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Sample records for microbiological process controlled

  1. [Environmental microbiological control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Salas, Carmen; Tordoya Titichoca, Igberto J; Ezpeleta Baquedano, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    The environmental microbiological control is necessary to prevent infections associated with certain procedures that are performed at the hospital. In this review the procedures for control of water and dialysis fluids, and air in operating rooms and immunocompromised units are addressed. The dialysis quality management guidelines define the highest levels of chemical, microbiological and endotoxin in purified water and dialysis fluids based on the recommendations of scientific societies. The microbiological control of water and dialysis fluids should include detection of microorganisms and endotoxin levels. Regarding the microbiological air sampling of operating rooms and immunocompromised units the types of clean rooms in which is recommended to perform microbiological air monitoring; the sample collection methods; culture media; incubation conditions; the most common microorganisms, and permissible levels depending on the type of surgery are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbiological metal extraction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torma, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    Application of biotechnological principles in the mineral processing, especially in hydrometallurgy, has created new opportunities and challenges for these industries. During the 1950's and 60's, the mining wastes and unused complex mineral resources have been successfully treated in bacterial assisted heap and dump leaching processes for copper and uranium. The interest in bio-leaching processes is the consequence of economic advantages associated with these techniques. For example, copper can be produced from mining wastes for about 1/3 to 1/2 of the costs of copper production by the conventional smelting process from high-grade sulfide concentrates. The economic viability of bio leaching technology lead to its world wide acceptance by the extractive industries. During 1970's this technology grew into a more structured discipline called 'bio hydrometallurgy'. Currently, bio leaching techniques are ready to be used, in addition to copper and uranium, for the extraction of cobalt, nickel, zinc, precious metals and for the desulfurization of high-sulfur content pyritic coals. As a developing technology, the microbiological leaching of the less common and rare metals has yet to reach commercial maturity. However, the research in this area is very active. In addition, in a foreseeable future the biotechnological methods may be applied also for the treatment of high-grade ores and mineral concentrates using adapted native and/or genetically engineered microorganisms. (author)

  3. Quality control for diagnostic oral microbiology laboratories in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rautemaa-Richardson, R.; van der Reijden, W.A.; Dahlen, G.; Smith, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Participation in diagnostic microbiology internal and external quality control (QC) processes is good laboratory practice and an essential component of a quality management system. However, no QC scheme for diagnostic oral microbiology existed until 2009 when the Clinical Oral Microbiology (COMB)

  4. Summary of research on microbiological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, A.L.

    1992-09-01

    Storage of thermal energy in aquifers has obvious benefits of saving energy and decreasing the consumption of fossil fuels. However, aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), which involves groundwater aquifers as the storage medium for heat or chill, impinges on the environment. A literature review of pertinent microbiology publications (Hicks and Stewart, 1988) identified the potential for the interaction of ATES systems and microbiological processes to create a source of infectious diseases and the potential for damage to the environment. In addition, the review identified a potential for microbiological processes to develop conditions that would interfere with the operation of an ATES system. As a result of this research effort, investigators from Finland, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States have examined several ATES systems in operation and have observed that the ATES systems studied do not contribute to infectious disease transmission, do not adversely affect the environment, and do not contribute significantly to biofouling or biocorrosion

  5. Summary of research on microbiological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, A.L.

    1992-09-01

    Storage of thermal energy in aquifers has obvious benefits of saving energy and decreasing the consumption of fossil fuels. However, aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), which involves groundwater aquifers as the storage medium for heat or chill, impinges on the environment. A literature review of pertinent microbiology publications (Hicks and Stewart, 1988) identified the potential for the interaction of ATES systems and microbiological processes to create a source of infectious diseases and the potential for damage to the environment. In addition, the review identified a potential for microbiological processes to develop conditions that would interfere with the operation of an ATES system. As a result of this research effort, investigators from Finland, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States have examined several ATES systems in operation and have observed that the ATES systems studied do not contribute to infectious disease transmission, do not adversely affect the environment, and do not contribute significantly to biofouling or biocorrosion.

  6. Microbiological implications of the food irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teufel, P.

    1981-01-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the wholesomeness of irradiated food which met in 1976 concluded after a detailed and critical review of the available information, that the microbiological aspects of food irradiation were fully comparable to those of conventional processes used in modern food technology. Processing of food by irradiation may be considered from the microbiological point of view as separate procedures: high dose treatment (> 10 kGy), for sterilisation (radappertization) and low dose treatment (< 10 kGy) for pasteurisation (radicidation, radurization), (for definitions see p. 43), disinfestation, or inhibition of sprouting. No public health hazards related to micro-organisms arise from high dose irradiation because this process results in commercially sterile products. On the other hand, it is important to consider the possible microbiological hazards when food is irradiated with a low dose. The microbiological implications relate to the natural radiation resistance of bacteria, yeasts, fungi and viruses or to the mutagenic effects of ionising radiation in micro-organisms. Both areas of concern were reviewed in detail by Ingram and Ingram and Farkas. (orig.)

  7. Microbiological performance of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)-based food safety management systems: A case of Nile perch processing company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kussaga, J.B.; Luning, P.A.; Tiisekwa, B.P.M.; Jacxsens, L.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at giving insight into microbiological safety output of a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)-based Food Safety Management System (FSMS) of a Nile perch exporting company by using a combined assessment, This study aimed at giving insight into microbiological safety output

  8. Quality control for diagnostic oral microbiology laboratories in European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Smith

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Participation in diagnostic microbiology internal and external quality control (QC processes is good laboratory practice and an essential component of a quality management system. However, no QC scheme for diagnostic oral microbiology existed until 2009 when the Clinical Oral Microbiology (COMB Network was created. At the European Oral Microbiology Workshop in 2008, 12 laboratories processing clinical oral microbiological samples were identified. All these were recruited to participate into the study and six laboratories from six European countries completed both the online survey and the first QC round. Three additional laboratories participated in the second round. Based on the survey, European oral microbiology laboratories process a significant (mean per laboratory 4,135 number of diagnostic samples from the oral cavity annually. A majority of the laboratories did not participate in any internal or external QC programme and nearly half of the laboratories did not have standard operating procedures for the tests they performed. In both QC rounds, there was a large variation in the results, interpretation and reporting of antibiotic susceptibility testing among the laboratories. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate the need for harmonisation of laboratory processing methods and interpretation of results for oral microbiology specimens. The QC rounds highlighted the value of external QC in evaluating the efficacy and safety of processes, materials and methods used in the laboratory. The use of standardised methods is also a prerequisite for multi-centre epidemiological studies that can provide important information on emerging microbes and trends in anti-microbial susceptibility for empirical prescribing in oro-facial infections.

  9. Microbiological Quality Control of Probiotic Products

    OpenAIRE

    Astashkina, A.P.; Khudyakova, L.I.; Kolbysheva, Y.V.

    2014-01-01

    Microbiological quality control of probiotic products such as Imunele, Dannon, Pomogayka showed that they contain living cultures of the Lactobacillus Bifidobacterium genus in the amount of 107 CFU/ml, which corresponds to the number indicated on the label of products. It is identified that the survival rate of test-strains cultured with pasteurized products does not exceed 10%. The cell concentration of target-microorganisms was reduced by 20-45% after the interaction with living probiotic b...

  10. Utilization of whey with microbiological processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuber, M

    1981-08-01

    Besides biogas production, the following processes and technologies are available in practice for microbiological processing: 1) Lactic acid Using thermophilic lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus bulgaricus, the procedure is economically performed at 45-50/sup 0/C. Since the bacteria are sensitive to high lactate concentrations, buffering with CaCO/sub 3/ or lime-milk is necessary. 2) Ethanol Using lactose-fermenting yeasts, such as Kluyvermyces fragilis, alcohol production is easily performed at 25/sup 0/C and at pH-values between 4 and 6, the dry matter contents varying between 5 and 15% (concentrated whey or permeate). Addition of ammonium sulphate is necessary. 3) Single Cell Protein One-stage production of single cell protein (SCP) is possible using lactose-fermenting aerobic yeasts (K. fragilis, Candida utilis etc.). The yeast procuced and utilized in animal feeding (as Milke replacement in calf rearing) is currently offered in the Federal Republic of Germany at a price of approximately DM 1.40/kg. Two-stage fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae following lactic acid fermentation and addition of enzymatically hydrolyzed starch can be performed effluent-free.

  11. Processing, screening and microbiological characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) obtained from the fresh stem of Laccosperma opacum (Rattan) found in coastal region of Niger Delta forest zones of West Africa was investigated to ascertain its microbiological standard for use as a potential pharmaceutical excipient. The product, coded LO-MCC, was prepared by treating ...

  12. Radiation microbiology relevant to radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallentire, A.

    1979-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: typical background studies involving laboratory models (measurement of radiation responses of different organisms, alone or on or in products; isolation of radiation resistant organisms from products and product environments; measurement of levels of preirradiation microbial contamination ('bioburden')); supplementary studies involving naturally occurring microbial contaminants (unit medical products; microbiological quality assurance; products in bulk; animal diet study). (U.K.)

  13. Electronic Nose for Microbiological Quality Control of Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Falasconi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic noses (ENs have recently emerged as valuable candidates in various areas of food quality control and traceability, including microbial contamination diagnosis. In this paper, the EN technology for microbiological screening of food products is reviewed. Four paradigmatic and diverse case studies are presented: (a Alicyclobacillus spp. spoilage of fruit juices, (b early detection of microbial contamination in processed tomatoes, (c screening of fungal and fumonisin contamination of maize grains, and (d fungal contamination on green coffee beans. Despite many successful results, the high intrinsic variability of food samples together with persisting limits of the sensor technology still impairs ENs trustful applications at the industrial scale. Both advantages and drawbacks of sensor technology in food quality control are discussed. Finally, recent trends and future directions are illustrated.

  14. Evaluation of the microbiological quality of Tchapalo process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S Aka-Gbezo, J.S. Lathro, D Dolourou, Y.Z. Nanga, Y.G. Loukou, B Bonfoh, K.M. Dje. Abstract. No Abstract. Keywords: Tchapalo process, traditional beverages, microbiological quality, safety, fermentations. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  15. [Infection control team (ICT) in cooperation with microbiology laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Mitsuhiro

    2012-10-01

    Infection control as a medical safety measure is an important issue in all medical facilities. In order to tackle this measure, cooperation between the infection control team (ICT) and microbiological laboratory is indispensable. Multiple drug-resistant bacteria have shifted from Gram-positive bacteria to Gram-negative bacilli within the last ten years. There are also a variety of bacilli, complicating the examination method and test results further. Therefore, cooperation between the ICT and microbiological laboratory has become important to understand examination results and to use them. In order to maintain functional cooperation, explanatory and communicative ability between the microbiological laboratory and ICT is required every day. Such positive information exchange will develop into efficient and functional ICT activity.

  16. Medical Devices; Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Classification of the Assayed Quality Control Material for Clinical Microbiology Assays. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-27

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA, Agency, or we) is classifying the assayed quality control material for clinical microbiology assays into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the assayed quality control material for clinical microbiology assays' classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  17. 21 CFR 211.113 - Control of microbiological contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of microbiological contamination. 211.113 Section 211.113 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Production and...

  18. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: chemical interactions of primary biological aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Deguillaume

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of primary biological aerosols (PBA on atmospheric chemistry and vice versa through microbiological and chemical properties and processes. Several studies have shown that PBA represent a significant fraction of air particulate matter and hence affect the microstructure and water uptake of aerosol particles. Moreover, airborne micro-organisms, namely fungal spores and bacteria, can transform chemical constituents of the atmosphere by metabolic activity. Recent studies have emphasized the viability of bacteria and metabolic degradation of organic substances in cloud water. On the other hand, the viability and metabolic activity of airborne micro-organisms depend strongly on physical and chemical atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, radiation, pH value and nutrient concentrations. In spite of recent advances, however, our knowledge of the microbiological and chemical interactions of PBA in the atmosphere is rather limited. Further targeted investigations combining laboratory experiments, field measurements, and modelling studies will be required to characterize the chemical feedbacks, microbiological activities at the air/snow/water interface supplied to the atmosphere.

  19. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE MICROBIOLOGIC PARAMETERS VALUE FROM RAW MILK USED IN TELEMEA CHEESE TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRA SULER

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available An important faze for food quality control is verification of microbiological parameters of food products. In this way is assuring the prevention of alimentation toxicological infections to consumer, avoiding the technological and economical losses as well as increasing the products conservation period. In this paper are presents the microbiological exam results from raw milk used in Telemea cheese technological process, for 5 stations studied. The determinations were made on 2 series with 57 samples each of them, prelevated in reception fase, in summer and winter season.

  20. Microbiological quality control practices at Australian Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, M.

    1987-01-01

    As a domestic manufacturer of therapeutic substances, Australian Radioisotopes (ARI) must adhere to guidelines set out by the Commonwealth Department of Health in the Code of Good Manufacturing Practices for Therapeutic Goods 1983 (GMP). The GMP gives guidelines for staff training, building requirements, sanitation, documentation and quality control practices. These guidelines form the basis for regular audits performed by officers of the National Biological Standards Laboratories. At Lucas Heights, ARI has combined the principles of the GMP with the overriding precautions introduced for environmental and staff safety and protection. Its policy is to maintain a high level of quality assurance for product identity, purity and sterility and apyrogenicity during all stages of product manufacture

  1. Microbiological, Geochemical and Hydrologic Processes Controlling Uranium Mobility: An Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site at Rifle, Colorado, Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-01-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cleaning up and/or monitoring large, dilute plumes contaminated by metals, such as uranium and chromium, whose mobility and solubility change with redox status. Field-scale experiments with acetate as the electron donor have stimulated metal-reducing bacteria to effectively remove uranium [U(VI)] from groundwater at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Rifle, Colorado. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and a multidisciplinary team of national laboratory and academic collaborators has embarked on a research proposed for the Rifle site, the object of which is to gain a comprehensive and mechanistic understanding of the microbial factors and associated geochemistry controlling uranium mobility so that DOE can confidently remediate uranium plumes as well as support stewardship of uranium-contaminated sites. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Rifle Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Project.

  2. Microbiological, Geochemical and Hydrologic Processes Controlling Uranium Mobility: An Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site at Rifle, Colorado, Quality Assurance Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cleaning up and/or monitoring large, dilute plumes contaminated by metals, such as uranium and chromium, whose mobility and solubility change with redox status. Field-scale experiments with acetate as the electron donor have stimulated metal-reducing bacteria to effectively remove uranium [U(VI)] from groundwater at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Rifle, Colorado. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and a multidisciplinary team of national laboratory and academic collaborators has embarked on a research proposed for the Rifle site, the object of which is to gain a comprehensive and mechanistic understanding of the microbial factors and associated geochemistry controlling uranium mobility so that DOE can confidently remediate uranium plumes as well as support stewardship of uranium-contaminated sites. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Rifle Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Project

  3. The Individualized Quality Control Plan - Coming Soon to Clinical Microbiology Laboratories Everywhere!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nancy

    2015-11-15

    As of January 1, 2016, microbiology laboratories can choose to adopt a new quality control option, the Individualized Quality Control Plan (IQCP), under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA). This voluntary approach increases flexibility for meeting regulatory requirements and provides laboratories the opportunity to customize QC for their testing in their unique environments and by their testing personnel. IQCP is an all-inclusive approach to quality based on risk management to address potential errors in the total testing process. It includes three main steps, (1) performing a risk assessment, (2) developing a QC plan, and (3) monitoring the plan through quality assessment. Resources are available from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, American Society for Microbiology, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and accrediting organizations, such as the College of American Pathologists and Joint Commission, to assist microbiology laboratories implementing IQCP.

  4. Control of Microbiological Spoilage of Food by Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J. [Central Food Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary)

    1978-04-15

    Papers published from 1973 to 1977 in the field of radiation control of microbiological spoilage are reviewed, grouping the subjects according to the type of process and food treated. Various laboratories from 33 countries have recently published data on the subject, radurization of dates, prepackaged vegetables, wet grains, bread, various meats and meat products being reported. The most widespread research activities could be observed in the field of radurization of fish and marine products (shellfish, shrimps). Radiation decontamination of dry food ingredients (enzyme preparates, protein preparates, starch, spices) and cork stoppers was studied in various laboratories. Radappertization research of several animal-protein foods has made remarkable progress and the minimal dose requirements are well established. Combination of radiation treatment with other antimicrobial agents (salt, preservatives, heat, etc.) has been investigated by many laboratories. Foods involved in these investigations were bread, several tropical and subtropical fruits, apple juice, groundnuts, fish fillets and shrimps, but a considerable part of the data relate to model systems. A better understanding of the synergistic effect will require additional knowledge and the continuation of long-range research and development in the field of combined treatments is recommended. (author)

  5. Control of microbiological spoilage of food by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1978-01-01

    Papers published from 1973 to 1977 in the field of radiation control of microbiological spoilage are reviewed, grouping the subjects according to the type of process and food treated. Various laboratories from 33 countries have recently published data on the subject, radurization of dates, prepackaged vegetables, wet grains, bread, various meats and meat products being reported. The most widespread research activities could be observed in the field of radurization of fish and marine products (shellfish, shrimps). Radiation decontamination of dry food ingredients (enzyme preparates, protein preparates, starch, spices) and cork stoppers was studied in various laboratories. Radappertization research of several animal-protein foods has made remarkable progress and the minimal dose requirements are well established. Combination of radiation treatment with other antimicrobial agents (salt, preservatives, heat, etc.) has been investigated by many laboratories. Foods involved in these investigations were bread, several tropical and subtropical fruits, apple juice, groundnuts, fish fillets and shrimps, but a considerable part of the data relate to model systems. A better understanding of the synergistic effect will require additional knowledge and the continuation of long-range research and development in the field of combined treatments is recommended. (author)

  6. Microbiological Safety of Minimally Processed White Radish in Modified Atmosphere Packaging Combined with Irradiation Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.K.; Jo, C.U.; Kim, H.J.; Lee, J.W.; Hwang, H.J.; Byun, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    White radish was minimally processed, packed with air, CO@@@(100g), and CO@@@/N@@@(25/75%), and irradiated at 0, 1, and 2 kGy, and its microbiological quality and pH were investigated during storage for 2 weeks at 4℃. Irradiation significantly reduced total aerobic, coli-form, and lactic acid bacteria counts. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) enhanced microorganism control during storage. Acidity decreased by MAP but was restored during storage

  7. Sensory, physicochemical and microbiological quality of irradiated minimally processed cauliflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bib, Nizakat; Khan, Misal; Badshah, Amal; Ashraf Chaudry, Muhammad

    2005-01-01

    Minimally processed cauliflower samples were irradiated, stored at 5 deg C for 2 weeks and analyzed for sensory, physicochemical and microbiological qualities at 0th, 7th and 14th days. The data showed highest mean values of 7.93 and 7.57 for appearance and flavor, respectively, for 1.0 kGy treated samples. The D 10 values of contaminating microorganisms on cauliflower were 0.20 (Escherischia coli) and 0.24 kGy (Salmonella paratyphae A.) and the resulting 5D 10 value was 1.2 kGy. The study revealed that a dose of 1.5 kGy is enough for retention of quality and reduction of microbial load to 5D 10 values in cauliflower during 2 weeks storage at refrigerated temperature

  8. Microbiological problems of radiation sterilization control of disposable medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horakova, V.

    1975-01-01

    Dose-response curves were determined for three strains of cocci and seven strains of aerobic spore-forming rods after irradiation by two different 60 Co sources and Van de Graaff electron accelerator. Besides the test strains Streptococcus faecium A 2 1, Bacillus sphericus Csub(I)A and Bacillus pumilus E601, some strains isolated from irradiated vaccines and animal diets, or found among common air-contaminating bacteria and pathogenic cocci were examined. The efficiency of the used radiation sources was compared. The control of the microbiological efficiency of radiation sterilization is discussed regarding routine practice. (author)

  9. Microbiological, Geochemical and Hydrologic Processes Controlling Uranium Mobility: An Integrated Field Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site at Rifle, Colorado, February 2011 to January 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Banfield, Jill [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Chandler, Darrell P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davis, James A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hettich, Bob [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); VerBerkmoes, Nathan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jaffe, Peter R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Kerkhof, Lee J. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Kukkadapu, Ravi K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lipton, Mary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peacock, Aaron [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Kenneth H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yabusaki, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-02-15

    The Rifle IFRC continued to make excellent progress during the last 12 months. As noted above, a key field experiment (Best Western) was performed during 2011 as a logical follow-on to the Super 8 field experiment preformed in 2010. In the Super 8 experiment, we successfully combined desorption and bioreduction and deployed a number of novel tracer techniques to enhance our ability to interpret the biogeochemistry of the experiment. In the Best Western experiment, we used the same experimental plot (Plot C) as was used for Super 8. The overarching objective of the Best Western field experiment was to compared the impacts of abiotic vs. biotic increases in alkalinity and to assess the mass of the sorbed pool of U(VI) at Rifle at the field scale. Both of these objectives were met. Preliminary analysis of the data indicate that the underlying biogeochemical data sets were obtained that will support a mechanistic understanding of the underlying processes, including remarkable insight into previously unrecognized microbial processes taking place during acetate amendment of the subsurface for a second time.

  10. Radiation processing of minimally processed fruits and vegetables to ensure microbiological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandekar, J.R.; Saroj, S.D.; Shashidhar, R.; Dhokane, V.S.; Hajare, S.N.; Nagar, V.; Sharma, A.

    2009-01-01

    Minimally processed fruits and vegetables are in demand as they offer ready rich source of nutrients and convenience to consumers. However, these products are often unsafe due to contamination with harmful pathogens. Therefore, a study was carried out to analyze microbiological quality of minimally processed fruits, vegetables and sprouts and to optimize radiation dose necessary to ensure safety of these commodities. Microbiological quality of these products was found to be poor. Decimal reduction dose (D 10 ) for Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in these minimally processed foods (MPF) were in the range of 164 to 588 Gy. Radiation processing with 2 kGy dose of gamma radiation resulted in 5 log reduction of S. Typhimurium and 4 log reduction of L. monocytogenes. The treatment did not significantly affect nutritional, organoleptic and textural properties. These results suggest that radiation processing can ensure safety of these products. (author)

  11. Microbiological quality control of single-walled carbon-nanotubes-coated surfaces experimentally contaminated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natalizi, T.; Frioni, A.; Passeri, D.; Pantanella, F.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of new nanotechnologies involves the spreading of nanoparticles in various fields of human life. Nanoparticles in general and, more specifically, carbon nanotubes have been adopted for many practical approaches i.e.: coatings for medical devices, food process industry and drug delivery. Humans will be increasingly exposed to nanoparticles but the susceptibility of nanostructured materials to microbial colonization in process of manufacturing and storage has not been thoroughly considered. Therefore, the microbiological quality control of nanoparticles plays a pivotal role. Different analytical methods have been attempted for detecting bacterial population contaminating a surface, but no one can be considered fully appropriate. Here, BioTimer Assay (BTA) and conventional sonication followed by colony forming units method (S-CFU) were applied for microbiological quality control of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)-coated surfaces experimentally contaminated with Streptococcus mutans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our results demonstrated that S-CFU is unreliable to actually determine the number of bacteria, contaminating abiotic surfaces, as it does not detach all adherent bacteria and kills part of the bacterial population. Instead, BTA is a reliable method to enumerate bacteria colonizing SWCNTs-coated surfaces and can be considered a useful tool for microbiological quality control of nanomaterials for human use.

  12. Microbiological Hydrogen Production by Anaerobic Fermentation and Photosynthetic Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Y.; Ohsawa, M.; Nagai, Y.; Fukatsu, M.; Ishimi, K.; Ichi-ishi, S.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen gas is a clean and renewable energy carrier. Microbiological hydrogen production from glucose or starch by combination used of an anaerobic fermenter and a photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter spheroides RV was studied. In 1984, the co-culture of Clostridium butyricum and RV strain to convert glucose to hydrogen was demonstrated by Miyake et al. Recently, we studied anaerobic fermentation of starch by a thermophilic archaea. (Author)

  13. Development of antimicrobial films for microbiological control of packaged salad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriel-Galet, Virginia; Cerisuelo, Josep P; López-Carballo, Gracia; Lara, Marta; Gavara, Rafael; Hernández-Muñoz, Pilar

    2012-07-02

    The aim of the present work was to characterize the antimicrobial efficiency of films consisting of PP/EVOH structures with oregano essential oil and citral. Both substances are known for their antimicrobial activity based on their interaction with the cell membrane. The films developed were used to pack minimally processed salads, combining modified atmosphere technology to extend shelf-life and active packaging technology to reduce possible microbiological risks. The antimicrobial activity of the films against the pathogenic microorganisms Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes and natural microflora was investigated "in vitro" and also on the food itself. The effect of release of the antimicrobial agent on the sensory characteristics of the salad was also studied. The results showed that antimicrobial activity reduced spoilage flora on the salad as well as inhibited the growth of pathogens in contaminated salads. This effect was greater against Gram-negative bacteria. Sensory studies showed that the package that was most effective and most accepted by customers was the one containing 5% oregano essential oil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Irradiation treatment of minimally processed carrots for ensuring microbiological safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf Chaudry, Muhammad; Bibi, Nizakat; Khan, Misal; Khan, Maazullah; Badshah, Amal; Jamil Qureshi, Muhammad

    2004-09-01

    Minimally processed fruits and vegetables are very common in developed countries and are gaining popularity in developing countries due to their convenience and freshness. However, minimally processing may result in undesirable changes in colour, taste and appearance due to the transfer of microbes from skin to the flesh. Irradiation is a well-known technology for elimination of microbial contamination. Food irradiation has been approved by 50 countries and is being applied commercially in USA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the quality of minimally processed carrots. Fresh carrots were peeled, sliced and PE packaged. The samples were irradiated (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 kGy) and stored at 5°C for 2 weeks. The samples were analyzed for hardness, organoleptic acceptance and microbial load at 0, 7th and 15th day. The mean firmness of the control and all irradiated samples remained between 4.31 and 4.42 kg of force, showing no adverse effect of radiation dose. The effect of storage (2 weeks) was significant ( P10) in all other irradiated samples(1.0, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy) after 2 weeks storage. No coliform or E. coli were detected in any of the samples (radiated or control) immediately after irradiation and during the entire storage period in minimally processed carrots. A dose of 2.0 kGy completely controlled the fungal and bacterial counts. The irradiated samples (2.0 kGy) were also acceptable sensorially.

  15. Irradiation treatment of minimally processed carrots for ensuring microbiological safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashraf Chaudry, Muhammad; Bibi, Nizakat; Khan, Misal; Khan, Maazullah; Badshah, Amal; Jamil Qureshi, Muhammad

    2004-10-01

    Minimally processed fruits and vegetables are very common in developed countries and are gaining popularity in developing countries due to their convenience and freshness. However, minimally processing may result in undesirable changes in colour, taste and appearance due to the transfer of microbes from skin to the flesh. Irradiation is a well-known technology for elimination of microbial contamination. Food irradiation has been approved by 50 countries and is being applied commercially in USA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the quality of minimally processed carrots. Fresh carrots were peeled, sliced and PE packaged. The samples were irradiated (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 kGy) and stored at 5 deg. C for 2 weeks. The samples were analyzed for hardness, organoleptic acceptance and microbial load at 0, 7th and 15th day. The mean firmness of the control and all irradiated samples remained between 4.31 and 4.42 kg of force, showing no adverse effect of radiation dose. The effect of storage (2 weeks) was significant (P< 0.05) with values ranging between 4.28 and 4.39 kg of force. The total bacterial counts at 5 deg. C for non-irradiated and 0.5 kGy irradiated samples were 6.3x10{sup 5} cfu/g, 3.0x10{sup 2} and few colonies(>10) in all other irradiated samples(1.0, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy) after 2 weeks storage. No coliform or E. coli were detected in any of the samples (radiated or control) immediately after irradiation and during the entire storage period in minimally processed carrots. A dose of 2.0 kGy completely controlled the fungal and bacterial counts. The irradiated samples (2.0 kGy) were also acceptable sensorially.

  16. Irradiation treatment of minimally processed carrots for ensuring microbiological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf Chaudry, Muhammad; Bibi, Nizakat; Khan, Misal; Khan, Maazullah; Badshah, Amal; Jamil Qureshi, Muhammad

    2004-01-01

    Minimally processed fruits and vegetables are very common in developed countries and are gaining popularity in developing countries due to their convenience and freshness. However, minimally processing may result in undesirable changes in colour, taste and appearance due to the transfer of microbes from skin to the flesh. Irradiation is a well-known technology for elimination of microbial contamination. Food irradiation has been approved by 50 countries and is being applied commercially in USA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the quality of minimally processed carrots. Fresh carrots were peeled, sliced and PE packaged. The samples were irradiated (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 kGy) and stored at 5 deg. C for 2 weeks. The samples were analyzed for hardness, organoleptic acceptance and microbial load at 0, 7th and 15th day. The mean firmness of the control and all irradiated samples remained between 4.31 and 4.42 kg of force, showing no adverse effect of radiation dose. The effect of storage (2 weeks) was significant (P 5 cfu/g, 3.0x10 2 and few colonies(>10) in all other irradiated samples(1.0, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy) after 2 weeks storage. No coliform or E. coli were detected in any of the samples (radiated or control) immediately after irradiation and during the entire storage period in minimally processed carrots. A dose of 2.0 kGy completely controlled the fungal and bacterial counts. The irradiated samples (2.0 kGy) were also acceptable sensorially

  17. Monitoring and controlling microbiological growth in a standby service water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisson, P.S.; Whitaker, J.M.; Neilson, H.L.; Mayne, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    In 1989, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission formally recognized the potential for nuclear accidents caused by loss of heat transfer due to microbiological fouling and loss of system integrity caused by microbiologically influenced corrosion. To prevent such potential problems, monitoring, mitigation, and control procedures must be developed by all regulated plants. This article describes the control and mitigation strategy for the standby service water system of a boiling water reactor nuclear power plant

  18. THE MICROBIOLOGICAL LOAD OF SHEEP MILK FROM PRIMARY PRODUCTION TO ITS PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Farkašová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the breeding with the average number of 220 sheep (zošľachtená valaška with traditional hand milking in the Eastern Slovakia the microbiological load of milk during the process of primary production, transport, before and after pasteurisation as well as during dairy processing to cheese curd was observed. The results in three seasons were compared to those obtained at finishing of milking in the season before. The microbiological load of milk was observed using the bacteriological methods for determination of the presence of Staphylococcus sp. and other bacteria, and determination of the total number of staphylococci: a  in milliliter of pool milk sample; b  the transport control – smears from transport tank and determination of the total number of staphylococci in the tank milk sample; c bacteriological examination of bulk tank milk in the dairy plant before and after pasteurisation, including examination of cheese curd. After pasteurisation no staphylococci were recorded as in milk as in cheese. Out of 112 strains of Staphylococcus aureus only four strain produced staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE, but in another 7 strains a gene for production of SE, type C was found. The measures introduced during the following season led to the fact that total numbers of coagulase-positive staphylococci in milk within the process of primary production and transport did not exceed the limit permitted by legislation, and after pasteurisation of milk and cheese curd they were not found at all.  doi:10.5219/58

  19. Collection, transport and general processing of clinical specimens in Microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Romero, M Isabel; García-Lechuz Moya, Juan Manuel; González López, Juan José; Orta Mira, Nieves

    2018-02-06

    The interpretation and the accuracy of the microbiological results still depend to a great extent on the quality of the samples and their processing within the Microbiology laboratory. The type of specimen, the appropriate time to obtain the sample, the way of sampling, the storage and transport are critical points in the diagnostic process. The availability of new laboratory techniques for unusual pathogens, makes necessary the review and update of all the steps involved in the processing of the samples. Nowadays, the laboratory automation and the availability of rapid techniques allow the precision and turn-around time necessary to help the clinicians in the decision making. In order to be efficient, it is very important to obtain clinical information to use the best diagnostic tools. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  20. Summary of research on microbiological processes. International Energy Agency Subtask D, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, A.L.

    1992-09-01

    Storage of thermal energy in aquifers has obvious benefits of saving energy and decreasing the consumption of fossil fuels. However, aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), which involves groundwater aquifers as the storage medium for heat or chill, impinges on the environment. A literature review of pertinent microbiology publications (Hicks and Stewart, 1988) identified the potential for the interaction of ATES systems and microbiological processes to create a source of infectious diseases and the potential for damage to the environment. In addition, the review identified a potential for microbiological processes to develop conditions that would interfere with the operation of an ATES system. As a result of this research effort, investigators from Finland, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States have examined several ATES systems in operation and have observed that the ATES systems studied do not contribute to infectious disease transmission, do not adversely affect the environment, and do not contribute significantly to biofouling or biocorrosion.

  1. Investigation on microbiology of olive oil extraction process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zanoni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several batches of approx. 200 kg olives from Frantoio and Moraiolo cultivars were processed in an oil mill at two dates of harvesting. Samples were collected in several steps of extraction process for sensory, chemical and microbial analyses.All extracted olive oil from the second olive harvesting date was affected by sensory defects and hence classified as being “non-extra virgin”. A distinction between extra virgin olive oil and nonextra virgin olive oil obtained from both harvesting dates was explained by the volatile compounds content of olive oil samples and by yeast and mould counts collected at different processing steps.

  2. Microbiology of minimally processed, modified atmosphere packaged chicory endive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennik, M.H.J.; Peppelenbos, H.W.; Ngyuen-The, C.; Carlin, F.; Smid, E.J.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    1996-01-01

    Modified-atmosphere packaging (MAP) and subsequent storage at refrigeration temperature has been developed over the last decade as an adequate technique to prolong high quality shelf-life of minimally processed vegetables. The MAP system employed should be carefully tailored to the physiological and

  3. ESR and microbiological studies on gamma radiation processed dehydrated onion powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khedkar, K.C.; Kumbhare, M.N.; Sharma, G.; Lavale, D.S.; Kadam, R.M.; Bhide, M.K.; Sastry, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    Paper describes the potential of ESR technique for detection of free radicals produced in the irradiated onion powder. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of light, moisture and time on the stability of free radicals produced by gamma radiation. Some microbiological studies were also carried out on unprocessed and radiation-processed product. (author)

  4. Microstructure of cheese: Processing, technological and microbiological considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Cláudia I.; Gomes, Ana M. P.; Malcata, F. Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Cheese is a classical dairy product, which is strongly judged by its appearance and texture; hence, a renewed interest in its microstructure has been on the rise, as sophisticated techniques of analysis become more and more informative and widely available. Processing parameters that affect microstructure play a dominant role upon the features exhibited by the final product as perceived by the consumer; rational relationships between microstructure (which includes biochem...

  5. Semiquantitative analysis of gaps in microbiological performance of fish processing sector implementing current food safety management systems: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onjong, Hillary Adawo; Wangoh, John; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau

    2014-08-01

    Fish processing plants still face microbial food safety-related product rejections and the associated economic losses, although they implement legislation, with well-established quality assurance guidelines and standards. We assessed the microbial performance of core control and assurance activities of fish exporting processors to offer suggestions for improvement using a case study. A microbiological assessment scheme was used to systematically analyze microbial counts in six selected critical sampling locations (CSLs). Nine small-, medium- and large-sized companies implementing current food safety management systems (FSMS) were studied. Samples were collected three times on each occasion (n = 324). Microbial indicators representing food safety, plant and personnel hygiene, and overall microbiological performance were analyzed. Microbiological distribution and safety profile levels for the CSLs were calculated. Performance of core control and assurance activities of the FSMS was also diagnosed using an FSMS diagnostic instrument. Final fish products from 67% of the companies were within the legally accepted microbiological limits. Salmonella was absent in all CSLs. Hands or gloves of workers from the majority of companies were highly contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus at levels above the recommended limits. Large-sized companies performed better in Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, and S. aureus than medium- and small-sized ones in a majority of the CSLs, including receipt of raw fish material, heading and gutting, and the condition of the fish processing tables and facilities before cleaning and sanitation. Fish products of 33% (3 of 9) of the companies and handling surfaces of 22% (2 of 9) of the companies showed high variability in Enterobacteriaceae counts. High variability in total viable counts and Enterobacteriaceae was noted on fish products and handling surfaces. Specific recommendations were made in core control and assurance activities

  6. Microbiological survey of five poultry processing plants in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, G C; Hudson, W R; Hinton, M H

    1993-07-01

    1. Neck skin samples were taken from chickens and turkeys at all the main stages of processing to monitor changes in total viable count (TVC) and counts of coliforms and pseudomonads. 2. Processing reduced TVC by up to 100-fold. Geometric mean counts after packaging were log10 4.4 to 5.3 CFU/g whilst corresponding counts of coliforms were 2.7 to 3.8 CFU/g. 3. Increases in mean TVC or coliforms as a result of either defeathering or evisceration did not exceed 0.6 log. 4. Pseudomonads represented only a minor fraction of the initial microflora of the bird and were often reduced by scalding to a figure which could not be detected by direct plating of samples; however, subsequent contamination resulted in means between log10 2.9 and 4.0 CFU/g for packaged carcases. 5. Although Staphylococcus aureus was readily isolated from defeathering equipment, mean counts from defeathered carcases were always below log10 3.0 CFU/g.

  7. Development of methodology for the fore cast of microbiological processes under transaction to industrial cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepeshkin, G.; Bugreev, V.

    1996-01-01

    Proposals for possible cooperation with Western partners : To obtain the scale transfers method in laboratory condition of microorganisms cultivation to industrial conditions based on the parameters of spatial cultivation to industrial conditions based on the parameters of spatial heterogeneous hydrodynamics situation in bioreactors. The problem is the impossibility to count constructive elements and regimes of ferments operation which provided optimum environment for microorganisms vital functions because the hydrodynamic, biological and mass change processes are complicated. To solve the problems it is required to : - Investigate the different sides of physiology of culture-producer of Biologically Active Substances (hereinafter BAS) - Investigate the interrelation between the stirring and biological transformation in microorganism cells - Analyze and search main tendencies required to control biosynthesis (BAS) processes and reproduction of biosynthesis results at the cultivation change scale - Analyze technical properties of the reactor and the revealing of the spatial heterogeneous hydrodynamics situation at the different scales of bioreactor parameters - Investigate cinematic energy mediums field in the different bioreactor scales - Obtain the criteria dependencies estimating the irregularity of the stirrings intensity - Prepare the methodological foundations of microbiological processes forecast required to introduce to the industrial biosynthesis environment Expected results : To detect the comparable regimes of bioreactor operation in order to achieve equal production range and realize the scale-up method

  8. Microbiological survey of a South African poultry processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geornaras, I; de Jesus, A; van Zyl, E; von Holy, A

    1995-01-01

    Bacterial populations associated with poultry processing were determined on neck skin samples, equipment surfaces and environmental samples by replicate surveys. Aerobic plate counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts and Pseudomonas counts were performed by standard procedures and the prevalence of Listeria, presumptive Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus determined. Statistically significant (P defeathering curtains, shackles and conveyor belts repeatedly showed aerobic plate counts in excess of 5.0 log CFU 25 cm-2. Aerobic plate counts of scald tank and spinchiller water were 2 log CFU ml-1 higher than those of potable water samples. Bacterial numbers of the air in the "dirty" area were higher than those of the "clean" area. Listeria, presumptive Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from 27.6, 51.7 and 24.1% of all product samples, respectively, and Listeria and Staphylococcus aureus were also isolated from selected equipment surfaces.

  9. Compliance of clinical microbiology laboratories in the United States with current recommendations for processing respiratory tract specimens from patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Juyan; Garber, Elizabeth; Desai, Manisha; Saiman, Lisa

    2006-04-01

    Respiratory tract specimens from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) require unique processing by clinical microbiology laboratories to ensure detection of all potential pathogens. The present study sought to determine the compliance of microbiology laboratories in the United States with recently published recommendations for CF respiratory specimens. Microbiology laboratory protocols from 150 of 190 (79%) CF care sites were reviewed. Most described the use of selective media for Burkholderia cepacia complex (99%), Staphylococcus aureus (82%), and Haemophilus influenzae (89%) and identified the species of all gram-negative bacilli (87%). Only 52% delineated the use of agar diffusion assays for susceptibility testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Standardizing laboratory practices will improve treatment, infection control, and our understanding of the changing epidemiology of CF microbiology.

  10. Microbiological quality of raw and processed wild and cultured edible snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlapani, Foteini F; Neofitou, Christos; Boziaris, Ioannis S

    2014-03-15

    An increasing interest in snail farming in Greece and other European countries has been observed. Despite the fact that edible snails have been involved with problems of Salmonella spp. contamination, there are to our knowledge only limited studies regarding microbiological safety and hygiene of such products. Enumeration of microbial populations and presence/absence of Salmonella spp. in snail meat and intestines of wild Cornu aspersum, Helix lucorum and cultured Cornu aspersum snails from indoor/outdoor type farms was conducted. Furthermore, snail-processing steps were simulated in the laboratory and the population reduction in snail meat was determined. Microbial populations were higher in intestines than snail meat in almost all cases. Escherichia coli/coliforms and Enterococcus spp. populations were lower in the intestines and snail meat of cultured C. aspersum. Salmonella spp. were detected in the intestines and snail meat of wild snails only. The high levels of bacterial populations were considerably reduced after the appropriate processing. The lower populations of E. coli/coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and especially the absence of Salmonella spp. in cultured snails show that the controlled conditions decrease the possibility of pathogen presence and contribute to food safety and public health. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Federating clinical data from six pediatric hospitals: process and initial results for microbiology from the PHIS+ consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouripeddi, Ramkiran; Warner, Phillip B; Mo, Peter; Levin, James E; Srivastava, Rajendu; Shah, Samir S; de Regt, David; Kirkendall, Eric; Bickel, Jonathan; Korgenski, E Kent; Precourt, Michelle; Stepanek, Richard L; Mitchell, Joyce A; Narus, Scott P; Keren, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Microbiology study results are necessary for conducting many comparative effectiveness research studies. Unlike core laboratory test results, microbiology results have a complex structure. Federating and integrating microbiology data from six disparate electronic medical record systems is challenging and requires a team of varied skills. The PHIS+ consortium which is partnership between members of the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings (PRIS) network, the Children's Hospital Association and the University of Utah, have used "FURTHeR' for federating laboratory data. We present our process and initial results for federating microbiology data from six pediatric hospitals.

  12. Role of the clinical microbiology laboratory in infection control - a Danish perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, H J

    2001-01-01

    for standardization and documentation of quality. Currently a national standard for infection control is being prepared. It consists of a main standard defining requirements for the management system and 12 subsidiary standards defining requirements for specific areas of infection control. Adoption of the standard...... will undoubtedly require additional resources for infection control at a local level, and some organizational changes may also be needed. Infection control should be maintained as an integrated part of clinical microbiology....

  13. Artisanal Sonoran cheese (Cocido cheese): an exploration of its production process, chemical composition and microbiological quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-González, Paúl F; Heredia-Castro, Priscilia Y; Méndez-Romero, José I; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Reyes-Díaz, Ricardo; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aarón F

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore and document the production process of artisanal Cocido cheese and to determine its chemical composition and microbiological quality, considering samples from six dairies and four retailers. Cocido cheese is a semi-hard (506-555 g kg -1 of moisture), medium fat (178.3-219.1 g kg -1 ), pasta filata-type cheese made from raw whole cow's milk. The production process is not standardized and therefore the chemical and microbiological components of the sampled cheeses varied. Indicator microorganisms significantly decreased (P pasteurize milk. Nevertheless, since Cocido cheese is a non-ripened, high-moisture product, it is a highly perishable product that could present a health risk if not properly handled. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Ultrasonic treatment for microbiological control of water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broekman, S.; Pohlmann, O.; Beardwooden, E. S.; Cordemans de Meulenaer, E.

    2010-01-01

    A combination treatment of shear, micro-bubbles, and high-frequency low-power ultrasound introduced via side-stream treatment of industrial water systems has shown excellent results in controlling bacteria and algae; Through the physical, high-stress environment created by ultrasonic waves, sessile and planktonic biological populations, some of which may undergo programmed cell death (PCD), can be controlled. Additionally, the instability and reduction of biofilm have been observed in systems treated by ultrasound and may be attributed to starvation-stress and lack of available cross-linking cations in the biofilm. (authors)

  15. Ultrasonic treatment for microbiological control of water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekman, S.; Pohlmann, O.; Beardwooden, E. S.; Cordemans de Meulenaer, E. [Ashland Hercules Water Technologies, Krefeld (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    A combination treatment of shear, micro-bubbles, and high-frequency low-power ultrasound introduced via side-stream treatment of industrial water systems has shown excellent results in controlling bacteria and algae; Through the physical, high-stress environment created by ultrasonic waves, sessile and planktonic biological populations, some of which may undergo programmed cell death (PCD), can be controlled. Additionally, the instability and reduction of biofilm have been observed in systems treated by ultrasound and may be attributed to starvation-stress and lack of available cross-linking cations in the biofilm. (authors)

  16. Implementation of a validated HACCP system for the control of microbiological contamination of pig carcasses at a small abattoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jeffrey; Brereton, Donald A.; Gill, Colin O.

    2003-01-01

    To guide the implementation of a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system at a small abattoir, the microbiological conditions of pig carcasses at various stages of processing were assessed by enumerating total aerobes, coliforms, and Escherichia coli in samples collected from randomly selected sites on the carcasses. Those data indicated that carcasses were contaminated with bacteria mainly during dehairing and operations on the head. When carcasses were pasteurized after head removal, the numbers of total aerobes on dressed carcasses were reduced by about 1 order and the numbers of coliforms and E. coli were reduced by more than 2 orders of magnitude. Implementation of an HACCP system on the basis of the microbiological data gave cooled carcasses with mean numbers of total aerobes < 100/cm2, and mean numbers of coliforms and E. coli about 1/1000 cm2. PMID:12619556

  17. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of minimally processed 'Champagne' oranges (Citrus reticulata × Citrus sinensis in different packgings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Silva Agostini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the level of minimal processing and modified atmosphere on the quality of 'Champagne' orange stored under refrigeration. The fruits were subjected to the following processing: a whole fruit without flavedo; b whole fruit without flavedo and albedo; and c segmented into wedges and packed as follows: uncoated packaging (control; polyethylene film; PVC film; gelatin-based edible films (3%; and polyesthyrene translucent plastic container with a lid. The minimally processed oranges were stored at 5 ± 1°C for 8 days and were subjected to physicochemical and microbiological analyses every two days. Greater weight loss occurred in fruits without flavedo and segmented, uncoated, and coated with the edible gelatin film During storage, there was a slight increase in Total Soluble Solids (TSS for the treatments with greater weight loss and reduction in acidity and ascorbic acid, regardless of the packaging type. The microbial counts did not exceed the acceptable limits in the treatments; however, higher counts were observed at the end of storage. The minimally processed fruit packed in lidded polystyrene containers and polyethylene and PVC films kept their overall fresh visual appearance with a few physicochemical and microbiological changes up to the 8th day of storage.

  18. Microbiological control of sterilization efficiency by irradiation. Biological indicators. [Medical supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, C [Institut National des Radioelements, Brussels (Belgium)

    1977-01-01

    The microbiological efficiency of the radiosterilization process was tested by means of biological indicators such as Micrococcus radiodurans R1 and Bacillus pumilus E601 for gamma and electron radiation doses ranging from 0.5 to 6 Mrad. The response of the biological indicators was studied in terms of conservation time, initial concentration of biological material, and sources of used radiation. Both the biological dosimetry of the process and the sterility after treatment were studied on the basis of inactivation curves.

  19. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PARASITOLOGICAL QUALITY CONTROL OF RECREATION AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Sotero-Martins

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The recreation areas are composed of environmental matrices primary contact with the population (water and sand and therefore need to be periodically monitored, because pathogenic microorganisms can be found that offer risks to human and animal health. This study aimed to develop critical topics in environmental sanitation as use of water and sand in recreation places, biomarkers associated with health risks, diseases caused by exposure to contaminated environmental matrices and indicate the importance of bioindicators in laws that underpin the supervisory board, to secure the most complete monitoring and give support the actions of environmental control and health agencies. The literature review was used as instrumental to the research. In Brazil, the acceptable limits standards are described in Resolution by National Environmental Council for coliforms present in bathing water, but not exist to sand matrix. Only isolated initiatives of municipal environmental agencies have established limits for the classification of sand matrix, based on only bacteriological parameters. Concluded that scientific studies may support others biomarkers of sanitary conditions are being conducted in Brazil, proposing fungi and parasites in evaluating the sanitary quality of recreation areas.

  20. Microbiological safety and quality control of poultry products sold in retail chains of Saint Petersburg and Leningrad region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Alieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food safety and food raw materials is an important task which needs to be under government’s and public associations’ control, under enterprises which produce and sale them, and other economy departments. Nutrition is one of the most important factors influencing human health. To 70% alien substances of chemical and microbiological origin get into the human body with food. The heavy metals, nitrates, nitrites, pesticides, nitrosescomounds, mycotoxins, antibiotics, radionuclides and others are xenobiotics of chemical origin. The poultry products represented in commercial networks by poultry plants located in Saint-Petersburg and Leningrad region: “Roskar”, “Sinyavinskaya”, “North”, “Lebyazhye” were picked up for analysis. We used the bacteriological, virological, immunological, mycological, and statistical methods of research. Sanitary -hygienic or microbiological safety of food products was evaluated for the contenting of disease-causing (pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria groups, coliforms, Staphylococcus, Salmonella and etc. in them. The poultry products sold in commercial networks of St. Petersburg were picked up for analysis. After processing the statistical were revealed 6 nosological forms where the leading position has finding colibacillosis – 27%. The number of positive samples for streptococcosis – 18%, staphylococcus – 8%, aspergillosis–2.6%, salmonellosis – 1.8%, pasteurellosis–1.6 %. The microbiological control of food products which can be the sources of infections should be regular for providing inhabitants with harmless poultry products. It is necessary to adopt and to use the modern microbiological criteria of food safety that will allow to realize the monitoring of their conformity with sanitary norms. The results of these analysis shows that the quality of poultry products sold in commercial networks of Saint Petersburg and the Leningrad region meet the standards.

  1. Evaluating effectiveness of infection control efforts in hospitals using information in microbiological laboratory databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Norihiro; Itoga, Masamichi; Kimura, Masahiko; Inoue, Fumio; Minakawa, Satoko; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Ozaki, Hiromi; Saito, Yumiko; Takahashi, Mikiko; Fujishima, Tetsuhiro; Mizuno, Sumie; Ogawa, Shin; Kitayama, Yuko; Kudo, Kazumi; Minami, Kazushi; Abo, Fumiko; Takano, Yasuyuki; Ohdaira, Naotake; Hamada, Satoshi; Ueki, Shigeharu; Hirokawa, Makoto; Kayaba, Hiroyuki

    2017-12-01

    To analyze the quality of infection control activities, bacteriological data relevant to infection control was evaluated through the microbiological data warehouse networking hospitals in two medical regions. Data regarding bacterial test results of 19 hospitals were extracted from two microbiological laboratory information data bases. The rate of MRSA among total S. aureus was used as a general indicator of infection control activities. The occupancy rate of nasal or pharyngeal swabs among MRSA-positive bacteriological samples was used as an indicator of attention paid for infection control in intensive care wards. The number of blood culture sets per examined patient was utilized as an indicator for life-long vocational education on updated medical practice relevant to infectious diseases. The rate of MRSA was significantly higher in secondary private hospitals. The occupancy rate of nasal or pharyngeal swabs was significantly higher in tertiary hospitals. The average number of blood culture set per examined patient were 1.55, 1.54 and 1.39 in tertiary, secondary public and secondary private hospitals, respectively; however, there were no statistical differences between groups. Data bases of microbiological test results shared by hospital laboratories are useful for evaluating regional infection control activities.

  2. The Czech External Quality Control system in medical microbiology and parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slosárek, M; Kríz, B

    2000-11-01

    The External Quality Control (EQC) system in activities of laboratories engaged in medical microbiology and parasitology was established in the Czech Republic in 1993 when to the first laboratories which applied coded serum samples were sent for diagnosis of viral hepatitis and bacterial strains for identification. In the course of years the number of control areas increased and in 2000 there were 31 and the number of those interested in participation in EQC increased from 79 in 1993 to 434 in 2000. This year a total of 13,239 samples will be sent to laboratories. Gradually thus almost all microbiological and parasitological laboratories concerned with examination of clinical material became involved. Seven-year experience with EQC in the Czech Republic revealed that gradually the results of various examinations became more accurate, that methods became standardized and the most suitable examination sets are used.

  3. [External quality control system in medical microbiology and parasitology in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slosárek, M; Petrás, P; Kríz, B

    2004-11-01

    The External Quality Control System (EQAS) of laboratory activities in medical microbiology and parasitology was implemented in the Czech Republic in 1993 with coded sera samples for diagnosis of viral hepatitis and bacterial strains for identification distributed to first participating laboratories. The number of sample types reached 31 in 2003 and the number of participating laboratories rised from 79 in 1993 to 421 in 2003. As many as 15.130 samples were distributed to the participating laboratories in 2003. Currently, almost all microbiology and parasitology laboratories in the Czech Republic involved in examination of clinical material participate in the EQAS. Based on the 11-year experience gained with the EQAS in the Czech Republic, the following benefits were observed: higher accuracy of results in different tests, standardisation of methods and the use of most suitable test kits.

  4. Microbiology of processed edible insect products - Results of a preliminary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Nils Th; Klein, Günter

    2017-02-21

    Little is known of the microbiology of processed insect products. The present survey analysed a total of n=38 samples of deep-fried and spiced (Acheta domesticus, Locusta migratoria, and Omphisa fuscidentalis), cooked in soy sauce ("tsukudani"; Oxya yezoensis, Vespula flaviceps, and Bombyx mori), dried (A. domesticus, L. migatoria, Alphitobius diaperinus, Tenebrio molitor, B. mori, Hermetia illucens, and Musca domestica), powdered (H. illucens, T. molitor) and other (incl. deep-frozen B. mori and honeybee pollen) insect products microbiologically (total bacterial count [TBC], Enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci, bacilli, and yeasts and moulds counts, salmonellae, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli). Although each product type revealed a microbiological profile of its own, dried and powdered insects ("class I") displayed markedly higher counts than the deep-fried and cooked ones ("class II"). Thresholds between class I and II products were estimated at 4.0 (TBC), 1.0 (Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts and moulds), 2.5 (staphylococci), and 3.0lgcfu/g (bacilli). All samples were negative for salmonellae, L. monocytogenes, E. coli and Stapyhlococcus aureus, but dried and powdered insects, as well as pollen, contained B. cereus, coliforms, Serratia liquefaciens, Listeria ivanovii, Mucor spp., Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and Cryptococcus neoformans. Comparing the results with the hygiene criteria for edible insects proposed by Belgium and the Netherlands, class I products failed to comply with many bacterial count limits despite the absence of classical food pathogens. Therefore, class I products should always be consumed after another heating step as indicated by the manufacturer, until drying techniques are able to ensure lower bacterial counts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of silage-fed biogas process performance using microbiological and kinetic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Aa

    1996-10-01

    In this study, different kinetic and microbiological methods were used to evaluate the growth and activity of key groups of bacteria degrading ley silage in one-phase and two-phase biogas processes. Emphasis was placed on studying the dynamic behaviour of different trophic groups resulting from the initiation of liquid recirculation in the processes. The microbiological methods included microscopy and most probable number (MPN) counts with different substrates. The kinetic methods included measurements of specific methanogenic activity (SMA) with acetate and H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} as substrates, batch assays with trace element additions and measurement of conversion rates of mannitol and lactate in the digesters. In general, the initiation of liquid recirculation at first promoted the growth and/or activity of several trophic groups of bacteria, such as butyrate and propionate degraders and acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens in the liquefaction/acidogenesis reactors of the two-phase processes. This was probably mainly due to the increased pH. However, after some time of liquid recirculation, an inhibition of some bacterial groups occurred, such as propionate degraders and methanogens in the methanogenic reactors of two-phase processes. This was probably due to increased concentrations of salts and free ammonia. The batch assays proved to be valuable tools in process optimization by the addition of trace elements. Here, the addition of cobalt significantly increased methane production from acetate. In this study, a more comprehensive understanding of the process behaviour in response to the initiation of liquid recirculation was achieved which could not have been obtained by only monitoring routine parameters such as pH, methane production and concentrations of organic acids and salts. 120 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  6. Experiences with monitoring and control of microbiological growth in the standby service water system of a BWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisson, P.S.; Whitaker, J.M.; Neilson, H.L.; Mayne, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    In 1989, the Unites States Nuclear Regulatory Commission formally recognized the potential for nuclear accidents resulting from microbiological causes. Such causes range from loss of heat transfer due to microbiological fouling, to loss of system integrity caused by microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). As a result of these potential problems, monitoring, mitigation, and control procedures must be developed by all regulated plants. In developing a control and mitigation strategy for the standby service water system of a boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear power plant, numerous monitoring techniques were employed to evaluate effectiveness. This paper describes the monitoring techniques that were evaluated, and those that ultimately proved to be effective

  7. Microbiological contamination in radiopharmacy: problems and implementation of controls in a step quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, Serge; Nicol, Benoit; Rouleau, Annick; Guilloteau, Denis; Van der mee-marquet, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Microbiological contamination (bio-contamination) of the preparation room of injectable radiopharmaceutical drugs must be controlled to guarantee their sterility, but appears difficult to be obtained because of the principles related to the radioprotection of the staff. In order to fulfil the two requirements (sterility and radioprotection), the Radiopharmacy Unit of the University Hospital of Tours implemented a step quality including a system of Quality-Control, in 2004. Material and methods: This system contains, on the one hand, control of the sterility of preparations by direct sowing within culture mediums and, on the other hand, control of the bio-contamination of surfaces of the preparation room by tacking a swab on several representative points. Results: The bio-contamination of surfaces between 2004 and 2005 was frequent and did not stop increasing. After analysis of probable causes, new means of prevention came to supplement this step quality: application of new protocols for the bio-cleaning of surfaces; compliance with rules described in the Good Manufacturing Practices; a continuous formation of the personnel on the principles of hygiene. Thus, between 2005 and 2006, a significant fall of the bacterial colonies number (α < 0.05) and the disappearance of filamentous fungi were obtained. Discussion/Conclusion: This work shows the impact of the implementation of these controls on the microbiological contamination reduction in Radiopharmacy and on the improvement of a step quality. (authors) [fr

  8. Process control program development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dameron, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper details the development and implementation of a ''Process Control Program'' at Duke Power's three nuclear stations - Oconee, McGuire, and Catawba. Each station is required by Technical Specification to have a ''Process Control Program'' (PCP) to control all dewatering and/or solidification activities for radioactive wastes

  9. Robot welding process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Peter L.

    1991-01-01

    This final report documents the development and installation of software and hardware for Robotic Welding Process Control. Primary emphasis is on serial communications between the CYRO 750 robotic welder, Heurikon minicomputer running Hunter & Ready VRTX, and an IBM PC/AT, for offline programming and control and closed-loop welding control. The requirements for completion of the implementation of the Rocketdyne weld tracking control are discussed. The procedure for downloading programs from the Intergraph, over the network, is discussed. Conclusions are made on the results of this task, and recommendations are made for efficient implementation of communications, weld process control development, and advanced process control procedures using the Heurikon.

  10. Radiation as a microbiological contamination control of drugs, cosmetics and medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizeki, Chuichi

    1985-01-01

    This paper deals with current status of radiation sterilization or disinfection of drugs, cosmetics, their materials, and medical devices, and with quality control as a tool for securing microbiological safety, especially current status of sterilization tests. Ointment containing tetracyclin, steroid hormones, gelatin, and enzymes are presented as drug samples to be irradiated, and explanations for radiation sterilization of these drugs are provided. An outline of the application of radiation in cosmetics and medical devices is given. Issues are also provided from the viewpoint of safey and effectiveness of radiation sterilization. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Health effects of selected microbiological control agents. A 3-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baelum, Jesper; Larsen, Preben; Doekes, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: Microbiological control agents (MBCA) are widely used in greenhouses, replacing chemical pesticides. The presented study aims to describe health effects of exposure to three types commonly used: Bacillus thuringiensis, Verticillium lecanii, and Trichoderma harzenianum...... covering seven different products in greenhouse workers with emphasis on sensitization and respiratory effects. Methods: 579 persons aged 17-67 years culturing ornamental flowers were included. They were followed for three years with annual examinations including interview about exposure and symptoms, lung...... no effect on the occurrence of respiratory symptoms or lung function was observed. The persons had a relatively long exposure. Therefore, a healthy worker effect may have influenced the results....

  12. [Microbiological verification of a self control plan for a hospital food service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, I; Pennino, F; Crispino, M

    2006-01-01

    During the past years, it has been an increment of food related infectious diseases. In order to avoid micro biological food contamination, adherence to good manufacturing is required through control measures of food safety practices. Updated national and European regulations underline the need to apply the HACCP system, overcoming the old concept of sample control on the end user product. This work shows results of microbiological controls made along the whole productive chain. Measurements are made using biomolecular techniques (PFGE) in order to assess the management of the micro biological risk of the self control plan applied to a hospital food service of Naples. The use of the PFGE applied on some micro-organisms gram negative potentially pathogen, underlines the circulation, continued in time, of these micro-organisms within the cooking area. In addition, cross contamination between several matrixes of samples has been detected.

  13. Effect of synthetic iron colloids on the microbiological NH(4)(+) removal process during groundwater purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolthoorn, Anke; Temminghoff, Erwin J M; van Riemsdijk, Willem H

    2004-04-01

    Subsurface aeration is used to oxidise Fe in situ in groundwater that is used to make drinking water potable. In a groundwater system with pH>7 subsurface aeration results in non-mobile Fe precipitate and mobile Fe colloids. Since originally the goal of subsurface aeration is to remove iron in situ, the formation of non-mobile iron precipitate, which facilitates the metal's removal, is the desired result. In addition to this intended effect, subsurface aeration may also strongly enhance the microbiological removal of ammonium (NH(4)(+)) in the purification station. Mobile iron colloids could be the link between subsurface aeration and the positive effect on the NH(4)(+) removal process. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess whether synthetic iron colloids could improve the NH(4)(+) removal process. The effect of synthetic iron colloids on the NH(4)(+) removal process was studied using an artificial purification set-up on a laboratory scale. Columns that purified groundwater with or without added synthetic iron colloids were set up in duplicate. The results showed that the NH(4)(+) removal was significantly ( alpha = 0.05 ) increased in columns treated with the synthetic iron colloids. Cumulative after 4 months about 10% more NH(4)(+) was nitrified in the columns that was treated with the groundwater containing synthetic iron colloids. The results support the hypothesis that mobile iron colloids could be the link between subsurface aeration and the positive effect on the NH(4)(+) removal process.

  14. Microbiological safety of tenderized, proteinaceous, semi-processed and processed food prepared from poultry treated with ionizing radiation and other processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, I.; Lapidot, M.

    1998-01-01

    From a microbiological point of view, poultry meat is considered to be one of the most contaminated raw foods, harbouring bacteria, including pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp. Some of these pathogens can survive the heat treatment used during the further processing of poultry meat into ready to eat products such as sausages and patties, and thus endanger consumer health, particularly in the young, the elderly and the immunocompromised. L. monocytogenes is of particular concern. This Gram positive, non-spore forming, psychrotrophic pathogen has been recognized as one of the causes of a severe food borne illness. The organism is relatively heat stable and can multiply under refrigeration conditions, but is sensitive to ionizing radiation. A survey conducted in Israel demonstrated that raw poultry meat was heavily contaminated with L. monocytogenes and that the pathogen could also be recovered from ready to eat poultry products. It was proposed that treatment of the raw meat with ionizing radiation prior to heating and use of the hazard analysis critical control point concept in the further processing plant would result in the elimination of contamination in ready to eat products. (author)

  15. Electromagnetic Processing as a Way of Increasing Microbiological Safety of Animal Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleva, O. M.; Kolosova, M. M.; Filipovich, L. A.; Aksenov, V. A.

    2017-05-01

    The article shows the possibility of using the electromagnetic field of ultrahigh frequency (EMF UHF) for drying and disinfecting of such animal waste as pig manure and poultry droppings. The studied modes included the following options: processing exposure of 60, 90, 120 sec, the capacity of 60 kW, the frequency of 915 MHz. The method of UHF processing of manure and poultry droppings is environmentally safe and effective in neutralizing the pathogenic microflora, as well as larvae and eggs of worms. The following processing mode of animal waste in the electromagnetic field of ultrahigh frequency was recognized as optimal: exposure of 90 seconds, the capacity of 60 kW, the frequency of 915 MHz. This option leads to the complete destruction of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, as well as the eggs and larvae of worms. As a result of this processing, a high level of microbiological safety of pig manure and poultry droppings is achieved that allows using them as organic fertilizers. The peculiarities of some species of pathogenic fungi developing on the surface of the wheat grain are shown. Pre-processed animal waste (pig manure and and poultry droppings) were applied in experimental variants. Used organic fertilizers underwent electromagnetic processing of ultra-high frequency. The qualitative composition of the microflora on the surface of the grain depends on the type of animal waste (manure or droppings) and used dose. The safest part of the microflora of grain was marked with the application of the UHF-processed pig manure and poultry droppings in doses of 10 t/ha.

  16. Maggot therapy´s modes of action : effect of maggot secretions on microbiological, haematological and immunological processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plas, Maartje Jeriena Adriana van der

    2009-01-01

    The work described in this thesis focussed on the modes of action of maggot therapy in chronic wounds, especially related to the inflammatory phase of wound healing. For this purpose, the effect of maggot excretions and/or secretions on microbiological, haematological and immunological processes was

  17. Effects of nisin-incorporated films on the microbiological and physicochemical quality of minimally processed mangoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Ana Andréa Teixeira; Silva de Araújo, Hyrla Grazielle; Matos, Patrícia Nogueira; Carnelossi, Marcelo Augusto Guitierrez; Almeida de Castro, Alessandra

    2013-06-17

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of nisin-incorporated cellulose films on the physicochemical and microbiological qualities of minimally processed mangoes. The use of antimicrobial films did not affect the physicochemical characteristics of mangoes and showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and Bacillus cereus. The mango slices were inoculated with S. aureus and L. monocytogenes (10(7)CFU/g), and the viable cell numbers remained at 10(5) and 10(6)CFU/g, respectively, after 12days. In samples packed with antimicrobial films, the viable number of L. monocytogenes cells was reduced below the detection level after 4days. After 6days, a reduction of six log units was observed for S. aureus. In conclusion, nisin showed antimicrobial activity in mangoes without interfering with the organoleptic characteristics of the fruit. This result suggests that nisin could potentially be used in active packing to improve the safety of minimally processed mangoes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Irradiation of watercress (Nasturtium officinale) minimally processed: microbiological and sensory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Cecilia Geraldes

    2004-01-01

    Consumer attitudes towards foods have changed in the last two decades increasing requirements for fresh like products. Consequently less extreme treatments or additives are being required. Minimally processed foods have fresh like characteristics and satisfy this new consumer demand. Besides freshness, the minimally processing also provide convenience required by the market. Salad vegetables can be source of pathogen such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. The minimally processing does not reduce the levels of pathogenic microorganisms to safe levels. Therefore, this study was carried out in order to improve the microbiological safety and the shelf-life of minimally processed vegetables using gamma radiation. Minimally processed watercress inoculated with a cocktail of Salmonella spp was exposed to 0.0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, 1.2 and 1.5 kGy. D10 values for Salmonella spp inoculated in watercress varied from 0.29 to 0.43 kGy. Samples of watercress exposed of 1, 3 e 4 kGy and non-irradiated sample, stored at 7 deg C, were submitted to sensory evaluation and their shelf-life was determined. All samples were accepted by members of sensory panel. The shelf-life of sample irradiated with 1 kGy was 16 days (one and half day more than shelf-life of non-irradiated sample) and samples exposed to 3 and 4 kGy presented shelf-life of 9 and o days, respectively. (author)

  19. Model Process Control Language

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MPC (Model Process Control) language enables the capture, communication and preservation of a simulation instance, with sufficient detail that it can be...

  20. Development of a multiplexer for an automatic data acquisition system for the control and monitoring of microbiological cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Rondon, A.; Paredes Puente, J.; Arana Alonso, S.

    2016-07-01

    An automatic data acquisition system has been developed for the control and monitoring of microbiological cultures. Turning an otherwise time-consuming process into a smooth one, by allowing the researcher to set the parameters at the beginning of the experiment and move on into the next task. The development of the hardware and software are key to achieving this system. The mux is custom-made with 22 channels, light weight therefore easy to move around the lab. Furthermore, the software allows the researcher to check the measurements in real-time. It is based on virtual instrumentation software therefore new features can be added easily, thus, the mux is capable of adapting to the scientist necessities. (Author)

  1. Aeration control by monitoring the microbiological activity using fuzzy logic diagnosis and control. Application to a complete autotrophic nitrogen removal reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiocchi, Riccardo; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine

    2015-01-01

    Complete Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal (CANR) is a novel process where ammonia is converted to nitrogen gas by different microbial groups. The performance of the process can be compromised by an unbalanced activity of the biomass caused by disturbances or non-optimal operational conditions...... microbial groups on the other hand, the diagnosis provides information on: nitritation, nitratation, anaerobic ammonium oxidation and overall autotrophic nitrogen removal. These four results give insight into the state of the process and are used as inputs for the controller that manipulates the aeration...... to the reactor.The diagnosis tool was first evaluated using 100 days of real process operation data obtained from a lab-scale single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removing reactor. This evaluation revealed that the fuzzy logic diagnosis is able to provide a realistic description of the microbiological state...

  2. Process control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toshifumi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi.

    1994-01-01

    A process control device comprises a memory device for memorizing a plant operation target, a plant state or a state of equipments related with each other as control data, a read-only memory device for storing programs, a plant instrumentation control device or other process control devices, an input/output device for performing input/output with an operator, and a processing device which conducts processing in accordance with the program and sends a control demand or a display demand to the input/output device. The program reads out control data relative to a predetermined operation target, compares and verify them with actual values to read out control data to be a practice premise condition which is further to be a practice premise condition if necessary, thereby automatically controlling the plant or requiring or displaying input. Practice presuming conditions for the operation target can be examined succesively in accordance with the program without constituting complicated logical figures and AND/OR graphs. (N.H.)

  3. The effects of mandatory HACCP implementation on microbiological indicators of process hygiene in meat processing and retail establishments in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasevic, Igor; Kuzmanović, Jelena; Anđelković, Aleksandra; Saračević, Miroslava; Stojanović, Marija M; Djekic, Ilija

    2016-04-01

    A total of 48,246 microbiological test results were collected from 130 meat processing plants and 220 meat retail facilities over a seven year period: 41 months before and 43 months after HACCP implementation. Our results confirm a strong positive effect of mandatory HACCP implementation on process hygiene indicators in meat establishments. Significant reductions were observed in the number of hygiene indicator organisms on all types of surfaces examined and types of meat establishments investigated. The improvement of process hygiene was articulated as aerobic colony count reduction of at least 1.0 log10 CFU/cm(2) for food contact surfaces and over 2 log10 CFU/cm(2) for cooling facilities (refrigerators, freezers and other meat cooling devices). Meat handlers' hands hygiene was least positively affected. The period after mandatory HACCP implementation was also marked by a steady decline of positive Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus samples. Process hygiene advances for meat processing plants and meat retail facilities were similar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Co-occurrence of Photochemical and Microbiological Transformation Processes in Open-Water Unit Process Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasse, Carsten; Wenk, Jannis; Jasper, Justin T; Ternes, Thomas A; Sedlak, David L

    2015-12-15

    The fate of anthropogenic trace organic contaminants in surface waters can be complex due to the occurrence of multiple parallel and consecutive transformation processes. In this study, the removal of five antiviral drugs (abacavir, acyclovir, emtricitabine, lamivudine and zidovudine) via both bio- and phototransformation processes, was investigated in laboratory microcosm experiments simulating an open-water unit process wetland receiving municipal wastewater effluent. Phototransformation was the main removal mechanism for abacavir, zidovudine, and emtricitabine, with half-lives (t1/2,photo) in wetland water of 1.6, 7.6, and 25 h, respectively. In contrast, removal of acyclovir and lamivudine was mainly attributable to slower microbial processes (t1/2,bio = 74 and 120 h, respectively). Identification of transformation products revealed that bio- and phototransformation reactions took place at different moieties. For abacavir and zidovudine, rapid transformation was attributable to high reactivity of the cyclopropylamine and azido moieties, respectively. Despite substantial differences in kinetics of different antiviral drugs, biotransformation reactions mainly involved oxidation of hydroxyl groups to the corresponding carboxylic acids. Phototransformation rates of parent antiviral drugs and their biotransformation products were similar, indicating that prior exposure to microorganisms (e.g., in a wastewater treatment plant or a vegetated wetland) would not affect the rate of transformation of the part of the molecule susceptible to phototransformation. However, phototransformation strongly affected the rates of biotransformation of the hydroxyl groups, which in some cases resulted in greater persistence of phototransformation products.

  5. Importance of good manufacturing practices in microbiological monitoring in processing human tissues for transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianigiani, Elisa; Ierardi, Francesca; Fimiani, Michele

    2013-12-01

    Skin allografts represent an important therapeutic resource in the treatment of severe skin loss. The risk associated with application of processed tissues in humans is very low, however, human material always carries the risk of disease transmission. To minimise the risk of contamination of grafts, processing is carried out in clean rooms where air quality is monitored. Procedures and quality control tests are performed to standardise the production process and to guarantee the final product for human use. Since we only validate and distribute aseptic tissues, we conducted a study to determine what type of quality controls for skin processing are the most suitable for detecting processing errors and intercurrent contamination, and for faithfully mapping the process without unduly increasing production costs. Two different methods for quality control were statistically compared using the Fisher exact test. On the basis of the current study we selected our quality control procedure based on pre- and post-processing tissue controls, operator and environmental controls. Evaluation of the predictability of our control methods showed that tissue control was the most reliable method of revealing microbial contamination of grafts. We obtained 100 % sensitivity by doubling tissue controls, while maintaining high specificity (77 %).

  6. Microbiological Contamination at Workplaces in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP Station Processing Plant Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Szulc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial contamination at a plant biomass processing thermal power station (CHP. We found 2.42 × 103 CFU/m3 of bacteria and 1.37 × 104 CFU/m3 of fungi in the air; 2.30 × 107 CFU/g of bacteria and 4.46 × 105 CFU/g of fungi in the biomass; and 1.61 × 102 CFU/cm2 bacteria and 2.39 × 101 CFU/cm2 fungi in filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs. Using culture methods, we found 8 genera of mesophilic bacteria and 7 of fungi in the air; 10 genera each of bacteria and fungi in the biomass; and 2 and 5, respectively, on the FFRs. Metagenomic analysis (Illumina MiSeq revealed the presence of 46 bacterial and 5 fungal genera on the FFRs, including potential pathogens Candida tropicalis, Escherichia coli, Prevotella sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp.. The ability of microorganisms to create a biofilm on the FFRs was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. We also identified secondary metabolites in the biomass and FFRs, including fumigaclavines, quinocitrinines, sterigmatocistin, and 3-nitropropionic acid, which may be toxic to humans. Due to the presence of potential pathogens and mycotoxins, the level of microbiological contamination at workplaces in CHPs should be monitored.

  7. Microbiological risk from minimally processed packaged salads in the Dutch food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielaat, Annemarie; van Leusden, Frans M; Wijnands, Lucas M

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbial hazard associated with the consumption of mixed salads produced under standard conditions. The presence of Salmonella, Campylobacter spp., and Escherichia coli O157 in the Dutch production chain of mixed salads was determined. Microbial prevalence and concentration data from a microbiological surveillance study were used as inputs for the quantitative microbial risk assessment. Chain logistics, production figures, and consumption patterns were combined with the survey data for the risk assessment chain approach. The results of the sample analysis were used to track events from contamination through human illness. Wide 95% confidence intervals around the mean were found for estimated annual numbers of illnesses resulting from the consumption of mixed salads contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (0 to 10,300 cases), Campylobacter spp. (0 to 92,000 cases), or E. coli (0 to 800 cases). The main sources of uncertainty are the lack of decontamination data (i.e., produce washing during processing) and an appropriate dose-response relationship.

  8. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory parameters of dry fermented sausages manufactured with high hydrostatic pressure processed raw meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, M K; Prieto, B; Rendueles, E; Alvarez-Ordoñez, A; Lunde, K; Alvseike, O; Prieto, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this trial was to describe physicochemical, microbiological and organoleptic characteristics of dry fermented sausages produced from high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) pre-processed trimmings. During ripening of the meat products pH, weight, water activity (aw), and several microbiological parameters were measured at zero, eight, fifteen days and after 6weeks. Sensory characteristics were estimated at day 15 and after six weeks by a test panel by using several sensory tests. Enterobacteriaceae were not detected in sausages from HHP-processed trimmings. Fermentation was little affected, but weight and aw of the HHP-processed sausages decreased faster during ripening. HHP-treated sausages were consistently less favoured than non HHP-treated sausages, but the strategy may be an alternative approach if the process is optimized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of soaking in noni (Morinda citrifolia) juice on the microbiological and color behavior of Haden minimally processed mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, José Armando; González Tapia, Noemí T; Rosas Ulloa, Petra; Ramírez Ramírez, José Carmen; Ulloa Rangel, Blanca E

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of soaking in noni juice on the microbiological and color behavior of minimally processed mango. Two batches of Haden mango cubes were treated by immersion in noni juice for 2.5 or 5.0 min. Each batch was packed in polypropylene boxes and stored at 6 °C for up to 15 days; in addition, a control group of mango cubes was prepared by immersion in sterile water for the same duration. According to the results, the soaking of mango cubes in noni juice had an antimicrobial effect on mesophilic aerobic bacteria, molds and yeasts during storage at 6 °C for 15 days, without significantly (P < 0.05) affecting the CIE L*, a*, b*, chroma and hue angle values, in comparison with the control after 12 days of storage. The noni juice soaking treatment was demonstrated to be a potentially valuable technology for decontamination of fresh-cut fruit surfaces.

  10. Influence of high-pressure processing on the generation of γ-aminobutyric acid and microbiological safety in coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bang-Yuan; Huang, Hsiao-Wen; Cheng, Ming-Ching; Wang, Chung-Yi

    2018-04-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of high-pressure processing (HPP) on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content, glutamic acid (Glu) content, glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity, growth of Aspergillus fresenii, and accumulated ochratoxin A (OTA) content in coffee beans. The results indicated that coffee beans subjected to HPP at pressures ≥50 MPa for 5 min increased GAD activity and promoted the conversion of Glu to GABA, and showed a significantly doubling of GABA content compared with unprocessed coffee beans. Additionally, investigation of the influence of HPP on A. fresenii growth on coffee beans showed that application ≥400 MPa reduced A. fresenii concentrations to beans subjected to processing pressures of 600 MPa was 0.0066 μg g -1 , which was significantly lower than the OTA content of 0.1143 μg g -1 in the control group. This study shows that HPP treatment can simultaneously increase GABA content and inhibit the growth of A. fresenii, thereby effectively reducing the production and accumulation of OTA and maintaining the microbiological safety of coffee beans. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. The Vivitron process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, J.R.; Marsaudon, J.C.

    1989-10-01

    The operation of the VIVITRON electrostatic accelerator designed since 1981 and under construction at the CRN since 1985 needs a dedicated process control set up. The study and design of this control system started in 1987. The electrostatic accelerators are rarely operated by a modern control system. So little knowledge is available in this field. The timing problems are generally weak but the Vivitron specific structure, with seven porticos in the tank and sophisticated beam handling in the terminal, imposes control equipment inside the tank under extreme severe conditions. Several steps are necessary to achieve the full size control system. Some tests in the MP used as a pilot machine supplied practical information about surrounding accelerator conditions inside the tank. They also provided better knowledge of the beam behavior, especially inside the accelerator tube

  12. Animal experimentation in Japan: regulatory processes and application for microbiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi-Omoe, H; Omoe, K

    2007-07-01

    We have conducted animal experimentation as a highly effective technique in biological studies. Also in microbiological studies, we have used experimentation to prevent and treat many infectious diseases in humans and animals. In Japan, the 'Law for the Humane Treatment and Management of Animals', which covers the consideration of the three R principles, refinement, replacement and reduction for an international humane approach to animal experimentation came into effect in June 2006. Looking towards the straightforward operation of the law in animal experimentation, three government ministries established new basic guidelines for experimentation performed in their jurisdictional research and testing facilities. For future microbiological studies involving animals in Japan, we need to perform animal experiments according to the basic guidelines in association with overseas management systems. In this report, we discussed essential actions for the management of animal experimentation in microbiological studies in Japan.

  13. Microbiologically mediated processes in a repository sited in a clay host rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwyn, B.; Leupin, O. X.; Bagnoud, A.; Bernier-Latmani, R.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Because of their favourable retention properties for radionuclides, clay-rich sediments are being considered in Switzerland as host rocks for the geological disposal of high, intermediate- and low-level radioactive waste. Compacted bentonite is foreseen as backfill material in the high level waste repository whereas for intermediate- and low-level waste the near field will mainly consist of cementitious material. The evolution of both types of repositories, which includes re-saturation, heat generation (only high level waste), near field degradation, gas production and radionuclide release may be impacted by microbial activity and vice versa. In this respect questions arise such as: - Are microorganisms present in a repository and its host rock? - Under which condition are microorganisms active in and around a repository? - In which processes are microorganisms involved? Various in situ experiments in a wide range of geological environments have evidenced the presence of microorganisms. Whether the microorganisms found in these in situ experiments are indigenous or introduced by drilling or/and excavation activities is still controversial. However, recent findings suggest the presence of indigenous microorganisms in Opalinus Clay. To conclusively answer the question about the origin of microorganisms, an international investigation programme has been launched to probe rock samples from the Underground Rock Laboratory at Mont Terri. So far, no metabolic activity has been observed in undisturbed clay rocks. Such activity may have ceased during diagenetic compaction of the sediment as suggested by the pore water composition measured in the Callovian-Oxfordian clayey formation of Bure (France). For the safety case of a repository the origin of microorganisms is of minor importance compared to the understanding of the conditions under which they might be metabolically active. Pore size distribution and connectivity can

  14. Multivariate Statistical Process Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat

    2013-01-01

    As sensor and computer technology continues to improve, it becomes a normal occurrence that we confront with high dimensional data sets. As in many areas of industrial statistics, this brings forth various challenges in statistical process control (SPC) and monitoring for which the aim...... is to identify “out-of-control” state of a process using control charts in order to reduce the excessive variation caused by so-called assignable causes. In practice, the most common method of monitoring multivariate data is through a statistic akin to the Hotelling’s T2. For high dimensional data with excessive...... amount of cross correlation, practitioners are often recommended to use latent structures methods such as Principal Component Analysis to summarize the data in only a few linear combinations of the original variables that capture most of the variation in the data. Applications of these control charts...

  15. Microbiological and biochemical survey on the transition of fermentative processes in Fukuyama pot vinegar brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Sachiko; Furukawa, Soichi; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Kawarai, Taketo; Kitada, Chika; Komenou, Akiko; Yamasaki, Makari

    2010-06-01

    Traditional brewing of Fukuyama pot vinegar is a process that has been continued in Fukuyama, Kagoshima, Japan, for almost 200 years. The entire process proceeds from raw materials, including steamed rice, rice koji (steamed rice grown with a fungus, Aspergillus oryzae) and water, to produce vinegar in roughly capped large pots laid in the open air. No special fermentative manipulation is required, except for scattering dried rice koji (called furi-koji) on the surface of the mash to form a cap-like mat on the surface at the start of brewing. As the biochemical mechanism of the natural transition of the fermentative processes during brewing has not been fully explained, we conducted a microbiological and biochemical study on the transition. First, a distinct biochemical change was observed in the brewing of spring preparation; that is, a sharp decline in pH from 6.5 to 3.5 within the first 5 days of brewing was observed due to lactic acid fermentation. Alcoholic fermentation also proceeded with a sharp increase to 4.5% ethanol within the first 5 days under the acidic conditions, suggesting that saccharification and both fermentations proceed in parallel. Acidic conditions and ethanol accumulation restricted the growth of most microorganisms in the mash, and in turn provided a favorable growth condition for acetic acid bacteria which are acid resistant and "ethanol-philic." Acetic acid was detected from day 16 and gradually increased in concentration, reaching a maximum of 7% at day 70 that was maintained thereafter. Empirically furi-koji naturally sinks into the mash after around day 40 by an unknown mechanism, allowing acetic acid bacteria to easily form pellicles on the mash surface and promoting efficient acetic acid fermentation. Dominant microbial species involved in the three fermentations were identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis using PCR-amplified defined-regions of small rDNA from microorganisms in the brewing mash or colony

  16. Relating physicochemical and microbiological safety indicators during processing of linguiça, a Portuguese traditional dry-fermented sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Barron, U; Cadavez, V; Pereira, A P; Gomes, A; Araújo, J P; Saavedra, M J; Estevinho, L; Butler, F; Pires, P; Dias, T

    2015-12-01

    Linguiça is a Portuguese traditional fermented sausage whose microbiological quality and safety can be highly variable. In order to elucidate risk factors and the particularities of the manufacturing technology that explain the between-batch variability in total viable counts (TVC), Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in the product; microbiological and physicochemical characterisation of linguiça at five stages of production (i.e., raw pork meat, mixed with ingredients, macerated, smoked and ripened) was carried out. A total of six production batches were surveyed from two factories; one utilised curing salts and polyphosphate in their formulation (Factory II). The delayed fermentation in the nitrite-formulated sausages was partly responsible for the increase (pmeat (3.21logCFU/g, 1.30logCFU/g and 22.2CFU/g, respectively) to the end of maceration (4.14logCFU/g, 2.10logCFU/g and 140CFU/g, respectively) while the better acidification process in the nitrite-free sausages (Factory I) led to lower counts of S. aureus (2.64logCFU/g) and L. monocytogenes (10CFU/g) in the finished products. In Factory II, although L. monocytogenes entered the chain at the point of mixing, it became steadily inactivated during smoking and ripening (Nitrite had a strong effect on reducing Enterobacteriaceae throughout smoking (r=-0.73) and ripening (r=-0.59), while it failed to control the growth of S. aureus. The main hurdle preventing the development of S. aureus in linguiça is the pH, and other factors contributing to its control are: longer ripening days (p=0.019), low S. aureus in raw meat (p=0.098), properly-washed casings (p=0.094), and less contamination during mixing (p=0.199). In the case of L. monocytogenes, at least three hurdles hinder its development in linguiça: low a w (p=0.004), low pH (p=0.040) and nitrite (p=0.060), and other factors contributing to its control are: longer ripening (p=0.072) and maceration (p=0.106) periods, lower a w

  17. Examining an Online Microbiology Game as an Effective Tool for Teaching the Scientific Process ?

    OpenAIRE

    Bowling, Kristi G.; Klisch, Yvonne; Wang, Shu; Beier, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of the online Flash game Disease Defenders in producing knowledge gains for concepts related to the scientific process. Disease Defenders was specifically designed to model how the scientific process is central to a variety of disciplines and science careers. An additional question relates to the game?s ability to shift attitudes toward science. Middle school classes from grades six to eight were assigned to the experimental group (n = 489) or control...

  18. Herbal mouthwash based on Libidibia ferrea: microbiological control, sensory characteristics, sedimentation, pH and density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisely Naura Venâncio

    Full Text Available Introduction Phytotherapy is the study of herbal medicines and their applicability to cure diseases in general, being a therapeutic method which can be used for the prevention and treatment of mouth diseases. Among the herbal studied, the Libidibia ferrea, known as jucá or ironwood, is widely used in folk medicine by presenting anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial and antipyretic therapeutic properties. Objective To evaluate in vitro pharmacological stability of the Libidibia ferrea extract’s mouthwash (INPA - 228 022. Material and method It was held the mouthwash microbiological control by determining the total number of microorganisms and Salmonella sp, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus; stability characteristics (color, odor, brightness and consistency, sedimentation test (centrifuge, the pH measurement (pH meter and density evaluation (pycnometer were analyzed. Result The mouthwash showed to be absent from microorganisms and no changes were observed in the organoleptics and sedimentation characteristics. The average pH values were 6.21, 6.15 and 5.85 at 0, 30 and 60 days, respectively, and 1.029, 1.033 and 1.035 g/ mL density values, respectively, without interfering with the final characteristic of the formulation. Conclusion The mouthwash presented pharmacological stability and quality conditions.

  19. Microbial processes in glaciers and permafrost. A literature study on microbiology affecting groundwater at ice sheet melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallbeck, Lotta

    2009-10-01

    A repository for spent nuclear fuel will remain for hundred thousands of years. During this period, several ice ages will most likely take place. To understand the effect of melt water from ice sheets on the repository, the microbiological processes of oxygen reduction has to be elucidated. This report is a compilation of the present knowledge about biological activity in glacier environments. These environments consist of many different parts which have their own biological character depending on the prevailing physical and chemical conditions. There are, for example, ice sheets and glaciers, glacial streams and rivers, soil and water beneath the ice, soil and water in front of and beside ice sheets and glacier and deep groundwater beneath the ice. The microbiological processes of importance are consumption of oxygen by aerobic microorganisms, anaerobic organisms and their reduced metabolites, like sulphide, acetate and methane, which can act as reducing agents in biological or chemical oxygen reduction. The lithotrophic type (inorganic energy source) of metabolism is important in these cold environments. There are also microbiological processes important to radionuclide transport and the production of complexing agents, biological colloids and biofilms. The study of microbial processes in glacier and ice sheet environments is still a young scientific niche. The studies have so far mostly been concentrated to ice surfaces and the subglacial environment. The most important findings from the literature study are as follows. Primary production is ongoing in snow cover and on ice surfaces of glaciers and ice sheets. The production is dependent on the location, because of temperature and solar radiation, but also on the prevailing state of the glacier. On surfaces and in the snow cover, heterotrophic microorganisms consume oxygen and organic material. In surface ice structures anaerobic conditions may occur. The subglacial environment is very active with several types

  20. Microbial processes in glaciers and permafrost. A literature study on microbiology affecting groundwater at ice sheet melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, Lotta (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    A repository for spent nuclear fuel will remain for hundred thousands of years. During this period, several ice ages will most likely take place. To understand the effect of melt water from ice sheets on the repository, the microbiological processes of oxygen reduction has to be elucidated. This report is a compilation of the present knowledge about biological activity in glacier environments. These environments consist of many different parts which have their own biological character depending on the prevailing physical and chemical conditions. There are, for example, ice sheets and glaciers, glacial streams and rivers, soil and water beneath the ice, soil and water in front of and beside ice sheets and glacier and deep groundwater beneath the ice. The microbiological processes of importance are consumption of oxygen by aerobic microorganisms, anaerobic organisms and their reduced metabolites, like sulphide, acetate and methane, which can act as reducing agents in biological or chemical oxygen reduction. The lithotrophic type (inorganic energy source) of metabolism is important in these cold environments. There are also microbiological processes important to radionuclide transport and the production of complexing agents, biological colloids and biofilms. The study of microbial processes in glacier and ice sheet environments is still a young scientific niche. The studies have so far mostly been concentrated to ice surfaces and the subglacial environment. The most important findings from the literature study are as follows. Primary production is ongoing in snow cover and on ice surfaces of glaciers and ice sheets. The production is dependent on the location, because of temperature and solar radiation, but also on the prevailing state of the glacier. On surfaces and in the snow cover, heterotrophic microorganisms consume oxygen and organic material. In surface ice structures anaerobic conditions may occur. The subglacial environment is very active with several types

  1. Automation in Clinical Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the trend toward automation in clinical pathology laboratories has largely bypassed the clinical microbiology laboratory. In this article, we review the historical impediments to automation in the microbiology laboratory and offer insight into the reasons why we believe that we are on the cusp of a dramatic change that will sweep a wave of automation into clinical microbiology laboratories. We review the currently available specimen-processing instruments as well as the total laboratory automation solutions. Lastly, we outline the types of studies that will need to be performed to fully assess the benefits of automation in microbiology laboratories. PMID:23515547

  2. Control of dangerous substances in discharges and microbiological abatement: European framework and a case study of an ozone disinfection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoich, M; Serena, F; Falletti, L; Fantoni, A

    2013-01-01

    Directive 2000/60/EC requires the achievement of a 'good chemical status' for surface water within pre-established dates. Disinfection is needed to achieve compulsory final microbial limit values (in Italy for wastewater discharges the parameter Escherichia coli - EC - is imposed by law with a maximum limit value of 5,000 cfu/100 mL). Liquid waste and disinfection by-products must be considered when designing appropriate monitoring of dangerous substances; the specific classes of substances must be investigated according to the typology of received wastewaters and liquid wastes (where applicable) and specific analytical techniques, with Limit of Detection (LOD) lower than the limit values, must be applied; the difficulties faced by national and regional environmental control Agencies is that these techniques have to be applied during ordinary activity and not only for research purposes. The study aims to present the control of dangerous substances, as a screening view, in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharges in the province of Venice (Northern Italy) for the period 2007-2010 based on available data from institutional controls. In addition, the wastewater disinfection process with ozone applied to a medium size WWTP (45,000 Population Equivalents) is presented as a case study, with a view to assessing the microbiological abatement efficacy and the presence of dangerous substances. Discharge quality of the WWTPs in the province of Venice presented mean values that were higher than the LOD, but only for certain metals. For the Paese plant, zinc and chloroform were the only micro-pollutants detected with a higher level than the LOD. From microbiological data in the period 2006-2011 the disinfection abatement efficiency for Paese was, in most cases above 99% for EC, faecal coliform (FC), faecal streptococci (FS) while efficiency was slightly lower for total coliform (TC); however, the proposed criterion aimed at respecting 99.99% abatement was not completely

  3. Microbiological changes after periodontal therapy in diabetic patients with inadequate metabolic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Maciel Silva-Boghossian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment (SRP on the composition of the subgingival microbiota of chronic periodontitis (CP in individuals with type 2 diabetes (DM2 with inadequate metabolic control and in systemically healthy (SH individuals. Forty individuals (20 DM2 and 20 SH with CP underwent full-mouth periodontal examination. Subgingival plaque was sampled from 4 deep sites of each individual and tested for mean prevalence and counts of 45 bacterial taxa by the checkerboard method. Clinical and microbiological assessments were performed before and 3 months after SRP. At baseline, those in the DM2 group presented a significantly higher percentage of sites with visible plaque and bleeding on probing compared with those in the SH group (p < 0.01. Those in the DM2 group presented significantly higher levels of C. rectus and P. gingivalis, and lower prevalence of P. micra and S. anginosus, compared with those in the SH group (p ≤ 0.001. At the 3-month visit, both groups showed a significant improvement in all clinical parameters (p < 0.01. Those in the DM2 group showed significantly higher prevalence and/or levels of A. gerencseriae, A. naeslundii I, A. oris, A. odontolyticus, C. sputigena, F. periodonticum, and G. morbillorum compared with those in the SH group (p ≤ 0.001. However, those in the DM2 group showed a significant reduction in the levels of P. intermedia, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and T. denticola (p ≤ 0.001 over time. Those in the SRP group showed improved periodontal status and reduced levels of putative periodontal pathogens at 3 months’ evaluation compared with those in the DM2 group with inadequate metabolic control.

  4. Food Processing Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    When NASA started plarning for manned space travel in 1959, the myriad challenges of sustaining life in space included a seemingly mundane but vitally important problem: How and what do you feed an astronaut? There were two main concerns: preventing food crumbs from contaminating the spacecraft's atmosphere or floating into sensitive instruments, and ensuring complete freedom from potentially catastrophic disease-producing bacteria, viruses, and toxins. To solve these concerns, NASA enlisted the help of the Pillsbury Company. Pillsbury quickly solved the first problem by coating bite-size foods to prevent crumbling. They developed the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) concept to ensure against bacterial contamination. Hazard analysis is a systematic study of product, its ingredients, processing conditions, handling, storage, packing, distribution, and directions for consumer use to identify sensitive areas that might prove hazardous. Hazard analysis provides a basis for blueprinting the Critical Control Points (CCPs) to be monitored. CCPs are points in the chain from raw materials to the finished product where loss of control could result in unacceptable food safety risks. In early 1970, Pillsbury plants were following HACCP in production of food for Earthbound consumers. Pillsbury's subsequent training courses for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) personnel led to the incorporation of HACCP in the FDA's Low Acid Canned Foods Regulations, set down in the mid-1970s to ensure the safety of all canned food products in the U.S.

  5. [Analysis of the results of the 2010 External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique; Serrano, M del Remedio Guna; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; Cardona, Concepción Gimeno

    2011-12-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology includes controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most important conclusions and lessons of the 2010 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2010 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous years. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. The results of this program highlight the need to implement both internal and external controls to ensure maximal quality of microbiological tests(1). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Microbiological and clinical effects of probiotics and antibiotics on nonsurgical treatment of chronic periodontitis: a randomized placebo- controlled trial with 9-month follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Alicia; Gandolfo, Alessandro; Bravo, Joel; Carvajal, Paola; Silva, Nora; Godoy, Claudia; Garcia-Sesnich, Jocelyn; Hoare, Anilei; Diaz, Patricia; Gamonal, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled and parallel- arm randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus SP1-containing probiotic sachet and azithromycin tablets as an adjunct to nonsurgical therapy in clinical parameters and in presence and levels of Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Material and Methods Forty-seven systemically healthy volunteers with chronic periodontitis were recruited and monitored clinically and microbiologically at baseline for 3, 6 and 9 months after therapy. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from four periodontal sites with clinical attachment level ≥1 mm, probing pocket depth ≥4 mm and bleeding on probing, one site in each quadrant. Samples were cultivated and processed using the PCR technique. Patients received nonsurgical therapy including scaling and root planing (SRP) and were randomly assigned to a probiotic (n=16), antibiotic (n = 16) or placebo (n = 15) group. L. rhamnosus SP1 was taken once a day for 3 months. Azithromycin 500mg was taken once a day for 5 days. Results All groups showed improvements in clinical and microbiological parameters at all time points evaluated. Probiotic and antibiotic groups showed greater reductions in cultivable microbiota compared with baseline. The placebo group showed greater reduction in number of subjects with P. gingivalis compared with baseline. However, there were no significant differences between groups. Conclusions The adjunctive use of L. rhamnosus SP1 sachets and azithromycin during initial therapy resulted in similar clinical and microbiological improvements compared with the placebo group. PMID:29364340

  7. Modeling microbiological and chemical processes in municipal solid waste bioreactor, Part II: Application of numerical model BIOKEMOD-3P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawande, Nitin A; Reinhart, Debra R; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh

    2010-02-01

    Biodegradation process modeling of municipal solid waste (MSW) bioreactor landfills requires the knowledge of various process reactions and corresponding kinetic parameters. Mechanistic models available to date are able to simulate biodegradation processes with the help of pre-defined species and reactions. Some of these models consider the effect of critical parameters such as moisture content, pH, and temperature. Biomass concentration is a vital parameter for any biomass growth model and often not compared with field and laboratory results. A more complex biodegradation model includes a large number of chemical and microbiological species. Increasing the number of species and user defined process reactions in the simulation requires a robust numerical tool. A generalized microbiological and chemical model, BIOKEMOD-3P, was developed to simulate biodegradation processes in three-phases (Gawande et al. 2009). This paper presents the application of this model to simulate laboratory-scale MSW bioreactors under anaerobic conditions. BIOKEMOD-3P was able to closely simulate the experimental data. The results from this study may help in application of this model to full-scale landfill operation.

  8. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory evaluation of cabbage and carrot minimally processed salad after radiation treatment intended to immunocompromised patients or with special diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Thaise Cristine Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    During and after the treatment of cancer, people with HIV or transplants, the food intake can offer a well-being to the patient, because the action of eating right helps people to feel strong. Healthy people have their immune system working properly and can tolerate small amounts of bacteria. However, immunocompromised persons may not be able to and however immunocompromised people cannot fight this small amount of microorganisms and require a diet with very low microbiological count to avoid contact with potentially harmful bacteria. This is called neutropenic diet. These patients are susceptible to food contamination, so that it's not advisable the ingestion of raw products. The vegetable irradiation with low doses has the purpose of reducing the microbial load. The aim of this study was to obtain data on microbiological, sensorial e physicochemical aspects in minimally processed 'Primavera' salad irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation designed to immunocompromised patients. It were used doses of 1.0kGy, 2.0kGy, 3.0kGy and 4.0kGy irradiated in the Multipurpose Irradiator 60 Co located in Radiation Technology Center. Microbiological analyzes were performed (n=25) using Petrifilm, sensory analysis using the sensory acceptance test (n=30) and triangular (n=15) and texture analysis (n=90) in the Food Microbiology Laboratory located at the Radiation Technology Center. The texture analysis was performed with the aid of a texturometer equipped with 5 kg load cell using a triangular cutting Warner-Bratzler Knife blade probe with the descent speed of 2mm/sec. All results were expressed in Newtons (N). The results showed that for microbiological analyzes the standards were followed according to the RDC 12/01 ANVISA. For the sensory test of acceptation no difference was found among the samples, however in the triangular test could be found slight differences between samples irradiated with 4.0kGy and control and there was significant difference

  9. Process control by microprocessors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, W [ed.

    1978-12-01

    Papers from the workshop Process Control by Microprocessors being organized by the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, Project PDV, together with the VDI/VDE-Gesellschaft fuer Mess- und Regelungstechnik are presented. The workshop was held on December 13 and 14, 1978 at the facilities of the Nuclear Research Center. The papers are arranged according to the topics of the workshop; one chapter deals with today's state of the art of microprocessor hardware and software technology; 5 chapters are dedicated to applications. The report also contains papers which will not be presented at the workshop. Both the workshop and the report are expected to improve and distribute the know-how about this modern technology.

  10. Preprinting Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Patrick D

    2017-05-23

    The field of microbiology has experienced significant growth due to transformative advances in technology and the influx of scientists driven by a curiosity to understand how microbes sustain myriad biochemical processes that maintain Earth. With this explosion in scientific output, a significant bottleneck has been the ability to rapidly disseminate new knowledge to peers and the public. Preprints have emerged as a tool that a growing number of microbiologists are using to overcome this bottleneck. Posting preprints can help to transparently recruit a more diverse pool of reviewers prior to submitting to a journal for formal peer review. Although the use of preprints is still limited in the biological sciences, early indications are that preprints are a robust tool that can complement and enhance peer-reviewed publications. As publishing moves to embrace advances in Internet technology, there are many opportunities for preprints and peer-reviewed journals to coexist in the same ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Schloss.

  11. A laboratory evaluation to determine the compatibility of microbiological control agents with the pollinator Bombus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommaerts, Veerle; Sterk, Guido; Hoffmann, Lucien; Smagghe, Guy

    2009-09-01

    This study was undertaken to identify any potential adverse side effects of the use of seven microbiological control agents (MCAs) on the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L., in the context of combined use in integrated pest management (IPM). AQ10 (Ampelomyces quisqualis), Binab-T-vector (Hypocrea parapilulifera + T. atroviride; 1/1), Prestop-Mix (Gliocladium catenulatum J1446), Serenade (Bacillus subtilis QST713), Trianum-P (Trichoderma harzianum T22), Botanigard (Beauveria bassiana GHA) and Granupom (Cydia pomonella granulovirus), comprising five biofungicides and two bioinsecticides, were investigated. Bumblebee workers were exposed under laboratory conditions to each MCA at its maximum field recommended concentration (MFRC) via three different routes of exposure: dermal contact and orally via either treated sugar water or pollen. The tested MCAs were found to be safe for workers of B. terrestris, with the exception of Botanigard and Serenade. Exposure to Botanigard via contact at its MFRC caused 92% mortality after 11 weeks, while the 1/10 MFRC killed 46% of exposed workers. For Serenade, topical contact and oral delivery via sugar water resulted in 88 and 100% worker mortality respectively. With lower concentrations (1/2, 1/5 and 1/10 MFRC) the toxicity decreased, but the effect depended on the route of exposure. In addition to lethal effects, nests were also evaluated for sublethal effects after treatment with the seven MCAs at their respective MFRCs over 11 weeks. In these bioassays, only Botanigard and Serenade gave rise to a significant (P drone production. Sublethal effects on foraging behaviour were also evaluated, and only Botanigard at its MFRC delivered via treated sugar water induced negative effects. The results demonstrated that most of the MCAs tested can be considered safe for use in combination with B. terrestris, based on the International Organisation for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC) classification. However, some can be

  12. Assessment of microbiological contamination of fresh, minimally processed, and ready-to-eat lettuces (Lactuca sativa), Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Marcelo L L; Almeida, Davi O; Bispo, Fernanda C P; Bricio, Silvia M L; Marin, Victor A; Miagostovich, Marize P

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the microbiological contamination of lettuces commercialized in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in order to investigate detection of norovirus genogroup II (NoV GII), Salmonella spp., total and fecal coliforms, such as Escherichia coli. For NoV detection samples were processed using the adsorption-elution concentration method associated to real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). A total of 90 samples of lettuce including 30 whole fresh lettuces, 30 minimally processed (MP) lettuces, and 30 raw ready-to-eat (RTE) lettuce salads were randomly collected from different supermarkets (fresh and MP lettuce samples), food services, and self-service restaurants (RTE lettuce salads), all located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from October 2010 to December 2011. NoV GII was not detected and PP7 bacteriophage used as internal control process (ICP) was recovered in 40.0%, 86.7%, and 76.7% of those samples, respectively. Salmonella spp. was not detected although fecal contamination has been observed by fecal coliform concentrations higher than 10(2) most probable number/g. E. coli was detected in 70.0%, 6.7%, and 30.0% of fresh, MP, and RTE samples, respectively. This study highlights the need to improve hygiene procedures at all stages of vegetable production and to show PP7 bacteriophage as an ICP for recovering RNA viruses' methods from MP and RTE lettuce samples, encouraging the evaluation of new protocols that facilitate the establishment of methodologies for NoV detection in a greater number of food microbiology laboratories. The PP7 bacteriophage can be used as an internal control process in methods for recovering RNA viruses from minimally processed and ready-to-eat lettuce samples. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Controlled production of Camembert-type cheeses. Part I: Microbiological and physicochemical evolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq-Perlat, Marie-Noëlle; Buono, Frédéric; Lambert, Denis; Latrille, Eric; Spinnler, Henry-Eric; Corrieu, Georges

    2004-08-01

    A holistic approach of a mould cheese ripening is presented. The objective was to establish relationships between the different microbiological and biochemical changes during cheese ripening. Model cheeses were prepared from pasteurized milk inoculated with Kluyveromyces lactis, Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium camemberti and Brevibacterium linens under aseptic conditions. Two cheese-making trials with efficient control of environmental parameters were carried out and showed similar ripening characteristics. K. lactis grew rapidly between days 1 and 6 (generation time around 48 h). G. candidum grew exponentially between days 4 and 10 (generation time around 4.6 d). Brevi. linens also grew exponentially but after day 6 when Pen. camemberti mycelium began developing and the pH of the rind was close to 7. Its exponential growth presented 3 phases in relation to carbon and nitrogen substrate availability. Concentrations of Pen. camemberti mycelium were not followed by viable cell count but they were evaluated visually. The viable microorganism concentrations were well correlated with the carbon substrate concentrations in the core and in the rind. The lactose concentrations were negligible after 10 d ripening, and changes in lactate quantities were correlated with fungi flora. The pH of the inner part depended on NH3. Surface pH was significantly related to NH3 concentration and to fungi growth. The acid-soluble nitrogen (ASN) and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) indexes and NH3 concentrations of the rind were low until day 6, and then increased rapidly to follow the fungi concentrations until day 45. The ASN and NPN indexes and NH3 concentrations in the core were lower than in the rind and they showed the same evolution. G. candidum and Pen. camemberti populations have a major effect on proteolysis; nevertheless, K. lactis and Brevi. linens cell lysis also had an impact on proteolysis. Viable cell counts of K. lactis, G. candidum, Pen. camemberti and Brevi. linens were

  14. Salty Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneegurt, Mark A.; Wedel, Adrianne N.; Pokorski, Edward W.

    2004-01-01

    Using microbiology activities in the classroom is an effective way for teachers to address National Standards in the life sciences. However, common microbiology activities that involve swabbing doorknobs and hands are too risky due to the likelihood of culturing human pathogens. In addition, making sterile media and maintaining sterile conditions…

  15. Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing on Microbiological Shelf-Life and Quality of Fruits Pretreated with Ascorbic Acid or SnCl2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthoula A. Argyri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the processing conditions required for the inactivation of Paenibacillus polymyxa and relevant spoilage microorganisms by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP treatment on apricot, peach, and pear pieces in sucrose (22°Brix solution were assessed. Accordingly, the shelf-life was determined by evaluating both the microbiological quality and the sensory characteristics (taste, odor, color, and texture during refrigerated storage after HHP treatment. The microbiological shelf-life of apricots, peaches, and pears was prolonged in the HHP-treated products in comparison with the untreated ones. In all HHP-treated packages for apricots, peaches, and pears, all populations were below the detection limit of the method (1 log CFU/g and no growth of microorganisms was observed until the end of storage. Overall, no differences of the L*, a*, or b* value among the untreated and the HHP-treated fruit products were observed up to the time at which the unpressurized product was characterized as spoiled. HHP treatment had no remarkable effect on the firmness of the apricots, peaches, and pears. With regard to the sensory assessment, the panelists marked better scores to HHP-treated products compared to their respective controls, according to taste and total evaluation during storage of fruit products.

  16. Effect of controlled-release PeriochipTM on clinical and microbiological parameters in patients of chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Puri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the clinical and microbiological effectiveness of Periochip TM as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP with SRP alone in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: This randomized, split mouth, 3-month clinical and microbiological trial included 30 sites in 15 patients aged 30-50 years diagnosed with chronic periodontitis. In each patient, two bilateral pockets probing 5-7 mm were randomly assigned to test and control groups. The test group received SRP plus Periochip TM , whereas the control group received SRP alone. Clinical indices and anaerobic culture analysis was done at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months interval. Total bacterial count and analysis of four major periodontopathogenic bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg, Prevotella intermedia (Pi, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa, and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn was done. Results: Significant improvement was obtained in all clinical variables in the test group as compared to the control group over the study period. Total colony counts were significantly reduced in the test group as compared to control over the period of time. At baseline Aa was recovered from 4 test group sites and 5 control group sites, Pg from 15 test group and 14 control group sites, Pi from 5 test group and 2 control group sites, Fn from 7 test and 7 control group sites. At 3 months, Aa was recovered from 1 test group and 4 control group sites, Pg from 4 test group and 8 control group sites, Pi from 1 test group and 1 control group site, Fn from 3 test and 4 control group sites. Conclusion: Periochip TM placement as an adjunct to SRP, showed promising results, when compared to SRP alone. Healthy microflora can be maintained for a longer period of time and delay in the repopulation by periodontopathic microorganisms was observed.

  17. Microbiological and chemical characteristics of Brazilian kefir during fermentation and storage processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, A M O; Leite, D C A; Del Aguila, E M; Alvares, T S; Peixoto, R S; Miguel, M A L; Silva, J T; Paschoalin, V M F

    2013-07-01

    The microbial community composition and chemical characteristics of a Brazilian milk kefir sample produced during its manufacturing and refrigerated storage were investigated by culture-dependent and -independent methods and HPLC. Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris and ssp. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Acetobacter lovaniensis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated, whereas the detected bands on denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis corresponded to Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactobacillus kefiri, Lactobacillus parakefiri, and S. cerevisiae. After fermentation, lactic acid bacteria were present at levels of 10 log units, whereas acetic acid bacteria and yeast were present at levels of 7.8 and 6 log units, respectively. The lactic acid bacteria and yeast counts remained constant, whereas acetic acid bacteria counts decreased to 7.2 log units during storage. From fermentation to final storage, the pH, lactose content and citric acid of the kefir beverage decreased, followed by an increase in the concentrations of glucose, galactose, ethanol, and lactic, acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. These microbiological and chemical characteristics contribute to the unique taste and aroma of kefir. This research may serve as a basis for the future industrial production of this beverage in Brazil. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbiological research and development for the food industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taormina, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    .... A broad range of topics is covered including the basics of setting up a food microbiology laboratory, procedures for validating the efficacy of process and product food safety controls, practices...

  19. DWPF process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendoin, F.M. II

    1983-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for waste vitrification at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is in the final design stage. Instrumentation to provide the parameter sensing required to assure the quality of the two-foot-diameter, ten-foot-high waste canister is in the final stage of development. All step of the process and instrumentation are now operating as nearly full-scale prototypes at SRP. Quality will be maintained by assuring that only the intended material enters the canisters, and by sensing the resultant condition of the filled canisters. Primary emphasis will be on instrumentation of the process

  20. Overview of Microbiological Tests Performed During the Design of the International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Mittelman, Marc W.

    2010-01-01

    The design and manufacturing of the main Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) for the United States segments of the International Space Station (ISS) was an involved process that started in the late 1980's, with the assessment and testing of competing technologies that could be used to clean the air and recycle water. It culminated in 2009 with the delivery and successful activation of the Water Recovery System (WRS) water processor (WP). The ECLSS required the work of a team of engineers and scientist working together to develop systems that could clean and/or recycle human metabolic loads to maintain a clean atmosphere and provide the crew clean water. One of the main goals of the ECLSS is to minimize the time spent by the crew worrying about vital resources not available in the vacuum of space, which allows them to spend most of their time learning to live in a microgravity environment many miles from the comforts of Earth and working on science experiments. Microorganisms are a significant part of the human body as well as part of the environment that we live in. Therefore, the ISS ECLSS design had to take into account the effect microorganisms have on the quality of stored water and wastewater, as well as that of the air systems. Hardware performance issues impacted by the accumulation of biofilm and/or microbiologically influenced corrosion were also studied during the ECLSS development stages. Many of the tests that were performed had to take into account the unique aspects of a microgravity environment as well as the challenge of understanding how to design systems that could not be sterilized or maintained in a sterile state. This paper will summarize the work of several studies that were performed to assess the impacts and/or to minimize the effects of microorganisms in the design of a closed loop life support system.

  1. Evaluation of methods for the microbiological control of natural corks for sparkling wine bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, S; Calvo, M A

    2000-01-01

    The various parameters proposed in Norm 0.20/95 of Catalunya (Spain) for the microbiological analysis of natural corks for sparkling wines were evaluated. The best results were obtained through the use of 1/4 Ringer's solution or saline for rinsing with an agitation time of 30 min, and an agitation speed of 150-200 rpm. Tryptone soya agar (TSA) and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) were used as a culture medium for the bacteria and fungi, respectively, and a cultivation time of 48 h and incubation temperatures of 37 +/- 2 degrees C for bacteria and 28 degrees C for yeast and filamentous fungi.

  2. Process control in biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Efficient monitoring and control of anaerobic digestion (AD) processes are necessary in order to enhance biogas plant performance. The aim of monitoring and controlling the biological processes is to stabilise and optimise the production of biogas. The principles of process analytical technology...

  3. Food microbiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain); Moss, M. O; Adams, M. R

    2008-01-01

    ... is directed primarily at students of Microbiology, Food Science and related subjects up to Master's level and assumes some knowledge of basic microbiology. We have chosen not to burden the text with references to the primary literature in order to preserve what we hope is a reasonable narrative flow. Some suggestions for further reading for each chapter are included in Chapter 12. These are largely review articles and monographs which develop the overview provided and can also give access to...

  4. Clinical microbiology informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Daniel D; Sintchenko, Vitali; Rauch, Carol A; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-10-01

    The clinical microbiology laboratory has responsibilities ranging from characterizing the causative agent in a patient's infection to helping detect global disease outbreaks. All of these processes are increasingly becoming partnered more intimately with informatics. Effective application of informatics tools can increase the accuracy, timeliness, and completeness of microbiology testing while decreasing the laboratory workload, which can lead to optimized laboratory workflow and decreased costs. Informatics is poised to be increasingly relevant in clinical microbiology, with the advent of total laboratory automation, complex instrument interfaces, electronic health records, clinical decision support tools, and the clinical implementation of microbial genome sequencing. This review discusses the diverse informatics aspects that are relevant to the clinical microbiology laboratory, including the following: the microbiology laboratory information system, decision support tools, expert systems, instrument interfaces, total laboratory automation, telemicrobiology, automated image analysis, nucleic acid sequence databases, electronic reporting of infectious agents to public health agencies, and disease outbreak surveillance. The breadth and utility of informatics tools used in clinical microbiology have made them indispensable to contemporary clinical and laboratory practice. Continued advances in technology and development of these informatics tools will further improve patient and public health care in the future. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Evaluation of the use of radiation in microbiological control in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill.) sold in the CEASA, Pernambuco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicalvi, Maria Claudia V.; Solidonio, Evelyne G.; Silva, Marcio de Albuquerque; Costa Junior, Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira; Alcantara, Moacir Paulo [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Pos-graduation program in Energetics and Nuclear Tecnologies; Miranda, Rita de Cassia M. de [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Lab. of Chromatographic Analysis and Flavor; Sena, Kesia Xisto F.R. de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. of Antibiotics; Colaco, Waldeciro, E-mail: wcolaco@ufpe.com.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. of Nuclear Energy

    2011-07-01

    Tomato is one of the most consumed fruits in the world and also one of the agricultural products with most losses due to its high perishability. Nevertheless, there are only a few studies on the post-harvest life of tomatoes and therefore are still many undefined parameters related to the treatment and shelf life of different cultivars of that fruit. Its contamination occurs from the pre-to post-harvest crop. The diseases caused by food borne pathogenic microorganisms are a serious public health problem. The bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae are responsible for large outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans that may occur due to bacteria per se or by toxins produced by them. Thus, the development of technologies that make the food safe for human consumption has been growing in recent years. Preservation methods employ physical or chemical processes. Among such methods, irradiation is a preventive treatment for food safety. Irradiation can reduce post-harvest losses by killing insect pests in fruits, grains, spices, or by reducing food spoilage organisms by inhibiting the sprouting of plants and delaying the ripening of fruits. The objective of this research was to evaluate the potential of using different doses of gamma radiation to treat tomatoes sold in CEASA-PE and to perform the overall count of microorganisms in control and irradiated samples. The study used two lots containing 60 tomatoes such that 15 of them were used as the control group and 45 were irradiated with one of 3 different doses (1.0 kGy, 1.5 kGy and 2.0 kGy). For microbiological analysis, the tomatoes were sliced, and weighed (after removal of peel) in order to obtain samples weighing 25g. Each sample was added to an Erlenmeyer containing sterile water by agitation for 15 minutes. Aliquots of the washings were sown for exhaustion in sheep blood agar. After growth, colony counting was performed. The results revealed contamination in all tomato groups analyzed with the control groups exhibiting

  6. Evaluation of the use of radiation in microbiological control in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill.) sold in the CEASA, Pernambuco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicalvi, Maria Claudia V.; Solidonio, Evelyne G.; Silva, Marcio de Albuquerque; Costa Junior, Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira; Alcantara, Moacir Paulo; Miranda, Rita de Cassia M. de; Sena, Kesia Xisto F.R. de; Colaco, Waldeciro

    2011-01-01

    Tomato is one of the most consumed fruits in the world and also one of the agricultural products with most losses due to its high perishability. Nevertheless, there are only a few studies on the post-harvest life of tomatoes and therefore are still many undefined parameters related to the treatment and shelf life of different cultivars of that fruit. Its contamination occurs from the pre-to post-harvest crop. The diseases caused by food borne pathogenic microorganisms are a serious public health problem. The bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae are responsible for large outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans that may occur due to bacteria per se or by toxins produced by them. Thus, the development of technologies that make the food safe for human consumption has been growing in recent years. Preservation methods employ physical or chemical processes. Among such methods, irradiation is a preventive treatment for food safety. Irradiation can reduce post-harvest losses by killing insect pests in fruits, grains, spices, or by reducing food spoilage organisms by inhibiting the sprouting of plants and delaying the ripening of fruits. The objective of this research was to evaluate the potential of using different doses of gamma radiation to treat tomatoes sold in CEASA-PE and to perform the overall count of microorganisms in control and irradiated samples. The study used two lots containing 60 tomatoes such that 15 of them were used as the control group and 45 were irradiated with one of 3 different doses (1.0 kGy, 1.5 kGy and 2.0 kGy). For microbiological analysis, the tomatoes were sliced, and weighed (after removal of peel) in order to obtain samples weighing 25g. Each sample was added to an Erlenmeyer containing sterile water by agitation for 15 minutes. Aliquots of the washings were sown for exhaustion in sheep blood agar. After growth, colony counting was performed. The results revealed contamination in all tomato groups analyzed with the control groups exhibiting

  7. Microbiological and clinical effects of probiotics and antibiotics on nonsurgical treatment of chronic periodontitis: a randomized placebo- controlled trial with 9-month follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Morales

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled and parallel- arm randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus SP1-containing probiotic sachet and azithromycin tablets as an adjunct to nonsurgical therapy in clinical parameters and in presence and levels of Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Material and Methods: Forty-seven systemically healthy volunteers with chronic periodontitis were recruited and monitored clinically and microbiologically at baseline for 3, 6 and 9 months after therapy. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from four periodontal sites with clinical attachment level ≥1 mm, probing pocket depth ≥4 mm and bleeding on probing, one site in each quadrant. Samples were cultivated and processed using the PCR technique. Patients received nonsurgical therapy including scaling and root planing (SRP and were randomly assigned to a probiotic (n=16, antibiotic (n = 16 or placebo (n = 15 group. L. rhamnosus SP1 was taken once a day for 3 months. Azithromycin 500mg was taken once a day for 5 days. Results: All groups showed improvements in clinical and microbiological parameters at all time points evaluated. Probiotic and antibiotic groups showed greater reductions in cultivable microbiota compared with baseline. The placebo group showed greater reduction in number of subjects with P. gingivalis compared with baseline. However, there were no significant differences between groups. Conclusions: The adjunctive use of L. rhamnosus SP1 sachets and azithromycin during initial therapy resulted in similar clinical and microbiological improvements compared with the placebo group.

  8. Dosimetry and process control for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mod Ali, N.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Accurate radiation dosimetry can provide quality assurance in radiation processing. Considerable relevant experiences in dosimetry by the SSDL-MINT has necessitate the development of methods making measurement at gamma plant traceable to the national standard. It involves the establishment of proper calibration procedure and selection of appropriate transfer system/technique to assure adequate traceability to a primary radiation standard. The effort forms the basis for irradiation process control, the legal approval of the process by the public health authorities (medical product sterilization and food preservation) and the safety and acceptance of the product

  9. Staffing for infectious diseases, clinical microbiology and infection control in hospitals in 2015: results of an ESCMID member survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickstein, Y; Nir-Paz, R; Pulcini, C; Cookson, B; Beović, B; Tacconelli, E; Nathwani, D; Vatcheva-Dobrevska, R; Rodríguez-Baño, J; Hell, M; Saenz, H; Leibovici, L; Paul, M

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to assess the current status of infectious diseases (ID), clinical microbiology (CM) and infection control (IC) staffing in hospitals and to analyse modifiers of staffing levels. We conducted an Internet-based survey of European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases members and affiliates, collecting data on hospital characteristics, ID management infrastructure, ID/IC-related activities and the ratio of physicians per 100 hospital beds. Regression analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with the physician-bed ratio. Five hundred sixty-seven hospital responses were collected between April and June 2015 from 61 countries, 81.2% (384/473) from Europe. A specialized inpatient ward for ID patients was reported in 58.4% (317/543) of hospitals. Rates of antibiotic stewardship programmes (ASP) and surveillance activities in survey hospitals were high, ranging from 88% to 90% for local antibiotic guidelines and 70% to 82% for programmes monitoring hospital-acquired infections. The median ID/CM/IC physician per 100 hospital beds ratio was 1.12 (interquartile range 0.56-2.13). In hospitals performing basic ASP and IC (including local antibiotic guidelines and monitoring device-related or surgical site infections), the ratio was 1.21 (interquartile range 0.57-2.14). Factors independently associated with higher ratios included compliance with European Union of Medical Specialists standards, smaller hospital size, tertiary-care institution, presence of a travel clinic, beds dedicated to ID and a CM unit. More than half of respondents estimated that additional staffing is needed for appropriate IC or ID management. No standard of physician staffing for ID/CM/IC in hospitals is available. A ratio of 1.21/100 beds will serve as an informed point of reference enabling ASP and infection surveillance. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of the microbiological method DEFT/APC to detect minimally processed vegetables treated with gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, M. M.; Duarte, R. C.; Silva, P. V.; Marchioni, E.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2009-07-01

    Marketing of minimally processed vegetables (MPV) are gaining impetus due to its convenience, freshness and apparent health effect. However, minimal processing does not reduce pathogenic microorganisms to safe levels. Food irradiation is used to extend the shelf life and to inactivate food-borne pathogens. In combination with minimal processing it could improve safety and quality of MPV. A microbiological screening method based on the use of direct epifluorescent filter technique (DEFT) and aerobic plate count (APC) has been established for the detection of irradiated foodstuffs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of this technique in detecting MPV irradiation. Samples from retail markets were irradiated with 0.5 and 1.0 kGy using a 60Co facility. In general, with a dose increment, DEFT counts remained similar independent of the irradiation while APC counts decreased gradually. The difference of the two counts gradually increased with dose increment in all samples. It could be suggested that a DEFT/APC difference over 2.0 log would be a criteria to judge if a MPV was treated by irradiation. The DEFT/APC method could be used satisfactorily as a screening method for indicating irradiation processing.

  11. Application of the microbiological method DEFT/APC to detect minimally processed vegetables treated with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, M.M.; Duarte, R.C.; Silva, P.V.; Marchioni, E.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    Marketing of minimally processed vegetables (MPV) are gaining impetus due to its convenience, freshness and apparent health effect. However, minimal processing does not reduce pathogenic microorganisms to safe levels. Food irradiation is used to extend the shelf life and to inactivate food-borne pathogens. In combination with minimal processing it could improve safety and quality of MPV. A microbiological screening method based on the use of direct epifluorescent filter technique (DEFT) and aerobic plate count (APC) has been established for the detection of irradiated foodstuffs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of this technique in detecting MPV irradiation. Samples from retail markets were irradiated with 0.5 and 1.0 kGy using a 60 Co facility. In general, with a dose increment, DEFT counts remained similar independent of the irradiation while APC counts decreased gradually. The difference of the two counts gradually increased with dose increment in all samples. It could be suggested that a DEFT/APC difference over 2.0 log would be a criteria to judge if a MPV was treated by irradiation. The DEFT/APC method could be used satisfactorily as a screening method for indicating irradiation processing.

  12. Application of the microbiological method DEFT/APC to detect minimally processed vegetables treated with gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, M.M.; Duarte, R.C.; Silva, P.V. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Laboratorio de Deteccao de Alimentos Irradiados, Cidade Universitaria, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, Butanta Zip Code 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Marchioni, E. [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Sciences de l' Aliment (UMR 7512), Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite Louis Pasteur, 74, route du Rhin, F-67400 Illkirch (France); Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Laboratorio de Deteccao de Alimentos Irradiados, Cidade Universitaria, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, Butanta Zip Code 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: villavic@ipen.br

    2009-07-15

    Marketing of minimally processed vegetables (MPV) are gaining impetus due to its convenience, freshness and apparent health effect. However, minimal processing does not reduce pathogenic microorganisms to safe levels. Food irradiation is used to extend the shelf life and to inactivate food-borne pathogens. In combination with minimal processing it could improve safety and quality of MPV. A microbiological screening method based on the use of direct epifluorescent filter technique (DEFT) and aerobic plate count (APC) has been established for the detection of irradiated foodstuffs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of this technique in detecting MPV irradiation. Samples from retail markets were irradiated with 0.5 and 1.0 kGy using a {sup 60}Co facility. In general, with a dose increment, DEFT counts remained similar independent of the irradiation while APC counts decreased gradually. The difference of the two counts gradually increased with dose increment in all samples. It could be suggested that a DEFT/APC difference over 2.0 log would be a criteria to judge if a MPV was treated by irradiation. The DEFT/APC method could be used satisfactorily as a screening method for indicating irradiation processing.

  13. Microbiological air pollution of production room of the meat processing plant as a potential threat to the workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Breza-Boruta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Production rooms of the meat plants are the specific environment that require constant monitoring of microbiological air purity. Bioaerosols pose a threat to the safety of produced food and a considerable risk to health of exposed workers. The aim of this study was to estimate the air microbiological pollution in production rooms of the meat processing plant and exposure of the workers to biological aerosol. Material and methods. Air samples were collected at 3 stands in production rooms during winter, with the compaction method using the impactor MAS-100. The total number of bacteria and moulds, Staphylococci and bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae were determined in the studied bioaerosol. The concentration of microorganisms was presented in the form of colony forming units in 1m3 of air. Results. The highest concentration of mesophylic bacteria was found at stand 1 – at the freezing tunnel; whereas the highest contamination with staphylococci and fungal aerosol was found in the room where several workers were employed at packing frozen food. Among determined fungi predominated moulds of the genera: Penicillium, Alternaria and Cladosporium. Also species of potentially pathogenic fungi which produce toxins and have allergizing properties were detected in the studied bioaerosol. Bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae, which also may cause many infavourable health effects in exposed people, occurred at all stands. Conclusion. The concentration level and microbial composition in the inhaled air make valuable information for determination of occupational risk and a potential threat to workers of their workstations. Potentially pathogenic microorganisms present in the studied air (staphylococci, bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae and some moulds according to the Directive 2000/54/EC l belong to the 2nd group of risk and threat of harmful biological agents. Identification of biological threats makes it easier for the

  14. The effect of chitosan-based edible film and high hydrostatic pressure process on the microbiological and chemical quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) fillets during cold storage (4±1°C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günlü, Ali; Sipahioğlu, Sinem; Alpas, Hami

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the changes in the chemical and microbiological quality of fresh rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) fillets during storage at 4±1°C as a result of chitosan-based edible film coating, vacuum packaging and high pressure application processes. Chemical (pH, total volatile basic nitrogen and thiobarbituric acid index) and microbiological (total mesophilic and total psychrophilic microorganism) shelf life analyses were carried out in 4-day intervals for samples that were vacuum packaged (C), subjected to high pressure after vacuum packaging (high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)), vacuum packaged after being wrapped by chitosan-based film (CFW) and subjected to high pressure after vacuum packaging and being wrapped by chitosan-based film (HHP+CFW ). According to the chemical and microbiological shelf life analysis results of rainbow trout fillets, shelf life increases of 4 days in HHP group samples, 8 days in CFW group samples and 24 days in HHP+CFW group samples were provided in comparison with the control group. In conclusion, it was determined that high pressure and wrapping with chitosan-based film had protective effect both chemically and microbiologically and that the most effective protection was obtained when both methods were used together.

  15. Process and apparatus for controlling control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebelin, B.; Couture, R.

    1987-01-01

    This process and apparatus is characterized by 2 methods, for examination of cluster of nuclear control rods. Foucault current analyzer which examines fraction by fraction all the control rods. This examination is made by rotation of the cluster. Doubtful rods are then analysed by ultrasonic probe [fr

  16. Robust control charts in statistical process control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazir, H.Z.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of outliers and contaminations in the output of the process highly affects the performance of the design structures of commonly used control charts and hence makes them of less practical use. One of the solutions to deal with this problem is to use control charts which are robust

  17. Microbiological and radiobiological studies on the hygienic quality of minimally processed food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu El-Nour, S. A. M. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-07-01

    In the past, there have been three traditional forms of food trading; fresh, canned and frozen foods. In recent years, a fourth form called {sup m}inimally processed food has been developed to respond to an emerging consumer demand for convenient, high-quality and preservative-free products with appearance of fresh characteristics, while being less severely processed (Saracino et al., 1991). Minimally processed food can be used as ready-to-eat, ready-to-use, or ready-to-cook products. They are stored and marketed under refrigeration conditions (Dignan, 1994). Minimally processed food products were developed in 1980's and now they are produced in many advanced and some developing countries. In Egypt, great amounts of minimally processed vegetables are now produced and commercially sold in certain supermarkets. They include fresh-cut lettuce, packaged mixed vegetables salad, shredded carrots, sliced carrots, shredded cabbage (white and red), fresh-cut green beans, mixed peas with diced carrots, mafa spanish, okra, watermelon, pumpkin, garlic, artichoke, celery, parsley, etc. However, there is an increasing interest to offer some other minimally processed vegetables and some types of fresh-cut fruits that can be used as ready-to-eat or ready-to-use. Preparation steps of minimally processed fruit and vegetable products which may include peeling, slicing, shredding, etc save labor and time for the purchasers, meanwhile removal of waste material during processing reduce transport costs. In addition, the production of such products will make year-round availability of almost all vegetables and fruits possible in fresh form around the world (Baldwin et al., 1995). However, preparation steps of such products increase the native enzymatic activity and the possibility of microbial contamination. Therefore, these products have short shelf-life and this is considered one of the foremost challenging problems in the commercialization of minimally processed foods particularly

  18. Microbiological and radiobiological studies on the hygienic quality of minimally processed food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu El-Nour, S. A. M.

    2007-01-01

    In the past, there have been three traditional forms of food trading; fresh, canned and frozen foods. In recent years, a fourth form called m inimally processed food has been developed to respond to an emerging consumer demand for convenient, high-quality and preservative-free products with appearance of fresh characteristics, while being less severely processed (Saracino et al., 1991). Minimally processed food can be used as ready-to-eat, ready-to-use, or ready-to-cook products. They are stored and marketed under refrigeration conditions (Dignan, 1994). Minimally processed food products were developed in 1980's and now they are produced in many advanced and some developing countries. In Egypt, great amounts of minimally processed vegetables are now produced and commercially sold in certain supermarkets. They include fresh-cut lettuce, packaged mixed vegetables salad, shredded carrots, sliced carrots, shredded cabbage (white and red), fresh-cut green beans, mixed peas with diced carrots, mafa spanish, okra, watermelon, pumpkin, garlic, artichoke, celery, parsley, etc. However, there is an increasing interest to offer some other minimally processed vegetables and some types of fresh-cut fruits that can be used as ready-to-eat or ready-to-use. Preparation steps of minimally processed fruit and vegetable products which may include peeling, slicing, shredding, etc save labor and time for the purchasers, meanwhile removal of waste material during processing reduce transport costs. In addition, the production of such products will make year-round availability of almost all vegetables and fruits possible in fresh form around the world (Baldwin et al., 1995). However, preparation steps of such products increase the native enzymatic activity and the possibility of microbial contamination. Therefore, these products have short shelf-life and this is considered one of the foremost challenging problems in the commercialization of minimally processed foods particularly fresh

  19. Consultation on microbiological criteria for foods to be further processed including by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Many foods carry microorganisms that may have serious consequences for the health of the consumer. There is thus often a need for processing to eliminate the resulting health hazards. Concern has been expressed that treatments, especially irradiation, might be applied to clean up food that has not been hygienically processed. Adherence to good manufacturing practice can greatly assist food processors to ensure food quality and safety. Figs

  20. Microbiological stimulation of phytoremediation process using Salvinia natans to mercury contamined water

    OpenAIRE

    Filyarovskaya Viktoriya; Sitarska Magdalena; Traczewska Teodora; Wolf Mirela

    2017-01-01

    An alternative to traditional cleaning methods of heavy metals in the water environment is phytoremediation. They efficiency depends on used technological process conditions as well as plant species. One of the most dangerous metallic elements mercury plays a particular role, which is a trace element and a physiologically foreign in living organisms. Mercury has a high degree of toxicity with strong affinity to thiol groups. This may cause an adverse effect on the enzymatic processes and cons...

  1. Influence of trace elements on the activity of some microbiological processes in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maliszewska, W

    1972-01-01

    It was found that N fixation was stimulated by B, Zn, Mo and Co. Fe and Cu had an evident inhibiting and Cd even toxic influence on this process. Zn and Fe stimulated proteolase activity. Mo showed almost no effect on that process. The other microelements used had a more or less inhibiting influence. Ammonification was affected with B and Mo. The other treatments had different hampering effects on that process. The nitrifyers were mostly stimulated by Fe and Al. The other microelements B, Zn, Mo and Mn, stimulated the development of nitifyers, but to a lesser degree. Cu and Cd were toxic. The highest intensity of denitrification was found without any microelement addition. The most distinct inhibition of the process was caused by Cu, Zn, and Co. Hemicellulose decomposition activity was very sensitive to a deficiency of microelements investigated. Only Zn and Mo inhibited this process. In general Cu and Cd showed the most inhibiting effect on all the biological processes investigated in the experiments. The highest stimulatory effect in all experiments was caused by B and Mo. 5 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  2. Environmental microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briški, Felicita; Vuković Domanovac, Marija

    2017-10-01

    For most people, microorganisms are out of sight and therefore out of mind but they are large, extremely diverse group of organisms, they are everywhere and are the dominant form of life on planet Earth. Almost every surface is colonized by microorganisms, including our skin; however most of them are harmless to humans. Some microorganisms can live in boiling hot springs, whereas others form microbial communities in frozen sea ice. Among their many roles, microorganisms are necessary for biogeochemical cycling, soil fertility, decomposition of dead plants and animals and biodegradation of many complex organic compounds present in the environment. Environmental microbiology is concerned with the study of microorganisms in the soil, water and air and their application in bioremediation to reduce environmental pollution through the biological degradation of pollutants into non-toxic or less toxic substances. Field of environmental microbiology also covers the topics such as microbially induced biocorrosion, biodeterioration of constructing materials and microbiological quality of outdoor and indoor air.

  3. Microprocessors control of fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawzy, A S; Hinton, O R

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents three schemes for the solution of the optimal control of fermentation process. It also shows the advantages of using microprocessors in controlling and monitoring this process. A linear model of the system is considered. An optimal feedback controller is determined which maintains the states (substrate and organisms concentration) at desired values when the system is subjected to disturbances in the influent substrate and organisms concentration. Simulation results are presented for the three cases.

  4. Influence of physical damage and freezing on histamine concentration and microbiological quality of yellowfin tuna during processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo García-Tapia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Yellowfin tuna has a high level of free histidine in their muscle, which can lead to histamine formation by microorganisms if temperature abuse occurs during handling and further processing. The objective of this study was to measure levels of histamine in damaged and undamaged thawed muscle to determine the effect of physical damage on the microbial count and histamine formation during the initial steps of canning processing and to isolate and identify the main histamine-forming microorganisms present in the flesh of yellowfin tuna. Total mesophilic and psicrophilic microorganisms were determined using the standard plate method. The presence of histamine-forming microorganisms was determined in a modified Niven's agar. Strains were further identified using the API 20E kit for enterobacteriaceae and Gram-negative bacilli. Physically damaged tuna did not show higher microbiological contamination than that of undamaged muscle tuna. The most active histamine-forming microorganism present in tuna flesh was Morganella morganii. Other decarboxylating microorganisms present were Enterobacter agglomerans and Enterobacter cloacae. Physical damage of tune during catching and handling did not increase the level of histamine or the amount of microorganisms present in tuna meat during frozen transportation, but they showed a higher risk of histamine-forming microorganism growth during processing.

  5. Clinical and microbiological effects of levofloxacin in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, Avani R; Singh, Sonender P; Martande, Santosh S; Naik, Savitha B; N, Priyanka; Kalra, Nitish; Suke, Deepak K

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical and microbiological effect of systemic levofloxacin (LFX) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in patients with chronic periodontitis (CP). Sixty-five patients with CP were randomly divided into a test (n = 33, SRP and LFX 500 mg, once daily [o.d.]) and a control group (n = 32, SRP and placebo, o.d.). Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), percentage of sites with bleeding on probing (%BoP), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded at baseline, 10 days, and 1-, 3-, and 6-month intervals. The percentage of sites positive for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans), Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia were recorded at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. Patients receiving LFX showed statistically-significant improvements in mean PD and CAL. The intergroup difference in PI, GI, and%BoP was not significant at any interval. There was a reduction in the percentage of sites positive for periodontopathic bacteria over the duration of the study in both groups, and a statistically-significant reduction in the number of sites positive for A. actinomycetemcomitans in the LFX group (P < 0.001). Levofloxacin was found to significantly improve the clinical and microbiological parameters in CP individuals. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Red cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella) processed by pulsed electric field - Physical, chemical and microbiological analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Kristine A G; Hamid, Nazimah; Oey, Indrawati; Pook, Chris; Gutierrez-Maddox, Noemi; Ma, Qianli; Ying Leong, Sze; Lu, Jun

    2018-02-01

    This study examined, for the first time, the effect of mild or moderate intensity pulsed electric field (PEF) processing on cherries, in particular changes in physicochemical properties, release of anthocyanins and polyphenols, and the potential growth of lactic acid bacteria. Cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100Hz and a constant pulse width of 20μs with different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5kV/cm. Titratable acidity and total soluble solids values of most PEF samples stored for 24h significantly decreased compared to other samples. Stored samples also had increased cyanidin glucoside content. However, concentration of rutin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and isorhamnetin rutinoside significantly decreased in samples stored for 24h. In conclusion, sweet cherries were only influenced by storage after PEF processing. PEF processing did not affect the growth of probiotic bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of irradiation to ensure the microbiological safety of processed meats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, D.W.; Lachica, R.V.; Huhtanen, C.N.; Wierbicki, E.

    1986-01-01

    Research studies are reviewed, concerning the use of ionizing radiation to extend the shelf life and improve the safety of processed meats. Topics include: the historical background of food irradiation research; the determination of fractional destruction (D) values for a microorganism at a given irradiation dose; the effect of chilling and of NaCl on D values; and a brief review of the irradiation research for different cured and uncured meats (bacon; ham; frankfurters; corned beef and pork sausage; and beef, chicken, and pork). Guidelines for producing safe processed meats through irradiation are included

  8. Combination of minimal processing and irradiation to improve the microbiological safety of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goularte, L.; Martins, C.G.; Morales-Aizpurua, I.C.; Destro, M.T.; Franco, B.D.G.M.; Vizeu, D.M.; Hutzler, B.W.; Landgraf, M.

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processing (MP) to reduce the number of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) (shredded) was studied in order to increase the safety of the product. The reduction of the microbial population during the processing, the D 10 -values for Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 inoculated on shredded iceberg lettuce as well as the sensory evaluation of the irradiated product were evaluated. The immersion in chlorine (200 ppm) reduced coliform and aerobic mesophilic microorganisms by 0.9 and 2.7 log, respectively. D-values varied from 0.16 to 0.23 kGy for Salmonella spp. and from 0.11 to 0.12 kGy for E. coli O157:H7. Minimally processed iceberg lettuce exposed to 0.9 kGy does not show any change in sensory attributes. However, the texture of the vegetable was affected during the exposition to 1.1 kGy. The exposition of MP iceberg lettuce to 0.7 kGy reduced the population of Salmonella spp. by 4.0 log and E. coli by 6.8 log without impairing the sensory attributes. The combination of minimal process and gamma radiation to improve the safety of iceberg lettuce is feasible if good hygiene practices begins at farm stage

  9. Combination of minimal processing and irradiation to improve the microbiological safety of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goularte, L.; Martins, C.G.; Morales-Aizpurua, I.C.; Destro, M.T.; Franco, B.D.G.M.; Vizeu, D.M.; Hutzler, B.W.; Landgraf, M. E-mail: landgraf@usp.br

    2004-10-01

    The feasibility of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processing (MP) to reduce the number of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) (shredded) was studied in order to increase the safety of the product. The reduction of the microbial population during the processing, the D{sub 10}-values for Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 inoculated on shredded iceberg lettuce as well as the sensory evaluation of the irradiated product were evaluated. The immersion in chlorine (200 ppm) reduced coliform and aerobic mesophilic microorganisms by 0.9 and 2.7 log, respectively. D-values varied from 0.16 to 0.23 kGy for Salmonella spp. and from 0.11 to 0.12 kGy for E. coli O157:H7. Minimally processed iceberg lettuce exposed to 0.9 kGy does not show any change in sensory attributes. However, the texture of the vegetable was affected during the exposition to 1.1 kGy. The exposition of MP iceberg lettuce to 0.7 kGy reduced the population of Salmonella spp. by 4.0 log and E. coli by 6.8 log without impairing the sensory attributes. The combination of minimal process and gamma radiation to improve the safety of iceberg lettuce is feasible if good hygiene practices begins at farm stage.

  10. Combination of minimal processing and irradiation to improve the microbiological safety of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa, L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goularte, L.; Martins, C. G.; Morales-Aizpurúa, I. C.; Destro, M. T.; Franco, B. D. G. M.; Vizeu, D. M.; Hutzler, B. W.; Landgraf, M.

    2004-09-01

    The feasibility of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processing (MP) to reduce the number of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in iceberg lettuce ( Lactuca sativa, L.) (shredded) was studied in order to increase the safety of the product. The reduction of the microbial population during the processing, the D10-values for Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 inoculated on shredded iceberg lettuce as well as the sensory evaluation of the irradiated product were evaluated. The immersion in chlorine (200 ppm) reduced coliform and aerobic mesophilic microorganisms by 0.9 and 2.7 log, respectively. D-values varied from 0.16 to 0.23 kGy for Salmonella spp. and from 0.11 to 0.12 kGy for E. coli O157:H7. Minimally processed iceberg lettuce exposed to 0.9 kGy does not show any change in sensory attributes. However, the texture of the vegetable was affected during the exposition to 1.1 kGy. The exposition of MP iceberg lettuce to 0.7 kGy reduced the population of Salmonella spp. by 4.0 log and E. coli by 6.8 log without impairing the sensory attributes. The combination of minimal process and gamma radiation to improve the safety of iceberg lettuce is feasible if good hygiene practices begins at farm stage.

  11. A Cultured Learning Environment: Implementing a Problem- and Service-Based Microbiology Capstone Course to Assess Process- and Skill-Based Learning Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Rachel M.; Willford, John D.; Pfeifer, Mariel A.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a problem-based capstone course was designed to assess the University of Wyoming Microbiology Program's skill-based and process-based student learning objectives. Students partnered with a local farm, a community garden, and a free downtown clinic in order to conceptualize, propose, perform, and present studies addressing problems…

  12. Microbiological stimulation of phytoremediation process using Salvinia natans to mercury contamined water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filyarovskaya, Viktoriya; Sitarska, Magdalena; Traczewska, Teodora; Wolf, Mirela

    2017-11-01

    An alternative to traditional cleaning methods of heavy metals in the water environment is phytoremediation. They efficiency depends on used technological process conditions as well as plant species. One of the most dangerous metallic elements mercury plays a particular role, which is a trace element and a physiologically foreign in living organisms. Mercury has a high degree of toxicity with strong affinity to thiol groups. This may cause an adverse effect on the enzymatic processes and consequently inhibiting the physiological functions. Because of high risk for human health, water environment treatment from mercury is essential proecological action. Mercury removal studies were conducted using Salvinia natans pleustofit, sampled from its natural water environment. In the first step, epiphytic bacteria, which was resistant to high concentrations of mercury (0,6 mgHg/l), was isolated from the plant and than selected by the tiles gradient mthod. In the next step, the identification using molecular biology methods was made. In the following step plant Salvinia natans was exposure to high levels of mercury in the presence of the three isolated Pseudomonas strains with exceptional resistance characteristics to environmental factors. Has been found a positive bacteria effect on the plant condition because the selected strains belong to Pseudomonas species producing materials supporting plant growth. The use of microbial stimulation to phytoremediation by hyperaccumulator Salvinia natans can multiply the effectiveness of the process.

  13. Microbiological stimulation of phytoremediation process using Salvinia natans to mercury contamined water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filyarovskaya Viktoriya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative to traditional cleaning methods of heavy metals in the water environment is phytoremediation. They efficiency depends on used technological process conditions as well as plant species. One of the most dangerous metallic elements mercury plays a particular role, which is a trace element and a physiologically foreign in living organisms. Mercury has a high degree of toxicity with strong affinity to thiol groups. This may cause an adverse effect on the enzymatic processes and consequently inhibiting the physiological functions. Because of high risk for human health, water environment treatment from mercury is essential proecological action. Mercury removal studies were conducted using Salvinia natans pleustofit, sampled from its natural water environment. In the first step, epiphytic bacteria, which was resistant to high concentrations of mercury (0,6 mgHg/l, was isolated from the plant and than selected by the tiles gradient mthod. In the next step, the identification using molecular biology methods was made. In the following step plant Salvinia natans was exposure to high levels of mercury in the presence of the three isolated Pseudomonas strains with exceptional resistance characteristics to environmental factors. Has been found a positive bacteria effect on the plant condition because the selected strains belong to Pseudomonas species producing materials supporting plant growth. The use of microbial stimulation to phytoremediation by hyperaccumulator Salvinia natans can multiply the effectiveness of the process.

  14. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: an upcoming era of research on bio-meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C. E.; Sands, D. C.; Bardin, M.; Jaenicke, R.; Vogel, B.; Leyronas, C.; Ariya, P. A.; Psenner, R.

    2008-01-01

    For the past 200 years, the field of aerobiology has explored the abundance, diversity, survival and transport of micro-organisms in the atmosphere. Micro-organisms have been explored as passive and severely stressed riders of atmospheric transport systems. Recently, an interest in the active roles of these micro-organisms has emerged along with proposals that the atmosphere is a global biome for microbial metabolic activity and perhaps even multiplication. As part of a series of papers on the sources, distribution and roles in atmospheric processes of biological particles in the atmosphere, here we describe the pertinence of questions relating to the potential roles that air-borne micro-organisms might play in meteorological phenomena. For the upcoming era of research on the role of air-borne micro-organisms in meteorological phenomena, one important challenge is to go beyond descriptions of abundance of micro-organisms in the atmosphere toward an understanding of their dynamics in terms of both biological and physico-chemical properties and of the relevant transport processes at different scales. Another challenge is to develop this understanding under contexts pertinent to their potential role in processes related to atmospheric chemistry, the formation of clouds, precipitation and radiative forcing. This will require truly interdisciplinary approaches involving collaborators from the biological and physical sciences, from disciplines as disparate as agronomy, microbial genetics and atmosphere physics, for example.

  15. Microbiological variation amongst fresh and minimally processed vegetables from retail establishers - a public health study in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sair, A.T.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fresh and minimally processed ready to eat vegetables are very attractive eatables amongst consumers as convenient, healthy and readily available foods, especially in the South Asian states. They provide numerous nutrients, phytochemicals, and vitamins but also harbor extensive quantity of potentially pathogenic bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine microbiological variation amongst fresh vegetables that were commercially available to the public at numerous retail establishments in Pakistan in order to present an overview of the quality of fresh produce. A total of 133 samples, collected from local distributors and retailers were tested for aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic, coliform and yeast and mould counts. Standard plating techniques were used to analyze all samples. Mesophilic count ranged from 3.1 to 10.3 log CFU/g with lowest and highest counts observed in onions and fresh cut vegetables. Psychrotrophic microorganisms count was as high as mesophilic microorganisms. Maximum counts for coliform were found in fresh cut vegetables with 100% samples falling over 6 log CFU/g. These results were consistent with yeast and moulds as well. In our study, Escherichia coli was determined as an indicator organism for 133 samples of fresh and minimally processed vegetables. Fresh cut vegetables showed the highest incidence of presumptive E. coli (69.9%. The results showed a poor quality of fresh vegetables in Pakistan and point to the implementation of good hygiene practices and food safety awareness amongst local distributors, food handlers at retail establishments.

  16. Statistical Process Control for KSC Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Roger G.; Delgado, Hector; Tilley, Randy

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) served as the basis for a research effort into statistical process control for KSC processing. The effort entailed several tasks and goals. The first was to develop a customized statistical process control (SPC) course for the Safety and Mission Assurance Trends Analysis Group. The actual teaching of this course took place over several weeks. In addition, an Internet version of the same course complete with animation and video excerpts from the course when it was taught at KSC was developed. The application of SPC to shuttle processing took up the rest of the summer research project. This effort entailed the evaluation of SPC use at KSC, both present and potential, due to the change in roles for NASA and the Single Flight Operations Contractor (SFOC). Individual consulting on SPC use was accomplished as well as an evaluation of SPC software for KSC use in the future. A final accomplishment of the orientation of the author to NASA changes, terminology, data format, and new NASA task definitions will allow future consultation when the needs arise.

  17. Soil microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, D.C.; Legg, J.O.

    1984-01-01

    The major areas of soil microbiological and biochemical research which have involved both stable and radioactive isotopes are summarized. These include microbial decomposition of naturally occurring materials, microbial biomass, interactions of plants and microbes, denitrification, mineralization and immobilization of nitrogen and biological nitrogen fixation. (U.K.)

  18. Establishment of a System for Monitoring and Control of Cross Contamination in the Laboratory of Microbiological Analysis of Food during 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corpa- Iguarán Eduardo Javid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the activities for quality control in the laboratory, the final results of a particular analyteare now recognized as intermediates, due to the relevance given to quality assurance, as the ultimategoal of programs for quality management. This concept makes it necessary to establishmentof integral tools, to detect events such as cross-contamination, and measures to avoid affectingthe analysis method. Objective: to established a system for monitoring and control of crosscontaminationin the laboratory of microbiological analysis of food. Materials and methods:Flowcharts were developed to control the proceedings on the populations of aerobe mesophilicsand molds originated from pollution in the environment, surfaces, sterile material and culturemedia, which included a decision tree designed to perform control actions based on tolerance intervals,which were established as objective tool to decision-making leading to normalize countsof microbial populations in question. Results: Warning limits stricter were obtained for aerobicmesophilic and mold populations in the different controls, except for environment of media preparationand the corresponding for sterile material. Conclusion: The process developed allowedto complement the system of internal quality control in the laboratory, to provide of an objectivetool for closing nonconformities because of cross-contamination.

  19. Fermentation process for production of apple-based kefir vinegar: microbiological, chemical and sensory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Oliveira Viana

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to develop a kefir apple-based vinegar and evaluate this fermentation process using new methodology with Biospeckle Laser. Brazilian kefir grains were inoculated in apple must for vinegar production. In this study, the microbial community present in kefir, and correspondent vinegar, was investigated using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization - Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS technique. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter syzygii were the microbial species identified. S. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, A. pasteurianus and A. syzygii were found in smaller quantities at the beginning of the alcoholic fermentation, but were found throughout the alcoholic and acetic fermentation. Kefir grains were able to utilize apple must as substrate to produce ethanol, and acetic acid. Acetate, volatile alcohols and aldehydes in the vinegar-based kefir were also produced. The yield of acetic acid in the kefir vinegars was ∼79%. The acetic acid concentration was ∼41 g L-1, reaching the required standard for the Brazilian legislation accepts it as vinegar (4.0% acetic acid. Kefir vinegar showed good acceptance in the sensory analysis. The technology proposed here is novel by the application of immobilized-cell biomass (kefir grains providing a mixed inocula and eliminating the use of centrifuge at the end of the fermentative process. This step will save energy demand and investment. This is the first study to produce apple vinegar using kefir grains.

  20. Fermentation process for production of apple-based kefir vinegar: microbiological, chemical and sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Roberta Oliveira; Magalhães-Guedes, Karina Teixeira; Braga, Roberto Alves; Dias, Disney Ribeiro; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    The aim of this study was to develop a kefir apple-based vinegar and evaluate this fermentation process using new methodology with Biospeckle Laser. Brazilian kefir grains were inoculated in apple must for vinegar production. In this study, the microbial community present in kefir, and correspondent vinegar, was investigated using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization - Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technique. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter syzygii were the microbial species identified. S. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, A. pasteurianus and A. syzygii were found in smaller quantities at the beginning of the alcoholic fermentation, but were found throughout the alcoholic and acetic fermentation. Kefir grains were able to utilize apple must as substrate to produce ethanol, and acetic acid. Acetate, volatile alcohols and aldehydes in the vinegar-based kefir were also produced. The yield of acetic acid in the kefir vinegars was ∼79%. The acetic acid concentration was ∼41gL -1 , reaching the required standard for the Brazilian legislation accepts it as vinegar (4.0% acetic acid). Kefir vinegar showed good acceptance in the sensory analysis. The technology proposed here is novel by the application of immobilized-cell biomass (kefir grains) providing a mixed inocula and eliminating the use of centrifuge at the end of the fermentative process. This step will save energy demand and investment. This is the first study to produce apple vinegar using kefir grains. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  1. Simple Models for Process Control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gorez, R.; Klán, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2011), s. 58-62 ISSN 0929-2268 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : process model s * PID control * second order dynamics Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation

  2. Relating Anaerobic Digestion Microbial Community and Process Function : Supplementary Issue: Water Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Venkiteshwaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion (AD involves a consortium of microorganisms that convert substrates into biogas containing methane for renewable energy. The technology has suffered from the perception of being periodically unstable due to limited understanding of the relationship between microbial community structure and function. The emphasis of this review is to describe microbial communities in digesters and quantitative and qualitative relationships between community structure and digester function. Progress has been made in the past few decades to identify key microorganisms influencing AD. Yet, more work is required to realize robust, quantitative relationships between microbial community structure and functions such as methane production rate and resilience after perturbations. Other promising areas of research for improved AD may include methods to increase/control (1 hydrolysis rate, (2 direct interspecies electron transfer to methanogens, (3 community structure–function relationships of methanogens, (4 methanogenesis via acetate oxidation, and (5 bioaugmentation to study community–activity relationships or improve engineered bioprocesses.

  3. Quantum Control of Molecular Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Written by two of the world's leading researchers in the field, this is a systematic introduction to the fundamental principles of coherent control, and to the underlying physics and chemistry.This fully updated second edition is enhanced by 80% and covers the latest techniques and applications, including nanostructures, attosecond processes, optical control of chirality, and weak and strong field quantum control. Developments and challenges in decoherence-sensitive condensed phase control as well as in bimolecular control are clearly described.Indispensable for atomic, molecular and chemical

  4. Application of HACCP principles as a management tool for monitoring and controlling microbiological hazards in water treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagals, C; Jagals, P

    2004-01-01

    HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control points) principles were applied to evaluate the effectiveness of two water treatment facilities to continually produce potable water free of microbiological health hazards. This paper reports a hazard analyses protocol (microbiological hazards based on faecal coliforms (FC) and turbidity (TBY) as indicators) for critical control points (CCPs) within each facility. The CCPs were raw resource water, sedimentation, filtration and chlorine-disinfection. The aim was to determine the effectiveness of each CCP to remove the indicators from the water under treatment. Arbitrary critical performance limit targets (CPLTs) were set up for each CCP to determine to what extent each contributed to effective removal and to predict what the effect would be if any of the CCPs should fail. Health-related water quality guideline limits for expected health effects were applied and compliance measured at the 90th percentile. The raw resource river water used at both treatment facilities complied with raw resource water extraction CPLTs. The treated potable water complied with health-related drinking water guidelines. Sedimentation removed the largest proportion of the indicators from the raw water, but showed failure potential that could overload the consequent system. Filtration effectiveness at both treatment facilities showed potential to break down the overall effectiveness of the entire treatment facility, since the filter systems failed to meet their respective CPLTs. This left the disinfection phase to remove the remaining portion of indicators. Faecal coliforms appeared to be completely removed from post-chlorination samples. This indicated that both chlorine disinfection phases were 100% effective in meeting their disinfection CPLTs, despite having to "clean up" the indicator organisms that spilt over from the upstream CCPs. This, nevertheless, implied a risk of unsafe water release into distribution. CCPs at these treatment

  5. Microbiological evaluation of sludge during an improvement process applying the washing technique (selective pressure)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina P, Francisco; Gonzalez, Maria Elena; Gonzalez, Luz Catalina

    2001-01-01

    In this investigation, the microbial consortiums were evaluated by using characterization by trophic groups and related groups by their sensibility to oxygen, as well as the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of an acclimated sludge, starting from an aerobium sludge corning from a residual water treatment plant. Later, the technique of improvement by washing was applicated to this sludge, getting inoculum for the starting of an anaerobic reactor of the kind UASB (treatment reactor). At the same time, a control reactor was operated, inoculated with acclimated sludge. Both reactors were operated during 120 days, using brown sugar as substrate, the experimental phase included dates up to 70 operation days, characterizing the sludge at the end of this period. The SMA was analysed using acetic and formic acids as substrates. The results showed activities between 0,45 and 1,39 g DQO-CH 4 /SSV -d. for both substrates. At the end of the experimental phase of the UASB reactor, the sulphate reducer bacteria from the acetate and the lactate were observed as predominant group, followed by the methanogenic hydrogenophilic bacteria. It is important to notice that, with the application of the sludge washing technique, all the tropic groups were increased, with the exception of the lactate fermentative bacteria

  6. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: biological, physical and chemical characterization of aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Georgakopoulos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The interest in bioaerosols has traditionally been linked to health hazards for humans, animals and plants. However, several components of bioaerosols exhibit physical properties of great significance for cloud processes, such as ice nucleation and cloud condensation. To gain a better understanding of their influence on climate, it is therefore important to determine the composition, concentration, seasonal fluctuation, regional diversity and evolution of bioaerosols. In this paper, we will review briefly the existing techniques for detection, quantification, physical and chemical analysis of biological particles, attempting to bridge physical, chemical and biological methods for analysis of biological particles and integrate them with aerosol sampling techniques. We will also explore some emerging spectroscopy techniques for bulk and single-particle analysis that have potential for in-situ physical and chemical analysis. Lastly, we will outline open questions and further desired capabilities (e.g., in-situ, sensitive, both broad and selective, on-line, time-resolved, rapid, versatile, cost-effective techniques required prior to comprehensive understanding of chemical and physical characterization of bioaerosols.

  7. Welding process modelling and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Peter L.; Adenwala, Jinen A.

    1993-01-01

    The research and analysis performed, and software developed, and hardware/software recommendations made during 1992 in development of the PC-based data acquisition system for support of Welding Process Modeling and Control is reported. A need was identified by the Metals Processing Branch of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, for a mobile data aquisition and analysis system, customized for welding measurement and calibration. Several hardware configurations were evaluated and a PC-based system was chosen. The Welding Measurement System (WMS) is a dedicated instrument, strictly for the use of data aquisition and analysis. Although the WMS supports many of the functions associated with the process control, it is not the intention for this system to be used for welding process control.

  8. Control of Infectious Diseases in the Era of European Clinical Microbiology Laboratory Consolidation: New Challenges and Opportunities for the Patient and for Public Health Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Olivier; Kozlakidis, Zisis; Schrenzel, Jacques; Struelens, Marc Jean; Breuer, Judith

    2018-01-01

    Many new innovative diagnostic approaches have been made available during the last 10 years with major impact on patient care and public health surveillance. In parallel, to enhance the cost-effectiveness of the clinical microbiology laboratories (CMLs), European laboratory professionals have streamlined their organization leading to amalgamation of activities and restructuring of their professional relationships with clinicians and public health specialists. Through this consolidation process, an operational model has emerged that combines large centralized clinical laboratories performing most tests on one high-throughput analytical platform connected to several distal laboratories dealing locally with urgent analyses at near point of care. The centralization of diagnostic services over a large geographical region has given rise to the concept of regional-scale "microbiology laboratories network." Although the volume-driven cost savings associated with such laboratory networks seem self-evident, the consequence(s) for the quality of patient care and infectious disease surveillance and control remain less obvious. In this article, we describe the range of opportunities that the changing landscape of CMLs in Europe can contribute toward improving the quality of patient care but also the early detection and enhanced surveillance of public health threats caused by infectious diseases. The success of this transformation of health services is reliant on the appropriate preparation in terms of staff, skills, and processes that would be inclusive of stakeholders. In addition, rigorous metrics are needed to set out more concrete laboratory service performance objectives and assess the expected benefits to society in terms of saving lives and preventing diseases.

  9. Control of Infectious Diseases in the Era of European Clinical Microbiology Laboratory Consolidation: New Challenges and Opportunities for the Patient and for Public Health Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Vandenberg

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many new innovative diagnostic approaches have been made available during the last 10 years with major impact on patient care and public health surveillance. In parallel, to enhance the cost-effectiveness of the clinical microbiology laboratories (CMLs, European laboratory professionals have streamlined their organization leading to amalgamation of activities and restructuring of their professional relationships with clinicians and public health specialists. Through this consolidation process, an operational model has emerged that combines large centralized clinical laboratories performing most tests on one high-throughput analytical platform connected to several distal laboratories dealing locally with urgent analyses at near point of care. The centralization of diagnostic services over a large geographical region has given rise to the concept of regional-scale “microbiology laboratories network.” Although the volume-driven cost savings associated with such laboratory networks seem self-evident, the consequence(s for the quality of patient care and infectious disease surveillance and control remain less obvious. In this article, we describe the range of opportunities that the changing landscape of CMLs in Europe can contribute toward improving the quality of patient care but also the early detection and enhanced surveillance of public health threats caused by infectious diseases. The success of this transformation of health services is reliant on the appropriate preparation in terms of staff, skills, and processes that would be inclusive of stakeholders. In addition, rigorous metrics are needed to set out more concrete laboratory service performance objectives and assess the expected benefits to society in terms of saving lives and preventing diseases.

  10. Biogas Production: Microbiology and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnürer, Anna

    Biogas, containing energy-rich methane, is produced by microbial decomposition of organic material under anaerobic conditions. Under controlled conditions, this process can be used for the production of energy and a nutrient-rich residue suitable for use as a fertilising agent. The biogas can be used for production of heat, electricity or vehicle fuel. Different substrates can be used in the process and, depending on substrate character, various reactor technologies are available. The microbiological process leading to methane production is complex and involves many different types of microorganisms, often operating in close relationships because of the limited amount of energy available for growth. The microbial community structure is shaped by the incoming material, but also by operating parameters such as process temperature. Factors leading to an imbalance in the microbial community can result in process instability or even complete process failure. To ensure stable operation, different key parameters, such as levels of degradation intermediates and gas quality, are often monitored. Despite the fact that the anaerobic digestion process has long been used for industrial production of biogas, many questions need still to be resolved to achieve optimal management and gas yields and to exploit the great energy and nutrient potential available in waste material. This chapter discusses the different aspects that need to be taken into consideration to achieve optimal degradation and gas production, with particular focus on operation management and microbiology.

  11. Individualized Quality Control Plan (IQCP): Is It Value-Added for Clinical Microbiology?

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, Susan E.; Miller, Melissa B.; Hindler, Janet

    2015-01-01

    The Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS) recently published their Individualized Quality Control Plan (IQCP [https://www.cms.gov/regulations-and-guidance/legislation/CLIA/Individualized_Quality_Control_Plan_IQCP.html]), which will be the only option for quality control (QC) starting in January 2016 if laboratories choose not to perform Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act (CLIA) [U.S. Statutes at Large 81(1967):533] default QC. Laboratories will no longer be able to use “equivalent ...

  12. Scope for utilizing gamma radiation for microbiological control of sewage waste-water in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, N.F.

    1975-01-01

    Conventional methods, including the activated sludge process, the trickling filter process and oxidation pond process, of treating sewage waste in India, do not adequately ensure safe utilization of the secondary effluent for land irrigation purposes. Preliminary findings indicate that gamma radiation in the range of 0.1-0.3 Mrad effectively destroys pathogens in the secondary effluent, thereby making available very large quantities of water for land irrigation and industrial purposes. (author)

  13. Microbiological problems in radiosterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerniawski, E.

    1997-01-01

    Microbiological problems connected with radiosterilization of medical materials, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics have been discussed in detail. Dose-response relationship for different bacteria has been shown. Recommended sterilization and postirradiation control procedures have been described. 24 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  14. [The modern microbiology in the clinical managing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal Román, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The tuberculosis is one of the most important and mortal diseases of the world. The microbiological confirmatory diagnosis and the microbiological therapeutic orientation are fundamental nowadays in the tuberculosis in AIDS and in the Resistant tuberculosis. They are described throughout the time by the classic Microbiology: From 1882 to final 20th century (130 years). With the modern current Microbiology: In the beginning of the 21st century (20-30 years). And as will be done with the future Microbiology: From the years 2020-30. The important advances are outlined in the modern and future clinical microbiology, for the control of the Tuberculosis.

  15. Processing Controlled PROs in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancort, Moises; Carreiras, Manuel; Acuna-Farina, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to investigate the processing of the empty category PRO and the time-course of this in Spanish. Eye movements were recorded while participants read sentences in which a matrix clause was followed by a subordinate infinitival clause, so that the subject or the object of the main clause could act as controller of…

  16. Evaluation of infectious diseases and clinical microbiology specialists' preferences for hand hygiene: analysis using the multi-attribute utility theory and the analytic hierarchy process methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suner, Aslı; Oruc, Ozlem Ege; Buke, Cagri; Ozkaya, Hacer Deniz; Kitapcioglu, Gul

    2017-08-31

    Hand hygiene is one of the most effective attempts to control nosocomial infections, and it is an important measure to avoid the transmission of pathogens. However, the compliance of healthcare workers (HCWs) with hand washing is still poor worldwide. Herein, we aimed to determine the best hand hygiene preference of the infectious diseases and clinical microbiology (IDCM) specialists to prevent transmission of microorganisms from one patient to another. Expert opinions regarding the criteria that influence the best hand hygiene preference were collected through a questionnaire via face-to-face interviews. Afterwards, these opinions were examined with two widely used multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods, the Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT) and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). A total of 15 IDCM specialist opinions were collected from diverse private and public hospitals located in İzmir, Turkey. The mean age of the participants was 49.73 ± 8.46, and the mean experience year of the participants in their fields was 17.67 ± 11.98. The findings that we obtained through two distinct decision making methods, the MAUT and the AHP, suggest that alcohol-based antiseptic solution (ABAS) has the highest utility (0.86) and priority (0.69) among the experts' choices. In conclusion, the MAUT and the AHP, decision models developed here indicate that rubbing the hands with ABAS is the most favorable choice for IDCM specialists to prevent nosocomial infection.

  17. Comparative effect of high pressure processing and traditional thermal treatment on the physicochemical, microbiology, and sensory analysis of olive jam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado-Adamez, J.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the effect of the processing by high hydrostatic pressures (HPP was assessed as an alternative to the thermal treatment of pasteurization in olive jam. The effects of both treatments on the product after processing were compared and stability during storage under refrigeration was assessed through the characterization of physicochemical, microbiological and sensory aspects. To assess the effect of processing, two HPP treatments (450 and 600MPa and thermal pasteurization (80 °C for 20 min were applied, comparing them with the unprocessed product. HPP 600MPa versus the rest of treatments showed a reduction in microorganisms, greater clarity and less browning, and sensory acceptance. The shelf-life of the refrigerated product would indicate the feasibility of the application of the HPP technology for food with similar shelf-life to that obtained with the traditional treatment of pasteurization, but with a better sensory quality.En el presente trabajo se valoró el efecto del procesado por altas presiones hidrostáticas (HPP como método alternativo al tratamiento térmico de pasteurización en la mermelada de aceitunas. Para ello se comparó el efecto de ambos tratamientos sobre el producto procesado y se evaluó su estabilidad durante el almacenamiento en refrigeración, mediante la caracterización de los aspectos físico-químicos, microbiológicos, y sensoriales. Para evaluar el efecto del procesado, se aplicaron dos tratamientos de HPP (450 y 600MPa y otro de pasteurización térmica (80 °C durante 20 min, comparándose con el producto no procesado. Las muestras tratadas con HPP 600MPa presentaron, frente al resto de tratamientos una reducción en la presencia de microorganismos, mayor claridad y menor pardeamiento, y una mayor aceptación sensorial. El estudio de la vida útil del producto en refrigeración, indicaría la viabilidad de la aplicación de la tecnología de HPP para obtener alimentos con vida útil similar

  18. The donor line break cannula: effect on the donation process, blood component quality and transfusion microbiology testing of an important new blood bag safety feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, M J; Beard, M J; Bennett, J; Hambleton, R; Ramskill, S; Thomas, S

    2013-08-01

    The use of blood packs with an integral sampling system can result in anti-coagulant from the main bag reaching the sample pouch via the donor line, causing delayed coagulation of blood samples. In NHS Blood and Transplant, this has prevented the use of serum, the preferred matrix for transfusion microbiology (TM) testing, which has led to an increased false positive rate with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) plasma. There is also a remote possibility of false negative results owing to sample dilution. Manufacturers have responded by offering packs with a donor line break cannula (DLBC) to prevent these adverse effects. The aims of this study were to assess the impact of DLBC packs on donation, blood component quality and of the potential return to serum for TM testing. DLBC packs from three manufacturers were assessed against control packs of the same dimensions and configuration. Donation duration, flow rate, platelet factor 4, prothrombin fragment 1+2, haemolysis and collection and processing incidents were compared. Results indicated no clinically significant adverse effect from the DLBC on the activation state of platelets, the coagulation cascade or increased haemolysis. Donation duration and blood collection and processing incident rates for DLBC packs were not significantly different to controls. The use of DLBC packs would reduce the complexity of manipulations during blood collection and therefore the likelihood of microbially contaminated donations (incorrect skin core diversion) and false negative TM tests. DLBC packs would enable the use of serum for TM testing with a significant reduction in false positive tests compared to EDTA plasma. © 2013 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  19. Path modeling and process control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar; Rodionova, O.; Pomerantsev, A.

    2007-01-01

    and having three or more stages. The methods are applied to a process control of a multi-stage production process having 25 variables and one output variable. When moving along the process, variables change their roles. It is shown how the methods of path modeling can be applied to estimate variables...... be performed regarding the foreseeable output property y, and with respect to an admissible range of correcting actions for the parameters of the next stage. In this paper the basic principles of path modeling is presented. The mathematics is presented for processes having only one stage, having two stages...... of the next stage with the purpose of obtaining optimal or almost optimal quality of the output variable. An important aspect of the methods presented is the possibility of extensive graphic analysis of data that can provide the engineer with a detailed view of the multi-variate variation in data....

  20. Microbiological Standardization in Small Laboratory Animals and Recommendations for the Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Karaman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological standardization in laboratory animal breeding is based on the classification according to the microorganisms that the animals host and consequently their upbringing environment, as well as the certification of their microbiological status and the protection of their properties. Although there are many different classifications for microbiological standardization of laboratory animals, they can be basically classified as; gnotobiotic animals, animals bred with a complete barrier system (Germ free, GF, with Colonization-Resistant Flora; CRF, animals bred with a partial barrier system (Specified Pathogen Free, SPF, and animals bred by conventional methods in units without barriers (Conventional; CV. Monitoring of microbiological standardization is carried out in two ways. One is controlling barrier systems (process control and the other is controlling laboratory animals (product control. In controlling barrier systems samples are taken routinely from ambient air, surfaces, base plate materials of animals, foods and waters, and microbiological tests are carried out. FELASA guidelines are frequently used in monitoring laboratory animals. These guidelines where the monitoring frequency, sample size, micro-organisms to be tested, vary according to the microbiological quality of the animals, and test methods and are frequently updated by FELASA and shared in their web pages. In our country, in general, laboratory animals used for experimental studies present no microbiological standardization, and follow-up protocols are not implemented. Therefore, construction of facilities for the production of microbiologically standard animals and establishment of backup laboratories testing microbiological quality should be established.

  1. Infection: microbiology and management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Jane; Gillespie, S. H; Bannister, Barbara A

    2006-01-01

    ..., management and control. The presentation, diagnosis and management of individual diseases are described in the systematic chapters. Each chapter introduces the range of diseases that can affect the relevant system, and lists the pathogens responsible for each presentation in approximate order of importance. For each individual pathogen, the epidemiology and microbiology, clinical presentations and diagnosis, and strategies for prevention and control are described. This textbook is designed to be used either as a...

  2. Management and control of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in the oil and gas industry-Overview and a North Sea case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovhus, Torben Lund; Eckert, Richard B; Rodrigues, Edgar

    2017-08-20

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is the terminology applied where the actions of microorganisms influence the corrosion process. In literature, terms such as microbial corrosion, biocorrosion, microbially influenced/induced corrosion, and biodegradation are often applied. MIC research in the oil and gas industry has seen a revolution over the past decade, with the introduction of molecular microbiological methods: (MMM) as well as new industry standards and procedures of sampling biofilm and corrosion products from the process system. This review aims to capture the most important trends the oil and gas industry has seen regarding MIC research over the past decade. The paper starts out with an overview of where in the process stream MIC occurs - from the oil reservoir to the consumer. Both biotic and abiotic corrosion mechanisms are explained in the context of managing MIC using a structured corrosion management (CM) approach. The corrosion management approach employs the elements of a management system to ensure that essential corrosion control activities are carried out in an effective, sustainable, well-planned and properly executed manner. The 3-phase corrosion management approach covering of both biotic and abiotic internal corrosion mechanisms consists of 1) corrosion assessment, 2) corrosion mitigation and 3) corrosion monitoring. Each of the three phases are described in detail with links to recent field cases, methods, industry standards and sampling protocols. In order to manage the corrosion threat, operators commonly use models to support decision making. The models use qualitative, semi-quantitative or quantitative measures to help assess the rate of degradation caused by MIC. The paper reviews four existing models for MIC Threat Assessment and describe a new model that links the threat of MIC in the oil processing system located on an offshore platform with a Risk Based Inspection (RBI) approach. A recent field case highlights and explains

  3. Control of Microbiologically Induced Corrosion in Petroleum Industry Using Various Preventive Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, A.E.; Abdelaal, N.M.; Gebreil, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Various inhibitive strategies were used to control Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). The traditional treatment of SRB by biocides was compared with other treatments such as exposure to microwaves, ultraviolet, gamma radiation separately and addition of either nitrate or nitrite. Six commercial biocides were tested for SRB control. Champion- A was found to be the most efficient biocides. Addition of nitrate to SRB growth medium did not inhibit the growth at 10 m M/l whereas addition of 6 m M/L nitrite completely inhibited the growth. On the other hand, physical treatments achieved satisfactory results. the lethal doses required for complete inhibition of the growth on using microwave, ultraviolet and gamma radiations were found to be at (50 second, 4 hours and 0.9 KGy) respectively. On studying the effect of the lethal and sublethal doses of different treatment on the growth and sulfide production rates of SRB, it was found that the lethal doses of all studied treatments except nitrate treatment achieved complete inhibition. Also the corrosion aspects and elemental analysis of metal coupons surfaces at such doses showed a clear variation in distribution and composition of the corrosion products adhered to their surfaces.

  4. Application of the microbiological method DEFT/APC and DNA comet assay to detect ionizing radiation processing of minimally processed vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Michel Mozeika

    2008-01-01

    Marketing of minimally processed vegetables (MPV) are gaining impetus due to its convenience, freshness and apparent healthy. However, minimal processing does not reduce pathogenic microorganisms to safe levels. Food irradiation is used to extend the shelf life and inactivation of food-borne pathogens, Its combination with minimal processing could improve the safety and quality of MPV. Two different food irradiation detection methods, a biological, the DEFT/APC, and another biochemical, the DNA Comet Assay were applied to MPV in order to test its applicability to detect irradiation treatment. DEFT/APC is a microbiological screening method based on the use of the direct epi fluorescent filter technique (DEFT) and the aerobic plate count (APC). DNA Comet Assay detects DNA damage due to ionizing radiation. Samples of lettuce, chard, watercress, dandelion, kale, chicory, spinach, cabbage from retail market were irradiated O.5 kGy and 1.0 kGy using a 60 Co facility. Irradiation treatment guaranteed at least 2 log cycle reduction for aerobic and psychotropic microorganisms. In general, with increasing radiation doses, DEFT counts remained similar independent of irradiation processing while APC counts decreased gradually. The difference of the two counts gradually increased with dose increment in all samples. It could be suggested that a DEFT/APC difference over 2.0 log would be a criteria to judge if a MPV was treated by irradiation. DNA Comet Assay allowed distinguishing non-irradiated samples from irradiated ones, which showed different types of comets owing to DNA fragmentation. Both DEFT/APC method and DNA Comet Assay would be satisfactorily used as a screening method for indicating irradiation processing. (author)

  5. Establishing quality control ranges for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus: a cornerstone to develop reference strains for Korean clinical microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Kuk; Choi, Seung Jun; Shin, Saeam; Lee, Wonmok; Pinto, Naina; Shin, Nari; Lee, Kwangjun; Hong, Seong Geun; Kim, Young Ah; Lee, Hyukmin; Kim, Heejung; Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Sun Hwa; Yong, Dongeun; Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Yunsop

    2015-11-01

    Quality control (QC) processes are being performed in the majority of clinical microbiology laboratories to ensure the performance of microbial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing by using ATCC strains. To obtain these ATCC strains, some inconveniences are encountered concerning the purchase cost of the strains and the shipping time required. This study was focused on constructing a database of reference strains for QC processes using domestic bacterial strains, concentrating primarily on antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Three strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus) that showed legible results in preliminary testing were selected. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and zone diameters (ZDs) of eight antimicrobials for each strain were determined according to the CLSI M23. All resulting MIC and ZD ranges included at least 95% of the data. The ZD QC ranges obtained by using the CLSI method were less than 12 mm, and the MIC QC ranges extended no more than five dilutions. This study is a preliminary attempt to construct a bank of Korean QC strains. With further studies, a positive outcome toward cost and time reduction can be anticipated.

  6. An integrated approach to process control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, W.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The control of production processes is the subject of several disciplines, such as statistical process control (SPC), total productive maintenance (TPM), and automated process control (APC). Although these disciplines are traditionally separated (both in science and in business practice), their

  7. The geological and microbiological controls on the enrichment of Se and Te in sedimentary rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Liam; Parnell, John; Armstrong, Joseph; Boyce, Adrian; Perez, Magali

    2017-04-01

    Selenium (Se) and tellurium (Te) have become elements of high interest, mainly due to their photovoltaic and photoconductive properties, and can contaminate local soils and groundwater systems during mobilisation. Due to their economic and environmental significance, it is important to understand the processes that lead to Se- and Te-enrichment in sediments. The distribution of Se and Te in sedimentary environments is primarily a function of redox conditions, and may be transported and concentrated by the movement of reduced fluids through oxidised strata. Se and Te concentrations have been measured in a suite of late Neoproterozoic Gwna Group black shales (UK) and uranium red bed (roll-front) samples (USA). Due to the chemical affinity of Se and sulphur (S), variations in the S isotopic composition of pyrite have also been measured in order to provide insights into their origin. Scanning electron microscopy of pyrite in the black shales shows abundant inclusions of the lead selenide mineral clausthalite. The data for the black shale samples show marked enrichment in Te and Se relative to crustal mean and several hundreds of other samples processed through our laboratory. While Se levels in sulphidic black shales are typically below 5 ppm, the measured values of up to 116 ppm are remarkable. The Se enrichment in roll-fronts (up to 168 ppm) is restricted to a narrow band of alteration at the interface between the barren oxidised core, and the highly mineralised reduced nose of the front. Te is depleted in roll-fronts with respect to the continental crust and other geological settings and deposits. S isotope compositions for pyrite in both the black shales and roll-fronts are very light and indicate precipitation by microbial sulphate reduction, suggesting that Se was microbially sequestered. Results show that Gwna Group black shales and U.S roll-front deposits contain marked elemental enrichments (particularly Se content). In Gwna Group black shales, Se and Te were

  8. Microbiological Control of Flour-Manufacture: Dissemination of Mycotoxins Producing Fungi in Cereal Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Doolotkeldieva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grain and its products are widely consumed as fodder and basic daily food stuffs in Kyrgyzstan. Mycobiota is known to produce hazardous effects to a consumer since it produces mycotoxins. Henceforth, mycobiota starting from the field stage to flour, grain and flour samples were selected for mycological analysis from eight sites of flour manufacture: grain stored in storehouses before milling, mechanically cleaned grain, washed grain, grain dried and prepared for mill, roughly-milled flour, first grade flour and high grade flour. The samples were analyzed using classical mycological and immunoassay methods in order to detect mycotoxins producing fungi species. We isolated overall 27 species belonging to 7 genera. Mycotoxins producing species like Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium cyclopium were detected in the stored grains and in mechanically-cleaned grains. The species of Penicillium, Alternaria and Fusarium genera dominated in roughly-milled flour samples, so this site of flour manufacture still has a risk and danger of contamination with mycotoxins producing fungus. Only the final product i.e. the high grade flour lacked any fungal contamination. We recommend to scrutinize flour samples at the last stages of processing, particularly in the mills like B1, C1 and C4.

  9. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of cefotaxime-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Taro; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nagao, Miki; Takakura, Shunji; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2017-01-07

    Cefotaxime plays an important role in the treatment of patients with bacteremia due to Enterobacteriaceae, although cefotaxime resistance is reported to be increasing in association with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamase (AmpC). We conducted a case-control study in a Japanese university hospital between 2011 and 2012. We assessed the risk factors and clinical outcomes of bacteremia due to cefotaxime-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CTXNS-En) and analyzed the resistance mechanisms. Of 316 patients with Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia, 37 patients with bacteremia caused by CTXNS-En were matched to 74 patients who had bacteremia caused by cefotaxime-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CTXS-En). The most common CTXNS-En was Escherichia coli (43%), followed by Enterobacter spp. (24%) and Klebsiella spp. (22%). Independent risk factors for CTXNS-En bacteremia included previous infection or colonization of CTXNS-En, cardiac disease, the presence of intravascular catheter and prior surgery within 30 days. Patients with CTXNS-En bacteremia were less likely to receive appropriate empirical therapy and to achieve a complete response at 72 h than patients with CTXS-En bacteremia. Mortality was comparable between CTXNS-En and CTXS-En patients (5 vs. 3%). CTXNS-En isolates exhibited multidrug resistance but remained highly susceptible to amikacin and meropenem. CTX-M-type ESBLs accounted for 76% of the β-lactamase genes responsible for CTXNS E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates, followed by plasmid-mediated AmpC (12%). Chromosomal AmpC was responsible for 89% of CTXNS Enterobacter spp. isolates. CTXNS-En isolates harboring ESBL and AmpC caused delays in appropriate therapy among bacteremic patients. Risk factors and antibiograms may improve the selection of appropriate therapy for CTXNS-En bacteremia. Prevalent mechanisms of resistance in CTXNS-En were ESBL and chromosomal AmpC.

  10. From Process Understanding to Process Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefland, M.

    2010-01-01

    A licensed pharmaceutical process is required to be executed within the validated ranges throughout the lifetime of product manufacturing. Changes to the process usually require the manufacturer to demonstrate that the safety and efficacy of the product remains unchanged. Recent changes in the

  11. Microbiological performance of dairy processing plants is influenced by scale of production and the implemented food safety management system: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opiyo, Beatrice Atieno; Wangoh, John; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau

    2013-06-01

    The effects of existing food safety management systems and size of the production facility on microbiological quality in the dairy industry in Kenya were studied. A microbial assessment scheme was used to evaluate 14 dairies in Nairobi and its environs, and their performance was compared based on their size and on whether they were implementing hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) systems and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 22000 recommendations. Environmental samples from critical sampling locations, i.e., workers' hands and food contact surfaces, and from end products were analyzed for microbial quality, including hygiene indicators and pathogens. Microbial safety level profiles (MSLPs) were constructed from the microbiological data to obtain an overview of contamination. The maximum MSLP score for environmental samples was 18 (six microbiological parameters, each with a maximum MSLP score of 3) and that for end products was 15 (five microbiological parameters). Three dairies (two large scale and one medium scale; 21% of total) achieved the maximum MSLP scores of 18 for environmental samples and 15 for the end product. Escherichia coli was detected on food contact surfaces in three dairies, all of which were small scale dairies, and the microorganism was also present in end product samples from two of these dairies, an indication of cross-contamination. Microbial quality was poorest in small scale dairies. Most operations in these dairies were manual, with minimal system documentation. Noncompliance with hygienic practices such as hand washing and cleaning and disinfection procedures, which is common in small dairies, directly affects the microbial quality of the end products. Dairies implementing HACCP systems or ISO 22000 recommendations achieved maximum MSLP scores and hence produced safer products.

  12. Chemical process control using Mat lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sin Chun; Kim, Raeh Yeon; Kim, Yang Su; Oh, Min; Yeo, Yeong Gu; Jung, Yeon Su

    2001-07-01

    This book is about chemical process control, which includes the basis of process control with conception, function, composition of system and summary, change of laplace and linearization, modeling of chemical process, transfer function and block diagram, the first dynamic property of process, the second dynamic property of process, the dynamic property of combined process, control structure of feedback on component of control system, the dynamic property of feedback control loop, stability of closed loop control structure, expression of process, modification and composition of controller, analysis of vibration response and adjustment controller using vibration response.

  13. [Implementation of quality standard UNE-EN ISO/IEC 17043 in the External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda Gabaldón, Marta; Ovies, María Rosario; Orta Mira, Nieves; Serrano, M del Remedio Guna; Avila, Javier; Giménez, Alicia; Cardona, Concepción Gimeno

    2011-12-01

    The quality standard "UNE-EN-ISO 17043: 2010. Conformity assessment. General requirements for proficiency testing" applies to centers that organize intercomparisons in all areas. In the case of clinical microbiology laboratories, these intercomparisons must meet the management and technical standards required to achieve maximum quality in the performance of microbiological analysis and the preparation of test items (sample, product, data or other information used in the proficiency test) to enable them to be accredited. Once accredited, these laboratories can operate as a tool for quality control laboratories and competency assessment. In Spain, accreditation is granted by the Spanish Accreditation Body [Entidad Nacional de Acreditación (ENAC)]. The objective of this review is to explain how to apply the requirements of the standard to laboratories providing intercomparisons in the field of clinical microbiology (the organization responsible for all the tasks related to the development and operation of a proficiency testing program). This requires defining the scope and specifying the technical requirements (personnel management, control of equipment, facilities and environment, the design of the proficiency testing and data analysis for performance evaluation, communication with participants and confidentiality) and management requirements (document control, purchasing control, monitoring of complaints / claims, non-compliance, internal audits and management reviews). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. The effectiveness of the microbiological radiation decontamination process of agricultural products with the use of low energy electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryczka, Urszula; Migdał, Wojciech; Bułka, Sylwester

    2018-02-01

    The effectiveness of the radiation decontamination process was tested for electron beam of energy 200 keV and 300 keV. The energy of electrons was controlled by the measurements of its penetration ability in stack of B3 dosimetric film. In the presented work, the reduction of total aerobic bacteria count was observed, depending on time of irradiation for samples of dried black pepper, onion flakes and bay leaves. The results were compared with the effect observed for the process where high energy electron beam was used.

  15. Opportunities and challenges for process control in process intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikacevic, N.M.; Huesman, A.E.M.; Hof, Van den P.M.J.; Stankiewicz, A.

    2012-01-01

    This is a review and position article discussing the role and prospective for process control in process intensification. Firstly, the article outlines the classical role of control in process systems, presenting an overview of control systems’ development, from basic PID control to the advanced

  16. ACHEMA '85: Process control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosskopf, E.

    1985-01-01

    The strategy obviously adopted by the well-established manufacturers is to offer 'easy-to-handle' equipment to gain new customers, and there is a variety of new compact systems or personal computers being put on the market. The changes and improvements within the processing sector proceed more or less in silence; high-capacity storage devices and multiprocessor configurations are obtainable at a moderate price, offering a greater variety of basic functions and enhanced control possibilities. Redundancy problems are handled with greater flexibility, and batch programs are advancing. Data communication has become a common feature, transmission speed and bus length have been improved. Important improvements have been made with regard to data display; even medium-sized equipment now offer the possibility of making dynamic flow-sheets and reserving space for process history display, and the hierarchy of displays has been considerably simplified. The user software also has been made more easy, 'fill-in-the-blancs' is the prevailing motto for dialog configurations, and such big terms as process computer' or 'programming skill' are passing into oblivion. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Controlling the digital transfer process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Felix

    1997-02-01

    The accuracy of today's color management systems fails to satisfy the requirements of the graphic arts market. A first explanation for this is that color calibration charts on which these systems rely, because of print technical reasons, are subject to color deviations and inconsistencies. A second reason is that colorimetry describes the human visual perception of color differences and has no direct relation to the rendering technology itself of a proofing or printing device. The author explains that only firm process control of the many parameters in offset printing by means of a system as for example EUROSTANDARD System Brunner, can lead to accurate and consistent calibration of scanner, display, proof and print. The same principles hold for the quality management of digital presses.

  18. Fuzzy control of pressurizer dynamic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Zhedong; Zhao Fuyu

    2006-01-01

    Considering the characteristics of pressurizer dynamic process, the fuzzy control system that takes the advantages of both fuzzy controller and PID controller is designed for the dynamic process in pressurizer. The simulation results illustrate this type of composite control system is with better qualities than those of single fuzzy controller and single PID controller. (authors)

  19. Business Intelligence in Process Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopčeková, Alena; Kopček, Michal; Tanuška, Pavol

    2013-12-01

    The Business Intelligence technology, which represents a strong tool not only for decision making support, but also has a big potential in other fields of application, is discussed in this paper. Necessary fundamental definitions are offered and explained to better understand the basic principles and the role of this technology for company management. Article is logically divided into five main parts. In the first part, there is the definition of the technology and the list of main advantages. In the second part, an overview of the system architecture with the brief description of separate building blocks is presented. Also, the hierarchical nature of the system architecture is shown. The technology life cycle consisting of four steps, which are mutually interconnected into a ring, is described in the third part. In the fourth part, analytical methods incorporated in the online analytical processing and data mining used within the business intelligence as well as the related data mining methodologies are summarised. Also, some typical applications of the above-mentioned particular methods are introduced. In the final part, a proposal of the knowledge discovery system for hierarchical process control is outlined. The focus of this paper is to provide a comprehensive view and to familiarize the reader with the Business Intelligence technology and its utilisation.

  20. Evaluation of biocide efficacy on microbiological induced corrosion of pipes and equipment from the 'process water system' of Embalse nuclear power plant (CNE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte Giacobone, A F; Burkart, A L; Pizarro, R; Rodriguez S; Belloni, M; Croatto, F; Ferrari, F; Herrera, C; Mendizabal, M; Montes, J; Rodriguez Aliciardi, M; Saucedo, R; Ovando, L

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve water quality, and mitigate recurrent bio corrosion phenomena affecting the components of the Process Water System of the CNE, a combined water treatment adding a commercial biocide product, based on bromide, to the currently injected chlorine was proposed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the added biocide on the kinetics of biofilm formation and growth, which is the precursor process to microbiological corrosion, and on the corrosion rates of carbon steel of pipes, heat exchanger shells and other system devices. For this purpose, a test bench was designed and built, reproducing the flow conditions at certain parts of the system. This facility was installed in the filtration shed of the Water Plant of the CNE. The test bench consisted of two parallel chambers, I and II, each in turn divided into a section for determining biofilm growth and corrosion rates of carbon steel coupons and another one to measure the kinetics of biofilm growth on stainless steel coupons. Both chambers received lake water chlorinated for 15 minutes each day. The chamber II received also the biocide. The corrosion rate in carbon steel coupons was evaluated by weight loss and Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) measurements. The kinetics of biofilm growth on carbon steel coupons was measured using disruptive methods followed by quantification of the protein and carbohydrate content as an estimation of total biomase. The following bacterial groups were quantified through the dilution-extinction method: total aerobic bacteria, acid-producing bacteria, total anaerobic bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria precipitating iron and manganese. On the stainless steel coupons, the percent of coverage was evaluated by epi fluorescence microscopy. The corrosion rate results obtained both by weight loss as by LPR, showed no significant differences between both chambers, with and without biocide. Regarding the kinetics of biofilm growth on carbon steel

  1. Electrochemical aspects of microbiologically influenced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licina, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a topic that has gained considerable interest over the past decade, particularly in the oil production and nuclear power generation industries. Failures of stainless steels and copper-nickel alloys under conditions that would not be expected to be at all demanding such as during lay-up have been observed as a result of MIC. Failures in the time period between system construction and its operation are often associated with biological activity. Finally, MIC is generally associated with normally stagnant systems or systems which experience intermittent flow conditions. The diverse and redundant design philosophy of nuclear plants necessitates that a large number of systems are operated in this manner. Some of these systems are safety related while still others support safety related systems. As a result, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and all nuclear utilities have become increasingly concerned with MIC. The purpose of this workshop is to provide a review of the most current technology related to the fundamental aspects of microbiologically influenced corrosion, its diagnosis, and its control. This paper reviews how microbes can influence the electrochemical processes that influence and often control corrosion; ways that these processes (hence, MIC) may be monitored; and electrochemical methods for their control. Examples of the influence of microbiological activity on anodic and cathodic reactions on steels, stainless steels, and copper based alloys in both aerated and dearated environments are provided since the electrochemical effects can be significantly different for each combination. 45 refs

  2. Microbiological analysis and evaluation of Good Manufacturing Practices during the processing of raw white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. alba served in a self-service restaurant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonathan Campos do Couto Beltrão

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The consumption of meals outside the home has become an increasingly common practice in the life of the Brazilian population and of everyone. Objective: The aim of this work was to evaluate the microbiological quality of raw white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. alba, served in an institutional self-service restaurant, in the different stages of processing (reception, sanitation, slicing, cooling and distribution. In addition, Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP were evaluated through a checklist. Method: Total coliform, Escherichia coli and total aerobic bacteria were counted and Salmonella spp. was searched. Results: A sample collected at the reception stage showed Salmonella spp. Sanitization eliminated Salmonella spp. and reduced total coliforms and E. coli to undetectable numbers. The environment, the equipment and the manipulation strongly influenced the microbiological quality of food. Samples collected on day 4, after slicing, showed 3.2 log CFU of E. coli per g and at distribution 4.1 log CFU/g, which indicates unsatisfactory hygienic conditions. The restaurant had 55.75% compliance with GMP items, being classified as regular (Group 2, in accordance with RDC n° 275/2002. Conclusions: The non-conformities (37.00% observed in the exposure to prepared food consumption may be influencing the microbiological quality of raw white cabbage salad served. In this way we highlight the importance of the application of GMP in the production process to obtain a safe food and the compliance with the four POP required by RDC n° 216/2004.

  3. Process control using modern systems of information processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldeweg, F.

    1984-01-01

    Modern digital automation techniques allow the application of demanding types of process control. These types of process control are characterized by their belonging to higher levels in a multilevel model. Functional and technical aspects of the performance of digital automation plants are presented and explained. A modern automation system is described considering special procedures of process control (e.g. real time diagnosis)

  4. Rapid microbiology - raising awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 'high-level overview' of some of the emerging rapid microbiology technologies designed to help healthcare engineering and infection control teams working in hospitals and other healthcare facilities more rapidly identify potentially hazardous levels of waterborne microorganisms in their water systems, enabling them to take prompt remedial action, and a look at the some of the 'pros and cons' of such testing techniques, was given by Nalco technical director, Howard Barnes, the vice-chair of the Legionella Control Association (LCA), at a recent LCA open day. HEJ editor, Jonathan Bailie, reports.

  5. Use of results of microbiological analyses for risk-based control of Listeria monocytogenes in marinated broiler legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnisalo, Kaarina; Vihavainen, Elina; Rantala, Leila; Maijala, Riitta; Suihko, Maija-Liisa; Hielm, Sebastian; Tuominen, Pirkko; Ranta, Jukka; Raaska, Laura

    2008-02-10

    Microbial risk assessment provides a means of estimating consumer risks associated with food products. The methods can also be applied at the plant level. In this study results of microbiological analyses were used to develop a robust single plant level risk assessment. Furthermore, the prevalence and numbers of Listeria monocytogenes in marinated broiler legs in Finland were estimated. These estimates were based on information on the prevalence, numbers and genotypes of L. monocytogenes in 186 marinated broiler legs from 41 retail stores. The products were from three main Finnish producers, which produce 90% of all marinated broiler legs sold in Finland. The prevalence and numbers of L. monocytogenes were estimated by Monte Carlo simulation using WinBUGS, but the model is applicable to any software featuring standard probability distributions. The estimated mean annual number of L. monocytogenes-positive broiler legs sold in Finland was 7.2x10(6) with a 95% credible interval (CI) 6.7x10(6)-7.7x10(6). That would be 34%+/-1% of the marinated broiler legs sold in Finland. The mean number of L. monocytogenes in marinated broiler legs estimated at the sell-by-date was 2 CFU/g, with a 95% CI of 0-14 CFU/g. Producer-specific L. monocytogenes strains were recovered from the products throughout the year, which emphasizes the importance of characterizing the isolates and identifying strains that may cause problems as part of risk assessment studies. As the levels of L. monocytogenes were low, the risk of acquiring listeriosis from these products proved to be insignificant. Consequently there was no need for a thorough national level risk assessment. However, an approach using worst-case and average point estimates was applied to produce an example of single producer level risk assessment based on limited data. This assessment also indicated that the risk from these products was low. The risk-based approach presented in this work can provide estimation of public health risk

  6. Advances Afoot in Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Robin; Karon, Brad S.

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium to examine point-of-care (POC) microbiology testing and to evaluate its effects on clinical microbiology. Colloquium participants included representatives from clinical microbiology laboratories, industry, and the government, who together made recommendations regarding the implementation, oversight, and evaluation of POC microbiology testing. The colloquium report is timely and well written (V. Dolen et al., Changing Diagnost...

  7. Computer simulations in the high school: students' cognitive stages, science process skills and academic achievement in microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, J.; Michal Lomask, S.; Lazarowitz, R.

    2002-08-01

    Computer-assisted learning, including simulated experiments, has great potential to address the problem solving process which is a complex activity. It requires a highly structured approach in order to understand the use of simulations as an instructional device. This study is based on a computer simulation program, 'The Growth Curve of Microorganisms', which required tenth grade biology students to use problem solving skills whilst simultaneously manipulating three independent variables in one simulated experiment. The aims were to investigate the computer simulation's impact on students' academic achievement and on their mastery of science process skills in relation to their cognitive stages. The results indicate that the concrete and transition operational students in the experimental group achieved significantly higher academic achievement than their counterparts in the control group. The higher the cognitive operational stage, the higher students' achievement was, except in the control group where students in the concrete and transition operational stages did not differ. Girls achieved equally with the boys in the experimental group. Students' academic achievement may indicate the potential impact a computer simulation program can have, enabling students with low reasoning abilities to cope successfully with learning concepts and principles in science which require high cognitive skills.

  8. Quality control of static irradiation processing products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Jianzhong; Chen Xiulan; Cao Hong; Zhai Jianqing

    2002-01-01

    Based on the irradiation processing practice of the nuclear technique application laboratory of Yangzhou Institute of Agricultural Science, the quality control of irradiation processing products is discussed

  9. Advances Afoot in Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Robin; Karon, Brad S

    2017-07-01

    In 2016, the American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium to examine point-of-care (POC) microbiology testing and to evaluate its effects on clinical microbiology. Colloquium participants included representatives from clinical microbiology laboratories, industry, and the government, who together made recommendations regarding the implementation, oversight, and evaluation of POC microbiology testing. The colloquium report is timely and well written (V. Dolen et al., Changing Diagnostic Paradigms for Microbiology , 2017, https://www.asm.org/index.php/colloquium-reports/item/6421-changing-diagnostic-paradigms-for-microbiology?utm_source=Commentary&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=diagnostics). Emerging POC microbiology tests, especially nucleic acid amplification tests, have the potential to advance medical care. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. DUAL-PROCESS, a highly reliable process control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, L.; Gossanyi, A.; Parkanyi, T.; Szabo, G.; Vegh, E.

    1983-02-01

    A multiprocessor process control system is described. During its development the reliability was the most important aspect because it is used in the computerized control of a 5 MW research reactor. DUAL-PROCESS is fully compatible with the earlier single processor control system PROCESS-24K. The paper deals in detail with the communication, synchronization, error detection and error recovery problems of the operating system. (author)

  11. Control of Pressure Process Using Infineon Microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Siddique

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to design a cost effective controller for real time implementation of pressure process using Infineon micro controller (SAB 80C517A. Model Identification is performed and it is found to be First Order Plus Dead Time Process (FOPDT. The performance measure is tabulated for different parameter and it is found that Proportional (P controller is suitable for controlling the process.

  12. Establishing molecular microbiology facilities in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman S. Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Microbiology laboratories play an important role in epidemiology and infection control programs. Within microbiology laboratories, molecular microbiology techniques have revolutionized the identification and surveillance of infectious diseases. The combination of excellent sensitivity, specificity, low contamination levels and speed has made molecular techniques appealing methods for the diagnosis of many infectious diseases. In a well-equipped microbiology laboratory, the facility designated for molecular techniques remains indiscrete. However, in most developing countries, poor infrastructure and laboratory mismanagement have precipitated hazardous consequences. The establishment of a molecular microbiology facility within a microbiology laboratory remains fragmented. A high-quality laboratory should include both conventional microbiology methods and molecular microbiology techniques for exceptional performance. Furthermore, it should include appropriate laboratory administration, a well-designed facility, laboratory procedure standardization, a waste management system, a code of practice, equipment installation and laboratory personnel training. This manuscript lays out fundamental issues that need to be addressed when establishing a molecular microbiology facility in developing countries. Keywords: Developing country, Molecular technique, Molecular microbiology laboratory

  13. Multivariate Statistical Process Control Charts: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Bersimis, Sotiris; Psarakis, Stelios; Panaretos, John

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the basic procedures for the implementation of multivariate statistical process control via control charting. Furthermore, we review multivariate extensions for all kinds of univariate control charts, such as multivariate Shewhart-type control charts, multivariate CUSUM control charts and multivariate EWMA control charts. In addition, we review unique procedures for the construction of multivariate control charts, based on multivariate statistical techniques such as p...

  14. High-pressure microbiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michiels, Chris; Bartlett, Douglas Hoyt; Aertsen, Abram

    2008-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. High Hydrostatic Pressure Effects in the Biosphere: from Molecules to Microbiology * Filip Meersman and Karel Heremans . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Effects...

  15. Aquatic Microbiology Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robert C.; And Others

    This laboratory manual presents information and techniques dealing with aquatic microbiology as it relates to environmental health science, sanitary engineering, and environmental microbiology. The contents are divided into three categories: (1) ecological and physiological considerations; (2) public health aspects; and (3)microbiology of water…

  16. Microbiological corrosion of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladislavlev, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    Problems is considered of development of the microbiological corrosion of the NPP equipment. The main attention is paid to the selective character of microbiological corrosion in zones of welded joints of austenitic steels. It is noted that the presence of technological defects promotes growth of corrosional damages. Methods for microbiological corrosion protection are discussed

  17. Statistical process control for serially correlated data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Jakob Edo

    1999-01-01

    Statistical Process Control (SPC) aims at quality improvement through reduction of variation. The best known tool of SPC is the control chart. Over the years, the control chart has proved to be a successful practical technique for monitoring process measurements. However, its usefulness in practice

  18. Third Dutch Process Security Control Event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    On June 4th, 2009, the third Dutch Process Control Security Event took place in Amsterdam. The event, organised by the Dutch National Infrastructure against Cybercrime (NICC), attracted both Dutch process control experts and members of the European SCADA and Control Systems Information Exchange

  19. Fuzzy Control in the Process Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan; Verbruggen, Henk; Østergaard, Jens-Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    Control problems in the process industry are dominated by non-linear and time-varying behaviour, many inner loops, and much interaction between the control loops. Fuzzy controllers have in some cases nevertheless mimicked the control actions of a human operator. Simple fuzzy controllers can...... be designed starting from PID controllers, and in more complex cases these can be used in connection with model-based predictive control. For high level control and supervisory control several simple controllers can be combined in a priority hierarchy such as the one developed in the cement industry...

  20. Space Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The mechanisms responsible for the observed biological responses, however, are not yet fully understood. A hypothesized interaction of microgravity with radiation-induced DNA repair processes was experimentally refuted. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens (Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans) maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space, whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude. If shielded against solar UV, spores of B. subtilis were capable of surviving in space for up to 6 years, especially if embedded in clay or meteorite powder (artificial meteorites). The data support the likelihood of interplanetary transfer of microorganisms within meteorites, the so-called lithopanspermia hypothesis. PMID:20197502

  1. Applicability of statistical process control techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, W.A.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns the application of Process Control Techniques (PCTs) for the improvement of the technical performance of discrete production processes. Successful applications of these techniques, such as Statistical Process Control Techniques (SPC), can be found in the literature. However, some

  2. Wind erosion processes and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion continues to threaten the sustainability of our nations' soil, air, and water resources. To effectively apply conservation systems to prevent wind driven soil loss, an understanding of the fundamental processes of wind erosion is necessary so that land managers can better recognize the ...

  3. Transforming a Sequence of Microbiology Courses Using Student Profile Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa J. Buxeda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed in the General Microbiology and Industrial Microbiology courses to increase research awareness at an early stage of the educational process and to establish collaboration between students in an Industrial Microbiology program and industry. In both courses, the professor helped students determine their learning styles and then used these data to design activities in order to accomplish the above objectives. In both the treatment and the control sections, students learned about strategies to optimize learning based on their learning styles. A cooperative learning format was introduced to promote active learning and team-building skills. The diverse learning styles data profile was used by students during cooperative learning activities for effective team integration. In the General Microbiology course, a mentor-mentee structure was introduced to expose students to research in microbiology by visiting research facilities on campus. This structure was an addition to the regular curriculum, which meets American Society for Microbiology curriculum recommendations. The results suggest an increase in interest in research by students. In the Industrial Microbiology course, a strategy was introduced to establish collaboration with industry in which students visit the workplace and identify microbial processes, microbiologist roles, and skills needed by microbiologists. Evaluation of these topics using pre- and posttest data indicates a significant increase in acquired knowledge relevant to daily workplace environments with the reformed course. In both courses, students gain information early in their academic experience to help them consider participation in research experiences while providing them with real-world experience toward the end of their academic careers, when they see the need for it.

  4. Improving microbiological safety and quality characteristics of wheat and barley by high voltage atmospheric cold plasma closed processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Agata; Ziuzina, Dana; Akkermans, Simen; Boehm, Daniela; Cullen, Patrick J; Van Impe, Jan; Bourke, Paula

    2018-04-01

    Contamination of cereal grains as a key global food resource with insects or microorganisms is a persistent concern for the grain industry due to irreversible damage to quality and safety characteristics and economic losses. Atmospheric cold plasma presents an alternative to conventional grain decontamination methods owing to the high antimicrobial potential of reactive species generated during the treatment, but effects against product specific microflora are required to understand how to optimally develop this approach for grains. This work investigated the influence of ACP processing parameters for both cereal grain decontamination and grain quality as important criteria for grain or seed use. A high voltage (HV) (80 kV) dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) closed system was used to assess the potential for control of native microflora and pathogenic bacterial and fungal challenge microorganisms, in tandem with effects on grain functional properties. Response surface modelling of experimental data probed the key factors in relation to microbial control and seed germination promotion. The maximal reductions of barley background microbiota were 2.4 and 2.1 log 10  CFU/g and of wheat - 1.5 and 2.5 log 10  CFU/g for bacteria and fungi, respectively, which required direct treatment for 20 min followed by a 24 h sealed post-treatment retention time. In the case of challenge organisms inoculated on barley grains, the highest resistance was observed for Bacillus atrophaeus endospores, which, regardless of retention time, were maximally reduced by 2.4 log 10  CFU/g after 20 min of direct treatment. The efficacy of the plasma treatment against selected microorganisms decreased in the following order: E. coli > P. verrucosum (spores) > B. atrophaeus (vegetative cells) > B. atrophaeus (endospores). The challenge microorganisms were more susceptible to ACP treatment than naturally present background microbiota. No major effect of short term

  5. Microbiological aspects of safety in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.G.; Safonov, A.V.; Nazina, T.N.; Gorbunova, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    In long-term storage and/or disposal of radioactive waste, microbiological processes play an important, and in some cases a vital role. The article discusses the issues of microbiological processes in underground liquid LLW repositories and microbiological destruction of cemented radwaste. It is shown that biological additives to cement matrices can be used to effectively prevent the occurrence of microbiological processes, increasing reliability of engineering barriers that block release of radionuclides into the areas adjacent to the repositories [ru

  6. Portal monitoring technology control process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Portal monitors are an important part of the material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) programs in Russia and the US. Although portal monitors are only a part of an integrated MPC and A system, they are an effective means of controlling the unauthorized movement of special nuclear material (SNM). Russian technical experts have gained experience in the use of SNM portal monitors from US experts ad this has allowed them to use the monitors more effectively. Several Russian institutes and companies are designing and manufacturing SNM portal monitors in Russia. Interactions between Russian and US experts have resulted in improvements to the instruments. SNM portal monitor technology has been effectively transferred from the US to Russia and should be a permanent part of the Russian MPC and A Program. Progress in the implementation of the monitors and improvements to how they are used are discussed

  7. Statistical process control in wine industry using control cards

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrieva, Evica; Atanasova-Pacemska, Tatjana; Pacemska, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    This paper is based on the research of the technological process of automatic filling of bottles of wine in winery in Stip, Republic of Macedonia. The statistical process control using statistical control card is created. The results and recommendations for improving the process are discussed.

  8. Physical Processes Controlling Earth's Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genio, Anthony Del

    2013-01-01

    As background for consideration of the climates of the other terrestrial planets in our solar system and the potential habitability of rocky exoplanets, we discuss the basic physics that controls the Earths present climate, with particular emphasis on the energy and water cycles. We define several dimensionless parameters relevant to characterizing a planets general circulation, climate and hydrological cycle. We also consider issues associated with the use of past climate variations as indicators of future anthropogenically forced climate change, and recent advances in understanding projections of future climate that might have implications for Earth-like exoplanets.

  9. Improving Instruction Using Statistical Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Ronald C.; Messer, George H.

    1990-01-01

    Two applications of statistical process control to the process of education are described. Discussed are the use of prompt feedback to teachers and prompt feedback to students. A sample feedback form is provided. (CW)

  10. Low Activity Waste Feed Process Control Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system

  11. Natural resources and control processes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Mu-Hao; Hung, Yung-Tse; Shammas, Nazih

    2016-01-01

    This edited book has been designed to serve as a natural resources engineering reference book as well as a supplemental textbook. This volume is part of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series, an incredible collection of methodologies that study the effects of pollution and waste in their three basic forms: gas, solid, and liquid. It complements two other books in the series including Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering and Integrated Natural Resources Management that serve as a basis for advanced study or specialized investigation of the theory and analysis of various natural resources systems. This book covers the management of many waste sources including those from agricultural livestock, deep-wells, industries manufacturing dyes, and municipal solid waste incinerators. The purpose of this book is to thoroughly prepare the reader for understanding the sources, treatment and control methods of toxic wastes shown to have harmful effects on the environment. Chapters provide information ...

  12. Quality Control in Production Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prístavka Miroslav

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The tools for quality management are used for quality improvement throughout the whole Europe and developed countries. Simple statistics are considered one of the most basic methods. The goal was to apply the simple statistical methods to practice and to solve problems by using them. Selected methods are used for processing the list of internal discrepancies within the organization, and for identification of the root cause of the problem and its appropriate solution. Seven basic quality tools are simple graphical tools, but very effective in solving problems related to quality. They are called essential because they are suitable for people with at least basic knowledge in statistics; therefore, they can be used to solve the vast majority of problems.

  13. Analytical control in metallurgical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coedo, A.G.; Dorado, M.T.; Padilla, I.

    1998-01-01

    This paper illustrates the role of analysis in enabling metallurgical industry to meet quality demands. For example, for the steel industry the demands by the automotive, aerospace, power generation, tinplate packaging industries and issue of environment near steel plants. Although chemical analysis technology continues to advance, achieving improved speed, precision and accuracy at lower levels of detection, the competitiveness of manufacturing industry continues to drive property demands at least at the same rate. Narrower specification ranges, lower levels of residual elements and economic pressures prescribe faster process routes, all of which lead to increased demands on the analytical function. These damands are illustrated by examples from several market sectors in which customer issues are considered together with ther analytical implications. (Author) 5 refs

  14. Fundamentals of semiconductor manufacturing and process control

    CERN Document Server

    May, Gary S

    2006-01-01

    A practical guide to semiconductor manufacturing from process control to yield modeling and experimental design Fundamentals of Semiconductor Manufacturing and Process Control covers all issues involved in manufacturing microelectronic devices and circuits, including fabrication sequences, process control, experimental design, process modeling, yield modeling, and CIM/CAM systems. Readers are introduced to both the theory and practice of all basic manufacturing concepts. Following an overview of manufacturing and technology, the text explores process monitoring methods, including those that focus on product wafers and those that focus on the equipment used to produce wafers. Next, the text sets forth some fundamentals of statistics and yield modeling, which set the foundation for a detailed discussion of how statistical process control is used to analyze quality and improve yields. The discussion of statistical experimental design offers readers a powerful approach for systematically varying controllable p...

  15. Potential application of quantitative microbiological risk assessment techniques to an aseptic-UHT process in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Laure; Albert, Isabelle; Johnson, Nicholas Brian; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2013-04-01

    Aseptic ultra-high-temperature (UHT)-type processed food products (e.g., milk or soup) are ready to eat products which are consumed extensively globally due to a combination of their comparative high quality and long shelf life, with no cold chain or other preservation requirements. Due to the inherent microbial vulnerability of aseptic-UHT product formulations, the safety and stability-related performance objectives (POs) required at the end of the manufacturing process are the most demanding found in the food industry. The key determinants to achieving sterility, and which also differentiates aseptic-UHT from in-pack sterilised products, are the challenges associated with the processes of aseptic filling and sealing. This is a complex process that has traditionally been run using deterministic or empirical process settings. Quantifying the risk of microbial contamination and recontamination along the aseptic-UHT process, using the scientifically based process quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), offers the possibility to improve on the currently tolerable sterility failure rate (i.e., 1 defect per 10,000 units). In addition, benefits of applying QMRA are (i) to implement process settings in a transparent and scientific manner; (ii) to develop a uniform common structure whatever the production line, leading to a harmonisation of these process settings, and; (iii) to bring elements of a cost-benefit analysis of the management measures. The objective of this article is to explore how QMRA techniques and risk management metrics may be applied to aseptic-UHT-type processed food products. In particular, the aseptic-UHT process should benefit from a number of novel mathematical and statistical concepts that have been developed in the field of QMRA. Probabilistic techniques such as Monte Carlo simulation, Bayesian inference and sensitivity analysis, should help in assessing the compliance with safety and stability-related POs set at the end of the manufacturing

  16. ZoBell and his contributions to petroleum microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, C.

    2000-01-01

    The unique contributions that microbiologist Claude ZoBell has made toward the advancement of knowledge in petroleum microbiology was discussed. His research from 1938 to 1978 has provided opportunity for improved oil recovery, modification of petroleum products, knowledge of subsurface microbiology and remediation of polluted environments. Much of his work focused on the key role of microorganisms in the diagenesis of hydrocarbon products and in enhanced oil recovery. Petroleum microbiology is divided into the following six broad areas: (1) diagenesis of organic components in sediments and subsequent oleogenesis, (2) degradation of hydrocarbons, (3) improved recovery of hydrocarbons from reservoirs, (4) modification of hydrocarbon products in formation or post production, (5) mitigation of the effects of 'nuisance organisms' during production, and (6) bioremediation of escaped crude or processed product. ZoBell recognized that oil recovery could be improved using bacterial products such as acids and gases to help mobilisation and as a control agent in oil spill pollution. 26 refs

  17. A taxonomy of control in intensified processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzin, R.; Abd Shukor, S.R.; Ahmad, A.L.

    2006-01-01

    Process Intensification (PI) is a revolutionary approach to design, development and implementation of process and plant. PI technology offers improved environment in a chemical process in terms of better products, and processes which are safer, cleaner, smaller - and cheaper. PI is a strategy of making dramatic reductions in the size of unit operations within chemical plants, in order to achieve given production objectives. However, PI technology would be handicapped if such system is not properly controlled. There are some foreseeable problems in order to control such processes for instance, dynamic interaction between components that make up a control loop, response time of the instrumentations, availability of proper sensor and etc. In some cases, in order to control these systems, advanced control solutions have been applied i.e. model predictive controllers (MPC) and its different algorithms such as quadratic generalized predictive control (QGPC) and self tuning quadratic generalized predictive control (STQGPC). Nevertheless in some cases simpler solutions could be applied to control such system for example proportional integral controller in the control of reactive distillation systems. As mentioned, conventional control systems like proportional-integral, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers and their different structures can be used in PI systems but due to inherent nonlinearity and fast responsiveness of PI systems, digital controllers-regarding to their robustness-are mostly applied in order to control PI systems. Regarding to the fact that choosing the appropriate control strategy is the most essential part of making PI systems possible to be handle easily, taxonomy of the usage of various control structure in controlling PI systems is proposed. This paper offers an overview and discussion on identifying potential problems of instrumentation in PI technology and available control strategies

  18. Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J [Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary); Zukal, E [Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary)

    1992-01-01

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.)

  19. Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary)); Zukal, E. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary))

    1992-01-01

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.)

  20. Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Zukal, E.

    1992-01-01

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.) [de

  1. Geochemical processes controlling minewater pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, D.

    2004-01-01

    Minewater is a subset of groundwater, subject to broadly similar hydrochemical processes. In 'normal' groundwaters, access to oxidizing species is poor and acid-base reactions tend to dominate over oxidation reactions. Acid-base reactions such as carbonate dissolution and silicate hydrolysis consume protons and carbon dioxide, and release alkalinity and base cations. In mines, the atmospheric environment is rapidly introduced to the deep reducing geosphere (or vice versa in the case of mine waste deposits). This carries the possibility of intense and rapid oxidation of sulphide minerals such as pyrite, to such an extent that these acid-generating redox reactions may dominate over acid-base 'neutralization' reactions and result in the phenomenon of 'acid rock drainage' (ARD). In ARD, a negative correlation is typically observed between pH and concentrations of many metals and metalloids, base cations and sulphate. This correlation is due to genetic co-variation - generation of protons, sulphate and metals in sulphide weathering reactions, pH-dependent solubility of many ARD-related metals and low pH intensifying carbonate dissolution and silicate hydrolysis to release aluminium, silica and base cations. This paper examines the reactions involved in ARD generation and neutralization, and attempts to clarify key concepts such as pH, Eh, alkalinity, acidity and equilibrium constants. Refs. 42 (author)

  2. Nonparametric predictive inference in statistical process control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, G.R.J.; Coolen, F.P.A.; Laan, van der P.

    2000-01-01

    New methods for statistical process control are presented, where the inferences have a nonparametric predictive nature. We consider several problems in process control in terms of uncertainties about future observable random quantities, and we develop inferences for these random quantities hased on

  3. Nonparametric predictive inference in statistical process control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, G.R.J.; Coolen, F.P.A.; Laan, van der P.

    2004-01-01

    Statistical process control (SPC) is used to decide when to stop a process as confidence in the quality of the next item(s) is low. Information to specify a parametric model is not always available, and as SPC is of a predictive nature, we present a control chart developed using nonparametric

  4. Expert systems in process control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittig, T.

    1987-01-01

    To illustrate where the fundamental difference between expert systems in classical diagnosis and in industrial control lie, the work of process control instrumentation is used as an example for the job of expert systems. Starting from the general process of problem-solving, two classes of expert systems can be defined accordingly. (orig.) [de

  5. Microbiological Tests Performed During the Design of the International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support Systems. Part 1, Bulk Phase. Part 1; Bulk Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Mittelman, Marc W.

    2010-01-01

    The design and manufacturing of the main Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) for the United States segments of the International Space Station (ISS) was an involved process that started in the mid 1980s, with the assessment and testing of competing technologies that could be used to clean the air and recycle water. It culminated in 2009 with the delivery and successful activation of the Water Recovery System (WRS) water processor (WP). The ECLSS required the work of a team of engineers and scientist working together to develop systems that could clean and/or recycle human metabolic loads to maintain a clean atmosphere and provide the crew clean water. One of the main goals of the ECLSS is to minimize the time spent by the crew worrying about vital resources not available in the vacuum of space, which allows them to spend most of their time learning to live in a microgravity environment many miles from the comforts of Earth and working on science experiments. Microorganisms are a significant part of the human body as well as part of the environment that we live in. Therefore, the ISS ECLSS design had to take into account the effect microorganisms have on the quality of stored water and wastewater, as well as that of the air systems. Hardware performance issues impacted by the accumulation of biofilm and/or microbiologically influenced corrosion were also studied during the ECLSS development stages. Many of the tests that were performed had to take into account the unique aspects of a microgravity environment as well as the challenge of understanding how to design systems that could not be sterilized or maintained in a sterile state. This paper will summarize the work of several studies that were performed to assess the impacts and/or to minimize the effects of microorganisms in open, semi-closed and closed loop life support system. The biofilm and biodeterioration studies that were performed during the design and test periods will be presented in

  6. PROCESS VARIABILITY REDUCTION THROUGH STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL FOR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Mahesh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality has become one of the most important customer decision factors in the selection among the competing product and services. Consequently, understanding and improving quality is a key factor leading to business success, growth and an enhanced competitive position. Hence quality improvement program should be an integral part of the overall business strategy. According to TQM, the effective way to improve the Quality of the product or service is to improve the process used to build the product. Hence, TQM focuses on process, rather than results as the results are driven by the processes. Many techniques are available for quality improvement. Statistical Process Control (SPC is one such TQM technique which is widely accepted for analyzing quality problems and improving the performance of the production process. This article illustrates the step by step procedure adopted at a soap manufacturing company to improve the Quality by reducing process variability using Statistical Process Control.

  7. Advanced coking process control at Rautaruukki Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritamaki, O.; Luhtaniemi, H. [Rautaruukki Engineering (Finland)

    1999-12-01

    The paper presents the latest development of the Coking Process Management System (CPMS) at Raahe Steel. The latest third generation system is based on the previous system with the addition of fuzzy logic controllers. (The previous second generation system was based simultaneous feed forward and feedback control.) The system development has resulted in balanced coke oven battery heating, decreased variation in process regulation between shifts and increase of process information for operators. The economic results are very satisfactory. 7 figs.

  8. Engineering Process Monitoring for Control Room Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Bätz, M

    2001-01-01

    A major challenge in process operation is to reduce costs and increase system efficiency whereas the complexity of automated process engineering, control and monitoring systems increases continuously. To cope with this challenge the design, implementation and operation of process monitoring systems for control room operation have to be treated as an ensemble. This is only possible if the engineering of the monitoring information is focused on the production objective and is lead in close coll...

  9. Integrated control system for electron beam processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, L.; Koleva, E.; Batchkova, I.; Mladenov, G.

    2018-03-01

    The ISO/IEC 62264 standard is widely used for integration of the business systems of a manufacturer with the corresponding manufacturing control systems based on hierarchical equipment models, functional data and manufacturing operations activity models. In order to achieve the integration of control systems, formal object communication models must be developed, together with manufacturing operations activity models, which coordinate the integration between different levels of control. In this article, the development of integrated control system for electron beam welding process is presented as part of a fully integrated control system of an electron beam plant, including also other additional processes: surface modification, electron beam evaporation, selective melting and electron beam diagnostics.

  10. Control measurement system in purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, V.V.S.

    1985-01-01

    The dependence of a bulk facility handling Purex Process on the control measurement system for evaluating the process performance needs hardly be emphasized. process control, Plant control, inventory control and quality control are the four components of the control measurement system. The scope and requirements of each component are different and the measurement methods are selected accordingly. However, each measurement system has six important elements. These are described in detail. The quality assurance programme carried out by the laboratory as a mechanism through which the quality of measurements is regularly tested and stated in quantitative terms is also explained in terms of internal and external quality assurance, with examples. Suggestions for making the control measurement system more responsive to the operational needs in future are also briefly discussed. (author)

  11. Memory-type control charts in statistical process control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, N.

    2012-01-01

    Control chart is the most important statistical tool to manage the business processes. It is a graph of measurements on a quality characteristic of the process on the vertical axis plotted against time on the horizontal axis. The graph is completed with control limits that cause variation mark. Once

  12. Optimization and control of metal forming processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Gosse Tjipke

    2016-01-01

    Inevitable variations in process and material properties limit the accuracy of metal forming processes. Robust optimization methods or control systems can be used to improve the production accuracy. Robust optimization methods are used to design production processes with low sensitivity to the

  13. Construction of Genetically Engineered Streptococcus gordonii Strains to Provide Control in QPCR Assays for Assessing Microbiological Quality in Recreational Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative PCR (QPCR) methods for beach monitoring by estimating abundance of Enterococcus spp. in recreational waters use internal, positive controls which address only the amplification of target DNA. In this study two internal, positive controls were developed to control for...

  14. Effect of processing on the physicochemical, sensory, nutritional and microbiological quality of fresh-cut 'Rojo Brillante' persimmon

    OpenAIRE

    SANCHÍS SOLER, ELENA

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) 'Rojo Brillante' is an astringent variety characterised by good growing conditions, excellent colour, size, sensory characteristics and good nutritional properties. In the last decade, its production has grown substantially in Spain given the application of high levels of CO2 to remove astringency while firmness is preserved. This technology has also increased its potential as a fresh-cut commodity. However, physical damage during processing result in degrad...

  15. Discrete Control Processes, Dynamic Games and Multicriterion Control Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Lozovanu

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The discrete control processes with state evaluation in time of dynamical system is considered. A general model of control problems with integral-time cost criterion by a trajectory is studied and a general scheme for solving such classes of problems is proposed. In addition the game-theoretical and multicriterion models for control problems are formulated and studied.

  16. Testing a Constrained MPC Controller in a Process Control Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardez-Sandoval, Luis A.; Blankespoor, Wesley; Budman, Hector M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment performed by the fourth year chemical engineering students in the process control laboratory at the University of Waterloo. The objective of this experiment is to test the capabilities of a constrained Model Predictive Controller (MPC) to control the operation of a Double Pipe Heat Exchanger (DPHE) in real time.…

  17. Linearizing control of continuous anaerobic fermentation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babary, J.P. [Centre National d`Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 31 - Toulouse (France). Laboratoire d`Analyse et d`Architecture des Systemes; Simeonov, I. [Institute of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Bulgaria); Ljubenova, V. [Institute of Control and System Research, BAS (Country unknown/Code not available); Dochain, D. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    1997-09-01

    Biotechnological processes (BTP) involve living organisms. In the anaerobic fermentation (biogas production process) the organic matter is mineralized by microorganisms into biogas (methane and carbon dioxide) in the absence of oxygen. The biogas is an additional energy source. Generally this process is carried out as a continuous BTP. It has been widely used in life process and has been confirmed as a promising method of solving some energy and ecological problems in the agriculture and industry. Because of the very restrictive on-line information the control of this process in continuous mode is often reduced to control of the biogas production rate or the concentration of the polluting organic matter (de-pollution control) at a desired value in the presence of some perturbations. Investigations show that classical linear controllers have good performances only in the linear zone of the strongly non-linear input-output characteristics. More sophisticated robust and with variable structure (VSC) controllers are studied. Due to the strongly non-linear dynamics of the process the performances of the closed loop system may be degrading in this case. The aim of this paper is to investigate different linearizing algorithms for control of a continuous non-linear methane fermentation process using the dilution rate as a control action and taking into account some practical implementation aspects. (authors) 8 refs.

  18. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: research challenges concerning the impact of airborne micro-organisms on the atmosphere and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Morris

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past 200 years, the field of aerobiology has explored the abundance, diversity, survival and transport of micro-organisms in the atmosphere. Micro-organisms have been explored as passive and severely stressed riders of atmospheric transport systems. Recently, an interest in the active roles of these micro-organisms has emerged along with proposals that the atmosphere is a global biome for microbial metabolic activity and perhaps even multiplication. As part of a series of papers on the sources, distribution and roles in atmospheric processes of biological particles in the atmosphere, here we describe the pertinence of questions relating to the potential roles that air-borne micro-organisms might play in meteorological phenomena. For the upcoming era of research on the role of air-borne micro-organisms in meteorological phenomena, one important challenge is to go beyond descriptions of abundance of micro-organisms in the atmosphere toward an understanding of their dynamics in terms of both biological and physico-chemical properties and of the relevant transport processes at different scales. Another challenge is to develop this understanding under contexts pertinent to their potential role in processes related to atmospheric chemistry, the formation of clouds, precipitation and radiative forcing. This will require truly interdisciplinary approaches involving collaborators from the biological and physical sciences, from disciplines as disparate as agronomy, microbial genetics and atmosphere physics, for example.

  19. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: research challenges concerning the impact of airborne micro-organisms on the atmosphere and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C. E.; Sands, D. C.; Bardin, M.; Jaenicke, R.; Vogel, B.; Leyronas, C.; Ariya, P. A.; Psenner, R.

    2011-01-01

    For the past 200 years, the field of aerobiology has explored the abundance, diversity, survival and transport of micro-organisms in the atmosphere. Micro-organisms have been explored as passive and severely stressed riders of atmospheric transport systems. Recently, an interest in the active roles of these micro-organisms has emerged along with proposals that the atmosphere is a global biome for microbial metabolic activity and perhaps even multiplication. As part of a series of papers on the sources, distribution and roles in atmospheric processes of biological particles in the atmosphere, here we describe the pertinence of questions relating to the potential roles that air-borne micro-organisms might play in meteorological phenomena. For the upcoming era of research on the role of air-borne micro-organisms in meteorological phenomena, one important challenge is to go beyond descriptions of abundance of micro-organisms in the atmosphere toward an understanding of their dynamics in terms of both biological and physico-chemical properties and of the relevant transport processes at different scales. Another challenge is to develop this understanding under contexts pertinent to their potential role in processes related to atmospheric chemistry, the formation of clouds, precipitation and radiative forcing. This will require truly interdisciplinary approaches involving collaborators from the biological and physical sciences, from disciplines as disparate as agronomy, microbial genetics and atmosphere physics, for example.

  20. Markov processes and controlled Markov chains

    CERN Document Server

    Filar, Jerzy; Chen, Anyue

    2002-01-01

    The general theory of stochastic processes and the more specialized theory of Markov processes evolved enormously in the second half of the last century. In parallel, the theory of controlled Markov chains (or Markov decision processes) was being pioneered by control engineers and operations researchers. Researchers in Markov processes and controlled Markov chains have been, for a long time, aware of the synergies between these two subject areas. However, this may be the first volume dedicated to highlighting these synergies and, almost certainly, it is the first volume that emphasizes the contributions of the vibrant and growing Chinese school of probability. The chapters that appear in this book reflect both the maturity and the vitality of modern day Markov processes and controlled Markov chains. They also will provide an opportunity to trace the connections that have emerged between the work done by members of the Chinese school of probability and the work done by the European, US, Central and South Ameri...

  1. Microbiological and Hydrogeochemical Controls on Anaerobic Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons: Case Study from Fort McCoy, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, M. E.; Zwolinski, M. D.; Taglia, P. J.; Bahr, J. M.; Hickey, W. J.

    2001-05-01

    We are investigating the role of anaerobic processes that control field-scale BTEX loss using a variety of experimental and numerical techniques. Tracer tests, laboratory microcosms, and in situ microcosms (ISMs) were designed to examine BTEX biodegradation under intrinsic and enhanced anaerobic conditions in a BTEX plume at Fort McCoy, WI. In the tracer tests, addition of nitrate resulted in loss of toluene, ethylbenzene, and m, p-xylenes but not benzene. Laboratory microcosm and ISM experiments confirmed that nitrate addition is not likely to enhance benzene biodegradation at the site. Excess nitrate losses were observed in both field and laboratory experiments, indicating that reliance on theoretical stoichiometric equations to estimate contaminant mass losses should be re-evaluated. To examine changes in microbial community during biodegradation of BTEX under enhanced nitrate-reducing conditions, DNA was extracted from laboratory microcosm sediment, the 16S-rRNA gene was amplified using eubacterial primers, and products were separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Banding patterns suggest that nitrate caused more of a community change than BTEX. These data suggest that nitrate plays an important role in microbial population selection. Numerical simulations were conducted to simulate the evolution of the BTEX plume and to quantify BTEX losses due to intrinsic and nitrate-enhanced biodegradation. Results suggest that the majority of intrinsic BTEX mass loss has occurred under aerobic and iron-reducing conditions. Due to depletion of solid-phase Fe(III) over time, however, future BTEX losses under iron-reducing conditions will decrease, and methanogenesis will play an increasingly important role in controlling biodegradation. The simulations also suggest that although nitrate addition will decrease TEX concentrations, source removal with intrinsic biodegradation is likely the most effective treatment method for the site.

  2. Irradiation of watercress (Nasturtium officinale) minimally processed: microbiological and sensory aspects;Irradiacao de agriao (Nasturtium oficinallis) minimamente processado: aspectos microbiologicos e sensoriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Cecilia Geraldes

    2004-07-01

    Consumer attitudes towards foods have changed in the last two decades increasing requirements for fresh like products. Consequently less extreme treatments or additives are being required. Minimally processed foods have fresh like characteristics and satisfy this new consumer demand. Besides freshness, the minimally processing also provide convenience required by the market. Salad vegetables can be source of pathogen such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. The minimally processing does not reduce the levels of pathogenic microorganisms to safe levels. Therefore, this study was carried out in order to improve the microbiological safety and the shelf-life of minimally processed vegetables using gamma radiation. Minimally processed watercress inoculated with a cocktail of Salmonella spp was exposed to 0.0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, 1.2 and 1.5 kGy. D10 values for Salmonella spp inoculated in watercress varied from 0.29 to 0.43 kGy. Samples of watercress exposed of 1, 3 e 4 kGy and non-irradiated sample, stored at 7 deg C, were submitted to sensory evaluation and their shelf-life was determined. All samples were accepted by members of sensory panel. The shelf-life of sample irradiated with 1 kGy was 16 days (one and half day more than shelf-life of non-irradiated sample) and samples exposed to 3 and 4 kGy presented shelf-life of 9 and o days, respectively. (author)

  3. ANALYTICAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment that performs a broad array of microbiological analyses for pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It performs challenge studies...

  4. Environmental Microbiology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, located in Bldg. 644 provides a dual-gas respirometer for measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide evolution...

  5. A NEW BENCHMARK FOR PLANTWIDE PROCESS CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Klafke

    Full Text Available Abstract The hydrodealkylation process of toluene (HDA has been used as a case study in a large number of control studies. However, in terms of industrial application, this process has become obsolete and is nowadays superseded by new technologies capable of processing heavy aromatic compounds, which increase the added value of the raw materials, such as the process of transalkylation and disproportionation of toluene (TADP. TADP also presents more complex feed and product streams and challenging operational characteristics both in the reactor and separator sections than in HDA. This work is aimed at proposing the TADP process as a new benchmark for plantwide control studies in lieu of the HAD process. For this purpose, a nonlinear dynamic rigorous model for the TADP process was developed using Aspen Plus™ and Aspen Dynamics™ and industrial conditions. Plantwide control structures (oriented to control and to the process were adapted and applied for the first time for this process. The results show that, even though both strategies are similar in terms of control performance, the optimization of economic factors must still be sought.

  6. Intelligent Controller Design for a Chemical Process

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Glan Devadhas G; Dr.Pushpakumar S.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical process control is a challenging problem due to the strong on*line non*linearity and extreme sensitivity to disturbances of the process. Ziegler – Nichols tuned PI and PID controllers are found to provide poor performances for higher*order and non–linear systems. This paper presents an application of one*step*ahead fuzzy as well as ANFIS (adaptive*network*based fuzzy inference system) tuning scheme for an Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor CSTR process. The controller is designed based ...

  7. Internal Decoupling in Nonlinear Process Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G. Balchen

    1988-07-01

    Full Text Available A simple method has been investigated for the total or partial removal of the effect of non-linear process phenomena in multi-variable feedback control systems. The method is based upon computing the control variables which will drive the process at desired rates. It is shown that the effect of model errors in the linearization of the process can be partly removed through the use of large feedback gains. In practice there will be limits on how large gains can he used. The sensitivity to parameter errors is less pronounced and the transient behaviour is superior to that of ordinary PI controllers.

  8. Microbiological hazard analysis of ready-to-eat meats processed at a food plant in Trinidad, West Indies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey-Marie Syne

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: A bacteriological assessment of the environment and food products at different stages of processing was conducted during the manufacture of ready-to-eat (RTE chicken franks, chicken bologna and bacon at a large meat processing plant in Trinidad, West Indies. Methods: Samples of air, surfaces (swabs, raw materials, and in-process and finished food products were collected during two separate visits for each product type and subjected to qualitative or quantitative analysis for bacterial zoonotic pathogens and fecal indicator organisms. Results: Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen detected in pre-cooked products (mean counts = 0.66, 1.98, and 1.95 log10CFU/g for franks, bologna, and bacon, respectively. This pathogen was also found in unacceptable levels in 4 (16.7% of 24 post-cooked samples. Fifty percent (10 of 20 of pre-cooked mixtures of bacon and bologna were contaminated with Listeria spp., including four with L. monocytogenes. Pre-cooked mixtures of franks and bologna also contained E. coli (35 and 0.72 log10 CFU/g, respectively while 5 (12.5% of 40 pre-cooked mixtures of chicken franks had Salmonella spp. Aerobic bacteria exceeded acceptable international standards in 46 (82.1% of 56 pre-cooked and 6 (16.7% of 36 post-cooked samples. Both pre-and post-cooking air and surfaces had relatively high levels of aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and coliforms, including equipment and gloves of employees. A drastic decrease in aerobic counts and Staphylococcus aureus levels following heat treatment and subsequent increase in counts of these bacteria are suggestive of post-cooking contamination. Conclusion: A relatively high level of risk exists for microbial contamination of RTE meats at the food plant investigated and there is a need for enhancing the quality assurance programs to ensure the safety of consumers of products manufactured at this plant.

  9. Variation and Control of Process Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlicki, Todd; Whitaker, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to highlight the importance of controlling process variability for successful quality assurance (QA). We describe the method of statistical process control for characterizing and controlling a process. Traditionally, QA has been performed by comparing some important measurement (e.g., linear accelerator output) against a corresponding specification. Although useful in determining the fitness of a particular measurement, this approach does not provide information about the underlying process behavior over time. A modern view of QA is to consider the time-ordered behavior of a process. Every process displays characteristic behaviors that are independent of the specifications imposed on it. The goal of modern QA is, not only to ensure that a process is on-target, but that it is also operating with minimal variation. This is accomplished by way of a data-driven approach using process behavior charts. The development of process behavior charts, historically known as control charts, and process behavior (action) limits are described. The effect these concepts have on quality management is also discussed

  10. The effects on the microbiological condition of product of carcass dressing, cooling, and portioning processes at a poultry packing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, C O; Moza, L F; Badoni, M; Barbut, S

    2006-07-15

    The log mean numbers of aerobes, coliforms, Escherichia coli and presumptive staphylococci plus listerias on chicken carcasses and carcass portions at various stages of processing at a poultry packing plant were estimated from the numbers of those bacteria recovered from groups of 25 randomly selected product units. The fractions of listerias in the presumptive staphylococci plus listerias groups of organisms were also estimated. Samples were obtained from carcasses by excising a strip of skin measuring approximately 5 x 2 cm(2) from a randomly selected site on each selected carcass, or by rinsing each selected carcass portion. The log mean numbers of aerobes, coliforms, E. coli and presumptive staphylococci plus listerias on carcasses after scalding at 58 degrees C and plucking were about 4.4, 2.5, 2.2 and 1.4 log cfu/cm(2), respectively. The numbers of bacteria on eviscerated carcasses were similar. After the series of operations for removing the crop, lungs, kidneys and neck, the numbers of aerobes were about 1 log unit less than on eviscerated carcasses, but the numbers of the other bacteria were not substantially reduced. After cooling in water, the numbers of coliforms and E. coli were about 1 log unit less and the numbers of presumptive staphylococci plus listerias were about 0.5 log unit less than the numbers on dressed carcasses, but the numbers of aerobes were not reduced. The numbers of aerobes were 1 log unit more on boneless breasts, and 0.5 log units more on skin-on thighs and breasts that had been tumbled with brine than on cooled carcasses; and presumptive staphylococci plus listerias were 0.5 log unit more on thighs than on cooled carcasses. Otherwise the numbers of bacteria on the product were not substantially affected by processing. Listerias were 40% of the organisms were listerias.

  11. Engineering Process Monitoring for Control Room Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Bätz, M

    2001-01-01

    A major challenge in process operation is to reduce costs and increase system efficiency whereas the complexity of automated process engineering, control and monitoring systems increases continuously. To cope with this challenge the design, implementation and operation of process monitoring systems for control room operation have to be treated as an ensemble. This is only possible if the engineering of the monitoring information is focused on the production objective and is lead in close collaboration of control room teams, exploitation personnel and process specialists. In this paper some principles for the engineering of monitoring information for control room operation are developed at the example of the exploitation of a particle accelerator at the European Laboratory for Nuclear Research (CERN).

  12. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Pei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China.

  13. Phylogenetic Relations of Bacillus thuringiensis: Implications for Risks Associated to Its Use as a Microbiological Pest Control Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, N. B.; Hansen, B. M.

    1998-01-01

    6th European Meeting Microbial Control of Pests in Sustainable Agriculture, Copenhagen, (Denmark), 10-15 August 1997.......6th European Meeting Microbial Control of Pests in Sustainable Agriculture, Copenhagen, (Denmark), 10-15 August 1997....

  14. ANALYSIS OF AIR QUALITY IN SELECTED AREAS OF A POULTRY PROCESSING PLANT WITH THE USE OF A MICROBIOLOGICAL AIR SAMPLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Konieczny

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to analyze the air quality in selected production facilities specified as the so-called "high-risk zones". Air samples were analyzed using either the sedimentation or the impaction methods. The impaction method showed the applicability of the air sampler in in-situ measurements. An increase in the numbers of aerobic bacteria was observed in most air sample collection sites as the duration of the production time increased. At the three successive dates, it amounted to 163 cfu/m3, 205 cfu/m3, and 324 cfu/m3, respectively. Such dependence was not observed by the of sedimentation method. It was stated that the impaction technique is better to precisely determine numbers of bacteria, yeast, and molds in the air of poultry processing areas. Analyses showed a high level of microbial air contamination in the examined production areas in relation to the guidelines applied in the assessment of indoor air contamination. Based on the recorded results, it was recommended to undertake immediate corrective actions, consisting in the replacement of filters in the refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, as well as to provide comprehensive training for the employees working in the selected facilities.

  15. Processing implicit control: evidence from reading times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eMcCourt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sentences such as The ship was sunk to collect the insurance exhibit an unusual form of anaphora, implicit control, where neither anaphor nor antecedent is audible. The nonfinite reason clause has an understood subject, PRO, that is anaphoric; here it may be understood as naming the agent of the event of the host clause. Yet since the host is a short passive, this agent is realized by no audible dependent. The putative antecedent to PRO is therefore implicit, which it normally cannot be. What sorts of representations subserve the comprehension of this dependency? Here we present four self-paced reading time studies directed at this question. Previous work showed no processing cost for implicit versus explicit control, and took this to support the view that PRO is linked syntactically to a silent argument in the passive. We challenge this conclusion by reporting that we also find no processing cost for remote implicit control, as in: The ship was sunk. The reason was to collect the insurance. Here the dependency crosses two independent sentences, and so cannot, we argue, be mediated by syntax. Our Experiments 1-4 examined the processing of both implicit (short passive and explicit (active or long passive control in both local and remote configurations. Experiments 3 and 4 added either three days ago or just in order to the local conditions, to control for the distance between the passive and infinitival verbs, and for the predictability of the reason clause, respectively. We replicate the finding that implicit control does not impose an additional processing cost. But critically we show that remote control does not impose a processing cost either. Reading times at the reason clause were never slower when control was remote. In fact they were always faster. Thus efficient processing of local implicit control cannot show that implicit control is mediated by syntax; nor, in turn, that there is a silent but grammatically active argument in passives.

  16. Modern control of mineral wool production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankov Stanko P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the control of the plant for mineral wool production consisting of a number of the technological units of different sizes and complexity is considered. The application of modern equipment based on PLC (Programmable Logic Controller and SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition configuration provides optimal control of technological process. Described supervisory and control system is consisting of a number of units doing decentralized distributed control of technological entities where all possible situation are considered during work of machines and devices, which are installed in electric drive and are protected from technological and electrical accident. Transformer station and diesel engine, raw materials transport and dosage, processes in dome oven, centrifuges, polycondensation (PC chamber, burners, compressor station, binder preparation and dosage, wool cutting, completed panel packing and their transport to storehouse are controlled. Process variables and parameters like as level, flow, velocity, temperature, pressure, etc. are controlled. Control system is doing identification of process states changes, diagnostic and prediction of errors and provides prediction of behavior of control objects when input flows of materials and generates optimal values of control variables due to decreasing downtime and technic - economical requires connected to wool quality to be achieved. Supervisory and control system either eliminates unwanted changes in the production line or restricts them within the allowable limits according to the technology. In this way, the optimization of energy and raw materials consumption and appropriate products quality is achieved, where requirements are satisfied in accordance with process safety and environmental standards. SCADA provides a visual representation of controlled and uncontrolled parts of the technological process, processing alarms and events, monitoring of the changes of relevant

  17. Vertical distribution of bacteria and intensity of microbiological processes in two stratified gypsum Karst Lakes in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krevs A.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical-chemical parameters and the vertical distribution of bacteria and organic matter production-destruction processes were studied during midsummer stratification in two karst lakes (Kirkilai and Ramunelis located in northern Lithuania. The lakes were characterized by high sulfate concentrations (369–1248 mg·L-1. The O2/H2S intersection zone formed at 2–3 m depth. In Lake Kirkilai, the highest bacterial densities (up to 8.7 × 106 cell·mL-1 occurred at the O2/H2S intersection zone, whereas in Lake Ramunelis the highest densities were observed in the anoxic hypolimnion (up to 11 × 106 cell·mL-1. Pigment analysis revealed that green sulfur bacteria dominated in the microaerobic–anaerobic water layers in both lakes. The most intensive development of sulfate-reducing bacteria was observed in the anaerobic layer. Photosynthetic production of organic matter was highest in the upper layer. Rates of sulfate reduction reached 0.23 mg S2−·dm3·d-1 in the microaerobic-anaerobic water layer and 1.97 mg S2−·dm3·d-1 in sediments. Karst lakes are very sensitive to organic pollution, because under such impact in the presence of high sulfate amounts, sulfate reduction may become very intensive and, consequently, the increase in hydrogen sulfide and development of sulfur cycle bacteria may reduce the variety of other hydrobionts.

  18. Control of Neutralization Process Using Soft Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balasubramanian

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel model-based nonlinear control strategy is proposed using an experimental pH neutralization process. The control strategy involves a non linear neural network (NN model, in the context of internal model control (IMC. When integrated into the internal model control scheme, the resulting controller is shown to have favorable practical implications as well as superior performance. The designed model based online IMC controller was implemented to a laboratory scaled pH process in real time using dSPACE 1104 interface card. The responses of pH and acid flow rate shows good tracking for both the set point and load chances over the entire nonlinear region.

  19. Fuzzy systems for process identification and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorrini, V.; Bersini, H.

    1994-01-01

    Various issues related to the automatic construction and on-line adaptation of fuzzy controllers are addressed. A Direct Adaptive Fuzzy Control (this is an adaptive control methodology requiring a minimal knowledge of the processes to be coupled with) derived in a way reminiscent of neurocontrol methods, is presented. A classical fuzzy controller and a fuzzy realization of a PID controller is discussed. These systems implement a highly non-linear control law, and provide to be quite robust, even in the case of noisy inputs. In order to identify dynamic processes of order superior to one, we introduce a more complex architecture, called Recurrent Fuzzy System, that use some fuzzy internal variables to perform an inferential chaining.I

  20. Improving Accuracy of Processing Through Active Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Barbashov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An important task of modern mathematical statistics with its methods based on the theory of probability is a scientific estimate of measurement results. There are certain costs under control, and under ineffective control when a customer has got defective products these costs are significantly higher because of parts recall.When machining the parts, under the influence of errors a range scatter of part dimensions is offset towards the tolerance limit. To improve a processing accuracy and avoid defective products involves reducing components of error in machining, i.e. to improve the accuracy of machine and tool, tool life, rigidity of the system, accuracy of the adjustment. In a given time it is also necessary to adapt machine.To improve an accuracy and a machining rate there, currently  become extensively popular various the in-process gaging devices and controlled machining that uses adaptive control systems for the process monitoring. Improving the accuracy in this case is compensation of a majority of technological errors. The in-cycle measuring sensors (sensors of active control allow processing accuracy improvement by one or two quality and provide a capability for simultaneous operation of several machines.Efficient use of in-cycle measuring sensors requires development of methods to control the accuracy through providing the appropriate adjustments. Methods based on the moving average, appear to be the most promising for accuracy control since they include data on the change in some last measured values of the parameter under control.

  1. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...

  2. Statistical process control for residential treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia K. Lebow; Timothy M. Young; Stan Lebow

    2017-01-01

    This paper is the first stage of a study that attempts to improve the process of manufacturing treated lumber through the use of statistical process control (SPC). Analysis of industrial and auditing agency data sets revealed there are differences between the industry and agency probability density functions (pdf) for normalized retention data. Resampling of batches of...

  3. Integrated Process Design, Control and Analysis of Intensified Chemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil

    chemical processes; for example, intensified processes such as reactive distillation. Most importantly, it identifies and eliminates potentially promising design alternatives that may have controllability problems later. To date, a number of methodologies have been proposed and applied on various problems......, that the same principles that apply to a binary non-reactive compound system are valid also for a binary-element or a multi-element system. Therefore, it is advantageous to employ the element based method for multicomponent reaction-separation systems. It is shown that the same design-control principles...

  4. Welding process decoupling for improved control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardt, D.E.; Eagar, T.W.; Lang, J.H.; Jones, L.

    1993-01-01

    The Gas Metal Arc Welding Process is characterized by many important process outputs, all of which should be controlled to ensure consistent high performance joints. However, application of multivariable control methods is confounded by the strong physical coupling of typical outputs of bead shape and thermal properties. This coupling arises from the three dimensional thermal diffusion processes inherent in welding, and cannot be overcome without significant process modification. This paper presents data on the extent of coupling of the process, and proposes process changes to overcome such strong output coupling. Work in rapid torch vibration to change the heat input distribution is detailed, and methods for changing the heat balance between base and fill material heat are described

  5. Supporting Cross-Organizational Process Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelov, Samuil; Vonk, Jochem; Vidyasankar, Krishnamurthy; Grefen, Paul

    E-contracts express the rights and obligations of parties through a formal, digital representation of the contract provisions. In process intensive relationships, e-contracts contain business processes that a party promises to perform for the counter party, optionally allowing monitoring of the execution of the promised processes. In this paper, we describe an approach in which the counter party is allowed to control the process execution. This approach will lead to more flexible and efficient business relations which are essential in the context of modern, highly dynamic and complex collaborations among companies. We present a specification of the process controls available to the consumer and their support in the private process specification of the provider.

  6. Microcrystalline silicon deposition: Process stability and process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donker, M.N. van den; Kilper, T.; Grunsky, D.; Rech, B.; Houben, L.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Sanden, M.C.M. van de

    2007-01-01

    Applying in situ process diagnostics, we identified several process drifts occurring in the parallel plate plasma deposition of microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H). These process drifts are powder formation (visible from diminishing dc-bias and changing spatial emission profile on a time scale of 10 0 s), transient SiH 4 depletion (visible from a decreasing SiH emission intensity on a time scale of 10 2 s), plasma heating (visible from an increasing substrate temperature on a time scale of 10 3 s) and a still puzzling long-term drift (visible from a decreasing SiH emission intensity on a time scale of 10 4 s). The effect of these drifts on the crystalline volume fraction in the deposited films is investigated by selected area electron diffraction and depth-profiled Raman spectroscopy. An example shows how the transient depletion and long-term drift can be prevented by suitable process control. Solar cells deposited using this process control show enhanced performance. Options for process control of plasma heating and powder formation are discussed

  7. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubler, W.F.; O'Hara, J..M.

    1996-01-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls

  8. Fault Tolerant Control Using Gaussian Processes and Model Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiaoke

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential ingredients for fault-tolerant control are the ability to represent system behaviour following the occurrence of a fault, and the ability to exploit this representation for deciding control actions. Gaussian processes seem to be very promising candidates for the first of these, and model predictive control has a proven capability for the second. We therefore propose to use the two together to obtain fault-tolerant control functionality. Our proposal is illustrated by several reasonably realistic examples drawn from flight control.

  9. Controlling Laboratory Processes From A Personal Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, H.; Mackin, M. A.

    1991-01-01

    Computer program provides natural-language process control from IBM PC or compatible computer. Sets up process-control system that either runs without operator or run by workers who have limited programming skills. Includes three smaller programs. Two of them, written in FORTRAN 77, record data and control research processes. Third program, written in Pascal, generates FORTRAN subroutines used by other two programs to identify user commands with device-driving routines written by user. Also includes set of input data allowing user to define user commands to be executed by computer. Requires personal computer operating under MS-DOS with suitable hardware interfaces to all controlled devices. Also requires FORTRAN 77 compiler and device drivers written by user.

  10. Modeling and Advanced Control for Sustainable Process ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter introduces a novel process systems engineering framework that integrates process control with sustainability assessment tools for the simultaneous evaluation and optimization of process operations. The implemented control strategy consists of a biologically-inspired, multi-agent-based method. The sustainability and performance assessment of process operating points is carried out using the U.S. E.P.A.’s GREENSCOPE assessment tool that provides scores for the selected economic, material management, environmental and energy indicators. The indicator results supply information on whether the implementation of the controller is moving the process towards a more sustainable operation. The effectiveness of the proposed framework is illustrated through a case study of a continuous bioethanol fermentation process whose dynamics are characterized by steady-state multiplicity and oscillatory behavior. This book chapter contribution demonstrates the application of novel process control strategies for sustainability by increasing material management, energy efficiency, and pollution prevention, as needed for SHC Sustainable Uses of Wastes and Materials Management.

  11. Avaliação da qualidade microbiológica de hortaliças minimamente processadas Microbiological quality evaluation minimally processed vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Fernanda Metler Tresseler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A microbiota é um fator de grande importância na qualidade e conservação de vegetais minimamente processados. Muitos microrganismos podem afetar adversamente a qualidade e a segurança desses produtos, considerando que microrganismos patogênicos, que normalmente não estariam presentes, passam a compor a microbiota contaminante decorrente do manuseio a que são submetidos. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, determinar a qualidade microbiológica de hortaliças, anterior e posteriormente ao processo de sanitização, como também o período final da vida-de-prateleira dos produtos sanitizados, avaliando-se a presença de Listeria sp., Listeria monocytogenes e Salmonella sp. Foram analisadas amostras de agrião, alface, cenoura ralada, espinafre, repolho verde ralado e rúcula minimamente processados. As amostras não sanitizadas foram analisadas no dia da coleta, e as sanitizadas analisadas a 1, 5 e 8 dias após o processamento, a fim de determinar a condição microbiológica dos produtos. As hortaliças foram armazenadas sob temperatura de 5ºC. Salmonella sp. foi detectada em 12,7% das amostras, enquanto L. monocytogenes não foi encontrada em nenhuma delas, embora outras espécies de Listeria tenham sido isoladas de alface e cenoura. A presença de Salmonella sp. tornaram 16 amostras impróprias para o consumo humano, de acordo com a RDC nº 12.The microbiota is a factor of great importance to the quality and conservation of minimally processed vegetables. Many microorganisms may adversely affect the quality and safety of these products, considering that normally present pathogenic microorganisms may eventually compose the polluting microbiota whenever being submitted to handling. This work aimed to determine both: vegetable microbiologic quality, prior and post-sanitization process as well as products post-sanitization shelf-life expiring date, while the presence of Listeria sp., Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella sp. was evaluated. The

  12. Intelligent Predictive Control of Nonlienar Processes Using

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Peter Magnus; Sørensen, Paul Haase; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to design of generalized predictive controllers (GPC) for nonlinear processes. A neural network is used for modelling the process and a gain-scheduling type of GPC is subsequently designed. The combination of neural network models and predictive control has...... frequently been discussed in the neural network community. This paper proposes an approximate scheme, the approximate predictive control (APC), which facilitates the implementation and gives a substantial reduction in the required amount of computations. The method is based on a technique for extracting...... linear models from a nonlinear neural network and using them in designing the control system. The performance of the controller is demonstrated in a simulation study of a pneumatic servo system...

  13. Novel strategies for control of fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa

    to highly optimised industrial host strains. The focus of this project is instead on en-gineering of the process. The question to be answered in this thesis is, given a highly optimised industrial host strain, how can we operate the fermentation process in order to maximise the productivity of the system...... (2012). This model describes the fungal processes operated in the fermentation pilot plant at Novozymes A/S. This model is investigated using uncertainty analysis methods in order to as-sess the applicability to control applications. A mechanistic model approach is desirable, as it is a predictive....... This provides a prediction of the future trajectory of the process, so that it is possible to guide the system to the desired target mass. The control strategy is applied on-line at 550L scale in the Novozymes A/S fermentation pilot plant, and the method is challenged with four different sets of process...

  14. Technical feasibility of using silver and copper ions electro generated in the microbiological control of cooling systems; Factibilidad tecnica para emplear iones plata y cobre electrogenerados en el control microbiologico de los sistemas de enfriamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Susana M; Martinez Meza, Esteban; Alvarez Gallegos, Alberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the technical feasibility of replacing the chlorine use by another biocida (ionization of silver or copper) non dangerous in cooling waters. This technique of ionization could be used to treat the water of industrial processes in general. The used water came from the make up water of the cooling system of the Thermoelectric Power Station of Valle de Mexico (CTEVM) and residual water of the treatment plants of the Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua (IMTA) (Mexican Institute of WaterTechnology) and the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). The three types of water used have similar physical, chemical and biological characteristics. The used methodology was the jar tests and by continuous system. The bacteriological analysis is indicated reaching the conclusion. The metallic systems studied in the establishment of the microbiological control in the residual water and make up water are silver, silver/copper and copper in the concentration intervals of 200 mg/l to 3000 mg/l of silver and 200 mg/l to 1200 mg/l of copper. The experiments performed in the jar tests (closed system) were carried out at two temperatures (25 {+-} 0.5 and 32 {+-} 0.5 ) without pH control; whereas in the continuous system the pH was maintained in the pH interval of 7 to 8 by means of the sulfuric acid addition and a delta temperature of 10 was maintained (27 {+-} 5 ). The pH, the conductivity and the temperature were continuously measured. Graphs are shown on the effect silver/copper ions on the annihilation of total coliform bacteria and fecal coliforms the effect of the concentration of the silver metallic ion is given as a figure on the annihilation of bacteria related to iron. It is possible to conclude that the plant systems studied of silver/copper and copper turned out to be a good alternative with a minimum environmental impact to replace chlorine in the cooling systems. These systems managed microbiologically to lower the

  15. Application of artificial intelligence in process control

    CERN Document Server

    Krijgsman, A

    1993-01-01

    This book is the result of a united effort of six European universities to create an overall course on the appplication of artificial intelligence (AI) in process control. The book includes an introduction to key areas including; knowledge representation, expert, logic, fuzzy logic, neural network, and object oriented-based approaches in AI. Part two covers the application to control engineering, part three: Real-Time Issues, part four: CAD Systems and Expert Systems, part five: Intelligent Control and part six: Supervisory Control, Monitoring and Optimization.

  16. Multivariable adaptive control of bio process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, M.; Bahhou, B.; Roux, G. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Maher, M. [Faculte des Sciences, Rabat (Morocco). Lab. de Physique

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a multivariable adaptive control of a continuous-flow fermentation process for the alcohol production. The linear quadratic control strategy is used for the regulation of substrate and ethanol concentrations in the bioreactor. The control inputs are the dilution rate and the influent substrate concentration. A robust identification algorithm is used for the on-line estimation of linear MIMO model`s parameters. Experimental results of a pilot-plant fermenter application are reported and show the control performances. (authors) 8 refs.

  17. Microbiological treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    The ability of microorganisms which are ubiquitous throughout nature to bring about information of organic and inorganic compounds in radioactive wastes has been recognized. Unlike organic contaminants, metals cannot be destroyed, but must be either removed or converted to a stable form. Radionuclides and toxic metals in wastes may be present initially in soluble form or, after disposal may be converted to a soluble form by chemical or microbiological processes. The key microbiological reactions include (i) oxidation/reduction; (ii) change in pH and Eh which affects the valence state and solubility of the metal; (iii) production of sequestering agents; and (iv) bioaccumulation. All of these processes can mobilize or stabilize metals in the environment

  18. Microeconomics of process control in semiconductor manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kevin M.

    2003-06-01

    Process window control enables accelerated design-rule shrinks for both logic and memory manufacturers, but simple microeconomic models that directly link the effects of process window control to maximum profitability are rare. In this work, we derive these links using a simplified model for the maximum rate of profit generated by the semiconductor manufacturing process. We show that the ability of process window control to achieve these economic objectives may be limited by variability in the larger manufacturing context, including measurement delays and process variation at the lot, wafer, x-wafer, x-field, and x-chip levels. We conclude that x-wafer and x-field CD control strategies will be critical enablers of density, performance and optimum profitability at the 90 and 65nm technology nodes. These analyses correlate well with actual factory data and often identify millions of dollars in potential incremental revenue and cost savings. As an example, we show that a scatterometry-based CD Process Window Monitor is an economically justified, enabling technology for the 65nm node.

  19. The monitoring and control of TRUEX processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regalbuto, M.C.; Misra, B.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Leonard, R.A.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1992-04-01

    The Generic TRUEX Model (GTM) was used to design a flowsheet for the TRUEX solvent extraction process that would be used to determine its instrumentation and control requirements. Sensitivity analyses of the key process variables, namely, the aqueous and organic flow rates, feed compositions, and the number of contactor stages, were carried out to assess their impact on the operation of the TRUEX process. Results of these analyses provide a basis for the selection of an instrument and control system and the eventual implementation of a control algorithm. Volume Two of this report is an evaluation of the instruments available for measuring many of the physical parameters. Equations that model the dynamic behavior of the TRUEX process have been generated. These equations can be used to describe the transient or dynamic behavior of the process for a given flowsheet in accordance with the TRUEX model. Further work will be done with the dynamic model to determine how and how quickly the system responds to various perturbations. The use of perturbation analysis early in the design stage will lead to a robust flowsheet, namely, one that will meet all process goals and allow for wide control bounds. The process time delay, that is, the speed with which the system reaches a new steady state, is an important parameter in monitoring and controlling a process. In the future, instrument selection and point-of-variable measurement, now done using the steady-state results reported here, will be reviewed and modified as necessary based on this dynamic method of analysis

  20. Salivary and microbiological parameters of chronic periodontitis subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto CORTELLI

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have investigated the differences in salivary parameters and microbial composition between diabetic and non-diabetic patients, however, specific differences are still not clear mainly due to the effects of confounder. Aim: The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate the salivary and microbial parameters of chronic periodontitis subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Material and method: This case-control study included 60 chronic periodontitis subjects, 30 diabetics (case group and 30 non-diabetics (control group, paired according to periodontitis severity, gender and age. Stimulated whole saliva was collected from all volunteers to measure the salivary pH and the salivary flow rate. Bacterial samples were collected with paper points from periodontal sites showing the deepest periodontal pocket depth associated with the highest clinical attachment loss. The frequency of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. intermedia, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and C. rectus was evaluated by PCR. Data was statistically analyzed by Student's t, Mann-Whitney and Chi-square (p<0.05. Result: Diabetic subjects showed higher salivary glucose levels and lower stimulated flow rates in comparison to non-diabetic controls. P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were the most frequent pathogens (p<0.05. Bacterial frequency did not differ between case and control groups. Conclusion: Diabetes status influenced salivary glucose levels and flow rate. Within the same severity of chronic periodontitis, diabetic subjects did not show higher frequency of periodontal pathogens in comparison to their paired controls.

  1. Neural PID Control Strategy for Networked Process Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method with a two-layer hierarchy is presented based on a neural proportional-integral-derivative (PID iterative learning method over the communication network for the closed-loop automatic tuning of a PID controller. It can enhance the performance of the well-known simple PID feedback control loop in the local field when real networked process control applied to systems with uncertain factors, such as external disturbance or randomly delayed measurements. The proposed PID iterative learning method is implemented by backpropagation neural networks whose weights are updated via minimizing tracking error entropy of closed-loop systems. The convergence in the mean square sense is analysed for closed-loop networked control systems. To demonstrate the potential applications of the proposed strategies, a pressure-tank experiment is provided to show the usefulness and effectiveness of the proposed design method in network process control systems.

  2. Improving industrial process control systems security

    CERN Document Server

    Epting, U; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2004-01-01

    System providers are today creating process control systems based on remote connectivity using internet technology, effectively exposing these systems to the same threats as corporate computers. It is becoming increasingly difficult and costly to patch/maintain the technical infrastructure monitoring and control systems to remove these vulnerabilities. A strategy including risk assessment, security policy issues, service level agreements between the IT department and the controls engineering groups must be defined. In addition an increased awareness of IT security in the controls system engineering domain is needed. As consequence of these new factors the control system architectures have to take into account security requirements, that often have an impact on both operational aspects as well as on the project and maintenance cost. Manufacturers of industrial control system equipment do however also propose progressively security related solutions that can be used for our active projects. The paper discusses ...

  3. A methodology to describe process control requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcagno, R.; Ganni, V.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to describe process control requirements for helium refrigeration plants. The SSC requires a greater level of automation for its refrigeration plants than is common in the cryogenics industry, and traditional methods (e.g., written descriptions) used to describe process control requirements are not sufficient. The methodology presented in this paper employs tabular and graphic representations in addition to written descriptions. The resulting document constitutes a tool for efficient communication among the different people involved in the design, development, operation, and maintenance of the control system. The methodology is not limited to helium refrigeration plants, and can be applied to any process with similar requirements. The paper includes examples

  4. Automation in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Susan M; Marlowe, Elizabeth M

    2013-09-01

    Imagine a clinical microbiology laboratory where a patient's specimens are placed on a conveyor belt and sent on an automation line for processing and plating. Technologists need only log onto a computer to visualize the images of a culture and send to a mass spectrometer for identification. Once a pathogen is identified, the system knows to send the colony for susceptibility testing. This is the future of the clinical microbiology laboratory. This article outlines the operational and staffing challenges facing clinical microbiology laboratories and the evolution of automation that is shaping the way laboratory medicine will be practiced in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Process and control systems for composites manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiang, T. H.; Wanamaker, John L.

    1992-01-01

    A precise control of composite material processing would not only improve part quality, but it would also directly reduce the overall manufacturing cost. The development and incorporation of sensors will help to generate real-time information for material processing relationships and equipment characteristics. In the present work, the thermocouple, pressure transducer, and dielectrometer technologies were investigated. The monitoring sensors were integrated with the computerized control system in three non-autoclave fabrication techniques: hot-press, self contained tool (self heating and pressurizing), and pressure vessel). The sensors were implemented in the parts and tools.

  6. Functional graphical languages for process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A wide variety of safety systems are in use today in the process industries. Most of these systems rely on control software using procedural programming languages. This study investigates the use of functional graphical languages for controls in the process industry. Different vendor proprietary software and languages are investigated and evaluation criteria are outlined based on ability to meet regulatory requirements, reference sites involving applications with similar safety concerns, QA/QC procedures, community of users, type and user-friendliness of the man-machine interface, performance of operational code, and degree of flexibility. (author) 16 refs., 4 tabs

  7. Apparatus and process for controlling fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmat, Amirali G.; Patel, Jitendra G.

    1985-10-01

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  8. Aspects of parallel processing and control engineering

    OpenAIRE

    McKittrick, Brendan J

    1991-01-01

    The concept of parallel processing is not a new one, but the application of it to control engineering tasks is a relatively recent development, made possible by contemporary hardware and software innovation. It has long been accepted that, if properly orchestrated several processors/CPUs when combined can form a powerful processing entity. What prevented this from being implemented in commercial systems was the adequacy of the microprocessor for most tasks and hence the expense of a multi-pro...

  9. Development, process optimization and technical realization of a novel technology for the treatment of contaminated soil based on the microbiological reactor technique by means of system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedl, R.

    1993-06-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a biological procedure to clean up contaminated soil using a technique based on microbiological fermentation, and to implement it for large-scale utilization. As a first step, the current procedures for the subsequent application were put into practice. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as the most sensible field of application were ascertained and contrasted. The ecological and economical prerequisites and demands on the new technology resulted from these investigations. Starting from cleaning up contaminated soil in controlled fermenters (bio-reactors) with the help of the appropriate mixed populations of aerobic bacteria, the development of the technical procedures and the guarantee as to their cost effectiveness is of foremost importance. The technical procedure of the whole concept was developed on a semicommercial scale step by step from the findings of laboratory trials and experiments. The whole concept contains the following procedural steps: 1 Preparation of the soil: 2 Mechanical disintegration using water: The soil is lead to a drum mixer by means of a conveyor device and turned into mud using water. 3 Wet-sizing: In the next step, sand and gravel are separated from very fine particles (grain sized < 0.5mm) and the wash water in a special vibrating sieve device. 4 Bio-reactor: The contaminated soil suspension, which contains all the harmful substances, is lead to the bio-reactor where, with the help of an enriched aerobic bacterial population, the contaminants are biologically degraded. A complete breakdown of the contaminants is achieved after 15 -20 hours in the reactor. 5 Drainage: Subsequently, the soil suspension is drained into a special sedimentation tank. (author)

  10. Ventilation equations for improved exothermic process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, John L; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2007-04-01

    Exothermic or heated processes create potentially unsafe work environments for an estimated 5-10 million American workers each year. Excessive heat and process contaminants have the potential to cause acute health effects such as heat stroke, and chronic effects such as manganism in welders. Although millions of workers are exposed to exothermic processes, insufficient attention has been given to continuously improving engineering technologies for these processes to provide effective and efficient control. Currently there is no specific occupational standard established by OSHA regarding exposure to heat from exothermic processes, therefore it is important to investigate techniques that can mitigate known and potential adverse occupational health effects. The current understanding of engineering controls for exothermic processes is primarily based on a book chapter written by W. C. L. Hemeon in 1955. Improvements in heat transfer and meteorological theory necessary to design improved process controls have occurred since this time. The research presented involved a review of the physical properties, heat transfer and meteorological theories governing buoyant air flow created by exothermic processes. These properties and theories were used to identify parameters and develop equations required for the determination of buoyant volumetric flow to assist in improving ventilation controls. Goals of this research were to develop and describe a new (i.e. proposed) flow equation, and compare it to currently accepted ones by Hemeon and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Numerical assessments were conducted to compare solutions from the proposed equations for plume area, mean velocity and flow to those from the ACGIH and Hemeon. Parameters were varied for the dependent variables and solutions from the proposed, ACGIH, and Hemeon equations for plume area, mean velocity and flow were analyzed using a randomized complete block statistical

  11. Next Generation Microbiology Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; Oubre, C. M.; Elliott, T. F.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    As humans continue to explore deep into space, microorganisms will travel with them. The primary means to mitigate the risk of infectious disease are a combination of prudent spacecraft design and rigorous operational controls. The effectiveness of these methods are evaluated by microbiological monitoring of spacecraft, food, water, and the crew that is performed preflight, in-flight, and post-flight. Current NASA requirements associated with microbiological monitoring are based on culture-based methodology where microorganisms are grown on a semi-solid growth medium and enumerated. Subsequent identification of the organisms requires specialized labor and large equipment, which historically has been performed on Earth. Requirements that rely strictly on culture-based units limit the use of non-culture based monitoring technology. Specifically, the culture-based "measurement criteria" are Colony Forming Units (CFU, representing the growth of one microorganism at a single location on the agar medium) per a given volume, area, or sample size. As the CFU unit by definition is culture-based, these requirements limit alternative technologies for spaceflight applications. As spaceflight missions such as those to Mars extend further into space, culture-based technology will become difficult to implement due to the (a) limited shelf life of the culture media, (b) mass/volume necessary to carry these consumables, and (c) problems associated with the production of biohazardous material in the habitable volume of the spacecraft. In addition, an extensive amount of new knowledge has been obtained during the Space Shuttle, NASA-Mir, and International Space Station Programs, which gave direction for new or modified microbial control requirements for vehicle design and mission operations. The goal of this task is to develop and recommend a new set of requirements for vehicle design and mission operations, including microbiological monitoring, based upon "lessons learned" and new

  12. Microbiological and Chemical Findings of Water Used for Various Industrial Processes in Babol Car Factory, Iran, in 2013 A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Mahdavi Omran

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose: According to the reported problems in area of the inappropriateness of water quality which used for washing and staining of car apparatuses in a car factory, this research was carried out for identification of physical, chemical, and microbiological characteristics of the consumed water in Babol car factory, Iran. Materials and Methods: Physical and chemical parameters of water such as total solids, total dissolved solids (TDS, turbidity, pH, electrical conductivity, total alkalinity, total hardness (TH, cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, and anions (SO42−, Cl−, NO3− were analyzed based on standard methods for examination of water and wastewater. The samples were taken from five units and were precipitated and plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with chloramphenicol and blood agar and eosin methylene blue media. Results: TDS, turbidity, pH, TH and ammonium ion were 402 mg/L, 10 NTU, 7.8, 208 mg/L and 0.04 mg/L, respectively. Ten genera of fungal colonies were isolated from these units, which from them yeast Penicillium and Cladosporium were the most prevalent. Five genera of bacteria were isolated from these samples. Entrobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas, and Bacillus were the most prevalent bacteria in water. Water quality in the activation and fixation units were the most contaminated with fungi and bacteria, respectively. Some of these units were without fungal and bacterial contaminations. Conclusion: The fungal and bacterial contaminations can be changed the quality of consumed water in the different processes such as color and turbidity. Thus, we need to use some water

  13. Evaluation of control strategies in forming processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calmano Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Products of forming processes are subject to quality fluctuations due to uncertainty in semi-finished part properties as well as process conditions and environment. An approach to cope with these uncertainties is the implementation of a closed-loop control taking into account the actual product properties measured by sensors or estimated by a mathematical process model. Both methods of uncertainty control trade off with a financial effort. In case of sensor integration the effort is the cost of the sensor including signal processing as well as the design and manufacturing effort for integration. In case of an estimation model the effort is mainly determined by the time and knowledge needed to derive the model, identify the parameters and implement the model into the PLC. The risk of mismatch between model and reality as well as the risk of wrong parameter identification can be assumed as additional uncertainty (model uncertainty. This paper evaluates controlled and additional uncertainty by taking into account process boundary conditions like the degree of fluctuations in semi-finished part properties. The proposed evaluation is demonstrated by the analysis of exemplary processes.

  14. Training change control process at Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valache, Cornelia Mariana

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the process of 'Training Change Control' at Cernavoda NPP. This process is a systematic approach that allows determination of the most effective training and/or non-training solutions for challenges that may influence the content and conditions for a training program or course. Changes may be the result of: - response to station systems or equipment modifications; - new or revised procedures; - regulatory requirements; - external organizations requirements; - internal evaluations meaning feedback from trainees, trainers, management or post-training evaluations; - self-assessments; - station condition reports; - operating experience (OPEX); - modifications of job scope; - management input. The Training Change Control Process at Cernavoda NPP includes the following aspects. The first step is the identification of all the initiating factors for a potential training change. Then, retain only those, which could have an impact on training and classify them in two categories: as deficiencies or as enhancement suggestions. The process is different for the two categories. The deficiency category supposes the application of the Training Needs Analysis (TNA) process. This is a performance-oriented process, resulting in more competent employees, solving existing and potential performance problems. By using needs analysis to systematically determine what people or courses and programs are expected to do and gathering data to reveal what they are really doing, we can receive a clear picture of the problem and then we can establish corrective action plans to fix it. The process is supported by plant subjects matter and by training specialists. On the other hand, enhancements suggestions are assessed by designated experienced persons and then are implemented in the training process. Regarding these two types of initiating factors for the training change control process, the final result consists of a training improvement, raising the effectiveness, efficiency or

  15. Optimal control of a CSTR process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Soukkou

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Designing an effective criterion and learning algorithm for find the best structure is a major problem in the control design process. In this paper, the fuzzy optimal control methodology is applied to the design of the feedback loops of an Exothermic Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor system. The objective of design process is to find an optimal structure/gains of the Robust and Optimal Takagi Sugeno Fuzzy Controller (ROFLC. The control signal thus obtained will minimize a performance index, which is a function of the tracking/regulating errors, the quantity of the energy of the control signal applied to the system, and the number of fuzzy rules. The genetic learning is proposed for constructing the ROFLC. The chromosome genes are arranged into two parts, the binary-coded part contains the control genes and the real-coded part contains the genes parameters representing the fuzzy knowledge base. The effectiveness of this chromosome formulation enables the fuzzy sets and rules to be optimally reduced. The performances of the ROFLC are compared to these found by the traditional PD controller with Genetic Optimization (PD_GO. Simulations demonstrate that the proposed ROFLC and PD_GO has successfully met the design specifications.

  16. Novel strategies for control of fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart; Sin, Gürkan

    Bioprocesses are inherently sensitive to fluctuations in processing conditions and must be tightly regulated to maintain cellular productivity. Industrial fermentations are often difficult to replicate across production sites or between facilities as the small operating differences in the equipment...... of a fermentation. Industrial fermentation processes are typically operated in fed batch mode, which also poses specific challenges for process monitoring and control. This is due to many reasons including non-linear behaviour, and a relatively poor understanding of the system dynamics. It is therefore challenging...

  17. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    species grow as multicel- lular filaments called hyphae forming a mycelium, some fungal species also grow as single cells. Sexual and asexual...reinforced fluorinated 18 MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION polyimide composites due to hyphae penetration into resin interiors. The

  18. Bacillus cereus un patógeno importante en el control microbiológico de los alimentos / Bacillus cereus an important pathogen the microbiological control of food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Sánchez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Bacillus cereus es una bacteria genéticamente diversa que se encuentra comúnmente en el ambiente. Contamina los alimentos afectando la salud humana, al ingerir el microorganismo y/o sus toxinas, la emética o las enterotoxinas. En Colombia son escasos los reportes de intoxicación por B. cereus y se estima que hay un gran subregistro. Por lo anterior, se recomienda aumentar la vigilancia de este patógeno y realizar estudios sobre aspectos relevantes que permitan aplicar medidas de control para disminuir las intoxicaciones por B. cereus. El objetivo de esta revisión bibliográfica es presentar información actualizada sobre B. cereus, que incluye aspectos de su biología, taxonomía, toxinas, alimentos que contamina y metodologías para detectar, prevenir y controlar este microorganismo. La información presentada es de utilidad para el público en general, especialmente personas vinculadas al sector de alimentos, inocuidad alimentaria y control de procesos. / Abstract Bacillus cereus is a genetically diverse bacterium commonly found in the environment. It contaminates food, thus affecting human health upon ingestion of the microorganism and/or its toxins, the emetic or enterotoxins. In Colombia, reports of intoxication by B. cereus are scarce and under-registration is presumed. Because of this, it is recommended to increase surveillance of this pathogen and to develop studies on relevant aspects that allow the application of control measures to reduce intoxications by B. cereus. The aim of this review is to present current information on B. cereus, including aspects of its biology, taxonomy, toxins, food that it contaminates and methodologies for the detection, prevention and control of this microorganism. This information is useful for the general public, especially people involved with the food sector, food safety and process control.

  19. Process control for sheet-metal stamping process modeling, controller design and shop-floor implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Yongseob; Ulsoy, A Galip

    2014-01-01

    Process Control for Sheet-Metal Stamping presents a comprehensive and structured approach to the design and implementation of controllers for the sheet metal stamping process. The use of process control for sheet-metal stamping greatly reduces defects in deep-drawn parts and can also yield large material savings from reduced scrap. Sheet-metal forming is a complex process and most often characterized by partial differential equations that are numerically solved using finite-element techniques. In this book, twenty years of academic research are reviewed and the resulting technology transitioned to the industrial environment. The sheet-metal stamping process is modeled in a manner suitable for multiple-input multiple-output control system design, with commercially available sensors and actuators. These models are then used to design adaptive controllers and real-time controller implementation is discussed. Finally, experimental results from actual shopfloor deployment are presented along with ideas for further...

  20. Could Sterile Males be Used to Vector a Microbiological Control Agent? The Case of Rhynchophorus Ferrugineus and Beauveria Bassiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llacer, E. [Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA), Unidad Asociadade Entomologia Agricola UJI-IVIA, Centro de Proteccion Vegetal y Biotecnologia, Montcada (Spain); Santiago-Alvarez, C. [Universidad de Cordoba, Departamento de Ciencias y Recursos Agricolas y Forestales, Cordoba (Spain); Jacas, J. A. [Universitat Jaume I (UJI), Unitat Associada d' Entomologia Agricola UJI-IVIA, Departament de Ciencies Agraries i del Medi Natural, Campus del Riu Sec, Castello de la Plana (Spain)

    2013-07-15

    Full text: Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) is the most threatening pest of palms worldwide. The potential of gamma-irradiated males to spread a pathogenic strain of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) to control this pest was studied. First, the effects of gamma irradiation (15 and 25 Gy) on the mating success and performance of adult males irradiated at age one day were studied in the laboratory. Although male longevity decreased after irradiation (118.6 vs. 244.7 days for irradiated and control males, respectively) and their testes suffered from the treatment, fecundity of mated females did not depend on the irradiation status of the male (86.8{+-}5.5 eggs in 15 days). However, egg hatching was significantly lower in couples with irradiated males (31.4% vs. 86.5% for irradiated and control couples, respectively), and this value decreased after a second mating (6.1% vs. 85.9%). Therefore, irradiation did not affect male sexual competiveness but sperm quality. Second, a semi-field assay was carried out to evaluate infestation in young Phoenix canariensis caused by different combinations of couples with irradiated and/or B. bassiana-challenged males. The number of immature stages found in infested palms was significantly higher when females mated with untreated males and lower when mated with irradiated males (either B. bassiana-infected or not). Some females from the fungus-challenged treatments showed post-mortem hyphal growth, and this horizontal transmission proves that irradiated males could act as a vector for B. bassiana and should be considered as a new method to improve the biological control of R. ferrugineus. (author)

  1. Microbiology, philosophy and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Maureen A

    2016-09-01

    There are not only many links between microbiological and philosophical topics, but good educational reasons for microbiologists to explore the philosophical issues in their fields. I examine three broad issues of classification, causality and model systems, showing how these philosophical dimensions have practical implications. I conclude with a discussion of the educational benefits for recognising the philosophy in microbiology. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Dosimetry and control of radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Eight invited papers on the general theme of 'Dosimetry and Control of Radiation Processing', presented at a one day symposium held at the National Physical Laboratory, are collected together in this document. Seven of the papers are selected and indexed separately. (author)

  3. Applying interactive control to waste processing operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasz, E.L.; Merrill, R.D.; Couture, S.A.

    1992-08-01

    At present waste and residue processing includes steps that require human interaction. The risk of exposure to unknown hazardous materials and the potential for radiation contamination motivates the desire to remove operators from these processes. Technologies that facilitate this include glove box robotics, modular systems for remote and automated servicing, and interactive controls that minimize human intervention. LLNL is developing an automated system which is designed to supplant the operator for glove box tasks, thus protecting the operator from the risk of radiation exposure and minimizing operator-associated waste. Although most of the processing can be automated with minimal human interaction, there are some tasks where intelligent intervention is both desirable and necessary to adapt to Enexpected circumstances and events. These activities require that the operator interact with the process using a remote manipulator which provides or reflects a natural feel to the operator. The remote manipulation system which was developed incorporates sensor fusion and interactive control, and provides the operator with an effective means of controlling the robot in a potentially unknown environment. This paper describes recent accomplishments in technology development and integration, and outlines the future goals of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for achieving this integrated interactive control capability

  4. First Dutch Process Control Security Event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    On May 21st , 2008, the Dutch National Infrastructure against Cyber Crime (NICC) organised their first Process Control Security Event. Mrs. Annemarie Zielstra, the NICC programme manager, opened the event. She welcomed the over 100 representatives of key industry sectors. “Earlier studies in the

  5. Inhibition: Mental Control Process or Mental Resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im-Bolter, Nancie; Johnson, Janice; Ling, Daphne; Pascual-Leone, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested 2 models of inhibition in 45 children with language impairment and 45 children with normally developing language; children were aged 7 to 12 years. Of interest was whether a model of inhibition as a mental-control process (i.e., executive function) or as a mental resource would more accurately reflect the relations among…

  6. Fourth Dutch Process Security Control Event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Zielstra, A.

    2010-01-01

    On December 1st, 2009, the fourth Dutch Process Control Security Event took place in Baarn, The Netherlands. The security event with the title ‘Manage IT!’ was organised by the Dutch National Infrastructure against Cybercrime (NICC). Mid of November, a group of over thirty people participated in the

  7. Applied Behavior Analysis and Statistical Process Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    Incorporating statistical process control (SPC) methods into applied behavior analysis is discussed. It is claimed that SPC methods would likely reduce applied behavior analysts' intimate contacts with problems and would likely yield poor treatment and research decisions. Cases and data presented by Pfadt and Wheeler (1995) are cited as examples.…

  8. Facts about food irradiation: Controlling the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet briefly reviews the procedures that exist to control the process of food irradiation. It also summarizes the difficulties in identifying irradiated food, which stem from the fact that irradiation does not physically change the food or cause significant chemical changes in foods. 4 refs

  9. Processes mediating expertise in air traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meeuwen, Ludo; Jarodzka, Halszka; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; De Bock, Jeano; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Van Meeuwen, L., Jarodzka, H., Brand-Gruwel, S., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., De Bock, J. J. P. R., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010, August). Processes mediating expertise in air traffic control. Meeting of the EARLI SIG6/7 Instructional Design and Learning and Instruction with Computers, Ulm, Germany.

  10. Processes mediating expertise in air traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meeuwen, Ludo; Jarodzka, Halszka; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; De Bock, Jeano; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Van Meeuwen, L. W., Jarodzka, H., Brand-Gruwel, S., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., De Bock, J. J. P. R., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010, September). Processes mediating expertise in air traffic control. Poster presented at the European Association for Aviation Psychology Conference, Budapest.

  11. Microbiological testing of Skylab foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Mcqueen, J. L.; Rowley, D. B.; Powers , E. M.; Bourland, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the unique food microbiology problems and problem-generating circumstances the Skylab manned space flight program involves. The situations these problems arise from include: extended storage times, variations in storage temperatures, no opportunity to resupply or change foods after launch of the Skylab Workshop, first use of frozen foods in space, first use of a food-warming device in weightlessness, relatively small size of production lots requiring statistically valid sampling plans, and use of food as an accurately controlled part in a set of sophisticated life science experiments. Consideration of all of these situations produced the need for definite microbiological tests and test limits. These tests are described along with the rationale for their selection. Reported test results show good compliance with the test limits.

  12. Statistical process control for alpha spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, W; Majoras, R E [Oxford Instruments, Inc. P.O. Box 2560, Oak Ridge TN 37830 (United States); Joo, I O; Seymour, R S [Accu-Labs Research, Inc. 4663 Table Mountain Drive, Golden CO 80403 (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Statistical process control(SPC) allows for the identification of problems in alpha spectroscopy processes before they occur, unlike standard laboratory Q C which only identifies problems after a process fails. SPC tools that are directly applicable to alpha spectroscopy include individual X-charts and X-bar charts, process capability plots, and scatter plots. Most scientists are familiar with the concepts the and methods employed by SPC. These tools allow analysis of process bias, precision, accuracy and reproducibility as well as process capability. Parameters affecting instrument performance are monitored and analyzed using SPC methods. These instrument parameters can also be compared to sampling, preparation, measurement, and analysis Q C parameters permitting the evaluation of cause effect relationships. Three examples of SPC, as applied to alpha spectroscopy , are presented. The first example investigates background contamination using averaging to show trends quickly. A second example demonstrates how SPC can identify sample processing problems, analyzing both how and why this problem occurred. A third example illustrates how SPC can predict when an alpha spectroscopy process is going to fail. This allows for an orderly and timely shutdown of the process to perform preventative maintenance, avoiding the need to repeat costly sample analyses. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Statistical process control for alpha spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, W.; Majoras, R.E.; Joo, I.O.; Seymour, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    Statistical process control(SPC) allows for the identification of problems in alpha spectroscopy processes before they occur, unlike standard laboratory Q C which only identifies problems after a process fails. SPC tools that are directly applicable to alpha spectroscopy include individual X-charts and X-bar charts, process capability plots, and scatter plots. Most scientists are familiar with the concepts the and methods employed by SPC. These tools allow analysis of process bias, precision, accuracy and reproducibility as well as process capability. Parameters affecting instrument performance are monitored and analyzed using SPC methods. These instrument parameters can also be compared to sampling, preparation, measurement, and analysis Q C parameters permitting the evaluation of cause effect relationships. Three examples of SPC, as applied to alpha spectroscopy , are presented. The first example investigates background contamination using averaging to show trends quickly. A second example demonstrates how SPC can identify sample processing problems, analyzing both how and why this problem occurred. A third example illustrates how SPC can predict when an alpha spectroscopy process is going to fail. This allows for an orderly and timely shutdown of the process to perform preventative maintenance, avoiding the need to repeat costly sample analyses. 7 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Tools for Microbiological risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassett, john; Nauta, Maarten; Lindqvist, Roland

    can increase the understanding of microbiological risks in foods. It is timely to inform food safety professionals about the availability and utility of MRA tools. Therefore, the focus of this report is to aid the food safety manager by providing a concise summary of the tools available for the MRA......Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) has emerged as a comprehensive and systematic approach for addressing the risk of pathogens in specific foods and/or processes. At government level, MRA is increasingly recognised as a structured and objective approach to understand the level of risk in a given...... food/pathogen scenario. Tools developed so far support qualitative and quantitative assessments of the risk that a food pathogen poses to a particular population. Risk can be expressed as absolute numbers or as relative (ranked) risks. The food industry is beginning to appreciate that the tools for MRA...

  15. An avoidance layer in hierarchical process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Callatay, A.

    1994-01-01

    A project of layered software architecture is proposed: a safety-critical real-time non-stop simple kernel system includes a layer avoiding threatening actions from operators or programs in other control systems. Complex process-control applications (such as fuzzy systems) are useful for the smooth operation of the system, optimum productivity, efficient diagnostics, and safe management of degraded modes of operation. Defects in these complex process-control applications do not have an impact on safety if their commands have first to be accepted by a safety-critical module. The development, testing, and certification of complex applications computed in the outside layers can be made simpler and less expensive than for those in the kernel. Avoidance systems use rule-base systems having negative fuzzy conditions and actions. Animal and human behaviour cannot be explained without active avoidance

  16. Microbiological performance of a food safety management system in a food service operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahou, E; Jacxsens, L; Daelman, J; Van Landeghem, F; Uyttendaele, M

    2012-04-01

    The microbiological performance of a food safety management system in a food service operation was measured using a microbiological assessment scheme as a vertical sampling plan throughout the production process, from raw materials to final product. The assessment scheme can give insight into the microbiological contamination and the variability of a production process and pinpoint bottlenecks in the food safety management system. Three production processes were evaluated: a high-risk sandwich production process (involving raw meat preparation), a medium-risk hot meal production process (starting from undercooked raw materials), and a low-risk hot meal production process (reheating in a bag). Microbial quality parameters, hygiene indicators, and relevant pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Bacillus cereus, and Escherichia coli O157) were in accordance with legal criteria and/or microbiological guidelines, suggesting that the food safety management system was effective. High levels of total aerobic bacteria (>3.9 log CFU/50 cm(2)) were noted occasionally on gloves of food handlers and on food contact surfaces, especially in high contamination areas (e.g., during handling of raw material, preparation room). Core control activities such as hand hygiene of personnel and cleaning and disinfection (especially in highly contaminated areas) were considered points of attention. The present sampling plan was used to produce an overall microbiological profile (snapshot) to validate the food safety management system in place.

  17. Microbiologically induced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Biological attack is a problem that can affect all metallic materials in a variety of environments and systems. In the power industry, corrosion studies have focused on condensers and service water systems where slime, barnacles, clams, and other macro-organisms are easily detected. Efforts have been made to eliminate the effect of these organisms through the use of chlorination, backflushing, organic coating, or thermal shock. The objective is to maintain component performance by eliminating biofouling and reducing metallic corrosion. Recently, corrosion of power plant components by micro-organisms (bacteria) has been identified even in very clean systems. A system's first exposure to microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC) occurs during its first exposure to an aqueous environment, such as during hydrotest or wet layup. Corrosion of buried pipelines by sulfate-reducing bacteria has been studied by the petrochemical industry for years. This paper discusses various methods of diagnosing, monitoring, and controlling MIC in a variety of systems, as well as indicates areas where further study is needed

  18. Minicomputer controlled test system for process control and monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worster, L.D.

    A minicomputer controlled test system for testing process control and monitoring systems is described. This system, in service for over one year, has demonstrated that computerized control of such testing has a real potential for expanding the scope of the testing, improving accuracy of testing, and significantly reducing the time required to do the testing. The test system is built around a 16-bit minicomputer with 12K of memory. The system programming language is BASIC with the addition of assembly level routines for communication with the peripheral devices. The peripheral devices include a 100 channel scanner, analog-to-digital converter, visual display, and strip printer. (auth)

  19. Microbial Biotechnology 2020; microbiology of fossil fuel resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Ian M; Gray, Neil D

    2016-09-01

    This roadmap examines the future of microbiology research and technology in fossil fuel energy recovery. Globally, the human population will be reliant on fossil fuels for energy and chemical feedstocks for at least the medium term. Microbiology is already important in many areas relevant to both upstream and downstream activities in the oil industry. However, the discipline has struggled for recognition in a world dominated by geophysicists and engineers despite widely known but still poorly understood microbially mediated processes e.g. reservoir biodegradation, reservoir souring and control, microbial enhanced oil recovery. The role of microbiology is even less understood in developing industries such as shale gas recovery by fracking or carbon capture by geological storage. In the future, innovative biotechnologies may offer new routes to reduced emissions pathways especially when applied to the vast unconventional heavy oil resources formed, paradoxically, from microbial activities in the geological past. However, despite this potential, recent low oil prices may make industry funding hard to come by and recruitment of microbiologists by the oil and gas industry may not be a high priority. With regards to public funded research and the imperative for cheap secure energy for economic growth in a growing world population, there are signs of inherent conflicts between policies aimed at a low carbon future using renewable technologies and policies which encourage technologies which maximize recovery from our conventional and unconventional fossil fuel assets. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Microbiological and molecular characterization of an isolated strain of digested sludge from a wastewater treatment plant and processed by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekaya, Amina

    2015-01-01

    In this work, it was so particularly interested in exploring cultivable bacteria isolated from a digested sludge of an anaerobic digester. The characterization of the bacteria is determined by: The classic microbiology and molecular biology, with a study of radio-resistance profile of these bacteria.

  1. Statistical process control for electron beam monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Tarjuelo, Juan; Luquero-Llopis, Naika; García-Mollá, Rafael; Quirós-Higueras, Juan David; Bouché-Babiloni, Ana; Juan-Senabre, Xavier Jordi; de Marco-Blancas, Noelia; Ferrer-Albiach, Carlos; Santos-Serra, Agustín

    2015-07-01

    To assess the electron beam monitoring statistical process control (SPC) in linear accelerator (linac) daily quality control. We present a long-term record of our measurements and evaluate which SPC-led conditions are feasible for maintaining control. We retrieved our linac beam calibration, symmetry, and flatness daily records for all electron beam energies from January 2008 to December 2013, and retrospectively studied how SPC could have been applied and which of its features could be used in the future. A set of adjustment interventions designed to maintain these parameters under control was also simulated. All phase I data was under control. The dose plots were characterized by rising trends followed by steep drops caused by our attempts to re-center the linac beam calibration. Where flatness and symmetry trends were detected they were less-well defined. The process capability ratios ranged from 1.6 to 9.3 at a 2% specification level. Simulated interventions ranged from 2% to 34% of the total number of measurement sessions. We also noted that if prospective SPC had been applied it would have met quality control specifications. SPC can be used to assess the inherent variability of our electron beam monitoring system. It can also indicate whether a process is capable of maintaining electron parameters under control with respect to established specifications by using a daily checking device, but this is not practical unless a method to establish direct feedback from the device to the linac can be devised. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbiological test results of the environmental control and life support systems vapors compression distillation subsystem recycle tank components following various pretreatment protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Microbiological samples were collected from the recycle tank of the vapor compression distillation (VCD) subsystem of the water recovery test at NASA MSFC following a 68-day run. The recycle tank collects rejected urine brine that was pretreated with a commercially available oxidant (Oxone) and sulfuric acid and pumps it back to the processing component of the VCD. Samples collected included a water sample and two swab samples, one from the particulate filter surface and a second from material floating on the surface of the water. No bacteria were recovered from the water sample. Both swab samples contained a spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus insolitus. A filamentous fungus was isolated from the floating material. Approximately 1 month after the pretreatment chemicals were changed to sodium hypochlorite and sulfuric acid, a swab of the particulate filter was again analyzed for microbial content. One fungus was isolated, and spore-forming bacteria were observed. These results indicate the inability of these pretreatments to inhibit surface attachment. The implications of the presence of these organisms are discussed.

  3. Milestones in screen-based process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guesnier, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    The German approach is based on the utilisation of the conceptual elements of the PRISCA information system developed by Siemens and on operational experience with screen-based process control in a conventional power plant. In the French approach, the screen-based control room for the N4 plants, designed from scratch, has undergone extensive simulator tests for validation before going into realisation. It is now used in the commissioning phase of the first N4 plants. The design of the control room for the European Pressurized Water Reactor will be based on the common experience of Siemens and Electricite de France. Its main elements are several separate operator workstations, a safety control area used as a back-up for postulated failures of the workstations, and a commonly utilisable plant overview for the operators' coordination. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Expect systems and optimisation in process control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamdani, A.; Efstathiou, J. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    This report brings together recent developments both in expert systems and in optimisation, and deals with current applications in industry. Part One is concerned with Artificial Intellegence in planning and scheduling and with rule-based control implementation. The tasks of control maintenance, rescheduling and planning are each discussed in relation to new theoretical developments, techniques available, and sample applications. Part Two covers model based control techniques in which the control decisions are used in a computer model of the process. Fault diagnosis, maintenance and trouble-shooting are just some of the activities covered. Part Three contains case studies of projects currently in progress, giving details of the software available and the likely future trends. One of these, on qualitative plant modelling as a basis for knowledge-based operator aids in nuclear power stations is indexed separately.

  5. Expert systems and optimisation in process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamdani, A.; Efstathiou, J.

    1986-01-01

    This report brings together recent developments both in expert systems and in optimisation, and deals with current applications in industry. Part One is concerned with Artificial Intellegence in planning and scheduling and with rule-based control implementation. The tasks of control maintenance, rescheduling and planning are each discussed in relation to new theoretical developments, techniques available, and sample applications. Part Two covers model based control techniques in which the control decisions are used in a computer model of the process. Fault diagnosis, maintenance and trouble-shooting are just some of the activities covered. Part Three contains case studies of projects currently in progress, giving details of the software available and the likely future trends. One of these, on qualitative plant modelling as a basis for knowledge-based operator aids in nuclear power stations is indexed separately. (author)

  6. Processes subject to integrated pollution control. Petroleum processes: oil refining and associated processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document, part of a series offering guidance on pollution control regulations issued by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution, (HMIP) focuses on petroleum processes such as oil refining and other associated processes. The various industrial processes used, their associated pollution release routes into the environment and techniques for controlling these releases are all discussed. Environmental quality standards are related to national and international agreements on pollution control and abatement. HMIP's work on air, water and land pollution monitoring is also reported. (UK)

  7. Hydrothermal processing of Hanford tank wastes: Process modeling and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currier, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    In the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) hydrothermal process, waste streams are first pressurized and heated as they pass through a continuous flow tubular reactor vessel. The waste is maintained at reaction temperature of 300--550 C where organic destruction and sludge reformation occur. This report documents LANL activities in process modeling and control undertaken in FY94 to support hydrothermal process development. Key issues discussed include non-ideal flow patterns (e.g. axial dispersion) and their effect on reactor performance, the use and interpretation of inert tracer experiments, and the use of computational fluid mechanics to evaluate novel hydrothermal reactor designs. In addition, the effects of axial dispersion (and simplifications to rate expressions) on the estimated kinetic parameters are explored by non-linear regression to experimental data. Safety-related calculations are reported which estimate the explosion limits of effluent gases and the fate of hydrogen as it passes through the reactor. Development and numerical solution of a generalized one-dimensional mathematical model is also summarized. The difficulties encountered in using commercially available software to correlate the behavior of high temperature, high pressure aqueous electrolyte mixtures are summarized. Finally, details of the control system and experiments conducted to empirically determine the system response are reported

  8. Process control upgrades yield huge operational improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, W.V.

    2001-01-01

    Most nuclear plants in North America were designed and built in the late 60 and 70. The regulatory nature of this industry over the years has made design changes at the plant level difficult, if not impossible, to implement. As a result, many plants in this world region have been getting by on technology that is over 40 years behind the times. What this translates into is that the plants have not been able to take advantage of the huge technology gains that have been made in process control during this period. As a result, most of these plants are much less efficient and productive than they could be. One particular area of the plant that is receiving a lot of attention is the feedwater heaters. These systems were put in place to improve efficiency, but most are not operating correctly. This paper will present a case study where one progressive mid-western utility decided that enough was enough and implemented a process control audit of their heater systems. The audit clearly pointed out the existing problems with the current process control system. It resulted in a proposal for the implementation of a state of the art, digital distributed process control system for the heaters along with a complete upgrade of the level controls and field devices that will stabilize heater levels, resulting in significant efficiency gains and lower maintenance bills. Overall the payback period for this investment should be less than 6 months and the plant is now looking for more opportunities that can provide even bigger gains. (author)

  9. Environmental control costs for oil shale processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    The studies reported herein are intended to provide more certainty regarding estimates of the costs of controlling environmental residuals from oil shale technologies being readied for commercial application. The need for this study was evident from earlier work conducted by the Office of Environment for the Department of Energy Oil Shale Commercialization Planning, Environmental Readiness Assessment in mid-1978. At that time there was little reliable information on the costs for controlling residuals and for safe handling of wastes from oil shale processes. The uncertainties in estimating costs of complying with yet-to-be-defined environmental standards and regulations for oil shale facilities are a critical element that will affect the decision on proceeding with shale oil production. Until the regulatory requirements are fully clarified and processes and controls are investigated and tested in units of larger size, it will not be possible to provide definitive answers to the cost question. Thus, the objective of this work was to establish ranges of possible control costs per barrel of shale oil produced, reflecting various regulatory, technical, and financing assumptions. Two separate reports make up the bulk of this document. One report, prepared by the Denver Research Institute, is a relatively rigorous engineering treatment of the subject, based on regulatory assumptions and technical judgements as to best available control technologies and practices. The other report examines the incremental cost effect of more conservative technical and financing alternatives. An overview section is included that synthesizes the products of the separate studies and addresses two variations to the assumptions.

  10. Consolidated clinical microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, Robert L; Thomson, Richard B

    2015-05-01

    The manner in which medical care is reimbursed in the United States has resulted in significant consolidation in the U.S. health care system. One of the consequences of this has been the development of centralized clinical microbiology laboratories that provide services to patients receiving care in multiple off-site, often remote, locations. Microbiology specimens are unique among clinical specimens in that optimal analysis may require the maintenance of viable organisms. Centralized laboratories may be located hours from patient care settings, and transport conditions need to be such that organism viability can be maintained under a variety of transport conditions. Further, since the provision of rapid results has been shown to enhance patient care, effective and timely means for generating and then reporting the results of clinical microbiology analyses must be in place. In addition, today, increasing numbers of patients are found to have infection caused by pathogens that were either very uncommon in the past or even completely unrecognized. As a result, infectious disease specialists, in particular, are more dependent than ever on access to high-quality diagnostic information from clinical microbiology laboratories. In this point-counterpoint discussion, Robert Sautter, who directs a Charlotte, NC, clinical microbiology laboratory that provides services for a 40-hospital system spread over 3 states in the southeastern United States explains how an integrated clinical microbiology laboratory service has been established in a multihospital system. Richard (Tom) Thomson of the NorthShore University HealthSystem in Evanston, IL, discusses some of the problems and pitfalls associated with large-scale laboratory consolidation. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. The statistical process control methods - SPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floreková Ľubica

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Methods of statistical evaluation of quality – SPC (item 20 of the documentation system of quality control of ISO norm, series 900 of various processes, products and services belong amongst basic qualitative methods that enable us to analyse and compare data pertaining to various quantitative parameters. Also they enable, based on the latter, to propose suitable interventions with the aim of improving these processes, products and services. Theoretical basis and applicatibily of the principles of the: - diagnostics of a cause and effects, - Paret analysis and Lorentz curve, - number distribution and frequency curves of random variable distribution, - Shewhart regulation charts, are presented in the contribution.

  12. Statistical process control for radiotherapy quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlicki, Todd; Whitaker, Matthew; Boyer, Arthur L.

    2005-01-01

    Every quality assurance process uncovers random and systematic errors. These errors typically consist of many small random errors and a very few number of large errors that dominate the result. Quality assurance practices in radiotherapy do not adequately differentiate between these two sources of error. The ability to separate these types of errors would allow the dominant source(s) of error to be efficiently detected and addressed. In this work, statistical process control is applied to quality assurance in radiotherapy for the purpose of setting action thresholds that differentiate between random and systematic errors. The theoretical development and implementation of process behavior charts are described. We report on a pilot project is which these techniques are applied to daily output and flatness/symmetry quality assurance for a 10 MV photon beam in our department. This clinical case was followed over 52 days. As part of our investigation, we found that action thresholds set using process behavior charts were able to identify systematic changes in our daily quality assurance process. This is in contrast to action thresholds set using the standard deviation, which did not identify the same systematic changes in the process. The process behavior thresholds calculated from a subset of the data detected a 2% change in the process whereas with a standard deviation calculation, no change was detected. Medical physicists must make decisions on quality assurance data as it is acquired. Process behavior charts help decide when to take action and when to acquire more data before making a change in the process

  13. Integrated Process Design and Control of Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2015-01-01

    on the element concept, which is used to translate a system of compounds into elements. The operation of the reactive distillation column at the highest driving force and other candidate points is analyzed through analytical solution as well as rigorous open-loop and closed-loop simulations. By application...... of this approach, it is shown that designing the reactive distillation process at the maximum driving force results in an optimal design in terms of controllability and operability. It is verified that the reactive distillation design option is less sensitive to the disturbances in the feed at the highest driving...

  14. Process based analysis of manually controlled drilling processes for bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teicher, Uwe; Achour, Anas Ben; Nestler, Andreas; Brosius, Alexander; Lauer, Günter

    2018-05-01

    The machining operation drilling is part of the standard repertoire for medical applications. This machining cycle, which is usually a multi-stage process, generates the geometric element for the subsequent integration of implants, which are screwed into the bone in subsequent processes. In addition to the form, shape and position of the generated drill hole, it is also necessary to use a technology that ensures an operation with minimal damage. A surface damaged by excessive mechanical and thermal energy input shows a deterioration in the healing capacity of implants and represents a structure with complications for inflammatory reactions. The resulting loads are influenced by the material properties of the bone, the used technology and the tool properties. An important aspect of the process analysis is the fact that machining of bone is in most of the cases a manual process that depends mainly on the skills of the operator. This includes, among other things, the machining time for the production of a drill hole, since manual drilling is a force-controlled process. Experimental work was carried out on the bone of a porcine mandible in order to investigate the interrelation of the applied load during drilling. It can be shown that the load application can be subdivided according to the working feed direction. The entire drilling process thus consists of several time domains, which can be divided into the geometry-generating feed motion and a retraction movement of the tool. It has been shown that the removal of the tool from the drill hole has a significant influence on the mechanical load input. This fact is proven in detail by a new evaluation methodology. The causes of this characteristic can also be identified, as well as possible ways of reducing the load input.

  15. Employing expert systems for process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, W.

    1987-01-01

    The characteristic features of expert systems are explained in detail, and the systems' application in process control engineering. Four points of main interest are there, namely: Applications for diagnostic tasks, for safety analyses, planning, and training and expert training. For the modelling of the technical systems involved in all four task fields mentioned above, an object-centred approach has shown to be the suitable method, as process control techniques are determined by technical objects that in principle are specified by data sheets, schematic representations, flow charts, and plans. The graphical surface allows these data to be taken into account, so that the object can be displayed in the way best suited to the individual purposes. (orig./GL) [de

  16. Radionuclides for process control and inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadden, R.J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation sources have been used in process control for over 40 years. Their use in inspection, implying visual examination, although of much earlier origin in the form of gamma radiography, is also of recent emergence in the form of tomographic methods. This paper firstly reviews the justification for the continued world-wide usage of isotopic methods. It then reviews a selection of innovative process control applications, based on radiation sources, as illustrations of the present state of the art and also describes recent progress in inspection methods including progress in the development of on-line facilities. For all applications involving radiation sources, careful selection of parameters is required to achieve the highest efficiency compatible with an integrity suitable for the intended application. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the common principles on which the fabrication of sources is based in order to satisfy national and international safety legislation. (author)

  17. Modular and Adaptive Control of Sound Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nort, Douglas

    This dissertation presents research into the creation of systems for the control of sound synthesis and processing. The focus differs from much of the work related to digital musical instrument design, which has rightly concentrated on the physicality of the instrument and interface: sensor design, choice of controller, feedback to performer and so on. Often times a particular choice of sound processing is made, and the resultant parameters from the physical interface are conditioned and mapped to the available sound parameters in an exploratory fashion. The main goal of the work presented here is to demonstrate the importance of the space that lies between physical interface design and the choice of sound manipulation algorithm, and to present a new framework for instrument design that strongly considers this essential part of the design process. In particular, this research takes the viewpoint that instrument designs should be considered in a musical control context, and that both control and sound dynamics must be considered in tandem. In order to achieve this holistic approach, the work presented in this dissertation assumes complementary points of view. Instrument design is first seen as a function of musical context, focusing on electroacoustic music and leading to a view on gesture that relates perceived musical intent to the dynamics of an instrumental system. The important design concept of mapping is then discussed from a theoretical and conceptual point of view, relating perceptual, systems and mathematically-oriented ways of examining the subject. This theoretical framework gives rise to a mapping design space, functional analysis of pertinent existing literature, implementations of mapping tools, instrumental control designs and several perceptual studies that explore the influence of mapping structure. Each of these reflect a high-level approach in which control structures are imposed on top of a high-dimensional space of control and sound synthesis

  18. Radiographic rejection index using statistical process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savi, M.B.M.B.; Camozzato, T.S.C.; Soares, F.A.P.; Nandi, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    The Repeat Analysis Index (IRR) is one of the items contained in the Quality Control Program dictated by brazilian law of radiological protection and should be performed frequently, at least every six months. In order to extract more and better information of IRR, this study presents the Statistical Quality Control applied to reject rate through Statistical Process Control (Control Chart for Attributes ρ - GC) and the Pareto Chart (GP). Data collection was performed for 9 months and the last four months of collection was given on a daily basis. The Limits of Control (LC) were established and Minitab 16 software used to create the charts. IRR obtained for the period was corresponding to 8.8% ± 2,3% and the generated charts analyzed. Relevant information such as orders for X-ray equipment and processors were crossed to identify the relationship between the points that exceeded the control limits and the state of equipment at the time. The GC demonstrated ability to predict equipment failures, as well as the GP showed clearly what causes are recurrent in IRR. (authors) [pt

  19. Practical issues in implementing whole-genome-sequencing in routine diagnostic microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossen, J W A; Friedrich, A W; Moran-Gilad, J

    2018-04-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) is increasingly being used in clinical microbiology. Like every new technology adopted in microbiology, the integration of NGS into clinical and routine workflows must be carefully managed. To review the practical aspects of implementing bacterial whole genome sequencing (WGS) in routine diagnostic laboratories. Review of the literature and expert opinion. In this review, we discuss when and how to integrate whole genome sequencing (WGS) in the routine workflow of the clinical laboratory. In addition, as the microbiology laboratories have to adhere to various national and international regulations and criteria for their accreditation, we deliberate on quality control issues for using WGS in microbiology, including the importance of proficiency testing. Furthermore, the current and future place of this technology in the diagnostic hierarchy of microbiology is described as well as the necessity of maintaining backwards compatibility with already established methods. Finally, we speculate on the question of whether WGS can entirely replace routine microbiology in the future and the tension between the fact that most sequencers are designed to process multiple samples in parallel whereas for optimal diagnosis a one-by-one processing of the samples is preferred. Special reference is made to the cost and turnaround time of WGS in diagnostic laboratories. Further development is required to improve the workflow for WGS, in particular to shorten the turnaround time, reduce costs, and streamline downstream data analyses. Only when these processes reach maturity will reliance on WGS for routine patient management and infection control management become feasible, enabling the transformation of clinical microbiology into a genome-based and personalized diagnostic field. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Atividade respiratória e aspectos microbiológicos de cultivares de batatas minimamente processadas e armazenadas em diferentes temperaturas Respiratory activity and microbiological aspects of minimally processed potatoes cultivars stored at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Dario Vitti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar aspectos fisiológicos e microbiológicos de diferentes cultivares de batatas minimamente processadas. Batatas das cultivares 'Ágata', 'Asterix' e 'Monalisa' foram selecionadas, classificadas, lavadas e descascadas por abrasão, sendo em seguida cortadas em cubos, sanitizadas e centrifugadas. Depois foram colocadas em frascos herméticos e armazenadas a 5, 15 e 25°C. Foram determinadas a atividade respiratória e a produção de etileno logo após o processamento e durante 10 horas. As análises microbiológicas foram realizadas no dia do processamento e após nove, cinco e um dia de conservação, a 5, 15 e 25°C, respectivamente. Observou-se que as batatas 'Asterix' apresentaram maiores taxas respiratórias em relação às cultivares 'Ágata' e 'Monalisa', independentemente da temperatura de armazenamento. Nas temperaturas de 15 e 25oC, as batatas 'Ágata' e 'Monalisa' apresentaram comportamentos semelhantes entre si. As contagens de bactérias psicrotróficas e coliformes totais, para todas as cultivares armazenadas 5oC, mantiveram-se dentro dos limites aceitáveis durante nove dias de armazenamento. Não foram detectados coliformes a 45°C e Salmonella. Ficou evidenciada a eficiência do armazenamento a 5°C no controle da atividade metabólica e na segurança microbiológica de batatas minimamente processadas.The purpose of the present research was to evaluate physiological and microbiological aspects of different minimally processed potatoes cultivars. Potatoes cultivar 'Agata', 'Asterix' and 'Monalisa' were selected, classified, washed and abrasion peeled before being diced, sanitized and centrifuged. They were then placed in hermetically closed flasks and stored at 5, 15 and 25°C. The respiratory activity and ethylene production were determined immediately after the processing and during 10 hours. Microbiological analyses were carried out on the processing day and after one, five and

  1. Modelling and control of a flotation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, L.; Gustafsson, T.

    1999-01-01

    A general description of a flotation process is given. The dynamic model of a MIMO nonlinear subprocess in flotation, i. e. the pulp levels in five compartments in series is developed and the model is verified with real data from a production plant. In order to reject constant disturbances five extra states are introduced and the model is modified. An exact linearization has been made for the non-linear model and a linear quadratic gaussian controller is proposed based on the linearized model. The simulation result shows an improved performance of the pulp level control when the set points are changed or a disturbance occur. In future the controller will be tested in production. (author)

  2. Methods of control the machining process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Petrakov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Presents control methods, differentiated by the time of receipt of information used: a priori, a posteriori and current. When used a priori information to determine the mode of cutting is carried out by simulation the process of cutting allowance, where the shape of the workpiece and the details are presented in the form of wireframes. The office for current information provides for a system of adaptive control and modernization of CNC machine, where in the input of the unit shall be computed by using established optimization software. For the control by a posteriori information of the proposed method of correction of shape-generating trajectory in the second pass measurement surface of the workpiece formed by the first pass. Developed programs that automatically design the adjusted file for machining.

  3. process controller for induction vacuum brazing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldea, A.

    2016-01-01

    A brazing operation involves joining two parts made of different materials, using a filler material that has a melting temperature lower than the base materials used. The temperature of the process must be carefully controlled, sometimes with an accuracy of about 1°C, because overshooting the prescribed temperature results in detrimental metallurgic phenomena and joints of poor quality. The brazing system is composed of an operating cabinet, a mid-frequency generator, a vacuum chamber with an induction coil inside and the parts that have to be brazed. Until now, to operate this system two operators were required: one to continuously read the temperature with an optical pyrometer and another to manually adjust the current in the induction coil according to his intuition and prediction gained only by experience. The improvement that we made to the system involved creating an automatic temperature control unit, using a PID closed loop controller that reads the temperature of the parts and adjusts automatically the current in the coil. Using the PID controller, the brazing engineer can implement a certain temperature slope for the current brazing process. (authors)

  4. Process management and controlling in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocke, P.; Debatin, J.F.; Duerselen, L.F.J.

    2002-01-01

    Systematic process management and efficient quality control is rapidly gaining importance in our healthcare system. What does this mean for diagnostic radiology departments?To improve efficiency, quality and productivity the workflow within the department of diagnostic and interventional radiology at the University Hospital of Essen were restructured over the last two years. Furthermore, a controlling system was established. One of the pursued aims was to create a quality management system as a basis for the subsequent certification according to the ISO EN 9001:2000 norm.Central to the success of the workflow reorganisation was the training of selected members of the department's staff in process and quality management theory. Thereafter, a dedicated working group was created to prepare the reorganisation and the subsequent ISO certification with the support of a consulting partner. To assure a smooth implementation of the restructured workflow and create acceptance for the required ISO-9001 documentation, the entire staff was familiarized with the basic ideas of process- and quality-management in several training sessions.This manuscript summarizes the basic concepts of process and quality management as they were taught to our staff. A direct relationship towards diagnostic radiology is maintained throughout the text. (orig.) [de

  5. Membrane processing technology in the food industry: food processing, wastewater treatment, and effects on physical, microbiological, organoleptic, and nutritional properties of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsanopoulos, Konstantinos V; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S

    2015-01-01

    Membrane processing technology (MPT) is increasingly used nowadays in a wide range of applications (demineralization, desalination, stabilization, separation, deacidification, reduction of microbial load, purification, etc.) in food industries. The most frequently applied techniques are electrodialysis (ED), reverse osmosis (RO), nanofiltration (NF), ultrafiltration (UF), and microfiltration (MF). Several membrane characteristics, such as pore size, flow properties, and the applied hydraulic pressure mainly determine membranes' potential uses. In this review paper the basic membrane techniques, their potential applications in a large number of fields and products towards the food industry, the main advantages and disadvantages of these methods, fouling phenomena as well as their effects on the organoleptic, qualitative, and nutritional value of foods are synoptically described. Some representative examples of traditional and modern membrane applications both in tabular and figural form are also provided.

  6. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Retail Lightly Pickled Vegetables and Its Successful Control at Processing Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Masumi; Kanki, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Inamura, Hideichi; Koganei, Yosuke; Sano, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Hiromi; Asakura, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Incidences of food poisoning traced to nonanimal food products have been increasingly reported. One of these was a recent large outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 infection from the consumption of lightly pickled vegetables, indicating the necessity of imposing hygienic controls during manufacturing. However, little is known about the bacterial contamination levels in these minimally processed vegetables. Here we examined the prevalence of STEC, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes in 100 lightly pickled vegetable products manufactured at 55 processing factories. Simultaneously, we also performed quantitative measurements of representative indicator bacteria (total viable counts, coliform counts, and β-glucuronidase-producing E. coli counts). STEC and Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the samples; L. monocytogenes was detected in 12 samples manufactured at five of the factories. Microbiological surveillance at two factories (two surveys at factory A and three surveys at factory B) between June 2014 and January 2015 determined that the areas predominantly contaminated with L. monocytogenes included the refrigerators and packaging rooms. Genotyping provided further evidence that the contaminants found in these areas were linked to those found in the final products. Taken together, we demonstrated the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in lightly pickled vegetables sold at the retail level. Microbiological surveillance at the manufacturing factories further clarified the sources of the contamination in the retail products. These data indicate the necessity of implementing adequate monitoring programs to minimize health risks attributable to the consumption of these minimally processed vegetables.

  7. Flotation process control optimisation at Prominent Hill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, Josephine; Muhamad, Nur; Weidenbach, M.

    2012-01-01

    OZ Minerals' Prominent Hill copper- gold concentrator is located 130 km south east of the town of Coober Pedy in the Gawler Craton of South Australia. The concentrator was built in 2008 and commenced commercial production in early 2009. The Prominent Hill concentrator is comprised of a conventional grinding and flotation processing plant with a 9.6 Mtpa ore throughput capacity. The flotation circuit includes six rougher cells, an IseMill for regrinding the rougher concentrate and a Jameson cell heading up the three stage conventional cell cleaner circuit. In total there are four level controllers in the rougher train and ten level controllers in the cleaning circuit for 18 cells. Generic proportional — integral and derivative (PID) control used on the level controllers alone propagated any disturbances downstream in the circuit that were generated from the grinding circuit, hoppers, between cells and interconnected banks of cells, having a negative impact on plant performance. To better control such disturbances, FloatStar level stabiliser was selected for installation on the flotation circuit to account for the interaction between the cells. Multivariable control was also installed on the five concentrate hoppers to maintain consistent feed to the cells and to the IsaMill. An additional area identified for optimisation in the flotation circuit was the mass pull rate from the rougher cells. FloatStar flow optimiser was selected to be installed subsequent to the FloatStar level stabiliser. This allowed for a unified, consistent and optimal approach to running the rougher circuit. This paper describes the improvement in the stabilisation of the circuit achieved by the FloatStar level stabiliser by using the interaction matrix between cell level controllers and the results and benefits of implementing the FloatStar flow optimiser on the rougher train.

  8. Microbiological Methodology in Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abyzov, S. S.; Gerasimenko, L. M.; Hoover, R. B.; Mitskevich, I. N.; Mulyukin, A. L.; Poglazova, M. N.; Rozanov, A. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Searching for life in astromaterials to be delivered from the future missions to extraterrestrial bodies is undoubtedly related to studies of the properties and signatures of living microbial cells and microfossils on Earth. As model terrestrial analogs of Martian polar subsurface layers are often regarded the Antarctic glacier and Earth permafrost habitats where alive microbial cells preserved viability for millennia years due to entering the anabiotic state. For the future findings of viable microorganisms in samples from extraterrestrial objects, it is important to use a combined methodology that includes classical microbiological methods, plating onto nutrient media, direct epifluorescence and electron microscopy examinations, detection of the elemental composition of cells, radiolabeling techniques, PCR and FISH methods. Of great importance is to ensure authenticity of microorganisms (if any in studied samples) and to standardize the protocols used to minimize a risk of external contamination. Although the convincing evidence of extraterrestrial microbial life will may come from the discovery of living cells in astromaterials, biomorphs and microfossils must also be regarded as a target in search of life evidence bearing in mind a scenario that alive microorganisms had not be preserved and underwent mineralization. Under the laboratory conditions, processes that accompanied fossilization of cyanobacteria were reconstructed, and artificially produced cyanobacterial stromatolites resembles by their morphological properties those found in natural Earth habitats. Regarding the vital importance of distinguishing between biogenic and abiogenic signatures and between living and fossil microorganisms in analyzed samples, it is worthwhile to use some previously developed approaches based on electron microscopy examinations and analysis of elemental composition of biomorphs in situ and comparison with the analogous data obtained for laboratory microbial cultures and

  9. Microbiological soil regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, D.; Wiesner, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Interdiciplinary Task Force ''Environmental Biotechnology - Soil'' of DECHEMA aims to pool the knowledge potential of the Dechema study committees on environmental biotechnology and soil protection with a view to the advancement of microbiological soil decontamination techniques. This conference volume on the 9th expert meeting of Dechema on environmental protection subjects entitled ''Microbiological Soil Regeneration'', held on February 27th and 28th, 1991, and the subsequent compilation of results give an intermediate account of the ongoing work of the Dechema Task Force. (orig.) [de

  10. Interference in the processing of adjunct control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eParker

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on the memory operations used in language comprehension has revealed a selective profile of interference effects during memory retrieval. Dependencies such as subject-verb agreement show strong facilitatory interference effects from structurally inappropriate but feature-matching distractors, leading to illusions of grammaticality (Dillon, Mishler, Sloggett, & Phillips, 2013; Pearlmutter, Garnsey, & Bock, 1999; Wagers, Lau, & Phillips, 2009. In contrast, dependencies involving reflexive anaphors are generally immune to interference effects (Dillon et al., 2013; Sturt, 2003; Xiang, Dillon, & Phillips, 2009. This contrast has led to the proposal that all anaphors that are subject to structural constraints are immune to facilitatory interference. Here we use an animacy manipulation to examine whether adjunct control dependencies, which involve an interpreted anaphoric relation between a null subject and its licensor, are also immune to facilitatory interference effects. Our results show reliable facilitatory interference in the processing of adjunct control dependencies, which challenges the generalization that anaphoric dependencies as a class are immune to such effects. To account for the contrast between adjunct control and reflexive dependencies, we suggest that variability within anaphora could reflect either an inherent primacy of animacy cues in retrieval processes, or differential degrees of match between potential licensors and the retrieval probe.

  11. Method for enhanced control of welding processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheaffer, Donald A.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Tung, David M.; Schroder, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    Method and system for producing high quality welds in welding processes, in general, and gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding, in particular by controlling weld penetration. Light emitted from a weld pool is collected from the backside of a workpiece by optical means during welding and transmitted to a digital video camera for further processing, after the emitted light is first passed through a short wavelength pass filter to remove infrared radiation. By filtering out the infrared component of the light emitted from the backside weld pool image, the present invention provides for the accurate determination of the weld pool boundary. Data from the digital camera is fed to an imaging board which focuses on a 100.times.100 pixel portion of the image. The board performs a thresholding operation and provides this information to a digital signal processor to compute the backside weld pool dimensions and area. This information is used by a control system, in a dynamic feedback mode, to automatically adjust appropriate parameters of a welding system, such as the welding current, to control weld penetration and thus, create a uniform weld bead and high quality weld.

  12. Monitoring and controlling the biogas process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahring, B K; Angelidaki, I [The Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    Many modern large-scale biogas plants have been constructed recently, increasing the demand for proper monitoring and control of these large reactor systems. For monitoring the biogas process, an easy to measure and reliable indicator is required, which reflects the metabolic state and the activity of the bacterial populations in the reactor. In this paper, we discuss existing indicators as well as indicators under development which can potentially be used to monitor the state of the biogas process in a reactor. Furthermore, data are presented from two large scale thermophilic biogas plants, subjected to temperature changes and where the concentration of volatile fatty acids was monitored. The results clearly demonstrated that significant changes in the concentration of the individual VFA occurred although the biogas production was not significantly changed. Especially the concentrations of butyrate, isobutyrate and isovalerate showed significant changes. Future improvements of process control could therefore be based on monitoring of the concentration of specific VFA`s together with information about the bacterial populations in the reactor. The last information could be supplied by the use of modern molecular techniques. (au) 51 refs.

  13. Medical microbiology training needs and trainee experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Josephine; Elamin, Wael; Millar, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Training in microbiology is continuing to evolve. Standardisation of this process has, in part, been achieved through the development of a training curriculum by the Royal College of Pathologists (RCPath). A substantial proportion of microbiology training occurs through telephone consultations. To ascertain the content of these interactions and the extent to which the necessary skills outlined by the curriculum are attainable via these consultations. Records of telephone consultations made by microbiology registrars (SpR) on the Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) over a 6 month period were analysed with regard to who initiated contact and the type of advice provided. An average of 426 SpR entries per month were made on the LIMS following telephone consultations. These consultations were predominantly initiated by fellow clinicians as opposed to the SpR. The majority (79%) of advice entailed guidance as to the use of antimicrobials which resulted in an alteration of the current regimen in 54% of cases. This study represents the first attempt to quantify the telephone consultations of microbiology trainees. It is concluded that although such interactions provide a means of attaining some of the competencies outlined by the RCPath curriculum, the bias towards antimicrobial advice reflects a discrepancy between the needs of the service users and the broad skill set advocated by the current microbiology training programme. Future modifications will need to take this into account to ensure both the training of SpRs and the microbiology service is fit for purpose.

  14. Quality assurance in microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Arora D

    2004-01-01

    Quality assurance (QA) is the total process whereby the quality of laboratory reports can be guaranteed. The term quality control covers that part of QA, which primarily concerns the control of errors in the performance of tests and verification of test results. All materials, equipment and procedures must be adequately controlled. Culture media must be tested for sterility and performance. Each laboratory must have standard operating procedures (SOPs). QA of pre-analytical, analytical and po...

  15. Statistical process control in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polit, Denise F; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2012-02-01

    In intervention studies in which randomization to groups is not possible, researchers typically use quasi-experimental designs. Time series designs are strong quasi-experimental designs but are seldom used, perhaps because of technical and analytic hurdles. Statistical process control (SPC) is an alternative analytic approach to testing hypotheses about intervention effects using data collected over time. SPC, like traditional statistical methods, is a tool for understanding variation and involves the construction of control charts that distinguish between normal, random fluctuations (common cause variation), and statistically significant special cause variation that can result from an innovation. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of SPC and to illustrate its use in a study of a nursing practice improvement intervention. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Multivariate Process Control with Autocorrelated Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat

    2011-01-01

    As sensor and computer technology continues to improve, it becomes a normal occurrence that we confront with high dimensional data sets. As in many areas of industrial statistics, this brings forth various challenges in statistical process control and monitoring. This new high dimensional data...... often exhibit not only cross-­‐correlation among the quality characteristics of interest but also serial dependence as a consequence of high sampling frequency and system dynamics. In practice, the most common method of monitoring multivariate data is through what is called the Hotelling’s T2 statistic....... In this paper, we discuss the effect of autocorrelation (when it is ignored) on multivariate control charts based on these methods and provide some practical suggestions and remedies to overcome this problem....

  17. Nanoparticles from a controlled polymerization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirumala, V.R.; Caneba, G.T.; Dar, Y.; Wang, H.-H.; Mancini, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    Free-radical retrograde precipitation polymerization process in the past has shown excellent control characteristics over reaction rate, molecular weight, and in the entrapment of live radicals for the generation of block copolymers. The same principle has now been extended to study the reaction confinement to a nanoscale region. Nanosized polymer particles have been reported to form from block copolymers, conventional precipitation polymerization methods, or through emulsion polymerization approaches. In this work, we present a new method of generating nanosized polymer particles by polymerizing the monomer in an environment that precipitates the polymer above the lower critical solution temperature. The nanoparticles have been characterized by both tapping-mode atomic force microscopy observations and in situ synchrotron time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering analysis. The results from both the techniques showed the formation of nanoparticles in the size range of 15-30 nm, directly from the polymerization process.

  18. Thermodynamics, kinetics and process control of nitriding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mittemeijer, Eric J.; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    1997-01-01

    As a prerequisite for the predictability of properties obtained by a nitriding treatment of iron based workpieces, the relation between the process parameters and the composition and structure of the surface layer produced must be known. At present, even the description of thermodynamic equilibrium...... of pure Fe-N phases has not been fully achieved. It is shown that taking into account the ordering of nitrogen in the epsilon and gamma' iron nitride phases leads to an improved understanding of the Fe-N phase diagram. Although consideration of thermodynamics indicates the state the system strives for...... for process control of gaseous nitriding by monitoring the partial pressure of oxygen in the furnace using a solid state electrolyte is provided. At the time the work was carried out the authors were in the Laboratory of Materials Science, Delft University of Technology, Rotterdamseweg 137, 2628 AL Delft...

  19. High risk process control system assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Venetia [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Zamberlan, Maria Cristina [National Institute of Tehnology (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Human Reliability and Ergonomics Research Group for the Oil, Gas and Energy Sector

    2009-07-01

    The evolution of ergonomics methodology has become necessary due to the dynamics imposed by the work environment, by the increase of the need of human cooperation and by the high interaction between various sections within a company. In the last 25 years, as of studies made in the high risk process control, we have developed a methodology to evaluate these situations that focus on the assessment of activities and human cooperation, the assessment of context, the assessment of the impact of work of other sectors in the final activity of the operator, as well as the modeling of existing risks. (author)

  20. Transforming the Duke Power work control process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulin, R.

    1996-01-01

    Faced with rising operating and maintenance costs, Duke Power initiated a Work Control Project to provide fundamental rethinking, dramatic quality improvements, and a dramatic reduction in inefficiencies. Other aims were: to do more better with less, to improve coordination between work groups, reduce paperwork, increase effectiveness and utilization of station personnel, and achieve consistent implementation between sites. The existing electronic work management scheme needed some modifications to its software, especially, the programming of a screen to allow simple entry of corrective problems, and the implementation of the new scheduling process. The project has been successful in speeding up the resolution of problems, and in reducing backlogs of maintenance work

  1. Method of controlling radioactive waste processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikawa, Hiroji; Sato, Takao.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To minimize the pellet production amount, maximize the working life of a solidifying device and maintaining the mechanical strength of pellets to a predetermined value irrespective of the type and the cycle of occurrence of the secondary waste in the secondary waste solidifying device for radioactive waste processing systems in nuclear power plants. Method: Forecasting periods for the type, production amount and radioactivity level of the secondary wastes are determined in input/output devices connected to a control system and resulted signals are sent to computing elements. The computing elements forecast the production amount of regenerated liquid wastes after predetermined days based on the running conditions of a condensate desalter and the production amounts of filter sludges and liquid resin wastes after predetermined days based on the liquid waste processing amount or the like in a processing device respectively. Then, the mass balance between the type and the amount of the secondary wastes presently stored in a tank are calculated and the composition and concentration for the processing liquid are set so as to obtain predetermined values for the strength of pellets that can be dried to solidify, the working life of the solidifying device itself and the radioactivity level of the pellets. Thereafter, the running conditions for the solidifying device are determined so as to maximize the working life of the solidifying device. (Horiuchi, T.)

  2. Data processing software for purex plant process control laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansara, V.P.; Achuthan, P.V.; Sridhar, S.; Ramanujam, A.; Dhumwad, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    A software has been developed at the Fuel Reprocessing Division, Trombay to meet the data processing needs of the Control Laboratory of a reprocessing plant. During the normal plant operations contents of over one hundred process tanks have to be sampled and analysed for regular monitoring. In order to speed up the computation and the reporting of results as well as to obtain the process performance data over a period of time a software has been developed. The package has been sucessfully demonstrated and implemented at the Plutonium Plant, Trombay. This has been in continuous use since May 1987 with highly satisfactory performance. The software is a totally menu-driven package which can be used by the laboratory analysts with a few hours of training. The features include data validation involving source tank identification, the nature of the sample, the range of expected results, any duplication in sample numbering etc. Audio indication of deviations from the expected input or output values are given with an option to override in case of abnormal samples. The progress of analysis can be obtained for a given sample at any given time. Incorporated in the software is the help menu for quick reference of analytical protocol to be followed for a given tank/method. The computations for the determinations are carried out after obtaining input values on a screen-form. Th e results can be displayed on the monitor or obtained in the form of a hard copy i n any desired format. (author). 17 figs., 2 refs

  3. Making Microbiology Even Smaller!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Linda Mull; Motz, Vicki Abrams

    2013-01-01

    We outline protocols for producing slant-minis (SLINIs) and mini-deeps (MEEPs) and examples of their use in simple microbiology experiments suitable for high school students. The principal benefits of these protocols are decreased cost associated with significantly reduced media use; easier, less expensive disposal of waste; and increased safety…

  4. Factors impacting on the microbiological quality and safety of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... microbiological quality and safety of processed hake. Samples were collected along the processing line; the general microbiological quality (mesophylic and psychrotrophic aerobic plate counts), total. Vibrio species and common fish spoilage bacterial counts were performed. The results constantly showed ...

  5. Factors impacting on the microbiological quality and safety of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problems with the safety and shelf life of export hake have been raised by the Namibian fishing industry. This prompted an investigation into the factors that may have an impact on the microbiological quality and safety of processed hake. Samples were collected along the processing line; the general microbiological quality ...

  6. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory evaluation of cabbage and carrot minimally processed salad after radiation treatment intended to immunocompromised patients or with special diets; Avaliacao microbiologica, fisico-quimica e sensorial de salada de repolho com cenoura minimamente processada apos o tratamento por radiacao gama destinado a pacientes imunocomprometidos ou com dietas especiais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Thaise Cristine Fernandes

    2015-09-01

    During and after the treatment of cancer, people with HIV or transplants, the food intake can offer a well-being to the patient, because the action of eating right helps people to feel strong. Healthy people have their immune system working properly and can tolerate small amounts of bacteria. However, immunocompromised persons may not be able to and however immunocompromised people cannot fight this small amount of microorganisms and require a diet with very low microbiological count to avoid contact with potentially harmful bacteria. This is called neutropenic diet. These patients are susceptible to food contamination, so that it's not advisable the ingestion of raw products. The vegetable irradiation with low doses has the purpose of reducing the microbial load. The aim of this study was to obtain data on microbiological, sensorial e physicochemical aspects in minimally processed 'Primavera' salad irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation designed to immunocompromised patients. It were used doses of 1.0kGy, 2.0kGy, 3.0kGy and 4.0kGy irradiated in the Multipurpose Irradiator {sup 60}Co located in Radiation Technology Center. Microbiological analyzes were performed (n=25) using Petrifilm, sensory analysis using the sensory acceptance test (n=30) and triangular (n=15) and texture analysis (n=90) in the Food Microbiology Laboratory located at the Radiation Technology Center. The texture analysis was performed with the aid of a texturometer equipped with 5 kg load cell using a triangular cutting Warner-Bratzler Knife blade probe with the descent speed of 2mm/sec. All results were expressed in Newtons (N). The results showed that for microbiological analyzes the standards were followed according to the RDC 12/01 ANVISA. For the sensory test of acceptation no difference was found among the samples, however in the triangular test could be found slight differences between samples irradiated with 4.0kGy and control and there was significant

  7. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of Italian salami ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the inclusion of different levels of pequi (Caryocar Brasiliense, Cambess) pulp in the processing of Italian salami made of lamb for the evaluation of their physicochemical and microbiological characteristics. Six formulations of Italian salamis were processed: no pequi ...

  8. Investigating the sourdough potential for enhance microbiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... survival of indicator microorganisms in finished-products were decreased. But intensity of crust roasty aroma did not have the same profile. Therefore, process requirements for optimum microbiological shelf life and roasty aroma were different, which should be taken into account in designing sourdough baking processes.

  9. Control system for technological processes in tritium processing plants with process analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retevoi, Carmen Maria; Stefan, Iuliana; Balteanu, Ovidiu; Stefan, Liviu; Bucur, Ciprian

    2005-01-01

    Integration of a large variety of installations and equipment into a unitary system for controlling the technological process in tritium processing nuclear facilities appears to be a rather complex approach particularly when experimental or new technologies are developed. Ensuring a high degree of versatility allowing easy modifications in configurations and process parameters is a major requirement imposed on experimental installations. The large amount of data which must be processed, stored and easily accessed for subsequent analyses imposes development of a large information network based on a highly integrated system containing the acquisition, control and technological process analysis data as well as data base system. On such a basis integrated systems of computation and control able to conduct the technological process could be developed as well protection systems for cases of failures or break down. The integrated system responds to the control and security requirements in case of emergency and of the technological processes specific to the industry that processes radioactive or toxic substances with severe consequences in case of technological failure as in the case of tritium processing nuclear plant. In order to lower the risk technological failure of these processes an integrated software, data base and process analysis system are developed, which, based on identification algorithm of the important parameters for protection and security systems, will display the process evolution trend. The system was checked on a existing plant that includes a removal tritium unit, finally used in a nuclear power plant, by simulating the failure events as well as the process. The system will also include a complete data base monitoring all the parameters and a process analysis software for the main modules of the tritium processing plant, namely, isotope separation, catalytic purification and cryogenic distillation

  10. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540 Microbiological... intended for medical purposes to cultivate microorganisms and aid in the diagnosis of disease. (b...

  11. Veterinary microbiology and microbial disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quinn, P. J

    2011-01-01

    "Veterinary Microbiology is one of the core subjects for veterinary students. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition covers every aspect of veterinary microbiology for students in both paraclinical and clinical years...

  12. Hybrid scatterometry measurement for BEOL process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoney, Padraig; Vaid, Alok; Kang, Byeong Cheol; Liu, Haibo; Isbester, Paul; Cheng, Marjorie; Ng-Emans, Susan; Yellai, Naren; Sendelbach, Matt; Koret, Roy; Gedalia, Oram

    2017-03-01

    Scaling of interconnect design rules in advanced nodes has been accompanied by a reducing metrology budget for BEOL process control. Traditional inline optical metrology measurements of BEOL processes rely on 1-dimensional (1D) film pads to characterize film thickness. Such pads are designed on the assumption that solid copper blocks from previous metallization layers prevent any light from penetrating through the copper, thus simplifying the effective film stack for the 1D optical model. However, the reduction of the copper thickness in each metallization layer and CMP dishing effects within the pad, have introduced undesired noise in the measurement. To resolve this challenge and to measure structures that are more representative of product, scatterometry has been proposed as an alternative measurement. Scatterometry is a diffraction based optical measurement technique using Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA), where light diffracted from a periodic structure is used to characterize the profile. Scatterometry measurements on 3D structures have been shown to demonstrate strong correlation to electrical resistance parameters for BEOL Etch and CMP processes. However, there is significant modeling complexity in such 3D scatterometry models, in particlar due to complexity of front-end-of-line (FEOL) and middle-of-line (MOL) structures. The accompanying measurement noise associated with such structures can contribute significant measurement error. To address the measurement noise of the 3D structures and the impact of incoming process variation, a hybrid scatterometry technique is proposed that utilizes key information from the structure to significantly reduce the measurement uncertainty of the scatterometry measurement. Hybrid metrology combines measurements from two or more metrology techniques to enable or improve the measurement of a critical parameter. In this work, the hybrid scatterometry technique is evaluated for 7nm and 14nm node BEOL measurements of

  13. Advances in the application of molecular microbiological methods in the oil and gas industry and links to microbiologically influenced corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckert, Rickard; Skovhus, Torben Lund

    2018-01-01

    While the oil and gas industry has witnessed increased applications of molecular microbiological methods (MMMs) for diagnosing and managing microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in the past decade, the process for establishing clear links between microbiological conditions and corrosion...... mechanisms is still emerging. Different MMMs provide various types of information about microbial diversity, abundance, activity and function, all of which are quite different from the culture-based results that are familiar to oil and gas industry corrosion professionals. In addition, a multidisciplinary...

  14. Traffic analysis and control using image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Ellappan, Vijayan; Arun, A. R.

    2017-11-01

    This paper shows the work on traffic analysis and control till date. It shows an approach to regulate traffic the use of image processing and MATLAB systems. This concept uses computational images that are to be compared with original images of the street taken in order to determine the traffic level percentage and set the timing for the traffic signal accordingly which are used to reduce the traffic stoppage on traffic lights. They concept proposes to solve real life scenarios in the streets, thus enriching the traffic lights by adding image receivers like HD cameras and image processors. The input is then imported into MATLAB to be used. as a method for calculating the traffic on roads. Their results would be computed in order to adjust the traffic light timings on a particular street, and also with respect to other similar proposals but with the added value of solving a real, big instance.

  15. AN OVERVIEW OF PHARMACEUTICAL PROCESS VALIDATION AND PROCESS CONTROL VARIABLES OF TABLETS MANUFACTURING PROCESSES IN INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Mahesh B. Wazade*, Sheelpriya R. Walde and Abhay M. Ittadwar

    2012-01-01

    Validation is an integral part of quality assurance; the product quality is derived from careful attention to a number of factors including selection of quality parts and materials, adequate product and manufacturing process design, control of the process variables, in-process and end-product testing. Recently validation has become one of the pharmaceutical industry’s most recognized and discussed subjects. It is a critical success factor in product approval and ongoing commercialization, fac...

  16. Bayesian nonparametric adaptive control using Gaussian processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Girish; Kingravi, Hassan A; How, Jonathan P; Vela, Patricio A

    2015-03-01

    Most current model reference adaptive control (MRAC) methods rely on parametric adaptive elements, in which the number of parameters of the adaptive element are fixed a priori, often through expert judgment. An example of such an adaptive element is radial basis function networks (RBFNs), with RBF centers preallocated based on the expected operating domain. If the system operates outside of the expected operating domain, this adaptive element can become noneffective in capturing and canceling the uncertainty, thus rendering the adaptive controller only semiglobal in nature. This paper investigates a Gaussian process-based Bayesian MRAC architecture (GP-MRAC), which leverages the power and flexibility of GP Bayesian nonparametric models of uncertainty. The GP-MRAC does not require the centers to be preallocated, can inherently handle measurement noise, and enables MRAC to handle a broader set of uncertainties, including those that are defined as distributions over functions. We use stochastic stability arguments to show that GP-MRAC guarantees good closed-loop performance with no prior domain knowledge of the uncertainty. Online implementable GP inference methods are compared in numerical simulations against RBFN-MRAC with preallocated centers and are shown to provide better tracking and improved long-term learning.

  17. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kamińska, Dorota; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be supplemented. The simplest for it is to consume diet supplements that provide the missing element in a concentrated form. In accordance with the applicable law, medicinal products include all substances or mixtures of substances that are attributed with properties of preventing or treating diseases with humans or animals. Permits to admit supplements to the market are issued by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and the related authorities; permits for medicines are issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector and the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products. Therefore, admittance of a supplement to the market is less costly and time consuming_than admittance of a medicine. Supplements and medicines may contain the same component but medicines will have a larger concentration than supplements. Sale of supplements at drug stores and in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids or powders makes consumer often confusing supplements with medicines. Now there are no normative documents specifying limits of microbiological impurities in diet supplements. In Polish legislation, diet supplements are subject to legal acts concerning food. Medicines have to comply with microbiological purity requirements specified in the Polish Pharmacopeia. As evidenced with the completed tests, the proportion of diet supplement samples with microbiological impurities is 6.5%. Sales of diet supplements have been growing each year, they are consumed by healthy people but also people with immunology deficiencies and by children and therefore consumers must be certain that they buy safe products.

  18. Predictive Food Microbiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre

    Listeria monocytogenes is a well-known food borne pathogen that potentially causes listeriosis. No outbreaks or cases of listeriosis have been associated with cottage cheese, but several confirmed cases and outbreaks in the EU and the US have been related to dairy products made from raw...... or pasteurised milk. This, in combination with the fact that cottage cheese support growth of Listeria monocytogenes, induces a documentation requirement on the food producer. In the EU regulatory framework, mathematical models are recognised as a suitable supplement to traditional microbiological methods....... The models can be used for documentation of compliance with microbiological criteria for Listeria monocytogenes under reasonably foreseeable conditions. Cottage cheese is a fresh, fermented dairy product. It consists of a fermented cheese curd mixed with a fresh or cultured cream dressing. The product...

  19. Proteomics in medical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, P

    2000-04-01

    The techniques of proteomics (high resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis and protein characterisation) are widely used for microbiological research to analyse global protein synthesis as an indicator of gene expression. The rapid progress in microbial proteomics has been achieved through the wide availability of whole genome sequences for a number of bacterial groups. Beyond providing a basic understanding of microbial gene expression, proteomics has also played a role in medical areas of microbiology. Progress has been made in the use of the techniques for investigating the epidemiology and taxonomy of human microbial pathogens, the identification of novel pathogenic mechanisms and the analysis of drug resistance. In each of these areas, proteomics has provided new insights that complement genomic-based investigations. This review describes the current progress in these research fields and highlights some of the technical challenges existing for the application of proteomics in medical microbiology. The latter concern the analysis of genetically heterogeneous bacterial populations and the integration of the proteomic and genomic data for these bacteria. The characterisation of the proteomes of bacterial pathogens growing in their natural hosts remains a future challenge.

  20. Application of the HACCP-concept in the control of the micro-biological quality of meals and cleanliness in restaurants.

    OpenAIRE

    Mioković, Branimir; Njari, Bela; Kozačinski, Lidija; Cvrtila, Željka

    2001-01-01

    Results obtained from a bacteriological examination of 148 samples of meals and 2005 samples of swabs/prints from work surfaces, of cutlery, and of the hands of employees in the “Studentski centar” restaurant, were the subject of analysis. Considering negative findings, where there was no presence of Salmonella spp. or other conditionally pathogenic bacteria (S. aureus, E. coli and sulphidereducing Clostridia) in the examined materials, it may be concluded that the microbiological risk of nut...

  1. Security of legacy process control systems : Moving towards secure process control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterink, M.

    2012-01-01

    This white paper describes solutions which organisations may use to improve the security of their legacy process control systems. When we refer to a legacy system, we generally refer to old methodologies, technologies, computer systems or applications which are still in use, despite the fact that

  2. Irradiation of ready meals for microbiological safety and shelf-life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological quality of waakye and other ready-to-eat meals. ... and 14 meals prepared under the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan were ... sauce and vegetable salad, exceeded the microbiological standards for such ...

  3. [Onsite microbiology services and outsourcing microbiology and offsite laboratories--advantage and disadvantage, thinking of effective utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Naoto

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, budget restrictions have prompted hospital managers to consider outsourcing microbiology service. But there are many advantages onsite microbiology services. Onsite microbiology services have some advantages. 1) High recovery rate of microorganism. 2) Shorter turn around time. 3) Easy to communicate between physician and laboratory technician. 4) Effective utilization of blood culture. 5) Getting early information about microorganism. 6) Making antibiogram (microbiological local factor). 7) Getting information for infection control. The disadvantages are operating costs and labor cost. The important point of maximal utilization of onsite microbiology service is close communication between physicians to microbiology laboratory. It will be able to provide prompt and efficient report to physicians through discussion about Gram stain findings, agar plate media findings and epidemiological information. The rapid and accurate identification of pathogen affords directed therapy, thereby decreasing the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and shortening the length of hospital stay and unnecessary ancillary procedures. When the physician use outsourcing microbiology services, should discuss with offsite laboratories about provided services. Infection control person has to arrange data of susceptibility about every isolate and monitoring multi-drug resistant organism. Not only onsite microbiology services but also outsourcing microbiology services, to communicate bedside and laboratory is most important point of effective utilization.

  4. [Bacterial identification methods in the microbiology laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou, Germán; Fernández-Olmos, Ana; García, Celia; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio; Valdezate, Sylvia

    2011-10-01

    In order to identify the agent responsible of the infectious process and understanding the pathogenic/pathological implications, clinical course, and to implement an effective antimicrobial therapy, a mainstay in the practice of clinical microbiology is the allocation of species to a microbial isolation. In daily routine practice microbiology laboratory phenotypic techniques are applied to achieve this goal. However, they have some limitations that are seen more clearly for some kinds of microorganism. Molecular methods can circumvent some of these limitations, although its implementation is not universal. This is due to higher costs and the level of expertise required for thei implementation, so molecular methods are often centralized in reference laboratories and centers. Recently, proteomics-based methods made an important breakthrough in the field of diagnostic microbiology and will undoubtedly have a major impact on the future organization of the microbiology services. This paper is a short review of the most noteworthy aspects of the three bacterial identification methods described above used in microbiology laboratories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Microbiological aspects of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranđelović, Gordana; Mladenović, Vesna; Ristić, Ljiljana; Otašević, Suzana; Branković, Sofija; Mladenović-Antić, Snežana; Bogdanović, Milena; Bogdanović, Dragan

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to establish the vaginal introitus microbial flora in girls with and without symptoms of vulvovaginitis, and to present the distribution of isolated microorganisms by age groups in girls with vulvovaginitis. We enrolled 500 girls with vulvovaginitis symptoms, aged 2-12 years, referred by their pediatricians for microbiological examination of the vaginal introitus swabs, and 30 age-matched asymptomatic girls. Similar microbial flora was isolated in both groups, but the symptomatic girls had significantly more common positive microbiological findings compared to controls (p vulvovaginitis symptoms. The microbial ecosystem in girls with clinical signs of vulvovaginitis is complex and variable, and the presence of a microorganism does not necessarily imply that it is the cause of infection. The diagnosis of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls requires a complex and comprehensive approach, and microbiological findings should be interpreted in the context of clinical findings.

  6. Microbiological findings of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbulienė, Žana; Venclavičiūtė, Karolina; Ramašauskaite, Diana; Arlauskiene, Audrone; Bumbul, Elžbieta; Drąsutiene, Gražina

    2014-01-01

    To compare vaginal culture results between prepubertal girls with and without vulvovaginitis, and obtain an overview of the most commonly encountered microbes. Prospective descriptive study. Outpatient clinic of Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiu Klinikos during September 2011-December 2012. 115 prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis symptoms and additionally 20 age-matched asymptomatic girls. Each girl had a vaginal smear carried out using a sterile swab from the introitus or lower third of the vagina. All samples were referred to the microbiology laboratory where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Positive microbiological findings were seen in all 115 (100%) symptomatic girls and in 12 (60%) control group girls (pvulvovaginitis and from 5 (25%) girls without vaginal inflammation (pvulvovaginitis. The main causative premenarchal vulvovaginitis agents are faecal in origin.

  7. Practical Implementations of Advanced Process Control for Linear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jørgen K . H.; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes some practical problems encountered, when implementing Advanced Process Control, APC, schemes on linear processes. The implemented APC controllers discussed will be LQR, Riccati MPC and Condensed MPC controllers illustrated by simulation of the Four Tank Process and a lineari......This paper describes some practical problems encountered, when implementing Advanced Process Control, APC, schemes on linear processes. The implemented APC controllers discussed will be LQR, Riccati MPC and Condensed MPC controllers illustrated by simulation of the Four Tank Process...... on pilot plant equipment on the department of Chemical Engineering DTU Lyngby....

  8. The Ultraviolet radiation (UV-C for the microbiological stabilization of red wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Fábio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional procedure for the control of the microbiological stability of wine consists of the addition of sulfur dioxide (SO2, which acts as an antimicrobial agent and also as an antioxidant. The search for alternative methods of microbiological control is important and necessary, since SO2 is a potential allergen and consumers are increasingly looking for healthier and preservative free products. Ultraviolet radiation was tested as an innovative technology that can help reduce the amount of sulphur dioxide used in winemaking. The object of this study was to optimize the process conditions compared to the results obtained previously, and to evaluate the efficiency of microbiological stabilization and its influence on the physico-chemical characteristics, the phenolic composition and sensory profile. Thus, red wine with very low content of sulphur dioxide was subjected to UV-C radiation in two different doses 424J/l e 778J/l, and the preparation of a control wine was carried out to which 30 mg/l sulfur dioxide was added. The wines (control=UV0, UV1 and UV2 were analyzed over time (from 0 to 4 months. The results show that treatment with a lower dosage is effective in the microbiological control of the product. The wines subjected to treatment with UV-C showed an increase in intensity of colour, and the treatment does not affect the flavour and taste of the wine.

  9. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in ship ballast tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is known to be a dangerous process in ship tanks due to its rapid and yet unpredictable occurrence, leading to extremely fast local corrosion, possibly jeopardizing the structural integrity, in a relatively short time. This project focuses on a

  10. Microbiological disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai

    2008-01-01

    The disproportionation of inorganic sulfur intermediates at moderate temperatures (0-80 °C) is a microbiologically catalyzed chemolithotrophic process in which compounds like elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and sulfite serve as both electron donor and acceptor, and generate hydrogen sulfide and su...

  11. Neuro-fuzzy Control of Integrating Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vasičkaninová

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy technology is adaptive and easily applicable in different areas.Fuzzy logic provides powerful tools to capture the perceptionof natural phenomena. The paper deals with tuning of neuro-fuzzy controllers for integrating plant and for integrating plantswith time delay. The designed approach is verified on three examples by simulations and compared plants with classical PID control.Designed fuzzy controllers lead to better closed-loop control responses then classical PID controllers.

  12. On-line process control monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, P.E.; Van Hare, D.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes apparatus for monitoring at a plurality of locations within a system the concentration of at least one chemical substance involved in a chemical process. It comprises plurality of process cells; first means for carrying the light; second means for carrying the light; means for producing a spectrum from the light received by the second carrying means; multiplexing means for selecting one process cell of the plurality of process cells at a time so that the producing means can produce a process spectrum from the one cell of the process cells; a reference cell for producing a reference spectrum for comparison to the process spectrum; a standard cell for producing a standard spectrum for comparison to the process spectrum; and means for comparing the reference spectrum, the standard spectrum and the process spectrum and determining the concentration of the chemical substance in the process cell

  13. Case studies in food microbiology for food safety and quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain); Pawsey, Rosa K

    2002-01-01

    ... to engage in the learning process, and in so doing learn techniques for learning, and subsequently for applying knowledge. This has been more interesting for me, the teacher, and I think for the students too. This book has grown from my ten years teaching food microbiology and hygiene to post-graduate students in Food Safety and Control at South Bank University, London. It was the decade during which, in the UK, the national policies behind the management of food safety changed rapidly, and this me...

  14. Optical metrology for advanced process control: full module metrology solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdog, Cornel; Turovets, Igor

    2016-03-01

    Optical metrology is the workhorse metrology in manufacturing and key enabler to patterning process control. Recent advances in device architecture are gradually shifting the need for process control from the lithography module to other patterning processes (etch, trim, clean, LER/LWR treatments, etc..). Complex multi-patterning integration solutions, where the final pattern is the result of multiple process steps require a step-by-step holistic process control and a uniformly accurate holistic metrology solution for pattern transfer for the entire module. For effective process control, more process "knobs" are needed, and a tighter integration of metrology with process architecture.

  15. Comparison Analysis of Model Predictive Controller with Classical PID Controller For pH Control Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Balaji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available pH control plays a important role in any chemical plant and process industries. For the past four decades the classical PID controller has been occupied by the industries. Due to the faster computing   technology in the industry demands a tighter advanced control strategy. To fulfill the needs and requirements Model Predictive Control (MPC is the best among all the advanced control algorithms available in the present scenario. The study and analysis has been done for First Order plus Delay Time (FOPDT model controlled by Proportional Integral Derivative (PID and MPC using the Matlab software. This paper explores the capability of the MPC strategy, analyze and compare the control effects with conventional control strategy in pH control. A comparison results between the PID and MPC is plotted using the software. The results clearly show that MPC provide better performance than the classical controller.

  16. Anticipated Activities in Maritime Work, Process Control, and Business Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2004-01-01

    Most activities are anticipated before they are executed. The paper presents methods for describing this anticipated state and the processes that may lead to a new state where the activities are executed. The method builds on linguistic case-theory.......Most activities are anticipated before they are executed. The paper presents methods for describing this anticipated state and the processes that may lead to a new state where the activities are executed. The method builds on linguistic case-theory....

  17. Radioisotopic indicators in microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isamov, N.N.

    1976-01-01

    The book comprises data obtained by the laboratory of radiobiology (Uzbek Research Veterinary Institute) for 15 years and sums up data of domestic and foreign scientists; it discusses problems of the utilization of radioactive isotopes of sulphur, cadmium, phosphorus and other chemical elements by microorganisms; indicates the specificity of the utilization of radioisotopes in microbiology. The influence is considered of external factors on the inclusion of radioisotopes into microorganisms, methods are discussed of obtaining labelled microorganisms and their antigens, radioactivity of bacteria is considered as affected by the consistency and composition of the nutritive medium and other problems

  18. Microbiological monitoring in geothermal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Vetter, A.; Vieth, A.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Würdemann, H.

    2009-12-01

    In times of increasing relevance of alternative energy resources the utilization of geothermal energy and subsurface energy storage gains importance and arouses increasing interest of scientists. The research project “AquiScreen” investigates the operational reliability of geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. Microbiological analyses based on fluid and solid phases of geothermal systems are conducted to evaluate the impact of microbial populations on these systems. The presentation focuses on first results obtained from microbiological monitoring of geothermal plants located in two different regions of Germany: the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin in the southern part characterized by different salinities and temperatures. Fluid and filter samples taken during regular plant operation were investigated using genetic fingerprinting based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes to characterize the microbial biocenosis of the geothermal aquifer. Sequencing of dominant bands of the fingerprints and the subsequent comparison to 16S rRNA genes from public databases enables a correlation to metabolic classes and provides information about the biochemical processes in the deep biosphere. The genetic profiles revealed significant differences in microbiological community structures of geothermal aquifers investigated. Phylogenetic analyses indicate broad metabolical diversity adapted to the specific conditions in the aquifers. Additionally a high amount of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected indicating very specific indigenous biocenosis. However, in all geothermal plants bacteria were detected despite of fluid temperatures from 45° to 120°C. The identified microorganisms are closely related to thermophilic and hyperthermophilic species detectable in hot wells and hot springs, like Thermus scotoductus and Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii, respectively. Halophilic species were detected in

  19. Microbiology Education in Nursing Practice?

    OpenAIRE

    Durrant, Robert J.; Doig, Alexa K.; Buxton, Rebecca L.; Fenn, JoAnn P.

    2017-01-01

    Nurses must have sufficient education and training in microbiology to perform many roles within clinical nursing practice (e.g., administering antibiotics, collecting specimens, preparing specimens for transport and delivery, educating patients and families, communicating results to the healthcare team, and developing care plans based on results of microbiology studies and patient immunological status). It is unclear whether the current microbiology courses required of nursing students in the...

  20. Dental abscess: A microbiological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental abscess is a frequently occurring infectious process known to the health practice. The fate of the infection depends on the virulence of the bacteria, host resistance factors, and regional anatomy. Serious consequences arising from the spread of a dental abscess lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Acute dental abscess is polymicrobial, comprising of strict anaerobes, such as anaerobic cocci, Prevotella, Fusobacterium species, and facultative anaerobes, such as viridans group streptococci and the Streptococcus anginosus group. Numerous novel, uncultivable and fastidious organisms have been identified as potential pathogens with the use of non-culture techniques. The majority of localized dental abscesses respond to surgical treatment while the use of antimicrobials is limited to severe spreading infections. There is a need for good-quality clinical trials of sufficient size to identify the ideal treatment. The microbiology of the acute dentoalveolar abscess and its treatment in the light of improved culture and diagnostic methods are reviewed.

  1. Using the Shewhart control charts by process control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Lestyánszka Škůrková

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the statistics pursing the process capability of turning in screws production in RIBE Slovakia, k.s. in technical practice, an important group of statistic methods is formed by analyzing qualification of measures, production equipment and qualification of process. By the term “process qualification“ we mean the ability of the process to observe required technical parameters by required value and tolerance limits. Findings of the process capability can be isolated in the estimate process capability (before starting the production and permanent process capability. Also, we have finished the quest for the process capability where the indexes Cp and Cpk are bigger than the determined value of 1.33 points.

  2. Modeling, simulation and control of fermentation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Aros, Nelson; Cifuentes, Marcelo; Mardones, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Se presenta un simulador en ambiente Matlab/Simulink para controlar el proceso de fermentación, diseñando una ley de control invariante, luego un control estabilizante para mantener la planta dentro del sistema de referencia y finalmente un control estabilizante mejorado con la implementación de un controlador difuso. El modelo Monod es utilizado y vía simulación se prueban las estrategias aludidas para controlar la tasa de crecimiento específica de la biomasa. El control estabilizante aplica...

  3. An Overview of Pharmaceutical Validation and Process Controls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has always been known that the processes involved in pharmaceutical production impact significantly on the quality of the products The processes include raw material and equipment inspections as well as in-process controls. Process controls are mandatory in good manufacturing practice (GMP). The purpose is to ...

  4. Verification of product quality from process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobot, A.; Bunnell, L.R.; Freeborn, W.P.; Macedo, P.B.; Mellinger, G.B.; Pegg, I.L.; Piepel, G.F.; Reimus, M.A.H.; Routt, K.R.; Saad, E.

    1989-01-01

    Process models were developed to characterize the waste vitrification at West Valley, in terms of process operating constraints and glass compositions achievable. The need for verification of compliance with the proposed Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specification criteria led to development of product models, the most critical one being a glass durability model. Both process and product models were used in developing a target composition for the waste glass. This target composition designed to ensure that glasses made to this target will be of acceptable durability after all process variations have been accounted for. 4 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Fluidization control in the wurster coating process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    el Mafadi Samira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Paniculate coating process in a fluidized bed involves different sub processes including particle wetting, spreading and also consolidation or drying of the coating applied. These sub processes are done simultaneously to particle fluidization and motion. All the parameters of fluidization are known to affect the coating quality. That is why the motion of particles in the Wurster coating process has been observed and described step by step. These observations have achieved a general understanding of phenomena which take place inside the bed during fluidization and have allowed the development of an easy method for optimizing all the parameters affecting this operation.

  6. Fed-Batch Production of Bacterial Ghosts Using Dielectric Spectroscopy for Dynamic Process Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Meitz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Bacterial Ghost (BG platform technology evolved from a microbiological expression system incorporating the ϕX174 lysis gene E. E-lysis generates empty but structurally intact cell envelopes (BGs from Gram-negative bacteria which have been suggested as candidate vaccines, immunotherapeutic agents or drug delivery vehicles. E-lysis is a highly dynamic and complex biological process that puts exceptional demands towards process understanding and control. The development of a both economic and robust fed-batch production process for BGs required a toolset capable of dealing with rapidly changing concentrations of viable biomass during the E-lysis phase. This challenge was addressed using a transfer function combining dielectric spectroscopy and soft-sensor based biomass estimation for monitoring the rapid decline of viable biomass during the E-lysis phase. The transfer function was implemented to a feed-controller, which followed the permittivity signal closely and was capable of maintaining a constant specific substrate uptake rate during lysis phase. With the described toolset, we were able to increase the yield of BG production processes by a factor of 8–10 when compared to currently used batch procedures reaching lysis efficiencies >98%. This provides elevated potentials for commercial application of the Bacterial Ghost platform technology.

  7. Studies on the impact, detection, and control of microbiology influenced corrosion related to pitting failures in the Russian oil and gas industry. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehst, D.

    2006-09-30

    The objectives of the Project are: (1) to design effective anti-corrosion preparations (biocides, inhibitors, penetrants and their combinations) for gas- and oil-exploration industries; (2) to study a possibility of development of environmentally beneficial ('green') biocides and inhibitors of the new generation; (3) to develop chemical and microbiological methods of monitoring of sites at risk of corrosion; and (4) to evaluate potentialities in terms of technology, raw materials and material and technical basis to set up a production of effective anti-corrosion preparations of new generation in Russia. During the four years of the project 228 compounds and formulations were synthesized and studied in respect to their corrosion inhibiting activity. A series of compounds which were according to the Bubble tests more efficient (by a factor of 10-100) than the reference inhibitor SXT-1102, some possessing the similar activity or slightly better activity than new inhibitor ??-1154? (company ONDEO/Nalco). Two synthetic routes for the synthesis of mercaptopyrimidines as perspective corrosion inhibitors were developed. Mercaptopyrimidine derivatives can be obtained in one or two steps from cheap and easily available precursors. The cost for their synthesis is not high and can be further reduced after the optimization of the production processes. A new approach for lignin utilization was proposed. Water-soluble derivative of lignin can by transformed to corrosion protective layer by its electropolymerization on a steel surface. Varying lignosulfonates from different sources, as well as conditions of electrooxidation we proved, that drop in current at high anodic potentials is due to electropolymerization of lignin derivative at steel electrode surface. The electropolymerization potential can be sufficiently decreased by an increase in ionic strength of the growing solution. The lignosulfonate electropolymerization led to the considerable corrosion protection

  8. Association between product quality control and process quality control of bulk milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, A.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of dairy-milk quality is based on product quality control (testing bulk-milk samples) and process quality control (auditing dairy farms). It is unknown whether process control improves product quality. To quantify possible association between product control and process control a

  9. Plug-and-play process control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, K; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    An important issue in the area of reconfigurable systems is how to respond correctly if new components are added. We consider the problem of improving control performance for a system where a new set of sensors becomes available. It is assumed that a complete re-design of the control system is un...

  10. Overview of advanced process control in welding within ERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    The special kinds of demands placed on ERDA weapons and reactors require them to have very reliable welds. Process control is critical in achieving this reliability. ERDA has a number of advanced process control projects underway with much of the emphasis being on electron beam welding. These include projects on voltage measurement, beam-current control, beam focusing, beam spot tracking, spike suppression, and computer control. A general discussion of process control in welding is followed by specific examples of some of the advanced joining process control projects in ERDA

  11. Intelligent control for scalable video processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wüst, C.C.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we study a problem related to cost-effective video processing in software by consumer electronics devices, such as digital TVs. Video processing is the task of transforming an input video signal into an output video signal, for example to improve the quality of the signal. This

  12. Light-Assisted Advanced Oxidation Processes for the Elimination of Chemical and Microbiological Pollution of Wastewaters in Developed and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos Giannakis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the issue of hospital and urban wastewater treatment is studied in two different contexts, in Switzerland and in developing countries (Ivory Coast and Colombia. For this purpose, the treatment of municipal wastewater effluents is studied, simulating the developed countries’ context, while cheap and sustainable solutions are proposed for the developing countries, to form a barrier between effluents and receiving water bodies. In order to propose proper methods for each case, the characteristics of the matrices and the targets are described here in detail. In both contexts, the use of Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs is implemented, focusing on UV-based and solar-supported ones, in the respective target areas. A list of emerging contaminants and bacteria are firstly studied to provide operational and engineering details on their removal by AOPs. Fundamental mechanistic insights are also provided on the degradation of the effluent wastewater organic matter. The use of viruses and yeasts as potential model pathogens is also accounted for, treated by the photo-Fenton process. In addition, two pharmaceutically active compound (PhAC models of hospital and/or industrial origin are studied in wastewater and urine, treated by all accounted AOPs, as a proposed method to effectively control concentrated point-source pollution from hospital wastewaters. Their elimination was modeled and the degradation pathway was elucidated by the use of state-of-the-art analytical techniques. In conclusion, the use of light-supported AOPs was proven to be effective in degrading the respective target and further insights were provided by each application, which could facilitate their divulgation and potential application in the field.

  13. Light-Assisted Advanced Oxidation Processes for the Elimination of Chemical and Microbiological Pollution of Wastewaters in Developed and Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakis, Stefanos; Rtimi, Sami; Pulgarin, Cesar

    2017-06-26

    In this work, the issue of hospital and urban wastewater treatment is studied in two different contexts, in Switzerland and in developing countries (Ivory Coast and Colombia). For this purpose, the treatment of municipal wastewater effluents is studied, simulating the developed countries' context, while cheap and sustainable solutions are proposed for the developing countries, to form a barrier between effluents and receiving water bodies. In order to propose proper methods for each case, the characteristics of the matrices and the targets are described here in detail. In both contexts, the use of Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) is implemented, focusing on UV-based and solar-supported ones, in the respective target areas. A list of emerging contaminants and bacteria are firstly studied to provide operational and engineering details on their removal by AOPs. Fundamental mechanistic insights are also provided on the degradation of the effluent wastewater organic matter. The use of viruses and yeasts as potential model pathogens is also accounted for, treated by the photo-Fenton process. In addition, two pharmaceutically active compound (PhAC) models of hospital and/or industrial origin are studied in wastewater and urine, treated by all accounted AOPs, as a proposed method to effectively control concentrated point-source pollution from hospital wastewaters. Their elimination was modeled and the degradation pathway was elucidated by the use of state-of-the-art analytical techniques. In conclusion, the use of light-supported AOPs was proven to be effective in degrading the respective target and further insights were provided by each application, which could facilitate their divulgation and potential application in the field.

  14. Viscous Control of the Foam Glass Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup

    The production of foam glass as heat insulating material is an important industrial process because it enables low-cost recycling of glass waste from a variety of chemical compositions. Optimization of the foaming process of new glass waste compositions is time consuming, since many factors affect...... the foaming process such as temperature, particle size, type and concentration of foaming agent. The foaming temperature is one of the key factors, because even small temperature changes can affect the melt viscosity by several orders of magnitude. Therefore, it is important to establish the viscosity range...... in which the foaming process should take place, particularly when the type of recycled cullet is changed or several types of cullet are mixed in one batch. According to recent glass literature, the foaming process should occur at viscosity 103 to 105 Pa s. However, no systematic studies have hitherto been...

  15. Functional Dual Adaptive Control with Recursive Gaussian Process Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prüher, Jakub; Král, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with dual adaptive control problem, where the functional uncertainties in the system description are modelled by a non-parametric Gaussian process regression model. Current approaches to adaptive control based on Gaussian process models are severely limited in their practical applicability, because the model is re-adjusted using all the currently available data, which keeps growing with every time step. We propose the use of recursive Gaussian process regression algorithm for significant reduction in computational requirements, thus bringing the Gaussian process-based adaptive controllers closer to their practical applicability. In this work, we design a bi-criterial dual controller based on recursive Gaussian process model for discrete-time stochastic dynamic systems given in an affine-in-control form. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the proposed controller achieves comparable performance with the full Gaussian process-based controller in terms of control quality while keeping the computational demands bounded. (paper)

  16. Melão minimamente processado: um controle de qualidade Minimally processed melon: a quality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Suzanne Florentino da Silva Chaves Damasceno

    2005-12-01

    distribution of agricultural products, through procedures like selection, cleaning, washing, peeling and cutting, which do not affect their organoleptic characteristics and add value to them. The process results in natural and practical products, which require less time for preparation and consumption to fulfill the demands of modern life. The purpose of minimally processed and cooled food is to provide a product that is similar to the fresh one to guarantee safety, maintaining the nutritive and sensory quality. The process has attracted attention to research mainly regarding microbiological, physicochemical and sensory alterations that influence the shelf life of these products. The target of the research was to evaluate the effect of commercialization temperature (15ºC on the quality of the Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. inodorus minimally processed. Fruits packed in trays and involved in plastic film were randomly acquired in a local supermarket. Treatments were: temperatures (4 and 15ºC, storage periods (5, 10, 15 and 1, 2 and 3 days at 4 and 15ºC, respectively and a control treatment of minimally processed melon on day zero. Samples were analyzed as far as their physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics are concerned. The melon quality was significantly affected during refrigerated storage. At commercialization temperature (15ºC, the product is only valid for 24 hours. Storage at 4°C allows conservation up to 5 days and it is necessary to display the adequate time of storage and temperature on the label of the product.

  17. The microbiology of alkaline-fermentation of indigenous seeds used as food condiments in Africa and Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parkouda, Charles; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Azokpota, Paulin

    2009-01-01

    . Studies have been undertaken which have investigated a number of these products like dawadawa, ugba, bikalga, kinema, natto, and thua-nao. In this review, current knowledge about the principal microbiological activities and biochemical modifications which occur during the processing of the alkaline...... for the selection of potential starter cultures for controlled and better production procedures for alkaline-fermented seeds condiments....

  18. Deposit control in process cooling water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataramani, B.

    1981-01-01

    In order to achieve efficient heat transfer in cooling water systems, it is essential to control the fouling of heat exchanger surfaces. Solubilities of scale forming salts, their growth into crystals, and the nature of the surfaces play important roles in the deposition phenomenon. Condensed phosphates, organic polymers and compounds like phosphates are effective in controlling deposition of scale forming salts. The surface active agents inhibit crystal growth and modify the crystals of the scale forming salts, and thus prevent deposition of dense, uniformly structured crystalline mass on the heat transfer surface. Understanding the mechanism of biofouling is essential to control it by surface active agents. Certain measures taken in the plant, such as back flushing, to control scaling, sometimes may not be effective and can be detrimental to the system itself. (author)

  19. microbiological quality of re-packaged sweets sold in metropolitan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    retailers of food products, which include sweets, have been implicated ... their microbiological fitness for human consumption. MATERIALS ... wholesome beverage was used to serve as a control. This was ... behaviour of the bacterial isolates.

  20. Integrative Microbiology – The Third Golden Age Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    and Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA. .... about the mechanisms that control gene expression in bacteria. How is the synthesis of .... The second Golden Age of microbiology materialized in the 1940's with the birth of.

  1. Screen-based process control in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinz, W.; Arnoldt, C.; Hessler, C.

    1993-01-01

    Requirements, development and conceptual design of a screen-based control room for nuclear power plants are outlined. The control room consists of three or four equally equipped operator workstations comprising screens for process information and manual process control. A plant overview will assist the coordination among the operators. A safety classified backup system (safety control area) is provided to cover postulated failures of the control means. Some aspects of ergonomical validation and of future development trends are discussed. (orig.) [de

  2. Process control for the ISABELLE system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, R.; Herman, A.; Stattel, P.; Warkentien, R.

    1981-01-01

    A low cost, highly reliable control system has been developed for use in the radiation environment of the ISABELLE ring. The Ultra-High Vacuum installation will consist of approximately 1500 stations - each having 8 readbacks, 4 on-off operations and 4 special functions - distributed over 2.5 mills. The paper will describe a multidrop party line system in which a μp based controller located in a protected environment communicates with up to 25 vacuum stations. All the μp controllers will be linked via the ISABELLE data highway. Mechanical, electronic and software aspects of the system are discussed and performance data from our First Cell model are presented

  3. Transformation From a Conventional Clinical Microbiology Laboratory to Full Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Camacho, José L; Calva-Espinosa, Diana Y; Leal-Leyva, Yoseli Y; Elizalde-Olivas, Dolores C; Campos-Romero, Abraham; Alcántar-Fernández, Jonathan

    2017-12-22

    To validate the performance, reproducibility, and reliability of BD automated instruments in order to establish a fully automated clinical microbiology laboratory. We used control strains and clinical samples to assess the accuracy, reproducibility, and reliability of the BD Kiestra WCA, the BD Phoenix, and BD Bruker MALDI-Biotyper instruments and compared them to previously established conventional methods. The following processes were evaluated: sample inoculation and spreading, colony counts, sorting of cultures, antibiotic susceptibility test, and microbial identification. The BD Kiestra recovered single colonies in less time than conventional methods (e.g. E. coli, 7h vs 10h, respectively) and agreement between both methodologies was excellent for colony counts (κ=0.824) and sorting cultures (κ=0.821). Antibiotic susceptibility tests performed with BD Phoenix and disk diffusion demonstrated 96.3% agreement with both methods. Finally, we compared microbial identification in BD Phoenix and Bruker MALDI-Biotyper and observed perfect agreement (κ=1) and identification at a species level for control strains. Together these instruments allow us to process clinical urine samples in 36h (effective time). The BD automated technologies have improved performance compared with conventional methods, and are suitable for its implementation in very busy microbiology laboratories. © American Society for Clinical Pathology 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. NONLINEAR MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA R. G.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A new algorithm for model predictive control is presented. The algorithm utilizes a simultaneous solution and optimization strategy to solve the model's differential equations. The equations are discretized by equidistant collocation, and along with the algebraic model equations are included as constraints in a nonlinear programming (NLP problem. This algorithm is compared with the algorithm that uses orthogonal collocation on finite elements. The equidistant collocation algorithm results in simpler equations, providing a decrease in computation time for the control moves. Simulation results are presented and show a satisfactory performance of this algorithm.

  5. Electrolyte chemistry control in electrodialysis processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Thomas D.; Severin, Blaine F.

    2017-12-26

    Methods for controlling electrolyte chemistry in electrodialysis units having an anode and a cathode each in an electrolyte of a selected concentration and a membrane stack disposed therebetween. The membrane stack includes pairs of cationic selective and anionic membranes to segregate increasingly dilute salts streams from concentrated salts stream. Electrolyte chemistry control is via use of at least one of following techniques: a single calcium exclusionary cationic selective membrane at a cathode cell boundary, an exclusionary membrane configured as a hydraulically isolated scavenger cell, a multivalent scavenger co-electrolyte and combinations thereof.

  6. The application of mean control chart in managing industrial processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papić-Blagojević Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the advent of mass production comes the problem of monitoring and maintaining the quality of the product, which stressed the need for the application of selected statistical and mathematical methods in the control process. The main objective of applying the methods of statistical control is continuous quality improvement through permanent monitoring of the process in order to discover the causes of errors. Shewart charts are the most popular method of statistical process control, which performs separation of controlled and uncontrolled variations along with detection of increased variations. This paper presents the example of Shewart mean control chart with application in managing industrial process.

  7. Modelling microbial interactions and food structure in predictive microbiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malakar, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: modelling, dynamic models, microbial interactions, diffusion, microgradients, colony growth, predictive microbiology.

    Growth response of microorganisms in foods is a complex process. Innovations in food production and preservation techniques have resulted in adoption of

  8. Automatic process control in anaerobic digestion technology: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Nitayavardhana, Saoharit; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a mature technology that relies upon a synergistic effort of a diverse group of microbial communities for metabolizing diverse organic substrates. However, AD is highly sensitive to process disturbances, and thus it is advantageous to use online monitoring and process control techniques to efficiently operate AD process. A range of electrochemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic devices can be deployed for on-line monitoring and control of the AD process. While complexity of the control strategy ranges from a feedback control to advanced control systems, there are some debates on implementation of advanced instrumentations or advanced control strategies. Centralized AD plants could be the answer for the applications of progressive automatic control field. This article provides a critical overview of the available automatic control technologies that can be implemented in AD processes at different scales. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Process plant equipment operation, control, and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Holloway, Michael D; Onyewuenyi, Oliver A

    2012-01-01

    "Process Plant Equipment Book is another great publication from Wiley as a reference book for final year students as well as those who will work or are working in chemical production plants and refinery…" -Associate Prof. Dr. Ramli Mat, Deputy Dean (Academic), Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia "…give[s] readers access to both fundamental information on process plant equipment and to practical ideas, best practices and experiences of highly successful engineers from around the world… The book is illustrated throughout with numerous black & white p

  10. Science-based information processing in the process control of power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisang, C.

    1992-01-01

    Through the application of specialized systems, future-orientated information processing integrates the sciences of processes, control systems, process control strategies, user behaviour and ergonomics. Improvements in process control can be attained, inter alia, by the preparation of the information contained (e.g. by suppressing the flow of signals and replacing it with signals which are found on substance) and also by an ergonomic representation of the study of the process. (orig.) [de

  11. Process control system for fresh concrete preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachvarov, N.; Pavlov, P.; Shukov, H.

    1983-01-01

    The paper discusses the principles, structure and organization of a modular microprocessor based control system, designed to be used in fresh concrete fabrication plants. The system is based on the measurement of the aggregate moisture by means of a neutron moisture meter. (author)

  12. Optimal control of raw timber production processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan Kolenka

    1978-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the possibility of optimal planning and control of timber harvesting activ-ities with mathematical optimization models. The separate phases of timber harvesting are represented by coordinated models which can be used to select the optimal decision for the execution of any given phase. The models form a system whose components are connected and...

  13. Robot welding process control development task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Peter L.

    1992-01-01

    The completion of, and improvements made to, the software developed during 1990 for program maintenance on the PC and HEURIKON and transfer to the CYRO, and integration of the Rocketdyne vision software with the CYRO is documented. The new programs were used successfully by NASA, Rocketdyne, and UAH technicians and engineers to create, modify, upload, download, and control CYRO NC programs.

  14. Biomolecular Modeling in a Process Dynamics and Control Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jeffrey J.

    2006-01-01

    I present modifications to the traditional course entitled, "Process dynamics and control," which I renamed "Modeling, dynamics, and control of chemical and biological processes." Additions include the central dogma of biology, pharmacokinetic systems, population balances, control of gene transcription, and large­-scale…

  15. Applying Statistical Process Control to Clinical Data: An Illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfadt, Al; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Principles of statistical process control are applied to a clinical setting through the use of control charts to detect changes, as part of treatment planning and clinical decision-making processes. The logic of control chart analysis is derived from principles of statistical inference. Sample charts offer examples of evaluating baselines and…

  16. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Alita R.; Smith, James J.

    2016-01-01

    An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the continued incorporation of evidence-based teaching practices into microbiology courses at all levels. Next, we review the current status of microbial evolution assessment tools and describe some education resources available for teaching microbial evolution. Successful microbial evolution education will require that evolution be taught across the undergraduate biology curriculum, with a continued focus on applications and applied careers, while aligning with national biology education reform initiatives. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:27158306

  17. Multi-Model Adaptive Fuzzy Controller for a CSTR Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Gogoria

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors are intensively used to control exothermic reactions in chemical industries. It is a very complex multi-variable system with non-linear characteristics. This paper deals with linearization of the mathematical model of a CSTR Process. Multi model adaptive fuzzy controller has been designed to control the reactor concentration and temperature of CSTR process. This method combines the output of multiple Fuzzy controllers, which are operated at various operating points. The proposed solution is a straightforward implementation of Fuzzy controller with gain scheduler to control the linearly inseparable parameters of a highly non-linear process.

  18. 21 CFR 820.70 - Production and process controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Production and Process Controls § 820.70 Production and process... used as part of production or the quality system, the manufacturer shall validate computer software for... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production and process controls. 820.70 Section...

  19. New Principles of Process Control in Geotechnics by Acoustic Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Leššo, I.; Flegner, P.; Pandula, B.; Horovčák, P.

    2007-01-01

    The contribution describes the new solution of the control of rotary drilling process as some elementary process in geotechnics. The article presents the first results of research on the utilization of acoustic methods in identification process by optimal control of rotary drilling.

  20. New Principles of Process Control in Geotechnics by Acoustic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leššo, I.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution describes the new solution of the control of rotary drilling process as some elementary process in geotechnics. The article presents the first results of research on the utilization of acoustic methods in identification process by optimal control of rotary drilling.

  1. Big Data Analytics for Industrial Process Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Abdul Rauf; Schioler, Henrik; Kulahci, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Today, in modern factories, each step in manufacturing produces a bulk of valuable as well as highly precise information. This provides a great opportunity for understanding the hidden statistical dependencies in the process. Systematic analysis and utilization of advanced analytical methods can...

  2. Modeling of Reaction Processes Controlled by Diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revelli, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    Stochastic modeling is quite powerful in science and technology.The technics derived from this process have been used with great success in laser theory, biological systems and chemical reactions.Besides, they provide a theoretical framework for the analysis of experimental results on the field of particle's diffusion in ordered and disordered materials.In this work we analyze transport processes in one-dimensional fluctuating media, which are media that change their state in time.This fact induces changes in the movements of the particles giving rise to different phenomena and dynamics that will be described and analyzed in this work.We present some random walk models to describe these fluctuating media.These models include state transitions governed by different dynamical processes.We also analyze the trapping problem in a lattice by means of a simple model which predicts a resonance-like phenomenon.Also we study effective diffusion processes over surfaces due to random walks in the bulk.We consider different boundary conditions and transitions movements.We derive expressions that describe diffusion behaviors constrained to bulk restrictions and the dynamic of the particles.Finally it is important to mention that the theoretical results obtained from the models proposed in this work are compared with Monte Carlo simulations.We find, in general, excellent agreements between the theory and the simulations

  3. Improving the Document Development Process: Integrating Relational Data and Statistical Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John

    1994-01-01

    Presents an approach to document numbering, document titling, and process measurement which, when used with fundamental techniques of statistical process control, reveals meaningful process-element variation as well as nominal productivity models. (SR)

  4. Thermodynamics, kinetics and process control of nitriding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mittemeijer, Eric J.; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    1999-01-01

    As a prerequisite for predictability of properties obtained by a nitriding treatment of iron-based workpieces, the relation between the process parameters and the composition and structure of the surface layer produced must be known. At present (even) the description of thermodynamic equilibrium...... of pure iron-nitrogen phases has not been achieved fully. It has been shown that taking into account ordering of nitrogen in the epsilon and gamma' iron-nitride phases, leads to an improved understanding of the Fe-N phase diagram. Although thermodynamics indicate the state the system strives for......, the nitriding result is determined largely by the kinetics of the process. The nitriding kinetics have been shown to be characterised by the occurring local near-equilibria and stationary states at surfaces and interfaces, and the diffusion coefficient of nitrogen in the various phases, for which new data have...

  5. Big Data Analytics for Industrial Process Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Abdul Rauf; Schioler, Henrik; Kulahci, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Today, in modern factories, each step in manufacturing produces a bulk of valuable as well as highly precise information. This provides a great opportunity for understanding the hidden statistical dependencies in the process. Systematic analysis and utilization of advanced analytical methods can ...... lead towards more informed decisions. In this article we discuss some of the challenges related to big data analysis in manufacturing and relevant solutions to some of these challenges....

  6. Human Information Processing and Supervisory Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    errors (that is of the output of the human operator). There is growing evidence (Senders, personal communication; Norman , personal communication...relates to the relative tendency to depend on sensory information or to be more analytic and independent. Norman (personal communication) has referred...decision process model. Ergonomics, 12, 543-557. Senders, J., Elkid, J., Grignetti, M., & Smallwood , R. 1966. An investigation of the visual sampling

  7. Control System Design for Cylindrical Tank Process Using Neural Model Predictive Control Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sridevi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical manufacturing and process industry requires innovative technologies for process identification. This paper deals with model identification and control of cylindrical process. Model identification of the process was done using ARMAX technique. A neural model predictive controller was designed for the identified model. The performance of the controllers was evaluated using MATLAB software. The performance of NMPC controller was compared with Smith Predictor controller and IMC controller based on rise time, settling time, overshoot and ISE and it was found that the NMPC controller is better suited for this process.

  8. Irradiation of prepared meals for microbiological safety and shelf life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nketsia-Tabiri, K.; Adu-Gyamfi, A.; Apea Bah, F.

    2009-01-01

    Fourteen international ready meals prepared under the approved hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) plan and two Ghanaian ready meals, waakye (co-boiled rice and cowpeas served with gravy, minimally processed vegetable salad, hydrated gari, fried fish and macaroni) and jollof rice (rice cooked in tomato sauce and served with gravy and beef tripe), were investigated with the view to enhancing microbiological safety and extending shelf life under chilled conditions. The microbiological count of the complete waakye meal exceeded the microbiological standard. The microbiological counts on meals prepared under the HACCP plan and the jollof rice meals were within the microbiological standards. The D 10 values for potential pathogens on waakye were 0.271 kGy for Escherichia coli, 0.325 kGy for Salmonella aureus and 0.440 kGy for Salmonella spp. while the D 10 values on jollof rice meal were 0.173 kGy, 0.260 kGy and 0.285 kGy, respectively. Challenge tests with the pathogens on one of the HACCP meals (poached chicken) or jollof rice suggested that the 3 kGy dose was sufficient for the elimination of the pathogens to ensure the microbiological safety of the meals and extended their shelf life under chilled storage for 28 days without significant effects on their sensory quality. Doses of 1 and 2 kGy did not affect the sensory quality of the rice and chicken/gravy but boiled carrots were unable to withstand a dose of more than 1 kGy. (author)

  9. Microeconomics of 300-mm process module control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kevin M.; Chatterjee, Arun K.; Falessi, Georges; Levy, Ady; Stoller, Meryl D.

    2001-08-01

    Simple microeconomic models that directly link metrology, yield, and profitability are rare or non-existent. In this work, we validate and apply such a model. Using a small number of input parameters, we explain current yield management practices in 200 mm factories. The model is then used to extrapolate requirements for 300 mm factories, including the impact of simultaneous technology transitions to 130nm lithography and integrated metrology. To support our conclusions, we use examples relevant to factory-wide photo module control.

  10. Quantum processing by remote quantum control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Xiaogang; Zhou, Xiaoqi; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Cable, Hugo; O'Brien, Jeremy L.

    2017-12-01

    Client-server models enable computations to be hosted remotely on quantum servers. We present a novel protocol for realizing this task, with practical advantages when using technology feasible in the near term. Client tasks are realized as linear combinations of operations implemented by the server, where the linear coefficients are hidden from the server. We report on an experimental demonstration of our protocol using linear optics, which realizes linear combination of two single-qubit operations by a remote single-qubit control. In addition, we explain when our protocol can remain efficient for larger computations, as well as some ways in which privacy can be maintained using our protocol.

  11. Microbial profile and critical control points during processing of 'robo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial profile and critical control points during processing of 'robo' snack from ... the relevant critical control points especially in relation to raw materials and ... to the quality of the various raw ingredients used were the roasting using earthen

  12. Advanced Process Control Application and Optimization in Industrial Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howes S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes application of the new method and tool for system identification and PID tuning/advanced process control (APC optimization using the new 3G (geometric, gradient, gravity optimization method. It helps to design and implement control schemes directly inside the distributed control system (DCS or programmable logic controller (PLC. Also, the algorithm helps to identify process dynamics in closed-loop mode, optimizes controller parameters, and helps to develop adaptive control and model-based control (MBC. Application of the new 3G algorithm for designing and implementing APC schemes is presented. Optimization of primary and advanced control schemes stabilizes the process and allows the plant to run closer to process, equipment and economic constraints. This increases production rates, minimizes operating costs and improves product quality.

  13. The controlled vitrification/crystallisation process applied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero, M.

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The glass-ceramic process, as well as the usual processing of ceramic and vitreous materials, is being investigated as a promising way for isolation and recycling of both mineral wastes (debris and mineral residues, clearings in public works and inorganic industrial wastes (muds, slags, fly ashes. Synthetic materials with useful properties to be used as building materials have been prepared from inorganic wastes of different type (red muds from zinc hydrometalurgy, fly ashes from power thermal stations, slags and fly ashes from domiciliary incinerators as well as from mixtures of such wastes with other raw materials. The obtained results allow us to conclude that the ceramic and glass-ceramic processes are outlined as an useful alternative to solve the social and environmental problems associated to wastes production.

    El proceso vitrocerámico, así como el procesado habitual de materiales cerámicos y vítreos, está siendo actualmente investigado como una prometedora vía para el aislamiento, inertización e incluso el reciclado de residuos minerales (escombreras y estériles de minas, desmontes de Obras Públicas, etc... e industriales (lodos, fangos, escorias, cenizas, etc.... A partir de residuos inorgánicos de diferente naturaleza (lodos de la hidrometalurgia del zinc, cenizas de centrales térmicas, escorias y cenizas de plantas incineradoras así como de mezclas de los mismos con otras materias primas, se están obteniendo materiales sintéticos con amplias aplicaciones en la Construcción y en Obras Públicas. Los resultados que se están consiguiendo permiten concluir que los procesos cerámico y vitrocerámico se perfilan como una alternativa real y útil para resolver, al menos parcialmente, los problemas sociales y medioambientales asociados a la producción de dichos residuos.

  14. Creys-Malville control room and data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decuyper, J.

    1984-01-01

    After a brief definition of the control of a plant, this article presents the Creys-Malville control room: control means display and considerations on ergonomy and specific features in respect of the PWR control room. The Creys-Malville data processing is then rapidly presented with a brief description, the different data treatments and the specificity of the centralised data computer [fr

  15. Plug and Play Process Control of a District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbaek, Klaus; Knudsen, Torben; Skovmose Kallesøe, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    The main idea of plug and play process control is to initialise and reconfigure control systems automatically. In this paper these ideas are applied to a scaled laboratory model of a district heating pressure control system.  First of all this serves as a concrete example of plug and play control...

  16. Memory-type control charts for monitoring the process dispersion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, N.; Riaz, M.; Does, R.J.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Control charts have been broadly used for monitoring the process mean and dispersion. Cumulative sum (CUSUM) and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts are memory control charts as they utilize the past information in setting up the control structure. This makes CUSUM and

  17. Development of Chemical Process Design and Control for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    This contribution describes a novel process systems engineering framework that couples advanced control with sustainability evaluation and decision making for the optimization of process operations to minimize environmental impacts associated with products, materials, and energy....

  18. Environmental Systems Microbiology of Contaminated Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayler, Gary [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hazen, Terry C. [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Environmental Systems Microbiology is well positioned to move forward in dynamic complex system analysis probing new questions and developing new insight into the function, robustness and resilience in response to anthropogenic perturbations. Recent studies have demonstrated that natural bacterial communities can be used as quantitative biosensors in both groundwater and deep ocean water, predicting oil concentration from the Gulf of Mexico Deep Water Horizon spill and from groundwater at nuclear production waste sites (16, 17, 25). Since the first demonstration of catabolic gene expression in soil remediation (34) it has been clear that extension beyond organismal abundance to process and function of microbial communities as a whole using the whole suite of omic tools available to the post genomic era. Metatranscriptomics have been highlighted as a prime vehicle for understanding responses to environmental drivers (35) in complex systems and with rapidly developing metabolomics, full functional understanding of complex community biogeochemical cycling is an achievable goal. Perhaps more exciting is the dynamic nature of these systems and their complex adaptive strategies that may lead to new control paradigms and emergence of new states and function in the course of a changing environment.

  19. Microbiological methane production at elevated pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, H.; Maerkl, H.

    1994-01-01

    Taking the fermentation of waste water from the production of baker's yest as an example, experimental and theoretical examinations of a qualitative and quantitative listing of the effects of pressure on the microbiological methane production are presented. As the waste water used for the experiments was very rich in sulphates, the influence of the hydrogen sulphide constituted from those played a particularly important role. Experiments showed that the essential influence of pressure is constituted by the increased solubility of the produced gases. The increased quantities of dissolved carbon dioxide in particular result in a lowering of the pH-value with increasing pressure. The gas composition changes at the same time. The higher the pressure the higher also the portion of methane contained in the biogas but the lower the portions of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide. Experimental findings could be represented comparatively well by a mathematical model. This points at the fact that the physical and chemical working mechanisms were grasped correctly by the model. The mathematical description helped much to increase the understanding of the physical and chemical working mechanisms in biogas reactors. This understanding makes it possible for the developer as well as for the operator of biogas installations to control the process by constructive measures and mearuses concerning operation technology. (orig.) [de

  20. Dosimetry control for radiation processing - basic requirements and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, M.; Tsrunchev, Ts.

    2004-01-01

    A brief review of the basic international codes and standards for dosimetry control for radiation processing (high doses dosimetry), setting up a dosimetry control for radiation processing and metrology control of the dosimetry system is made. The present state of dosimetry control for food processing and the Bulgarian long experience in food irradiation (three irradiation facilities are operational at these moment) are presented. The absence of neither national standard for high doses nor accredited laboratory for calibration and audit of radiation processing dosimetry systems is also discussed

  1. Integrated Intelligent Modeling, Design and Control of Crystal Growth Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prasad, V

    2000-01-01

    .... This MURI program took an integrated approach towards modeling, design and control of crystal growth processes and in conjunction with growth and characterization experiments developed much better...

  2. Internal control in the management system of meat processing enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kushnir

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is described the theoretical basis of internal control and its practical aspects in the work of meat processing enterprises (a case in the meat processing industry in Ukraine. The purpose of the research is to establish the theoretical foundations of the internal control and its improvement in the activity of meat processing plants of various forms of management. It is proposed to use precisely internal control among other names of domestic control. Definition of internal control, its subject and purpose are improved. The subjects and objects of internal control are determined; the principles of its implementation are supplemented. Specific control tasks in meat processing plants according to the needs of this industry are outlined. Specific examples of control subjects are presented and the role of the revision commission is emphasized. The state of internal control in meat processing plants in Ukraine is investigated and it is established that it has a bad condition and unfounded approach to its implementation by managers of meat processing enterprises. To improve the situation we recommend that each meat processing enterprise have in its staff a revision commission or an apposer (auditor. It is established that internal control is more effective in joint-stock companies than in limited liability companies. The necessity of internal control as an important element in the enterprise management system is accented.

  3. High-Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system

  4. Safety monitoring in process and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esparza, V. Jr.; Sebo, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Safety Functions provide a method of ensuring the safe operation of any large-scale processing plant. Successful implementation of safety functions requires continuous monitoring of safety function values and trends. Because the volume of information handled by a plant operator occassionally can become overwhelming, attention may be diverted from the primary concern of maintaining plant safety. With this in mind EG and G, Idaho developed various methods and techniques for use in a computerized Safety Function Monitoring System and tested the application of these techniques using a simulated nuclear power plant, the Loss-of-Fluid Test Facility (LOFT) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This paper presents the methods used in the development of a Safety Function Monitoring System

  5. Control of processes using isotopic diagnostic's technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Celso; Chaverri, Oscar; Chine, Bruno; Conejo, Mario

    2005-01-01

    The Escuela de Ciencias e Ingenieria de los Materiales of the Instituto Tecnologico de Costa Rica, in cooperation with OIEA, develops a project of dowry of capacity oriented to the formation of professionals and equipment for the use of two important technologies of isotopic diagnostic. The first of them is the technology of tracers that operates the unique properties that present different radioactive isotopics like open sources. The second one well known as scanning or profile gamma, uses sealed source, of the some nature that the previous ones, to obtain profiles in different processes and thus to determine its internal condition and operation. The objective of this article is to present both technologies, its benefits and to promote the use in the country [es

  6. Spectrometric microbiological analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.; Meissner, Ken E.

    1996-04-01

    Currently, there are four general approaches to microbiological analysis, i.e., the detection, identification and quantification of micro-organisms: (1) Traditional culturing and staining procedures, metabolic fermentations and visual morphological characteristics; (2) Immunological approaches employing microbe-specific antibodies; (3) Biotechnical techniques employing DNA probes and related genetic engineering methods; and (4) Physical measurement techniques based on the biophysical properties of micro-organisms. This paper describes an instrumentation development in the fourth of the above categories, physical measurement, that uses a combination of fluorometric and light scatter spectra to detect and identify micro-organisms at the species level. A major advantage of this approach is the rapid turnaround possible in medical diagnostic or water testing applications. Fluorometric spectra serve to define the biochemical characteristics of the microbe, and light scatter spectra the size and shape morphology. Together, the two spectra define a 'fingerprint' for each species of microbe for detection, identification and quantification purposes. A prototype instrument has been developed and tested under NASA sponsorship based on fluorometric spectra alone. This instrument demonstrated identification and quantification capabilities at the species level. The paper reports on test results using this instrument, and the benefits of employing a combination of fluorometric and light scatter spectra.

  7. Microbiological Efficacy Test Methods of Disinfectants

    OpenAIRE

    Şahiner, Aslı

    2015-01-01

    Disinfection process is required in every area where microbiological contamination and infection risk is present, especially in medical sector, food, veterinary and general common living areas hence many disinfectants and antiseptics are being produced for different purposes. Disinfectants are made up a large group of biocidal products. Depending on the chemical properties of active substances, targeted microorganisms may differ While some disinfectants are effective in a large spectrum, othe...

  8. Microbiological consequences of indoor composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, A; Reboux, G; Vacheyrou, M; Valot, B; Millon, L; Roussel, S

    2016-08-01

    Recycling of organic waste appeals to more and more people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological contamination around organic waste bins at three distances over a 12-month period. Contamination near the customary trash of control households was evaluated at the beginning to ensure that there is no recruitment bias. Air samples using the MAS 100 impactor were carried out in 38 dwellings that do household waste composting and in 10 dwellings of controls. Collection of particles by CIP 10 rotating cup sampler and dust samples collected by electrostatic dust collector cloths were acquired in dwellings that do household waste composting. Samples were analyzed by culture and by real-time quantitative PCR. Information about dwelling characteristics and inhabitant practices was obtained by a standardized questionnaire. The genera most often isolated were Penicillium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Streptomyces. Near the organic waste bins, bioaerosol samples showed an increase of Acarus siro (P = 0.001). Sedimented dust analyses highlighted an increase of A. siro, Wallemia sebi, Aspergillus versicolor, and Cladosporium sphaerospermum concentrations after a 12-month survey compared to the beginning. Composting favors microorganism development over time, but does not seem to have an effect on the bioaerosol levels and the surface microbiota beyond 0.5 m from the waste bin. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Twenty-first-century medical microbiology services in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerden, Brian

    2005-12-01

    With infection once again a high priority for the UK National Health Service (NHS), the medical microbiology and infection-control services require increased technology resources and more multidisciplinary staff. Clinical care and health protection need a coordinated network of microbiology services working to consistent standards, provided locally by NHS Trusts and supported by the regional expertise and national reference laboratories of the new Health Protection Agency. Here, I outline my thoughts on the need for these new resources and the ways in which clinical microbiology services in the UK can best meet the demands of the twenty-first century.

  10. Development of the microbiological control aspects of radiation sterilization of medical supplies. Part of a coordinated programme on radiation sterilization of medical and biological products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horakova, V.

    1978-06-01

    The variability and extent of microbial contamination of such medical supplies as hydrophilic gauze swabs and dermo-epidermal grafts were investigated. Gross bacterial contamination was observed in the swabs, with a relative absence of water. It was concluded that medical disposable products under dried aerobic conditions can be sterilized by a minimum dose of 25 kJ/kg/2.5 Mrad if the mean value of pre-sterilization bacterial counts does not exceed 100. Products contaminated by 10,000 or more bacteria prior to sterilization must be considered ''decontaminated'' after irradiation but as rather than ''sterile'', as accepted pharmaceutically. The author recommends that the efficacy of the sterilization dose used be evaluated, assuming the decrease in contaminated items to follow the exponential law, with constants estimated as n=1.98 and k=0.44, and that the sterilization process to be controlled dosimetrically. In general, sub-process doses should be used before actual sterilization by ionizing radiation, in order to estimate the constants characterizing the decrease in contamination under given conditions. In skin grafts a dose of 25 kJ/kg was found to give a high guarantee of sterility. A minimum sterilizing dose of 20 kJ/kg was recommended, provided the mean value of microorganisms on 1 cm 2 of the disinfected and freeze-dried skin grafts from human cadavres was 100, without exceeding an upper limit of 130

  11. Case Studies in Modelling, Control in Food Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassey, J; Barone, A; Montague, G A; Sabou, V

    This chapter discusses the importance of modelling and control in increasing food process efficiency and ensuring product quality. Various approaches to both modelling and control in food processing are set in the context of the specific challenges in this industrial sector and latest developments in each area are discussed. Three industrial case studies are used to demonstrate the benefits of advanced measurement, modelling and control in food processes. The first case study illustrates the use of knowledge elicitation from expert operators in the process for the manufacture of potato chips (French fries) and the consequent improvements in process control to increase the consistency of the resulting product. The second case study highlights the economic benefits of tighter control of an important process parameter, moisture content, in potato crisp (chips) manufacture. The final case study describes the use of NIR spectroscopy in ensuring effective mixing of dry multicomponent mixtures and pastes. Practical implementation tips and infrastructure requirements are also discussed.

  12. [Quality assessment program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology. Analysis of results. 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta Mira, Nieves; Guna Serrano, M del Remedio; Pérez, José L; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2006-10-01

    Quality assurance of the analytical processes performed at the clinical microbiology laboratory is mandatory and should be carried out by using external and internal quality control activities. External quality assessment programs allow intercomparison within laboratories, detection of errors, and evaluation of the suitability of some reagents or diagnostic kits for the purpose for which they were designed; these activities are also useful for continuous education. The program launched 15 years ago by the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology is based on sending typified materials along with a clinical and microbiological case related to these control materials. The spectrum of the samples is broad, including bacteriology (monthly and three-monthly), serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology, and molecular microbiology. After receiving the results from the participants, the program organization delivers an individual certificate comparing the results with those of a reference laboratory. Additionally, a report is generated by analyzing all the results sent by the participants; laboratories are also sent review articles on the subject of each assessment as a tool for continuous education in clinical microbiology. In this article, the most relevant conclusions and lessons from the 2005 assessments are presented.

  13. Meta-analysis in microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Pabalan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of meta-analysis in microbiology may facilitate decision-making that impacts public health policy. Directed at clinicians and researchers in microbiology, this review outlines the steps in performing this statistical technique, addresses its biases and describes its value in this discipline. The survey to estimate extent of the use of meta-analyses in microbiology shows the remarkable growth in the use of this research methodology, from a minimal Asian output to a level comparable with those of Europe and North America in the last 7 years.

  14. The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voldstedlund, M; Haarh, M; Mølbak, K

    2014-01-09

    The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) is a national database that receives copies of reports from all Danish departments of clinical microbiology. The database was launched in order to provide healthcare personnel with nationwide access to microbiology reports and to enable real-time surveillance of communicable diseases and microorganisms. The establishment and management of MiBa has been a collaborative process among stakeholders, and the present paper summarises lessons learned from this nationwide endeavour which may be relevant to similar projects in the rapidly changing landscape of health informatics.

  15. Microbiological Monitoring in Geothermal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Linder, R.; Vetter, A.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Miethling-Graff, R.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2010-12-01

    In the scope of the research projects “AquiScreen” and “MiProTherm” we investigated geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. On one side an enhanced process understanding of engineered geothermal systems is mandatory to optimize plant reliability and economy, on the other side this study provides insights into the microbiology of terrestrial thermal systems. Geothermal systems located in the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin were analyzed by sampling of fluids and solid phases. The investigated sites were characterized by different temperatures, salinities and potential microbial substrates. The microbial population was monitored by the use of genetic fingerprinting techniques and PCR-cloning based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) genes. DNA-sequences of fingerprints and cloned PCR-products were compared to public databases and correlated with metabolic classes to provide information about the biogeochemical processes. In all investigated geothermal plants, covering a temperature range from 5° to 120°C, microorganisms were found. Phylogenetic gene analyses indicate a broad diversity of microorganisms adapted to the specific conditions in the engineered system. Beside characterized bacteria like Thermus scotoductus, Siderooxidans lithoautotrophicus and the archaeon Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus a high number of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected. As it is known that - in addition to abiotic factors - microbes like sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the processes of corrosion and scaling in plant components, we identified SRB by specific analyses of DSR genes. The SRB detected are closely related to thermotolerant and thermophilic species of Desulfotomaculum, Thermodesulfovibrio, Desulfohalobium and Thermodesulfobacterium, respectively. Overall, the detection of microbes known to be involved in biocorrosion and the

  16. Represenation of process state, structure and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodstein, L.P.; Rasmussen, J.

    1987-04-01

    Supervisory control is essentially a decision-making activity where, among other things, the dm has to maneuver within a complex problem space which reflects key dimensions and attributes of the object system (power plant ...). Of considerable importance therefore is the representation for the dm of this problem space comprising at the one end the target demands, goals, constraints and, at the other, the resources available for meeting the assigned goals - and all of this in pace with the dynamic event-driven environment which characterizes the types of systems of interest. Previous work has identified the advantages of utilizing the two-dimensional means-ends/part-whole space as a basic ingredient in a system representation. This paper associates more detailed representational requirements at the various levels of the means-ends axis with the activities of state identification and diagnosis. In addition, some examples of display formats which attempt to incorporate the outlined representational principles within the context of a PWR plant are discussed. (authors)

  17. Positive affect improves working memory: implications for controlled cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hwajin; Yang, Sujin; Isen, Alice M

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of positive affect on working memory (WM) and short-term memory (STM). Given that WM involves both storage and controlled processing and that STM primarily involves storage processing, we hypothesised that if positive affect facilitates controlled processing, it should improve WM more than STM. The results demonstrated that positive affect, compared with neutral affect, significantly enhanced WM, as measured by the operation span task. The influence of positive affect on STM, however, was weaker. These results suggest that positive affect enhances WM, a task that involves controlled processing, not just storage processing. Additional analyses of recall and processing times and accuracy further suggest that improved WM under positive affect is not attributable to motivational differences, but results instead from improved controlled cognitive processing.

  18. Microbiology of Olkiluoto Groundwater 2004 - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.

    2008-02-01

    The microbiology of shallow and deep groundwater in Olkiluoto, Finland, was analysed for almost three years from 2004 to 2006. The extensive sampling and analysis programme produced a substantial database, including 60 analytical datasets on the microbiology of Olkiluoto groundwater, which is described and interpreted here. One part of this database comprises 39 complete analytical datasets on microbiology, chemistry, and dissolved gas composition assembled on four sampling campaigns from measurements from 16 shallow observation tubes and boreholes ranging in depth from 3.5 to 24.5 m. The second part of the database contains 21 datasets on microbiology and chemistry covering 13 deep boreholes ranging in depth from 35 to 450 m. In addition, the database contains 33 completed analyses of gas covering 14 deep boreholes ranging in depth from 40 to 742 m. Most of these analyses were completed before the onset of ONKALO construction, and the remaining samples were collected before ONKALO construction had extended below a depth of 100 m; therefore, this dataset captures the undisturbed conditions before the building of ONKALO. Shallow groundwater in Olkiluoto contained dissolved oxygen at approximately 10% or less of saturation. The presence of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, including methane-oxidizing bacteria, has been documented. The data confirm earlier suggested processes of oxygen reduction in the shallow part of the bedrock. These microbial processes reduce intruding oxygen in the shallow groundwater using dissolved organic carbon and methane as the main electron donors. Microbiological and geochemical data strongly suggest that the anaerobic microbial oxidation of methane (ANME) is active at a depth down to approximately 300 m in Olkiluoto, as has been suggested previously, based on interpretations of geochemical data. However, proof of the presence and activity of ANME microorganisms is needed before the existence of active ANME processes in Olkiluoto

  19. Microbiological and serological control of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in kindergarten staff in Buenos Aires city and suburban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina J. Fernández-Brando

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin (Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC infections are implicated in the development of the life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS. Despite the magnitude of the social and economic problems caused by HUS, no licensed vaccine or effective therapy is currently available for human use. Prevention of STEC infections continues being the most important measure to reduce HUS incidence. This is especially true for Argentina where HUS incidence among children is extremely high and shows an endemic pattern. The aim of this work was to investigate serologically adult staff of kindergartens in Buenos Aires city and suburban areas in order to detect possible carriers, and to educate personnel about good practices to reduce HUS transmission. We also assessed the microbiological quality of water and meal samples from the same kindergartens. We tested 67 healthy adults, 13 water supplies and 6 meals belonging to 6 public kindergartens. We analysed hand swabs for isolation of STEC and serum samples for the presence of antibodies against Stx and lipopolysaccharide (LPS of O157 serogroup. We identified 46 Stx2-positive individuals, but only 7 for O157 LPS. No presence of STEC pathogens was detected in hands of staff, water or meal samples

  20. PROCESS CONTROL STORAGE SMOKELESS TOBACCO (SNUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Don

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An important aim during smokeless tobacco product (snus storage is keeping its quantitative and qualitative properties. Another significant factor is its biological safety due to its oral way of consumption. The main factors affecting quality during storage are: temperature, relative humidity, air composition, ventilation rate, surrounding products and package. Snus consumption is growing, but till present it was slightly spread in Russia and as a result little studied, thus studying process of its storage is an actual question. The aims of the research were: studying terms and methods of storage that provide constant product’s quality. Samples with different composition were taken for carrying research. Quality evaluation was carried according to standard for tobacco branch methods and to new methods developed in the laboratory of technologies for manufacturing tobacco products. Products were stored at lowered and room temperatures. It is discovered that snus with herbs added can be stored at room temperature and humidity not more than three months. Snus with coffee added can be stored not more than four months without changing its taste. Adding honey to this product slightly decreases its score by sensory evaluation, but remains it possible for consumption. Sensory testing score after storage at lowered temperature has remained unchanged. Optimal terms of storage were found. For room temperature they are: temperature 17-25 °C, relative air humidity 65 – 75 %, for lowered temperature – 5 °C and relative air humidity 50 -60 %. It was discovered that composition of snus and environmental parameters affect its storage duration.