element analysis of the structure. This paper illustrates the measurement routine and demonstrates it with a case study using electrochemically deposited alloys of nickel and iron, particularly prone to develop high levels of residual stress. The results show that the technique enables wafer mapping of film non-uniformities and identifies wafer-to-wafer differences. A comparison between the results obtained from the mapping technique and conventional wafer bow measurements highlights the benefits of using a procedure tailored to films that are non-uniform, patterned and surface-micromachined, as opposed to simple standard stress extraction methods. The presented technique reveals detailed information that is generally unexplored when using conventional stress extraction methods such as wafer bow measurements. (paper)

  2. Damping control of micromachined lowpass mechanical vibration isolation filters using electrostatic actuation with electronic signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Robert; Flowers, George; Sanders, Nicole; MacAllister, Ken; Horvath, Roland; Hodel, A. S.; Johnson, Wayne; Kranz, Michael; Whitley, Michael

    2005-05-01

    Some harsh environments, such as those encountered by aerospace vehicles and various types of industrial machinery, contain high frequency/amplitude mechanical vibrations. Unfortunately, some very useful components are sensitive to these high frequency mechanical vibrations. Examples include MEMS gyroscopes and resonators, oscillators and some micro optics. Exposure of these components to high frequency mechanical vibrations present in the operating environment can result in problems ranging from an increased noise floor to component failure. Passive micromachined silicon lowpass filter structures (spring-mass-damper) have been demonstrated in recent years. However, the performance of these filter structures is typically limited by low damping (especially if operated in near-vacuum environments) and a lack of tunability after fabrication. Active filter topologies, such as piezoelectric, electrostrictive-polymer-film and SMA have also been investigated in recent years. Electrostatic actuators, however, are utilized in many micromachined silicon devices to generate mechanical motion. They offer a number of advantages, including low power, fast response time, compatibility with silicon micromachining, capacitive position measurement and relative simplicity of fabrication. This paper presents an approach for realizing active micromachined mechanical lowpass vibration isolation filters by integrating an electrostatic actuator with the micromachined passive filter structure to realize an active mechanical lowpass filter. Although the electrostatic actuator can be used to adjust the filter resonant frequency, the primary application is for increasing the damping to an acceptable level. The physical size of these active filters is suitable for use in or as packaging for sensitive electronic and MEMS devices, such as MEMS vibratory gyroscope chips.

  3. Advanced Mechatronics and MEMS Devices

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Mechatronics and MEMS Devicesdescribes state-of-the-art MEMS devices and introduces the latest technology in electrical and mechanical microsystems. The evolution of design in microfabrication, as well as emerging issues in nanomaterials, micromachining, micromanufacturing and microassembly are all discussed at length in this volume. Advanced Mechatronics also provides a reader with knowledge of MEMS sensors array, MEMS multidimensional accelerometer, artificial skin with imbedded tactile components, as well as other topics in MEMS sensors and transducers. The book also presents a number of topics in advanced robotics and an abundance of applications of MEMS in robotics, like reconfigurable modular snake robots, magnetic MEMS robots for drug delivery and flying robots with adjustable wings, to name a few. This book also: Covers the fundamentals of advanced mechatronics and MEMS devices while also presenting new state-of-the-art methodology and technology used in the application of these devices Prese...

  4. Micromachined high-performance RF passives in CMOS substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xinxin; Ni, Zao; Gu, Lei; Wu, Zhengzheng; Yang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    This review systematically addresses the micromachining technologies used for the fabrication of high-performance radio-frequency (RF) passives that can be integrated into low-cost complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-grade (i.e. low-resistivity) silicon wafers. With the development of various kinds of post-CMOS-compatible microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) processes, 3D structural inductors/transformers, variable capacitors, tunable resonators and band-pass/low-pass filters can be compatibly integrated into active integrated circuits to form monolithic RF system-on-chips. By using MEMS processes, including substrate modifying/suspending and LIGA-like metal electroplating, both the highly lossy substrate effect and the resistive loss can be largely eliminated and depressed, thereby meeting the high-performance requirements of telecommunication applications. (topical review)

  5. Stiction in surface micromachining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, Niels Roelof; Sonnenberg, A.H.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Legtenberg, R.; Legtenberg, Rob; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    1996-01-01

    Due to the smoothness of the surfaces in surface micromachining, large adhesion forces between fabricated structures and the substrate are encountered. Four major adhesion mechanisms have been analysed: capillary forces, hydrogen bridging, electrostatic forces and van der Waals forces. Once contact

  6. A feasibility study on embedded micro-electromechanical sensors and systems (MEMS) for monitoring highway structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) provide vast improvements over existing sensing methods in the context of structural health monitoring (SHM) of highway infrastructure systems, including improved system reliability, improved longevity and enhan...

  7. MemBrain: An Easy-to-Use Online Webserver for Transmembrane Protein Structure Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xi; Yang, Jing; Xiao, Feng; Yang, Yang; Shen, Hong-Bin

    2018-03-01

    Membrane proteins are an important kind of proteins embedded in the membranes of cells and play crucial roles in living organisms, such as ion channels, transporters, receptors. Because it is difficult to determinate the membrane protein's structure by wet-lab experiments, accurate and fast amino acid sequence-based computational methods are highly desired. In this paper, we report an online prediction tool called MemBrain, whose input is the amino acid sequence. MemBrain consists of specialized modules for predicting transmembrane helices, residue-residue contacts and relative accessible surface area of α-helical membrane proteins. MemBrain achieves a prediction accuracy of 97.9% of A TMH, 87.1% of A P, 3.2 ± 3.0 of N-score, 3.1 ± 2.8 of C-score. MemBrain-Contact obtains 62%/64.1% prediction accuracy on training and independent dataset on top L/5 contact prediction, respectively. And MemBrain-Rasa achieves Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.733 and its mean absolute error of 13.593. These prediction results provide valuable hints for revealing the structure and function of membrane proteins. MemBrain web server is free for academic use and available at www.csbio.sjtu.edu.cn/bioinf/MemBrain/. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Optical micro-metrology of structured surfaces micro-machined by jet-ECM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Tosello, Guido; Islam, Aminul

    2015-01-01

    A procedure for statistical analysis and uncertainty evaluation is presented with regards to measurements of step height and surface texture. Measurements have been performed with a focus-variation microscope over jet electrochemical micro-machined surfaces. Traceability has been achieved using a...

  9. Micromachined silicon acoustic delay line with improved structural stability and acoustic directivity for real-time photoacoustic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young; Kumar, Akhil; Xu, Song; Zou, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that micromachined silicon acoustic delay lines can provide a promising solution to achieve real-time photoacoustic tomography without the need for complex transducer arrays and data acquisition electronics. However, as its length increases to provide longer delay time, the delay line becomes more vulnerable to structural instability due to reduced mechanical stiffness. In addition, the small cross-section area of the delay line results in a large acoustic acceptance angle and therefore poor directivity. To address these two issues, this paper reports the design, fabrication, and testing of a new silicon acoustic delay line enhanced with 3D printed polymer micro linker structures. First, mechanical deformation of the silicon acoustic delay line (with and without linker structures) under gravity was simulated by using finite element method. Second, the acoustic crosstalk and acoustic attenuation caused by the polymer micro linker structures were evaluated with both numerical simulation and ultrasound transmission testing. The result shows that the use of the polymer micro linker structures significantly improves the structural stability of the silicon acoustic delay lines without creating additional acoustic attenuation and crosstalk. In addition, a new tapered design for the input terminal of the delay line was also investigate to improve its acoustic directivity by reducing the acoustic acceptance angle. These two improvements are expected to provide an effective solution to eliminate current limitations on the achievable acoustic delay time and out-of-plane imaging resolution of micromachined silicon acoustic delay line arrays.

  10. Demonstration of Robust Micromachined Jet Technology and its Application to Realistic Flow Control Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allen, Mark

    2000-01-01

    .... Our approaches include: (1) the development of suitable micromachined synthetic jets (microjets) as actuators, which obviate the need to physically extend micromachined structures into an external flow...

  11. SU-8 Based MEMS Process with Two Metal Layers using α-Si as a Sacrificial Material

    KAUST Repository

    Ramadan, Khaled S.

    2012-04-01

    Polymer based microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micromachining is finding more interest in research and applications. This is due to its low cost and less time processing compared with silicon MEMS. SU-8 is a photo-patternable polymer that is used as a structural layer for MEMS and microfluidic devices. In addition to being processed with low cost, it is a biocompatible material with good mechanical properties. Also, amorphous silicon (α-Si) has found use as a sacrificial layer in silicon MEMS applications. α-Si can be deposited at large thicknesses for MEMS applications and also can be released in a dry method using XeF2 which can solve stiction problems related to MEMS applications. In this thesis, an SU-8 MEMS process is developed using amorphous silicon (α-Si) as a sacrificial layer. Electrostatic actuation and sensing is used in many MEMS applications. SU-8 is a dielectric material which limits its direct use in electrostatic actuation. This thesis provides a MEMS process with two conductive metal electrodes that can be used for out-of-plane electrostatic applications like MEMS switches and variable capacitors. The process provides the fabrication of dimples that can be conductive or non-conductive to facilitate more flexibility for MEMS designers. This SU-8 process can fabricate SU-8 MEMS structures of a single layer of two different thicknesses. Process parameters were tuned for two sets of thicknesses which are thin (5-10μm) and thick (130μm). Chevron bent-beam structures and different suspended beams (cantilevers and bridges) were fabricated to characterize the SU-8 process through extracting the density, Young’s Modulus and the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) of SU-8. Also, the process was tested and used as an educational tool through which different MEMS structures were fabricated including MEMS switches, variable capacitors and thermal actuators.

  12. Enhancing structural integrity of adhesive bonds through pulsed laser surface micro-machining

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz, Edwin Hernandez

    2015-06-01

    Enhancing the effective peel resistance of plastically deforming adhesive joints through laser-based surface micro-machining Edwin Hernandez Diaz Inspired by adhesion examples commonly found in nature, we reached out to examine the effect of different kinds of heterogeneous surface properties that may replicate this behavior and the mechanisms at work. In order to do this, we used pulsed laser ablation on copper substrates (CuZn40) aiming to increase adhesion for bonding. A Yb-fiber laser was used for surface preparation of the substrates, which were probed with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Heterogeneous surface properties were devised through the use of simplified laser micromachined patterns which may induce sequential events of crack arrest propagation, thereby having a leveraging effect on dissipation. The me- chanical performance of copper/epoxy joints with homogeneous and heterogeneous laser micromachined interfaces was then analyzed using the T-peel test. Fractured surfaces were analyzed using SEM to resolve the mechanism of failure and adhesive penetration within induced surface asperities from the treatment. Results confirm positive modifications of the surface morphology and chemistry from laser ablation that enable mechanical interlocking and cohesive failure within the adhesive layer. Remarkable improvements of apparent peel energy, bond toughness, and effective peel force were appreciated with respect to sanded substrates as control samples.

  13. Ku to V-band 4-bit MEMS phase shifter bank using high isolation SP4T switches and DMTL structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Sukomal; Koul, Shiban K.; Poddar, Ajay K.; Rohde, Ulrich L.

    2017-10-01

    This work presents a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) based on a wide-band 4-bit phase shifter using two back-to-back single-pole-four-throw (SP4T) switches and four different distributed MEMS transmission line (DMTL) structures that are implemented on 635 µm alumina substrate using surface micromachining process. An SP4T switch is designed with a series-shunt configuration and it demonstrates an average return loss of  >17 dB, an insertion loss of  28 dB up to 60 GHz. A maximum area of the SP4T switch is ~0.76 mm2. Single-pole-single-throw and SP4T switches are capable of handling 1 W of radio frequency (RF) power up to  >100 million cycles at 25° C; they can even sustained up to  >70 million cycles with 1 W at 85 °C. The proposed wide-band phase shifter works at 17 GHz (Ku-band), 25 GHz (K-band), 35 GHz (Ka-band) and 60 GHz (V-band) frequencies. Finally,a 4-bit phase shifter demonstrates an average insertion loss of  10 dB and maximum phase error of ~3.8° at 60 GHz frequency over 500 MHz bandwidth. Total area of the fabricated device is ~11 mm2. In addition, the proposed device works well up to  >107 cycles with 1 W of RF power. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the best reported wide-band MEMS 4-bit phase shifter in the literature that works with a constant resolution.

  14. MEMS fabricated energy harvesting device with 2D resonant structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crovetto, Andrea; Wang, Fei; Triches, Marco

    This paper reports on a MEMS energy harvester able to generate power from two perpendicular ambient vibration directions. CYTOP polymer is used both as the electret material for electrostatic transduction and as a bonding interface for low-temperature wafer bonding. With final chip size of ~1 cm2......, an output power of 32.5 nW is reached with an external load of 17 MΩ, under a harmonic source motion with acceleration RMS amplitude 0.03 g (0.3 m/s2) and frequency 179 Hz.......This paper reports on a MEMS energy harvester able to generate power from two perpendicular ambient vibration directions. CYTOP polymer is used both as the electret material for electrostatic transduction and as a bonding interface for low-temperature wafer bonding. With final chip size of ~1 cm2...

  15. Amorphous Diamond MEMS and Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, JOHN P.; FRIEDMANN, THOMAS A.; ASHBY, CAROL I.; DE BOER, MAARTEN P.; SCHUBERT, W. KENT; SHUL, RANDY J.; HOHLFELDER, ROBERT J.; LAVAN, D.A.

    2002-06-01

    This report describes a new microsystems technology for the creation of microsensors and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) using stress-free amorphous diamond (aD) films. Stress-free aD is a new material that has mechanical properties close to that of crystalline diamond, and the material is particularly promising for the development of high sensitivity microsensors and rugged and reliable MEMS. Some of the unique properties of aD include the ability to easily tailor film stress from compressive to slightly tensile, hardness and stiffness 80-90% that of crystalline diamond, very high wear resistance, a hydrophobic surface, extreme chemical inertness, chemical compatibility with silicon, controllable electrical conductivity from insulating to conducting, and biocompatibility. A variety of MEMS structures were fabricated from this material and evaluated. These structures included electrostatically-actuated comb drives, micro-tensile test structures, singly- and doubly-clamped beams, and friction and wear test structures. It was found that surface micromachined MEMS could be fabricated in this material easily and that the hydrophobic surface of the film enabled the release of structures without the need for special drying procedures or the use of applied hydrophobic coatings. Measurements using these structures revealed that aD has a Young's modulus of {approx}650 GPa, a tensile fracture strength of 8 GPa, and a fracture toughness of 8 MPa{center_dot}m {sup 1/2}. These results suggest that this material may be suitable in applications where stiction or wear is an issue. Flexural plate wave (FPW) microsensors were also fabricated from aD. These devices use membranes of aD as thin as {approx}100 nm. The performance of the aD FPW sensors was evaluated for the detection of volatile organic compounds using ethyl cellulose as the sensor coating. For comparable membrane thicknesses, the aD sensors showed better performance than silicon nitride based sensors. Greater

  16. Synthesis and structure of large single crystalline silver hexagonal microplates suitable for micromachining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyutov, Dimitar L.; Genkov, Kaloyan V.; Zyapkov, Anton D.; Tsutsumanova, Gichka G.; Tzonev, Atanas N. [Department of Solid State Physics and Microelectronics, Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia, 5, J. Bouchier Blvd, Sofia (Bulgaria); Lyutov, Lyudmil G. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Sofia, 1, J. Bouchier Blvd, Sofia (Bulgaria); Russev, Stoyan C., E-mail: scr@phys.uni-sofia.bg [Department of Solid State Physics and Microelectronics, Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia, 5, J. Bouchier Blvd, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2014-01-15

    We report a simple one-step synthesis method of large single crystalline Ag (111) hexagonal microplates with sharp edges and a size of up to tens of microns. Single silver crystals were produced by reduction silver nitrate aqueous solution with 4-(methylamino)phenol sulfate. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, selected area electron diffraction and optical microscopy techniques were combined to characterize the crystals. It is shown that the microplates can be easily dispersed and transferred as single objects onto different substrates and subsequently used as a high quality plasmonic starting material for micromachining of future nanocomponents, using modern top-down techniques like focused-ion beam milling and gas injection deposition. - Highlights: • Synthesis of large Ag hexagonal microplates with high crystallinity. • It is shown and discussed the role of twinning for the anisotropic 2D growth. • The Ag plates are stable in water and can be dispersed onto different substrates. • Their positioning and subsequent micromachining with FIB/GIS is demonstrated. • Suitable starting material for future plasmonic nanocomponents.

  17. Micromachined thin-film sensors for SOI-CMOS co-integration

    CERN Document Server

    Laconte, Jean; Raskin, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Co-integration of MEMS and MOS in SOI technology is promising and well demonstrated hereThe impact of Micromachining on SOI devices is deeply analyzed for the first timeInclude extensive TMAH etching, residual stress, microheaters, gas-flow sensors reviewResidual stresses in thin films need to be more and more monitored in MEMS designsTMAH micromachining is an attractive alternative to KOH.

  18. Epitaxial growth of metallic buffer layer structure and c-axis oriented Pb(Mn1/3,Nb2/3)O3-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin film on Si for high performance piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Pham Ngoc; Yoshida, Shinya; Tanaka, Shuji

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports on the development of a metallic buffer layer structure, (100) SrRuO3 (SRO)/(100) Pt/(100) Ir/(100) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layers for the epitaxial growth of a c-axis oriented Pb(Mn1/3,Nb2/3)O3-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PMnN-PZT) thin film on a (100) Si wafer for piezoelectric micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) application. The stacking layers were epitaxially grown on a Si substrate under the optimal deposition condition. A crack-free PMnN-PZT epitaxial thin films was obtained at a thickness up to at least 1.7 µm, which is enough for MEMS applications. The unimorph MEMS cantilevers based on the PMnN-PZT thin film were fabricated and characterized. As a result, the PMnN-PZT thin film exhibited -10 to -12 C/m2 as a piezoelectric coefficient e 31,f and ˜250 as a dielectric constants ɛr. The resultant FOM for piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer (pMUT) is higher than those of general PZT and AlN thin films. This structure has a potential to provide high-performance pMUTs.

  19. Damage assessment in multilayered MEMS structures under thermal fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maligno, A. R.; Whalley, D. C.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports on the application of a Physics of Failure (PoF) methodology to assessing the reliability of a micro electro mechanical system (MEMS). Numerical simulations, based on the finite element method (FEM) using a sub-domain approach was used to examine the damage onset due to temperature variations (e.g. yielding of metals which may lead to thermal fatigue). In this work remeshing techniques were employed in order to develop a damage tolerance approach based on the assumption that initial flaws exist in the multi-layered.

  20. Micromachined tunable metamaterials: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, A Q; Zhu, W M; Tsai, D P; Zheludev, N I

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews micromachined tunable metamaterials, whereby the tuning capabilities are based on the mechanical reconfiguration of the lattice and/or the metamaterial element geometry. The primary focus of this review is the feasibility of the realization of micromachined tunable metamaterials via structure reconfiguration and the current state of the art in the fabrication technologies of structurally reconfigurable metamaterial elements. The micromachined reconfigurable microstructures not only offer a new tuning method for metamaterials without being limited by the nonlinearity of constituent materials, but also enable a new paradigm of reconfigurable metamaterial-based devices with mechanical actuations. With recent development in nanomachining technology, it is possible to develop structurally reconfigurable metamaterials with faster tuning speed, higher density of integration and more flexible choice of the working frequencies. (review article)

  1. Guidelines for etching silicon MEMS structures using fluorine high-density plasmas at cryogenic temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Meint J.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Gilde, M.J.; Roelofs, Gerard; Sasserath, Jay N.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    This paper presents guidelines for the deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) of silicon MEMS structures, employing SF6/O2-based high-density plasmas at cryogenic temperatures. Procedures of how to tune the equipment for optimal results with respect to etch rate and profile control are described. Profile

  2. A Micromachined Capacitive Pressure Sensor Using a Cavity-Less Structure with Bulk-Metal/Elastomer Layers and Its Wireless Telemetry Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh B. Gianchandani

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a micromachined capacitive pressure sensor intended for applications that require mechanical robustness. The device is constructed with two micromachined metal plates and an intermediate polymer layer that is soft enough to deform in a target pressure range. The plates are formed of micromachined stainless steel fabricated by batch-compatible micro-electro-discharge machining. A polyurethane roomtemperature- vulcanizing liquid rubber of 38-μm thickness is used as the deformable material. This structure eliminates both the vacuum cavity and the associated lead transfer challenges common to micromachined capacitive pressure sensors. For frequency-based interrogation of the capacitance, passive inductor-capacitor tanks are fabricated by combining the capacitive sensor with an inductive coil. The coil has 40 turns of a 127-μmdiameter copper wire. Wireless sensing is demonstrated in liquid by monitoring the variation in the resonant frequency of the tank via an external coil that is magnetically coupled with the tank. The sensitivity at room temperature is measured to be 23-33 ppm/KPa over a dynamic range of 340 KPa, which is shown to match a theoretical estimation. Temperature dependence of the tank is experimentally evaluated.

  3. Resonant frequency of the silicon micro-structure of MEMS vector hydrophone in fluid-structure interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The MEMS vector hydrophone developed by the North University of China has advantages of high Signal to Noise Ratio, ease of array integration, etc. However, the resonance frequency of the MEMS device in the liquid is different from that in the air due to the fluid-structure interaction (FSI. Based on the theory of Fluid-Solid Coupling, a generalized distributed mass attached on the micro-structure has been found, which results in the resonance frequency of the microstructure in the liquid being lower than that in the air. Then, an FSI simulation was conducted by ANSYS software. Finally, the hydrophone was measured by using a shaking table and a vector hydrophone calibration system respectively. Results show that, due to the FSI, the resonance frequency of the MEMS devices of the bionic vector hydrophone in the liquid declines approximately 30% compared to the case in the air.

  4. Development of an SU-8 MEMS process with two metal electrodes using amorphous silicon as a sacrificial material

    KAUST Repository

    Ramadan, Khaled S.

    2013-02-08

    This work presents an SU-8 surface micromachining process using amorphous silicon as a sacrificial material, which also incorporates two metal layers for electrical excitation. SU-8 is a photo-patternable polymer that is used as a structural layer for MEMS and microfluidic applications due to its mechanical properties, biocompatibility and low cost. Amorphous silicon is used as a sacrificial layer in MEMS applications because it can be deposited in large thicknesses, and can be released in a dry method using XeF2, which alleviates release-based stiction problems related to MEMS applications. In this work, an SU-8 MEMS process was developed using ;-Si as a sacrificial layer. Two conductive metal electrodes were integrated in this process to allow out-of-plane electrostatic actuation for applications like MEMS switches and variable capacitors. In order to facilitate more flexibility for MEMS designers, the process can fabricate dimples that can be conductive or nonconductive. Additionally, this SU-8 process can fabricate SU-8 MEMS structures of a single layer of two different thicknesses. Process parameters were optimized for two sets of thicknesses: thin (5-10 m) and thick (130 m). The process was tested fabricating MEMS switches, capacitors and thermal actuators. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  5. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers for medical imaging and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T; Oralkan, Omer

    2011-05-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) have been subject to extensive research for the last two decades. Although they were initially developed for air-coupled applications, today their main application space is medical imaging and therapy. This paper first presents a brief description of CMUTs, their basic structure, and operating principles. Our progression of developing several generations of fabrication processes is discussed with an emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages of each process. Monolithic and hybrid approaches for integrating CMUTs with supporting integrated circuits are surveyed. Several prototype transducer arrays with integrated frontend electronic circuits we developed and their use for 2-D and 3-D, anatomical and functional imaging, and ablative therapies are described. The presented results prove the CMUT as a MEMS technology for many medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  6. Monolithic integration of nanoscale tensile specimens and MEMS structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Kysar, Jeffrey W

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale materials often have stochastic material properties due to a random distribution of material defects and an insufficient number of defects to ensure a consistent average mechanical response. Current methods to measure the mechanical properties employ MEMS-based actuators. The nanoscale specimens are typically mounted manually onto the load platform, so the boundary conditions have random variations, complicating the experimental measurement of the intrinsic stochasticity of the material properties. Here we show methods for monolithic integration of a nanoscale specimen co-fabricated with the loading platform. The nanoscale specimen is gold with dimensions of ∼40 nm thickness, 350 ± 50 nm width, and 7 μm length and the loading platform is an interdigitated electrode electrostatic actuator. The experiment is performed in a scanning electron microscope and digital image correlation is employed to measure displacements to determine stress and strain. The ultimate tensile strength of the nanocrystalline nanoscale specimen approaches 1 GPa, consistent with measurements made by other nanometer scale sample characterization methods on other material samples at the nanometer scale, as well as gold samples at the nanometer scale. The batch-compatible microfabrication method can be used to create nominally identical nanoscale specimens and boundary conditions for a broad range of materials. (paper)

  7. A novel prototyping method for die-level monolithic integration of MEMS above-IC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicek, Paul-Vahe; Zhang, Qing; Saha, Tanmoy; Mahdavi, Sareh; Allidina, Karim; Gamal, Mourad El; Nabki, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a convenient and versatile prototyping method for integrating surface-micromachined microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) directly above IC electronics, at the die level. Such localized implementation helps reduce development costs associated with the acquisition of full-sized semiconductor wafers. To demonstrate the validity of this method, variants of an IC-compatible surface-micromachining MEMS process are used to build different MEMS devices above a commercial transimpedance amplifier chip. Subsequent functional assessments for both the electronics and the MEMS indicate that the integration is successful, validating the prototyping methodology presented in this work, as well as the suitability of the selected MEMS technology for above-IC integration. (paper)

  8. MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) for Automotive and Consumer Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Jiri; Gómez, Udo-Martin

    MEMS sensors gained over the last two decades an impressive width of applications: (a) ESP: A car is skidding and stabilizes itself without driver intervention (b) Free-fall detection: A laptop falls to the floor and protects the hard drive by parking the read/write drive head automatically before impact. (c) Airbag: An airbag fires before the driver/occupant involved in an impending automotive crash impacts the steering wheel, thereby significantly reducing physical injury risk. MEMS sensors are sensing the environmental conditions and are giving input to electronic control systems. These crucial MEMS sensors are making system reactions to human needs more intelligent, precise, and at much faster reaction rates than humanly possible. Important prerequisites for the success of sensors are their size, functionality, power consumption, and costs. This technical progress in sensor development is realized by micro-machining. The development of these processes was the breakthrough to industrial mass-production for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Besides leading-edge micromechanical processes, innovative and robust ASIC designs, thorough simulations of the electrical and mechanical behaviour, a deep understanding of the interactions (mainly over temperature and lifetime) of the package and the mechanical structures are needed. This was achieved over the last 20 years by intense and successful development activities combined with the experience of volume production of billions of sensors. This chapter gives an overview of current MEMS technology, its applications and the market share. The MEMS processes are described, and the challenges of MEMS, compared to standard IC fabrication, are discussed. The evolution of MEMS requirements is presented, and a short survey of MEMS applications is shown. Concepts of newest inertial sensors for ESP-systems are given with an emphasis on the design concepts of the sensing element and the evaluation circuit for achieving

  9. A Micromachined Infrared Senor for an Infrared Focal Plane Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong M. Cho

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A micromachined infrared sensor for an infrared focal plane array has been designed and fabricated. Amorphous silicon was used as a sensing material, and silicon nitride was used as a membrane material. To get a good absorption in infrared range, the sensor structure was designed as a l/4 cavity structure. A Ni-Cr film was selected as an electrode material and mixed etching scheme was applied in the patterning process of the Ni-Cr electrode. All the processes were made in 0.5 μm iMEMS fabricated in the Electronics and Telecommunication Research Institute (ETRI. The processed MEMS sensor had a small membrane deflection less than 0.15 μm. This small deflection can be attributed to the rigorous balancing of the stresses of individual layers. The efficiency of infrared absorption was more than 75% in the wavelength range of 8 ~ 14 μm. The processed infrared sensor showed high responsivity of ~230 kV/W at 1.0V bias and 2 Hz operation condition. The time constant of the sensor was 8.6 msec, which means that the sensor is suitable to be operated in 30 Hz frame rate.

  10. CARES/Life Used for Probabilistic Characterization of MEMS Pressure Sensor Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel N.

    2002-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices are typically made from brittle materials such as silicon using traditional semiconductor manufacturing techniques. They can be etched (or micromachined) from larger structures or can be built up with material deposition processes. Maintaining dimensional control and consistent mechanical properties is considerably more difficult for MEMS because feature size is on the micrometer scale. Therefore, the application of probabilistic design methodology becomes necessary for MEMS. This was demonstrated at the NASA Glenn Research Center and Case Western Reserve University in an investigation that used the NASA-developed CARES/Life brittle material design program to study the probabilistic fracture strength behavior of single-crystal SiC, polycrystalline SiC, and amorphous Si3N4 pressurized 1-mm-square thin-film diaphragms. These materials are of interest because of their superior high-temperature characteristics, which are desirable for harsh environment applications such as turbine engine and rocket propulsion system hot sections.

  11. Fabrication of Microhotplates Based on Laser Micromachining of Zirconium Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblov, Konstantin; Ivanova, Anastasia; Soloviev, Sergey; Samotaev, Nikolay; Lipilin, Alexandr; Vasiliev, Alexey; Sokolov, Andrey

    We present a novel approach to the fabrication of MEMS devices, which can be used for gas sensors operating in harsh environment in wireless and autonomous information systems. MEMS platforms based on ZrO2/Y2O3 (YSZ) are applied in these devices. The methods of ceramic MEMS devices fabrication with laser micromachining are considered. It is shown that the application of YSZ membranes permits a decrease in MEMS power consumption at 4500C down to ∼75 mW at continuous heating and down to ∼ 1 mW at pulse heating mode. The application of the platforms is not restricted by gas sensors: they can be used for fast thermometers, bolometric matrices, flowmeteres and other MEMS devices working under harsh environmental conditions.

  12. Micromachined Precision Inertial Instruments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Najafi, Khalil

    2003-01-01

    This program focuses on developing inertial-grade micromachined accelerometers and gyroscopes and their associated electronics and packaging for use in a variety of military and commercial applications...

  13. Wideband MEMS Resonator Using Multifrequency Excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Jaber, Nizar; Ramini, Abdallah; Al Hennawi, Qais M.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the excitation of combination resonances of additive and subtractive types and their exploitations to realize a large bandwidth micro-machined resonator of large amplitude even at higher harmonic modes of vibrations. The investigation is conducted on a Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) clamped-clamped microbeam fabricated using polyimide as a structural layer coated with nickel from top and chromium and gold layers from bottom. The microbeam is excited by a two-source harmonic excitation, where the first frequency source is swept around the targeted resonance (first or third mode of vibration) while the second source frequency is kept fixed. We report for the first time a large bandwidth and large amplitude response near the higher order modes of vibration. Also, we show that by properly tuning the frequency and amplitude of the excitation force, the frequency bandwidth of the resonator is controlled.

  14. Wideband MEMS Resonator Using Multifrequency Excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Jaber, Nizar

    2016-03-09

    We demonstrate the excitation of combination resonances of additive and subtractive types and their exploitations to realize a large bandwidth micro-machined resonator of large amplitude even at higher harmonic modes of vibrations. The investigation is conducted on a Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) clamped-clamped microbeam fabricated using polyimide as a structural layer coated with nickel from top and chromium and gold layers from bottom. The microbeam is excited by a two-source harmonic excitation, where the first frequency source is swept around the targeted resonance (first or third mode of vibration) while the second source frequency is kept fixed. We report for the first time a large bandwidth and large amplitude response near the higher order modes of vibration. Also, we show that by properly tuning the frequency and amplitude of the excitation force, the frequency bandwidth of the resonator is controlled.

  15. A Novel Silicon Micromachined Integrated MCM Thermal Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmierczak, M. J.; Henderson, H. T.; Gerner, F. M.

    1997-01-01

    "Micromachining" is a chemical means of etching three-dimensional structures, typically in single- crystalline silicon. These techniques are leading toward what is coming to be referred to as MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems), where in addition to the ordinary two-dimensional (planar) microelectronics, it is possible to build three-dimensional n-ticromotors, electrically- actuated raicrovalves, hydraulic systems and much more on the same microchip. These techniques become possible because of differential etching rates of various crystallographic planes and materials used for semiconductor n-ticrofabfication. The University of Cincinnati group in collaboration with Karl Baker at NASA Lewis were the first to form micro heat pipes in silicon by the above techniques. Current work now in progress using MEMS technology is now directed towards the development of the next generation in MCM (Multi Chip Module) packaging. Here we propose to develop a complete electronic thermal management system which will allow densifica6on in chip stacking by perhaps two orders of magnitude. Furthermore the proposed technique will allow ordinary conu-nercial integrated chips to be utilized. Basically, the new technique involves etching square holes into a silicon substrate and then inserting and bonding commercially available integrated chips into these holes. For example, over a 100 1/4 in. by 1 /4 in. integrated chips can be placed on a 4 in. by 4 in. silicon substrate to form a Multi-Chip Module (MCM). Placing these MCM's in-line within an integrated rack then allows for three-diniensional stacking. Increased miniaturization of microelectronic circuits will lead to very high local heat fluxes. A high performance thermal management system will be specifically designed to remove the generated energy. More specifically, a compact heat exchanger with milli / microchannels will be developed and tested to remove the heat through the back side of this MCM assembly for moderate and high

  16. Three dimensional MEMS supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wei

    2011-10-15

    The overall objective of this research is to achieve compact supercapacitors with high capacitance, large power density, and long cycle life for using as micro power sources to drive low power devices and sensors. The main shortcoming of supercapacitors as a power source is that its energy density typically is about 1/10 of that of batteries. To achieve compact supercapacitors of large energy density, supercapacitors must be developed with high capacitance and power density which are mainly depended on the effective surface area of the electrodes of the supercapacitors. Many studies have been done to increase the effective surface area by modifying the electrode materials, however, much less investigations are focus on machining the electrodes. In my thesis work, micro- and nano-technologies are applied as technology approaches for machining the electrodes with three dimensional (3D) microstructures. More specific, Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) fabrication process flow, which integrates the key process such as LIGA-like (German acronym for Lithographie, Galvanoformung, Abformung, which mean Lithography, Electroplating and Molding) technology or DRIE (deep reactive ion etching), has been developed to enable innovative designs of 3D MEMS supercapacitors which own the electrodes of significantly increased geometric area. Two types of 3D MEMS supercapcitors, based on LIGA-like and DRIE technology respectively, were designed and successfully created. The LIGA-like based 3D MEMS supercapacitor is with an interdigital 3D structure, and consists of silicon substrate, two electroplated nickel current collectors, two PPy (poly pyrrole) electrodes, and solid state electrolyte. The fabrication process flow developed includes the flowing key processes, SU-8 lithography, nickel electroplating, PPy polymerization and solid state electrolyte coating. Electrochemical tests showed that the single electrode of the supercapacitor has the specific capacitance of 0.058 F cm-2

  17. Elastocapillary self-folding of micro-machined structures: capillary origami

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legrain, A.B.H.

    2014-01-01

    Standard lithographic techniques have proven to be inadequate at machining true 3D micro-structures - structures with similar dimensions in all directions or with large height to width ratio. New fabrication paradigms are necessary. Combining the assets of mask-based techniques with self-assembly,

  18. Micromachined silicon acoustic delay line with 3D-printed micro linkers and tapered input for improved structural stability and acoustic directivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y; Kumar, A; Xu, S; Zou, J

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that micromachined silicon acoustic delay lines can provide a promising solution to achieve real-time photoacoustic tomography without the need for complex transducer arrays and data acquisition electronics. To achieve deeper imaging depth and wider field of view, a longer delay time and therefore delay length are required. However, as the length of the delay line increases, it becomes more vulnerable to structural instability due to reduced mechanical stiffness. In this paper, we report the design, fabrication, and testing of a new silicon acoustic delay line enhanced with 3D printed polymer micro linker structures. First, mechanical deformation of the silicon acoustic delay line (with and without linker structures) under gravity was simulated by using finite element method. Second, the acoustic crosstalk and acoustic attenuation caused by the polymer micro linker structures were evaluated with both numerical simulation and ultrasound transmission testing. The result shows that the use of the polymer micro linker structures significantly improves the structural stability of the silicon acoustic delay lines without creating additional acoustic attenuation and crosstalk. In addition, the improvement of the acoustic acceptance angle of the silicon acoustic delay lines was also investigated to better suppress the reception of unwanted ultrasound signals outside of the imaging plane. These two improvements are expected to provide an effective solution to eliminate current limitations on the achievable acoustic delay time and out-of-plane imaging resolution of micromachined silicon acoustic delay line arrays. (paper)

  19. Quasimetallic silicon micromachined photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temelkuran, B.; Bayindir, Mehmet; Ozbay, E.; Kavanaugh, J. P.; Sigalas, M. M.; Tuttle, G.

    2001-01-01

    We report on fabrication of a layer-by-layer photonic crystal using highly doped silicon wafers processed by semiconductor micromachining techniques. The crystals, built using (100) silicon wafers, resulted in an upper stop band edge at 100 GHz. The transmission and defect characteristics of these structures were found to be analogous to metallic photonic crystals. We also investigated the effect of doping concentration on the defect characteristics. The experimental results agree well with predictions of the transfer matrix method simulations

  20. A Small Area In-Situ MEMS Test Structure to Accurately Measure Fracture Strength by Electrostatic Probing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitsie, Fernando; Jensen, Brian D.; de Boer, Maarten

    1999-07-15

    We have designed, fabricated, tested and modeled a first generation small area test structure for MEMS fracture studies by electrostatic rather than mechanical probing. Because of its small area, this device has potential applications as a lot monitor of strength or fatigue of the MEMS structural material. By matching deflection versus applied voltage data to a 3-D model of the test structure, we develop high confidence that the local stresses achieved in the gage section are greater than 1 GPa. Brittle failure of the polycrystalline silicon was observed.

  1. Micromachined fiber optic Fabry-Perot underwater acoustic probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuyin; Shao, Zhengzheng; Hu, Zhengliang; Luo, Hong; Xie, Jiehui; Hu, Yongming

    2014-08-01

    One of the most important branches in the development trend of the traditional fiber optic physical sensor is the miniaturization of sensor structure. Miniature fiber optic sensor can realize point measurement, and then to develop sensor networks to achieve quasi-distributed or distributed sensing as well as line measurement to area monitoring, which will greatly extend the application area of fiber optic sensors. The development of MEMS technology brings a light path to address the problems brought by the procedure of sensor miniaturization. Sensors manufactured by MEMS technology possess the advantages of small volume, light weight, easy fabricated and low cost. In this paper, a fiber optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric underwater acoustic probe utilizing micromachined diaphragm collaborated with fiber optic technology and MEMS technology has been designed and implemented to actualize underwater acoustic sensing. Diaphragm with central embossment, where the embossment is used to anti-hydrostatic pressure which would largely deflect the diaphragm that induce interferometric fringe fading, has been made by double-sided etching of silicon on insulator. By bonding the acoustic-sensitive diaphragm as well as a cleaved fiber end in ferrule with an outer sleeve, an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer has been constructed. The sensor has been interrogated by quadrature-point control method and tested in field-stable acoustic standing wave tube. Results have been shown that the recovered signal detected by the sensor coincided well with the corresponding transmitted signal and the sensitivity response was flat in frequency range from 10 Hz to 2kHz with the value about -154.6 dB re. 1/μPa. It has been manifest that the designed sensor could be used as an underwater acoustic probe.

  2. Identification of Capacitive MEMS Accelerometer Structure Parameters for Human Body Dynamics Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincas Benevicius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to their small size, low weight, low cost and low energy consumption, MEMS accelerometers have achieved great commercial success in recent decades. The aim of this research work is to identify a MEMS accelerometer structure for human body dynamics measurements. Photogrammetry was used in order to measure possible maximum accelerations of human body parts and the bandwidth of the digital acceleration signal. As the primary structure the capacitive accelerometer configuration is chosen in such a way that sensing part measures on all three axes as it is 3D accelerometer and sensitivity on each axis is equal. Hill climbing optimization was used to find the structure parameters. Proof-mass displacements were simulated for all the acceleration range that was given by the optimization problem constraints. The final model was constructed in Comsol Multiphysics. Eigenfrequencies were calculated and model’s response was found, when vibration stand displacement data was fed into the model as the base excitation law. Model output comparison with experimental data was conducted for all excitation frequencies used during the experiments.

  3. The application of structural nonlinearity in the development of linearly tunable MEMS capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shavezipur, M; Khajepour, A; Hashemi, S M

    2008-01-01

    Electrostatically actuated parallel-plate tunable capacitors are the most desired MEMS capacitors because of their smaller sizes and higher Q-factors. However, these capacitors suffer from low tunability and exhibit high sensitivity near the pull-in voltage which counters the concept of tunability. In this paper, a novel design for parallel-plate tunable capacitors with high tunability and linear capacitance–voltage (C–V) response is developed. The design uses nonlinear structural rigidities to relieve intrinsic electrostatic nonlinearity in MEMS capacitors. Based on the force–displacement characteristic of an ideally linear capacitor, a real beam-like nonlinear spring model is developed. The variable stiffness coefficients of such springs improve the linearity of the C–V curve. Moreover, because the structural stiffness increases with deformations, the pull-in is delayed and higher tunability is achieved. Finite element simulations reveal that capacitors with air gaps larger than 4 µm and supporting beams thinner than 1 µm can generate highly linear C–V responses and tunabilities over 120%. Experimental results for capacitors fabricated by PolyMUMPs verify the effect of weak nonlinear geometric stiffness on improving the tunability for designs with a small air gap and relatively thick structural layers

  4. Structural and electrical characterization of PZT on gold for micromachined piezoelectric membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.C.; Morris, D.J.; Hayenga, P.D.; Cho, J.H.; Richards, C.D.; Richards, R.F.; Bahr, D.F.

    2006-01-01

    Piezoelectric membranes have been fabricated that incorporate a gold bottom electrode with an adhesion layer of titanium-tungsten (10:90 wt. %). For solution-deposited acetic acid based lead zirconate titanate (HoAc-PZT) with a Zr:Ti ratio of 40:60, the film's average piezoelectric coefficient, e 31 , is -5.31 C/m 2 , with a dielectric constant of 814 at 200 Hz, which is similar to values for platinum bottom electrodes. The PZT structure remains columnar on both types of bottom electrodes. Initial fabrication attempts resulted in cracking that initiated in the PZT layer of the structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was utilized to establish how processing affects diffusion throughout the composite membrane structure. Crack-free membranes were fabricated and tested. This paper discusses the performance properties and piezoelectric fatigue results for these membranes. (orig.)

  5. GaAs micromachining in the 1 H2SO4:1 H2O2:8 H2O system. From anisotropy to simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, C. R.

    2011-02-01

    The bulk micromachining on (010), (110) and (111)A GaAs substrates in the 1 H2SO4:1 H2O2:8 H2O system is investigated. Focus is placed on anisotropy of 3D etching shapes with a special emphasis on convex and concave undercuts which are of prime importance in the wet micromachining of mechanical structures. Etched structures exhibit curved contours and more and less rounded sidewalls showing that the anisotropy is of type 2. This anisotropy can be conveniently described by a kinematic and tensorial model. Hence, a database composed of dissolution constants is further determined from experiments. A self-elaborated simulator which works with the proposed database is used to derive theoretical 3D shapes. Simulated shapes agree well with observed shapes of microstructures. The successful simulations open up two important applications for MEMS: CAD of mask patterns and meshing of simulated shapes for FEM simulation tools.

  6. Two-layer radio frequency MEMS fractal capacitors in PolyMUMPS for S-band applications

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.

    2012-07-23

    In this Letter, the authors fabricate for the first time MEMS fractal capacitors possessing two layers and compare their performance characteristics with the conventional parallel-plate capacitor and previously reported state-of-the-art single-layer MEMS fractal capacitors. Explicitly, a capacitor with a woven structure and another with an interleaved configuration were fabricated in the standard PolyMUMPS surface micromachining process and tested at S-band frequencies. The self-resonant frequencies of the fabricated capacitors were close to 10GHz, which is better than that of the parallel-plate capacitor, which measured only 5.5GHz. Further, the presented capacitors provided a higher capacitance when compared with the state-of-the-art-reported MEMS fractal capacitors created using a single layer at the expense of a lower quality factor. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

  7. Piezoelectric Zinc Oxide Based MEMS Acoustic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Arora

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic sensors exhibiting good sensitivity was fabricated using MEMS technology having piezoelectric zinc oxide as a dielectric between two plates of capacitor. Thin film zinc oxide has structural, piezoelectric and optical properties for surface acoustic wave (SAW and bulk acoustic wave (BAW devices. Oxygen effficient films are transparent and insulating having wide applications for sensors and transducers. A rf sputtered piezoelectric ZnO layer transforms the mechanical deflection of a thin etched silicon diaphragm into a piezoelectric charge. For 25-micron thin diaphragm Si was etched in tetramethylammonium hydroxide solution using bulk micromachining. This was followed by deposition of sandwiched structure composed of bottom aluminum electrode, sputtered 3 micron ZnO film and top aluminum electrode. A glass having 1 mm diameter hole was bonded on backside of device to compensate sound pressure in side the cavity. The measured value of central capacitance and dissipation factor of the fabricated MEMS acoustic sensor was found to be 82.4pF and 0.115 respectively, where as the value of ~176 pF was obtained for the rim capacitance with a dissipation factor of 0.138. The response of the acoustic sensors was reproducible for the devices prepared under similar processing conditions under different batches. The acoustic sensor was found to be working from 30Hz to 8KHz with a sensitivity of 139µV/Pa under varying acoustic pressure.

  8. Laser micromachining of screen-printed graphene for forming electrode structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Tien-Li; Chen, Zhao-Chi; Tseng, Shih-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Homogeneous graphene films were prepared by the screen-printing process. • Optimal single-line ablation was performed by ultraviolet nanosecond laser pulses. • Influence of ablation parameters on graphene/glass substrate was clarified. • Electrical measurements of ablated graphene-based device can be investigated. - Abstract: There has been increasing research interest in electronic applications of graphene-based devices fabricated using electrode patterning techniques. This study presents a laser ablation technique along with a screen printing process for fabricating graphene patterns on a glass substrate. First, homogeneous multilayer films on the glass substrate are coated with graphene ink by using the screen printing process. Subsequently, optimal ablation was performed using an ultraviolet nanosecond laser, and the effective number of pulses decreased with an increase in the scanning speed and a decrease in the overlapping rate. Here, the pulsed overlap of a laser spot was determined to be approximately 90% for 75 pulses at a scanning speed of 250 mm/s. Experimental results showed continuous single-line ablation along the laser scanning path in the graphene films. Furthermore, linear current–voltage (I–V) curves showed the multilayer graphene characteristics of ablated devices for forming electrode structures.

  9. Sandia Agile MEMS Prototyping, Layout Tools, Education and Services Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schriner, H.; Davies, B.; Sniegowski, J.; Rodgers, M.S.; Allen, J.; Shepard, C.

    1998-05-01

    Research and development in the design and manufacture of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is growing at an enormous rate. Advances in MEMS design tools and fabrication processes at Sandia National Laboratories` Microelectronics Development Laboratory (MDL) have broadened the scope of MEMS applications that can be designed and manufactured for both military and commercial use. As improvements in micromachining fabrication technologies continue to be made, MEMS designs can become more complex, thus opening the door to an even broader set of MEMS applications. In an effort to further research and development in MEMS design, fabrication, and application, Sandia National Laboratories has launched the Sandia Agile MEMS Prototyping, Layout Tools, Education and Services Program or SAMPLES program. The SAMPLES program offers potential partners interested in MEMS the opportunity to prototype an idea and produce hardware that can be used to sell a concept. The SAMPLES program provides education and training on Sandia`s design tools, analysis tools and fabrication process. New designers can participate in the SAMPLES program and design MEMS devices using Sandia`s design and analysis tools. As part of the SAMPLES program, participants` designs are fabricated using Sandia`s 4 level polycrystalline silicon surface micromachine technology fabrication process known as SUMMiT (Sandia Ultra-planar, Multi-level MEMS Technology). Furthermore, SAMPLES participants can also opt to obtain state of the art, post-fabrication services provided at Sandia such as release, packaging, reliability characterization, and failure analysis. This paper discusses the components of the SAMPLES program.

  10. MEMS: A new approach to micro-optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sniegowski, J.J.

    1997-12-31

    MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) and their fabrication technologies provide great opportunities for application to micro-optical systems (MOEMS). Implementing MOEMS technology ranges from simple, passive components to complicated, active systems. Here, an overview of polysilicon surface micromachining MEMS combined with optics is presented. Recent advancements to the technology, which may enhance its appeal for micro-optics applications are emphasized. Of all the MEMS fabrication technologies, polysilicon surface micromachining technology has the greatest basis in and leverages the most the infrastructure for silicon integrated circuit fabrication. In that respect, it provides the potential for very large volume, inexpensive production of MOEMS. This paper highlights polysilicon surface micromachining technology in regards to its capability to provide both passive and active mechanical elements with quality optical elements.

  11. A MEMS-based Air Flow Sensor with a Free-standing Micro-cantilever Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chia-Yen; Chiang, Che-Ming

    2007-10-17

    This paper presents a micro-scale air flow sensor based on a free-standingcantilever structure. In the fabrication process, MEMS techniques are used to deposit asilicon nitride layer on a silicon wafer. A platinum layer is deposited on the silicon nitridelayer to form a piezoresistor, and the resulting structure is then etched to create afreestanding micro-cantilever. When an air flow passes over the surface of the cantileverbeam, the beam deflects in the downward direction, resulting in a small variation in theresistance of the piezoelectric layer. The air flow velocity is determined by measuring thechange in resistance using an external LCR meter. The experimental results indicate that theflow sensor has a high sensitivity (0.0284 ω/ms -1 ), a high velocity measurement limit (45ms -1 ) and a rapid response time (0.53 s).

  12. A MEMS-based Air Flow Sensor with a Free-standing Micro-cantilever Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Ming Chiang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a micro-scale air flow sensor based on a free-standingcantilever structure. In the fabrication process, MEMS techniques are used to deposit asilicon nitride layer on a silicon wafer. A platinum layer is deposited on the silicon nitridelayer to form a piezoresistor, and the resulting structure is then etched to create afreestanding micro-cantilever. When an air flow passes over the surface of the cantileverbeam, the beam deflects in the downward direction, resulting in a small variation in theresistance of the piezoelectric layer. The air flow velocity is determined by measuring thechange in resistance using an external LCR meter. The experimental results indicate that theflow sensor has a high sensitivity (0.0284 ω/ms-1, a high velocity measurement limit (45ms-1 and a rapid response time (0.53 s.

  13. Lithographic stress control for the self-assembly of polymer MEMS structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S-W; Sameoto, D; Parameswaran, M; Mahanfar, A

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel self-assembly mechanism to produce an assortment of predetermined three-dimensional micromechanical structures in polymer MEMS technology using lithographically defined areas of stress and mechanical reinforcement within a single structural material. This self-assembly technology is based on the tensile stress that arises during the cross-linking of the negative tone, epoxy-based photoresist SU-8. Two different thicknesses of SU-8 are used in a single compliant structure. The first SU-8 layer forms the main structural element and the second SU-8 layer determines the aspects of self-assembly. The second SU-8 layer thickness acts to both to create a stress differential within the structure as well as define the direction in which the induced stress will cause the structure to deform. In this manner, both the magnitude and direction of self-assembled structures can be controlled using a single lithographic step. Although this technique uses a single structural material, the basic concept may be adapted for other processes, with different material choices, for a wide variety of applications

  14. MEMS packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu , Tai-Ran

    2004-01-01

    MEMS Packaging discusses the prevalent practices and enabling techniques in assembly, packaging and testing of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The entire spectrum of assembly, packaging and testing of MEMS and microsystems, from essential enabling technologies to applications in key industries of life sciences, telecommunications and aerospace engineering is covered. Other topics included are bonding and sealing of microcomponents, process flow of MEMS and microsystems packaging, automated microassembly, and testing and design for testing.The Institution of Engineering and Technology is

  15. Minimizing stress in large-area surface micromachined perforated membranes with slits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaderi, M; Ayerden, N P; De Graaf, G; Wolffenbuttel, R F

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the effectiveness of both design and fabrication techniques for avoiding the rupturing or excessive bending of perforated membranes after release in surface micromachining. Special lateral designs of arrays of slits in the membrane were investigated for a maximum yield at a given level of residual stress. Process parameters were investigated and optimized for minimum residual stress in multilayer thin-film membranes. A 2 µm thick sacrificial TEOS layer and a structural membrane that is composed of silicon nitride and polysilicon layers in the stack is the basis of this study. The effect of sharp corners on the local stress in membranes was investigated, and structures are proposed that reduce these effects, maximizing the yield at a given level of residual stress. The effects of perforation and slits were studied both theoretically and using finite element analysis. While the overall effect of perforation is negligible in typical MEMS structures, an optimum design for the slits reduces the von Mises stress considerably as compared to sharp corners. The fabrication process was also investigated and optimized for the minimum residual stress of both the layers within the stack and the complete layer stack. The main emphasis of this work is on placing a stress-compensating layer on the wafer backside and simultaneously removing it during the surface micromachining, as this has been found to be the most effective method to reduce the overall stress in a stack of layers after sacrificial etching. Implementation of a stress compensating layer reduced the total residual stress from 200 MPa compressive into almost 60 MPa, tensile. Even though a particular structure was studied here, the employed methods are expected to be applicable to similar MEMS design problems. (paper)

  16. Silicon micromachined vibrating gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Ralf

    1997-09-01

    This work gives an overview of silicon micromachined vibrating gyroscopes. Market perspectives and fields of application are pointed out. The advantage of using silicon micromachining is discussed and estimations of the desired performance, especially for automobiles are given. The general principle of vibrating gyroscopes is explained. Vibrating silicon gyroscopes can be divided into seven classes. for each class the characteristic principle is presented and examples are given. Finally a specific sensor, based on a tuning fork for automotive applications with a sensitivity of 250(mu) V/degrees is described in detail.

  17. MEMS digital parametric loudspeaker

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2016-03-23

    This paper reports on the design and fabrication of MEMS actuator arrays suitable for Digital Sound reconstruction and Parametric Directional Loudspeakers. Two distinct versions of the device were fabricated: one using the electrostatic principle actuation and the other one, the piezoelectric principle. Both versions used similar membrane dimensions, with a diameter of 500 μm. These devices are the smallest Micro-Machined Ultrasound Transducer (MUT) arrays that can be operated for both modes: Digital Sound Reconstruction and Parametric Loudspeaker. The chips consist of an array with 256 transducers, in a footprint of 12 mm by 12 mm. The total single chip size is: 2.3 cm by 2.3 cm, including the contact pads. © 2016 IEEE.

  18. MEMS digital parametric loudspeaker

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Castro, David; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Kosel, Jü rgen; Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the design and fabrication of MEMS actuator arrays suitable for Digital Sound reconstruction and Parametric Directional Loudspeakers. Two distinct versions of the device were fabricated: one using the electrostatic principle actuation and the other one, the piezoelectric principle. Both versions used similar membrane dimensions, with a diameter of 500 μm. These devices are the smallest Micro-Machined Ultrasound Transducer (MUT) arrays that can be operated for both modes: Digital Sound Reconstruction and Parametric Loudspeaker. The chips consist of an array with 256 transducers, in a footprint of 12 mm by 12 mm. The total single chip size is: 2.3 cm by 2.3 cm, including the contact pads. © 2016 IEEE.

  19. Manufacturing microsystems-on-a-chip with 5-level surface micromachining technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sniegowski, J.; Rodgers, M.S.

    1998-05-01

    An agile microsystem manufacturing technology has been developed that provides unprecedented 5 levels of independent polysilicon surface-micromachine films for the designer. Typical surface-micromachining processes offer a maximum of 3 levels, making this the most complex surface-micromachining process technology developed to date. Leveraged from the extensive infrastructure present in the microelectronics industry, the manufacturing method of polysilicon surface-micromachining offers similar advantages of high-volume, high-reliability, and batch-fabrication to microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) as has been accomplished with integrated circuits (ICs). These systems, comprised of microscopic-sized mechanical elements, are laying the foundation for a rapidly expanding, multi-billion dollar industry 2 which impacts the automotive, consumer product, and medical industries to name only a few.

  20. Polyimide and Metals MEMS Multi-User Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Arevalo, Arpys

    2016-11-01

    The development of a polyimide and metals multi-user surface micro-machining process for Micro-electro-mechanical Systems (MEMS) is presented. The process was designed to be as general as possible, and designed to be capable to fabricate different designs on a single silicon wafer. The process was not optimized with the purpose of fabricating any one specific device but can be tweaked to satisfy individual needs depending on the application. The fabrication process uses Polyimide as the structural material and three separated metallization layers that can be interconnected depending on the desired application. The technology allows the development of out-of-plane compliant mechanisms, which can be combined with six variations of different physical principles for actuation and sensing on a single processed silicon wafer. These variations are: electrostatic motion, thermal bimorph actuation, capacitive sensing, magnetic sensing, thermocouple-based sensing and radio frequency transmission and reception.

  1. Unveiling the wet chemical etching characteristics of polydimethylsiloxane film for soft micromachining applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakati, A; Maji, D; Das, S

    2017-01-01

    Micromachining of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microstructure by wet chemical etching is explored for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and microfluidic applications. A 100 µ m thick PDMS film was patterned with different microstructure designs by wet chemical etching using a N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (C 16 H 36 FN) and tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride (C 5 H 9 NO) mixture solution with 3:1 volume ratio after lithography for studying etching characteristics. The patterning parameters, such as etch rate, surface roughness, pH of etchant solution with time, were thoroughly investigated. A detailed study of surface morphology with etching time revealed nonlinear behaviour of the PDMS surface roughness and etch rate. A maximum rate of 1.45 µ m min −1 for 10 min etching with surface roughness of 360 nm was achieved. A new approach of wet chemical etching with pH controlled doped etchant was introduced for lower surface roughness of etched microstructures, and a constant etch rate during etching. Variation of the etching rate and surface roughness by pH controlled etching was performed by doping 5–15 gm l −1 of silicic acid (SiO 2xH2 O) into the traditional etchant solution. PDMS etching by silicic acid doped etchant solution showed a reduction in surface roughness from 400 nm to 220 nm for the same 15 µ m etching. This study is beneficial for micromachining of various MEMS and microfluidic structures such as micropillars, microchannels, and other PDMS microstructures. (paper)

  2. A Micro-Force Sensor with Beam-Membrane Structure for Measurement of Friction Torque in Rotating MEMS Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a beam-membrane (BM sensor for measuring friction torque in micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS gas bearings is presented. The proposed sensor measures the force-arm-transformed force using a detecting probe and the piezoresistive effect. This solution incorporates a membrane into a conventional four-beam structure to meet the range requirements for the measurement of both the maximum static friction torque and the kinetic friction torque in rotating MEMS machines, as well as eliminate the problem of low sensitivity with neat membrane structure. A glass wafer is bonded onto the bottom of the sensor chip with a certain gap to protect the sensor when overloaded. The comparisons between the performances of beam-based sensor, membrane-based sensor and BM sensor are conducted by finite element method (FEM, and the final sensor dimensions are also determined. Calibration of the fabricated and packaged device is experimentally performed. The practical verification is also reported in the paper for estimating the friction torque in micro gas bearings by assembling the proposed sensor into a rotary table-based measurement system. The results demonstrate that the proposed force sensor has a potential application in measuring micro friction or force in MEMS machines.

  3. Micromachining with copper lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Martyn R. H.; Bell, Andy; Foster-Turner, Gideon; Rutterford, Graham; Chudzicki, J.; Kearsley, Andrew J.

    1997-04-01

    In recent years the copper laser has undergone extensive development and has emerged as a leading and unique laser for micromachining. The copper laser is a high average power (10 - 250 W), high pulse repetition rate (2 - 32 kHz), visible laser (511 nm and 578 nm) that produces high peak power (typically 200 kW), short pulses (30 ns) and very good beam quality (diffraction limited). This unique set of laser parameters results in exceptional micro-machining in a wide variety of materials. Typical examples of the capabilities of the copper laser include the drilling of small holes (10 - 200 micrometer diameter) in materials as diverse as steel, ceramic, diamond and polyimide with micron precision and low taper (less than 1 degree) cutting and profiling of diamond. Application of the copper laser covers the electronic, aerospace, automotive, nuclear, medical and precision engineering industries.

  4. MEMS Reliability Assurance Activities at JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayali, S.; Lawton, R.; Stark, B.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) reliability assurance and qualification activities at JPL is presented along with the a discussion of characterization of MEMS structures implemented on single crystal silicon, polycrystalline silicon, CMOS, and LIGA processes. Additionally, common failure modes and mechanisms affecting MEMS structures, including radiation effects, are discussed. Common reliability and qualification practices contained in the MEMS Reliability Assurance Guideline are also presented.

  5. Instrumentation for the Development of Reconfigurable Microwave/MM-Wave FGC Passive Elements Using MEMS Switches for 'Smart' Systems on a Chip

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Papapolymerou, Ioannis

    2001-01-01

    .... These projects are of major significance to the Department of Defense and include topics such as reconfigurable tuners and band-stop filters using MEMS switches, micromachined cavity diplexers...

  6. Study of surfactant-added TMAH for applications in DRIE and wet etching-based micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, B.; Shikida, M.; Sato, K.; Pal, P.; Amakawa, H.; Hida, H.; Fukuzawa, K.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, etching anisotropy is evaluated for a number of different crystallographic orientations of silicon in a 0.1 vol% Triton-X-100 added 25 wt% tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) solution using a silicon hemisphere. The research is primarily aimed at developing advanced applications of wet etching in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The etching process is carried out at different temperatures in the range of 61-81 °C. The etching results of silicon hemisphere and different shapes of three-dimensional structures in {1 0 0}- and {1 1 0}-Si surfaces are analyzed. Significantly important anisotropy, different from a traditional etchant (e.g. pure KOH and TMAH), is investigated to extend the applications of the wet etching process in silicon bulk micromachining. The similar etching behavior of exact and vicinal {1 1 0} and {1 1 1} planes in TMAH + Triton is utilized selectively to remove the scalloping from deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE) etched profiles. The direct application of the present research is demonstrated by fabricating a cylindrical lens with highly smooth etched surface finish. The smoothness of a micro-lens at different locations is measured qualitatively by a scanning electron microscope and quantitatively by an atomic force microscope. The present paper provides a simple and effective fabrication method of the silicon micro-lens for optical MEMS applications.

  7. A MEMS torsion magnetic sensor with reflective blazed grating integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Liang; Zhong, Shaolong

    2016-01-01

    A novel magnetic sensor based on a permanent magnet and blazed grating is presented in this paper. The magnetic field is detected by measuring the diffracted wavelength of the blazed grating which is changed by the torsion motion of a torsion sensitive micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) structure with a permanent magnet attached. A V-shape grating structure is obtained by wet etching on a (1 0 0) SOI substrate. When the magnet is magnetized in different directions, the in-plane or out-of-plane magnetic field is detected by a sensor. The MEMS magnetic sensor with a permanent magnet is fabricated after analytical design and bulk micromachining processes. The magnetic-sensing capability of the sensor is tested by fiber-optic detection system. The result shows the sensitivities of the in-plane and out-of-plane magnetic fields are 3.6 pm μ T −1 and 5.7 pm μ T −1 , respectively. Due to utilization of the permanent magnet and fiber-optic detection, the sensor shows excellent capability of covering the high-resolution detection of low-frequency signals. In addition, the sensitive direction of the magnetic sensor can be easily switched by varying the magnetized direction of the permanent magnet, which offers a simple way to achieve tri-axis magnetic sensor application. (paper)

  8. Novel in situ mechanical testers to enable integrated metal surface micro-machines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follstaedt, David Martin; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Hearne, Sean Joseph; Foiles, Stephen Martin; Buchheit, Thomas Edward; Dyck, Christopher William

    2005-10-01

    The ability to integrate metal and semiconductor micro-systems to perform highly complex functions, such as RF-MEMS, will depend on developing freestanding metal structures that offer improved conductivity, reflectivity, and mechanical properties. Three issues have prevented the proliferation of these systems: (1) warpage of active components due to through-thickness stress gradients, (2) limited component lifetimes due to fatigue, and (3) low yield strength. To address these issues, we focus on developing and implementing techniques to enable the direct study of the stress and microstructural evolution during electrodeposition and mechanical loading. The study of stress during electrodeposition of metal thin films is being accomplished by integrating a multi-beam optical stress sensor into an electrodeposition chamber. By coupling the in-situ stress information with ex-situ microstructural analysis, a scientific understanding of the sources of stress during electrodeposition will be obtained. These results are providing a foundation upon which to develop a stress-gradient-free thin film directly applicable to the production of freestanding metal structures. The issues of fatigue and yield strength are being addressed by developing novel surface micromachined tensile and bend testers, by interferometry, and by TEM analysis. The MEMS tensile tester has a ''Bosch'' etched hole to allow for direct viewing of the microstructure in a TEM before, during, and after loading. This approach allows for the quantitative measurements of stress-strain relations while imaging dislocation motion, and determination of fracture nucleation in samples with well-known fatigue/strain histories. This technique facilitates the determination of the limits for classical deformation mechanisms and helps to formulate a new understanding of the mechanical response as the grain sizes are refined to a nanometer scale. Together, these studies will result in a science

  9. The micromachined logo of Atomki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajta, I.; Szilasi, S.Z.

    2006-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Proton Beam Micromachining, also known as P-beam Writing, is a direct write 3- dimensional lithographic technique. Conventional resist types are PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate), and SU-8 (of MicroChem Corp.); they are positive and negative resists, respectively. In this work we used SU-8, the most common negative resist material. SU-8 was spun on a flat surface, typically Silicon or glass. A direct write proton beam was scanned over an arbitary structure (the Atomki logo can be replaced by any other structure), which produces chain scissioning in the polymer. Post exposure bake (PEB) is usually needed in case of conventional optical lithography, but using protons this bake is done in situ as the ions heat up the sample in vacuum. Subsequently chemical etching takes place, the solvent is available at MicroChem Corp. The schematic diagram of the above described micromachining process is shown on Fig. 1. The irradiation requires a scanning proton microbeam system equipped with suitable beam scanning and blanking facilities. This is available in the Institute, our setup has been upgraded from doublet to triplet focusing system (Oxford Microbeams Ltd.). For scanning we use a DIO card (PCI-6731 of National Instruments), and the IonScan software [1]. Sample preparation was carried out at our 'semi clean' room. This is also where chemical development of the samples and the optical microscopy have been done too. A Zeiss Axio Imager microscope is available (equipped with 5 objective lenses, 4 different contrast methods, transmitted or reflected light illumination). Fig. 2. shows a typical example of the Atomki logo. This is a bright field image, a number of different nice and colourful images can be produced with the other contrast techniques (for more images see the Institute website: http://www.atomki.hu/ ). (author)

  10. A silicon micromachined resonant pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Zhangyang; Fan Shangchun; Cai Chenguang

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and test of a silicon micromachined resonant pressure sensor. A square membrane and a doubly clamped resonant beam constitute a compound structure. The former senses the pressure directly, while the latter changes its resonant frequency according to deformation of the membrane. The final output relation between the resonant frequency and the applied pressure is deducted according to the structure mechanical properties. Sensors are fabricated by micromachining technology, and then sealed in vaccum. These sensors are tested by open-loop and close-loop system designed on purpose. The experiment results demonstrate that the sensor has a sensitivity of 49.8Hz/kPa and repeatability of 0.08%.

  11. MEMS linear and nonlinear statics and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Younis, Mohammad I

    2011-01-01

    MEMS Linear and Nonlinear Statics and Dynamics presents the necessary analytical and computational tools for MEMS designers to model and simulate most known MEMS devices, structures, and phenomena. This book also provides an in-depth analysis and treatment of the most common static and dynamic phenomena in MEMS that are encountered by engineers. Coverage also includes nonlinear modeling approaches to modeling various MEMS phenomena of a nonlinear nature, such as those due to electrostatic forces, squeeze-film damping, and large deflection of structures. The book also: Includes examples of nume

  12. Trends in laser micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaebler, Frank; van Nunen, Joris; Held, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Laser Micromachining is well established in industry. Depending on the application lasers with pulse length from μseconds to femtoseconds and wavelengths from 1064nm and its harmonics up to 5μm or 10.6μm are used. Ultrafast laser machining using pulses with pico or femtosecond duration pulses is gaining traction, as it offers very precise processing of materials with low thermal impact. Large-scale industrial ultrafast laser applications show that the market can be divided into various sub segments. One set of applications demand low power around 10W, compact footprint and are extremely sensitive to the laser price whilst still demanding 10ps or shorter laser pulses. A second set of applications are very power hungry and only become economically feasible for large scale deployments at power levels in the 100+W class. There is also a growing demand for applications requiring fs-laser pulses. In our presentation we would like to describe these sub segments by using selected applications from the automotive and electronics industry e.g. drilling of gas/diesel injection nozzles, dicing of LED substrates. We close the presentation with an outlook to micromachining applications e.g. glass cutting and foil processing with unique new CO lasers emitting 5μm laser wavelength.

  13. Fabrication of a two-dimensional piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer array using a top-crossover-to-bottom structure and metal bridge connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Joontaek; Kim, Sangwon; Lee, Wonjun; Choi, Hongsoo

    2013-01-01

    A new design methodology and fabrication process for two-dimensional (2D) piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer (pMUT) arrays using a top-crossover-to-bottom (TCTB) structure was developed. Individual sensing and actuation of pMUT elements from a small number of connection lines was enabled by the TCTB structure, and the parasitic coupling capacitance of the array was significantly reduced as a result. A 32 × 32 pMUT array with a TCTB structure was fabricated, resulting in 64 connection lines over an area of 4.8 × 4.8 mm 2 . The top electrodes for each pMUT element were re-connected by metal bridging after bottom-electrode etching caused them to become disconnected. A deep reactive ion etching process was used to compactify the array. Each pMUT element was a circular-shaped K 31 -type ultrasonic transducer using a 1 µm thick sol–gel lead zirconate titanate (PZT: Pb1.10 Zr0.52 Ti0.48) thin film. To characterize a single element in the 2D pMUT array, the resonant frequency and coupling coefficient of 20 pMUT elements were averaged to 3.85 MHz and 0.0112, respectively. The maximum measured ultrasound intensity in water, measured at a distance of 4 mm, was 4.6 µW cm −2  from a single pMUT element driven by a 5 V pp  sine wave at 2.22 MHz. Potential applications for development of a TCTB-arranged 2D pMUT array include ultrasonic medical imaging, ultrasonic communication, ultrasonic range-finding and handwriting input systems. (paper)

  14. A miniaturized reconfigurable broadband attenuator based on RF MEMS switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xin; Gong, Zhuhao; Zhong, Qi; Liang, Xiaotong; Liu, Zewen

    2016-01-01

    Reconfigurable attenuators are widely used in microwave measurement instruments. Development of miniaturized attenuation devices with high precision and broadband performance is required for state-of-the-art applications. In this paper, a compact 3-bit microwave attenuator based on radio frequency micro-electro-mechanical system (RF MEMS) switches and polysilicon attenuation modules is presented. The device comprises 12 ohmic contact MEMS switches, π -type polysilicon resistive attenuation modules and microwave compensate structures. Special attention was paid to the design of the resistive network, compensate structures and system simulation. The device was fabricated using micromachining processes compatible with traditional integrated circuit fabrication processes. The reconfigurable attenuator integrated with RF MEMS switches and resistive attenuation modules was successfully fabricated with dimensions of 2.45  ×  4.34  ×  0.5 mm 3 , which is 1/1000th of the size of a conventional step attenuator. The measured RF performance revealed that the attenuator provides 10–70 dB attenuation at 10 dB intervals from 0.1–20 GHz with an accuracy better than  ±1.88 dB at 60 dB and an error of less than 2.22 dB at 10 dB. The return loss of each state of the 3-bit attenuator was better than 11.95 dB (VSWR  <  1.71) over the entire operating band. (paper)

  15. Model Design of Piezoelectric Micromachined Modal Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Hu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a novel kind of solid-state microgyroscope, which is called piezoelectric micromachined modal gyroscope (PMMG. PMMG has large stiffness and robust resistance to shake and strike because there is no evident mass-spring component in its structure. This work focused on quantitative optimization of the gyroscope, which is still blank for such gyroscope. The modal analysis by the finite element method (FEM was firstly conducted. A set of quantitative indicators were developed to optimize the operation mode. By FEM, the harmonic analysis was conducted to find the way to efficiently actuate the operational mode needed. The optimal configuration of driving electrodes was obtained. At last, the Coriolis analysis was conducted to show the relation between angular velocity and differential output voltage by the Coriolis force under working condition. The results obtained in this paper provide theoretical basis for realizing this novel kind of micromachined gyroscope.

  16. New test structures and techniques for measurement of mechanical properties of MEMS materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, William N., Jr.; Yuan, Bin; Vaidyanathan, Ranji; Edwards, Richard L.

    1996-09-01

    This paper presents techniques and procedures for addressing the three major problems of mechanical testing of the thin films used in surface micromachined microelectromechanical systems--specimen handling, friction, and strain measurement. The polysilicon tensile specimens are fabricated with two supporting side strips on silicon wafers at the Microelectronic Center of North Carolina. The tensile specimen is released by etching away the wafer, and the two support strips are cut after the specimen is glued in the test machine. Friction is reduced by a linear air bearing in the load train, and strain is measured with a noncontacting technique based on laser interferometry between two gold lines on the tensile specimen. The Young's modulus of polysilicon is 170 +/- 7 GPa and the strength is 1.21 +/- 0.16 GPa from a series of 29 tests. preliminary measurements have been made of Poisson's ratio and the fatigue behavior, and an attempt is underway to measure the fracture toughness.

  17. Superhydrophobic Surface Coatings for Microfluidics and MEMs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branson, Eric D.; Singh, Seema [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA; Houston, Jack E.; van Swol, Frank B.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2006-11-01

    Low solid interfacial energy and fractally rough surface topography confer to Lotus plants superhydrophobic (SH) properties like high contact angles, rolling and bouncing of liquid droplets, and self-cleaning of particle contaminants. This project exploits the porous fractal structure of a novel, synthetic SH surface for aerosol collection, its self-cleaning properties for particle concentration, and its slippery nature 3 to enhance the performance of fluidic and MEMS devices. We propose to understand fundamentally the conditions needed to cause liquid droplets to roll rather than flow/slide on a surface and how this %22rolling transition%22 influences the boundary condition describing fluid flow in a pipe or micro-channel. Rolling of droplets is important for aerosol collection strategies because it allows trapped particles to be concentrated and transported in liquid droplets with no need for a pre-defined/micromachined fluidic architecture. The fluid/solid boundary condition is important because it governs flow resistance and rheology and establishes the fluid velocity profile. Although many research groups are exploring SH surfaces, our team is the first to unambiguously determine their effects on fluid flow and rheology. SH surfaces could impact all future SNL designs of collectors, fluidic devices, MEMS, and NEMS. Interfaced with inertial focusing aerosol collectors, SH surfaces would allow size-specific particle populations to be collected, concentrated, and transported to a fluidic interface without loss. In microfluidic systems, we expect to reduce the energy/power required to pump fluids and actuate MEMS. Plug-like (rather than parabolic) velocity profiles can greatly improve resolution of chip-based separations and enable unprecedented control of concentration profiles and residence times in fluidic-based micro-reactors. Patterned SH/hydrophilic channels could induce mixing in microchannels and enable development of microflow control elements

  18. Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to have several scientific journals dedicated to it. These journals are instrumental in bringing out the interdisciplinary nature of research that the field demands. In the beginning, most papers were process centric where realization of a MEMS device or structure using conven- tional CMOS processes or their variants was the ...

  19. MEMS Solar Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Grbovic, Dragoslav; Osswald, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Using MEMS bimaterial structures to build highly efficient solar energy generators. This is a novel approach that utilizes developments in the area of bimaterial sensors and applies them in the field of solar energy harvesting.

  20. First reliability test of a surface micromachined microengine using SHiMMeR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, D.M.; Smith, N.F.; Bowman, D.J. [and others

    1997-08-01

    The first-ever reliability stress test on surface micromachined microengines developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been completed. We stressed 41 microengines at 36,000 RPM and inspected the functionality at 60 RPM. We have observed an infant mortality region, a region of low failure rate (useful life), and no signs of wearout in the data. The reliability data are presented and interpreted using standard reliability methods. Failure analysis results on the stressed microengines are presented. In our effort to study the reliability of MEMS, we need to observe the failures of large numbers of parts to determine the failure modes. To facilitate testing of large numbers of micromachines. The Sandia High Volume Measurement of Micromachine Reliability (SHiMMeR) system has computer controlled positioning and the capability to inspect moving parts. The development of this parallel testing system is discussed in detail.

  1. Adhesion-delamination phenomena at the surfaces and interfaces in microelectronics and MEMS structures and packaged devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, V K

    2011-01-01

    Physico-chemical mechanisms of adhesion and debonding at the various surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor devices, integrated circuits and microelectromechanical systems are systematically examined, starting from chip manufacturing and traversing the process stages to the ultimate finished product. Sources of intrinsic and thermal stresses in these devices are pointed out. Thin film ohmic contacts to the devices call for careful attention. The role of an adhesion layer in multilayer metallization schemes is highlighted. In packaged devices, sites facing potential risks of delamination are indicated. As MEMS devices incorporate moving parts, there are additional issues due to adhesion of suspended structures to surfaces in the vicinity, both during chip fabrication and their subsequent operation. Proper surface treatments for preventing adhesion together with design considerations for overcoming stiction pave the way to reliable functioning of these devices. Adhesion-delamination issues in microelectronics and MEMS continue to pose significant challenges to both design and process engineers. This paper is an attempt to survey the adhesion characteristics of materials, their compatibilities and limitations and look at future research trends. In addition, it addresses some of the techniques for improved or reduced adhesion, as demanded by the situation. The paper encompasses fundamental aspects to contemporary applications.

  2. Design and optimization of stress centralized MEMS vector hydrophone with high sensitivity at low frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojun; Ding, Junwen; Xu, Wei; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Renxin; Han, Janjun; Bai, Bing; Xue, Chenyang; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Wendong

    2018-05-01

    A micro hydrophone based on piezoresistive effect, "MEMS vector hydrophone" was developed for acoustic detection application. To improve the sensitivity of MEMS vector hydrophone at low frequency, we reported a stress centralized MEMS vector hydrophone (SCVH) mainly used in 20-500 Hz. Stress concentration area was actualized in sensitive unit of hydrophone by silicon micromachining technology. Then piezoresistors were placed in stress concentration area for better mechanical response, thereby obtaining higher sensitivity. Static analysis was done to compare the mechanical response of three different sensitive microstructure: SCVH, conventional micro-silicon four-beam vector hydrophone (CFVH) and Lollipop-shaped vector hydrophone (LVH) respectively. And fluid-structure interaction (FSI) was used to analyze the natural frequency of SCVH for ensuring the measurable bandwidth. Eventually, the calibration experiment in standing wave field was done to test the property of SCVH and verify the accuracy of simulation. The results show that the sensitivity of SCVH has nearly increased by 17.2 dB in contrast to CFVH and 7.6 dB in contrast to LVH during 20-500 Hz.

  3. A Nuclear Microbattery for MEMS Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, James; Henderson, Douglass; Lal, Amit

    2002-01-01

    This project was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of producing on-board power for MEMS devices using radioisotopes. MEMS is a fast growing field, with hopes for producing a wide variety of revolutionary applications, including ''labs on a chip,'' micromachined scanning tunneling microscopes, microscopic detectors for biological agents, microsystems for DNA identification, etc. Currently, these applications are limited by the lack of an on-board power source. Research is ongoing to study approaches such as fuel cells, fossil fuels, and chemical batteries, but all these concepts have limitations. For long-lived, high energy density applications, on-board radioisotope power offers the best choice. We have succeeded in producing such devices using a variety of isotopes, incorporation methods, and device geometries. These experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of using radioisotope power and that there are a variety of options available for MEMS designers. As an example of an integrated, self-powered application, we have created an oscillating cantilever beam that is capable of consistent, periodic oscillations over very long time periods without the need for refueling. Ongoing work will demonstrate that this cantilever is capable of radio frequency transmission, allowing MEMS devices to communicate with one another wirelessly. Thus, this will be the first self-powered wireless transmitter available for use in MEMS devices, permitting such applications as sensors embedded in buildings for continuous monitoring of the building performance and integrity

  4. RF MEMS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    At the bare die level the insertion loss, return loss and the isolation ... ing and packaging of a silicon on glass based RF MEMS switch fabricated using DRIE. ..... follows the power law based on the asperity deformation model given by Pattona & ... Surface mount style RF packages (SMX series 580465) from Startedge Corp.

  5. Hybrid membrane-microfluidic components using a novel ceramic MEMS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Brent J.; Polyakov, Oleg; Rinaldo, Chris

    2012-03-01

    A novel hybrid nano/microfabrication technology has been employed to produce unique MEMS and microfluidic components that integrate nanoporous membranes. The components are made by micromachining a self-organized nanostructured ceramic material that is biocompatible and amenable to surface chemistry modification. Microfluidic structures, such as channels and wells, can be made with a precision of membranes can be integrated into the bottom of these structures, featuring a wide range of possible thicknesses, from 100 micron to membranes may be non-porous or porous (with controllable pore sizes from 200 nm to technology is highly scaleable, and thus can yield low-cost, reliable, disposable microcomponents and devices. Specific applications that can benefit from this technology includes cell culturing and assays, imaging by cryo-electron tomography, environmental sample processing, as well as many others.

  6. Optical wireless communications for micromachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Dominic C.; Yuan, Wei Wen; Liu, Jing Jing; Faulkner, Grahame E.; Elston, Steve J.; Collins, Steve; Parry-Jones, Lesley A.

    2006-08-01

    A key challenge for wireless sensor networks is minimizing the energy required for network nodes to communicate with each other, and this becomes acute for self-powered devices such as 'smart dust'. Optical communications is a potentially attractive solution for such devices. The University of Oxford is currently involved in a project to build optical wireless links to smart dust. Retro-reflectors combined with liquid crystal modulators can be integrated with the micro-machine to create a low power transceiver. When illuminated from a base station a modulated beam is returned, transmitting data. Data from the base station can be transmitted using modulation of the illuminating beam and a receiver at the micro-machine. In this paper we outline the energy consumption and link budget considerations in the design of such micro-machines, and report preliminary experimental results.

  7. Effect of fluorocarbon self-assembled monolayer films on sidewall adhesion and friction of surface micromachines with impacting and sliding contact interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, H.; Komvopoulos, K.

    2013-01-01

    A self-assembled monolayer film consisting of fluoro-octyltrichlorosilane (FOTS) was vapor-phase deposited on Si(100) substrates and polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) surface micromachines. The hydrophobic behavior and structural composition of the FOTS film deposited on Si(100) were investigated by goniometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The effects of contact pressure, relative humidity, temperature, and impact/sliding cycles on the adhesive and friction behavior of uncoated and FOTS-coated polysilicon micromachines (referred to as the Si and FOTS/Si micromachines, respectively) were investigated under controlled loading and environmental conditions. FOTS/Si micromachines demonstrated much lower and stable adhesion than Si micromachines due to the highly hydrophobic and conformal FOTS film. Contrary to Si micromachines, sidewall adhesion of FOTS/Si micromachines demonstrated a weak dependence on relative humidity, temperature, and impact cycles. In addition, FOTS/Si micromachines showed low and stable adhesion and low static friction for significantly more sliding cycles than Si micromachines. The adhesive and static friction characteristics of Si and FOTS/Si micromachines are interpreted in the context of physicochemical surface changes, resulting in the increase of the real area of contact and a hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic transition of the surface chemical characteristics caused by nanoscale surface smoothening and the removal of the organic residue (Si micromachines) or the FOTS film (FOTS/Si micromachines) during repetitive impact and oscillatory sliding of the sidewall surfaces.

  8. Real-time control of ultrafast laser micromachining by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Tao; Li Jinggao; Longtin, Jon P.

    2004-01-01

    Ultrafast laser micromachining provides many advantages for precision micromachining. One challenging problem, however, particularly for multilayer and heterogeneous materials, is how to prevent a given material from being ablated, as ultrafast laser micromachining is generally material insensitive. We present a real-time feedback control system for an ultrafast laser micromachining system based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The characteristics of ultrafast LIBS are reviewed and discussed so as to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. Comparison methods to identify the material emission patterns are developed, and several of the resulting algorithms were implemented into a real-time computer control system. LIBS-controlled micromachining is demonstrated for the fabrication of microheater structures on thermal sprayed materials. Compared with a strictly passive machining process without any such feedback control, the LIBS-based system provides several advantages including less damage to the substrate layer, reduced machining time, and more-uniform machining features

  9. Wafer-level packaged RF-MEMS switches fabricated in a CMOS fab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilmans, H.A.C.; Ziad, H.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Di Monaco, O.; Jourdain, A.; De Raedt, W.; Rottenberg, X.; De Backer, E.; Decoussernaeker, A.; Baert, K.

    2001-01-01

    Reports on wafer-level packaged RF-MEMS switches fabricated in a commercial CMOS fab. Switch fabrication is based on a metal surface micromachining process. A novel wafer-level packaging scheme is developed, whereby the switches are housed in on-chip sealed cavities using benzocyclobutene (BCB) as

  10. Optofluidic Microlasers based on Femtosecond Micromachining Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoni F.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the different optofluidic lasers which have been realized using the Femtosecond Micromachining technique to fabricate the monolithic optofluidic structures in glass chips. We show how the great flexibility of this 3D technique allows getting different kind of optical cavities. The most recent devices fabricated by this technique as ring shaped and Fabry-Perot resonators show excellent emission performances.We also point out how the addition of the inkjet printing technique provides further opportunities in realizing optofluidic chips.

  11. Si Micro-turbine by Proton BeamWriting and Porous Silicon Micromachining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajta, I.; Szilasi, S.Z.; Fekete, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. A 3D Si micro-turbine characterized by high aspect ratio vertical walls was formed by the combination of proton beam writing (PBW) and subsequent selective porous Si (PS) etching. Crystal damages generated by the implanted protons result in increased resistivity, thereby limit or even prevent the current to flow through the implanted area during electrochemical etching. Characteristic feature of the proposed process is that the shape of the micro electromechanical (MEMS) components is defined by two implantation energies. A higher energy is applied for defining the housing of the device while the lower energy is used to write the moving components. The implantation energies were selected such as to result appropriate difference between the two projected ranges, thereby providing structures with different height after development. The thickness of the walls of the moving component and the isotropic etching profile of the electrochemical PS formation was also taken into consideration. The electrochemical etching is driven until the sacrificial PS layer completely under etches the moving components, but the etch-front does not reach the bottom of the housing. Therefore, the dissolution of PS results in a ready-to-operate device with a released moving component embedded in the cavity of the housing. The operation of the encapsulated device fabricated by the two-energy implantation is successfully demonstrated (Fig. 1). Rotation speed of the device is estimated in the range of thousands rpm, however, further analysis of the novel structure optimized for performance and MEMS compatible assembly will be done and precise characteristics will be determined by adequate optical read-out method. The feasibility of Proton Beam Writing combined with Porous Si Micromachining and conventional Si processing steps was successfully demonstrated by fabricating Si microturbine chip. The aligned, two-energy proton beam implantation can provide high

  12. Modeling the Microstructure Curvature of Boron-Doped Silicon in Bulk Micromachined Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure curvature, or buckling, is observed in the micromachining of silicon sensors because of the doping of impurities for realizing certain electrical and mechanical processes. This behavior can be a key source of error in inertial sensors. Therefore, identifying the factors that influence the buckling value is important in designing MEMS devices. In this study, the curvature in the proof mass of an accelerometer is modeled as a multilayered solid model. Modeling is performed according to the characteristics of the solid diffusion mechanism in the bulk-dissolved wafer process (BDWP based on the self-stopped etch technique. Moreover, the proposed multilayered solid model is established as an equivalent composite structure formed by a group of thin layers that are glued together. Each layer has a different Young’s modulus value and each undergoes different volume shrinkage strain owing to boron doping in silicon. Observations of five groups of proof mass blocks of accelerometers suggest that the theoretical model is effective in determining the buckling value of a fabricated structure.

  13. A micro-force sensor with slotted-quad-beam structure for measuring the friction in MEMS bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Yang, Shuming; Zhao, Yulong; Jiang, Zhuangde; Liu, Yan; Tian, Bian

    2013-09-30

    Presented here is a slotted-quad-beam structure sensor for the measurement of friction in micro bearings. Stress concentration slots are incorporated into a conventional quad-beam structure to improve the sensitivity of force measurements. The performance comparison between the quad-beam structure sensor and the slotted-quad-beam structure sensor are performed by theoretical modeling and finite element (FE) analysis. A hollow stainless steel probe is attached to the mesa of the sensor chip by a tailor-made organic glass fixture. Concerning the overload protection of the fragile beams, a glass wafer is bonded onto the bottom of sensor chip to limit the displacement of the mesa. The calibration of the packaged device is experimentally performed by a tri-dimensional positioning stage, a precision piezoelectric ceramic and an electronic analytical balance, which indicates its favorable sensitivity and overload protection. To verify the potential of the proposed sensor being applied in micro friction measurement, a measurement platform is established. The output of the sensor reflects the friction of bearing resulting from dry friction and solid lubrication. The results accord with the theoretical modeling and demonstrate that the sensor has the potential application in measuring the micro friction force under stable stage in MEMS machines.

  14. A Micro-Force Sensor with Slotted-Quad-Beam Structure for Measuring the Friction in MEMS Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Presented here is a slotted-quad-beam structure sensor for the measurement of friction in micro bearings. Stress concentration slots are incorporated into a conventional quad-beam structure to improve the sensitivity of force measurements. The performance comparison between the quad-beam structure sensor and the slotted-quad-beam structure sensor are performed by theoretical modeling and finite element (FE analysis. A hollow stainless steel probe is attached to the mesa of the sensor chip by a tailor-made organic glass fixture. Concerning the overload protection of the fragile beams, a glass wafer is bonded onto the bottom of sensor chip to limit the displacement of the mesa. The calibration of the packaged device is experimentally performed by a tri-dimensional positioning stage, a precision piezoelectric ceramic and an electronic analytical balance, which indicates its favorable sensitivity and overload protection. To verify the potential of the proposed sensor being applied in micro friction measurement, a measurement platform is established. The output of the sensor reflects the friction of bearing resulting from dry friction and solid lubrication. The results accord with the theoretical modeling and demonstrate that the sensor has the potential application in measuring the micro friction force under stable stage in MEMS machines.

  15. Electron beam micromachining of plastics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dupák, Libor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, 5-6 (2014), s. 310-314 ISSN 0861-4717 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0103 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : micromachining of plastics * Electron beam Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  16. A novel MEMS inertial switch with a reinforcing rib structure and electrostatic power assist to prolong the contact time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Wang, Yan; Yang, Zhuoqing; Ding, Guifu; Zhao, Xiaolin; Wang, Hong

    2018-03-01

    The MEMS inertial switch is widely used in various industries owing to its advantage of small size, high integration, low power consumption and low costs, especially in the timing of Internet of things, such as toys, handheld devices, accessories and vibration testing. This paper provided a novel inertial switch with a reinforcing rib structure and electrostatic power assist. The designed inertial switch can reduce the complexity of the post-processing circuit and broaden its application prospect. The continuous electrostatic force can extend the contact time of the designed inertia switch before the leakage of electricity ends. The moving electrode with a reinforcing rib structure can effectively restrain the bending of the lower surface of moving electrode caused by residual stress. The array-type fixed electrode can ensure stable contact between the electrodes when the device is sensitive to external shocks. The dynamic displacement-time curve can be simulated by the COMSOL finite element simulation software. The laminated plating process is used to produce the designed inertial switch and the drop hammer acceleration monitoring system is used to test the fabricated device. The results indicate that, compared with the traditional design, the bouncing phenomenon can be prevented and extend the contact time to 336μs.

  17. Micromachining Lithium Niobate for Rapid Prototyping of Resonant Biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shibaany, Zeyad Yousif Abdoon; Hedley, John; Huo, Dehong; Hu, Zhongxu

    2014-01-01

    Lithium niobate material is widely used in MEMS application due to its piezoelectric properties. This paper presents the micromachining process of lithium niobate to rapid prototype a resonant biosensor design. A high precision CNC machine was used to machine a sample of lithium niobate material at 5 different spindle speeds to find out the best conditions to machine this brittle material. A qualitative visual check of the surface was performed by using scanning electron microscopy, surface roughness was quantitatively investigated using an optical surface profiler and Raman spectroscopy to check the strain of the surface. Results show that the surface quality of the lithium niobate was significantly affected by the spindle speed with optimum conditions at 70k rpm giving a strained surface with 500 nm rms roughness

  18. Tailoring design and fabrication of capacitive RF MEMS switches for K-band applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Fabio; Persano, Anna; Capoccia, Giovanni; Taurino, Antonietta; Cola, Adriano; Siciliano, Pietro; Lucibello, Andrea; Marcelli, Romolo; Proietti, Emanuela; Bagolini, Alvise; Margesin, Benno; Bellutti, Pierluigi; Iannacci, Jacopo

    2015-05-01

    Shunt capacitive radio-frequency microelectromechanical (RF MEMS) switches were modelled, fabricated and characterized in the K-band domain. Design allowed to predict the RF behaviour of the switches as a function of the bridge geometric parameters. The modelled switches were fabricated on silicon substrate, using a surface micromachining approach. In addition to the geometric parameters, the material structure in the bridge-actuator area was modified for switches fabricated on the same wafer, thanks to the removal/addition of two technological steps of crucial importance for RF MEMS switches performance, which are the use of the sacrificial layer and the deposition of a floating metal layer on the actuator. Surface profilometry analysis was used to check the material layer structure in the different regions of the bridge area as well as to investigate the mechanical behaviour of the moveable bridge under the application of a loaded force. The RF behaviour of all the fabricated switches was measured, observing the impact on the isolation of the manipulation of the bridge size and of the variations in the fabrication process.

  19. MEMS based monolithic Phased array using 3-bit Switched-line Phase Shifter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karmakr

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article details the design of an electronically scanning phased array antenna with proposed fabrication process steps. Structure is based upon RF micro-electromechanical system (MEMS technology. Capacitive type shunt switches have been implemented here to cater high frequency operation. The architecture, which is deigned at 30 GHz, consists of 3-bit (11.25º, 22.5º and 45º integrated Switched-line phase shifter and a linearly polarized microstrip patch antenna. Detailed design tricks of the Ka-band phase shifter is outlined here. The whole design is targeted for future monolithic integration. So, the substrate of choice is High Resistive Silicon (ρ > 8kΩ-cm, tan δ =0.01 and ϵr =11.8. The overall circuit occupies an cross-sectional area of 20 × 5 mm2. The simulated results show that the phase shifter can provide nearly 11.25º/22.5º/45º phase shifts and their combinations at the expense of 1dB average insertion loss at 30 GHz for eight combinations. Practical fabrication process flow using surface micromachining is proposed here. Critical dimensions of the phased array structure is governed by the deign rules of the standard CMOS/MEMS foundry.

  20. The Laser MicroJet (LMJ): a multi-solution technology for high quality micro-machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Tuan Anh; Richerzhagen, Bernold; Snowdon, Paul C.; Wood, David; Maropoulos, Paul G.

    2007-02-01

    The field of laser micromachining is highly diverse. There are many different types of lasers available in the market. Due to their differences in irradiating wavelength, output power and pulse characteristic they can be selected for different applications depending on material and feature size [1]. The main issues by using these lasers are heat damages, contamination and low ablation rates. This report examines on the application of the Laser MicroJet(R) (LMJ), a unique combination of a laser beam with a hair-thin water jet as a universal tool for micro-machining of MEMS substrates, as well as ferrous and non-ferrous materials. The materials include gallium arsenide (GaAs) & silicon wafers, steel, tantalum and alumina ceramic. A Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm (infra red) and frequency doubled 532 nm (green) were employed for the micro-machining of these materials.

  1. A single mask process for the realization of fully-isolated, dual-height MEMS metallic structures separated by narrow gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Kim, Minsoo; Allen, Mark G.

    2018-02-01

    Multi-height metallic structures are of importance for various MEMS applications, including master molds for creating 3D structures by nanoimprint lithography, or realizing vertically displaced electrodes for out-of-plane electrostatic actuators. Normally these types of multi-height structures require a multi-mask process with increased fabrication complexity. In this work, a fabrication technology is presented in which fully-isolated, dual-height MEMS metallic structures separated by narrow gaps can be realized using a self-aligned, single-mask process. The main scheme of this proposed process is through-mold electrodeposition, where two photoresist mold fabrication steps and two electrodeposition steps are sequentially implemented to define the thinner and thicker structures in the dual-height configuration. The process relies on two self-aligned steps enabled by the electrodeposited thinner structures: a wet-etching of the seed layer utilizing the thinner structure as an etch-mask to electrically isolate the thinner and the thicker structures, and a backside UV lithography utilizing the thinner structure as a lithographic mask to create a high-aspect-ratio mold for the thicker structure through-mold electrodeposition. The latter step requires the metallic structures to be fabricated on a transparent substrate. Test structures with differences in aspect ratio are demonstrated to showcase the capability of the process.

  2. Pressure sensor based on MEMS nano-cantilever beam structure as a heterodielectric gate electrode of dopingless TFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gagan; Raman, Ashish

    2016-12-01

    Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology has enticed numerous scientists since recent decades particularly in the field of miniaturized-sensors and actuators. Pressure sensor is pivotal component in both of the forerunning fields. The pursuance of a pressure sensor is exigently relying upon its different physical properties i.e. Piezo-resistive, Piezoelectric, Capacitive, Magnetic and Electrostatic. This article presents an outline and scrutiny of the Doping-less Cantilever Based Pressure Sensor using tunnel field effect transistor technology. The propounded pressure sensor based on the principle of capacitive gate coupling, due to which the tunneling current is modified. Additionally, to enhance the affectability of pressure sensor, the work function of metal gate electrode is amended using gas molecule diffusion. Simulation uncovers a phenomenal relationship amongst hypothetical and practical accepts of configuration. The pressure sensor is composed at Silvaco Atlas tool utilizing 40 nm technologies. The performance results exhibit that the proposed model consumes ≤1 mW power and 250 μA tunneling current per nm bending of cantilever beam structure. The inclusive length of the proposed device is 100 nm.

  3. Effect of tungsten (W) on structural and magnetic properties of electroplated NiFe thin films for MEMS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, R.; Devaki, P.; Premkumar, P. S.; Selvambikai, M.

    2018-04-01

    Electrodeposition of nanocrystalline NiFe and NiFeW thin films were carried out from ammonium citrate bath at a constant current density and controlled pH of 8 by varying the bath temperature from 40 °C to 70 °C. The surface morphology and chemical composition of the electrodeposited NiFe and NiFeW soft magnetic thin films were studied by using SEM and EDAX. The SEM micrographs of the films coated at higher electrodeposited bath temperature have no micro cracks and also the films have more uniform surface morphology. The existence of crystalline nature of the coated films were analysed by XRD. The presence of predominant peaks in x-ray diffraction pattern (compared with JCPDS data) reveal that the average crystalline size was in the order of few tens of nano meters. The magnetic properties such as coercivity, saturation magnetization and magnetic flux density have been calculated from vibrating sample magnetometer analysis. The VSM result shows that the NiFeW thin film synthesised at 70 °C exhibit the lower coercivity with higher saturation magnetization. The hardness and adhesion of the electroplated films have been investigated. Reasons for variation in magnetic properties and structural characteristics are also discussed. The electroplated NiFe and NiFeW thin films can be used for Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) applications due to their excellent soft magnetic behaviour.

  4. Hollow MEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Emil

    Miniaturization of electro mechanical sensor systems to the micro range and beyond has shown impressive sensitivities measuring sample properties like mass, viscosity, acceleration, pressure and force just to name a few applications. In order to enable these kinds of measurements on liquid samples...... a hollow MEMS sensor has been designed, fabricated and tested. Combined density, viscosity, buoyant mass spectrometry and IR absorption spectroscopy are possible on liquid samples and micron sized suspended particles (e.g. single cells). Measurements are based on changes in the resonant behavior...... of these sensors. Optimization of the microfabrication process has led to a process yield of almost 100% .This is achieved despite the fact, that the process still offers a high degree of flexibility. By simple modifications the Sensor shape can be optimized for different size ranges and sensitivities...

  5. A multi-electrode and pre-deformed bilayer spring structure electrostatic attractive MEMS actuator with large stroke at low actuation voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Fangrong; Li, Zhi; Xiong, Xianming; Niu, Junhao; Peng, Zhiyong; Qian, Yixian; Yao, Jun

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-electrode and pre-deformed bilayer spring structure electrostatic attractive microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) actuator; it has large stroke at relatively low actuation voltage. Generally, electrostatic-attractive-force-based actuators have small stroke due to the instability resulted from the electrostatic ‘pull-in’ phenomenon. However, in many applications, the electrostatic micro-actuator with large stroke at low voltage is more preferred. By introducing a multi-electrode and a pre-deformed bilayer spring structure, an electrostatic attractive MEMS actuator with large stroke at very low actuation voltage has been successfully demonstrated in this paper. The actuator contains a central plate with a size of 300 µm × 300 µm × 1.5 µm and it is supported by four L-shaped bilayer springs which are pre-deformed due to residual stresses. Each bilayer spring is simultaneously attracted by three adjacent fixed electrodes, and the factors affecting the electrostatic attractive force are analyzed by a finite element analysis method. The prototype of the actuator is fabricated by poly-multi-user-MEMS-process (PolyMUMP) and the static performance is tested using a white light interferometer. The measured stroke of the actuator reaches 2 µm at 13 V dc, and it shows a good agreement with the simulation. (paper)

  6. Micromachined millimeter-wave photonic band-gap crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezbay, E.; Michel, E.; Tuttle, G.; Biswas, R.; Sigalas, M.; Ho, K.

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a new technique for fabricating three-dimensional photonic band-gap crystals. Our method utilizes an orderly stacking of micromachined (110) silicon wafers to build the periodic structure. A structure with a full three-dimensional photonic band gap centered near 100 GHz was measured, with experimental results in good agreement with theoretical predictions. This basic approach described should be extendable to build structures with photonic band-gap frequencies ranging from 30 GHz to 3 THz

  7. Micromachined silicon seismic accelerometer development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barron, C.C.; Fleming, J.G.; Montague, S. [and others

    1996-08-01

    Batch-fabricated silicon seismic transducers could revolutionize the discipline of seismic monitoring by providing inexpensive, easily deployable sensor arrays. Our ultimate goal is to fabricate seismic sensors with sensitivity and noise performance comparable to short-period seismometers in common use. We expect several phases of development will be required to accomplish that level of performance. Traditional silicon micromachining techniques are not ideally suited to the simultaneous fabrication of a large proof mass and soft suspension, such as one needs to achieve the extreme sensitivities required for seismic measurements. We have therefore developed a novel {open_quotes}mold{close_quotes} micromachining technology that promises to make larger proof masses (in the 1-10 mg range) possible. We have successfully integrated this micromolding capability with our surface-micromachining process, which enables the formation of soft suspension springs. Our calculations indicate that devices made in this new integrated technology will resolve down to at least sub-{mu}G signals, and may even approach the 10{sup -10} G/{radical}Hz acceleration levels found in the low-earth-noise model.

  8. Omega-X micromachining system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    A micromachining tool system with X- and omega-axes is used to machine spherical, aspherical, and irregular surfaces with a maximum contour error of 100 nonometers (nm) and surface waviness of no more than 0.8 nm RMS. The omega axis, named for the angular measurement of the rotation of an eccentric mechanism supporting one end of a tool bar, enables the pulse increments of the tool toward the workpiece to be as little as 0 to 4.4 nm. A dedicated computer coordinates motion in the two axes to produce the workpiece contour. Inertia is reduced by reducing the mass pulsed toward the workpiece to about one-fifth of its former value. The tool system includes calibration instruments to calibrate the micromachining tool system. Backlash is reduced and flexing decreased by using a rotary table and servomotor to pulse the tool in the omega-axis instead of a ball screw mechanism. A thermally-stabilized spindle roates the workpiece and is driven by a motor not mounted on the micromachining tool base through a torque-smoothing pulley and vibrationless rotary coupling. Abbe offset errors are almost eliminated by tool setting and calibration at spindle center height. Tool contour and workpiece contour are gaged on the machine; this enables the source of machining errors to be determined more readily, because the workpiece is gaged before its shape can be changed by removal from the machine

  9. Resist materials for proton micromachining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, J.A. van; Sanchez, J.L.; Xu, B.; Osipowicz, T.; Watt, F.

    1999-01-01

    The production of high aspect ratio microstructures is a potential growth area. The combination of deep X-ray lithography with electroforming and micromolding (i.e. LIGA) is one of the main techniques used to produce 3D microstructures. The new technique of proton micromachining employs focused MeV protons in a direct write process which is complementary to LIGA, e.g. micromachining with 2 MeV protons results in microstructures with a height of 63 μm and lateral sub-micrometer resolution in PMMA resist. The aim of this paper is to investigate the capabilities of proton micromachining as a lithographic technique. This involves the study of different types of resists. The dose distribution of high molecular weight PMMA is compared with three other types of resist: First the positive photo resist AZ P4620 will be discussed and then PMGI SF 23, which can be used as a deep UV, e-beam or X-ray resist. Finally SU-8, a new deep UV negative type of chemically amplified resist will be discussed. All these polymers are applied using the spin coating technique at thicknesses of between 1 and 36 μm

  10. Piezoelectric MEMS: Ferroelectric thin films for MEMS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Isaku

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have attracted attention as next-generation functional microdevices. Typical applications of piezoelectric MEMS are micropumps for inkjet heads or micro-gyrosensors, which are composed of piezoelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films and have already been commercialized. In addition, piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters (PVEHs), which are regarded as one of the key devices for Internet of Things (IoT)-related technologies, are promising future applications of piezoelectric MEMS. Significant features of piezoelectric MEMS are their simple structure and high energy conversion efficiency between mechanical and electrical domains even on the microscale. The device performance strongly depends on the function of the piezoelectric thin films, especially on their transverse piezoelectric properties, indicating that the deposition of high-quality piezoelectric thin films is a crucial technology for piezoelectric MEMS. On the other hand, although the difficulty in measuring the precise piezoelectric coefficients of thin films is a serious obstacle in the research and development of piezoelectric thin films, a simple unimorph cantilever measurement method has been proposed to obtain precise values of the direct or converse transverse piezoelectric coefficient of thin films, and recently this method has become to be the standardized testing method. In this article, I will introduce fundamental technologies of piezoelectric thin films and related microdevices, especially focusing on the deposition of PZT thin films and evaluation methods for their transverse piezoelectric properties.

  11. Laser micromachining of sputtered DLC films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Y.Q.; Luo, J.K.; Flewitt, A.J.; Ong, S.E.; Zhang, S.; Milne, W.I.

    2006-01-01

    DLC films with different thicknesses (from 100 nm to 1.9 μm) were deposited using sputtering of graphite target in pure argon atmosphere without substrate heating. Film microstructures (sp 2 /sp 3 ratio) and mechanical properties (modulus, hardness, stress) were characterized as a function of film thickness. A thin layer of aluminum about 60 nm was deposited on the DLC film surface. Laser micromachining of Al/DLC layer was performed to form microcantilever structures, which were released using a reactive ion etching system with SF 6 plasma. Due to the intrinsic stress in DLC films and bimorph Al/DLC structure, the microcantilevers bent up with different curvatures. For DLC film of 100 nm thick, the cantilever even formed microtubes. The relationship between the bimorph beam bending and DLC film properties (such as stress, modulus, etc.) were discussed in details

  12. Fabrication of a novel quartz micromachined gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liqiang; Xing, Jianchun; Wang, Haoxu; Wu, Xuezhong

    2015-04-01

    A novel quartz micromachined gyroscope is proposed in this paper. The novel gyroscope is realized by quartz anisotropic wet etching and 3-dimensional electrodes deposition. In the quartz wet etching process, the quality of Cr/Au mask films affecting the process are studied by experiment. An excellent mask film with 100 Å Cr and 2000 Å Au is achieved by optimization of experimental parameters. Crystal facets after etching seriously affect the following sidewall electrodes deposition process and the structure's mechanical behaviours. Removal of crystal facets is successfully implemented by increasing etching time based on etching rate ratios between facets and crystal planes. In the electrodes deposition process, an aperture mask evaporation method is employed to prepare electrodes on 3-dimensional surfaces of the gyroscope structure. The alignments among the aperture masks are realized by the ABM™ Mask Aligner System. Based on the processes described above, a z-axis quartz gyroscope is fabricated successfully.

  13. Optimized design of micromachined electric field mills to maximize electrostatic field sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design optimization of a micromachined electric field mill, in relation to maximizing its output signal. The cases studied are for a perforated electrically grounded shutter vibrating laterally over sensing electrodes. It is shown that when modeling the output signal of the sensor, the differential charge on the sense electrodes when exposed to vs. visibly shielded from the incident electric field must be considered. Parametric studies of device dimensions show that the shutter thickness and its spacing from the underlying electrodes should be minimized as these parameters very strongly affect the MEFM signal. Exploration of the shutter perforation size and sense electrode width indicate that the best MEFM design is one where shutter perforation widths are a few times larger than the sense electrode widths. Keywords: MEFM, Finite element method, Electric field measurement, MEMS, Micromachining

  14. Development of a Surface Micromachined On-Chip Flat Disk Micropump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. KILANI

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research progress in the development of a surface micromachined flat disk micropump which employs the viscous and centrifugal effects acting on a layer of fluid sandwiched between a rotating flat disk and a stationary plate. The pump is fabricated monolithically on-chip using Sandia’s Ultraplanar Multilevel MEMS Technology (SUMMiT™ where an electrostatic comb-drive Torsional Ratcheting Actuator (TRA drives the flat disk through a geared transmission. The paper reviews available analytical models for flow geometries similar to that of the described pump, and presents a set of experiments which depict its performance and possible failure modes. Those experiments highlight future research directions in the development of electrostatically-actuated, CMOS-compatible, surface micromachined pumps.

  15. Piezoelectric MEMS sensors: state-of-the-art and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadigadapa, S; Mateti, K

    2009-01-01

    Over the past two decades, several advances have been made in micromachined sensors and actuators. As the field of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) has advanced, a clear need for the integration of materials other than silicon and its compounds into micromachined transducers has emerged. Piezoelectric materials are high energy density materials that scale very favorably upon miniaturization and that has led to an ever-growing interest in piezoelectric films for MEMS applications. At this time, piezoelectric aluminum-nitride-based film bulk acoustic resonators (FBAR) have already been successfully commercialized. Future innovations and improvements in inertial sensors for navigation, high-frequency crystal oscillators and filters for wireless applications, microactuators for RF applications, chip-scale chemical analysis systems and countless other applications hinge upon the successful miniaturization of components and integration of piezoelectrics and metals into these systems. In this article, a comprehensive review of micromachined piezoelectric transducer technology will be presented. Piezoelectric materials in bulk and thin film forms will be reviewed and fabrication techniques for the integration of these materials for microsensor applications will be presented. Recent advances in various piezoelectric microsensors will be presented through specific examples. This review will conclude with a critical assessment of the future trends and promise of this technology. (topical review)

  16. Silicon micromachining using a high-density plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAuley, S.A.; Ashraf, H.; Atabo, L.; Chambers, A.; Hall, S.; Hopkins, J.; Nicholls, G.

    2001-01-01

    Dry etching of Si is critical in satisfying the demands of the micromachining industry. The micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) community requires etches capable of high aspect ratios, vertical profiles, good feature size control and etch uniformity along with high throughput to satisfy production requirements. Surface technology systems' (STS's) high-density inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etch tool enables a wide range of applications to be realized whilst optimizing the above parameters. Components manufactured from Si using an STS ICP include accelerometers and gyroscopes for military, automotive and domestic applications. STS's advanced silicon etch (ASE TM ) has also allowed the first generation of MEMS-based optical switches and attenuators to reach the marketplace. In addition, a specialized application for fabricating the next generation photolithography exposure masks has been optimized for 200 mm diameter wafers, to depths of ∼750 μm. Where the profile is not critical, etch rates of greater than 8 μm min -1 have been realized to replace previous methods such as wet etching. This is also the case for printer applications. Specialized applications that require etching down to pyrex or oxide often result in the loss of feature size control at the interface; this is an industry wide problem. STS have developed a technique to address this. The rapid progression of the industry has led to development of the STS ICP etch tool, as well as the process. (author)

  17. MemPick : High-level data structure detection in C/C++ binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haller, Istvan; Slowinska, Asia; Bos, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Many existing techniques for reversing data structures in C/C++ binaries are limited to low-level programming constructs, such as individual variables or structs. Unfortunately, without detailed information about a program's pointer structures, forensics and reverse engineering are exceedingly hard.

  18. Excimer laser micromachining for 3D microstructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, Kyung Hyun; Meijer, J.; Masuzawa, Takahisa; Kim, Dae-Hyun

    2004-01-01

    A new 3D micromachining method, called Hole Area Modulation (HAM), has been introduced to enhance the current micromachining technology. In this method, information on the machining depth is converted to the sizes of holes on the mask. The machining is carried out with a simple 2D movement of the

  19. Fabrication and Characterization of a CMOS-MEMS Humidity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, John-Ojur; Ahmed, Abdelaziz-Yousif; Khir, Mohd-Haris

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of a Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Microelectromechanical System (CMOS-MEMS) device with embedded microheater operated at relatively elevated temperatures (40 °C to 80 °C) for the purpose of relative humidity measurement. The sensing principle is based on the change in amplitude of the device due to adsorption or desorption of humidity on the active material layer of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles deposited on the moving plate, which results in changes in the mass of the device. The sensor has been designed and fabricated through a standard 0.35 µm CMOS process technology and post-CMOS micromachining technique has been successfully implemented to release the MEMS structures. The sensor is operated in the dynamic mode using electrothermal actuation and the output signal measured using a piezoresistive (PZR) sensor connected in a Wheatstone bridge circuit. The output voltage of the humidity sensor increases from 0.585 mV to 30.580 mV as the humidity increases from 35% RH to 95% RH. The output voltage is found to be linear from 0.585 mV to 3.250 mV as the humidity increased from 35% RH to 60% RH, with sensitivity of 0.107 mV/% RH; and again linear from 3.250 mV to 30.580 mV as the humidity level increases from 60% RH to 95% RH, with higher sensitivity of 0.781 mV/% RH. On the other hand, the sensitivity of the humidity sensor increases linearly from 0.102 mV/% RH to 0.501 mV/% RH with increase in the temperature from 40 °C to 80 °C and a maximum hysteresis of 0.87% RH is found at a relative humidity of 80%. The sensitivity is also frequency dependent, increasing from 0.500 mV/% RH at 2 Hz to reach a maximum value of 1.634 mV/% RH at a frequency of 12 Hz, then decreasing to 1.110 mV/% RH at a frequency of 20 Hz. Finally, the CMOS-MEMS humidity sensor showed comparable response, recovery, and repeatability of measurements in three cycles as compared to a standard sensor that directly

  20. Fabrication and Characterization of a CMOS-MEMS Humidity Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, John-Ojur; Ahmed, Abdelaziz-Yousif; Khir, Mohd-Haris

    2015-07-10

    This paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of a Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Microelectromechanical System (CMOS-MEMS) device with embedded microheater operated at relatively elevated temperatures (40 °C to 80 °C) for the purpose of relative humidity measurement. The sensing principle is based on the change in amplitude of the device due to adsorption or desorption of humidity on the active material layer of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles deposited on the moving plate, which results in changes in the mass of the device. The sensor has been designed and fabricated through a standard 0.35 µm CMOS process technology and post-CMOS micromachining technique has been successfully implemented to release the MEMS structures. The sensor is operated in the dynamic mode using electrothermal actuation and the output signal measured using a piezoresistive (PZR) sensor connected in a Wheatstone bridge circuit. The output voltage of the humidity sensor increases from 0.585 mV to 30.580 mV as the humidity increases from 35% RH to 95% RH. The output voltage is found to be linear from 0.585 mV to 3.250 mV as the humidity increased from 35% RH to 60% RH, with sensitivity of 0.107 mV/% RH; and again linear from 3.250 mV to 30.580 mV as the humidity level increases from 60% RH to 95% RH, with higher sensitivity of 0.781 mV/% RH. On the other hand, the sensitivity of the humidity sensor increases linearly from 0.102 mV/% RH to 0.501 mV/% RH with increase in the temperature from 40 °C to 80 °C and a maximum hysteresis of 0.87% RH is found at a relative humidity of 80%. The sensitivity is also frequency dependent, increasing from 0.500 mV/% RH at 2 Hz to reach a maximum value of 1.634 mV/% RH at a frequency of 12 Hz, then decreasing to 1.110 mV/% RH at a frequency of 20 Hz. Finally, the CMOS-MEMS humidity sensor showed comparable response, recovery, and repeatability of measurements in three cycles as compared to a standard sensor that directly

  1. Calibration of High Frequency MEMS Microphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Humphreys, William M.; Bartram, Scott M.; Zuckewar, Allan J.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding and controlling aircraft noise is one of the major research topics of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program. One of the measurement technologies used to acquire noise data is the microphone directional array (DA). Traditional direction array hardware, consisting of commercially available condenser microphones and preamplifiers can be too expensive and their installation in hard-walled wind tunnel test sections too complicated. An emerging micro-machining technology coupled with the latest cutting edge technologies for smaller and faster systems have opened the way for development of MEMS microphones. The MEMS microphone devices are available in the market but suffer from certain important shortcomings. Based on early experiments with array prototypes, it has been found that both the bandwidth and the sound pressure level dynamic range of the microphones should be increased significantly to improve the performance and flexibility of the overall array. Thus, in collaboration with an outside MEMS design vendor, NASA Langley modified commercially available MEMS microphone as shown in Figure 1 to meet the new requirements. Coupled with the design of the enhanced MEMS microphones was the development of a new calibration method for simultaneously obtaining the sensitivity and phase response of the devices over their entire broadband frequency range. Over the years, several methods have been used for microphone calibration. Some of the common methods of microphone calibration are Coupler (Reciprocity, Substitution, and Simultaneous), Pistonphone, Electrostatic actuator, and Free-field calibration (Reciprocity, Substitution, and Simultaneous). Traditionally, electrostatic actuators (EA) have been used to characterize air-condenser microphones for wideband frequency ranges; however, MEMS microphones are not adaptable to the EA method due to their construction and very small diaphragm size. Hence a substitution-based, free-field method was developed to

  2. A spherically-shaped PZT thin film ultrasonic transducer with an acoustic impedance gradient matching layer based on a micromachined periodically structured flexible substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guo-Hua; Liu, Wei-Fan

    2013-10-09

    This paper presents the microfabrication of an acoustic impedance gradient matching layer on a spherically-shaped piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer. The acoustic matching layer can be designed to achieve higher acoustic energy transmission and operating bandwidth. Also included in this paper are a theoretical analysis of the device design and a micromachining technique to produce the novel transducer. Based on a design of a lead titanium zirconium (PZT) micropillar array, the constructed gradient acoustic matching layer has much better acoustic transmission efficiency within a 20-50 MHz operation range compared to a matching layer with a conventional quarter-wavelength thickness Parylene deposition. To construct the transducer, periodic microcavities are built on a flexible copper sheet, and then the sheet forms a designed curvature with a ball shaping. After PZT slurry deposition, the constructed PZT micropillar array is released onto a curved thin PZT layer. Following Parylene conformal coating on the processed PZT micropillars, the PZT micropillars and the surrounding Parylene comprise a matching layer with gradient acoustic impedance. By using the proposed technique, the fabricated transducer achieves a center frequency of 26 MHz and a -6 dB bandwidth of approximately 65%.

  3. UV curing imprint lithography for micro-structure in MEMS manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yucheng; Liu Hongzhong; Lu Bingheng; Qiu Zhihui

    2006-01-01

    Imprint lithography has been gaining popularity as a new method to fabricate microelectro mechanical systems. The main advantages of the IL are its extremely low set-up cost, high replicating accuracy and extended fabricating critical dimension. Compare to traditional optical lithography, IL has the advantages of being able to fabricate complex pattern structure with high-aspect ratio. However, the thermal and loading errors can reduce pattern transferring fidelity. In this paper, UV curing method is used in IL process which can avoid the heat distortion of tools. Additionally, a six-step loading process for template pressing into resist film is developed. The performance of this process include: the loading locus is continuous with very high accuracy (10nm), the press releasing control (accuracy up to 1 psi) can reduce and avoid the distortion of template structure and stage supports. This process can achieve a residual layer with thickness of 20nm and avoid the elastic stamp distorted (under 20nm) at the same time. The press force can reach up to 300 psi for 6 cm 2 pattern size but the friction force during demould process can be reduced to 30 psi. Experimental results reveal that it is a novel and robust process with high fidelity in micro/nano structures manufacturing

  4. Micro-machined calorimetric biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Smith, Stephen F.; Oden, Patrick I.; Bryan, William L.; Moore, James A.; Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for detecting and monitoring micro-volumetric enthalpic changes caused by molecular reactions. Micro-machining techniques are used to create very small thermally isolated masses incorporating temperature-sensitive circuitry. The thermally isolated masses are provided with a molecular layer or coating, and the temperature-sensitive circuitry provides an indication when the molecules of the coating are involved in an enthalpic reaction. The thermally isolated masses may be provided singly or in arrays and, in the latter case, the molecular coatings may differ to provide qualitative and/or quantitative assays of a substance.

  5. Biomaterials for MEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Chiao, Mu

    2011-01-01

    This book serves as a guide for practicing engineers, researchers, and students interested in MEMS devices that use biomaterials and biomedical applications. It is also suitable for engineers and researchers interested in MEMS and its applications but who do not have the necessary background in biomaterials.Biomaterials for MEMS highlights important features and issues of biomaterials that have been used in MEMS and biomedical areas. Hence this book is an essential guide for MEMS engineers or researchers who are trained in engineering institutes that do not provide the background or knowledge

  6. Mid infrared MEMS FTIR spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfan, Mazen; Sabry, Yasser M.; Mortada, Bassem; Sharaf, Khaled; Khalil, Diaa

    2016-03-01

    In this work we report, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, a bulk-micromachined wideband MEMS-based spectrometer covering both the NIR and the MIR ranges and working from 1200 nm to 4800 nm. The core engine of the spectrometer is a scanning Michelson interferometer micro-fabricated using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) technology. The spectrum is obtained using the Fourier Transform techniques that allows covering a very wide spectral range limited by the detector responsivity. The moving mirror of the interferometer is driven by a relatively large stroke electrostatic comb-drive actuator. Zirconium fluoride (ZrF4) multimode optical fibers are used to connect light between the white light source and the interferometer input, as well as the interferometer output to a PbSe photoconductive detector. The recorded signal-to-noise ratio is 25 dB at the wavelength of 3350 nm. The spectrometer is successfully used in measuring the absorption spectra of methylene chloride, quartz glass and polystyrene film. The presented solution provides a low cost method for producing miniaturized spectrometers in the near-/mid-infrared.

  7. Structural health monitoring of glass/epoxy composite plates with MEMS PMN-PT sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Brenton R.; Tang, Hong-Yue; Horsley, David A.; La Saponara, Valeria; Lestari, Wahyu

    2009-03-01

    Sensors constructed with single-crystal PMN-PT, i.e. Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 or PMN, are developed in this paper for structural health monitoring of composite plates. To determine the potential of PMN-PT for this application, glass/epoxy composite specimens were created containing an embedded delamination-starter. Two different piezoelectric materials were bonded to the surface of each specimen: PMN-PT, the test material, was placed on one side of the specimen, while a traditional material, PZT-4, was placed on the other. A comparison of the ability of both materials to transmit and receive an ultrasonic pulse was conducted, with the received signal detected by both a second surface-bonded transducer constructed of the same material, as well as a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) analyzing the same location. The optimal frequency range of both sets of transducers is discussed and a comparison is presented of the experimental results to theory. The specimens will be fatigued until failure with further data collected every 3,000 cycles to characterize the ability of each material to detect the growing delamination in the composite structure. This additional information will be made available during the conference.

  8. Manufacture of Radio Frequency Micromachined Switches with Annealing

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Cheng-Yang; Dai, Ching-Liang

    2014-01-01

    The fabrication and characterization of a radio frequency (RF) micromachined switch with annealing were presented. The structure of the RF switch consists of a membrane, coplanar waveguide (CPW) lines, and eight springs. The RF switch is manufactured using the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The switch requires a post-process to release the membrane and springs. The post-process uses a wet etching to remove the sacrificial silicon dioxide layer, and to obtain the suspe...

  9. Micro-machined resonator oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Dale R.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Bivens, Hugh M.; Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    1994-01-01

    A micro-miniature resonator-oscillator is disclosed. Due to the miniaturization of the resonator-oscillator, oscillation frequencies of one MHz and higher are utilized. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micro-machined silicon package and operated as a "telemetered sensor beacon" that is, a digital, self-powered, remote, parameter measuring-transmitter in the FM-band. The resonator design uses trapped energy principles and temperature dependence methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20-100 MHz range. High volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Unique design features include squeeze-film damping for robust vibration and shock performance, capacitive coupling through micro-machined diaphragms allowing resonator excitation at the package exterior, circuit integration and extremely small (0.1 in. square) dimensioning. A family of micro-miniature sensor beacons is also disclosed with widespread applications as bio-medical sensors, vehicle status monitors and high-volume animal identification and health sensors. The sensor family allows measurement of temperatures, chemicals, acceleration and pressure. A microphone and clock realization is also available.

  10. Development of a CMOS MEMS pressure sensor with a mechanical force-displacement transduction structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Chao-Lin; Chang, Heng-Chung; Fang, Weileun; Chang, Chun-I

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a capacitive pressure sensor with a mechanical force-displacement transduction structure based on the commercially available standard CMOS process (the TSMC 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS process). The pressure sensor has a deformable diaphragm to support a movable plate with an embedded sensing electrode. As the diaphragm is deformed by the ambient pressure, the movable plate and its embedded sensing electrode are displaced. Thus, the pressure is detected from the capacitance change between the movable and fixed electrodes. The undeformed movable electrode will increase the effective sensing area between the sensing electrodes, thereby improving the sensitivity. Experimental results show that the proposed pressure sensor with a force-displacement transducer will increase the sensitivity by 126% within the 20 kPa–300 kPa absolute pressure range. Moreover, this study extends the design to add pillars inside the pressure sensor to further increase its sensing area as well as sensitivity. A sensitivity improvement of 117% is also demonstrated for a pressure sensor with an enlarged sensing electrode (the overlap area is increased two fold). (paper)

  11. Reliability- and performance-based robust design optimization of MEMS structures considering technological uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martowicz, Adam; Uhl, Tadeusz

    2012-10-01

    The paper discusses the applicability of a reliability- and performance-based multi-criteria robust design optimization technique for micro-electromechanical systems, considering their technological uncertainties. Nowadays, micro-devices are commonly applied systems, especially in the automotive industry, taking advantage of utilizing both the mechanical structure and electronic control circuit on one board. Their frequent use motivates the elaboration of virtual prototyping tools that can be applied in design optimization with the introduction of technological uncertainties and reliability. The authors present a procedure for the optimization of micro-devices, which is based on the theory of reliability-based robust design optimization. This takes into consideration the performance of a micro-device and its reliability assessed by means of uncertainty analysis. The procedure assumes that, for each checked design configuration, the assessment of uncertainty propagation is performed with the meta-modeling technique. The described procedure is illustrated with an example of the optimization carried out for a finite element model of a micro-mirror. The multi-physics approach allowed the introduction of several physical phenomena to correctly model the electrostatic actuation and the squeezing effect present between electrodes. The optimization was preceded by sensitivity analysis to establish the design and uncertain domains. The genetic algorithms fulfilled the defined optimization task effectively. The best discovered individuals are characterized by a minimized value of the multi-criteria objective function, simultaneously satisfying the constraint on material strength. The restriction of the maximum equivalent stresses was introduced with the conditionally formulated objective function with a penalty component. The yielded results were successfully verified with a global uniform search through the input design domain.

  12. Wafer-Level Membrane-Transfer Process for Fabricating MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok; Wiberg, Dean

    2003-01-01

    A process for transferring an entire wafer-level micromachined silicon structure for mating with and bonding to another such structure has been devised. This process is intended especially for use in wafer-level integration of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) that have been fabricated on dissimilar substrates. Unlike in some older membrane-transfer processes, there is no use of wax or epoxy during transfer. In this process, the substrate of a wafer-level structure to be transferred serves as a carrier, and is etched away once the transfer has been completed. Another important feature of this process is that two electrodes constitutes an electrostatic actuator array. An SOI wafer and a silicon wafer (see Figure 1) are used as the carrier and electrode wafers, respectively. After oxidation, both wafers are patterned and etched to define a corrugation profile and electrode array, respectively. The polysilicon layer is deposited on the SOI wafer. The carrier wafer is bonded to the electrode wafer by using evaporated indium bumps. The piston pressure of 4 kPa is applied at 156 C in a vacuum chamber to provide hermetic sealing. The substrate of the SOI wafer is etched in a 25 weight percent TMAH bath at 80 C. The exposed buried oxide is then removed by using 49 percent HF droplets after an oxygen plasma ashing. The SOI top silicon layer is etched away by using an SF6 plasma to define the corrugation profile, followed by the HF droplet etching of the remaining oxide. The SF6 plasma with a shadow mask selectively etches the polysilicon membrane, if the transferred membrane structure needs to be patterned. Electrostatic actuators with various electrode gaps have been fabricated by this transfer technique. The gap between the transferred membrane and electrode substrate is very uniform ( 0.1 m across a wafer diameter of 100 mm, provided by optimizing the bonding control). Figure 2 depicts the finished product.

  13. Robust micromachining of compliant mechanisms for out-of-plane microsensors

    OpenAIRE

    Khosraviani, Kourosh

    2013-01-01

    Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) take advantage of a wide range of very reliable, and well established existing microelectronics fabrication techniques. Due to the planar nature of these techniques, out-of-plane MEMS devices must be fabricated in-plane and assembled afterwards in order to create out-of-plane three-dimensional structures. Out-of-plane microstructures extend the design space of the MEMS based devices and overcome many limitations of the in-plane processing. Nevertheless,...

  14. MEMS Coupled Resonator for Filter Application in Air

    KAUST Repository

    Ilyas, Saad; Jaber, Nizar; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2017-01-01

    We present a mechanically coupled MEMS H resonator capable of performing simultaneous amplification and filter operation in air. The device comprises of two doubly clamped polyimide microbeams joined through the middle by a coupling beam of the same size. The resonator is fabricated via a multilayer surface micromachining process. A special fabrication process and device design is employed to enable the device's operation in air and to achieve mechanical amplification of the output response. Moreover, mixed-frequency excitation is used to demonstrate a tunable wide band filter. The device design combined with the mixed-frequency excitation is used to demonstrate simultaneous amplification and filtering in air.

  15. MEMS Coupled Resonator for Filter Application in Air

    KAUST Repository

    Ilyas, Saad

    2017-11-03

    We present a mechanically coupled MEMS H resonator capable of performing simultaneous amplification and filter operation in air. The device comprises of two doubly clamped polyimide microbeams joined through the middle by a coupling beam of the same size. The resonator is fabricated via a multilayer surface micromachining process. A special fabrication process and device design is employed to enable the device\\'s operation in air and to achieve mechanical amplification of the output response. Moreover, mixed-frequency excitation is used to demonstrate a tunable wide band filter. The device design combined with the mixed-frequency excitation is used to demonstrate simultaneous amplification and filtering in air.

  16. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    CERN Document Server

    Beetz, C P; Steinbeck, J; Lemieux, B; Winn, D R

    2000-01-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of approx 0.5 to approx 25 mu m, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200 deg. C, also compatible with high-temperature brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposite...

  17. Micromachined Integrated Transducers for Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Mette Funding

    The purpose of this project is to develop capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) for medical imaging. Medical ultrasound transducers used today are fabricated using piezoelectric materials and bulk processing. To fabricate transducers capable of delivering a higher imaging...

  18. Pick-and-place process for sensitivity improvement of the capacitive type CMOS MEMS 2-axis tilt sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-I.; Tsai, Ming-Han; Liu, Yu-Chia; Sun, Chih-Ming; Fang, Weileun

    2013-09-01

    This study exploits the foundry available complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process and the packaging house available pick-and-place technology to implement a capacitive type micromachined 2-axis tilt sensor. The suspended micro mechanical structures such as the spring, stage and sensing electrodes are fabricated using the CMOS microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) processes. A bulk block is assembled onto the suspended stage by pick-and-place technology to increase the proof-mass of the tilt sensor. The low temperature UV-glue dispensing and curing processes are employed to bond the block onto the stage. Thus, the sensitivity of the CMOS MEMS capacitive type 2-axis tilt sensor is significantly improved. In application, this study successfully demonstrates the bonding of a bulk solder ball of 100 µm in diameter with a 2-axis tilt sensor fabricated using the standard TSMC 0.35 µm 2P4M CMOS process. Measurements show the sensitivities of the 2-axis tilt sensor are increased for 2.06-fold (x-axis) and 1.78-fold (y-axis) after adding the solder ball. Note that the sensitivity can be further improved by reducing the parasitic capacitance and the mismatch of sensing electrodes caused by the solder ball.

  19. Modularly Integrated MEMS Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eyoum, Marie-Angie N

    2006-01-01

    Process design, development and integration to fabricate reliable MEMS devices on top of VLSI-CMOS electronics without damaging the underlying circuitry have been investigated throughout this dissertation...

  20. Vascular tissue engineering by computer-aided laser micromachining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doraiswamy, Anand; Narayan, Roger J

    2010-04-28

    Many conventional technologies for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds are not suitable for fabricating scaffolds with patient-specific attributes. For example, many conventional technologies for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds do not provide control over overall scaffold geometry or over cell position within the scaffold. In this study, the use of computer-aided laser micromachining to create scaffolds for vascular tissue networks was investigated. Computer-aided laser micromachining was used to construct patterned surfaces in agarose or in silicon, which were used for differential adherence and growth of cells into vascular tissue networks. Concentric three-ring structures were fabricated on agarose hydrogel substrates, in which the inner ring contained human aortic endothelial cells, the middle ring contained HA587 human elastin and the outer ring contained human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Basement membrane matrix containing vascular endothelial growth factor and heparin was to promote proliferation of human aortic endothelial cells within the vascular tissue networks. Computer-aided laser micromachining provides a unique approach to fabricate small-diameter blood vessels for bypass surgery as well as other artificial tissues with complex geometries.

  1. MEMS-based microspectrometer technologies for NIR and MIR wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, Leo P; Milne, Jason S; Dell, John M; Faraone, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    Commercially manufactured near-infrared (NIR) instruments became available about 50 years ago. While they have been designed for laboratory use in a controlled environment and boast high performance, they are generally bulky, fragile and maintenance intensive, and therefore expensive to purchase and maintain. Micromachining is a powerful technique to fabricate micromechanical parts such as integrated circuits. It was perfected in the 1980s and led to the invention of micro electro mechanical systems (MEMSs). The three characteristic features of MEMS fabrication technologies are miniaturization, multiplicity and microelectronics. Combined, these features allow the batch production of compact and rugged devices with integrated intelligence. In order to build more compact, more rugged and less expensive NIR instruments, MEMS technology has been successfully integrated into a range of new devices. In the first part of this paper we discuss the UWA MEMS-based Fabry-Perot spectrometer, its design and issues to be solved. MEMS-based Fabry-Perot filters primarily isolate certain wavelengths by sweeping across an incident spectrum and the resulting monochromatic signal is detected by a broadband detector. In the second part, we discuss other microspectrometers including other Fabry-Perot spectrometer designs, time multiplexing devices and mixed time/space multiplexing devices. (topical review)

  2. Adaptive Sliding Mode Control of MEMS AC Voltage Reference Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Ranjbar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of physical parameters of a tunable MEMS capacitor, as the major part of MEMS AC voltage reference, is of great importance to achieve an accurate output voltage free of the malfunctioning noise and disturbance. Even though strenuous endeavors are made to fabricate MEMS tunable capacitors with desiderated accurate physical characteristics and ameliorate exactness of physical parameters’ values, parametric uncertainties ineluctably emerge in fabrication process attributable to imperfections in micromachining process. First off, this paper considers applying an adaptive sliding mode controller design in the MEMS AC voltage reference source so that it is capable of giving off a well-regulated output voltage in defiance of jumbling parametric uncertainties in the plant dynamics and also aggravating external disturbance imposed on the system. Secondly, it puts an investigatory comparison with the designed model reference adaptive controller and the pole-placement state feedback one into one’s prospective. Not only does the tuned adaptive sliding mode controller show remarkable robustness against slow parameter variation and external disturbance being compared to the pole-placement state feedback one, but also it immensely gets robust against the external disturbance in comparison with the conventional adaptive controller. The simulation results are promising.

  3. MEMS Bragg grating force sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Hansen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    We present modeling, design, fabrication and characterization of a new type of all-optical frequency modulated MEMS force sensor based on a mechanically amplified double clamped waveguide beam structure with integrated Bragg grating. The sensor is ideally suited for force measurements in harsh...... environments and for remote and distributed sensing and has a measured sensitivity of -14 nm/N, which is several times higher than what is obtained in conventional fiber Bragg grating force sensors. © 2011 Optical Society of America....

  4. Integrated design of MEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Grave, Arnaud; Brissaud, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Emerging technologies of Micro-Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) are applications such as airbag accelerometers. Micro-products present many physical differences from macro-products. Moreover, there is a high level of integration in multiple fields of physics with strongly coupled effects...... industrial immersion to propose a socio-technological description of the design process and MEMS design tools....

  5. 5 V Compatible Two-Axis PZT Driven MEMS Scanning Mirror with Mechanical Leverage Structure for Miniature LiDAR Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Liangchen; Zhang, Gaofei; You, Zheng

    2017-03-05

    The MEMS (Micro-Electronical Mechanical System) scanning mirror is an optical MEMS device that can scan laser beams across one or two dimensions. MEMS scanning mirrors can be applied in a variety of applications, such as laser display, bio-medical imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). These commercial applications have recently created a great demand for low-driving-voltage and low-power MEMS mirrors. However, no reported two-axis MEMS scanning mirror is available for usage in a universal supplying voltage such as 5 V. In this paper, we present an ultra-low voltage driven two-axis MEMS scanning mirror which is 5 V compatible. In order to realize low voltage and low power, a two-axis MEMS scanning mirror with mechanical leverage driven by PZT (Lead zirconate titanate) ceramic is designed, modeled, fabricated and characterized. To further decrease the power of the MEMS scanning mirror, a new method of impedance matching for PZT ceramic driven by a two-frequency mixed signal is established. As experimental results show, this MEMS scanning mirror reaches a two-axis scanning angle of 41.9° × 40.3° at a total driving voltage of 4.2 Vpp and total power of 16 mW. The effective diameter of reflection of the mirror is 2 mm and the operating frequencies of two-axis scanning are 947.51 Hz and 1464.66 Hz, respectively.

  6. Construction and Initial Validation of the Multiracial Experiences Measure (MEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Jackson, Kelly; Guevarra, Rudy P.; Miller, Matthew J.; Harrington, Blair

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Multiracial Experiences Measure (MEM): a new measure that assesses uniquely racialized risks and resiliencies experienced by individuals of mixed racial heritage. Across two studies, there was evidence for the validation of the 25-item MEM with 5 subscales including Shifting Expressions, Perceived Racial Ambiguity, Creating Third Space, Multicultural Engagement, and Multiracial Discrimination. The 5-subscale structure of the MEM was supported by a combination of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Evidence of criterion-related validity was partially supported with MEM subscales correlating with measures of racial diversity in one’s social network, color-blind racial attitude, psychological distress, and identity conflict. Evidence of discriminant validity was supported with MEM subscales not correlating with impression management. Implications for future research and suggestions for utilization of the MEM in clinical practice with multiracial adults are discussed. PMID:26460977

  7. Silicon Micromachining in RF and Photonic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsen-Hwang; Congdon, Phil; Magel, Gregory; Pang, Lily; Goldsmith, Chuck; Randall, John; Ho, Nguyen

    1995-01-01

    Texas Instruments (TI) has developed membrane and micromirror devices since the late 1970s. An eggcrate space membrane was used as the spatial light modulator in the early years. Discrete micromirrors supported by cantilever beams created a new era for micromirror devices. Torsional micromirror and flexure-beam micromirror devices were promising for mass production because of their stable supports. TI's digital torsional micromirror device is an amplitude modulator (known as the digital micromirror device (DMD) and is in production development, discussed elsewhere. We also use a torsional device for a 4 x 4 fiber-optic crossbar switch in a 2 cm x 2 cm package. The flexure-beam micromirror device is an analog phase modulator and is considered more efficient than amplitude modulators for use in optical processing systems. TI also developed millimeter-sized membranes for integrated optical switches for telecommunication and network applications. Using a member in radio frequency (RF) switch applications is a rapidly growing area because of the micromechanical device performance in microsecond-switching characteristics. Our preliminary membrane RF switch test structure results indicate promising speed and RF switching performance. TI collaborated with MIT for modeling of metal-based micromachining.

  8. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beetz, Charles P.; Boerstler, Robert; Steinbeck, John; Lemieux, Bryan; Winn, David R.

    2000-01-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of ∼0.5 to ∼25 μm, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200 deg. C, also compatible with high-temperature brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposited or nucleated in the channels or the first strike surface. Results on resistivity, secondary emission and gain are presented

  9. Demonstration of superconducting micromachined cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brecht, T., E-mail: teresa.brecht@yale.edu; Reagor, M.; Chu, Y.; Pfaff, W.; Wang, C.; Frunzio, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J. [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)

    2015-11-09

    Superconducting enclosures will be key components of scalable quantum computing devices based on circuit quantum electrodynamics. Within a densely integrated device, they can protect qubits from noise and serve as quantum memory units. Whether constructed by machining bulk pieces of metal or microfabricating wafers, 3D enclosures are typically assembled from two or more parts. The resulting seams potentially dissipate crossing currents and limit performance. In this letter, we present measured quality factors of superconducting cavity resonators of several materials, dimensions, and seam locations. We observe that superconducting indium can be a low-loss RF conductor and form low-loss seams. Leveraging this, we create a superconducting micromachined resonator with indium that has a quality factor of two million, despite a greatly reduced mode volume. Inter-layer coupling to this type of resonator is achieved by an aperture located under a planar transmission line. The described techniques demonstrate a proof-of-principle for multilayer microwave integrated quantum circuits for scalable quantum computing.

  10. Physics-based signal processing algorithms for micromachined cantilever arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, James V; Clague, David S; Lee, Christopher L; Rudd, Robert E; Burnham, Alan K; Tringe, Joseph W

    2013-11-19

    A method of using physics-based signal processing algorithms for micromachined cantilever arrays. The methods utilize deflection of a micromachined cantilever that represents the chemical, biological, or physical element being detected. One embodiment of the method comprises the steps of modeling the deflection of the micromachined cantilever producing a deflection model, sensing the deflection of the micromachined cantilever and producing a signal representing the deflection, and comparing the signal representing the deflection with the deflection model.

  11. A sub-cm micromachined electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinerman, A. D.; Crewe, D. A.; Perng, D. C.; Shoaf, S. E.; Crewe, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    A new approach for fabricating macroscopic (approximately 10x10x10 mm(exp 3)) structures with micron accuracy has been developed. This approach combines the precision of semiconductor processing and fiber optic technologies. A (100) silicon wafer is anisotropically etched to create four orthogonal v-grooves and an aperture on each 10x12 mm die. Precision 308 micron optical fibers are sandwiched between the die to align the v-grooves. The fiber is then anodically bonded to the die above and below it. This procedure is repeated to create thick structures and a stack of 5 or 6 die will be used to create a miniature scanning electron microscope (MSEM). Two die in the structure will have a segmented electrode to deflect the beam and correct for astigmatism. The entire structure is UHV compatible. The performance of an SEM improves as its length is reduced and a sub-cm 2 keV MSEM with a field emission source should have approximately 1 nm resolution. A low voltage high resolution MSEM would be useful for the examination of biological specimens and semiconductors with a minimum of damage. The first MSEM will be tested with existing 6 micron thermionic sources. In the future a micromachined field emission source will be used. The stacking technology presented in this paper can produce an array of MSEMs 1 to 30 mm in length with a 1 mm or larger period. A key question being addressed by this research is the optimum size for a low voltage MSEM which will be determined by the required spatial resolution, field of view, and working distance.

  12. Cryogenically assisted abrasive jet micromachining of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getu, H; Papini, M; Spelt, J K

    2008-01-01

    The abrasive jet micromachining (AJM) of elastomers and polymers such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) for use in micro-fluidic devices was found to be very slow or impossible at room temperature. To enhance the material removal rate in such materials, a stream of liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ) was injected into the abrasive jet, cooling the target to cryogenic temperatures. Erosion rate measurements on the three polymeric materials (PDMS, ABS and PTFE) with and without the use of LN 2 were compared along with the profiles of micromachined channels and holes. It was found that the use of LN 2 cooling caused brittle erosion in PDMS, allowing it to be micromachined successfully. An erosion rate increase was also observed in PTFE and ABS at high and intermediate impact angles. The use of LN 2 also was found to reduce particle embedding

  13. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer arrays as tunable acoustic metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lani, Shane W., E-mail: shane.w.lani@gmail.com, E-mail: karim.sabra@me.gatech.edu, E-mail: levent.degertekin@me.gatech.edu; Sabra, Karim G. [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 801Ferst Drive, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States); Wasequr Rashid, M.; Hasler, Jennifer [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Van Leer Electrical Engineering Building, 777 Atlantic Drive NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0250 (United States); Levent Degertekin, F. [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 801Ferst Drive, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Van Leer Electrical Engineering Building, 777 Atlantic Drive NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0250 (United States)

    2014-02-03

    Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (CMUTs) operating in immersion support dispersive evanescent waves due to the subwavelength periodic structure of electrostatically actuated membranes in the array. Evanescent wave characteristics also depend on the membrane resonance which is modified by the externally applied bias voltage, offering a mechanism to tune the CMUT array as an acoustic metamaterial. The dispersion and tunability characteristics are examined using a computationally efficient, mutual radiation impedance based approach to model a finite-size array and realistic parameters of variation. The simulations are verified, and tunability is demonstrated by experiments on a linear CMUT array operating in 2-12 MHz range.

  14. Micromachined integrated quantum circuit containing a superconducting qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, Teresa; Chu, Yiwen; Axline, Christopher; Pfaff, Wolfgang; Blumoff, Jacob; Chou, Kevin; Krayzman, Lev; Frunzio, Luigi; Schoelkopf, Robert

    We demonstrate a functional multilayer microwave integrated quantum circuit (MMIQC). This novel hardware architecture combines the high coherence and isolation of three-dimensional structures with the advantages of integrated circuits made with lithographic techniques. We present fabrication and measurement of a two-cavity/one-qubit prototype, including a transmon coupled to a three-dimensional microwave cavity micromachined in a silicon wafer. It comprises a simple MMIQC with competitive lifetimes and the ability to perform circuit QED operations in the strong dispersive regime. Furthermore, the design and fabrication techniques that we have developed are extensible to more complex quantum information processing devices.

  15. A capacitive CMOS-MEMS sensor designed by multi-physics simulation for integrated CMOS-MEMS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Toshifumi; Yamane, Daisuke; Matsushima, Takaaki; Masu, Kazuya; Machida, Katsuyuki; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the design and evaluation results of a capacitive CMOS-MEMS sensor that consists of the proposed sensor circuit and a capacitive MEMS device implemented on the circuit. To design a capacitive CMOS-MEMS sensor, a multi-physics simulation of the electromechanical behavior of both the MEMS structure and the sensing LSI was carried out simultaneously. In order to verify the validity of the design, we applied the capacitive CMOS-MEMS sensor to a MEMS accelerometer implemented by the post-CMOS process onto a 0.35-µm CMOS circuit. The experimental results of the CMOS-MEMS accelerometer exhibited good agreement with the simulation results within the input acceleration range between 0.5 and 6 G (1 G = 9.8 m/s2), corresponding to the output voltages between 908.6 and 915.4 mV, respectively. Therefore, we have confirmed that our capacitive CMOS-MEMS sensor and the multi-physics simulation will be beneficial method to realize integrated CMOS-MEMS technology.

  16. A low-noise MEMS accelerometer for unattended ground sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speller, Kevin E.; Yu, Duli

    2004-09-01

    A low-noise micro-machined servo accelerometer has been developed for use in Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS). Compared to conventional coil-and-magnet based velocity transducers, this Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) accelerometer offers several key benefits for battlefield monitoring. Many UGS require a compass to determine deployment orientation with respect to magnetic North. This orientation information is critical for determining the bearing of incoming signals. Conventional sensors with sensing technology based on a permanent magnet can cause interference with a compass when used in close proximity. This problem is solved with a MEMS accelerometer which does not require any magnetic materials. Frequency information below 10 Hz is valuable for identification of signal sources. Conventional seismometers used in UGS are typically limited in frequency response from 20 to 200 Hz. The MEMS accelerometer has a flat frequency response from DC to 5 kHz. The wider spectrum of signals received improves detection, classification and monitoring on the battlefield. The DC-coupled output of the MEMS accelerometer also has the added benefit of providing tilt orientation data for the deployed UGS. Other performance parameters of the MEMS accelerometer that are important to UGS such as size, weight, shock survivability, phase response, distortion, and cross-axis rejection will be discussed. Additionally, field test data from human footsteps recorded with the MEMS accelerometer will be presented.

  17. Infrastructure for the design and fabrication of MEMS for RF/microwave and millimeter wave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerguizian, Vahe; Rafaf, Mustapha

    2004-08-01

    This article describes and provides valuable information for companies and universities with strategies to start fabricating MEMS for RF/Microwave and millimeter wave applications. The present work shows the infrastructure developed for RF/Microwave and millimeter wave MEMS platforms, which helps the identification, evaluation and selection of design tools and fabrication foundries taking into account packaging and testing. The selected and implemented simple infrastructure models, based on surface and bulk micromachining, yield inexpensive and innovative approaches for distributed choices of MEMS operating tools. With different educational or industrial institution needs, these models may be modified for specific resource changes using a careful analyzed iteration process. The inputs of the project are evaluation selection criteria and information sources such as financial, technical, availability, accessibility, simplicity, versatility and practical considerations. The outputs of the project are the selection of different MEMS design tools or software (solid modeling, electrostatic/electromagnetic and others, compatible with existing standard RF/Microwave design tools) and different MEMS manufacturing foundries. Typical RF/Microwave and millimeter wave MEMS solutions are introduced on the platform during the evaluation and development phases of the project for the validation of realistic results and operational decision making choices. The encountered challenges during the investigation and the development steps are identified and the dynamic behavior of the infrastructure is emphasized. The inputs (resources) and the outputs (demonstrated solutions) are presented in tables and flow chart mode diagrams.

  18. Studying the mechanism of micromachining by short pulsed laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadag, Shiva

    The semiconductor materials like Si and the transparent dielectric materials like glass and quartz are extensively used in optoelectronics, microelectronics, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) industries. The combination of these materials often go hand in hand for applications in MEMS such as in chips for pressure sensors, charge coupled devices (CCD), and photovoltaic (PV) cells for solar energy generation. The transparent negative terminal of the solar cell is made of glass on one surface of the PV cell. The positive terminal (cathode) on the other surface of the solar cell is made of silicon with a glass negative terminal (anode). The digital watches and cell phones, LEDs, micro-lens, optical components, and laser optics are other examples for the application of silicon and or glass. The Si and quartz are materials extensively used in CCD and LED for digital cameras and CD players respectively. Hence, three materials: (1) a semiconductor silicon and transparent dielectrics,- (2) glass, and (3) quartz are chosen for laser micromachining as they have wide spread applications in microelectronics industry. The Q-switched, nanosecond pulsed lasers are most extensively used for micro-machining. The nanosecond type of short pulsed laser is less expensive for the end users than the second type, pico or femto, ultra-short pulsed lasers. The majority of the research work done on these materials (Si, SiO 2, and glass) is based on the ultra-short pulsed lasers. This is because of the cut quality, pin point precision of the drilled holes, formation of the nanometer size microstructures and fine features, and minimally invasive heat affected zone. However, there are many applications such as large surface area dicing, cutting, surface cleaning of Si wafers by ablation, and drilling of relatively large-sized holes where some associated heat affected zone due to melting can be tolerated. In such applications the nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of materials is very

  19. Fabrication of surface micromachined ain piezoelectric microstructures and its potential apllication to rf resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saravanan, S.; Saravanan, S.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2005-01-01

    We report on a novel microfabrication method to fabricate aluminum nitride (AlN) piezoelectric microstructures down to 2 microns size by a surface micromachining process. Highly c-axis oriented AlN thin films are deposited between thin Cr electrodes on polysilicon structural layers by rf reactive

  20. Surface micromachined fabrication of piezoelectric ain unimorph suspension devices for rf resonator applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saravanan, S.; Saravanan, S.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    We report a surface micromachining process for aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films to fabricate piezoelectric unimorph suspension devices for actuator applications. Polysilicon is used as a structural layer. Highly c-axis oriented AlN thin films 1 /spl mu/m thick are deposited by rf reactive

  1. Silicon Micromachined Sensor for Broadband Vibration Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Adolfo; Edmans, Daniel; Cormeau, Chris; Seidler, Gernot; Deangelis, Dave; Maby, Edward

    1995-01-01

    The development of a family of silicon based integrated vibration sensors capable of sensing mechanical resonances over a broad range of frequencies with minimal signal processing requirements is presented. Two basic general embodiments of the concept were designed and fabricated. The first design was structured around an array of cantilever beams and fabricated using the ARPA sponsored multi-user MEMS processing system (MUMPS) process at the Microelectronics Center of North Carolina (MCNC). As part of the design process for this first sensor, a comprehensive finite elements analysis of the resonant modes and stress distribution was performed using PATRAN. The dependence of strain distribution and resonant frequency response as a function of Young's modulus in the Poly-Si structural material was studied. Analytical models were also studied. In-house experimental characterization using optical interferometry techniques were performed under controlled low pressure conditions. A second design, intended to operate in a non-resonant mode and capable of broadband frequency response, was proposed and developed around the concept of a cantilever beam integrated with a feedback control loop to produce a null mode vibration sensor. A proprietary process was used to integrat a metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensing device, with actuators and a cantilever beam, as part of a compatible process. Both devices, once incorporated as part of multifunction data acquisition and telemetry systems will constitute a useful system for NASA launch vibration monitoring operations. Satellite and other space structures can benefit from the sensor for mechanical condition monitoring functions.

  2. Hybrid micromachining using a nanosecond pulsed laser and micro EDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sanha; Chung, Do Kwan; Shin, Hong Shik; Chu, Chong Nam; Kim, Bo Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Micro electrical discharge machining (micro EDM) is a well-known precise machining process that achieves micro structures of excellent quality for any conductive material. However, the slow machining speed and high tool wear are main drawbacks of this process. Though the use of deionized water instead of kerosene as a dielectric fluid can reduce the tool wear and increase the machine speed, the material removal rate (MRR) is still low. In contrast, laser ablation using a nanosecond pulsed laser is a fast and non-wear machining process but achieves micro figures of rather low quality. Therefore, the integration of these two processes can overcome the respective disadvantages. This paper reports a hybrid process of a nanosecond pulsed laser and micro EDM for micromachining. A novel hybrid micromachining system that combines the two discrete machining processes is introduced. Then, the feasibility and characteristics of the hybrid machining process are investigated compared to conventional EDM and laser ablation. It is verified experimentally that the machining time can be effectively reduced in both EDM drilling and milling by rapid laser pre-machining prior to micro EDM. Finally, some examples of complicated 3D micro structures fabricated by the hybrid process are shown

  3. Comparison of residual stress measurement in thin films using surface micromachining method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Q.; Luo, Z.X.; Chen, X.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Conductive, dielectric, semiconducting, piezoelectric and ferroelectric thin films are extensively used for MEMS/NEMS applications. One of the important parameters of thin films is residual stress. The residual stress can seriously affect the properties, performance and long-term stability of the films. Excessive compressive or tensile stress results in buckling, cracking, splintering and sticking problems. Stress measurement techniques are therefore essential for both process development and process monitoring. Many suggestions for stress measurement in thin films have been made over the past several decades. This paper is concentrated on the in situ stress measurement using surface micromachining techniques to determine the residual stress. The authors review and compare several types of stress measurement methods including buckling technique, rotating technique, micro strain gauge and long-short beam strain sensor

  4. MEMS fundamental technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhary, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    "The book editors have managed to assemble a group of extraordinary authors to provide their expertise to this book. While giving an excellent overview of the history and the state of the art of MEMS technology, this book also focuses on current trends and topics such as gyroscopes that currently experience significant and increasing popularity in research and in industry. It is well written and the material is presented in a well-structured way making it easily accessible to any reader with a technical background."-Boris Stoeber, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

  5. Carbon microelectromechanical systems (C-MEMS) based microsupercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Agrawal, Richa

    2015-05-18

    The rapid development in miniaturized electronic devices has led to an ever increasing demand for high-performance rechargeable micropower scources. Microsupercapacitors in particular have gained much attention in recent years owing to their ability to provide high pulse power while maintaining long cycle lives. Carbon microelectromechanical systems (C-MEMS) is a powerful approach to fabricate high aspect ratio carbon microelectrode arrays, which has been proved to hold great promise as a platform for energy storage. C-MEMS is a versatile technique to create carbon structures by pyrolyzing a patterned photoresist. Furthermore, different active materials can be loaded onto these microelectrode platforms for further enhancement of the electrochemical performance of the C-MEMS platform. In this article, different techniques and methods in order to enhance C-MEMS based various electrochemical capacitor systems have been discussed, including electrochemical activation of C-MEMS structures for miniaturized supercapacitor applications, integration of carbon nanostructures like carbon nanotubes onto C-MEMS structures and also integration of pseudocapacitive materials such as polypyrrole onto C-MEMS structures. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  6. Carbon microelectromechanical systems (C-MEMS) based microsupercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Agrawal, Richa; Beidaghi, Majid; Chen, Wei; Wang, Chunlei

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development in miniaturized electronic devices has led to an ever increasing demand for high-performance rechargeable micropower scources. Microsupercapacitors in particular have gained much attention in recent years owing to their ability to provide high pulse power while maintaining long cycle lives. Carbon microelectromechanical systems (C-MEMS) is a powerful approach to fabricate high aspect ratio carbon microelectrode arrays, which has been proved to hold great promise as a platform for energy storage. C-MEMS is a versatile technique to create carbon structures by pyrolyzing a patterned photoresist. Furthermore, different active materials can be loaded onto these microelectrode platforms for further enhancement of the electrochemical performance of the C-MEMS platform. In this article, different techniques and methods in order to enhance C-MEMS based various electrochemical capacitor systems have been discussed, including electrochemical activation of C-MEMS structures for miniaturized supercapacitor applications, integration of carbon nanostructures like carbon nanotubes onto C-MEMS structures and also integration of pseudocapacitive materials such as polypyrrole onto C-MEMS structures. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  7. Design and fabrication of a micro parallel mechanism system using MEMS technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Chi-Te

    limitations. Therefore, this research is focusing on silicon-based technology and expects to achieve the design, fabrication and eventually control purpose. The micro-stage mechanism was designed and generated based on the special designed three-layer polysilicon surface micromachining techniques. Afterwards, the proceeding structures were released and an experiment study was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed devices. In addition, the fabrication challenges, prototyping results, improvement methodology and future work were recommended.

  8. Piezoelectric MEMS resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Piazza, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces piezoelectric microelectromechanical (pMEMS) resonators to a broad audience by reviewing design techniques including use of finite element modeling, testing and qualification of resonators, and fabrication and large scale manufacturing techniques to help inspire future research and entrepreneurial activities in pMEMS. The authors discuss the most exciting developments in the area of materials and devices for the making of piezoelectric MEMS resonators, and offer direct examples of the technical challenges that need to be overcome in order to commercialize these types of devices. Some of the topics covered include: Widely-used piezoelectric materials, as well as materials in which there is emerging interest Principle of operation and design approaches for the making of flexural, contour-mode, thickness-mode, and shear-mode piezoelectric resonators, and examples of practical implementation of these devices Large scale manufacturing approaches, with a focus on the practical aspects associate...

  9. Going Fabless with MEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar CHOUBEY

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Microelectromechanical sensors are finding increasing applications in everyday life. However, each MEMS sensor is generally fabricated on its own individual process. This leads to high cost per sensor. It has been suggested the MEMS should and would follow the path of integrated circuits industry, wherein fabless firms could concentrate on design leading pure-foundries to perfect the manufacturing process. With several designs being manufactured on the same process, the installation cost of fabrication would be evenly shared. Simultaneously, multiple project wafer runs are being offered for MEMS processes to encourage design activity in universities as well as startups. This paper reviews the present state of this transition through an experience of designing and manufacturing microelectromechanical resonators on different processes.

  10. MEMS fluidic actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholwadwala, Deepesh K [Albuquerque, NM; Johnston, Gabriel A [Trophy Club, TX; Rohrer, Brandon R [Albuquerque, NM; Galambos, Paul C [Albuquerque, NM; Okandan, Murat [Albuquerque, NM

    2007-07-24

    The present invention comprises a novel, lightweight, massively parallel device comprising microelectromechanical (MEMS) fluidic actuators, to reconfigure the profile, of a surface. Each microfluidic actuator comprises an independent bladder that can act as both a sensor and an actuator. A MEMS sensor, and a MEMS valve within each microfluidic actuator, operate cooperatively to monitor the fluid within each bladder, and regulate the flow of the fluid entering and exiting each bladder. When adjacently spaced in a array, microfluidic actuators can create arbitrary surface profiles in response to a change in the operating environment of the surface. In an embodiment of the invention, the profile of an airfoil is controlled by independent extension and contraction of a plurality of actuators, that operate to displace a compliant cover.

  11. Influence of micromachined targets on laser accelerated proton beam profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalui, Malay; Permogorov, Alexander; Pahl, Hannes; Persson, Anders; Wahlström, Claes-Göran

    2018-03-01

    High intensity laser-driven proton acceleration from micromachined targets is studied experimentally in the target-normal-sheath-acceleration regime. Conical pits are created on the front surface of flat aluminium foils of initial thickness 12.5 and 3 μm using series of low energy pulses (0.5-2.5 μJ). Proton acceleration from such micromachined targets is compared with flat foils of equivalent thickness at a laser intensity of 7 × 1019 W cm-2. The maximum proton energy obtained from targets machined from 12.5 μm thick foils is found to be slightly lower than that of flat foils of equivalent remaining thickness, and the angular divergence of the proton beam is observed to increase as the depth of the pit approaches the foil thickness. Targets machined from 3 μm thick foils, on the other hand, show evidence of increasing the maximum proton energy when the depths of the structures are small. Furthermore, shallow pits on 3 μm thick foils are found to be efficient in reducing the proton beam divergence by a factor of up to three compared to that obtained from flat foils, while maintaining the maximum proton energy.

  12. FY 1998 report on the R and D of micromachine technology. R and D of micromachine technology; 1998 nendo micromachine gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In the comprehensive investigational study of micromachine technology, the paper aims at clarifying the improvement of functional devices and the future development of micromachine technology for establishment of the technology needed to realize a micromachine system composing of small-functional elements for conducting diagnosis/cure/repair, movement and independent work in small portions in living organism, disaster site, etc. and a medical-use micromachine system to analyze/react on a trace of liquid. In this fiscal year, the following were carried out: 1) study of micromachine systems, 2) study of a medical-use micromachine system to analyze/react on a trace liquid, and 3) comprehensive investigational study. In 1), studies were made toward the minuteness and improvement of micro laser catheter and micro tactile sensor catheter as functional devices which become the main components of micro catheter for cerebrovascular diagnosis/therapy use and toward the minuteness and improvement of disaster relief use micromachine system. In 2), study was made of element technology of a micro-machine system having functions of sampling/analysis/reaction of a trace of liquid. (NEDO)

  13. Differential RF MEMS interwoven capacitor immune to residual stress warping

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    A RF MEMS capacitor with an interwoven structure is designed, fabricated in the PolyMUMPS process and tested in an effort to address fabrication challenges usually faced in MEMS processes. The interwoven structure was found to offer several advantages over the typical MEMS parallel-plate design including eliminating the warping caused by residual stress, eliminating the need for etching holes, suppressing stiction, reducing parasitics and providing differential capability. The quality factor of the proposed capacitor was higher than five throughout a 2–10 GHz range and the resonant frequency was in excess of 20 GHz.

  14. Differential RF MEMS interwoven capacitor immune to residual stress warping

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.

    2012-07-27

    A RF MEMS capacitor with an interwoven structure is designed, fabricated in the PolyMUMPS process and tested in an effort to address fabrication challenges usually faced in MEMS processes. The interwoven structure was found to offer several advantages over the typical MEMS parallel-plate design including eliminating the warping caused by residual stress, eliminating the need for etching holes, suppressing stiction, reducing parasitics and providing differential capability. The quality factor of the proposed capacitor was higher than five throughout a 2–10 GHz range and the resonant frequency was in excess of 20 GHz.

  15. EDITORIAL: International MEMS Conference 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Francis E. H.; Jianmin, Miao; Iliescu, Ciprian

    2006-04-01

    The International MEMS conference (iMEMS2006) organized by the Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology and Nanyang Technological University aims to provide a platform for academicians, professionals and industrialists in various related fields from all over the world to share and learn from each other. Of great interest is the incorporation of the theme of life sciences application using MEMS. It is the desire of this conference to initiate collaboration and form network of cooperation. This has continued to be the objective of iMEMS since its inception in 1997. The technological advance of MEMS over the past few decades has been truly exciting in terms of development and applications. In order to participate in this rapid development, a conference involving delegates from within the MEMS community and outside the community is very meaningful and timely. With the receipt of over 200 articles, delegates related to MEMS field from all over the world will share their perspectives on topics such as MEMS/MST Design, MEMS Teaching and Education, MEMS/MST Packaging, MEMS/MST Fabrication, Microsystems Applications, System Integration, Wearable Devices, MEMSWear and BioMEMS. Invited speakers and delegates from outside the field have also been involved to provide challenges, especially in the life sciences field, for the MEMS community to potentially address. The proceedings of the conference will be published as an issue in the online Journal of Physics: Conference Series and this can reach a wider audience and will facilitate the reference and citation of the work presented in the conference. We wish to express our deep gratitude to the International Scientific Committee members and the organizing committee members for contributing to the success of this conference. We would like to thank all the delegates, speakers and sponsors from all over the world for presenting and sharing their perspectives on topics related to MEMS and the challenges that MEMS can

  16. 3D capacitive tactile sensor using DRIE micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chiehtang; Chen, Rongshun

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a three dimensional micro capacitive tactile sensor that can detect normal and shear forces which is fabricated using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) bulk silicon micromachining. The tactile sensor consists of a force transmission plate, a symmetric suspension system, and comb electrodes. The sensing character is based on the changes of capacitance between coplanar sense electrodes. High sensitivity is achieved by using the high aspect ratio interdigital electrodes with narrow comb gaps and large overlap areas. The symmetric suspension mechanism of this sensor can easily solve the coupling problem of measurement and increase the stability of the structure. In this paper, the sensor structure is designed, the capacitance variation of the proposed device is theoretically analyzed, and the finite element analysis of mechanical behavior of the structures is performed.

  17. Nonlinear Dynamics of Electrostatically Actuated MEMS Arches

    KAUST Repository

    Al Hennawi, Qais M.

    2015-05-01

    In this thesis, we present theoretical and experimental investigation into the nonlinear statics and dynamics of clamped-clamped in-plane MEMS arches when excited by an electrostatic force. Theoretically, we first solve the equation of motion using a multi- mode Galarkin Reduced Order Model (ROM). We investigate the static response of the arch experimentally where we show several jumps due to the snap-through instability. Experimentally, a case study of in-plane silicon micromachined arch is studied and its mechanical behavior is measured using optical techniques. We develop an algorithm to extract various parameters that are needed to model the arch, such as the induced axial force, the modulus of elasticity, and the initially induced initial rise. After that, we excite the arch by a DC electrostatic force superimposed to an AC harmonic load. A softening spring behavior is observed when the excitation is close to the first resonance frequency due to the quadratic nonlinearity coming from the arch geometry and the electrostatic force. Also, a hardening spring behavior is observed when the excitation is close to the third (second symmetric) resonance frequency due to the cubic nonlinearity coming from mid-plane stretching. Then, we excite the arch by an electric load of two AC frequency components, where we report a combination resonance of the summed type. Agreement is reported among the theoretical and experimental work.

  18. Discretely tunable micromachined injection-locked lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, H; Yu, M B; Lo, G Q; Kwong, D L; Zhang, X M; Liu, A Q; Liu, B

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a micromachined injection-locked laser (ILL) to provide tunable discrete wavelengths. It utilizes a non-continuously tunable laser as the master to lock a Fabry–Pérot semiconductor laser chip. Both lasers are integrated into a deep-etched silicon chip with dimensions of 3 mm × 3 mm × 0.8 mm. Based on the experimental results, significant improvements in the optical power and spectral purity have been achieved in the fully locked state, and optical hysteresis and bistability have also been observed in response to the changes of the output wavelength and optical power of the master laser. As a whole system, the micromachined ILL is able to provide single mode, discrete wavelength tuning, high power and direct modulation with small size and single-chip solution, making it promising for advanced optical communications such as wavelength division multiplexing optical access networks.

  19. Micro benchtop optics by bulk silicon micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Abraham P.; Pocha, Michael D.; McConaghy, Charles F.; Deri, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics of bulk silicon and integrating the parallel etch planes of silicon with silicon wafer bonding and impurity doping, enables the fabrication of on-chip optics with in situ aligned etched grooves for optical fibers, micro-lenses, photodiodes, and laser diodes. Other optical components that can be microfabricated and integrated include semi-transparent beam splitters, micro-optical scanners, pinholes, optical gratings, micro-optical filters, etc. Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics thereof can be utilized to develop miniaturization of bio-instrumentation such as wavelength monitoring by fluorescence spectrometers, and other miniaturized optical systems such as Fabry-Perot interferometry for filtering of wavelengths, tunable cavity lasers, micro-holography modules, and wavelength splitters for optical communication systems.

  20. Silicon Micromachines for Science and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, David J.

    2002-01-01

    The era of silicon micromechanics is upon us. In areas as diverse as telecommunications, automotive, aerospace, chemistry, entertainment and basic science, the ability to build microscopic machines from silicon is having a revolutionary impact. In my talk, I will discuss what micromachines are, how they are built and show examples of how they will have a revolutionary impact in many areas of science as well as technology.

  1. Micromachined Parts Advance Medicine, Astrophysics, and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, Marshall Space Flight Center awarded two SBIR contracts to Potomac Photonics, now based in Baltimore, for the development of computerized workstations capable of mass-producing tiny, intricate, diffractive optical elements. While the company has since discontinued the workstations, those contracts set the stage for Potomac Photonics to be a leader in the micromachining industry, where NASA remains one of its clients.

  2. Femtosecond laser micromachining of polylactic acid/graphene composites for designing interdigitated microelectrodes for sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Kelly T.; Gaál, Gabriel; Almeida, G. F. B.; Andrade, M. B.; Facure, Murilo H. M.; Correa, Daniel S.; Riul, Antonio; Rodrigues, Varlei; Mendonça, Cleber R.

    2018-05-01

    There is an increasing interest in the last years towards electronic applications of graphene-based materials and devices fabricated from patterning techniques, with the ultimate goal of high performance and temporal resolution. Laser micromachining using femtosecond pulses is an attractive methodology to integrate graphene-based materials into functional devices as it allows changes to the focal volume with a submicrometer spatial resolution due to the efficient nonlinear nature of the absorption, yielding rapid prototyping for innovative applications. We present here the patterning of PLA-graphene films spin-coated on a glass substrate using a fs-laser at moderate pulse energies to fabricate interdigitated electrodes having a minimum spatial resolution of 5 μm. Raman spectroscopy of the PLA-graphene films indicated the presence of multilayered graphene fibers. Subsequently, the PLA-graphene films were micromachined using a femtosecond laser oscillator delivering 50-fs pulses and 800 nm, where the pulse energy and scanning speed was varied in order to determine the optimum irradiation parameters (16 nJ and 100 μm/s) to the fabrication of microstructures. The micromachined patterns were characterized by optical microscopy and submitted to electrical measurements in liquid samples, clearly distinguishing all tastes tested. Our results confirm the femtosecond laser micromachining technique as an interesting approach to efficiently pattern PLA-graphene filaments with high precision and minimal mechanical defects, allowing the easy fabrication of interdigitated structures and an alternative method to those produced by conventional photolithography.

  3. Micromachined Piezoelectric Actuators for Cryogenic Adaptive Optics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes micromachined single crystal piezoelectric actuator arrays to enable ultra-large stroke, high precision shape control for large aperture,...

  4. Micromachined capacitive ultrasonic immersion transducer array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xuecheng

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (cMUTs) have emerged as an attractive alternative to conventional piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers. They offer performance advantages of wide bandwidth and sensitivity that have heretofore been attainable. In addition, micromachining technology, which has benefited from the fast-growing microelectronics industry, enables cMUT array fabrication and electronics integration. This thesis describes the design and fabrication of micromachined capacitive ultrasonic immersion transducer arrays. The basic transducer electrical equivalent circuit is derived from Mason's theory. The effects of Lamb waves and Stoneley waves on cross coupling and acoustic losses are discussed. Electrical parasitics such as series resistance and shunt capacitance are also included in the model of the transducer. Transducer fabrication technology is systematically studied. Device dimension control in both vertical and horizontal directions, process alternatives and variations in membrane formation, via etch and cavity sealing, and metalization as well as their impact on transducer performance are summarized. Both 64 and 128 element 1-D array transducers are fabricated. Transducers are characterized in terms of electrical input impedance, bandwidth, sensitivity, dynamic range, impulse response and angular response, and their performance is compared with theoretical simulation. Various schemes for cross coupling reduction is analyzed, implemented, and verified with both experiments and theory. Preliminary results of immersion imaging are presented using 64 elements 1-D array transducers for active source imaging.

  5. Nondestructive surface profiling of hidden MEMS using an infrared low-coherence interferometric microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauter, Johann; Osten, Wolfgang

    2018-03-01

    There are a wide range of applications for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). The automotive and consumer market is the strongest driver for the growing MEMS industry. A 100 % test of MEMS is particularly necessary since these are often used for safety-related purposes such as the ESP (Electronic Stability Program) system. The production of MEMS is a fully automated process that generates 90 % of the costs during the packaging and dicing steps. Nowadays, an electrical test is carried out on each individual MEMS component before these steps. However, after encapsulation, MEMS are opaque to visible light and other defects cannot be detected. Therefore, we apply an infrared low-coherence interferometer for the topography measurement of those hidden structures. A lock-in algorithm-based method is shown to calculate the object height and to reduce ghost steps due to the 2π -unambiguity. Finally, measurements of different MEMS-based sensors are presented.

  6. MEMS and the microbe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingham, C.J.; Vlieg, J.E.T.V.H.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, relatively simple MEMS fabrications have helped accelerate our knowledge of the microbial cell. Current progress and challenges in the application of lab-on-a-chip devices to the viable microbe are reviewed. Furthermore, the degree to which microbiologists are becoming the engineers

  7. Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As a field, Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) has matured over the last two decades to have several scientific journals dedicated to it. These journals are instrumental in bringing out the interdisciplinary nature of research that the field demands. In the beginning, most papers were process centric where realization of ...

  8. A MEMS coupled resonator for frequency filtering in air

    KAUST Repository

    Ilyas, Saad

    2018-02-03

    We present design, fabrication, and characterization of a mechanically coupled MEMS H resonator capable of performing simultaneous mechanical amplification and filtering in air. The device comprises of two doubly clamped polyimide microbeams joined through the middle by a coupling beam of the same size. The resonator is fabricated via a multi-layer surface micromachining process. A special fabrication process and device design is employed to enable operation in air and to achieve mechanical amplification of the output response. Moreover, mixed-frequency excitation is used to demonstrate a tunable wide band filter for low frequency applications. It is demonstrated that through the multi-source harmonic excitation and the operation in air, an improved band-pass filter with flat response and minimal ripples can be achieved.

  9. A fully packaged micromachined single crystalline resonant force sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalloni, C.; Gnielka, M.; Berg, J. von [Kistler Instrumente AG, Winterthur (Switzerland); Haueis, M.; Dual, J. [ETH Zuerich, Inst. of Mechanical Systems, Zuerich (Switzerland); Buser, R. [Interstate Univ. of Applied Science Buchs, Buchs (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    In this work a fully packaged resonant force sensor for static load measurements is presented. The working principle is based on the shift of the resonance frequency in response to the applied load. The heart of the sensor, the resonant structure, is fabricated by micromachining using single crystalline silicon. To avoid creep and hysteresis and to minimize temperature induced stress the resonant structure is encapsulated using an all-in-silicon solution. This means that the load coupling, the excitation of the microresonator and the detection of the oscillation signal are integrated in only one single crystalline silicon chip. The chip is packaged into a specially designed housing made of steel which has been designed with respect to application in harsh environments. The unloaded sensor has an initial frequency of about 22,5 kHz. The sensitivity amounts to 26 Hz/N with a linearity error significantly less than 0,5%FSO. (orig.)

  10. European MEMS foundries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Patric R.

    2003-01-01

    According to the latest release of the NEXUS market study, the market for MEMS or Microsystems Technology (MST) is predicted to grow to $68B by the year 2005, with systems containing these components generating even higher revenues and growth. The latest advances in MST/MEMS technology have enabled the design of a new generation of microsystems that are smaller, cheaper, more reliable, and consume less power. These integrated systems bring together numerous analog/mixed signal microelectronics blocks and MEMS functions on a single chip or on two or more chips assembled within an integrated package. In spite of all these advances in technology and manufacturing, a system manufacturer either faces a substantial up-front R&D investment to create his own infrastructure and expertise, or he can use design and foundry services to get the initial product into the marketplace fast and with an affordable investment. Once he has a viable product, he can still think about his own manufacturing efforts and investments to obtain an optimized high volume manufacturing for the specific product. One of the barriers to successful exploitation of MEMS/MST technology has been the lack of access to industrial foundries capable of producing certified microsystems devices in commercial quantities, including packaging and test. This paper discusses Multi-project wafer (MPW) runs, requirements for foundries and gives some examples of foundry business models. Furthermore, this paper will give an overview on MST/MEMS services that are available in Europe, including pure commercial activities, European project activities (e.g. Europractice), and some academic services.

  11. Design of millimeter-wave MEMS-based reconfigurable front-end circuits using the standard CMOS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chia-Chan; Hsieh, Sheng-Chi; Chen, Chien-Hsun; Huang, Chin-Yen; Yao, Chun-Han; Lin, Chun-Chi

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the designs of three reconfigurable CMOS-MEMS front-end components for V-/W-band applications. The suspended MEMS structure is released through post-CMOS micromachining. To achieve circuit reconfigurability, dual-state and multi-state fishbone-beam-drive actuators are proposed herein. The reconfigurable bandstop is fabricated in a 0.35 µm CMOS process with the chip size of 0.765 × 0.98 mm 2 , showing that the stop-band frequency can be switched from 60 to 50 GHz with 40 V actuation voltage. The measured isolation is better than 38 dB at 60 GHz and 34 dB at 50 GHz, respectively. The bandpass filter-integrated single-pole single-throw switch, using the 0.18 µm CMOS process, demonstrates that insertion loss and return loss are better than 6.2 and 15 dB from 88 to 100 GHz in the on-state, and isolation is better than 21 dB in the off-state with an actuation voltage of 51 V. The chip size is 0.7 × 1.04 mm 2 . The third component is a reconfigurable slot antenna fabricated in a 0.18 µm CMOS process with the chip size of 1.2 × 1.2 mm 2 . By utilizing the multi-state actuators, the frequencies of this antenna can be switched to 43, 47, 50.5, 54, 57.5 GHz with return loss better than 20 dB. Those circuits demonstrate good RF performance and are relatively compact by employing several size miniaturizing techniques, thereby enabling a great potential for the future single-chip transceiver.

  12. High-frequency Lamb wave device composed of MEMS structure using LiNbO3 thin film and air gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Michio; Ogami, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kansho; Tochishita, Hikari; Negoro, Yasuhiro

    2010-11-01

    High-frequency devices operating at 3 GHz or higher are required, for instance, for future 4th generation mobile phone systems in Japan. Using a substrate with a high acoustic velocity is one method to realize a high-frequency acoustic or elastic device. A Lamb wave has a high velocity when the substrate thickness is thin. To realize a high-frequency device operating at 3 GHz or higher using a Lamb wave, a very thin (less than 0.5 μm thick) single-crystal plate must be used. It is difficult to fabricate such a very thin single crystal plate. The authors have attempted to use a c-axis orientated epitaxial LiNbO(3) thin film deposited by a chemical vapor deposition system (CVD) instead of using a thin LiNbO(3) single crystal plate. Lamb wave resonators composed of a interdigital transducer (IDT)/the LiNbO(3) film/air gap/base substrate structure like micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) transducers were fabricated. These resonators have shown a high frequency of 4.5 and 6.3 GHz, which correspond to very high acoustic velocities of 14,000 and 12,500 m/s, respectively, have excellent characteristics such as a ratio of resonant and antiresonant impedance of 52 and 38 dB and a wide band of 7.2% and 3.7%, respectively, and do not have spurious responses caused by the 0th modes of shear horizontal (SH(0)) and symmetric (S(0)) modes.

  13. Advanced technology trend survey of micromachines in Europe; Oshu ni okeru micromachine sentan gijutsu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    In this research survey, the development trend of micromachine technology in Europe was surveyed, development level of micromachine technology of European companies was grasped, and practical application fields of their target were investigated. Technology development level of private companies in Japan`s national projects and practical application fields of Japan`s target were arranged. Trends of micromachine technology development are compared between Japanese companies and European companies. Among micromachine technology development projects in Europe, ``8520 MUST`` is a part of the ESPRIT Project. About 40,000 companies among about 170,000 companies in whole Europe are relating to the MUST Project. The main fields include the manufacturing technology, process control of machines, technology of safety, sensor technology in environmental fields, and automotive technology. The marketing fields of application include the automobile, military technology, home automation, industrial process, medical technology, environmental technology, and games. The results can be compared with the direction of research and development in Japan. 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Heavy ion beam micromachining on LiNbO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesprias, F.; Venturino, M.; Debray, M.E.; Davidson, J.; Davidson, M.; Kreiner, A.J.; Minsky, D.; Fischer, M.; Lamagna, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this work 3D micromachining of x-cut lithium niobate crystals was performed using the high energy heavy ion microbeam (HIM) at the Tandar Laboratory, Buenos Aires. The samples were machined using 35 Cl beams at 70 MeV bombarding energy combined with wet etching with hydrofluoric acid solutions at room temperature. As the ion beam penetrates the sample, it induces lattice damage increasing dramatically the local etching rate of the material. This technique was applied to the fabrication of 3D waveguides with long control electrodes. The resulting structures indicate that well defined contours with nearly vertical sidewalls can be made. The results also show that with fluences of only 5 x 10 12 ions/cm 2 , this technique is suitable for the fabrication of different shapes of LiNbO 3 control-waveguides that can be used in different optical devices and matched with the existing optical fibers.

  15. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers for medical imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T; Oralkan, Ömer

    2011-01-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) have been subject to extensive research for the last two decades. Although they were initially developed for air-coupled applications, today their main application space is medical imaging and therapy. This paper first presents a brief description of CMUTs, their basic structure and operating principles. Our progression of developing several generations of fabrication processes is discussed with an emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages of each process. Monolithic and hybrid approaches for integrating CMUTs with supporting integrated circuits are surveyed. Several prototype transducer arrays with integrated front-end electronic circuits we developed and their use for 2D and 3D, anatomical and functional imaging, and ablative therapies are described. The presented results prove the CMUT as a micro-electro-mechanical systems technology for many medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications

  16. Converting MEMS technology into profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryzek, Janusz

    1998-08-01

    This paper discusses issues related to transitioning a company from the advanced technology development phase (with a particular focus on MEMS) to a profitable business, with emphasis on start-up companies. It includes several case studies from (primarily) NovaSensor MEMS development history. These case studies illustrate strategic problems with which advanced MEMS technology developers have to be concerned. Conclusions from these case studies could be used as checkpoints for future MEMS developers to increase probability of profitable operations. The objective for this paper is to share the author's experience from multiple MEMS start-ups to accelerate development of the MEMS market by focusing state- of-the-art technologists on marketing issues.

  17. From MEMS to nanomachine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esashi, Masayoshi; Ono, Takahito

    2005-01-01

    Practically applicable microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanomachines have been developed by applying dry processes. Deep reactive ion etching (RIE) of silicon and its applications to an electrostatically levitated rotational gyroscope, a fibre optic blood pressure sensor and in micro-actuated probes are described. High density electrical feedthrough in glass is made using deep RIE of glass and electroplating of metal. Multi-probe data storage system has been developed using the high density electrical feedthrough in glass. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of different materials have been developed for MEMS applications; trench-refill using SiO 2 CVD, microstructures using Silicon carbide CVD for glass mold press and selective CVD of carbon nanotube for electron field emitter. Multi-column electron beam lithography system has been developed using the electron field emitter. (topical review)

  18. Performance enhancement of a silicon MEMS piezoresistive single axis accelerometer with electroplated gold on a proof mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi Sankar, A; Lahiri, S K; Das, S

    2009-01-01

    Performance enhancement of a silicon MEMS piezoresistive single axis accelerometer with electroplated gold on a proof mass is presented in this paper. The fabricated accelerometer device consists of a heavy proof mass supported by four thin flexures. Boron-diffused piezoresistors located near the fixed ends of the flexures are used for sensing the developed stress and hence acceleration. Performance enhancement is achieved by electroplating a gold mass of 20 µm thickness on top of the proof mass. A commercially available sulfite-based solution TSG-250(TM) was used for the electroplating process. Aluminum metal lines were used to form a Wheatstone bridge for signal pick-up. To avoid galvanic corrosion between two dissimilar metals having contact in an electrolyte, a shadow mask technique was used to selectively deposit a Cr/Au seed layer on an insulator atop the proof mass for subsequent electrodeposition. Bulk micromachining was performed using a 5% dual-doped TMAH solution. Fabricated devices with different electroplated gold areas were tested up to ±13 g acceleration. For electroplated gold dimensions of 2500 µm × 2500 µm × 20 µm on a proof mass, sensitivity along the Z-axis is increased by 21.8% as compared to the structure without gold. Off-axis sensitivities along the X- and Y-axes are reduced by 7.6% and 6.9%, respectively

  19. Design and development of a surface micro-machined push–pull-type true-time-delay phase shifter on an alumina substrate for Ka-band T/R module application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Sukomal; Koul, Shiban K

    2012-01-01

    A radio frequency micro-electro-mechanical system (RF-MEMS) phase shifter based on the distributed MEMS transmission line (DMTL) concept towards maximum achievable phase shift with low actuation voltage with good figure of merit (FOM) is presented in this paper. This surface micro-machined analog DMTL phase shifter demonstrates low power consumption for implementation in a Ka-band transmit/receive (T/R) module. The push–pull-type switch has been designed and optimized with an analytical method and validated with simulation, which is the fundamental building block of the design of a true-time-delay phase shifter. Change in phase has been designed and optimized in push and pull states with reference to the up-state performance of the phase shifter. The working principle of this push–pull-type DMTL phase shifter has been comprehensively worked out. A thorough detail of the design and performance analysis of the phase shifter has been carried out with various structural parameters using commercially available simulation tools with reference to a change in phase shift and has been verified using a system level simulation. The phase shifter is fabricated on the alumina substrate, using a suspended gold bridge membrane with a surface micromachining process. Asymmetric behaviour of push–pull bridge configuration has been noted and a corresponding effect on mechanical, electrical and RF performances has been extensively investigated. It is demonstrated 114° dB −1 FOM over 0–40 GHz band, which is the highest achievable FOM from a unit cell on an alumina substrate reported so far. A complete phase shifter contributes to a continuous differential phase shift of 0°–360° over 0–40 GHz band with a minimum actuation voltage of 8.1 V which is the highest achievable phase shift with the lowest actuation voltage as per till date on the alumina substrate with good repeatability and return loss better than 11.5 dB over 0–40 GHz band. (paper)

  20. Acceleration sensitivity of micromachined pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Richard; Maudie, Theresa; Miller, Todd F.; Thompson, Erik

    1999-08-01

    Pressure sensors serve a variety of automotive applications, some which may experience high levels of acceleration such as tire pressure monitoring. To design pressure sensors for high acceleration environments it is important to understand their sensitivity to acceleration especially if thick encapsulation layers are used to isolate the device from the hostile environment in which they reside. This paper describes a modeling approach to determine their sensitivity to acceleration that is very general and is applicable to different device designs and configurations. It also describes the results of device testing of a capacitive surface micromachined pressure sensor at constant acceleration levels from 500 to 2000 g's.

  1. Growth, structure, and tribological behavior of atomic layer-deposited tungsten disulphide solid lubricant coatings with applications to MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharf, T.W.; Prasad, S.V.; Dugger, M.T.; Kotula, P.G.; Goeke, R.S.; Grubbs, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis, structure, and tribological behavior of nanocomposite tungsten disulphide (WS 2 ) solid lubricant films grown by atomic layer deposition. A new catalytic route, incorporating a diethyl zinc catalyst, was established to promote the adsorption and growth of WS 2 . The films were grown down to 8 nm in thickness by sequential exposures of WF 6 and H 2 S gases in a viscous flow reactor on Si, SiO 2 , stainless steel, and polycrystalline Si and electroplated Ni microelectromechanical systems structures. Films were studied by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) with Automated eXpert Spectral Image Analysis (AXSIA) software for X-ray spectral images and X-ray diffraction to determine the coating conformality and crystallinity. The coatings exhibited a hexagonal layered structure with predominant preferentially orientated (0 0 2) basal planes. Regardless of orientation to the substrate surface, these basal planes when sheared imparted low friction with a steady-state friction coefficient as low as 0.008 to 50,000 cycles in a dry nitrogen environment. The formation of smooth transfer films during wear provided low interfacial shear stresses during sliding thus achieving low friction and wear. The XTEM combined with AXSIA of the wear tracks identified this mechanism and the effects of vapor phase reaction by-product etching on insulating and native polycrystalline Si and Ni surfaces

  2. Frequency-dependent electrostatic actuation in microfluidic MEMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Michalske, Terry A.; Sounart, Thomas L.

    2003-09-01

    Electrostatic actuators exhibit fast response times and are easily integrated into microsystems because they can be fabricated with standard IC micromachining processes and materials. Although electrostatic actuators have been used extensively in 'dry' MEMS, they have received less attention in microfluidic systems probably because of challenges such as electrolysis, anodization, and electrode polarization. Here we demonstrate that ac drive signals can be used to prevent electrode polarization, and thus enable electrostatic actuation in many liquids, at potentials low enough to avoid electrochemistry. We measure the frequency response of an interdigitated silicon comb-drive actuator in liquids spanning a decade of dielectric permittivities and four decades of conductivity, and present a simple theory that predicts the characteristic actuation frequency. The analysis demonstrates the importance of the native oxide on silicon actuator response, and suggests that the actuation frequency can be shifted by controlling the thickness of the oxide. For native silicon devices, actuation is predicted at frequencies less than 10 MHz, in electrolytes of ionic strength up to 100 mmol/L, and thus electrostatic actuation may be feasible in many bioMEMS and other microfluidic applications.

  3. GPS/MEMS IMU/Microprocessor Board for Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gender, Thomas K.; Chow, James; Ott, William E.

    2009-01-01

    A miniaturized instrumentation package comprising a (1) Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, (2) an inertial measurement unit (IMU) consisting largely of surface-micromachined sensors of the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) type, and (3) a microprocessor, all residing on a single circuit board, is part of the navigation system of a compact robotic spacecraft intended to be released from a larger spacecraft [e.g., the International Space Station (ISS)] for exterior visual inspection of the larger spacecraft. Variants of the package may also be useful in terrestrial collision-detection and -avoidance applications. The navigation solution obtained by integrating the IMU outputs is fed back to a correlator in the GPS receiver to aid in tracking GPS signals. The raw GPS and IMU data are blended in a Kalman filter to obtain an optimal navigation solution, which can be supplemented by range and velocity data obtained by use of (l) a stereoscopic pair of electronic cameras aboard the robotic spacecraft and/or (2) a laser dynamic range imager aboard the ISS. The novelty of the package lies mostly in those aspects of the design of the MEMS IMU that pertain to controlling mechanical resonances and stabilizing scale factors and biases.

  4. Recent advances in MEMS radiation detectors for improving radiation safety in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhisikar, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical-system) is a core technology that leverages integrated circuit (IC) fabrication technology, builds ultra-miniaturized components and, enables radical new system applications. When considering MEMS radiation detectors; they are the specific micromechanical structures which are designed to sense doses of radiations. The present article reviews the most recent progress made in the domain of MEMS ionizing radiation sensors at international level for nuclear reactors which can be relevant to Indian context. (author)

  5. Optical fibre angle sensor used in MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golebiowski, J; Milcarz, Sz; Rybak, M

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for displacement and angle measurements in many movable MEMS structures. The use of fibre optical sensors helps to measure micrometre displacements and small rotation angles. Advantages of this type of transducers are their simple design, high precision of processing, low costs and ability of a non-contact measurement. The study shows an analysis of a fibre-optic intensity sensor used for MEMS movable structure rotation angle measurement. An intensity of the light in the photodetector is basically dependent on a distance between a reflecting surface and a head surface of the fibre transmitting arm, and the deflection angle. Experimental tests were made for PMMA 980/1000 plastic fibres, Θ NA =33°. The study shows both analytical and practical results. It proves that calculated and experimental characteristics for the analysed transducers are similar.

  6. EDITORIAL: The Fourth International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shuji; Toriyama, Toshiyuki

    2005-09-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering features papers selected from the Fourth International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2004). The workshop was held in Kyoto, Japan, on 28-30 November 2004, by The Ritsumeikan Research Institute of Micro System Technology in cooperation with The Global Emerging Technology Institute, The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan, The Sensors and Micromachines Society, The Micromachine Center and The Kyoto Nanotech Cluster. Power MEMS is one of the newest categories of MEMS, which encompasses microdevices and microsystems for power generation, energy conversion and propulsion. The first concept of power MEMS was proposed in the late 1990s by Epstein's group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where they continue to study MEMS-based gas turbine generators. Since then, the research and development of power MEMS have been promoted by the need for compact power sources with high energy and power density. Since its inception, power MEMS has expanded to include not only various MEMS-based power generators but also small energy machines and microdevices for macro power generators. At the last workshop, various devices and systems, such as portable fuel cells and their peripherals, micro and small turbo machinery, energy harvesting microdevices, and microthrusters, were presented. Their power levels vary from ten nanowatts to hundreds of watts, spanning ten orders of magnitude. The first PowerMEMS workshop was held in 2000 in Sendai, Japan, and consisted of only seven invited presentations. The workshop has grown since then, and in 2004 there were 5 invited, 20 oral and 29 poster presentations. From the 54 papers in the proceedings, 12 papers have been selected for this special issue. I would like to express my appreciation to the members of the Organizing Committee and Technical Program Committee. This special issue was

  7. Predicting the Deflections of Micromachined Electrostatic Actuators Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing Wah LEE

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a general purpose Artificial Neural Network (ANN model based on the feed-forward back-propagation (FFBP algorithm has been used to predict the deflections of a micromachined structures actuated electrostatically under different loadings and geometrical parameters. A limited range of simulation results obtained via CoventorWare™ numerical software will be used initially to train the neural network via back-propagation algorithm. The micromachined structures considered in the analyses are diaphragm, fixed-fixed beams and cantilevers. ANN simulation results are compared with results obtained via CoventorWare™ simulations and existing analytical work for validation purpose. The proposed ANN model accurately predicts the deflections of the micromachined structures with great reduction of simulation efforts, establishing the method superiority. This method can be extended for applications in other sensors particularly for modeling sensors applying electrostatic actuation which are difficult in nature due to the inherent non-linearity of the electro-mechanical coupling response.

  8. Payload characterization for CubeSat demonstration of MEMS deformable mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinan, Anne; Cahoy, Kerri; Webber, Matthew; Belikov, Ruslan; Bendek, Eduardo

    2014-08-01

    Coronagraphic space telescopes require wavefront control systems for high-contrast imaging applications such as exoplanet direct imaging. High-actuator-count MEMS deformable mirrors (DM) are a key element of these wavefront control systems yet have not been flown in space long enough to characterize their on-orbit performance. The MEMS Deformable Mirror CubeSat Testbed is a conceptual nanosatellite demonstration of MEMS DM and wavefront sensing technology. The testbed platform is a 3U CubeSat bus. Of the 10 x 10 x 34.05 cm (3U) available volume, a 10 x 10 x 15 cm space is reserved for the optical payload. The main purpose of the payload is to characterize and calibrate the onorbit performance of a MEMS deformable mirror over an extended period of time (months). Its design incorporates both a Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (internal laser illumination), and a focal plane sensor (used with an external aperture to image bright stars). We baseline a 32-actuator Boston Micromachines Mini deformable mirror for this mission, though the design is flexible and can be applied to mirrors from other vendors. We present the mission design and payload architecture and discuss experiment design, requirements, and performance simulations.

  9. Packaging of MEMS/MOEMS and nanodevices: reliability, testing, and characterization aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Tolga; Ngo, Ha-Duong; Wittler, Olaf; Bouhlal, Bouchaib; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2011-02-01

    The last decade witnessed an explosive growth in research and development efforts devoted to MEMS devices and packaging. The successfully developed MEMS devices are, for example inkjet, pressure sensors, silicon microphones, accelerometers, gyroscopes, MOEMS, micro fuel cells and emerging MEMS. For the next decade, MEMS/MOEMS and nanodevice based products will penetrate into IT, telecommunications, automotive, defense, life sciences, medical and implantable applications. Forecasts say the MEMS market to be $14 billion by 2012. The packaging cost of MEMS/MOEMS products in general is about 70 percent. Unlike today's electronics IC packaging, their packaging are custom-built and difficult due to the moving structural elements. In order for the moving elements of a MEMS device to move effectively in a well-controlled atmosphere, hermetic sealing of the MEMS device in a cap is necessary. For some MEMS devices, such as resonators and gyroscopes, vacuum packaging is required. Usually, the cap is processed at the wafer level, and thus MEMS packaging is truly a wafer level packaging. In terms of MEMS/MOEMS and nanodevice packaging, there are still many critical issues need to be addressed due to the increasing integration density supported by 3D heterogeneous integration of multi-physic components/layers consisting of photonics, electronics, rf, plasmonics, and wireless. The infrastructure of MEMS/MOEMS and nanodevices and their packaging is not well established yet. Generic packaging platform technologies are not available. Some of critical issues have been studied intensively in the last years. In this paper we will discuss about processes, reliability, testing and characterization of MEMS/MOEMS and nanodevice packaging.

  10. Topology optimized RF MEMS switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippine, M. A.; Zareie, H.; Sigmund, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Topology optimization is a rigorous and powerful method that should become a standard MEMS design tool - it can produce unique and non-intuitive designs that meet complex objectives and can dramatically improve the performance and reliability of MEMS devices. We present successful uses of topology...

  11. Electromagnetic actuation in MEMS switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Hansen, Roana Melina de; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Mária; Chemnitz, Steffen

    . Electromagnetic actuation is a very promising approach to operate such MEMS and Power MEMS devices, due to the long range, reproducible and strong forces generated by this method, among other advantages. However, the use of electromagnetic actuation in such devices requires the use of thick magnetic films, which...

  12. Determination of young's modulus of PZT and CO80Ni20 thin films by means of micromachined cantilevers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeer, H.; Abelmann, Leon; Tas, Niels Roelof; van Honschoten, J.W.; Siekman, Martin Herman; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a technique to determine the Young’s modulus and residual stress of thin films using a simple micromachined silicon cantilever as the test structure. An analytical relation was developed based on the shift in resonance frequency caused by the addition of a thin film on the

  13. Modelling of micromachining of human tooth enamel by erbium laser radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belikov, A V; Skrypnik, A V; Shatilova, K V [St. Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-31

    We consider a 3D cellular model of human tooth enamel and a photomechanical cellular model of enamel ablation by erbium laser radiation, taking into account the structural peculiarities of enamel, energy distribution in the laser beam cross section and attenuation of laser energy in biological tissue. The surface area of the texture in enamel is calculated after its micromachining by erbium laser radiation. The influence of the surface area on the bond strength of enamel with dental filling materials is discussed. A good correlation between the computer simulation of the total work of adhesion and experimentally measured bond strength between the dental filling material and the tooth enamel after its micromachining by means of YAG : Er laser radiation is attained. (laser biophotonics)

  14. Modelling of micromachining of human tooth enamel by erbium laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belikov, A V; Skrypnik, A V; Shatilova, K V

    2014-01-01

    We consider a 3D cellular model of human tooth enamel and a photomechanical cellular model of enamel ablation by erbium laser radiation, taking into account the structural peculiarities of enamel, energy distribution in the laser beam cross section and attenuation of laser energy in biological tissue. The surface area of the texture in enamel is calculated after its micromachining by erbium laser radiation. The influence of the surface area on the bond strength of enamel with dental filling materials is discussed. A good correlation between the computer simulation of the total work of adhesion and experimentally measured bond strength between the dental filling material and the tooth enamel after its micromachining by means of YAG : Er laser radiation is attained. (laser biophotonics)

  15. X-ray microcalorimeter arrays fabricated by surface micromachining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, G.C.; Beall, J.A.; Deiker, S.; Vale, L.R.; Doriese, W.B.; Beyer, Joern; Ullom, J.N.; Reintsema, C.D.; Xu, Y.; Irwin, K.D.

    2004-01-01

    We are developing arrays of Mo/Cu transition edge sensor-based detectors for use as X-ray microcalorimeters and sub-millimeter bolometers. We have fabricated 8x8 pixel X-ray microcalorimeter arrays using surface micromachining. Surface-micromachining techniques hold the promise of scalability to much larger arrays and may allow for the integration of in-plane multiplexer elements. In this paper we describe the surface micromachining process and recent improvements in the device geometry that provide for increased mechanical strength. We also present X-ray and heat pulse spectra collected using these detectors

  16. On using the dynamic snap-through motion of MEMS initially curved microbeams for filtering applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ouakad, Hassen M.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and experimental investigations of the dynamics of micromachined shallow arches (initially curved microbeams) and the possibility of using their dynamic snap-through motion for filtering purposes are presented. The considered MEMS arches are actuated by a DC electrostatic load along with an AC harmonic load. Their dynamics is examined numerically using a Galerkin-based reduced-order model when excited near both their first and third natural frequencies. Several simulation results are presented demonstrating interesting jumps and dynamic snap-through behavior of the MEMS arches and their attractive features for uses as band-pass filters, such as their sharp roll-off from pass-bands to stop-bands and their flat response. Experimental work is conducted to test arches realized of curved polysilicon microbeams when excited by DC and AC loads. Experimental data of the micromachined curved beams are shown for the softening and hardening behavior near the first and third natural frequencies, respectively, as well as dynamic snap-through motion. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. MEMS cost analysis from laboratory to industry

    CERN Document Server

    Freng, Ron Lawes

    2016-01-01

    The World of MEMS; Chapter 2: Basic Fabrication Processes; Chapter 3: Surface Microengineering. High Aspect Ratio Microengineering; Chapter 5: MEMS Testing; Chapter 6: MEMS Packaging. Clean Rooms, Buildings and Plant; Chapter 8: The MEMSCOST Spreadsheet; Chapter 9: Product Costs - Accelerometers. Product Costs - Microphones. MEMS Foundries. Financial Reporting and Analysis. Conclusions.

  18. Modeling and Experimental Study on Characterization of Micromachined Thermal Gas Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Su

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Micromachined thermal gas inertial sensors based on heat convection are novel devices that compared with conventional micromachined inertial sensors offer the advantages of simple structures, easy fabrication, high shock resistance and good reliability by virtue of using a gaseous medium instead of a mechanical proof mass as key moving and sensing elements. This paper presents an analytical modeling for a micromachined thermal gas gyroscope integrated with signal conditioning. A simplified spring-damping model is utilized to characterize the behavior of the sensor. The model relies on the use of the fluid mechanics and heat transfer fundamentals and is validated using experimental data obtained from a test-device and simulation. Furthermore, the nonideal issues of the sensor are addressed from both the theoretical and experimental points of view. The nonlinear behavior demonstrated in experimental measurements is analyzed based on the model. It is concluded that the sources of nonlinearity are mainly attributable to the variable stiffness of the sensor system and the structural asymmetry due to nonideal fabrication.

  19. Benzocyclobutene-based electric micromachines supported on microball bearings: Design, fabrication, and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modafe, Alireza

    This dissertation summarizes the research activities that led to the development of the first microball-bearing-supported linear electrostatic micromotor with benzocyclobutene (BCB) low-k polymer insulating layers. The primary application of this device is long-range, high-speed linear micropositioning. The future generations of this device include rotary electrostatic micromotors and microgenerators. The development of the first generation of microball-bearing-supported micromachines, including device theory, design, and modeling, material characterization, process development, device fabrication, and device test and characterization is presented. The first generation of these devices is based on a 6-phase, bottom-drive, linear, variable-capacitance micromotor (B-LVCM). The design of the electrical and mechanical components of the micromotor, lumped-circuit modeling of the device and electromechanical characteristics, including variable capacitance, force, power, and speed are presented. Electrical characterization of BCB polymers, characterization of BCB chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), development of embedded BCB in silicon (EBiS) process, and integration of device components using microfabrication techniques are also presented. The micromotor consists of a silicon stator, a silicon slider, and four stainless-steel microballs. The aligning force profile of the micromotor was extracted from simulated and measured capacitances of all phases. An average total aligning force of 0.27 mN with a maximum of 0.41 mN, assuming a 100 V peak-to-peak square-wave voltage, was measured. The operation of the micromotor was verified by applying square-wave voltages and characterizing the slider motion. An average slider speed of 7.32 mm/s when excited by a 40 Hz, 120 V square-wave voltage was reached without losing the synchronization. This research has a pivotal impact in the field of power microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). It establishes the foundation for the

  20. MEMS-based silicon cantilevers with integrated electrothermal heaters for airborne ultrafine particle sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Merzsch, Stephan; Waag, Andreas; Peiner, Erwin

    2013-05-01

    The development of low-cost and low-power MEMS-based cantilever sensors for possible application in hand-held airborne ultrafine particle monitors is described in this work. The proposed resonant sensors are realized by silicon bulk micromachining technology with electrothermal excitation, piezoresistive frequency readout, and electrostatic particle collection elements integrated and constructed in the same sensor fabrication process step of boron diffusion. Built-in heating resistor and full Wheatstone bridge are set close to the cantilever clamp end for effective excitation and sensing, respectively, of beam deflection. Meanwhile, the particle collection electrode is located at the cantilever free end. A 300 μm-thick, phosphorus-doped silicon bulk wafer is used instead of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) as the starting material for the sensors to reduce the fabrication costs. To etch and release the cantilevers from the substrate, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) cryogenic dry etching is utilized. By controlling the etching parameters (e.g., temperature, oxygen content, and duration), cantilever structures with thicknesses down to 10 - 20 μm are yielded. In the sensor characterization, the heating resistor is heated and generating thermal waves which induce thermal expansion and further cause mechanical bending strain in the out-of-plane direction. A resonant frequency of 114.08 +/- 0.04 kHz and a quality factor of 1302 +/- 267 are measured in air for a fabricated rectangular cantilever (500x100x13.5 μm3). Owing to its low power consumption of a few milliwatts, this electrothermal cantilever is suitable for replacing the current external piezoelectric stack actuator in the next generation of the miniaturized cantilever-based nanoparticle detector (CANTOR).

  1. Optical Characterization of Lorentz Force Based CMOS-MEMS Magnetic Field Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, John Ojur; Ahmad, Farooq; Khir, M Haris Bin Md; Bin Hamid, Nor Hisham

    2015-07-27

    Magnetic field sensors are becoming an essential part of everyday life due to the improvements in their sensitivities and resolutions, while at the same time they have become compact, smaller in size and economical. In the work presented herein a Lorentz force based CMOS-MEMS magnetic field sensor is designed, fabricated and optically characterized. The sensor is fabricated by using CMOS thin layers and dry post micromachining is used to release the device structure and finally the sensor chip is packaged in DIP. The sensor consists of a shuttle which is designed to resonate in the lateral direction (first mode of resonance). In the presence of an external magnetic field, the Lorentz force actuates the shuttle in the lateral direction and the amplitude of resonance is measured using an optical method. The differential change in the amplitude of the resonating shuttle shows the strength of the external magnetic field. The resonance frequency of the shuttle is determined to be 8164 Hz experimentally and from the resonance curve, the quality factor and damping ratio are obtained. In an open environment, the quality factor and damping ratio are found to be 51.34 and 0.00973 respectively. The sensitivity of the sensor is determined in static mode to be 0.034 µm/mT when a current of 10 mA passes through the shuttle, while it is found to be higher at resonance with a value of 1.35 µm/mT at 8 mA current. Finally, the resolution of the sensor is found to be 370.37 µT.

  2. Uncertainty quantification in capacitive RF MEMS switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pax, Benjamin J.

    Development of radio frequency micro electrical-mechanical systems (RF MEMS) has led to novel approaches to implement electrical circuitry. The introduction of capacitive MEMS switches, in particular, has shown promise in low-loss, low-power devices. However, the promise of MEMS switches has not yet been completely realized. RF-MEMS switches are known to fail after only a few months of operation, and nominally similar designs show wide variability in lifetime. Modeling switch operation using nominal or as-designed parameters cannot predict the statistical spread in the number of cycles to failure, and probabilistic methods are necessary. A Bayesian framework for calibration, validation and prediction offers an integrated approach to quantifying the uncertainty in predictions of MEMS switch performance. The objective of this thesis is to use the Bayesian framework to predict the creep-related deflection of the PRISM RF-MEMS switch over several thousand hours of operation. The PRISM switch used in this thesis is the focus of research at Purdue's PRISM center, and is a capacitive contacting RF-MEMS switch. It employs a fixed-fixed nickel membrane which is electrostatically actuated by applying voltage between the membrane and a pull-down electrode. Creep plays a central role in the reliability of this switch. The focus of this thesis is on the creep model, which is calibrated against experimental data measured for a frog-leg varactor fabricated and characterized at Purdue University. Creep plasticity is modeled using plate element theory with electrostatic forces being generated using either parallel plate approximations where appropriate, or solving for the full 3D potential field. For the latter, structure-electrostatics interaction is determined through immersed boundary method. A probabilistic framework using generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) is used to create surrogate models to mitigate the costly full physics simulations, and Bayesian calibration and forward

  3. Enabling MEMS technologies for communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubecke, Victor M.; Barber, Bradley P.; Arney, Susanne

    2001-11-01

    Modern communications demands have been steadily growing not only in size, but sophistication. Phone calls over copper wires have evolved into high definition video conferencing over optical fibers, and wireless internet browsing. The technology used to meet these demands is under constant pressure to provide increased capacity, speed, and efficiency, all with reduced size and cost. Various MEMS technologies have shown great promise for meeting these challenges by extending the performance of conventional circuitry and introducing radical new systems approaches. A variety of strategic MEMS structures including various cost-effective free-space optics and high-Q RF components are described, along with related practical implementation issues. These components are rapidly becoming essential for enabling the development of progressive new communications systems technologies including all-optical networks, and low cost multi-system wireless terminals and basestations.

  4. SOI silicon on glass for optical MEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Pontoppidan; Ravnkilde, Jan Tue; Hansen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    and a final sealing at the interconnects can be performed using a suitable polymer. Packaged MEMS on glass are advantageous within Optical MEMS and for sensitive capacitive devices. We report on experiences with bonding SOI to Pyrex. Uniform DRIE shallow and deep etching was achieved by a combination......A newly developed fabrication method for fabrication of single crystalline Si (SCS) components on glass, utilizing Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) of a Silicon On Insulator (SOI) wafer is presented. The devices are packaged at wafer level in a glass-silicon-glass (GSG) stack by anodic bonding...... of an optimized device layout and an optimized process recipe. The behavior of the buried oxide membrane when used as an etch stop for the through-hole etch is described. No harmful buckling or fracture of the membrane is observed for an oxide thickness below 1 μm, but larger and more fragile released structures...

  5. Electromagnetic Investigation of a CMOS MEMS Inductive Microphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farès TOUNSI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed electromagnetic modeling for a new structure of a monolithic CMOS micromachined inductive microphone. We have shown, that the use of an alternative current (AC in the primary fixed inductor results in a substantially higher induced voltage in the secondary inductor comparing to the case when a direct current (DC is used. The expected increase of the induced voltage can be expressed by a voltage ratio of AC and DC solutions that is in the range of 3 to 6. A prototype fabrication of this microphone has been realized using a combination of standard CMOS 0.6 µm process with a CMOS-compatible post-process consisting in a bulk micromachining technology. The output voltage of the electrodynamic microphone that achieves the µV range can be increased by the use of the symmetric dual-layer spiral inductor structure.

  6. MEMS for Tunable Photonic Metamaterial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Thomas

    Photonic metamaterials are materials whose optical properties are derived from artificially-structured sub-wavelength unit cells, rather than from the bulk properties of the constituent materials. Examples of metamaterials include plasmonic materials, negative index materials, and electromagnetic cloaks. While advances in simulation tools and nanofabrication methods have allowed this field to grow over the past several decades, many challenges still exist. This thesis addresses two of these challenges: fabrication of photonic metamaterials with tunable responses and high-throughput nanofabrication methods for these materials. The design, fabrication, and optical characterization of a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) tunable plasmonic spectrometer are presented. An array of holes in a gold film, with plasmon resonance in the mid-infrared, is suspended above a gold reflector, forming a Fabry-Perot interferometer of tunable length. The spectra exhibit the convolution of extraordinary optical transmission through the holes and Fabry-Perot resonances. Using MEMS, the interferometer length is modulated from 1.7 mum to 21.67 mum , thereby tuning the free spectral range from about 2900 wavenumbers to 230.7 wavenumbers and shifting the reflection minima and maxima across the infrared. Due to its broad spectral tunability in the fingerprint region of the mid-infrared, this device shows promise as a tunable biological sensing device. To address the issue of high-throughput, high-resolution fabrication of optical metamaterials, atomic calligraphy, a MEMS-based dynamic stencil lithography technique for resist-free fabrication of photonic metamaterials on unconventional substrates, has been developed. The MEMS consists of a moveable stencil, which can be actuated with nanometer precision using electrostatic comb drive actuators. A fabrication method and flip chip method have been developed, enabling evaporation of metals through the device handle for fabrication on an

  7. Movable MEMS Devices on Flexible Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sally

    2013-05-05

    Flexible electronics have gained great attention recently. Applications such as flexible displays, artificial skin and health monitoring devices are a few examples of this technology. Looking closely at the components of these devices, although MEMS actuators and sensors can play critical role to extend the application areas of flexible electronics, fabricating movable MEMS devices on flexible substrates is highly challenging. Therefore, this thesis reports a process for fabricating free standing and movable MEMS devices on flexible silicon substrates; MEMS flexure thermal actuators have been fabricated to illustrate the viability of the process. Flexure thermal actuators consist of two arms: a thin hot arm and a wide cold arm separated by a small air gap; the arms are anchored to the substrate from one end and connected to each other from the other end. The actuator design has been modified by adding etch holes in the anchors to suit the process of releasing a thin layer of silicon from the bulk silicon substrate. Selecting materials that are compatible with the release process was challenging. Moreover, difficulties were faced in the fabrication process development; for example, the structural layer of the devices was partially etched during silicon release although it was protected by aluminum oxide which is not attacked by the releasing gas . Furthermore, the thin arm of the thermal actuator was thinned during the fabrication process but optimizing the patterning and etching steps of the structural layer successfully solved this problem. Simulation was carried out to compare the performance of the original and the modified designs for the thermal actuators and to study stress and temperature distribution across a device. A fabricated thermal actuator with a 250 μm long hot arm and a 225 μm long cold arm separated by a 3 μm gap produced a deflection of 3 μm before silicon release, however, the fabrication process must be optimized to obtain fully functioning

  8. Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers for 3-D Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann

    of state-of-the-art 3-D ultrasound systems. The focus is on row-column addressed transducer arrays. This previously sparsely investigated addressing scheme offers a highly reduced number of transducer elements, resulting in reduced transducer manufacturing costs and data processing. To produce...... such transducer arrays, capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) technology is chosen for this project. Properties such as high bandwidth and high design flexibility makes this an attractive transducer technology, which is under continuous development in the research community. A theoretical...... treatment of CMUTs is presented, including investigations of the anisotropic plate behaviour and modal radiation patterns of such devices. Several new CMUT fabrication approaches are developed and investigated in terms of oxide quality and surface protrusions, culminating in a simple four-mask process...

  9. Micromachined two dimensional resistor arrays for determination of gas parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baar, J.J.J.; Verwey, Willem B.; Dijkstra, Mindert; Dijkstra, Marcel; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    A resistive sensor array is presented for two dimensional temperature distribution measurements in a micromachined flow channel. This allows simultaneous measurement of flow velocity and fluid parameters, like thermal conductivity, diffusion coefficient and viscosity. More general advantages of

  10. Integration of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers to Microfluidic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Viržonis, Darius; Kodzius, Rimantas; Vanagas, Galius

    2013-01-01

    The design and manufacturing flexibility of capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUT) makes them attractive option for integration with microfluidic devices both for sensing and fluid manipulation. CMUT concept is introduced here

  11. Integration of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers to Microfluidic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Viržonis, Darius

    2013-10-22

    The design and manufacturing flexibility of capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUT) makes them attractive option for integration with microfluidic devices both for sensing and fluid manipulation. CMUT concept is introduced here by presentin

  12. Biasing of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliano, Giosue; Matrone, Giulia; Savoia, Alessandro Stuart

    2017-02-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) represent an effective alternative to piezoelectric transducers for medical ultrasound imaging applications. They are microelectromechanical devices fabricated using silicon micromachining techniques, developed in the last two decades in many laboratories. The interest for this novel transducer technology relies on its full compatibility with standard integrated circuit technology that makes it possible to integrate on the same chip the transducers and the electronics, thus enabling the realization of extremely low-cost and high-performance devices, including both 1-D or 2-D arrays. Being capacitive transducers, CMUTs require a high bias voltage to be properly operated in pulse-echo imaging applications. The typical bias supply residual ripple of high-quality high-voltage (HV) generators is in the millivolt range, which is comparable with the amplitude of the received echo signals, and it is particularly difficult to minimize. The aim of this paper is to analyze the classical CMUT biasing circuits, highlighting the features of each one, and to propose two novel HV generator architectures optimized for CMUT biasing applications. The first circuit proposed is an ultralow-residual ripple (generator that uses an extremely stable sinusoidal power oscillator topology. The second circuit employs a commercially available integrated step-up converter characterized by a particularly efficient switching topology. The circuit is used to bias the CMUT by charging a buffer capacitor synchronously with the pulsing sequence, thus reducing the impact of the switching noise on the received echo signals. The small area of the circuit (about 1.5 cm 2 ) makes it possible to generate the bias voltage inside the probe, very close to the CMUT, making the proposed solution attractive for portable applications. Measurements and experiments are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new approaches presented.

  13. Mechanical characterization of biocompatible thin film materials by scanning along micro-machined cantilevers for micro-/nano-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, J.H.; Luo, J.K.; Le, H.R.; Moore, D.F.

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical characterization is vital for the design of micro-/nano-electro-mechanical system (MEMS/NEMS). This paper describes a new characterization method to extract the mechanical properties of the thin film materials, which is simple, inexpensive and applicable to a wide range of materials including biocompatible ones described in this paper. The beams of the material under tests, are patterned by laser micro-machining and released by alkaline etch. A surface profilometer is used to scan along micro-machined cantilevers and produce a bending profile, from which the Young's modulus can be extracted. Biocompatible SiN x , SiC and nanocrystal diamond cantilevers have been fabricated and their Young's modulus has been evaluated as 154 ± 12, 360 ± 50 and 504 ± 50 GPa, respectively, which is consistent with those measured by nano-indentation. Residual stress gradient has also been extracted by surface profilometer, which is comparable with the results inferred from ZYGO interferometer measurements. This method can be extended to atomic force microscopy stylus or nanometer-stylus profilometer for Bio-NEMS mechanical characterization

  14. Non-traditional micromachining processes fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, B; Davim, J

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a complete coverage of micromachining processes from their basic material removal phenomena to past and recent research carried by a number of researchers worldwide. Chapters on effective utilization of material resources, improved efficiency, reliability, durability, and cost effectiveness of the products are presented. This book provides the reader with new and recent developments in the field of micromachining and microfabrication of engineering materials.

  15. Single-crystal-silicon-based microinstrument to study friction and wear at MEMS sidewall interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, N; Ashurst, W R

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, friction and wear are considered as key factors that determine the lifetime and reliability of MEMS devices that contain contacting interfaces. However, to date, our knowledge of the mechanisms that govern friction and wear in MEMS is insufficient. Therefore, systematically investigating friction and wear at MEMS scale is critical for the commercial success of many potential MEMS devices. Specifically, since many emerging MEMS devices contain more sidewall interfaces, which are topographically and chemically different from in-plane interfaces, studying the friction and wear characteristics of MEMS sidewall surfaces is important. The microinstruments that have been used to date to investigate the friction and wear characteristics of MEMS sidewall surfaces possess several limitations induced either by their design or the structural film used to fabricate them. Therefore, in this paper, we report on a single-crystal-silicon-based microinstrument to study the frictional and wear behavior of MEMS sidewalls, which not only addresses some of the limitations of other microinstruments but is also easy to fabricate. The design, modeling and fabrication of the microinstrument are described in this paper. Additionally, the coefficients of static and dynamic friction of octadecyltrichlorosilane-coated sidewall surfaces as well as sidewall surfaces with only native oxide on them are also reported in this paper. (paper)

  16. Research and Analysis of MEMS Switches in Different Frequency Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Tian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to their high isolation, low insertion loss, high linearity, and low power consumption, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS switches have drawn much attention from researchers in recent years. In this paper, we introduce the research status of MEMS switches in different bands and several reliability issues, such as dielectric charging, contact failure, and temperature instability. In this paper, some of the following methods to improve the performance of MEMS switches in high frequency are summarized: (1 utilizing combinations of several switches in series; (2 covering a float metal layer on the dielectric layer; (3 using dielectric layer materials with high dielectric constants and conductor materials with low resistance; (4 developing MEMS switches using T-match and π-match; (5 designing MEMS switches based on bipolar complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (BiCMOS technology and reconfigurable MEMS’ surfaces; (6 employing thermal compensation structures, circularly symmetric structures, thermal buckle-beam actuators, molybdenum membrane, and thin-film packaging; (7 selecting Ultra-NanoCrystalline diamond or aluminum nitride dielectric materials and applying a bipolar driving voltage, stoppers, and a double-dielectric-layer structure; and (8 adopting gold alloying with carbon nanotubes (CNTs, hermetic and reliable packaging, and mN-level contact.

  17. Tribology and MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J A; Le, H R

    2006-01-01

    Micro-electro-mechanical system, MEMS, is a rapidly growing interdisciplinary technology dealing with the design and manufacture of miniaturized machines with the major dimensions at the scale of tens, to perhaps hundreds, of micrometres. Because they depend on the cube of a representative dimension, component masses and inertias rapidly become small as size decreases whereas surface and tribological effects, which often depend on area, become increasingly important. Although our explanations of macroscopic tribological phenomena often involve individual events occurring at the micro-scale, when the overall component size is itself miniaturized it may be necessary to re-evaluate some conventional tribological solutions. While the absolute loads are small in such micro-devices, the tribological requirements, especially in terms of longevity-which may be limited by wear rather than friction-are particularly demanding and will require imaginative and novel solutions. (topical review)

  18. Review of piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Joontaek; Lee, Wonjun; Kang, Woojin; Shin, Eunjung; Choi, Hongsoo; Ryu, Jungho

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, micromachined ultrasonic transducers (MUTs) have been investigated as an alternative to conventional piezocomposite ultrasonic transducers, primarily due to the advantages that microelectromechanical systems provide. Miniaturized ultrasonic systems require ultrasonic transducers integrated with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits. Hence, piezoelectric MUTs (pMUTs) and capacitive MUTs (cMUTs) have been developed as the most favorable solutions. This paper reviews the basic equations to understand the characteristics of thin-film-based piezoelectric devices and presents recent research on pMUTs, including current approaches and limitations. Methods to improve the coupling coefficient of pMUTs are also investigated, such as device structure, materials, and fabrication techniques. The device structure improvements include multielectrode pMUTs, partially clamped boundary conditions, and 3D pMUTs (curved and domed types), where the latter can provide an electromechanical coupling coefficient of up to 45%. The piezoelectric coefficient ( e 31 ) can be increased by controlling the crystal texture (seed layer of γ -Al 2 O 3 ), using single-crystal (PMN-PT) materials, or control of residual stresses (using SiO 2 layer). Arrays of pMUTs can be implemented for various applications including intravascular ultrasound, fingerprint sensors, rangefinders in air, and wireless power supply systems. pMUTs are expected to be an ideal solution for applications such as mobile biometric security (fingerprint sensors) and rangefinders due to their superior power efficiency and compact size. (topical review)

  19. Manufacture of Radio Frequency Micromachined Switches with Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yang Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication and characterization of a radio frequency (RF micromachined switch with annealing were presented. The structure of the RF switch consists of a membrane, coplanar waveguide (CPW lines, and eight springs. The RF switch is manufactured using the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process. The switch requires a post-process to release the membrane and springs. The post-process uses a wet etching to remove the sacrificial silicon dioxide layer, and to obtain the suspended structures of the switch. In order to improve the residual stress of the switch, an annealing process is applied to the switch, and the membrane obtains an excellent flatness. The finite element method (FEM software CoventorWare is utilized to simulate the stress and displacement of the RF switch. Experimental results show that the RF switch has an insertion loss of 0.9 dB at 35 GHz and an isolation of 21 dB at 39 GHz. The actuation voltage of the switch is 14 V.

  20. Manufacture of radio frequency micromachined switches with annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Yang; Dai, Ching-Liang

    2014-01-17

    The fabrication and characterization of a radio frequency (RF) micromachined switch with annealing were presented. The structure of the RF switch consists of a membrane, coplanar waveguide (CPW) lines, and eight springs. The RF switch is manufactured using the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The switch requires a post-process to release the membrane and springs. The post-process uses a wet etching to remove the sacrificial silicon dioxide layer, and to obtain the suspended structures of the switch. In order to improve the residual stress of the switch, an annealing process is applied to the switch, and the membrane obtains an excellent flatness. The finite element method (FEM) software CoventorWare is utilized to simulate the stress and displacement of the RF switch. Experimental results show that the RF switch has an insertion loss of 0.9 dB at 35 GHz and an isolation of 21 dB at 39 GHz. The actuation voltage of the switch is 14 V.

  1. Review of piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joontaek; Lee, Wonjun; Kang, Woojin; Shin, Eunjung; Ryu, Jungho; Choi, Hongsoo

    2017-11-01

    In recent decades, micromachined ultrasonic transducers (MUTs) have been investigated as an alternative to conventional piezocomposite ultrasonic transducers, primarily due to the advantages that microelectromechanical systems provide. Miniaturized ultrasonic systems require ultrasonic transducers integrated with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits. Hence, piezoelectric MUTs (pMUTs) and capacitive MUTs (cMUTs) have been developed as the most favorable solutions. This paper reviews the basic equations to understand the characteristics of thin-film-based piezoelectric devices and presents recent research on pMUTs, including current approaches and limitations. Methods to improve the coupling coefficient of pMUTs are also investigated, such as device structure, materials, and fabrication techniques. The device structure improvements include multielectrode pMUTs, partially clamped boundary conditions, and 3D pMUTs (curved and domed types), where the latter can provide an electromechanical coupling coefficient of up to 45%. The piezoelectric coefficient (e 31) can be increased by controlling the crystal texture (seed layer of γ-Al2O3), using single-crystal (PMN-PT) materials, or control of residual stresses (using SiO2 layer). Arrays of pMUTs can be implemented for various applications including intravascular ultrasound, fingerprint sensors, rangefinders in air, and wireless power supply systems. pMUTs are expected to be an ideal solution for applications such as mobile biometric security (fingerprint sensors) and rangefinders due to their superior power efficiency and compact size.

  2. High-throughput anisotropic plasma etching of polyimide for MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliznetsov, Vladimir; Manickam, Anbumalar; Ranganathan, Nagarajan; Chen, Junwei

    2011-01-01

    This note describes a new high-throughput process of polyimide etching for the fabrication of MEMS devices with an organic sacrificial layer approach. Using dual frequency superimposed capacitively coupled plasma we achieved a vertical profile of polyimide with an etching rate as high as 3.5 µm min −1 . After the fabrication of vertical structures in a polyimide material, additional steps were performed to fabricate structural elements of MEMS by deposition of a SiO 2 layer and performing release etching of polyimide. (technical note)

  3. Development of Testing Methodologies for the Mechanical Properties of MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwaro-Osire, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    This effort is to investigate and design testing strategies to determine the mechanical properties of MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) as well as investigate the development of a MEMS Probabilistic Design Methodology (PDM). One item of potential interest is the design of a test for the Weibull size effect in pressure membranes. The Weibull size effect is a consequence of a stochastic strength response predicted from the Weibull distribution. Confirming that MEMS strength is controlled by the Weibull distribution will enable the development of a probabilistic design methodology for MEMS - similar to the GRC developed CARES/Life program for bulk ceramics. However, the primary area of investigation will most likely be analysis and modeling of material interfaces for strength as well as developing a strategy to handle stress singularities at sharp corners, filets, and material interfaces. This will be a continuation of the previous years work. The ultimate objective of this effort is to further develop and verify the ability of the Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures Life (CARES/Life) code to predict the time-dependent reliability of MEMS structures subjected to multiple transient loads.

  4. Ball driven type MEMS SAD for artillery fuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seok, Jin Oh; Jeong, Ji-hun; Eom, Junseong; Lee, Seung S; Lee, Chun Jae; Ryu, Sung Moon; Oh, Jong Soo

    2017-01-01

    The SAD (safety and arming device) is an indispensable fuse component that ensures safe and reliable performance during the use of ammunition. Because the application of electronic devices for smart munitions is increasing, miniaturization of the SAD has become one of the key issues for next-generation artillery fuses. Based on MEMS technology, various types of miniaturized SADs have been proposed and fabricated. However, none of them have been reported to have been used in actual munitions due to their lack of high impact endurance and complicated explosive train arrangements. In this research, a new MEMS SAD using a ball driven mechanism, is successfully demonstrated based on a UV LIGA (lithography, electroplating and molding) process. Unlike other MEMS SADs, both high impact endurance and simple structure were achieved by using a ball driven mechanism. The simple structural design also simplified the fabrication process and increased the processing yield. The ball driven type MEMS SAD performed successfully under the desired safe and arming conditions of a spin test and showed fine agreement with the FEM simulation result, conducted prior to its fabrication. A field test was also performed with a grenade launcher to evaluate the SAD performance in the firing environment. All 30 of the grenade samples equipped with the proposed MEMS SAD operated successfully under the high-G setback condition. (paper)

  5. Ball driven type MEMS SAD for artillery fuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Jin Oh; Jeong, Ji-hun; Eom, Junseong; Lee, Seung S.; Lee, Chun Jae; Ryu, Sung Moon; Oh, Jong Soo

    2017-01-01

    The SAD (safety and arming device) is an indispensable fuse component that ensures safe and reliable performance during the use of ammunition. Because the application of electronic devices for smart munitions is increasing, miniaturization of the SAD has become one of the key issues for next-generation artillery fuses. Based on MEMS technology, various types of miniaturized SADs have been proposed and fabricated. However, none of them have been reported to have been used in actual munitions due to their lack of high impact endurance and complicated explosive train arrangements. In this research, a new MEMS SAD using a ball driven mechanism, is successfully demonstrated based on a UV LIGA (lithography, electroplating and molding) process. Unlike other MEMS SADs, both high impact endurance and simple structure were achieved by using a ball driven mechanism. The simple structural design also simplified the fabrication process and increased the processing yield. The ball driven type MEMS SAD performed successfully under the desired safe and arming conditions of a spin test and showed fine agreement with the FEM simulation result, conducted prior to its fabrication. A field test was also performed with a grenade launcher to evaluate the SAD performance in the firing environment. All 30 of the grenade samples equipped with the proposed MEMS SAD operated successfully under the high-G setback condition.

  6. Development of thin film encapsulation process for piezoresistive MEMS gyroscope with wide gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayanoor-Vitikkate, Vipin

    The gyroscope is an inertial sensor used to measure the angular rate of a rotating object. This helps to determine the pitch and yaw rate of any moving body. A number of applications have been developed for consumer and automotive markets, for e.g. vehicle stability control, navigation assist, roll over detection. These are primarily used in high-end cars, where cost is not a major factor. Other areas where a MEMS Gyro can be used are robotics, camcorder stabilization, virtual reality, and more. Primarily due to cost and the size most of these applications have not reached any significant volume. One reason for this is the relatively high cost of MEMS gyros compared to other MEMS sensors like accelerometers or pressure sensors. Generally the cost of packaging a MEMS sensor is about 85-90% of the total cost. Currently most MEMS based gyroscopes are made using bulk or surface micromachining, after which they are packaged using wafer bonding. This unfortunately leads to wastage of silicon and increase in the package size, thus reducing the yield. One way to reduce the cost of packaging is by wafer scale thin film encapsulation of MEMS gyroscopes. The goal of the present work is to fabricate a rate grade MEMS gyroscope and encapsulate it by modifying an existing thin-film encapsulation technique. Packaging is an important step towards commercialization of the device and we plan to use thin wafer scale encapsulation technique developed previously in our group to package these devices. The silicon micro machined gyroscope will be fabricated on SOI (Silicon-on-Insulator) wafers using Bosch DRIE etching techniques. The encapsulation of the device is carried out using epitaxial polysilicon in order to provide a high vacuum inside the device chamber. The advantages offered by this technique are the reduction in area of the die and thus less silicon surface is wasted. In addition to this the encapsulation technique helps in creating a vacuum inside the micro device, which

  7. In-plane deeply-etched optical MEMS notch filter with high-speed tunability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabry, Yasser M; Eltagoury, Yomna M; Shebl, Ahmed; Khalil, Diaa; Soliman, Mostafa; Sadek, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Notch filters are used in spectroscopy, multi-photon microscopy, fluorescence instrumentation, optical sensors and other life science applications. One type of notch filter is based on a fiber-coupled Fabry–Pérot cavity, which is formed by a reflector (external mirror) facing a dielectric-coated end of an optical fiber. Tailoring this kind of optical filter for different applications is possible because the external mirror has fewer mechanical and optical constraints. In this paper we present optical modeling and implementation of a fiber-coupled Fabry–Pérot filter based on dielectric-coated optical fiber inserted into a micromachined fiber groove facing a metallized micromirror, which is driven by a high-speed MEMS actuator. The optical MEMS chip is fabricated using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) technology on a silicon on insulator wafer, where the optical axis is parallel to the substrate (in-plane) and the optical/mechanical components are self-aligned by the photolithographic process. The DRIE etching depth is 150 μm, chosen to increase the micromirror optical throughput and improving the out-of-plane stiffness of the MEMS actuator. The MEMS actuator type is closing-gap, while its quality factor is almost doubled by slotting the fixed plate. A low-finesse Fabry–Pérot interferometer is formed by the metallized surface of the micromirror and a cleaved end of a standard single-mode fiber, for characterization of the MEMS actuator stroke and resonance frequency. The actuator achieves a travel distance of 800 nm at a resonance frequency of 89.9 kHz. The notch filter characteristics were measured using an optical spectrum analyzer, and the filter exhibits a free spectral range up to 100 nm and a notch rejection ratio up to 20 dB around a wavelength of 1300 nm. The presented device provides batch processing and low-cost production of the filter. (paper)

  8. MEMS for automotive and aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kraft, Michael

    2013-01-01

    MEMS for automotive and aerospace applications reviews the use of Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) in developing solutions to the unique challenges presented by the automotive and aerospace industries.Part one explores MEMS for a variety of automotive applications. The role of MEMS in passenger safety and comfort, sensors for automotive vehicle stability control applications and automotive tire pressure monitoring systems are considered, along with pressure and flow sensors for engine management, and RF MEMS for automotive radar sensors. Part two then goes on to explore MEMS for

  9. Silicon Micromachined Microlens Array for THz Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choonsup; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Mehdi, IImran; Gill, John J.; Jung-Kubiak, Cecile D.; Llombart, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    5 5 silicon microlens array was developed using a silicon micromachining technique for a silicon-based THz antenna array. The feature of the silicon micromachining technique enables one to microfabricate an unlimited number of microlens arrays at one time with good uniformity on a silicon wafer. This technique will resolve one of the key issues in building a THz camera, which is to integrate antennas in a detector array. The conventional approach of building single-pixel receivers and stacking them to form a multi-pixel receiver is not suited at THz because a single-pixel receiver already has difficulty fitting into mass, volume, and power budgets, especially in space applications. In this proposed technique, one has controllability on both diameter and curvature of a silicon microlens. First of all, the diameter of microlens depends on how thick photoresist one could coat and pattern. So far, the diameter of a 6- mm photoresist microlens with 400 m in height has been successfully microfabricated. Based on current researchers experiences, a diameter larger than 1-cm photoresist microlens array would be feasible. In order to control the curvature of the microlens, the following process variables could be used: 1. Amount of photoresist: It determines the curvature of the photoresist microlens. Since the photoresist lens is transferred onto the silicon substrate, it will directly control the curvature of the silicon microlens. 2. Etching selectivity between photoresist and silicon: The photoresist microlens is formed by thermal reflow. In order to transfer the exact photoresist curvature onto silicon, there needs to be etching selectivity of 1:1 between silicon and photoresist. However, by varying the etching selectivity, one could control the curvature of the silicon microlens. The figure shows the microfabricated silicon microlens 5 x5 array. The diameter of the microlens located in the center is about 2.5 mm. The measured 3-D profile of the microlens surface has a

  10. Project: Micromachined High-Frequency Circuits For Sub-mm-wave Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapolymerou, Ioannis John

    2004-01-01

    A novel micromachined resonator at 45 GHz based on a defect in a periodic electromagnetic bandgap structure (EBG) and a two-pole Tchebysbev filter with 1.4% 0.15 dB equiripple bandwidth and 2.3 dB loss employing this resonator are presented in this letter. The periodic bandgap structure is realized on a 400 micron thick high-resistivity silicon wafer using deep reactive ion etching techniques. The resonator and filter can be accessed via coplanar waveguide feeds.

  11. Generation of programmable temporal pulse shape and applications in micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, X.; Jordens, B.; Hooper, A.; Baird, B. W.; Ren, W.; Xu, L.; Sun, L.

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we presented a pulse shaping technique on regular solid-state lasers and the application in semiconductor micromachining. With a conventional Q-switched laser, all of the parameters can be adjusted over only limited ranges, especially the pulse width and pulse shape. However, some laser link processes using traditional laser pulses with pulse widths of a few nanoseconds to a few tens of nanoseconds tend to over-crater in thicker overlying passivation layers and thereby cause IC reliability problems. Use of a laser pulse with a special shape and a fast leading edge, such as tailored pulse, is one technique for controlling link processing. The pulse shaping technique is based on light-loop controlled optical modulation to shape conventional Q-switched solid-state lasers. One advantage of the pulse shaping technique is to provide a tailored pulse shape that can be programmed to have more than one amplitude value. Moreover, it has the capability of providing programmable tailored pulse shapes with discrete amplitude and time duration components. In addition, it provides fast rising and fall time of each pulse at fairly high repetition rate at 355nm with good beam quality. The regular-to-shaped efficiency is up to 50%. We conclude with a discussion of current results for laser processing of semiconductor memory link structures using programmable temporal pulse shapes. The processing experiments showed promising results with shaped pulse.

  12. Apparatus for precision micromachining with lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.J.; Dragon, E.P.; Warner, B.E.

    1998-04-28

    A new material processing apparatus using a short-pulsed, high-repetition-rate visible laser for precision micromachining utilizes a near diffraction limited laser, a high-speed precision two-axis tilt-mirror for steering the laser beam, an optical system for either focusing or imaging the laser beam on the part, and a part holder that may consist of a cover plate and a back plate. The system is generally useful for precision drilling, cutting, milling and polishing of metals and ceramics, and has broad application in manufacturing precision components. Precision machining has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratios up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled with good surface finish on a variety of metals. Micromilling and microdrilling on ceramics using a 250 W copper vapor laser have also been demonstrated with good results. Materialographic sections of machined parts show little (submicron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone. 1 fig.

  13. MEMS-based non-rotatory circumferential scanning optical probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingshun; Singh, Janak; Siang, Teo Hui; Ramakrishna, Kotlanka; Premchandran, C. S.; Sheng, Chen Wei; Kuan, Chuah Tong; Chen, Nanguang; Olivo, Malini C.; Sheppard, Colin J. R.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, we present a non-rotatory circumferential scanning optical probe integrated with a MEMS scanner for in vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT is an emerging optical imaging technique that allows high resolution cross-sectional imaging of tissue microstructure. To extend its usage to endoscopic applications, a miniaturized optical probe based on Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) fabrication techniques is currently desired. A 3D electrothermally actuated micromirror realized using micromachining single crystal silicon (SCS) process highlights its very large angular deflection, about 45 degree, with low driving voltage for safety consideration. The micromirror is integrated with a GRIN lens into a waterproof package which is compatible with requirements for minimally invasive endoscopic procedures. To implement circumferential scanning substantially for diagnosis on certain pathological conditions, such as Barret's esophagus, the micromirror is mounted on 90 degree to optical axis of GRIN lens. 4 Bimorph actuators that are connected to the mirror on one end via supporting beams and springs are selected in this micromirror design. When actuators of the micromirror are driven by 4 channels of sinusoidal waveforms with 90 degree phase differences, beam focused by a GRIN is redirected out of the endoscope by 45 degree tilting mirror plate and achieve circumferential scanning pattern. This novel driving method making full use of very large angular deflection capability of our micromirror is totally different from previously developed or developing micromotor-like rotatory MEMS device for circumferential scanning.

  14. Poly-SiGe for MEMS-above-CMOS sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Ruiz, Pilar; Witvrouw, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline SiGe has emerged as a promising MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) structural material since it provides the desired mechanical properties at lower temperatures compared to poly-Si, allowing the direct post-processing on top of CMOS. This CMOS-MEMS monolithic integration can lead to more compact MEMS with improved performance. The potential of poly-SiGe for MEMS above-aluminum-backend CMOS integration has already been demonstrated. However, aggressive interconnect scaling has led to the replacement of the traditional aluminum metallization by copper (Cu) metallization, due to its lower resistivity and improved reliability. Poly-SiGe for MEMS-above-CMOS sensors demonstrates the compatibility of poly-SiGe with post-processing above the advanced CMOS technology nodes through the successful fabrication of an integrated poly-SiGe piezoresistive pressure sensor, directly fabricated above 0.13 m Cu-backend CMOS. Furthermore, this book presents the first detailed investigation on the influence o...

  15. CMOS MEMS Fabrication Technologies and Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Qu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems fabrication technologies and enabled micro devices of various sensors and actuators. The technologies are classified based on the sequence of the fabrication of CMOS circuitry and MEMS elements, while SOI (silicon-on-insulator CMOS MEMS are introduced separately. Introduction of associated devices follows the description of the respective CMOS MEMS technologies. Due to the vast array of CMOS MEMS devices, this review focuses only on the most typical MEMS sensors and actuators including pressure sensors, inertial sensors, frequency reference devices and actuators utilizing different physics effects and the fabrication processes introduced. Moreover, the incorporation of MEMS and CMOS is limited to monolithic integration, meaning wafer-bonding-based stacking and other integration approaches, despite their advantages, are excluded from the discussion. Both competitive industrial products and state-of-the-art research results on CMOS MEMS are covered.

  16. Microelectromechanical (MEM) thermal actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ernest J [Albuquerque, NM; Fulcher, Clay W. G. [Sandia Park, NM

    2012-07-31

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) buckling beam thermal actuators are disclosed wherein the buckling direction of a beam is constrained to a desired direction of actuation, which can be in-plane or out-of-plane with respect to a support substrate. The actuators comprise as-fabricated, linear beams of uniform cross section supported above the substrate by supports which rigidly attach a beam to the substrate. The beams can be heated by methods including the passage of an electrical current through them. The buckling direction of an initially straight beam upon heating and expansion is controlled by incorporating one or more directional constraints attached to the substrate and proximal to the mid-point of the beam. In the event that the beam initially buckles in an undesired direction, deformation of the beam induced by contact with a directional constraint generates an opposing force to re-direct the buckling beam into the desired direction. The displacement and force generated by the movement of the buckling beam can be harnessed to perform useful work, such as closing contacts in an electrical switch.

  17. MEMS capacitive force sensors for cellular and flight biomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yu; Nelson, Bradley J

    2007-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are playing increasingly important roles in facilitating biological studies. They are capable of providing not only qualitative but also quantitative information on the cellular, sub-cellular and organism levels, which is instrumental to understanding the fundamental elements of biological systems. MEMS force sensors with their high bandwidth and high sensitivity combined with their small size, in particular, have found a role in this domain, because of the importance of quantifying forces and their effect on the function and morphology of many biological structures. This paper describes our research in the development of MEMS capacitive force sensors that have already demonstrated their effectiveness in the areas of cell mechanics and Drosophila flight dynamics studies. (review article)

  18. Integrated Magnetic MEMS Relays: Status of the Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Schiavone

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The development and application of magnetic technologies employing microfabricated magnetic structures for the production of switching components has generated enormous interest in the scientific and industrial communities over the last decade. Magnetic actuation offers many benefits when compared to other schemes for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS, including the generation of forces that have higher magnitude and longer range. Magnetic actuation can be achieved using different excitation sources, which create challenges related to the integration with other technologies, such as CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor, and the requirement to reduce power consumption. Novel designs and technologies are therefore sought to enable the use of magnetic switching architectures in integrated MEMS devices, without incurring excessive energy consumption. This article reviews the status of magnetic MEMS technology and presents devices recently developed by various research groups, with key focuses on integrability and effective power management, in addition to the ability to integrate the technology with other microelectronic fabrication processes.

  19. Modeling nonlinearities in MEMS oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Deepak K; Woodhouse, Jim; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2013-08-01

    We present a mathematical model of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) oscillator that integrates the nonlinearities of the MEMS resonator and the oscillator circuitry in a single numerical modeling environment. This is achieved by transforming the conventional nonlinear mechanical model into the electrical domain while simultaneously considering the prominent nonlinearities of the resonator. The proposed nonlinear electrical model is validated by comparing the simulated amplitude-frequency response with measurements on an open-loop electrically addressed flexural silicon MEMS resonator driven to large motional amplitudes. Next, the essential nonlinearities in the oscillator circuit are investigated and a mathematical model of a MEMS oscillator is proposed that integrates the nonlinearities of the resonator. The concept is illustrated for MEMS transimpedance-amplifier- based square-wave and sine-wave oscillators. Closed-form expressions of steady-state output power and output frequency are derived for both oscillator models and compared with experimental and simulation results, with a good match in the predicted trends in all three cases.

  20. An Evolutionary Approach for Robust Layout Synthesis of MEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun; Wang, Jiachuan; Goodman, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The paper introduces a robust design method for layout synthesis of MEM resonators subject to inherent geometric uncertainties such as the fabrication error on the sidewall of the structure. The robust design problem is formulated as a multi-objective constrained optimisation problem after certain...... assumptions and treated with multiobjective genetic algorithm (MOGA), a special type of evolutionary computing approaches. Case study based on layout synthesis of a comb-driven MEM resonator shows that the approach proposed in this paper can lead to design results that meet the target performance and are less...

  1. High definition surface micromachining of LiNbO 3 by ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarini, M.; Bentini, G. G.; Bianconi, M.; De Nicola, P.

    2010-10-01

    High Energy Ion Implantation (HEII) of both medium and light mass ions has been successfully applied for the surface micromachining of single crystal LiNbO 3 (LN) substrates. It has been demonstrated that the ion implantation process generates high differential etch rates in the LN implanted areas, when suitable implantation parameters, such as ion species, fluence and energy, are chosen. In particular, when traditional LN etching solutions are applied to suitably ion implanted regions, etch rates values up to three orders of magnitude higher than the typical etching rates of the virgin material, are registered. Further, the enhancement in the etching rate has been observed on x, y and z-cut single crystalline material, and, due to the physical nature of the implantation process, it is expected that it can be equivalently applied also to substrates with different crystallographic orientations. This technique, associated with standard photolithographic technologies, allows to generate in a fast and accurate way very high aspect ratio relief micrometric structures on LN single crystal surface. In this work a description of the developed technology is reported together with some examples of produced micromachined structures: in particular very precisely defined self sustaining suspended structures, such as beams and membranes, generated on LN substrates, are presented. The developed technology opens the way to actual three dimensional micromachining of LN single crystals substrates and, due to the peculiar properties characterising this material, (pyroelectric, electro-optic, acousto-optic, etc.), it allows the design and the production of complex integrated elements, characterised by micrometric features and suitable for the generation of advanced Micro Electro Optical Systems (MEOS).

  2. A batch process micromachined thermoelectric energy harvester: fabrication and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, J; Goedbloed, M; Van Andel, Y; De Nooijer, M C; Elfrink, R; Wang, Z; Vullers, R J M; Leonov, V

    2010-01-01

    Micromachined thermopiles are considered as a cost-effective solution for energy harvesters working at a small temperature difference and weak heat flows typical for, e.g., the human body. They can be used for powering autonomous wireless sensor nodes in a body area network. In this paper, a micromachined thermoelectric energy harvester with 6 µm high polycrystalline silicon germanium (poly-SiGe) thermocouples fabricated on a 6 inch wafer is presented. An open circuit voltage of 1.49 V and an output power of 0.4 µW can be generated with 3.5 K temperature difference in a model of a wearable micromachined energy harvester of the discussed design, which has a die size of 1.0 mm × 2.5 mm inside a watch-size generator

  3. A six degrees of freedom mems manipulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis reports about a six degrees of freedom (DOF) precision manipulator in MEMS, concerning concept generation for the manipulator followed by design and fabrication (of parts) of the proposed manipulation concept in MEMS. Researching the abilities of 6 DOF precision manipulation in MEMS is

  4. Electrostatic MEMS devices with high reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Charles L; Auciello, Orlando H; Sumant, Anirudha V; Mancini, Derrick C; Gudeman, Chris; Sampath, Suresh; Carlilse, John A; Carpick, Robert W; Hwang, James

    2015-02-24

    The present invention provides for an electrostatic microelectromechanical (MEMS) device comprising a dielectric layer separating a first conductor and a second conductor. The first conductor is moveable towards the second conductor, when a voltage is applied to the MEMS device. The dielectric layer recovers from dielectric charging failure almost immediately upon removal of the voltage from the MEMS device.

  5. High Efficiency Optical MEMS by the Integration of Photonic Lattices with Surface MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FLEMING, JAMES G.; LIN, SHAWN-YU; MANI, SEETHAMBAL S.; RODGERS, M. STEVEN; DAGEL, DARYL J.

    2002-11-01

    This report outlines our work on the integration of high efficiency photonic lattice structures with MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems). The simplest of these structures were based on 1-D mirror structures. These were integrated into a variety of devices, movable mirrors, switchable cavities and finally into Bragg fiber structures which enable the control of light in at least 2 dimensions. Of these devices, the most complex were the Bragg fibers. Bragg fibers consist of hollow tubes in which light is guided in a low index media (air) and confined by surrounding Bragg mirror stacks. In this work, structures with internal diameters from 5 to 30 microns have been fabricated and much larger structures should also be possible. We have demonstrated the fabrication of these structures with short wavelength band edges ranging from 400 to 1600nm. There may be potential applications for such structures in the fields of integrated optics and BioMEMS. We have also looked at the possibility of waveguiding in 3 dimensions by integrating defects into 3-dimensional photonic lattice structures. Eventually it may be possible to tune such structures by mechanically modulating the defects.

  6. A novel hybrid surface micromachined segmented mirror for large aperture laser applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Chen, Haiqing; Yu, Hongbin

    2006-07-01

    A novel hybrid surface micromachined segmented mirror array is described. This device is capable of scaling to large apertures for correcting time-varying aberrations in laser applications. Each mirror is composed of bottom electrode, support part, and mirror plate, in which a T-shaped beam structure is used to support the mirror plate. It can provide mirror with vertical movement and rotation around two horizontal axes. The test results show that the maximum deflection along the vertical direction of the mirror plate is 2 microns, while the rotation angles around x and y axes are +-2.3 deg. and +-1.45 deg., respectively.

  7. Model-based design of MEMS resonant pressure sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijlen, M.A.G.

    2011-01-01

    The massive integration of micromechanical structures on ICs to allow microsystems to sense and control the environment is expected to be one of the most important technological breakthroughs of the future. At present, cheap and small MEMS sensors are emerging in countless applications. Automotive

  8. Mechanical Robustness and Hermeticity Monitoring for MEMS Thin Film Encapsulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santagata, F.

    2011-01-01

    Many Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) require encapsulation, to prevent delicate sensor structures being exposed to external perturbations such as dust, humidity, touching, and gas pressure. An upcoming and cost-effective way of encapsulation is zero-level packaging or thin-film

  9. Multi-layer enhancement to polysilicon surface-micromachining technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sniegowski, J.J.; Rodgers, M.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Micromachine Dept.

    1997-10-01

    A multi-level polysilicon surface-micromachining technology consisting of 5 layers of polysilicon is presented. Surface topography and film mechanical stress are the major impediments encountered in the development of a multilayer surface-micromachining process. However, excellent mechanical film characteristics have been obtained through the use of chemical-mechanical polishing for planarization of topography and by proper sequencing of film deposition with thermal anneals. Examples of operating microactuators, geared power-transfer mechanisms, and optical elements demonstrate the mechanical advantages of construction with 5 polysilicon layers.

  10. UV laser micromachining of ceramic materials: formation of columnar topographies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, V.; Vilar, R.; Conde, O.

    2001-01-01

    Laser machining is increasingly appearing as an alternative for micromachining of ceramics. Using ceramic materials using excimer lasers can result in smooth surfaces or in the formation of cone-like or columnar topography. Potential applications of cone-shaped or columnar surface topography include, for example, light trapping in anti-reflection coatings and improvement of adhesion bonding between ceramic materials. In this communication results of a comparative study of surface topography change during micromachining of several ceramic materials with different ablation behaviors are reported. (orig.)

  11. MEMS applications in space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, William C.

    1997-09-01

    Space exploration in the coming century will emphasize cost effectiveness and highly focused mission objectives, which will result in frequent multiple missions that broaden the scope of space science and to validate new technologies on a timely basis. MEMS is one of the key enabling technology to create cost-effective, ultra-miniaturized, robust, and functionally focused spacecraft for both robotic and human exploration programs. Examples of MEMS devices at various stages of development include microgyroscope, microseismometer, microhygrometer, quadrupole mass spectrometer, and micropropulsion engine. These devices, when proven successful, will serve as models for developing components and systems for new-millennium spacecraft.

  12. Feasibility of Frequency-Modulated Wireless Transmission for a Multi-Purpose MEMS-Based Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sabato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS technology have made wireless MEMS accelerometers an attractive tool for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM of civil engineering structures. To date, sensors’ low sensitivity and accuracy—especially at very low frequencies—have imposed serious limitations for their application in monitoring large-sized structures. Conventionally, the MEMS sensor’s analog signals are converted to digital signals before radio-frequency (RF wireless transmission. The conversion can cause a low sensitivity to the important low-frequency and low-amplitude signals. To overcome this difficulty, the authors have developed a MEMS accelerometer system, which converts the sensor output voltage to a frequency-modulated signal before RF transmission. This is achieved by using a Voltage to Frequency Conversion (V/F instead of the conventional Analog to Digital Conversion (ADC. In this paper, a prototype MEMS accelerometer system is presented, which consists of a transmitter and receiver circuit boards. The former is equipped with a MEMS accelerometer, a V/F converter and a wireless RF transmitter, while the latter contains an RF receiver and a F/V converter for demodulating the signal. The efficacy of the MEMS accelerometer system in measuring low-frequency and low-amplitude dynamic responses is demonstrated through extensive laboratory tests and experiments on a flow-loop pipeline.

  13. Feasibility of frequency-modulated wireless transmission for a multi-purpose MEMS-based accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, Alessandro; Feng, Maria Q

    2014-09-05

    Recent advances in the Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technology have made wireless MEMS accelerometers an attractive tool for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of civil engineering structures. To date, sensors' low sensitivity and accuracy--especially at very low frequencies--have imposed serious limitations for their application in monitoring large-sized structures. Conventionally, the MEMS sensor's analog signals are converted to digital signals before radio-frequency (RF) wireless transmission. The conversion can cause a low sensitivity to the important low-frequency and low-amplitude signals. To overcome this difficulty, the authors have developed a MEMS accelerometer system, which converts the sensor output voltage to a frequency-modulated signal before RF transmission. This is achieved by using a Voltage to Frequency Conversion (V/F) instead of the conventional Analog to Digital Conversion (ADC). In this paper, a prototype MEMS accelerometer system is presented, which consists of a transmitter and receiver circuit boards. The former is equipped with a MEMS accelerometer, a V/F converter and a wireless RF transmitter, while the latter contains an RF receiver and a F/V converter for demodulating the signal. The efficacy of the MEMS accelerometer system in measuring low-frequency and low-amplitude dynamic responses is demonstrated through extensive laboratory tests and experiments on a flow-loop pipeline.

  14. A capacitive power sensor based on the MEMS cantilever beam fabricated by GaAs MMIC technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhenxiang; Liao, Xiaoping

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a novel capacitive power sensor based on the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) cantilever beam at 8-12 GHz is proposed, fabricated and tested. The presented design can not only realize a cantilever beam instead of the conventional fixed-fixed beam, but also provide fine compatibility with the GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) process. When the displacement of the cantilever beam is very small compared with the initial height of the air gap, the capacitance change between the measuring electrode and the cantilever beam has an approximately linear dependence on the incident radio frequency (RF) power. Impedance compensating technology, by modifying the slot width of the coplanar waveguide transmission line, is adopted to minimize the effect of the cantilever beam on the power sensor; its validity is verified by the simulation of high frequency structure simulator software. The power sensor has been fabricated successfully by Au surface micromachining using polyimide as the sacrificial layer on the GaAs substrate. Optimization of the design with impedance compensating technology has resulted in a measured return loss of less than -25 dB and an insertion loss of around 0.1 dB at 8-12 GHz, which shows the slight effect of the cantilever beam on the microwave performance of this power sensor. The measured capacitance change starts from 0.7 fF to 1.3 fF when the incident RF power increases from 100 to 200 mW and an approximate linear dependence has been obtained. The measured sensitivities of the sensor are about 6.16, 6.27 and 6.03 aF mW-1 at 8, 10 and 12 GHz, respectively.

  15. A capacitive power sensor based on the MEMS cantilever beam fabricated by GaAs MMIC technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Zhenxiang; Liao, Xiaoping

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel capacitive power sensor based on the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) cantilever beam at 8–12 GHz is proposed, fabricated and tested. The presented design can not only realize a cantilever beam instead of the conventional fixed–fixed beam, but also provide fine compatibility with the GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) process. When the displacement of the cantilever beam is very small compared with the initial height of the air gap, the capacitance change between the measuring electrode and the cantilever beam has an approximately linear dependence on the incident radio frequency (RF) power. Impedance compensating technology, by modifying the slot width of the coplanar waveguide transmission line, is adopted to minimize the effect of the cantilever beam on the power sensor; its validity is verified by the simulation of high frequency structure simulator software. The power sensor has been fabricated successfully by Au surface micromachining using polyimide as the sacrificial layer on the GaAs substrate. Optimization of the design with impedance compensating technology has resulted in a measured return loss of less than −25 dB and an insertion loss of around 0.1 dB at 8–12 GHz, which shows the slight effect of the cantilever beam on the microwave performance of this power sensor. The measured capacitance change starts from 0.7 fF to 1.3 fF when the incident RF power increases from 100 to 200 mW and an approximate linear dependence has been obtained. The measured sensitivities of the sensor are about 6.16, 6.27 and 6.03 aF mW −1 at 8, 10 and 12 GHz, respectively. (paper)

  16. MEMS based digital transform spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Yariv; Ramani, Mouli

    2005-09-01

    Earlier this year, a new breed of Spectrometers based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) engines has been introduced to the commercial market. The use of these engines combined with transform mathematics, produces powerful spectrometers at unprecedented low cost in various spectral regions.

  17. MEMS reliability: coming of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Michael R.

    2008-02-01

    In today's high-volume semiconductor world, one could easily take reliability for granted. As the MOEMS/MEMS industry continues to establish itself as a viable alternative to conventional manufacturing in the macro world, reliability can be of high concern. Currently, there are several emerging market opportunities in which MOEMS/MEMS is gaining a foothold. Markets such as mobile media, consumer electronics, biomedical devices, and homeland security are all showing great interest in microfabricated products. At the same time, these markets are among the most demanding when it comes to reliability assurance. To be successful, each company developing a MOEMS/MEMS device must consider reliability on an equal footing with cost, performance and manufacturability. What can this maturing industry learn from the successful development of DLP technology, air bag accelerometers and inkjet printheads? This paper discusses some basic reliability principles which any MOEMS/MEMS device development must use. Examples from the commercially successful and highly reliable Digital Micromirror Device complement the discussion.

  18. A Musical instrument in MEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; de Boer, Hans L.; de Boer, H.; Beekman, J.G.; Been, A.J.; Folkertsma, Gerrit Adriaan; Folkertsma, G.A.; Fortgens, L.; de Graaf, D.; Vocke, S.; Woldering, L.A.; Abelmann, Leon; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    In this work we describe a MEMS instrument that resonates at audible frequencies, and with which music can be made. The sounds are generated by mechanical resonators and capacitive displacement sensors. Damping by air scales unfavourably for generating audible frequencies with small devices.

  19. MEMS for Space Flight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, R.

    1998-01-01

    Micro-Electrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are entering the stage of design and verification to demonstrate the utility of the technology for a wide range of applications including sensors and actuators for military, space, medical, industrial, consumer, automotive and instrumentation products.

  20. Monitoring of yeast cell concentration using a micromachined impedance sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krommenhoek, E.E.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Bomer, Johan G.; van den Berg, Albert; Li, X.; Ottens, M.; van der Wielen, L.A.M.; van Dedem, G.W.K.; van Leeuwen, M.; van Gulik, W.M.; Heijnen, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the design, modelling and experimental characterization of a micromachined impedance sensor for on-line monitoring of the viable yeast cell concentration (biomass) in a miniaturized cell assay. Measurements in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell culture show that the permittivity of

  1. A micromachined surface stress sensor with electronic readout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlen, Edwin; Weinberg, M.S.; Zapata, A.M.; Borenstein, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    A micromachined surface stress sensor has been fabricated and integrated off chip with a low-noise, differential capacitance, electronic readout circuit. The differential capacitance signal is modulated with a high frequency carrier signal, and the output signal is synchronously demodulated and

  2. Development of a focused ion beam micromachining system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellerin, J.G.; Griffis, D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    Focused ion beams are currently being investigated for many submicron fabrication and analytical purposes. An FIB micromachining system consisting of a UHV vacuum system, a liquid metal ion gun, and a control and data acquisition computer has been constructed. This system is being used to develop nanofabrication and nanomachining techniques involving focused ion beams and scanning tunneling microscopes.

  3. Sub-band-gap laser micromachining of lithium niobate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, F. K.; Müllenborn, Matthias

    1995-01-01

    method is reported which enables us to do laser processing of lithium niobate using sub-band-gap photons. Using high scan speeds, moderate power densities, and sub-band-gap photon energies results in volume removal rates in excess of 106µm3/s. This enables fast micromachining of small piezoelectric...

  4. Nonlinear-Based MEMS Sensors and Active Switches for Gas Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.

    2016-05-25

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of a MOF thin film on electrostatically actuated microstructures to realize a switch triggered by gas and a sensing algorithm based on amplitude tracking. The devices are based on the nonlinear response of micromachined clamped-clamped beams. The microbeams are coated with a metal-organic framework (MOF), namely HKUST-1, to achieve high sensitivity. The softening and hardening nonlinear behaviors of the microbeams are exploited to demonstrate the ideas. For gas sensing, an amplitude-based tracking algorithm is developed to quantify the captured quantity of gas. Then, a MEMS switch triggered by gas using the nonlinear response of the microbeam is demonstrated. Noise analysis is conducted, which shows that the switch has high stability against thermal noise. The proposed switch is promising for delivering binary sensing information, and also can be used directly to activate useful functionalities, such as alarming.

  5. Nonlinear-Based MEMS Sensors and Active Switches for Gas Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.; Jaber, Nizar; Yassine, Omar; Shekhah, Osama; Chernikova, Valeriya; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of a MOF thin film on electrostatically actuated microstructures to realize a switch triggered by gas and a sensing algorithm based on amplitude tracking. The devices are based on the nonlinear response of micromachined clamped-clamped beams. The microbeams are coated with a metal-organic framework (MOF), namely HKUST-1, to achieve high sensitivity. The softening and hardening nonlinear behaviors of the microbeams are exploited to demonstrate the ideas. For gas sensing, an amplitude-based tracking algorithm is developed to quantify the captured quantity of gas. Then, a MEMS switch triggered by gas using the nonlinear response of the microbeam is demonstrated. Noise analysis is conducted, which shows that the switch has high stability against thermal noise. The proposed switch is promising for delivering binary sensing information, and also can be used directly to activate useful functionalities, such as alarming.

  6. Nonlinear-Based MEMS Sensors and Active Switches for Gas Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bouchaala

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of a MOF thin film on electrostatically actuated microstructures to realize a switch triggered by gas and a sensing algorithm based on amplitude tracking. The devices are based on the nonlinear response of micromachined clamped-clamped beams. The microbeams are coated with a metal-organic framework (MOF, namely HKUST-1, to achieve high sensitivity. The softening and hardening nonlinear behaviors of the microbeams are exploited to demonstrate the ideas. For gas sensing, an amplitude-based tracking algorithm is developed to quantify the captured quantity of gas. Then, a MEMS switch triggered by gas using the nonlinear response of the microbeam is demonstrated. Noise analysis is conducted, which shows that the switch has high stability against thermal noise. The proposed switch is promising for delivering binary sensing information, and also can be used directly to activate useful functionalities, such as alarming.

  7. Nonlinear-Based MEMS Sensors and Active Switches for Gas Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchaala, Adam; Jaber, Nizar; Yassine, Omar; Shekhah, Osama; Chernikova, Valeriya; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of a MOF thin film on electrostatically actuated microstructures to realize a switch triggered by gas and a sensing algorithm based on amplitude tracking. The devices are based on the nonlinear response of micromachined clamped-clamped beams. The microbeams are coated with a metal-organic framework (MOF), namely HKUST-1, to achieve high sensitivity. The softening and hardening nonlinear behaviors of the microbeams are exploited to demonstrate the ideas. For gas sensing, an amplitude-based tracking algorithm is developed to quantify the captured quantity of gas. Then, a MEMS switch triggered by gas using the nonlinear response of the microbeam is demonstrated. Noise analysis is conducted, which shows that the switch has high stability against thermal noise. The proposed switch is promising for delivering binary sensing information, and also can be used directly to activate useful functionalities, such as alarming. PMID:27231914

  8. Nonlinear-Based MEMS Sensors and Active Switches for Gas Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchaala, Adam; Jaber, Nizar; Yassine, Omar; Shekhah, Osama; Chernikova, Valeriya; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Younis, Mohammad I

    2016-05-25

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of a MOF thin film on electrostatically actuated microstructures to realize a switch triggered by gas and a sensing algorithm based on amplitude tracking. The devices are based on the nonlinear response of micromachined clamped-clamped beams. The microbeams are coated with a metal-organic framework (MOF), namely HKUST-1, to achieve high sensitivity. The softening and hardening nonlinear behaviors of the microbeams are exploited to demonstrate the ideas. For gas sensing, an amplitude-based tracking algorithm is developed to quantify the captured quantity of gas. Then, a MEMS switch triggered by gas using the nonlinear response of the microbeam is demonstrated. Noise analysis is conducted, which shows that the switch has high stability against thermal noise. The proposed switch is promising for delivering binary sensing information, and also can be used directly to activate useful functionalities, such as alarming.

  9. Proton beam micromachining on strippable aqueous base developable negative resist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajta, I.; Uzonyi, I.; Baradacs, E.; Chatzichristidi, M.; Raptis, I.; Valamontes, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Proton Beam Micromachining (PBM, also known as P-beam writing), a novel direct- write process for the production of 3D microstructures, can be used to make multilevel structures in a single layer of resist by varying the ion energy. The interaction between the bombarding ions and the target material is mainly ionization, and very few ions suffer high angle nuclear collisions, therefore structures made with PBM have smooth near vertical side walls. The most commony applied resists in PBM are the positive, conventional, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA); and the negative, chemically amplified, SU-8 (Micro Chem Corp). SU-8 is an epoxy based resist suitable also for LIGA and UV-LIGA processes, it offers good sensitivity, good process latitude, very high aspect ratio and therefore it dominates in the high aspect ratio micromachining applications. SU-8 requires 30 nC/mm 2 fluence for PBM irradiations at 2 MeV protons. Its crosslinking chemistry is based on the eight epoxy rings in the polymer chain, which provide a very dense three dimensional network in the presence of suitably activated photo acid generators (PAGs) which is very difficult to be stripped away after development. Thus, stripping has to be assisted with plasma processes or with special liquid removers. Moreover, the SU-8 developer is organic, propylene glycol methyl ether acetate (PGMEA), and thus environmentally non-friendly. To overcome the SU-8 stripping limitations, design of a negative resist system where solubility change is not based solely on cross- linking but also on the differentiation of hydrophilicity between exposed and non-exposed areas is desirable. A new resist formulation, fulfilling the above specifications has been developed recently [1]. This formulation is based on a specific grade epoxy novolac (EP) polymer, a partially hydrogenated poly-4-hydroxy styrene (PHS) polymer, and an onium salt as photoacid generator (PAG), and has been successfully

  10. Additive direct-write microfabrication for MEMS: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Kwok Siong

    2017-12-01

    manufacturing technologies, it is possible to fabricate unsophisticated micrometer scale structures at adequate resolutions and precisions using materials that range from polymers, metals, ceramics, to composites. In both academia and industry, direct-write additive manufacturing offers extraordinary promises to revolutionize research and development in microfabrication and MEMS technologies. Importantly, direct-write additive manufacturing could appreciably augment current MEMS fabrication technologies, enable faster design-to-product cycle, empower new paradigms in MEMS designs, and critically, encourage wider participation in MEMS research at institutions or for individuals with limited or no access to cleanroom facilities. This article aims to provide a limited review of the current landscape of direct-write additive manufacturing techniques that are potentially applicable for MEMS microfabrication.

  11. A micromachined calorimetric gas sensor: an application of electrodeposited nanostructured palladium for the detection of combustible gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Philip N; Guerin, Samuel

    2003-01-01

    Palladium films with regular nanoarchitectures were electrochemically deposited from the hexagonal (H1) lyotropic liquid crystalline phase of the nonionic surfactant octaethyleneglycol monohexadecyl ether (C16EO8) onto micromachined silicon hotplate structures. The H1-e Pd films were shown to have high surface areas (approximately 28 m2 g(-1)) and to act as effective and stable catalysts for the detection of methane in air on heating to 500 degrees C. The response of the H1-e Pd-coated planar pellistors was found to be linearly proportional to the concentration of methane between 0 and 2.5% in air with a detection limit below 0.125%. Our results show that the electrochemical deposition of nanostructured metal films offers a promising approach to the fabrication of micromachined calorimetric gas sensors for combustible gases.

  12. Modeling of MEMS Mirrors Actuated by Phase-Change Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Torres

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the multiple applications for micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS mirror devices, most of the research efforts are focused on improving device performance in terms of tilting angles, speed, and their integration into larger arrays or systems. The modeling of these devices is crucial for enabling a platform, in particular, by allowing for the future control of such devices. In this paper, we present the modeling of a MEMS mirror structure with four actuators driven by the phase-change of a thin film. The complexity of the device structure and the nonlinear behavior of the actuation mechanism allow for a comprehensive study that encompasses simpler electrothermal designs, thus presenting a general approach that can be adapted to most MEMS mirror designs based on this operation principle. The MEMS mirrors presented in this work are actuated by Joule heating and tested using optical techniques. Mechanical and thermal models including both pitch and roll displacements are developed by combining theoretical analysis (using both numerical and analytical tools with experimental data and subsequently verifying with quasi-static and dynamic experiments.

  13. Focus on Novel Nanoelectromechanical 3D Structures: Fabrication and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shooji Yamada, Hiroshi Yamaguchi and Sunao Ishihara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS are widely used small electromechanical systems made of micrometre-sized components. Presently, we are witnessing a transition from MEMS to nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS, which comprise devices integrating electrical and mechanical functionality on the nanoscale and offer new exciting applications. Similarly to MEMS, NEMS typically include a central transistor-like nanoelectronic unit for data processing, as well as mechanical actuators, pumps, and motors; and they may combine with physical, biological and chemical sensors. In the transition from MEMS to NEMS, component sizes need to be reduced. Therefore, many fabrication methods previously developed for MEMS are unsuitable for the production of high-precision NEMS components. The key challenge in NEMS is therefore the development of new methods for routine and reproducible nanofabrication. Two complementary types of method for NEMS fabrication are available: 'top-down' and 'bottom-up'. The top-down approach uses traditional lithography technologies, whereas bottom-up techniques include molecular self-organization, self-assembly and nanodeposition.The NT2008 conference, held at Ishikawa High-Tech Conference Center, Ishikawa, Japan, between 23–25 October 2008, focused on novel NEMS fabricated from new materials and on process technologies. The topics included compound semiconductors, small mechanical structures, nanostructures for micro-fluid and bio-sensors, bio-hybrid micro-machines, as well as their design and simulation.This focus issue compiles seven articles selected from 13 submitted manuscripts. The articles by Prinz et al and Kehrbusch et al introduce the frontiers of the top-down production of various operational NEMS devices, and Kometani et al present an example of the bottom-up approach, namely ion-beam induced deposition of MEMS and NEMS. The remaining articles report novel technologies for biological sensors. Taira et al have used

  14. Millimeter length micromachining using a heavy ion nuclear microprobe with standard magnetic scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesprías, F.; Debray, M.E.; Davidson, J.; Kreiner, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    In order to increase the scanning length of our microprobe, we have developed an irradiation procedure suitable for use in any nuclear microprobe, extending at least up to 400% the length of our heavy ion direct writing facility using standard magnetic exploration. Although this method is limited to patterns of a few millimeters in only one direction, it is useful for the manufacture of curved waveguides, optical devices such Mach–Zehnder modulators, directional couplers as well as channels for micro-fluidic applications. As an example, this technique was applied to the fabrication of 3 mm 3D-Mach–Zehnder modulators in lithium niobate with short Y input/output branches and long shaped parallel-capacitor control electrodes. To extend and improve the quality of the machined structures we developed new scanning control software in LabView™ platform. The new code supports an external dose normalization, electrostatic beam blanking and is capable of scanning figures at 16 bit resolution using a National Instruments™ PCI-6731 High-Speed I/O card. A deep and vertical micromachining process using swift 35 Cl ions 70 MeV bombarding energy and direct write patterning was performed on LiNbO 3 , a material which exhibits a strong natural anisotropy to conventional etching. The micromachined structures show the feasibility of this method for manufacturing micro-fluidic channels as well

  15. Millimeter length micromachining using a heavy ion nuclear microprobe with standard magnetic scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesprías, F. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Debray, M.E., E-mail: debray@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología. Universidad Nacional de Gral. San Martín, M. De Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Davidson, J. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET, Avda. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología. Universidad Nacional de Gral. San Martín, M. De Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET, Avda. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2013-04-01

    In order to increase the scanning length of our microprobe, we have developed an irradiation procedure suitable for use in any nuclear microprobe, extending at least up to 400% the length of our heavy ion direct writing facility using standard magnetic exploration. Although this method is limited to patterns of a few millimeters in only one direction, it is useful for the manufacture of curved waveguides, optical devices such Mach–Zehnder modulators, directional couplers as well as channels for micro-fluidic applications. As an example, this technique was applied to the fabrication of 3 mm 3D-Mach–Zehnder modulators in lithium niobate with short Y input/output branches and long shaped parallel-capacitor control electrodes. To extend and improve the quality of the machined structures we developed new scanning control software in LabView™ platform. The new code supports an external dose normalization, electrostatic beam blanking and is capable of scanning figures at 16 bit resolution using a National Instruments™ PCI-6731 High-Speed I/O card. A deep and vertical micromachining process using swift {sup 35}Cl ions 70 MeV bombarding energy and direct write patterning was performed on LiNbO{sub 3}, a material which exhibits a strong natural anisotropy to conventional etching. The micromachined structures show the feasibility of this method for manufacturing micro-fluidic channels as well.

  16. Optical temperature sensor and thermal expansion measurement using a femtosecond micromachined grating in 6H-SiC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesAutels, G Logan; Powers, Peter; Brewer, Chris; Walker, Mark; Burky, Mark; Anderson, Gregg

    2008-07-20

    An optical temperature sensor was created using a femtosecond micromachined diffraction grating inside transparent bulk 6H-SiC, and to the best of our knowledge, this is a novel technique of measuring temperature. Other methods of measuring temperature using fiber Bragg gratings have been devised by other groups such as Zhang and Kahrizi [in MEMS, NANO, and Smart Systems (IEEE, 2005)]. This temperature sensor was, to the best of our knowledge, also used for a novel method of measuring the linear and nonlinear coefficients of the thermal expansion of transparent and nontransparent materials by means of the grating first-order diffracted beam. Furthermore the coefficient of thermal expansion of 6H-SiC was measured using this new technique. A He-Ne laser beam was used with the SiC grating to produce a first-order diffracted beam where the change in deflection height was measured as a function of temperature. The grating was micromachined with a 20 microm spacing and has dimensions of approximately 500 microm x 500 microm (l x w) and is roughly 0.5 microm deep into the 6H-SiC bulk. A minimum temperature of 26.7 degrees C and a maximum temperature of 399 degrees C were measured, which gives a DeltaT of 372.3 degrees C. The sensitivity of the technique is DeltaT=5 degrees C. A maximum deflection angle of 1.81 degrees was measured in the first-order diffracted beam. The trend of the deflection with increasing temperature is a nonlinear polynomial of the second-order. This optical SiC thermal sensor has many high-temperature electronic applications such as aircraft turbine and gas tank monitoring for commercial and military applications.

  17. Micro-Electromechanical-Systems (MEMS) technologies for aerospace applications in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimprikar, M.

    2001-01-01

    During the last decade, research and development of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) have shown significant promise for a variety of aerospace applications. The advantages of drastic size and weight reduction of MEMS enables consideration of developing low-cost, high-performance, ultra-portable, MEMS-based devices and systems for aircraft, space and defense requirements. 'Microelectromechanical Systems, or MEMS', are integrated microdevices or systems combining electrical and mechanical components, fabricated using integrated circuit compatible batch-processing techniques, and varying in size from micrometers to millimeters. In the 1990's, MEMS were used as laboratory curiosities with very low power, short lifetimes and few concrete applications. One decade later, MEMS have taken major roles in several industries, the total world market is expected to grow from $14 billion to over $40 billion by the year 2002. A typical device contains micromechanical structures that move by flexing (membranes, cantilevers, springs) and MEMS/MOEMS level where the integration of microelectronics, micromechanics and optics form a complete system (sensor, actuator, photonic device). (author)

  18. Torsion based universal MEMS logic device

    KAUST Repository

    Ilyas, Saad; Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Bayes, Ernesto; Foulds, Ian G.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate torsion based complementary MEMS logic device, which is capable, of performing INVERTER, AND, NAND, NOR, and OR gates using one physical structure within an operating range of 0-10 volts. It can also perform XOR and XNOR with one access inverter using the same structure with different electrical interconnects. The paper presents modeling, fabrication and experimental calculations of various performance features of the device including lifetime, power consumption and resonance frequency. The fabricated device is 535 μm by 150 μm with a gap of 1.92 μm and a resonant frequency of 6.51 kHz. The device is capable of performing the switching operation with a frequency of 1 kHz.

  19. Highly Tunable Narrow Bandpass MEMS Filter

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al

    2017-07-07

    We demonstrate a proof-of-concept highly tunable narrow bandpass filter based on electrothermally and electrostatically actuated microelectromechanical-system (MEMS) resonators. The device consists of two mechanically uncoupled clamped-clamped arch resonators, designed such that their resonance frequencies are independently tuned to obtain the desired narrow passband. Through the electrothermal and electrostatic actuation, the stiffness of the structures is highly tunable. We experimentally demonstrate significant percentage tuning (~125%) of the filter center frequency by varying the applied electrothermal voltages to the resonating structures, while maintaining a narrow passband of 550 ± 50 Hz, a stopband rejection of >17 dB, and a passband ripple ≤ 2.5 dB. An analytical model based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is used to confirm the behavior of the filter, and the origin of the high tunability using electrothermal actuation is discussed.

  20. Torsion based universal MEMS logic device

    KAUST Repository

    Ilyas, Saad

    2015-10-28

    In this work we demonstrate torsion based complementary MEMS logic device, which is capable, of performing INVERTER, AND, NAND, NOR, and OR gates using one physical structure within an operating range of 0-10 volts. It can also perform XOR and XNOR with one access inverter using the same structure with different electrical interconnects. The paper presents modeling, fabrication and experimental calculations of various performance features of the device including lifetime, power consumption and resonance frequency. The fabricated device is 535 μm by 150 μm with a gap of 1.92 μm and a resonant frequency of 6.51 kHz. The device is capable of performing the switching operation with a frequency of 1 kHz.

  1. Micromachined microphone array on a chip for turbulent boundary layer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Joshua Steven

    A surface micromachined microphone array on a single chip has been successfully designed, fabricated, characterized, and tested for aeroacoustic purposes. The microphone was designed to have venting through the diaphragm, 64 elements (8x8) on the chip, and used a capacitive transduction scheme. The microphone was fabricated using the MEMSCAP PolyMUMPs process (a foundry polysilicon surface micromachining process) along with facilities at Tufts Micro and Nano Fabrication Facility (TMNF) where a Parylene-C passivation layer deposition and release of the microstructures were performed. The devices are packaged with low profile interconnects, presenting a maximum of 100 mum of surface topology. The design of an individual microphone was completed through the use of a lumped element model (LEM) to determine the theoretical performance of the microphone. Off-chip electronics were created to allow the microphone array outputs to be redirected to one of two channels, allowing dynamic reconfiguration of the effective transducer shape in software and provide 80 dB off isolation. The characterization was completed through the use of laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV), acoustic plane wave tube and free-field calibration, and electrical noise floor testing in a Faraday cage. Measured microphone sensitivity is 0.15 mV/Pa for an individual microphone and 8.7 mV/Pa for the entire array, in close agreement with model predictions. The microphones and electronics operate over the 200--40 000 Hz band. The dynamic range extends from 60 dB SPL in a 1 Hz band to greater than 150 dB SPL. Element variability was +/-0.05 mV/Pa in sensitivity with an array yield of 95%. Wind tunnel testing at flow rates of up to 205.8 m/s indicates that the devices continue to operate in flow without damage, and can be successfully reconfigured on the fly. Care has been taken to systematically remove contaminating signals (acoustic, vibration, and noise floor) from the wind tunnel data to determine actual

  2. Integrated Electromechanical Transduction Schemes for Polymer MEMS Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Thuau

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Polymer Micro ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS have the potential to constitute a powerful alternative to silicon-based MEMS devices for sensing applications. Although the use of commercial photoresists as structural material in polymer MEMS has been widely reported, the integration of functional polymer materials as electromechanical transducers has not yet received the same amount of interest. In this context, we report on the design and fabrication of different electromechanical schemes based on polymeric materials ensuring different transduction functions. Piezoresistive transduction made of carbon nanotube-based nanocomposites with a gauge factor of 200 was embedded within U-shaped polymeric cantilevers operating either in static or dynamic modes. Flexible resonators with integrated piezoelectric transduction were also realized and used as efficient viscosity sensors. Finally, piezoelectric-based organic field effect transistor (OFET electromechanical transduction exhibiting a record sensitivity of over 600 was integrated into polymer cantilevers and used as highly sensitive strain and humidity sensors. Such advances in integrated electromechanical transduction schemes should favor the development of novel all-polymer MEMS devices for flexible and wearable applications in the future.

  3. A Widely-Accessible Distributed MEMS Processing Environment. The MEMS Exchange Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    all of these patterns in advance, we made a new cost model, called the Python Code cost model, which utilizes the power of a high level programming ...document entitled “The Beginners Guide to MEMS Processing” on the MEMSNet and MEMS Exchange The MEMS Exchange Program Final Technical Report October 29...from the Government is absolutely necessary. As said The MEMS Exchange Program Final Technical Report October 29, 2012 Page 57 of 58 before

  4. FY1995 development of micromachine technology based on insects; 1995 nendo konchu wo kihan to suru micromachine gijutsu no kakuritsu to jitsuyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    If we develop micromachines by reducing simply the size of conventional mechanical systems, we cannot get sufficient performances of them because of scale-effect. Small natural creatures, insects, have very good structures and functions reasonable for their small size. In this research, basic characteristics of sensors, actuators, information processing functions, etc. of insects are studied and artificial systems similar to them are developed for industrial application. (1) Compound eyes: Insect compound eyes is the visual sensor which is composed of microlenses which are distributed three-dimensionally, receptors which vibrate with small amplitude around an optical axis and neural networks. In this research, the large scale model (several centimeters sized) of insect compound eyes has been developed. (2) Pheromone sensor: Pheromone gas sensor has been made of real male silkworm moth antenae. This sensor has been proved to work well as the female pheromone detector. This sensor was installed at the nose part of a wheeled mobile robot and this robot was observed to act like a real silkworm moth subjected to female pheromone stream. (3) Electrostatic microactuator: Generally speaking, high voltage(higher than 100V) electric power is necessary to actuate the electrostatic actuator. It was considered to be impossible to actuate them directly from CMOS. In this research, a new electrostatic actuator which can be actuated with less than 10V voltage can cause a fairly large displacement. (4) Hydraulic actuator: For micromachines, hydraulic pressure will be applicable for actuation. Structures may be simple and scale effect may give an advantageous characteristics for microsize. A butterfly-type flying robot was developed and it flied up along a vertical bar. (NEDO)

  5. Micromachined piezoresistive inclinometer with oscillator-based integrated interface circuit and temperature readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalola, Simone; Ferrari, Vittorio; Marioli, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a dual-chip system for inclination measurement is presented. It consists of a MEMS (microelectromechanical system) piezoresistive accelerometer manufactured in silicon bulk micromachining and a CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) interface designed for resistive-bridge sensors. The sensor is composed of a seismic mass symmetrically suspended by means of four flexure beams that integrate two piezoresistors each to detect the applied static acceleration, which is related to inclination with respect to the gravity vector. The ASIC interface is based on a relaxation oscillator where the frequency and the duty cycle of a rectangular-wave output signal are related to the fractional bridge imbalance and the overall bridge resistance of the sensor, respectively. The latter is a function of temperature; therefore the sensing element itself can be advantageously used to derive information for its own thermal compensation. DC current excitation of the sensor makes the configuration unaffected by wire resistances and parasitic capacitances. Therefore, a modular system results where the sensor can be placed remotely from the electronics without suffering accuracy degradation. The inclination measurement system has been characterized as a function of the applied inclination angle at different temperatures. At room temperature, the experimental sensitivity of the system results in about 148 Hz/g, which corresponds to an angular sensitivity around zero inclination angle of about 2.58 Hz deg −1 . This is in agreement with finite element method simulations. The measured output fluctuations at constant temperature determine an equivalent resolution of about 0.1° at midrange. In the temperature range of 25–65 °C the system sensitivity decreases by about 10%, which is less than the variation due to the microsensor alone thanks to thermal compensation provided by the current excitation of the bridge and the

  6. Miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Fang (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    This invention documents the efforts on the research and development of a miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated navigation system. A miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated navigation system is presented; Laser Dynamic Range Imager (LDRI) based alignment algorithm for space applications is discussed. Two navigation cameras are also included to measure the range and range rate which can be integrated into the GPS/MEMS IMU system to enhance the navigation solution.

  7. MEMS Stirling Cooler Development Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Wesolek, Danielle

    2003-01-01

    This presentation provides an update on the effort to build and test a prototype unit of the patented MEMS Stirling cooler concept. A micro-scale regenerator has been fabricated by Polar Thermal Technologies and is currently being integrated into a Stirling cycle simulator at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. A discussion of the analysis, design, assembly, and test plans for the prototype will be presented.

  8. Surface chemistry and tribology of MEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maboudian, Roya; Carraro, Carlo

    2004-01-01

    The microscopic length scale and high surface-to-volume ratio, characteristic of microelectro-mechanical systems (MEMS), dictate that surface properties are of paramount importance. This review deals with the effects of surface chemical treatments on tribological properties (adhesion, friction, and wear) of MEMS devices. After a brief review of materials and processes that are utilized in MEMS technology, the relevant tribological and chemical issues are discussed. Various MEMS microinstruments are discussed, which are commonly employed to perform adhesion, friction, and wear measurements. The effects of different surface treatments on the reported tribological properties are discussed.

  9. Monolithic integration of a micromachined piezoresistive flow sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dan; Zhao, Tao; Yang, Zhenchuan; Zhang, Dacheng

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a monolithic integrated piezoresistive flow sensor is presented, which was fabricated with an intermediate CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) MEMS (micro electro mechanical system) process compatible with integrated pressure sensors. Four symmetrically arranged silicon diaphragms with piezoresistors on them were used to sense the drag force induced by the input gas flow. A signal conditioning CMOS circuit with a temperature compensation module was designed and fabricated simultaneously on the same chip with an increase of the total chip area by only 35%. An extra step of boron implantation and annealing was inserted into the standard CMOS process to form the piezoresistors. KOH anisotropic etching from the backside and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) from the front side were combined to realize the silicon diaphragms. The integrated flow sensor was packaged and tested. The testing results indicated that the addition of piezoresistor formation and structure releasing did not significantly change any of the circuitry characteristics. The measured sensor output has a quadratic relation with the input flow rate of the fluid as predicted. The tested resolution of the sensor is less than 0.1 L min −1 with a measurement range of 0.1–5 L min −1 and the sensitivity is better than 40 mV per (L min −1 ) with a measurement range of 4–5 L min −1 . The measured noise floor of the sensor is 21.7 µV rtHz −1 .

  10. Micromachined sensor and actuator research at Sandia`s Microelectronics Development Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.H.

    1996-11-01

    An overview of the surface micromachining program at the Microelectronics Development Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories is presented. Development efforts are underway for a variety of surface micromachined sensors and actuators for both defense and commercial applications. A technology that embeds micromechanical devices below the surface of the wafer prior to microelectronics fabrication has been developed for integrating microelectronics with surface-micromachined micromechanical devices. The application of chemical-mechanical polishing to increase the manufacturability of micromechanical devices is also presented.

  11. Condensation of sodium on a micromachined surface for AMTEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, C.J.; Izenson, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    A novel condenser component is being developed to enable Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Conversion (AMTEC) technology to achieve two critical goals: (1) optimization of conversion efficiency and (2) microgravity fluid management. The first goal is achieved by minimizing parasitic radiation heat transfer losses for condensers with a large view factor to the high-temperature β double-prime-alumina surface. The condenser geometry includes a specially designed, micromachined surface where large capillary forces are used to manage the fluid distribution to accomplish the second goal. We present and discuss the results of separate effects experiments investigating the wetting and condensation behavior of sodium on this capillary surface. Test results show that the micromachined surface maintains a smooth, high reflective film of liquid sodium on the surface, which implies reduced parasitic losses and increased conversion efficiencies in AMTEC cells. Accomplishing this in an adverse gravity gradient demonstrates the potential for management of the fluid even under spacecraft acceleration conditions

  12. Micromachined Polycrystalline Si Thermopiles in a T-shirt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Leonov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The technology for in-plane poly-Si thermopiles has been developed. The bulk-micromachined thermopiles are located between two Si bars and connected thermally with those bars through thin-film thermal shunts. The patterned strips of thermocouple material together with thermal shunts form bridges between Si bars. Two versions of a thermoelectric generator (TEG with micromachined thermopiles have been assembled and tested on a person’s wrist, and when integrated in a T-shirt. The TEG still produces less than 1 μW in the office, but at ambient temperatures below 11-13 °C it produces more than 1 μW at a voltage of more than 2 V on the matched load. The new way of integration of wearable TEG in clothing is shown. The TEG is located under the textile, and the fabric is used as a flexible radiator.

  13. Artificial intelligence: Collective behaviors of synthetic micromachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wentao

    Synthetic nano- and micromotors function through the conversion of chemical free energy or forms of energy into mechanical motion. Ever since the first reports, such motors have been the subject of growing interest. In addition to motility in response to gradients, these motors interact with each other, resulting in emergent collective behavior like schooling, exclusion, and predator-prey. However, most of these systems only exhibit a single type of collective behavior in response to a certain stimuli. The research projects in the disseratation aim at designing synthetic micromotors that can exhibit transition between various collective behaviors in response to different stimuli, as well as quantitative understanding on the pairwise interaction and propulsion mechanism of such motors. Chapter 1 offers an overview on development of synthetic micromachines. Interactions and collective behaviors of micromotors are also summarized and included. Chapter 2 presents a silver orthophosphate microparticle system that exhibits collective behaviors. Transition between two collective patterns, clustering and dispersion, can be triggered by shift in chemical equilibrium upon the addition or removal of ammonia, in response to UV light, or under two orthogonal stimuli (UV and acoustic field) and powering mechanisms. The transitions can be explained by the self-diffusiophoresis mechanism resulting from either ionic or neutral solute gradients. Potential applications of the reported system in logic gates, microscale pumping, and hierarchical assembly have been demonstrated. Chapter 3 introduces a self-powered oscillatory micromotor system in which active colloids form clusters whose size changes periodically. The system consists of an aqueous suspension of silver orthophosphate particles under UV radiation, in the presence of a mixture of glucose and hydrogen peroxide. The colloid particles first attract with each other to form clusters. After a lag time of around 5min, chemical

  14. MEMS-based clamp with a passive hold function for precision position retaining of micro manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, D M; Van Dijk, J; Soemers, H M J R; De Jong, B R; De Boer, M J; Jansen, H V; Krijnen, G J M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the design, modeling and fabrication of a precision MEMS-based clamp with a relatively large clamping force are presented. The purpose of the clamp is to mechanically fix a six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) MEMS-based sample manipulator (Brouwer et al J. Int. Soc. Precis. Eng. Nanotechnol. submitted) once the sample has been positioned in all DOFs. The clamping force is generated by a rotational electrostatic comb-drive actuator and can be latched passively by a parallel plate type electrostatically driven locking device. The clamp design is based on the principles of exact constraint design, resulting in a high actuation compliance (flexibility) combined with a high suspension stiffness. Therefore, a relatively large blocking force of 1.4 mN in relation to the used area of 1.8 mm 2 is obtained. The fabrication is based on silicon bulk micromachining technology and combines a high-aspect-ratio deep reactive ion etching (DRIE), conformal deposition of low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) silicon nitride and an anisotropic potassium hydroxide (KOH) backside etching technology. Special attention is given to void reduction of Si x N y trench isolation and reduction of heating phenomena during front-side release etching. Guidelines are given for the applied process. Measurements showed that the clamp was able to fix, hold and release a test actuator. The dynamic behavior was in good agreement with the modal analysis

  15. Method of drying passivated micromachines by dewetting from a liquid-based process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Michael R.; Howe, Roger T.; Maboudian, Roya; Srinivasan, Uthara

    2000-01-01

    A method of fabricating a micromachine includes the step of constructing a low surface energy film on the micromachine. The micromachine is then rinsed with a rinse liquid that has a high surface energy, relative to the low surface energy film, to produce a contact angle of greater than 90.degree. between the low surface energy film and the rinse liquid. This relatively large contact angle causes any rinse liquid on the micromachine to be displaced from the micromachine when the micromachine is removed from the rinse liquid. In other words, the micromachine is dried by dewetting from a liquid-based process. Thus, a separate evaporative drying step is not required, as the micromachine is removed from the liquid-based process in a dry state. The relatively large contact angle also operates to prevent attractive capillary forces between micromachine components, thereby preventing contact and adhesion between adjacent microstructure surfaces. The low surface energy film may be constructed with a fluorinated self-assembled monolayer film. The processing of the invention avoids the use of environmentally harmful, health-hazardous chemicals.

  16. FOREWORD: Focus on Novel Nanoelectromechanical 3D Structures: Fabrication and Properties Focus on Novel Nanoelectromechanical 3D Structures: Fabrication and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shooji; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Sunao

    2009-06-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are widely used small electromechanical systems made of micrometre-sized components. Presently, we are witnessing a transition from MEMS to nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), which comprise devices integrating electrical and mechanical functionality on the nanoscale and offer new exciting applications. Similarly to MEMS, NEMS typically include a central transistor-like nanoelectronic unit for data processing, as well as mechanical actuators, pumps, and motors; and they may combine with physical, biological and chemical sensors. In the transition from MEMS to NEMS, component sizes need to be reduced. Therefore, many fabrication methods previously developed for MEMS are unsuitable for the production of high-precision NEMS components. The key challenge in NEMS is therefore the development of new methods for routine and reproducible nanofabrication. Two complementary types of method for NEMS fabrication are available: 'top-down' and 'bottom-up'. The top-down approach uses traditional lithography technologies, whereas bottom-up techniques include molecular self-organization, self-assembly and nanodeposition. The NT2008 conference, held at Ishikawa High-Tech Conference Center, Ishikawa, Japan, between 23-25 October 2008, focused on novel NEMS fabricated from new materials and on process technologies. The topics included compound semiconductors, small mechanical structures, nanostructures for micro-fluid and bio-sensors, bio-hybrid micro-machines, as well as their design and simulation. This focus issue compiles seven articles selected from 13 submitted manuscripts. The articles by Prinz et al and Kehrbusch et al introduce the frontiers of the top-down production of various operational NEMS devices, and Kometani et al present an example of the bottom-up approach, namely ion-beam induced deposition of MEMS and NEMS. The remaining articles report novel technologies for biological sensors. Taira et al have used manganese nanoparticles

  17. Challenges in the Packaging of MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malshe, A.P.; Singh, S.B.; Eaton, W.P.; O' Neal, C.; Brown, W.D.; Miller, W.M.

    1999-03-26

    The packaging of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is a field of great importance to anyone using or manufacturing sensors, consumer products, or military applications. Currently much work has been done in the design and fabrication of MEMS devices but insufficient research and few publications have been completed on the packaging of these devices. This is despite the fact that packaging is a very large percentage of the total cost of MEMS devices. The main difference between IC packaging and MEMS packaging is that MEMS packaging is almost always application specific and greatly affected by its environment and packaging techniques such as die handling, die attach processes, and lid sealing. Many of these aspects are directly related to the materials used in the packaging processes. MEMS devices that are functional in wafer form can be rendered inoperable after packaging. MEMS dies must be handled only from the chip sides so features on the top surface are not damaged. This eliminates most current die pick-and-place fixtures. Die attach materials are key to MEMS packaging. Using hard die attach solders can create high stresses in the MEMS devices, which can affect their operation greatly. Low-stress epoxies can be high-outgassing, which can also affect device performance. Also, a low modulus die attach can allow the die to move during ultrasonic wirebonding resulting to low wirebond strength. Another source of residual stress is the lid sealing process. Most MEMS based sensors and devices require a hermetically sealed package. This can be done by parallel seam welding the package lid, but at the cost of further induced stress on the die. Another issue of MEMS packaging is the media compatibility of the packaged device. MEMS unlike ICS often interface with their environment, which could be high pressure or corrosive. The main conclusion we can draw about MEMS packaging is that the package affects the performance and reliability of the MEMS devices. There is a

  18. High speed micromachining with high power UV laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajesh S.; Bovatsek, James M.

    2013-03-01

    Increasing demand for creating fine features with high accuracy in manufacturing of electronic mobile devices has fueled growth for lasers in manufacturing. High power, high repetition rate ultraviolet (UV) lasers provide an opportunity to implement a cost effective high quality, high throughput micromachining process in a 24/7 manufacturing environment. The energy available per pulse and the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of diode pumped solid state (DPSS) nanosecond UV lasers have increased steadily over the years. Efficient use of the available energy from a laser is important to generate accurate fine features at a high speed with high quality. To achieve maximum material removal and minimal thermal damage for any laser micromachining application, use of the optimal process parameters including energy density or fluence (J/cm2), pulse width, and repetition rate is important. In this study we present a new high power, high PRF QuasarR 355-40 laser from Spectra-Physics with TimeShiftTM technology for unique software adjustable pulse width, pulse splitting, and pulse shaping capabilities. The benefits of these features for micromachining include improved throughput and quality. Specific example and results of silicon scribing are described to demonstrate the processing benefits of the Quasar's available power, PRF, and TimeShift technology.

  19. High lane density slab-gel electrophoresis using micromachined instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papautsky, I; Mohanty, S; Weiss, R; Frazier, A B

    2001-10-01

    In this paper, micromachined pipette arrays (MPAs) and microcombs were studied as a means of enabling high lane density gel electrophoresis. The MPA provide a miniaturized format to interface sub-microliter volumes of samples between macroscale sample preparation formats and microscale biochemical analysis systems. The microcombs provide a means of creating sample loading wells in the gel material on the same center-to-center spacing as the MPAs. Together, the two micromachined instruments provide an alternative to current combs and pipetting technologies used for creating sample loading wells and sample delivery in gel electrophoresis systems. Using three designs for the microcomb-MPA pair, center-to-center spacings of 1.0 mm, 500 microm, and 250 microm are studied. The results demonstrate an approximate 10-fold increase in lane density and a 10-fold reduction in sample size from 5 microL to 500 pL. As a result, the number of theoretical plates has increased 2.5-fold, while system resolution has increased 1.5-fold over the conventional agarose gel systems. An examination of changes in resolution across the width of individual separation lanes in both systems revealed dependence in the case of the conventional gels and no dependence for the gels loaded with the micromachined instrumentation.

  20. A Multi-Phase Based Fluid-Structure-Microfluidic interaction sensor for Aerodynamic Shear Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher; Dutta, Diganta; Bashirzadeh, Yashar; Ahmed, Kareem; Qian, Shizhi

    2014-11-01

    A novel innovative microfluidic shear stress sensor is developed for measuring shear stress through multi-phase fluid-structure-microfluidic interaction. The device is composed of a microfluidic cavity filled with an electrolyte liquid. Inside the cavity, two electrodes make electrochemical velocimetry measurements of the induced convection. The cavity is sealed with a flexible superhydrophobic membrane. The membrane will dynamically stretch and flex as a result of direct shear cross-flow interaction with the seal structure, forming instability wave modes and inducing fluid motion within the microfluidic cavity. The shear stress on the membrane is measured by sensing the induced convection generated by membrane deflections. The advantages of the sensor over current MEMS based shear stress sensor technology are: a simplified design with no moving parts, optimum relationship between size and sensitivity, no gaps such as those created by micromachining sensors in MEMS processes. We present the findings of a feasibility study of the proposed sensor including wind-tunnel tests, microPIV measurements, electrochemical velocimetry, and simulation data results. The study investigates the sensor in the supersonic and subsonic flow regimes. Supported by a NASA SBIR phase 1 contract.

  1. Piezoelectric Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) Ring Shaped Contour-Mode MEMS Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasambe, P. V.; Asgaonkar, V. V.; Bangera, A. D.; Lokre, A. S.; Rathod, S. S.; Bhoir, D. V.

    2018-02-01

    Flexibility in setting fundamental frequency of resonator independent of its motional resistance is one of the desired criteria in micro-electromechanical (MEMS) resonator design. It is observed that ring-shaped piezoelectric contour-mode MEMS resonators satisfy this design criterion than in case of rectangular plate MEMS resonators. Also ring-shaped contour-mode piezoelectric MEMS resonator has an advantage that its fundamental frequency is defined by in-plane dimensions, but they show variation of fundamental frequency with different Platinum (Pt) thickness referred as change in ratio of fNEW /fO . This paper presents the effects of variation in geometrical parameters and change in piezoelectric material on the resonant frequencies of Platinum piezoelectric-Aluminium ring-shaped contour-mode MEMS resonators and its electrical parameters. The proposed structure with Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) as the piezoelectric material was observed to be a piezoelectric material with minimal change in fundamental resonant frequency due to Platinum thickness variation. This structure was also found to exhibit extremely low motional resistance of 0.03 Ω as compared to the 31-35 Ω range obtained when using AlN as the piezoelectric material. CoventorWare 10 is used for the design, simulation and corresponding analysis of resonators which is Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis and design tool for MEMS devices.

  2. Laser Micromachining and Information Discovery Using a Dual Beam Interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theppakuttaikomaraswamy, Senthil P. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Lasers have proven to be among the most promising tools for micromachining because they can process features down to the size of the laser wavelength (smaller than 1 micrometer) and they provide a non-contact technology for machining. The demand for incorporating in-situ diagnostics technology into the micromachining environment is driven by the increasing need for producing micro-parts of high quality and accuracy. Laser interferometry can be used as an on-line monitoring tool and it is the aim of this work to enhance the understanding and application of Michelson interferometry principle for the in-situ diagnostics of the machining depth on the sub-micron and micron scales. micromachining is done on two different materials and a comprehensive investigation is done to control the width and depth of the machined feature. To control the width of the feature, laser micromachining is done on copper and a detailed analysis is performed. The objective of this experiment is to make a precision mask for sputtering with an array of holes on it using an Nd:YAG laser of 532 nm wavelength. The diameter of the hole is 50 μm and the spacing between holes (the distance between the centers) is 100 μm. Michelson interferometer is integrated with a laser machining system to control the depth of machining. An excimer laser of 308 nm wavelength is used for micromachining. A He-Ne laser of 632.8 nm wavelength is used as the light source for the interferometer. Interference patterns are created due to the change in the path length between the two interferometer arms. The machined depth information is obtained from the interference patterns on an oscilloscope detected by a photodiode. To compare the predicted depth by the interferometer with the true machining depth, a surface profilometer is used to measure the actual machining depth on the silicon. It is observed that the depths of machining obtained by the surface profile measurement are in accordance with the interferometer

  3. A Teaching - Learning Framework for MEMS Education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheeparamatti, B G; Angadi, S A; Sheeparamatti, R B; Kadadevaramath, J S

    2006-01-01

    Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology has been identified as one of the most promising technologies in the 21st century. MEMS technology has opened up a wide array of unforeseen applications. Hence it is necessary to train the technocrats of tomorrow in this emerging field to meet the industrial/societal demands. The drive behind fostering of MEMS technology is the reduction in the cost, size, weight, and power consumption of the sensors, actuators, and associated electronics. MEMS is a multidisciplinary engineering and basic science area which includes electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, material science and biomedical engineering. Hence MEMS education needs a special approach to prepare the technocrats for a career in MEMS. The modern education methodology using computer based training systems (CBTS) with embedded modeling and simulation tools will help in this direction. The availability of computer based learning resources such as MATLAB, ANSYS/Multiphysics and rapid prototyping tools have contributed to proposition of an efficient teaching-learning framework for MEMS education presented in this paper. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for teaching/learning MEMS in the current technical education scenario

  4. Wavelength tunable MEMS VCSELs for OCT imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahoo, Hitesh Kumar; Ansbæk, Thor; Ottaviano, Luisa

    2018-01-01

    MEMS VCSELs are one of the most promising swept source (SS) lasers for optical coherence tomography (OCT) and one of the best candidates for future integration with endoscopes, surgical probes and achieving an integrated OCT system. However, the current MEMS-based SS are processed on the III...

  5. Evolution of a MEMS Photoacoustic Chemical Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pellegrino, Paul M; Polcawich, Ronald G

    2003-01-01

    .... Initial MEMS work is centered on fabrication of a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) microphone subsystem to be incorporated in the full photoacoustic device. Preliminary results were very positive for the macro-photoacoustic cell, PZT membrane microphones design / fabrication and elementary monolithic MEMS photoacoustic cavity.

  6. MEMS-Based Waste Vibrational Energy Harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    MEMS energy- harvesting device. Although PZT is used more prevalently due to its higher piezoelectric coefficient and dielectric constant, AlN has...7 1. Lead Zirconium Titanate ( PZT ) .........................................................7 2. Aluminum...Laboratory PiezoMUMPS Piezoelectric Multi-User MEMS Processes PZT Lead Zirconate Titanate SEM Scanning Electron Microscopy SiO2 Silicon

  7. The Micronium-A Musical MEMS instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; de Boer, Hans L.; de Boer, Hylco; Beekman, Jethro G.; Fortgens, Laurens C.; de Graaf, Derk B.; Vocke, Sander; Abelmann, Leon

    The Micronium is a musical instrument fabricated from silicon using microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology. It is—to the best of our knowledge—the first musical micro-instrument fabricated using MEMS technology, where the actual sound is generated by mechanical microstructures. The

  8. MEMS Tunable nanostructured photodetector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Learkthanakhachon, Supannee

    This thesis was prepared at the department of Photonics Engineering, the Technical University of Denmark in fulfilment of the requirements for acquiring a Philosophiae doctor (Ph.D.) in Photonics Engineering. The thesis deals with the design and fabrication of tunable resonant-cavity-enhanced pho......) structure. Results from the fabricated devices are reported along with an investigation of the design parameters which influence the performance deviation from the design....

  9. Mechanisms of fatigue in LIGA Ni MEMS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Imasogie, B.I.; Allameh, S.M.; Boyce, B.; Lian, K.; Lou, J.; Soboyejo, W.O.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the mechanisms of fatigue in LIGA Ni micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) thin films with micro-scale columnar and nano-scale equiaxed grains. Stress-life behavior is reported for films with thicknesses of 70 and 270 μm. The stress-life data are compared with previously reported data for Ni MEMS films and bulk Ni. The films with the nano-scale grains (15 nm average grain size) are shown to have higher strength and fatigue resistance (stress-life data) than those with columnar grain structures. The thicker films (with a columnar microstructure) are also shown to have comparable fatigue life to annealed Ni, while the thinner films (with a columnar microstructure) have comparable fatigue life to wrought Ni. The underlying mechanisms of crack nucleation and growth are elucidated via scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These reveal the formation of slip bands and surface oxides and crystallographic surface/sub-surface crack nucleation and growth in the films with the columnar structures. Surface and corner crack nucleations (from pre-existing defects) are observed in the nanostructured films. The implications of the results are discussed for the analyses of fatigue in nickel MEMS structures

  10. Optical MEMS for Earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotard, Arnaud; Viard, Thierry; Noell, Wilfried; Zamkotsian, Frédéric; Freire, Marco; Guldimann, Benedikt; Kraft, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    Due to the relatively large number of optical Earth Observation missions at ESA, this area is interesting for new space technology developments. In addition to their compactness, scalability and specific task customization, optical MEMS could generate new functions not available with current technologies and are thus candidates for the design of future space instruments. Most mature components for space applications are the digital mirror arrays, the micro-deformable mirrors, the programmable micro diffraction gratings and tiltable micromirrors. A first selection of market-pull and techno-push concepts is done. In addition, some concepts are coming from outside Earth Observation. Finally two concepts are more deeply analyzed. The first concept is a programmable slit for straylight control for space spectro-imagers. This instrument is a push-broom spectroimager for which some images cannot be exploited because of bright sources in the field-of-view. The proposed concept consists in replacing the current entrance spectrometer slit by an active row of micro-mirrors. The MEMS will permit to dynamically remove the bright sources and then to obtain a field-of-view with an optically enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. The second concept is a push-broom imager for which the acquired spectrum can be tuned by optical MEMS. This system is composed of two diffractive elements and a digital mirror array. The first diffractive element spreads the spectrum. A micromirror array is set at the location of the spectral focal plane. By putting the micro-mirrors ON or OFF, we can select parts of field-of-view or spectrum. The second diffractive element then recombines the light on a push-broom detector. Dichroics filters, strip filter, band-pass filter could be replaced by a unique instrument.

  11. Development of MEMS photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Eichenfield, Matthew S.; Griffin, Benjamin; Harvey, Heidi Alyssa; Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Langlois, Eric; Resnick, Paul James; Shaw, Michael J.; Young, Ian; Givler, Richard C.; Reinke, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    After years in the field, many materials suffer degradation, off-gassing, and chemical changes causing build-up of measurable chemical atmospheres. Stand-alone embedded chemical sensors are typically limited in specificity, require electrical lines, and/or calibration drift makes data reliability questionable. Along with size, these "Achilles' heels" have prevented incorporation of gas sensing into sealed, hazardous locations which would highly benefit from in-situ analysis. We report on development of an all-optical, mid-IR, fiber-optic based MEMS Photoacoustic Spectroscopy solution to address these limitations. Concurrent modeling and computational simulation are used to guide hardware design and implementation.

  12. Micromachining of buried micro channels in silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Meint J.; Tjerkstra, R.W.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Burger, G.J.; Burger, G.J.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; van den Berg, Albert

    A new method for the fabrication of micro structures for fluidic applications, such as channels, cavities, and connector holes in the bulk of silicon wafers, called buried channel technology (BCT), is presented in this paper. The micro structures are constructed by trench etching, coating of the

  13. Micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) for mechanical engineers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A. P., LLNL

    1996-11-18

    The ongoing advances in Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) are providing man-kind the freedom to travel to dimensional spaces never before conceivable. Advances include new fabrication processes, new materials, tailored modeling tools, new fabrication machines, systems integration, and more detailed studies of physics and surface chemistry as applied to the micro scale. In the ten years since its inauguration, MEMS technology is penetrating industries of automobile, healthcare, biotechnology, sports/entertainment, measurement systems, data storage, photonics/optics, computer, aerospace, precision instruments/robotics, and environment monitoring. It is projected that by the turn of the century, MEMS will impact every individual in the industrial world, totaling sales up to $14 billion (source: System Planning Corp.). MEMS programs in major universities have spawned up all over the United States, preparing the brain-power and expertise for the next wave of MEMS breakthroughs. It should be pointed out that although MEMS has been initiated by electrical engineering researchers through the involvement of IC fabrication techniques, today it has evolved such that it requires a totally multi-disciplinary team to develop useful devices. Mechanical engineers are especially crucial to the success of MEMS development, since 90% of the physical realm involved is mechanical. Mechanical engineers are needed for the design of MEMS, the analysis of the mechanical system, the design of testing apparatus, the implementation of analytical tools, and the packaging process. Every single aspect of mechanical engineering is being utilized in the MEMS field today, however, the impact could be more substantial if more mechanical engineers are involved in the systems level designing. In this paper, an attempt is made to create the pathways for a mechanical engineer to enter in the MEMS field. Examples of application in optics and medical devices will be used to illustrate how mechanical

  14. An investigation of fatigue in LIGA Ni MEMS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allameh, S.M.; Lou, J.; Kavishe, F.; Buchheit, T.; Soboyejo, W.O.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents results of an experimental study of fatigue in LIGA Ni micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)/thin films produced by electroplating from a sulfamate bath at a current density of 50 mA/cm 2 . Following a brief description of microstructure and micro-tensile properties, the results of stress-life (S-N) experiments are presented for specimens with thicknesses of 70 and 270 μm. Specimens with the thicker cross-sections (270 μm thick) are shown to have comparable fatigue resistance to annealed bulk Ni in the as-plated condition. The thinner specimens (70 μm thick) have comparable fatigue resistance to hardened Ni, and better fatigue resistance than the thicker samples. The underlying fatigue fracture modes are elucidated via scanning electron microscopy. The implications of the results are then discussed for the failure analysis of LIGA Ni MEMS structures

  15. Frontside-micromachined planar piezoresistive vibration sensor: Evaluating performance in the low frequency test range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a surface piezoresistor diffusion method and front-side only micromachining process, a planar piezoresistive vibration sensor was successfully developed with a simple structure, lower processing cost and fewer packaging difficulties. The vibration sensor had a large sector proof mass attached to a narrow flexure. Optimization of the boron diffusion piezoresistor placed on the edge of the narrow flexure greatly improved the sensitivity. Planar vibration sensors were fabricated and measured in order to analyze the effects of the sensor dimensions on performance, including the values of flexure width and the included angle of the sector. Sensitivities of fabricated planar sensors of 0.09–0.46 mV/V/g were measured up to a test frequency of 60 Hz. The sensor functioned at low voltages (<3 V and currents (<1 mA with a high sensitivity and low drift. At low background noise levels, the sensor had performance comparable to a commercial device.

  16. Frontside-micromachined planar piezoresistive vibration sensor: Evaluating performance in the low frequency test range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lan; Lu, Jian, E-mail: jian-lu@aist.go.jp; Takagi, Hideki; Maeda, Ryutaro [Research Center for Ubiquitous MEMS and Micro Engineering (UMEMSME), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8564 (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    Using a surface piezoresistor diffusion method and front-side only micromachining process, a planar piezoresistive vibration sensor was successfully developed with a simple structure, lower processing cost and fewer packaging difficulties. The vibration sensor had a large sector proof mass attached to a narrow flexure. Optimization of the boron diffusion piezoresistor placed on the edge of the narrow flexure greatly improved the sensitivity. Planar vibration sensors were fabricated and measured in order to analyze the effects of the sensor dimensions on performance, including the values of flexure width and the included angle of the sector. Sensitivities of fabricated planar sensors of 0.09–0.46 mV/V/g were measured up to a test frequency of 60 Hz. The sensor functioned at low voltages (<3 V) and currents (<1 mA) with a high sensitivity and low drift. At low background noise levels, the sensor had performance comparable to a commercial device.

  17. Double-section curvature tunable functional actuator with micromachined buckle and grid wire for electricity delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guo-Hua; Hou, Sheng-You

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents an ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC)-driven tentacle-like biocompatible flexible actuator with double-section curvature tunability. This actuator, possessing an embedded electrical transmission ability that mimics skeletal muscle nerves in the human body, affords versatile device functions. Novel micromachined copper buckles and grid wires are fabricated and their superiority in electricity delivery and driving the IPMC component with less flexural rigidity is demonstrated. In addition, soft conductive wires realized on a polydimethylsiloxane structure function as electrical signal transmitters. A light-emitting diode integrated with the developed actuator offers directional guiding light ability while the actuator performs a snake-like motion. The electrical conductivity and Young’s modulus of the key actuator components are investigated, and flexural rigidity and dynamic behavior analyses of the actuator under electrical manipulation are elaborated.

  18. Stability and spring constant investigation for micromachined inductive suspensions: theoretical analysis vs. experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletkin, K; Lu, Z; Wallrabe, U; Badilita, V; Den Hartogh, B

    2014-01-01

    We present a linear analytical model coupled with experimental analysis to discuss stability of a levitated proof mass (PM) in a micromachined inductive suspension (MIS), which has been previously introduced and characterized. The model is a function of the MIS geometry, describes the dynamics of a levitated disk-shaped PM near the equilibrium point, and predicts conditions for stable levitation. The experimental setup directly measures the lateral component of the Lorentz force, which has a stabilization role in the MIS structure, as well as the vertical levitation force. The experimental setup is further used to derive mechanical parameters such as stiffness values relative to lateral, vertical and angular displacements, proven to be in excellent agreement with the values predicted by the analytical model

  19. Double-section curvature tunable functional actuator with micromachined buckle and grid wire for electricity delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Guo-Hua; Hou, Sheng-You

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC)-driven tentacle-like biocompatible flexible actuator with double-section curvature tunability. This actuator, possessing an embedded electrical transmission ability that mimics skeletal muscle nerves in the human body, affords versatile device functions. Novel micromachined copper buckles and grid wires are fabricated and their superiority in electricity delivery and driving the IPMC component with less flexural rigidity is demonstrated. In addition, soft conductive wires realized on a polydimethylsiloxane structure function as electrical signal transmitters. A light-emitting diode integrated with the developed actuator offers directional guiding light ability while the actuator performs a snake-like motion. The electrical conductivity and Young’s modulus of the key actuator components are investigated, and flexural rigidity and dynamic behavior analyses of the actuator under electrical manipulation are elaborated. (paper)

  20. Monolithic integration of micromachined sensors and CMOS circuits based on SOI technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaomei; Tang Yaquan; Zhang Haitao

    2008-01-01

    This note presents a novel way to monolithically integrate micro-cantilever sensors and signal conditioning circuits by combining SOI CMOS and SOI micromachining technologies. In order to improve the sensor performance and reduce the system volume, an integrated sensor system composed of a piezoresistive cantilever array, a temperature-compensation current reference, a digitally controlled multiplexer and an instrument amplifier is designed and finally fabricated. A post-SOI CMOS process is developed to realize the integrated sensor system which is based on a standard CMOS process with one more mask to define the cantilever structure at the end of the process. Measurements on the finished SOI CMOS devices and circuits show that the integration process has good compatibility both for the cantilever sensors and for the CMOS circuits, and the SOI CMOS integration process can decrease about 25% sequences compared with the bulk silicon CMOS process. (note)

  1. Surface chemical modification for exceptional wear life of MEMS materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arvind Singh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS are built at micro/nano-scales. At these scales, the interfacial forces are extremely strong. These forces adversely affect the smooth operation and cause wear resulting in the drastic reduction in wear life (useful operating lifetime of actuator-based devices. In this paper, we present a surface chemical modification method that reduces friction and significantly extends the wear life of the two most popular MEMS structural materials namely, silicon and SU-8 polymer. The method includes surface chemical treatment using ethanolamine-sodium phosphate buffer, followed by coating of perfluoropolyether (PFPE nanolubricant on (i silicon coated with SU-8 thin films (500 nm and (ii MEMS process treated SU-8 thick films (50 μm. After the surface chemical modification, it was observed that the steady-state coefficient of friction of the materials reduced by 4 to 5 times and simultaneously their wear durability increased by more than three orders of magnitude (> 1000 times. The significant reduction in the friction coefficients is due to the lubrication effect of PFPE nanolubricant, while the exceptional increase in their wear life is attributed to the bonding between the -OH functional group of ethanolamine treated SU-8 thin/thick films and the -OH functional group of PFPE. The surface chemical modification method acts as a common route to enhance the performance of both silicon and SU-8 polymer. It is time-effective (process time ≤ 11 min, cost-effective and can be readily integrated into MEMS fabrication/assembly processes. It can also work for any kind of structural material from which the miniaturized devices are/can be made.

  2. Ultraflat Tip-Tilt-Piston MEMS Deformable Mirror, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes a Phase II SBIR project to develop high-resolution, ultraflat micromirror array devices using advanced silicon surface micromachining...

  3. Touch mode micromachined capacitive pressure sensor with signal conditioning electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fragiacomo, Giulio; Eriksen, Gert F.; Christensen, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    In the last decades, pressure sensors have been one of the greatest successes of the MEMS industry. Many companies are using them in a variety of applications from the automotive to the environmental field. Currently piezoresistive pressure sensors are the most developed, and a well established t...

  4. Continuous Process for the Etching, Rinsing and Drying of MEMS Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Seon Ki; Han, Gap Su; You, Seong-sik [Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The previous etching, rinsing and drying processes of wafers for MEMS (microelectromechanical system) using SC-CO{sub 2} (supercritical-CO{sub 2}) consists of two steps. Firstly, MEMS-wafers are etched by organic solvent in a separate etching equipment from the high pressure dryer and then moved to the high pressure dryer to rinse and dry them using SC-CO{sub 2}. We found that the previous two step process could be applied to etch and dry wafers for MEMS but could not confirm the reproducibility through several experiments. We thought the cause of that was the stiction of structures occurring due to vaporization of the etching solvent during moving MEMS wafer to high pressure dryer after etching it outside. In order to improve the structure stiction problem, we designed a continuous process for etching, rinsing and drying MEMS-wafers using SC-CO{sub 2} without moving them. And we also wanted to know relations of states of carbon dioxide (gas, liquid, supercritical fluid) to the structure stiction problem. In the case of using gas carbon dioxide (3 MPa, 25 .deg. C) as an etching solvent, we could obtain well-treated MEMS-wafers without stiction and confirm the reproducibility of experimental results. The quantity of rinsing solvent used could be also reduced compared with the previous technology. In the case of using liquid carbon dioxide (3 MPa, 5 .deg. C), we could not obtain well-treated MEMS-wafers without stiction due to the phase separation of between liquid carbon dioxide and etching co-solvent(acetone). In the case of using SC-CO{sub 2} (7.5 Mpa, 40 .deg. C), we had as good results as those of the case using gas-CO{sub 2}. Besides the processing time was shortened compared with that of the case of using gas-CO{sub 2}.

  5. Development of a Multi-User Polyimide-MEMS Fabrication Process and its Application to MicroHotplates

    KAUST Repository

    Lizardo, Ernesto B.

    2013-05-08

    Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) became possible thanks to the silicon based technology used to fabricate integrated circuits. Originally, MEMS fabrication was limited to silicon based techniques and materials, but the expansion of MEMS applications brought the need of a wider catalog of materials, including polymers, now being used to fabricate MEMS. Polyimide is a very attractive polymer for MEMS fabrication due to its high temperature stability compared to other polymers, low coefficient of thermal expansion, low film stress and low cost. The goal of this thesis is to expand the Polyimide usage as structural material for MEMS by the development of a multi-user fabrication process for the integration of this polymer along with multiple metal layers on a silicon substrate. The process also integrates amorphous silicon as sacrificial layer to create free-standing structures. Dry etching is used to release the devices and avoid stiction phenomena. The developed process is used to fabricate platforms for micro-hotplate gas sensors. The fabrication steps for the platforms are described in detail, explaining the process specifics and capabilities. An initial testing of the micro-hotplate is presented. As the process was also used as educational tool, some designs made by students and fabricated with the Polyimide-MEMS process are also presented.

  6. BioMEMS for mitochondria medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmaraj, Divya

    A BioMEMS device to study cell-mitochondrial physiological functionalities was developed. The pathogenesis of many diseases including obesity, diabetes and heart failure as well as aging has been linked to functional defects of mitochondria. The synthesis of Adenosine Tri Phosphate (ATP) is determined by the electrical potential across the inner mitochondrial membrane and by the pH difference due to proton flux across it. Therefore, electrical characterization by E-fields with complementary chemical testing was used here. The BioMEMS device was fabricated as an SU-8 based microfluidic system with gold electrodes on SiO2/Si wafers for electromagnetic interrogation. Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistors (ISFETs) were incorporated for proton studies important in the electron transport chain, together with monitoring Na+, K+ and Ca++ ions for ion channel studies. ISFETs are chemically sensitive Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) devices and their threshold voltage is directly proportional to the electrolytic H+ ion variation. These ISFETs (sensitivity ˜55 mV/pH for H+) were further realized as specific ion sensitive Chemical Field Effect Transistors (CHEMFETs) by depositing a specific ion sensitive membrane on the gate. Electrodes for dielectric spectroscopy studies of mitochondria were designed as 2- and 4-probe structures for optimized operation over a wide frequency range. In addition, to limit polarization effects, a 4-electrode set-up with unique meshed pickup electrodes (7.5x7.5 mum2 loops with 4 mum wires) was fabricated. Sensitivity of impedance spectroscopy to membrane potential changes was confirmed by studying the influence of uncouplers and glucose on mitochondria. An electrical model was developed for the mitochondrial sample, and its frequency response correlated with impedance spectroscopy experiments of sarcolemmal mitochondria. Using the mesh electrode structure, we obtained a reduction of 83.28% in impedance at 200 Hz. COMSOL

  7. Tunable cavity resonator including a plurality of MEMS beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroulis, Dimitrios; Fruehling, Adam; Small, Joshua Azariah; Liu, Xiaoguang; Irshad, Wasim; Arif, Muhammad Shoaib

    2015-10-20

    A tunable cavity resonator includes a substrate, a cap structure, and a tuning assembly. The cap structure extends from the substrate, and at least one of the substrate and the cap structure defines a resonator cavity. The tuning assembly is positioned at least partially within the resonator cavity. The tuning assembly includes a plurality of fixed-fixed MEMS beams configured for controllable movement relative to the substrate between an activated position and a deactivated position in order to tune a resonant frequency of the tunable cavity resonator.

  8. Design and simulation of MEMS vector hydrophone with reduced cross section based meander beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manoj; Dutta, S.; Pal, Ramjay; Jain, K. K.; Gupta, Sudha; Bhan, R. K. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, DRDO, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi, India 110054 (India)

    2016-04-13

    MEMS based vector hydrophone is being one of the key device in the underwater communications. In this paper, we presented a bio-inspired MEMS vector hydrophone. The hydrophone structure consists of a proof mass suspended by four meander type beams with reduced cross-section. Modal patterns of the structure were studied. First three modal frequencies of the hydrophone structure were found to be 420 Hz, 420 Hz and 1646 Hz respectively. The deflection and stress of the hydrophone is found have linear behavior in the 1 µPa – 1Pa pressure range.

  9. High-power ultrashort fiber laser for solar cells micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecourt, J.-B.; Duterte, C.; Liegeois, F.; Lekime, D.; Hernandez, Y.; Giannone, D.

    2012-02-01

    We report on a high-power ultra-short fiber laser for thin film solar cells micromachining. The laser is based on Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA) scheme. The pulses are stretched to hundreds of picoseconds prior to amplification and can be compressed down to picosecond at high energy. The repetition rate is adjustable from 100 kHz to 1 MHz and the optical average output power is close to 13 W (before compression). The whole setup is fully fibred, except the compressor achieved with bulk gratings, resulting on a compact and reliable solution for cold ablation.

  10. High-frequency micro-machined power inductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, N.; O'Donnell, T.; Roy, S.; Brunet, M.; McCloskey, P.; O'Mathuna, S.C.

    2005-01-01

    Power inductors have been fabricated on silicon substrates using low-temperature IC compatible processes. The electrical properties of these micro-inductors have been measured and discussed. A maximum quality factor of 6 at 4 MHz has been achieved with an inductance value of about 160 nH. The DC saturation currents of the non-gapped and gapped inductors are ∼500 and 700 mA, respectively. The relatively high Q factor and the load current characteristics allow these micro-machined inductors to be used in integrated power converters

  11. Adhesion aspects in MEMS/NEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Seong H; Mittal, Kash L

    2012-01-01

    Phenomena associated with the adhesion interaction of surfaces have been a critical aspect of micro- and nanosystem development and performance since the first MicroElectroMechanicalSystems(MEMS) were fabricated. These phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and are present in all systems, however MEMS devices are particularly sensitive to their effects owing to their small size and limited actuation force that can be generated. Extension of MEMS technology concepts to the nanoscale and development of NanoElectroMechanicalSystems(NEMS) will result in systems even more strongly influenced by surface

  12. Practical guide to RF-MEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Iannacci, Jacopo

    2013-01-01

    Closes the gap between hardcore-theoretical and purely experimental RF-MEMS books. The book covers, from a practical viewpoint, the most critical steps that have to be taken in order to develop novel RF-MEMS device concepts. Prototypical RF-MEMS devices, both including lumped components and complex networks, are presented at the beginning of the book as reference examples, and these are then discussed from different perspectives with regard to design, simulation, packaging, testing, and post-fabrication modeling. Theoretical concepts are introduced when necessary to complement the practical

  13. Resonant Magnetic Field Sensors Based On MEMS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Manjarrez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS technology allows the integration of magnetic field sensors with electronic components, which presents important advantages such as small size, light weight, minimum power consumption, low cost, better sensitivity and high resolution. We present a discussion and review of resonant magnetic field sensors based on MEMS technology. In practice, these sensors exploit the Lorentz force in order to detect external magnetic fields through the displacement of resonant structures, which are measured with optical, capacitive, and piezoresistive sensing techniques. From these, the optical sensing presents immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI and reduces the read-out electronic complexity. Moreover, piezoresistive sensing requires an easy fabrication process as well as a standard packaging. A description of the operation mechanisms, advantages and drawbacks of each sensor is considered. MEMS magnetic field sensors are a potential alternative for numerous applications, including the automotive industry, military, medical, telecommunications, oceanographic, spatial, and environment science. In addition, future markets will need the development of several sensors on a single chip for measuring different parameters such as the magnetic field, pressure, temperature and acceleration.

  14. Wafer-level vacuum/hermetic packaging technologies for MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Mitchell, Jay; Welch, Warren; Lee, Sangwoo; Najafi, Khalil

    2010-02-01

    An overview of wafer-level packaging technologies developed at the University of Michigan is presented. Two sets of packaging technologies are discussed: (i) a low temperature wafer-level packaging processes for vacuum/hermeticity sealing, and (ii) an environmentally resistant packaging (ERP) technology for thermal and mechanical control as well as vacuum packaging. The low temperature wafer-level encapsulation processes are implemented using solder bond rings which are first patterned on a cap wafer and then mated with a device wafer in order to encircle and encapsulate the device at temperatures ranging from 200 to 390 °C. Vacuum levels below 10 mTorr were achieved with yields in an optimized process of better than 90%. Pressures were monitored for more than 4 years yielding important information on reliability and process control. The ERP adopts an environment isolation platform in the packaging substrate. The isolation platform is designed to provide low power oven-control, vibration isolation and shock protection. It involves batch flip-chip assembly of a MEMS device onto the isolation platform wafer. The MEMS device and isolation structure are encapsulated at the wafer-level by another substrate with vertical feedthroughs for vacuum/hermetic sealing and electrical signal connections. This technology was developed for high performance gyroscopes, but can be applied to any type of MEMS device.

  15. Development of micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) cochlear biomodel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngelayang, Thailis Bounya Anak; Latif, Rhonira [Faculty of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Human cochlear is undeniably one of the most amazing organs in human body. The functional mechanism is very unique in terms of its ability to convert the sound waves in the form of mechanical vibrations into the electrical nerve impulses. It is known that the normal human auditory system can perceive the audible frequency range between 20 Hz to 20 kHz. Scientists have conducted several researches trying to build the artificial basilar membrane in the human cochlea (cochlear biomodel). Micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) is one of the potential inventions that have the ability to mimic the active behavior of the basilar membrane. In this paper, an array of MEMS bridge beams that are mechanically sensitive to the perceived audible frequency has been proposed. An array of bridge bridge beams with 0.5 µm thickness and length varying from 200 µm to 2000 µm have been designed operate within the audible frequency range. In the bridge beams design, aluminium (Al), copper (Cu), tantalum (Ta) and platinum (Pt) have considered as the material for the bridge beam structure. From the finite element (FE) and lumped element (LE) models of the MEMS bridge beams, platinum has been found to be the best material for the cochlear biomodel design, closely mimicking the basilar membrane.

  16. Resonant Magnetic Field Sensors Based On MEMS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-May, Agustín L.; Aguilera-Cortés, Luz A.; García-Ramírez, Pedro J.; Manjarrez, Elías

    2009-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology allows the integration of magnetic field sensors with electronic components, which presents important advantages such as small size, light weight, minimum power consumption, low cost, better sensitivity and high resolution. We present a discussion and review of resonant magnetic field sensors based on MEMS technology. In practice, these sensors exploit the Lorentz force in order to detect external magnetic fields through the displacement of resonant structures, which are measured with optical, capacitive, and piezoresistive sensing techniques. From these, the optical sensing presents immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and reduces the read-out electronic complexity. Moreover, piezoresistive sensing requires an easy fabrication process as well as a standard packaging. A description of the operation mechanisms, advantages and drawbacks of each sensor is considered. MEMS magnetic field sensors are a potential alternative for numerous applications, including the automotive industry, military, medical, telecommunications, oceanographic, spatial, and environment science. In addition, future markets will need the development of several sensors on a single chip for measuring different parameters such as the magnetic field, pressure, temperature and acceleration. PMID:22408480

  17. Laser-heating wire bonding on MEMS packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuetao Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Making connections is critical in fabrication of MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems. It is also complicated, because the temperature during joining affects both the bond produced and the structure and mechanical properties of the moving parts of the device. Specifications for MEMS packaging require that the temperature not exceed 240 °C. However, usually, temperatures can reach up to 300 °C during conventional thermosonic wire bonding. Such a temperature will change the distribution of dopants in CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor circuits. In this paper we propose a new heating process. A semiconductor laser (wavelength 808 nm is suggested as the thermal source for wire bonding. The thermal field of this setup was analyzed, and specific mathematical models of the field were built. Experimental results show that the heating can be focused on the bonding pad, and that much lower heat conduction occurs, compared with that during the normal heating method. The bond strength increases with increasing laser power. The bond strengths obtained with laser heating are slightly lower than those obtained with the normal heating method, but can still meet the strength requirements for MEMS.

  18. Development of micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) cochlear biomodel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngelayang, Thailis Bounya Anak; Latif, Rhonira

    2015-01-01

    Human cochlear is undeniably one of the most amazing organs in human body. The functional mechanism is very unique in terms of its ability to convert the sound waves in the form of mechanical vibrations into the electrical nerve impulses. It is known that the normal human auditory system can perceive the audible frequency range between 20 Hz to 20 kHz. Scientists have conducted several researches trying to build the artificial basilar membrane in the human cochlea (cochlear biomodel). Micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) is one of the potential inventions that have the ability to mimic the active behavior of the basilar membrane. In this paper, an array of MEMS bridge beams that are mechanically sensitive to the perceived audible frequency has been proposed. An array of bridge bridge beams with 0.5 µm thickness and length varying from 200 µm to 2000 µm have been designed operate within the audible frequency range. In the bridge beams design, aluminium (Al), copper (Cu), tantalum (Ta) and platinum (Pt) have considered as the material for the bridge beam structure. From the finite element (FE) and lumped element (LE) models of the MEMS bridge beams, platinum has been found to be the best material for the cochlear biomodel design, closely mimicking the basilar membrane

  19. Design and Simulation of MEMS Devices using Interval Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugavalli, M; Uma, G; Vasuki, B; Umapathy, M

    2006-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of MEMS devices are used to optimize the design, to improve the performance of the device, to reduce time to market, to minimize development time and cost by avoiding unnecessary design cycles and foundry runs. The major design objectives in any device design, is to meet the required functional parameters and the reliability of the device. The functional parameters depend on the geometry of the structure, material properties and process parameters. All model parameters act as input to optimize the functional parameters. The major difficulty the designer faces is the dimensions and properties used in the simulation of the MEMS devices can not be exactly followed during fabrication. In order to overcome this problem, the designer must test the device in simulation for bound of parameters involved in it. The paper demonstrates the use of interval methods to assess the electromechanical behaviour of micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) under the presence of manufacturing and process uncertainties. Interval method guides the design of pullin voltage analysis of fixed-fixed beam to achieve a robust and reliable design in a most efficient way. The methods are implemented numerically using Coventorware and analytically using Intlab

  20. A review: aluminum nitride MEMS contour-mode resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunhong, Hou; Meng, Zhang; Guowei, Han; Chaowei, Si; Yongmei, Zhao; Jin, Ning

    2016-10-01

    Over the past several decades, the technology of micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) has advanced. A clear need of miniaturization and integration of electronics components has had new solutions for the next generation of wireless communications. The aluminum nitride (AlN) MEMS contour-mode resonator (CMR) has emerged and become promising and competitive due to the advantages of the small size, high quality factor and frequency, low resistance, compatibility with integrated circuit (IC) technology, and the ability of integrating multi-frequency devices on a single chip. In this article, a comprehensive review of AlN MEMS CMR technology will be presented, including its basic working principle, main structures, fabrication processes, and methods of performance optimization. Among these, the deposition and etching process of the AlN film will be specially emphasized and recent advances in various performance optimization methods of the CMR will be given through specific examples which are mainly focused on temperature compensation and reducing anchor losses. This review will conclude with an assessment of the challenges and future trends of the CMR. Project supported by National Natural Science Foundation (Nos. 61274001, 61234007, 61504130), the Nurturing and Development Special Projects of Beijing Science and Technology Innovation Base's Financial Support (No. Z131103002813070), and the National Defense Science and Technology Innovation Fund of CAS (No. CXJJ-14-M32).

  1. Design of a micromachined terahertz electromagnetic crystals (EMXT) channel-drop filter on silicon-substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kai; Liu, Yong; Si, Liming; Lv, Xin

    2013-08-01

    An integrated 0.5 THz electromagnetic crystals(EMXT) channel-drop filter based on PBG structure is presented in this paper. A channel-drop filter is a device in which a narrow bandwidth is redirected to another "drop" waveguide while other frequencies are unaffected. It's capable of extracting a certain frequency from a continuous spectrum in the bus channel and passing it to the test channel. It has potential applications in photonic integrated circuits, radio astronomy, THz spectroscopy, THz communication and remote sensing radar receiver. PBG structures(or photonic crystals) are periodic structures which possess band gaps, where the electromagnetic wave of certain ranges of frequencies cannot pass through and is reflected. The proposed channel-drop filter consists of input waveguide,output waveguide and PBG structure. The proposed filter is simulated using the finite element method and can be fabricated by micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology,due to its low cost, high performance and high processing precision.The filter operation principle and fabrication process are discussed.The simulation results show its ability to filter the frequency of 496GHz with a linewidth of approximately 4GHz and transmission of 27.2 dB above background.The loss at resonant frequency is less than 1dB considering the thickness and roughness of gold layer required by the MEMS process.The channel drop efficiency is 84%.

  2. MEMS Gyroscope with Interferometric Detection, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a novel MEMS gyroscope that uses micro-interferometric detection to measure the motion of the proof mass. Using an interferometric...

  3. Wireless MEMs BioSensor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Crossfield is proposing to develop a low cost, single chip plant bio-monitor using an embedded MEMs based infrared (IR) spectroscopy gas sensor for carbon dioxide...

  4. MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room is a state-of-the-art, 800 square foot, Class 1000-capable facility used for development of micro and sub-micro scale sensors...

  5. Advanced mechatronics and MEMS devices II

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces the state-of-the-art technologies in mechatronics, robotics, and MEMS devices in order to improve their methodologies. It provides a follow-up to "Advanced Mechatronics and MEMS Devices" (2013) with an exploration of the most up-to-date technologies and their applications, shown through examples that give readers insights and lessons learned from actual projects. Researchers on mechatronics, robotics, and MEMS as well as graduate students in mechanical engineering will find chapters on: Fundamental design and working principles on MEMS accelerometers Innovative mobile technologies Force/tactile sensors development Control schemes for reconfigurable robotic systems Inertial microfluidics Piezoelectric force sensors and dynamic calibration techniques ...And more. Authors explore applications in the areas of agriculture, biomedicine, advanced manufacturing, and space. Micro-assembly for current and future industries is also considered, as well as the design and development of micro and intel...

  6. Nonlinear Dynamics of Electrostatically Actuated MEMS Arches

    KAUST Repository

    Al Hennawi, Qais M.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, we present theoretical and experimental investigation into the nonlinear statics and dynamics of clamped-clamped in-plane MEMS arches when excited by an electrostatic force. Theoretically, we first solve the equation of motion using

  7. Movable MEMS Devices on Flexible Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Flexible electronics have gained great attention recently. Applications such as flexible displays, artificial skin and health monitoring devices are a few examples of this technology. Looking closely at the components of these devices, although MEMS

  8. Cryogenic MEMS Pressure Sensor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A directly immersible cryogenic MEMS pressure sensor will be developed. Each silicon die will contain a vacuum-reference and a tent-like membrane. Offsetting thermal...

  9. MEMS Sensors and Actuators Laboratory (MSAL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MEMS Sensors and Actuators Laboratory (MSAL) in the A.J. Clark School of Engineering at the University of Maryland (UMD) was established in January 2000. Our lab...

  10. Optical MEMS for chemical analysis and biomedicine

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Hongrui

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the current state of optical MEMS in chemical and biomedical analysis and brings together current trends and highlights topics representing the most exciting progress in recent years in the field.

  11. Active mems microbeam device for gas detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.; Jaber, Nizar; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2017-01-01

    Sensors and active switches for applications in gas detection and other fields are described. The devices are based on the softening and hardening nonlinear response behaviors of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) clamped-clamped microbeams

  12. MEMS-based Circuits and Systems for Wireless Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    MEMS-based Circuits and Systems for Wireless Communication provides comprehensive coverage of RF-MEMS technology from device to system level. This edited volume places emphasis on how system performance for radio frequency applications can be leveraged by Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). Coverage also extends to innovative MEMS-aware radio architectures that push the potential of MEMS technology further ahead.  This work presents a broad overview of the technology from MEMS devices (mainly BAW and Si MEMS resonators) to basic circuits, such as oscillators and filters, and finally complete systems such as ultra-low-power MEMS-based radios. Contributions from leading experts around the world are organized in three parts. Part I introduces RF-MEMS technology, devices and modeling and includes a prospective outlook on ongoing developments towards Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems (NEMS) and phononic crystals. Device properties and models are presented in a circuit oriented perspective. Part II focusses on ...

  13. A review of micromachined thermal accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Rahul; Basu, Joydeep; Mandal, Pradip; Guha, Prasanta Kumar

    2017-12-01

    A thermal convection based micro-electromechanical accelerometer is a relatively new kind of acceleration sensor that does not require a solid proof mass, yielding unique benefits like high shock survival rating, low production cost, and integrability with CMOS integrated circuit technology. This article provides a comprehensive survey of the research, development, and current trends in the field of thermal acceleration sensors, with detailed enumeration on the theory, operation, modeling, and numerical simulation of such devices. Different reported varieties and structures of thermal accelerometers have been reviewed highlighting key design, implementation, and performance aspects. Materials and technologies used for fabrication of such sensors have also been discussed. Further, the advantages and challenges for thermal accelerometers vis-à-vis other prominent accelerometer types have been presented, followed by an overview of associated signal conditioning circuitry and potential applications.

  14. Laser micromachining of biofactory-on-a-chip devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Julian P.; Goater, Andrew D.; Hayden, Christopher J.; Tame, John A.

    2002-06-01

    Excimer laser micromachining provides a flexible means for the manufacture and rapid prototyping of miniaturized systems such as Biofactory-on-a-Chip devices. Biofactories are miniaturized diagnostic devices capable of characterizing, manipulating, separating and sorting suspension of particles such as biological cells. Such systems operate by exploiting the electrical properties of microparticles and controlling particle movement in AC non- uniform stationary and moving electric fields. Applications of Biofactory devices are diverse and include, among others, the healthcare, pharmaceutical, chemical processing, environmental monitoring and food diagnostic markets. To achieve such characterization and separation, Biofactory devices employ laboratory-on-a-chip type components such as complex multilayer microelectrode arrays, microfluidic channels, manifold systems and on-chip detection systems. Here we discuss the manufacturing requirements of Biofactory devices and describe the use of different excimer laser micromachined methods both in stand-alone processes and also in conjunction with conventional fabrication processes such as photolithography and thermal molding. Particular attention is given to the production of large area multilayer microelectrode arrays and the manufacture of complex cross-section microfluidic channel systems for use in simple distribution and device interfacing.

  15. Direct writing of microtunnels using proton beam micromachining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marot, Laurent; Munnik, Frans; Mikhailov, Serguei

    2006-01-01

    The production of high aspect ratio microstructures is a potential growth area. The combination of deep X-ray lithography with electroforming and micromolding (i.e. LIGA) is one of the main techniques used to produce 3D microstructures. The new technique of proton micromachining employs focused MeV protons in a direct write process which is complementary to LIGA. During ion exposure of positive photoresist like PMMA, scission of molecular chains occurs. These degraded polymer chains are removed by the developer. The aim of this paper is to investigate the capabilities of proton micromachining as a lithographic technique. We show the realization of sub-surface channels, or microtunnels, which have been fabricated in only one exposure and without cutting or resurfacing the material. Using our Van-de-Graaff accelerator, the resist (PMMA) has been exposed with high-energy protons (2.5 MeV). The range of charged particles in matter is well-defined and depends on the energy. Therefore, it is possible to obtain a dose which is sufficient to develop the bottom part of the ion paths but not the top part. Thus, by selecting the energy and the exposure time, a big variety of microtunnels can be realized

  16. Nano-tribology and materials in MEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Satyanarayana, N; Lim, Seh

    2013-01-01

    This book brings together recent developments in the areas of MEMS tribology, novel lubricants and coatings for nanotechnological applications, biomimetics in tribology and fundamentals of micro/nano-tribology. Tribology plays important roles in the functioning and durability of machines at small length scales because of the problems associated with strong surface adhesion, friction, wear etc. Recently, a number of studies have been conducted to understand tribological phenomena at nano/micro scales and many new tribological solutions for MEMS have been proposed.

  17. MEMS for pico- to micro-satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Shea, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    MEMS sensors, actuators, and sub-systems can enable an important reduction in the size and mass of spacecrafts, first by replacing larger and heavier components, then by replacing entire subsystems, and finally by enabling the microfabrication of highly integrated picosats. Very small satellites (1 to 100 kg) stand to benefit the most from MEMS technologies. These small satellites are typically used for science or technology demonstration missions, with higher risk tolerance than multi-ton te...

  18. Recent Progress in Silicon Mems Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    MEMS oscillator. As shown, a MEMS resonator is connected to an IC. The reference oscillator, which is basically a transimpedance amplifier ...small size), and (3) DC bias voltage required to operate the resonators. As a result, instead of Colpitts or Pierce architecture, a transimpedence ... amplifier is typically used for sustain the oscillation. The frequency of the resonators is determined by both material properties and geometry of

  19. Digital holography for MEMS and microsystem metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Asundi, Anand

    2011-01-01

    Approaching the topic of digital holography from the practical perspective of industrial inspection, Digital Holography for MEMS and Microsystem Metrology describes the process of digital holography and its growing applications for MEMS characterization, residual stress measurement, design and evaluation, and device testing and inspection. Asundi also provides a thorough theoretical grounding that enables the reader to understand basic concepts and thus identify areas where this technique can be adopted. This combination of both practical and theoretical approach will ensure the

  20. Fabrication of integrated metallic MEMS devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Ravnkilde, Jan Tue; Hansen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    A simple and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible fabrication technique for microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices is presented. The fabrication technology makes use of electroplated metal layers. Among the fabricated devices, high quality factor microresonators are characteri......A simple and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible fabrication technique for microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices is presented. The fabrication technology makes use of electroplated metal layers. Among the fabricated devices, high quality factor microresonators...

  1. Mechanical Structural Design of a MEMS-Based Piezoresistive Accelerometer for Head Injuries Monitoring: A Computational Analysis by Increments of the Sensor Mass Moment of Inertia †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Marco; Njuguna, James; Palas, Chrysovalantis

    2018-01-01

    This work focuses on the proof-mass mechanical structural design improvement of a tri-axial piezoresistive accelerometer specifically designed for head injuries monitoring where medium-G impacts are common; for example, in sports such as racing cars or American Football. The device requires the highest sensitivity achievable with a single proof-mass approach, and a very low error (piezoresistors are located (i.e., x- and y-axis) by increasing the MMI in the x- and y-axis, will undoubtedly increase the longitudinal stresses applied in that areas for a given external acceleration, therefore increasing the piezoresistors fractional resistance change and eventually positively affecting the sensor sensitivity. The final device shows a sensitivity increase of about 80% in the z-axis and a reduction of cross-axis sensitivity of 18% respect to state-of-art sensors available in the literature from a previous work of the authors. Sensor design, modelling, and optimization are presented, concluding the work with results, discussion, and conclusion. PMID:29351221

  2. Characterization of the Young's modulus and residual stresses for a sputtered silicon oxynitride film using micro-structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Jian; Du, Ping; Zhang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Silicon oxynitride (SiON) is an important material to fabricate micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) devices due to its composition-dependent tunability in electronic and mechanical properties. In this work, the SiON film with 41.45% silicon, 32.77% oxygen and 25.78% nitrogen content was deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. Two types of optimized micro-structures including micro-cantilevers and micro-rotating-fingers were designed and fabricated using MEMS surface micromachining technology. The micro-cantilever bending tests were conducted using a nanoindenter to characterize the Young's modulus of the SiON film. Owing to the elimination of the residual stress effect on the micro-cantilever structure, higher accuracy in the Young's modulus was achieved from this technique. With the information of Young's modulus of the film, the residual stresses were characterized from the deflection of the micro-rotating-fingers. This structure was able to locally measure a large range of tensile or compressive residual stresses in a thin film with sufficient sensitivities. The results showed that the Young's modulus of the SiON film was 122 GPa and the residual stresses of the SiON film were 327 MPa in the crystallographic orientation of the wafer and 334 MPa in the direction perpendicular to the crystallographic orientation, both in compression. This work presents a comprehensive methodology to measure the Young's modulus and residual stresses of a thin film with improved accuracy, which is promising for applications in mechanical characterization of MEMS devices. - Highlight: • We measured the Young's modulus and residual stress of SiON film by microstructure. • Micro cantilever structure improved the Young's modulus' measurement accuracy. • We explored the reason for the deviations of residual stress value of SiON film

  3. Investigation of the physics of diamond MEMS : diamond allotrope lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalizniak, I.; Olivero, P.; Jamieson, D.N.; Prawer, S.; Reichart, P.; Rubanov, S.; Petriconi, S.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a novel lithography process in which ion induced phase transfomations of diamond form sacrificial layers allowing the fabrication of small structures including micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). We have applied this novel lithography to the fabrication of diamond microcavities, cantilevers and optical waveguides. In this paper we present preliminary experiments directed at the fabrication of suspended diamond disks that have the potential for operation as optical resonators. Such structures would be very durable and resistant to chemical attack with potential applications as novel sensors for extreme environments or high temperature radiation detectors. (author). 3 refs., 3 figs

  4. A novel piezoresistive polymer nanocomposite MEMS accelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seena, V; Hari, K; Prajakta, S; Ramgopal Rao, V; Pratap, Rudra

    2017-01-01

    A novel polymer MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems) accelerometer with photo-patternable polymer nanocomposite as a piezoresistor is presented in this work. Polymer MEMS Accelerometer with beam thicknesses of 3.3 µ m and embedded nanocomposite piezoresistive layer having a gauge factor of 90 were fabricated. The photosensitive nanocomposite samples were prepared and characterized for analyzing the mechanical and electrical properties and thereby ensuring proper process parameters for incorporating the piezoresistive layer into the polymer MEMS accelerometer. The microfabrication process flow and unit processes followed are extremely low cost with process temperatures below 100 °C. This also opens up a new possibility for easy integration of such polymer MEMS with CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) devices and circuits. The fabricated devices were characterized using laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) and the devices exhibited a resonant frequency of 10.8 kHz and a response sensitivity of 280 nm g −1 at resonance. The main focus of this paper is on the SU-8/CB nanocomposite piezoresistive MEMS accelerometer technology development which covers the material and the fabrication aspects of these devices. CoventorWare FEA analysis performed using the extracted material properties from the experimental characterization which are in close agreement to performance parameters of the fabricated devices is also discussed. The simulated piezoresistive polymer MEMS devices showed an acceleration sensitivity of 126 nm g −1 and 82 ppm of Δ R / R per 1 g of acceleration. (paper)

  5. Laser micromachining of chemically altered polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippert, T.

    1998-08-01

    During the last decade laser processing of polymers has become an important field of applied and fundamental research. One of the most promising proposals, to use laser ablation as dry etching technique in photolithography, has not yet become an industrial application. Many disadvantages of laser ablation, compared to conventional photolithography, are the result of the use of standard polymers. These polymers are designed for totally different applications, but are compared to the highly specialized photoresist. A new approach to laser polymer ablation will be described; the development of polymers, specially designed for high resolution laser ablation. These polymers have photolabile groups in the polymer backbone, which decompose upon laser irradiation or standard polymers are modified for ablation at a specific irradiation wavelength. The absorption maximum can be tailored for specific laser emissino lines, e.g. 351, 308 and 248 nm lines of excimer lasers. The authors show that with this approach many problems associated with the application of laser ablation for photolithography can be solved. The mechanism of ablation for these photopolymers is photochemical, whereas for most of the standard polymers this mechanism is photothermal. The photochemical decomposition mechanism results in high resolution ablation with no thermal damage at the edges of the etched structures. In addition there are no redeposited ablation products or surface modifications of the polymer after ablation.

  6. Integrated MEMS/NEMS Resonant Cantilevers for Ultrasensitive Biological Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the recent researches implemented in Chinese Academy of Sciences, with achievements on integrated resonant microcantilever sensors. In the resonant cantilevers, the self-sensing elements and resonance exciting elements are both top-down integrated with silicon micromachining techniques. Quite a lot of effort is focused on optimization of the resonance mode and sensing structure for improvement of sensitivity. On the other hand, to enable the micro-cantilevers specifically sensitive to bio/chemical molecules, sensing materials are developed and modified on the cantilever surface with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM based bottom-up construction and surface functionalization. To improve the selectivity of the sensors and depress environmental noise, multiple and localized surface modifications are developed. The achieved volume production capability and satisfactory detecting resolution to trace-level biological antigen of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP give the micro-cantilever sensors a great promise for rapid and high-resoluble detection.

  7. Piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers for fingerprint sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yipeng

    Fingerprint identification is the most prevalent biometric technology due to its uniqueness, universality and convenience. Over the past two decades, a variety of physical mechanisms have been exploited to capture an electronic image of a human fingerprint. Among these, capacitive fingerprint sensors are the ones most widely used in consumer electronics because they are fabricated using conventional complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit technology. However, capacitive fingerprint sensors are extremely sensitive to finger contamination and moisture. This thesis will introduce an ultrasonic fingerprint sensor using a PMUT array, which offers a potential solution to this problem. In addition, it has the potential to increase security, as it allows images to be collected at various depths beneath the epidermis, providing images of the sub-surface dermis layer and blood vessels. Firstly, PMUT sensitivity is maximized by optimizing the layer stack and electrode design, and the coupling coefficient is doubled via series transduction. Moreover, a broadband PMUT with 97% fractional bandwidth is achieved by utilizing a thinner structure excited at two adjacent mechanical vibration modes with overlapping bandwidth. In addition, we proposed waveguide PMUTs, which function to direct acoustic waves, confine acoustic energy, and provide mechanical protection for the PMUT array. Furthermore, PMUT arrays were fabricated with different processes to form the membrane, including front-side etching with a patterned sacrificial layer, front-side etching with additional anchor, cavity SOI wafers and eutectic bonding. Additionally, eutectic bonding allows the PMUT to be integrated with CMOS circuits. PMUTs were characterized in the mechanical, electrical and acoustic domains. Using transmit beamforming, a narrow acoustic beam was achieved, and high-resolution (sub-100 microm) and short-range (~1 mm) pulse-echo ultrasonic imaging was demonstrated using a steel

  8. Design and Simulation of an RF-MEMS Switch and analysis of its Electromagnetic aspect in realtion to stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amna Riaz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS are devices made up of several electrical and mechanical components. They consist of mechanical functions (sensing, thermal, inertial and electrical functions (switching, decision making on a single chip made by microfabrication methods. These chips exhibit combined properties of the two functions. The size of system has characteristic dimensions less than 1mm but more than 1μm. The configuration of these components determine the final deliverables of the switch. MEMS can be designed to meet user requirements on any level from microbiological application such as biomedical transducers or tissue engineering, to mechanical systems such as microfluidic diagnoses or chemical fuel cells. The low cost, small mass and minimal power consumption of the MEMS makes it possible to readily integrate to any kind of system in any environment. MEMS are faster, better and cheaper. They offer excellent electrical performances. MEMS working at Radio frequencies are RF MEMS. RF-MEMS switches find huge market in the modern telecommunication networks, biological, automobiles, satellites and defense systems because of their lower power consumptions at relatively higher frequencies and better electrical performances. But the reliability is the major hurdle in the fate of RF MEMS switches. Reliability mainly arises due to the presence of residual stresses, charging current, fatigue and creep and contact degradation. The presence of residual stresses in switches the S-Parameters of the switches are affected badly and the residual stress affects the final planarity of the fabricated structure. Design and simulation of an RF-MEMS switch is proposed considering the residual stresses in both on and off state. The operating frequency band is being optimized and the best possible feasible fabrication technique for the proposed switch design is being analyzed. S-Parameters are calculated and a comparison for the switches with stress and

  9. Fabrication of 3D Carbon Microelectromechanical Systems (C-MEMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanick, Bidhan; Martinez-Chapa, Sergio O; Madou, Marc; Hwang, Hyundoo

    2017-06-17

    A wide range of carbon sources are available in nature, with a variety of micro-/nanostructure configurations. Here, a novel technique to fabricate long and hollow glassy carbon microfibers derived from human hairs is introduced. The long and hollow carbon structures were made by the pyrolysis of human hair at 900 °C in a N2 atmosphere. The morphology and chemical composition of natural and pyrolyzed human hairs were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), respectively, to estimate the physical and chemical changes due to pyrolysis. Raman spectroscopy was used to confirm the glassy nature of the carbon microstructures. Pyrolyzed hair carbon was introduced to modify screen-printed carbon electrodes ; the modified electrodes were then applied to the electrochemical sensing of dopamine and ascorbic acid. Sensing performance of the modified sensors was improved as compared to the unmodified sensors. To obtain the desired carbon structure design, carbon micro-/nanoelectromechanical system (C-MEMS/C-NEMS) technology was developed. The most common C-MEMS/C-NEMS fabrication process consists of two steps: (i) the patterning of a carbon-rich base material, such as a photosensitive polymer, using photolithography; and (ii) carbonization through the pyrolysis of the patterned polymer in an oxygen-free environment. The C-MEMS/NEMS process has been widely used to develop microelectronic devices for various applications, including in micro-batteries, supercapacitors, glucose sensors, gas sensors, fuel cells, and triboelectric nanogenerators. Here, recent developments of a high-aspect ratio solid and hollow carbon microstructures with SU8 photoresists are discussed. The structural shrinkage during pyrolysis was investigated using confocal microscopy and SEM. Raman spectroscopy was used to confirm the crystallinity of the structure, and the atomic percentage of the elements present in the material before and after

  10. Design and fabrication of PMMA-micromachined fluid lens based on electromagnetic actuation on PMMA–PDMS bonded membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, June Kyoo; Park, Kyung-Woo; Choi, Ju Chan; Kim, Hak-Rin; Kong, Seong Ho

    2012-01-01

    The fabrication of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-micromachined fluid lens with an optimally designed built-in electromagnetic actuator was demonstrated in this study. Through a finite element method, the number of winding turns and the distance between magnetic moments were estimated to design an effective and miniaturized electromagnetic actuator. The lens body composed of PMMA structures was simply and rapidly micromachined using computer numerical control micro-milling. The poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membranes for electromagnetic actuation were bonded to the PMMA structures by using the proposed PMMA–PDMS bonding technique, which uses an SiO 2 intermediate layer. A physical repulsive force produced by the electromagnetic actuator applies a controllable fluidic pressure to a fluidic chamber that is sealed with the PDMS membrane, thus allowing dynamic focusing. The focus tunability of the fabricated lens was 67 diopters with a focus hysteresis of less than 1 mm and a response time of 2 ms. The solenoid of the built-in actuator showed negligible thermal crosstalk to the lens. (paper)

  11. A Study on the Performance of Low Cost MEMS Sensors in Strong Motion Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanırcan, Gulum; Alçık, Hakan; Kaya, Yavuz; Beyen, Kemal

    2017-04-01

    Recent advances in sensors have helped the growth of local networks. In recent years, many Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS)-based accelerometers have been successfully used in seismology and earthquake engineering projects. This is basically due to the increased precision obtained in these downsized instruments. Moreover, they are cheaper alternatives to force-balance type accelerometers. In Turkey, though MEMS-based accelerometers have been used in various individual applications such as magnitude and location determination of earthquakes, structural health monitoring, earthquake early warning systems, MEMS-based strong motion networks are not currently available in other populated areas of the country. Motivation of this study comes from the fact that, if MEMS sensors are qualified to record strong motion parameters of large earthquakes, a dense network can be formed in an affordable price at highly populated areas. The goals of this study are 1) to test the performance of MEMS sensors, which are available in the inventory of the Institute through shake table tests, and 2) to setup a small scale network for observing online data transfer speed to a trusted in-house routine. In order to evaluate the suitability of sensors in strong motion related studies, MEMS sensors and a reference sensor are tested under excitations of sweeping waves as well as scaled earthquake recordings. Amplitude response and correlation coefficients versus frequencies are compared. As for earthquake recordings, comparisons are carried out in terms of strong motion(SM) parameters (PGA, PGV, AI, CAV) and elastic response of structures (Sa). Furthermore, this paper also focuses on sensitivity and selectivity for sensor performances in time-frequency domain to compare different sensing characteristics and analyzes the basic strong motion parameters that influence the design majors. Results show that the cheapest MEMS sensors under investigation are able to record the mid

  12. Ultrafast disk technology enables next generation micromachining laser sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckl, Oliver H.; Weiler, Sascha; Luzius, Severin; Zawischa, Ivo; Sutter, Dirk

    2013-02-01

    Ultrashort pulsed lasers based on thin disk technology have entered the 100 W regime and deliver several tens of MW peak power without chirped pulse amplification. Highest uptime and insensitivity to back reflections make them ideal tools for efficient and cost effective industrial micromachining. Frequency converted versions allow the processing of a large variety of materials. On one hand, thin disk oscillators deliver more than 30 MW peak power directly out of the resonator in laboratory setups. These peak power levels are made possible by recent progress in the scaling of the pulse energy in excess of 40 μJ. At the corresponding high peak intensity, thin disk technology profits from the limited amount of material and hence the manageable nonlinearity within the resonator. Using new broadband host materials like for example the sesquioxides will eventually reduce the pulse duration during high power operation and further increase the peak power. On the other hand industry grade amplifier systems deliver even higher peak power levels. At closed-loop controlled 100W, the TruMicro Series 5000 currently offers the highest average ultrafast power in an industry proven product, and enables efficient micromachining of almost any material, in particular of glasses, ceramics or sapphire. Conventional laser cutting of these materials often requires UV laser sources with pulse durations of several nanoseconds and an average power in the 10 W range. Material processing based on high peak power laser sources makes use of multi-photon absorption processes. This highly nonlinear absorption enables micromachining driven by the fundamental (1030 nm) or frequency doubled (515 nm) wavelength of Yb:YAG. Operation in the IR or green spectral range reduces the complexity and running costs of industrial systems initially based on UV light sources. Where UV wavelength is required, the TruMicro 5360 with a specified UV crystal life-time of more than 10 thousand hours of continues

  13. Fabrication of piezoresistive microcantilever using surface micromachining technique for biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Kwang-Ho [Department of Electrical Engineering and Nano-Bio Research Center, Myongji University, Yongin, Gyeonggido 449-728 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong-Sang [Department of Electrical Engineering and Nano-Bio Research Center, Myongji University, Yongin, Gyeonggido 449-728 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, C.J. [Department of Physics and Nano-Bio Research Center, Myongji University, San38-2 Namdong, Yongin, Gyeonggido 449-728 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: cjkang@mju.ac.kr

    2005-11-15

    A microcantilever-based biosensor with piezoresistor has been fabricated using surface micromachining technique, which is cost effective and simplifies a fabrication procedure. In order to evaluate the characteristics of the cantilever, the cystamine terminated with thiol was covalently immobilized on the gold-coated side of the cantilever and glutaraldehyde that would be bonded with amine group in the cystamine was injected subsequently. This process was characterized by measuring the deflection of the cantilever in real time monitoring. Using a piezoresistive read-out and a well-known optical beam deflection method as well, the measurement of deflection was carried out. The sensitivity of piezoresistive method is good enough compared with that of optical beam deflection method.

  14. A Micromachined Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor with a Shield Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gang; Wang, Xiaoping; Xu, Yong; Liu, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a piezoresistive pressure sensor with a shield layer for improved stability. Compared with the conventional piezoresistive pressure sensors, the new one reported in this paper has an n-type shield layer that covers p-type piezoresistors. This shield layer aims to minimize the impact of electrical field and reduce the temperature sensitivity of piezoresistors. The proposed sensors have been successfully fabricated by bulk-micromachining techniques. A sensitivity of 0.022 mV/V/kPa and a maximum non-linearity of 0.085% FS are obtained in a pressure range of 1 MPa. After numerical simulation, the role of the shield layer has been experimentally investigated. It is demonstrated that the shield layer is able to reduce the drift caused by electrical field and ambient temperature variation. PMID:27529254

  15. Surface micromachined counter-meshing gears discrimination device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polosky, Marc A.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Allen, James J.

    2000-12-12

    A surface micromachined Counter-Meshing Gears (CMG) discrimination device which functions as a mechanically coded lock. Each of two CMG has a first portion of its perimeter devoted to continuous driving teeth that mesh with respective pinion gears. Each EMG also has a second portion of its perimeter devoted to regularly spaced discrimination gear teeth that extend outwardly on at least one of three levels of the CMG. The discrimination gear teeth are designed so as to pass each other without interference only if the correct sequence of partial rotations of the CMG occurs in response to a coded series of rotations from the pinion gears. A 24 bit code is normally input to unlock the device. Once unlocked, the device provides a path for an energy or information signal to pass through the device. The device is designed to immediately lock up if any portion of the 24 bit code is incorrect.

  16. Surface micromachined counter-meshing gears discrimination device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polosky, M.A.; Garcia, E.J.; Allen, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the design, fabrication and testing of a surface micromachined Counter-Meshing Gears (CMG) discrimination device which functions as a mechanically coded lock, A 24 bit code is input to unlock the device. Once unlocked, the device provides a path for an energy or information signal to pass through the device. The device is designed to immediately lock up if any portion of the 24 bit code is incorrect. The motivation for the development of this device is based on occurrences referred to as High Consequence Events, A High Consequence Event is an event where an inadvertent operation of a system could result in the catastrophic loss of life, property, or damage to the environment

  17. Characterization of bulk-micromachined direct-bonded silicon nanofilters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jay K.; Huen, Tony; Szema, Robert; Ferrari, Mauro

    1998-03-01

    The ability to separate 30-100 nm particles - nanofiltration - is critical for many biomedical applications. Where this filtration needs to be absolute, such as for viral elimination in the blood fractionation process, the large variations in pore size found with conventional polymeric filters can lead to the unwanted presence of viruses in the filtrate. To overcome this problem, we have developed a filter with micromachined channels sandwiched between two bonded silicon wafers. These channels are formed through the selective deposition and then removal of a thermally-grown oxide, the thickness of which can be controlled to +/- 4 percent for 30 nm pores. In this paper, we will present both the gas and liquid characterization, and the filtration studies done on 44 and 100 nm beads.

  18. Performance Enhancement of the Patch Antennas Applying Micromachining Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed N. Azermanesh

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the application of micromachining technology for performance enhancement of two types of compact antennas which are becoming a common practice in microsystems. Shorted patch antennas (SPA and folded shorted patch antennas operating in the 5-6 GHz ISM band, with intended application in short-range wireless communications, are considered. The electrical length of antennas are modified by etching the substrate of the antennas, thus providing a new degree of freedom to control the antenna operating properties, which is the main novelty of our work. The gain and bandwidth of the antennas are increased by increasing the etching depth. However, etching the substrate affects the operating frequency as well. To keep the operating frequency at a pre-specified value, the dimension of the antennas must be increased by deepening the etching depth. Therefore, a trade off between the performance enhancement of the antennas and the dimensional enlargement is required.

  19. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising laser micromachined porous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han [Waltham, MA; LaConti, Anthony B [Lynnfield, MA; Mittelsteadt, Cortney K [Natick, MA; McCallum, Thomas J [Ashland, MA

    2011-01-11

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 5 microns, are made by laser micromachining and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  20. Analysis and prediction of dimensions and cost of laser micro-machining internal channel fabrication process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brabazon D.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the utilisation of Response Surface Methodology (RSM as the prediction tool for the laser micro-machining process. Laser internal microchannels machined using pulsed Nd:YVO4 laser in polycarbonate were investigated. The experiments were carried out according to 33 factorial Design of Experiment (DoE. In this work the three input process set as control parameters were laser power, P; pulse repetition frequency, PRF; and sample translation speed, U. Measured responses were the channel width and the micro-machining operating cost per metre of produced microchannels. The responses were sufficiently predicted within the set micro-machining parameters limits. Two factorial interaction (2FI and quadratic polynomial regression equations for both responses were constructed. It is proposed that the developed prediction equations can be used to find locally optimal micro-machining process parameters under experimental and operational conditions.

  1. Graphitization in Carbon MEMS and Carbon NEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Swati

    Carbon MEMS (CMEMS) and Carbon NEMS (CNEMS) are an emerging class of miniaturized devices. Due to the numerous advantages such as scalable manufacturing processes, inexpensive and readily available precursor polymer materials, tunable surface properties and biocompatibility, carbon has become a preferred material for a wide variety of future sensing applications. Single suspended carbon nanowires (CNWs) integrated on CMEMS structures fabricated by electrospinning of SU8 photoresist on photolithographially patterned SU8 followed by pyrolysis are utilized for understanding the graphitization process in micro and nano carbon materials. These monolithic CNW-CMEMS structures enable the fabrication of very high aspect ratio CNWs of predefined length. The CNWs thus fabricated display core---shell structures having a graphitic shell with a glassy carbon core. The electrical conductivity of these CNWs is increased by about 100% compared to glassy carbon as a result of enhanced graphitization. We explore various tunable fabrication and pyrolysis parameters to improve graphitization in the resulting CNWs. We also suggest gas-sensing application of the thus fabricated single suspended CNW-CMEMS devices by using the CNW as a nano-hotplate for local chemical vapor deposition. In this thesis we also report on results from an optimization study of SU8 photoresist derived carbon electrodes. These electrodes were applied to the simultaneous detection of traces of Cd(II) and Pb(II) through anodic stripping voltammetry and detection limits as low as 0.7 and 0.8 microgL-1 were achieved. To further improve upon the electrochemical behavior of the carbon electrodes we elucidate a modified pyrolysis technique featuring an ultra-fast temperature ramp for obtaining bubbled porous carbon from lithographically patterned SU8. We conclude this dissertation by suggesting the possible future works on enhancing graphitization as well as on electrochemical applications

  2. MEMS Rotary Engine Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Pisano, Albert P.; Fu, Kelvin; Walther, David C.; Knobloch, Aaron; Martinez, Fabian; Senesky, Matt; Stoldt, Conrad; Maboudian, Roya; Sanders, Seth; Liepmann, Dorian

    This work presents a project overview and recent research results for the MEMS Rotary Engine Power System project at the Berkeley Sensor & Actuator Center of the University of California at Berkeley. The research motivation for the project is the high specific energy density of hydrocarbon fuels. When compared with the energy density of batteries, hydrocarbon fuels may have as much as 20x more energy. However, the technical challenge is the conversion of hydrocarbon fuel to electricity in an efficient and clean micro engine. A 12.9 mm diameter Wankel engine will be shown that has already generated 4 Watts of power at 9300rpm. In addition, the 1mm and 2.4 mm Wankel engines that BSAC is developing for power generation at the microscale will be discussed. The project goal is to develop electrical power output of 90milliwatts from the 2.4 mm engine. Prototype engine components have already been fabricated and these will be described. The integrated generator design concept utilizes a nickel-iron alloy electroplated in the engine rotor poles, so that the engine rotor also serves as the generator rotor.

  3. MEMS/MOEMS foundry services at INO

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Blanco, Sonia; Ilias, Samir; Williamson, Fraser; Généreux, Francis; Le Noc, Loïc; Poirier, Michel; Proulx, Christian; Tremblay, Bruno; Provençal, Francis; Desroches, Yan; Caron, Jean-Sol; Larouche, Carl; Beaupré, Patrick; Fortin, Benoit; Topart, Patrice; Picard, Francis; Alain, Christine; Pope, Timothy; Jerominek, Hubert

    2010-06-01

    In the MEMS manufacturing world, the "fabless" model is getting increasing importance in recent years as a way for MEMS manufactures and startups to minimize equipment costs and initial capital investment. In order for this model to be successful, the fabless company needs to work closely with a MEMS foundry service provider. Due to the lack of standardization in MEMS processes, as opposed to CMOS microfabrication, the experience in MEMS development processes and the flexibility of the MEMS foundry are of vital importance. A multidisciplinary team together with a complete microfabrication toolset allows INO to offer unique MEMS foundry services to fabless companies looking for low to mid-volume production. Companies that benefit from their own microfabrication facilities can also be interested in INO's assistance in conducting their research and development work during periods where production runs keep their whole staff busy. Services include design, prototyping, fabrication, packaging, and testing of various MEMS and MOEMS devices on wafers fully compatible with CMOS integration. Wafer diameters ranging typically from 1 inch to 6 inches can be accepted while 8-inch wafers can be processed in some instances. Standard microfabrication techniques such as metal, dielectric, and semiconductor film deposition and etching as well as photolithographic pattern transfer are available. A stepper permits reduction of the critical dimension to around 0.4 μm. Metals deposited by vacuum deposition methods include Au, Ag, Al, Al alloys, Ti, Cr, Cu, Mo, MoCr, Ni, Pt, and V with thickness varying from 5 nm to 2 μm. Electroplating of several materials including Ni, Au and In is also available. In addition, INO has developed and built a gold black deposition facility to answer customer's needs for broadband microbolometric detectors. The gold black deposited presents specular reflectance of less than 10% in the wavelength range from 0.2 μm to 100 μm with thickness ranging from

  4. Analysis of an Electrostatic MEMS Squeeze-film Drop Ejector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward P. Furlani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of an electrostatic drop-on-demand MEMS fluid ejector. The ejector consists of a microfluidic chamber with a piston that is suspended a few microns beneath a nozzle plate. A drop is ejected when a voltage is applied between the orifice plate and the piston. This produces an electrostatic force that moves the piston towards the nozzle. The moving piston generates a squeeze-film pressure distribution that causes drop ejection. We discuss the operating physics of the ejector and present a lumped-element model for predicting its performance. We calibrate the model using coupled structural-fluidic CFD analysis.

  5. Outlook and challenges of nano devices, sensors, and MEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ziv

    2017-01-01

    This book provides readers with an overview of the design, fabrication, simulation, and reliability of nanoscale semiconductor devices, MEMS, and sensors, as they serve for realizing the next-generation internet of things. The authors focus on how the nanoscale structures interact with the electrical and/or optical performance, how to find optimal solutions to achieve the best outcome, how these apparatus can be designed via models and simulations, how to improve reliability, and what are the possible challenges and roadblocks moving forward.

  6. A review of vibration-based MEMS piezoelectric energy harvesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saadon, Salem; Sidek, Othman [Collaborative Microelectronic Design Excellence Center (CEDEC), School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    The simplicity associated with the piezoelectric micro-generators makes it very attractive for MEMS applications, especially for remote systems. In this paper we reviewed the work carried out by researchers during the last three years. The improvements in experimental results obtained in the vibration-based MEMS piezoelectric energy harvesters show very good scope for MEMS piezoelectric harvesters in the field of power MEMS in the near future. (author)

  7. The digital geometric phase technique applied to the deformation evaluation of MEMS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z W; Xie, H M; Gu, C Z; Meng, Y G

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of the structure deformation of microfabricated electromechanical systems is of importance for the design and functional control of microsystems. In this investigation, a novel digital geometric phase technique was developed to meet the deformation evaluation requirement of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The technique is performed on the basis of regular artificial lattices, instead of a natural atom lattice. The regular artificial lattices with a pitch ranging from micrometer to nanometer will be directly fabricated on the measured surface of MEMS devices by using a focused ion beam (FIB). Phase information can be obtained from the Bragg filtered images after fast Fourier transform (FFT) and inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) of the scanning electronic microscope (SEM) images. Then the in-plane displacement field and the local strain field related to the phase information will be evaluated. The obtained results show that the technique can be well applied to deformation measurement with nanometer sensitivity and stiction force estimation of a MEMS device

  8. MEMS capacitive pressure sensor monolithically integrated with CMOS readout circuit by using post CMOS processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Munseon; Yun, Kwang-Seok

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we presents a MEMS pressure sensor integrated with a readout circuit on a chip for an on-chip signal processing. The capacitive pressure sensor is formed on a CMOS chip by using a post-CMOS MEMS processes. The proposed device consists of a sensing capacitor that is square in shape, a reference capacitor and a readout circuitry based on a switched-capacitor scheme to detect capacitance change at various environmental pressures. The readout circuit was implemented by using a commercial 0.35 μm CMOS process with 2 polysilicon and 4 metal layers. Then, the pressure sensor was formed by wet etching of metal 2 layer through via hole structures. Experimental results show that the MEMS pressure sensor has a sensitivity of 11 mV/100 kPa at the pressure range of 100-400 kPa.

  9. Lessons learned from nanoscale specimens tested by MEMS-based apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhebeary, Mohamed; Saif, M. Taher A.

    2017-06-01

    The last two decades were marked by the innovative synthesis of nanomaterials and devices. The success of these devices hinges on the mechanical properties of nanomaterials and an understanding of their deformation and failure mechanisms. Many novel testing techniques have been developed to test materials at small scale. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) apparatus developed to characterize materials at nanoscale, and the key insights gained on structure-property relations of materials through these characterizations. Finally, new applications of MEMS in testing living materials, such as tissues and cells, for disease diagnosis and prognosis are discussed.

  10. Lessons learned from nanoscale specimens tested by MEMS-based apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhebeary, Mohamed; Saif, M Taher A

    2017-01-01

    The last two decades were marked by the innovative synthesis of nanomaterials and devices. The success of these devices hinges on the mechanical properties of nanomaterials and an understanding of their deformation and failure mechanisms. Many novel testing techniques have been developed to test materials at small scale. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) apparatus developed to characterize materials at nanoscale, and the key insights gained on structure-property relations of materials through these characterizations. Finally, new applications of MEMS in testing living materials, such as tissues and cells, for disease diagnosis and prognosis are discussed. (topical review)

  11. Modeling Impact-induced Failure of Polysilicon MEMS: A Multi-scale Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Stefano; Ghisi, Aldo; Corigliano, Alberto; Zerbini, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Failure of packaged polysilicon micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) subjected to impacts involves phenomena occurring at several length-scales. In this paper we present a multi-scale finite element approach to properly allow for: (i) the propagation of stress waves inside the package; (ii) the dynamics of the whole MEMS; (iii) the spreading of micro-cracking in the failing part(s) of the sensor. Through Monte Carlo simulations, some effects of polysilicon micro-structure on the failure mode are elucidated.

  12. Infra-red laser ablative micromachining of parylene-C on SiO2 substrates for rapid prototyping, high yield, human neuronal cell patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raos, B J; Unsworth, C P; Costa, J L; Rohde, C A; Simpson, M C; Doyle, C S; Dickinson, M E; Bunting, A S; Murray, A F; Delivopoulos, E; Graham, E S

    2013-01-01

    Cell patterning commonly employs photolithographic methods for the micro fabrication of structures on silicon chips. These require expensive photo-mask development and complex photolithographic processing. Laser based patterning of cells has been studied in vitro and laser ablation of polymers is an active area of research promising high aspect ratios. This paper disseminates how 800 nm femtosecond infrared (IR) laser radiation can be successfully used to perform laser ablative micromachining of parylene-C on SiO 2 substrates for the patterning of human hNT astrocytes (derived from the human teratocarcinoma cell line (hNT)) whilst 248 nm nanosecond ultra-violet laser radiation produces photo-oxidization of the parylene-C and destroys cell patterning. In this work, we report the laser ablation methods used and the ablation characteristics of parylene-C for IR pulse fluences. Results follow that support the validity of using IR laser ablative micromachining for patterning human hNT astrocytes cells. We disseminate the variation in yield of patterned hNT astrocytes on parylene-C with laser pulse spacing, pulse number, pulse fluence and parylene-C strip width. The findings demonstrate how laser ablative micromachining of parylene-C on SiO 2 substrates can offer an accessible alternative for rapid prototyping, high yield cell patterning with broad application to multi-electrode arrays, cellular micro-arrays and microfluidics. (paper)

  13. Trend of advanced technology of micromachines in the USA; Beikoku ni okeru micro machine sentan gijutsu doko chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In this research, the data of advanced technology of micromachines in the USA have been searched, collected, and arranged from the US patent information, technical journal information, and newspaper and general journal information. According to demand, the main undertaking information was interviewed from well-informed persons. The data were compiled as advanced technology trend of micromachines in the USA. Sensors are remarkably predominant in the elemental technology. There are also important topics in the fields of actuators, motors, lenses, devices, and structures. On the other hand, materials, etchings, packages, motive powers, and softwares are also important elemental technology in spite of their less information. From the viewpoint of usage, detection systems are remarkably predominant. Then, robots, processing systems, optics, analysis systems, motive power systems, medical systems, and acoustic systems are also important. From the viewpoint of industrial sector, the environmental items are predominant. Automobiles, medical treatments, and information communications follow the above. When new relationships to the secondary usage and tertiary usage are not found, it would be rather hard to express such a technology development trend more clearly.

  14. Planar Indium Tin Oxide Heater for Improved Thermal Distribution for Metal Oxide Micromachined Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cihan Çakır

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Metal oxide gas sensors with integrated micro-hotplate structures are widely used in the industry and they are still being investigated and developed. Metal oxide gas sensors have the advantage of being sensitive to a wide range of organic and inorganic volatile compounds, although they lack selectivity. To introduce selectivity, the operating temperature of a single sensor is swept, and the measurements are fed to a discriminating algorithm. The efficiency of those data processing methods strongly depends on temperature uniformity across the active area of the sensor. To achieve this, hot plate structures with complex resistor geometries have been designed and additional heat-spreading structures have been introduced. In this work we designed and fabricated a metal oxide gas sensor integrated with a simple square planar indium tin oxide (ITO heating element, by using conventional micromachining and thin-film deposition techniques. Power consumption–dependent surface temperature measurements were performed. A 420 °C working temperature was achieved at 120 mW power consumption. Temperature distribution uniformity was measured and a 17 °C difference between the hottest and the coldest points of the sensor at an operating temperature of 290 °C was achieved. Transient heat-up and cool-down cycle durations are measured as 40 ms and 20 ms, respectively.

  15. Planar Indium Tin Oxide Heater for Improved Thermal Distribution for Metal Oxide Micromachined Gas Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, M Cihan; Çalışkan, Deniz; Bütün, Bayram; Özbay, Ekmel

    2016-09-29

    Metal oxide gas sensors with integrated micro-hotplate structures are widely used in the industry and they are still being investigated and developed. Metal oxide gas sensors have the advantage of being sensitive to a wide range of organic and inorganic volatile compounds, although they lack selectivity. To introduce selectivity, the operating temperature of a single sensor is swept, and the measurements are fed to a discriminating algorithm. The efficiency of those data processing methods strongly depends on temperature uniformity across the active area of the sensor. To achieve this, hot plate structures with complex resistor geometries have been designed and additional heat-spreading structures have been introduced. In this work we designed and fabricated a metal oxide gas sensor integrated with a simple square planar indium tin oxide (ITO) heating element, by using conventional micromachining and thin-film deposition techniques. Power consumption-dependent surface temperature measurements were performed. A 420 °C working temperature was achieved at 120 mW power consumption. Temperature distribution uniformity was measured and a 17 °C difference between the hottest and the coldest points of the sensor at an operating temperature of 290 °C was achieved. Transient heat-up and cool-down cycle durations are measured as 40 ms and 20 ms, respectively.

  16. Design and Analysis of a Micromachined LC Low Pass Filter For 2.4GHz Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroj, Samruddhi R.; Rathee, Vishal R.; Pande, Rajesh S.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports design and analysis of a passive low pass filter with cut-off frequency of 2.4 GHz using MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) technology. The passive components such as suspended spiral inductors and metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor are arranged in T network form to implement LC low pass filter design. This design employs a simple approach of suspension thereby reducing parasitic losses to eliminate the performance degrading effects caused by integrating an off-chip inductor in the filter circuit proposed to be developed on a low cost silicon substrate using RF-MEMS components. The filter occupies only 2.1 mm x 0.66 mm die area and is designed using micro-strip transmission line placed on a silicon substrate. The design is implemented in High Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS) software and fabrication flow is proposed for its implementation. The simulated results show that the design has an insertion loss of -4.98 dB and return loss of -2.60dB.

  17. A 35 GHz wireless millimeter-wave power sensor based on GaAs micromachining technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, De-bo; Liao, Xiao-ping

    2012-01-01

    A novel MEMS wireless millimeter-wave power sensor based on GaAs MMIC technology is presented in this paper. The principle of this wireless millimeter-wave power sensor is explained. It is designed and fabricated using MEMS technology and the GaAs MMIC process. With the millimeter-wave power range from 0.1 to 80 mW, the sensitivity of the wireless millimeter-wave power sensor is about 0.246 mV mW −1 at 35 GHz. In order to verify the power detection capability, this wireless power sensor is mounted on a PCB which influences the microwave performance of the CPW-fed antenna including the return loss and the radiation pattern. The frequency-dependent characteristic and the degree-dependent characteristic of this wireless power sensor are researched. Furthermore, in addition to the combination of the advantages of CPW-fed antenna with the advantages of the thermoelectric power sensor, another significant advantage of this wireless millimeter-wave power sensor is that it can be integrated with MMICs and other planar connecting circuit structures with zero dc power consumption. These features make it suitable for various applications ranging from the environment or space radiation detection systems to radar receiver and transmitter systems. (paper)

  18. Optical MEMS for earth observation payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, B.; Lobb, D. R.; Freire, M.

    2017-11-01

    An ESA study has been taken by Lusospace Ltd and Surrey Satellite Techonoly Ltd (SSTL) into the use of optical Micro Eletro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) for earth Observation. A review and analysis was undertaken of the Micro-Optical Electro-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS) available in the market with potential application in systems for Earth Observation. A summary of this review will be presented. Following the review two space-instrument design concepts were selected for more detailed analysis. The first was the use of a MEMS device to remove cloud from Earth images. The concept is potentially of interest for any mission using imaging spectrometers. A spectrometer concept was selected and detailed design aspects and benefits evaluated. The second concept developed uses MEMS devices to control the width of entrance slits of spectrometers, to provide variable spectral resolution. This paper will present a summary of the results of the study.

  19. MEMS tunable grating micro-spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormen, Maurizio; Lockhart, R.; Niedermann, P.; Overstolz, T.; Hoogerwerf, A.; Mayor, J.-M.; Pierer, J.; Bosshard, C.; Ischer, R.; Voirin, G.; Stanley, R. P.

    2017-11-01

    The interest in MEMS based Micro-Spectrometers is increasing due to their potential in terms of flexibility as well as cost, low mass, small volume and power savings. This interest, especially in the Near-Infrared and Mid- Infrared, ranges from planetary exploration missions to astronomy, e.g. the search for extra solar planets, as well as to many other terrestrial fields of application such as, industrial quality and surface control, chemical analysis of soil and water, detection of chemical pollutants, exhausted gas analysis, food quality control, process control in pharmaceuticals, to name a few. A compact MEMS-based Spectrometer for Near- Infrared and Mid-InfraRed operation have been conceived, designed and demonstrated. The design based on tunable MEMS blazed grating, developed in the past at CSEM [1], achieves state of the art results in terms of spectral resolution, operational wavelength range, light throughput, overall dimensions, and power consumption.

  20. MEMS-based fuel cells with integrated catalytic fuel processor and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Alan F [Livermore, CA; Morse, Jeffrey D [Martinez, CA; Upadhye, Ravindra S [Pleasanton, CA; Havstad, Mark A [Davis, CA

    2011-08-09

    Described herein is a means to incorporate catalytic materials into the fuel flow field structures of MEMS-based fuel cells, which enable catalytic reforming of a hydrocarbon based fuel, such as methane, methanol, or butane. Methods of fabrication are also disclosed.

  1. Robust Layout Synthesis of a MEM Crab-Leg Resonator Using a Constrained Genetic Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun; Achiche, Sofiane

    2007-01-01

    The research work carried out in this paper introduces a robust design method for layout synthesis of MEM resonator subject to inherent geometric uncertainties such as the fabrication error on the sidewall of the structure. The robust design problem is formulated as a multi-objective constrained...

  2. MEMS- and NEMS-based smart devices and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.

    2001-11-01

    The microelectronics industry has seen explosive growth during the last thirty years. Extremely large markets for logic and memory devices have driven the development of new materials, and technologies for the fabrication of even more complex devices with features sized now don at the sub micron and nanometer level. Recent interest has arisen in employing these materials, tools and technologies for the fabrication of miniature sensors and actuators and their integration with electronic circuits to produce smart devices and systems. This effort offers the promise of: 1) increasing the performance and manufacturability of both sensors and actuators by exploiting new batch fabrication processes developed including micro stereo lithographic an micro molding techniques; 2) developing novel classes of materials and mechanical structures not possible previously, such as diamond like carbon, silicon carbide and carbon nanotubes, micro-turbines and micro-engines; 3) development of technologies for the system level and wafer level integration of micro components at the nanometer precision, such as self-assembly techniques and robotic manipulation; 4) development of control and communication systems for MEMS devices, such as optical and RF wireless, and power delivery systems, etc. A novel composite structure can be tailored by functionalizing carbon nano tubes and chemically bonding them with the polymer matrix e.g. block or graft copolymer, or even cross-linked copolymer, to impart exceptional structural, electronic and surface properties. Bio- and Mechanical-MEMS devices derived from this hybrid composite provide a new avenue for future smart systems. The integration of NEMS (NanoElectroMechanical Systems), MEMS, IDTs (Interdigital Transducers) and required microelectronics and conformal antenna in the multifunctional smart materials and composites results in a smart system suitable for sensing and control of a variety functions in automobile, aerospace, marine and civil

  3. RF MEMS theory, design, and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Rebeiz, Gabriel M

    2003-01-01

    Ultrasmall Radio Frequency and Micro-wave Microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMs), such as switches, varactors, and phase shifters, exhibit nearly zero power consumption or loss. For this reason, they are being developed intensively by corporations worldwide for use in telecommunications equipment. This book acquaints readers with the basics of RF MEMs and describes how to design practical circuits and devices with them. The author, an acknowledged expert in the field, presents a range of real-world applications and shares many valuable tricks of the trade.

  4. Enabling technology for MEMS and nanodevices

    CERN Document Server

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K; Hierold, Christofer; Korvink, Jan G; Tabata, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    This softcover edition of the eponymous volume from the successful ""Advanced Micro & Nanosystems"" series covers all aspects of fabrication of MEMS under CMOS-compatible conditions from design to implementation.It examines the various routes and methods to combine electronics generated by the CMOS technology with novel micromechanical parts into one-chip solutions. Various approaches, fundamental and technological aspects as well as strategies leading to different types of functionalities and presented in detail.For the practicing engineer as well as MSc and PhD students on MEMS cours

  5. Hermeticity testing of MEMS and microelectronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Costello, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Packaging of microelectronics has been developing since the invention of the transistor in 1947. With the increasing complexity and decreasing size of the die, packaging requirements have continued to change. A step change in package requirements came with the introduction of the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) whereby interactions with the external environment are, in some cases, required.This resource is a rapid, definitive reference on hermetic packaging for the MEMS and microelectronics industry, giving practical guidance on traditional and newly developed test methods. This book in

  6. Applications of MEMS for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, William C.

    1998-03-01

    Space exploration in the coming century will emphasize cost effectiveness and highly focused mission objectives, which will result in frequent multiple missions that broaden the scope of space science and to validate new technologies on a timely basis. Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is one of the key enabling technologies to create cost-effective, ultra-miniaturized, robust, and functionally focused spacecraft for both robotic and human exploration programs. Examples of MEMS devices at various stages of development include microgyroscope, microseismometer, microhygrometer, quadrupole mass spectrometer, and micropropulsion engine. These devices, when proven successful, will serve as models for developing components and systems for new-millennium spacecraft.

  7. Antenna Miniaturization with MEMS Tunable Capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Morris, Art; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2014-01-01

    In today’s mobile device market, there is a strong need for efficient antenna miniaturization. Tunable antennas are a very promising way to reduce antenna volume while enlarging its operating bandwidth. MEMS tunable capacitors are state-ofthe- art in terms of insertion loss and their characterist......In today’s mobile device market, there is a strong need for efficient antenna miniaturization. Tunable antennas are a very promising way to reduce antenna volume while enlarging its operating bandwidth. MEMS tunable capacitors are state-ofthe- art in terms of insertion loss...

  8. 77 GHz MEMS antennas on high-resistivity silicon for linear and circular polarization

    KAUST Repository

    Sallam, M. O.

    2011-07-01

    Two new MEMS antennas operating at 77 GHz are presented in this paper. The first antenna is linearly polarized. It possesses a vertical silicon wall that carries a dipole on top of it. The wall is located on top of silicon substrate covered with a ground plane. The other side of the substrate carries a microstrip feeding network in the form of U-turn that causes 180 phase shift. This phase-shifter feeds the arms of the dipole antenna via two vertical Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs) that go through the entire wafer. The second antenna is circularly polarized and formed using two linearly polarized antennas spatially rotated with respect to each other by 90 and excited with 90 phase shift. Both antennas are fabricated using novel process flow on a single high-resistivity silicon wafer via bulk micromachining. Only three processing steps are required to fabricate these antennas. The proposed antennas have appealing characteristics, such as high polarization purity, high gain, and high radiation efficiency. © 2011 IEEE.

  9. Spiral-Shaped Piezoelectric MEMS Cantilever Array for Fully Implantable Hearing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Udvardi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fully implantable, self-powered hearing aids with no external unit could significantly increase the life quality of patients suffering severe hearing loss. This highly demanding concept, however, requires a strongly miniaturized device which is fully implantable in the middle/inner ear and includes the following components: frequency selective microphone or accelerometer, energy harvesting device, speech processor, and cochlear multielectrode. Here we demonstrate a low volume, piezoelectric micro-electromechanical system (MEMS cantilever array which is sensitive, even in the lower part of the voice frequency range (300–700 Hz. The test array consisting of 16 cantilevers has been fabricated by standard bulk micromachining using a Si-on-Insulator (SOI wafer and aluminum nitride (AlN as a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS and biocompatible piezoelectric material. The low frequency and low device footprint are ensured by Archimedean spiral geometry and Si seismic mass. Experimentally detected resonance frequencies were validated by an analytical model. The generated open circuit voltage (3–10 mV is sufficient for the direct analog conversion of the signals for cochlear multielectrode implants.

  10. UV laser micromachining of piezoelectric ceramic using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, D.W.; Xie, C.S.; Li, K.; Chan, H.L.W.; Choy, C.L.; Yung, K.C.

    2004-01-01

    UV laser (λ=355 nm) ablation of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics in air has been investigated under different laser parameters. It has been found that there is a critical pulse number (N=750). When the pulse number is smaller than the critical value, the ablation rate decreases with increasing pulse number. Beyond the critical value, the ablation rate becomes constant. The ablation rate and concentrations of O, Zr and Ti on the ablated surface increase with the laser fluence, while the Pb concentration decreases due to the selective evaporation of PbO. The loss of the Pb results in the formation of a metastable pyrochlore phase. ZrO 2 was detected by XPS in the ablated zone. Also, the concentrations of the pyrochlore phase and ZrO 2 increase with increasing laser fluence. These results clearly indicate that the chemical composition and phase structure in the ablated zone strongly depend on the laser fluence. The piezoelectric properties of the cut PZT ceramic samples completely disappear due to the loss of the Pb and the existence of the pyrochlore phase. After these samples were annealed at 1150 C for 1 h in a PbO-controlled atmosphere, their phase structure and piezoelectric properties were recovered again. Finally, 1-3 and concentric-ring 2-2 PZT/epoxy composites were fabricated by UV laser micromachining and their thickness modes were measured by impedance spectrum analysis and a d 33 meter. Both composites show high piezoelectric properties. (orig.)

  11. PolyMEMS Actuator: A Polymer-Based Microelectromechanical (MEMS) Actuator with Macroscopic Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    DIRECTOR: MICHAEL L. TALBERT, Maj., USAF Technical Advisor , Information Technology Division Information Directorate...technologies meet even two of the four requirements, whereas PolyMEMS meets all four. Robo -Lobster Courtesy of Dr. Joseph Ayers, Northeastern

  12. Modeling methodology for a CMOS-MEMS electrostatic comb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Sitaraman V.; Lakdawala, Hasnain; Mukherjee, Tamal; Fedder, Gary K.

    2002-04-01

    A methodology for combined modeling of capacitance and force 9in a multi-layer electrostatic comb is demonstrated in this paper. Conformal mapping-based analytical methods are limited to 2D symmetric cross-sections and cannot account for charge concentration effects at corners. Vertex capacitance can be more than 30% of the total capacitance in a single-layer 2 micrometers thick comb with 10 micrometers overlap. Furthermore, analytical equations are strictly valid only for perfectly symmetrical finger positions. Fringing and corner effects are likely to be more significant in a multi- layered CMOS-MEMS comb because of the presence of more edges and vertices. Vertical curling of CMOS-MEMS comb fingers may also lead to reduced capacitance and vertical forces. Gyroscopes are particularly sensitive to such undesirable forces, which therefore, need to be well-quantified. In order to address the above issues, a hybrid approach of superposing linear regression models over a set of core analytical models is implemented. Design of experiments is used to obtain data for capacitance and force using a commercial 3D boundary-element solver. Since accurate force values require significantly higher mesh refinement than accurate capacitance, we use numerical derivatives of capacitance values to compute the forces. The model is formulated such that the capacitance and force models use the same regression coefficients. The comb model thus obtained, fits the numerical capacitance data to within +/- 3% and force to within +/- 10%. The model is experimentally verified by measuring capacitance change in a specially designed test structure. The capacitance model matches measurements to within 10%. The comb model is implemented in an Analog Hardware Description Language (ADHL) for use in behavioral simulation of manufacturing variations in a CMOS-MEMS gyroscope.

  13. On the feasibility to integrate low-cost MEMS accelerometers and GNSS receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Elisa; Dermanis, Athanasios; Crespi, Mattia

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the feasibility of merging the benefits offered by low-cost GNSS and MEMS accelerometers technology, in order to promote the diffusion of low-cost monitoring solutions. A merging approach was set up at the level of the combination of kinematic results (velocities and displacements) coming from the two kinds of sensors, whose observations were separately processed, following to the so called loose integration, which sounds much more simple and flexible thinking about the possibility of an easy change of the combined sensors. At first, the issues related to the difference in reference systems, time systems and measurement rate and epochs for the two sensors were faced with. An approach was designed and tested to transform into unique reference and time systems the outcomes from GPS and MEMS and to interpolate the usually (much) more dense MEMS observation to common (GPS) epochs. The proposed approach was limited to time-independent (constant) orientation of the MEMS reference system with respect to the GPS one. Then, a data fusion approach based on the use of Discrete Fourier Transform and cubic splines interpolation was proposed both for velocities and displacements: MEMS and GPS derived solutions are firstly separated by a rectangular filter in spectral domain, and secondly back-transformed and combined through a cubic spline interpolation. Accuracies around 5 mm for slow and fast displacements and better than 2 mm/s for velocities were assessed. The obtained solution paves the way to a powerful and appealing use of low-cost single frequency GNSS receivers and MEMS accelerometers for structural and ground monitoring applications. Some additional remarks and prospects for future investigations complete the paper.

  14. Acoustic resonance in MEMS scale cylindrical tubes with side branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, John F.; Holthoff, Ellen L.; Pellegrino, Paul M.; Marcus, Logan S.

    2014-05-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is a useful monitoring technique that is well suited for trace gas detection. This method routinely exhibits detection limits at the parts-per-million (ppm) or parts-per-billion (ppb) level for gaseous samples. PAS also possesses favorable detection characteristics when the system dimensions are scaled to a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) design. One of the central issues related to sensor miniaturization is optimization of the photoacoustic cell geometry, especially in relationship to high acoustical amplification and reduced system noise. Previous work relied on a multiphysics approach to analyze the resonance structures of the MEMS scale photo acoustic cell. This technique was unable to provide an accurate model of the acoustic structure. In this paper we describe a method that relies on techniques developed from musical instrument theory and electronic transmission line matrix methods to describe cylindrical acoustic resonant cells with side branches of various configurations. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate the ease and accuracy of this method. All experimental results were within 2% of those predicted by this theory.

  15. Thermoelectrical Generator for a MEMS-Fuze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Efremov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of modern fuzes includes micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS, which have such advanced devices as micro-accelerometers and micro-switches, being triggered at a specified level of setback. Independent power source (PS, as an inherent part of the MEMSfuze, charges an energy storage unit during the shot and triggers the fuze firing circuit when the shell encounters the target. Operating level of the control signal should be achieved within the time of remote arming, determined by the type of ammunition. The paper considers a possibility to develop PS as a thermoelectric generator (TEG with aerodynamic heating of hot junctions due to friction of the projectile body on the incoming airflow. The initial temperature is determined by the driving band cutting into the rifling and friction during the movement of projectile through the tube bore. The paper presents a technique for calculating the temperature field along the body of the projectile from the critical point, located at the top of the shell head. The solution of the equation of heat balance reveals the temporal development of the projectile body temperature. The proposed mathematical model of the TEG describes the process of converting heat into electrical output signal (thermo-EMF. An example of calculation for a specific artillery system – 57-mm anti-aircraft gun S-60 is given. Calculation of the TEG output signal was limited by the time, which is necessary to reach the top of the projectile trajectory. It is shown that at high altitude the temperature difference may drop to zero, thus cutting off the TEG output signal. Selection of capacitive storage parameters can be based on the reliability test conditions of the fuze firing circuit actuators, taking into account the partial storage discharge on the trajectory before the projectile encounters the target.

  16. Self-organized nanostructures in silicon and glass for MEMS, MOEMS and BioMEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilienthal, K.; Fischer, M.; Stubenrauch, M.; Schober, A.

    2010-01-01

    The utilization of self-organization in the process workflows for Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) and their derivatives is a smart way to get large areas of nanostructured surfaces for various applications. The generation of nano-masking spots by self-organizing residues in the plasma can lead to needle- or tube-like structures on the surface after (deep-) reactive ion etching. With lengths of 3 up to 25 μm and 150 up to 500 nm in diameter for silicon broad applications in the fields of micro fluidics with catalysts, micro-optical or mechanical mountings or carrier wafer bonding in microelectronics are possible. Now, we also developed dry etching processes for fused silica which shows analogue properties to 'Black Silicon' and investigated these glass nanostructures by a first parameter study to identify new usable structures and hybrids. This innovative starting point allows the transfer of 'Black Silicon' technologies and its applications to another important material class in micro- and nanotechnologies, fused silica.

  17. Self-organized nanostructures in silicon and glass for MEMS, MOEMS and BioMEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilienthal, K., E-mail: katharina.lilienthal@tu-ilmenau.de [Research Group ' Micro fluidics and Biosensors' , Ilmenau University of Technology, Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Fischer, M. [Research Group ' Micro fluidics and Biosensors' , Ilmenau University of Technology, Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Stubenrauch, M. [Department of Micromechanical Systems, Ilmenau University of Technology, Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Schober, A. [Research Group ' Micro fluidics and Biosensors' , Ilmenau University of Technology, Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2010-05-25

    The utilization of self-organization in the process workflows for Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) and their derivatives is a smart way to get large areas of nanostructured surfaces for various applications. The generation of nano-masking spots by self-organizing residues in the plasma can lead to needle- or tube-like structures on the surface after (deep-) reactive ion etching. With lengths of 3 up to 25 {mu}m and 150 up to 500 nm in diameter for silicon broad applications in the fields of micro fluidics with catalysts, micro-optical or mechanical mountings or carrier wafer bonding in microelectronics are possible. Now, we also developed dry etching processes for fused silica which shows analogue properties to 'Black Silicon' and investigated these glass nanostructures by a first parameter study to identify new usable structures and hybrids. This innovative starting point allows the transfer of 'Black Silicon' technologies and its applications to another important material class in micro- and nanotechnologies, fused silica.

  18. Fiscal 1996 report on technological results. R and D on micromachine technology; 1996 nendo micromachine gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Researches on basic element technology of micromachines are conducted that operate autonomously in a narrow small part in a complicated apparatus or in vivo. The areas of activity are (1) research on micromachine systems, (2) a subminiature liquid synthesizing system, and (3) comprehensive investigation and research. In (1), the researches were carried out on the miniaturization and functional combination of a micro laser catheter and a micro tactile sensor catheter, which are the primary components of a coeliac diagnostic and therapeutic system, a 'micro catheter for cerebral blood vessel/treatment', as a micromachine system in the medical field. In (2), R and D was conducted on a system element technology assuming it contributed to a subminiature liquid synthesizing system capable of preparing various liquids including pharmaceuticals accurately with a trace amount. In (3), examination was made on the application area of a micromachine system with priority given to a medical field and also on technological subjects to be tapped, as well as on the contents of (2), with a device installed for evaluating the operating characteristic of a distribution type fluid actuator as needed for the development. (NEDO)

  19. Ultrasonic actuation for MEMS dormancy-related stiction reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaajakari, Ville; Kan, Shyi-Herng; Lin, Li-Jen; Lal, Amit; Rodgers, M. Steven

    2000-08-01

    The use of ultrasonic pulses incident on surface micromachines has been shown to reduce dormancy-related failure. We applied ultrasonic pulses from the backside of a silicon substrate carrying SUMMiT processed surface micromachined rotors, used earlier as ultrasonic motors. The amplitude of the pulses was less than what is required to actuate the rotor (sub-threshold actuation). By controlling the ultrasonic pulse exposure time it was found that pulsed samples had smaller actuation voltages as compared to non-pulsed samples after twelve-hour dormancy. This result indicates that the micromachine stiction to surfaces during dormant period can be effectively eliminated, resulting in long-term stability of surface micromachines in critical applications.

  20. Characterization of piezoelectric polymer composites for MEMS ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    are obtained so that higher energy densities can be achieved along with ... The quality and reliability of MEMS ... beam are coupled and the bottom face is grounded. The top .... The electrical and mechanical responses of the material near the ...

  1. Characterization of dielectric charging in RF MEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfst, R.W.; Huizing, H.G.A.; Steeneken, P.G.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2005-01-01

    Capacitive RF MEMS switches show great promise for use in wireless communication devices such as mobile phones, but the successful application of these switches is hindered by the reliability of the devices: charge injection in the dielectric layer (SiN) can cause irreversible stiction of the moving

  2. Accounting for Uncertainties in Strengths of SiC MEMS Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel; Evans, Laura; Beheim, Glen; Trapp, Mark; Jadaan, Osama; Sharpe, William N., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    A methodology has been devised for accounting for uncertainties in the strengths of silicon carbide structural components of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The methodology enables prediction of the probabilistic strengths of complexly shaped MEMS parts using data from tests of simple specimens. This methodology is intended to serve as a part of a rational basis for designing SiC MEMS, supplementing methodologies that have been borrowed from the art of designing macroscopic brittle material structures. The need for this or a similar methodology arises as a consequence of the fundamental nature of MEMS and the brittle silicon-based materials of which they are typically fabricated. When tested to fracture, MEMS and structural components thereof show wide part-to-part scatter in strength. The methodology involves the use of the Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures Life (CARES/Life) software in conjunction with the ANSYS Probabilistic Design System (PDS) software to simulate or predict the strength responses of brittle material components while simultaneously accounting for the effects of variability of geometrical features on the strength responses. As such, the methodology involves the use of an extended version of the ANSYS/CARES/PDS software system described in Probabilistic Prediction of Lifetimes of Ceramic Parts (LEW-17682-1/4-1), Software Tech Briefs supplement to NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 9 (September 2006), page 10. The ANSYS PDS software enables the ANSYS finite-element-analysis program to account for uncertainty in the design-and analysis process. The ANSYS PDS software accounts for uncertainty in material properties, dimensions, and loading by assigning probabilistic distributions to user-specified model parameters and performing simulations using various sampling techniques.

  3. A level set methodology for predicting the effect of mask wear on surface evolution of features in abrasive jet micro-machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burzynski, T; Papini, M

    2012-01-01

    A previous implementation of narrow-band level set methodology developed by the authors was extended to allow for the modelling of mask erosive wear in abrasive jet micro-machining (AJM). The model permits the prediction of the surface evolution of both the mask and the target simultaneously, by representing them as a hybrid and continuous mask–target surface. The model also accounts for the change in abrasive mass flux incident to both the target surface and, for the first time, the eroding mask edge, that is brought about by the presence of the mask edge itself. The predictions of the channel surface and eroded mask profiles were compared with measurements on channels machined in both glass and poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) targets at both normal and oblique incidence, using tempered steel and elastomeric masks. A much better agreement between the predicted and measured profiles was found when mask wear was taken into account. Mask wear generally resulted in wider and deeper glass target profiles and wider PMMA target profiles, respectively, when compared to cases where no mask wear was present. This work has important implications for the AJM of complex MEMS and microfluidic devices that require longer machining times. (paper)

  4. MEMS Actuators for Improved Performance and Durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yearsley, James M.

    Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) devices take advantage of force-scaling at length scales smaller than a millimeter to sense and interact with directly with phenomena and targets at the microscale. MEMS sensors found in everyday devices like cell-phones and cars include accelerometers, gyros, pressure sensors, and magnetic sensors. MEMS actuators generally serve more application specific roles including micro- and nano-tweezers used for single cell manipulation, optical switching and alignment components, and micro combustion engines for high energy density power generation. MEMS rotary motors are actuators that translate an electric drive signal into rotational motion and can serve as rate calibration inputs for gyros, stages for optical components, mixing devices for micro-fluidics, etc. Existing rotary micromotors suffer from friction and wear issues that affect lifetime and performance. Attempts to alleviate friction effects include surface treatment, magnetic and electrostatic levitation, pressurized gas bearings, and micro-ball bearings. The present work demonstrates a droplet based liquid bearing supporting a rotary micromotor that improves the operating characteristics of MEMS rotary motors. The liquid bearing provides wear-free, low-friction, passive alignment between the rotor and stator. Droplets are positioned relative to the rotor and stator through patterned superhydrophobic and hydrophilic surface coatings. The liquid bearing consists of a central droplet that acts as the motor shaft, providing axial alignment between rotor and stator, and satellite droplets, analogous to ball-bearings, that provide tip and tilt stable operation. The liquid bearing friction performance is characterized through measurement of the rotational drag coefficient and minimum starting torque due to stiction and geometric effects. Bearing operational performance is further characterized by modeling and measuring stiffness, environmental survivability, and high

  5. Effects of Laser Operating Parameters on Piezoelectric Substrates Micromachining with Picosecond Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamia EL Fissi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten picoseconds (200 kHz ultrafast laser micro-structuring of piezoelectric substrates including AT-cut quartz, Lithium Niobate and Lithium Tantalate have been studied for the purpose of piezoelectric devices application ranging from surface acoustic wave devices, e.g., bandpass filters, to photonic devices such as optical waveguides and holograms. The study examines the impact of changing several laser parameters on the resulting microstructural shapes and morphology. The micromachining rate has been observed to be strongly dependent on the operating parameters, such as the pulse fluence, the scan speed and the scan number. The results specifically indicate that ablation at low fluence and low speed scan tends to form a U-shaped cross-section, while a V-shaped profile can be obtained by using a high fluence and a high scan speed. The evolution of surface morphology revealed that laser pulses overlap in a range around 93% for both Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3 and Lithium Tantalate (LiTaO3 and 98% for AT-cut quartz can help to achieve optimal residual surface roughness.

  6. Polyimide as a versatile enabling material for microsystems fabrication: surface micromachining and electrodeposited nanowires integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walewyns, Thomas; Reckinger, Nicolas; Ryelandt, Sophie; Pardoen, Thomas; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Francis, Laurent A.

    2013-09-01

    The interest of using polyimide as a sacrificial and anchoring layer is demonstrated for post-processing surface micromachining and for the incorporation of metallic nanowires into microsystems. In addition to properties like a high planarization factor, a good resistance to most non-oxidizing acids and bases, and CMOS compatibility, polyimide can also be used as a mold for nanostructures after ion track-etching. Moreover, specific polyimide grades, such as PI-2611 from HD Microsystems™, involve a thermal expansion coefficient similar to silicon and low internal stress. The process developed in this study permits higher gaps compared to the state-of-the-art, limits stiction problems with the substrate and is adapted to various top-layer materials. Most metals, semiconductors or ceramics will not be affected by the oxygen plasma required for polyimide etching. Released structures with vertical gaps from one to several tens of μm have been obtained, possibly using multiple layers of polyimide. Furthermore, patterned freestanding nanowires have been synthesized with diameters from 20 to 60 nm and up to 3 μm in length. These results have been applied to the fabrication of two specific devices: a generic nanomechanical testing lab-on-chip platform and a miniaturized ionization sensor.

  7. Micromachined force sensors using thin film nickel–chromium piezoresistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadvi, Gaviraj S; Butler, Donald P; Çelik-Butler, Zeynep; Gönenli, İsmail Erkin

    2012-01-01

    Micromachined force/tactile sensors using nickel–chromium piezoresistors have been investigated experimentally and through finite-element analysis. The force sensors were designed with a suspended aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) membrane and optimally placed piezoresistors to measure the strain in the membrane when deflected with an applied force. Different devices, each with varying size and shape of both the membrane and the piezoresistors, were designed, fabricated and characterized. The piezoresistors were placed into a half-Wheatstone bridge configuration with two active and two passive nickel–chromium resistors to provide temperature drift compensation. The force sensors were characterized using a load cell and a nanopositioner to measure the sensor response with applied load. Piezoresistive gauge factors in the range of 1–5.2 have been calculated for the thin film nichrome (NiCr 80/20 wt%) from the measured results. The force sensors were calculated to have a noise equivalent force of 65–245 nN. (paper)

  8. Development of a Novel Transparent Flexible Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Chen Pang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the world’s first transparent flexible capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT that was fabricated through a roll-lamination technique. This polymer-based CMUT has advantages of transparency, flexibility, and non-contacting detection which provide unique functions in display panel applications. Comprising an indium tin oxide-polyethylene terephthalate (ITO-PET substrate, SU-8 sidewall and vibrating membranes, and silver nanowire transparent electrode, the transducer has visible-light transmittance exceeding 80% and can operate on curved surfaces with a 40 mm radius of curvature. Unlike the traditional silicon-based high temperature process, the CMUT can be fabricated on a flexible substrate at a temperature below 100 °C to reduce residual stress introduced at high temperature. The CMUT on the curved surfaces can detect a flat target and finger at distances up to 50 mm and 40 mm, respectively. The transparent flexible CMUT provides a better human-machine interface than existing touch panels because it can be integrated with a display panel for non-contacting control in a health conscious environment and the flexible feature is critical for curved display and wearable electronics.

  9. Giant flexoelectric polarization in a micromachined ferroelectric diaphragm

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhihong

    2012-08-14

    The coupling between dielectric polarization and strain gradient, known as flexoelectricity, becomes significantly large on the micro- and nanoscale. Here, it is shown that giant flexoelectric polarization can reverse remnant ferroelectric polarization in a bent Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48) O3 (PZT) diaphragm fabricated by micromachining. The polarization induced by the strain gradient and the switching behaviors of the polarization in response to an external electric field are investigated by observing the electromechanical coupling of the diaphragm. The method allows determination of the absolute zero polarization state in a PZT film, which is impossible using other existing methods. Based on the observation of the absolute zero polarization state and the assumption that bending of the diaphragm is the only source of the self-polarization, the upper bound of flexoelectric coefficient of PZT film is calculated to be as large as 2.0 × 10-4 C m -1. The strain gradient induced by bending the diaphragm is measured to be on the order of 102 m-1, three orders of magnitude larger than that obtained in the bulk material. Because of this large strain gradient, the estimated giant flexoelectric polarization in the bent diaphragm is on the same order of magnitude as the normal remnant ferroelectric polarization of PZT film. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Receive-Noise Analysis of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Ayhan; Yaralioglu, G Goksenin

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents an analysis of thermal (Johnson) noise received from the radiation medium by otherwise noiseless capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) membranes operating in their fundamental resonance mode. Determination of thermal noise received by multiple numbers of transducers or a transducer array requires the assessment of cross-coupling through the radiation medium, as well as the self-radiation impedance of the individual transducer. We show that the total thermal noise received by the cells of a CMUT has insignificant correlation, and is independent of the radiation impedance, but is only determined by the mass of each membrane and the electromechanical transformer ratio. The proof is based on the analytical derivations for a simple transducer with two cells, and extended to transducers with numerous cells using circuit simulators. We used a first-order model, which incorporates the fundamental resonance of the CMUT. Noise power is calculated by integrating over the entire spectrum; hence, the presented figures are an upper bound for the noise. The presented analyses are valid for a transimpedance amplifier in the receive path. We use the analysis results to calculate the minimum detectable pressure of a CMUT. We also provide an analysis based on the experimental data to show that output noise power is limited by and comparable to the theoretical upper limit.

  11. Resonant gravimetric immunosensing based on capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers

    KAUST Repository

    Viržonis, Darius

    2014-04-08

    High-frequency (40 MHz) and low-frequency (7 MHz) capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUT) were fabricated and tested for use in gravimetric detection of biomolecules. The low-frequency CMUT sensors have a gold-coated surface, while the high-frequency sensors have a silicon nitride surface. Both surfaces were functionalized with bovine leukemia virus antigen gp51 acting as the antigen. On addition of an a specific antibody labeled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP), the antigen/antibody complex is formed on the surface and quantified by HRP-catalyzed oxidation of tetramethylbenzidine. It has been found that a considerably smaller quantity of immuno complex is formed on the high frequency sensor surface. In parallel, the loading of the surface of the CMUT was determined via resonance frequency and electromechanical resistance readings. Following the formation of the immuno complexes, the resonance frequencies of the low-frequency and high-frequency sensors decrease by up to 420 and 440 kHz, respectively. Finite element analysis reveals that the loading of the (gold-coated) low frequency sensors is several times larger than that on high frequency sensors. The formation of the protein film with pronounced elasticity and stress on the gold surface case is discussed. We also discuss the adoption of this method for the detection of DNA using a hybridization assay following polymerase chain reaction.

  12. A micromachined inline type microwave power sensor with working state transfer switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Lei

    2011-01-01

    A wideband 8-12 GHz inline type microwave power sensor, which has both working and non-working states, is presented. The power sensor measures the microwave power coupled from a CPW line by a MEMS membrane. In order to reduce microwave losses during the non-working state, a new structure of working state transfer switches is proposed to realize the two working states. The fabrication of the power sensor with two working states is compatible with the GaAs MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) process. The experimental results show that the power sensor has an insertion loss of 0.18 dB during the non-working state and 0.24 dB during the working state at a frequency of 10 GHz. This means that no microwave power has been coupled from the CPW line during the non-working state. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  13. Macrodesign for microdevices: Polysilicon surface-micromachining technology, applications and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sniegowski, J.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Micromachine Dept.

    1997-05-01

    The intent of this tutorial is to overview the technology of multi-level polysilicon surface micromachining, to present examples of devices which fully utilize this level of complexity, and to discuss what they believe to be significant issues which are not fully resolved. Following this intent, the tutorial consists of four sections. The first is an introduction and description of multi-level polysilicon surface micromachining and its potential benefits. Specifically, the inclusion of a third deposited layer of mechanical polysilicon greatly extends the degree of complexity available for micromechanism design. The second section introduces wafer planarization by CMP as a process tool for surface micromachining. The third section presents examples of actuated geared micromechanisms which require the multi-level fabrication process. Demonstration of actuation mechanisms coupled to external devices are illustrated. Finally, polysilicon surface micromachining fabrication technology has reached a level where many device designs, for the most part, can be embodied in the technology to produce a mechanical construct which provides the desired function. When designed properly, the fabricated mechanical element, if free to operate, will produce the desired function. However, one set of issues which can hinder or prevent operation are related to the post-fabricated device surfaces. These surface issues; namely, stiction, friction, and wear, are emphasized in the final section as a major hindrance to realizing the full potential of surface micromachined devices.

  14. Operational characterization of CSFH MEMS technology based hinges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzi, Rocco; Balucani, Marco; Belfiore, Nicola Pio

    2018-05-01

    Progress in MEMS technology continuously stimulates new developments in the mechanical structure of micro systems, such as, for example, the concept of so-called CSFH (conjugate surfaces flexural hinge), which makes it possible, simultaneously, to minimize the internal stresses and to increase motion range and robustness. Such a hinge may be actuated by means of a rotary comb-drive, provided that a proper set of simulations and tests are capable to assess its feasibility. In this paper, a CSFH has been analyzed with both theoretical and finite element (FEM) methods, in order to obtain the relation between voltage and generated torque. The FEM model considers also the fringe effect on the comb drive finger. Electromechanical couple-field analysis is performed by means of both direct and load transfer methods. Experimental tests have been also performed on a CSFH embedded in a MEMS prototype, which has been fabricated starting from a SOI wafer and using D-RIE (deep reactive ion etching). Results showed that CSFH performs better than linear flexure hinges in terms of larger rotations and less stress for given applied voltage.

  15. Design and Analysis of MEMS Linear Phased Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxiang Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A structure of micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS linear phased array based on “multi-cell” element is designed to increase radiation sound pressure of transducer working in bending vibration mode at high frequency. In order to more accurately predict the resonant frequency of an element, the theoretical analysis of the dynamic equation of a fixed rectangular composite plate and finite element method simulation are adopted. The effects of the parameters both in the lateral and elevation direction on the three-dimensional beam directivity characteristics are comprehensively analyzed. The key parameters in the analysis include the “cell” number of element, “cell” size, “inter-cell” spacing and the number of elements, element width. The simulation results show that optimizing the linear array parameters both in the lateral and elevation direction can greatly improve the three-dimensional beam focusing for MEMS linear phased array, which is obviously different from the traditional linear array.

  16. CO2-laser micromachining and back-end processing for rapid production of PMMA-based microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klank, Henning; Kutter, Jörg Peter; Geschke, Oliver

    2002-01-01

    , a three-layer polymer microstructure with included optical fibers was fabricated within two days. The use of CO2-laser systems to produce microfluidic systems has not been published before. These systems provide a cost effective alternative to UV-laser systems and they are especially useful......In this article, we focus on the enormous potential of a CO2-laser system for rapidly producing polymer microfluidic structures. The dependence was assessed of the depth and width of laser-cut channels on the laser beam power and on the number of passes of the beam along the same channel...... for microstructured PMMA [poly( methyl methacrylate)] parts were investigated, such as solvent-assisted glueing, melting, laminating and surface activation using a plasma asher. A solvent-assisted thermal bonding method proved to be the most time-efficient one. Using laser micromachining together with bonding...

  17. Vibrations of Elastic Systems With Applications to MEMS and NEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Magrab, Edward B

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a unified approach to the vibrations of elastic systems as applied to MEMS devices, mechanical components, and civil structures. Applications include atomic force microscopes, energy harvesters, and carbon nanotubes and consider such complicating effects as squeeze film damping, viscous fluid loading, in-plane forces, and proof mass interactions with their elastic supports. These effects are analyzed as single degree-of-freedom models and as more realistic elastic structures. The governing equations and boundary conditions for beams, plates, and shells with interior and boundary attachments are derived by applying variational calculus to an expression describing the energy of the system. The advantages of this approach regarding the generation of orthogonal functions and the Rayleigh-Ritz method are demonstrated. A large number of graphs and tables are given to show the impact of various factors on the systems’ natural frequencies, mode shapes, and responses.

  18. A Fully Symmetric and Completely Decoupled MEMS-SOI Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhameed SHARAF

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel MEMS gyroscope that is capable of exciting the drive mode differentially. The structure also decouples the drive and sense modes via an intermediate mass and decoupling beams. Both drive and sense modes are fully differential enabling control over the zero-rate-output for the former and maximizing output sensitivity using a bridge circuit for the latter. Further, the structure is fully symmetric about the x- and y- axes which results in minimizing the temperature sensitivity problem. Complete analytical analysis based on the equations of motion was performed and verified using two commercially available finite element software packages. Results from both methods are in good agreement. The analysis of the sensor shows an electrical sensitivity of 1.14 (mV/(º/s. The gyroscope was fabricated using single mask and deep reactive ion etching. The measurement of the resonance frequency performed showing a good agreement with the analytical and numerical analysis.

  19. Development, characterization and application of compact spectrometers based on MEMS with in-plane capacitive drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenda, A.; Kraft, M.; Tortschanoff, A.; Scherf, Werner; Sandner, T.; Schenk, Harald; Luettjohann, Stephan; Simon, A.

    2014-05-01

    With a trend towards the use of spectroscopic systems in various fields of science and industry, there is an increasing demand for compact spectrometers. For UV/VIS to the shortwave near-infrared spectral range, compact hand-held polychromator type devices are widely used and have replaced larger conventional instruments in many applications. Still, for longer wavelengths this type of compact spectrometers is lacking suitable and affordable detector arrays. In perennial development Carinthian Tech Research AG together with the Fraunhofer Institute for Photonic Microsystems endeavor to close this gap by developing spectrometer systems based on photonic MEMS. Here, we review on two different spectrometer developments, a scanning grating spectrometer working in the NIR and a FT-spectrometer accessing the mid-IR range up to 14 μm. Both systems are using photonic MEMS devices actuated by in-plane comb drive structures. This principle allows for high mechanical amplitudes at low driving voltages but results in gratings respectively mirrors oscillating harmonically. Both systems feature special MEMS structures as well as aspects in terms of system integration which shall tease out the best possible overall performance on the basis of this technology. However, the advantages of MEMS as enabling technology for high scanning speed, miniaturization, energy efficiency, etc. are pointed out. Whereas the scanning grating spectrometer has already evolved to a product for the point of sale analysis of traditional Chinese medicine products, the purpose of the FT-spectrometer as presented is to demonstrate what is achievable in terms of performance. Current developments topics address MEMS packaging issues towards long term stability, further miniaturization and usability.

  20. Chemical vapor detection using a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjoo J; Park, Kwan Kyu; Kupnik, Mario; Oralkan, O; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T

    2011-12-15

    Distributed sensing of gas-phase chemicals using highly sensitive and inexpensive sensors is of great interest for many defense and consumer applications. In this paper we present ppb-level detection of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a common simulant for sarin gas, with a ppt-level resolution using an improved capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) as a resonant chemical sensor. The improved CMUT operates at a higher resonant frequency of 47.7 MHz and offers an improved mass sensitivity of 48.8 zg/Hz/μm(2) by a factor of 2.7 compared to the previous CMUT sensors developed. A low-noise oscillator using the CMUT resonant sensor as the frequency-selective device was developed for real-time sensing, which exhibits an Allan deviation of 1.65 Hz (3σ) in the presence of a gas flow; this translates into a mass resolution of 80.5 zg/μm(2). The CMUT resonant sensor is functionalized with a 50-nm thick DKAP polymer developed at Sandia National Laboratory for dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) detection. To demonstrate ppb-level detection of the improved chemical sensor system, the sensor performance was tested at a certified lab (MIT Lincoln Laboratory), which is equipped with an experimental chemical setup that reliably and accurately delivers a wide range of low concentrations down to 10 ppb. We report a high volume sensitivity of 34.5 ± 0.79 pptv/Hz to DMMP and a good selectivity of the polymer to DMMP with respect to dodecane and 1-octanol.