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Sample records for microcell hybrid clones

  1. W-CDMA Uplink Capacity and Interference Statistics of a LongGroove-Shaped Road Microcells Using A Hybrid Propagation Model

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    L. de Haro-Ariet

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The uplink capacity and the interference statistics of the sectorsof a long groove-shaped road W-CDMA microcell are studied. A model of 9microcells in a groove-shaped road is used to analyze the uplink. Ahybrid model for the propagation is used in the analysis. The capacityand the interference statistics of the cell are studied for differentsector ranges, different specific attenuation factors, differentantenna side lobe levels and different bend losses.

  2. Somatically segregating clone of apomictic maize-tripsacum hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudin, B.F.; Lukina, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The results of further study on clone AM-5, isolated in the progeny of γ-irradiated plants of the apomictic hybrid of maize with tripsacum (2n = 38) are reported. The variegated-leaf seedlings of the clone segregate somatically and produce variegated, mottled, green (phenotypically normal) plants in different ratios in the apomictic progenies. The variegated, and to a lesser degree, green segregants segregate further. The mottled apomictics as well as mottled branches of variegated seedlings maintain their phenotype on transplantation, however, these is a progressive enhancement of the characters of vegetative lethality. Lethals of two extra maize genomes to the AM-5 nucleus does not affect significantly the scope and nature of segregation. At the same time, the loss of tripsacum genome restores normal phenotype. Clone AM-5 is an example of hybrid apomictic form causing significant morphological variability, which is, nevertheless, not related with apomictic and reversion to the sexual process

  3. Hybrid sequencing approach applied to human fecal metagenomic clone libraries revealed clones with potential biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Džunková, Mária; D'Auria, Giuseppe; Pérez-Villarroya, David; Moya, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Natural environments represent an incredible source of microbial genetic diversity. Discovery of novel biomolecules involves biotechnological methods that often require the design and implementation of biochemical assays to screen clone libraries. However, when an assay is applied to thousands of clones, one may eventually end up with very few positive clones which, in most of the cases, have to be "domesticated" for downstream characterization and application, and this makes screening both laborious and expensive. The negative clones, which are not considered by the selected assay, may also have biotechnological potential; however, unfortunately they would remain unexplored. Knowledge of the clone sequences provides important clues about potential biotechnological application of the clones in the library; however, the sequencing of clones one-by-one would be very time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we characterized the first metagenomic clone library from the feces of a healthy human volunteer, using a method based on 454 pyrosequencing coupled with a clone-by-clone Sanger end-sequencing. Instead of whole individual clone sequencing, we sequenced 358 clones in a pool. The medium-large insert (7-15 kb) cloning strategy allowed us to assemble these clones correctly, and to assign the clone ends to maintain the link between the position of a living clone in the library and the annotated contig from the 454 assembly. Finally, we found several open reading frames (ORFs) with previously described potential medical application. The proposed approach allows planning ad-hoc biochemical assays for the clones of interest, and the appropriate sub-cloning strategy for gene expression in suitable vectors/hosts.

  4. Hybrid sequencing approach applied to human fecal metagenomic clone libraries revealed clones with potential biotechnological applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Džunková

    Full Text Available Natural environments represent an incredible source of microbial genetic diversity. Discovery of novel biomolecules involves biotechnological methods that often require the design and implementation of biochemical assays to screen clone libraries. However, when an assay is applied to thousands of clones, one may eventually end up with very few positive clones which, in most of the cases, have to be "domesticated" for downstream characterization and application, and this makes screening both laborious and expensive. The negative clones, which are not considered by the selected assay, may also have biotechnological potential; however, unfortunately they would remain unexplored. Knowledge of the clone sequences provides important clues about potential biotechnological application of the clones in the library; however, the sequencing of clones one-by-one would be very time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we characterized the first metagenomic clone library from the feces of a healthy human volunteer, using a method based on 454 pyrosequencing coupled with a clone-by-clone Sanger end-sequencing. Instead of whole individual clone sequencing, we sequenced 358 clones in a pool. The medium-large insert (7-15 kb cloning strategy allowed us to assemble these clones correctly, and to assign the clone ends to maintain the link between the position of a living clone in the library and the annotated contig from the 454 assembly. Finally, we found several open reading frames (ORFs with previously described potential medical application. The proposed approach allows planning ad-hoc biochemical assays for the clones of interest, and the appropriate sub-cloning strategy for gene expression in suitable vectors/hosts.

  5. Cloning

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    Cloning describes the processes used to create an exact genetic replica of another cell, tissue or organism. ... named Dolly. There are three different types of cloning: Gene cloning, which creates copies of genes or ...

  6. A novel nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid clone formed via androgenesis in polyploid gibel carp

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    Zhou Li

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unisexual vertebrates have been demonstrated to reproduce by gynogenesis, hybridogenesis, parthenogenesis, or kleptogenesis, however, it is uncertain how the reproduction mode contributes to the clonal diversity. Recently, polyploid gibel carp has been revealed to possess coexisting dual modes of unisexual gynogenesis and sexual reproduction and to have numerous various clones. Using sexual reproduction mating between clone D female and clone A male and subsequent 7 generation multiplying of unisexual gynogenesis, we have created a novel clone strain with more than several hundred millions of individuals. Here, we attempt to identify genetic background of the novel clone and to explore the significant implication for clonal diversity contribution. Methods Several nuclear genome markers and one cytoplasmic marker, the mitochondrial genome sequence, were used to identify the genetic organization of the randomly sampled individuals from different generations of the novel clone. Results Chromosome number, Cot-1 repetitive DNA banded karyotype, microsatellite patterns, AFLP profiles and transferrin alleles uniformly indicated that nuclear genome of the novel clone is identical to that of clone A, and significantly different from that of clone D. However, the cytoplasmic marker, its complete mtDNA genome sequence, is same to that of clone D, and different from that of clone A. Conclusions The present data indicate that the novel clone is a nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid between the known clones A and D, because it originates from the offspring of gonochoristic sexual reproduction mating between clone D female and clone A male, and contains an entire nuclear genome from the paternal clone A and a mtDNA genome (cytoplasm from the maternal clone D. It is suggested to arise via androgenesis by a mechanism of ploidy doubling of clone A sperm in clone D ooplasm through inhibiting the first mitotic division. Significantly, the selected nucleo

  7. A novel nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid clone formed via androgenesis in polyploid gibel carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Unisexual vertebrates have been demonstrated to reproduce by gynogenesis, hybridogenesis, parthenogenesis, or kleptogenesis, however, it is uncertain how the reproduction mode contributes to the clonal diversity. Recently, polyploid gibel carp has been revealed to possess coexisting dual modes of unisexual gynogenesis and sexual reproduction and to have numerous various clones. Using sexual reproduction mating between clone D female and clone A male and subsequent 7 generation multiplying of unisexual gynogenesis, we have created a novel clone strain with more than several hundred millions of individuals. Here, we attempt to identify genetic background of the novel clone and to explore the significant implication for clonal diversity contribution. Methods Several nuclear genome markers and one cytoplasmic marker, the mitochondrial genome sequence, were used to identify the genetic organization of the randomly sampled individuals from different generations of the novel clone. Results Chromosome number, Cot-1 repetitive DNA banded karyotype, microsatellite patterns, AFLP profiles and transferrin alleles uniformly indicated that nuclear genome of the novel clone is identical to that of clone A, and significantly different from that of clone D. However, the cytoplasmic marker, its complete mtDNA genome sequence, is same to that of clone D, and different from that of clone A. Conclusions The present data indicate that the novel clone is a nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid between the known clones A and D, because it originates from the offspring of gonochoristic sexual reproduction mating between clone D female and clone A male, and contains an entire nuclear genome from the paternal clone A and a mtDNA genome (cytoplasm) from the maternal clone D. It is suggested to arise via androgenesis by a mechanism of ploidy doubling of clone A sperm in clone D ooplasm through inhibiting the first mitotic division. Significantly, the selected nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid female

  8. Memory-built-in quantum cloning in a hybrid solid-state spin register

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.-B.; Zu, C.; He, L.; Zhang, W.-G.; Duan, L.-M.

    2015-07-01

    As a way to circumvent the quantum no-cloning theorem, approximate quantum cloning protocols have received wide attention with remarkable applications. Copying of quantum states to memory qubits provides an important strategy for eavesdropping in quantum cryptography. We report an experiment that realizes cloning of quantum states from an electron spin to a nuclear spin in a hybrid solid-state spin register with near-optimal fidelity. The nuclear spin provides an ideal memory qubit at room temperature, which stores the cloned quantum states for a millisecond under ambient conditions, exceeding the lifetime of the original quantum state carried by the electron spin by orders of magnitude. The realization of a cloning machine with built-in quantum memory provides a key step for application of quantum cloning in quantum information science.

  9. Hybrid times: theses on the temporalities of cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Christina

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I focus on Hans-Jörg Rheinberger's notion of "historiality", which provides a specific epistemology of time that abandons ideas of 'origin', 'influence or of history as a continuous and cumulative development. It is used here to frame a brief historical analysis of the coexistence and interference of different concepts of cloning and related views on temporalities of the organisms as well as shifting temporal concepts in popular debates about the risks of life sciences in the 1970s.

  10. Variation in natural durability of seven Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clones

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    F.J.N. Franca; T.S.F.A. Franca; R.A Arango; B.M. Woodward; G.B. Vidaurre

    2017-01-01

    Programs aimed at developing clones of hybrid trees are commonly established in Brazil to meet the demands of various forest-based industries. These programs have continually improved the quality of eucalyptus wood, which has the potential to reduce deforestation by lowering demand for other high-value species. This is particularly true in the lumber market, but little...

  11. Leaf chemical composition of twenty-one Populus hybrid clones grown under intensive culture

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    Richard E. Dickson; Philip R. Larson

    1976-01-01

    Leaf material from 21 nursery-grown Populus hybrid clones was analyzed for three nitrogen fractions (total N, soluble protein, and soluble amino acids) and three carbhydrate fractions (reducing sugars, total soluble sugars, and total nonstructural carbohydrates-TNC). In addition, nursery-grown green ash and silver maple, field-grown bigtooth and trembling aspen, and...

  12. Group handoff management in low power microcell-femtocell network

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    Debashis De

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical model of group based hand-off management based on bird flocking behavior. In the proposed scheme, a number of mobile devices form a group if these devices move together for a long time duration. Although call delivery or call generation are performed individually, hand-off is performed in a group. Dynamic group formation, group division and group merging methods are proposed in this paper. From the simulation results it is demonstrated that approximately 75%, 65% and 90% reduction in power, cost and latency consumption can be obtained respectively using group hand-off management. Thus the proposed scheme is referred as green, economic and fast hand-off strategy. In this paper instead of a macrocell network, a microcell-femtocell network is considered as the transmission power of a microcell or a femtocell base station is much less than a macrocell base station. Simulation results present that the microcell-femtocell network achieves approximately 25–55% and 35–55% reduction in power transmission, and 50–65% and 15–45% reduction in path loss than only a macrocell network and macrocell-femtocell network respectively. Thus microcell-femtocell network is a power-efficient network.

  13. Cloning the Gravity and Shear Stress Related Genes from MG-63 Cells by Subtracting Hybridization

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    Zhang, Shu; Dai, Zhong-quan; Wang, Bing; Cao, Xin-sheng; Li, Ying-hui; Sun, Xi-qing

    2008-06-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to clone the gravity and shear stress related genes from osteoblast-like human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells by subtractive hybridization. Method MG-63 cells were divided into two groups (1G group and simulated microgravity group). After cultured for 60 h in two different gravitational environments, two groups of MG-63 cells were treated with 1.5Pa fluid shear stress (FSS) for 60 min, respectively. The total RNA in cells was isolated. The gravity and shear stress related genes were cloned by subtractive hybridization. Result 200 clones were gained. 30 positive clones were selected using PCR method based on the primers of vector and sequenced. The obtained sequences were analyzed by blast. changes of 17 sequences were confirmed by RT-PCR and these genes are related to cell proliferation, cell differentiation, protein synthesis, signal transduction and apoptosis. 5 unknown genes related to gravity and shear stress were found. Conclusion In this part of our study, our result indicates that simulated microgravity may change the activities of MG-63 cells by inducing the functional alterations of specific genes.

  14. Clone-Specific Response in Leaf Nitrate Reductase Activity among Unrelated Hybrid Poplars in relation to Soil Nitrate Availability

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    Julien Fortier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this field study, we used in vivo NRA activity in hybrid poplar leaves as an indicator of NO3- assimilation for five unrelated hybrid poplar clones. We also examined if leaf NRA of these clones is influenced to the same extent by different levels of soil NO3- availability in two riparian agroforestry systems located in pastures. Leaf NRA differences of more than one order of magnitude were observed between the clones, clearly showing their different abilities to reduce NO3- in leaves. Clone DxN-3570, a P. deltoides x P. nigra hybrid (Aigeiros intrasectional hybrid, always had the highest leaf NRA during the field assays. This clone was also the only one to increase its leaf NRA with increasing NO3- soil availability, which resulted in a significant Site x Clone interaction and a positive relationship between soil NO3- concentration and NRA. All of the four other clones studied had one or both parental species from the Tacamahaca section. They had relatively low leaf NRA and they did not increase their leaf NRA when grown on the NO3- rich site. These results provide evidence that NO3- assimilation in leaves varies widely among hybrid poplars of different parentages, suggesting potential preferences for N forms.

  15. Production physiology and morphology of Populus species and their hybrids grown under short rotation. II. Biomass components and harvest index of hybrid and parental species clones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. E. [Univ. of Tuscia, Viterbo, (Italy); Ceulemans, R. [Antwerp Univ., Wilrijk (Belgium); Heilman, P. E. [Washington State Univ., Olympia, WA (United States); Isebrands, J. G.; Stettler, R. F.; Hinckley, T. M. [Forest Service, Rhinelander, WI (United States). North Central Forest Experiment Station

    1997-03-01

    Growth and biomass components of four poplar clones were studied during four consecutive years of short-rotation culture in western Washington, U.S.A. Results confirmed previous observations indicating the high productive potential of hybrid clones. In two of the hybrid clones tested, large differences in biomass distribution among tree components and in the pattern of growth were evident, as indicated by harvest index and root/shoot ratios. Results suggest that the clonal differences shown in total biomass, in allocation to different tree components, and in harvest index, have important implications for future poplar breeding programs. 39 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  16. Micro solar concentrators: Design and fabrication for microcells arrays

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    Jutteau, Sébastien; Paire, Myriam; Proise, Florian; Lombez, Laurent; Guillemoles, Jean-François

    2015-09-01

    In this work we look at a micro-concentrating system adapted to a new type of concentrator photovoltaic material, well known for flate-plate applications, Cu(In,Ga)Se2. Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells are polycrystalline thin film devices that can be deposited by a variety of techniques. We proposed to use a microcell architecture [1], [2], with lateral dimensions varying from a few μm to hundreds of μm, to adapt the film cell to concentration conditions. A 5% absolute efficiency increase on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 microcells at 475 suns has been observed for a final efficiency of 21.3%[3]. We study micro-concentrating systems adapted to the low and middle concentration range, where thin film concentrator cells will lean to substrate fabrication simplification and cost savings. Our study includes optical design, fabrication and experimental tests of prototypes.

  17. ELABORATION OF A DRYING SCHEDULE FOR Eucalyptus spp HYBRIDS CLONES WOODS

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    Celso Gonçalves Barbosa

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The elaboration of adequate drying schedules is essential to produce high quality conventional kiln dried lumber.Eucalyptus woods are particularly difficult to dry, and, for this reason, it is desirable that the drying schedule be carefullydeveloped. The objectives of this work were to elaborate a drying schedule for woods of ten Eucalyptus hybrids clones and toverify the propensity of these woods to post drying defects. For this purpose, it was applied the methodology of drastic drying at100°C, which associates intensity of defects, time and rate of drying, presented by small wood samples, with the behaviourto be presented by lumber after the conventional drying. The results allowed developing a drying schedule common to the tenclone lumbers. This program is based on an initial temperature of 40°C, final temperature of 66°C and drying potential equal to2.2. The drying time can be reduced, if the clones were grouped in accordance to their drying rate. The clones presented lowpropensity to split and high propensity to collapse.

  18. Radioactive and enzymatic cloned cDNA probes for bovine enteric coronavirus detection by molecular hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collomb, J.; Finance, C.; Alabouch, S.; Laporte, J.

    1992-01-01

    Genomic RNA of F15 strain bovine enteric coronavirus (BECV) was cloned in E. coli. Three clones (174, 160, PG 78), selected in the cDNA library, including a large portion of the nucleocapsid (N), matrix (M) and peplomeric (S) protein genes , were used as probes for a slot blot hybridization assay. Two probe labelling techniques were compared, radiolabelling with 32 P and enzymatic labelling through covalent linkage to peroxidase and chemiluminescence detection. The radioactive probe 174 detected as little as 1 to 3 pg of viral RNA, while the less sensitive enzymatic probe could not reveal more than 100 pg of RNA. No significant detection amplification was achieved when a mixture of the three probes was used. Probe 174 allowed specific identification for BECV. No hybridization was noticed either with rotaviruses or even with other antigenically unrelated members of the family Coronaviridae such as transmissible gastroenteritis virus. The test proved valid for detection of BECV in the supernatant of infected HRT-18 cells: genomic RNA could be detected after direct spotting of samples, but prior nucleic acid extraction after proteinase K treatment improved virus detection. BECV diagnosis in faecal samples using enzymatic probe was compared with conventional diagnostic methods. (authors)

  19. The Commercial Profitability of Growing Hybrid Eucalyptus Clones in The Coast Province, Kenya

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    Balozi Bekuta Kirongo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current high demand for timber, fuelwood, and building poles and the realization that tree growing may pay dividends in the short and long term, many farmers are planting trees on their farms. Farmers are increasingly planting eucalyptus partly due to the fast growth rates of the hybrid clones as well as the opportunity to earn money within a short time. In this paper we report on the profitability of growing eucalyptus hybrid clones in the coastal region, Kenya. Tree growth and cost data was sourced from farmers in Malindi, Kilifi, and Msambweni. Market information was sourced from hardwares in North and South Coast while tree growth models were used to provide average tree sizes at various ages. Results showed that a farmer could make a net income of upto Kshs.500,000.00 (USD6,250 in 5 years. Farmers in the South Coast (Kwale and Msambweni spent more on transport than their counterparts in the North Coast (near Gede-KEFRI. This, added to the fact that trees in the South Coast (Msambweni grew less compared to those in North Coast meant that farmers in the south made less profits.

  20. Radioactive and enzymatic cloned cDNA probes for bovine enteric coronavirus detection by molecular hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collomb, J; Finance, C; Alabouch, S [Lab. de Microbiologie Moleculaire, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Univ. de Nancy I, Nancy (France); Laporte, J [Station de Virologie et d' Immunologie Moleculaires, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas (France)

    1992-01-01

    Genomic RNA of F15 strain bovine enteric coronavirus (BECV) was cloned in E. coli. Three clones (174, 160, PG 78), selected in the cDNA library, including a large portion of the nucleocapsid (N), matrix (M) and peplomeric (S) protein genes , were used as probes for a slot blot hybridization assay. Two probe labelling techniques were compared, radiolabeled with [sup 32]P and enzymatic labeled through covalent linkage to peroxidase for chemiluminescence detection. The radioactive probe 174 detected as little as 1-3 pg of viral RNA, while the less sensitive enzymatic probe could not reveal more than 100 pg of RNA. No significant detection amplification was achieved when a mixture of the three probes was used. Probe 174 allowed specific identification for BECV. No hybridization was noticed either with rotaviruses or even with other antigenically unrelated members of the family Coronaviridae such as transmissible gastroenteritis virus. The test proved valid for detection of BECV in the supernatant of infected HRT-18 cells: genomic RNA could be detected after direct spotting of samples, but prior nucleic acid extraction after proteinase K treatment improved virus detection. BECV diagnosis in fecal samples using enzymatic probe was compared with conventional diagnostic methods. (authors).

  1. Origin of Microcells in the Human Sarcoma Cell Line HT-1080

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    Indulis Buiķis

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the development of microcells in the human sarcoma cell line HT‐1080 after interference with thiophosphamidum. We found that damaged interphase macrocells located at the projection of the nucleolus may form one or several microcells. The micronuclei of the microcells intensively incorporate the thymidine analogue 5‐bromo‐2'‐deoxyuridine and strongly express argyrophilic nucleolar organiser region proteins. At an early phase of the development, the micronuclei contain fragmented DNA, but in subsequent phases, the micronuclei accumulate polymeric DNA, simultaneously with an increase in their size. After desintegration of the damaged macrocell, the microcells appear in the intercellular space. The microcells can enter mitosis and they strongly express the lung resistance protein. Electron microscopic observations suggest that coiled bodies are involved in the development of the microcells. Since the observed path of microcell formation differs from apoptotic cell fragmentation into apoptotic bodies, we propose a new term for this microcell development: sporosis. We suggest that self‐renewal of the tumour stem cells is likely based on sporosis.

  2. Growth, leaf traits and litter decomposition of roadside hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx.) clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikula, Suvi; Manninen, Sirkku; Vapaavuori, Elina; Pulkkinen, Pertti

    2011-01-01

    Road traffic contributes considerably to ground-level air pollution and is therefore likely to affect roadside ecosystems. Differences in growth and leaf traits among 13 hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x P. tremuloides) clones were studied in relation to distance from a motorway. The trees sampled were growing 15 and 30 m from a motorway and at a background rural site in southern Finland. Litter decomposition was also measured at both the roadside and rural sites. Height and diameter growth rate and specific leaf area were lowest, and epicuticular wax amount highest in trees growing 15 m from the motorway. Although no significant distance x clone interactions were detected, clone-based analyses indicated differences in genotypic responses to motorway proximity. Leaf N concentration did not differ with distance from the motorway for any of the clones. Leaf litter decomposition was only temporarily retarded in the roadside environment, suggesting minor effects on nutrient cycling. - Highlights: → Roadside hybrid aspen displayed xeromorphic leaf traits and reduction in growth rate. → These responses were limited to trees close to the motorway and only to some clones. → Leaf litter decomposition was only temporarily retarded in the roadside environment. - Hybrid aspen had more xeromorphic leaves, displayed reduced growth, and showed retarded litter decomposition at an early stage in the roadside environment.

  3. On the sensitivity of HCPWR microcell calculations to geometrical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbaffoni, M.M.; Abbate, M.J.; Patino, N.E.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear reactor microcell calculations are, normally, carried out using simplified geometrical models, which do not include the total number of homogeneous zones actually present. For the particular case of high conversion pressurized water reactors (HCPWR), a revision of this approximation has been carried out to determine the sensitivity of its neutronic parameters to the use of these models. Multiplication factors, reaction rates and neutron spectra obtained using different geometrical treatments for an HCPWR typical microcell were compared. From the results it can be asserted that, if only two zones should be used in the calculation, the model which dilutes the clad into the moderator gives best results for neutron fluxes, but the model that mixes it with the fuel is better for k-infinity and reaction rate values. Considering the significance of these parameters on the physical behaviour of the reactor, the latter model is recommended for cell calculations. Even when there is a slight difference between the cells considered, results of this work show good agreement with those of the NEACRP HCLWR benchmark. It can be concluded that the methodology used here for data processing and calculations is applicable to HCR's cell studies. (author)

  4. A hybrid approach identifies metabolic signatures of high-producers for chinese hamster ovary clone selection and process optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Oliver; Müller, Dirk; Didzus, Katharina; Paul, Wolfgang; Lipsmeier, Florian; Kirchner, Florian; Niklas, Jens; Mauch, Klaus; Beaucamp, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    In-depth characterization of high-producer cell lines and bioprocesses is vital to ensure robust and consistent production of recombinant therapeutic proteins in high quantity and quality for clinical applications. This requires applying appropriate methods during bioprocess development to enable meaningful characterization of CHO clones and processes. Here, we present a novel hybrid approach for supporting comprehensive characterization of metabolic clone performance. The approach combines metabolite profiling with multivariate data analysis and fluxomics to enable a data-driven mechanistic analysis of key metabolic traits associated with desired cell phenotypes. We applied the methodology to quantify and compare metabolic performance in a set of 10 recombinant CHO-K1 producer clones and a host cell line. The comprehensive characterization enabled us to derive an extended set of clone performance criteria that not only captured growth and product formation, but also incorporated information on intracellular clone physiology and on metabolic changes during the process. These criteria served to establish a quantitative clone ranking and allowed us to identify metabolic differences between high-producing CHO-K1 clones yielding comparably high product titers. Through multivariate data analysis of the combined metabolite and flux data we uncovered common metabolic traits characteristic of high-producer clones in the screening setup. This included high intracellular rates of glutamine synthesis, low cysteine uptake, reduced excretion of aspartate and glutamate, and low intracellular degradation rates of branched-chain amino acids and of histidine. Finally, the above approach was integrated into a workflow that enables standardized high-content selection of CHO producer clones in a high-throughput fashion. In conclusion, the combination of quantitative metabolite profiling, multivariate data analysis, and mechanistic network model simulations can identify metabolic

  5. DNA repair characteristics of a hybrid cell clone between xeroderma pigmentosum and Potorous tridactilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Kenji

    1986-01-01

    A hybrid cell clone PX1 was isolated by fusing UV sensitive XP20S(SV)neo, an SV-40-transformed, neomycin-resistant xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cell line, and Pt K2, a rat kangaroo (Potorous tridactilis) cell line. The UV-survival curve of PX1 cells fell midway between those of Pt K2 and XP20S(SV)neo cells, since mean lethal doses(D 0 ) were 2.5, 4.7 and 0.27 J/m 2 for PX1, Pt K2 and XP20S(SV)neo, respectively. Amounts of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) after UV, relative to normal human cells, were 60.4 % for Pt K2, 37.7 % for PX1 and 0.1 % for XP20S(SV)neo. Such relative UDS capacities for excision repair of Pt K2, PX1 and XP20S(SV)neo were also consistent with the respective relative capacities of host cell reactivation (HCR) of UV-irradiated Herpes simplex virus. Apparently, there was no single Pt K2 chromosome in the PX1 cells. One possibility is that a gene which may account for the partial restoration of the UV resistance has been transferred from Pt K2 to PX1. (author)

  6. Hybrid clone cells derived from human breast epithelial cells and human breast cancer cells exhibit properties of cancer stem/initiating cells.

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    Gauck, Daria; Keil, Silvia; Niggemann, Bernd; Zänker, Kurt S; Dittmar, Thomas

    2017-08-02

    The biological phenomenon of cell fusion has been associated with cancer progression since it was determined that normal cell × tumor cell fusion-derived hybrid cells could exhibit novel properties, such as enhanced metastatogenic capacity or increased drug resistance, and even as a mechanism that could give rise to cancer stem/initiating cells (CS/ICs). CS/ICs have been proposed as cancer cells that exhibit stem cell properties, including the ability to (re)initiate tumor growth. Five M13HS hybrid clone cells, which originated from spontaneous cell fusion events between M13SV1-EGFP-Neo human breast epithelial cells and HS578T-Hyg human breast cancer cells, and their parental cells were analyzed for expression of stemness and EMT-related marker proteins by Western blot analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The frequency of ALDH1-positive cells was determined by flow cytometry using AldeRed fluorescent dye. Concurrently, the cells' colony forming capabilities as well as the cells' abilities to form mammospheres were investigated. The migratory activity of the cells was analyzed using a 3D collagen matrix migration assay. M13HS hybrid clone cells co-expressed SOX9, SLUG, CK8 and CK14, which were differently expressed in parental cells. A variation in the ALDH1-positive putative stem cell population was observed among the five hybrids ranging from 1.44% (M13HS-7) to 13.68% (M13HS-2). In comparison to the parental cells, all five hybrid clone cells possessed increased but also unique colony formation and mammosphere formation capabilities. M13HS-4 hybrid clone cells exhibited the highest colony formation capacity and second highest mammosphere formation capacity of all hybrids, whereby the mean diameter of the mammospheres was comparable to the parental cells. In contrast, the largest mammospheres originated from the M13HS-2 hybrid clone cells, whereas these cells' mammosphere formation capacity was comparable to the parental breast cancer cells. All M13HS

  7. Numerical characterization of micro-cell UO{sub 2}−Mo pellet for enhanced thermal performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Heung Soo [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Joo [LWR Fuel Technology Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Woo [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Jae Ho; Koo, Yang-Hyun [LWR Fuel Technology Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Rip, E-mail: dongrip@hanyang.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Metallic micro-cell UO{sub 2} pellet with high thermal conductivity has received attention as a promising accident-tolerant fuel. Although experimental demonstrations have been successful, studies on the potency of current metallic micro-cell UO{sub 2} fuels for further enhancement of thermal performance are lacking. Here, we numerically investigated the thermal conductivities of micro-cell UO{sub 2}−Mo pellets in terms of the amount of Mo content, the unit cell size, and the aspect ratio of the micro-cells. The results showed good agreement with experimental measurements, and more importantly, indicated the importance of optimizing the unit cell geometries of the micro-cell pellets for greater increases in thermal conductivity. Consequently, the micro-cell UO{sub 2}−Mo pellets (5 vol% Mo) with modified geometries increased the thermal conductivity of the current UO{sub 2} pellets by about 2.5 times, and lowered the temperature gradient within the pellets by 62.9% under a linear heat generation rate of 200 W/cm. - Highlights: • Thermal conductivities of micro-cell UO{sub 2}−Mo pellets were numerically studied in terms of their unit cell geometries. • Numerical calculations qualitatively well agreed with experimental measurements. • Optimizing the unit cell geometries of the micro-cell pellets could greatly enhance their thermal conductivities.

  8. Rooting of hybrid clones of Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx. by stem cuttings derived from micropropagated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qibin Yu [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Plant Biology; Maentylae, N. [Univ. of Turku (Finland). Dept. of Biology, Plant Physiology and Molecular Biology; Salonen, M. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Laeyliaeinen (Finland). Haapastensyrjae Breeding Station

    2001-07-01

    Propagation costs could be cut by replacing part of the micropropagation process with steps involving more traditional techniques. This study explored possibilities for improving existing vegetative propagation techniques for aspen using stem cuttings obtained from micropropagated plants. Vegetative propagation through stem cuttings was studied in 10 micropropagated hybrid aspen clones (Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx). Cuttings containing one axillary bud were harvested from the same donor plants twice during the growing season: the first harvest in May and the second harvest in July. Rooting percentage was correlated positively with root length, number of roots and height of cutting plant but negatively with length of rooting. The average rooting percentage was 53% in the first harvest and 27% in second harvest. Indole-3-butyric acid treatments (1.2 mM) significantly improved rooting in the second harvest, but not in the first harvest, suggesting different endogenous auxin levels in the cuttings. A significant variation for most traits related to rooting ability was found among the clones, indicating that clonal effects play an important role in the propagation of aspen. Thus, clones with a good response in shoot growth and rooting could be exploited in large-scale propagation using stem cuttings.

  9. Chemotherapeutic potential of curcumin-bearing microcells against hepatocellular carcinoma in model animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farazuddin, Mohammad; Dua, Bhavyata; Zia, Qamar; Khan, Aijaz Ahmad; Joshi, Beenu; Owais, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is found in large quantities in the roots of Curcuma longa. It possesses strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and inhibits chemically-induced carcinogenesis in the skin, forestomach, colon, and liver. Unfortunately, the poor bioavailability and hydrophobicity of curcumin pose a major hurdle to its use as a potent anticancer agent. To circumvent some of these problems, we developed a novel, dual-core microcell formulation of curcumin. The encapsulation of curcumin in microcells increases its solubility and bioavailability, and facilitates slow release kinetics over extended periods. Besides being safe, these formulations do not bear any toxicity constraints, as revealed by in vitro and in vivo studies. Histopathological analysis revealed that curcumin-bearing microcells helped in regression of hepatocellular carcinoma and the maintenance of cellular architecture in liver tissue. Free curcumin had a very mild effect on cancer suppression. Empty (sham) microcells and microparticles failed to inhibit cancer cells. The novel curcumin formulation was found to suppress hepatocellular carcinoma efficiently in Swiss albino mice. PMID:24627632

  10. Chemotherapeutic potential of curcumin-bearing microcells against hepatocellular carcinoma in model animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farazuddin M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Farazuddin,1 Bhavyata Dua,2 Qamar Zia,1 Aijaz Ahmad Khan,3 Beenu Joshi,2 Mohammad Owais1 1Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Unit, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 2Immunology Division, National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases (NJIL, Agra, 3Department of Anatomy, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India Abstract: Curcumin (diferuloylmethane is found in large quantities in the roots of Curcuma longa. It possesses strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and inhibits chemically-induced carcinogenesis in the skin, forestomach, colon, and liver. Unfortunately, the poor bioavailability and hydrophobicity of curcumin pose a major hurdle to its use as a potent anticancer agent. To circumvent some of these problems, we developed a novel, dual-core microcell formulation of curcumin. The encapsulation of curcumin in microcells increases its solubility and bioavailability, and facilitates slow release kinetics over extended periods. Besides being safe, these formulations do not bear any toxicity constraints, as revealed by in vitro and in vivo studies. Histopathological analysis revealed that curcumin-bearing microcells helped in regression of hepatocellular carcinoma and the maintenance of cellular architecture in liver tissue. Free curcumin had a very mild effect on cancer suppression. Empty (sham microcells and microparticles failed to inhibit cancer cells. The novel curcumin formulation was found to suppress hepatocellular carcinoma efficiently in Swiss albino mice. Keywords: diferuloylmethane, carcinogenesis, microparticle, nanocells, cancer, Curcuma longa

  11. Electrical aspects of argon micro-cell plasma with applications in bio-medical technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horiuchi, Y.; Dijk, van J.; Makabe, T.

    2003-01-01

    Argon micro-cell plasma (MCP) is believed to be a viable tool for performing micro-surgery. The non-thermal nature of the discharge allows an effective treatment of pathological tissue without causing thermal damage to its surroundings. This bio-medical application imposes a number of design

  12. Five year growth and survival of Eucalyptus hybrid clones in coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -urophylla i.e. GU hybrids) and three local landraces (E. camaldulensis, E. tereticornis and E. urophylla) were established in Gede, Sokoke and Msambweni in the Coast province of Kenya in 2002, to compare growth, survival and adaptability ...

  13. Nucleic acids in mummified plant seeds: screening of twelve specimens by gel-electrophoresis, molecular hybridization and DNA cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, F; La Marca, A; Amici, A

    1987-02-01

    Twelve seed specimens of varying ages and from different archaeological sites were analyzed for the presence of polymerized DNA and RNA. Amongst the samples tested, one of Vitis vinifera from an archaeological site in Iran (2,000-3,000 B.C.) was found to be completely devoid of nucleic acids. Zea mais seeds of Precolumbial age from Peru (about 800 A.D.) contained depolymerized DNA and RNA. Samples of Vitis vinifera and Rubus sp. from a Lombard archaeological site (800 A.D.) as well as radiocarbon dated seeds from the site of the "Spring Sanctuary" near Metaponto (I-IV century B.C.) were found to contain polymerized DNA and rRNA bands. However the electrophoretic properties of the rRNAs in one case and hybridization experiments performed with cloned seed DNA in the other, clearly demonstrated that the polymerized nucleic acids were not of plant origin.

  14. Evaluation of two hybrid poplar clones as constructed wetland plant species for treating saline water high in boron and selenium, or waters only high in boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetland mesocosms were constructed to assess two salt- and B-tolerant hybrid poplar clones (Populus trichocarpa ×P. deltoides×P. nigra '345-1' and '347-14') for treating saline water high in boron (B) and selenium (Se). In addition, a hydroponic experiment was performed to test the B tolerance and B...

  15. Cost-effective sequencing of full-length cDNA clones powered by a de novo-reference hybrid assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroshu, Reginaldo M; Watanabe, Junichi; Sugano, Sumio; Morishita, Shinichi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kasahara, Masahiro

    2010-05-07

    Sequencing full-length cDNA clones is important to determine gene structures including alternative splice forms, and provides valuable resources for experimental analyses to reveal the biological functions of coded proteins. However, previous approaches for sequencing cDNA clones were expensive or time-consuming, and therefore, a fast and efficient sequencing approach was demanded. We developed a program, MuSICA 2, that assembles millions of short (36-nucleotide) reads collected from a single flow cell lane of Illumina Genome Analyzer to shotgun-sequence approximately 800 human full-length cDNA clones. MuSICA 2 performs a hybrid assembly in which an external de novo assembler is run first and the result is then improved by reference alignment of shotgun reads. We compared the MuSICA 2 assembly with 200 pooled full-length cDNA clones finished independently by the conventional primer-walking using Sanger sequencers. The exon-intron structure of the coding sequence was correct for more than 95% of the clones with coding sequence annotation when we excluded cDNA clones insufficiently represented in the shotgun library due to PCR failure (42 out of 200 clones excluded), and the nucleotide-level accuracy of coding sequences of those correct clones was over 99.99%. We also applied MuSICA 2 to full-length cDNA clones from Toxoplasma gondii, to confirm that its ability was competent even for non-human species. The entire sequencing and shotgun assembly takes less than 1 week and the consumables cost only approximately US$3 per clone, demonstrating a significant advantage over previous approaches.

  16. Fabrication and testing of an electrochemical microcell for in situ soft X-ray microspectroscopy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoncelli, A.; Kaulich, B.; Kiskinova, M.; Mele, C.; Prasciolu, M.; Sgura, I.; Bozzini, B.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we report on the fabrication and testing of a novel concept of electrochemical microcell for in-situ soft X-ray microspectroscopy in transmission. The microcell, fabricated by electron-beam lithography, implements an improved electrode design, with optimal current density distribution and minimised ohmic drop, allowing the same three-electrode electrochemical control achievable with traditional cells. Moreover standard electroanalytical measurements, such as cyclic voltammetry, can be routinely performed. As far as the electrolyte is concerned, we selected a room-temperature ionic-liquid. Some of the materials belonging to this class, in addition to a broad range of outstanding electrochemical properties, feature two highlights that are crucial for in situ, soft X-ray transmission work: spinnability, enabling accurate thickness control, and stability to UHV, allowing operation of an open cell in the analysis chamber vacuum (10-6 mbar). The cell can, of course, be used also with non-vacuum stable electrolytes in the sealed version developed in previous work in our group. In this study, the microcell designed, fabricated and tested in situ by applying an anodic polarisation to a Au electrode and following the formation of a distribution of corrosion features. This specific material combination presented in this work does not limit the cell concept, that can implement any electrodic material grown by lithography, any liquid electrolyte and any spinnable solid electrolyte.

  17. Heavy metals uptake by the hybrid aspen and rowan-tree clones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malá, J.; Máchová, P.; Cvrčková, H.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 11 (2007), s. 491-497 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/04/0135; GA MŠk 2B06187 Grant - others:Výzkumný ústav lesního hospodářství a myslivosti, v.v (CZ) OC 118 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : phytoremediation * heavy metals * hybrid aspen Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology http://journals.uzpi.cz:8050/uniqueFiles/00437.pdf

  18. Identification and Cloning of Differentially Expressed SOUL and ELIP Genes in Saffron Stigmas Using a Subtractive Hybridization Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oussama Ahrazem

    Full Text Available Using a subtractive hybridization approach, differentially expressed genes involved in the light response in saffron stigmas were identified. Twenty-two differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments were cloned and sequenced. Two of them were highly induced by light and had sequence similarity to early inducible proteins (ELIP and SOUL heme-binding proteins. Using these sequences, we searched for other family members expressed in saffron stigma. ELIP and SOUL are represented by small gene families in saffron, with four and five members, respectively. The expression of these genes was analyzed during the development of the stigma and in light and dark conditions. ELIP transcripts were detected in all the developmental stages showing much higher expression levels in the developed stigmas of saffron and all were up-regulated by light but at different levels. By contrast, only one SOUL gene was up-regulated by light and was highly expressed in the stigma at anthesis. Both the ELIP and SOUL genes induced by light in saffron stigmas might be associated with the structural changes affecting the chromoplast of the stigma, as a result of light exposure, which promotes the development and increases the number of plastoglobules, specialized in the recruitment of specific proteins, which enables them to act in metabolite synthesis and disposal under changing environmental conditions and developmental stages.

  19. Cloning and characterization of the gene for L-amino acid oxidase in hybrid tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yubang; Fu, Gui Hong; Liu, Feng; Yue, Gen Hua

    2015-12-01

    Tilapia is the common name for a group of cichlid fishes. Identification of DNA markers significantly associated with important traits in candidate genes may speed up genetic improvement. L-Amino acid oxidase (LAO) plays a crucial role in the innate immune defences of animals. Previously, whether LAO variants were associated with economic traits had not been studied in fish. We characterized the cDNA sequence of the LAO gene of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.). Its ORF was 1536 bp, encoding a flavoenzyme of 511 amino acids. This gene consisted of seven exons and six introns. Its expression was detected in the intestine, blood, kidney, skin, liver. It was highly expressed in the intestine. After a challenge with a bacterial pathogen, Streptococcus agalactiae, its expression was up-regulated significantly in the liver, intestine and spleen (P tilapia. The investigation of relationship between polymorphism of LAO gene and disease resistance and growth in tilapia showed that one SNP was associated significantly with body length. Further experiments on whether SNPs in the LAO gene are associated with growth in tilapia and other populations could be useful in understanding more functions of the LAO gene.

  20. Leptospira borgpetersenii hybrid leucine-rich repeat protein: Cloning and expression, immunogenic identification and molecular docking evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sritrakul, Tepyuda; Nitipan, Supachai; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; La-Ard, Anchalee; Suphatpahirapol, Chattip; Petkarnjanapong, Wimol; Ongphiphadhanakul, Boonsong; Prapong, Siriwan

    2017-11-01

    Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease, and the major outbreak of this disease in Thailand in 1999 was due largely to the Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Sejroe. Identification of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) LBJ_2271 protein containing immunogenic epitopes and the discovery of the LBJ_2271 ortholog in Leptospira serovar Sejroe, KU_Sej_R21_2271, led to further studies of the antigenic immune properties of KU_Sej_LRR_2271. The recombinant hybrid (rh) protein was created and expressed from a hybrid PCR fragment of KU_Sej_R21_2271 fused with DNA encoding the LBJ_2271 signal sequence for targeting protein as a membrane-anchoring protein. The fusion DNA was cloned into pET160/GW/D-TOPO® to form the pET160_hKU_R21_2271 plasmid. The plasmid was used to express the rhKU_Sej_LRR_2271 protein in Escherichia coli BL21 Star™ (DE3). The expressed protein was immunologically detected by Western blotting and immunoreactivity detection with hyperimmune sera, T cell epitope prediction by HLA allele and epitope peptide binding affinity, and potential T cell reactivity analysis. The immunogenic epitopes of the protein were evaluated and verified by HLA allele and epitope peptide complex structure molecular docking. Among fourteen best allele epitopes of this protein, binding affinity values of 12 allele epitopes remained unchanged compared to LBJ_2271. Two epitopes for alleles HLA-A0202 and -A0301 had higher IC 50 values, while T cell reactivity values of these peptides were better than values from LBJ_2271 epitopes. Eight of twelve epitope peptides had positive T-cell reactivity scores. Although the molecular docking of two epitopes, 3FPLLKEFLV11/47FPLLKEFLV55 and 50KLSTVPEGV58, into an HLA-A0202 model revealed a good fit in the docked structures, 50KLSTVPEGV58 and 94KLSTVPEEV102 are still considered as the proteins' best epitopes for allele HLA-A0202. The results of this study showed that rhKU_Sej_LRR_2271 protein contained natural immunological properties that should

  1. On the sensitivity of HCPWR [high conversion pressurized water reactors] microcell calculations to geometrical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbaffoni, Maria; Abbate, Maximo; Patino, Nestor

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear reactor microcell calculations are, normally, carried out using simplified geometrical models which do not include the total number of homogeneous zones actually present. Regarding the particular case of High Conversion Pressurized Water Reactors (HCPWR), the revision of this approximation has been done to determine the sensitivity of its neutronic parameters to the use of these models. The study was performed comparing multiplication factors, reaction rates and neutron spectra, obtained using different geometrical treatments for a HCPWR typical microcell. From the results, it can be asserted that, if only two zones should be used in the calculation, the model which dilutes the clad into the moderator gives best results for the neutron fluxes, but the model that mix it with the fuel is better for k-infinite and reaction rate values. Considering the significance of these parameters on the physical behaviour of the reactor, the last one is recommended for cell calculations. Even if there is a slight difference between the cells considered, some results of this work were also compared with those of the NEACRP HCLWR benchmark with good agreement, so it can be concluded that the methodology here used for data processing and calculations is applicable to HCR's cell studies. (Author)

  2. Public exposure to radio waves near GSM microcell and picocell base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T G; Mann, S M; Khalid, M; Blackwell, R P

    2006-01-01

    Exposures of the general public to radio waves at locations near 20 randomly selected GSM microcell and picocell base stations in the UK have been assessed in the context of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. Compliance distances were calculated for the antennas of the base stations from their reported radiated powers. Under pessimistic assumptions that would maximise exposures, the minimum height at which the general public reference level could potentially be exceeded near any of the base station antennas was calculated to be 2.4 m above ground level. The power densities of the broadcast carriers transmitted by the base stations have been measured and scaled to include all other possible carriers. Exposures were generally in the range 0.002-2% of the ICNIRP general public reference level, and the greatest exposure quotient near any of the base stations was 8.6%. Exposures close to microcell base stations were found to be generally greater than those close to macrocell base stations

  3. Tamanho amostral para a estimativa da densidade básica em um clone híbrido de Eucalyptus sp. Sample size for estimating basic density in a clone of Eucalyptus sp. hybrid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Andrade de PÁDUA

    2015-06-01

    Eucalyptus grandis hybrid clone, considering different longitudinal sampling and diameter classes. For this, 50 trees were used to hybrid from clone with 5.6 years. The trees were divided into three diameter classes and sampled in the form of discs, three ways: traditional (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the commercial height Hc; alternative (2%, 10%, 30% and 70% Hc and every meter from DAP. There was no difference between the number of trees required to estimate the density of the clone regardless sampling form, assuming an error of 5% and a confidence interval of 95%. Alternative sampling was considered most effective, considering the sample size along the stem and the coefficient of variation. Classification by diameter resulted in a greater number of trees to estimate the average density due to greater property variation within diameter classes than within the sampling method

  4. Theory for optimal design of waveguiding light concentrators in photovoltaic microcell arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semichaevsky, Andrey V; Johnson, Harley T; Yoon, Jongseung; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Li, Lanfang; Rogers, John

    2011-06-10

    Efficiency of ultrathin flexible solar photovoltaic silicon microcell arrays can be significantly improved using nonimaging solar concentrators. A fluorophore is introduced to match the solar spectrum and the low-reflectivity wavelength range of Si, reduce the escape losses, and allow the nontracking operation. In this paper we optimize our solar concentrators using a luminescent/nonluminescent photon transport model. Key modeling results are compared quantitatively to experiments and are in good agreement with the latter. Our solar concentrator performance is not limited by the dye self-absorption. Bending deformations of the flexible solar collectors do not result in their indirect gain degradation compared to flat solar concentrators with the same projected area.

  5. Precombustion desulfurization using Microcel{trademark} and multi-gravity separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Venkatraman, P. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Studies conducted at the Center for Coal and Minerals Processing (CCMP) indicate that surface-based processes such as froth flotation are inefficient in removing pyrite from fine coal. This shortcoming has been attributed to the fact that pyrite can become hydrophobic under certain conditions and to the inability of flotation to reject middling particles. To overcome these deficiencies, a new processing scheme has been developed at CCMP which involved the use of the Microcel{trademark} flotation column in combination with a centrifugal flowing-film separator, called a Multi-Gravity Separator (MGS). The flotation column removes ash-forming minerals such as clay, while the MGS is effective in removing pyrite. Preliminary test data obtained with high-sulfur coals shows that this processing scheme can nearly double the pyritic sulfur rejection with little loss in clean coal yield. This article discusses the underlying principles of the new circuit and provides test results obtained using eastern U.S. coals.

  6. In-line photonic microcells based on the elliptical microfibers for refractive index sensors applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wa; Liu, Xuejing; Jin, Wei

    2017-10-01

    We report the fabrication of in-line photonic microcells (PMCs) by encapsulating tapered elliptical microfibers (MFs) inside glass tubes. The encapsulation does not change the optical property of the MF but protects the elliptical MF from external disturbance and contamination and makes the micro-laboratory robust. Such micro-laboratory can be easily integrated into standard fiber-optic circuits with low loss, making the elliptical MF-based devices more practical for real-world applications. Evanescent field sensing is realized by fabricating micro-channel on the PMC for ingress/egress of sample liquids/gas. Based on the encapsulated elliptical MF PMCs, we demonstrated RI sensitivity of 2024 nm per refractive index unit (nm/RIU) in gaseous environment and 21231 nm/RIU in water.

  7. CULTIVAR RELEASE-BRS 275 (BRS Dão: Hybrid clone of dwarf x common or giant cashew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Rodrigues de Paiva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS Dão is a cashew clone developed by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation Embrapa, sectorTropical Agro-industry, in partnership with the Companhia Industrial de Óleos do Nordeste (CIONE. It was selected from aplant derived from the cross between the dwarf clone CCP 1001 and the common genotype CP 12. It is recommended forcultivation without irrigation along the coastline in the Northeast of Brazil and in similar environmental conditions for bothnut and peduncle production for the fruit juice industry.

  8. B-G cDNA clones have multiple small repeats and hybridize to both chicken MHC regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufman, J; Salomonsen, J; Skjødt, K

    1989-01-01

    We used rabbit antisera to the chicken MHC erythrocyte molecule B-G and to the class I alpha chain (B-F) to screen lambda gt11 cDNA expression libraries made with RNA selected by oligo-dT from bone marrow cells of anemic B19 homozygous chickens. Eight clones were found to encode B-G molecules which...

  9. Corrosion characterisation of laser beam and tungsten inert gas weldment of nickel base alloys: Micro-cell technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, Geogy J.; Kain, V.; Dey, G.K.; Raja, V.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Grain matrix showed better corrosion resistance than grain boundary. • Microcell studies showed distinct corrosion behaviour of individual regions of weldment. • TIG welding resulted in increased stable anodic current density on weld fusion zone. • LB welding resulted in high stable anodic current density for heat affected zone. - Abstract: The electrochemical studies using micro-cell technique gave new understanding of electrochemical behaviour of nickel base alloys in solution annealed and welded conditions. The welding simulated regions depicted varied micro structural features. In case of tungsten inert gas (TIG) weldments, the weld fusion zone (WFZ) showed least corrosion resistance among all other regions. For laser beam (LB) weldments it was the heat-affected zone (HAZ) that showed comparatively high stable anodic current density. The high heat input of TIG welding resulted in slower heat dissipation hence increased carbide precipitation and segregation in WFZ resulting in high stable anodic current density

  10. Cloning the human lysozyme cDNA: Inverted Alu repeat in the mRNA and in situ hybridization for macrophages and Paneth cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, L.P.; Keshav, S.; Gordon, S.

    1988-01-01

    Lysozyme is a major secretory product of human and rodent macrophages and a useful marker for myelomonocytic cells. Based on the known human lysozyme amino acid sequence, oligonucleotides were synthesized and used as probes to screen a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-treated U937 cDNA library. A full-length human lysozyme cDNA clone, pHL-2, was obtained and characterized. Sequence analysis shows that human lysozyme, like chicken lysozyme, has in 18-amino-acid-long signal peptide, but unlike the chicken lysozyme cDNA, the human lysozyme cDNA has a >1-kilobase-long 3' nontranslated sequence. Interestingly, within this 3' region, an inverted repeat of the Alu family of repetitive sequences was discovered. In RNA blot analyses, DNA probes prepared from pHL-2 can be used to detect lysozyme mRNA not only from human but also from mouse and rat. Moreover, by in situ hybridization, complementary RNA transcripts have been used as probes to detect lysozyme mRNA in mouse macrophages and Paneth cells. This human lysozyme cDNA clone is therefore likely to be a useful molecular probe for studying macrophage distribution and gene expression

  11. Cloned polynucleotide and synthetic oligonucleotide probes used in colony hybridization are equally efficient in the identification of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerfelt, H.; Kalland, K.H.; Raj, P.; Moseley, S.L.; Bhan, M.K.; Bjorvatn, B.

    1988-01-01

    Restriction endonuclease-generated polynucleotide and synthetically produced oligonucleotide gene probes used in colony hybridization assays proved to be efficient for the detection and differentiation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. To compare their relative efficiencies, these two sets of probes were radiolabeled with 32 P and were applied to 74 strains of E. coli with known enterotoxin profiles and to 156 previously unexamined E. coli isolates. The enterotoxigenic bacteria Vibrio cholerae O1, Vibrio cholerae non-O1 (NAG), Yersinia enterocolitica, and E. coli harboring the plasmid vectors of the polynucleotide gene probes were examined for further evaluation of probe specificity. The two classes of probes showed a perfect concordance in their specific detection and differentiation of enterotoxigenic E. coli. In the analysis of six strains, the signal strength on autoradiography after hybridization with oligonucleotides was weaker than that obtained after hybridization with polynucleotide probes. The probes did not hybridize with DNA from V. cholerae O1, V. cholerae non-O1 (NAG), or Y. enterocolitica. The strains of E. coli harboring the plasmid vectors of the polynucleotide gene probes were, likewise, negative in the hybridization assays

  12. Cloned polynucleotide and synthetic oligonucleotide probes used in colony hybridization are equally efficient in the identification of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommerfelt, H.; Kalland, K.H.; Raj, P.; Moseley, S.L.; Bhan, M.K.; Bjorvatn, B.

    1988-11-01

    Restriction endonuclease-generated polynucleotide and synthetically produced oligonucleotide gene probes used in colony hybridization assays proved to be efficient for the detection and differentiation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. To compare their relative efficiencies, these two sets of probes were radiolabeled with /sup 32/P and were applied to 74 strains of E. coli with known enterotoxin profiles and to 156 previously unexamined E. coli isolates. The enterotoxigenic bacteria Vibrio cholerae O1, Vibrio cholerae non-O1 (NAG), Yersinia enterocolitica, and E. coli harboring the plasmid vectors of the polynucleotide gene probes were examined for further evaluation of probe specificity. The two classes of probes showed a perfect concordance in their specific detection and differentiation of enterotoxigenic E. coli. In the analysis of six strains, the signal strength on autoradiography after hybridization with oligonucleotides was weaker than that obtained after hybridization with polynucleotide probes. The probes did not hybridize with DNA from V. cholerae O1, V. cholerae non-O1 (NAG), or Y. enterocolitica. The strains of E. coli harboring the plasmid vectors of the polynucleotide gene probes were, likewise, negative in the hybridization assays.

  13. What is Cloning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donate Home Cloning What is Cloning What is Cloning Clones are organisms that are exact genetic copies. ... clones made through modern cloning technologies. How Is Cloning Done? Many people first heard of cloning when ...

  14. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization of cattle and sheep chromosomes with cloned human fragile-X DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Ahmd; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl; Babar, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    An extensive study on spontaneous and 5-Fluorodeoxyuridine induced fragile sites identified Xq31 in cattle (Bos taurus) and (Xq24, Xq26) in sheep (Ovis aries) in addition to several autosomal fragile sites (under publication). A ZOO-FISH study using three cloned human fragile-X probes with CCG....../CGG(n) trinucleotide repeat sequence was carried out to determine homology between human and bovine fragile-X. The hybridisation results showed only a weak signal on a human chromosome that was not an X with all three fragile site probes. No signals were detected in sheep chromosomes. The signal of all three human...... fragile-X probes on cattle chromosomes was however, medium-prominent sub-centromeric signal on two homologues. BrdU administration in 12 h before harvesting identified these homologues to be chromosome number 5. In addition retrospective slides of cattle and sheep chromosomes used for fragile site studies...

  15. Factors Influencing the Tissue Culture and the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation of Hybrid Aspen and Poplar Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Block, M

    1990-07-01

    Tissue culture conditions and transformation have been established for both aspen and poplar. The use of previously described culture conditions resulted in shoot tip necrosis in the shoot cultures and necrosis of stem and leaf explants. Shoot tip necrosis could be overcome by buffering the medium with 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid and Ca-gluconate and by growing the shoots below 25 degrees C. Necrosis of the explants was probably due to an accumulation of ammonium in the explants and could be overcome by adapting the NO(3) (-)/NH(4) (+) ratio of the media. Stem explants of established shoot cultures of the aspen hybrid Populus alba x P. tremula and of the poplar hybrid Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides were cocultivated with Agrobacterium strains having chimeric bar and neo genes on their disarmed tDNAs. Transformed aspen shoots were obtained from 30 to 40% of the explants, while transformed poplar shoots were obtained from 10% of the explants. Extracts from the transformed trees contained high phosphinotricin acetyltransferase and neomycin phosphotransferase activities, and the trees contained one to three copies of the chimeric genes. The transformed trees were completely resistant to the commercial preparations of the herbicide phosphinotricin (glufosinate), while control trees were not.

  16. A Comparative Physics Study of Commercial PWR Cores using Metallic Micro-cell UO{sub 2}-Cr (or Mo) Pellets with Cr-based Cladding Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Dae Hee; Hong, Ser Gi [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); In, Wang Kee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this work, a comparative neutronic analysis of the cores using ATFs which include metallic micro-cell UO{sub 2}-Cr, UO{sub 2}-Mo pellets and Cr-based alloy coating on cladding was performed to show the effects of the ATF fuels on the core performance. In this study, the cores having different ATFs use the same initial uranium enrichments. The ATF concepts studied in this work are the metallic microcell UO{sub 2} pellets containing Cr or Mo with cladding outer coating composed of Cr-based alloy which have been suggested as the ATF concepts in KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). The metallic micro-cell pellets and Cr-based alloy coating can enhance thermal conductivity of fuel and reduce the production of hydrogen from the reaction of cladding with coolant, respectively. The objective of this work is to compare neutronic characteristics of commercial PWR equilibrium cores utilizing the different variations of metallic micro-cell UO{sub 2} pellets with cladding coating composed of Cr-based alloy. The results showed that the cores using UO{sub 2}-Cr and UO{sub 2}-Mo pellets with Cr-based alloy coating on cladding have reduced cycle lengths by 60 and 106 EFPDs, respectively, in comparison with the reference UO{sub 2} fueled core due to the reduced heavy metal inventories and large thermal absorption cross section but they do not have any significant differences in the core performances parameters. However, it is notable that the core fueled the micro-cell UO{sub 2}-Mo pellet and Cr-based alloy coating has considerably more negative MTC and slightly more negative FTC than the other cases. These characteristics of the core using micro-cell UO{sub 2}-Mo pellet and Cr-based alloy coating is due to the hard neutron spectrum and large capture resonance cross section of Mo isotopes.

  17. Study of the effect of cerium nitrate on AA2024-T3 by means of electrochemical micro-cell technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paussa, L.; Andreatta, F.; Rosero Navarro, N.C.; Durán, A.; Fedrizzi, L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We evaluate the cerium nitrate effect on the electrochemical behavior of AA2024-T3. ► We examine how AA2024-T3 microstructure affects cerium precipitation mechanism. ► The entire AA2024-T3 surface is involved in cerium precipitation. ► Anodic and cathodic inhibitions are both provided by cerium precipitation. ► Mg-rich intermetallics are preferential sites for cerium precipitation. - Abstract: This work evaluates the effect of cerium nitrate as corrosion inhibitor for AA2024-T3 in the view of its introduction in sol–gel coatings able to provide self-healing ability. Since it is well established that deposition of Ce species is activated by the local pH increase, the objective of this paper is to investigate the behavior of AA2024-T3 (open circuit potential and polarization curves) in the presence of Ce species in aggressive solutions by means of a local technique, the electrochemical micro-cell. This technique enables the investigation of small areas with resolution in the micrometer range by the use of glass capillaries to define the working electrode area. The micro-cell results clearly displayed that the entire AA2024-T3 area exposed to the cerium-containing electrolyte was involved in the cerium precipitation mechanism. The heterogeneous electrochemical behavior of the microstructure is minimized by the formation of a cerium-containing layer able to protect the metal substrate.

  18. Cloning and Characterization of ThSHRs and ThSCR Transcription Factors in Taxodium Hybrid 'Zhongshanshan 406'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiquan; Yin, Yunlong; Hua, Jianfeng; Fan, Wencai; Yu, Chaoguang; Xuan, Lei; Yu, Fangyuan

    2017-07-20

    Among the GRAS family of transcription factors, SHORT ROOT (SHR) and SCARECROW (SCR) are key regulators of the formation of root tissues. In this study, we isolated and characterized two genes encoding SHR proteins and one gene encoding an SCR protein: ThSHR1 (Accession Number MF045148), ThSHR2 (Accession Number MF045149) and ThSCR (Accession Number MF045152) in the adventitious roots of Taxodium hybrid 'Zhongshanshan'. Gene structure analysis indicated that ThSHR1 , ThSHR2 and ThSCR are all intron free. Multiple protein sequence alignments showed that each of the corresponding proteins, ThSHR1, ThSHR2 and ThSCR, contained five well-conserved domains: leucine heptad repeat I (LHRI), the VHIID motif, leucine heptad repeat II (LHR II), the PFYRE motif, and the SAW motif. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that ThSCR was positioned in the SCR clade with the SCR proteins from eight other species, while ThSHR1 and ThSHR2 were positioned in the SHR clade with the SHR proteins from six other species. Temporal expression patterns of these genes were profiled during the process of adventitious root development on stem cuttings. Whereas expression of both ThSHR2 and ThSCR increased up to primary root formation before declining, that of ThSHR1 increased steadily throughout adventitious root formation. Subcellular localization studies in transgenic poplar protoplasts revealed that ThSHR1, ThSHR2 and ThSCR were localized in the nucleus. Collectively, these results suggest that the three genes encode Taxodium GRAS family transcription factors, and the findings contribute to improving our understanding of the expression and function of SHR and SCR during adventitious root production, which may then be manipulated to achieve high rates of asexual propagation of valuable tree species.

  19. Responses of hybrid poplar clones and red maple seedlings to ambient O3 under differing light within a mixed hardwood forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, C.; Skelly, J.M.; Pennypacker, S.P.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Savage, J.E.; Stevenson, R.E.; Davis, D.D.

    2004-01-01

    The responses of ramets of hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) (HP) clones NE388 and NE359, and seedlings of red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) to ambient ozone (O 3 ) were studied during May-September of 2000 and 2001 under natural forest conditions and differing natural sunlight exposures (sun, partial shade and full shade). Ambient O 3 concentrations at the study site reached hourly peaks of 109 and 98 ppb in 2000 and 2001, respectively. Monthly 12-h average O 3 concentrations ranged from 32.3 to 52.9 ppb. Weekly 12-h average photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) within the sun, partial shade and full shade plots ranged from 200 to 750, 50 to 180, and 25 to 75 μmol m -2 s -1 , respectively. Ambient O 3 exposure induced visible foliar symptoms on HP NE388 and NE359 in both growing seasons, with more severe injury observed on NE388 than on NE359. Slight foliar symptoms were observed on red maple seedlings during the 2001growing season. Percentage of total leaf area affected (%LAA) was positively correlated with cumulative O 3 exposures. More severe foliar injury was observed on plants grown within the full shade and partial shade plots than those observed on plants grown within the sun plot. Lower light availability within the partial shade and full shade plots significantly decreased net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (g wv ). The reductions in Pn were greater than reductions in g wv , which resulted in greater O 3 uptake per unit Pn in plants grown within the partial shade and full shade plots. Greater O 3 uptake per unit Pn was consistently associated with more severe visible foliar injury in all species and/or clones regardless of differences in shade tolerance. These studies suggest that plant physiological responses to O 3 exposure are likely complicated due to multiple factors under natural forest conditions. - Under natural forest conditions and ambient O 3 exposures, available light plays a significant role in determining O 3 uptake and

  20. Academic Cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikula, John P.; Sikula, Andrew F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors define "cloning" as an integral feature of all educational systems, citing teaching practices which reward students for closely reproducing the teacher's thoughts and/or behaviors and administrative systems which tend to promote like-minded subordinates. They insist, however, that "academic cloning" is not a totally…

  1. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of indoor microcell GSM/UMTS base stations in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivica, Mladen; Petrić, Majda; Nešković, Nataša; Nešković, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    To determine the level of radiofrequency radiation generated by base stations of Global System for Mobile Communications and Universal Mobile Telecommunication System, extensive electromagnetic field strength measurements were carried out in the vicinity of 664 base station locations. These were classified into three categories: indoor, masts, and locations with installations on buildings. Although microcell base stations with antennas installed indoors typically emit less power than outdoor macrocell base stations, the fact that people can be found close to antennas requires exposure originating from these base stations to be carefully considered. Measurement results showed that maximum recorded value of electric field strength exceeded International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels at 7% of indoor base station locations. At the same time, this percentage was much lower in the case of masts and installations on buildings (0% and 2.5%, respectively). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Optimization of Additive-Powder Characteristics for Metallic Micro-Cell UO{sub 2} Fuel Pellet Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Joo; Kim, Keon Sik; Rhee, Young Woo; Kim, Jong Hun; Oh, Jang Soo; Yang, Jae Ho; Koo, Yang-Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The improvement in the thermal conductivity of the UO{sub 2} fuel pellet can enhance the fuel performance in various aspects. The mobility of the fission gases is reduced by the lower temperature gradient in the UO{sub 2} fuel pellet. That is to say, the capability of the fission gas retention of the fuel pellet can increase. In addition, the lower centerline temperature of the fuel pellet affects the accident tolerance for nuclear fuel as well as the enhancement of fuel safety and fuel pellet integrity under normal operation conditions. The nuclear reactor power can be uprated owing to the higher safety margin. Thus, many researches on enhancing the thermal conductivity of a nuclear fuel pellet for LWRs have been performed. Typically, an enhancement of the thermal conductivity of the UO{sub 2} fuel pellet can be obtained by the addition of a higher thermal conductive material in the fuel pellet. To maximize the effect of the thermal conductivity enhancement, a continuous and uniform channel of the thermal conductive material in the UO{sub 2} matrix must be formed. To enhance the thermal conductivity of a UO{sub 2} fuel pellet, the development of fabrication process of a Cr metallic micro-cell UO{sub 2} pellet with a continuous and uniform channel of the Cr metallic phase was carried out. The formation of the Cr-oxide phases was prevented and the uniformity of the Cr-metal phase distribution was enhanced simultaneously, through the optimization of the additive-powder characteristics. In the results, the Cr metallic micro-cell pellet with continuous and uniform Cr metallic channel could be obtained.

  3. Why Clone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than expected. Could we really clone dinosaurs? In theory? Yes. You would need: A well-preserved source ... it raises a number of ethical, legal, and social challenges that need to be considered. The vast ...

  4. Human Cloning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Judith A; Williams, Erin D

    2006-01-01

    .... Scientists in other labs, including Harvard University and the University of California at San Francisco, intend to produce cloned human embryos in order to derive stem cells for medical research...

  5. Mapped clone and functional analysis of leaf-color gene Ygl7 in a rice hybrid (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiao-juan; Zhang, Hai-qing; Wang, Yue; He, Feng; Liu, Jin-ling; Xiao, Xiao; Shu, Zhi-feng; Li, Wei; Wang, Guo-huai; Wang, Guo-liang

    2014-01-01

    Leaf-color is an effective marker to identify the hybridization of rice. Leaf-color related genes function in chloroplast development and the photosynthetic pigment biosynthesis of higher plants. The ygl7 (yellow-green leaf 7) is a mutant with spontaneous yellow-green leaf phenotype across the whole lifespan but with no change to its yield traits. We cloned gene Ygl7 (Os03g59640) which encodes a magnesium-chelatase ChlD protein. Expression of ygl7 turns green-leaves to yellow, whereas RNAi-mediated silence of Ygl7 causes a lethal phenotype of the transgenic plants. This indicates the importance of the gene for rice plant. On the other hand, it corroborates that ygl7 is a non-null mutants. The content of photosynthetic pigment is lower in Ygl7 than the wild type, but its light efficiency was comparatively high. All these results indicated that the mutational YGL7 protein does not cause a complete loss of original function but instead acts as a new protein performing a new function. This new function partially includes its preceding function and possesses an additional feature to promote photosynthesis. Chl1, Ygl98, and Ygl3 are three alleles of the OsChlD gene that have been documented previously. However, mutational sites of OsChlD mutant gene and their encoded protein products were different in the three mutants. The three mutants have suppressed grain output. In our experiment, plant materials of three mutants (ygl7, chl1, and ygl98) all exhibited mutational leaf-color during the whole growth period. This result was somewhat different from previous studies. We used ygl7 as female crossed with chl1 and ygl98, respectively. Both the F1 and F2 generation display yellow-green leaf phenotype with their chlorophyll and carotenoid content falling between the values of their parents. Moreover, we noted an important phenomenon: ygl7-NIL's leaf-color is yellow, not yellowy-green, and this is also true of all back-crossed offspring with ygl7.

  6. Mapped clone and functional analysis of leaf-color gene Ygl7 in a rice hybrid (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-juan Deng

    Full Text Available Leaf-color is an effective marker to identify the hybridization of rice. Leaf-color related genes function in chloroplast development and the photosynthetic pigment biosynthesis of higher plants. The ygl7 (yellow-green leaf 7 is a mutant with spontaneous yellow-green leaf phenotype across the whole lifespan but with no change to its yield traits. We cloned gene Ygl7 (Os03g59640 which encodes a magnesium-chelatase ChlD protein. Expression of ygl7 turns green-leaves to yellow, whereas RNAi-mediated silence of Ygl7 causes a lethal phenotype of the transgenic plants. This indicates the importance of the gene for rice plant. On the other hand, it corroborates that ygl7 is a non-null mutants. The content of photosynthetic pigment is lower in Ygl7 than the wild type, but its light efficiency was comparatively high. All these results indicated that the mutational YGL7 protein does not cause a complete loss of original function but instead acts as a new protein performing a new function. This new function partially includes its preceding function and possesses an additional feature to promote photosynthesis. Chl1, Ygl98, and Ygl3 are three alleles of the OsChlD gene that have been documented previously. However, mutational sites of OsChlD mutant gene and their encoded protein products were different in the three mutants. The three mutants have suppressed grain output. In our experiment, plant materials of three mutants (ygl7, chl1, and ygl98 all exhibited mutational leaf-color during the whole growth period. This result was somewhat different from previous studies. We used ygl7 as female crossed with chl1 and ygl98, respectively. Both the F1 and F2 generation display yellow-green leaf phenotype with their chlorophyll and carotenoid content falling between the values of their parents. Moreover, we noted an important phenomenon: ygl7-NIL's leaf-color is yellow, not yellowy-green, and this is also true of all back-crossed offspring with ygl7.

  7. Early selection of Eucalyptus clones in retrospective nursery test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within the framework of the eucalyptus breeding programme in the Congo, two retrospective tests were conducted using mature clones in the field and young cuttings under nursery conditions with two hybrids: 13 clones of Eucalyptus tereticornis* Eucalyptus grandis for the test TC 82-1B and 17 clones of Eucalyptus ...

  8. The Study of the Frequency Effect of Dynamic Compressive Loading on Primary Articular Chondrocyte Functions Using a Microcell Culture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Ying Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Compressive stimulation can modulate articular chondrocyte functions. Nevertheless, the relevant studies are not comprehensive. This is primarily due to the lack of cell culture apparatuses capable of conducting the experiments in a high throughput, precise, and cost-effective manner. To address the issue, we demonstrated the use of a perfusion microcell culture system to investigate the stimulating frequency (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 Hz effect of compressive loading (20% and 40% strain on the functions of articular chondrocytes. The system mainly integrates the functions of continuous culture medium perfusion and the generation of pneumatically-driven compressive stimulation in a high-throughput micro cell culture system. Results showed that the compressive stimulations explored did not have a significant impact on chondrocyte viability and proliferation. However, the metabolic activity of chondrocytes was significantly affected by the stimulating frequency at the higher compressive strain of 40% (2 Hz, 40% strain. Under the two compressive strains studied, the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs synthesis was upregulated when the stimulating frequency was set at 1 Hz and 2 Hz. However, the stimulating frequencies explored had no influence on the collagen production. The results of this study provide useful fundamental insights that will be helpful for cartilage tissue engineering and cartilage rehabilitation.

  9. Características da laranjeira 'Valência' sobre clones e híbridos de porta-enxertos tolerantes à tristeza Characteristics of 'Valencia' sweet orange onto clones and hybrid rootstocks tolerant to the tristeza disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Bordignon

    2003-01-01

    ção precoce e elevadosºBrix e ratio desse genitor, tratando-se de determinantes genéticos independentes. Trifoliata induziu altos valores de ratio do suco e, todos os seus grupos de híbridos foram superiores à Sunki e ao Cravo. Quanto à produção, verificou-se a superioridade do Cravo em relação à Sunki e esta em relação ao Trifoliata, enquanto nos híbridos constatou-se ampla variabilidade genética, sendo 228 significativamente mais produtivos que o Trifoliata, 100 superiores à Sunki e 47 ao Cravo. Os resultados evidenciaram alto potencial de seleção desses híbridos.Variability and selection potential of 396 hybrids of Rangpur lime 'Limeira', (Citrus limonia (C, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki (S, Sour orange 'São Paulo'(C. aurantium (A and Trifoliate orange 'Davis A'(Poncirus trifoliata (T tolerant to the tristeza disease were studied, comparatively to the genitors Rangpur lime, Sunki and Trifoliate orange. Hybrids TxA, TxS, SxT, CxS, SxC, CxA and SxA were investigated as to yield of first three crops, productivity and several vegetative and industrial characteristics of Valencia sweet orange onto them. Rangpur lime, Trifoliate orange and T x S, S x T, T x A, C x A hybrids initiated yielding before Sunki and S x C, C x S, S x A hybrids. This result indicates a dominance of the precocious yield of Trifoliate even in the hybrids with Sunki and conversely, the opposite trend of Sunki and its hybrids, except in the combination with Trifoliate orange. Yield per canopy area induced by Trifoliate orange was low, contrasting with Rangpur lime, Sunki mandarin and T x S, S x T hybrids. It was observed a close relationship between the diameter of scions, the diameter of rootstocks right after transplant to the field and the same parameters in the subsequent years. Height, canopy, rootstock and scion trunk diameters were highly correlated and useful for composing an index vigor. Trifoliate orange and Sunki mandarin are the most divergent genitors regarding vigor, and the

  10. Human Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-20

    Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA). A team of scientists headed by Alison Murdoch at the University of Newcastle received permission...not yet reported success in isolating stem cells from a cloned human embryo. A research team headed by Ian Wilmut at the University of Edinburgh...research group, headed by Douglas Melton and Kevin Eggan, submitted their proposal to a Harvard committee composed of ethicists, scientists and public

  11. Cloning Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Atsuo

    2017-08-01

    Viable and fertile mice can be generated by somatic nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes, presumably because the transplanted somatic cell genome becomes reprogrammed by factors in the oocyte. The first somatic cloned offspring of mice were obtained by directly injecting donor nuclei into recipient enucleated oocytes. When this method is used (the so-called Honolulu method of somatic cell nuclear transfer [SCNT]), the donor nuclei readily and completely condense within the enucleated metaphase II-arrested oocytes, which contain high levels of M-phase-promoting factor (MPF). It is believed that the condensation of the donor chromosomes promotes complete reprogramming of the donor genome within the mouse oocytes. Another key to the success of mouse cloning is the use of blunt micropipettes attached to a piezo impact-driving micromanipulation device. This system saves a significant amount of time during the micromanipulation of oocytes and thus minimizes the loss of oocyte viability in vitro. For example, a group of 20 oocytes can be enucleated within 10 min by an experienced operator. This protocol is composed of seven parts: (1) preparing micropipettes, (2) setting up the enucleation and injection micropipettes, (3) collecting and enucleating oocytes, (4) preparing nucleus donor cells, (5) injecting donor nuclei, (6) activating embryos and culturing, and (7) transferring cloned embryos. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. [Whole cDNA sequence cloning and expression of chicken L-FABP gene and its relationship with lipid deposition of hybrid chickens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Wang, Dong; Sun, Dong-Xiao; Xu, Gui-Yun; Li, Jun-Ying; Zhang, Yuan

    2011-07-01

    Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) is closely related to intracellular transportation and deposition of lipids. A positive differential displayed fragment was found in the liver tissue among Silkie (CC), CAU-brown chicken (CD), and their reciprocal hybrids (CD and DC) at 8 weeks-old using differential display RT-PCR techniques (DDRT-PCR). Through recycling, sequencing, and alignment analysis, the fragment was identified as chicken liver fatty acid-binding protein gene (L-FABP, GenBank accession number AY321365). Reverse Northern dot blot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the avian L-FABP gene was over-expressed in the liver tissue of the reciprocal hybrids (CD and DC) compared to their parental lines (CC and DD), which was consistent with the fact that higher abdomen fat weight and wider inter-muscular fat width observed in the reciprocal hybrids. Considering the higher expression of L-FABP may contribute to the increased lipid deposition in the hybrid chickens, the functional study of avian L-FABP is warranted in future.

  13. The Clone Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Beryl

    2005-01-01

    Have humans been cloned? Is it possible? Immediate interest is sparked when students are asked these questions. In response to their curiosity, the clone factory activity was developed to help them understand the process of cloning. In this activity, students reenact the cloning process, in a very simplified simulation. After completing the…

  14. Cloning of observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Alessandro; Galbiati, Matteo; Paris, Matteo G A

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the concept of cloning for classes of observables and classify cloning machines for qubit systems according to the number of parameters needed to describe the class under investigation. A no-cloning theorem for observables is derived and the connections between cloning of observables and joint measurements of noncommuting observables are elucidated. Relationships with cloning of states and non-demolition measurements are also analysed. (letter to the editor)

  15. Cloning of observables

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraro, Alessandro; Galbiati, Matteo; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the concept of cloning for classes of observables and classify cloning machines for qubit systems according to the number of parameters needed to describe the class under investigation. A no-cloning theorem for observables is derived and the connections between cloning of observables and joint measurements of noncommuting observables are elucidated. Relationships with cloning of states and non-demolition measurements are also analyzed.

  16. Genetic variability in Sambucus nigra L. clones : a preliminary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    c Indian Academy of Sciences. ONLINE ... yield and production evaluations revealed that clones from ..... Population genetic software for teaching and research. Mol. Ecol. ... and genetic evaluation of interspecific hybrids within the genus.

  17. Multipartite asymmetric quantum cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iblisdir, S.; Gisin, N.; Acin, A.; Cerf, N.J.; Filip, R.; Fiurasek, J.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the optimal distribution of quantum information over multipartite systems in asymmetric settings. We introduce cloning transformations that take N identical replicas of a pure state in any dimension as input and yield a collection of clones with nonidentical fidelities. As an example, if the clones are partitioned into a set of M A clones with fidelity F A and another set of M B clones with fidelity F B , the trade-off between these fidelities is analyzed, and particular cases of optimal N→M A +M B cloning machines are exhibited. We also present an optimal 1→1+1+1 cloning machine, which is an example of a tripartite fully asymmetric cloner. Finally, it is shown how these cloning machines can be optically realized

  18. Quantum cloning and signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, C.; Weihs, G.; Zeilinger, A.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the close connections between cloning of quantum states and superluminal signaling. We present an optimal universal cloning machine based on stimulated emission recently proposed by the authors. As an instructive example, we show how a scheme for superluminal communication based on this cloning machine fails. (Authors)

  19. Rapid cloning and bioinformatic analysis of spinach Y chromosome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (DOP-PCR) products were hybridized with cDNA of the male spinach flowers in florescence. The female .... China), 1 μL (3.5 U/μL) T4 ligase and sterile double- distilled ... Cloning of hybrid PCR products and screening of cDNA sequence.

  20. Production potential of 36 poplar clones grown at medium length rotation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Brauner; Madsen, Palle; Hansen, Jon Kehlet

    2014-01-01

    years. The estimated mean annual increment of above ground biomass ranged from 1 to 9 Mg ha−1 yr−1 at age 13 years. A hybrid clone O.P. 42 (synonyms Hybrid 275, NE 42) Populus maximowiczii × trichocarpa, performed best, but also clones of the species Populus trichocarpa had a high biomass production....... In general the hybrids using P. maximowiczii as a parent were well performing. Lowest production had pure species Populus nigra and Populus deltoides as well as their hybrids. The choice of species hybrid combination had a very strong impact on biomass production, but less influence on quality and health......The importance of choosing suitable clones for production of timber and biomass has long been recognized. The aims of this study were to describe the genetic variation and production potential among 36 poplar clones grown in a rotation of 5–13 years and evaluate the different species and hybrid...

  1. Statement on Human Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as our understanding of this technology advances. Support Stem Cell Research (including Research Cloning) AAAS supports stem cell research, including the use of nuclear transplantation techniques (also ...

  2. College Reading: Clone, Illegitimate Child, or Hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Anthony V.

    The college reading movement, its methods, organization, and, implicitly, the career opportunities within it, is critiqued in this report in terms of four categories of programs: (1) rapid reading with ancillary attention to study skills; (2) remedial type reading and study skills; (3) compensatory type programs; and (4) content area improvement…

  3. Delayed reproductive death as a dominant phenotype in cell clones surviving X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, W.P.; Little, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Residual damage manifested as reduced cloning efficiency was observed in many of the cloned progeny of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and human carcinoma SQ-20B cells surviving X-irradiation. This stable phenotype, which we have termed delayed reproductive death, persisted for >50 generations of cell replication post-irradiation. Clones showing this phenotype were aneuploid, and formed colonies with a high proportion of giant cells. By somatic cell hybridization of CHO clones, the delayed reproductive death phenotype was found to be a dominant trait; the cloning efficiency of hybrid clones was persistently depressed, as compared with that of control hybrid cells. These results suggest that delayed reproductive death represents a specific cellular response that may persist in some of the progeny of mammalian cells for long periods after X-irradiation. (author)

  4. Optimally cloned binary coherent states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch

    2017-01-01

    their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal...

  5. Cloning-free CRISPR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbab, Mandana; Srinivasan, Sharanya; Hashimoto, Tatsunori; Geijsen, Niels; Sherwood, Richard I.

    2015-01-01

    We present self-cloning CRISPR/Cas9 (scCRISPR), a technology that allows for CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genomic mutation and site-specific knockin transgene creation within several hours by circumventing the need to clone a site-specific single-guide RNA (sgRNA) or knockin homology construct for each

  6. Cloning, killing, and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, J

    1999-01-01

    One potentially valuable use of cloning is to provide a source of tissues or organs for transplantation. The most important objection to this use of cloning is that a human clone would be the sort of entity that it would be seriously wrong to kill. I argue that entities of the sort that you and I essentially are do not begin to exist until around the seventh month of fetal gestation. Therefore to kill a clone prior to that would not be to kill someone like you or me but would be only to prevent one of us from existing. And even after one of us begins to exist, the objections to killing it remain comparatively weak until its psychological capacities reach a certain level of maturation. These claims support the permissibility of killing a clone during the early stages of its development in order to use its organs for transplantation. PMID:10226909

  7. Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer identifies EPB41L3 as a functional suppressor of epithelial ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dafou, Dimitra; Grun, Barbara; Sinclair, John

    2010-01-01

    lines. Using immunohistochemistry, 66% of 794 invasive ovarian tumors showed no EPB41L3 expression compared with only 24% of benign ovarian tumors and 0% of normal ovarian epithelial tissues. EPB41L3 was extensively methylated in ovarian cancer cell lines and primary ovarian tumors compared with normal...... (erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 3, alternative names DAL-1 and 4.1B) was a candidate ovarian cancer-suppressor gene. Immunoblot analysis showed that EPB41L3 was activated in TOV21G(+18) hybrids, expressed in normal ovarian epithelial cell lines, but was absent in 15 (78%) of 19 ovarian cancer cell...... tissues (P = .00004), suggesting this may be the mechanism of gene inactivation in ovarian cancers. Constitutive reexpression of EPB41L3 in a three-dimensional multicellular spheroid model of ovarian cancer caused significant growth suppression and induced apoptosis. Transmission and scanning electron...

  8. Automated cloning methods.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collart, F.

    2001-01-01

    Argonne has developed a series of automated protocols to generate bacterial expression clones by using a robotic system designed to be used in procedures associated with molecular biology. The system provides plate storage, temperature control from 4 to 37 C at various locations, and Biomek and Multimek pipetting stations. The automated system consists of a robot that transports sources from the active station on the automation system. Protocols for the automated generation of bacterial expression clones can be grouped into three categories (Figure 1). Fragment generation protocols are initiated on day one of the expression cloning procedure and encompass those protocols involved in generating purified coding region (PCR)

  9. Unified Approach to Universal Cloning and Phase-Covariant Cloning

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jia-Zhong; Yu, Zong-Wen; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the problem of approximate quantum cloning when the quantum state is between two latitudes on the Bloch's sphere. We present an analytical formula for the optimized 1-to-2 cloning. The formula unifies the universal quantum cloning (UQCM) and the phase covariant quantum cloning.

  10. Enzyme free cloning for high throughput gene cloning and expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, R.N.; Daniëls, M.; Kaptein, R.; Folkers, G.E.

    2006-01-01

    Structural and functional genomics initiatives significantly improved cloning methods over the past few years. Although recombinational cloning is highly efficient, its costs urged us to search for an alternative high throughput (HTP) cloning method. We implemented a modified Enzyme Free Cloning

  11. Main: Clone Detail [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Clone Detail Mapping Pseudomolecule data detail Detail information Mapping to the T...IGR japonica Pseudomolecules kome_mapping_pseudomolecule_data_detail.zip kome_mapping_pseudomolecule_data_detail ...

  12. BIOETHICS AND HUMAN CLONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors analyze the process of negotiating and beginning of the United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning as well as the paragraphs of the very Declaration. The negotiation was originally conceived as a clear bioethical debate that should have led to a general agreement to ban human cloning. However, more often it had been discussed about human rights, cultural, civil and religious differences between people and about priorities in case of eventual conflicts between different value systems. In the end, a non-binding Declaration on Human Cloning had been adopted, full of numerous compromises and ambiguous formulations, that relativized the original intention of proposer states. According to authors, it would have been better if bioethical discussion and eventual regulations on cloning mentioned in the following text had been left over to certain professional bodies, and only after the public had been fully informed about it should relevant supranational organizations have taken that into consideration.

  13. Do Managers Clone Themselves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Alma S.

    1981-01-01

    A recent questionnaire survey provides statistics on male managers' views of female managers. The author recommends that male managers break out of their cloning behavior and that the goal ought to be a plurality in management. (Author/WD)

  14. Asymmetric quantum cloning machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerf, N.J.

    1998-01-01

    A family of asymmetric cloning machines for quantum bits and N-dimensional quantum states is introduced. These machines produce two approximate copies of a single quantum state that emerge from two distinct channels. In particular, an asymmetric Pauli cloning machine is defined that makes two imperfect copies of a quantum bit, while the overall input-to-output operation for each copy is a Pauli channel. A no-cloning inequality is derived, characterizing the impossibility of copying imposed by quantum mechanics. If p and p ' are the probabilities of the depolarizing channels associated with the two outputs, the domain in (√p,√p ' )-space located inside a particular ellipse representing close-to-perfect cloning is forbidden. This ellipse tends to a circle when copying an N-dimensional state with N→∞, which has a simple semi-classical interpretation. The symmetric Pauli cloning machines are then used to provide an upper bound on the quantum capacity of the Pauli channel of probabilities p x , p y and p z . The capacity is proven to be vanishing if (√p x , √p y , √p z ) lies outside an ellipsoid whose pole coincides with the depolarizing channel that underlies the universal cloning machine. Finally, the tradeoff between the quality of the two copies is shown to result from a complementarity akin to Heisenberg uncertainty principle. (author)

  15. Cloning and characterization of DNA complementary to the canine distemper virus mRNA encoding matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenblatt, S.; Eizenberg, O.; Englund, G.; Bellini, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Double-stranded cDNA synthesized from total polyadenylate-containing mRNA, extracted from monkey kidney cells infected with canine distemper virus (CDV), has been cloned into the PstI site of Escherichia coli plasmid pBR322. Clones containing canine distemper virus DNA were identified by hybridization to a canine distemper virus-specific, 32 P-labeled cDNA. Four specific clones containing different classes of sequences have been identified. The cloned plasmids contain inserts of 800 (clone 44-80), 960 (clone 74-16), 1700 (clone 364), and 950 (clone 40-9) base pairs. The sizes of the mRNA species complementary to these inserts are 1500, 1850, 1850 and 2500 nucleotides, respectively, as determined by the Northern technique. Three of the cloned DNA fragments were further identified as the reverse transcripts of the mRNA coding for the matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein of CDV

  16. Cloning and characterization of DNA complementary to the canine distemper virus mRNA encoding matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenblatt, S.; Eizenberg, O.; Englund, G.; Bellini, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    Double-stranded cDNA synthesized from total polyadenylate-containing mRNA, extracted from monkey kidney cells infected with canine distemper virus (CDV), has been cloned into the PstI site of Escherichia coli plasmid pBR322. Clones containing canine distemper virus DNA were identified by hybridization to a canine distemper virus-specific, /sup 32/P-labeled cDNA. Four specific clones containing different classes of sequences have been identified. The cloned plasmids contain inserts of 800 (clone 44-80), 960 (clone 74-16), 1700 (clone 364), and 950 (clone 40-9) base pairs. The sizes of the mRNA species complementary to these inserts are 1500, 1850, 1850 and 2500 nucleotides, respectively, as determined by the Northern technique. Three of the cloned DNA fragments were further identified as the reverse transcripts of the mRNA coding for the matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein of CDV.

  17. Multiple factors affect pest and pathogen damage on 31 Populus clones in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Coyle; Mark D. Coleman; Jaclin A. Durant; Lee A. Newman

    2006-01-01

    Populus species and hybrids have many practical applications, but there is a paucity of data regarding selections that perform well in the southeastern US. We compared pest susceptibility of 31 Populus clones over 3 years in South Carolina, USA. Cuttings were planted in spring 2001 on two study sites. Clones planted in the...

  18. Molecular cloning and restriction analysis of EcoRI-fragments of Vicia faba rDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakura, Kimitaka; Tanifuji, Shigeyuki.

    1983-01-01

    EcoRI-fragments of Vicia faba rDNA were cloned in plasmid pBR325. Southern blot hybridization of BamHI-digests of these cloned plasmids and Vicia genomic DNA led to the determination of relative positions of BamHI sites in the rDNA and the physical map that had been tentatively made is corrected. (author)

  19. inter-fertility among female parent clones of pineapple involved in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Ivoireconsiders fruit diversification as key component in the international pineapple industry. The objective of this study was to determine the sexual compatibility of female pineapple clones recently developed in Côte d'Ivoire. Three female hybrid clones, ...

  20. Clonal diversity and clone formation in the parthenogenetic Caucasian rock Lizard Darevskia dahli [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergun, Andrey A; Martirosyan, Irena A; Semyenova, Seraphima K; Omelchenko, Andrey V; Petrosyan, Varos G; Lazebny, Oleg E; Tokarskaya, Olga N; Korchagin, Vitaly I; Ryskov, Alexey P

    2014-01-01

    The all-female Caucasian rock lizard species Darevskia dahli and other parthenogenetic species of this genus reproduce normally via true parthenogenesis. Previously, the genetic diversity of this species was analyzed using allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, and DNA fingerprint markers. In the present study, variation at three microsatellite loci was studied in 111 specimens of D. dahli from five populations from Armenia, and new information regarding clonal diversity and clone formation in D. dahli was obtained that suggests a multiple hybridization origin. All individuals but one were heterozygous at the loci studied. Based on specific allele combinations, 11 genotypes were identified among the individuals studied. Individuals with the same genotypes formed distinct clonal lineages: one major clone was represented by 72 individuals, an intermediate clone was represented by 21 individuals, and nine other clones were rare and represented by one or several individuals. A new approach based on the detection and comparison of genotype-specific markers formed by combinations of parental-specific markers was developed and used to identify at least three hybridization founder events that resulted in the initial formation of one major and two rare clones. All other clones, including the intermediate and seven rare clones, probably arose through postformation microsatellite mutations of the major clone. This approach can be used to identify hybridization founder events and to study clone formation in other unisexual taxa.

  1. Inverse fusion PCR cloning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Spiliotis

    Full Text Available Inverse fusion PCR cloning (IFPC is an easy, PCR based three-step cloning method that allows the seamless and directional insertion of PCR products into virtually all plasmids, this with a free choice of the insertion site. The PCR-derived inserts contain a vector-complementary 5'-end that allows a fusion with the vector by an overlap extension PCR, and the resulting amplified insert-vector fusions are then circularized by ligation prior transformation. A minimal amount of starting material is needed and experimental steps are reduced. Untreated circular plasmid, or alternatively bacteria containing the plasmid, can be used as templates for the insertion, and clean-up of the insert fragment is not urgently required. The whole cloning procedure can be performed within a minimal hands-on time and results in the generation of hundreds to ten-thousands of positive colonies, with a minimal background.

  2. Lovely clone of coconuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branton, R.; Blake, J.

    1983-05-01

    It has taken over 10 years research and development to clone oil palms and coconut palms successfully. Unilever has recently built a tissue culture factory in England with a potential capacity for producing half a million clonal oil palms a year for export. Research on the cloning of coconut palms is reported here. Cloned palms may increase yields from oil palms by 20 to 30 percent and yields from coconut could be as high as five-fold over unselected stock. Improved yields would not only increase the yield of oil and copra but also the harvests of husk and shell which are immense potential sources of energy; the 1978 Philippine harvest of over 12 million nuts is equivalent in terms of energy to 3.8 billion litres of petrol (31 x 10/sup 12/ kcal).

  3. Construction of recombinant DNA clone for bovine viral diarrhea virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, S.G.; Cho, H.J.; Masri, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Molecular cloning was carried out on the Danish strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) to construct strategy for the diagnostic tools and effective vaccine of BVD afterwards. A recombinant DNA clone (No. 29) was established successfully from cDNA for viral RNA tailed with adenine homopolymer at 3 -end. 32 P-labeled DNA probes of 300~1, 800bp fragments, originating from the clone 29, directed specific DNA-RNA hybridization results with BVDV RNA. Recombinant DNA of the clone 29 was about 5,200bp representing 41.6% of the full length of Danish strain's RNA, and restriction sites were recognized for EooR I, Sst I, Hind III and Pst I restriction enzymes in the DNA fragment

  4. Melhoramento da cana-de-açúcar: IX: evaluation of clones obtained in 1980 and 1981 hybridizations, selected in Ribeirão Preto region, state of São Paulo, Brazil Sugarcane breeding: IX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Guimarães de Andrade Landell

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Testaram-se doze clones de cana-de-açúcar, obtidos de hibridações realizadas em Camamu (BA, em 1980 e 1981, em três ensaios na região de Ribeirão Preto (SP. Além do delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições, efetuou-se a análise estatística com a média das três colheitas (1.°, 2.° e 3.° cortes, tomando as variedades SP70-1143, NA56-79 e IAC64-257 como testemunhas-padrão. Entre os caracteres agroindustriais avaliados estão: a produtividade de cana e açúcar, pol % cana, fibra %, intensidade de florescimento, índice de infestação de broca-do-colmo (Diatraea saccharalis e a reação à ferrugem (Puccinia melanocephala. O melhor clone foi o IAC80-2094, indicado para início de safra, com boa produção e bom teor de fibra, mas de florescimento intenso e suscetibilidade à ferrugem. O IAC81-2004 também apresentou bons resultados, caracterizando-se como precoce, com bom teor de fibra e boa resistência à broca-do-colmo. Em condições naturais de campo, porém, sua desvantagem é a grande incidência de "chicotes" de carvão. Apesar de ambos os clones apresentarem características agroindustriais vantajosas, desaconselha-se que sejam incluídos no estudo de manejo parietal para outras regiões paulistas, em função dos problemas fitossanitários citados.A number of sugarcane clones obtained in crosses made in 1980 and 1981, was tested in three locations with Oxisol soils at Ribeirão Preto region. The commercial varieties SP70-1143, NA56-79 and IAC64-257 were used as controls in trials and evaluated for agricultural and industrial traits on the average of three harvests. The best clone in the experiments was IAC80-2094, which has been indicated for early harvest period with good yield and fiber content, but with heavy tasseling and susceptibility to rust. Other early maturing clone was IAC81-2004, which showes good fiber content and stem borer tolerance, however it does show, in natural conditions in the field

  5. Enhancing corrosion resistance of reinforced concrete structures with hybrid fiber reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blunt, J.; Jen, G.; Ostertag, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Reinforced concrete beams were subjected to cyclic flexural loading. • Hybrid fiber reinforced composites were effective in reducing corrosion rates. • Crack resistance due to fibers increased corrosion resistance of steel rebar. • Galvanic corrosion measurements underestimated corrosion rates. • Polarization resistance measurements predicted mass loss more accurately. - Abstract: Service loads well below the yield strength of steel reinforcing bars lead to cracking of reinforced concrete. This paper investigates whether the crack resistance of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HyFRC) reduces the corrosion rate of steel reinforcing bars in concrete after cyclic flexural loading. The reinforcing bars were extracted to examine their surface for corrosion and compare microcell and macrocell corrosion mass loss estimates against direct gravimetric measurements. A delay in corrosion initiation and lower active corrosion rates were observed in the HyFRC beam specimens when compared to reinforced specimens containing plain concrete matrices cycled at the same flexural load

  6. A Seminar on Human Cloning: Cloning in Reproductive Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Illmensee, Karl

    2001-01-01

    This review article summarizes the historical development of mammalian cloning, presents current advances and presumed risk factors in the field of reproductive cloning, discusses possible clinical applications of therapeutic and diagnostic cloning and outlines prospective commercial trends in pharmacytical cloning. Predictable progress in biotechnology and stem cell engineering should prove to be advantageous for patients' health and for novel benefits in reproductive and regenerative medicine.

  7. Myths about Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aging normally. In fact, the first cattle clones ever produced are alive, healthy, and are 10 years old as of January 2008. Back to the ... until we finish assessing their safety. To the best of our knowledge, they have done so. After years of detailed study and analysis, FDA has concluded ...

  8. Clip, connect, clone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujima, Jun; Lunzer, Aran; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    using three mechanisms: clipping of input and result elements from existing applications to form cells on a spreadsheet; connecting these cells using formulas, thus enabling result transfer between applications; and cloning cells so that multiple requests can be handled side by side. We demonstrate...

  9. [Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Ming; Lei, An-Min; Hua, Jin-Lian; Dou, Zhong-Ying

    2005-03-01

    Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning have widespread and attractive prospects in animal agriculture and biomedical applications. We reviewed that the quality of oocytes and nuclear reprogramming of somatic donor cells were the main reasons of the common abnormalities in cloned animals and the low efficiency of cloning and showed the problems and outlets in therapeutic cloning, such as some basic problems in nuclear transfer affected clinical applications of therapeutic cloning. Study on isolation and culture of nuclear transfer embryonic stem (ntES) cells and specific differentiation of ntES cells into important functional cells should be emphasized and could enhance the efficiency. Adult stem cells could help to cure some great diseases, but could not replace therapeutic cloning. Ethics also impeded the development of therapeutic cloning. It is necessary to improve many techniques and reinforce the research of some basic theories, then somatic nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning may apply to agriculture reproduction and benefit to human life better.

  10. The First Human Cloned Embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibelli, Jose B.; Lanza, Robert P.; West, Michael D.; Ezzell, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Describes a process known as parthenogenesis which produces cloned, early-stage embryos and human embryos generated only from eggs. Speculates that this technology puts therapeutic cloning within reach. (DDR)

  11. Human cloning. Fact or fiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abushama, Mandy D.; Ahmed, Badreldeen I.

    2003-01-01

    Cloning is the production of one or more individual plants or animals that are genetically identical to other plant, animal or human. Scientists even demonstrated that they were able to clone frog tadpoles from frog embryonic cells using nuclear transfer.Many animals have been cloned from adult cells using nuclear transfer. Somatic cell nuclear transfer which refers to the transfer of the nucleous from a somatic cell to an egg cell. Article further deals with benefits and misuses of human cloning

  12. Three concepts of cloning in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ke-Hui

    2005-07-01

    Human cloning, organ cloning and tissue cloning are various types of cloning that occur at different levels with different methodologies. According to three standards of terminology for an embryo (fertilization through germ cells, development in the uterus and having the potential to produce a human life), tissue cloning and type I organ cloning will not produce an embryo. In contrast, human cloning and type II organ cloning will produce an embryo. Thus, only non-germinal tissue cloning and type I organ cloning are beyond the ethical question and will not change human beings as a species. Using cloned tissues to make new tissues or organs is promising for the future of medicine.

  13. Recombinational Cloning Using Gateway and In-Fusion Cloning Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throop, Andrea L.; LaBaer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive study of protein structure and function, or proteomics, depends on the obtainability of full-length cDNAs in species-specific expression vectors and subsequent functional analysis of the expressed protein. Recombinational cloning is a universal cloning technique based on site-specific recombination that is independent of the insert DNA sequence of interest, which differentiates this method from the classical restriction enzyme-based cloning methods. Recombinational cloning enables rapid and efficient parallel transfer of DNA inserts into multiple expression systems. This unit summarizes strategies for generating expression-ready clones using the most popular recombinational cloning technologies, including the commercially available Gateway® (Life Technologies) and In-Fusion® (Clontech) cloning technologies. PMID:25827088

  14. Evaluation of a pooled strategy for high-throughput sequencing of cosmid clones from metagenomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kathy N; Hall, Michael W; Engel, Katja; Vey, Gregory; Cheng, Jiujun; Neufeld, Josh D; Charles, Trevor C

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing methods have been instrumental in the growing field of metagenomics, with technological improvements enabling greater throughput at decreased costs. Nonetheless, the economy of high-throughput sequencing cannot be fully leveraged in the subdiscipline of functional metagenomics. In this area of research, environmental DNA is typically cloned to generate large-insert libraries from which individual clones are isolated, based on specific activities of interest. Sequence data are required for complete characterization of such clones, but the sequencing of a large set of clones requires individual barcode-based sample preparation; this can become costly, as the cost of clone barcoding scales linearly with the number of clones processed, and thus sequencing a large number of metagenomic clones often remains cost-prohibitive. We investigated a hybrid Sanger/Illumina pooled sequencing strategy that omits barcoding altogether, and we evaluated this strategy by comparing the pooled sequencing results to reference sequence data obtained from traditional barcode-based sequencing of the same set of clones. Using identity and coverage metrics in our evaluation, we show that pooled sequencing can generate high-quality sequence data, without producing problematic chimeras. Though caveats of a pooled strategy exist and further optimization of the method is required to improve recovery of complete clone sequences and to avoid circumstances that generate unrecoverable clone sequences, our results demonstrate that pooled sequencing represents an effective and low-cost alternative for sequencing large sets of metagenomic clones.

  15. Cloning of the human androgen receptor cDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govindan, M.V.; Burelle, M.; Cantin, C.; Kabrie, C.; Labrie, F.; Lachance, Y.; Leblanc, G.; Lefebvre, C.; Patel, P.; Simard, J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors discuss how in order to define the functional domains of the human androgen receptor, complementary DNA (cDNA) clones encoding the human androgen receptor (hAR) have been isolated from a human testis λgtll cDNA library using synthetic oligonnucleotide probes, homologous to segments of the human glucocorticoid, estradiol and progesterone receptors. The cDNA clones corresponding to the human glucocorticoid, estradiol and progesterone receptors were eliminated after cross-hybridization with their respective cDNA probes and/or after restriction mapping of the cDNA clones. The remaining cDNA clones were classified into different groups after analysis by restriction digestion and cross-hybridization. Two of the largest cDNA clones from each group were inserted into an expression vector in both orientations. The linearized plasmids were used as templates in in vitro transcription with T7 RNA polymerase. Subsequent in vitro translation of the purified transcripts in rabbit reticulocyte lysate followed by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) permitted the characterization of the encoded polyeptides. The expressed proteins larger than 30,000 Da were analyzed for their ability to bind tritium-labelled dihydrotestosterone ([ 3 H] DHT) with high affinity and specificity

  16. Cloning an expressed gene shared by the human sex chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darling, S.M.; Banting, G.S.; Pym, B.; Wolfe, J.; Goodfellow, P.N.

    1986-01-01

    The existence of genes shared by mammalian sex chromosomes has been predicted on both evolutionary and functional grounds. However, the only experimental evidence for such genes in humans is the cell-surface antigen encoded by loci on the X and Y chromosomes (MIC2X and MIC2Y, respectively), which is recognized by the monoclonal antibody 12E7. Using the bacteriophage λgt11 expression system in Escherichia coli and immunoscreening techniques, the authors have isolated a cDNA clone whose primary product is recognized by 12E7. Southern blot analysis using somatic cell hybrids containing only the human X or Y chromosomes shows that the sequences reacting with the cDNA clone are localized to the sex chromosomes. In addition, the clone hybridizes to DNAs isolated from mouse cells that have been transfected with human DNA and selected for 12E7 expression on the fluorescence-activated cell sorter. The authors conclude that the cDNA clone encodes the 12E7 antigen, which is the primary product of the MIC2 loci. The clone was used to explore sequence homology between MIC2X and MIC2Y; these loci are closely related, if not identical

  17. Optimally cloned binary coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch.; Andersen, U. L.

    2017-10-01

    Binary coherent state alphabets can be represented in a two-dimensional Hilbert space. We capitalize this formal connection between the otherwise distinct domains of qubits and continuous variable states to map binary phase-shift keyed coherent states onto the Bloch sphere and to derive their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal cloner.

  18. [Media, cloning, and bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, S I; Diniz, D

    2000-01-01

    This article was based on an analysis of three hundred articles from mainstream Brazilian periodicals over a period of eighteen months, beginning with the announcement of the Dolly case in February 1997. There were two main objectives: to outline the moral constants in the press associated with the possibility of cloning human beings and to identify some of the moral assumptions concerning scientific research with non-human animals that were published carelessly by the media. The authors conclude that there was a haphazard spread of fear concerning the cloning of human beings rather than an ethical debate on the issue, and that there is a serious gap between bioethical reflections and the Brazilian media.

  19. Probabilistic cloning of equidistant states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, O.; Roa, Luis; Delgado, A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the probabilistic cloning of equidistant states. These states are such that the inner product between them is a complex constant or its conjugate. Thereby, it is possible to study their cloning in a simple way. In particular, we are interested in the behavior of the cloning probability as a function of the phase of the overlap among the involved states. We show that for certain families of equidistant states Duan and Guo's cloning machine leads to cloning probabilities lower than the optimal unambiguous discrimination probability of equidistant states. We propose an alternative cloning machine whose cloning probability is higher than or equal to the optimal unambiguous discrimination probability for any family of equidistant states. Both machines achieve the same probability for equidistant states whose inner product is a positive real number.

  20. Biodiversity versus cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo T, Jose Hernan

    1998-01-01

    The announcement has been made on the cloning of mice in these days and he doesn't stop to miss, because the world lives a stage where conscience of the protection is creating that should be given to the biodiversity. It is known that alone we won't subsist and the protection of the means and all that contains that environment is of vital importance for the man. But it is also known that the vegetables and animal transgenic that they come to multiply the species have appeared that we prepare. The transgenic has been altered genetically, for substitution of one or more genes of other species, inclusive human genes. This represents an improvement compared with the investigations that gave origin to the cloning animal. But it is necessary to notice that to it you arrived through the cloning. This year 28 million hectares have been sowed in cultivations of transgenic seeds and there is around 700 bovine transgenic whose milk contains a necessary protein in the treatment of the man's illnesses

  1. Molecular cloning and expression of Corynebacterium glutamicum genes for amino acid synthesis in Escherichia coli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beskrovnaya, O.Yu.; Fonshtein, M.Yu.; Kolibaba, L.G.; Yankovskii, N.K.; Debabov, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    Molecular cloning of Corynebacterium glutamicum genes for threonine and lysine synthesis has been done in Escherichia coli cells. The clonal library of EcoRI fragments of chromosomal DNA of C. glutamicum was constructed on the plasmid vector λpSL5. The genes for threonine and lysine synthesis were identified by complementation of E. coli mutations in thrB and lysA genes, respectively. Recombinant plasmids, isolated from independent ThrB + clone have a common 4.1-kb long EcoRI DNA fragment. Hybrid plasmids isolated from LysA + transductants of E. coli have common 2.2 and 3.3 kb long EcoRI fragments of C. glutamicum DNA. The hybrid plasmids consistently transduced the markers thrB + and lysA + . The Southern hybridization analysis showed that the cloned DNA fragments hybridized with the fragments of identical length in C. glutamicum chromosomes

  2. Ethical issues in animal cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiester, Autumn

    2005-01-01

    The issue of human reproductive cloning has recently received a great deal attention in public discourse. Bioethicists, policy makers, and the media have been quick to identify the key ethical issues involved in human reproductive cloning and to argue, almost unanimously, for an international ban on such attempts. Meanwhile, scientists have proceeded with extensive research agendas in the cloning of animals. Despite this research, there has been little public discussion of the ethical issues raised by animal cloning projects. Polling data show that the public is decidedly against the cloning of animals. To understand the public's reaction and fill the void of reasoned debate about the issue, we need to review the possible objections to animal cloning and assess the merits of the anti-animal cloning stance. Some objections to animal cloning (e.g., the impact of cloning on the population of unwanted animals) can be easily addressed, while others (e.g., the health of cloned animals) require more serious attention by the public and policy makers.

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of human papilloma virus DNA derived from a laryngeal papilloma.

    OpenAIRE

    Gissmann, L; Diehl, V; Schultz-Coulon, H J; zur Hausen, H

    1982-01-01

    Papilloma virus DNA from a laryngeal papilloma was cloned in phage lambda L 47 and characterized after cleavage with different restriction enzymes. Hybridization with the DNAs of human papilloma virus types 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8 showed no homology under stringent hybridization conditions. Human papilloma virus type 6 DNA, however, was partially identical to laryngeal papilloma virus DNA; different restriction enzyme fragments hybridizing with the other DNA were identified on each genome. The d...

  4. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: molecular cloning of genomic RNA and its diagnostic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, K.V.

    1987-01-01

    Molecular cloning of a field isolate of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain 72 RNA was done in this study. The sensitivity and specificity of cloned cDNA sequences in hybridization assays with various BVDV strains were determined. cDNA was synthesized from polyadenylated BVDV RNA templates with oligo-dT primers, reverse transcriptase, and DNA polymerase I. The newly synthesized double-stranded BVDV cDNA was C-tailed with terminal deoxytransferase and annealed into G-tailed, Pst-1-cut pUC9 plasmid. Escherichia coli was transformed with the recombinant plasmids and a library of approximately 200 BVDV specific cDNA clones varying in length from 0.5 to 2.6 kilobases were isolated. The sensitivity and specificity of hybridization between the labelled cDNA and BVDV target sequences were determined. Cloned BVDV sequences were isolated from pUC9 plasmid DNA and labelled with 32 P by nick translation. The detection limit by dot blot hybridization assay was 20 pg of purified genomic BVDV RNA. cDNA hybridization probes were specific for all strains of BVDV tested, regardless of whether they were noncytopathic and cytopathic, but did not hybridize with heterologous bovine viruses tested. Probes did not hybridize with uninfected cell culture or cellular RNA. Hybridization probes were at least as sensitive as infectivity assays in detecting homologous virus

  5. Local cloning of CAT states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, Ramij

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter we analyze the (im)possibility of the exact cloning of orthogonal three-qubit CAT states under local operation and classical communication (LOCC) with the help of a restricted entangled state. We also classify the three-qubit CAT states that can (not) be cloned under LOCC restrictions and extend the results to the n-qubit case. -- Highlights: → We analyze the (im)possibility of exact cloning of orthogonal CAT states under LOCC. → We also classify the set of CAT states that can(not) be cloned by LOCC. → No set of orthogonal CAT states can be cloned by LOCC with help of similar CAT state. → Any two orthogonal n-qubit GHZ-states can be cloned by LOCC with help of a GHZ state.

  6. Lessons learned from cloning dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M J; Oh, H J; Kim, G A; Park, J E; Park, E J; Jang, G; Ra, J C; Kang, S K; Lee, B C

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this article is to review dog cloning research and to suggest its applications based on a discussion about the normality of cloned dogs. Somatic cell nuclear transfer was successfully used for production of viable cloned puppies despite limited understanding of in vitro dog embryo production. Cloned dogs have similar growth characteristics to those born from natural fertilization, with no evidence of serious adverse effects. The offspring of cloned dogs also have similar growth performance and health to those of naturally bred puppies. Therefore, cloning in domestic dogs can be applied as an assisted reproductive technique to conserve endangered species, to treat sterile canids or aged dogs, to improve reproductive performance of valuable individuals and to generate disease model animals. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Therapeutic cloning: The ethical limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittaker, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    A brief outline of stem cells, stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning is given. The position of therapeutic cloning with regard to other embryonic manipulations - IVF-based reproduction, embryonic stem formation from IVF embryos and reproductive cloning - is indicated. The main ethically challenging stages in therapeutic cloning are considered to be the nuclear transfer process including the source of eggs for this and the destruction of an embryo to provide stem cells for therapeutic use. The extremely polarised nature of the debate regarding the status of an early human embryo is noted, and some potential alternative strategies for preparing immunocompatible pluripotent stem cells are indicated

  8. Human cloning and child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, J; Harris, J

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an objection to human cloning which appeals to the welfare of the child. This objection varies according to the sort of harm it is expected the clone will suffer. The three formulations of it that we will consider are: 1. Clones will be harmed by the fearful or prejudicial attitudes people may have about or towards them (H1); 2. Clones will be harmed by the demands and expectations of parents or genotype donors (H2); 3. Clones will be harmed by their own awareness of their origins, for example the knowledge that the genetic donor is a stranger (H3). We will show why these three versions of the child welfare objection do not necessarily supply compelling reasons to ban human reproductive cloning. The claim that we will develop and defend in the course of our discussion is that even if it is the case that a cloned child will suffer harms of the type H1-H3, it is none the less permissible to conceive by cloning so long as these cloning-induced welfare deficits are not such as to blight the existence of the resultant child, whoever this may be. PMID:10226914

  9. Molecular cloning of lupin leghemoglobin cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konieczny, A; Jensen, E O; Marcker, K A

    1987-01-01

    Poly(A)+ RNA isolated from root nodules of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus, var. Ventus) has been used as a template for the construction of a cDNA library. The ds cDNA was synthesized and inserted into the Hind III site of plasmid pBR 322 using synthetic Hind III linkers. Clones containing sequences...... specific for nodules were selected by differential colony hybridization using 32P-labeled cDNA synthesized either from nodule poly(A)+ RNA or from poly(A)+ RNA of uninfected root as probes. Among the recombinant plasmids, the cDNA gene for leghemoglobin was identified. The protein structure derived from...... its nucleotide sequence was consistent with known amino acid sequence of lupin Lb II. The cloned lupin Lb cDNA hybridized to poly(A)+ RNA from nodules only, which is in accordance with the general concept, that leghemoglobin is expressed exclusively in nodules. Udgivelsesdato: 1987-null...

  10. Cloning the enterotoxin gene from Clostridium perfringens type A

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanejko, Lesley Ann.

    1991-01-01

    A C. perfringens type A genomic library was constructed in E. coli by banking overlapping 6-10 kbp Hind III fragments of chromosomal DNA from the enterotoxin (CPE) positive strain NCTC 8239 into the pUC derived vector pHG165. The library was screened by colony hybridization with a degenerate 26 bp oligonucleotide probe, derived from the amino acid sequence CPE9_17A. complex mixture of plasmid DNA was isolated from the only hybridization positive clone. A second round of screening picked out a...

  11. Genetic itemization of exotic sugarcane clones of the basis of quantitative and qualitative parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seema, N.; Khan, M. T.; Khan, I. A.; Yasmeen, S.

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane varietal development program in Pakistan primarily depends on evaluation of imported genotypes because of the unfavorable climatic conditions for sugarcane flowering and hybridization in the country. Performance of 41 exotic sugarcane clones was assessed in this study on the basis of seven quantitative (plant height, number of tillers, internode length, number of internode, cane girth, cane yield, and weight per stool) and six qualitative (sucrose %, brix %, CCS %, fiber %, sugar recovery % and sugar yield) attributes. Sugarcane clones comprised of fifteen genotypes from Canal Point (USA), eight from Homma (USA), and eighteen from Brazil. The clones exhibited statistically significant differences for tillers per plant, weight per stool, plant height, cane yield, brix%, sucrose%, fiber%, sugar recovery and sugar yield. Highest cane yield of 51.66 t/ha was observed for Canal Point clone CPNIA-240 while the lowest yield of 26.66 t/ha was recorded in Homma clone HoNIA-795. The highest sugar recovery (10.83 and 10.81) was exhibited by the clones SPNIA-396 and SPNIA-8 whereas the lowest (4.00) was observed in clone SPNIA-05. Moreover, maximum sugar yield was recorded in clone SPNIA-8 (5.37 tha-1) and minimum was observed in clone SPNIA-05 (0.91). Ward's linkage cluster analysis of the exotic clones placed the genotypes into six major groups in dendrogram. Genotypes appeared in the clusters irrespective of their geographical location. Cluster II, IV and V showed excellent qualitative, combination of quantitative and qualitative, and quantitative characters respectively. Clones from different clusters demonstrate genetic variations and thus can be subjected to selection and hybridization for further improvement. The accessions demonstrating excellent cane and sugar yield can serve as potential candidates for varietal development program in Pakistan. (author)

  12. Construction of gateway-compatible yeast two-hybrid vectors for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yeast two-hybrid system combined with the gateway technology will greatly facilitate the cloning of interested DNA fragment into yeast two-hybrid vectors and therefore increase the efficiency of yeast two-hybrid analysis. In this study, we constructed a pair of Gateway-compatible yeast two-hybrid vectors pBTM116GW and ...

  13. [The discrete horror of cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibourg, Ricardo A

    2009-01-01

    The author raises the topic of cloning after the decision of the Argentine government, which concerned for the "dignity of the human person", passed a decree of need and urgency, No. 200/97 (Annex), prohibiting cloning experiments with human beings. Therefore, considering that the topic is so terribly urgent and necessary, the author feels it is timely to consider it.

  14. [Scientific ethics of human cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Carlos Y

    2005-01-01

    True cloning is fission, budding or other types of asexual reproduction. In humans it occurs in monozygote twinning. This type of cloning is ethically and religiously good. Human cloning can be performed by twinning (TWClo) or nuclear transfer (NTClo). Both methods need a zygote or a nuclear transferred cell, obtained in vitro (IVTec). They are under the IVTec ethics. IVTecs use humans (zygotes, embryos) as drugs or things; increase the risk of malformations; increase development and size of abnormalities and may cause long-term changes. Cloning for preserving extinct (or almost extinct) animals or humans when sexual reproduction is not possible is ethically valid. The previous selection of a phenotype in human cloning violates some ethical principles. NTClo for reproductive or therapeutic purposes is dangerous since it increases the risk for nucleotide or chromosome mutations, de-programming or re-programming errors, aging or malignancy of the embryo cells thus obtained.

  15. Animal cloning: problems and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, D N

    2005-04-01

    An efficient animal cloning technology would provide many new opportunities for livestock agriculture, human medicine, and animal conservation. Nuclear cloning involves the production of animals that are genetically identical to the donor cells used in a technique known as nuclear transfer (NT). However, at present it is an inefficient process: in cattle, only around 6% of the embryos transferred to the reproductive tracts of recipient cows result in healthy, longterm surviving clones. Of concern are the high losses throughout gestation, during birth and in the post-natal period through to adulthood. Many of the pregnancy losses relate to failure of the placenta to develop and function correctly. Placental dysfunction may also have an adverse influence on postnatal health. These anomalies are probably due to incorrect epigenetic reprogramming of the donor genome following NT, leading to inappropriate patterns of gene expression during the development of clones. Whilst some physiological tests on surviving clones suggest normality, other reports indicate a variety of post-natal clone-associated abnormalities. This variability in outcome may reflect species-specific and/or cloning methodological differences. Importantly, to date it appears that these clone-associated phenotypes are not transmitted to offspring following sexual reproduction. This indicates that they represent epigenetic errors, rather than genetic errors, which are corrected during gametogenesis. Whilst this needs confirmation at the molecular level, it provides initial confidence in the first application of NT in agriculture, namely, the production of small numbers of cloned sires from genetically elite bulls, for natural mating, to effectively disseminate genetic gain. In addition to the animal welfare concerns with the technology, the underlying health of the animals and the consequential effect on food safety are critical aspects that require investigation to gain regulatory and consumer

  16. Cloning of a Gene Whose Expression is Increased in Scrapie and in Senile Plaques in Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietgrefe, S.; Zupancic, M.; Haase, A.; Chesebro, B.; Race, R.; Frey, W.; Rustan, T.; Friedman, R. L.

    1985-12-01

    A complementary DNA library was constructed from messenger RNA's extracted from the brains of mice infected with the scrapie agent. The library was differentially screened with the objectives of finding clones that might be used as markers of infection and finding clones of genes whose increased expression might be correlated with the pathological changes common to scrapie and Alzheimer's disease. A gene was identified whose expression is increased in scrapie. The complementary DNA corresponding to this gene hybridized preferentially and focally to cells in the brains of scrapie-infected animals. The cloned DNA also hybridized to the neuritic plaques found with increased frequency in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Human cloning: can it be made safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhind, Susan M; Taylor, Jane E; De Sousa, Paul A; King, Tim J; McGarry, Michelle; Wilmut, Ian

    2003-11-01

    There are continued claims of attempts to clone humans using nuclear transfer, despite the serious problems that have been encountered in cloning other mammals. It is known that epigenetic and genetic mechanisms are involved in clone failure, but we still do not know exactly how. Human reproductive cloning is unethical, but the production of cells from cloned embryos could offer many potential benefits. So, can human cloning be made safe?

  18. Wildlife conservation and reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, William V; Pickard, Amanda R; Prather, Randall S

    2004-03-01

    Reproductive cloning, or the production of offspring by nuclear transfer, is often regarded as having potential for conserving endangered species of wildlife. Currently, however, low success rates for reproductive cloning limit the practical application of this technique to experimental use and proof of principle investigations. In this review, we consider how cloning may contribute to wildlife conservation strategies. The cloning of endangered mammals presents practical problems, many of which stem from the paucity of knowledge about their basic reproductive biology. However, situations may arise where resources could be targeted at recovering lost or under-represented genetic lines; these could then contribute to the future fitness of the population. Approaches of this type would be preferable to the indiscriminate generation of large numbers of identical individuals. Applying cloning technology to non-mammalian vertebrates may be more practical than attempting to use conventional reproductive technologies. As the scientific background to cloning technology was pioneered using amphibians, it may be possible to breed imminently threatened amphibians, or even restore extinct amphibian species, by the use of cloning. In this respect species with external embryonic development may have an advantage over mammals as developmental abnormalities associated with inappropriate embryonic reprogramming would not be relevant.

  19. Therapeutic cloning in the mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombaerts, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear transfer technology can be applied to produce autologous differentiated cells for therapeutic purposes, a concept termed therapeutic cloning. Countless articles have been published on the ethics and politics of human therapeutic cloning, reflecting the high expectations from this new opportunity for rejuvenation of the aging or diseased body. Yet the research literature on therapeutic cloning, strictly speaking, is comprised of only four articles, all in the mouse. The efficiency of derivation of embryonic stem cell lines via nuclear transfer is remarkably consistent among these reports. However, the efficiency is so low that, in its present form, the concept is unlikely to become widespread in clinical practice. PMID:12949262

  20. Human therapeutic cloning (NTSC): applying research from mammalian reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Andrew J; Wood, Samuel H; Trounson, Alan O

    2006-01-01

    Human therapeutic cloning or nuclear transfer stem cells (NTSC) to produce patient-specific stem cells, holds considerable promise in the field of regenerative medicine. The recent withdrawal of the only scientific publications claiming the successful generation of NTSC lines afford an opportunity to review the available research in mammalian reproductive somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) with the goal of progressing human NTSC. The process of SCNT is prone to epigenetic abnormalities that contribute to very low success rates. Although there are high mortality rates in some species of cloned animals, most surviving clones have been shown to have normal phenotypic and physiological characteristics and to produce healthy offspring. This technology has been applied to an increasing number of mammals for utility in research, agriculture, conservation, and biomedicine. In contrast, attempts at SCNT to produce human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been disappointing. Only one group has published reliable evidence of success in deriving a cloned human blastocyst, using an undifferentiated hESC donor cell, and it failed to develop into a hESC line. When optimal conditions are present, it appears that in vitro development of cloned and parthenogenetic embryos, both of which may be utilized to produce hESCs, may be similar to in vitro fertilized embryos. The derivation of ESC lines from cloned embryos is substantially more efficient than the production of viable offspring. This review summarizes developments in mammalian reproductive cloning, cell-to-cell fusion alternatives, and strategies for oocyte procurement that may provide important clues facilitating progress in human therapeutic cloning leading to the successful application of cell-based therapies utilizing autologous hESC lines.

  1. Cloning of a quantum measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Sedlak, Michal

    2011-01-01

    We analyze quantum algorithms for cloning of a quantum measurement. Our aim is to mimic two uses of a device performing an unknown von Neumann measurement with a single use of the device. When the unknown device has to be used before the bipartite state to be measured is available we talk about 1→2 learning of the measurement, otherwise the task is called 1→2 cloning of a measurement. We perform the optimization for both learning and cloning for arbitrary dimension d of the Hilbert space. For 1→2 cloning we also propose a simple quantum network that achieves the optimal fidelity. The optimal fidelity for 1→2 learning just slightly outperforms the estimate and prepare strategy in which one first estimates the unknown measurement and depending on the result suitably prepares the duplicate.

  2. Human Cloning: Let's Discuss It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Loretta; Stavroulakis, Anthea M.; Ortiz, Mary T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes experiences with holding discussions on cloning at a variety of levels in undergraduate biology courses. Discusses teaching methods used and student reactions to the discussions. Contains 12 references. (WRM)

  3. Human cloning and 'posthuman' society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Russell

    2005-01-01

    Since early 1997, when the creation of Dolly the sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer was announced in Nature, numerous government reports, essays, articles and books have considered the ethical problems and policy issues surrounding human reproductive cloning. In this article, I consider what response a modern liberal society should give to the prospect of human cloning, if it became safe and practical. Some opponents of human cloning have argued that permitting it would place us on a slippery slope to a repugnant future society, comparable to that portrayed in Aldous Huxley's novel, Brave New World. I conclude that, leaving aside concerns about safety, none of the psychological or social considerations discussed in this article provides an adequate policy justification for invoking the state's coercive powers to prevent human cloning.

  4. Cloning of a quantum measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisio, Alessandro; D' Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Sedlak, Michal [QUIT Group, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' A. Volta' ' and INFN, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); QUIT Group, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' A. Volta' ' via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy) and Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, SK-845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2011-10-15

    We analyze quantum algorithms for cloning of a quantum measurement. Our aim is to mimic two uses of a device performing an unknown von Neumann measurement with a single use of the device. When the unknown device has to be used before the bipartite state to be measured is available we talk about 1{yields}2 learning of the measurement, otherwise the task is called 1{yields}2 cloning of a measurement. We perform the optimization for both learning and cloning for arbitrary dimension d of the Hilbert space. For 1{yields}2 cloning we also propose a simple quantum network that achieves the optimal fidelity. The optimal fidelity for 1{yields}2 learning just slightly outperforms the estimate and prepare strategy in which one first estimates the unknown measurement and depending on the result suitably prepares the duplicate.

  5. A Clone of Your Own.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau, Kirsten

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity used at the Washington Park Arboretum that helps students understand cloning through plant propagation. Students also learn how to make a pot from recycled newspapers and how to make soil that is appropriate for the plants. (DDR)

  6. Animal Cloning and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Animal Cloning and Food Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... safe to eat as food from conventionally bred animals. This conclusion stems from an extensive study of ...

  7. Islamic perspectives on human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mahmoud

    2007-01-01

    The present paper seeks to assess various views from Islamic jurists relating to human cloning, which is one of the controversial topics in the recent past. Taking Islamic jurisprudence principles, such as the rule of necessity for self preservation and respect for human beings, the rule of la darar wa la dirar ('the necessity to refrain from causing harm to oneself and others') and the rule of usr wa haraj, one may indicate that if human cloning could not be prohibited, as such, it could still be opposed because it gives way to various harmful consequences, which include family disorder, chaos in the clone's family relationships, physical and mental diseases for clones and suffering of egg donors and surrogate mothers. However with due attention to the fact that the reasons behind the prohibition of abortion only restrict the destruction of human embryos in their post-implantation stages, human cloning for biomedical research and exploitation of stem cells from cloned embryos at the blastocyst stage for therapeutic purposes would be acceptable.

  8. Artificial cloning of domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Carol L

    2015-07-21

    Domestic animals can be cloned using techniques such as embryo splitting and nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical individuals. Although embryo splitting is limited to the production of only a few identical individuals, nuclear transfer of donor nuclei into recipient oocytes, whose own nuclear DNA has been removed, can result in large numbers of identical individuals. Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike their genetic source, these clones are fertile. In reality, due to low efficiencies and the high costs of cloning domestic species, only a limited number of identical individuals are generally produced, and these clones are primarily used as breed stock. In addition to providing a means of rescuing and propagating valuable genetics, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research has contributed knowledge that has led to the direct reprogramming of cells (e.g., to induce pluripotent stem cells) and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation during embryonic development. In this review, I provide a broad overview of the historical development of cloning in domestic animals, of its application to the propagation of livestock and transgenic animal production, and of its scientific promise for advancing basic research.

  9. Quantum cloning machines for equatorial qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Heng; Matsumoto, Keiji; Wang Xiangbin; Wadati, Miki

    2002-01-01

    Quantum cloning machines for equatorial qubits are studied. For the case of a one to two phase-covariant quantum cloning machine, we present the networks consisting of quantum gates to realize the quantum cloning transformations. The copied equatorial qubits are shown to be separable by using Peres-Horodecki criterion. The optimal one to M phase-covariant quantum cloning transformations are given

  10. Structured Review of Code Clone Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, W.T.B.; Ponisio, Laura; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of a structured review of code clone literature. The aim of the review is to assemble a conceptual model of clone-related concepts which helps us to reason about clones. This conceptual model unifies clone concepts from a wide range of literature, so that findings

  11. Methylotroph cloning vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.S.; Allen, L.N.

    1989-04-25

    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host and in a C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host to the C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C[sub 1]-utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C[sub 1]-utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C[sub 1]-utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C[sub 1]-utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C[sub 1] gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields. 3 figs.

  12. Dynamic formation of asexual diploid and polyploid lineages: multilocus analysis of Cobitis reveals the mechanisms maintaining the diversity of clones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Janko

    Full Text Available Given the hybrid genomic constitutions and increased ploidy of many asexual animals, the identification of processes governing the origin and maintenance of clonal diversity provides useful information about the evolutionary consequences of interspecific hybridization, asexuality and polyploidy. In order to understand the processes driving observed diversity of biotypes and clones in the Cobitis taenia hybrid complex, we performed fine-scale genetic analysis of Central European hybrid zone between two sexual species using microsatellite genotyping and mtDNA sequencing. We found that the hybrid zone is populated by an assemblage of clonally (gynogenetically reproducing di-, tri- and tetraploid hybrid lineages and that successful clones, which are able of spatial expansion, recruit from two ploidy levels, i.e. diploid and triploid. We further compared the distribution of observed estimates of clonal ages to theoretical distributions simulated under various assumptions and showed that new clones are most likely continuously recruited from ancestral populations. This suggests that the clonal diversity is maintained by dynamic equilibrium between origination and extinction of clonal lineages. On the other hand, an interclonal selection is implied by nonrandom spatial distribution of individual clones with respect to the coexisting sexual species. Importantly, there was no evidence for sexually reproducing hybrids or clonally reproducing non-hybrid forms. Together with previous successful laboratory synthesis of clonal Cobitis hybrids, our data thus provide the most compelling evidence that 1 the origin of asexuality is causally linked to interspecific hybridization; 2 successful establishment of clones is not restricted to one specific ploidy level and 3 the initiation of clonality and polyploidy may be dynamic and continuous in asexual complexes.

  13. Local cloning of two product states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Zhengfeng; Feng Yuan; Ying Mingsheng

    2005-01-01

    Local quantum operations and classical communication (LOCC) put considerable constraints on many quantum information processing tasks such as cloning and discrimination. Surprisingly, however, discrimination of any two pure states survives such constraints in some sense. We show that cloning is not that lucky; namely, probabilistic LOCC cloning of two product states is strictly less efficient than global cloning. We prove our result by giving explicitly the efficiency formula of local cloning of any two product states

  14. Local cloning of entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghiu, Vlad; Yu Li; Cohen, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the conditions under which a set S of pure bipartite quantum states on a DxD system can be locally cloned deterministically by separable operations, when at least one of the states is full Schmidt rank. We allow for the possibility of cloning using a resource state that is less than maximally entangled. Our results include that: (i) all states in S must be full Schmidt rank and equally entangled under the G-concurrence measure, and (ii) the set S can be extended to a larger clonable set generated by a finite group G of order |G|=N, the number of states in the larger set. It is then shown that any local cloning apparatus is capable of cloning a number of states that divides D exactly. We provide a complete solution for two central problems in local cloning, giving necessary and sufficient conditions for (i) when a set of maximally entangled states can be locally cloned, valid for all D; and (ii) local cloning of entangled qubit states with nonvanishing entanglement. In both of these cases, we show that a maximally entangled resource is necessary and sufficient, and the states must be related to each other by local unitary 'shift' operations. These shifts are determined by the group structure, so need not be simple cyclic permutations. Assuming this shifted form and partially entangled states, then in D=3 we show that a maximally entangled resource is again necessary and sufficient, while for higher-dimensional systems, we find that the resource state must be strictly more entangled than the states in S. All of our necessary conditions for separable operations are also necessary conditions for local operations and classical communication (LOCC), since the latter is a proper subset of the former. In fact, all our results hold for LOCC, as our sufficient conditions are demonstrated for LOCC, directly.

  15. Measurement of background translocation frequencies in individuals with clones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, Marcelle J. [California State Univ. (CalState), Hayward, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    In the leukemia case the unseparated B and T lymphocytes had a high translocation frequency even after 0.0014, respectively. After purging all clones from the data, the translocation frequencies for Bio 8 and Bio 23 were 0.00750.0014 and 0.0073 metaphases were scored for chromosomal aberrations,, specifically reciprocal translocations, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Metaphase spreads were used from two healthy, unexposed individuals (not exposed to radiation, chemotherapy or radiotherapy) and one early B- precursor acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) patient (metaphase spreads from both separated T lymphocytes and unseparated B and T lymphocytes were scored). All three individuals had an abnormally high translocation frequency. The high translocation frequencies resulted from clonal expansion of specific translocated chromosomes. I show in this thesis that by purging (discounting or removing) clones from the data of unexposed individuals, one can obtain true background translocation frequencies. In two cases, Bio 8 and Bio 23, the measured translocation frequency for chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 was 0.0124 purging all of the clones from the data. This high translocation frequency may be due to a low frequency of some clones and may not be recognized. The separated T lymphocytes had a higher translocation frequency than expected.

  16. Quantum cloning without external control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiara, G. de; Fazio, R.; Macchiavello, C.; Montangero, S.; Palma, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In this work we present an approach to quantum cloning with unmodulated spin networks. The cloner is realized by a proper design of the network and a choice of the coupling between the qubits. We show that in the case of phase covariant cloner the XY coupling gives the best results. In the 1 → 2 cloning we find that the value for the fidelity of the optimal cloner is achieved, and values comparable to the optimal ones in the general N → M case can be attained. If a suitable set of network symmetries are satisfied, the output fidelity of the clones does not depend on the specific choice of the graph. We show that spin network cloning is robust against the presence of static imperfections. Moreover, in the presence of noise, it outperforms the conventional approach. In this case the fidelity exceeds the corresponding value obtained by quantum gates even for a very small amount of noise. Furthermore we show how to use this method to clone qutrits and qudits. By means of the Heisenberg coupling it is also possible to implement the universal cloner although in this case the fidelity is 10 % off that of the optimal cloner. (author)

  17. [Cloning and law in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2015-03-01

    Reproductive human cloning is prohibited in Hungary, as in many other countries. Therapeutic human cloning is not prohibited, just like in many other countries. Stem cell therapy is also allowed. Article III, paragraph (3) of the Hungarian basic law (constitution) strictly forbids total human cloning. Article 1 of the Additional Protocol to the Oviedo Convention, on the Prohibition of Cloning Human Beings (1998) stipulates that any intervention seeking to create a human being genetically identical to another human being, whether living or dead, is prohibited. In Hungary, according to Article 174 of the Criminal Code, total human cloning constitutes a crime. Article 180, paragraph (3) of the Hungarian Act on Health declares that embryos shall not be brought about for research purposes; research shall be conducted only on embryos brought about for reproductive purposes when this is authorized by the persons entitled to decide upon its disposal, or when the embryo is damaged. Article 180, paragraph (5) of the Hungarian Act on Health stipulates that multiple individuals who genetically conform to one another shall not be brought about. According to Article 181, paragraph (1) of the Hungarian Act on Health, an embryo used for research shall be kept alive for not longer than 14 days, not counting the time it was frozen for storage and the time period of research.

  18. [Mystery and problems of cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, V A

    2010-01-01

    The attention of investigators is attracted to the fact that, in spite of great efforts in mammalian cloning, advances that have been made in this area of research are not great, and cloned animals have developmental pathologies often incompatible with life and/or reproduction ability. It is yet not clear what technical or biological factors underlie this, and how they are connected or interact with each other, which is more realistic strategically. There is a great number of articles dealing with the influence of cloning with the nuclear transfer on genetic and epigenetic reprogramming of donor cells. At the same time we can see the practical absence of analytical investigations concerning the technology of cloning as such, its weak points, and possible sources of cellular trauma in the course of microsurgery of nuclear transfer or twinning. This article discusses step by step several nuclear transfer techniques and the methods of dividing early preimplanted embryos for twinning with the aim to reveal possible sources of cell damage during micromanipulation that may have negative influence on the development of cloned organisms. Several new author's technologies based on the study of cell biophysical characteristics are described, which allow one to avoid cellular trauma during manipulation and minimize the possibility of cell damage at any rate.

  19. Cloning and study of the pectate lyase gene of Erwinia carotovora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukanov, N.O.; Fonshtein, M.Yu.; Evtushenkov, A.N.; Syarinskii, M.A.; Strel'chenko, P.P.; Yankovski, N.K.; Alikhanyan, S.I.; Fomichev, Yu.K.; Debabov, V.G.

    1986-01-01

    The cloning of the gene of a secretable protein of Erwinia carotovora, pectate lyase, in Escherichia coli was described. Primary cloning was conducted using the phage vector λ 47.1. In the gene library of E. carotovora obtained, eight phages carrying the gene sought were identified according to the appearance of enzymatic activity of the gene product, pectate lyase, in situ. The BamHI fragment of DNA, common to all these phages, was recloned on the plasmid pUC19. It was shown that the cloned pectate lyase gene is represented on the E. carotovora chromosome in one copy. Methods of production of representative gene libraries on phage vectors from no less than 1 μg of cloned DNA even for the genomes of eukaryotes have now been developed. Vectors have been created, for example, λ 47.1, permitting the selection only of hybrid molecules. A number of methods have been developed for the search for a required gene in the library, depending on whether the cloned gene can be expressed or not, and if it can, what properties it will impart to the hybrid clone containing it

  20. The topsy-turvy cloning law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassington, Iain; Oultram, Stuart

    2011-03-01

    In debates about human cloning, a distinction is frequently drawn between therapeutic and reproductive uses of the technology. Naturally enough, this distinction influences the way that the law is framed. The general consensus is that therapeutic cloning is less morally problematic than reproductive cloning--one can hold this position while holding that both are morally unacceptable--and the law frequently leaves the way open for some cloning for the sake of research into new therapeutic techniques while banning it for reproductive purposes. We claim that the position adopted by the law has things the wrong way around: if we accept a moral distinction between therapeutic and reproductive cloning, there are actually more reasons to be morally worried about therapeutic cloning than about reproductive cloning. If cloning is the proper object of legal scrutiny, then, we ought to make sure that we are scrutinising the right kind of clone.

  1. Cloning of Salmonella typhimurium DNA encoding mutagenic DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.M.; Sedgwick, S.G.

    1989-01-01

    Mutagenic DNA repair in Escherichia coli is encoded by the umuDC operon. Salmonella typhimurium DNA which has homology with E. coli umuC and is able to complement E. coli umuC122::Tn5 and umuC36 mutations has been cloned. Complementation of umuD44 mutants and hybridization with E. coli umuD also occurred, but these activities were much weaker than with umuC. Restriction enzyme mapping indicated that the composition of the cloned fragment is different from the E. coli umuDC operon. Therefore, a umu-like function of S. typhimurium has been found; the phenotype of this function is weaker than that of its E. coli counterpart, which is consistent with the weak mutagenic response of S. typhimurium to UV compared with the response in E. coli

  2. Systematic cloning of human minisatellites from ordered array charomid libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J A; Povey, S; Jeremiah, S; Jeffreys, A J

    1990-11-01

    We present a rapid and efficient method for the isolation of minisatellite loci from human DNA. The method combines cloning a size-selected fraction of human MboI DNA fragments in a charomid vector with hybridization screening of the library in ordered array. Size-selection of large MboI fragments enriches for the longer, more variable minisatellites and reduces the size of the library required. The library was screened with a series of multi-locus probes known to detect a large number of hypervariable loci in human DNA. The gridded library allowed both the rapid processing of positive clones and the comparative evaluation of the different multi-locus probes used, in terms of both the relative success in detecting hypervariable loci and the degree of overlap between the sets of loci detected. We report 23 new human minisatellite loci isolated by this method, which map to 14 autosomes and the sex chromosomes.

  3. Cloning and expression of calmodulin gene in Scoparia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Daisuke; Asakura, Yuki; Nkembo, Marguerite Kasidimoko; Shite, Masato; Sugiyama, Ryuji; Lee, Jung-Bum; Hayashi, Toshimitsu; Kurosaki, Fumiya

    2007-06-01

    A homology-based cloning strategy yielded a cDNA clone, designated Sd-cam, encoding calmodulin protein from Scoparia dulcis. The restriction digests of genomic DNA of S. dulcis showed a single hybridized signal when probed with the fragment of this gene in Southern blot analyses, suggesting that Sd-cam occurs as a sole gene encoding calmodulin in the plant. The reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that Sd-cam was appreciably expressed in leaf, root and stem tissues. It appeared that transcription of this gene increased transiently when the leaf cultures of S. dulcis were treated with methyl jasmonate and calcium ionophore A23187. These results suggest that transcriptional activation of Sd-cam is one of the early cellular events of the methyl jasmonate-induced responses of S. dulcis.

  4. Cloning of the relative genes of endocrine exophthalmos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, JG

    2004-01-01

    Aim: In order to clarify the pathogenesis of endocrine exophthalmos, and lay foundations for finding the new functions of its relative genes, the cloning of its relative genes was carried out. Methods: The thyroid tissues of 10 hyperthyroidism patients, 5 of them with endocrine exophthalmos and 5 without that, were obtained. Their mRNA were collected respectively by using Quick Prep Micro mRNA purification kit. Then the same amount of the mRNA from 5 patients with endocrine exophthalmos was added into an eppendorf tube to form a mRNA pool. And that of the 5 patients without endocrine exophthalmos was also prepared as the other pool. As a model, the pool was used to synthesize the single and double chains of cDNA through SMART Tm PCR cDNA Synthesis Kit. The double chains cDNA from the endocrine exophthalmos patients, being used as tester, and that from the patients without endocrine exophthalmos, being used as driver, were digested by restriction endonucleases Hae III to get the fragments which was less than 500 bases. The tester cDNA was ligated with adapt or 1 or 2 respectively. Then the subtractive suppressive hybridization was performed between tester and driver cDNA. And the efficacies of subtraction were measured. The differential genes between the thyroid tissues of endocrine exophthalmos and the thyroid tissues without endocrine exophthalmos were obtained through two cycles of subtractive hybridization and two cycles PCR. The differential genes were cloned into the vector of pT-Adv, and then transformed into E.coliDH5a. 48 white clonies were selected to build the subtractive suppressive library of the relative genes of endocrine exophthalmos. The primer 2 was applied for the colony PCR of the relative genes. The amplified genes were obtained and purified by using Quaqwich Spine PCR Purification Kit. According to the principle of random primer, the double chains cDNA from the thyroid tissues with or without endocrine exophthalmos were digested by Hae III

  5. Public perceptions of animal cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling; Vincentsen, Ulla; Andersen, Ida-Elisabeth

    What was from the outset meant to be a survey testing predefined categories of ethical positions related to new biotechnologies with animal cloning as an example was subsequently developed into a process of broader involvement of groups of citizens in the issue. The survey was conducted at meetings...... in four different cities in Denmark. The participants were introduced to animal cloning and after that they filled out the questionnaire. Finally, the issue was discussed in focus groups. The process as a whole was run in a dialogue oriented way. Through the information they received in combination...... with reflecting on the survey questions the participants were well prepared for discussions in the focus groups. This approach made it possible, on the one hand to get a measure of the citizen's perceptions of the ethical aspects of animal cloning, but also to go deeper into their own thoughts of the issue...

  6. Quantum cloning machines and the applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Heng, E-mail: hfan@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, Yi-Nan; Jing, Li [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yue, Jie-Dong [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Shi, Han-Duo; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Mu, Liang-Zhu [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-11-20

    No-cloning theorem is fundamental for quantum mechanics and for quantum information science that states an unknown quantum state cannot be cloned perfectly. However, we can try to clone a quantum state approximately with the optimal fidelity, or instead, we can try to clone it perfectly with the largest probability. Thus various quantum cloning machines have been designed for different quantum information protocols. Specifically, quantum cloning machines can be designed to analyze the security of quantum key distribution protocols such as BB84 protocol, six-state protocol, B92 protocol and their generalizations. Some well-known quantum cloning machines include universal quantum cloning machine, phase-covariant cloning machine, the asymmetric quantum cloning machine and the probabilistic quantum cloning machine. In the past years, much progress has been made in studying quantum cloning machines and their applications and implementations, both theoretically and experimentally. In this review, we will give a complete description of those important developments about quantum cloning and some related topics. On the other hand, this review is self-consistent, and in particular, we try to present some detailed formulations so that further study can be taken based on those results.

  7. Quantum cloning machines and the applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Heng; Wang, Yi-Nan; Jing, Li; Yue, Jie-Dong; Shi, Han-Duo; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Mu, Liang-Zhu

    2014-01-01

    No-cloning theorem is fundamental for quantum mechanics and for quantum information science that states an unknown quantum state cannot be cloned perfectly. However, we can try to clone a quantum state approximately with the optimal fidelity, or instead, we can try to clone it perfectly with the largest probability. Thus various quantum cloning machines have been designed for different quantum information protocols. Specifically, quantum cloning machines can be designed to analyze the security of quantum key distribution protocols such as BB84 protocol, six-state protocol, B92 protocol and their generalizations. Some well-known quantum cloning machines include universal quantum cloning machine, phase-covariant cloning machine, the asymmetric quantum cloning machine and the probabilistic quantum cloning machine. In the past years, much progress has been made in studying quantum cloning machines and their applications and implementations, both theoretically and experimentally. In this review, we will give a complete description of those important developments about quantum cloning and some related topics. On the other hand, this review is self-consistent, and in particular, we try to present some detailed formulations so that further study can be taken based on those results

  8. Identification of cDNA clones expressing immunodiagnostic antigens from Trichinella spiralis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarlenga, D.; Gamble, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    A cDNA expression library was built in lambda gt11 phage using poly A mRNA isolated from Trichinella spiralis muscle stage larvae. This library was screened with rabbit antibodies to parasite excretory-secretory (ES) products and greater than 180 clones were isolated. Thirteen clones producing highly immunogenic protein antigens were plaque purified and rescreened with pig antisera to T.spiralis, Trichuris suis or Ascaris suum to identify clones producing epitopes specific to T.spiralis ES products, only. Two clones, TsAc-2 and TsAc-8, which displayed strong interactions with pig antisera to T. spiralis were lysogenized in E. coli Y1089 and the protein extracted. Western blots of the crude fusion proteins revealed molecular weights of 133 kD and 129 kD, respectively. Northern blot analysis of total RNA with 32 P labelled cDNA:lambda gt11 probes indicated single RNA transcripts for each clone with molecular sizes corresponding to 800-850 nucleotides. dscDNA inserts were estimated by southern blot analysis to be 500 bp and 340 bp, respectively, with no cross-hybridization observed between the cloned sequences. Dot blots using pig sera to screen crude fusion protein preparations, total bacterial protein (negative controls) and crude worm extract or ES products from T.spiralis, T.suis and A.suum (positive controls) corroborated the specificity and sensitivity of these clones as potential diagnostic antigens for swine trichinellosis

  9. EasyClone-MarkerFree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Mathew Malcolm Jessop; Jakociunas, Tadas; Stovicek, Vratislav

    2016-01-01

    Clone-MarkerFree. The integration of linearized expression cassettes into defined genomic loci is facilitated by CRISPR/Cas9. Cas9 is recruited to the chromosomal location by specific guide RNAs (gRNAs) expressed from a set of gRNA helper vectors. Using our genome engineering vector suite, single and triple insertions are obtained...

  10. Clone Poems and the Microcomputer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, Estelle

    1989-01-01

    Describes how students can use the computer to study and create clone poems (altering original Spanish-language poems by substituting words and expressions), and how students can gain a deeper appreciation of the original poem's poetic structure and semantics. (CB)

  11. Probabilistic cloning and deleting of quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yuan; Zhang Shengyu; Ying Mingsheng

    2002-01-01

    We construct a probabilistic cloning and deleting machine which, taking several copies of an input quantum state, can output a linear superposition of multiple cloning and deleting states. Since the machine can perform cloning and deleting in a single unitary evolution, the probabilistic cloning and other cloning machines proposed in the previous literature can be thought of as special cases of our machine. A sufficient and necessary condition for successful cloning and deleting is presented, and it requires that the copies of an arbitrarily presumed number of the input states are linearly independent. This simply generalizes some results for cloning. We also derive an upper bound for the success probability of the cloning and deleting machine

  12. Human reproductive cloning: a conflict of liberties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havstad, Joyce C

    2010-02-01

    Proponents of human reproductive cloning do not dispute that cloning may lead to violations of clones' right to self-determination, or that these violations could cause psychological harms. But they proceed with their endorsement of human reproductive cloning by dismissing these psychological harms, mainly in two ways. The first tactic is to point out that to commit the genetic fallacy is indeed a mistake; the second is to invoke Parfit's non-identity problem. The argument of this paper is that neither approach succeeds in removing our moral responsibility to consider and to prevent psychological harms to cloned individuals. In fact, the same commitment to personal liberty that generates the right to reproduce by means of cloning also creates the need to limit that right appropriately. Discussion of human reproductive cloning ought to involve a careful and balanced consideration of both the relevant aspects of personal liberty - the parents' right to reproductive freedom and the cloned child's right to self-determination.

  13. RESEARCH ARTICLE Molecular cloning and functional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2016-11-25

    Nov 25, 2016 ... Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two novel ... Currently, many variants of HMW-GSs have been cloned from bread wheat .... SDS sedimentation tests were conducted using the methods described by Gao et ...

  14. Phase-covariant quantum cloning of qudits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Heng; Imai, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Keiji; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2003-01-01

    We study the phase-covariant quantum cloning machine for qudits, i.e., the input states in a d-level quantum system have complex coefficients with arbitrary phase but constant module. A cloning unitary transformation is proposed. After optimizing the fidelity between input state and single qudit reduced density operator of output state, we obtain the optimal fidelity for 1 to 2 phase-covariant quantum cloning of qudits and the corresponding cloning transformation

  15. Probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, O.; Bergou, J.; Delgado, A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states. These states are defined by a single complex quantity, the inner product among them. We show that three different probabilistic cloning machines are necessary to optimally clone all possible families of three symmetric states. We also show that the optimal cloning probability of generating M copies out of one original can be cast as the quotient between the success probability of unambiguously discriminating one and M copies of symmetric states.

  16. A single-copy galK promoter cloning vector suitable for cloning strong promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandanell, Gert; Court, Donald L.; Hammer, Karin

    1986-01-01

    We report the construction of lambda galK promoter cloning vectors for cloning and characterization of strong promoters. This phage, which contains a unique HindIII cloning site, was applied to the cloning and analysis of transcription initiations of the regulatory region of the deo-operon of...

  17. Cloning and identification of the gene coding for the 140-kd subunit of Drosophila RNA polymerase II

    OpenAIRE

    Faust, Daniela M.; Renkawitz-Pohl, Renate; Falkenburg, Dieter; Gasch, Alexander; Bialojan, Siegfried; Young, Richard A.; Bautz, Ekkehard K. F.

    1986-01-01

    Genomic clones of Drosophila melanogaster were isolated from a λ library by cross-hybridization with the yeast gene coding for the 150-kd subunit of RNA polymerase II. Clones containing a region of ∼2.0 kb with strong homology to the yeast gene were shown to code for a 3.9-kb poly(A)+-RNA. Part of the coding region was cloned into an expression vector. A fusion protein was obtained which reacted with an antibody directed against RNA polymerase II of Drosophila. Peptide mapping of the fusion p...

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of recA-like gene from Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.S.; Kang, J.K.; Yoon, S.M.; Park, Y.; Yang, Y.K.; Kim, S.W.; Park, J.K.; Park, J.G.; Hong, S.H.; Park, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    We have previously purified and characterized a RecA-like protein from Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe). In the present study, we have cloned a gene encoding the RecA-like protein. The S. pombe recA-like gene was isolated by immunological screening of the expression library of S. pombe using anti-Escherichia coli (E. coli) RecA antibody as a probe. From 10(6) plaques screened, 6 putative clones were finally isolated. Five of the clones screened contained the same kinds of DNA inserts, as determined by crosshybridization analysis. Among the clones, TC-2 was selected for further studies. The pGEM3Zf(-)Delta 17 vector harboring the 4.3 kb DNA insert of TC-2 clone was capable of producing abeta-gal/RecA-like fusion protein, suggesting that the cloned gene encodes the RecA-like protein of S. pombe. It was also revealed by Southern hybridization analysis that the same DNA sequence as the cloned recA-like gene is located within the S. pombe chromosomal DNA. In addition, the cloned recA-like gene was transcribed into a 3.0 kb RNA transcript, as judged by Northern blot analysis. The level of the RNA transcript of recA-like gene was increased approximately 1.6 to 2.4-fold upon treatment with DNA damaging agents such as ultraviolet (UV)-light, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), and mitomycin-C (MMC). This data suggests that the cloned S. pombe recA-like gene is slightly inducible to DNAdamage as in E. coli recA gene. These results suggest that an inducible repair mechanism analogous to that of E. coli may exist in fission yeast S. pombe

  19. DNA cloning: a practical approach. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, D M [ed.

    1985-01-01

    This book is written for the advanced molecular biologist who needs a detailed discussion of cloning technology. Topics of discussion include: genomic library cloning (size of a genomic library, screening methods, chromosome walking, host cell genetics, and general features of bacteriophage Iambda); use of gt10 and gt11 cDNA lambda vectors and general cDNA cloning; RNase H-Pol I cDNA synthesis; method of detecting fusion proteins produced in bacteria; pEMBL family of double-stranded plasmid vectors that can be used to generate single strands; Escherichia coli transformation; production of mutations in cloned sequences; and cloning in gram negative bacteria.

  20. No-cloning theorem on quantum logics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyadera, Takayuki; Imai, Hideki

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the no-cloning theorem in a logicoalgebraic approach. In this approach, an orthoalgebra is considered as a general structure for propositions in a physical theory. We proved that an orthoalgebra admits cloning operation if and only if it is a Boolean algebra. That is, only classical theory admits the cloning of states. If unsharp propositions are to be included in the theory, then a notion of effect algebra is considered. We proved that an atomic Archimedean effect algebra admitting cloning operation is a Boolean algebra. This paper also presents a partial result, indicating a relation between the cloning on effect algebras and hidden variables.

  1. Therapeutic and reproductive cloning: a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, Finn

    2004-01-01

    This article is a critical examination of the science and ethics of human cloning. It summarises the key scientific milestones in the development of nuclear transplantation, explains the importance of cloning to research into the medical potential of embryonic stem cells, and discusses the well-worn distinction between 'therapeutic' and 'reproductive' cloning. Suggesting that this distinction will be impossible to police, it goes on to consider the ethics of full human cloning. It is concluded that it represents an unacceptable form of parental despotism, and that the genetic engineering and cloning of future human beings will fracture the foundations of modern humanism.

  2. Clone DB: an integrated NCBI resource for clone-associated data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Valerie A.; Chen, Hsiu-Chuan; Clausen, Cliff; Meric, Peter A.; Zhou, Zhigang; Bouk, Nathan; Husain, Nora; Maglott, Donna R.; Church, Deanna M.

    2013-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Clone DB (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clone/) is an integrated resource providing information about and facilitating access to clones, which serve as valuable research reagents in many fields, including genome sequencing and variation analysis. Clone DB represents an expansion and replacement of the former NCBI Clone Registry and has records for genomic and cell-based libraries and clones representing more than 100 different eukaryotic taxa. Records provide details of library construction, associated sequences, map positions and information about resource distribution. Clone DB is indexed in the NCBI Entrez system and can be queried by fields that include organism, clone name, gene name and sequence identifier. Whenever possible, genomic clones are mapped to reference assemblies and their map positions provided in clone records. Clones mapping to specific genomic regions can also be searched for using the NCBI Clone Finder tool, which accepts queries based on sequence coordinates or features such as gene or transcript names. Clone DB makes reports of library, clone and placement data on its FTP site available for download. With Clone DB, users now have available to them a centralized resource that provides them with the tools they will need to make use of these important research reagents. PMID:23193260

  3. Cloning Expeditions: Risky but Rewarding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In the 1980s, a good part of my laboratory was using the then-new recombinant DNA techniques to clone and characterize many important cell surface membrane proteins: GLUT1 (the red cell glucose transporter) and then GLUT2 and GLUT4, the red cell anion exchange protein (Band 3), asialoglycoprotein receptor subunits, sucrase-isomaltase, the erythropoietin receptor, and two of the subunits of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) receptor. These cloned genes opened many new fields of basic research, including membrane insertion and trafficking of transmembrane proteins, signal transduction by many members of the cytokine and TGF-β families of receptors, and the cellular physiology of glucose and anion transport. They also led to many insights into the molecular biology of several cancers, hematopoietic disorders, and diabetes. This work was done by an exceptional group of postdocs and students who took exceptionally large risks in developing and using novel cloning technologies. Unsurprisingly, all have gone on to become leaders in the fields of molecular cell biology and molecular medicine. PMID:24061478

  4. BASIC DENSITY AND RETRACTIBILITY OF WOOD CLONES OF THREE Eucalyptus SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeison Cesar Batista

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the planted forests that supply the national wood industry, the genus Eucalyptus has become the most important, due to its fast growth, ease of large scale planting and variability of wood use. The generation of new hybrids and clones is a reality in the national practice of silviculture, and there is great interest currently in finding genetic improvements, mainly for higher volumetric gains and resistance in rough conditions of planting, such as pest attacks, periods of drought, low soil fertility, etc. The basic density is one of the most important physical properties of wood because it relates directly to other properties, including the anisotropic shrinkage. Such properties indicate the rational use of a species in a certain wood product. The aim of this work was to determine the basic density and the anisotropic shrinkage of five wood clones for each one of the following species: Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii. Clone 5 of Eucalyptus saligna presented the highest basic density (0.56 g/cm³ and was the most dimensionally instable. Of all the species, there was only a direct relation among basic density, maximum volumetric shrinkage and maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient in this clone. Considering maximum volumetric shrinkage as the criterion, clone 3 was the most dimensionally stable. Clones 2 and 3 of Eucalyptus grandis presented the least and the highest basic density, respectively, with 0.40 and 0.49 g/cm³. It was not possible to distinguish among clones 1, 3 and 4 in terms of dimensional stability, and considering maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient as the criterion, clone 5 was the most dimensionally instable. For Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus dunnii it was not possible to distinguish which clone presented the least basic density. Clone 3 of Eucalyptus dunnii presented the highest basic density (0.65 g/cm³ and considering maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient as the criterion, it

  5. Comparative effects of ionizing radiation and two gaseous chemical mutagens on somatic mutation induction in one mutable and two non-mutable clones of Tradescantia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauman, C.H.; Sparrow, A.H.; Schairer, L.A.

    1976-01-01

    The X-ray dose responses of mutable clone 0106 of Tradescantia (mutable for blue to pink), and its parent clone 02 have been determined for pink and colorless mutations in stamen hair cells, and are compared to the previously determined X-ray response for pink mutations of a third unrelated clone, clone 4430 (hybrid of T. subacaulis and T. hirsutiflora). X-ray response curves are compared to the response curves of the same three clones after exposure to the gaseous phase of the alkylating agent ethyl methanesulfate (EMS) and the fumigant and gasoline additive 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE). X-irradiation induces a pink mutation rate in mutable clone 0106 that is significantly higher than that of the nearly identical pink mutation rates in clones 02 and 4430. However, the colorless mutation rates of clones 02 and 0106 are not significantly different from one another. In clones 02 and 0106, pink mutations occur more frequently than colorless mutations at lower doses, but colorless dose-response curves saturate at higher doses than do those for pink mutations. Exposure-response curves for EMS and DBE have characteristics similar to those of X-ray response curves: exponential rise followed by an area of saturation. However, it was found that the relative sensitivities of the three clones to the gaseous mutagens and to ionizing radiation do not parallel one another. Where clones 02 and 4430 are equally sensitive to X-rays, at equal mutagen concentration clone 4430 is 6-7 times more sensitive to EMS and 7-9 times more sensitive to DBE than is clone 02. Mutable clone 0106 shows intermediate sensitivities to both EMS and DBE

  6. Utilization of a cloned alphoid repeating sequence of human DNA in the study of polymorphism of chromosomal heterochromatin regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruminya, A.R.; Kroshkina, V.G.; Yurov, Yu.B.; Aleksandrov, I.A.; Mitkevich, S.P.; Gindilis, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    The chromosomal distribution of the cloned PHS05 fragment of human alphoid DNA was studied by in situ hybridization in 38 individuals. It was shown that this DNA fraction is primarily localized in the pericentric regions of practically all chromosomes of the set. Significant interchromosomal differences and a weakly expressed interindividual polymorphism were discovered in the copying ability of this class of repeating DNA sequences; associations were not found between the results of hybridization and the pattern of Q-polymorphism

  7. Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Genomic Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for ...

  8. Performance of new Hevea clones from IAC 400 series Perfomance de novos clones de Hevea da série IAC 400

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Souza Gonçalves

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hevea breeding program of Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC has completed clonal evaluation on the following series: IAC 100, IAC 200 and IAC 300. The performance of 22 clones of Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Muell.-Arg., evolved at IAC, over a period of eleven years was evaluated in the Western Central part of the São Paulo State, Brazil. Among these 22 new clones, six were intraspecific hybrid clones (IAC 400, IAC 404, IAC 405, IAC 406, IAC 410, IAC 412 and the remaining are primary those resulted from selected ortets within half-sib progenies. An old popular clone RRIM 600, of Malaysian origin, was used as the control. The trial was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. Yield performance over a period of four years, mean girth at the 11th year, girth increment before tapping and on tapping, thermal property of natural rubber produced, bark thickness, number of latex vessel rows in seven year virgin bark, percentage incidence of tapping panel dryness, wind damage and diseases like leaf and panel anthracnose have been observed. Sixty one percent of the clones were superior in relation to the control for yield. The clone IAC 400 recorded the highest yield (97.40 g tree-1 tap-1 over four years of tapping, followed by IAC 411 (78.87 tree-1 tap-1, whereas the control clone RRIM 600 recorded 50.86 g tree-1 tap-1. All selected clones were vigorous in growth. Girth increment of these clones was average to above average. Except for IAC 423, other clones had thick virgin bark at opening ranging from 4.84 mm for IAC 401 to 6.38 mm for IAC 416. The natural rubbers from IAC clones have shown good thermal stability up to 300ºC and no differences in the thermal behavior among rubber from clones of the IAC series and the clone RRIM 600 were found in inert atmosphere.O programa de melhoramento de Hevea do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC completou a avaliação dos clones da série IAC 100, IAC 200 e IAC

  9. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones for carrot extensin and a proline-rich 33-kDa protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Varner, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Extensins are hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins associated with most dicotyledonous plant cell walls. To isolate cDNA clones encoding extensin, the authors started by isolating poly(A) + RNA from carrot root tissue, and then translating the RNA in vitro, in the presence of tritiated leucine or proline. A 33-kDa peptide was identified in the translation products as a putative extensin precursor. From a cDNA library constructed with poly(A) + RNA from wounded carrots, one cDNA clone (pDC5) was identified that specifically hybridized to poly(A) + RNA encoding this 33-kDa peptide. They isolated three cDNA clones (pDC11, pDC12, and pDC16) from another cDNA library using pCD5 as a probe. DNA sequence data, RNA hybridization analysis, and hybrid released in vitro translation indicate that the cDNA clones pDC11 encodes extensin and that cDNA clones pDC12 and pDC16 encode the 33-kDa peptide, which as yet has an unknown identity and function. The assumption that the 33-kDa peptide was an extensin precursor was invalid. RNA hybridization analysis showed that RNA encoded by both clone types is accumulated upon wounding

  10. Novel cloning machine with supplementary information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Daowen

    2006-01-01

    Probabilistic cloning was first proposed by Duan and Guo. Then Pati established a novel cloning machine (NCM) for copying superposition of multiple clones simultaneously. In this paper, we deal with the novel cloning machine with supplementary information (NCMSI). For the case of cloning two states, we demonstrate that the optimal efficiency of the NCMSI in which the original party and the supplementary party can perform quantum communication equals that achieved by a two-step cloning protocol wherein classical communication is only allowed between the original and the supplementary parties. From this equivalence, it follows that NCMSI may increase the success probabilities for copying. Also, an upper bound on the unambiguous discrimination of two nonorthogonal pure product states is derived. Our investigation generalizes and completes the results in the literature

  11. Unified universal quantum cloning machine and fidelities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yinan; Shi Handuo; Xiong Zhaoxi; Jing Li; Mu Liangzhu [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ren Xijun [School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 4750011 (China); Fan Heng [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-09-15

    We present a unified universal quantum cloning machine, which combines several different existing universal cloning machines together, including the asymmetric case. In this unified framework, the identical pure states are projected equally into each copy initially constituted by input and one half of the maximally entangled states. We show explicitly that the output states of those universal cloning machines are the same. One importance of this unified cloning machine is that the cloning procession is always the symmetric projection, which reduces dramatically the difficulties for implementation. Also, it is found that this unified cloning machine can be directly modified to the general asymmetric case. Besides the global fidelity and the single-copy fidelity, we also present all possible arbitrary-copy fidelities.

  12. Effective and efficient model clone detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Code clones are a major source of software defects. Thus, it is likely that model clones (i.e., duplicate fragments of models) have a significant negative impact on model quality, and thus, on any software created based on those models, irrespective of whether the software is generated fully...... automatically (“MDD-style”) or hand-crafted following the blueprint defined by the model (“MBSD-style”). Unfortunately, however, model clones are much less well studied than code clones. In this paper, we present a clone detection algorithm for UML domain models. Our approach covers a much greater variety...... of model types than existing approaches while providing high clone detection rates at high speed....

  13. Telomeres and the ethics of human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allhoff, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    In search of a potential problem with cloning, I investigate the phenomenon of telomere shortening which is caused by cell replication; clones created from somatic cells will have shortened telomeres and therefore reach a state of senescence more rapidly. While genetic intervention might fix this problem at some point in the future, I ask whether, absent technological advances, this biological phenomenon undermines the moral permissibility of cloning.

  14. Species-specific challenges in dog cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, G A; Oh, H J; Park, J E; Kim, M J; Park, E J; Jo, Y K; Jang, G; Kim, M K; Kim, H J; Lee, B C

    2012-12-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is now an established procedure used in cloning of several species. SCNT in dogs involves multiple steps including the removal of the nuclear material, injection of a donor cell, fusion, activation of the reconstructed oocytes and finally transfer to a synchronized female recipient. There are therefore many factors that contribute to cloning efficiency. By performing a retrospective analysis of 2005-2012 published papers regarding dog cloning, we define the optimum procedure and summarize the specific feature for dog cloning. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Human cloning: Eastern Mediterranean Region perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdur Rab, M; Khayat, M H

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in genomics and biotechnology have ushered in a new era in health development. Therapeutic cloning possesses enormous potential for revolutionizing medical and therapeutic techniques. Cloning technology, however, is perceived as having the potential for reproductive cloning, which raises serious ethical and moral concerns. It is important that the Islamic countries come to a consensus on this vital issue. Developing science and technology for better health is a religious and moral obligation. There is an urgent need for Muslim scholars to discuss the issue of stem cell research and cloning rationally; such dialogue will not only consider the scientific merits but also the moral, ethical and legal implications.

  16. Intra-strain polymorphisms are detected but no genomic alteration is found in cloned mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotoh, Koshichi; Inoue, Kimiko; Ogura, Atsuo; Oishi, Michio

    2006-01-01

    In-gel competitive reassociation (IGCR) is a method for differential subtraction of polymorphic (RFLP) DNA fragments between two DNA samples of interest without probes or specific sequence information. Here, we applied the IGCR procedure to two cloned mice derived from an F1 hybrid of the C57BL/6Cr and DBA/2 strains, in order to investigate the possibility of genomic alteration in the cloned mouse genomes. Each of the five of the genomic alterations we detected between the two cloned mice corresponded to the 'intra-strain' polymorphisms in the C57BL/6Cr and DBA/2 mouse strains. Our result suggests that no severe aberration of genome sequences occurs due to somatic cell nuclear transfer

  17. [Cloning and characterization of genes differentially expressed in human dental pulp cells and gingival fibroblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-dong; Wu, Ji-nan; Zhou, Lin; Ling, Jun-qi; Guo, Xi-min; Xiao, Ming-zhen; Zhu, Feng; Pu, Qin; Chai, Yu-bo; Zhao, Zhong-liang

    2007-02-01

    To study the biological properties of human dental pulp cells (HDPC) by cloning and analysis of genes differentially expressed in HDPC in comparison with human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). HDPC and HGF were cultured and identified by immunocytochemistry. HPDC and HGF subtractive cDNA library was established by PCR-based modified subtractive hybridization, genes differentially expressed by HPDC were cloned, sequenced and compared to find homogeneous sequence in GenBank by BLAST. Cloning and sequencing analysis indicate 12 genes differentially expressed were obtained, in which two were unknown genes. Among the 10 known genes, 4 were related to signal transduction, 2 were related to trans-membrane transportation (both cell membrane and nuclear membrane), and 2 were related to RNA splicing mechanisms. The biological properties of HPDC are determined by the differential expression of some genes and the growth and differentiation of HPDC are associated to the dynamic protein synthesis and secretion activities of the cell.

  18. Cloning and sequencing of cDNA encoding human DNA topoisomerase II and localization of the gene to chromosome region 17q21-22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai-Pflugfelder, M.; Liu, L.F.; Liu, A.A.; Tewey, K.M.; Whang-Peng, J.; Knutsen, T.; Huebner, K.; Croce, C.M.; Wang, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Two overlapping cDNA clones encoding human DNA topoisomerase II were identified by two independent methods. In one, a human cDNA library in phage λ was screened by hybridization with a mixed oligonucleotide probe encoding a stretch of seven amino acids found in yeast and Drosophila DNA topoisomerase II; in the other, a different human cDNA library in a λgt11 expression vector was screened for the expression of antigenic determinants that are recognized by rabbit antibodies specific to human DNA topoisomerase II. The entire coding sequences of the human DNA topoisomerase II gene were determined from these and several additional clones, identified through the use of the cloned human TOP2 gene sequences as probes. Hybridization between the cloned sequences and mRNA and genomic DNA indicates that the human enzyme is encoded by a single-copy gene. The location of the gene was mapped to chromosome 17q21-22 by in situ hybridization of a cloned fragment to metaphase chromosomes and by hybridization analysis with a panel of mouse-human hybrid cell lines, each retaining a subset of human chromosomes

  19. Cloning human DNA repair genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeggo, P.A.; Carr, A.M.; Lehmann, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    Many human genes involved in the repair of UV damage have been cloned using different procedures and they have been of great value in assisting the understanding of the mechanism of nucleotide excision-repair. Genes involved in repair of ionizing radiation damage have proved more difficult to isolate. Positional cloning has localized the XRCC5 gene to a small region of chromosome 2q33-35, and a series of yeast artificial chromosomes covering this region have been isolated. Very recent work has shown that the XRCC5 gene encodes the 80 kDa subunit of the Ku DNA-binding protein. The Ku80 gene also maps to this region. Studies with fission yeast have shown that radiation sensitivity can result not only from defective DNA repair but also from abnormal cell cycle control following DNA damage. Several genes involved in this 'check-point' control in fission yeast have been isolated and characterized in detail. It is likely that a similar checkpoint control mechanism exists in human cells. (author)

  20. Cloning of cDNA encoding steroid 11β-hydroxylase (P450c11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, S.C.; Szabo, P.; Vitek, A.; Grzeschik, K.H.; John, M.; White, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have isolated bovine and human adrenal cDNA clones encoding the adrenal cytochrome P-450 specific for 11β-hydroxylation (P450c11). A bovine adrenal cDNA library constructed in the bacteriophage λ vector gt10 was probed with a previously isolated cDNA clone corresponding to part of the 3' untranslated region of the 4.2-kilobase (kb) mRNA encoding P450c11. Several clones with 3.2-kb cDNA inserts were isolated. Sequence analysis showed that they overlapped the original probe by 300 base pairs (bp). Combined cDNA and RNA sequence data demonstrated a continuous open reading frame of 1509 bases. P450c11 is predicted to contain 479 amino acid residues in the mature protein in addition to a 24-residue amino-terminal mitochondrial signal sequence. A bovine clone was used to isolate a homologous clone with a 3.5-kb insert from a human adrenal cDNA library. A region of 1100 bp was 81% homologous to 769 bp of the coding sequence of the bovine cDNA except for a 400-bp segment presumed to be an unprocessed intron. Hybridization of the human cDNA to DNA from a panel of human-rodent somatic cell hybrid lines and in situ hybridization to metaphase spreads of human chromosomes localized the gene to the middle of the long arm of chromosome 8. These data should be useful in developing reagents for heterozygote detection and prenatal diagnosis of 11β-hydroxylase deficiency, the second most frequent cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia

  1. Derivation of hybrid ES cell lines from two different strains of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Tak Lau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Parental origin-dependent expression of the imprinted genes is essential for mammalian development. Zfp57 maintains genomic imprinting in mouse embryos and ES cells. To examine the allelic expression patterns of the imprinted genes in ES cells, we obtained multiple hybrid ES clones that were directly derived from the blastocysts generated from the cross between mice on two different genetic backgrounds. The blastocyst-derived ES clones displayed largely intact DNA methylation imprint at the tested imprinted regions. These hybrid ES clones will be useful for future studies to examine the allelic expression of the imprinted genes in ES cells and their differentiated progeny.

  2. Generation of a panel of somatic cell hybrids containing unselected fragments of human chromosome 10 by X-ray irradiation and cell fusion: Application to isolating the MEN2A region in hybrid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodfellow, P.J.; Povey, S.; Nevanlinna, H.A.; Goodfellow, P.N.

    1990-01-01

    We have used X-ray irradiation and cell fusion to generate somatic cell hybrids containing fragments of human chromosome 10. Our experiments were directed towards isolating the region of the MEN2A gene in hybrids and to use those as the source of DNA for cloning and mapping new markers from near the MEN2A locus. A number of hybrid clones containing human sequences that are tightly linked to the MEN2A gene were identified. Some 25% of our hybrids, however, proved to contain more than one human chromosome 10-derived fragment or showed evidence of deletions and/or rearrangements. A detailed analysis of the human content of X-ray irradiation hybrids is required to assess the integrity and number of human fragments retained. Despite retention of multiple human-derived fragments, these hybrids will prove useful as cloning and mapping resources

  3. Cloning crops in a CELSS via tissue culture: Prospects and problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, John G.; Hess, J. Richard

    1990-01-01

    Micropropagation is currently used to clone fruits, nuts, and vegetables and involves controlling the outgrowth in vitro of basal, axillary, or adventitious buds. Following clonal multiplication, shoots are divided and rooted. This process has greatly reduced space and energy requirements in greenhouses and field nurseries and has increased multiplication rates by greater than 20 fold for some vegetatively propagated crops and breeding lines. Cereal and legume crops can also be cloned by tissue culture through somatic embryogenesis. Somatic embryos can be used to produce 'synthetic seed', which can tolerate desiccation and germinate upon rehydration. Synthetic seed of hybrid wheat, rice, soybean and other crops could be produced in a controlled ecological life support system. Thus, yield advantages of hybreds over inbreds (10 to 20 percent) could be exploited without having to provide additional facilities and energy for parental-line and hybrid seed nurseries.

  4. Tetranectin, a plasminogen kringle 4-binding protein. Cloning and gene expression pattern in human colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tetranectin is a recently discovered protein that binds to kringle 4 region of plasminogen (Clemmensen I, Petersen LC, Kluft C. Eur J Biochem 1986; 156:327. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The mRNA encoding human tetranectin was cloned by using degenerate primers in a reverse transcriptase...... reaction followed by polymerase chain reaction amplification. The resulting polymerase chain reaction product was examined by DNA sequencing and subsequently used as probe for screening a human placental cDNA library. A full length cDNA clone (TET-1) was isolated, characterized, and used for Northern blot...... prominent in the lungs and spleen. No hybridization signal was detected in three carcinoma cell lines examined in parallel. Northern blot analysis of poly A+ RNA isolated from solid tumors revealed a tetranectin specific mRNA band. In situ hybridizations on tissue sections of colon carcinomas and normal...

  5. Luciferase genes cloned from the unculturable luminous bacteroid symbiont of the Caribbean flashlight fish, Kryptophanaron alfredi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haygood, M G; Cohn, D H

    1986-01-01

    Light organs of anomalopid (flashlight) fish contain luminous bacteroids that have never been cultured and, consequently, have been difficult to study. We have characterized the luciferase (lux) region of DNA extracted from light organs of the Caribbean flashlight fish Kryptophanaron alfredi by hybridization of cloned Vibrio harveyi lux genes to restriction-endonuclease-digested, light organ DNA. Comparison of the hybridization pattern of light organ DNA with that of DNA of a putative symbiotic isolate provides a method for identifying the authentic luminous symbiont regardless of its luminescence, and was used to reject one such isolate. Light organ DNA was further used to construct a cosmid clone bank and the luciferase genes were isolated. Unlike other bacterial luciferase genes, the genes were not expressed in Escherichia coli. When placed under the control of the E. coli trp promoter, the genes were transcribed but no luciferase was detected, suggesting a posttranscriptional block to expression.

  6. Cloning in Escherichia coli of the enterotoxin gene from Clostridium perfringens type A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanejko, L A; Routledge, M N; Stewart, G S

    1989-04-01

    A 26 bp DNA probe has been constructed with minimal degeneracy to the protein sequence for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. The probe has been hybridized against a 6-10 kb chromosomal bank from C. perfringens 8239, prepared as a HindIII partial digest in pHG165. From this survey a clone has been identified containing a 6.8 kb DNA insert with strong hybridization to the probe. Direct plasmid sequencing has identified a translational reading frame within this clone which correlates with the known protein sequence for the type A enterotoxin. DNA sequences 5' to this open reading frame and containing the putative transcriptional control regions show areas of significant homology with regions upstream from the ATG codon of the tetanus toxin gene.

  7. Quantum cloning machines and their implementation in physical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Tao; Ye Liu; Fang Bao-Long

    2013-01-01

    We review the basic theory of approximate quantum cloning for discrete variables and some schemes for implementing quantum cloning machines. Several types of approximate quantum clones and their expansive quantum clones are introduced. As for the implementation of quantum cloning machines, we review some design methods and recent experimental results. (topical review - quantum information)

  8. Cloning and comparative mapping of a human chromosome 4-specific alpha satellite DNA sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Aiuto, L.; Marzella, R.; Archidiacono, N.; Rocchi, M. (Universita di Bari (Italy)); Antonacci, R. (Instituto Anatomia Umana Normale, Modena (Italy))

    1993-11-01

    The authors have isolated and characterized two human alphoid DNA clones: p4n1/4 and pZ4.1. Clone p4n1/4 identifies specifically the centromeric region of chromosome 4; pZ4.1 recognizes a subset of alphoid DNA shared by chromosomes 4 and 9. The specificity was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments on metaphase spreads and Southern blotting analysis of human-hamster somatic cell hybrids. The genomic organization of both subsets was also investigated. Comparative mapping on chimpanzee and gorilla chromosomes was performed. p4n1/4 hybridizes to chimpanzee chromosomes 11 and 13, homologs of human chromosomes 9 and 2q, respectively. On gorilla metaphase spreads, p4n1/4 hybridizes exclusively to the centromeric region of chromosome 19, partially homologous to human chromosome 17. No hybridization signal was detected on chromosome 3 of both chimpanzee and gorilla, in both species homolog of human chromosome 4. Identical comparative mapping results were obtained using pZ4.1 probe, although the latter recognizes an alphoid subset distinct from the one recognized by p4n1/4. The implications of these results in the evolution of centromeric regions of primate chromosomes are discussed. 33 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Biomass and Volume Yield in Mature Hybrid Poplar Plantations on Temperate Abandoned Farmland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Truax

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed clone-specific allometric relationships, with the objective of calculating volume and biomass production after 13 years in 8 poplar plantations, located across an environmental gradient, and composed of 5 unrelated hybrid poplar clones. Allometry was found to be very similar for clones MxB-915311, NxM-3729 and DNxM-915508, all having P. maximoviczii parentage. Clones DxN-3570 and TxD-3230 also had a similar allometry; for a given DBH they have a lower stem volume, stem biomass and branch biomass than P. maximoviczii hybrids. Strong Site × Clone interactions were observed for volume and woody biomass growth, with DxN and TxD hybrids only productive on low elevation fertile sites, whereas P. maximovizcii hybrids were also very productive on higher elevation sites with moderate to high soil fertility. At the site level (5 clones mean, yield reached 27.5 and 22.7 m3/ha/yr. on the two best sites (high fertility and low elevation, confirming the great potential of southern Québec (Canada for poplar culture. The productivity gap between the most and least productive sites has widened from year 8 to year 13, highlighting the need for high quality abandoned farmland site selection in terms of climate and soil fertility. Although clone selection could optimize yield across the studied environmental gradient, it cannot fully compensate for inadequate site selection.

  10. Cytological effects of pollen irradiation on wheat x leymus angustus hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guiying; Wang Linqing; Shi Jinguo

    2000-01-01

    Cytological effects of pollen irradiation on wheat x Leymus angustus hybrids were studied using callus clones and their derived plants of hybrid embryos as experimental materials. The results showed that variation range of chromosome number (VRCN) of hybrid callus clone became wider after pollination with irradiated paternal pollen. VRCN of the control clone was 43-64, and 26-66 was found in 9 Gy treatment clone. The average chromosome number per cell decreased by 4.9. Pollen irradiation enhanced chromosomal structural aberration (CSA). The CSA frequency was 45.35% in the control clone, and 77.31% in 9 Gy treatment clone. The main CSA in the control clone was telo-centric chromosome. Except for telo-centric chromosomes, there were also minichromosomes in 9 Gy treatment clone with the similar frequency to telo-centric chromosomes. The higher frequency of dicentric and ring chromosomes and fragments in 9 Gy treatment showed that pollen irradiation enhanced chromosomal translocation and recombination

  11. Cloning and superluminal signaling£

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cloning; cloning fidelity; superluminal signaling; state discrimination. PACS No. 03.65.Bz. 1. .... The possibility of superluminal signaling in quantum mechanics stems from the concept .... quantum mechanics and relativity [13]. .... [13] A Shimony, in Foundations of quantum mechanics in the light of new technology edited by.

  12. The ethics of human reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Carson

    2005-03-01

    This article addresses the question of whether human reproductive cloning could be ethically justifiable in at least some cases involving infertile couples who would choose cloning as a way to have a genetically related child. At present, the risk of congenital anomalies constitutes a compelling argument against human reproductive cloning. The article explores whether reproductive cloning could be ethically justifiable if, at some future time, cloning becomes possible without an elevated risk of anomalies. It is argued that freedom to use cloning is a form of procreative freedom and, as such, deserves respect. All of the objections that have been raised against human reproductive cloning fall under three main categories: those that appeal to the interests of the child, those based on consequences for society, and those arising from teleological views. Objections that appeal to the child's interests are, in turn, of two main kinds: consequentialist and deontological. All of these types of objections are examined, and it is found that each involves serious problems that prevent it from being a reasonable objection in the context of the infertility cases considered. It is concluded that human reproductive cloning would be ethically justifiable in at least some cases involving infertile couples, provided that it could be performed without an elevated risk of anomalies.

  13. Reversibility of continuous-variable quantum cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filip, Radim; Marek, Petr; Fiurasek, Jaromir

    2004-01-01

    We analyze a reversibility of optimal Gaussian 1→2 quantum cloning of a coherent state using only local operations on the clones and classical communication between them and propose a feasible experimental test of this feature. Performing Bell-type homodyne measurement on one clone and anticlone, an arbitrary unknown input state (not only a coherent state) can be restored in the other clone by applying appropriate local unitary displacement operation. We generalize this concept to a partial reversal of the cloning using only local operations and classical communication (LOCC) and we show that this procedure converts the symmetric cloner to an asymmetric cloner. Further, we discuss a distributed LOCC reversal in optimal 1→M Gaussian cloning of coherent states which transforms it to optimal 1→M ' cloning for M ' < M. Assuming the quantum cloning as a possible eavesdropping attack on quantum communication link, the reversibility can be utilized to improve the security of the link even after the attack

  14. Towards Clone Detection in UML Domain Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Code clones - that is, duplicate fragments of code - have been studied for a long time. There is strong evidence that code clones are a major source of software faults. Anecdotal evidence suggests that this phenomenon is not restricted to code, but occurs in models in a very similar way. So it is...

  15. Recombination-assisted megaprimer (RAM) cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Jacques; Alvarez, Emilia; Alvarez, Pedro J.J.

    2014-01-01

    No molecular cloning technique is considered universally reliable, and many suffer from being too laborious, complex, or expensive. Restriction-free cloning is among the simplest, most rapid, and cost-effective methods, but does not always provide successful results. We modified this method to enhance its success rate through the use of exponential amplification coupled with homologous end-joining. This new method, recombination-assisted megaprimer (RAM) cloning, significantly extends the application of restriction-free cloning, and allows efficient vector construction with much less time and effort when restriction-free cloning fails to provide satisfactory results. The following modifications were made to the protocol:•Limited number of PCR cycles for both megaprimer synthesis and the cloning reaction to reduce error propagation.•Elimination of phosphorylation and ligation steps previously reported for cloning methods that used exponential amplification, through the inclusion of a reverse primer in the cloning reaction with a 20 base pair region of homology to the forward primer.•The inclusion of 1 M betaine to enhance both reaction specificity and yield. PMID:26150930

  16. Challenges in regulating farm animal cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunning, Jennifer; Hartlev, Mette; Gamborg, Christian

    Report from the project Cloning in Public: A specific support action within the 6th framework programme, priority 5: Food quality and safety......Report from the project Cloning in Public: A specific support action within the 6th framework programme, priority 5: Food quality and safety...

  17. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  18. Radiation hybrid mapping of human chromosome 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francke, U.; Moon, A.J.; Chang, E.; Foellmer, B.; Strauss, B.; Haschke, A.; Chihlin Hsieh; Geigl, E.M.; Welch, S.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have generated a Chinese hamster V79/380-6 HPRT minus x human leukocyte hybrid cell line (18/V79) with chromosome 18 as the only human chromosome that is retained at high frequency without specific selection. Hybrid cells were selected in HAT medium, and 164 individual colonies were isolated. Of 110 colonies screened for human DNA by PCR amplification using a primer specific for human Alu repeats 67 (61%) were positive. These were expanded in culture for large-scale DNA preparations. Retesting expanded clones by PCR with Alu and LINE primers has revealed unique patterns of amplification products. In situ hybridization of biotin labelled total human DNA to metaphase spreads from various hybrids revealed the presence of one or more human DNA fragments integrated in hamster chromosomes. The authors have generated a resource that should allow the construction of a radiation map, to be compared with the YAC contig map also under construction in their laboratory

  19. Probabilistic cloning with supplementary information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, Koji; Shimamura, Junichi; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2005-01-01

    We consider probabilistic cloning of a state chosen from a mutually nonorthogonal set of pure states, with the help of a party holding supplementary information in the form of pure states. When the number of states is 2, we show that the best efficiency of producing m copies is always achieved by a two-step protocol in which the helping party first attempts to produce m-1 copies from the supplementary state, and if it fails, then the original state is used to produce m copies. On the other hand, when the number of states exceeds two, the best efficiency is not always achieved by such a protocol. We give examples in which the best efficiency is not achieved even if we allow any amount of one-way classical communication from the helping party

  20. Meat and milk compositions of bovine clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X. Cindy; Kubota, Chikara; Sakashita, Kunihito; Izaike, Yoshiaki; Okano, Ryoichi; Tabara, Norio; Curchoe, Carol; Jacob, Lavina; Zhang, Yuqin; Smith, Sadie; Bormann, Charles; Xu, Jie; Sato, Masumi; Andrew, Sheila; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2005-01-01

    The technology is now available for commercial cloning of farm animals for food production, but is the food safe for consumers? Here, we provide data on >100 parameters that compare the composition of meat and milk from beef and dairy cattle derived from cloning to those of genetic- and breed-matched control animals from conventional reproduction. The cloned animals and the comparators were managed under the same conditions and received the same diet. The composition of the meat and milk from the clones were largely not statistically different from those of matched comparators, and all parameters examined were within the normal industry standards or previously reported values. The data generated from our match-controlled experiments provide science-based information desired by regulatory agencies to address public concerns about the safety of meat and milk from somatic animal clones. PMID:15829585

  1. Chorioallantoic placenta defects in cloned mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakisaka-Saito, Noriko; Kohda, Takashi; Inoue, Kimiko; Ogonuki, Narumi; Miki, Hiromi; Hikichi, Takafusa; Mizutani, Eiji; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ogura, Atsuo; Ishino, Fumitoshi

    2006-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer technology has been applied to produce live clones successfully in several mammalian species, but the success rates are very low. In mice, about half of the nuclear transfer embryos undergo implantation, but very few survive to term. We undertook detailed histological analyses of placentas from cloned mouse embryos generated from cumulus cells at 10.5 dpc of pregnancy, by which stage most clones have terminated their development. At 10.5 dpc, the extraembryonic tissues displayed several defined histological patterns, each reflecting their stage of developmental arrest. The most notable abnormality was the poor development of the spongiotrophoblast layer of diploid cells. This is in contrast to the placental hyperplasia frequently observed in somatic clones at 12.5 dpc or later stages. A variety of structural abnormalities were also observed in the embryos. Both placental and embryonic defects likely contribute to the low success rate of the mouse clones

  2. "Goodbye Dolly?" The ethics of human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J

    1997-01-01

    The ethical implications of human clones have been much alluded to, but have seldom been examined with any rigour. This paper examines the possible uses and abuses of human cloning and draws out the principal ethical dimensions, both of what might be done and its meaning. The paper examines some of the major public and official responses to cloning by authorities such as President Clinton, the World Health Organisation, the European parliament, UNESCO, and others and reveals their inadequacies as foundations for a coherent public policy on human cloning. The paper ends by defending a conception of reproductive rights of "procreative autonomy" which shows human cloning to be not inconsistent with human rights and dignity. PMID:9451604

  3. [Human cloning in Muslim and Arab law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldeeb Abu-Sahlieh, Sami A

    2009-01-01

    Cloning is a modern medical procedure that Muslim religious authorities treat en resorting to the general principles established by classical Muslim law based on the Koran and the Sunnah of Muhhamad as the messenger of God. In this regard, human beings are not capable of deciding what is or what is not lawful without resorting to divine norms. Cloning clashes with several principles. Firstly, the principle of the respect for life in relation to surpernumeraries, but Muslim authors are not in unanimous agreement on the determination of the moment at which life begins. Secondly, is the respect of progeny: cloning could only take place between a married couple. But even if these two principles are respected, cloning poses two major problems: the diversity of species expounded by the Koran and the Sunnah and a lack of interest. Which explains the quasi-unanimous opposition of Muslim writings regarding cloning.

  4. Cloning and functional expression of a human pancreatic islet glucose-transporter cDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permutt, M.A.; Koranyi, L.; Keller, K.; Lacy, P.E.; Scharp, D.W.; Mueckler, M.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that pancreatic islet glucose transport is mediated by a high-K m , low-affinity facilitated transporter similar to that expressed in liver. To determine the relationship between islet and liver glucose transporters, liver-type glucose-transporter cDNA clones were isolated from a human liver cDNA library. The liver-type glucose-transporter cDNA clone hybridized to mRNA transcripts of the same size in human liver and pancreatic islet RNA. A cDNA library was prepared from purified human pancreatic islet tissue and screened with human liver-type glucose-transporter cDNA. The authors isolated two overlapping cDNA clones encompassing 2600 base pairs, which encode a pancreatic islet protein identical in sequence to that of the putative liver-type glucose-transporter protein. Xenopus oocytes injected with synthetic mRNA transcribed from a full-length cDNA construct exhibited increased uptake of 2-deoxyglucose, confirming the functional identity of the clone. These cDNA clones can now be used to study regulation of expression of the gene and to assess the role of inherited defects in this gene as a candidate for inherited susceptibility to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

  5. Human Chromosome 21: Mapping of the chromosomes and cloning of cDNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonarakis, S.E.

    1991-09-01

    The objective of the research funded by DOE grant DE-FG02-89ER60857 from 6/15/89 to 8/31/91 was to contribute to the physical mapping of human chromosome 21 (HC21) by cloning large fragments of DNA into Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs) and identify YACs that map on HC21. A total of 54 sequence tagged sites (STS) have been developed and mapped in our laboratory to HC21 and can be used as initial reference points for YAC identification and construction of overlapping clones. A small YAC library was constructed which is HC21 specific. DNA from somatic cell hybrid WAV17 or from flow-sorted HC21 was partially digested with EcoRI, ligated into vectors PJS97, PJS98, and YACs have been obtained with average size insert of more than 300 kb. This library has been deposited in D. Patterson's lab for the Joint YAC screening effort. Additional YAC libraries from ICI Pharmaceuticals or from Los Alamos National Laboratories have been screened with several STS and positive YACs have been identified. Work in progress includes screening of YAC libraries in order to construct overlapping clones, characterization of the cloning ends of YACs, characterization of additional STS and cloning of HC21 specific cDNAs. 15 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Lack of specific hybridization between the lep genes of Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus licheniformis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijl, J M; Jong, de Anne; Smith, H; Bron, Sierd; Venema, G

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an attempt to clone the Bacillus licheniformis lep gene, encoding signal peptidase, using the Salmonella typhimurium lep gene as a hybridization probe. Although a hybridizing fragment was obtained, DNA sequence analysis indicated that it did not contain the lep gene. Instead,

  7. Analysis of genetic and environmental effects on hybrid poplar rooting in Central and Northern Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Don Riemenschneider; Edmund Bauer

    2000-01-01

    We studied genetic and environmental effects on adventitious root initiation and growth because rooting is biologically prerequisite to the establishment of hybrid poplar plantations. Six clones from two pedigrees (pure Populus deltoides "cottonwoods" and P. deltoides x P. maximowiczii hybrids) were...

  8. First evidence of intraclonal genetic exchange in trypanosomatids using two Leishmania infantum fluorescent transgenic clones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Calvo-Álvarez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mode of reproduction in Leishmania spp has been argued to be essentially clonal. However, recent data (genetic analysis of populations and co-infections in sand flies have proposed the existence of a non-obligate sexual cycle in the extracellular stage of the parasite within the sand fly vector. In this article we propose the existence of intraclonal genetic exchange in the natural vector of Leishmania infantum.We have developed transgenic L. infantum lines expressing drug resistance markers linked to green and red fluorescent reporters. We hypothesized whether those cells with identical genotype can recognize each other and mate. Both types of markers were successfully exchanged within the sand fly midgut of the natural vector Phlebotomus perniciosus when individuals from these species were fed with a mixture of parental clones. Using the yellow phenotype and drug resistance markers, we provide evidence for genetic exchange in L. infantum. The hybrid progeny appeared to be triploid based on DNA content analysis. The hybrid clone analyzed was stable throughout the complete parasite life cycle. The progress of infections by the hybrid clone in BALB/c mice caused a reduction in parasite loads in both spleen and liver, and provided weight values similar to those obtained with uninfected mice. Spleen arginase activity was also significantly reduced relative to parental strains.A L. infantum hybrid lineage was obtained from intraclonal genetic exchange within the midgut of the natural vector, suggesting the ability of this parasite to recognize the same genotype and mate. The yellow hybrid progeny is stable throughout the whole parasite life cycle but with a slower virulence, which correlates well with the lower arginase activity detected both in vitro and in vivo infections.

  9. Brain cDNA clone for human cholinesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTiernan, C.; Adkins, S.; Chatonnet, A.; Vaughan, T.A.; Bartels, C.F.; Kott, M.; Rosenberry, T.L.; La Du, B.N.; Lockridge, O.

    1987-01-01

    A cDNA library from human basal ganglia was screened with oligonucleotide probes corresponding to portions of the amino acid sequence of human serum cholinesterase. Five overlapping clones, representing 2.4 kilobases, were isolated. The sequenced cDNA contained 207 base pairs of coding sequence 5' to the amino terminus of the mature protein in which there were four ATG translation start sites in the same reading frame as the protein. Only the ATG coding for Met-(-28) lay within a favorable consensus sequence for functional initiators. There were 1722 base pairs of coding sequence corresponding to the protein found circulating in human serum. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA exactly matched the 574 amino acid sequence of human serum cholinesterase, as previously determined by Edman degradation. Therefore, our clones represented cholinesterase rather than acetylcholinesterase. It was concluded that the amino acid sequences of cholinesterase from two different tissues, human brain and human serum, were identical. Hybridization of genomic DNA blots suggested that a single gene, or very few genes coded for cholinesterase

  10. Economical quantum cloning in any dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durt, Thomas; Fiurasek, Jaromir; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of cloning a d-dimensional quantum system without an ancilla is explored, extending on the economical phase-covariant cloning machine for qubits found in Phys. Rev. A 60, 2764 (1999). We prove the impossibility of constructing an economical version of the optimal universal 1→2 cloning machine in any dimension. We also show, using an ansatz on the generic form of cloning machines, that the d-dimensional 1→2 phase-covariant cloner, which optimally clones all balanced superpositions with arbitrary phases, can be realized economically only in dimension d=2. The used ansatz is supported by numerical evidence up to d=7. An economical phase-covariant cloner can nevertheless be constructed for d>2, albeit with a slightly lower fidelity than that of the optimal cloner requiring an ancilla. Finally, using again an ansatz on cloning machines, we show that an economical version of the 1→2 Fourier-covariant cloner, which optimally clones the computational basis and its Fourier transform, is also possible only in dimension d=2

  11. Human embryo cloning prohibited in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Athena

    2005-12-01

    Since the birth of Dolly (the cloned sheep) in 1997, debates have arisen on the ethical and legal questions of cloning-for-biomedical-research (more commonly termed "therapeutic cloning") and of reproductive cloning using human gametes. Hong Kong enacted the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance (Cap 561) in 2000. Section 15(1)(e) of this Ordinance prohibits the "replacing of the nucleus of a cell of an embryo with a nucleus taken from any other cell," i.e., nucleus substitution. Section 15(1)(f) prohibits the cloning of any embryo. The scope of the latter, therefore, is arguably the widest, prohibiting all cloning techniques such as cell nucleus replacement, embryo splitting, parthenogenesis, and cloning using stem cell lines. Although the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance is not yet fully operative, this article examines how these prohibitions may adversely impact on basic research and the vision of the Hong Kong scientific community. It concludes that in light of recent scientific developments, it is time to review if the law offers a coherent set of policies in this area.

  12. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available mixed short sisal/glass hybrid fibre reinforced low density polyethylene composites was investigated by Kalaprasad et al [25].Chemical surface modifications such as alkali, acetic anhydride, stearic acid, permanganate, maleic anhydride, silane...

  13. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  14. Isolation of human simple repeat loci by hybridization selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J A; Neumann, R; Gobert, S; Jeffreys, A J

    1994-04-01

    We have isolated short tandem repeat arrays from the human genome, using a rapid method involving filter hybridization to enrich for tri- or tetranucleotide tandem repeats. About 30% of clones from the enriched library cross-hybridize with probes containing trimeric or tetrameric tandem arrays, facilitating the rapid isolation of large numbers of clones. In an initial analysis of 54 clones, 46 different tandem arrays were identified. Analysis of these tandem repeat loci by PCR showed that 24 were polymorphic in length; substantially higher levels of polymorphism were displayed by the tetrameric repeat loci isolated than by the trimeric repeats. Primary mapping of these loci by linkage analysis showed that they derive from 17 chromosomes, including the X chromosome. We anticipate the use of this strategy for the efficient isolation of tandem repeats from other sources of genomic DNA, including DNA from flow-sorted chromosomes, and from other species.

  15. Isolation and characterization of full-length cDNA clones coding for cholinesterase from fetal human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prody, C.A.; Zevin-Sonkin, D.; Gnatt, A.; Goldberg, O.; Soreq, H.

    1987-01-01

    To study the primary structure and regulation of human cholinesterases, oligodeoxynucleotide probes were prepared according to a consensus peptide sequence present in the active site of both human serum pseudocholinesterase and Torpedo electric organ true acetylcholinesterase. Using these probes, the authors isolated several cDNA clones from λgt10 libraries of fetal brain and liver origins. These include 2.4-kilobase cDNA clones that code for a polypeptide containing a putative signal peptide and the N-terminal, active site, and C-terminal peptides of human BtChoEase, suggesting that they code either for BtChoEase itself or for a very similar but distinct fetal form of cholinesterase. In RNA blots of poly(A) + RNA from the cholinesterase-producing fetal brain and liver, these cDNAs hybridized with a single 2.5-kilobase band. Blot hybridization to human genomic DNA revealed that these fetal BtChoEase cDNA clones hybridize with DNA fragments of the total length of 17.5 kilobases, and signal intensities indicated that these sequences are not present in many copies. Both the cDNA-encoded protein and its nucleotide sequence display striking homology to parallel sequences published for Torpedo AcChoEase. These finding demonstrate extensive homologies between the fetal BtChoEase encoded by these clones and other cholinesterases of various forms and species

  16. Human cloning and human dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Eslami

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Catholic Church and most of Muslims believe that human cloning is in contrast with human rights. They argue that applying Somatic Nuclear Transfer Technique or so-called cloning to humans is against human dignity. Their main reason is that the cloned person would be a copy or shadow of another person and lack his or her identity and uniqueness. They also argue that in the process of cloning human beings would be treated as laboratory mice. This article tries to evaluate this kind of argumentation and shows that the "human dignity" expression in the relevant writings is vague and has been used inappropriately. مسیحیان و برخی از مسلمانان استدلال می‌کنند که کاربست تکنیک شبیه‌سازی ناقض کرامت انسانی است. این دلیل خود به صورت‌های مختلفی بیان می‌شود، مانند آنکه انسان موضوع آزمایش‌های علمی قرار می‌گیرد و با او مانند حیوانات رفتار می‌شود. گاه نیز تغییر نحوة تولید مثل، مایة نقض کرامت انسانی قلمداد می‌گردد و گاه به مسئلة از بین رفتن هویت فردی اشاره می‌شود. نگارنده در دو قسمت، دیدگاه مسیحیان و مسلمانان را در این باره نقل و تحلیل کرده است و کوشیده است نشان دهد که استناد به مفهوم کرامت انسانی در این جا مبهم و ناگویاست و مخالفان کوشش دقیقی در جهت تبیین دلیل خود به عمل نیاورده‌اند.

  17. Molecular cloning of transcripts induced by UV-radiation in rodent cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornace, A.J. Jr.; Mitchell, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Several inducible DNA repair genes have been well characterized in bacteria. In eukaryotes including mammalian cells, there is increasing evidence that similar events may occur. Recently, the authors have shown that hybridization subtraction can be used to enrich for sequences induced only several fold by a particular cell treatment such as heat shock. Chinese hamster V79 cells were UV-irradiated with 17 Jm/sup -2/ and cDNA was synthesized from the polyadenylated (poly A) RNA. This ''UV'' cDNA was hybridized with a 3 fold excess of polyA RNA from unirradiated cells and the nonhybridizing cDNA was isolated. With this approach, UV-induced sequences were enriched over 20 fold. This enriched cDNA was cloned into a high copy number plasmid and a cDNA library was constructed. By RNA dot blot and northern analysis, 42 clones from this library were found to represent transcripts induced 3 to 25 fold by UV. The most common isolates were found to be metallothionein transcripts by DNA sequencing. The metallothionein transcripts were found to be induced 10 to 25 fold by UV with maximum induction at 4-8 h after 10 Jm/sup -2/. A similar approach was also used with a Chinese hamster ovary line which does not express metallothionein and multiple clones were isolated which represented transcripts induced 3-15 fold by UV. Except for the metallothionein clones, the other Chinese hamster cDNA clones have not been identified, but it is probable that the protein products of at least some of these transcripts play a role in the cellular response to UV damage

  18. Molecular cloning and sequence of the B880 holochrome gene from Rhodospirillum rubrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Restriction fragments of genomic Rhodospirillum rubrum DNA were selected according to size by electrophoresis followed by hybridization with [ 32 P]mRNA encoding the two B880 holochrome polypeptides. The fragments were cloned into Escherchia coli C600 with plasmid pBR327 as a vector. The clones were selected by colony hybridization with 32 P-holochrome-mRNA and counter selected by hybridization with Rs. rubrum ribosomal RNA, a minor contaminant of the mRNA preparation. Chimeric plasmid pRR22 was shown to contain the B880 genes by hybrid selection of B880 holochrome-mRNA. A restriction map of its 2.2-kilobase insert and the sequence of a 430 base pair fragment thereof is reported. Genes α and β are nearly contiguous, indicating that they are transcribed as a single operon. The predicted amino acid sequences coincide with the sequences of the α and β polypeptides established in other laboratories, except for additional C-terminal tails of 10 and 13 amino acid residues, respectively

  19. Molecular cloning and biological characterization of the human excision repair gene ERCC-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeda, G.; van Ham, R.C.; Masurel, R.; Westerveld, A.; Odijk, H.; de Wit, J.; Bootsma, D.; van der Eb, A.J.; Hoeijmakers, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    In this report we present the cloning, partial characterization, and preliminary studies of the biological activity of a human gene, designated ERCC-3, involved in early steps of the nucleotide excision repair pathway. The gene was cloned after genomic DNA transfection of human (HeLa) chromosomal DNA together with dominant marker pSV3gptH to the UV-sensitive, incision-defective Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mutant 27-1. This mutant belongs to complementation group 3 of repair-deficient rodent mutants. After selection of UV-resistant primary and secondary 27-1 transformants, human sequences associated with the induced UV resistance were rescued in cosmids from the DNA of a secondary transformant by using a linked dominant marker copy and human repetitive DNA as probes. From coinheritance analysis of the ERCC-3 region in independent transformants, we deduce that the gene has a size of 35 to 45 kilobases, of which one essential segment has so far been refractory to cloning. Conserved unique human sequences hybridizing to a 3.0-kilobase mRNA were used to isolate apparently full-length cDNA clones. Upon transfection to 27-1 cells, the ERCC-3 cDNA, inserted in a mammalian expression vector, induced specific and (virtually) complete correction of the UV sensitivity and unscheduled DNA synthesis of mutants of complementation group 3 with very high efficiency. Mutant 27-1 is, unlike other mutants of complementation group 3, also very sensitive toward small alkylating agents. This unique property of the mutant is not corrected by introduction of the ERCC-3 cDNA, indicating that it may be caused by an independent second mutation in another repair function. By hybridization to DNA of a human x rodent hybrid cell panel, the ERCC-3 gene was assigned to chromosome 2, in agreement with data based on cell fusion

  20. Coding sequence of human rho cDNAs clone 6 and clone 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chardin, P; Madaule, P; Tavitian, A

    1988-03-25

    The authors have isolated human cDNAs including the complete coding sequence for two rho proteins corresponding to the incomplete isolates previously described as clone 6 and clone 9. The deduced a.a. sequences, when compared to the a.a. sequence deduced from clone 12 cDNA, show that there are in human at least three highly homologous rho genes. They suggest that clone 12 be named rhoA, clone 6 : rhoB and clone 9 : rhoC. RhoA, B and C proteins display approx. 30% a.a. identity with ras proteins,. mainly clustered in four highly homologous internal regions corresponding to the GTP binding site; however at least one significant difference is found; the 3 rho proteins have an Alanine in position corresponding to ras Glycine 13, suggesting that rho and ras proteins might have slightly different biochemical properties.

  1. Host Adaptation and Speciation through Hybridization and Polyploidy in Phytophthora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertier, Lien; Leus, Leen; D’hondt, Liesbet; de Cock, Arthur W. A. M.; Höfte, Monica

    2013-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that interspecific hybridization is a common event in phytophthora evolution. Yet, the fundamental processes underlying interspecific hybridization and the consequences for its ecological fitness and distribution are not well understood. We studied hybridization events in phytophthora clade 8b. This is a cold-tolerant group of plant pathogenic oomycetes in which six host-specific species have been described that mostly attack winter-grown vegetables. Hybrid characterization was done by sequencing and cloning of two nuclear (ITS and Ypt1) and two mitochondrial loci (Cox1 and Nadh1) combined with DNA content estimation using flow cytometry. Three different mtDNA haplotypes were recovered among the presumed hybrid isolates, dividing the hybrids into three types, with different parental species involved. In the nuclear genes, additivity, i.e. the presence of two alleles coming from different parents, was detected. Hybrid isolates showed large variations in DNA content, which was positively correlated with the additivity in nuclear loci, indicating allopolyploid hybridization followed by a process of diploidization. Moreover, indications of homeologous recombination were found in the hybrids by cloning ITS products. The hybrid isolates have been isolated from a range of hosts that have not been reported previously for clade 8b species, indicating that they have novel pathogenic potential. Next to this, DNA content measurements of the non-hybrid clade 8b species suggest that polyploidy is a common feature of this clade. We hypothesize that interspecific hybridization and polyploidy are two linked phenomena in phytophthora, and that these processes might play an important and ongoing role in the evolution of this genus. PMID:24386473

  2. Optimal cloning of mixed Gaussian states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guta, Madalin; Matsumoto, Keiji

    2006-01-01

    We construct the optimal one to two cloning transformation for the family of displaced thermal equilibrium states of a harmonic oscillator, with a fixed and known temperature. The transformation is Gaussian and it is optimal with respect to the figure of merit based on the joint output state and norm distance. The proof of the result is based on the equivalence between the optimal cloning problem and that of optimal amplification of Gaussian states which is then reduced to an optimization problem for diagonal states of a quantum oscillator. A key concept in finding the optimum is that of stochastic ordering which plays a similar role in the purely classical problem of Gaussian cloning. The result is then extended to the case of n to m cloning of mixed Gaussian states

  3. The Shiite Pluralistic Position on Human Cloning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyid Hasan Islami Ardekani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With regard to human cloning or artificial human reproduction – and contrary to the opinions of Sunni scholars - Shiite thinkers have not held a unified position. After having surveyed a number of Shiite fatwas and analyses on the subject, this essay will classify them into four groups. The first group states that we are granted absolute permission to engage in human cloning; while the second group believes that there is limited permission; the third group argues that cloning as such is primarily permitted but because of its consequences and secondary grounds it is prohibited and unlawful; and the fourth group is of the view that cloning as such and by itself is prohibited and unlawful. In what follows, the author has examined these four views, ending in support of the permission theory.

  4. DNA microarrays : a molecular cloning manual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sambrook, Joseph; Bowtell, David

    2002-01-01

    .... This manual, designed to extend and to complement the information in the best-selling Molecular Cloning, is a synthesis of the expertise and experience of more than 30 contributors all innovators in a fast moving field...

  5. Towards Clone Detection in UML Domain Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Code clones (i.e., duplicate fragments of code) have been studied for long, and there is strong evidence that they are a major source of software faults. Anecdotal evidence suggests that this phenomenon occurs similarly in models, suggesting that model clones are as detrimental to model quality...... as they are to code quality. However, programming language code and visual models have significant differences that make it difficult to directly transfer notions and algorithms developed in the code clone arena to model clones. In this article, we develop and propose a definition of the notion of “model clone” based...... we believe that our approach advances the state of the art significantly, it is restricted to UML models, its results leave room for improvements, and there is no validation by field studies....

  6. Generation of phase-covariant quantum cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimipour, V.; Rezakhani, A.T.

    2002-01-01

    It is known that in phase-covariant quantum cloning, the equatorial states on the Bloch sphere can be cloned with a fidelity higher than the optimal bound established for universal quantum cloning. We generalize this concept to include other states on the Bloch sphere with a definite z component of spin. It is shown that once we know the z component, we can always clone a state with a fidelity higher than the universal value and that of equatorial states. We also make a detailed study of the entanglement properties of the output copies and show that the equatorial states are the only states that give rise to a separable density matrix for the outputs

  7. Cloning and expression of a cDNA coding for a human monocyte-derived plasminogen activator inhibitor.

    OpenAIRE

    Antalis, T M; Clark, M A; Barnes, T; Lehrbach, P R; Devine, P L; Schevzov, G; Goss, N H; Stephens, R W; Tolstoshev, P

    1988-01-01

    Human monocyte-derived plasminogen activator inhibitor (mPAI-2) was purified to homogeneity from the U937 cell line and partially sequenced. Oligonucleotide probes derived from this sequence were used to screen a cDNA library prepared from U937 cells. One positive clone was sequenced and contained most of the coding sequence as well as a long incomplete 3' untranslated region (1112 base pairs). This cDNA sequence was shown to encode mPAI-2 by hybrid-select translation. A cDNA clone encoding t...

  8. Skewed X-inactivation in cloned mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senda, Sho; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Ohgane, Jun; Hattori, Naka; Tanaka, Satoshi; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Shiota, Kunio

    2004-01-01

    In female mammals, dosage compensation for X-linked genes is accomplished by inactivation of one of two X chromosomes. The X-inactivation ratio (a percentage of the cells with inactivated maternal X chromosomes in the whole cells) is skewed as a consequence of various genetic mutations, and has been observed in a number of X-linked disorders. We previously reported that phenotypically normal full-term cloned mouse fetuses had loci with inappropriate DNA methylation. Thus, cloned mice are excellent models to study abnormal epigenetic events in mammalian development. In the present study, we analyzed X-inactivation ratios in adult female cloned mice (B6C3F1). Kidneys of eight naturally produced controls and 11 cloned mice were analyzed. Although variations in X-inactivation ratio among the mice were observed in both groups, the distributions were significantly different (Ansary-Bradley test, P < 0.01). In particular, 2 of 11 cloned mice showed skewed X-inactivation ratios (19.2% and 86.8%). Similarly, in intestine, 1 of 10 cloned mice had a skewed ratio (75.7%). Skewed X-inactivation was observed to various degrees in different tissues of different individuals, suggesting that skewed X-inactivation in cloned mice is the result of secondary cell selection in combination with stochastic distortion of primary choice. The present study is the first demonstration that skewed X-inactivation occurs in cloned animals. This finding is important for understanding both nuclear transfer technology and etiology of X-linked disorders

  9. Japan. Human cloning ban allows some research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normile, D

    2000-12-08

    TOKYO--Japanese legislators last week approved a ban on human cloning that leaves room for the use of certain techniques in basic research. The action comes at the same time officials in two other countries--China and France--aired similar proposals that would prohibit so-called reproductive cloning while recognizing the possible importance of the technology in combating disease and improving human health.

  10. Endangered wolves cloned from adult somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Oh, Hyun Ju; Yuda, Fibrianto; Kim, Hye Jin; Hwang, Woo Suk; Hossein, Mohammad Shamim; Kim, Joung Joo; Shin, Nam Shik; Kang, Sung Keun; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2007-01-01

    Over the world, canine species, including the gray wolf, have been gradually endangered or extinct. Many efforts have been made to recover and conserve these canids. The aim of this study was to produce the endangered gray wolf with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for conservation. Adult ear fibroblasts from a female gray wolf (Canis lupus) were isolated and cultured in vitro as donor cells. Because of limitations in obtaining gray wolf matured oocytes, in vivo matured canine oocytes obtained by flushing the oviducts from the isthmus to the infundibulum were used. After removing the cumulus cells, the oocyte was enucleated, microinjected, fused with a donor cell, and activated. The reconstructed cloned wolf embryos were transferred into the oviducts of the naturally synchronized surrogate mothers. Two pregnancies were detected by ultrasonography at 23 days of gestation in recipient dogs. In each surrogate dog, two fetal sacs were confirmed by early pregnancy diagnosis at 23 days, but only two cloned wolves were delivered. The first cloned wolf was delivered by cesarean section on October 18, 2005, 60 days after embryo transfer. The second cloned wolf was delivered on October 26, 2005, at 61 days postembryo transfer. Microsatellite analysis was performed with genomic DNA from the donor wolf, the two cloned wolves, and the two surrogate female recipients to confirm the genetic identity of the cloned wolves. Analysis of 19 microsatellite loci confirmed that the cloned wolves were genetically identical to the donor wolf. In conclusion, we demonstrated live birth of two cloned gray wolves by nuclear transfer of wolf somatic cells into enucleated canine oocyte, indicating that SCNT is a practical approach for conserving endangered canids.

  11. Embryonic hybrid cells: a powerful tool for studying pluripotency and reprogramming of the differentiated cell chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEROV OLEG

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of embryonic hybrid cells obtained by fusion of embryonic stem (ES or teratocarcinoma (TC cells with differentiated cells are reviewed. Usually, ES-somatic or TC-somatic hybrids retain pluripotent capacity at high levels quite comparable or nearly identical with those of the pluripotent partner. When cultured in vitro, ES-somatic- and TC-somatic hybrid cell clones, as a rule, lose the chromosomes derived from the somatic partner; however, in some clones the autosomes from the ES cell partner were also eliminated, i.e. the parental chromosomes segregated bilaterally in the ES-somatic cell hybrids. This opens up ways for searching correlation between the pluripotent status of the hybrid cells and chromosome segregation patterns and therefore for identifying the particular chromosomes involved in the maintenance of pluripotency. Use of selective medium allows to isolate in vitro the clones of ES-somatic hybrid cells in which "the pluripotent" chromosome can be replaced by "the somatic" counterpart carrying the selectable gene. Unlike the TC-somatic cell hybrids, the ES-somatic hybrids with a near-diploid complement of chromosomes are able to contribute to various tissues of chimeric animals after injection into the blastocoel cavity. Analysis of the chimeric animals showed that the "somatic" chromosome undergoes reprogramming during development. The prospects for the identification of the chromosomes that are involved in the maintenance of pluripotency and its cis- and trans-regulation in the hybrid cell genome are discussed.

  12. Clone tag detection in distributed RFID systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaludin, Hazalila; Mahdin, Hairulnizam

    2018-01-01

    Although Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is poised to displace barcodes, security vulnerabilities pose serious challenges for global adoption of the RFID technology. Specifically, RFID tags are prone to basic cloning and counterfeiting security attacks. A successful cloning of the RFID tags in many commercial applications can lead to many serious problems such as financial losses, brand damage, safety and health of the public. With many industries such as pharmaceutical and businesses deploying RFID technology with a variety of products, it is important to tackle RFID tag cloning problem and improve the resistance of the RFID systems. To this end, we propose an approach for detecting cloned RFID tags in RFID systems with high detection accuracy and minimal overhead thus overcoming practical challenges in existing approaches. The proposed approach is based on consistency of dual hash collisions and modified count-min sketch vector. We evaluated the proposed approach through extensive experiments and compared it with existing baseline approaches in terms of execution time and detection accuracy under varying RFID tag cloning ratio. The results of the experiments show that the proposed approach outperforms the baseline approaches in cloned RFID tag detection accuracy. PMID:29565982

  13. Reproductive cloning combined with genetic modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, C

    2005-11-01

    Although there is widespread opposition to reproductive cloning, some have argued that its use by infertile couples to have genetically related children would be ethically justifiable. Others have suggested that lesbian or gay couples might wish to use cloning to have genetically related children. Most of the main objections to human reproductive cloning are based on the child's lack of unique nuclear DNA. In the future, it may be possible safely to create children using cloning combined with genetic modifications, so that they have unique nuclear DNA. The genetic modifications could be aimed at giving such children genetic characteristics of both members of the couple concerned. Thus, cloning combined with genetic modification could be appealing to infertile, lesbian, or gay couples who seek genetically related children who have genetic characteristics of both members. In such scenarios, the various objections to human reproductive cloning that are based on the lack of genetic uniqueness would no longer be applicable. The author argues that it would be ethically justifiable for such couples to create children in this manner, assuming these techniques could be used safely.

  14. Emotional reactions to human reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Extant surveys of people's attitudes towards human reproductive cloning focus on moral judgements alone, not emotional reactions or sentiments. This is especially important given that some (especially Leon Kass) have argued against such cloning on the ground that it engenders widespread negative emotions, like disgust, that provide a moral guide. To provide some data on emotional reactions to human cloning, with a focus on repugnance, given its prominence in the literature. This brief mixed-method study measures the self-reported attitudes and emotions (positive or negative) towards cloning from a sample of participants in the USA. Most participants condemned cloning as immoral and said it should be illegal. The most commonly reported positive sentiment was by far interest/curiosity. Negative emotions were much more varied, but anxiety was the most common. Only about a third of participants selected disgust or repugnance as something they felt, and an even smaller portion had this emotion come to mind prior to seeing a list of options. Participants felt primarily interested and anxious about human reproductive cloning. They did not primarily feel disgust or repugnance. This provides initial empirical evidence that such a reaction is not appropriately widespread. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Clone tag detection in distributed RFID systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaludin, Hazalila; Mahdin, Hairulnizam; Abawajy, Jemal H

    2018-01-01

    Although Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is poised to displace barcodes, security vulnerabilities pose serious challenges for global adoption of the RFID technology. Specifically, RFID tags are prone to basic cloning and counterfeiting security attacks. A successful cloning of the RFID tags in many commercial applications can lead to many serious problems such as financial losses, brand damage, safety and health of the public. With many industries such as pharmaceutical and businesses deploying RFID technology with a variety of products, it is important to tackle RFID tag cloning problem and improve the resistance of the RFID systems. To this end, we propose an approach for detecting cloned RFID tags in RFID systems with high detection accuracy and minimal overhead thus overcoming practical challenges in existing approaches. The proposed approach is based on consistency of dual hash collisions and modified count-min sketch vector. We evaluated the proposed approach through extensive experiments and compared it with existing baseline approaches in terms of execution time and detection accuracy under varying RFID tag cloning ratio. The results of the experiments show that the proposed approach outperforms the baseline approaches in cloned RFID tag detection accuracy.

  16. Cloning: Past, Present, and the Exciting Future. Breakthroughs in Bioscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Berardino, Marie A.

    This document explores the history of cloning by focusing on Dolly the Sheep, one of the first large animal clonings. The disadvantages and advantages of transgenic clones are discussed as well as the future implications of cloning from the perspective of human health. (Contains 10 resources.) (YDS)

  17. Public perceptions of farm animal cloning in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper

    This report presents a picture of European opinion on farm animal cloning. In the report, both agricultural and biomedical applications of farm animal cloning are considered. With the arrival of Dolly, animal cloning became an integral part of the biotech debate, but this debate did not isolate...... animal cloning as a single issue....

  18. Molecular cloning of the human gene for von Willebrand factor and identification of the transcription initiation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, C.J.; Underdahl, J.P.; Levene, R.B.; Ravera, C.P.; Morin, M.J.; Dombalagian, M.J.; Ricca, G.; Livingston, D.M.; Lynch, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    A series of overlapping cosmid genomic clones have been isolated that contain the entire coding unit of the human gene for van Willebrand factor (vWf), a major component of the hemostatic system. The cloned segments span ≅ 175 kilobases of human DNA sequence, and hybridization analysis suggest that the vWf coding unit is ≅150 kilobases in length. Within one of these clones, the vWF transcription initiation site has been mapped and a portion of the vWf promoter region has been sequenced, revealing a typical TATA box, a downstream CCAAT box, and a perfect downstream repeat of the 8 base pairs containing the transcription start site. Sequencing of a segment of another genomic clone has revealed the vWF translation termination codon. Where tested, comparative restriction analysis of cloned and chromosomal DNA segments strongly suggests that no major alterations occurred during cloning and that there is only one complete copy of the vWf gene in the human haploid genome. Similar analyses of DNA from vWf-producing endothelial cells and nonexpressing leukocytes suggest that vWf gene expression is not accompanied by gross genomic rearrangements. In addition, there is significant homology of C-terminal coding sequences among the vWf genes of several vertebrate species

  19. Chromosomal mapping of canine-derived BAC clones to the red fox and American mink genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukekova, Anna V; Vorobieva, Nadegda V; Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Johnson, Jennifer L; Temnykh, Svetlana V; Yudkin, Dmitry V; Trut, Lyudmila N; Andre, Catherine; Galibert, Francis; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Acland, Gregory M; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2009-01-01

    High-quality sequencing of the dog (Canis lupus familiaris) genome has enabled enormous progress in genetic mapping of canine phenotypic variation. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes), another canid species, also exhibits a wide range of variation in coat color, morphology, and behavior. Although the fox genome has not yet been sequenced, canine genomic resources have been used to construct a meiotic linkage map of the red fox genome and begin genetic mapping in foxes. However, a more detailed gene-specific comparative map between the dog and fox genomes is required to establish gene order within homologous regions of dog and fox chromosomes and to refine breakpoints between homologous chromosomes of the 2 species. In the current study, we tested whether canine-derived gene-containing bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones can be routinely used to build a gene-specific map of the red fox genome. Forty canine BAC clones were mapped to the red fox genome by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Each clone was uniquely assigned to a single fox chromosome, and the locations of 38 clones agreed with cytogenetic predictions. These results clearly demonstrate the utility of FISH mapping for construction of a whole-genome gene-specific map of the red fox. The further possibility of using canine BAC clones to map genes in the American mink (Mustela vison) genome was also explored. Much lower success was obtained for this more distantly related farm-bred species, although a few BAC clones were mapped to the predicted chromosomal locations.

  20. Cloning the entanglement of a pair of quantum bits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamoureux, Louis-Philippe; Navez, Patrick; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurasek, Jaromir

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that any quantum operation that perfectly clones the entanglement of all maximally entangled qubit pairs cannot preserve separability. This 'entanglement no-cloning' principle naturally suggests that some approximate cloning of entanglement is nevertheless allowed by quantum mechanics. We investigate a separability-preserving optimal cloning machine that duplicates all maximally entangled states of two qubits, resulting in 0.285 bits of entanglement per clone, while a local cloning machine only yields 0.060 bits of entanglement per clone

  1. DENSIDADE BÁSICA E RETRATIBILIDADE DA MADEIRA DE CLONES DE TRÊS ESPÉCIES DE Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeison Cesar Batista

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the planted forests that supply the national wood industry, the genus Eucalyptus has become the most important, due to its fast growth, ease of large scale planting and variability of wood use. The generation of new hybrids and clones is a reality in the national practice of silviculture, and there is great interest currently in finding genetic improvements, mainly for higher volumetric gains and resistance in rough conditions of planting, such as pest attacks, periods of drought, low soil fertility, etc. The basic density is one of the most important physical properties of wood because it relates directly to other properties, including the anisotropic shrinkage. Such properties indicate the rational use of a species in a certain wood product. The aim of this work was to determine the basic density and the anisotropic shrinkage of five wood clones for each one of the following species: Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii. Clone 5 of Eucalyptus saligna presented the highest basic density (0.56 g/cm³ and was the most dimensionally instable. Of all the species, there was only a direct relation among basic density, maximum volumetric shrinkage and maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient in this clone. Considering maximum volumetric shrinkage as the criterion, clone 3 was the most dimensionally stable. Clones 2 and 3 of Eucalyptus grandis presented the least and the highest basic density, respectively, with 0.40 and 0.49 g/cm³. It was not possible to distinguish among clones 1, 3 and 4 in terms of dimensional stability, and considering maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient as the criterion, clone 5 was the most dimensionally instable. For Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus dunnii it was not possible to distinguish which clone presented the least basic density. Clone 3 of Eucalyptus dunnii presented the highest basic density (0.65 g/cm³ and considering maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient as the criterion, it

  2. Quantum cloning of mixed states in symmetric subspaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Heng

    2003-01-01

    Quantum-cloning machine for arbitrary mixed states in symmetric subspaces is proposed. This quantum-cloning machine can be used to copy part of the output state of another quantum-cloning machine and is useful in quantum computation and quantum information. The shrinking factor of this quantum cloning achieves the well-known upper bound. When the input is identical pure states, two different fidelities of this cloning machine are optimal

  3. Chromosome microdissection and cloning in human genome and genetic disease analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, Faten; Yu, Jingwei

    1991-01-01

    A procedure has been described for microdissection and microcloning of human chromosomal DNA sequences in which universal amplification of the dissected fragments by Mbo I linker adaptor and polymerase chain reaction is used. A very large library comprising 700,000 recombinant plasmid microclones from 30 dissected chromosomes of human chromosome 21 was constructed. Colony hybridization showed that 42% of the clones contained repetitive sequences and 58% contained single or low-copy sequences. The insert sizes generated by complete Mbo I cleavage ranged from 50 to 1,100 base pairs with a mean of 416 base pairs. Southern blot analysis of microclones from the library confirmed their human origin and chromosome 21 specificity. Some of these clones have also been regionally mapped to specific sites of chromosome 21 by using a regional mapping panel of cell hybrids. This chromosome microtechnology can generate large numbers of microclones with unique sequences from defined chromosomal regions and can be used for processes such as (i) isolating corresponding yeast artificial chromosome clones with large inserts, (ii) screening various cDNA libraries for isolating expressed sequences, and (iii) constructing region-specific libraries of the entire human genome. The studies described here demonstrate the power of this technology for high-resolution genome analysis and explicate their use in an efficient search for disease-associated genes localized to specific chromosomal regions

  4. Cloning endangered gray wolves (Canis lupus) from somatic cells collected postmortem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, H J; Kim, M K; Jang, G; Kim, H J; Hong, S G; Park, J E; Park, K; Park, C; Sohn, S H; Kim, D Y; Shin, N S; Lee, B C

    2008-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether nuclear transfer of postmortem wolf somatic cells into enucleated dog oocytes, is a feasible method to produce a cloned wolf. In vivo-matured oocytes (from domestic dogs) were enucleated and fused with somatic cells derived from culture of tissue obtained from a male gray wolf 6h after death. The reconstructed embryos were activated and transferred into the oviducts of naturally synchronous domestic bitches. Overall, 372 reconstructed embryos were transferred to 17 recipient dogs; four recipients (23.5%) were confirmed pregnant (ultrasonographically) 23-25 d after embryo transfer. One recipient spontaneously delivered two dead pups and three recipients delivered, by cesarean section, four cloned wolf pups, weighing 450, 190, 300, and 490g, respectively. The pup that weighed 190g died within 12h after birth. The six cloned wolf pups were genetically identical to the donor wolf, and their mitochondrial DNA originated from the oocyte donors. The three live wolf pups had a normal wolf karyotype (78, XY), and the amount of telomeric DNA, assessed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization, was similar to, or lower than, that of the nuclear donor. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the successful cloning of an endangered male gray wolf via interspecies transfer of somatic cells, isolated postmortem from a wolf, and transferred into enucleated dog oocytes. Therefore, somatic cell nuclear transfer has potential for preservation of canine species in extreme situations, including sudden death.

  5. Distinct forms of the β subunit of GTP-binding regulatory proteins identified by molecular cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, H.K.W.; Amatruda, T.T. III; Birren, B.W.; Simon, M.I.

    1987-01-01

    Two distinct β subunits of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins have been identified by cDNA cloning and are referred to as β 1 and β 1 subunits. The bovine transducin β subunit (β 1 ) has been cloned previously. The author now isolated and analyzed cDNA clones that encode the β 2 subunit from bovine adrenal, bovine brain, and a human myeloid leukemia cell line, HL-60. The 340-residue M/sub r/ 37,329 Β 2 protein is 90% identical with β 1 in predicted amino acid sequence, and it is also organized as a series of repetitive homologous segments. The major mRNA that encodes the bovine β 2 subunit is 1.7 kilobases in length. It is expressed at lower levels than β 1 subunit mRNA in all tissues examined. The β 1 and β 2 messages are expressed in cloned human cell lines. Hybridization of cDNA probes to bovine DNA showed that β 1 and β 2 are encoded by separate genes. The amino acid sequences for the bovine and human β 2 subunit are identical, as are the amino acid sequences for the bovine and human β 1 subunit. This evolutionary conservation suggests that the two β subunits have different roles in the signal transduction process

  6. Cloning Mice and Men: Prohibiting the Use of iPS Cells for Human Reproductive Cloning

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Bernard; Parham, Lindsay; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Cedars, Marcelle; Conklin, Bruce; Fisher, Susan; Gates, Elena; Giudice, Linda; Halme, Dina Gould; Hershon, William; Kriegstein, Arnold; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Wagner, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The use of iPSCs and tetraploid complementation for human reproductive cloning would raise profound ethical objections. Professional standards and laws that ban human reproductive cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer should be revised to also forbid it by other methods, such as iPSCs via tetraploid complementation.

  7. Cloning mice and men: prohibiting the use of iPS cells for human reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Bernard; Parham, Lindsay; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Cedars, Marcelle; Conklin, Bruce; Fisher, Susan; Gates, Elena; Giudice, Linda; Halme, Dina Gould; Hershon, William; Kriegstein, Arnold; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Wagner, Richard

    2010-01-08

    The use of iPSCs and tetraploid complementation for human reproductive cloning would raise profound ethical objections. Professional standards and laws that ban human reproductive cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer should be revised to also forbid it by other methods, such as iPSCs via tetraploid complementation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Update on the First Cloned Dog and Outlook for Canine Cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Goo; Lee, ByeongChun

    2015-10-01

    As man's best friend, dogs have an important position in human society. Ten years ago, we reported the first cloned dog, and his birth has raised various scientific issues, such as those related to health, reproduction, and life span. He has developed without any unique health issues. In this article, we summarize and present perspectives on canine cloning.

  9. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... number and the electric charge. ... available to the system to rearrange concentration of charges for a given fraction of.

  10. Elephant grass clones for silage production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rerisson José Cipriano dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pennisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott. The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p < 0.05 for the concentrations of dry matter, insoluble nitrogen in acid detergents, insoluble nitrogen in neutral detergents, soluble carbohydrates, fermentation coefficients, and in vitro digestibility in the forage before ensiling, no differences were observed for most of these variables after ensiling. All of the clones were efficient in the fermentation process. The IPA/UFRPE TAIWAN A-146 2.37 clone, however, presented a higher dry matter concentration and the best fermentation coefficient, resulting in a better silage quality, compared to the other clones.

  11. Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase of Bacillus subtilis. Cloning, characterization and chromosomal mapping of the prs gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Dan; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1987-01-01

    The gene (prs) encoding phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) synthetase has been cloned from a library of Bacillus subtilis DNA by complementation of an Escherichia coli prs mutation. Flanking DNA sequences were pruned away by restriction endonuclease and exonuclease BAL 31 digestions, resulting...... in a DNA fragment of approx. 1.8 kb complementing the E. coli prs mutation. Minicell experiments revealed that this DNA fragment coded for a polypeptide, shown to be the PRPP synthetase subunit, with an Mr of approx. 40,000. B. subtilis strains harbouring the prs gene in a multicopy plasmid contained up...... to nine-fold increased PRPP synthetase activity. The prs gene was cloned in an integration vector and the resulting hybrid plasmid inserted into the B. subtilis chromosome by homologous recombination. The integration site was mapped by transduction and the gene order established as purA-guaA-prs-cysA....

  12. Molecular cloning and chromosome mapping of the human gene encoding protein phosphotyrosyl phosphatase 1B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown-Shimer, S.; Johnson, K.A.; Bruskin, A.; Green, N.R.; Hill, D.E.; Lawrence, J.B.; Johnson, C.

    1990-01-01

    The inactivation of growth suppressor genes appears to play a major role in the malignant process. To assess whether protein phosphotyrosyl phosphatases function as growth suppressors, the authors have isolated a cDNA clone encoding human protein phosphotyrosyl phosphatase 1B for structural and functional characterization. The translation product deduced from the 1,305-nucleotide open reading frame predicts a protein containing 435 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 49,966 Da. The amino-terminal 321 amino acids deduced from the cDNA sequence are identical to the empirically determined sequence of protein phosphotyrosyl phosphatase 1B. A genomic clone has been isolated and used in an in situ hybridization to banded metaphase chromosomes to determine that the gene encoding protein phosphotyrosyl phosphatase 1B maps as a single-copy gene to the long arm of chromosome 20 in the region q13.1-q13.2

  13. Toward a molecular cytogenetic map for cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by landed BAC/BIBAC clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiuhuan; Liu, Zhao; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2013-01-01

    Conventional karyotypes and various genetic linkage maps have been established in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n = 34). However, the relationship between linkage groups and individual chromosomes of sunflower remains unknown and has considerable relevance for the sunflower research community. Recently, a set of linkage group-specific bacterial /binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC/BIBAC) clones was identified from two complementary BAC and BIBAC libraries constructed for cultivated sunflower cv. HA89. In the present study, we used these linkage group-specific clones (~100 kb in size) as probes to in situ hybridize to HA89 mitotic chromosomes at metaphase using the BAC-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Because a characteristic of the sunflower genome is the abundance of repetitive DNA sequences, a high ratio of blocking DNA to probe DNA was applied to hybridization reactions to minimize the background noise. As a result, all sunflower chromosomes were anchored by one or two BAC/BIBAC clones with specific FISH signals. FISH analysis based on tandem repetitive sequences, such as rRNA genes, has been previously reported; however, the BAC-FISH technique developed here using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-derived BAC/BIBAC clones as probes to apply genome-wide analysis is new for sunflower. As chromosome-specific cytogenetic markers, the selected BAC/BIBAC clones that encompass the 17 linkage groups provide a valuable tool for identifying sunflower cytogenetic stocks (such as trisomics) and tracking alien chromosomes in interspecific crosses. This work also demonstrates the potential of using a large-insert DNA library for the development of molecular cytogenetic resources.

  14. Dogs cloned from adult somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeong Chun; Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Oh, Hyun Ju; Yuda, Fibrianto; Kim, Hye Jin; Hossein, M Shamim; Shamim, M Hossein; Kim, Jung Ju; Kang, Sung Keun; Schatten, Gerald; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2005-08-04

    Several mammals--including sheep, mice, cows, goats, pigs, rabbits, cats, a mule, a horse and a litter of three rats--have been cloned by transfer of a nucleus from a somatic cell into an egg cell (oocyte) that has had its nucleus removed. This technology has not so far been successful in dogs because of the difficulty of maturing canine oocytes in vitro. Here we describe the cloning of two Afghan hounds by nuclear transfer from adult skin cells into oocytes that had matured in vivo. Together with detailed sequence information generated by the canine-genome project, the ability to clone dogs by somatic-cell nuclear transfer should help to determine genetic and environmental contributions to the diverse biological and behavioural traits associated with the many different canine breeds.

  15. Human reproductive cloning and reasons for deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, D A

    2008-08-01

    Human reproductive cloning provides the possibility of genetically related children for persons for whom present technologies are ineffective. I argue that the desire for genetically related children is not, by itself, a sufficient reason to engage in human reproductive cloning. I show this by arguing that the value underlying the desire for genetically related children implies a tension between the parent and the future child. This tension stems from an instance of a deprivation and violates a general principle of reasons for deprivation. Alternative considerations, such as a right to procreative autonomy, do not appear helpful in making the case for human reproductive cloning merely on the basis of the desire for genetically related children.

  16. Osteoclast nuclei of myeloma patients show chromosome translocations specific for the myeloma cell clone: a new type of cancer-host partnership?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin Andersen, Thomas; Boissy, Patrice; Sondergaard, T E

    2007-01-01

    through fusion between myeloma cells and osteoclasts. In conclusion, malignant cells contribute significantly to the formation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts in multiple myeloma. Osteoclast-myeloma clone hybrids reflect a previously unrecognized mechanism of bone destruction in which malignant cells...

  17. Identification and Preliminary Analysis of Several Centromere-associated Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clones from a Diploid Wheat Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Although the centromeres of some plants have been investigated previously, our knowledge of the wheat centromere is still very limited. To understand the structure and function of the wheat centromere, we used two centromeric repeats (RCS1 and CCS1-5ab) to obtain some centromere-associated bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones in 32 RCS1-related BAC clones that had been screened out from a diploid wheat (Triticum boeoticum Boiss.; 2n=2x=14) BAC library. Southern hybridization results indicated that, of the 32 candidates,there were 28 RCS1-positive clones. Based on gel blot patterns, the frequency of RCS1 was approximately one copy every 69.4 kb in these 28 RCS1-positive BAC clones. More bands were detected when the same filter was probed with CCS1-5ab. Furthermore, the CCS1 bands covered all the bands detected by RCS1, which suggests that some CCS1 repeats were distributed together with RCS1. The frequency of CCS1 families was once every 35.8 kb, nearly twice that of RCS1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis indicated that the five BAC clones containing RCS1 and CCS1 sequences all detected signals at the centromeric regions in hexaploid wheat, but the signal intensities on the A-genome chromosomes were stronger than those on the B- and/or D-genome chromosomes. The FISH analysis among nine Triticeae cereals indicated that there were A-genomespecific (or rich) sequences dispersing on chromosome arms in the BAC clone TbBAC5. In addition, at the interphase cells, the centromeres of diploid species usually clustered at one pole and formed a ring-like allocation in the period before metaphase.

  18. Cloning of genes required for hypersensitivity and pathogenicity in Pseudomonas syringae pv. aptata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minardi, P

    1995-01-01

    A genomic library of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aptata strain NCPPB 2664, which causes bacterial blight of sugar beet, lettuce and other plants, was constructed in the cosmid vector pCPP31. The 13.4 kb EcoRI fragment of the cosmid pHIR11, containing the hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity) gene cluster of the closely related bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain 61, was used as a probe to identify a homologous hrp gene cluster in P. syringae pv. aptata. Thirty of 2500 cosmid clones, screened by colony hybridization, gave a strong hybridization signal with the probe, but none of these conferred to the non-pathogenic bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens, the ability to elicit the hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco. Southern blot analysis of EcoRI-digested genomic DNA of P. syringae pv. aptata showed hybridizing bands of 12 kb and 4.4 kb. Only a 12 kb fragment hybridized in digests of the cosmids. Cosmid clone pCPP1069 was mutagenized with Tn10-minitet and marker-exchanged into the genome of P. syringae pv. aptata. Three resulting prototrophic mutant strains failed to elicit the HR in tobacco and to cause disease in lettuce. The DNA flanking the Tn10-minitet insertions from mutated derivatives of pCPP1069 hybridized with the 10.6 kb Bg/II fragment of pHIR11. These results indicate that P. syringae pv. aptata harbours hrp genes that are similar to, but arranged differently from, homologous hrp genes of P. syringae pv. syringae.

  19. Cloning arbuscule-related genes from mycorrhizas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burleigh, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Until recently little was known about the identity of the genes expressed in the arbuscules of mycorrhizas, due in part to problems associated with cloning genes from the tissues of an obligate symbiont. However, the combination of advanced molecular techniques, innovative use of the materials...... available and fortuitous cloning has resulted in the recent identification of a number of arbuscule-related genes. This article provides a brief summary of the genes involved in arbuscule development, function and regulation, and the techniques used to study them. Molecular techniques include differential...

  20. Characterization of a pollen-specific cDNA clone from Nicotiana tabacum expressed during microgametogenesis and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, K; Reijnen, W; van Aarssen, R; Kortstee, A; Spijkers, J; van Herpen, M; Schrauwen, J; Wullems, G

    1992-04-01

    This report describes the isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone representing a gene specifically expressed in pollen. A cDNA library was constructed against mRNA from mature pollen of Nicotiana tabacum. It was screened differentially against cDNA from mRNA of leaf and of pollen. One clone, NTPc303, was further characterized. On northern blot this clone hybridizes to a transcript 2100 nucleotides in length. NTPc303 is abundant in pollen. Expression of the corresponding gene is restricted to pollen, because no other generative or vegetative tissue contains transcripts hybridizing to NTPc303. Expression of NTP303 is evolutionarily conserved: homologous transcripts are present in pollen from various plant species. The first NTP303 transcripts are detectable on northern blot at the early bi-nucleate stage and accumulate until the pollen has reached maturity. During germination and pollen tube growth in vitro new NTP303 transcripts appear. This transcription has been proved by northern blots as well as by pulse labelling experiments. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that NTPc303 has an open reading frame coding for a predicted protein of 62 kDa. This protein shares homology to ascorbate oxidase and other members of the blue copper oxidase family. A possible function for this clone during pollen germination is discussed.

  1. Physiological Responses to Hypoxia and Manganese in Eucalyptus Clones with Differential Tolerance to Vale do Rio Doce Shoot Dieback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignácio Harguindeguy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vale do Rio Doce shoot dieback (VRDSD is an anomaly whose cause seems to be associated with hypoxic conditions and their consequences (excess Mn and Fe triggered by elevation of the water table in areas with poor drainage. Different plants have distinct survival strategies under this form of stress. The objective of this study was to understand the physiological responses involved in the differential tolerance of eucalyptus clones to VRDSD and their relationship to hypoxia and excess Mn. A hydroponic experiment was carried out using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, two eucalyptus clones with different levels of tolerance to VRDSD (sensitive Urograndis hybrid - 1213; and the tolerant Rio Claro hybrid - Eucalyptus grandis x unknown - 2719, two concentrations of O2 (8 and 4 mg L-1, and two Mn concentrations (1.39 and 300 mg L-1 in a randomized block design (RBD with three replicates. Forty-day-old clones were maintained in Clark nutrient solution for 30 days. After this period, the treatments were applied for 11 days. Plant gaseous exchange shoot and root production, and the quantity of enzymes related to oxidative stress in leaves and roots were evaluated. In the tolerant clone, reactive oxygen species (ROS were produced under hypoxic conditions, accompanied by reduction in production of dry matter, malondialdehyde (MDA, and in activity of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH. However, this clone had greater production of superoxide dismutase (SOD under these conditions, an enzyme responsible for detoxification of ROS, which acts as part of the Low Oxygen Quiescence Syndrome (LOQS. In contrast, sensitive clones did not exhibit expressive reductions in growth or changes in the leaf/root ratio. These clones formed large quantities of adventitious roots and had high levels of MDA and ADH and low levels of SOD. Therefore, sensitive clones appear not to be prepared for detoxification of ROS and other toxic metabolites, but rather adopt

  2. Isolation of BAC Clones Containing Conserved Genes from Libraries of Three Distantly Related Moths: A Useful Resource for Comparative Genomics of Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Yasukochi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera, butterflies and moths, is the second largest animal order and includes numerous agricultural pests. To facilitate comparative genomics in Lepidoptera, we isolated BAC clones containing conserved and putative single-copy genes from libraries of three pests, Heliothis virescens, Ostrinia nubilalis, and Plutella xylostella, harboring the haploid chromosome number, =31, which are not closely related with each other or with the silkworm, Bombyx mori, (=28, the sequenced model lepidopteran. A total of 108–184 clones representing 101–182 conserved genes were isolated for each species. For 79 genes, clones were isolated from more than two species, which will be useful as common markers for analysis using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, as well as for comparison of genome sequence among multiple species. The PCR-based clone isolation method presented here is applicable to species which lack a sequenced genome but have a significant collection of cDNA or EST sequences.

  3. Social behavior and kin discrimination in a mixed group of cloned and non cloned heifers (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, M; Baudoin, C; Abdi, H; Heyman, Y; Deputte, B L

    2010-12-01

    For more than ten years, reproductive biotechnologies using somatic cell nuclear transfer have made possible the production of cloned animals in various domestic and laboratory species. The influence of the cloning process on offspring characteristics has been studied in various developmental aspects, however, it has not yet been documented in detail for behavioral traits. Behavioral studies of cloned animals have failed to show clear inter-individual differences associated with the cloning process. Preliminary results showed that clones favor each other's company. Preferential social interactions were observed among cloned heifers from the same donor in a mixed herd that also included cloned heifers and control heifers produced by artificial insemination (AI). These results suggest behavioral differences between cloned and non-cloned animals and similarities between clones from the same donor. The aim of the present study was to replicate and to extend these previous results and to study behavioral and cognitive mechanisms of this preferential grouping. We studied a group composed of five cloned heifers derived from the same donor cow, two cloned heifers derived from another donor cow, and AI heifers. Cloned heifers from the same donor were more spatially associated and interacted more between themselves than with heifers derived from another donor or with the AI individuals. This pattern indicates a possible kin discrimination in clones. To study this process, we performed an experiment (using an instrumental conditioning procedure with food reward) of visual discrimination between images of heads of familiar heifers, either related to the subjects or not. The results showed that all subjects (AI and cloned heifers) discriminated between images of familiar cloned heifers produced from the same donor and images of familiar unrelated heifers. Cattle discriminated well between images and used morphological similarities characteristic of cloned related heifers. Our

  4. cDNA cloning of rat and human medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Y.; Kraus, J.P.; Rosenberg, L.E.; Tanaka, K.

    1986-01-01

    MCAD is one of three mitochondrial flavoenzymes which catalyze the first step in the β-oxidation of straight chain fatty acids. It is a tetramer with a subunit Mr of 45 kDa. MCAD is synthesized in the cytosol as a 49 kDa precursor polypeptide (pMCAD), imported into mitochondria, and cleaved to the mature form. Genetic deficiency of MCAD causes recurrent episodes of hypoglycemic coma accompanied by medium chain dicarboxylic aciduria. Employing a novel approach, the authors now report isolation of partial rat and human cDNA clones encoding pMCAD. mRNA encoding pMCAD was purified to near homogeneity by polysome immunoadsorption using polyclonal monospecific antibody. Single-stranded [ 32 P]labeled cDNA probe was synthesized using the enriched mRNA as template, and was used to screen directly 16,000 colonies from a total rat liver cDNA library constructed in pBR322. One clone (600 bp) was detected by in situ hybridization. Hybrid-selected translation with this cDNA yielded a 49 kDa polypeptide indistinguishable in size from rat pMCAD and immunoprecipitable with anti-MCAD antibody. Using the rat cDNA as probe, 43,000 colonies from a human liver cDNA library were screened. Four identical positive clones (400 bp) were isolated and positively identified by hybrid-selected translation and immunoprecipitation. The sizes of rat and human mRNAs encoding pMCAD were 2.2 kb and 2.4 kb, respectively, as determined by Northern blotting

  5. Identification and characterization of a novel gene differentially expressed in zebrafish cross-subfamily cloned embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ya-Ping

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cross-species nuclear transfer has been shown to be a potent approach to retain the genetic viability of a certain species near extinction. However, most embryos produced by cross-species nuclear transfer were compromised because that they were unable to develop to later stages. Gene expression analysis of cross-species cloned embryos will yield new insights into the regulatory mechanisms involved in cross-species nuclear transfer and embryonic development. Results A novel gene, K31, was identified as an up-regulated gene in fish cross-subfamily cloned embryos using SSH approach and RACE method. K31 complete cDNA sequence is 1106 base pairs (bp in length, with a 342 bp open reading frame (ORF encoding a putative protein of 113 amino acids (aa. Comparative analysis revealed no homologous known gene in zebrafish and other species database. K31 protein contains a putative transmembrane helix and five putative phosphorylation sites but without a signal peptide. Expression pattern analysis by real time RT-PCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH shows that it has the characteristics of constitutively expressed gene. Sub-cellular localization assay shows that K31 protein can not penetrate the nuclei. Interestingly, over-expression of K31 gene can cause lethality in the epithelioma papulosum cyprinid (EPC cells in cell culture, which gave hint to the inefficient reprogramming events occurred in cloned embryos. Conclusion Taken together, our findings indicated that K31 gene is a novel gene differentially expressed in fish cross-subfamily cloned embryos and over-expression of K31 gene can cause lethality of cultured fish cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the determination of novel genes involved in nucleo-cytoplasmic interaction of fish cross-subfamily cloned embryos.

  6. Changes in the gut microbiota of cloned and non-cloned control pigs during development of obesity: gut microbiota during development of obesity in cloned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Rebecca; Andersen, Anders Daniel; Mølbak, Lars; Stagsted, Jan; Boye, Mette

    2013-02-07

    Obesity induced by a high-caloric diet has previously been associated with changes in the gut microbiota in mice and in humans. In this study, pigs were cloned to minimize genetic and biological variation among the animals with the aim of developing a controlled metabolomic model suitable for a diet-intervention study. Cloning of pigs may be an attractive way to reduce genetic influences when investigating the effect of diet and obesity on different physiological sites. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the changes in the composition of the gut microbiota of cloned vs. non-cloned pigs during development of obesity by a high-fat/high-caloric diet. Furthermore, we investigated the association between diet-induced obesity and the relative abundance of the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the fecal-microbiota. The fecal microbiota from obese cloned (n = 5) and non-cloned control pigs (n= 6) was investigated biweekly over a period of 136 days, by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). A positive correlation was observed between body-weight at endpoint and percent body-fat in cloned (r=0.9, Pmicrobiota between the cloned pigs or between cloned and non-cloned control pigs. Body-weight correlated positively with the relative abundance of Firmicutes in both cloned (r=0.37; Pgut microbiota in neither the obese nor the lean state. Diet-induced obesity was associated with an increase in the relative abundance of Firmicutes over time. Our results suggest that cloned pigs are not a more suitable animal model for gut microbiota-obesity related studies than non-cloned pigs. This study is the first to evaluate if cloned pigs provide a better animal model than conventional pigs in diet-intervention, obesity and gut microbiota research.

  7. Information cloning of harmonic oscillator coherent states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We show that in the case of unknown harmonic oscillator coherent statesit is possible to achieve what we call perfect information cloning. By this we mean that it is still possible to make arbitrary number of copies of a state which has exactly the same information content as the original unknown coherent state. By making use ...

  8. Stochasticity or the fatal `imperfection' of cloning

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2005-01-07

    Jan 7, 2005 ... The concept of clone is analysed with the aim of exploring the limits to which a phenotype can be said to be determined geneticaly. First of all, mutations that result from the replication, topological manipulation or lesion of DNA introduce a source of heritable variation in an otherwise identical genetic ...

  9. Cloning and expression of pineapple sucrosephosphate synthase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 1132-base pairs (bp) polymerase-chain-reaction product of sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) (EC 2.3.1.14) from pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. Comte de paris) fruit was cloned and nominated as Ac- SPS1. The sequence encodes a putative 377 amino acids protein containing two serine conserved features that had ...

  10. Top 5 exotic clones for potato breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild and cultivated relatives of potato feature prominently in breeding programs. In this short article, I describe five exotic clones that have promising traits for the future of the US potato industry. They include M6, an inbred line of S. chacoense that provides a source of genes for self-compati...

  11. Experimental eavesdropping based on optimal quantum cloning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartkiewicz, K.; Lemr, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Soubusta, Jan; Miranowicz, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 17 (2013), "173601-1"-"173601-5" ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum cryptography * qubits * eavesdropping * quantum cloning Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 7.728, year: 2013

  12. Analysis of cytoplasmic genomes in somatic hybrids between navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osb.) and 'Murcott' tangor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Ohgawara, T; Fujiwara, K; Oiyama, I

    1991-07-01

    Somatic hybrid plants were produced by protoplast fusion of navel orange and 'Murcott' tangor. Hybridity of the plants was confirmed by the restriction endonuclease analysis of nuclear ribosomal DNA. All of the plants (16 clones) were normal, uniform, and had the amphidiploid chromosome number of 36 (2n=2x=18 for each parent). The cpDNA analysis showed that each of the 16 somatic hybrids contained either one parental chloroplast genome or the other. In all cases, the mitochondrial genomes of the regenerated somatic hybrids were of the navel orange type.

  13. [Telomere lengthening by trichostatin A treatment in cloned pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bing-Teng; Ji, Guang-Zhen; Kong, Qing-Ran; Mao, Jian; Shi, Yong-Qian; Liu, Shi-Chao; Wu, Mei-Ling; Wang, Juan; Liu, Lin; Liu, Zhong-Hua

    2012-12-01

    Telomeres are repeated GC rich sequences at the end of chromosomes, and shorten with each cell division due to DNA end replication problem. Previously, reprogrammed somatic cells of cloned animals display variable telomere elongation. However, it was reported that the cloned animals including Dolly do not reset telomeres and show premature aging. In this study, we investigated telomere function in cloned or transgenic cloned pigs, including the cloned Northeast Min pigs, eGFP, Mx, and PGC1α transgenic cloned pigs, and found that the telomere lengths of cloned pigs were significantly shorter than the nuclear donor adult fibroblasts and age-matched noncloned pigs (Pstage for 24 h. Consistent with previous reports, the developmental rate of SCNT embryos to the blastocyst stage was significantly increased compared with those of the control group (16.35% vs. 27.09%, 21.60% vs. 34.90%, Plengthen the telomere lengths of cloned pigs.

  14. Willow yield is highly dependent on clone and site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    Use of high-yielding genotypes is one of the means to achieve high yield and profitability in willow (Salix spp.) short rotation coppice. This study investigated the performance of eight willow clones (Inger, Klara, Linnea, Resolution, Stina, Terra Nova, Tora, Tordis) on five Danish sites......, differing considerably in soil type, climatic conditions and management. Compared to the best clone, the yield was up to 36 % lower for other clones across sites and up to 51 % lower within sites. Tordis was superior to other clones with dry matter yields between 5.2 and 10.2 Mg ha−1 year−1 during the first...... 3-year harvest rotation, and it consistently ranked as the highest yielding clone on four of the five sites and not significantly lower than the highest yielding clone on the fifth site. The ranking of the other clones was more dependent on site with significant interaction between clone and site...

  15. Anti-idiotypic antibodies against UV-induced tumor-specific CTL clones. Preparation in syngeneic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuribayashi, K.; Tanaka, C.; Matsubayashi, Y.; Masuda, T.; Udono, H.; Abe, M.; Nakayama, E.; Shiku, H.

    1988-01-01

    In this study, we first established several CTL clones of (BALB/c x C57BL/6)F1 origin that were specific for either syngeneic UV female 1 or UV male 1 fibrosarcoma cell lines. All the CTL clones had Thy-1+ Lyt-2+ L3T4- phenotypes and showed Kd restriction when lysing the corresponding target cells. Sera obtained from syngeneic animals immunized with three CTL clones, 10B-5 for UV female 1, and CTL9 and CTL10 for UV male 1, showed specific inhibition of target cell lysis with the corresponding CTL clones. The inhibitory activities were found in sera of the majority of immunized animals. Because the inhibitory activity resides in protein A-binding fraction, mAb were produced by hybridizing spleen cells of hyperimmune animals. N1-56 was thus obtained from a mouse immunized with 10B-5 CTL clone reactive with UV female 1. N1-56 was clonotype specific, reacting with 10B-5 but not with other CTL lines or leukemia cell lines. No N1-56+ cells were detectable in thymocytes, lymph node cells, or spleen cells of either naive or UV female 1-immune CB6F1 mice. Immunoprecipitation showed that N1-56 reacts with 90,000 Mr molecules on 10B-5 CTL clone under nonreducing conditions and 45,000 Mr molecules under reducing conditions, indicating its reactivities with idiotypic determinants of TCR on the CTL clone. N1-56 inhibited lytic activity of 10B-5, but neither N1-56 nor alpha-10B-5 hyperimmune serum inhibited that of alpha-UV female 1 mixed lymphocyte tumor cell culture cells. N1-56 induced proliferation of 10B-5 without addition of Ag

  16. Babesia bovis clones: biochemical and enzymatic characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Camarillo, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to generate additional knowledge of the biochemistry of Babesia bovis. A modified in vitro culture technique used for cloning B. bovis. This technique included a low oxygen concentration atmosphere (2%, O 2 , 5% CO 2 , 93% N 2 ) and 4 mm fluid level. Cultures initiated with one infected erythrocyte were maintained until parasitemias of positive wells reached 2% parasitemia. Primary clones were obtained and from these, nine clones were recloned twice and used for subsequent studies. A procedure was developed to concentrate and separate B. bovis merozoites and infected erythrocytes by Percoll density gradients. Merozoites separated at 1.087 g/ml specific density, whereas infected erythrocytes separated at 1.121 g/ml. Viability of purified parasites was not affected. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to identify metabolic enzyme in B. bovis and B. bigemina. The enzymes LDH, GDH, GPI and HK were detected in both species. Molecular analysis by one and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins metabolically labeled with 35 S-methionine indicated that two clones, derived from the same field strain, were similar but not identical to the parent. Fewer proteins were observed in the parental strain. Growth of two 60-Co irradiated B. bovis clones indicated a dose-effect relationship. Growth of parasites exposed for the longest period was initially retarded but returned to normal growth after two or three subcultures. Cultures exposed for shorter periods were unaffected with respect to the rate of growth. Analysis of electrophoretic mobility of metabolic enzyme showed a change in migration pattern

  17. Stabilization process in Saccharomyces intra and interspecific hybrids in fermentative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Través, Laura; Lopes, Christian A; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the genetic stabilization of artificial intra- (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and interspecific (S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii) hybrids under wine fermentative conditions. Large-scale transitions in genome size and genome reorganizations were observed during this process. Interspecific hybrids seem to need fewer generations to reach genetic stability than intraspecific hybrids. The largest number of molecular patterns recovered among the derived clones was observed for intraspecific hybrids, particularly for those obtained by rare-mating. Molecular marker analyses revealed that unstable clones could change during the industrial process to obtain active dry yeast. When no changes in molecular markers and ploidy were observed after this process, no changes in genetic composition were confirmed by comparative genome hybridization, considering the clone as a stable hybrid. According to our results, under these conditions, fermentation steps 3 and 5 (30-50 generations) would suffice to obtain genetically stable interspecific and intraspecific hybrids, respectively. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  18. Human chromosome 9 can complement UV sensitivity of xeroderma pigmentosum group A cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Kanji; Sasaki, Masao S.; Ikenaga, Mituo; Nakamura, Yusuke

    1990-01-01

    A single human chromosome derived from normal human fibroblasts and tagged with the G418 resistance gene was transferred into SV40-transformed xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XP-A) cells via microcell fusion. When chromosome 1 or 12 was transferred, UV sensitivity of microcell hybrid cells was not changed. By contrast, after transferring chromosome 9,7 of 11 reipient clones were as UV-resistant as normal human cells. Four other clones were still as UV-sensitive as the parental XP-A cells. Southern hybridization analysis using a polymorphic probe, pEKZ19.3, which is homologous to a sequence of the D9S17 locus on chromosome 9, has confirmed that at least a part of normal human chromosome 9 was transferred into the recipient clones. However, amounts iof UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in the UV-resistant clones were only one-third of those in normal human cells. These results indicate that a gene on chromosome 9 can confer complementation of high UV sensitivity of XP-A cells although it is still possible that 2 or more genes might be involved in the defective-repair phenotypes of XP-A. (author). 20 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  19. A Gateway MultiSite recombination cloning toolkit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena K Petersen

    Full Text Available The generation of DNA constructs is often a rate-limiting step in conducting biological experiments. Recombination cloning of single DNA fragments using the Gateway system provided an advance over traditional restriction enzyme cloning due to increases in efficiency and reliability. Here we introduce a series of entry clones and a destination vector for use in two, three, and four fragment Gateway MultiSite recombination cloning whose advantages include increased flexibility and versatility. In contrast to Gateway single-fragment cloning approaches where variations are typically incorporated into model system-specific destination vectors, our Gateway MultiSite cloning strategy incorporates variations in easily generated entry clones that are model system-independent. In particular, we present entry clones containing insertions of GAL4, QF, UAS, QUAS, eGFP, and mCherry, among others, and demonstrate their in vivo functionality in Drosophila by using them to generate expression clones including GAL4 and QF drivers for various trp ion channel family members, UAS and QUAS excitatory and inhibitory light-gated ion channels, and QUAS red and green fluorescent synaptic vesicle markers. We thus establish a starter toolkit of modular Gateway MultiSite entry clones potentially adaptable to any model system. An inventory of entry clones and destination vectors for Gateway MultiSite cloning has also been established (www.gatewaymultisite.org.

  20. Technological Literacy and Human Cloning. Resources in Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how technology educators can deal with advances in human genetics, specifically, cloning. Includes a definition and history of cloning, discusses its benefits, and looks at social concerns and arguments for and against human cloning. Includes classroom activities and websites. (Contains 10 references.) (JOW)

  1. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Against the background of increasing qualification needs there is a growing awareness of the challenge to widen participation in processes of skill formation and competence development. At the same time, the issue of permeability between vocational education and training (VET) and general education...... has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...

  2. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  3. Cloning and sequence analysis of sucrose phosphate synthase gene from varieties of Pennisetum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H C; Lu, H B; Yang, F Y; Liu, S J; Bai, C J; Zhang, Y W

    2015-03-31

    Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) is an enzyme used by higher plants for sucrose synthesis. In this study, three primer sets were designed on the basis of known SPS sequences from maize (GenBank: NM_001112224.1) and sugarcane (GenBank: JN584485.1), and five novel SPS genes were identified by RT-PCR from the genomes of Pennisetum spp (the hybrid P. americanum x P. purpureum, P. purpureum Schum., P. purpureum Schum. cv. Red, P. purpureum Schum. cv. Taiwan, and P. purpureum Schum. cv. Mott). The cloned sequences showed 99.9% identity and 80-88% similarity to the SPS sequences of other plants. The SPS gene of hybrid Pennisetum had one nucleotide and four amino acid polymorphisms compared to the other four germplasms, and cluster analysis was performed to assess genetic diversity in this species. Additional characterization of the SPS gene product can potentially allow Pennisetum to be exploited as a biofuel source.

  4. Transmission of chromosomal and instability via a chromosome irradiated with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Seiji; Tanabe, Masateru; Shiraishi, Kazunori; Oshimura, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    We examined the stability of the transferred chromosome in 5 and 12 microcell hybrids including unirradiated human chromosomes 6 and 8, respectively, and 6 and 19 microcell hybrids including 4 Gy-irradiated human chromosomes 6 and 8, respectively. The transferred chromosome was structurally stable in most microcell hybrids transferred with the unirradiated chromosomes 6 and 8. In contrast, the 4 Gy-irradiated human chromosomes were unstable in 3 out of 6 hybrids (50%) with chromosome 6 and 3 out of 19 hybrids (16%) with chromosome 8, showing multiple aberrations in high frequencies (35∼98%). To know the cause of delayed chromosomal instability, intrachromosomal rearrangements of the human chromosome is investigated by subtelomere FISH in 17 microcell hybrids transferred with chromosomes 6 and 8. We found frequent intrachromosomal in 7 microcell hybrids (41%). However, no clear correlation was observed between the intrachromosomal rearrangements and the induction of delayed chromosomal instability by ionizing radiation

  5. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  6. Molecular Characterization of Natural Hybrids Formed between Five Related Indigenous Clade 6 Phytophthora Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Treena I.

    2015-01-01

    Most Phytophthora hybrids characterized to date have emerged from nurseries and managed landscapes, most likely generated as a consequence of biological invasions associated with the movement of living plants and germplasm for ornamental, horticultural and agricultural purposes. Presented here is evidence for natural hybridization among a group of five closely related indigenous clade 6 Phytophthora species isolated from waterways and riparian ecosystems in Western Australia. Molecular characterization of hybrids consisted of cloning and sequencing two nuclear genes (ITS and ASF), sequencing of two further nuclear loci (BT and HSP) and of two mitochondrial loci (COI and NADH). Additionally, phenotypic traits including morphology of sporangia and optima and maxima temperatures for growth were also determined. In most cases the nuclear genes were biparentally and in all cases the mtDNA were uniparentally inherited, indicating hybrid formation through sexual crosses. Some isolates bear the molecular signature of three parents suggesting additional hybrid events, although it cannot be determined from the data if these were sequential or simultaneous. These species and their hybrids co-exist in riparian ecosystems and waterways where their ability for rapid asexual proliferation would enable them to rapidly colonize green plant litter. The apparent ease of hybridization could eventually lead to the merging of species through introgression. However, at this point in time, species integrity has been maintained and a more likely scenario is that the hybrids are not stable evolutionary lineages, but rather transient hybrid clones. PMID:26248187

  7. Cloning and joint measurements of incompatible components of spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brougham, Thomas; Andersson, Erika; Barnett, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    A joint measurement of two observables is a simultaneous measurement of both quantities upon the same quantum system. When two quantum-mechanical observables do not commute, then a joint measurement of these observables cannot be accomplished directly by projective measurements alone. In this paper we shall discuss the use of quantum cloning to perform a joint measurement of two components of spin associated with a qubit system. We introduce cloning schemes which are optimal with respect to this task. The cloning schemes may be thought to work by cloning two components of spin onto their outputs. We compare the proposed cloning machines to existing cloners

  8. Isolation and sequence analysis of a cDNA clone encoding the fifth complement component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundwall, Åke B; Wetsel, Rick A; Kristensen, Torsten

    1985-01-01

    DNA clone of 1.85 kilobase pairs was isolated. Hybridization of the mixed-sequence probe to the complementary strand of the plasmid insert and sequence analysis by the dideoxy method predicted the expected protein sequence of C5a (positions 1-12), amino-terminal to the anticipated priming site. The sequence......, subcloned into M13 mp8, and sequenced at random by the dideoxy technique, thereby generating a contiguous sequence of 1703 base pairs. This clone contained coding sequence for the C-terminal 262 amino acid residues of the beta-chain, the entire C5a fragment, and the N-terminal 98 residues of the alpha......'-chain. The 3' end of the clone had a polyadenylated tail preceded by a polyadenylation recognition site, a 3'-untranslated region, and base pairs homologous to the human Alu concensus sequence. Comparison of the derived partial human C5 protein sequence with that previously determined for murine C3 and human...

  9. Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA coding for rat nucleolar protein C23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaffari, S.H.; Olson, M.O.J.

    1986-01-01

    Using synthetic oligonucleotides as primers and probes, the authors have isolated and sequenced cDNA clones encoding protein C23, a putative nucleolus organizer protein. Poly(A + ) RNA was isolated from rat Novikoff hepatoma cells and enriched in C23 mRNA by sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation. Two deoxyoligonuleotides, a 48- and a 27-mer, were synthesized on the basis of amino acid sequence from the C-terminal half of protein C23 and cDNA sequence data from CHO cell protein. The 48-mer was used a primer for synthesis of cDNA which was then inserted into plasmid pUC9. Transformed bacterial colonies were screened by hybridization with 32 P labeled 27-mer. Two clones among 5000 gave a strong positive signal. Plasmid DNAs from these clones were purified and characterized by blotting and nucleotide sequence analysis. The length of C23 mRNA was estimated to be 3200 bases in a northern blot analysis. The sequence of a 267 b.p. insert shows high homology with the CHO cDNA with only 9 nucleotide differences and an identical amino acid sequence. These studies indicate that this region of the protein is highly conserved

  10. Recent progress and problems in animal cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Y; Kato, Y

    2002-01-01

    It is remarkable that mammalian somatic cell nuclei can form whole individuals if they are transferred to enucleated oocytes. Advancements in nuclear transfer technology can now be applied for genetic improvement and increase of farm animals, rescue of endangered species, and assisted reproduction and tissue engineering in humans. Since July 1998, more than 200 calves have been produced by nuclear transfer of somatic cell nuclei in Japan, but half of them were stillborn or died within several months of parturition. Morphologic abnormalities have also been observed in cloned calves and embryonic stem cell-derived mice. In this review, we discuss the present situation and problems with animal cloning and the possibility for its application to human medicine.

  11. Radiation-induced aneusomic clones in bone marrow of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohno, Sei-Ichi; Ishihara, Takaaki

    1976-01-01

    Wistar rats 3 months old were given a single whole-body X-irradiation with 700 R. They were killed 9.3 months, on average, after irradiation. From the bone marrows of the 23 irradiated rats, 54 clones of cells with radiation-induced chromosome abnormalities ranging from 3.3 to 78.3% in size were obtained. Karyotype analysis at the banding level showed that 43 out of the 54 clones had balanced chromosome constitutions and that the remaining 11 clones were unbalanced. The 43 balanced clones consisted of 33 clones with reciprocal translocations, 6 with inversions and 4 with both translocations and inversions. The 11 unbalanced clones were made up of 7 aneuploid clones and 4 pseudo-diploid clones. Of the 54 clones, 15 were large with frequencies of more than 25%. Contrary to general belief that cells with unbalanced chromosome constitutions have less capacity to proliferate than those with balanced ones, 8 of the 15 large clones, especially all, except 1, of the largest 6 clones were unbalanced, either aneuploid or pseudo-diploid

  12. Genetic variance of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates by Southern hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Jae-Sook; Min, Duk-Young; Shin, Myeong-Heon; Cho, Youl-Hee

    1998-01-01

    In the present study, genomic DNAs were purified from Korean isolates (KT8, KT6, KT-Kim and KT-Lee) and foreign strains (CDC85, IR78 and NYH 286) of Trichomonas vaginalis, and hybridized with a probe based on the repetitive sequence cloned from T. vaginalis to observe the genetic differences. By Southern hybridization, all isolates of T. vaginalis except the NYH286 strain had 11 bands. Therefore all isolates examined were distinguishable into 3 groups according to their banding patterns; i) K...

  13. Ethical issues regarding human cloning: a nursing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç, Leyla

    2003-05-01

    Advances in cloning technology and successful cloning experiments in animals raised concerns about the possibility of human cloning in recent years. Despite many objections, this is not only a possibility but also a reality. Human cloning is a scientific revolution. However, it also introduces the potential for physical and psychosocial harm to human beings. From this point of view, it raises profound ethical, social and health related concerns. Human cloning would have an impact on the practice of nursing because it could result in the creation of new physiological and psychosocial conditions that would require nursing care. The nursing profession must therefore evaluate the ethics of human cloning, in particular the potential role of nurses. This article reviews the ethical considerations of reproductive human cloning, discusses the main reasons for concern, and reflects a nursing perspective regarding this issue.

  14. U.S. consumers attitudes toward farm animal cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kathleen R; Lusk, Jayson L

    2011-10-01

    In January 2008, the United States Food and Drug Administration concluded "meat and milk from cattle, swine, and goat clones or their offspring are as safe to eat as food we eat from those species now" (U.S. FDA, 2010). However, cloning remains a very controversial topic. A web-based survey administered by Knowledge Networks was used to determine U.S. consumers' awareness of and attitudes toward meat and milk from cloned cattle. Findings reveal consumers do not differentiate much between products from cloned animals and products from non-cloned animals. Overall consumers are concerned that animal cloning is an unnatural process and that it will lead to human cloning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Combinations of probabilistic and approximate quantum cloning and deleting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Daowen

    2002-01-01

    We first construct a probabilistic and approximate quantum cloning machine (PACM) and then clarify the relation between the PACM and other cloning machines. After that, we estimate the global fidelity of the approximate cloning that improves the previous estimation for the deterministic cloning machine; and also derive a bound on the success probability of producing perfect multiple clones. Afterwards, we further establish a more generalized probabilistic and approximate cloning and deleting machine (PACDM) and discuss the connections of the PACDM to some of the existing quantum cloning and deleting machines. Finally the global fidelity and a bound on the success probability of the PACDM are obtained. Summarily, the quantum devices established in this paper improve and also greatly generalize some of the existing machines

  16. Keith's MAGIC: Cloning and the Cell Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, D N

    2013-10-01

    Abstract Professor Keith Campbell's critical contribution to the discovery that a somatic cell from an adult animal can be fully reprogrammed by oocyte factors to form a cloned individual following nuclear transfer (NT)(Wilmut et al., 1997 ) overturned a dogma concerning the reversibility of cell fate that many scientists had considered to be biologically impossible. This seminal experiment proved the totipotency of adult somatic nuclei and finally confirmed that adult cells could differentiate without irreversible changes to the genetic material.

  17. Therapeutic cloning in individual parkinsonian mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabar, Viviane; Tomishima, Mark; Panagiotakos, Georgia; Wakayama, Sayaka; Menon, Jayanthi; Chan, Bill; Mizutani, Eiji; Al-Shamy, George; Ohta, Hiroshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Studer, Lorenz

    2009-01-01

    Cell transplantation with embryonic stem (ES) cell progeny requires immunological compatibility with host tissue. ‘Therapeutic cloning’ is a strategy to overcome this limitation by generating nuclear transfer (nt)ES cells that are genetically matched to an individual. Here we establish the feasibility of treating individual mice via therapeutic cloning. Derivation of 187 ntES cell lines from 24 parkinsonian mice, dopaminergic differentiation, and transplantation into individually matched host mice showed therapeutic efficacy and lack of immunological response. PMID:18376409

  18. Genetically Modified GMDH Method with Cloning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiřina, Marcel; Jiřina jr., M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 28, - (2007), s. 29-37 ISSN 1870-4069. [NNAM 2007. International Conference on Neural Networks and Associative Memories /2./. Mexico City, 04.11.2007-09.11.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : GMDH neural network * genetic selection * cloning * Machine Learning Repository Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  19. Cloning simulation in the cage environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Douthart, R J; Thomas, J J; Rosier, S D; Schmaltz, J E; West, J W

    1986-01-01

    The CAGE/GEM(TM) software toolkit for genetic engineering is briefly described. The system functionally uses color graphics and is menu driven. It integrates genetics and features information ("Overlays") with information based on sequence analysis ("Representations"). The system is structured around CAD (Computer Aided Design) principles. The CAGE (Computer Aided Genetic Engineering) aspects of the software are emphasized and illustrated by a simulated cloning of the hepatitis B core antigen...

  20. Cloning humans? Biological, ethical, and social considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Francisco J

    2015-07-21

    There are, in mankind, two kinds of heredity: biological and cultural. Cultural inheritance makes possible for humans what no other organism can accomplish: the cumulative transmission of experience from generation to generation. In turn, cultural inheritance leads to cultural evolution, the prevailing mode of human adaptation. For the last few millennia, humans have been adapting the environments to their genes more often than their genes to the environments. Nevertheless, natural selection persists in modern humans, both as differential mortality and as differential fertility, although its intensity may decrease in the future. More than 2,000 human diseases and abnormalities have a genetic causation. Health care and the increasing feasibility of genetic therapy will, although slowly, augment the future incidence of hereditary ailments. Germ-line gene therapy could halt this increase, but at present, it is not technically feasible. The proposal to enhance the human genetic endowment by genetic cloning of eminent individuals is not warranted. Genomes can be cloned; individuals cannot. In the future, therapeutic cloning will bring enhanced possibilities for organ transplantation, nerve cells and tissue healing, and other health benefits.

  1. Universality of clone dynamics during tissue development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulands, Steffen; Lescroart, Fabienne; Chabab, Samira; Hindley, Christopher J.; Prior, Nicole; Sznurkowska, Magdalena K.; Huch, Meritxell; Philpott, Anna; Blanpain, Cedric; Simons, Benjamin D.

    2018-05-01

    The emergence of complex organs is driven by the coordinated proliferation, migration and differentiation of precursor cells. The fate behaviour of these cells is reflected in the time evolution of their progeny, termed clones, which serve as a key experimental observable. In adult tissues, where cell dynamics is constrained by the condition of homeostasis, clonal tracing studies based on transgenic animal models have advanced our understanding of cell fate behaviour and its dysregulation in disease1,2. But what can be learnt from clonal dynamics in development, where the spatial cohesiveness of clones is impaired by tissue deformations during tissue growth? Drawing on the results of clonal tracing studies, we show that, despite the complexity of organ development, clonal dynamics may converge to a critical state characterized by universal scaling behaviour of clone sizes. By mapping clonal dynamics onto a generalization of the classical theory of aerosols, we elucidate the origin and range of scaling behaviours and show how the identification of universal scaling dependences may allow lineage-specific information to be distilled from experiments. Our study shows the emergence of core concepts of statistical physics in an unexpected context, identifying cellular systems as a laboratory to study non-equilibrium statistical physics.

  2. Emergence of clones in sexual populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neher, Richard A; Vucelja, Marija; Mezard, Mark; Shraiman, Boris I

    2013-01-01

    In sexual population, recombination reshuffles genetic variation and produces novel combinations of existing alleles, while selection amplifies the fittest genotypes in the population. If recombination is more rapid than selection, populations consist of a diverse mixture of many genotypes, as is observed in many populations. In the opposite regime, which is realized for example in the facultatively sexual populations that outcross in only a fraction of reproductive cycles, selection can amplify individual genotypes into large clones. Such clones emerge when the fitness advantage of some of the genotypes is large enough that they grow to a significant fraction of the population despite being broken down by recombination. The occurrence of this ‘clonal condensation’ depends, in addition to the outcrossing rate, on the heritability of fitness. Clonal condensation leads to a strong genetic heterogeneity of the population which is not adequately described by traditional population genetics measures, such as linkage disequilibrium. Here we point out the similarity between clonal condensation and the freezing transition in the random energy model of spin glasses. Guided by this analogy we explicitly calculate the probability, Y, that two individuals are genetically identical as a function of the key parameters of the model. While Y is the analog of the spin-glass order parameter, it is also closely related to rate of coalescence in population genetics: two individuals that are part of the same clone have a recent common ancestor. (paper)

  3. Tumor clone dynamics in lethal prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Suzanne; Romanel, Alessandro; Goodall, Jane; Grist, Emily; Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Miranda, Susana; Prandi, Davide; Lorente, David; Frenel, Jean-Sebastien; Pezaro, Carmel; Omlin, Aurelius; Rodrigues, Daniel Nava; Flohr, Penelope; Tunariu, Nina; S de Bono, Johann; Demichelis, Francesca; Attard, Gerhardt

    2014-09-17

    It is unclear whether a single clone metastasizes and remains dominant over the course of lethal prostate cancer. We describe the clonal architectural heterogeneity at different stages of disease progression by sequencing serial plasma and tumor samples from 16 ERG-positive patients. By characterizing the clonality of commonly occurring deletions at 21q22, 8p21, and 10q23, we identified multiple independent clones in metastatic disease that are differentially represented in tissue and circulation. To exemplify the clinical utility of our studies, we then showed a temporal association between clinical progression and emergence of androgen receptor (AR) mutations activated by glucocorticoids in about 20% of patients progressing on abiraterone and prednisolone or dexamethasone. Resistant clones showed a complex dynamic with temporal and spatial heterogeneity, suggesting distinct mechanisms of resistance at different sites that emerged and regressed depending on treatment selection pressure. This introduces a management paradigm requiring sequential monitoring of advanced prostate cancer patients with plasma and tumor biopsies to ensure early discontinuation of agents when they become potential disease drivers. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  5. Cloning and chromosomal assignment of a human cDNA encoding a T cell- and natural killer cell-specific trypsin-like serine protease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershenfeld, H.K.; Hershberger, R.J.; Shows, T.B.; Weissman, I.L.

    1988-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding a human T cell- and natural killer cell-specific serine protease was obtained by screening a phage λgt10 cDNA library from phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes with the mouse Hanukah factor cDNA clone. In an RNA blot-hybridization analysis, this human Hanukah factor cDNA hybridized with a 1.3-kilobase band in allogeneic-stimulated cytotoxic T cells and the Jurkat cell line, but this transcript was not detectable in normal muscle, liver, tonsil, or thymus. By dot-blot hybridization, this cDNA hybridized with RNA from three cytolytic T-cell clones and three noncytolytic T-cell clones grown in vitro as well as with purified CD16 + natural killer cells and CD3 + , CD16 - T-cell large granular lymphocytes from peripheral blood lymphocytes (CD = cluster designation). The nucleotide sequence of this cDNA clone encodes a predicted serine protease of 262 amino acids. The active enzyme is 71% and 77% similar to the mouse sequence at the amino acid and DNA level, respectively. The human and mouse sequences conserve the active site residues of serine proteases--the trypsin-specific Asp-189 and all 10 cysteine residues. The gene for the human Hanukah factor serine protease is located on human chromosome 5. The authors propose that this trypsin-like serine protease may function as a common component necessary for lysis of target cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells

  6. Survival of Skin Graft between Transgenic Cloned Dogs and Non-Transgenic Cloned Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geon A; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Jo, Young Kwang; Choi, Jin; Park, Jung Eun; Park, Eun Jung; Lim, Sang Hyun; Yoon, Byung Il; Kang, Sung Keun; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2014-01-01

    Whereas it has been assumed that genetically modified tissues or cells derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) should be accepted by a host of the same species, their immune compatibility has not been extensively explored. To identify acceptance of SCNT-derived cells or tissues, skin grafts were performed between cloned dogs that were identical except for their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes and foreign gene. We showed here that differences in mtDNA haplotypes and genetic modification did not elicit immune responses in these dogs: 1) skin tissues from genetically-modified cloned dogs were successfully transplanted into genetically-modified cloned dogs with different mtDNA haplotype under three successive grafts over 63 days; and 2) non-transgenic cloned tissues were accepted into transgenic cloned syngeneic recipients with different mtDNA haplotypes and vice versa under two successive grafts over 63 days. In addition, expression of the inserted gene was maintained, being functional without eliciting graft rejection. In conclusion, these results show that transplanting genetically-modified tissues into normal, syngeneic or genetically-modified recipient dogs with different mtDNA haplotypes do not elicit skin graft rejection or affect expression of the inserted gene. Therefore, therapeutically valuable tissue derived from SCNT with genetic modification might be used safely in clinical applications for patients with diseased tissues. PMID:25372489

  7. Cloning of the DNA repair gene, uvsF, by transformation of Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, K; Käfer, E

    1990-06-01

    As a first step in the cloning of the DNA repair gene uvsF of Aspergillus nidulans, uvsF pyrG double mutant strains were transformed with a genomic library which carried the complementing Neurospora pyr-4 gene in the vector. Rare pyr+ uvs+ cotransformants were obtained on media lacking pyrimidines, overlayed with MMS (methyl-methane sulfonate) to which uvsF is hypersensitive. Among MMS-resistant transformants, Southerns revealed two types which showed single bands of different sizes when BglII-digested genomic DNA was probed with the vector. Both types produced uvsF- recombinants without vector sequences in homozygous crosses, but only those with the larger band also produced haploid uvs+ progeny. Using BglII-digested genomic DNA to transform Escherichia coli, plasmids of the corresponding two sizes could be rescued. Their inserts had a short internal region in common, giving evidence of rearrangement(s). In secondary transformation of uvsF mutants, only the plasmids with the larger insert showed complementation and these were used to screen Aspergillus libraries. Three types of genomic and two overlapping cDNA clones were identified. The cDNAs hybridized not only to each other, but also to the common region of the rescued plasmids. Therefore, cDNA subclones were used to map the putative uvsF sequences to a short segment in one genomic clone. In Northerns, the complementing large plasmid hybridized to three mRNAs, while the cDNA subclone identified one of these as the probable uvsF message.

  8. Correlation between ultraviolet survival and DNA repair efficiency in mouse cell hybrids and their parent lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limbosch, S.

    1982-01-01

    Three hybrid cell lines formed between mouse lymphoma (LS) and mouse fibroblasts (A9) have been tested for their capacity to perform unscheduled DNA synthesis; their recovery characteristics after uv irradiation have also been studied to determine if DNA repair is implicated in the high survival observed in one hybrid (clone 3). The results of these investigations indicate that hybrid clone 3 was distinguishable from the more uv sensitive parental and other hybrid cell lines by its higher uv-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis, its greater clonogenic survival in plateau phase, and its faster recovery when maintained in conditioned medium after irradiation. The simultaneous increase of these three properties in hybrid clone 3 suggest that, by three different approaches, we have evidenced the same molecular process, a process involved in the elimination of potentially lethal damage, most probably the excision repair pathway. This report also shows that the low efficiency in excision repair in the parent line A9 is probably not due to deletion but rather to repression of the relevant gene(s) and that somatic cell hybridization can result in a stimulation of a previously poorly expressed repair process

  9. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation

  10. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  11. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  12. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  13. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Carbonic Anhydrase XII from Pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanij Rukshana Sumi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an 1888-bp carbonic anhydrase XII (CA XII sequence was cloned from the brain of the pufferfish, Takifugu rubripes. The cloned sequence contained a coding region of 1470-bp, which was predicted to translate into a protein of 490 amino acid residues. The predicted protein showed between 68–56% identity with the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and Asian arowana (Scleropages formosus CA XII proteins. It also exhibited 36% and 53% identity with human CA II and CA XII, respectively. The cloned sequence contained a 22 amino acid NH2-terminal signal sequence and three Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr sequons, among which one was potentially glycosylated. Four cysteine residues were also identified (Cys-21, Cys-201, Cys-355, and Cys-358, two of which (Cys-21 and Cys-201 could potentially form a disulfide bond. A 22-amino acid COOH-terminal cytoplasmic tail containing a potential site for phosphorylation by protein kinase A was also found. The cloned sequence might be a transmembrane protein, as predicted from in silico and phylogenetic analyses. The active site analysis of the predicted protein showed that its active site residues were highly conserved with tilapia CA XII protein. Homology modeling of the pufferfish CA XII was done using the crystal structure of the extracellular domain of human carbonic anhydrase XII at 1.55 Å resolution as a template. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription (RT-PCR, quantitative PCR (q-PCR, and in situ hybridization confirmed that pufferfish CA XII is highly expressed in the brain.

  14. High-dimensional quantum cloning and applications to quantum hacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Frédéric; Fickler, Robert; Boyd, Robert W; Karimi, Ebrahim

    2017-02-01

    Attempts at cloning a quantum system result in the introduction of imperfections in the state of the copies. This is a consequence of the no-cloning theorem, which is a fundamental law of quantum physics and the backbone of security for quantum communications. Although perfect copies are prohibited, a quantum state may be copied with maximal accuracy via various optimal cloning schemes. Optimal quantum cloning, which lies at the border of the physical limit imposed by the no-signaling theorem and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, has been experimentally realized for low-dimensional photonic states. However, an increase in the dimensionality of quantum systems is greatly beneficial to quantum computation and communication protocols. Nonetheless, no experimental demonstration of optimal cloning machines has hitherto been shown for high-dimensional quantum systems. We perform optimal cloning of high-dimensional photonic states by means of the symmetrization method. We show the universality of our technique by conducting cloning of numerous arbitrary input states and fully characterize our cloning machine by performing quantum state tomography on cloned photons. In addition, a cloning attack on a Bennett and Brassard (BB84) quantum key distribution protocol is experimentally demonstrated to reveal the robustness of high-dimensional states in quantum cryptography.

  15. Human cloning: category, dignity, and the role of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, Evelyne

    2003-10-01

    Human cloning has been simultaneously a running joke for massive worldwide publicity of fringe groups like the Raelians, and the core issue of an international movement at the United Nations in support of a treaty to ban the use of cloning techniques to produce a child (so called reproductive cloning). Yet, even though debates on human cloning have greatly increased since the birth of Dolly, the clone sheep, in 1997, we continue to wonder whether cloning is after all any different from other methods of medically assisted reproduction, and what exactly makes cloning an 'affront to the dignity of humans.' Categories we adopt matter mightily as they inform but can also misinform and lead to mistaken and unproductive decisions. And thus bioethicists have a responsibility to ensure that the proper categories are used in the cloning debates and denounce those who try to win the ethical debate through well-crafted labels rather than well-reasoned argumentations. But it is as important for bioethicists to take a position on broad issues such as human cloning and species altering interventions. One 'natural question' would be, for example, should there be an international treaty to ban human reproductive cloning?

  16. Procreative liberty, enhancement and commodification in the human cloning debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapshay, Sandra

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to scrutinize a contemporary standoff in the American debate over the moral permissibility of human reproductive cloning in its prospective use as a eugenic enhancement technology. I shall argue that there is some significant and under-appreciated common ground between the defenders and opponents of human cloning. Champions of the moral and legal permissibility of cloning support the technology based on the right to procreative liberty provided it were to become as safe as in vitro fertilization and that it be used only by adults who seek to rear their clone children. However, even champions of procreative liberty oppose the commodification of cloned embryos, and, by extension, the resulting commodification of the cloned children who would be produced via such embryos. I suggest that a Kantian moral argument against the use of cloning as an enhancement technology can be shown to be already implicitly accepted to some extent by champions of procreative liberty on the matter of commodification of cloned embryos. It is in this argument against commodification that the most vocal critics of cloning such as Leon Kass and defenders of cloning such as John Robertson can find greater common ground. Thus, I endeavor to advance the debate by revealing a greater degree of moral agreement on some fundamental premises than hitherto recognized.

  17. Heterogeneity in induced thermal resistance of rat tumor cell clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasovic, S.P.; Rosenblatt, P.L.; Heitzman, D.

    1983-01-01

    Four 13762NF rat mammary adenocarcinoma clones were examined for their survival response to heating under conditions that induced transient thermal resistance (thermotolerance). Clones MTC and MTF7 were isolated from the subcutaneous locally growing tumor, whereas clones MTLn2 and MTLn3 were derived from spontaneous lung metastases. There was heterogeneity among these clones in thermotolerance induced by either fractionated 45 0 C or continuous 42 0 C heating, but the order of sensitivity was not necessarily the same. The clones developed thermal resistance at different rates and to different degrees within the same time intervals. There was heterogeneity between clones isolated from within either the primary site or metastatic lesions. However, clones derived from metastatic foci did not intrinsically acquire more or less thermotolerance to fractionated 45 0 C or continuous 42 0 C heating than did clones from the primary tumor. Further, there was no apparent relationship between any phenotypic properties that conferred more or less thermotolerance in vitro and any phenotypic properties that conferred enhanced metastatic success of these same clones by spontaneous (subcutaneous) or experimental (intravenous) routes in vivo. These tumor clones also differ in their karyotype, metastatic potential, cell surface features, sensitivity to x-irradiation and drugs, and ability to repair sublethal radiation damage. These results provide further credence to the concept that inherent heterogeneity within tumors may be as important in therapeutic success as other known modifiers of outcome such as site and treatment heterogeneity

  18. Should we clone human beings? Cloning as a source of tissue for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulescu, J

    1999-01-01

    The most publicly justifiable application of human cloning, if there is one at all, is to provide self-compatible cells or tissues for medical use, especially transplantation. Some have argued that this raises no new ethical issues above those raised by any form of embryo experimentation. I argue that this research is less morally problematic than other embryo research. Indeed, it is not merely morally permissible but morally required that we employ cloning to produce embryos or fetuses for the sake of providing cells, tissues or even organs for therapy, followed by abortion of the embryo or fetus. PMID:10226910

  19. Corporate Hybrid Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlberg, Johan; Jansson, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid securities do not constitute a new phenomenon in the Swedish capital markets. Most commonly, hybrids issued by Swedish real estate companies in recent years are preference shares. Corporate hybrid bonds on the other hand may be considered as somewhat of a new-born child in the family of hybrid instruments. These do, as all other hybrid securities, share some equity-like and some debt-like characteristics. Nevertheless, since 2013 the interest for the instrument has grown rapidly and ha...

  20. A Gateway((R)) -compatible bacterial adenylate cyclase-based two-hybrid system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ouellette, S. P.; Gauliard, E.; Antošová, Zuzana; Ladant, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2014), s. 259-267 ISSN 1758-2229 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : bacterial two-hybrid system * protein–protein interactions * cell division * Gateway((R))(GW) cloning system Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.293, year: 2014

  1. Somaclonal variation in hybrid poplars for resistance to Septoria leaf spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.E. Ostry; D. D. Skilling

    1987-01-01

    Tissue culture techniques have been used to obtain hybrid poplars with putative resistance to leaf spot caused by Septoria musiva from clones previously susceptible to the disease. Stem internode explants were used to obtain proliferating callus cultures. Adventitious bud formation and shoot proliferation were then induced. Elongated shoots were excised and rooted in a...

  2. Diseases of intensively cultured hybrid poplars: a summary of recent research in the north central region

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. E. Ostry; H. S. McNabb

    1983-01-01

    Several potentially damaging diseases of hybrid poplars hue been identified in the north-central United States. Among the most serious are leaf and stem diseases caused by Melampsora, Marssonina, and Septoria. Short-term chemical controls are of limited usefulness. The most practical control strategy appears to be the use of resistant clones obtained through local...

  3. Construction of gateway-compatible yeast two-hybrid vectors for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-01

    Mar 1, 2010 ... vectors pBTM116GW and pVP16GW by introducing the gateway cassette ... Key words: Yeast two-hybrid, gateway cloning technology, protein interaction. .... cycling parameters were as follows: an initial denaturation step at.

  4. Hybrid XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckel, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the last 10 years significant innovations of EDXRF, e.g. total reflection XRF or polarized beam XRF, were utilized in different industrial applications. The decrease of background within the spectra was the goal of these developments. Excellent detection limits and sensitivities demonstrate the success of these new techniques. Nevertheless, further improvements are possible by using Si drift detectors. These detectors allow the processing of input count rates up to 10 6 cps in comparison to 10 5 of Si(Li) detectors. New excitation optics are necessary to produce such count rates. One possibility is the use of doubly curved crystals between tube and sample. These crystals enable the reflection of the primary beam within the given solid angle (0.4π) of an end window tube to the sample. Using such brightness optics excellent sensitivities mainly for light elements are achievable. The combination of a BRAGG crystal as a wavelength dispersive component and a solid state detector as an energy dispersive component creates a new technique: hybrid XRF. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  5. Effects of donor fibroblast cell type and transferred cloned embryo number on the efficiency of pig cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zicong; Shi, Junsong; Liu, Dewu; Zhou, Rong; Zeng, Haiyu; Zhou, Xiu; Mai, Ranbiao; Zeng, Shaofen; Luo, Lvhua; Yu, Wanxian; Zhang, Shouquan; Wu, Zhenfang

    2013-02-01

    Currently, cloning efficiency in pigs is very low. Donor cell type and number of cloned embryos transferred to an individual surrogate are two major factors that affect the successful rate of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in pigs. This study aimed to compare the influence of different donor fibroblast cell types and different transferred embryo numbers on recipients' pregnancy rate and delivery rate, the average number of total clones born, clones born alive and clones born healthy per litter, and the birth rate of healthy clones (=total number of healthy cloned piglets born /total number of transferred cloned embryos). Three types of donor fibroblasts were tested in large-scale production of cloned pigs, including fetal fibroblasts (FFBs) from four genetically similar Western swine breeds of Pietrain (P), Duroc (D), Landrace (L), and Yorkshire (Y), which are referred to as P,D,LY-FFBs, adult fibroblasts (AFBs) from the same four breeds, which are designated P,D,L,Y-AFBs, and AFBs from a Chinese pig breed of Laiwu (LW), which is referred to as LW-AFBs. Within each donor fibroblast cell type group, five transferred cloned embryo number groups were tested. In each embryo number group, 150-199, 200-249, 250-299, 300-349, or 350-450 cloned embryos were transferred to each individual recipient sow. For the entire experiment, 92,005 cloned embryos were generated from nearly 115,000 matured oocytes and transferred to 328 recipients; in total, 488 cloned piglets were produced. The results showed that the mean clones born healthy per litter resulted from transfer of embryos cloned from LW-AFBs (2.53 ± 0.34) was similar with that associated with P,D,L,Y-FFBs (2.72 ± 0.29), but was significantly higher than that resulted from P,D,L,Y-AFBs (1.47 ± 0.18). Use of LW-AFBs as donor cells for SCNT resulted in a significantly higher pregnancy rate (72.00% vs. 59.30% and 48.11%) and delivery rate (60.00% vs. 45.93% and 35.85%) for cloned embryo recipients, and a

  6. Changes in the gut microbiota of cloned and non-cloned control pigs during development of obesity: gut microbiota during development of obesity in cloned pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rebecca; Andersen, Anders Daniel; Mølbak, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity induced by a high-caloric diet has previously been associated with changes in the gut microbiota in mice and in humans. In this study, pigs were cloned to minimize genetic and biological variation among the animals with the aim of developing a controlled metabolomic model...... suitable for a diet-intervention study. Cloning of pigs may be an attractive way to reduce genetic influences when investigating the effect of diet and obesity on different physiological sites. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the changes in the composition of the gut microbiota of cloned vs....... non-cloned pigs during development of obesity by a high-fat/high-caloric diet. Furthermore, we investigated the association between diet-induced obesity and the relative abundance of the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the fecal-microbiota. The fecal microbiota from obese cloned (n = 5) and non...

  7. Hybrid mimics and hybrid vigor in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Greaves, Ian K.; Groszmann, Michael; Wu, Li Min; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Peacock, W. James

    2015-01-01

    F1 hybrids can outperform their parents in yield and vegetative biomass, features of hybrid vigor that form the basis of the hybrid seed industry. The yield advantage of the F1 is lost in the F2 and subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, from F2 plants that have a F1-like phenotype, we have by recurrent selection produced pure breeding F5/F6 lines, hybrid mimics, in which the characteristics of the F1 hybrid are stabilized. These hybrid mimic lines, like the F1 hybrid, have larger leaves than the parent plant, and the leaves have increased photosynthetic cell numbers, and in some lines, increased size of cells, suggesting an increased supply of photosynthate. A comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the F1 hybrid with those of eight hybrid mimic lines identified metabolic pathways altered in both; these pathways include down-regulation of defense response pathways and altered abiotic response pathways. F6 hybrid mimic lines are mostly homozygous at each locus in the genome and yet retain the large F1-like phenotype. Many alleles in the F6 plants, when they are homozygous, have expression levels different to the level in the parent. We consider this altered expression to be a consequence of transregulation of genes from one parent by genes from the other parent. Transregulation could also arise from epigenetic modifications in the F1. The pure breeding hybrid mimics have been valuable in probing the mechanisms of hybrid vigor and may also prove to be useful hybrid vigor equivalents in agriculture. PMID:26283378

  8. Consumers' attitudes toward consumption of cloned beef. The impact of exposure to technological information about animal cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizaki, Hideo; Sawada, Manabu; Sato, Kazuo

    2011-10-01

    Novel food technologies, such as cloning, have been introduced into the meat production sector; however, their use is not widely supported by many consumers. This study was designed to assess whether Japanese consumers' attitudes toward consumption of cloned beef (specifically, beef derived from bovine embryo and somatic cell-cloned cattle) would change after they were provided with technological information on animal cloning through a web-based survey. The results revealed that most respondents did not discriminate between their attitudes toward the consumption of the two types of cloned beef, and that most respondents did not change their attitudes toward cloned beef after receiving the technological information. The respondents' individual characteristics, including their knowledge about the food safety of cloned beef and their basic knowledge about animal cloning, influenced the likelihood of a change in their attitudes after they received the information. In conclusion, some consumers might become less uncomfortable about the consumption of cloned beef by the straightforward provision of technological information about animal cloning; however, most consumers are likely to maintain their attitudes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Alternative splicing of human elastin mRNA indicated by sequence analysis of cloned genomic and complementary DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indik, Z.; Yeh, H.; Ornstein-goldstein, N.; Sheppard, P.; Anderson, N.; Rosenbloom, J.C.; Peltonen, L.; Rosenbloom, J.

    1987-01-01

    Poly(A) + RNA, isolated from a single 7-mo fetal human aorta, was used to synthesize cDNA by the RNase H method, and the cDNA was inserted into λgt10. Recombinant phage containing elastin sequences were identified by hybridization with cloned, exon-containing fragments of the human elastin gene. Three clones containing inserts of 3.3, 2.7, and 2.3 kilobases were selected for further analysis. Three overlapping clones containing 17.8 kilobases of the human elastin gene were also isolated from genomic libraries. Complete sequence analysis of the six clones demonstrated that: (i) the cDNA encompassed the entire translated portion of the mRNA encoding 786 amino acids, including several unusual hydrophilic amino acid sequences not previously identified in porcine tropoelastin, (ii) exons encoding either hydrophobic or crosslinking domains in the protein alternated in the gene, and (iii) a great abundance of Alu repetitive sequences occurred throughout the introns. The data also indicated substantial alternative splicing of the mRNA. These results suggest the potential for significant variation in the precise molecular structure of the elastic fiber in the human population

  10. cDNA cloning and transcriptional controlling of a novel low dose radiation-induced gene and its function analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Pingkun; Sui Jianli

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To clone a novel low dose radiation-induced gene (LRIGx) and study its function as well as its transcriptional changes after irradiation. Methods: Its cDNA was obtained by DDRT-PCR and RACE techniques. Northern blot hybridization was used to investigate the gene transcription. Bioinformatics was employed to analysis structure and function of this gene. Results: LRIGx cDNA was cloned. The sequence of LRIGx was identical to a DNA clone located in human chromosome 20 q 11.2-12 Bioinformatics analysis predicted an encoded protein with a conserved helicase domain. Northern analysis revealed a ∼8.5 kb transcript which was induced after 0.2 Gy as well as 0.02 Gy irradiation, and the transcript level was increased 5 times at 4 h after 0.2 Gy irradiation. The induced level of LRIGx transcript by 2.0 Gy high dose was lower than by 0.2 Gy. Conclusion: A novel low dose radiation-induced gene has been cloned. It encodes a protein with a conserved helicase domain that could involve in DNA metabolism in the cellular process of radiation response

  11. Fundamental resource-allocating model in colleges and universities based on Immune Clone Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mengdie

    2017-05-01

    In this thesis we will seek the combination of antibodies and antigens converted from the optimal course arrangement and make an analogy with Immune Clone Algorithms. According to the character of the Algorithms, we apply clone, clone gene and clone selection to arrange courses. Clone operator can combine evolutionary search and random search, global search and local search. By cloning and clone mutating candidate solutions, we can find the global optimal solution quickly.

  12. Cloning animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer – biological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X Cindy; Kubota, Chikara; Enright, Brian; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2003-01-01

    Cloning by nuclear transfer using mammalian somatic cells has enormous potential application. However, somatic cloning has been inefficient in all species in which live clones have been produced. High abortion and fetal mortality rates are commonly observed. These developmental defects have been attributed to incomplete reprogramming of the somatic nuclei by the cloning process. Various strategies have been used to improve the efficiency of nuclear transfer, however, significant breakthroughs are yet to happen. In this review we will discuss studies conducted, in our laboratories and those of others, to gain a better understanding of nuclear reprogramming. Because cattle are a species widely used for nuclear transfer studies, and more laboratories have succeeded in cloning cattle than any other specie, this review will be focused on somatic cell cloning of cattle. PMID:14614770

  13. Gaussian cloning of coherent states with known phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexanian, Moorad

    2006-01-01

    The fidelity for cloning coherent states is improved over that provided by optimal Gaussian and non-Gaussian cloners for the subset of coherent states that are prepared with known phases. Gaussian quantum cloning duplicates all coherent states with an optimal fidelity of 2/3. Non-Gaussian cloners give optimal single-clone fidelity for a symmetric 1-to-2 cloner of 0.6826. Coherent states that have known phases can be cloned with a fidelity of 4/5. The latter is realized by a combination of two beam splitters and a four-wave mixer operated in the nonlinear regime, all of which are realized by interaction Hamiltonians that are quadratic in the photon operators. Therefore, the known Gaussian devices for cloning coherent states are extended when cloning coherent states with known phases by considering a nonbalanced beam splitter at the input side of the amplifier

  14. Preservation and Reproduction of Microminipigs by Cloning Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enya, Satoko; Kawarasaki, Tatsuo; Otake, Masayoshi; Kangawa, Akihisa; Uenishi, Hirohide; Mikawa, Satoshi; Nishimura, Takashi; Kuwahawa, Yasushi; Shibata, Masatoshi

    Microminipigs have been maintained in small populations of closed colonies, involving risks of inbreeding depression and genetic drift. In order to avoid these risks, we assessed the applicability of cloning technology. Male and female clones were produced from a stock of cryopreserved somatic cells, obtaining offspring by means of natural mating. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of original microminipigs, clones and their offspring were analyzed and recorded. Clones presented characteristics similar to those of the cell-stock data. Although the body weight of clones tended to be heavier than that of the cell-stock data, body weights of their offspring were similar to those of previous reports. Thus, cloned microminipigs have the potential to be a valuable genetic resource for reproduction and breeding. Our proposed methodology might be useful to provide a large number of animals with adequate quality from a limited population with sufficient genetic diversity. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. [Product safety analysis of somatic cell cloned bovine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Song; Lan, Jie; Song, Yongli; Lu, Chenglong; Zhang, Yong

    2010-05-01

    Somatic cell cloning (nuclear transfer) is a technique through which the nucleus (DNA) of a somatic cell is transferred into an enucleated oocyte for the generation of a new individual, genetically identical to the somatic cell donor. It could be applied for the enhancement of reproduction rate and the improvement of food products involving quality, yield and nutrition. In recent years, the United States, Japan and Europe as well as other countries announced that meat and milk products made from cloned cattle are safe for human consumption. Yet, cloned animals are faced with a wide range of health problems, with a high death rate and a high incidence of disease. The precise causal mechanisms for the low efficiency of cloning remain unclear. Is it safe that any products from cloned animals were allowed into the food supply? This review focuses on the security of meat, milk and products from cloned cattle based on the available data.

  16. Stability of the JP2 clone of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubek, D; Ennibi, O-K; Vaeth, M; Poulsen, S; Poulsen, K

    2009-09-01

    The JP2 clone of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is strongly associated with aggressive periodontitis. To obtain information about colonization dynamics of the JP2 clone, we used PCR to examine its presence in 365 Moroccan juveniles from whom periodontal plaque samples were collected at baseline and after one and two years. Periodontal attachment loss was measured at baseline and at the two-year follow-up. At baseline, 43 (12%) carriers of the JP2 clone were found. Nearly half (44 %) of these were persistently colonized with the clone. The relative risk for the development of aggressive periodontitis, adjusted for the concomitant presence of other genotypes of A. actinomycetemcomitans, was highest for individuals continuously infected by the JP2 clone (RR = 13.9; 95% CI, 9.0 to 21.4), indicating a relationship between infectious dose and disease, which further substantiates the evidence for the JP2 clone as a causal factor in aggressive periodontitis.

  17. Interspecific somatic hybrid plants between eggplant (Solanum melongena) and Solanum torvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, A; Sink, K C

    1988-10-01

    Mesophyll protoplasts of eggplant (cv Black Beauty) and of Solanum torvum (both 2n=2x=24) were fused using a modification of the Menczel and Wolfe PEG/DMSO procedure. Protoplasts post-fusion were plated at 1 × 10(5)/ml in modified KM medium, which inhibited division of S. torvum protoplasts. One week prior to shoot regeneration, ten individual calluses had a unique light-green background and were verified as cell hybrids by the presence of the dimer isozyme patterns for phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI) and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT). Hybridity was also confirmed at the plant stage by DNA-DNA hybridization to a pea 45S ribosomal RNA gene probe. The ten somatic hybrid plants were established in the greenhouse and exhibited intermediate morphological characteristics such as leaf size and shape, flower size, shape, color and plant stature. Their chromosome number ranged from 46-48 (expected 2n=4x=48) and pollen viability was 5%-70%. In vitro shoots taken from the ten hybrid plants exhibited resistance to a verticillium wilt extract. Total DNA from the ten hybrids was restricted and hybridized with a 5.9 kb Oenothera chloroplast cytochrome f gene probe, a 2.4 kb EcoRI clone encoding mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II from maize and a 22.1 kb Sal I mitochondrial clone from Nicotiana sylvestris. Southern blot hybridization patterns showed that eight of ten somatic hybrids contained the eggplant cpDNA, while two plants contained the cpDNA hybridization patterns of both parents. The mtDNA analysis revealed the presence of novel bands, loss of some specific parental bands and mixture of specific bands from both parents in the restriction hybridization profiles of the hybrids.

  18. KEYBOARD MONITORING BASED UPON THE IMMUNOLOGIC CLONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Bryukhomitsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Biometric Keyboard Monitoring System is represented. It’s intended for permanent textindependent control and analysis of automated information data systems users’ keyboard script. It’s suggested a keyboard monitoring method, which is combined the idea and advantages of threaded method of keyboard parameters representation and immunological approach to its realization, based upon the detectors cloning model. Suggested method potentially possesses a pinpoint accuracy, higher convergence rate of classification problems solving, ability to learn on only “own” class exemplars.

  19. Human somatic cell nuclear transfer and cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This document presents arguments that conclude that it is unethical to use somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for infertility treatment due to concerns about safety; the unknown impact of SCNT on children, families, and society; and the availability of other ethically acceptable means of assisted reproduction. This document replaces the ASRM Ethics Committee report titled, "Human somatic cell nuclear transfer (cloning)," last published in Fertil Steril 2000;74:873-6. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantum correlations support probabilistic pure state cloning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa, Luis, E-mail: lroa@udec.cl [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Alid-Vaccarezza, M.; Jara-Figueroa, C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Klimov, A.B. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Guadalajara, Avenida Revolución 1500, 44420 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2014-02-01

    The probabilistic scheme for making two copies of two nonorthogonal pure states requires two auxiliary systems, one for copying and one for attempting to project onto the suitable subspace. The process is performed by means of a unitary-reduction scheme which allows having a success probability of cloning different from zero. The scheme becomes optimal when the probability of success is maximized. In this case, a bipartite state remains as a free degree which does not affect the probability. We find bipartite states for which the unitarity does not introduce entanglement, but does introduce quantum discord between some involved subsystems.

  1. BIOLOGICAL CLONING OF A BOVINE CORONAVIRUS ISOLATE

    OpenAIRE

    Betancourt, A; Rodríguez, Edisleidy; Relova, Damarys; Barrera, Maritza

    2008-01-01

    Con el objetivo de obtener un aislado de Coronavirus bovino clonado biológicamente se adaptó el aislado VB73/04 a la multiplicación en la línea celular MDBK. Este aislado indujo la formación de placas, las cuales resultaron homogéneas después del clonaje biológico. La población viral obtenida fue identificada como Coronavirus bovino por RT-PCR y Seroneutralización. In order to obtain a biologically cloned bovine coronavirus isolate, the isolate VB73/04 was adapted to multiplication in MDBK...

  2. Chimeric infectious DNA clones, chimeric porcine circoviruses and uses thereof

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to infectious DNA clones, infectious chimeric DNA clones of porcine circovirus (PCV), vaccines and means of protecting pigs against viral infection or postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) caused by PCV2. The new chimeric infectious DNA clone and its derived, avirulent chimeric virus are constructed from the nonpathogenic PCV1 in which the immunogenic ORF gene of the pathogenic PCV2 replaces a gene of the nonpathogenic PCV1, preferably in the same pos...

  3. The Human Cloning Prohibition Act of 2001: vagueness and federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Jonathan S

    2002-01-01

    On July 31, 2001, the U.S. House of Representatives passed The Human Cloning Prohibition Act of 2001. The legislation proposes a complete ban on somatic cell nuclear transfer to create cloned human embryos; it threatens transgressors with criminal punishment and civil fines. House Bill 2505 is the first human cloning prohibition to pass either chamber of Congress. This note argues that the bill is unconstitutionally vague and inconsistent with the Supreme Court's recent Commerce Clause jurisprudence.

  4. Biotechnology. Perseverance leads to cloned pig in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, E; Normile, D

    2000-08-18

    Low success rates and unpredictable results have plagued cloning researchers, particularly those trying to clone pigs. Now, on page 1188, Japanese researchers offer the first scientific report of a cloned pig, named Xena, raising hopes that pigs could one day provide an unlimited supply of organs for transplantation thanks to their close physiological relationship to humans. But this week those hopes were dealt a blow by more evidence suggesting that pig retroviruses can infect human cells.

  5. [Human cloning and the protection of women's interests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canabes, Marcela Ahumada

    2008-01-01

    The Human Cloning, both therapeutic and full birth cloning, involves and affects women in a special way. The United Nation's Declaration on the Cloning of Human Beings includes a special clause referred to them. Also the Spanish law does it. This works pretend to analyse the meaning of the inclusion of women's interests in this document. At the same time, I will consider the foundations and the importance of the reference to the women.

  6. Towards an understanding of British public attitudes concerning human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Richard; Barnett, Julie; Cooper, Helen; Coyle, Adrian; Moran-Ellis, Jo; Senior, Victoria; Walton, Chris

    2007-07-01

    The ability of scientists to apply cloning technology to humans has provoked public discussion and media coverage. The present paper reports on a series of studies examining public attitudes to human cloning in the UK, bringing together a range of quantitative and qualitative methods to address this question. These included a nationally representative survey, an experimental vignette study, focus groups and analyses of media coverage. Overall the research presents a complex picture of attitude to and constructions of human cloning. In all of the analyses, therapeutic cloning was viewed more favourably than reproductive cloning. However, while participants in the focus groups were generally negative about both forms of cloning, and this was also reflected in the media analyses, quantitative results showed more positive responses. In the quantitative research, therapeutic cloning was generally accepted when the benefits of such procedures were clear, and although reproductive cloning was less accepted there was still substantial support. Participants in the focus groups only differentiated between therapeutic and reproductive cloning after the issue of therapeutic cloning was explicitly raised; initially they saw cloning as being reproductive cloning and saw no real benefits. Attitudes were shown to be associated with underlying values associated with scientific progress rather than with age, gender or education, and although there were a few differences in the quantitative data based on religious affiliation, these tended to be small effects. Likewise in the focus groups there was little direct appeal to religion, but the main themes were 'interfering with nature' and the 'status of the embryo', with the latter being used more effectively to try to close down further discussion. In general there was a close correspondence between the media analysis and focus group responses, possibly demonstrating the importance of media as a resource, or that the media reflect

  7. Transfer of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis with T cell clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romball, C.G.; Weigle, W.O.

    1987-01-01

    We have investigated three T lymphocyte clones isolated from CBA/CaJ mice primed with mouse thyroid extract (MTE) in adjuvant. All three clones are L3T4+, Ig-, and Lyt2- and proliferate to MTE, mouse thyroglobulin (MTG) and rat thyroid extract. Clones A7 and B7 transfer thyroiditis to irradiated (475 rad) syngeneic mice, but not to normal recipients. The thyroid lesion induced by the B7 clone is characterized by the infiltration of both mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells. The thyroiditis is transient in that lesions are apparent 7 and 14 days after transfer, but thyroids return to normal by day 21. Clone B7 showed helper activity for trinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin-primed B cells in vitro when stimulated with trinitrophenyl-MTG and also stimulated the production of anti-MTG antibody in recipient mice. Clone A7 induced thyroid lesions characterized by infiltration of the thyroid with mononuclear cells, with virtually no polymorphonuclear cell infiltration. This clone has shown no helper activity following stimulation with trinitrophenyl-MTG. The third clone (D2) proliferates to and shows helper activity to MTG, but fails to transfer thyroiditis to syngeneic, irradiated mice. On continuous culture, clone B7 lost its surface Thy. The loss of Thy appears unrelated to the ability to transfer thyroiditis since subclones of B7 with markedly different percentages of Thy+ cells transferred disease equally well

  8. The science and technology of farm animal cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Vajta, Gábor

    , goats, horses, cats, etc. have been cloned with the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique. Although the technology still has relatively low success rates and there seems to be substantial problems with the welfare of some of the cloned animals, cloning is used both within basic research...... include the production of genetically identical animals for research purposes, and also the creation of genetically modified animals. In the agricultural sector, cloning can be used as a tool within farm animal breeding. We do not intend to give an exhaustive review of the all the literature available...

  9. Isolation, cloning and molecular characterization of a thermotolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation, cloning and molecular characterization of a thermotolerant xylanase from Streptomyces sp. THW31. Thayat Sriyapai, Peechapack Somyoonsap, Supatra Areekit, Paisarn Khawsak, Arda Pakpitcharoen, Kosum Chansiri ...

  10. Knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoy, Sivia; Ehrenfeld, Malka; Sharon, Rina; Tabak, Nili

    2006-04-01

    The success of mammal cloning in 1997 has brought the issue of human cloning into public discussion. Human cloning has several aspects and potential applications for use in both reproductive and non-reproductive matters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel. Data from 120 respondents (68 health professionals and 52 non-health professionals), all Jewish, Hebrew speaking with at least 15 years of education each, were collected using two questionnaires that dealt with knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning. Results showed that although health professionals had significantly more knowledge that non-health professionals, all respondents had poor knowledge about cloning. No difference in attitudes was found between the groups. Most respondents opposed human cloning, but more positive attitudes toward non-reproductive cloning were found. The results are discussed in the context of the deficit model. The findings indicate a need to provide information about human cloning to allow people to form their attitudes based on factual knowledge.

  11. Counterfactual quantum cloning without transmitting any physical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qi; Zhai, Shuqin; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2017-11-01

    We propose a counterfactual 1 →2 economical phase-covariant cloning scheme. Compared with the existing protocols using flying qubits, the main difference of the presented scheme is that the cloning can be achieved without transmitting the photon between the two parties. In addition, this counterfactual scheme does not need to construct controlled quantum gates to perform joint logical operations between the cloned qubit and the blank copy. We also numerically evaluate the performance of the present scheme in the practical experiment, which shows this cloning scheme can be implemented with a high success of probability and the fidelity is close to the optimal value in the ideal asymptotic limit.

  12. The evaluation of growth dynamics of Lonicera kamtschatica clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Matuškovič

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Artickle deals with the evaluation of growth dynamics of selected set of clones Lonicera kamtschatica in the conditions of Nitra. We measured the growth of the shrubs twice a year (in spring and autumn during 2003–2005. Within all clones 5 shrubs were evaluated. On the basis of the obtained results we can claim the highest increase of height in case of LKL 21 followed by clones LKL 16 and LKL 5. The lowest growth increase was typical for LKL 58 and LKL 66.In term of statistical evaluation the year can be considered as a statistically significant factor forming a growth intensity of clones during 2003–2005. The effect of year on growing processes is strong (ε2 = 0.96 while the participation of year with clone influenced the growth increase in medium size (ε2 = 0.42. LKL 21 and LKL 58 in comparison with other clones are the most disperatable in term of growth increase. Within mentioned clones statistically significant differences were recorded in 7 evaluated pairs. In the same way LKL 42 is very different from another clones as well. On the basis of all provided analysis the tested clones from point of wiev perspectivity of planting can be set up in the following order: LKL 21, LKL 16, LKL 5, LKL 42, LKL 49, LKL 96, LKL 6, LKL 60, LKL 66 and LKL 58.

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of leucine aminopeptidase from Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changklungmoa, Narin; Chaithirayanon, Kulathida; Kueakhai, Pornanan; Meemon, Krai; Riengrojpitak, Suda; Sobhon, Prasert

    2012-07-01

    M17 leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) is one of a family of metalloexopeptidases, of which short peptide fragments are cleaved from the N-terminals. In this study, the full length of cDNA encoding Fasciola gigantica LAP (FgLAP) was cloned from adult parasites. The amino acid sequences of FgLAP showed a high degree of identity (98%) with that from Fasciola hepatica and a low degree of identities (11% and 9%) with those from cattle and human. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the FgLAP was closely related and grouped with F. hepatica LAP (FhLAP). Northern analysis showed that FgLAP transcriptional products have 1800 base pairs. Analysis by RNA in situ hybridization indicated that LAP gene was expressed in the cecal epithelial cells of adult parasites. A polyclonal antibody to a recombinant FgLAP (rFgLAP) detected the native LAP protein in various developmental stages of the parasite. In a functional test, this rFgLAP displayed aminolytic activity using a fluorogenic Leu-MCA substrate, and was significantly inhibited by bestatin. Its maximum activity was at pH 8.0 and enhanced by Mn(2+) ions. Localization of LAP proteins by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence techniques indicated that the enzyme was distributed in the apical cytoplasm of cecal epithelial cells. Because of its important metabolic role and fairly exposed position, FgLAP is a potential drug target and a possible vaccine candidate against fasciolosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Construction of an infectious plasmid clone of Muscovy duck parvovirus by TA cloning and creation of a partially attenuated strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, T-Y; Li, K-P; Ou, S-C; Shien, J-H; Lu, H-M; Chang, P-C

    2015-01-01

    Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) infection is a highly contagious and fatal disease of Muscovy ducklings. The infectious clone methodology is a valuable tool to study the pathogenic mechanisms of viruses, but no infectious clone of MDPV is yet available. In this study, a plasmid clone containing the full-length genome of MDPV was constructed using the TA cloning methodology. This MDPV clone was found to be infectious after transfection of primary Muscovy duck embryo fibroblast cells and passage in embryonated Muscovy duck eggs. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the K75N mutation in the VP1 protein of MDPV resulted in the partial attenuation of the virus. The availability of an MDPV infectious clone can facilitate investigation of the pathogenic mechanisms of MDPV and development of vaccines against diseases caused by MDPV.

  15. Purification, cDNA Cloning, and Developmental Expression of the Nodule-Specific Uricase from Phaseolus vulgaris L. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Federico; Campos, Francisco; Padilla, Jaime; Bonneville, Jean-Marc; Enríquez, Consuelo; Caput, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Nodule-specific uricase (uricase II) from Phaseolus vulgaris L. was purified to homogeneity by chromatographic methods. Purification data indicated that uricase II is approximately 2% of the total soluble protein from mature nodules. Specific antiserum was raised and used to determine the developmental expression and for immunoselection of polysomes. Uricase II was antigenically detected early in nodule development, 2 to 3 days before nitrogen fixation. Uricase-encoding cDNA clones were isolated by hybridizing a nodule-specific pUC9 cDNA library with labeled mRNA from immunoselected polysomes and a 35,000 molecular weight uricase II-encoding cDNA from soybean. An homologous clone (pNF-UR07) was used to assess the expression pattern of the specific transcript during development. Northern-blot analysis indicated that uricase II mRNA is exclusively expressed in nodule tissue. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16665575

  16. [Cloning: necessary reflections on the imaginary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minahim, María Auxiliadora

    2009-01-01

    The article covers the innumerable reasons given for using cloning for therapeutic and reproductive purposes. The most commonly used argument in favour of the procedure has been that of preserving human dignity, which would include the wide exercising of personal autonomy without restrictions of an ethical nature. This view is countered by questions relating to the use of the technique, namely self-determination and the loss of the integrity of the species, which would include the transformation of a generation through the production of human beings and tissues. It must also be made clear that therapeutic cloning (which is carried out through the use of stem cells) is not yet a reality in the scientific world, with the result that the procedure that is supposedly necessary, which argues in favour of the destruction of the young embryo is misleading, as are also certain discourses used to refer to the theme and the science. Criminal law, on prohibiting this practice is anticipating it becoming a reality, protecting legal rights that affect supra-individual interests, such as the destruction of the young embryo, one of the issues of concern to ADIN (Acción Directa de Inconstitucionalidad en Brasil - Direct Action on Unconstitutionality in Brazil) 3510-0.

  17. Determining Complementary Properties with Quantum Clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekkadath, G. S.; Saaltink, R. Y.; Giner, L.; Lundeen, J. S.

    2017-08-01

    In a classical world, simultaneous measurements of complementary properties (e.g., position and momentum) give a system's state. In quantum mechanics, measurement-induced disturbance is largest for complementary properties and, hence, limits the precision with which such properties can be determined simultaneously. It is tempting to try to sidestep this disturbance by copying the system and measuring each complementary property on a separate copy. However, perfect copying is physically impossible in quantum mechanics. Here, we investigate using the closest quantum analog to this copying strategy, optimal cloning. The coherent portion of the generated clones' state corresponds to "twins" of the input system. Like perfect copies, both twins faithfully reproduce the properties of the input system. Unlike perfect copies, the twins are entangled. As such, a measurement on both twins is equivalent to a simultaneous measurement on the input system. For complementary observables, this joint measurement gives the system's state, just as in the classical case. We demonstrate this experimentally using polarized single photons.

  18. Dose dependency of the frequency of micronucleated binucleated clone cells and of division related median clone sizes difference. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, G,; Kreczik, A.; Treichel, M.

    1996-01-01

    Following irradiation of the progenitor cells the clone growth of CHO cells decreases as a result of cell losses. Lethally acting expressions of micronuclei are produced by heritable lethal mutations. The dependency of the frequency of micronucleated binucleated clone cells and of the median clone sizes difference on the radiation dose was measured and compared to non-irradiated controls. Using the cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-method binucleated cells with micronuclei were counted as ratio of all binucleated cells within a clone size distribution. This ratio (shortened: micronucleus yield) was determined for all clone size distributions, which had been exposed to different irradiation doses and incubation times. The micronucleus yields were compared to the corresponding median clone sizes differences. The micronucleus yield is linearly dependent on the dose and is independent of the incubation time. The same holds true for the division related median clone sizes difference, which as a result is also linearly dependent on the micronucleus yield. Due to the inevitably errors of the cell count of micronucleated binucleated cells, an automatic measurement of the median clone sizes differences is the preferred method for evaluation of cellular radiation sensitivity for heritable lethal mutations. This value should always be determined in addition, if clone survival fractions are used as predictive test because it allows for an estimation of the remission probability of surviving cells. (orig.) [de

  19. Assessment of the genetic diversity of natural rubber tree clones of the SINCHI Institutes clone collection, using of morphological descriptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada Mendez, Isaac; Quintero Barrera, Lorena; Aristizabal, Fabio A; Rodriguez Acuna, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Genetic diversity of natural rubber clones of the in SINCHI Institute’s clone collection was assessed. Clones of Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. De Juss.) Muell.Arg., Hevea spp. (H. brasiliensis x H. benthamiana), and three more species of Hevea genus are a part of the collection. Seventy-two materials were characterized with twenty-eight morphological descriptors. They were later used to generate a similarity matrix through the analysis of multi-categorical variables, and to obtain clusters based on the matrix. A low variability between clones of H. brasiliensis and H. spp. was observed, presumably because of the direct descendants of most of the materials from crosses of parental PB 80, PB 5/51, PB 49 and Tjir, exception made of clone GU 1410. Clustering between some materials product of exclusive cross of PB series, a group between clones descendants of parental clones PB 86, and clustering between descendants of parental clones PB 5/51, were observed. Clones from other species of Hevea differ from this big group.

  20. Local circulating clones of Staphylococcus aureus in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, Jeannete; Barba, Pedro; Ortega-Paredes, David; Mora, Marcelo; Rivadeneira, Sebastián

    The spread of pandemic Staphylococcus aureus clones, mainly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), must be kept under surveillance to assemble an accurate, local epidemiological analysis. In Ecuador, the prevalence of the USA300 Latin American variant clone (USA300-LV) is well known; however, there is little information about other circulating clones. The aim of this work was to identify the sequence types (ST) using a Multiple-Locus Variable number tandem repeat Analysis 14-locus genotyping approach. We analyzed 132 S. aureus strains that were recovered from 2005 to 2013 and isolated in several clinical settings in Quito, Ecuador. MRSA isolates composed 46.97% (62/132) of the study population. Within MRSA, 37 isolates were related to the USA300-LV clone (ST8-MRSA-IV, Panton-Valentine Leukocidin [PVL] +) and 10 were related to the Brazilian clone (ST239-MRSA-III, PVL-). Additionally, two isolates (ST5-MRSA-II, PVL-) were related to the New York/Japan clone. One isolate was related to the Pediatric clone (ST5-MRSA-IV, PVL-), one isolate (ST45-MRSA-II, PVL-) was related to the USA600 clone, and one (ST22-MRSA-IV, PVL-) was related to the epidemic UK-EMRSA-15 clone. Moreover, the most prevalent MSSA sequence types were ST8 (11 isolates), ST45 (8 isolates), ST30 (8 isolates), ST5 (7 isolates) and ST22 (6 isolates). Additionally, we found one isolate that was related to the livestock associated S. aureus clone ST398. We conclude that in addition to the high prevalence of clone LV-ST8-MRSA-IV, other epidemic clones are circulating in Quito, such as the Brazilian, Pediatric and New York/Japan clones. The USA600 and UK-EMRSA-15 clones, which were not previously described in Ecuador, were also found. Moreover, we found evidence of the presence of the livestock associated clone ST398 in a hospital environment. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. cDNA cloning, sequence analysis, and chromosomal localization of the gene for human carnitine palmitoyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finocchiaro, G.; Taroni, F.; Martin, A.L.; Colombo, I.; Tarelli, G.T.; DiDonato, S.; Rocchi, M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have cloned and sequenced a cDNA encoding human liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase an inner mitochondrial membrane enzyme that plays a major role in the fatty acid oxidation pathway. Mixed oligonucleotide primers whose sequences were deduced from one tryptic peptide obtained from purified CPTase were used in a polymerase chain reaction, allowing the amplification of a 0.12-kilobase fragment of human genomic DNA encoding such a peptide. A 60-base-pair (bp) oligonucleotide synthesized on the basis of the sequence from this fragment was used for the screening of a cDNA library from human liver and hybridized to a cDNA insert of 2255 bp. This cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1974 bp that encodes a protein of 658 amino acid residues including 25 residues of an NH 2 -terminal leader peptide. The assignment of this open reading frame to human liver CPTase is confirmed by matches to seven different amino acid sequences of tryptic peptides derived from pure human CPTase and by the 82.2% homology with the amino acid sequence of rat CPTase. The NH 2 -terminal region of CPTase contains a leucine-proline motif that is shared by carnitine acetyl- and octanoyltransferases and by choline acetyltransferase. The gene encoding CPTase was assigned to human chromosome 1, region 1q12-1pter, by hybridization of CPTase cDNA with a DNA panel of 19 human-hanster somatic cell hybrids

  2. Characterization and immunological identification of cDNA clones encoding two human DNA topoisomerase II isozymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, T.D.Y.; Drake, F.H.; Tan, K.B.; Per, S.R.; Crooke, S.T.; Mirabelli, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    Several DNA topoisomerase II partial cDNA clones obtained from a human Raji-HN2 cDNA library were sequenced and two classes of nucleotide sequences were found. One member of the first class, SP1, was identical to an internal fragment of human HeLa cell Topo II cDNA described earlier. A member of the second class, SP11, shared extensive nucleotide (75%) and predicted peptide (92%) sequence similarities with the first two-thirds of HeLa Topo II. Each class of cDNAs hybridized to unique, nonoverlapping restriction enzyme fragments of genomic DNA from several human cell lines. Synthetic 24-mer oligonucleotide probes specific for each cDNA class hybridized to 6.5-kilobase mRNAs; furthermore, hybridization of probe specific for one class was not blocked by probe specific for the other. Antibodies raised against a synthetic SP1-encoded dodecapeptide specifically recognized the 170-kDa form of Topo II, while antibodies raised against the corresponding SP11-encoded dodecapeptide, or a second unique SP11-encoded tridecapeptide, selectively recognized the 180-kDa form of Topo II. These data provide genetic and immunochemical evidence for two Topo II isozymes

  3. Phenol emulsion-enhanced DNA-driven subtractive cDNA cloning: isolation of low-abundance monkey cortex-specific mRNAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, G.H.; Sutcliffe, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    To isolate cDNA clones of low-abundance mRNAs expressed in monkey cerebral cortex but absent from cerebellum, the authors developed an improved subtractive cDNA cloning procedure that requires only modest quantities of mRNA. Plasmid DNA from a monkey cerebellum cDNA library was hybridized in large excess to radiolabeled monkey cortex cDNA in a phenol emulsion-enhanced reaction. The unhybridized cortex cDNA was isolated by chromatography on hydroxyapatite and used to probe colonies from a monkey cortex cDNA library. Of 60,000 colonies screened, 163 clones were isolated and confirmed by colony hybridization or RNA blotting to represent mRNAs, ranging from 0.001% to 0.1% abundance, specific to or highly enriched in cerebral cortex relative to cerebellum. Clones of one medium-abundance mRNA were recovered almost quantitatively. Two of the lower-abundance mRNAs were expressed at levels reduced by a factor of 10 in Alzheimer disease relative to normal human cortex. One of these was identified as the monkey preprosomatostatin I mRNA

  4. Hybrid Management in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer......Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer...

  5. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  6. Isolation of probes specific to human chromosomal region 6p21 from immunoselected irradiation-fusion gene transfer hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragoussis, J.; Jones, T.A.; Sheer, D.; Shrimpton, A.E.; Goodfellow, P.N.; Trowsdale, J.; Ziegler, A.

    1991-01-01

    A hybrid cell line (R21/B1) containing a truncated human chromosome 6 (6pter-6q21) and a human Y chromosome on a hamster background was irradiated and fused to A23 (TK-) or W3GH (HPRT-) hamster cells. Clones containing expressed HLA class I genes (4/40) were selected using monoclonal antibodies. These clones were recloned and analyzed with a panel of probes from the HLA region. One hybrid (4G6) contained the entire HLA complex. Two other hybrids (4J4 and 4H2) contained only the HLA class I region, while the fourth hybrid (5P9) contained HLA class I and III genes in addition to other genes located in the 6p21 chromosomal region. In situ hybridization showed that the hybrid cells contained more than one fragment of human DNA. Alu and LINE PCR products were derived from these cells and compared to each other as well as to products from two somatic cell hybrids having the 6p21 region in common. The PCR fragments were then screened on conventional Southern blots of the somatic cell hybrids to select a panel of novel probes encompassing the 6p21 region. In addition, the origin of the human DNA fragments in hybrid 4J4 was determined by regional mapping of PCR products

  7. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  8. Infectious Maize rayado fino virus from cloned cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) is the type member of the marafiviruses within the family Tymoviridae. A cDNA clone from which infectious RNA can be transcribed was produced from a US isolate of MRFV (MRFV-US). Infectivity of transcripts derived from cDNA clones was demonstrated by infection of mai...

  9. Cloning of T lymphocytes from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, B. E.; Krouwels, F. H.; Bruinier, B.; Reijneke, R. M.; Mengelers, H. J.; Koenderman, L.; Jansen, H. M.; Out, T. A.

    1992-01-01

    We have prepared T-cell clones from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from four healthy, nonsmoking persons and from four patients with allergic asthma. T cells were cloned by direct limiting dilution and with the use of a fluorescent activated cell sorter with an automated cell deposition unit.

  10. Cloning, recombinant expression and characterization of a new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new amylase gene APGA1 was cloned from Aureobasidium pullulans NRRL 12974 and expressed in Pichia pastoris. This is the first report on cloning and expression of amylolytic gene from the industrially important microorganism A. pullulans. The purified recombinant protein with MW of 66 kDa and specific activity of ...

  11. Molecular cloning, expression analysis and sequence prediction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta as an essential transcriptional factor, regulates the differentiation of adipocytes and the deposition of fat. Herein, we cloned the whole open reading frame (ORF) of bovine C/EBPβ gene and analyzed its putative protein structures via DNA cloning and sequence analysis. Then, the ...

  12. Cloning and transformation of SCMV CP gene and regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The coated protein gene of sugarcane mosaic virus ( SCMV CP gene) was cloned from maize (Zea mays L.) leaves showing dwarf mosaic symptoms by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) with degraded primers. The results of sequencing and homologous comparison indicated that the cloned gene ...

  13. Evaluation of flooding tolerance in cuttings of Populus clones used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We analysed the responses to flooding of 14 poplar clones used for forestation at the Paraná River Delta, Argentina. Some are commercial clones planted in the area, and others belong to a poplar breeding program from the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) in Argentina. Potted plants of 60 cm high ...

  14. High-throughput cloning and expression in recalcitrant bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertsma, Eric R.; Poolman, Bert

    We developed a generic method for high-throughput cloning in bacteria that are less amenable to conventional DNA manipulations. The method involves ligation-independent cloning in an intermediary Escherichia coli vector, which is rapidly converted via vector-backbone exchange (VBEx) into an

  15. MEANS AND METHODS FOR CLONING NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertsma, Eric Robin; Poolman, Berend

    2008-01-01

    The invention provides means and methods for efficiently cloning nucleic acid sequences of interest in micro-organisms that are less amenable to conventional nucleic acid manipulations, as compared to, for instance, E.coli. The present invention enables high-throughput cloning (and, preferably,

  16. A set of BAC clones spanning the human genome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzywinski, M.; Bosdet, I.; Smailus, D.; Chiu, R.; Mathewson, C.; Wye, N.; Barber, S.; Brown-John, M.; Chan, S.; Chand, S.; Cloutier, A.; Girn, N.; Lee, D.; Masson, A.; Mayo, M.; Olson, T.; Pandoh, P.; Prabhu, A.L.; Schoenmakers, E.F.P.M.; Tsai, M.Y.; Albertson, D.; Lam, W.W.; Choy, C.O.; Osoegawa, K.; Zhao, S.; Jong, P.J. de; Schein, J.; Jones, S.; Marra, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Using the human bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) fingerprint-based physical map, genome sequence assembly and BAC end sequences, we have generated a fingerprint-validated set of 32 855 BAC clones spanning the human genome. The clone set provides coverage for at least 98% of the human

  17. Assessment of wood density of seven clones of Eucalyptus grandis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the objective of evaluating the correlation of wood basic density with age in seven Eucalyptus grandis clones planted in Brazil, five trees in each clone were sampled at the ages of 0, 5, 1, 5, 2, 5, 3, 5, 4, 5 and 7, 5 years. The analysis of these samples showed that the intraclonal variation of the basic density (except for 0, ...

  18. The Development of improved willow clones for eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. F. Kopp; L. B. Smart; C. A. Maynard; J. G. Isebrands; G. A. Tuskan; L. P. Abrahamson

    2001-01-01

    Efforts aimed at genetic improvement of Salix are increasing in North America.Most of these are directed towards developing improved clones for biomass production, phytoremediation, nutrient filters, and stream bank stabilization in the Northeast and North-central United States. Native species are of primary interest, but a small number of clones containing non-native...

  19. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  20. The use of yellow fluorescent hybrids to indicate mating in Trypanosoma brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferris Vanessa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trypanosoma brucei undergoes genetic exchange in its insect vector, the tsetse fly, by an unknown mechanism. The difficulties of working with this experimental system of genetic exchange have hampered investigation, particularly because the trypanosome life cycle stages involved cannot be cultured in vitro and therefore must be examined in the insect. Searching for small numbers of hybrid trypanosomes directly in the fly has become possible through the incorporation of fluorescent reporter genes, and we have previously carried out a successful cross using a reporter-repressor strategy. However, we could not be certain that all fluorescent trypanosomes observed in that cross were hybrids, due to mutations of the repressor leading to spontaneous fluorescence, and we have therefore developed an alternative strategy. Results To visualize the production of hybrids in the fly, parental trypanosome clones were transfected with a gene encoding Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP or Red Fluorescent Protein (RFP. Co-infection of flies with red and green fluorescent parental trypanosomes produced yellow fluorescent hybrids, which were easily visualized in the fly salivary glands. Yellow trypanosomes were not seen in midgut or proventricular samples and first appeared in the glands as epimastigotes as early as 13 days after fly infection. Cloned progeny originating from individual salivary glands had yellow, red, green or no fluorescence and were confirmed as hybrids by microsatellite, molecular karyotype and kinetoplast (mitochondrial DNA analyses. Hybrid clones showed biparental inheritance of both nuclear and kinetoplast genomes. While segregation and reassortment of the reporter genes and microsatellite alleles were consistent with Mendelian inheritance, flow cytometry measurement of DNA content revealed both diploid and polyploid trypanosomes among the hybrid progeny clones. Conclusion The strategy of using production of yellow hybrids

  1. Automated Cell-Cutting for Cell Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Akihiko; Tanikawa, Tamio; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Takahashi, Seiya; Ohba, Kohtaro

    We develop an automated cell-cutting technique for cell cloning. Animal cells softened by the cytochalasin treatment are injected into a microfluidic chip. The microfluidic chip contains two orthogonal channels: one microchannel is wide, used to transport cells, and generates the cutting flow; the other is thin and used for aspiration, fixing, and stretching of the cell. The injected cell is aspirated and stretched in the thin microchannel. Simultaneously, the volumes of the cell before and after aspiration are calculated; the volumes are used to calculate the fluid flow required to aspirate half the volume of the cell into the thin microchannel. Finally, we apply a high-speed flow in the orthogonal microchannel to bisect the cell. This paper reports the cutting process, the cutting system, and the results of the experiment.

  2. ATM Card Cloning and Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Paramjit; Krishan, Kewal; Sharma, Suresh K; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2018-05-01

    With the advent of modern technology, the way society handles and performs monetary transactions has changed tremendously. The world is moving swiftly towards the digital arena. The use of Automated Teller Machine (ATM) cards (credit and debit) has led to a "cash-less society" and has fostered digital payments and purchases. In addition to this, the trust and reliance of the society upon these small pieces of plastic, having numbers engraved upon them, has increased immensely over the last two decades. In the past few years, the number of ATM fraud cases has increased exponentially. With the money of the people shifting towards the digital platform, ATM skimming has become a problem that has eventually led to a global outcry. The present review discusses the serious repercussions of ATM card cloning and the associated privacy, ethical and legal concerns. The preventive measures which need to be taken and adopted by the government authorities to mitigate the problem have also been discussed.

  3. Transplantation and differentiation of donor cells in the cloned pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Arata; Tomii, Ryo; Kano, Koichiro; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The application of nuclear transfer technology is an interesting approach to investigate stem and progenitor cell transplantation therapy. If stem cells are used as a nuclear donor, donor cells can engraft into cloned animals without histocompatible problems. However, it is still uncertain whether donor cells can engraft to cloned animal and differentiate in vivo. To address this problem, we transplanted donor cells to dermal tissues of cloned pigs developed by using preadipocytes as donor cells. Preadipocytes are adipocytic progenitor which can differentiate to mature adipocytes in vitro. We showed that the donor preadipocytes were successfully transplanted into the cloned pigs without immune rejection and they differentiated into mature adipocytes in vivo 3 weeks after transplantation. In contrast, allogenic control preadipocytes, which can differentiate in vitro, did not differentiate in vivo. These results indicate that donor progenitor cells can differentiate in cloned animal

  4. Cloning the interleukin 1 receptor from human T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, J.E.; Acres, R.B.; Grubin, C.E.; McMahan, C.J.; Wignall, J.M.; March, C.J.; Dower, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    cDNA clones of the interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor expressed in a human T-cell clone have been isolated by using a murine IL-1 receptor cDNA as a probe. The human and mouse receptors show a high degree of sequence conservation. Both are integral membrane proteins possessing a single membrane-spanning segment. Similar to the mouse receptor, the human IL-1 receptor contains a large cytoplasmic region and an extracellular, IL-1 binding portion composed of three immunoglobulin-like domains. When transfected into COS cells, the human IL-1 receptor cDNA clone leads to expression of two different affinity classes of receptors, with K a values indistinguishable from those determined for IL-1 receptors in the original T-cell clone. An IL-1 receptor expressed in human dermal fibroblasts has also been cloned and sequenced and found to be identical to the IL-1 receptor expressed in T cells

  5. [TSA improve transgenic porcine cloned embryo development and transgene expression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qing-Ran; Zhu, Jiang; Huang, Bo; Huan, Yan-Jun; Wang, Feng; Shi, Yong-Qian; Liu, Zhong-Feng; Wu, Mei-Ling; Liu, Zhong-Hua

    2011-07-01

    Uncompleted epigenetic reprogramming is attributed to the low efficiency of producing transgenic cloned animals. Histone modification associated with epigenetics can directly influence the embryo development and transgene expression. Trichostatin A (TSA), as an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, can change the status of histone acetylation, improve somatic cell reprogramming, and enhance cloning efficiency. TSA prevents the chromatin structure from being condensed, so that transcription factor could binds to DNA sequence easily and enhance transgene expression. Our study established the optimal TSA treatment on porcine donor cells and cloned embryos, 250 nmol/L, 24 h and 40 nmol/L, 24 h, respectively. Furthermore, we found that both the cloned embryo and the donor cell treated by TSA resulted in the highest development efficiency. Meanwhile, TSA can improve transgene expression in donor cell and cloned embryo. In summary, TSA can significantly improve porcine reconstructed embryo development and transgene expression.

  6. Probabilistic quantum cloning of a subset of linearly dependent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Pinshu; Zhang, Wen; Liao, Yanlin; Zhang, Ziyun

    2018-02-01

    It is well known that a quantum state, secretly chosen from a certain set, can be probabilistically cloned with positive cloning efficiencies if and only if all the states in the set are linearly independent. In this paper, we focus on probabilistic quantum cloning of a subset of linearly dependent states. We show that a linearly-independent subset of linearly-dependent quantum states {| Ψ 1⟩,| Ψ 2⟩,…,| Ψ n ⟩} can be probabilistically cloned if and only if any state in the subset cannot be expressed as a linear superposition of the other states in the set {| Ψ 1⟩,| Ψ 2⟩,…,| Ψ n ⟩}. The optimal cloning efficiencies are also investigated.

  7. Clone Detection for Graph-Based Model Transformation Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strüber, Daniel; Plöger, Jennifer; Acretoaie, Vlad

    2016-01-01

    and analytical quality assurance. From these use cases, we derive a set of key requirements. We describe our customization of existing model clone detection techniques allowing us to address these requirements. Finally, we provide an experimental evaluation, indicating that our customization of ConQAT, one......Cloning is a convenient mechanism to enable reuse across and within software artifacts. On the downside, it is also a practice related to significant long-term maintainability impediments, thus generating a need to identify clones in affected artifacts. A large variety of clone detection techniques...... has been proposed for programming and modeling languages; yet no specific ones have emerged for model transformation languages. In this paper, we explore clone detection for graph-based model transformation languages. We introduce potential use cases for such techniques in the context of constructive...

  8. Piglets born from handmade cloning, an innovative cloning method without micromanipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Y.; Kragh, P.M.; Zhang, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Porcine handmade cloning (HMC), a simplified alternative of micromanipulation based traditional cloning (TC) has been developed in multiple phases during the past years, but the final evidence of its biological value, births of piglets was missing. Here we report the first births of healthy piglets......) of HMC reconstructed embryos developed to blastocysts with an average cell number of 77 ± 3 (n = 26) after 7 days in vitro culture (IVC). According to our knowledge, this is the highest in vitro developmental rate after porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). A total of 416 blastocysts from HMC......, mixed with 150 blastocysts from TC using a cell line from a different breed were transferred surgically to nine synchronized recipients. Out of the four pregnancies (44.4%) two were lost, while two pregnancies went to term and litters of 3 and 10 piglets were delivered by Caesarean section, with live...

  9. Marshall Barber and the century of microinjection: from cloning of bacteria to cloning of everything.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzh, Vladimir; Strähle, Uwe

    2002-08-01

    A hundred years ago, Dr. Marshall A. Barber proposed a new technique - the microinjection technique. He developed this method initially to clone bacteria and to confirm the germ theory of Koch and Pasteur. Later on, he refined his approach and was able to manipulate nuclei in protozoa and to implant bacteria into plant cells. Continuous improvement and adaptation of this method to new applications dramatically changed experimental embryology and cytology and led to the formation of several new scientific disciplines including animal cloning as one of its latest applications. Interestingly, microinjection originated as a method at the crossroad of bacteriology and plant biology, demonstrating once again the unforeseen impact that basic research in an unrelated field can have on the development of entirely different disciplines.

  10. Analysis of a cDNA clone expressing a human autoimmune antigen: full-length sequence of the U2 small nuclear RNA-associated B antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habets, W.J.; Sillekens, P.T.G.; Hoet, M.H.; Schalken, J.A.; Roebroek, A.J.M.; Leunissen, J.A.M.; Van de Ven, W.J.M.; Van Venrooij, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    A U2 small nuclear RNA-associated protein, designated B'', was recently identified as the target antigen for autoimmune sera from certain patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and other rheumatic diseases. Such antibodies enabled them to isolate cDNA clone λHB''-1 from a phage λgt11 expression library. This clone appeared to code for the B'' protein as established by in vitro translation of hybrid-selected mRNA. The identity of clone λHB''-1 was further confirmed by partial peptide mapping and analysis of the reactivity of the recombinant antigen with monospecific and monoclonal antibodies. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the 1015-base-pair cDNA insert of clone λHB''-1 revealed a large open reading frame of 800 nucleotides containing the coding sequence for a polypeptide of 25,457 daltons. In vitro transcription of the λHB''-1 cDNA insert and subsequent translation resulted in a protein product with the molecular size of the B'' protein. These data demonstrate that clone λHB''-1 contains the complete coding sequence of this antigen. The deduced polypeptide sequence contains three very hydrophilic regions that might constitute RNA binding sites and/or antigenic determinants. These findings might have implications both for the understanding of the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases as well as for the elucidation of the biological function of autoimmune antigens

  11. Bengal Bay clone ST772-MRSA-V outbreak: conserved clone causes investigation challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomfeldt, A; Larssen, K W; Moghen, A; Haugum, K; Steen, T W; Jørgensen, S B; Aamot, H V

    2017-03-01

    The Bengal Bay clone, ST772-MRSA-V, associated with multi-drug resistance, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and skin and soft tissue infections, is emerging worldwide. In Norway, a country with low prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), increased occurrence of ST772-MRSA-V has also caused hospital outbreaks. The conserved nature of this clone challenged the outbreak investigations. To evaluate the usefulness of S. aureus protein A (spa) typing, multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat fingerprinting/analysis (MLVF/MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) when investigating outbreaks with a conserved MRSA clone. A panel of 25 MRSA isolates collected in 2004-2014, consisting of six hospital outbreak isolates and 19 sporadic isolates, were analysed using spa typing, polymerase chain reaction detection of genes encoding PVL, MLVF/MLVA and PFGE. All isolates were ST772-MRSA-V-t657 and resistant to erythromycin, gentamicin and norfloxacin, and 88% were PVL positive. PFGE could not discriminate between the isolates (≥85% similarity). MLVF resolved five types [Simpson's index of diversity (SID)=0.56], MLVA resolved six types (SID=0.66), and both methods separated the hospital isolates into two defined outbreaks. MLVF/MLVA could not discriminate all epidemiologically unlinked cases and identical genotypes originated from a timespan of 10 years. MLVA was regarded as most suitable due to its higher discriminatory power and ability to provide unambiguous profiles. However, the Bengal Bay clone may require higher resolution methods for exact demarcation of outbreaks due to low diversity among isolates. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Formation of diploid and triploid hybrid groupers (hybridization of Epinephelus coioides ♀ × Epinephelus lanceolatus ♂) and their 5S gene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Qin, Qinbo; Yang, Huirong; Li, Shuisheng; Hu, Chaoqun; Wang, Yude; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Shaojun; Lin, Haoran

    2016-10-07

    Interspecies hybridization is widely used to achieve heterosis or hybrid vigor, which has been observed and harnessed by breeders for centuries. Natural allopolyploid hybrids generally exhibit more superior heterosis than both the diploid progenies and their parental species. However, polyploid formation processes have been long ignored, the genetic basis of heterosis in polyploids remains elusive. In the present study, triploid hybrids had been demonstrated to contain two sets of chromosomes from mother species and one set from father species. Cellular polyploidization process in the embryos had been traced. The triploid hybrids might be formed by failure formation of the second polarized genome during the second meiosis stage. Four spindle centers were observed in anaphase stage of the first cell division. Three spindle centers were observed in side of cell plate after the first cell division. The 5S rDNA genes of four types of groupers were cloned and analyzed. The diploid and triploid hybrids had been proved to contain the tandem chimera structures which were recombined by maternal and paternal monomer units. The results indicated that genome re-fusion had occurred in the hybrid progenies. To further elucidate the genetic patterns of diploid and triploid hybrids, fluorescence chromosome location had been carried out, maternal 5S gene (M-386) were used as the probe. The triploid hybrids contained fewer fluorescence loci numbers than the maternal species. The results indicated that participation of paternal 5S gene in the triploid hybrid genome had degraded the match rates of M-386 probe. Our study is the first to investigate the cellular formation processes of natural allopolyploids in hybrid fish, the cellular polyploidization process may be caused by failure formation of the second polarized genome during the meiosis, and our results will provide the molecular basis of hybrid vigor in interspecies hybridization.

  13. Genetic superiority of exotic clones over indigenous clones for quantitative and qualitative traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.A.; Khatri, A.; Ahmad, M.; Siddiqui, N.A.; Dahar, M.H.; Khanzada, M.H.; Nizamani, G.S.

    1997-01-01

    Seventeen exotic sugar cane clones along with two local checks (BL4 and L116) were planted for three consecutive years (1989-90 to 1991-92) and evaluated for cane yield, yield components (plant height, cane girth, stalks per stool, stool weight), fibre, sucrose and sugar yield. Two exotic clones AEC82-1026 and AEC86-329 proved to be significantly (p< 0.05) superior in cane yield (130.62 and 114.87 t/ha respectively) and sugar yield 18.10 and 19.33 t/ha respectively) to both checks, cane and sugar yield of BL4 were 100.73 and 12.69 t/ha and that of L116 were 74.19 11.03 t/ha respectively. Cane and sugar yields were positively (P<0.01) correlated with plant height, cane girth and weight per stool. These promising clones would be subjected to extensive studies for cane yield in different parts of Sindh province. (author)

  14. Reproductive cloning in humans and therapeutic cloning in primates: is the ethical debate catching up with the recent scientific advances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporesi, S; Bortolotti, L

    2008-09-01

    After years of failure, in November 2007 primate embryonic stem cells were derived by somatic cellular nuclear transfer, also known as therapeutic cloning. The first embryo transfer for human reproductive cloning purposes was also attempted in 2006, albeit with negative results. These two events force us to think carefully about the possibility of human cloning which is now much closer to becoming a reality. In this paper we tackle this issue from two sides, first summarising what scientists have achieved so far, then discussing some of the ethical arguments in favour and against human cloning which are debated in the context of policy making and public consultation. Therapeutic cloning as a means to improve and save lives has uncontroversial moral value. As to human reproductive cloning, we consider and assess some common objections and failing to see them as conclusive. We do recognise, though, that there will be problems at the level of policy and regulation that might either impair the implementation of human reproductive cloning or make its accessibility restricted in a way that could become difficult to justify on moral grounds. We suggest using the time still available before human reproductive cloning is attempted successfully to create policies and institutions that can offer clear directives on its legitimate applications on the basis of solid arguments, coherent moral principles, and extensive public consultation.

  15. Molecular cloning and complete nucleotide sequence of a human ventricular myosin light chain 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E; Shi, Q W; Floroff, M; Mickle, D A.G.; Wu, T W; Olley, P M; Jackowski, G

    1988-03-25

    Human ventricular plasmid library was constructed. The library was screened with the oligonucleotide probe (17-mer) corresponding to a conserve region of myosin light chain 1 near the carboxy terminal. Full length cDNA recombinant plasmid containing 1100 bp insert was isolated. RNA blot hybridization with this insert detected a message of approximately 1500 bp corresponding to the size of VLCl and mRNA. Complete nucleotide sequence of the coding region was determined in M13 subclones using dideoxy chain termination method. With the isolation of this clone (pCD HLVCl), the publication of the complete nucleotide sequence of HVLCl and the predicted secondary structure of this protein will aid in understanding of the biochemistry of myosin and its function in contraction, the evolution of myosin light genes and the genetic, developmental and physiological regulation of myosin genes.

  16. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of a zebrafish novel zinc finger protein gene rnf141

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqian Deng

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ZNF230 is a novel zinc finger gene cloned by our laboratory. In order to understand the potential functions of this gene in vertebrate development, we cloned the zebrafish orthologue of human ZNF230, named rnf141. The cDNA fragment of rnf141 was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. The open reading frame (ORF encodes a polypeptide of 222 amino acids which shares 75.65% identity with the human ZNF230. RT-PCR analysis in zebrafish embryo and adult tissues revealed that rnf141 transcripts are maternally derived and that rnf141 mRNA has a broad distribution. Zygotic rnf141 message is strongly localized in the central nervous system, as shown by whole-mount in situ hybridization. Knockdown and over expression of rnf141 can induce abnormal phenotypes, including abnormal development of brain, as well as yolk sac and axis extendsion. Marker gene analysis showed that rnf141 may play a role in normal dorsoventral patterning of zebrafish embryos, suggesting that rnf141 may have a broad function during early development of vertebrates.

  17. Human catechol-O-methyltransferase: Cloning and expression of the membrane-associated form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertocci, B.; Miggiano, V.; Da Prada, M.; Dembic, Z.; Lahm, H.W.; Malherbe, P.

    1991-01-01

    A cDNA clone for human catechol-O-methyltransferase was isolated from a human hepatoma cell line (Hep G2) cDNA library by hybridization screening with a porcine cDNA probe. The cDNA clone was sequenced and found to have an insert of 1226 nucleotides. The deduced primary structure of hCOMT is composed of 271 amino acid residues with the predicted molecular mass of 30 kDa. At its N terminus it has a hydrophobic segment of 21 amino acid residues that may be responsible for insertion of hCOMT into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The primary structure of hCOMT exhibits high homology to the porcine partial cDNA sequence (93%). The deduced amino acid sequence contains two tryptic peptide sequences (T-22, T-33) found in porcine liver catechol-O-methyltransferase (CEMT). The coding region of hCOMT cDNA was placed under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter to transfect human kidney 293 cells. The recombinant hCOMT was shown by immunoblot analysis to be mainly associated with the membrane fraction. RNA blot analysis revealed one COMT mRNA transcript of 1.4 kilobases in Hep G2 poly(A) + RNA

  18. Cloning of the PYR3 gene of Ustilago maydis and its use in DNA transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, G.R.; Taylor, S.Y. (National Institute for Medical Research, London (England))

    1988-12-01

    The Ustilago maydis PYR3 gene encoding dihydroorotase activity was cloned by direct complementation of Escherichia coli pyrC mutations. PYR3 transformants of E. coli pyrC mutants expressed homologous transcripts of a variety of sizes and regained dihydroorotase activity. PYR3 also complemented Saccharomyces cerevisiae ura4 mutations, and again multiple transcripts were expressed in transformants, and enzyme activity was regained. A 1.25-kilobase poly(rA)+ PYR3 transcript was detected in U. maydis itself. Linear DNA carrying the PYR3 gene transformed a U. maydis pyr3-1 pyrimidine auxotroph to prototrophy. Hybridization analysis revealed that three different types of transformants could be generated, depending on the structure of the transforming DNA used. The first type involved exchange of chromosomal mutant gene sequences with the cloned wild-type plasmid sequences. A second type had integrated linear transforming DNA at the chromosomal PYR3 locus, probably via a single crossover event. The third type had integrated transforming DNA sequences at multiple sites in the U. maydis genome. In the last two types, tandemly reiterated copies of the transforming DNA were found to have been integrated. All three types had lost the sensitivity of the parental pyr3-1 mutant to UV irradiation. They had also regained dihydroorotase activity, although its level did not correlate with the PYR3 gene copy number.

  19. Cloning and expression of a rat brain α2B-adrenergic receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flordellis, C.S.; Handy, D.E.; Bresnahan, M.R.; Zannis, V.I.; Gavras, H.

    1991-01-01

    The authors isolated a cDNA clone (RBα 2B ) and its homologous gene (GRα 2B ) encoding an α 2B -adrenergic receptor subtype by screening a rat brain cDNA and a rat genomic library. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that both clones code for a protein of 458 amino acids, which is 87% homologous to the human kidney glycosylated adrenergic receptor (α 2 -C4) and divergent from the rat kidney nonglycosylated α 2B subtype (RNGα 2 ). Transient expression of RBα 2B in COS-7 cells resulted in high-affinity saturable binding for [ 3 H]rauwolscine and a high receptor number in the membranes of transfected COS-7 cells. Pharmacological analysis demonstrated that the expressed receptor bound adrenergic ligands with the following order of potency: rauwolscine > yohimbine > prazosin > oxymetazoline, with a prazosin-to-oxymetazoline K i ratio of 0.34. This profile is characteristic of the α 2B -adrenergic receptor subtype. Blotting analysis of rat brain mRNA gave one major and two minor mRNA species, and hybridization with strand-specific probes showed that both DNA strands of GRα 2B may be transcriptionally active. These findings show that rat brain expresses an α 2B -adrenergic receptor subtype that is structurally different from the rat kidney nonglycosylated α 2B subtype. Thus the rat expresses at least two divergent α 2B -adrenergic receptors

  20. Molecular cloning and expression of bovine kappa-casein in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.C.; Richardson, T.

    1988-01-01

    A cDNA library was constructed using poly(A) + RNA from bovine mammary gland. This cDNA library of 6000 clones was screened employing colony hybridization using 32 P-labelled oligonucleotide probes and restriction endonuclease mapping. The cDNA from the selected plasmid, pKR76, was sequenced using the dideoxy-chain termination method. The cDNA insert of pKR76 carries the full-length sequence, which codes for mature kappa-casein protein. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA sequence fits the published amino acid sequence with three exceptions; the reported pyroglutamic acid at position 1, tyrosine at position 35, and aspartic acid at position 81 are, respectively, a glutamine, a histidine, and an asparagine in the clone containing pKR76. The MspI-, NlaIV-cleaved fragment (630 base pair) from the kappa-casein cDNA insert has been subcloned into expression vectors pUC18 and pKK233-2, which contain a lac promoter and a trc promoter, respectively. Escherichia coli cells carrying the recombinant expression plasmids were shown to produce kappa-casein protein having the expected mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and being recognized by specific antibodies raised against natural bovine kappa-casein

  1. Evaluation of genetic divergence among clones of conilon coffee after scheduled cycle pruning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalcomo, J M; Vieira, H D; Ferreira, A; Lima, W L; Ferrão, R G; Fonseca, A F A; Ferrão, M A G; Partelli, F L

    2015-11-30

    Coffea canephora genotypes from the breeding program of Instituto Capixaba de Pesquisa e Extensão Rural were evaluated, and genetic diversity was estimated with the aim of future improvement strategies. From an initial group of 55 genotypes, 18 from the region of Castelo, ES, were selected, and three clones of the cultivars "Vitória" and "robusta tropical." Upon completion of the scheduled cycle pruning, 17 morphoagronomic traits were measured in the 22 genotypes selected. The principal components method was used to evaluate the contributions relative to the traits. The genetic dissimilarity matrix was obtained through Mahalanobis generalized distance, and genotypes were grouped using the hierarchical method based on the mean of the distances. The most promising clones of Avaliação Castelo were AC02, AC03, AC12, AC13, AC22, AC24, AC26, AC27, AC28, AC29, AC30, AC35, AC36, AC37, AC39, AC40, AC43, and AC46. These methods detected high genetic variability, grouping, by similarity, the genotypes in five groups. The trait that contributed the least to genetic divergence was the number of leaves in plagiotropic branches; however, this was not eliminated, because discarding it altered the groups. There are superior genotypes with potential for use in the next stages of the breeding program, aimed at both the composition of clonal variety and hybridizations.

  2. Cocoa Clone Resistant to Phytophthora Palmivora Pod Borer (CPB) in South Sulawesi

    OpenAIRE

    Sartika Dewi, Vien

    2017-01-01

    Helopeltis sp. is one of the main pest in cacao plants. Helopeltis sp. Able to decreasing the production of cacao about 50-60%. This research aims to understand the development of Helopeltis sp. investation in five types of clone cocoa. Collected data have done every week for six weeks in five types of clone cocoa which are clone GBT, clone M01, clone 45, clone s2 and clone BB. Every clone chosen 15 pod sampeles fruit with different size of pod following 5-10cm, 11-13cm and ripe pod which use...

  3. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  4. Somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning: practical applications and current legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H; Lucas-Hahn, A

    2012-08-01

    Somatic cloning is emerging as a new biotechnology by which the opportunities arising from the advances in molecular genetics and genome analysis can be implemented in animal breeding. Significant improvements have been made in SCNT protocols in the past years which now allow to embarking on practical applications. The main areas of application of SCNT are: Reproductive cloning, therapeutic cloning and basic research. A great application potential of SCNT based cloning is the production of genetically modified (transgenic) animals. Somatic cell nuclear transfer based transgenic animal production has significant advances over the previously employed microinjection of foreign DNA into pronuclei of zygotes. This cell based transgenesis is compatible with gene targeting and allows both, the addition of a specific gene and the deletion of an endogenous gene. Efficient transgenic animal production provides numerous opportunities for agriculture and biomedicine. Regulatory agencies around the world have agreed that food derived from cloned animals and their offspring is safe and there is no scientific basis for questioning this. Commercial application of somatic cloning within the EU is via the Novel Food regulation EC No. 258/97. Somatic cloning raises novel questions regarding the ethical and moral status of animals and their welfare which has prompted a controversial discussion in Europe which has not yet been resolved. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Personality consistency analysis in cloned quarantine dog candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent research, personality consistency has become an important characteristic. Diverse traits and human-animal interactions, in particular, are studied in the field of personality consistency in dogs. Here, we investigated the consistency of dominant behaviours in cloned and control groups followed by the modified Puppy Aptitude Test, which consists of ten subtests to ascertain the influence of genetic identity. In this test, puppies are exposed to stranger, restraint, prey-like object, noise, startling object, etc. Six cloned and four control puppies participated and the consistency of responses at ages 7–10 and 16 weeks in the two groups was compared. The two groups showed different consistencies in the subtests. While the average scores of the cloned group were consistent (P = 0.7991, those of the control group were not (P = 0.0089. Scores of Pack Drive and Fight or Flight Drive were consistent in the cloned group, however, those of the control group were not. Scores of Prey Drive were not consistent in either the cloned or the control group. Therefore, it is suggested that consistency of dominant behaviour is affected by genetic identity and some behaviours can be influenced more than others. Our results suggest that cloned dogs could show more consistent traits than non-cloned. This study implies that personality consistency could be one of the ways to analyse traits of puppies.

  6. Duration of gestation in pregnant dogs carrying cloned fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Geon A; Park, Eun Jung; Jo, Young Kwang; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2013-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate gestation duration and the physiologic characteristics of pregnant dogs bearing cloned fetuses, especially in the prepartum period. A retrospective study was performed to compare gestation duration in females pregnant with cloned (somatic cell nuclear transfer) fetuses (cloned group) with those bearing noncloned fetuses (control group), and effects of litter size, birth weight, and breed of somatic cell donors on gestation duration in the cloned group were evaluated. Clinical delivery onset signs associated with serum progesterone concentration and rectal temperature were also compared in both groups. The gestation duration calculated from day of ovulation was significantly longer in the cloned (62.8 ± 0.3 days) versus the control group (60.9 ± 0.5 days; P dogs bearing cloned fetuses might be because of the smaller litter size in this group. Also, the weaker drop in serum progesterone levels in the prepartum period in cloned dog pregnancies indicates that the parturition signaling process might be altered resulting in longer gestation periods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A strategy for clone selection under different production conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legmann, Rachel; Benoit, Brian; Fedechko, Ronald W; Deppeler, Cynthia L; Srinivasan, Sriram; Robins, Russell H; McCormick, Ellen L; Ferrick, David A; Rodgers, Seth T; Russo, A Peter

    2011-01-01

    Top performing clones have failed at the manufacturing scale while the true best performer may have been rejected early in the screening process. Therefore, the ability to screen multiple clones in complex fed-batch processes using multiple process variations can be used to assess robustness and to identify critical factors. This dynamic ranking of clones' strategy requires the execution of many parallel experiments than traditional approaches. Therefore, this approach is best suited for micro-bioreactor models which can perform hundreds of experiments quickly and efficiently. In this study, a fully monitored and controlled small scale platform was used to screen eight CHO clones producing a recombinant monoclonal antibody across several process variations, including different feeding strategies, temperature shifts and pH control profiles. The first screen utilized 240 micro-bioreactors were run for two weeks for this assessment of the scale-down model as a high-throughput tool for clone evaluation. The richness of the outcome data enable to clearly identify the best and worst clone as well as process in term of maximum monoclonal antibody titer. The follow-up comparison study utilized 180 micro-bioreactors in a full factorial design and a subset of 12 clone/process combinations was selected to be run parallel in duplicate shake flasks. Good correlation between the micro-bioreactor predictions and those made in shake flasks with a Pearson correlation value of 0.94. The results also demonstrate that this micro-scale system can perform clone screening and process optimization for gaining significant titer improvements simultaneously. This dynamic ranking strategy can support better choices of production clones. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  8. Greater efficiency of water use in poplar clones having a delayed response of mesophyll conductance to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théroux Rancourt, Guillaume; Éthier, Gilbert; Pepin, Steeve

    2015-02-01

    Improvement of water use efficiency is a key objective to improve the sustainability of cultivated plants, especially fast growing species with high water consumption like poplar. It is well known that water use efficiency (WUE) varies considerably among poplar genotypes, and it was recently suggested that the use of the mesophyll-to-stomatal conductance ratio (gm/gs) would be an appropriate trait to improve WUE. The responses of 7-week-old cuttings of four hybrid poplar clones and one native Balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.) to a water stress-recovery cycle were examined to evaluate the relation between the gm/gs ratio and transpiration efficiency (TE), a leaf-level component of WUE. A contrasting gs response to water stress was observed among the five clones, from stomatal closure early on during soil drying up to limited closure in Balsam poplar. However in the hybrids, the decline in gm was consistently delayed by a few days compared with gs. Moreover, in the most water use-efficient hybrids, the recovery following rehydration occurred faster for gm than for gs. Thus, the delay in the response of gm to drought and its faster recovery upon rewatering increased the gm/gs of the hybrids and this ratio scaled positively with TE. Our results support the use of the gm/gs ratio to select genotypes with improved WUE, and the notion that breeding strategies focusing mainly on stomatal responses to soil drying should also look for a strong curvilinearity between net carbon assimilation rate and gs, the indication of a significant increase in gm/gs in the earlier stages of stomatal closure. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. PCR associated with hybridization with DNA radioactive probes for diagnosis of asymptomatic infection caused by Leishmania Chagasi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro de; Moreno, Elizabeth Castro; Gomes, Rosangela Fatima; Melo, Maria Norma de; Carneiro, Mariangela; Fernandes, Octavio

    2002-01-01

    Detection systems for diagnosis of leishmaniasis based on PCR are very promising due to their sensitivity and specificity. Secondary detection by specific radioactive DNA probes, able to type the PCR amplified products, increase the specificity and raise about tem-fold the sensitivity of the assay. The aim of this work was evaluate PCR and hybridization as a tool to identify Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi (the specie that cause the visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil) infection in asymptomatic persons living in a endemic area. Material and Methods: A group of 226 asymptomatic individuals, living in General Carneiro (MG), was selected. Blood samples were harvested and the DNA extracted from the mononucleate cells. PCR was performed using primers addressed to the kinetoplast DNA minicircles. This protocol gives a positive reaction for all Leishmania species. The amplified products were further hybridized with cloned L.chagasi minicircles labeled with 32 P. Results: were identified 111 samples PCR positive, 2 of them hybridization negative and 133 samples hybridization positive, 24 of them PCR negative. The occurrence of samples with hybridization positive and PCR negative was expected since hybridization, with DNA probes labeled with 32 P, increase the sensitivity of the assay. The samples that presented positive PCR and negative hybridization were probably due the presence of other Leishmania species, likely L. (V.) braziliensis (that produce tegumentary leishmaniasis in the region), since L. (L.) chagasi cloned minicircles were used as hybridization probe. We conclude that this procedure is a valuable tool to access subclinical L. (L.) chagasi infections in epidemiological studies. (author)

  10. Performance of quantum cloning and deleting machines over coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Sumana; Sen, Ajoy; Sarkar, Debasis

    2017-10-01

    Coherence, being at the heart of interference phenomena, is found to be an useful resource in quantum information theory. Here we want to understand quantum coherence under the combination of two fundamentally dual processes, viz., cloning and deleting. We found the role of quantum cloning and deletion machines with the consumption and generation of quantum coherence. We establish cloning as a cohering process and deletion as a decohering process. Fidelity of the process will be shown to have connection with coherence generation and consumption of the processes.

  11. Probabilistic cloning of coherent states without a phase reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Christian R.; Wittmann, Christoffer; Marek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    We present a probabilistic cloning scheme operating independently of any phase reference. The scheme is based solely on a phase-randomized displacement and photon counting, omitting the need for nonclassical resources and nonlinear materials. In an experimental implementation, we employ the scheme...... to clone coherent states from a phase covariant alphabet and demonstrate that the cloner is capable of outperforming the hitherto best-performing deterministic scheme. An analysis of the covariances between the output states shows that uncorrelated clones can be approached asymptotically...

  12. Experimental continuous-variable cloning of partial quantum information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabuncu, Metin; Leuchs, Gerd; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2008-01-01

    The fidelity of a quantum transformation is strongly linked with the prior partial information of the state to be transformed. We illustrate this interesting point by proposing and demonstrating the superior cloning of coherent states with prior partial information. More specifically, we propose...... two simple transformations that under the Gaussian assumption optimally clone symmetric Gaussian distributions of coherent states as well as coherent states with known phases. Furthermore, we implement for the first time near-optimal state-dependent cloning schemes relying on simple linear optics...

  13. Experimental reversion of the optimal quantum cloning and flipping processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciarrino, Fabio; Secondi, Veronica; De Martini, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    The quantum cloner machine maps an unknown arbitrary input qubit into two optimal clones and one optimal flipped qubit. By combining linear and nonlinear optical methods we experimentally implement a scheme that, after the cloning transformation, restores the original input qubit in one of the output channels, by using local measurements, classical communication, and feedforward. This nonlocal method demonstrates how the information on the input qubit can be restored after the cloning process. The realization of the reversion process is expected to find useful applications in the field of modern multipartite quantum cryptography

  14. Twelve years before the quantum no-cloning theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigoso, Juan

    2018-03-01

    The celebrated quantum no-cloning theorem establishes the impossibility of making a perfect copy of an unknown quantum state. The discovery of this important theorem for the field of quantum information is currently dated 1982. I show here that an article published in 1970 [J. L. Park, Found. Phys. 1, 23-33 (1970)] contained an explicit mathematical proof of the impossibility of cloning quantum states. I analyze Park's demonstration in the light of published explanations concerning the genesis of the better-known papers on no-cloning.

  15. Cloning mice and ES cells by nuclear transfer from somatic stem cells and fully differentiated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongde

    2011-01-01

    Cloning animals by nuclear transfer (NT) has been successful in several mammalian species. In addition to cloning live animals (reproductive cloning), this technique has also been used in several species to establish cloned embryonic stem (ntES) cell lines from somatic cells. It is the latter application of this technique that has been heralded as being the potential means to produce isogenic embryonic stem cells from patients for cell therapy (therapeutic cloning). These two types of cloning differ only in the steps after cloned embryos are produced: for reproductive cloning the cloned embryos are transferred to surrogate mothers to allow them to develop to full term and for therapeutic cloning the cloned embryos are used to derive ntES cells. In this chapter, a detailed NT protocol in mouse by using somatic stem cells (neuron and skin stem cells) and fully differentiated somatic cells (cumulus cells and fibroblast cells) as nuclear donors is described.

  16. Comparative mapping of DNA probes derived from the V{sub k} immunoglobulin gene regions on human and great ape chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, N.; Wienberg, J.; Ermert, K. [Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)] [and others

    1995-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of cosmid clones of human V{sub K} gene regions to human and primate chromosomes contributed to the dating of chromosome reorganizations in evolution. A clone from the K locus at 2p11-p12 (cos 106) hybridized to the assumed homologous chromosome bands in the chimpanzees Pan troglodytes (PTR) and P. paniscus (PPA), the Gorilla gorilla (GGO), and the orangutan Pongo Pygmaeus (PPY). Human and both chimpanzees differed from gorilla and orangutan by the mapping of cos 170, a clone derived from chromosome 2cen-q11.2; the transposition of this orphon to the other side of the centromere can, therefore, be dated after the human/chimpanzee and gorilla divergence. Hybridization to homologous bands was also found with a cosmid clone containing a V{sub K}I orphon located on chromosome 1 (cos 115, main signal at 1q31-q32), although the probe is not fully unique. Also, a clone derived from the orphon V{sub K} region on chromosome 22q11 (cos 121) hybridized to the homologous bands in the great apes. This indicates that the orphons on human chromosomes 1 and 22 had been translocated early in primate evolution. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Effect of TH-lines and clones on the growth and differentiation of B cell clones in microculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotloff, D B; Cebra, J J

    1988-02-01

    Antibody isotype expression by B cell clones was analyzed using in vitro microcultures containing low numbers of hapten-gelatin-enriched B cells and higher numbers of hemocyanin-specific helper T cell lines or clones. Twenty-eight to sixty-three percent of clones grown in microculture with haptenated hemocyanin and T cells from established lines expressed IgG and/or IgA isotypes in random mixtures, almost always accompanied by IgM. Helper T cells from hemocyanin-specific clones also supported the expression of non-IgM isotypes by the B cell clones, suggesting that a single specificity of T cell can provide sufficient growth and differentiation factors for the display of isotype switching. A positive correlation between the antibody output of clones and the expression of non-IgM isotypes indicated that the switching process may be associated with cell division. Although memory B cells that give clones expressing IgG and/or IgA in the absence of IgM are also enriched on haptenated gelatin, they are not stimulable under conditions of this microculture assay.

  18. Cloning and characterisation of Schistosoma japonicum insulin receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong You

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomes depend for growth and development on host hormonal signals, which may include the insulin signalling pathway. We cloned and assessed the function of two insulin receptors from Schistosoma japonicum in order to shed light on their role in schistosome biology.We isolated, from S. japonicum, insulin receptors 1 (SjIR-1 and 2 (SjIR-2 sharing close sequence identity to their S. mansoni homologues (SmIR-1 and SmIR-2. SjIR-1 is located on the tegument basal membrane and the internal epithelium of adult worms, whereas SjIR-2 is located in the parenchyma of males and the vitelline tissue of females. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SjIR-2 and SmIR-2 are close to Echinococcus multilocularis insulin receptor (EmIR, suggesting that SjIR-2, SmIR-2 and EmIR share similar roles in growth and development in the three taxa. Structure homology modelling recovered the conserved structure between the SjIRs and Homo sapiens IR (HIR implying a common predicted binding mechanism in the ligand domain and the same downstream signal transduction processing in the tyrosine kinase domain as in HIR. Two-hybrid analysis was used to confirm that the ligand domains of SjIR-1 and SjIR-2 contain the insulin binding site. Incubation of adult worms in vitro, both with a specific insulin receptor inhibitor and anti-SjIRs antibodies, resulted in a significant decrease in worm glucose levels, suggesting again the same function for SjIRs in regulating glucose uptake as described for mammalian cells.Adult worms of S. japonicum possess insulin receptors that can specifically bind to insulin, indicating that the parasite can utilize host insulin for development and growth by sharing the same pathway as mammalian cells in regulating glucose uptake. A complete understanding of the role of SjIRs in the biology of S. japonicum may result in their use as new targets for drug and vaccine development against schistosomiasis.

  19. Cloning systems for Rhodococcus and related bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, W.R.; Singer, M.E.

    1990-08-28

    A plasmid transformation system for Rhodococcus was developed using an Escherichia coli-Rhodococcus shuttle plasmid. Rhodococcus sp. H13-A contains three cryptic indigenous plasmids, designated pMVS100, pMVS200 and pMVS300, of 75, 19.5 and 13.4 kilobases (Kb), respectively. A 3.8 Kb restriction fragment of pMVS300 was cloned into pIJ30, a 6.3 Kb pBR322 derivative, containing the E. coli origin of replication (ori) and ampicillin resistance determinant (bla) as well as a Streptomyces gene for thiostrepton resistance, tsr. The resulting 10.1 Kb recombinant plasmid, designated pMVS301, was isolated from E. coli DH1 (pMVS301) and transformed into Rhodococcus sp. AS-50, a derivative of strain H13-A, by polyethylene glycol-assisted transformation of Rhodococcus protoplasts and selection for thiostrepton-resistant transformants. This strain was deposited with the ATCC on Feb. 1, 1988 and assigned ATCC 53719. The plasmid contains the Rhodococcus origin of replication. The plasmid and derivatives thereof can therefore be used to introduce nucleic acid sequences to and from Rhodococcus for subsequent expression and translation into protein. The isolated origin of replication can also be used in the construction of new vectors. 2 figs.

  20. FastCloning: a highly simplified, purification-free, sequence- and ligation-independent PCR cloning method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Jia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a variety of methods and expensive kits are available, molecular cloning can be a time-consuming and frustrating process. Results Here we report a highly simplified, reliable, and efficient PCR-based cloning technique to insert any DNA fragment into a plasmid vector or into a gene (cDNA in a vector at any desired position. With this method, the vector and insert are PCR amplified separately, with only 18 cycles, using a high fidelity DNA polymerase. The amplified insert has the ends with ~16-base overlapping with the ends of the amplified vector. After DpnI digestion of the mixture of the amplified vector and insert to eliminate the DNA templates used in PCR reactions, the mixture is directly transformed into competent E. coli cells to obtain the desired clones. This technique has many advantages over other cloning methods. First, it does not need gel purification of the PCR product or linearized vector. Second, there is no need of any cloning kit or specialized enzyme for cloning. Furthermore, with reduced number of PCR cycles, it also decreases the chance of random mutations. In addition, this method is highly effective and reproducible. Finally, since this cloning method is also sequence independent, we demonstrated that it can be used for chimera construction, insertion, and multiple mutations spanning a stretch of DNA up to 120 bp. Conclusion Our FastCloning technique provides a very simple, effective, reliable, and versatile tool for molecular cloning, chimera construction, insertion of any DNA sequences of interest and also for multiple mutations in a short stretch of a cDNA.

  1. Cloning and cDNA sequence of the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase component of human α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, G.; Raefsky-Estrin, C.; Carothers, D.J.; Pepin, R.A.; Javed, A.A.; Jesse, B.W.; Ganapathi, M.K.; Samols, D.; Patel, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    cDNA clones comprising the entire coding region for human dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase have been isolated from a human liver cDNA library. The cDNA sequence of the largest clone consisted of 2082 base pairs and contained a 1527-base open reading frame that encodes a precursor dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase of 509 amino acid residues. The first 35-amino acid residues of the open reading frame probably correspond to a typical mitochondrial import leader sequence. The predicted amino acid sequence of the mature protein, starting at the residue number 36 of the open reading frame, is almost identical (>98% homology) with the known partial amino acid sequence of the pig heart dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase. The cDNA clone also contains a 3' untranslated region of 505 bases with an unusual polyadenylylation signal (TATAAA) and a short poly(A) track. By blot-hybridization analysis with the cDNA as probe, two mRNAs, 2.2 and 2.4 kilobases in size, have been detected in human tissues and fibroblasts, whereas only one mRNA (2.4 kilobases) was detected in rat tissues

  2. Human placental Na+, K+-ATPase α subunit: cDNA cloning, tissue expression, DNA polymorphism, and chromosomal localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, F.F.; Kan, Y.W.; Law, M.L.; Hartz, J.; Kao, F.T.; Blostein, R.

    1987-01-01

    A 2.2-kilobase clone comprising a major portion of the coding sequence of the Na + , K + -ATPase α subunit was cloned from human placenta and its sequence was identical to that encoding the α subunit of human kidney and HeLa cells. Transfer blot analysis of the mRNA products of the Na + , K + -ATPase gene from various human tissues and cell lines revealed only one band (≅ 4.7 kilobases) under low and high stringency washing conditions. The levels of expression in the tissues were intestine > placenta > liver > pancreas, and in the cell lines the levels were human erythroleukemia > butyrate-induced colon > colon > brain > HeLa cells. mRNA was undetectable in reticulocytes, consistent with the authors failure to detect positive clones in a size-selected ( > 2 kilobases) λgt11 reticulocyte cDNA library. DNA analysis revealed by a polymorphic EcoRI band and chromosome localization by flow sorting and in situ hybridization showed that the α subunit is on the short is on the short arm (band p11-p13) of chromosome 1

  3. Molecular cloning of cDNAs of human liver and placenta NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yubisui, T.; Naitoh, Y.; Zenno, S.; Tamura, M.; Takeshita, M.; Sakaki, Y.

    1987-01-01

    A cDNA coding for human liver NADH-cytochrome b 5 reductase was cloned from a human liver cDNA library constructed in phage λgt11. The library was screened by using an affinity-purified rabbit antibody against NADH-cytochrome b 5 reductase of human erythrocytes. A cDNA about 1.3 kilobase pairs long was isolated. By using the cDNA as a probe, another cDNA (pb 5 R141) of 1817 base pairs was isolated that hybridized with a synthetic oligonucleotide encoding Pro-Asp-Ile-Lys-Tyr-Pro, derived from the amino acid sequence at the amino-terminal region of the enzyme from human erythrocytes. Furthermore, by using the pb 5 R141 as a probe, cDNA clones having more 5' sequence were isolated from a human placenta cDNA library. The amino acid sequences deduced from the nucleotide sequences of these cDNA clones overlapped each other and consisted of a sequence that completely coincides with that of human erythrocytes and a sequence of 19 amino acid residues extended at the amino-terminal side. The latter sequence closely resembles that of the membrane-binding domain of steer liver microsomal enzyme

  4. Cloning of a cDNA encoding a surface antigen of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula recognized by sera of vassinated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, J.P.; Tom, T.D.; Strand, M.

    1987-01-01

    Spleen cells of mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae were used to produce monoclonal antibodies directed against newly transformed schistosomular surface antigens. One of these monoclonal antibodies recognized a polypeptide of 18 kDa. Binding was measured by radioimmunoassay. This glycoprotein was purified by monoclonal antibody immunoaffinity chromatography and a polyclonal antiserum was prepared against it. Immunofluorescence assays showed that the polyclonal antiserum bound to the surface of newly transformed schistosomula and lung-stage organisms but not to the surface of liver-stage and adult worms. Using this polyclonal antiserum we isolated recombinant clones from an adult worm cDNA expression library constructed in λgt11. Clone 654.2 contained an insert of 0.52 kilobase and hybridized to a 1.2-kilobase mRNA species from adult worms. Most importantly, clone 654.2 produced a fusion protein of 125 kDa that was reactive with sera of vaccinated mice that are capable of transferring resistance. This result encourages future vaccination trials with the fusion protein

  5. Binding proteins for the regulatory subunit (RII-B) of brain cAMP-dependent protein kinase II: isolation and initial characterization of cDNA clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregman, D.B.; Hu, E.; Rubin, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    In mammalian brain several proteins bind RII-B with high affinity. An example is P75, which co-purifies with RII-B and also complexes Ca 2+ -calmodulin. Thus, RII-B binding proteins (RBPs) might play a role in integrating the Ca 2+ and cAMP signalling pathways in the CNS. In order to study the structure and function of these polypeptides they have isolated cloned cDNAs for RBPs by screening brain λgt11 expression libraries using a functional assay: the binding of 32 P-labeled RII to fusion proteins produced by recombinants expressing RII binding domains. Inserts from rat brain recombinant clones λ7B and λ10B both hybridize to a brain mRNA of 7000 nucleotides. Northern gel analyses indicate that the putative RBP mRNA is also expressed in lung, but not in several other tissues. The λ7B insert was subcloned into the expression plasmid pINIA. A 50 kDa high affinity RII-B binding polypeptide accumulated in E. coli transformed with pINIA-7B. Two RBP cDNAs (λ77, λ100A) have been retrieved from a bovine λgt 11 library using a monoclonal antibody directed against P75 and the binding assay respectively. On Southern blots the insert from λ100A hybridizes to the cDNA insert from clones λ77, suggesting that λ 77 cDNA might contain sequences coding for both an RII binding domain and a P75 epitope. The bovine λ100A insert also hybridizes with the rat λ7B clone indicating that an RII binding domain is conserved in the two species

  6. Henkin and Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....

  7. Hexenuronic acid in South African Eucalyptus hybrid clones: optimization of the acid hydrolysis (A) stage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Andrew, JE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available acicl (IlexA) itr kraftw-W pLrlps rs xn rctive area of reseiirch lvith irnportant rtrtplit':rLions lbr the rnlnlrfacturc o1' blear:hccl <.:hcrnil:al 1:ulps. I)uriug krelt pulpirrg. thc reacticln ol ,1-0-r-ncth_vl- glucurorric acid groups in tlrc str...()n!{ aikali conditions lcsuli in thc fbi'mution of llcx.,\\. II-3]. I-Iexenuronic acicl h:rs irccn liruncl to be trnrclrtire in llk.rlirrc ox\\gcn and perox- idc blcaching stages [4 | . I iox,evcr. clue tti t]reir unsaturate d n'.rtrlrc. the acicl groups...

  8. Localization of BAC clones on mitotic chromosomes of Musa acuminata using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hřibová, Eva; Doleželová, Marie; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2008), s. 445-452 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600380703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : cytogenetic mapping * chromosome structure * repetitive DNA Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.426, year: 2008

  9. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  10. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.; Moganty, Surya S.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  13. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  14. Cloning and sequence analysis of serine proteinase of Gloydius ussuriensis venom gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Dejun; Liu Shanshan; Yang Chunwei; Zhao Yizhuo; Chang Shufang; Yan Weiqun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To construct a cDNA library by using mRNA from Gloydius ussuriensis (G. Ussuriensis) venom gland, to clone and analyze serine proteinase gene from the cDNA library. Methods: Total RNA was isolated from venom gland of G. ussuriensis, mRNA was purified by using mRNA isolation Kit. The whole length cDNA was synthesized by means of smart cDNA synthesis strategy, and amplified by long distance PCR procedure, lately cDAN was cloned into vector pBluescrip-sk. The recombinant cDNA was transformed into E. coli DH5α. The cDNA of serine proteinase gene in the venom gland of G. ussuriensis was detected and amplified using the in situ hybridization. The cDNA fragment was inserted into pGEMT vector, cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. Results: The capacity of cDNA library of venom gland was above 2.3 x 10 6 . Its open reading frame was composed of 702 nucleotides and coded a protein pre-zymogen of 234 amino acids. It contained 12 cysteine residues. The sequence analysis indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA fragment shared high identity with the thrombin-like enzyme genes of other snakes in the GenBank. the query sequence exhibited strong amino acid sequence homology of 85% to the serine proteas of T. gramineus, thrombin-like serine proteinase I of D. acutus and serine protease catroxase II of C. atrox respectively. Based on the amino acid sequences of other thrombin-like enzymes, the catalytic residues and disulfide bridges of this thrombin-like enzyme were deduced as follows: catalytic residues, His 41 , Asp 86 , Ser 180 ; and six disulfide bridges Cys 7 -Cys 139 , Cys 26 -Cys 42 , Cys 74 -Cys 232 , Cys 118 -Cys 186 , Cys 150 -Cys 165 , Cys 176 -Cys 201 . Conclusion: The capacity of cDNA library of venom gland is above 2.3 x 10 6 , overtop the level of 10 5 capicity. The constructed cDNA library of G. ussuriensis venom gland would be helpful platform to detect new target genes and further gene manipulate. The cloned serine

  15. Optimal multicopy asymmetric Gaussian cloning of coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiurášek, Jaromír; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2007-05-01

    We investigate the asymmetric Gaussian cloning of coherent states which produces M copies from N input replicas in such a way that the fidelity of each copy may be different. We show that the optimal asymmetric Gaussian cloning can be performed with a single phase-insensitive amplifier and an array of beam splitters. We obtain a simple analytical expression characterizing the set of optimal asymmetric Gaussian cloning machines and prove the optimality of these cloners using the formalism of Gaussian completely positive maps and semidefinite programming techniques. We also present an alternative implementation of the asymmetric cloning machine where the phase-insensitive amplifier is replaced with a beam splitter, heterodyne detector, and feedforward.

  16. Learning, memory and exploratory similarities in genetically identical cloned dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chi Won; Kim, Geon A; Park, Won Jun; Park, Kwan Yong; Jeon, Jeong Min; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2016-12-30

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer allows generation of genetically identical animals using donor cells derived from animals with particular traits. To date, few studies have investigated whether or not these cloned dogs will show identical behavior patterns. To address this question, learning, memory and exploratory patterns were examined using six cloned dogs with identical nuclear genomes. The variance of total incorrect choice number in the Y-maze test among cloned dogs was significantly lower than that of the control dogs. There was also a significant decrease in variance in the level of exploratory activity in the open fields test compared to age-matched control dogs. These results indicate that cloned dogs show similar cognitive and exploratory patterns, suggesting that these behavioral phenotypes are related to the genotypes of the individuals.

  17. Cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding xyloglucan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... plays important role in growth and development of plants. XETs are a family of enzymes .... cloned into pGEM-T Easy vector (Promega Corporation, WI, USA). The recombinant ..... wall modification in the poaceae. Protein Sci.

  18. Recent advancements in cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Atsuo; Inoue, Kimiko; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2013-01-05

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning is the sole reproductive engineering technology that endows the somatic cell genome with totipotency. Since the first report on the birth of a cloned sheep from adult somatic cells in 1997, many technical improvements in SCNT have been made by using different epigenetic approaches, including enhancement of the levels of histone acetylation in the chromatin of the reconstructed embryos. Although it will take a considerable time before we fully understand the nature of genomic programming and totipotency, we may expect that somatic cell cloning technology will soon become broadly applicable to practical purposes, including medicine, pharmaceutical manufacturing and agriculture. Here we review recent progress in somatic cell cloning, with a special emphasis on epigenetic studies using the laboratory mouse as a model.

  19. LEGALISING SAME SEX MARRIAGE AND CLONING: A NEED FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    Therapeutic cloning produces embryonic stem cells for experiments aimed at creating ... In the second approach, they use an electrical current to fuse the entire somatic .... (16), ovarian hyper stimulation is another risk associated with assisted ...

  20. Cloning and expression of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite P22 protein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-01

    Aug 1, 2011 ... Expressd protein was purified by affinity chromatography and confirmed by western blot ... Key words: Toxoplasma gondii, cloning, recombinant P22. INTRODUCTION. Toxoplasma gondii ..... an ELISA Assay. Iran. J. Immunol.

  1. Recent advancements in cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Atsuo; Inoue, Kimiko; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning is the sole reproductive engineering technology that endows the somatic cell genome with totipotency. Since the first report on the birth of a cloned sheep from adult somatic cells in 1997, many technical improvements in SCNT have been made by using different epigenetic approaches, including enhancement of the levels of histone acetylation in the chromatin of the reconstructed embryos. Although it will take a considerable time before we fully understand the nature of genomic programming and totipotency, we may expect that somatic cell cloning technology will soon become broadly applicable to practical purposes, including medicine, pharmaceutical manufacturing and agriculture. Here we review recent progress in somatic cell cloning, with a special emphasis on epigenetic studies using the laboratory mouse as a model. PMID:23166393

  2. Cloning and in silico analysis of a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-16

    Apr 16, 2014 ... RESEARCH ARTICLE. Cloning and in .... enzyme kinetic characterization studies of Panicum virga- .... Total RNA was extracted from stem using Trizol reagent ..... β-sheet (extended strand) were the main elements of PpCAD.

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Ethical and legal controversies in cloning for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reproductive cloning, and that promises made too early could. Commitment ... one hand, the medical profession and the public grapple with the promise ..... Austin TW, Lagasse E. Hepatic regeneration from hematopoietic stem cells. Mech Dev ...

  4. Cloning and semi-quantitative expression of endochitinase ( ech42 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cloning and semi-quantitative expression of endochitinase (ech42) gene from Trichoderma spp. Pratibha Sharma, K Saravanan, R Ramesh, P Vignesh Kumar, Dinesh Singh, Manika Sharma, Monica S. Henry, Swati Deep ...

  5. In silico cloning and bioinformatic analysis of PEPCK gene in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), a critical gluconeogenic enzyme, catalyzes the first committed step in the diversion of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates toward gluconeogenesis. According to the relative conservation of homologous gene, a bioinformatics strategy was applied to clone Fusarium ...

  6. Optimal multicopy asymmetric Gaussian cloning of coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiurasek, Jaromir; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the asymmetric Gaussian cloning of coherent states which produces M copies from N input replicas in such a way that the fidelity of each copy may be different. We show that the optimal asymmetric Gaussian cloning can be performed with a single phase-insensitive amplifier and an array of beam splitters. We obtain a simple analytical expression characterizing the set of optimal asymmetric Gaussian cloning machines and prove the optimality of these cloners using the formalism of Gaussian completely positive maps and semidefinite programming techniques. We also present an alternative implementation of the asymmetric cloning machine where the phase-insensitive amplifier is replaced with a beam splitter, heterodyne detector, and feedforward

  7. Cloning, sequencing and expression of cDNA encoding growth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    of medicine, animal husbandry, fish farming and animal ..... northern pike (Esox lucius) growth hormone; Mol. Mar. Biol. ... prolactin 1-luciferase fusion gene in African catfish and ... 1988 Cloning and sequencing of cDNA that encodes goat.

  8. Proteomic analysis of pancreas derived from adult cloned pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Jung-Il; Cho, Young Keun; Cho, Seong-Keun; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Han, Yong-Mahn; Koo, Deog-Bon; Lee, Kyung-Kwang

    2008-01-01

    The potential medical applications of animal cloning include xenotransplantation, but the complex molecular cascades that control porcine organ development are not fully understood. Still, it has become apparent that organs derived from cloned pigs may be suitable for transplantation into humans. In this study, we examined the pancreas of an adult cloned pig developed through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and Western blotting. Proteomic analysis revealed 69 differentially regulated proteins, including such apoptosis-related species as annexins, lamins, and heat shock proteins, which were unanimously upregulated in the SCNT sample. Among the downregulated proteins in SCNT pancreas were peroxiredoxins and catalase. Western blot results indicate that several antioxidant enzymes and the anti-apoptotic protein were downregulated in SCNT pancreas, whereas several caspases were upregulated. Together, these data suggest that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pancreas of an adult cloned pig leads to apoptosis

  9. Efficiency and response of conilon coffee clones to phosphorus fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Deleon Martins

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on nutritional efficiency of phosphorus in conilon coffee plants are important tools to unravel the high limitation that natural low levels of this nutrient in soil impose to these species cultivars. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the nutritional efficiency and the response to phosphorus of conilon coffee clones. Plants were managed during 150 days in pots containing 10 dm³ of soil, in greenhouse. A factorial scheme 13 x 2 was used, with three replications, being the factors: 13 clones constituting the clonal cultivar "Vitória Incaper 8142" and two levels of phosphate fertilization (0% and 150% of the P2O5 usualy recommended, in a completely randomized design (CRD. The results indicate a differentiated response of dry matter production and of phosphorus content on each level of phosphate fertilization for the conilon coffee clones and that CV-04, CV-05 and CV-08 clones are nutritionally efficient and responsive to the phosphate fertilization.

  10. Cloning and characterization of an insecticidal crystal protein gene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The sequence of the cloned crystal protein gene showed almost complete homology with a mosquitocidal toxin gene from Bacillus .... diet or by topical application on food substrates as .... has very high similarity (99.74%) at DNA level with.

  11. Sex-reversed somatic cell cloning in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kimiko; Ogonuki, Narumi; Mekada, Kazuyuki; Yoshiki, Atsushi; Sado, Takashi; Ogura, Atsuo

    2009-10-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer has many potential applications in the fields of basic and applied sciences. However, it has a disadvantage that can never be overcome technically-the inflexibility of the sex of the offspring. Here, we report an accidental birth of a female mouse following nuclear transfer using an immature Sertoli cell. We produced a batch of 27 clones in a nuclear transfer experiment using Sertoli cells collected from neonatal male mice. Among them, one pup was female. This "male-derived female" clone grew into a normal adult and produced offspring by natural mating with a littermate. Chromosomal analysis revealed that the female clone had a 39,X karyotype, indicating that the Y chromosome had been deleted in the donor cell or at some early step during nuclear transfer. This finding suggests the possibility of resuming sexual reproduction after a single male is cloned, which should be especially useful for reviving extinct or endangered species.

  12. (PCR) for direct cloning of blunt-end DNA fragments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-19

    Sep 19, 2011 ... Key words: Blunt-end cloning, phosphorylated DNA fragment, dephosphorylated blunt-end vector. INTRODUCTION ... With this method, a lot of steps are saved, which includes restriction .... pBSK-blunt (data not shown).

  13. Molecular cloning, characterization and functional analysis of a 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... other plant HMGRs and contained 2 transmembrane domains and a catalytic domain. The potential significance ... used as animal feed. Therefore ... Table 1. Primers used in the cloning and analysis of JcHMGR gene. Primers.

  14. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of human ADP-ribosylation factors: Two guanine nucleotide-dependent activators of cholera toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobak, D.A.; Nightingale, M.S.; Murtagh, J.J.; Price, S.R.; Moss, J.; Vaughan, M.

    1989-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that enhance the enzymatic activities of cholera toxin. Two ARF cDNAs, ARF1 and ARF3, were cloned from a human cerebellum library. Based on deduced amino acid sequences and patterns of hybridization of cDNA and oligonucleotide probes with mammalian brain poly(A) + RNA, human ARF1 is the homologue of bovine ARF1. Human ARF3, which differs from bovine ARF1 and bovine ARF2, appears to represent a newly identified third type of ARF. Hybridization patterns of human ARF cDNA and clone-specific oligonucleotides with poly(A) + RNA are consistent with the presence of at least two, and perhaps four, separate ARF messages in human brain. In vitro translation of ARF1, ARF2, and ARF3 produced proteins that behaved, by SDS/PAGE, similar to a purified soluble brain ARF. Deduced amino acid sequences of human ARF1 and ARF3 contain regions, similar to those in other G proteins, that are believed to be involved in GTP binding and hydrolysis. ARFS also exhibit a modest degree of homology with a bovine phospholipase C. The observations reported here support the conclusion that the ARFs are members of a multigene family of small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Definition of the regulation of ARF mRNAs and of function(s) of recombinant ARF proteins will aid in the elucidation of the physiologic role(s) of ARFs

  15. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, M. [CrossChasm Technologies, Cambridge, ON (Canada); Marans, B. [Toronto Atmospheric Fund, ON (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO{sub 2} emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  16. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  17. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, M.; Marans, B.

    2009-10-01

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO 2 emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  18. Hybrid FOSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are continuing their efforts to further develop FOSS technologies. A hybrid FOSS technique (HyFOSS) employs conventional continuous grating...

  19. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in hybrid breeding in field crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohra, Abhishek; Jha, Uday C; Adhimoolam, Premkumar; Bisht, Deepak; Singh, Narendra P

    2016-05-01

    A comprehensive understanding of CMS/Rf system enabled by modern omics tools and technologies considerably improves our ability to harness hybrid technology for enhancing the productivity of field crops. Harnessing hybrid vigor or heterosis is a promising approach to tackle the current challenge of sustaining enhanced yield gains of field crops. In the context, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) owing to its heritable nature to manifest non-functional male gametophyte remains a cost-effective system to promote efficient hybrid seed production. The phenomenon of CMS stems from a complex interplay between maternally-inherited (mitochondrion) and bi-parental (nucleus) genomic elements. In recent years, attempts aimed to comprehend the sterility-inducing factors (orfs) and corresponding fertility determinants (Rf) in plants have greatly increased our access to candidate genomic segments and the cloned genes. To this end, novel insights obtained by applying state-of-the-art omics platforms have substantially enriched our understanding of cytoplasmic-nuclear communication. Concomitantly, molecular tools including DNA markers have been implicated in crop hybrid breeding in order to greatly expedite the progress. Here, we review the status of diverse sterility-inducing cytoplasms and associated Rf factors reported across different field crops along with exploring opportunities for integrating modern omics tools with CMS-based hybrid breeding.

  20. Recent hybrid origin of three rare chinese turtles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, Bryan L.; Parham, James F.

    2006-02-07

    Three rare geoemydid turtles described from Chinese tradespecimens in the early 1990s, Ocadia glyphistoma, O. philippeni, andSacalia pseudocellata, are suspected to be hybrids because they are knownonly from their original descriptions and because they have morphologiesintermediate between other, better-known species. We cloned the allelesof a bi-parentally inherited nuclear intron from samples of these threespecies. The two aligned parental alleles of O. glyphistoma, O.philippeni, and S. pseudocellata have 5-11.5 times more heterozygouspositions than do 13 other geoemydid species. Phylogenetic analysis showsthat the two alleles from each turtle are strongly paraphyletic, butcorrectly match sequences of other species that were hypothesized frommorphology to be their parental species. We conclude that these rareturtles represent recent hybrids rather than valid species. Specifically,"O. glyphistoma" is a hybrid of Mauremys sinensis and M. cf. annamensis,"O. philippeni" is a hybrid of M. sinensis and Cuora trifasciata, and "S.pseudocellata" is a hybrid of C. trifasciata and S. quadriocellata.Conservation resources are better directed toward finding and protectingpopulations of other rare Southeast Asian turtles that do representdistinct evolutionary lineages.

  1. The global governance of human cloning: the case of UNESCO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Adèle

    2017-03-21

    Since Dolly the Sheep was cloned in 1996, the question of whether human reproductive cloning should be banned or pursued has been the subject of international debate. Feelings run strong on both sides. In 2005, the United Nations adopted its Declaration on Human Cloning to try to deal with the issue. The declaration is ambiguously worded, prohibiting "all forms of human cloning inasmuch as they are incompatible with human dignity and the protection of human life". It received only ambivalent support from UN member states. Given this unsatisfactory outcome, in 2008 UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) set up a Working Group to investigate the possibility of a legally binding convention to ban human reproductive cloning. The Working Group was made up of members of the International Bioethics Committee, established in 1993 as part of UNESCO's Bioethics Programme. It found that the lack of clarity in international law is unhelpful for those states yet to formulate national regulations or policies on human cloning. Despite this, member states of UNESCO resisted the idea of a convention for several years. This changed in 2015, but there has been no practical progress on the issue. Drawing on official records and first-hand observations at bioethics meetings, this article examines the human cloning debate at UNESCO from 2008 onwards, thus building on and advancing current scholarship by applying recent ideas on global governance to an empirical case. It concludes that, although human reproductive cloning is a challenging subject, establishing a robust global governance framework in this area may be possible via an alternative deliberative format, based on knowledge sharing and feasibility testing rather than the interest-based bargaining that is common to intergovernmental organizations and involving a wide range of stakeholders. This article is published as part of a collection on global governance.

  2. Probabilistic Cloning of Three Real States with Optimal Success Probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Pin-shu

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the probabilistic quantum cloning (PQC) of three real states with average probability distribution. To get the analytic forms of the optimal success probabilities we assume that the three states have only two pairwise inner products. Based on the optimal success probabilities, we derive the explicit form of 1 →2 PQC for cloning three real states. The unitary operation needed in the PQC process is worked out too. The optimal success probabilities are also generalized to the M→ N PQC case.

  3. Cosmological constant, inflation and no-cloning theorem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Qingguo, E-mail: huangqg@itp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Lin Fengli, E-mail: linfengli@phy.ntnu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, 116, Taiwan (China)

    2012-05-30

    From the viewpoint of no-cloning theorem we postulate a relation between the current accelerated expansion of our universe and the inflationary expansion in the very early universe. It implies that the fate of our universe should be in a state with accelerated expansion. Quantitatively we find that the no-cloning theorem leads to a lower bound on the cosmological constant which is compatible with observations.

  4. Analysis of differentially expressed genes in two immunologically distinct strains of Eimeria maxima using suppression subtractive hybridization and dot-blot hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well known that different Eimeria maxima strains exhibit significant antigenic variation. However, the genetic basis of these phenotypes remains unclear. Methods Total RNA and mRNA were isolated from unsporulated oocysts of E. maxima strains SH and NT, which were found to have significant differences in immunogenicity in our previous research. Two subtractive cDNA libraries were constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and specific genes were further analyzed by dot-blot hybridization and qRT-PCR analysis. Results A total of 561 clones were selected from both cDNA libraries and the length of the inserted fragments was 0.25–1.0 kb. Dot-blot hybridization revealed a total of 86 differentially expressed clones (63 from strain SH and 23 from strain NT). Nucleotide sequencing analysis of these clones revealed ten specific contigs (six from strain SH and four from strain NT). Further analysis found that six contigs from strain SH and three from strain NT shared significant identities with previously reported proteins, and one contig was presumed to be novel. The specific differentially expressed genes were finally verified by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses. Conclusions The data presented here suggest that specific genes identified between the two strains may be important molecules in the immunogenicity of E. maxima that may present potential new drug targets or vaccine candidates for coccidiosis. PMID:24894832

  5. Evaluation of Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of 18 Potato Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R Bolandi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Introducing potato cultivars with high yield, early maturing and desirable quality have a key role in food security, decreasing the fluctuation of the price and the store costs and also providing fresh crops throughout the year. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. plant is one of leading agricultural products in the world with 365 million ton glands in year stands in fourth place after wheat, rice and corn. The main objective of the breeding program is yield. Increase in plant yield in the past due to the gradual elimination of defects visible by experts and today the new criteria for selection are based on principles of morphological and functional characteristics associated with the plant. Variety is one of the effective factors on plant growth and development on potato that yields components of potato is heavily dependent on it. Yield increasing in each variety affect the genetic and natural structure of variety. Nine clones of Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Kennebec from sources in Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania, and the commercially grown clone, clone 1, which was imported from Vancouver, were multiplied from pathogen-tested seed and compared in 3 Victorian potato districts during 2 seasons. The results showed that differences exist in total and size grade yield and tuber number and appearance between clones of a cultivar. They further highlight the importance of selection work to maintain desirable characteristics of established cultivars and to remove mutants with undesirable characteristics. The results of the study, Hassanpanah and Hassanabadi (2012 showed that the clones 397003-7, 396151-27, 397045-100 and Savalan (check produced higher total and marketable tuber yield, tuber number and weight per plant, plant height, main stem number per plant, tuber size average and stable tuber yield. These clones produced high and mid-uniform tuber, tuber inner crack and tuber inner ring, mid-late maturity and mid and high dry in comparison

  6. Cloning and adoption: a reply to Levy and Lotz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Carson

    2008-02-01

    In previous articles I discussed the ethics of human reproductive cloning, focusing on a possible future scenario in which reproductive cloning can be accomplished without an elevated risk of anomalies to the children who are created. I argued that in such a scenario it would be ethically permissible for infertile couples to use cloning as a way to have genetically related children and that such use should not be prohibited. In 'Reproductive Cloning and a (Kind of) Genetic Fallacy', Neil Levy and Mianna Lotz raise objections to my conclusions. They disagree with the view, for which I argued, that some couples can have defensible reasons for desiring genetically related children. They also offer several new arguments against reproductive cloning, including an argument that it would diminish the number of adoptions, thereby adversely affecting the welfare of children who need to be adopted. In this paper I point out that Levy and Lotz's criticisms misconstrue my arguments and that there are serious problems with their arguments for prohibiting infertile couples from using cloning, including their argument from adoption.

  7. [The status of human cloning in the international setting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey del Castillo, Javier

    2006-01-01

    The General Assembly of the United Nations submitted a Declaration on Human Cloning in March 2005. The text of such Declaration was the result of a difficult and long process, taking more than three years. Being a Declaration instead of a Resolution, it has not legal capability in inforcing United Nations members to act according to its recommendations. This article begins with an explanation of several terms referred to cloning. Different countries' legislation on cloning is analyzed. Positions of the same countries at the Convention of the United Nations are as well analyzed. Comparing both countries' views shows that national legislation on cloning is independent and orientated by some countries' particular interests and biological and ethical views on these issues. Future developments on human cloning and its applications will be shared among all countries, both the ones currently allowing and supporting "therapeutic" cloning and the ones now banning it. In such case, it would be important to reach agreements on these issues at an international level. The article discusses possible legislative developments and offers some proposals to reach such agreements.

  8. TAWS: TABLE ASSISTED WALK STRATEGY IN CLONE ATTACK DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sybi Cynthia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs deployed in the destructive atmosphere are susceptible to clone attacks. Clone attack in wireless sensor network is a complicated problem because it deployed in hostile environments, and also the nodes could be physically compromised by an adversary. For valuable clone attack detection, the selection criteria play an important role in the proposed work. In this paper, it has been classified the existing detection schemes regarding device type, detection methodologies, deployment strategies and detection ranges and far explore various proposals in deployment based selection criteria category. And also this paper provides a review of detection methodology based on various clone attack detection techniques. It is also widely agreed that clones should be detected quickly as possible with the best optional. Our work is exploratory in that the proposed algorithm concern with table assisted random walk with horizontal and vertical line, frequent level key change and revokes the duplicate node. Our simulation results show that it is more efficient than the detection criteria in terms of security feature, and in detection rate with high resiliency. Specifically, it concentrates on deployment strategy which includes grid based deployment technique. These all come under the selection criteria for better security performance. Our protocol analytically provides effective and clone attack detection capability of robustness.

  9. Analysis of an epigenetic argument against human reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Anders

    2006-08-01

    Human reproductive cloning is a much disputed ethical issue. This technology is often condemned as being contrary to human dignity. However, there are also risk arguments. An ethical argument that is often put forward by scientists but seldom developed in more detail focuses on health risks in animal cloning. There is a high risk that animal clones exhibit abnormalities and these are increasingly believed to be due to errors in epigenetic reprogramming. The argument is that human reproductive cloning should not be carried out because human clones are also likely to exhibit abnormalities due to inappropriate epigenetic reprogramming. Different versions of this epigenetic argument are analysed, a categorical version and a non-categorical. The non-categorical version is suggested to be more well-considered. With regard to policy making on human reproductive cloning, the categorical version can be used to prescribe a permanent ban, while the non-categorical version can be used to prescribe a temporary ban. The implications of the precautionary principle--as interpreted in the European Union--are investigated. The conclusion is that it seems possible to support a temporary ban by reference to this principle.

  10. Information-theoretic limitations on approximate quantum cloning and broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemm, Marius; Wilde, Mark M.

    2017-07-01

    We prove quantitative limitations on any approximate simultaneous cloning or broadcasting of mixed states. The results are based on information-theoretic (entropic) considerations and generalize the well-known no-cloning and no-broadcasting theorems. We also observe and exploit the fact that the universal cloning machine on the symmetric subspace of n qudits and symmetrized partial trace channels are dual to each other. This duality manifests itself both in the algebraic sense of adjointness of quantum channels and in the operational sense that a universal cloning machine can be used as an approximate recovery channel for a symmetrized partial trace channel and vice versa. The duality extends to give control of the performance of generalized universal quantum cloning machines (UQCMs) on subspaces more general than the symmetric subspace. This gives a way to quantify the usefulness of a priori information in the context of cloning. For example, we can control the performance of an antisymmetric analog of the UQCM in recovering from the loss of n -k fermionic particles.

  11. Photonic quantum simulator for unbiased phase covariant cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Laura T.; López Grande, Ignacio H.; Larotonda, Miguel A.

    2018-01-01

    We present the results of a linear optics photonic implementation of a quantum circuit that simulates a phase covariant cloner, using two different degrees of freedom of a single photon. We experimentally simulate the action of two mirrored 1→ 2 cloners, each of them biasing the cloned states into opposite regions of the Bloch sphere. We show that by applying a random sequence of these two cloners, an eavesdropper can mitigate the amount of noise added to the original input state and therefore, prepare clones with no bias, but with the same individual fidelity, masking its presence in a quantum key distribution protocol. Input polarization qubit states are cloned into path qubit states of the same photon, which is identified as a potential eavesdropper in a quantum key distribution protocol. The device has the flexibility to produce mirrored versions that optimally clone states on either the northern or southern hemispheres of the Bloch sphere, as well as to simulate optimal and non-optimal cloning machines by tuning the asymmetry on each of the cloning machines.

  12. The US FDA and animal cloning: risk and regulatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, Larisa; Matheson, John C

    2007-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine issued a voluntary request to producers of livestock clones not to introduce food from clones or their progeny into commerce until the agency had assessed whether production of cattle, swine, sheep, or goats by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) posed any unique risks to the animal(s) involved in the process, humans, or other animals by consuming food from those animals, compared with any other assisted reproductive technology (ART) currently in use. Following a comprehensive review, no anomalies were observed in animals produced by cloning that have not also been observed in animals produced by other ARTs and natural mating. Further systematic review on the health of, and composition of meat and milk from, cattle, swine, and goat clones and the progeny of cattle and sheep did not result in the identification of any food-consumption hazards. The agency therefore concluded that food from cattle, swine, and goat clones was as safe to eat as food from animals of those species derived by conventional means. The agency also concluded that food from the progeny of the clone of any species normally consumed for food is as safe to eat as those animals. The article also describes the methodology used by the agency to analyze data and draw these conclusions, the plans the agency has proposed to manage any identified risks, and the risk communication approaches the agency has used.

  13. Generating West Nile Virus from an Infectious Clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergaast, Rianna; Fredericksen, Brenda L

    2016-01-01

    WNV infectious clones are valuable tools for elucidating WNV biology. Nevertheless, relatively few infectious WNV clones have been generated because their construction is hampered by the instability of flaviviral genomes. More recently, advances in cloning techniques as well as the development of several two-plasmid WNV infectious clone systems have facilitated the generation of WNV infectious clones. Here we described a protocol for recovering WNV from a two-plasmid system. In this approach, large quantities of these constructs are digested with restriction enzymes to produce complementary restriction sites at the 3' end of the upstream fragment and the 5' end of the downstream fragment. These fragments are then annealed to produce linear template for in vitro transcription to synthesize infectious RNA. The resulting RNA is transfected into cells and after several days WNV is recovered in the culture supernatant. This method can be used to generate virus from infectious clones encoding high- and low-pathogenicity strains of WNV, as well as chimeric virues.

  14. Identification of PblB mediating galactose-specific adhesion in a successful Streptococcus pneumoniae clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Chia; Lin, Tzu-Lung; Lin, Che-Ming; Wang, Jin-Town

    2015-07-21

    The pneumococcal genome is variable and there are minimal data on the influence of the accessory genome on phenotype. Pneumococcal serotype 14 sequence type (ST) 46 had been the most prevalent clone causing pneumonia in children in Taiwan. A microarray was constructed using the genomic DNA of a clinical strain (NTUH-P15) of serotype 14 ST46. Using DNA hybridization, genomic variations in NTUH-P15 were compared to those of 3 control strains. Microarray analysis identified 7 genomic regions that had significant increases in hybridization signals in the NTUH-P15 strain compared to control strains. One of these regions encoded PblB, a phage-encoded virulence factor implicated (in Streptococcus mitis) in infective endocarditis. The isogenic pblB mutant decreased adherence to A549 human lung epithelial cell compared to wild-type NTUH-P15 strain (P = 0.01). Complementation with pblB restored the adherence. PblB is predicted to contain a galactose-binding domain-like region. Preincubation of NTUH-P15 with D-galactose resulted in decreases of adherence to A549 cell in a dose-dependent manner. Challenge of mice with NTUH-P15, isogenic pblB mutant and pblB complementation strains determined that PblB was required for bacterial persistence in the nasopharynx and lung. PblB, as an adhesin mediating the galactose-specific adhesion activity of pneumococci, promote pneumococcal clonal success.

  15. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  16. Cloning, overexpression, and characterization of cobrotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, H.-C.; Kumar, Thallampuranam Krishnaswamy S.; Yu Chin

    2004-01-01

    Cobrotoxin (CBTX) is a highly toxic short neurotoxin, isolated from the Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra) venom. In the present study for the first time we report the cloning and expression of CBTX in high yields (12 mg/L) in Escherichia coli. CBTX fused to the IgG-binding domain of protein A (IgG-CBTX) was expressed in the soluble form. The misfolded CBTX portion (of the overexpressed fusion protein) was refolded under optimal redox conditions. The fusion protein (IgG-CBTX) was observed to undergo autocatalytic cleavage to yield CBTX with additional 5 amino acids upstream of its N-terminal end. The far UV and near UV circular dichroism spectra of the recombinant CBTX were identical to those of the toxin isolated from the crude venom source. Recombinant CBTX was isotope labeled ( 15 N and 13 C) and all the resonances ( 1 H, 13 C, and 15 N) in the protein have been unambiguously assigned. 1 H- 15 N HSQC spectrum of recombinant CBTX revealed that the protein is in a biologically active conformation. 1 H- 15 N chemical shift perturbation data showed that recombinant CBTX binds to a peptide derived from the α7 subunit of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AchR) with high affinity. The AchR peptide is found to bind to residues located at the tip of Loop-2 in CBTX. The results of the present study provide an avenue to understand the structural basis for the high toxicity exhibited by CBTX. In addition, complete resonance assignments in CBTX (reported in this study) are expected to trigger intensive research towards the design of new pharmacological agents against certain neural disorders

  17. Hepatocyte specific expression of human cloned genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortese, R

    1986-01-01

    A large number of proteins are specifically synthesized in the hepatocyte. Only the adult liver expresses the complete repertoire of functions which are required at various stages during development. There is therefore a complex series of regulatory mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of the differentiated state and for the developmental and physiological variations in the pattern of gene expression. Human hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B display a pattern of gene expression similar to adult and fetal liver, respectively; in contrast, cultured fibroblasts or HeLa cells do not express most of the liver specific genes. They have used these cell lines for transfection experiments with cloned human liver specific genes. DNA segments coding for alpha1-antitrypsin and retinol binding protein (two proteins synthesized both in fetal and adult liver) are expressed in the hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B, but not in HeLa cells or fibroblasts. A DNA segment coding for haptoglobin (a protein synthesized only after birth) is only expressed in the hepatoma cell line HepG2 but not in Hep3B nor in non hepatic cell lines. The information for tissue specific expression is located in the 5' flanking region of all three genes. In vivo competition experiments show that these DNA segments bind to a common, apparently limiting, transacting factor. Conventional techniques (Bal deletions, site directed mutagenesis, etc.) have been used to precisely identify the DNA sequences responsible for these effects. The emerging picture is complex: they have identified multiple, separate transcriptional signals, essential for maximal promoter activation and tissue specific expression. Some of these signals show a negative effect on transcription in fibroblast cell lines.

  18. Cloning of low dose radiation induced gene RIG1 by RACE based on non-cloned cDNA library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Ying; Sui Jianli; Tie Yi; Zhang Yuanping; Zhou Pingkun; Sun Zhixian

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To obtain full-length cDNA of radiation induced new gene RIG1 based on its EST fragment. Methods: Based on non-cloned cDNA library, enhanced nested RACE PCR and biotin-avidin labelled probe for magnetic bead purification was used to obtain full-length cDNA of RIG1. Results: About 1 kb of 3' end of RIG1 gene was successfully cloned by this set of methods and cloning of RIG1 5' end is proceeding well. Conclusion: The result is consistent with the design of experiment. This set of protocol is useful for cloning of full-length gene based on EST fragment

  19. Interspecific hybridization and inbreeding effect in seed from a Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clonal orchard in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campinhos Eduardo N.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We used allozyme markers to estimate the amount of natural hybridization between Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla in a 7.4-hectare commercial hybrid-seed orchard planted in Espírito Santo, Brazil. This orchard was planted in 1982 using a honeycomb design, with each hexagonal plot containing one E. grandis tree surrounded by six E. urophylla trees. There were 267 replicated hexagonal plots in the orchard. Seeds were harvested from the E. grandis clone only. The multilocus outcrossing rate estimated for the E. grandis clone averaged 70.2%, ranging from 33.0 to 99.0% among individual trees. Contaminant pollination, inferred from progeny genotypes containing alleles not present in the seven parental clones, accounted for 14.4% of the hybrid seed. Contaminant pollen was attributed to neighboring eucalyptus stands isolated from the orchard by a 400-m wide belt of native forest. Inbred and hybrid progenies were identified by their allozyme genotypes and transplanted to the field. Field growth of inbred progeny was 30% lower than that of hybrid plants at two and three years of age.

  20. [Distribution of abnormal cell clone with deletion of chromosome 20q in marrow cell lineages and apoptosis cells in myelodysplastic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ling; Wang, Chun; Qin, You-Wen; Xie, Kuang-Cheng; Yan, Shi-Ke; Gao, Yan-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Rui; Zhao, Chu-Xian

    2008-06-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the distribution of abnormal clone in marrow cell lineages and apoptosis cells in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with deletion of chromosome 20q. Monoclonal antibodies recognizing myeloid precursors (CD15), erythroid precursors (GPA), T cells (CD3(+)CD56(-)CD16(-)), B cells (CD19), NK cells (CD3(-)CD56(+)CD16(+)) were used to sort bone marrow cells in a MDS patient with del (20q) by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Annexin V-FITC and PI were used to sort bone marrow Annexin V(+)PI(-) and Annexin V(-)PI(-) cells by FACS. The sorted positive cells were detected by interphase dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (D-FISH) using a LSI D20S108 probe (Spectrum Orange) and a Telvysion TM 20p probe (Spectrum Green). FACS and FISH analysis were also performed on the samples from 4 cases with normal karyotype. The results showed that the proportions of MDS clone in the myeloid and erythroid precursors were 70.50% and 93.33% respectively, in the RAEB-1 patient with del (20q) and were obviously higher than that in control group (5.39% and 6.17%). The proportions of abnormal clone in T, B and NK cells were 3.23%, 4.32% and 5.77% respectively and were less than that in control group (5.76%, 4.85%, 6.36%). The percentage of apoptotic cells in the bone marrow nucleated cells was 16.09%. The proportions of MDS clone in Annexin V(+)PI(-) and Annexin V(-)PI(-) cells were 32.48% and 70.11%, respectively. It is concluded that most myeloid and erythroid precursors are originated from the abnormal clone in MDS with del (20q). A little part of apoptotic cells are derived from the abnormal clone.