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Sample records for microbiological culture methods

  1. Microbiological study of lactic acid bacteria in kefir grains by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsi-Chia; Wang, Sheng-Yao; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2008-05-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in different original kefir grains were first assessed using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) by a culture-dependent way, and were further confirmed by DNA sequencing techniques. Results indicated that a combined method of cultivation with PCR-DGGE and subsequent DNA sequencing could successfully identify four LAB strains from three kefir grains from Taiwan (named Hsinchu, Mongolia and Ilan). Lactobacillus kefiri accounted, in the three kefir grains, for at least half of the isolated colonies while Lb. kefiranofaciens was the second most frequently isolated species. Leuconostoc mesenteroides was less frequently found but still in the three kefir grains conversely to Lactococcus lactis which based on culture-dependent isolation was only found in two of the kefir grains. It was interesting to find that all three kefir grains contain similar LAB species. Furthermore, the DGGE as a culture-independent method was also applied to detect the LAB strains. Results indicated that Lb. kefiranofaciens was found in all three kefir grains, whereas Lb. kefiri was only observed in Hsinchu kefir grain and Lc. lactis was found in both Mongolia and Ilan samples. Two additional strains, Pseudomonas spp. and E. coli, were also detected in kefir grains.

  2. The value of cultures to modern microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Brian

    2017-10-01

    Since the late nineteenth century, pure cultures have been regarded as the cornerstone of bacteriology. However, not all bacteria will multiply sufficiently to produce visible colonies on solid media; some cells will produce micro-colonies that are invisible to the naked eye. Moreover, the proportion of culturable cells that produce visible growth will vary according to the species and the state of the cells-are they actively growing or comparatively inactive? The latter have a poorer rate of recovery in terms of cultivability. It is unclear whether or not an individual colony is always derived from a single cell; it is possible that organisms in close proximity to each other may multiply and come together to produce single colonies. Then, the resultant growth will most certainly be derived from more than one initial cell. Although it is generally assumed that streaking and re-streaking on fresh media will purify any culture, there is evidence for microbial consortia interacting to form what appear to be single pure cultures. As so-called pure cultures underpin traditional microbiology, it is relevant to understand that the culture does not necessarily contain clones of identical bacteria, but that there may be variation in the genetic potential of the component cells, i.e. the cells are not homogeneous. Certainly, many bacteria change rapidly upon culturing, with some becoming bigger and less active. It is difficult to be sure if these changes reflect a loss or change of DNA or whether standard culturing methods select faster growing cells that are effectively not representative of the environment from which they were derived. These concepts are reviewed with an emphasis on bacterial fish pathogens.

  3. Current and past strategies for bacterial culture in clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Edouard, Sophie; Pagnier, Isabelle; Mediannikov, Oleg; Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    A pure bacterial culture remains essential for the study of its virulence, its antibiotic susceptibility, and its genome sequence in order to facilitate the understanding and treatment of caused diseases. The first culture conditions empirically varied incubation time, nutrients, atmosphere, and temperature; culture was then gradually abandoned in favor of molecular methods. The rebirth of culture in clinical microbiology was prompted by microbiologists specializing in intracellular bacteria. The shell vial procedure allowed the culture of new species of Rickettsia. The design of axenic media for growing fastidious bacteria such as Tropheryma whipplei and Coxiella burnetii and the ability of amoebal coculture to discover new bacteria constituted major advances. Strong efforts associating optimized culture media, detection methods, and a microaerophilic atmosphere allowed a dramatic decrease of the time of Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture. The use of a new versatile medium allowed an extension of the repertoire of archaea. Finally, to optimize the culture of anaerobes in routine bacteriology laboratories, the addition of antioxidants in culture media under an aerobic atmosphere allowed the growth of strictly anaerobic species. Nevertheless, among usual bacterial pathogens, the development of axenic media for the culture of Treponema pallidum or Mycobacterium leprae remains an important challenge that the patience and innovations of cultivators will enable them to overcome. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Advances in the application of molecular microbiological methods in the oil and gas industry and links to microbiologically influenced corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckert, Rickard; Skovhus, Torben Lund

    2018-01-01

    While the oil and gas industry has witnessed increased applications of molecular microbiological methods (MMMs) for diagnosing and managing microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in the past decade, the process for establishing clear links between microbiological conditions and corrosion...... mechanisms is still emerging. Different MMMs provide various types of information about microbial diversity, abundance, activity and function, all of which are quite different from the culture-based results that are familiar to oil and gas industry corrosion professionals. In addition, a multidisciplinary...

  5. Microbiological characterization of traditional dough fermentation starter (Jiaozi) for steamed bread making by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijian; Li, Haifeng; Bian, Ke

    2016-10-03

    In this study, the microbial composition of two types of Jiaozi (a dough fermentation starter in making steamed bread) was investigated using both culture-dependent and culture-independent (PCR-DGGE) methods. The numbers of the cultivable bacteria on MRS at 30°C and yeast on YPD at 28°C in the maize flour Jiaozi (MFJ) were 9.21±0.16 Log CFU/g and 9.18±0.05 Log CFU/g, respectively, which were higher than that in the rice flour Jiaozi (RFJ) (Pyeasts were isolated and identified on the basis of the sequences of their 16S rRNA gene and ITS region. The culture-dependent method showed that Acetobacter tropicalis and Enterococcus durans were the predominant bacteria strains in MFJ, and accounted for 45.7% and 25.7% of the bacteria, and Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus represented 12.8% and 8.6%. In the RFJ sample, the most prominent isolate was P. pentosaceus (38.6%), followed by L. plantarum (24.3%), A. tropicalis (22.8%), and E. durans (5.7%). P. pentosaceus and L. plantarum were also detected in both starters by PCR-DGGE, while some bacteria species such as A. tropicalis and E. durans, recovered as pure cultures, were not detected by direct PCR-DGGE. On the other hand, Lactobacillus brevis, Weissella sp. and Lactobacillus alimentarius detected by PCR-DGGE were not recovered in any of the media and conditions used. In the MFJ sample, the isolated main yeast species were identified as Wickerhamomyces anomalus (67.2%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (27.9%) and Torulaspora delbrueckii (4.9%). In addition to S. cerevisiae (42.9%), W. anomalus (27.0%) and T. delbrueckii (7.9%), Saccharomycopsis fibuligera was also identified as the predominant isolate in RFJ samples and accounted for 22.2%. PCR-DGGE also indicated the presence of W. anomalus and S. cerevisiae in both MFJ and RFJ starters and S. fibuligera was also detected in RFJ, but T. delbrueckii was not detected in both samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Inoculation method could impact the outcome of microbiological experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Alhede, Maria; Rybtke, Morten

    2018-01-01

    For the last 150 years, bacteria have primarily been investigated in liquid bacth cultures (LBC). Contrary to most expectations, these cultures are not a homogeneous mixture of single-celled bacteria as free-floating bacterial aggregates eventually develop in most LBC. These aggregates share...... coli and Staphylococcus aureus also produce aggregates in LBC. Our results stress the importance of inoculation consistency throughout experiments and the substantial impact aggregate development in LBC has on the output of microbiological experiments.IMPORTANCE Liquid pure cultures are fundamental...... to the field of microbiological research. These cultures are normally thought of as a homogeneous mix of single cell bacteria. The present study shows how this is not always true. Bacteria may aggregate in these liquid cultures. The aggregation can be induced by the method chosen for inoculation. The presence...

  7. [Bacterial identification methods in the microbiology laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou, Germán; Fernández-Olmos, Ana; García, Celia; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio; Valdezate, Sylvia

    2011-10-01

    In order to identify the agent responsible of the infectious process and understanding the pathogenic/pathological implications, clinical course, and to implement an effective antimicrobial therapy, a mainstay in the practice of clinical microbiology is the allocation of species to a microbial isolation. In daily routine practice microbiology laboratory phenotypic techniques are applied to achieve this goal. However, they have some limitations that are seen more clearly for some kinds of microorganism. Molecular methods can circumvent some of these limitations, although its implementation is not universal. This is due to higher costs and the level of expertise required for thei implementation, so molecular methods are often centralized in reference laboratories and centers. Recently, proteomics-based methods made an important breakthrough in the field of diagnostic microbiology and will undoubtedly have a major impact on the future organization of the microbiology services. This paper is a short review of the most noteworthy aspects of the three bacterial identification methods described above used in microbiology laboratories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. Validation of qualitative microbiological test methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman-Boon, Pieta C.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a statistical model for the detection mechanism of qualitative microbiological test methods with a parameter for the detection proportion (the probability to detect a single organism) and a parameter for the false positive rate. It is demonstrated that the detection proportion

  9. Microbiological methods for assessing soil quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, J.; Hopkins, D.W.; Benedetti, A.

    2006-01-01

    This book provides a selection of microbiological methods that are already applied in regional or national soil quality monitoring programs. It is split into two parts: part one gives an overview of approaches to monitoring, evaluating and managing soil quality. Part two provides a selection of

  10. Culture-Independent Molecular Tools for Soil and Rhizosphere Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peer M. Schenk

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil microbial communities play an important role in plant health and soil quality. Researchers have developed a wide range of methods for studying the structure, diversity, and activity of microbes to better understand soil biology and plant-microbe interactions. Functional microbiological analyses of the rhizosphere have given new insights into the role of microbial communities in plant nutrition and plant protection against diseases. In this review, we present the most commonly used traditional as well as new culture-independent molecular methods to assess the diversity and function of soil microbial communities. Furthermore, we discuss advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and provide a perspective on emerging technologies for soil microbial community profiling.

  11. Uncertainty of quantitative microbiological methods of pharmaceutical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunar, O V; Sakhno, N G

    2015-12-30

    The total uncertainty of quantitative microbiological methods, used in pharmaceutical analysis, consists of several components. The analysis of the most important sources of the quantitative microbiological methods variability demonstrated no effect of culture media and plate-count techniques in the estimation of microbial count while the highly significant effect of other factors (type of microorganism, pharmaceutical product and individual reading and interpreting errors) was established. The most appropriate method of statistical analysis of such data was ANOVA which enabled not only the effect of individual factors to be estimated but also their interactions. Considering all the elements of uncertainty and combining them mathematically the combined relative uncertainty of the test results was estimated both for method of quantitative examination of non-sterile pharmaceuticals and microbial count technique without any product. These data did not exceed 35%, appropriated for a traditional plate count methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Microbiological methods for surveillance of carrier status of multiresistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteo, Jesús; Bou, Germán; Chaves, Fernando; Oliver, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    The presence of colonised patients is one of the main routes for the spread of multiresistant bacteria, and its containment is a clinical and public health priority. Surveillance studies are essential for early detection of colonisation by these bacteria. This article discusses the different microbiological methods, both based on culturing and molecular methods, for detection of carriers of multiresistant bacteria. Those species with a high clinical/epidemiological impact or generating therapeutic difficulties are included: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp. resistant to glycopeptides, enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum β-lactamases and plasmid-mediated AmpC, carbapenemases producing enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii and multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The information in this document should be considered as a structure matrix to be tailored to the specific needs of each centre. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. New methods of microbiological identification using MALDI-TOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacyr Pasternak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid diagnosis of pathogens is decisive to guarantee adequatetherapy in infections: culture methods are precise and sensitive, butrather slow. New resources are available to enable faster diagnosis,and the most promising is MALDI-TOF technology: mass spectrometryapplied to microbiological diagnosis. Times as fast as 10 to 15 minutes to etiological diagnosis are possible after a positive blood culture result. We hope to have this technology in our laboratory, ANVISA permitting and improving their very slow rate of doing things… MALDI-TOF is basically putting a sample of culture or an enriched suspension of the probable pathogen over a small spot with a matrix and vaporizing it with a laser pulse: the products are aspired into a chamber, ionized and reach detectors at variable times: the detectors show time of arrival and quantity of the product, and each pathogen has its characteristic spectrum analyzed by a software.

  14. Advanced continuous cultivation methods for systems microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamberg, Kaarel; Valgepea, Kaspar; Vilu, Raivo

    2015-09-01

    Increasing the throughput of systems biology-based experimental characterization of in silico-designed strains has great potential for accelerating the development of cell factories. For this, analysis of metabolism in the steady state is essential as only this enables the unequivocal definition of the physiological state of cells, which is needed for the complete description and in silico reconstruction of their phenotypes. In this review, we show that for a systems microbiology approach, high-resolution characterization of metabolism in the steady state--growth space analysis (GSA)--can be achieved by using advanced continuous cultivation methods termed changestats. In changestats, an environmental parameter is continuously changed at a constant rate within one experiment whilst maintaining cells in the physiological steady state similar to chemostats. This increases the resolution and throughput of GSA compared with chemostats, and, moreover, enables following of the dynamics of metabolism and detection of metabolic switch-points and optimal growth conditions. We also describe the concept, challenge and necessary criteria of the systematic analysis of steady-state metabolism. Finally, we propose that such systematic characterization of the steady-state growth space of cells using changestats has value not only for fundamental studies of metabolism, but also for systems biology-based metabolic engineering of cell factories.

  15. Characterisation of prototype Nurmi cultures using culture-based microbiological techniques and PCR-DGGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Sinéad M; Murphy, Richard A; Power, Ronan F G

    2006-08-01

    Undefined Nurmi-type cultures (NTCs) have been used successfully to prevent salmonella colonisation in poultry for decades. Such cultures are derived from the caecal contents of specific-pathogen-free birds and are administered via drinking water or spray application onto eggs in the hatchery. These cultures consist of many non-culturable and obligately anaerobic bacteria. Due to their undefined nature it is difficult to obtain approval from regulatory agencies to use these preparations as direct fed microbials for poultry. In this study, 10 batches of prototype NTCs were produced using an identical protocol over a period of 2 years. Traditional microbiological techniques and a molecular culture-independent methodology, polymerase chain reaction combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), were applied to characterise these cultures and also to examine if the constituents of the NTCs were identical. Culture-dependent analysis of these cultures included plating on a variety of selective and semi-selective agars, examination of colony morphology, Gram-staining and a series of biochemical tests (API, BioMerieux, France). Two sets of PCR-DGGE studies were performed. These involved the amplification of universal and subsequently lactic acid bacteria (LAB)-specific hypervariable regions of a 16S rRNA gene by PCR. Resultant amplicons were subjected to DGGE. Sequence analysis was performed on subsequent bands present in resultant DGGE profiles using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST). Microbiological culturing techniques tended to isolate common probiotic bacterial species from the genera Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus, Clostridium, Escherichia, Pediococcus and Enterobacterium as well as members of the genera, Actinomyces, Bacteroides, Propionibacterium, Capnocytophaga, Proteus, and Klebsiella. Bacteroides, Enterococcus, Escherichia, Brevibacterium, Klebsiella, Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Bacillus, Eubacterium

  16. 21 CFR 866.2350 - Microbiological assay culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2350... consists primarily of liquid or solid biological materials intended for medical purposes to cultivate...

  17. Test methods for microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, B.; Wagner, P.; Mansfeld, F.

    1992-01-01

    Electrochemical techniques such as measurements of corrosion and redox potentials, polarization curves, polarization resistance, electrochemical impedance and electrochemical noise have been used to evaluate the impact of marine microorganisms on corrosion processes. Surface analytical techniques including microbiological culturing, scanning electron microscopy, microprobes and microelectrodes have been used to characterize metal surfaces after exposure to marine waters. A combination of electrochemical, surface analytical and microbiological techniques is the most promising approach for determining mechanisms of MIC

  18. Intersecting Virtual Patients and Microbiology: Fostering a culture of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, David; O'Gorman, Ciaran; Gormley, Gerard

    2015-10-01

    The use and integration of Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) resources in medical education has attracted considerable commentary and support. "Virtual Patients" are one such resource. Whilst evidence exists supporting the benefits of these resources, there has not been specific consideration of their implications for teaching microbiology; nor attention paid to both the internal and external factors that influence learner engagement with virtual patients. The principle aims of this study are to identify factors that explicitly and implicitly influence the student's interaction with a microbiology virtual patient resource and how these interactions reflect upon the use of the resource. A mixed method quantitative (online questionnaire; n=161) and qualitative (student focus groups; N=11) study was undertaken amongst third year medical students enrolled at Queen's University Belfast in the academic year 2012-2013. The results supported prior evidence that virtual patients are a useful learning tool (mean score of 5.09 out of 7) that helped them to integrate microbiology principles with clinical experiences. How students used the virtual patients and the depth of the subsequent benefits was dependent upon their perception of the importance of the resource. This was influenced by a number of factors including how the resources were presented and positioned within the curriculum, whether they were formally examined or timetabled and the importance attributed by peers who had already completed the examinations. Integration of virtual patients into the microbiology curriculum is widely endorsed and may even be considered superior to other methods of teaching. How students use these resources is dependent upon a positive perception of their importance. Educators should be aware of the factors that shape this perception when integrating TEL resources into curricula.

  19. Microbiological Efficacy Test Methods of Disinfectants

    OpenAIRE

    Şahiner, Aslı

    2015-01-01

    Disinfection process is required in every area where microbiological contamination and infection risk is present, especially in medical sector, food, veterinary and general common living areas hence many disinfectants and antiseptics are being produced for different purposes. Disinfectants are made up a large group of biocidal products. Depending on the chemical properties of active substances, targeted microorganisms may differ While some disinfectants are effective in a large spectrum, othe...

  20. Methods for microbiological and immunological studies of space flight crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. R. (Editor); Zaloguev, S. N. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Systematic laboratory procedures compiled as an outgrowth of a joint U.S./U.S.S.R. microbiological-immunological experiment performed during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project space flight are presented. Included are mutually compatible methods for the identification of aerobic and microaerophilic bacteria, yeast and yeastlike microorganisms, and filamentous fungi; methods for the bacteriophage typing of Staphylococcus aureus; and methods for determining the sensitivity of S. aureus to antibiotics. Immunological methods using blood and immunological and biochemical methods using salivary parotid fluid are also described. Formulas for media and laboratory reagents used are listed.

  1. Coliforms Everywhere! Using Microbiology to Teach the Scientific Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy R. Cisar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The scientific method is a fundamental concept in science. In this exercise the scientific method is taught as a hands-on investigative laboratory experience. Students generate a hypothesis concerning the environmental distribution of coliforms, design and execute an experimental test of that hypothesis, and analyze the resulting data. The exercise is safe and straightforward. It is appropriate for use in undergraduate laboratory courses for science majors and secondary school students and undergraduate non-majors with the appropriate mathematical backgrounds. Students learn both the process by which science progresses, as well as more advanced concepts in microbiology and statistics.

  2. Detection of residues antibiotics in food using a microbiological method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ali, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Antibiotics are effective therapeutic agents because of their property of selective bacterial toxicity which helps controlling infections. Animals, just like humans, can be treated with antibiotics. This use of antibiotics can lead to the development of resistance. Resistant strains may cause severe infections in humans and animals. In addition, antibiotic residues might represent a problem for human health. Our objective is to develop a microbiological method for the detection of antibiotic residues in poultry(muscle, liver,...). For this purpose, antibiotic sensitive bacteria and selective agar media were used. An inhibition growth zone surrounds each of the food samples containing antibiotic residues after a prescribed incubation time. (Author). 23 refs

  3. From Axenic to Mixed Cultures: Technological Advances Accelerating a Paradigm Shift in Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nai, Corrado; Meyer, Vera

    2018-06-01

    Since the onset of microbiology in the late 19th century, scientists have been growing microorganisms almost exclusively as pure cultures, resulting in a limited and biased view of the microbial world. Only a paradigm shift in cultivation techniques - from axenic to mixed cultures - can allow a full comprehension of the (chemical) communication of microorganisms, with profound consequences for natural product discovery, microbial ecology, symbiosis, and pathogenesis, to name a few areas. Three main technical advances during the last decade are fueling the realization of this revolution in microbiology: microfluidics, next-generation 3D-bioprinting, and single-cell metabolomics. These technological advances can be implemented for large-scale, systematic cocultivation studies involving three or more microorganisms. In this review, we present recent trends in microbiology tools and discuss how these can be employed to decode the chemical language that microorganisms use to communicate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anaerobic microbiological method of cleaning water contaminated by metallurgical slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Леонідівна Дан

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of environmental protection and rational use of water resources is one of the most important problems of environmental policy in Ukraine. This problem in Mariupol is particularly acute as metallurgical and coke industries cause significant damage to adjacent water bodies (the Kalchyk, the Kalmius and coastal zone of the Sea of Azov. One of the most harmful components of wastewater of these enterprises are sulfide-containing compounds. These compounds in water can cause great harm to both human health and the environment. For example, in 1999 the main city enterprises (AZOVSTAL IRON & STEEL WORKS and ILYICH IRON AND STEEL WORKS discharged 885,0 million m³ of wastewater (including 403,9 million m³ of polluted waste water into water bodies. The slag dumps and landfills in close proximity to the sea form a source of dangerous pollution, because contaminated water infiltration washed out here in the groundwater and surface water, get into the Sea of Azov later on. There are 97 mg/l of sulfides in the protective dam of AZOVSTAL IRON & STEEL WORKS, what exceeds the standards (MPC = 10 mg/l. It makes it possible for us to put forward biochemical purification processes. Anaerobic microbiological method proposed in the article has several advantages (compact hardware design, a minimum amount of activated sludge and lack of energy consumption for aeration over the existing wastewater treatment (chemical, mechanical, biological. The experimental procedure consisted in introducing the medium to be purified purified into microbial communities of high concentration (Thiobacillus «X», Thiobacillus concretivorus, which assimilated organic substances of the medium as a primary energy source. The kinetics of sulfide compounds removal by means of anaerobic microbiological method was considered. The effectiveness of wastewater treatment with changing purification process conditions has been also assessed (concentration of sulfides, reactor type, p

  5. Multiparametric comparison of chromogenic-based culture methods used to assess the microbiological quality of drinking water and the mFC method combined with a molecular confirmation procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheux, Andrée F; Dion-Dupont, Vanessa; Bisson, Marc-Antoine; Bouchard, Sébastien; Jubinville, Éric; Nkuranga, Martine; Rodrigue, Lynda; Bergeron, Michel G; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2015-03-01

    MI agar and Colilert(®), as well as mFC agar combined with an Escherichia coli-specific molecular assay (mFC + E. coli rtPCR), were compared in terms of their sensitivity, ease of use, time to result and affordability. The three methods yielded a positive E. coli signal for 11.5, 10.8, and 11.5% of the 968 well water samples tested, respectively. One hundred and thirty-six (136) samples gave blue colonies on mFC agar and required confirmation. E. coli-specific rtPCR showed false-positive results in 23.5% (32/136) of cases. In terms of ease of use, Colilert was the simplest method to use while the MI method provided ease of use comparable to all membrane filtration methods. However, the mFC + E. coli rtPCR assay required highly trained employees for confirmation purposes. In terms of affordability, and considering contamination rate of well water samples tested, the Colilert method and the mFC + E. coli rtPCR assay were at least five times more costly than the MI agar method. Overall, compared with the other two methods tested, the MI agar method offers the most advantages to assess drinking water quality.

  6. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment failure detection depends on monitoring interval and microbiological method

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard A.; Lu, Chunling; Rodriguez, Carly A.; Bayona, Jaime; Becerra, Mercedes C.; Burgos, Marcos; Centis, Rosella; Cohen, Theodore; Cox, Helen; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Danilovitz, Manfred; Falzon, Dennis; Gelmanova, Irina Y.; Gler, Maria T.; Grinsdale, Jennifer A.; Holtz, Timothy H.; Keshavjee, Salmaan; Leimane, Vaira; Menzies, Dick; Milstein, Meredith B.; Mishustin, Sergey P.; Pagano, Marcello; Quelapio, Maria I.; Shean, Karen; Shin, Sonya S.; Tolman, Arielle W.; van der Walt, Martha L.; Van Deun, Armand; Viiklepp, Piret

    2016-01-01

    Debate persists about monitoring method (culture or smear) and interval (monthly or less frequently) during treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). We analysed existing data and estimated the effect of monitoring strategies on timing of failure detection. We identified studies reporting microbiological response to MDR-TB treatment and solicited individual patient data from authors. Frailty survival models were used to estimate pooled relative risk of failure detection in the last 12 months of treatment; hazard of failure using monthly culture was the reference. Data were obtained for 5410 patients across 12 observational studies. During the last 12 months of treatment, failure detection occurred in a median of 3 months by monthly culture; failure detection was delayed by 2, 7, and 9 months relying on bimonthly culture, monthly smear and bimonthly smear, respectively. Risk (95% CI) of failure detection delay resulting from monthly smear relative to culture is 0.38 (0.34–0.42) for all patients and 0.33 (0.25–0.42) for HIV-co-infected patients. Failure detection is delayed by reducing the sensitivity and frequency of the monitoring method. Monthly monitoring of sputum cultures from patients receiving MDR-TB treatment is recommended. Expanded laboratory capacity is needed for high-quality culture, and for smear microscopy and rapid molecular tests. PMID:27587552

  7. Development of a microbiological irradiation detection method for spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshikawa, T.; Takekawa, T.; Miyahara, M.

    2009-01-01

    In order to judge whether certain spices had been irradiated or not, we examined the possibility of developing a method based on the microbiological examination of spices. We used the total bacteria count in conjunction with the ratio of B. megaterium and B. cereus to the total bacteria count. The examination results of 6 kinds of spices with or without irradiation (black pepper, white pepper, coriander, paprika, ginger and turmeric), were as follows. Total bacteria counts over 10E5 CFU/g indicated that the samples were 'unirradiated'. When the total bacteria count was less than 10E5 CFU/g, and the ratio of B. megaterium and B. cereus to the total count was more than 30%, a history of irradiation of the samples was indicated. When ratios of B. megaterium and B. cereus were less than 30% and the total bacteria count was also less than 10E5 CFU/g, 'uncertainty' of irradiation was indicated. In this case, it would be possible to confirm whether spices were 'unirradiated' or 'irradiated' by using another detection method. This detection method was applicable to other spices except for paprika. The samples judged as 'irradiated' by using this detection method, surely proved to have a history of irradiation treatment

  8. Microbiological burden in air culture at various units of a tertiary care government hospital in Nepal

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    Binaya Sapkota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The environmental matrices (water, air, and surfaces play a vital role as reservoirs of Legionella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pseudomonas spp.. Hence, hospital environment control procedures are effective measures for reducing nosocomial infections. Aims This study was carried out to explore the profiles of microorganisms in air culture at various wards/units of a tertiary care hospital in Nepal. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at various wards/units of a tertiary care hospital in Nepal between January and September 2015 to explore the microbiological burden in inanimate objects. Each week one ward or unit was selected for the study. Bed, tap, the entire room, trolley, computer, phone, rack handles, table, chair, door, stethoscope, oxygen mask, gown, cupboard handles, and wash basins were selected for air culture testing. Ten different wards/units and 77 locations/pieces of equipment were selected for air culture by employing a simple random sampling technique. Information about the organisms was entered into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Version 22 (IBM: Armonk, NY and descriptive analyses were carried out. Results Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Micrococcus, coagulase negative staphylococcus (CONS, Bacillus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, yeast, and Acinetobacter were the most commonly detected organisms. In the postoperative ward, S. aureus was the most frequently detected microorganism. Micrococcus was detected in four out of 10 locations. In the x-ray unit, S. aureus was detected in three out of four locations. Conclusion S. aureus, Micrococcus, CONS, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, yeast, and Acinetobacter were the most common organisms detected.

  9. Microbiological methods for the water recovery systems test, revision 1.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Tim; Kilgore, M. V., Jr.; Mikell, A. T., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Current microbiological parameters specified to verify microbiological quality of Space Station Freedom water quality include the enumeration of total bacteria, anaerobes, aerobes, yeasts and molds, enteric bacteria, gram positives, gram negatives, and E. coli. In addition, other parameters have been identified as necessary to support the Water Recovery Test activities to be conducted at the NASA/MSFC later this year. These other parameters include aerotolerant eutrophic mesophiles, legionellae, and an additional method for heterotrophic bacteria. If inter-laboratory data are to be compared to evaluate quality, analytical methods must be eliminated as a variable. Therefore, each participating laboratory must utilize the same analytical methods and procedures. Without this standardization, data can be neither compared nor validated between laboratories. Multiple laboratory participation represents a conservative approach to insure quality and completeness of data. Invariably, sample loss will occur in transport and analyses. Natural variance is a reality on any test of this magnitude and is further enhanced because biological entities, capable of growth and death, are specific parameters of interest. The large variation due to the participation of human test subjects has been noted with previous testing. The resultant data might be dismissed as 'out of control' unless intra-laboratory control is included as part of the method or if participating laboratories are not available for verification. The purpose of this document is to provide standardized laboratory procedures for the enumeration of certain microorganisms in water and wastewater specific to the water recovery systems test. The document consists of ten separate cultural methods and one direct count procedure. It is not intended nor is it implied to be a complete microbiological methods manual.

  10. Environmental Monitoring Of Microbiological Laboratory: Expose Plate Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahaya Talib; Othman Mahmud; Noraisyah Mohd Yusof; Asmah Mohibat; Muhamad Syazwan Zulkifli

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of microorganism is important and conducted regularly on environment of microbiological laboratory at Medical Technology Division. Its objective is to ensure the quality of working environment is maintained according to microbial contamination, consequently to assure the quality of microbiological tests. This paper presents report of environmental monitoring since year 2007. The test involved was bacterial colony counts after the growth media was exposed to air at identified location. (author)

  11. PCR identification of bacteria in blood culture does not fit the daily workflow of a routine microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karumaa, Santra; Kärpänoja, Pauliina; Sarkkinen, Hannu

    2012-03-01

    We have evaluated the GenoType blood culture assay (Hain Lifescience, Nehren, Germany) for the identification of bacteria in 233 positive blood cultures and assessed its suitability in the workflow of a routine microbiology laboratory. In 68/233 (29.2%) samples, the culture result could not be confirmed by the GenoType assay due to a lack of primers in the test, multiple organisms in the sample, or inconsistency with respect to the identification by culture. Although the GenoType blood culture assay gives satisfactory results for bacteria for which primers are available, there are difficulties in applying the test in the routine microbiology laboratory.

  12. Epidemiological and microbiological characteristics of culture-proven acute otitis media in Taiwanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Nan-Chang; Lin, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Chyong-Hsin; Huang, Fu-Yuan; Lee, Kuo-Sheng; Chi, Hsin

    2012-10-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common diseases in children. Here, we describe the epidemiological and microbiological characteristics of AOM in Taiwanese children over a 10-year period. We retrospectively enrolled pediatric patients with culture-proven AOM who were treated at Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei between 1999-2008. The data include demographic characteristics, clinical history, and microbiological characteristics. Six hundred and fourteen patients were included. The male:female ratio was 1.4 (p 5 years of age and was associated with spontaneous otorrhea (pculture-confirmed AOM in Taiwanese children. Although S. pyogenes is not as common, it usually causes AOM in children > 5 years of age and is associated with spontaneous otorrhea. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Introduction of Molecular Methods into a Food Microbiology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleitner, Aaron M.; Hammons, Susan R.; McKenzie, Emily; Cho, Young-Hee; Oliver, Haley F.

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining current, relevant curriculum in undergraduate Food Microbiology courses is essential for training future experts in food quality and safety. Having an understanding of the fundamental techniques (for example, polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) that are used in the food industry and regulatory agencies is critical for students entering…

  14. The Most Probable Limit of Detection (MPL) for rapid microbiological methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, G.P.H.T.; Willemse, M.J.; Hoefs, S.G.G.; Cremers, G.; Heuvel, E.R. van den

    Classical microbiological methods have nowadays unacceptably long cycle times. Rapid methods, available on the market for decades, are already applied within the clinical and food industry, but the implementation in pharmaceutical industry is hampered by for instance stringent regulations on

  15. The most probable limit of detection (MPL) for rapid microbiological methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, G.P.H.T.; Willemse, M.J.; Hoefs, S.G.G.; Cremers, G.; Heuvel, van den E.R.

    2010-01-01

    Classical microbiological methods have nowadays unacceptably long cycle times. Rapid methods, available on the market for decades, are already applied within the clinical and food industry, but the implementation in pharmaceutical industry is hampered by for instance stringent regulations on

  16. The diagnosis of chronic endometritis in infertile asymptomatic women: a comparative study of histology, microbial cultures, hysteroscopy, and molecular microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Inmaculada; Cicinelli, Ettore; Garcia-Grau, Iolanda; Gonzalez-Monfort, Marta; Bau, Davide; Vilella, Felipe; De Ziegler, Dominique; Resta, Leonardo; Valbuena, Diana; Simon, Carlos

    2018-06-01

    , concordance was present in 37 samples (22 double positive and 15 double negative), a matching rate of 56.92%. When cases of potential contamination and/or noncultivable bacteria were considered, the accuracy increased to 66.15%. Of these 65 patients, only 27 patients had consistent histological + hysteroscopic diagnosis, revealing 58.64% of nonconcordant results. Only 13 of 65 patients (20%) had consistent histology + hysteroscopy + microbial culture results. In these cases, the molecular microbiology matched in 10 cases showing a diagnostic accuracy of 76.92%. Interestingly, the molecular microbiology confirmed over half of the isolated pathogens and provided additional detection of nonculturable microorganisms. These results were confirmed by the microbiome assessed by next-generation sequencing. In the endometrial samples with concordant histology + hysteroscopy + microbial culture results, the molecular microbiology diagnosis demonstrates 75% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive and 25% negative predictive values, and 0% false-positive and 25% false-negative rates. The molecular microbiology method describe herein is a fast and inexpensive diagnostic tool that allows for the identification of culturable and nonculturable endometrial pathogens associated with chronic endometritis. The results obtained were similar to all 3 classic diagnostic methods together with a degree of concordance of 76.92% providing an opportunity to improve the clinical management of infertile patients with a risk of experiencing this ghost endometrial pathology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Environmental microbiological control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Salas, Carmen; Tordoya Titichoca, Igberto J; Ezpeleta Baquedano, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    The environmental microbiological control is necessary to prevent infections associated with certain procedures that are performed at the hospital. In this review the procedures for control of water and dialysis fluids, and air in operating rooms and immunocompromised units are addressed. The dialysis quality management guidelines define the highest levels of chemical, microbiological and endotoxin in purified water and dialysis fluids based on the recommendations of scientific societies. The microbiological control of water and dialysis fluids should include detection of microorganisms and endotoxin levels. Regarding the microbiological air sampling of operating rooms and immunocompromised units the types of clean rooms in which is recommended to perform microbiological air monitoring; the sample collection methods; culture media; incubation conditions; the most common microorganisms, and permissible levels depending on the type of surgery are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Salty Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneegurt, Mark A.; Wedel, Adrianne N.; Pokorski, Edward W.

    2004-01-01

    Using microbiology activities in the classroom is an effective way for teachers to address National Standards in the life sciences. However, common microbiology activities that involve swabbing doorknobs and hands are too risky due to the likelihood of culturing human pathogens. In addition, making sterile media and maintaining sterile conditions…

  19. Reduction in Acidity by Chemical and Microbiological Methods and Their Effect on Moslavac Wine Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Herjavec, Stanka; Majdak, Ana; Tupajić, Pavica; Redžepović, Sulejman; Orlić, Sandi

    2003-01-01

    Changes in chemical composition and sensory properties caused by chemical and microbiological methods of deacidification in Moslavac (syn. Furmint) wines were investigated. Alcoholic fermentation of Moslavac musts was carried out with two different strains of the yeasts Saccharomyces paradoxus. There were no marked differences in chemical composition among the wines. Compared to the control microbiological deacidification of wines by Oenococcus oeni resulted in a complete decomposition of mal...

  20. Relationship between milk cathelicidin abundance and microbiologic culture in clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, M F; Bronzo, V; Puggioni, G M G; Cacciotto, C; Tedde, V; Pagnozzi, D; Locatelli, C; Casula, A; Curone, G; Uzzau, S; Moroni, P

    2017-04-01

    The availability of reliable tools to enable the sensitive and specific detection of mastitis in dairy cows can assist in developing control strategies and promote the more rational use of antibiotics. We have developed a milk cathelicidin ELISA that shows high sensitivity and specificity for dairy cow mastitis, based on latent class analysis. In this study, we investigated the effect of microbial agents on cathelicidin abundance in the milk of cows with clinical mastitis. We subjected 535 quarter milk samples (435 from quarters showing signs of clinical mastitis and 100 from healthy quarters as a control) to milk cathelicidin ELISA, somatic cell count (SCC), and microbiologic culture. Of the 435 clinical mastitis samples, 431 (99.08%) were positive for cathelicidin, 424 (97.47%) had SCC >200,000 cells/mL, and 376 (86.44%) were culture-positive. Of the 59 culture-negative samples, 58 (98.30%) were positive for cathelicidin and 55 (93.22%) had SCC >200,000 cells/mL. The abundance of cathelicidin and the extent of SCC increase depended on the causative agent: Streptococcus agalactiae and coagulase-negative staphylococci showed the highest and lowest changes, respectively. We also observed differences in behavior between the 2 markers depending on the pathogen: Streptococcus agalactiae induced the highest cathelicidin abundance, and Serratia spp. induced the highest SCC. Nevertheless, the different ability of microorganisms to induce cathelicidin release in milk did not compromise its value as a mastitis marker, given its higher sensitivity compared to SCC or microbiologic culture. All 100 negative control samples (collected from healthy quarters with SCC culture-negative) were also negative for cathelicidin, corresponding to 100% specificity in the evaluated sample cohort. This study confirmed the value of the milk cathelicidin ELISA for detecting bovine mastitis, and highlighted the influence of mastitis-causing microorganisms on cathelicidin abundance. This

  1. MICROBIOLOGICAL METHODS APPLICATION EXPERIENCE IN THE SEVERE INJURIES INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Svistunov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern clinical medicine and surgery problems are associated with infections complications after medical care. In recent years, surgery has made substantial progress related to the new organizational approaches and medical technology specialized medical care to the wounded and injured. However, these gains are offset by a high rate of infectious complications that require finding effective measures emerging infectious complications timely diagnosis and their prevention. Clinical manifestations are often nosocomial in patients with severe injuries and are largely determined by the influence of clinical and pathogenetic risk factors. Such infectious complications require a comprehensive assessment, including microbiological testing. The main causative agents of infectious complications in surgical hospitals are S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., which can cause bloodstream infections, soft tissue, respiratory and urinary tract infections, especially in debilitated and immunocompromised patients and patients in intensive care units. These micro organisms are dangerous to patients and medical staff, as they can survive for a long time in the hospital environment, as well as to spread from patient to patient in violation of isolation restrictive measures and requirements for hygiene of medical workers hands. Clinical patterns of infection associated with medical care for severe injuries are to the possibility of serial and parallel development, both in different and in the same time frame of local, visceral and generalized infection with prevalence of combined forms of patients surgical hospital with a high risk of nosocomial infection against the background of factors, diagnostic and treatment process and hospital environment, introduction of the agent. Early etiological diagnosis allows timely assign empirical causal treatment and arrange for infection control to prevent the spread of microorganisms in the hospital. The

  2. Application of microbiological methods for secondary oil recovery from the Carpathian crude oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaskiewicz, J

    1974-01-01

    The investigation made it possible to isolate from different ecologic environmental (soil, crude oil, formation water, industrial wastes) bacteria cultures of the genus Arthrobacter, Clostridium, Mycobacterium, Peptococcus, and Pseudomonas. These heterotrophic bacteria are characterized by a high metabolic and biogeochemical activity hydrocarbon transformation. Experiments on a technical scale were conducted from 1961 to 1971 in 20 wells; in this study, only the 16 most typical examples are discussed. The experiments were conducted in Carpathian crude oil reservoirs. To each well, a 500:1 mixture of the so-called bacteria vaccine (containing an active biomass of cultures obtained by a specific cultivation method and holding 6 x 10/sup 5/ bacteria cells in 1 ml of fluid, 2,000 kg of molasses, and 50 cu m of water originating from the reservoir submitted to treatment) was injected at 500 to 1,200 m. The intensification of the microbiological processes in the reservoir was observed. This phenomenon occurred not only in the wells to which the bacteria vaccine was injected, but also in the surrounding producing wells. At the same time, an increase in the crude oil production occurred on the average within the range from 20 to 200% and the surpluses of crude oil production continued for 2 to 8 yr. (92 refs.)

  3. Culture-independent analysis of aerosol microbiology in a metropolitan subway system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Charles E; Baumgartner, Laura K; Harris, J Kirk; Peterson, Kristen L; Stevens, Mark J; Frank, Daniel N; Pace, Norman R

    2013-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the composition and diversity of microorganisms associated with bioaerosols in a heavily trafficked metropolitan subway environment. We collected bioaerosols by fluid impingement on several New York City subway platforms and associated sites in three sampling sessions over a 1.5-year period. The types and quantities of aerosolized microorganisms were determined by culture-independent phylogenetic analysis of small-subunit rRNA gene sequences by using both Sanger (universal) and pyrosequencing (bacterial) technologies. Overall, the subway bacterial composition was relatively simple; only 26 taxonomic families made up ~75% of the sequences determined. The microbiology was more or less similar throughout the system and with time and was most similar to outdoor air, consistent with highly efficient air mixing in the system. Identifiable bacterial sequences indicated that the subway aerosol assemblage was composed of a mixture of genera and species characteristic of soil, environmental water, and human skin commensal bacteria. Eukaryotic diversity was mainly fungal, dominated by organisms of types associated with wood rot. Human skin bacterial species (at 99% rRNA sequence identity) included the Staphylococcus spp. Staphylococcus epidermidis (the most abundant and prevalent commensal of the human integument), S. hominis, S. cohnii, S. caprae, and S. haemolyticus, all well-documented human commensal bacteria. We encountered no organisms of public health concern. This study is the most extensive culture-independent survey of subway microbiota so far and puts in place pre-event information required for any bioterrorism surveillance activities or monitoring of the microbiological impact of recent subway flooding events.

  4. Microbiological quality of raw and processed wild and cultured edible snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlapani, Foteini F; Neofitou, Christos; Boziaris, Ioannis S

    2014-03-15

    An increasing interest in snail farming in Greece and other European countries has been observed. Despite the fact that edible snails have been involved with problems of Salmonella spp. contamination, there are to our knowledge only limited studies regarding microbiological safety and hygiene of such products. Enumeration of microbial populations and presence/absence of Salmonella spp. in snail meat and intestines of wild Cornu aspersum, Helix lucorum and cultured Cornu aspersum snails from indoor/outdoor type farms was conducted. Furthermore, snail-processing steps were simulated in the laboratory and the population reduction in snail meat was determined. Microbial populations were higher in intestines than snail meat in almost all cases. Escherichia coli/coliforms and Enterococcus spp. populations were lower in the intestines and snail meat of cultured C. aspersum. Salmonella spp. were detected in the intestines and snail meat of wild snails only. The high levels of bacterial populations were considerably reduced after the appropriate processing. The lower populations of E. coli/coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and especially the absence of Salmonella spp. in cultured snails show that the controlled conditions decrease the possibility of pathogen presence and contribute to food safety and public health. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Antimicrobial Testing Methods & Procedures Developed by EPA's Microbiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    We develop antimicrobial testing methods and standard operating procedures to measure the effectiveness of hard surface disinfectants against a variety of microorganisms. Find methods and procedures for antimicrobial testing.

  6. Microbiological Sampling Methods and Sanitation of Edible Plants Grown on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Charles H. II; Khodadad, Christina L.; Garland, Nathaniel T.; Larson, Brian D.; Hummreick, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic microbes on the surfaces of salad crops and growth chambers pose a threat to the health of crew on International Space Station. For astronauts to safely consume spacegrown vegetables produced in NASA's new vegetable production unit, VEGGIE, three technical challenges must be overcome: real-time sampling, microbiological analysis, and sanitation. Raphanus sativus cultivar Cherry Bomb II and Latuca sativa cultivar Outredgeous, two saled crops to be grown in VEGGIE, were inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), a bacterium known to cause food-borne illness Tape- and swab-based sampling techniques were optimized for use in microgravity and assessed for effectiveness in recovery of bacteria from crop surfaces: Rapid pathogen detection and molecular analyses were performed via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactiop using LightCycler® 480 and RAZOR® EX, a scaled-down instrument that is undergoing evaluation and testing for future flight hardware. These methods were compared with conventional, culture-based methods for the recovery of S. Typhimurium colonies. A sterile wipe saturated with a citric acid-based, food-grade sanitizer was applied to two different surface materials used in VEGGIE flight hardware that had been contaminated with the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa,. another known human pathogen. To sanitize surfaces, wipes were saturated with either the sanitizer or sterile deionized water and applied to each surface. Colony forming units of P. aeruginosa grown on tryptic soy agar plates were enumerated from surface samples after sanitization treatments. Depending on the VEGGIE hardware material, 2- to 4.5-log10 reductions in colony-forming units were observed after sanitization. The difference in recovery of S. Typhimurium between tape- and swab- based sampling techniques was insignificant. RAZOR® EX rapidly detected S. Typhimurium present in both raw culture and extracted DNA samples.

  7. Combination of microbiological culture and multiplex PCR increases the range of vaginal microorganisms identified in cervical cancer patients at high risk for bacterial vaginosis and vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Katarzyna; Cybulski, Zefiryn; Roszak, Andrzej; Grabiec, Alicja; Talaga, Zofia; Urbański, Bartosz; Odważna, Joanna; Wojciechowicz, Jacek

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and vaginitis in cervical cancer patients might becaused by mixed aerobic, anaerobic, and atypical bacteria. Since genital tract infections can be complicated, early and accurate identification of causal pathogens is vital. The purpose of this study was i) to determinate if currently used aerobic culture methods are sufficiently sensitive to identify pathogens that can appear in the cervix of women after cancer treatment; ii) to investigate if molecular methods can improve the diagnostic process of BV and vaginitis, as well as broaden the range of detectable pathogens that would otherwise be difficult to cultivate. A one-year hospital-based study was conducted in 2011/2012. Cervical swabs from 130 patients were examined by microbiological culture and multiplex PCR. Swab samples were positive for 107 and 93 women by microbiological culture and multiplex PCR, respectively The most common bacteria isolated from culture were: Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Staphylococcus aureus, and using the molecular technique were: Gardnerella vaginalis, Bacteroides fragilis, Ureoplasma ureoliticum/parvum, Mobiluncus curtisii and Atopobium vaginae. Multiplex PCR might contribute to the diagnosis of genital tract infections and it broadens the number of detectable microorganisms responsible for BV. Combination of these two methods may become the basis for standardized diagnosis of BV and vaginitis.

  8. Assessment of Two Alternative Sample Transport and Fixation Methods in the Microbiological Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Eason

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The standard method for specimen collection and transport for microbiological diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis is an air-dried smear of vaginal secretions, promptly heat- or alcohol-fixed, Gram-stained and scored by Nugent's criteria.

  9. Microbiological specifications and testing methods for irradiated food. Report of a panel of experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest in the development of food items processed by means of ionizing radiation, wherever that form of preservation might show advantage over other methods. If this method becomes successful, the various items will be commercially exploited; it would then be convenient to have similar legislation in many countries of the world to control this type of processing and to facilitate international trade. To gather information and suggestions in order to devise legislation on irradiated food, a Joint FAO/IAEA/ WHO Expert Committee on the Technical Basis for Legislation on Irradiated Food was held in Rome on 21-28 April 1964. The Committee's report, 'The technical basis for legislation on irradiated food', was published as FAO Atomic Energy Series No.6 and WHO Technical Series No. 316. The Committee's terms of reference were to consider the available evidence on the effect on food of treatment with ionizing radiation in the context of wholesomeness and safety for consumption. Nutritional aspects were taken into account, but microbiological safety and microbiological methods for irradiated food were excluded since these subjects were believed to be too broad for adequate coverage in the working time available at the meeting. However, realizing the importance of radiation microbiology and the need for guidance in formulating regulations in this field, the committee drafted the following recommendation: 'The methods and standards used to ensure the microbiological safety of the irradiated product should, as a matter of urgency, be subject to review by competent international bodies in order that internationally acceptable methods and standards may be agreed upon'. In response to this recommendation an FAO/IAEA Panel on Microbiological Standards and Testing Methods for Irradiated Food was held in Vienna on 22-26 June 1965, in collaboration with the International Association of Microbiological Societies (IAMS). This was a working

  10. Microbiological specifications and testing methods for irradiated food. Report of a panel of experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest in the development of food items processed by means of ionizing radiation, wherever that form of preservation might show advantage over other methods. If this method becomes successful, the various items will be commercially exploited; it would then be convenient to have similar legislation in many countries of the world to control this type of processing and to facilitate international trade. To gather information and suggestions in order to devise legislation on irradiated food, a Joint FAO/IAEA/ WHO Expert Committee on the Technical Basis for Legislation on Irradiated Food was held in Rome on 21-28 April 1964. The Committee's report, 'The technical basis for legislation on irradiated food', was published as FAO Atomic Energy Series No.6 and WHO Technical Series No. 316. The Committee's terms of reference were to consider the available evidence on the effect on food of treatment with ionizing radiation in the context of wholesomeness and safety for consumption. Nutritional aspects were taken into account, but microbiological safety and microbiological methods for irradiated food were excluded since these subjects were believed to be too broad for adequate coverage in the working time available at the meeting. However, realizing the importance of radiation microbiology and the need for guidance in formulating regulations in this field, the committee drafted the following recommendation: 'The methods and standards used to ensure the microbiological safety of the irradiated product should, as a matter of urgency, be subject to review by competent international bodies in order that internationally acceptable methods and standards may be agreed upon'. In response to this recommendation an FAO/IAEA Panel on Microbiological Standards and Testing Methods for Irradiated Food was held in Vienna on 22-26 June 1965, in collaboration with the International Association of Microbiological Societies (IAMS). This was a working

  11. Microbiological specifications and testing methods for irradiated food. Report of a panel of experts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1970-04-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest in the development of food items processed by means of ionizing radiation, wherever that form of preservation might show advantage over other methods. If this method becomes successful, the various items will be commercially exploited; it would then be convenient to have similar legislation in many countries of the world to control this type of processing and to facilitate international trade. To gather information and suggestions in order to devise legislation on irradiated food, a Joint FAO/IAEA/ WHO Expert Committee on the Technical Basis for Legislation on Irradiated Food was held in Rome on 21-28 April 1964. The Committee's report, 'The technical basis for legislation on irradiated food', was published as FAO Atomic Energy Series No.6 and WHO Technical Series No. 316. The Committee's terms of reference were to consider the available evidence on the effect on food of treatment with ionizing radiation in the context of wholesomeness and safety for consumption. Nutritional aspects were taken into account, but microbiological safety and microbiological methods for irradiated food were excluded since these subjects were believed to be too broad for adequate coverage in the working time available at the meeting. However, realizing the importance of radiation microbiology and the need for guidance in formulating regulations in this field, the committee drafted the following recommendation: 'The methods and standards used to ensure the microbiological safety of the irradiated product should, as a matter of urgency, be subject to review by competent international bodies in order that internationally acceptable methods and standards may be agreed upon'. In response to this recommendation an FAO/IAEA Panel on Microbiological Standards and Testing Methods for Irradiated Food was held in Vienna on 22-26 June 1965, in collaboration with the International Association of Microbiological Societies (IAMS). This was a working

  12. Identification of Burkholderia spp. in the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory: Comparison of Conventional and Molecular Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pelt, Cindy; Verduin, Cees M.; Goessens, Wil H. F.; Vos, Margreet C.; Tümmler, Burkhard; Segonds, Christine; Reubsaet, Frans; Verbrugh, Henri; van Belkum, Alex

    1999-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) predisposes patients to bacterial colonization and infection of the lower airways. Several species belonging to the genus Burkholderia are potential CF-related pathogens, but microbiological identification may be complicated. This situation is not in the least due to the poorly defined taxonomic status of these bacteria, and further validation of the available diagnostic assays is required. A total of 114 geographically diverse bacterial isolates, previously identified in reference laboratories as Burkholderia cepacia (n = 51), B. gladioli (n = 14), Ralstonia pickettii (n = 6), B. multivorans (n = 2), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 3), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 11), were collected from environmental, clinical, and reference sources. In addition, 27 clinical isolates putatively identified as Burkholderia spp. were recovered from the sputum of Dutch CF patients. All isolates were used to evaluate the accuracy of two selective growth media, four systems for biochemical identification (API 20NE, Vitek GNI, Vitek NFC, and MicroScan), and three different PCR-based assays. The PCR assays amplify different parts of the ribosomal DNA operon, either alone or in combination with cleavage by various restriction enzymes (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism [RFLP] analysis). The best system for the biochemical identification of B. cepacia appeared to be the API 20NE test. None of the biochemical assays successfully grouped the B. gladioli strains. The PCR-RFLP method appeared to be the optimal method for accurate nucleic acid-mediated identification of the different Burkholderia spp. With this method, B. gladioli was also reliably classified in a separate group. For the laboratory diagnosis of B. cepacia, we recommend parallel cultures on blood agar medium and selective agar plates. Further identification of colonies with a Burkholderia phenotype should be performed with the API 20NE test. For final confirmation of species identities, PCR

  13. Using microbiological leaching method to remove heavy metals from sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuyu Gu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial leaching is one of the most effective methods to remove heavy metals from sludge. In the conducted researches, the sludge samples were processed with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans obtained via cultivation, extraction and purification processes. Heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni were leached from sludge by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans within different substrate concentration and pH value conditions. It is defined that from the point of view of economy and efficiency the optimal concentration of FeSO4.7H2O and sulfur for bio-leaching process was 0.2 g. The leaching rates of heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni of the same concentration were 74.72%, 81.54%, 70.46% and 77.35% respectively. However, no significant differences depending on the pH value among the leaching rates were defined, even for the pH value of 1.5. Along with the removal of heavy metals from sludge, the organic matter, N, P, K were also leached to some extent. The losing rate of phosphorus was the highest and reached 38.44%. However, the content of organic matter, N, P, K in the processed sludge were higher in comparison with level I of the National Soil Quality Standards of China. Ecological risk of heavy metals in sludge before and after leaching was assessed by Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo and comprehensive potential risk (RI. The results of research defined that the content of heavy metals in sludge meets the level of low ecological risk after leaching and their contents is lower in comparison with the National Agricultural Sludge Standard of China. Sludge leached by biological methods is possible to use for treatment for increasing soil fertility.

  14. Irradiation as an alternative environment friendly method for microbiological decontamination of herbal raw material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorecki, P.; Kedzia, B.; Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.

    1998-01-01

    Microbiological contamination of herbal raw materials is a serious problem in the production of therapeutical preparations. A good quality of the product, according to the pharmaceutical requirements may be achieved by applying suitable methods of decontamination. The decontamination treatments should be fast and effective against all microorganisms. It should ensure the decontamination of both packaging and the product in order to act effectively against all the microorganisms present and must not reduce the sensory and technological qualities of the commodities. In the paper, the results of comparative investigations on the microbiological decontamination of herbal raw materials by chemical (ethylene oxide, methyl bromide) and physical method (irradiation) are presented. Decontamination of herbal raw materials by irradiation is a method by choice. It is because chemical methods have been recognized recently as not safe to the consumer. Irradiation, in turn, is technically feasible, very effective and friendly enough to environment process

  15. The Importance of Bacterial Culture to Food Microbiology in the Age of Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Culture-based and genomics methods provide different insights into the nature and behavior of bacteria. Maximizing the usefulness of both approaches requires recognizing their limitations and employing them appropriately. Genomic analysis excels at identifying bacteria and establishing the relatedness of isolates. Culture-based methods remain necessary for detection and enumeration, to determine viability, and to validate phenotype predictions made on the bias of genomic analysis. The purpose of this short paper is to discuss the application of culture-based analysis and genomics to the questions food microbiologists routinely need to ask regarding bacteria to ensure the safety of food and its economic production and distribution. To address these issues appropriate tools are required for the detection and enumeration of specific bacterial populations and the characterization of isolates for, identification, phylogenetics, and phenotype prediction.

  16. Comparison of Sensory Properties, Shelf-Life and Microbiological Safety of Industrial Sausages Produced with Autochthonous and Commercial Starter Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Frece

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to use isolated and characterized autochthonous functional starter cultures from traditional Croatian dry sausages and to evaluate their capacity for industrial production of five sausages (Čajna sausage, Zimska sausage, Bečka sausage, Srijemska sausage and Slavonski kulen. These defined autochthonous functional starter cultures (combination of Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus strains were used to produce five different industrial sausages which were compared by a panel. The viability of introduced autochthonous Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus strains and their effect on the final product characteristics, namely microbiological, physicochemical and sensory properties were monitored. The obtained results indicate that autochthonous starter cultures survived industrial production of sausages and can be used for production of sausages under controlled conditions. Autochthonous starter cultures obtained better results in the organoleptic evaluation, microbial safety and prolonged shelf-life in comparison with commercial starter cultures.

  17. Fueling the Bio-economy: European Culture Collections and Microbiology Education and Training

    KAUST Repository

    Antunes, Andre; Stackebrandt, Erko; Lima, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    A survey of European Microbial Biological Resource Centers and their users provided an overview on microbiology education and training. The results identified future increases in demand despite several shortcomings and gaps in the current offer

  18. Evaluation of methods for the microbiological control of natural corks for sparkling wine bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, S; Calvo, M A

    2000-01-01

    The various parameters proposed in Norm 0.20/95 of Catalunya (Spain) for the microbiological analysis of natural corks for sparkling wines were evaluated. The best results were obtained through the use of 1/4 Ringer's solution or saline for rinsing with an agitation time of 30 min, and an agitation speed of 150-200 rpm. Tryptone soya agar (TSA) and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) were used as a culture medium for the bacteria and fungi, respectively, and a cultivation time of 48 h and incubation temperatures of 37 +/- 2 degrees C for bacteria and 28 degrees C for yeast and filamentous fungi.

  19. Detection of irradiated spices with a microbiological method - DEFT/APC method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerton, K.M.; Banos, C.

    1996-01-01

    The decontamination of spices that are to be used as ingredients in processed foods is necessary in order to prevent the introduction of spoilage microorganisms and more rarely disease causing organisms. Spices can be contaminated with bacteria and moulds in concentration from 10 3 to 10 8 microorganisms per gram so that, even when used in small amounts, they can contaminate food with large numbers of microorganisms. The most effective means of decontaminating spices is irradiation treatment with an absorbed radiation dose from 5 to 10 kGy. Several countries are commercially using radiation processing of spices. A microbiological screening method based on the use of the direct epifluorescent filter technique (DEFT) and the conventional aerobic plate count (APC) has been established for the detection of irradiated spices. The DEFT count enumerates the total number of contaminating microorganisms, irrespective of viability, in an untreated or treated spice sample. This paper reports recent investigations on the possibility that the inclusion of a mesophilic aerobic spore count will enable irradiated spices to be distinguished from ethylene oxide (EtO) or heat treated spices. (author)

  20. Molecular methods for pathogen and microbial community detection and characterization: current and potential application in diagnostic microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Christopher D; Peirano, Gisele; Church, Deirdre L

    2012-04-01

    Clinical microbiology laboratories worldwide have historically relied on phenotypic methods (i.e., culture and biochemical tests) for detection, identification and characterization of virulence traits (e.g., antibiotic resistance genes, toxins) of human pathogens. However, limitations to implementation of molecular methods for human infectious diseases testing are being rapidly overcome allowing for the clinical evaluation and implementation of diverse technologies with expanding diagnostic capabilities. The advantages and limitation of molecular techniques including real-time polymerase chain reaction, partial or whole genome sequencing, molecular typing, microarrays, broad-range PCR and multiplexing will be discussed. Finally, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and deep sequencing are introduced as technologies at the clinical interface with the potential to dramatically enhance our ability to diagnose infectious diseases and better define the epidemiology and microbial ecology of a wide range of complex infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of Long-Term E. Coli Cultures: To Study Generation of Genetic Diversity & Teach General Microbiology Laboratory Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Angela; Finkel, Steven E.; Erbe, Jarrod

    2005-01-01

    A novel method of studying the generation of genetic diversity in an undergraduate microbiology laboratory is described. The basis of this approach is the accumulation of mutations that confer a competitive advantage, or growth advantage in stationary phase (GASP) phenotype, to E. coli grown in stationary phase for extended periods of time.

  2. A Decade of Development of Chromogenic Culture Media for Clinical Microbiology in an Era of Molecular Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, John D

    2017-04-01

    In the last 25 years, chromogenic culture media have found widespread application in diagnostic clinical microbiology. In the last decade, the range of media available to clinical laboratories has expanded greatly, allowing specific detection of additional pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, group B streptococci, Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter spp., and Yersinia enterocolitica. New media have also been developed to screen for pathogens with acquired antimicrobial resistance, including vancomycin-resistant enterococci, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp., and Enterobacteriaceae with extended-spectrum β-lactamases and carbapenemases. This review seeks to explore the utility of chromogenic media in clinical microbiology, with particular attention given to media that have been commercialized in the last decade. The impact of laboratory automation and complementary technologies such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is also assessed. Finally, the review also seeks to demarcate the role of chromogenic media in an era of molecular diagnostics. © Crown copyright 2017.

  3. Manual versus automated streaking system in clinical microbiology laboratory: Performance evaluation of Previ Isola for blood culture and body fluid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Qute; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Jong Wan; Kwon, Gye Cheol; Koo, Sun Hoe

    2018-01-04

    The process of plate streaking has been automated to improve routine workflow of clinical microbiology laboratories. Although there were many evaluation reports about the inoculation of various body fluid samples, few evaluations have been reported for blood. In this study, we evaluated the performance of automated inoculating system, Previ Isola for various routine clinical samples including blood. Blood culture, body fluid, and urine samples were collected. All samples were inoculated on both sheep blood agar plate (BAP) and MacConkey agar plate (MCK) using Previ Isola and manual method. We compared two methods in aspect of quality and quantity of cultures, and sample processing time. To ensure objective colony counting, an enumeration reading reference was made through a preliminary experiment. A total of 377 nonduplicate samples (102 blood culture, 203 urine, 72 body fluid) were collected and inoculated. The concordance rate of quality was 100%, 97.0%, and 98.6% in blood, urine, and other body fluids, respectively. In quantitative aspect, it was 98.0%, 97.0%, and 95.8%, respectively. The Previ Isola took a little longer to inoculate the specimen than manual method, but the hands-on time decreased dramatically. The shortened hands-on time using Previ Isola was about 6 minutes per 10 samples. We demonstrated that the Previ Isola showed high concordance with the manual method in the inoculation of various body fluids, especially in blood culture sample. The use of Previ Isola in clinical microbiology laboratories is expected to save considerable time and human resources. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Fueling the Bio-economy: European Culture Collections and Microbiology Education and Training

    KAUST Repository

    Antunes, Andre

    2015-12-23

    A survey of European Microbial Biological Resource Centers and their users provided an overview on microbiology education and training. The results identified future increases in demand despite several shortcomings and gaps in the current offer. Urgent adjustments are needed to match users\\' needs, integrate innovative programs, and adopt new technologies. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Fueling the Bio-economy: European Culture Collections and Microbiology Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, André; Stackebrandt, Erko; Lima, Nelson

    2016-02-01

    A survey of European Microbial Biological Resource Centers and their users provided an overview on microbiology education and training. The results identified future increases in demand despite several shortcomings and gaps in the current offer. Urgent adjustments are needed to match users' needs, integrate innovative programs, and adopt new technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of the clinical and microbiological characteristics of Campylobacter and Helicobacter bacteremia: the importance of time to blood culture positivity using the BACTEC blood culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kei; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Nagashima, Maki; Shimada, Kayo; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Kato, Yasuyuki; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Yamada, Koji; Mezaki, Kazuhisa; Kirikae, Teruo; Ohmagari, Norio

    2017-11-28

    Campylobacter spp. and Helicobacter spp. are rare but important causes of bacteremia in humans. Distinguishing these bacteria is complicated because of their similar phenotypic profiles. We conducted clinical and microbiological investigations of Campylobacter spp. or Helicobacter spp. bacteremia. Patients diagnosed with bacteremia from 2008 to 2014 were included. The clinical and microbiological characteristics of Campylobacter spp. and Helicobacter spp. bacteremia were compared. The BACTEC system was used in blood cultures. A receiver operating characteristic curve was plotted based on the time to blood culture positivity. Sixteen cases of Helicobacter spp. bacteremia (patient age: 61 ± 18 years) and 14 cases of Campylobacter spp. bacteremia (patient age: 49 ± 21 years) were identified. Median time to blood culture positivity was longer for the Helicobacter spp. cases than the Campylobacter spp. cases (91.4 h vs 55.3 h, p culture positivity > 75 h predicted Helicobacter spp. bacteremia with a sensitivity of 0.88 and a specificity of 0.93 (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.90). In conclusion, a time to blood culture positivity was useful in distinguishing Helicobacter spp. bacteremia from Campylobacter spp. bacteremia.

  7. Evaluation of PDA Technical Report No 33. Statistical Testing Recommendations for a Rapid Microbiological Method Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Thomas; Schwedock, Julie; Nguyen, Kham; Mills, Anna; Jones, David

    2015-01-01

    New recommendations for the validation of rapid microbiological methods have been included in the revised Technical Report 33 release from the PDA. The changes include a more comprehensive review of the statistical methods to be used to analyze data obtained during validation. This case study applies those statistical methods to accuracy, precision, ruggedness, and equivalence data obtained using a rapid microbiological methods system being evaluated for water bioburden testing. Results presented demonstrate that the statistical methods described in the PDA Technical Report 33 chapter can all be successfully applied to the rapid microbiological method data sets and gave the same interpretation for equivalence to the standard method. The rapid microbiological method was in general able to pass the requirements of PDA Technical Report 33, though the study shows that there can be occasional outlying results and that caution should be used when applying statistical methods to low average colony-forming unit values. Prior to use in a quality-controlled environment, any new method or technology has to be shown to work as designed by the manufacturer for the purpose required. For new rapid microbiological methods that detect and enumerate contaminating microorganisms, additional recommendations have been provided in the revised PDA Technical Report No. 33. The changes include a more comprehensive review of the statistical methods to be used to analyze data obtained during validation. This paper applies those statistical methods to analyze accuracy, precision, ruggedness, and equivalence data obtained using a rapid microbiological method system being validated for water bioburden testing. The case study demonstrates that the statistical methods described in the PDA Technical Report No. 33 chapter can be successfully applied to rapid microbiological method data sets and give the same comparability results for similarity or difference as the standard method. © PDA, Inc

  8. Application of a microbiological screening method for the indication of irradiation of poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirtanen, G.; Karwoski, M.; Sjoberg, A.-M.; Salo, S.

    1996-01-01

    The FDA (Food and Drug Administration of the Department of Health and Human Services, USA) ruling of May 1990 permits the use of irradiation of fresh or frozen poultry and poultry parts, including ground and mechanically separated poultry products, at absorbed doses of 1.5 to 3 kGy to control foodborne pathogens and bacteria. The aim of this study was to apply a microbiological method (DEFT/APC) to assess the possible irradiation treatment of samples of frozen poultry meat. (author)

  9. Researching Seeds: Films, Sanitation Methods, Microbiological Growth, Viability, and Selection for New Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Niki; Smith, Trent

    2018-01-01

    A major factor in long-term human exploration of the solar system is crop growth in microgravity. Space crops can provide fresh, nutritious food to supplement diets for astronauts. Important factors impacting space plant growth and consumption are water delivery to root zone in microgravity, sanitation methods for microbiological safety, plant responses to light quality/spectrum, and identifying optimal edible plants suitable for growth on the International Space Station (ISS). Astronauts growing their own food on the ISS provides necessary data for crop production for long duration deep space missions. The seed film project can be used in Advanced Plant Habitat and Veggies that are currently being utilized on the ISS.

  10. Fermented sausage production using E. faecium as starter culture: Physicochemical and microbiological profile, sensorial acceptance and cellular viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Calochi Pires de Carvalho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fermented sausages are defined as a mixture of lean meat and fat, curing salts, sucrose and spices, stuffed in a natural or artificial casing and submitted to fermentation and air-drying process. Starter culture and ripening process may affect the quality and acceptability of the final product. Current research evaluates the use of Enterococcus faecium as starter culture in fermented sausage production and its physicochemical and microbiological profile during maturation process, coupled to sausage sensory acceptance after ripening. Enterococcus faecium showed 10.9 log CFU g-1 and remained viable after the ripening period with 8.32 log CFU g-1. Fermented sausage was monitored during the ripening period by physicochemical (pH control, water activity and weight loss and microbiological (analysis of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, coliforms and Salmonella spp. analyses. All tests complied with standards established by Brazilian legislation and did not interfere in final product quality. Results showed that E. faecium was resistant to curing salt and sodium chloride, maintaining its viability during ripening and conferring beneficial effects on fermented sausage technological characteristics. E. faecium also proved to be in vitro resistant to simulate passage through the human digestive tract. Fermented sausage containing E. faecium had better sensory acceptance than commercial sausage evaluated.

  11. Estimation of the POD function and the LOD of a qualitative microbiological measurement method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilrich, Cordula; Wilrich, Peter-Theodor

    2009-01-01

    Qualitative microbiological measurement methods in which the measurement results are either 0 (microorganism not detected) or 1 (microorganism detected) are discussed. The performance of such a measurement method is described by its probability of detection as a function of the contamination (CFU/g or CFU/mL) of the test material, or by the LOD(p), i.e., the contamination that is detected (measurement result 1) with a specified probability p. A complementary log-log model was used to statistically estimate these performance characteristics. An intralaboratory experiment for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes in various food matrixes illustrates the method. The estimate of LOD50% is compared with the Spearman-Kaerber method.

  12. A review of the current state of digital plate reading of cultures in clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Daniel D; Novak, Susan M; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2015-01-01

    Digital plate reading (DPR) is increasingly being adopted as a means to facilitate the analysis and improve the quality and efficiency within the clinical microbiology laboratory. This review discusses the role of DPR in the context of total laboratory automation and explores some of the platforms currently available or in development for digital image capturing of microbial growth on media. The review focuses on the advantages and challenges of DPR. Peer-reviewed studies describing the utility and quality of these novel DPR systems are largely lacking, and professional guidelines for DPR implementation and quality management are needed. Further development and more widespread adoption of DPR is anticipated.

  13. Rapid method for direct identification of bacteria in urine and blood culture samples by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: intact cell vs. extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L; Sánchez-Juanes, F; Muñoz-Bellido, J L; González-Buitrago, J M

    2011-07-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) is a fast and reliable technology for the identification of microorganisms with proteomics approaches. Here, we compare an intact cell method and a protein extraction method before application on the MALDI plate for the direct identification of microorganisms in both urine and blood culture samples from clinical microbiology laboratories. The results show that the intact cell method provides excellent results for urine and is a good initial method for blood cultures. The extraction method complements the intact cell method, improving microorganism identification from blood culture. Thus, we consider that MALDI-TOF MS performed directly on urine and blood culture samples, with the protocols that we propose, is a suitable technique for microorganism identification, as compared with the routine methods used in the clinical microbiology laboratory. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2010 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  14. Effect of different packaging methods and storage temperature on microbiological and physicochemical quality characteristics of meatball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, I; Demirci, M

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this research was to determine physicochemical changes and microbiological quality of the different packaged meatball samples. Meatball samples in polystyrene tray were closed with polyethylene film (PS packs), vacuumed and modified atmosphere packaged, (MAP) (65% N(2), 35% CO(2)), and held under refrigerated display (4 °C) for 8, 16 and 16 days for PS packs, vacuum and MAP, respectively. Microbial load, free fatty acids and thiobarbituric acid values of the samples tended to increase with storage time. Bacteria counts of the raw meatball samples increased 2 log cycles at the end of storage compared with initial values. Meatball samples can be stored without any microbiological problem for 7 days at 4 °C. Results from this study suggested that shelf-life assigned to modified-MAP and vacuum-packed meatballs may be appropriate. Meatball samples underwent physical deformation when they were packed before vacuum process. With these negative factors considered, MAP is superior to other two packs methods.

  15. Microbiology of liver abscesses and the predictive value of abscess gram stain and associated blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemaly, Roy F; Hall, Gerri S; Keys, Thomas F; Procop, Gary W

    2003-08-01

    Although rare, pyogenic liver abscesses are potentially fatal. We evaluated the predictive value of Gram stain of liver abscess aspirates and temporally associated blood cultures. Gram stains detected bacteria in 79% of the liver abscesses tested. The sensitivity and specificity of Gram stain of the liver abscesses were 90% and 100% for Gram-positive cocci (GPC) and 52% and 94% for Gram-negative bacilli (GNB). The sensitivities of the blood cultures for any GPC and GNB present in the liver abscess were 30% and 39%, respectively. Although, Gram stains and blood cultures offer incomplete detection of the microbial contents of pyogenic liver abscesses, both tests should always accompany liver abscess cultures.

  16. NordVal: A Nordic system for validation of alternative microbiological methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Sven

    2007-01-01

    NordVal was created in 1999 by the Nordic Committee of Senior Officials for Food Issues under the Nordic Council of Ministers. The Committee adopted the following objective for NordVal: NordVal evaluates the performance and field of application of alternative microbiological methods. This includes...... analyses of food, water, feed, animal faeces and food environmental samples in the Nordic countries. NordVal is managed by a steering group, which is appointed by the National Food Administrations in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The background for creation of NordVal was a Danish...... validation system (DanVal) established in 1995 to cope with a need to validate alternative methods to be used in the Danish Salmonella Action Program. The program attracted considerable attention in the other Nordic countries. NordVal has elaborated a number of documents, which describe the requirements...

  17. The impact of cooling methods on microbiological quality of broiler carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Popelka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare two chilling methods, combined (aerosol and water chilling, in terms of their effectiveness in chilling of different weight categories of broiler chickens. At the same time microbial associations of different weight categories of broiler chickens were evaluated. Samples were collected in an approved establishment and poultry carcasses were divided according to weight and chilling methods into five categories. The first four categories were chilled using combined chilling method and fifth category was chilled with water. The temperature of the breast muscle before and after chilling and microbiological parameters (total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae, Salmonella was measured. By comparing the temperature of the breast muscle after combined chilling method was not achieved in the breast muscles temperature below 4 °C in all weight categories. In any case, the lowest average temperature has been reached in the weight category <1.2 kg (4.9 °C and with increasing weight, the average temperature was rising, and the highest was in weight category 1.8 to 2.5 kg (10.8 °C. Poultry carcasses were subsequently divided into portions and after cutting were chilled up to a temperature below 4 °C. In poultry carcasses chilled by water, the average temperature of the breast muscle after 20 minutes in the water bath was even higher (19.6 °C compared to combine chilling. Thus chilled poultry carcasses were frozen up to -18 °C in a core of muscles. Comparing the microbiological contamination in different weight categories and chilling techniques, we found that the lowest total viable count (TVC before and after chilling was in the lowest category and the difference before chilling was significantly lower comparing with all other categories. Conversely TVC after chilling by water was decreased. In comparing the number of Enterobacteriaceae before and after chilling, a similar pattern of contamination as above was found

  18. Studies on Microbiological and Biological Methods for Detection of Irradiated Food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to evaluate a microbiological and biological methods used for the detection of irradiated foods in Egypt. The microbiological methods included were shift in microflora load and direct epifluroescent filter technique compared with aerobic plate count (DEFT/APC), while the biological method was DNA comet assay. The selected foods were black, strawberry, fresh-and frozen-de boned chicken. The samples of these foods were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation according to the purpose of irradiation for each food. The results indicated that the characteristics of microbial population of all irradiated samples have been changed. The very lower count of viable bacterial count (APC) and mold and yeasts counts in the samples than the reported normal count as well as the absence of Gram- negative bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae group from these samples could be used as an indication for radiation treatment of these foods. The large difference between microbial counts obtained by DEFT test and that obtained by APC test could also be used for screening radiation treatment of these foods. Photographic and image analysis of DNA comet assay showed that irradiation of these foods caused damage to the food cells DNA (fragmentation) at different levels according to the doses used and kind of foods. This DNA damage can be followed or described by DNA comet assay test. On the basis of comet assay, the discrimination between unirradiated and irradiated food samples was very possible. In general the results showed that DEFT/APC method had the potential to detect irradiated food samples either at zero time of storage or throughout the storage period post- irradiation. DNA comet assay as a rapid, simple and inexpensive screening test approved to be successful for detection of irradiated food samples under investigation. Determination of rough applied irradiation dose is possible if photographic analysis is combined with image analysis

  19. Methods for safety culture improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivintsev, Yu.V.

    1998-01-01

    New IAEA publication concerning the problems of safety assurance covering different aspects beginning from terminology applied and up to concrete examples of well and poor safety culture development at nuclear facilities is discussed. The safety culture is defined as such set of characteristics and specific activities of institutions and individual persons which states that safety problems of a nuclear facility are given the attention determined by their importance as being of highest priority. The statements of the new document have recommended, not mandatory character. It is emphasized that the process of safety culture improvement at nuclear facilities should be integral component of management procedure, not a bolt on extra

  20. Comparing different methods for fast screening of microbiological quality of beach sand aimed at rapid-response remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testolin, Renan C; Almeida, Tito C M; Polette, Marcus; Branco, Joaquim O; Fischer, Larissa L; Niero, Guilherme; Poyer-Radetski, Gabriel; Silva, Valéria C; Somensi, Cleder A; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Corrêa, Rogério; Rörig, Leonardo R; Itokazu, Ana Gabriela; Férard, Jean-François; Cotelle, Sylvie; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2017-05-15

    There is scientific evidence that beach sands are a significant contributor to the pathogen load to which visitors are exposed. To develop beach quality guidelines all beach zones must be included in microbiological evaluations, but monitoring methods for beach sand quality are relatively longstanding, expensive, laborious and require moderate laboratory infrastructure. This paper aimed to evaluate the microorganism activity in different beach zones applying and comparing a classical method of membrane filtration (MF) with two colorimetric screening methods based on fluorescein (FDA) and tetrazolium (TTC) salt biotransformation to evaluate a new rapid and low-cost method for beach sand microbiological contamination assessments. The colorimetric results can help beach managers to evaluate rapidly and at low cost the microbiological quality of different beach zones in order to decide whether remedial actions need to be adopted to prevent exposure of the public to microbes due to beach sand and/or water contamination. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of silage-fed biogas process performance using microbiological and kinetic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Aa

    1996-10-01

    In this study, different kinetic and microbiological methods were used to evaluate the growth and activity of key groups of bacteria degrading ley silage in one-phase and two-phase biogas processes. Emphasis was placed on studying the dynamic behaviour of different trophic groups resulting from the initiation of liquid recirculation in the processes. The microbiological methods included microscopy and most probable number (MPN) counts with different substrates. The kinetic methods included measurements of specific methanogenic activity (SMA) with acetate and H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} as substrates, batch assays with trace element additions and measurement of conversion rates of mannitol and lactate in the digesters. In general, the initiation of liquid recirculation at first promoted the growth and/or activity of several trophic groups of bacteria, such as butyrate and propionate degraders and acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens in the liquefaction/acidogenesis reactors of the two-phase processes. This was probably mainly due to the increased pH. However, after some time of liquid recirculation, an inhibition of some bacterial groups occurred, such as propionate degraders and methanogens in the methanogenic reactors of two-phase processes. This was probably due to increased concentrations of salts and free ammonia. The batch assays proved to be valuable tools in process optimization by the addition of trace elements. Here, the addition of cobalt significantly increased methane production from acetate. In this study, a more comprehensive understanding of the process behaviour in response to the initiation of liquid recirculation was achieved which could not have been obtained by only monitoring routine parameters such as pH, methane production and concentrations of organic acids and salts. 120 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  2. Development of a multiplexer for an automatic data acquisition system for the control and monitoring of microbiological cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Rondon, A.; Paredes Puente, J.; Arana Alonso, S.

    2016-07-01

    An automatic data acquisition system has been developed for the control and monitoring of microbiological cultures. Turning an otherwise time-consuming process into a smooth one, by allowing the researcher to set the parameters at the beginning of the experiment and move on into the next task. The development of the hardware and software are key to achieving this system. The mux is custom-made with 22 channels, light weight therefore easy to move around the lab. Furthermore, the software allows the researcher to check the measurements in real-time. It is based on virtual instrumentation software therefore new features can be added easily, thus, the mux is capable of adapting to the scientist necessities. (Author)

  3. Predictive Food Microbiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre

    Listeria monocytogenes is a well-known food borne pathogen that potentially causes listeriosis. No outbreaks or cases of listeriosis have been associated with cottage cheese, but several confirmed cases and outbreaks in the EU and the US have been related to dairy products made from raw...... or pasteurised milk. This, in combination with the fact that cottage cheese support growth of Listeria monocytogenes, induces a documentation requirement on the food producer. In the EU regulatory framework, mathematical models are recognised as a suitable supplement to traditional microbiological methods....... The models can be used for documentation of compliance with microbiological criteria for Listeria monocytogenes under reasonably foreseeable conditions. Cottage cheese is a fresh, fermented dairy product. It consists of a fermented cheese curd mixed with a fresh or cultured cream dressing. The product...

  4. Quality tests of culture medium for microbiological analysis of drinkable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roncoroni, M.

    2000-01-01

    For each of the parameters considered, in accordance with the water's law standards concerning drinking water, they have compared various culture media produced by different manufacturers, in order to choose the products with best selectivity and quality. With this purpose, known microbial cultures (Atcc cultures specified in >) have been used at first, in order to verify the selectivity of soils and the type of growth related with the morphology of the colonies developed. Later, sowings of superficial water of Lake Como have been made, in which a mixed microbial population was present, in order to verify selectivity and possible interference in the execution of an analysis of a real sample [it

  5. Evaluation of Two Surface Sampling Methods for Microbiological and Chemical Analyses To Assess the Presence of Biofilms in Food Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Sharon; Huu, Son Nguyen; Heyndrickx, Marc; Weyenberg, Stephanie van; Steenackers, Hans; Verplaetse, Alex; Vackier, Thijs; Sampers, Imca; Raes, Katleen; Reu, Koen De

    2017-12-01

    Biofilms are an important source of contamination in food companies, yet the composition of biofilms in practice is still mostly unknown. The chemical and microbiological characterization of surface samples taken after cleaning and disinfection is very important to distinguish free-living bacteria from the attached bacteria in biofilms. In this study, sampling methods that are potentially useful for both chemical and microbiological analyses of surface samples were evaluated. In the manufacturing facilities of eight Belgian food companies, surfaces were sampled after cleaning and disinfection using two sampling methods: the scraper-flocked swab method and the sponge stick method. Microbiological and chemical analyses were performed on these samples to evaluate the suitability of the sampling methods for the quantification of extracellular polymeric substance components and microorganisms originating from biofilms in these facilities. The scraper-flocked swab method was most suitable for chemical analyses of the samples because the material in these swabs did not interfere with determination of the chemical components. For microbiological enumerations, the sponge stick method was slightly but not significantly more effective than the scraper-flocked swab method. In all but one of the facilities, at least 20% of the sampled surfaces had more than 10 2 CFU/100 cm 2 . Proteins were found in 20% of the chemically analyzed surface samples, and carbohydrates and uronic acids were found in 15 and 8% of the samples, respectively. When chemical and microbiological results were combined, 17% of the sampled surfaces were contaminated with both microorganisms and at least one of the analyzed chemical components; thus, these surfaces were characterized as carrying biofilm. Overall, microbiological contamination in the food industry is highly variable by food sector and even within a facility at various sampling points and sampling times.

  6. Microbiological corrosion of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladislavlev, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    Problems is considered of development of the microbiological corrosion of the NPP equipment. The main attention is paid to the selective character of microbiological corrosion in zones of welded joints of austenitic steels. It is noted that the presence of technological defects promotes growth of corrosional damages. Methods for microbiological corrosion protection are discussed

  7. Reduction of Clinical Culture Contamination in an Inpatient Medical Unit by Revisiting Microbiology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Bona; Irmler, Monica; Faselis, Charles; Liappis, Angelike P

    2016-10-01

    Clinical culture contaminations delay the correct diagnosis, result in repeat testing, and may extend the length of a hospital stay. A simple educational session reminding providers of the ubiquitous presence of bacteria on the skin and in our environment, led to a significant decrease in contaminated cultures (16.9% versus 10.9%, p = 0.03). J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(10):446-448. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Irradiation as an alternative environmentally friendly method for microbiological decontamination of herbal raw material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragusin, M.; Rotaru, R.

    2000-01-01

    Microbiological contamination of herbal raw materials is a serious problem in the production of therapeutical preparations. A good quality of the product, according to the pharmaceutical requirements may be achieved by applying suitable methods of decontamination. The decontamination treatments should be fast and effective against all microorganisms. It should ensure the decontamination of both packaging and the microorganisms present and must not reduce the sensory and technological qualities of the commodities. Decontamination of herbal raw materials by irradiation is a method by choice. It is because chemical methods are recognized recently as not safe to the consumer. Irradiation, in turn, is technically feasible, very effective and friendly enough to environment process. Under the prevailing production and handling conditions, most herbs contain a large number of microorganisms what is a serious problem in the production of therapeutical preparations. For several years the most widely used methods for decontamination of herbs was fumigation with ethylene oxide or methyl bromide. Both methods today banned in most countries. Irradiation is an alternative and safe method for effective reducing the microbial contamination of herbal raw materials. The following raw materials have been examined: Folium Cynara, Folium Plantago, Flos Chamomillae, Semen Sylibum Marianum and Folium Farfara. The content of biologically active compounds before and after irradiation of the raw materials did not change in a significant degree after irradiation. The dose of radiation for herbals raw materials was 10 kGy. There are two groups of raw materials: - The raw materials designed for preparing granulates, tablets, dragees, capsules, aqueous extracts, infusions, macerations and preparations for external use; - The raw materials assigned for preparing alcoholic preparations, isolated compounds, oil preparations and essential oils. The medical herbs and herbal raw materials before their

  9. Microbiological Method (DEFT/APC) For The Detection Of Irradiated Foods In Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, M.E.; Abo El-Nasr, A.; Abo El Nour, S.A.; Hammad, A.; Ibrahim, H.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The applicability of a microbiological screening method based on the comparison of the count obtained by the direct epi fluorescent filter technique (DEFT) with the count obtained by the conventional aerobic plate count (APC) for the detection of three kinds of irradiated foodstuffs (black pepper, strawberry, de-boned chicken meat) in Egypt was evaluated. The detection method was carried out immediately after irradiation and during subsequent storage. The results revealed that for irradiation doses of 5 kGy or higher, the DEFT/APC difference of around 2 log units or more could be a suitable criterion for judging black pepper samples as irradiated. DEFT/APC difference of around 2 log units or more could be used as a criterion for irradiation processing of strawberry at dose level of 2 kGy or higher. The DEFT/APC difference of around 2.5 log units or more could be indicated that fresh and frozen de-boned chicken meat samples had been irradiated at least at 3 and 6 kGy or higher, respectively. In general, the results showed that this method had the potential to detect irradiated food samples either immediately after irradiation or throughout the storage period.

  10. The Method of Culture Contrast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine; Trentemøller, Stine; Motzkau, Johanna

    2009-01-01

    -cultural research can be argued to rest on what has been called implicit comparisons (Nader 1994) of such categorisations. We assume that research of local activities, such as schooling and higher education, is influenced by the researcher's emic and etic categorisations. To get beyond the risk of reproducing...... and surprising challenges of the researcher's emic categorisations. We illustrate the case with examples of different understandings of three terms, hierarchy, family, and sexual harassment, in the Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map (UPGEM) project....

  11. A comparative evaluation of Oratest with the microbiological method of assessing caries activity in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Meenakshi; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Ramalingam, Krishnakumar; Reddy, Venugopal; Rao, Arun Prasad; Mathian, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study is to find out whether Oratest can be used as a diagnostic tool in assessing the caries activity by evaluating its relationship to the existing caries status and the salivary streptococcus mutans level. Materials and Methods: The study sample consists of 90 students divided into two groups. Group I (test group) and Group II (control group) consisting of 30 children for control group and 60 children for test group. The sampling of unstimulated saliva for the estimation of streptococcus mutans was done as per the method suggested by Kohler and Bratthall. The plates were then incubated. Rough surface colonies were identified as streptococcus mutans on a pre-determined area of the tip (approximately 1.5 cm2) were counted for each side of spatula pressed against mitis salivarius bacitracin agar using digital colony counter. The results were expressed in colony forming units (CFU). Oratest was carried out in the same patients after the collection of salivary sample for the microbiological method to evaluate the relationship between the two tests. Statistical Analysis Used: The tests used were ANOVA, Pearson Chi-square test, Pearson′s correlation analysis, Mann-Whitney U test and Student′s independent t-test. Results: In the control group and test group, when the streptococcus mutans count (CFU) and Oratest time (minutes) were correlated using Pearson′s correlation analysis, the streptococcus mutans counts was found to be in a statistically significant negative linear relationship with the Oratest time. When the caries status of the children, participated in the test group were correlated with mutans count (CFU) and Oratest time, caries status were found to be in a statistically significant positive linear relationship with streptococcus mutans count and in a significant negative linear relationship with Oratest time. Conclusions: The test proved to be a simple, inexpensive and rapid technique for assessing caries activity since a

  12. Impact of serology and molecular methods on improving the microbiologic diagnosis of infective endocarditis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kholy, Amany Aly; El-Rachidi, Nevine Gamal El-din; El-Enany, Mervat Gaber; AbdulRahman, Eiman Mohammed; Mohamed, Reem Mostafa; Rizk, Hussien Hasan

    2015-10-01

    Conventional diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE) is based mainly on culture-dependent methods that may fail because of antibiotic therapy or fastidious microorganisms. We aimed to evaluate the added values of serological and molecular methods for diagnosis of infective endocarditis. One hundred and fifty-six cases of suspected endocarditis were enrolled in the study. For each patient, three sets of blood culture were withdrawn and serum sample was collected for Brucella, Bartonella and Coxiella burnetii antibody testing. Galactomannan antigen was added if fungal endocarditis was suspected. Broad range PCR targeting bacterial and fungal pathogens were done on blood culture bottles followed by sequencing. Culture and molecular studies were done on excised valve tissue when available. One hundred and thirty-two cases were diagnosed as definite IE. Causative organisms were detected by blood cultures in 40 (30.3 %) of cases. Blood culture-negative endocarditis (BCNE) represented 69.7 %. Of these cases, PCR followed by sequencing on blood and valvular tissue could diagnose five cases of Aspergillus flavus. Eleven patients with BCNE (8.3 %) were diagnosed as zoonotic endocarditis by serology and PCR including five cases of Brucella spp, four cases of Bartonella spp and two cases of Coxiella burnetii. PCR detected three cases of Brucella spp and two cases of Bartonella spp, while cases of Coxiella burnetii were PCR negative. The results of all diagnostic tools decreased the percentage of non-identified cases of BCNE from 69.7 to 49.2 %. Our data underline the role of serologic and molecular tools for the diagnosis of blood culture-negative endocarditis.

  13. Individuality, phenotypic differentiation, dormancy and ‘persistence’ in culturable bacterial systems: commonalities shared by environmental, laboratory, and clinical microbiology [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Kell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For bacteria, replication mainly involves growth by binary fission. However, in a very great many natural environments there are examples of phenotypically dormant, non-growing cells that do not replicate immediately and that are phenotypically ‘nonculturable’ on media that normally admit their growth. They thereby evade detection by conventional culture-based methods. Such dormant cells may also be observed in laboratory cultures and in clinical microbiology. They are usually more tolerant to stresses such as antibiotics, and in clinical microbiology they are typically referred to as ‘persisters’. Bacterial cultures necessarily share a great deal of relatedness, and inclusive fitness theory implies that there are conceptual evolutionary advantages in trading a variation in growth rate against its mean, equivalent to hedging one’s bets. There is much evidence that bacteria exploit this strategy widely. We here bring together data that show the commonality of these phenomena across environmental, laboratory and clinical microbiology. Considerable evidence, using methods similar to those common in environmental microbiology, now suggests that many supposedly non-communicable, chronic and inflammatory diseases are exacerbated (if not indeed largely caused by the presence of dormant or persistent bacteria (the ability of whose components to cause inflammation is well known. This dormancy (and resuscitation therefrom often reflects the extent of the availability of free iron. Together, these phenomena can provide a ready explanation for the continuing inflammation common to such chronic diseases and its correlation with iron dysregulation. This implies that measures designed to assess and to inhibit or remove such organisms (or their access to iron might be of much therapeutic benefit.

  14. Comparison of the Lysis Centrifugation Method with the Conventional Blood Culture Method in Cases of Sepsis in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Parikh, Harshal R; De, Anuradha S; Baveja, Sujata M

    2012-01-01

    Introduction : Physicians and microbiologists have long recognized that the presence of living microorganisms in the blood of a patient carries with it considerable morbidity and mortality. Hence, blood cultures have become critically important and frequently performed test in clinical microbiology laboratories for diagnosis of sepsis. Objectives: To compare the conventional blood culture method with the lysis centrifugation method in cases of sepsis. Materials and Methods: Two hundred ...

  15. Validation and measurement uncertainty estimation in food microbiology: differences between quantitative and qualitative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Režić Dereani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to describe quality control procedures, procedures for validation and measurement uncertainty (MU determination as an important element of quality assurance in food microbiology laboratory for qualitative and quantitative type of analysis. Accreditation is conducted according to the standard ISO 17025:2007. General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories, which guarantees the compliance with standard operating procedures and the technical competence of the staff involved in the tests, recently are widely introduced in food microbiology laboratories in Croatia. In addition to quality manual introduction, and a lot of general documents, some of the most demanding procedures in routine microbiology laboratories are measurement uncertainty (MU procedures and validation experiment design establishment. Those procedures are not standardized yet even at international level, and they require practical microbiological knowledge, altogether with statistical competence. Differences between validation experiments design for quantitative and qualitative food microbiology analysis are discussed in this research, and practical solutions are shortly described. MU for quantitative determinations is more demanding issue than qualitative MU calculation. MU calculations are based on external proficiency testing data and internal validation data. In this paper, practical schematic descriptions for both procedures are shown.

  16. Identification of bacteria on the surface of clinically infected and non-infected prosthetic hip joints removed during revision arthroplasties by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and by microbiological culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Kate E; Riggio, Marcello P; Lennon, Alan; Hannah, Victoria E; Ramage, Gordon; Allan, David; Bagg, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    It has been postulated that bacteria attached to the surface of prosthetic hip joints can cause localised inflammation, resulting in failure of the replacement joint. However, diagnosis of infection is difficult with traditional microbiological culture methods, and evidence exists that highly fastidious or non-cultivable organisms have a role in implant infections. The purpose of this study was to use culture and culture-independent methods to detect the bacteria present on the surface of prosthetic hip joints removed during revision arthroplasties. Ten consecutive revisions were performed by two surgeons, which were all clinically and radiologically loose. Five of the hip replacement revision surgeries were performed because of clinical infections and five because of aseptic loosening. Preoperative and perioperative specimens were obtained from each patient and subjected to routine microbiological culture. The prostheses removed from each patient were subjected to mild ultrasonication to dislodge adherent bacteria, followed by aerobic and anaerobic microbiological culture. Bacterial DNA was extracted from each sonicate and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified with the universal primer pair 27f/1387r. All 10 specimens were positive for the presence of bacteria by both culture and PCR. PCR products were then cloned, organised into groups by RFLP analysis and one clone from each group was sequenced. Bacteria were identified by comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained with those deposited in public access sequence databases. A total of 512 clones were analysed by RFLP analysis, of which 118 were sequenced. Culture methods identified species from the genera Leifsonia (54.3%), Staphylococcus (21.7%), Proteus (8.7%), Brevundimonas (6.5%), Salibacillus (4.3%), Methylobacterium (2.2%) and Zimmermannella (2.2%). Molecular detection methods identified a more diverse microflora. The predominant genus detected was Lysobacter, representing 312 (60.9%) of 512 clones

  17. Microbiological method for exploitation of oil deposits with a high mineralization of interstitial waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senyukov, V M; Yulbarisov, E M; Taldykina, N N; Shishenina, E P

    1970-07-01

    A literature review is made of microbiological processes suitable for secondary oil recovery. On the basis of literature data, basic experiments were conducted in the Arlansk field. This field has viscous oil, highly mineralized connate water (rho = 1.18) and permeability above 1,000 md. A mixture of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria with nutrient was injected through one well, then 650 cu m of fresh water was injected. Mineralogical and bacteriological analyses were made of produced fluids in nearby wells. Both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were found in produced fluids, 600 m from the injection wells. On the basis of this result, it was concluded that microbiological processes can be used to increase secondary recovery of oil. However, no oil recovery data are presented. (10 refs.)

  18. Evaluation of the HB&L System for the Microbiological Screening of Storage Medium for Organ-Cultured Corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camposampiero, D; Grandesso, S; Zanetti, E; Mazzucato, S; Solinas, M; Parekh, M; Frigo, A C; Gion, M; Ponzin, D

    2013-01-01

    Aims. To compare HB&L and BACTEC systems for detecting the microorganisms contaminating the corneal storage liquid preserved at 31°C. Methods. Human donor corneas were stored at 4°C followed by preservation at 31°C. Samples of the storage medium were inoculated in BACTEC Peds Plus/F (aerobic microorganisms), BACTEC Plus Anaerobic/F (anaerobic microorganisms), and HB&L bottles. The tests were performed (a) after six days of storage, (b) end of storage, and (c) after 24 hours of preservation in deturgescent liquid sequentially. 10,655 storage and deturgescent media samples were subjected to microbiological control using BACTEC (6-day incubation) and HB&L (24-hour incubation) systems simultaneously. BACTEC positive/negative refers to both/either aerobic and anaerobic positives/negatives, whereas HB&L can only detect the aerobic microbes, and therefore the positives/negatives depend on the presence/absence of aerobic microorganisms. Results. 147 (1.38%) samples were identified positive with at least one of the two methods. 127 samples (134 identified microorganisms) were positive with both HB&L and BACTEC. 14 HB&L+/BACTEC- and 6 BACTEC+/HB&L- were identified. Sensitivity (95.5%), specificity (99.8%), and positive (90.1%) and negative predictive values (99.9%) were high with HB&L considering a 3.5% annual contamination rate. Conclusion. HB&L is a rapid system for detecting microorganisms in corneal storage medium in addition to the existing methods.

  19. Introduction on microbiological and biological methods and their possible combination with other analytical techniques for the detection of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonardi, M.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation is a physical method of processing and preserving food. One of the main purposes of the application of this technology to food is to obtain specific biological effects on the treated foodstuff. Typical examples of these treatment effects are listed in the article. A whole range of techniques is at disposal of the analyst to assure the Quality Control (QC) of various foodstuffs. They are based on microbiological, organoleptical, chemical, biochemical, immunological and/or physical methods. In the case of irradiation preserved food the opinion of the writer is that very often only a combination of analytical methods can solve the problem of detection of irradiated foodstuffs and in particular in most cases this combination could be formed by a biological or microbiological method + a chemical or physical one. The meaning of these combination of techniques is manifold. Combining the advantages of a rapid screening method with those of a more refined, reliable, even if more time consuming one; offering the possibility to carry out the analysis for the control of irradiated foodstuffs to different kinds of food control laboratories, often equipped in a different way, are some of the most evident advantages. These methods are briefly explained. At present, none method seems promising for the quantitative determination of the irradiation dose. Moreover, some of the proposed methods can only give a good presumption of the irradiation treatment applied to particular foodstuffs. (18 refs)

  20. Standardization of methods for microbiological examination of sludges in the special outlook of disinfection by ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.; Charrel, J.; Blancard, A.

    1978-01-01

    Scattering and difficulties in the interpretation of data regarding the level of radiation doses required for inactivation of microorganisms encountered in waste water and sludge, is due, in great part, to the lack of precision in operational conditions and to the diversity in analytical methods. After reminding the importance of the main physical and chemical parameters characterizing the media and liable to change the radio sensitivity of present germs, authors review the different methods used in microbiology for isolation and counting of the most generally studied microorganisms in view of standardization. (Auth.)

  1. Role of commercial starter cultures on microbiological, physicochemical characteristics, volatile compounds and sensory properties of dry-cured foal sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Domínguez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effect of three commercial starter cultures on microbial counts, physicochemical changes, volatile profile and sensory characteristics of dry-cured foal sausage. Methods: Microbial counts (lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, total viable counts and yeast, proximate parameters (moisture, fat and protein, colour analysis, texture analysis (texture profile analysis test, volatile compounds (solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometer technique and sensory analysis were evaluated in the drycured foal sausages using the standard food analysis techniques. Results: The results revealed that the use of starter cultures increased the number of lactic acid bacteria and total viable counts, while completely reduced Enterobacteriaceae count. Started sausages presented the lowest value of pH, while CX and FL batches had the highest protein amount. In contrast, the use of starter cultures did not affect the other physicochemical parameters. According to volatile profile, there were no differences between batches in total volatile compounds, however, control batch presented the highest amount of aldehydes, derived from lipid oxidation. The sensory analysis showed low differences. Control batch presented higher flavour intensity and lower acid taste score and black pepper odour than inoculated batches. Conclusions: As a general conclusion, the use of starter cultures contributed to improve the hygienic quality with low impact in physicochemical and sensory properties.

  2. Quantifying Listeria monocytogenes prevalence and concentration in minced pork meat and estimating performance of three culture media from presence/absence microbiological testing using a deterministic and stochastic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andritsos, Nikolaos D; Mataragas, Marios; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Drosinos, Eleftherios H

    2013-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes poses a serious threat to public health, and the majority of cases of human listeriosis are associated with contaminated food. Reliable microbiological testing is needed for effective pathogen control by food industry and competent authorities. The aims of this work were to estimate the prevalence and concentration of L. monocytogenes in minced pork meat by the application of a Bayesian modeling approach, and also to determine the performance of three culture media commonly used for detecting L. monocytogenes in foods from a deterministic and stochastic perspective. Samples (n = 100) collected from local markets were tested for L. monocytogenes using in parallel the PALCAM, ALOA and RAPID'L.mono selective media according to ISO 11290-1:1996 and 11290-2:1998 methods. Presence of the pathogen was confirmed by conducting biochemical and molecular tests. Independent experiments (n = 10) for model validation purposes were performed. Performance attributes were calculated from the presence-absence microbiological test results by combining the results obtained from the culture media and confirmative tests. Dirichlet distribution, the multivariate expression of a Beta distribution, was used to analyze the performance data from a stochastic perspective. No L. monocytogenes was enumerated by direct-plating (media were best at ruling in L. monocytogenes presence than ruling it out. Sensitivity and specificity varied depending on the culture-dependent method. None of the culture media was perfect in detecting L. monocytogenes in minced pork meat alone. The use of at least two culture media in parallel enhanced the efficiency of L. monocytogenes detection. Bayesian modeling may reduce the time needed to draw conclusions regarding L. monocytogenes presence and the uncertainty of the results obtained. Furthermore, the problem of observing zero counts may be overcome by applying Bayesian analysis, making the determination of a test performance feasible

  3. Clinical Microbiology Laboratories' Adoption of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests Is a Threat to Foodborne-Disease Surveillance in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Shari; Kubota, Kristy A; Maguire, Hugh; Gladbach, Stephen; Woron, Amy; Atkinson-Dunn, Robyn; Couturier, Marc Roger; Miller, Melissa B

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONIn November 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sent a letter to state and territorial epidemiologists, state and territorial public health laboratory directors, and state and territorial health officials. In this letter, culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) for detection of enteric pathogens were characterized as "a serious and current threat to public health surveillance, particularly for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella" The document says CDC and its public health partners are approaching this issue, in part, by "reviewing regulatory authority in public health agencies to require culture isolates or specimen submission if CIDTs are used." Large-scale foodborne outbreaks are a continuing threat to public health, and tracking these outbreaks is an important tool in shortening them and developing strategies to prevent them. It is clear that the use of CIDTs for enteric pathogen detection, including both antigen detection and multiplex nucleic acid amplification techniques, is becoming more widespread. Furthermore, some clinical microbiology laboratories will resist the mandate to require submission of culture isolates, since it will likely not improve patient outcomes but may add significant costs. Specimen submission would be less expensive and time-consuming for clinical laboratories; however, this approach would be burdensome for public health laboratories, since those laboratories would need to perform culture isolation prior to typing. Shari Shea and Kristy Kubota from the Association of Public Health Laboratories, along with state public health laboratory officials from Colorado, Missouri, Tennessee, and Utah, will explain the public health laboratories' perspective on why having access to isolates of enteric pathogens is essential for public health surveillance, detection, and tracking of outbreaks and offer potential workable solutions which will allow them to do this. Marc Couturier of

  4. [METHOD OF INCREASING MICROBIOLOGICAL PURITY OF POWDER FROM COCOA-VELLA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magomedov, G O; Cheremushkina, L V; Plotnikova, I V

    2015-01-01

    In the article there is described in detail the characteristic of the product of processing cocoa beans--cocoa-vella, there is presented a comparative analysis of the chemical composition, quality indices, the dispersive pattern, microbiological indices of the powder from the cocoa-vella in comparison to cocoa powder, obtained by traditional technology from the core of the cocoa beans. To improve the microbiological purity of the powder from the cocoa-vella there was suggested to be the modern and environmentally safe manner for the preparation of the powder The use of cocoa-vella disinfecting power by means of the electromagnetic field of ultrahigh frequency (RF EMF) was established to allow to obtain a product that meets the requirements of Technical Regulations of the Customs Union (TRCU 021/2011) on Food Safety. This work is of practical interest, since it helps to improve the safety of the powder from the cocoa-vella, and thus the quality of confectionery and food products based on it, which is relevant in terms of the management of a healthy diet.

  5. Microbiology of Fresh Produce: Route of Contamination, Detection Methods, and Remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajwar, Asmita; Srivastava, Pragati; Sahgal, Manvika

    2016-10-25

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are an important part of a healthful diet. They provide vitamins, minerals and fiber to help keep our body healthy. Occasionally, fresh fruits and vegetables can become contaminated with harmful bacteria or viruses, which are also known as pathogens. The major family of pathogen associated with food are members of Enterobacteriaceae which commonly form a part of microbiological criteria and their presence is traditionally related to hygiene and safety of foods. Organic fertilizers, irrigation water quality and soil are major source of contamination. For removal of pathogens, various decontamination procedures are also followed to reduce microbial load on the fruits. These are chemical preservatives and irradiation. Microbiological study of fresh produce can be done by various phenotypic, biochemical and molecular techniques so that pathogen can properly be identified. The World Health Organization (WHO) developed global risk communication message and training materials to assist countries in strengthening their food educating programs. There is a need for improved surveillance systems on food-borne pathogens, on food products and on outbreaks so that comparable data are available from a wider range of countries.

  6. Application of chemometric methods for assessment and modelling of microbiological quality data concerning coastal bathing water in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agelos Papaioannou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Worldwide, the aim of managing water is to safeguard human health whilst maintaining sustainable aquatic and associated terrestrial, ecosystems. Because human enteric viruses are the most likely pathogens responsible for waterborne diseases from recreational water use, but detection methods are complex and costly for routine monitoring, it is of great interest to determine the quality of coastal bathing water with a minimum cost and maximum safety. Design and methods. This study handles the assessment and modelling of the microbiological quality data of 2149 seawater bathing areas in Greece over 10-year period (1997-2006 by chemometric methods. Results. Cluster analysis results indicated that the studied bathing beaches are classified in accordance with the seasonality in three groups. Factor analysis was applied to investigate possible determining factors in the groups resulted from the cluster analysis, and also two new parameters were created in each group; VF1 includes E. coli, faecal coliforms and total coliforms and VF2 includes faecal streptococci/enterococci. By applying the cluster analysis in each seasonal group, three new groups of coasts were generated, group A (ultraclean, group B (clean and group C (contaminated. Conclusions. The above analysis is confirmed by the application of discriminant analysis, and proves that chemometric methods are useful tools for assessment and modeling microbiological quality data of coastal bathing water on a large scale, and thus could attribute to effective and economical monitoring of the quality of coastal bathing water in a country with a big number of bathing coasts, like Greece.

  7. THREATS/RISKS IN POULTRY FARMS: MICROBIOLOGICAL CONTAMINANTS, DUST, ODOURS AND BIOLOGICAL METHOD FOR ELIMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Matusiak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbiological contamination, odour and dust concentration in poultry farms. In addition, the effectiveness of biopreparation and Yucca schidigera plant extract in manure hygienisation and selected odorous compounds removal was determined. The airborne total dust concentration at poultry production premises averaged 1.44 mg/m3 with a high percentage of the PM10 fraction. High number of bacteria and fungi at 106-1010 CFU / g. was determined in both poultry manure and settled dust. Poultry farm’s air limits of the bacteria and fungi number have not been exceeded. Reported concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 fractions were 18-20 times higher than acceptable for a 24-hour exposure determined by the World Health Organization. Volatile odorous compounds dominant in poultry farms were: ammonia, acrolein, methyl amine, acetic acid, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde. The concentrations are variable depending on the farm type and stage of the cycle production. The permissible concentration/ exposure limits of ammonia in the air has been exceeded in the laying hens farms I and II, while the concentration of carbon dioxide exceeded the limit value in the third stage of the cycle production on broiler farm III and was close to the limit for laying hens farm I. The maximum cytotoxicity of odorous compounds mixture tested on chick liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line LMH was 45.7%. It was confirmed by cells morphologic changes after the odorous compounds treatment (ammonia, di-, and trimethylamine. Mineral-microbial biopreparation with Yucca schidigera extract reduced the total number of microorganisms by 1 logarythmic unit in poultry manure and decreased concentration of odorous compounds by 37% - 70% depending on the compound. The use in sequence Y. schidigera extract, and then after 2 days biopreparation can be an effective way to reduce microbiological and odorous hazards on poultry farms.

  8. Next Generation Microbiology Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; Oubre, C. M.; Elliott, T. F.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    As humans continue to explore deep into space, microorganisms will travel with them. The primary means to mitigate the risk of infectious disease are a combination of prudent spacecraft design and rigorous operational controls. The effectiveness of these methods are evaluated by microbiological monitoring of spacecraft, food, water, and the crew that is performed preflight, in-flight, and post-flight. Current NASA requirements associated with microbiological monitoring are based on culture-based methodology where microorganisms are grown on a semi-solid growth medium and enumerated. Subsequent identification of the organisms requires specialized labor and large equipment, which historically has been performed on Earth. Requirements that rely strictly on culture-based units limit the use of non-culture based monitoring technology. Specifically, the culture-based "measurement criteria" are Colony Forming Units (CFU, representing the growth of one microorganism at a single location on the agar medium) per a given volume, area, or sample size. As the CFU unit by definition is culture-based, these requirements limit alternative technologies for spaceflight applications. As spaceflight missions such as those to Mars extend further into space, culture-based technology will become difficult to implement due to the (a) limited shelf life of the culture media, (b) mass/volume necessary to carry these consumables, and (c) problems associated with the production of biohazardous material in the habitable volume of the spacecraft. In addition, an extensive amount of new knowledge has been obtained during the Space Shuttle, NASA-Mir, and International Space Station Programs, which gave direction for new or modified microbial control requirements for vehicle design and mission operations. The goal of this task is to develop and recommend a new set of requirements for vehicle design and mission operations, including microbiological monitoring, based upon "lessons learned" and new

  9. Preservation of live cultures of basidiomycetes - Recent methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homolka, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 2 (2014), s. 107-125 ISSN 1878-6146 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/0709 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Fungi * Maintenance methods * Long-term preservation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.342, year: 2014

  10. Integration of DPC and clinical microbiological data in Japan reveals importance of confirming a negative follow-up blood culture in patients with MRSA bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Naoki; Yahara, Koji; Horita, Rie; Yano, Tomomi; Tashiro, Naotaka; Morii, Daiichi; Tsutsui, Atsuko; Yaita, Kenichiro; Shibayama, Keigo; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia is one of the commonest and most life-threatening of all infectious diseases. The morbidity and mortality rates associated with MRSA bacteremia are higher than those associated with bacteremia caused by other pathogens. A common guideline in MRSA bacteremia treatment is to confirm bacteremia clearance through additional blood cultures 2-4 days after initial positive cultures and as needed thereafter. However, no study has presented statistical evidence of how and to what extent confirming a negative follow-up blood culture impacts clinical outcome. We present this evidence for the first time, by combining clinical microbiological data of blood cultures and the DPC administrative claims database; both had been systematically accumulated through routine medical care in hospitals. We used electronic medical records to investigate the clinical background and infection source in detail. By analyzing data from a university hospital, we revealed how survival curves change when a negative follow-up blood culture is confirmed. We also demonstrated confirmation of a negative culture is significantly associated with clinical outcomes: there was a more than three-fold increase in mortality risk (after adjusting for clinical background) if a negative blood culture was not confirmed within 14 days of the initial positive blood culture. Although we used data from only one university hospital, our novel approach and results will be a basis for future studies in several hospitals in Japan to provide statistical evidence of the clinical importance of confirming a negative follow-up blood culture in bacteremia patients, including those with MRSA infections. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Design of a Tablet Computer App for Facilitation of a Molecular Blood Culture Test in Clinical Microbiology and Preliminary Usability Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Lasse L; Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Meltzer, Michelle C; Fuchs, Martin; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Hejlesen, Ole

    2016-03-18

    User mobility is an important aspect of the development of clinical information systems for health care professionals. Mobile phones and tablet computers have obtained widespread use by health care professionals, offering an opportunity for supporting the access to patient information through specialized applications (apps) while supporting the mobility of the users. The use of apps for mobile phones and tablet computers may support workflow of complex tasks, for example, molecular-based diagnostic tests in clinical microbiology. Multiplex Blood Culture Test (MuxBCT) is a molecular-based diagnostic test used for rapid identification of pathogens in positive blood cultures. To facilitate the workflow of the MuxBCT, a specialized tablet computer app was developed as an accessory to the diagnostic test. The app aims to reduce the complexity of the test by step-by-step guidance of microscopy and to assist users in reaching an exact bacterial or fungal diagnosis based on blood specimen observations and controls. Additionally, the app allows for entry of test results, and communication thereof to the laboratory information system (LIS). The objective of the study was to describe the design considerations of the MuxBCT app and the results of a preliminary usability evaluation. The MuxBCT tablet app was developed and set up for use in a clinical microbiology laboratory. A near-live simulation study was conducted in the clinical microbiology laboratory to evaluate the usability of the MuxBCT app. The study was designed to achieve a high degree of realism as participants carried out a scenario representing the context of use for the MuxBCT app. As the MuxBCT was under development, the scenario involved the use of molecular blood culture tests similar to the MuxBCT for identification of microorganisms from positive blood culture samples. The study participants were observed, and their interactions with the app were recorded. After the study, the participants were debriefed to

  12. Design of a tablet computer app for facilitation of a molecular blood culture test in clinical microbiology and preliminary usability evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Lasse L.; Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Meltzer, Michelle C.

    2016-01-01

    through specialized applications (apps) while supporting the mobility of the users. The use of apps for mobile phones and tablet computers may support workflow of complex tasks, for example, molecular-based diagnostic tests in clinical microbiology. Multiplex Blood Culture Test (MuxBCT) is a molecular......-based diagnostic test used for rapid identification of pathogens in positive blood cultures. To facilitate the workflow of the MuxBCT, a specialized tablet computer app was developed as an accessory to the diagnostic test. The app aims to reduce the complexity of the test by step-by-step guidance of microscopy...... and to assist users in reaching an exact bacterial or fungal diagnosis based on blood specimen observations and controls. Additionally, the app allows for entry of test results, and communication thereof to the laboratory information system (LIS). OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to describe the design...

  13. Food microbiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain); Moss, M. O; Adams, M. R

    2008-01-01

    ... is directed primarily at students of Microbiology, Food Science and related subjects up to Master's level and assumes some knowledge of basic microbiology. We have chosen not to burden the text with references to the primary literature in order to preserve what we hope is a reasonable narrative flow. Some suggestions for further reading for each chapter are included in Chapter 12. These are largely review articles and monographs which develop the overview provided and can also give access to...

  14. How Many Samples and How Many Culture Media To Diagnose a Prosthetic Joint Infection: a Clinical and Microbiological Prospective Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bémer, Pascale; Léger, Julie; Tandé, Didier; Plouzeau, Chloé; Valentin, Anne Sophie; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Lemarié, Carole; Kempf, Marie; Héry-Arnaud, Geneviève; Bret, Laurent; Juvin, Marie Emmanuelle; Giraudeau, Bruno; Corvec, Stéphane; Burucoa, Christophe

    2016-02-01

    Although numerous perioperative samples and culture media are required to diagnose prosthetic joint infection (PJI), their exact number and types have not yet been definitely determined with a high level of proof. We conducted a prospective multicenter study to determine the minimal number of samples and culture media required for accurate diagnosis of PJI. Over a 2-year period, consecutive patients with clinical signs suggesting PJI were included, with five perioperative samples per patient. The bacteriological and PJI diagnosis criteria were assessed using a random selection of two, three, or four samples and compared with those obtained using the recommended five samples (references guidelines). The results obtained with two or three culture media were then compared with those obtained with five culture media for both criteria. The times-to-positivity of the different culture media were calculated. PJI was confirmed in 215/264 suspected cases, with a bacteriological criterion in 192 (89%). The PJI was monomicrobial (85%) or polymicrobial (15%). Percentages of agreement of 98.1% and 99.7%, respectively, for the bacteriological criterion and confirmed PJI diagnosis were obtained when four perioperative samples were considered. The highest percentages of agreement were obtained with the association of three culture media, a blood culture bottle, a chocolate agar plate, and Schaedler broth, incubated for 5, 7, and 14 days, respectively. This new procedure leads to significant cost saving. Our prospective multicenter study showed that four samples seeded on three culture media are sufficient for diagnosing PJI. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Utility of PCR, Culture, and Antigen Detection Methods for Diagnosis of Legionellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Derrick J; Procop, Gary W; Vogel, Sherilynn; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda; Richter, Sandra S

    2015-11-01

    The goal of this retrospective study was to evaluate the performance of different diagnostic tests for Legionnaires' disease in a clinical setting where Legionella pneumophila PCR had been introduced. Electronic medical records at the Cleveland Clinic were searched for Legionella urinary antigen (UAG), culture, and PCR tests ordered from March 2010 through December 2013. For cases where two or more test methods were performed and at least one was positive, the medical record was reviewed for relevant clinical and epidemiologic factors. Excluding repeat testing on a given patient, 19,912 tests were ordered (12,569 UAG, 3,747 cultures, and 3,596 PCR) with 378 positive results. The positivity rate for each method was 0.4% for culture, 0.8% for PCR, and 2.7% for UAG. For 37 patients, at least two test methods were performed with at least one positive result: 10 (27%) cases were positive by all three methods, 16 (43%) were positive by two methods, and 11 (30%) were positive by one method only. For the 32 patients with medical records available, clinical presentation was consistent with proven or probable Legionella infection in 84% of the cases. For those cases, the sensitivities of culture, PCR, and UAG were 50%, 92%, and 96%, respectively. The specificities were 100% for culture and 99.9% for PCR and UAG. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Microbiological assay method for sulfate by means of cultivation of Escherichia coli B(H). II. Determination of sulfur contents in orange leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oba, H; Yamamoto, T; Iwamura, Y

    1975-01-01

    As one of the studies on the application of microbiological assay method for sulfate using E. coli B(H), determination of sulfur content in orange leaves was examined. Preparation of sample solution was as follows: dried orange leaves were subjected to combustion in the presence of Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ x 6H/sub 2/O as an oxidizing agent at 800/sup 0/ for 1 hr. The residue was dissolved in 3 n HCl, neutralized with 3 n KOH, and the solution was passed through a column of Amberlite IR-120 (H/sup +/ form). The effluent was used for the microbiological assay, and the results obtained were as follows: (1) it was possible to determine sulfur content in orange leaves by microbiological assay method using Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ x 6H/sub 2/O as an oxidizing agent; (2) this microbiological method gave small standard deviation (sigma = 3.8%) and accurate recovery (98.1-101.5%).; (3) this proposed microbiological method will make it possible to determine sulfur content in orange leaves with the amount of a sample less than that in the gravimetric method.

  17. Environmental microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briški, Felicita; Vuković Domanovac, Marija

    2017-10-01

    For most people, microorganisms are out of sight and therefore out of mind but they are large, extremely diverse group of organisms, they are everywhere and are the dominant form of life on planet Earth. Almost every surface is colonized by microorganisms, including our skin; however most of them are harmless to humans. Some microorganisms can live in boiling hot springs, whereas others form microbial communities in frozen sea ice. Among their many roles, microorganisms are necessary for biogeochemical cycling, soil fertility, decomposition of dead plants and animals and biodegradation of many complex organic compounds present in the environment. Environmental microbiology is concerned with the study of microorganisms in the soil, water and air and their application in bioremediation to reduce environmental pollution through the biological degradation of pollutants into non-toxic or less toxic substances. Field of environmental microbiology also covers the topics such as microbially induced biocorrosion, biodeterioration of constructing materials and microbiological quality of outdoor and indoor air.

  18. The use of paleo-imaging and microbiological testing in the analysis of antique cultural material: multislice tomography, and microbial analysis of the Trogir Cathedral cope hood depicting St. Martin and a beggar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavka, Mislav; Petaros, Anja; Kavur, Lovro; Skrlin, Jasenka; Mlinaric Missoni, Emilija; Jankovic, Ivor; Brkljacic, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Paleoradiology is the study of biological and other materials from archeological settings through the use of various medical imaging techniques. Although it is most often used in the scientific study of ancient human remains, it can also be used to study metals, ceramics, paper, and clothes. The aim of this study was to test two paleoimaging techniques (MSCT and mammography) in the analysis of an important Croatian liturgical vestment: the hood of a bishop's cope from St. Lawrence's Treasury in Trogir depicting St. Martin and a beggar. To ensure a safe environment for scientists participating in the analysis, a preliminary microbiological analysis was performed, which contributed to the database of microbiological flora found on Croatian archeological remains and relics studied to date. Due to a great amount of metal filaments, the paleoradiological analysis did not produce satisfactory results. However, a digitally enhanced image clearly showed fine metal embroidery of the hood that was not so easily perceived by naked eye. This article argues in favor of expanding paleoradiological studies on materials other than human remains and also of publishing unsatisfactory results, as important lessons for future development of techniques and methods to analyze ancient remains and seek answers about human historical and cultural heritage.

  19. Soil microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, D.C.; Legg, J.O.

    1984-01-01

    The major areas of soil microbiological and biochemical research which have involved both stable and radioactive isotopes are summarized. These include microbial decomposition of naturally occurring materials, microbial biomass, interactions of plants and microbes, denitrification, mineralization and immobilization of nitrogen and biological nitrogen fixation. (U.K.)

  20. Dental abscess: A microbiological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental abscess is a frequently occurring infectious process known to the health practice. The fate of the infection depends on the virulence of the bacteria, host resistance factors, and regional anatomy. Serious consequences arising from the spread of a dental abscess lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Acute dental abscess is polymicrobial, comprising of strict anaerobes, such as anaerobic cocci, Prevotella, Fusobacterium species, and facultative anaerobes, such as viridans group streptococci and the Streptococcus anginosus group. Numerous novel, uncultivable and fastidious organisms have been identified as potential pathogens with the use of non-culture techniques. The majority of localized dental abscesses respond to surgical treatment while the use of antimicrobials is limited to severe spreading infections. There is a need for good-quality clinical trials of sufficient size to identify the ideal treatment. The microbiology of the acute dentoalveolar abscess and its treatment in the light of improved culture and diagnostic methods are reviewed.

  1. Microbial Diversity of a Camembert-Type Cheese Using Freeze-Dried Tibetan Kefir Coculture as Starter Culture by Culture-Dependent and Culture-Independent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jun; Guo, Qizhen; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei

    2014-01-01

    The biochemical changes occurring during cheese ripening are directly and indirectly dependent on the microbial associations of starter cultures. Freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture was used as a starter culture in the Camembert-type cheese production for the first time. Therefore, it's necessary to elucidate the stability, organization and identification of the dominant microbiota presented in the cheese. Bacteria and yeasts were subjected to culture-dependent on selective media and culture-independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and sequencing of dominant bands to assess the microbial structure and dynamics through ripening. In further studies, kefir grains were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. A total of 147 bacteria and 129 yeasts were obtained from the cheese during ripening. Lactobacillus paracasei represents the most commonly identified lactic acid bacteria isolates, with 59 of a total of 147 isolates, followed by Lactococcus lactis (29 isolates). Meanwhile, Kazachstania servazzii (51 isolates) represented the mainly identified yeast isolate, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (40 isolates). However, some lactic acid bacteria detected by sequence analysis of DGGE bands were not recovered by plating. The yeast S. cerevisiae and K. servazzii are described for the first time with kefir starter culture. SEM showed that the microbiota were dominated by a variety of lactobacilli (long and curved) cells growing in close association with a few yeasts in the inner portion of the grain and the short lactobacilli were observed along with yeast cells on the exterior portion. Results indicated that conventional culture method and PCR-DGGE should be combined to describe in maximal detail the microbiological composition in the cheese during ripening. The data could help in the selection of appropriate commercial starters for Camembert-type cheese. PMID:25360757

  2. Microbial diversity of a Camembert-type cheese using freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture as starter culture by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Mei

    Full Text Available The biochemical changes occurring during cheese ripening are directly and indirectly dependent on the microbial associations of starter cultures. Freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture was used as a starter culture in the Camembert-type cheese production for the first time. Therefore, it's necessary to elucidate the stability, organization and identification of the dominant microbiota presented in the cheese. Bacteria and yeasts were subjected to culture-dependent on selective media and culture-independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis and sequencing of dominant bands to assess the microbial structure and dynamics through ripening. In further studies, kefir grains were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM methods. A total of 147 bacteria and 129 yeasts were obtained from the cheese during ripening. Lactobacillus paracasei represents the most commonly identified lactic acid bacteria isolates, with 59 of a total of 147 isolates, followed by Lactococcus lactis (29 isolates. Meanwhile, Kazachstania servazzii (51 isolates represented the mainly identified yeast isolate, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (40 isolates. However, some lactic acid bacteria detected by sequence analysis of DGGE bands were not recovered by plating. The yeast S. cerevisiae and K. servazzii are described for the first time with kefir starter culture. SEM showed that the microbiota were dominated by a variety of lactobacilli (long and curved cells growing in close association with a few yeasts in the inner portion of the grain and the short lactobacilli were observed along with yeast cells on the exterior portion. Results indicated that conventional culture method and PCR-DGGE should be combined to describe in maximal detail the microbiological composition in the cheese during ripening. The data could help in the selection of appropriate commercial starters for Camembert-type cheese.

  3. Microbial diversity of a Camembert-type cheese using freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture as starter culture by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jun; Guo, Qizhen; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei

    2014-01-01

    The biochemical changes occurring during cheese ripening are directly and indirectly dependent on the microbial associations of starter cultures. Freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture was used as a starter culture in the Camembert-type cheese production for the first time. Therefore, it's necessary to elucidate the stability, organization and identification of the dominant microbiota presented in the cheese. Bacteria and yeasts were subjected to culture-dependent on selective media and culture-independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and sequencing of dominant bands to assess the microbial structure and dynamics through ripening. In further studies, kefir grains were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. A total of 147 bacteria and 129 yeasts were obtained from the cheese during ripening. Lactobacillus paracasei represents the most commonly identified lactic acid bacteria isolates, with 59 of a total of 147 isolates, followed by Lactococcus lactis (29 isolates). Meanwhile, Kazachstania servazzii (51 isolates) represented the mainly identified yeast isolate, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (40 isolates). However, some lactic acid bacteria detected by sequence analysis of DGGE bands were not recovered by plating. The yeast S. cerevisiae and K. servazzii are described for the first time with kefir starter culture. SEM showed that the microbiota were dominated by a variety of lactobacilli (long and curved) cells growing in close association with a few yeasts in the inner portion of the grain and the short lactobacilli were observed along with yeast cells on the exterior portion. Results indicated that conventional culture method and PCR-DGGE should be combined to describe in maximal detail the microbiological composition in the cheese during ripening. The data could help in the selection of appropriate commercial starters for Camembert-type cheese.

  4. Microbiological and Physicochemical Characterization of Small-Scale Cocoa Fermentations and Screening of Yeast and Bacterial Strains To Develop a Defined Starter Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius de Melo; Miguel, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedrozo; Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations performed under bench- and pilot-scale conditions were studied using an integrated microbiological approach with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, as well as analyses of target metabolites from both cocoa pulp and cotyledons. Both fermentation ecosystems reached equilibrium through a two-phase process, starting with the simultaneous growth of the yeasts (with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the dominant species) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum were the dominant species), which were gradually replaced by the acetic acid bacteria (AAB) (Acetobacter tropicalis was the dominant species). In both processes, a sequence of substrate consumption (sucrose, glucose, fructose, and citric acid) and metabolite production kinetics (ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid) similar to that of previous, larger-scale fermentation experiments was observed. The technological potential of yeast, LAB, and AAB isolates was evaluated using a polyphasic study that included the measurement of stress-tolerant growth and fermentation kinetic parameters in cocoa pulp media. Overall, strains L. fermentum UFLA CHBE8.12 (citric acid fermenting, lactic acid producing, and tolerant to heat, acid, lactic acid, and ethanol), S. cerevisiae UFLA CHYC7.04 (ethanol producing and tolerant to acid, heat, and ethanol), and Acetobacter tropicalis UFLA CHBE16.01 (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid producing, and tolerant to acid, heat, acetic acid, and ethanol) were selected to form a cocktail starter culture that should lead to better-controlled and more-reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:22636007

  5. Effect of the use of curing salts and of a starter culture on the sensory and microbiological characteristics of homemade salamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Bittencourt Spricigo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Homemade salamis may have their food safety guaranteed by means of the addition of curing salt and starter cultures, without loosing their traditional manufacturing recipes brought to Brazil by the Italian immigration in the early 20th century. In this work, the influence of curing salt and of a starter culture, composed of Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus, over the sensory and microbiological characteristics of Italian type salamis, containing 3% lactose and 0.5% saccharose, was evaluated. The starter culture and the curing salt inhibited the development of Staphylococcus aureus and of coliforms, and the salamis added with curing salt presented better color attributes.Os salames produzidos artesanalmente podem ter sua segurança alimentar garantida pela adição de sal de cura e de culturas iniciadoras sem perda das receitas tradicionais trazidas pela imigração italiana do início do século vinte. Neste trabalho, a partir da produção de salames com 3% de lactose e 0,5% de sacarose, avaliou-se a influência do sal de cura e da cultura iniciadora, composta de Lactobacillus e Staphylococcus, sobre as características sensoriais e microbiológicas dos salames. A cultura iniciadora e o sal de cura inibiram o crescimento de Staphylococcus aureus e de coliformes totais, sendo que os salames adicionados de sal de cura apresentaram uma melhor coloração.

  6. Comparison of the lysis centrifugation method with the conventional blood culture method in cases of sepsis in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Harshal R; De, Anuradha S; Baveja, Sujata M

    2012-07-01

    Physicians and microbiologists have long recognized that the presence of living microorganisms in the blood of a patient carries with it considerable morbidity and mortality. Hence, blood cultures have become critically important and frequently performed test in clinical microbiology laboratories for diagnosis of sepsis. To compare the conventional blood culture method with the lysis centrifugation method in cases of sepsis. Two hundred nonduplicate blood cultures from cases of sepsis were analyzed using two blood culture methods concurrently for recovery of bacteria from patients diagnosed clinically with sepsis - the conventional blood culture method using trypticase soy broth and the lysis centrifugation method using saponin by centrifuging at 3000 g for 30 minutes. Overall bacteria recovered from 200 blood cultures were 17.5%. The conventional blood culture method had a higher yield of organisms, especially Gram positive cocci. The lysis centrifugation method was comparable with the former method with respect to Gram negative bacilli. The sensitivity of lysis centrifugation method in comparison to conventional blood culture method was 49.75% in this study, specificity was 98.21% and diagnostic accuracy was 89.5%. In almost every instance, the time required for detection of the growth was earlier by lysis centrifugation method, which was statistically significant. Contamination by lysis centrifugation was minimal, while that by conventional method was high. Time to growth by the lysis centrifugation method was highly significant (P value 0.000) as compared to time to growth by the conventional blood culture method. For the diagnosis of sepsis, combination of the lysis centrifugation method and the conventional blood culture method with trypticase soy broth or biphasic media is advocable, in order to achieve faster recovery and a better yield of microorganisms.

  7. Culture, Interface Design, and Design Methods for Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun-Pyo

    Aesthetic differences and similarities among cultures are obviously one of the very important issues in cultural design. However, ever since products became knowledge-supporting tools, the visible elements of products have become more universal so that the invisible parts of products such as interface and interaction are getting more important. Therefore, the cultural design should be extended to the invisible elements of culture like people's conceptual models beyond material and phenomenal culture. This chapter aims to explain how we address the invisible cultural elements in interface design and design methods by exploring the users' cognitive styles and communication patterns in different cultures. Regarding cultural interface design, we examined users' conceptual models while interacting with mobile phone and website interfaces, and observed cultural difference in performing tasks and viewing patterns, which appeared to agree with cultural cognitive styles known as Holistic thoughts vs. Analytic thoughts. Regarding design methods for culture, we explored how to localize design methods such as focus group interview and generative session for specific cultural groups, and the results of comparative experiments revealed cultural difference on participants' behaviors and performance in each design method and led us to suggest how to conduct them in East Asian culture. Mobile Observation Analyzer and Wi-Pro, user research tools we invented to capture user behaviors and needs especially in their mobile context, were also introduced.

  8. Application of the microbiological method DEFT/APC to detect minimally processed vegetables treated with gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, M. M.; Duarte, R. C.; Silva, P. V.; Marchioni, E.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2009-07-01

    Marketing of minimally processed vegetables (MPV) are gaining impetus due to its convenience, freshness and apparent health effect. However, minimal processing does not reduce pathogenic microorganisms to safe levels. Food irradiation is used to extend the shelf life and to inactivate food-borne pathogens. In combination with minimal processing it could improve safety and quality of MPV. A microbiological screening method based on the use of direct epifluorescent filter technique (DEFT) and aerobic plate count (APC) has been established for the detection of irradiated foodstuffs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of this technique in detecting MPV irradiation. Samples from retail markets were irradiated with 0.5 and 1.0 kGy using a 60Co facility. In general, with a dose increment, DEFT counts remained similar independent of the irradiation while APC counts decreased gradually. The difference of the two counts gradually increased with dose increment in all samples. It could be suggested that a DEFT/APC difference over 2.0 log would be a criteria to judge if a MPV was treated by irradiation. The DEFT/APC method could be used satisfactorily as a screening method for indicating irradiation processing.

  9. Application of the microbiological method DEFT/APC to detect minimally processed vegetables treated with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, M.M.; Duarte, R.C.; Silva, P.V.; Marchioni, E.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    Marketing of minimally processed vegetables (MPV) are gaining impetus due to its convenience, freshness and apparent health effect. However, minimal processing does not reduce pathogenic microorganisms to safe levels. Food irradiation is used to extend the shelf life and to inactivate food-borne pathogens. In combination with minimal processing it could improve safety and quality of MPV. A microbiological screening method based on the use of direct epifluorescent filter technique (DEFT) and aerobic plate count (APC) has been established for the detection of irradiated foodstuffs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of this technique in detecting MPV irradiation. Samples from retail markets were irradiated with 0.5 and 1.0 kGy using a 60 Co facility. In general, with a dose increment, DEFT counts remained similar independent of the irradiation while APC counts decreased gradually. The difference of the two counts gradually increased with dose increment in all samples. It could be suggested that a DEFT/APC difference over 2.0 log would be a criteria to judge if a MPV was treated by irradiation. The DEFT/APC method could be used satisfactorily as a screening method for indicating irradiation processing.

  10. Application of the microbiological method DEFT/APC to detect minimally processed vegetables treated with gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, M.M.; Duarte, R.C.; Silva, P.V. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Laboratorio de Deteccao de Alimentos Irradiados, Cidade Universitaria, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, Butanta Zip Code 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Marchioni, E. [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Sciences de l' Aliment (UMR 7512), Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite Louis Pasteur, 74, route du Rhin, F-67400 Illkirch (France); Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Laboratorio de Deteccao de Alimentos Irradiados, Cidade Universitaria, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, Butanta Zip Code 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: villavic@ipen.br

    2009-07-15

    Marketing of minimally processed vegetables (MPV) are gaining impetus due to its convenience, freshness and apparent health effect. However, minimal processing does not reduce pathogenic microorganisms to safe levels. Food irradiation is used to extend the shelf life and to inactivate food-borne pathogens. In combination with minimal processing it could improve safety and quality of MPV. A microbiological screening method based on the use of direct epifluorescent filter technique (DEFT) and aerobic plate count (APC) has been established for the detection of irradiated foodstuffs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of this technique in detecting MPV irradiation. Samples from retail markets were irradiated with 0.5 and 1.0 kGy using a {sup 60}Co facility. In general, with a dose increment, DEFT counts remained similar independent of the irradiation while APC counts decreased gradually. The difference of the two counts gradually increased with dose increment in all samples. It could be suggested that a DEFT/APC difference over 2.0 log would be a criteria to judge if a MPV was treated by irradiation. The DEFT/APC method could be used satisfactorily as a screening method for indicating irradiation processing.

  11. Detection and identification of microbes in prosthetic joint infections by culture and molecular methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yijuan; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Ehrlich, Garth

    , indicating biofilm formation. In conclusion, this study indicated that to improve the microbiological diagnosis of prosthetic joint infections molecular methods may be useful supplements to routine cultures, and the current intraoperative sampling strategy needs to be optimized.......Bacterial biofilms have been observed in many device-related infections including orthopedic implants. This mode of growth makes the infection difficult to treat and constitutes a challenge to current sampling procedures and culture practices to obtain a reliable diagnosis. The aim of the study...... uncovered many more species including known pathogens and species not previously reported in orthopedic infections, and polymicrobial communities were commonly observed. Additionally the molecular findings suggested the bacterial composition and yield varied depending on the position and type of samples...

  12. [Comparison of methods for the identification of the most common yeasts in the clinical microbiology laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelfand, L; Grisolía, P; Bozzano, C; Kaufman, S

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated different methods for the routine identification of medically important yeasts. A total of 150 clinical isolates: 25 C. albicans, 25 C. tropicalis, 25 C. glabrata, 25 C. parapsilosis, 8 C. guilliermondii, 11 C. krusei and 31 Cryptococcus neoformans were tested by Yeast Biochemical Card bioMerieux Vitek (YBC), CHROMagar Candida (CHR). The addition of yeast morphology in Corn Meal agar-Tween 80 (AM) to YBC and CHR was also evaluated. The reference methods used were: API 20C, germ tube formation, AM, Christensen urea and Birdseed agar. YBC identified 135 yeasts with an overall accuracy of 90%. Sensitivity (S) and specificity (E) were: 92-98% for C. albicans and C. tropicalis; 84-99% for C. papapsilosis; 100-99% for C. glabrata; 91-100% for C. krusei; 63-98% for C. guilliermondii and 90-99% for Cryptococcus neoformans, respectively. CHR identified correctly 100% for C. albicans, 92% for C. tropicalis and 91% for C. krusei. Both methods combined with AM provided 100% S and E. We found that YBC system was appropriate for identification of yeasts isolated from human sources. CHR was effective and easy to use for identification of C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei. The routine use of AM with both methods is recommended.

  13. [The current status and outlook for molecular genetic methods in solving the tasks of medical microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gintsburg, A L; Zigangirova, N A; Romanova, Iu M

    1999-01-01

    The article deals with modern methods, viz. PCR, molecular display and genotherapy, which permit the new approach to the solution of problems connected with the identification of infective agents, the study of the mechanisms of the pathogenesis of infectious diseases and their treatment. In this article concrete examples, clearly demonstrating how each of the above-mentioned technologies makes it possible to broaden the circle of problems solved in infectious pathology of man, are presented.

  14. Spectrometric microbiological analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.; Meissner, Ken E.

    1996-04-01

    Currently, there are four general approaches to microbiological analysis, i.e., the detection, identification and quantification of micro-organisms: (1) Traditional culturing and staining procedures, metabolic fermentations and visual morphological characteristics; (2) Immunological approaches employing microbe-specific antibodies; (3) Biotechnical techniques employing DNA probes and related genetic engineering methods; and (4) Physical measurement techniques based on the biophysical properties of micro-organisms. This paper describes an instrumentation development in the fourth of the above categories, physical measurement, that uses a combination of fluorometric and light scatter spectra to detect and identify micro-organisms at the species level. A major advantage of this approach is the rapid turnaround possible in medical diagnostic or water testing applications. Fluorometric spectra serve to define the biochemical characteristics of the microbe, and light scatter spectra the size and shape morphology. Together, the two spectra define a 'fingerprint' for each species of microbe for detection, identification and quantification purposes. A prototype instrument has been developed and tested under NASA sponsorship based on fluorometric spectra alone. This instrument demonstrated identification and quantification capabilities at the species level. The paper reports on test results using this instrument, and the benefits of employing a combination of fluorometric and light scatter spectra.

  15. Microbiological method for radiation sterilization (I). General knowledge and handling technique for bacterial identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshikawa, Tomihiko

    2004-01-01

    The part I in this title series describes the basic knowledge and technique for identification of bacteria in the radiation sterilization of medical devices, where the radiation dose can be decided from the number and radio-resistance of the bioburden (bacteria on the device). Four essential, actual technologies for identification are described: isolation and storage of bacteria; decision of bacterial natures, involving 3 Gram staining methods, morphology by microscopy and/or phase-contrast microscopy, spore-forming bacteria, and size measurement by micrometry; Other test items for identification of genus, involving motility, oxygen demand, catalase, oxidase, acid production from glucose, and OF (oxidation or fermentation for glucose degradation) test; and colony observation. Media, identification kits and record forms for these are presented. (N.I.)

  16. In vitro adhesion assay of lactic acid bacteria, Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. by microbiological and PCR methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Montet

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro adhesion assay using Lactobacillus reuteri KUB-AC5 as a test strain has been studied by applying simple PCR reaction together with image analysis and plate count techniques. Critical factor affecting the PCR method was quality and quantity of DNA. The cell lysis technique was modified to optimize this method. Thus, lysozyme and proteinase K were added to lyse the cells, followed by SDS solution to obtain a complete cell lysis. Only PCR products from total cells (TC were obtained, with low consistency, but none from cells bound to mucus (BC at either 0.1 or 0.5 mg/mL concentration. It was hypothesized that the attached cells might not be extracted into the cell suspension. Therefore, 1% SDS solution and 0.1M NaOH were used directly in the extraction. As expected, PCR products were observed when both TC and BC were used as a DNA template. Adhesion appeared at a wide range of 0-45%, with low consistency. Therefore, a simple microbiological method (plate count was used. The extraction of bound cells into cell suspension was critical in this method. Extraction times of 20, 60, 120 and 150 min were tried. Results showed that maximum cell number was obtained with 120 min extraction. L. reuteri KUB-AC5, L. reuteri KUB-AC16, L. reuteri KUB-AC20, L. salivarius KUB-AC21, L. acidophilus KV-1, Escherichia coli E010, Salmonella sp. S003, E. coli ATCC8739, and S. typhimurium ATCC 13311 exhibited adhesion activity of 21.6%, 0.8%, 5.7%, 1.1%, 23.1%, 10.7%, 10.3%, 4.4% and 3.2%, respectively. Among the 9 types of microorganisms tested L. acidophilus KV-1 and L. reuteri KUB-AC5 showed higher adhesion activity than the others.

  17. In vitro culture method of powdery mildew (Oidium heveae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ELOHO

    2012-08-23

    Aug 23, 2012 ... A method for culturing powdery mildew (Oidium heveae) from isolated leaves of ... solution; d, Colour phase leaves with nutrient solution in culture dish; e, in vitro ... Plant and fungus materials .... same change trend during whole culture period. ... consistent with the field resistance identification results of.

  18. A method for culturing human hair follicle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, P J; Vermorken, A J; Bloemendal, H

    1981-01-01

    For the first time a method for culturing human hair follicle cells is described. The bovine eye lens capsule, a basement membrane-like structure, is used as the substrate for the cultures. In a culture medium supplemented with hydrocortisone and insulin about 70% of the original follicles will form growing colonies of diploid keratinocytes.

  19. Simple and convenient method for culturing anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Behbehani, M J; Jordan, H V; Santoro, D L

    1982-01-01

    A simple and convenient method for culturing anaerobic bacteria is described. Cultures can be grown in commercially available flasks normally used for preparation of sterile external solutions. A special disposable rubber flask closure maintains anaerobic conditions in the flask after autoclaving. Growth of a variety of anaerobic oral bacteria was comparable to that obtained after anaerobic incubation of broth cultures in Brewer Anaerobic Jars.

  20. Assessment of drinking water quality using ICP-MS and microbiological methods in the Bholakpur area, Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, Rasheed M; Mutnuri, Lakshmi; Dattatreya, Patil J; Mohan, Dayal A

    2012-03-01

    A total of 16 people died and over 500 people were hospitalized due to diarrhoeal illness in the Bholakpur area of Hyderabad, India on 6th May 2009. A study was conducted with immediate effect to evaluate the quality of municipal tap water of the Bholakpur locality. The study consists of the determination of physico-chemical properties, trace metals, heavy metals, rare earth elements and microbiological quality of drinking water. The data showed the variation of the investigated parameters in samples as follows: pH 7.14 to 8.72, EC 455 to 769 μS/cm, TDS 303.51 to 515.23 ppm and DO 1.01 to 6.83 mg/L which are within WHO guidelines for drinking water quality. The water samples were analyzed for 27 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Ba and Pb) using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concentrations of Fe (0.12 to 1.13 mg/L), Pb (0.01 to 0.07 mg/L), Cu (0.01 to 0.19 mg/L), Ni (0.01 to 0.15 mg/L), Al (0.16 to 0.49 mg/L), and Na (38.36 to 68.69 mg/L) were obtained, which exceed the permissible limits of the World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water quality guidelines. The remaining elements were within the permissible limits. The microbiological quality of water was tested using standard plate count, membrane filtration technique, thermotolerant coliform (TTC), and most probable number (MPN) methods. The total heterotrophic bacteria ranged from 1.0 × 10(5) to 18 × 10(7 )cfu/ml. Total viable bacteria in all the water samples were found to be too numerable to count and total number of coliform bacteria in all water samples were found to be of order of 1,100 to >2,400 MPN index/100 ml. TTC tested positive for coliform bacteria at 44.2°C. All the water samples of the study area exceeded the permissible counts of WHO and that (zero and minimal counts) of the control site (National Geophysical Research Institute) water samples. Excessively high colony numbers indicate

  1. Monitoring microbiological changes in drinking water systems using a fast and reproducible flow cytometric method

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, Emmanuelle I E C; Hammes, Frederik A.; Kö tzsch, Stefan; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2013-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a rapid, cultivation-independent tool to assess and evaluate bacteriological quality and biological stability of water. Here we demonstrate that a stringent, reproducible staining protocol combined with fixed FCM operational and gating settings is essential for reliable quantification of bacteria and detection of changes in aquatic bacterial communities. Triplicate measurements of diverse water samples with this protocol typically showed relative standard deviation values and 95% confidence interval values below 2.5% on all the main FCM parameters. We propose a straightforward and instrument-independent method for the characterization of water samples based on the combination of bacterial cell concentration and fluorescence distribution. Analysis of the fluorescence distribution (or so-called fluorescence fingerprint) was accomplished firstly through a direct comparison of the raw FCM data and subsequently simplified by quantifying the percentage of large and brightly fluorescent high nucleic acid (HNA) content bacteria in each sample. Our approach enables fast differentiation of dissimilar bacterial communities (less than 15min from sampling to final result), and allows accurate detection of even small changes in aquatic environments (detection above 3% change). Demonstrative studies on (a) indigenous bacterial growth in water, (b) contamination of drinking water with wastewater, (c) household drinking water stagnation and (d) mixing of two drinking water types, univocally showed that this FCM approach enables detection and quantification of relevant bacterial water quality changes with high sensitivity. This approach has the potential to be used as a new tool for application in the drinking water field, e.g. for rapid screening of the microbial water quality and stability during water treatment and distribution in networks and premise plumbing. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Monitoring microbiological changes in drinking water systems using a fast and reproducible flow cytometric method

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, Emmanuelle I E C

    2013-12-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a rapid, cultivation-independent tool to assess and evaluate bacteriological quality and biological stability of water. Here we demonstrate that a stringent, reproducible staining protocol combined with fixed FCM operational and gating settings is essential for reliable quantification of bacteria and detection of changes in aquatic bacterial communities. Triplicate measurements of diverse water samples with this protocol typically showed relative standard deviation values and 95% confidence interval values below 2.5% on all the main FCM parameters. We propose a straightforward and instrument-independent method for the characterization of water samples based on the combination of bacterial cell concentration and fluorescence distribution. Analysis of the fluorescence distribution (or so-called fluorescence fingerprint) was accomplished firstly through a direct comparison of the raw FCM data and subsequently simplified by quantifying the percentage of large and brightly fluorescent high nucleic acid (HNA) content bacteria in each sample. Our approach enables fast differentiation of dissimilar bacterial communities (less than 15min from sampling to final result), and allows accurate detection of even small changes in aquatic environments (detection above 3% change). Demonstrative studies on (a) indigenous bacterial growth in water, (b) contamination of drinking water with wastewater, (c) household drinking water stagnation and (d) mixing of two drinking water types, univocally showed that this FCM approach enables detection and quantification of relevant bacterial water quality changes with high sensitivity. This approach has the potential to be used as a new tool for application in the drinking water field, e.g. for rapid screening of the microbial water quality and stability during water treatment and distribution in networks and premise plumbing. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Strategies for the screening of antibiotic residues in eggs: comparison of the validation of the classical microbiological method with an immunobiosensor method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Valérie; Rault, Annie; Hedou, Celine; Soumet, Christophe; Verdon, Eric

    2017-09-01

    Efficient screening methods are needed to control antibiotic residues in eggs. A microbiological kit (Explorer® 2.0 test (Zeu Inmunotech, Spain)) and an immunobiosensor kit (Microarray II (AM® II) on Evidence Investigator™ system (Randox, UK)) have been evaluated and validated for screening of antibiotic residues in eggs, according to the European decision EC/2002/657 and to the European guideline for the validation of screening methods. The e-reader™ system, a new automatic incubator/reading system, was coupled to the Explorer 2.0 test. The AM II kit can detect residues of six different families of antibiotics in different matrices including eggs. For both tests, a different liquid/liquid extraction of eggs had to be developed. Specificities of the Explorer 2.0 and AM II kit were equal to 8% and 0% respectively. The detection capabilities were determined for 19 antibiotics, with representatives from different families, for Explorer 2.0 and 12 antibiotics for the AM II kit. For the nine antibiotics having a maximum residue limit (MRL) in eggs, the detection capabilities CCβ of Explorer 2.0 were below the MRL for four antibiotics, equal to the MRL for two antibiotics and between 1 and 1.5 MRLs for the three remaining antibiotics (tetracyclines). For the antibiotics from other families, the detection capabilities were low for beta-lactams and sulfonamides and satisfactory for dihydrostreptomycin (DHS) and fluoroquinolones, which are usually difficult to detect with microbiological tests. The CCβ values of the AM II kit were much lower than the respective MRLs for three detected antibiotics (tetracycline, oxytetracycline, tylosin). Concerning the nine other antibiotics, the detection capabilities determined were low. The highest CCβ was obtained for streptomycin (100 µg kg -1 ).

  4. Field Application of the Micro Biological Survey Method for a Simple and Effective Assessment of the Microbiological Quality of Water Sources in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arienzo, Alyexandra; Sobze, Martin Sanou; Wadoum, Raoul Emeric Guetiya; Losito, Francesca; Colizzi, Vittorio; Antonini, Giovanni

    2015-08-25

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, "safe drinking-water must not represent any significant risk to health over a lifetime of consumption, including different sensitivities that may occur between life stages". Traditional methods of water analysis are usually complex, time consuming and require an appropriately equipped laboratory, specialized personnel and expensive instrumentation. The aim of this work was to apply an alternative method, the Micro Biological Survey (MBS), to analyse for contaminants in drinking water. Preliminary experiments were carried out to demonstrate the linearity and accuracy of the MBS method and to verify the possibility of using the evaluation of total coliforms in 1 mL of water as a sufficient parameter to roughly though accurately determine water microbiological quality. The MBS method was then tested "on field" to assess the microbiological quality of water sources in the city of Douala (Cameroon, Central Africa). Analyses were performed on both dug and drilled wells in different periods of the year. Results confirm that the MBS method appears to be a valid and accurate method to evaluate the microbiological quality of many water sources and it can be of valuable aid in developing countries.

  5. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of urine culture-confirmed genitourinary tuberculosis at medical centers in Taiwan from 1995 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H-L; Lai, C-C; Yu, M-C; Yu, F-L; Lee, J-C; Chou, C-H; Tan, C-K; Yang, P-C; Hsueh, P-R

    2011-03-01

    All patients with urine culture-confirmed genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) diagnosed between 1995 and 2007 at two medical centers in northern Taiwan were included in this retrospective study. Genotypes of 48 preserved Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates from these patients were determined by spoligotyping and double repetitive element PCR (DRE-PCR) analysis. Among the 64 patients, 38 (59.4%) were male with a mean ±SD age of 60.3 ± 16.1 years old. The overall mortality rate was 26.2%. Poor prognostic factors included age over 65 years (HR = 4.03; 95%; CI: 1.27-12.76), cardiovascular disease (HR = 5.96; 95% CI: 1.98-17.92), receiving steroids (HR = 10.16; 95% CI: 2.27-45.47), not being treated (HR 4.81; 95% CI 1.12-20.67). Spoligotyping and DRE-PCR of the 48 MTB isolates revealed that 20 (41.7%) belonged to the Beijing family and 40 (83.3%) had a clustering pattern. Identification of a Beijing family isolate was not correlated with drug resistance or mortality. Clustering strains were likely to be resistant to isoniazid (OR = 4.71; 95% CI: 1.10 to 23.53). In this study of patients with urine culture-confirmed GUTB, age and coexisting diseases were independently associated with an unfavorable outcome. The Beijing family was the dominant genotype of GUTB isolates, but did not correlate with drug resistance or outcome.

  6. Evaluation of three sample preparation methods for the direct identification of bacteria in positive blood cultures by MALDI-TOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Hannah; Evans, Jason T; Gossain, Savita; Hussain, Abid

    2017-01-18

    Patient mortality is significantly reduced by rapid identification of bacteria from sterile sites. MALDI-TOF can identify bacteria directly from positive blood cultures and multiple sample preparation methods are available. We evaluated three sample preparation methods and two MALDI-TOF score cut-off values. Positive blood culture bottles with organisms present in Gram stains were prospectively analysed by MALDI-TOF. Three lysis reagents (Saponin, SDS, and SepsiTyper lysis bufer) were applied to each positive culture followed by centrifugation, washing and protein extraction steps. Methods were compared using the McNemar test and 16S rDNA sequencing was used to assess discordant results. In 144 monomicrobial cultures, using ≥2.000 as the cut-off value, species level identifications were obtained from 69/144 (48%) samples using Saponin, 86/144 (60%) using SDS, and 91/144 (63%) using SepsiTyper. The difference between SDS and SepsiTyper was not statistically significant (P = 0.228). Differences between Saponin and the other two reagents were significant (P direct MALDI-TOF identification were observed in monomicrobial cultures. In 32 polymicrobial cultures, MALDI-TOF identified one organism in 34-75% of samples depending on the method. This study demonstrates two inexpensive in-house detergent lysis methods are non-inferior to a commercial kit for analysis of positive blood cultures by direct MALDI-TOF in a clinical diagnostic microbiology laboratory.

  7. Mouse cell culture - Methods and protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The mouse is, out of any doubt, the experimental animal par excellence for many many colleagues within the scientific community, notably for those working in mammalian biology (in a broad sense, from basic genetic to modeling human diseases, starting at least from 1664 Robert Hooke experiments on air’s propertyn. Not surprising then that mouse cell cultures is a well established field of research itself and that there are several handbooks devoted to this discipline. Here, Andrew Ward and David Tosh provide a necessary update of the protocols currently needed. In fact, nearly half of the book is devoted to stem cells culture protocols, mainly embryonic, from a list of several organs (kidney, lung, oesophagus and intestine, pancreas and liver to mention some........

  8. The awareness of employees in safety culture through the improved nuclear safety culture evaluation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Ga; Sung, Chan Ho; Jung, Yeon Sub [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, nuclear safety culture terminology was at first introduced emphasizing the importance of employees' attitude and organizational safety. The concept of safety culture was spread by INSAG 4 published in 1991. From that time, IAEA had provided the service of ASCOT for the safety culture assessment. However, many people still are thinking that safety culture is abstract and is not clear. It is why the systematic and reliable assessment methodology was not developed. Assessing safety culture is to identify what is the basic assumption for any organization to accept unconsciously. Therefore, it is very difficult to reach a meaningful conclusion by a superficial investigation alone. KHNP had been doing the safety culture assessment which was based on ASCOT methodology every 2 years. And this result had contributed to improving safety culture. But this result could not represent the level of organization's safety culture due to the limitation of method. So, KHNP has improved the safety culture method by benchmarking the over sea assessment techniques in 2011. The effectiveness of this improved methodology was validated through a pilot assessment. In this paper, the level of employees' safety culture awareness was analyzed by the improved method and reviewed what is necessary for the completeness and objectivity of the nuclear safety culture assessment methodology.

  9. The awareness of employees in safety culture through the improved nuclear safety culture evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Ga; Sung, Chan Ho; Jung, Yeon Sub

    2012-01-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, nuclear safety culture terminology was at first introduced emphasizing the importance of employees' attitude and organizational safety. The concept of safety culture was spread by INSAG 4 published in 1991. From that time, IAEA had provided the service of ASCOT for the safety culture assessment. However, many people still are thinking that safety culture is abstract and is not clear. It is why the systematic and reliable assessment methodology was not developed. Assessing safety culture is to identify what is the basic assumption for any organization to accept unconsciously. Therefore, it is very difficult to reach a meaningful conclusion by a superficial investigation alone. KHNP had been doing the safety culture assessment which was based on ASCOT methodology every 2 years. And this result had contributed to improving safety culture. But this result could not represent the level of organization's safety culture due to the limitation of method. So, KHNP has improved the safety culture method by benchmarking the over sea assessment techniques in 2011. The effectiveness of this improved methodology was validated through a pilot assessment. In this paper, the level of employees' safety culture awareness was analyzed by the improved method and reviewed what is necessary for the completeness and objectivity of the nuclear safety culture assessment methodology

  10. Microbiological evaluation of ready-to-eat iceberg lettuce during shelf-life and effectiveness of household washing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bencardino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat (RTE iceberg lettuce. Our investigation was based on the consumption tendency of university students considered a target market for this product. A total of 78 RTE samples were collected from chain supermarkets and analysed for the enumeration of aerobic mesophilic count (AMC, Escherichia coli and the detection of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. All samples were negative for the presence of pathogens. The mean value of AMC at the beginning, in the middle and after the expiration date was: 6.88, 8.51 and 8.72 log CFU g-1, respectively. The same investigation was performed on 12 samples of fresh iceberg lettuce samples. No pathogens were found and the mean value of AMC was lower than the RTE category (5.73 log CFU g-1; P<0.05. The effectiveness of 5 washing methods was determined on 15 samples of both fresh and RTE iceberg lettuce. Samples were washed for 15’ and 30’ in tap water (500 mL, tap water with NaCl (4 g/500 mL, tap water with bicarbonate (8 g/500 mL, tap water with vinegar (10 mL/500 mL and tap water with chlorine-based disinfectant (10 mL/500 mL. A significant bacterial load reduction was recorded for vinegar and disinfectant after 30’ and 15’, respectively. Overall, these results showed that RTE iceberg lettuce is more contaminated than the fresh product. Also, the consumption in the first few days of packaging and after washing with disinfectants reduces the risk for health consumers.

  11. Comparison of Uriswab to alternative methods for urine culture collection and transport: confirmation of standard culture methodology for investigation of urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Robert P; Turnbull, Lee-Ann; Gauchier-Pitts, Kaylee; Bennett, Tracy; Dyrland, Debbie; Blonski, Susan

    2016-08-01

    The ability to isolate and identify causative agents of urinary tract infections relies primarily on the quality of the urine sample that is submitted to the microbiology. The most important factors are the method of collection, the maintenance of viability of the potential pathogens during transport, and standardization of the culturing of the urine sample. This report is a composite of several investigations comparing collection and transport on urine culture paddles, with a preservative urine sponge (Uriswab), and a comparison of Uriswab with the BD preservative transport tube as methods of preservation of urinary pathogens. Primary studies showed that Uriswab maintained significantly more urinary pathogens than the urine culture paddle with fewer mixed or contaminated cultures. The two preservative transport systems were comparable for maintenance of viability of the pathogens, but there were fewer mixed cultures when samples were collected with Uriswab. This study confirms the importance of a standard volume of 1 μL of urine for culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Explaining the Effectiveness of the Contrast Culture Method for Managing Interpersonal Interactions across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Hiroyoshi; Suzuki, Hanako; Pusina, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    One of the current challenges in the field of intercultural education comes from the limited availability of training efficacy studies. The present study focused on explaining the effectiveness of the Contrast Culture Method (CCM) as an intercultural education method for managing interpersonal interactions across cultures between graduate…

  13. Microbiological Methodology in Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abyzov, S. S.; Gerasimenko, L. M.; Hoover, R. B.; Mitskevich, I. N.; Mulyukin, A. L.; Poglazova, M. N.; Rozanov, A. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Searching for life in astromaterials to be delivered from the future missions to extraterrestrial bodies is undoubtedly related to studies of the properties and signatures of living microbial cells and microfossils on Earth. As model terrestrial analogs of Martian polar subsurface layers are often regarded the Antarctic glacier and Earth permafrost habitats where alive microbial cells preserved viability for millennia years due to entering the anabiotic state. For the future findings of viable microorganisms in samples from extraterrestrial objects, it is important to use a combined methodology that includes classical microbiological methods, plating onto nutrient media, direct epifluorescence and electron microscopy examinations, detection of the elemental composition of cells, radiolabeling techniques, PCR and FISH methods. Of great importance is to ensure authenticity of microorganisms (if any in studied samples) and to standardize the protocols used to minimize a risk of external contamination. Although the convincing evidence of extraterrestrial microbial life will may come from the discovery of living cells in astromaterials, biomorphs and microfossils must also be regarded as a target in search of life evidence bearing in mind a scenario that alive microorganisms had not be preserved and underwent mineralization. Under the laboratory conditions, processes that accompanied fossilization of cyanobacteria were reconstructed, and artificially produced cyanobacterial stromatolites resembles by their morphological properties those found in natural Earth habitats. Regarding the vital importance of distinguishing between biogenic and abiogenic signatures and between living and fossil microorganisms in analyzed samples, it is worthwhile to use some previously developed approaches based on electron microscopy examinations and analysis of elemental composition of biomorphs in situ and comparison with the analogous data obtained for laboratory microbial cultures and

  14. Preprinting Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Patrick D

    2017-05-23

    The field of microbiology has experienced significant growth due to transformative advances in technology and the influx of scientists driven by a curiosity to understand how microbes sustain myriad biochemical processes that maintain Earth. With this explosion in scientific output, a significant bottleneck has been the ability to rapidly disseminate new knowledge to peers and the public. Preprints have emerged as a tool that a growing number of microbiologists are using to overcome this bottleneck. Posting preprints can help to transparently recruit a more diverse pool of reviewers prior to submitting to a journal for formal peer review. Although the use of preprints is still limited in the biological sciences, early indications are that preprints are a robust tool that can complement and enhance peer-reviewed publications. As publishing moves to embrace advances in Internet technology, there are many opportunities for preprints and peer-reviewed journals to coexist in the same ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Schloss.

  15. Genomics and metagenomics in medical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Roshan; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2013-12-01

    Over the last two decades, sequencing tools have evolved from laborious time-consuming methodologies to real-time detection and deciphering of genomic DNA. Genome sequencing, especially using next generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the landscape of microbiology and infectious disease. This deluge of sequencing data has not only enabled advances in fundamental biology but also helped improve diagnosis, typing of pathogen, virulence and antibiotic resistance detection, and development of new vaccines and culture media. In addition, NGS also enabled efficient analysis of complex human micro-floras, both commensal, and pathological, through metagenomic methods, thus helping the comprehension and management of human diseases such as obesity. This review summarizes technological advances in genomics and metagenomics relevant to the field of medical microbiology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A hanging drop culture method to study terminal erythroid differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Laura; Lindeboom, Fokke; Ferreira, Rita; Drissen, Roy; Grosveld, Frank; Whyatt, David; Philipsen, Sjaak

    2005-10-01

    To design a culture method allowing the quantitative and qualitative analysis of terminal erythroid differentiation. Primary erythroid progenitors derived either from mouse tissues or from human umbilical cord blood were differentiated using hanging drop cultures and compared to methylcellulose cultures. Cultured cells were analyzed by FACS to assess differentiation. We describe a practical culture method by adapting the previously described hanging drop culture system to conditions allowing terminal differentiation of primary erythroid progenitors. Using minimal volumes of media and small numbers of cells, we obtained quantitative terminal erythroid differentiation within two days of culture in the case of murine cells and 4 days in the case of human cells. The established methods for ex vivo culture of primary erythroid progenitors, such as methylcellulose-based burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) and colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E) assays, allow the detection of committed erythroid progenitors but are of limited value to study terminal erythroid differentiation. We show that the application of hanging drop cultures is a practical alternative that, in combination with clonogenic assays, enables a comprehensive assessment of the behavior of primary erythroid cells ex vivo in the context of genetic and drug-induced perturbations.

  17. Evaluation of sensitivity of modified star protocol microbiological method for beta-lactame antibiotics detection in raw cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borović Branka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic residues when present in animal tissues, through food chain, can enter human body, causing allergic reactions or facilitating the development of resistant bacterial strains. In order to determine the presence of antibiotics in animal tissues, it is appropriate to use convenient, reliable and sensitive methods. Microbiological methods applied for the detection of antibiotic residues in primary products of animal origin are based on the sensitivity of specific bacterial strains to a particular group of antibiotics. Regulatives on the amount of pesticides, metals and metalloids and other toxic substances, chemotherapeutics, anabolics and other substances which can be found in food ("Off. Gazette", No. 5/92, 11/92 - corr. and 32/02, state that milk and milk products can be used in commercial purposes only if not contain antibiotics in quantities that can be detected by reference methods. The applied method is modified STAR (Screening test for detection of antibiotics protocol, regulated by the CRL (Community Reference Laboratory Fougeres, France, in which the initial validation of the method had been carried out. In accordance with the demands of Regulative Commission EC No657/2002, the sensitivity of modified STAR protocol for beta lactam antibiotics group was examined , that is, there was carried out a contracted validation of the method, which initial validation had been performed at CRL. In a couple of series of experiments, 20 blank samples of raw cow milk originating from animals not treated by antibiotics, had been examined. By the beginning of the experiment samples were stored in a freezer at -20ºC. Samples of raw cow milk enriched by working solutions of seven beta-lactam antibiotics, in order to obtain concentrations at the level of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 MRL (Maximmum Residue Limit for each given antibiotic (Commission Regulation EC No. 37/2010. For detection of beta-lactam antibiotics, there was used Kundrat agar test with

  18. An alternative method for Plasmodium culture synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelièvre, J; Berry, A; Benoit-Vical, F

    2005-03-01

    Since the synchronization of Plasmodium falciparum has become an essential tool in research, we have investigated the use of a commercial gelatine solution, Plasmion, to replace Plasmagel, which is now difficult to obtain. This method also avoids the use of techniques based on Percoll-glucose gradients. The Plasmion-based technique proved to be a good method and could become an alternative to Plasmagel.

  19. [Mass spectrometry in the clinical microbiology laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordana-Lluch, Elena; Martró Català, Elisa; Ausina Ruiz, Vicente

    2012-12-01

    Infectious diseases are still a cause of high mortality and morbidity rates. Current microbiological diagnostic methods are based on culture and phenotypic identification of isolated microorganisms, which can be obtained in about 24-48 h. Given that the microbiological identification is of major importance for patient management, new diagnostic methods are needed in order to detect and identify microorganisms in a timely and accurate manner. Over the last few years, several molecular techniques based on the amplification of microbial nucleic acids have been developed with the aim of reducing the time needed for the identification of the microorganisms involved in different infectious processes. On the other hand, mass spectrometry has emerged as a rapid and consistent alternative to conventional methods for microorganism identification. This review describes the most widely used mass spectrometry technologies -matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and electrospray ionization time-of-flight (ESI-TOF)-, both for protein and nucleic acid analysis, as well as the commercial platforms available. Related publications of most interest in clinical microbiology are also reviewed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Economic impact of rapid diagnostic methods in Clinical Microbiology: Price of the test or overall clinical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón, Rafael; Gómez G de la Pedrosa, Elia

    2017-12-01

    The need to reduce the time it takes to establish a microbiological diagnosis and the emergence of new molecular microbiology and proteomic technologies has fuelled the development of rapid and point-of-care techniques, as well as the so-called point-of-care laboratories. These laboratories are responsible for conducting both techniques partially to response to the outsourcing of the conventional hospital laboratories. Their introduction has not always been accompanied with economic studies that address their cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit and cost-utility, but rather tend to be limited to the unit price of the test. The latter, influenced by the purchase procedure, does not usually have a regulated reference value in the same way that medicines do. The cost-effectiveness studies that have recently been conducted on mass spectrometry in the diagnosis of bacteraemia and the use of antimicrobials have had the greatest clinical impact and may act as a model for future economic studies on rapid and point-of-care tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of periodontopathogenic bacteria in patients suffering from periodontitis using culture and PCR methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Aliramezani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Periodontitis is one of the most common oral diseases with the various incidence rates in different populations. A number of bacteria are considered as the major etiologic agents of periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of periodontopathogen bacteria in patients using both PCR and culture techniques.Materials and Methods: In this study, one-hundred patients (including 62 females and 38 males with an average age of 49±11.5 years with adult periodontitis referred to periodontics department of School of Dentistry/Tehran University of Medical Sciences were investigated. The samples were taken and sent immediately to the laboratory for culture and molecular evaluation. The PCR was performed using specific primers and the statistical analysis of data was performed using SPSS statistic software and McNemar test.Results: The results demonstrated that the total detection rate in culture method was 64%. The rate of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa was 28% which was significantly higher than that of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg (6% and Prevotella intermedia (Pi (3%. 27% of cases showed mixed bacterial growth. 65% of patients were positive using molecular method. The rate of Aa (30% was significantly higher than that of Pg (7% and Pi (5%. The mixed PCR positive rate containing of Aa, Pg and Pi was (23%.Conclusion: In this study, it was found that most of the bacteria isolated using culture and molecular methods were Aa, Pg and Pi, respectively. Although the detection frequencies of both techniques were similar, the specificity, sensitivity and bacterial detection speed of the PCR technique is obviously higher. Therefore, the use of molecular techniques is strongly recommended. However, both techniques seem to be suitable for microbiological diagnostics.

  2. Bacterial diversity determination using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghiasian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mud volcanoes are taken into consideration by geologists and oil industry experts have given their association with oil and gas reserves and methane greenhouse gas production in hydrosphere and atmosphere. Gomishan mud volcano phenomenon in the southeastern edge of the Caspian Sea, given its oil and gas resources, has been studied by some geologists in terms of geology and tectonics but not in terms of microbiology. Accordingly, it seems necessary to study this phenomenon from the perspective of microbiology in order to identify prokaryotes living in this area. Prokaryotes diversity in Mud volcano has been studied by cultivation techniques, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA genes. Total cell abundance in the mud volcano from 1×101-6×101per milliliter was determined by 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole direct count. The detectable proportion of Archaea to Bacteria in the community by FISH was one to five. High viable counts (1 – 3 × 106 were obtained in culture media. A total of 122 isolates were obtained, 46 colonies were selected based on primarily morphological and physiological traits, and their 16S rRNA sequences were determined. The isolated genera included Halomonas (20%, Arthrobacter (5%, Kocuria (5%, Thalassobacillus (5%, Marinobacter (20%, Paracoccus (5%, Roseovarius (5%, Jeotgalicoccus (5%, Bacillus (15%, and Staphylococcus (15%. Regarding DGGE analysis, selected bands were obtained from the gels, reamplified and sequenced. Overall, 75% of the bacterial sequences were related to Rahnella and 25% related to Serratia.

  3. Definition of a near real-time microbiological monitor for application in space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Melvin V., Jr.; Zahorchak, Robert J.; Arendale, William F.; Woodward, Samuel S.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1989-01-01

    The concepts and methodologies for microbiological monitoring in space are examined, focusing on the determination of the requirements of a near real-time microbiological monitor. Results are presented from the technical evaluation of five microbiological monitor concepts, including cultural methods, single cell detection, biomolecular detection, specific product detection, and general molecular composition. Within these concepts, twenty-eight specific methodolgies were assessed and the five candidate methodologies with the highest engineering and feasibility scores were selected for further evaluations. The candidate methodologies are laser light scattering, primary fluorescence, secondary fluorescence, volatile product detection, and electronic particle detection. The advantages and disadvantages of these five candidate methodologies are discussed.

  4. Suggestions on the Development of Safety Culture Assessment Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung; Choi, Kwang Sik; Kim, Woong Sik

    2006-01-01

    Several efforts have been made to assess safety culture of organization that operates nuclear power plants in Korea. The MOST and KINS played a major role to develop assessment methods and KHNP applied them to its NPPs. This paper explains the two methods developed by KINS briefly and presents the insights obtained from the two different applications. It concludes with some suggestions for safety culture assessment based on the insights

  5. Interpretation of Blood Microbiology Results - Function of the Clinical Microbiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristóf, Katalin; Pongrácz, Júlia

    2016-04-01

    The proper use and interpretation of blood microbiology results may be one of the most challenging and one of the most important functions of clinical microbiology laboratories. Effective implementation of this function requires careful consideration of specimen collection and processing, pathogen detection techniques, and prompt and precise reporting of identification and susceptibility results. The responsibility of the treating physician is proper formulation of the analytical request and to provide the laboratory with complete and precise patient information, which are inevitable prerequisites of a proper testing and interpretation. The clinical microbiologist can offer advice concerning the differential diagnosis, sampling techniques and detection methods to facilitate diagnosis. Rapid detection methods are essential, since the sooner a pathogen is detected, the better chance the patient has of getting cured. Besides the gold-standard blood culture technique, microbiologic methods that decrease the time in obtaining a relevant result are more and more utilized today. In the case of certain pathogens, the pathogen can be identified directly from the blood culture bottle after propagation with serological or automated/semi-automated systems or molecular methods or with MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry). Molecular biology methods are also suitable for the rapid detection and identification of pathogens from aseptically collected blood samples. Another important duty of the microbiology laboratory is to notify the treating physician immediately about all relevant information if a positive sample is detected. The clinical microbiologist may provide important guidance regarding the clinical significance of blood isolates, since one-third to one-half of blood culture isolates are contaminants or isolates of unknown clinical significance. To fully exploit the benefits of blood culture and other (non- culture

  6. The effect of Montessori Method on teaching cultural and creative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect of the Montessori Method on teaching was investigated among children to discover their artistic development in Zaria, Kaduna State. The problem of the study is that the Montessori Method on teaching cultural and creative arts is not adequately explored in the primary schools, while other teaching methods used, ...

  7. Direct maldi-tof mass spectrometry assay of blood culture broths for rapid identification of Candida species causing bloodstream infections: an observational study in two large microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanu, Teresa; Posteraro, Brunella; Fiori, Barbara; D'Inzeo, Tiziana; Campoli, Serena; Ruggeri, Alberto; Tumbarello, Mario; Canu, Giulia; Trecarichi, Enrico Maria; Parisi, Gabriella; Tronci, Mirella; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Fadda, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the reliability of the Bruker Daltonik's MALDI Biotyper system in species-level identification of yeasts directly from blood culture bottles. Identification results were concordant with those of the conventional culture-based method for 95.9% of Candida albicans (187/195) and 86.5% of non-albicans Candida species (128/148). Results were available in 30 min (median), suggesting that this approach is a reliable, time-saving tool for routine identification of Candida species causing bloodstream infection.

  8. Multiplexed Single Intact Cell Droplet Digital PCR (MuSIC ddPCR) Method for Specific Detection of Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) in Food Enrichment Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Tanis C.; Blais, Burton W.; Wong, Alex; Carrillo, Catherine D.

    2017-01-01

    Foodborne illness attributed to enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), a highly pathogenic subset of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), is increasingly recognized as a significant public health issue. Current microbiological methods for identification of EHEC in foods often use PCR-based approaches to screen enrichment broth cultures for characteristic gene markers [i.e., Shiga toxin (stx) and intimin (eae)]. However, false positives arise when complex food matrices, such as beef, contain mixtu...

  9. Microbiological Assessment of Commercially Available Quinine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Key words: Microbiological quality, quinine syrups, water for injection, pyrogen test. Received: 12 February ... pharmaceutical industry is indispensable, especially in ... Production of WFI or any other pharmaceutical products .... culture media.

  10. Recent advances in diagnostic microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Lulette Tricia C; Procop, Gary W

    2009-07-01

    The past decade has seen a surge in the development of a variety of molecular diagnostics designed to rapidly identify or characterize medically important microorganisms. We briefly review important advances in molecular microbiology, and then discuss specific assays that have been implemented in clinical microbiology laboratories throughout the country. We also discuss emerging methods and technologies that will soon be more widely used for the prompt and accurate detection of the agents of infectious diseases.

  11. A simple method for multiday imaging of slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Armin H; Rubel, Edwin W

    2010-01-01

    The organotypic slice culture (Stoppini et al. A simple method for organotypic cultures of nervous tissue. 1991;37:173-182) has become the method of choice to answer a variety of questions in neuroscience. For many experiments, however, it would be beneficial to image or manipulate a slice culture repeatedly, for example, over the course of many days. We prepared organotypic slice cultures of the auditory brainstem of P3 and P4 mice and kept them in vitro for up to 4 weeks. Single cells in the auditory brainstem were transfected with plasmids expressing fluorescent proteins by way of electroporation (Haas et al. Single-cell electroporation for gene transfer in vivo. 2001;29:583-591). The culture was then placed in a chamber perfused with oxygenated ACSF and the labeled cell imaged with an inverted wide-field microscope repeatedly for multiple days, recording several time-points per day, before returning the slice to the incubator. We describe a simple method to image a slice culture preparation during the course of multiple days and over many continuous hours, without noticeable damage to the tissue or photobleaching. Our method uses a simple, inexpensive custom-built insulator constructed around the microscope to maintain controlled temperature and uses a perfusion chamber as used for in vitro slice recordings. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Microbiological specifications and testing methods for irradiated food. Report of a panel of experts; Specifications et methodes d'analyse microbiologiques des aliments irradies. Rapport d'un groupe d'etude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-09-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest in the development of food items processed by means of ionizing radiation, wherever that form of preservation might show advantage over other methods. If this method becomes successful, the various items will be commercially exploited; it would then be convenient to have similar legislation in many countries of the world to control this type of processing and to facilitate international trade. To gather information and suggestions in order to devise legislation on irradiated food, a Joint FAO/IAEA/ WHO Expert Committee on the Technical Basis for Legislation on Irradiated Food was held in Rome on 21-28 April 1964. The Committee's report, 'The technical basis for legislation on irradiated food', was published as FAO Atomic Energy Series No.6 and WHO Technical Series No. 316. The Committee's terms of reference were to consider the available evidence on the effect on food of treatment with ionizing radiation in the context of wholesomeness and safety for consumption. Nutritional aspects were taken into account, but microbiological safety and microbiological methods for irradiated food were excluded since these subjects were believed to be too broad for adequate coverage in the working time available at the meeting. However, realizing the importance of radiation microbiology and the need for guidance in formulating regulations in this field, the committee drafted the following recommendation: 'The methods and standards used to ensure the microbiological safety of the irradiated product should, as a matter of urgency, be subject to review by competent international bodies in order that internationally acceptable methods and standards may be agreed upon'. In response to this recommendation an FAO/IAEA Panel on Microbiological Standards and Testing Methods for Irradiated Food was held in Vienna on 22-26 June 1965, in collaboration with the International Association of Microbiological Societies (IAMS). This was a working

  13. Advances Afoot in Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Robin; Karon, Brad S.

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium to examine point-of-care (POC) microbiology testing and to evaluate its effects on clinical microbiology. Colloquium participants included representatives from clinical microbiology laboratories, industry, and the government, who together made recommendations regarding the implementation, oversight, and evaluation of POC microbiology testing. The colloquium report is timely and well written (V. Dolen et al., Changing Diagnost...

  14. [Methods for evaluating diagnostic tests in Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, J M; Hernández, I

    1998-04-01

    In the field of infectious diseases and clinical microbiology, the evaluation of diagnostic tests (DT) is an important research area. The specific difficulties of this type of research has motivated that have not caught the severity methodological of others areas of clinical research. This article try to asses and characterize the methodology of articles about DT published in Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica (EIMC) journal. Forty-five articles was selected in the EIMC journal during the 1990-1996 period, because of determinate the sensitivity and specificity of different DT. Methodological standards, extensively accepted was used. In all of articles, except one (98%) the gold standard was specified yours use, however in 4 studies (9%) include the DT in the gold standard (incorporation bias). The correct description of DT was reported in 75% of cases, but only in 11% cases the reproducibility of test was evaluated. The description of source of reference population, standard of inclusion and spectrum of composition was described in 58, 33 and 40% of articles, respectively. In 33% of studies presented workup bias, only 6% commented blind-analysis of results, and 11% presented indeterminate test results. Half of the studies reported test indexes for clinical subgroups, only one article (2%) provided numerical precision for test indexes, and only 7% reported receiver operating characteristics curves. The methodological quality of DT research in the EIMC journal may improve in different aspects of design and presentation of results.

  15. Comparison of Nested-PCR technique and culture method in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper. Comparison of ... The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of nested PCR in genitourinary ... method. Based on obtained results, the positivity rate of urine samples in this study was 5.0% by using culture and PCR methods and 2.5% for acid fast staining.

  16. [Post-mortem microbiology analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Amparo; Alberola, Juan; Cohen, Marta Cecilia

    2013-12-01

    Post-mortem microbiology is useful in both clinical and forensic autopsies, and allows a suspected infection to be confirmed. Indeed, it is routinely applied to donor studies in the clinical setting, as well as in sudden and unexpected death in the forensic field. Implementation of specific sampling techniques in autopsy can minimize the possibility of contamination, making interpretation of the results easier. Specific interpretation criteria for post-mortem cultures, the use of molecular diagnosis, and its fusion with molecular biology and histopathology have led to post-mortem microbiology playing a major role in autopsy. Multidisciplinary work involving microbiologists, pathologists, and forensic physicians will help to improve the achievements of post-mortem microbiology, prevent infectious diseases, and contribute to a healthier population. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Cultural adaptation and translation of measures: an integrated method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidani, Souraya; Guruge, Sepali; Miranda, Joyal; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Varcoe, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Differences in the conceptualization and operationalization of health-related concepts may exist across cultures. Such differences underscore the importance of examining conceptual equivalence when adapting and translating instruments. In this article, we describe an integrated method for exploring conceptual equivalence within the process of adapting and translating measures. The integrated method involves five phases including selection of instruments for cultural adaptation and translation; assessment of conceptual equivalence, leading to the generation of a set of items deemed to be culturally and linguistically appropriate to assess the concept of interest in the target community; forward translation; back translation (optional); and pre-testing of the set of items. Strengths and limitations of the proposed integrated method are discussed. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Advances Afoot in Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Robin; Karon, Brad S

    2017-07-01

    In 2016, the American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium to examine point-of-care (POC) microbiology testing and to evaluate its effects on clinical microbiology. Colloquium participants included representatives from clinical microbiology laboratories, industry, and the government, who together made recommendations regarding the implementation, oversight, and evaluation of POC microbiology testing. The colloquium report is timely and well written (V. Dolen et al., Changing Diagnostic Paradigms for Microbiology , 2017, https://www.asm.org/index.php/colloquium-reports/item/6421-changing-diagnostic-paradigms-for-microbiology?utm_source=Commentary&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=diagnostics). Emerging POC microbiology tests, especially nucleic acid amplification tests, have the potential to advance medical care. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Characteristics of ovulation method acceptors: a cross-cultural assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, H; Labbok, M; Barker, D

    1988-01-01

    Five programs of instruction in the ovulation method (OM) in diverse geographic and cultural settings are described, and characteristics of approximately 200 consecutive OM acceptors in each program are examined. Major findings include: the religious background and family size of acceptors are variable, as is the level of previous contraceptive use. Acceptors are drawn from a wide range of socioeconomic and religious backgrounds; however, family planning intention was similarly distributed in all five countries. In sum, the ovulation method is accepted by persons from a variety of backgrounds within and between cultural setting.

  20. Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P. S. Cabral

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water—cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery—is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases’ characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers. Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

  1. Water microbiology. Bacterial pathogens and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, João P S

    2010-10-01

    Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water-cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery-is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases' characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

  2. Improved Cell Culture Method for Growing Contracting Skeletal Muscle Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquette, Michele L.; Sognier, Marguerite A.

    2013-01-01

    An improved method for culturing immature muscle cells (myoblasts) into a mature skeletal muscle overcomes some of the notable limitations of prior culture methods. The development of the method is a major advance in tissue engineering in that, for the first time, a cell-based model spontaneously fuses and differentiates into masses of highly aligned, contracting myotubes. This method enables (1) the construction of improved two-dimensional (monolayer) skeletal muscle test beds; (2) development of contracting three-dimensional tissue models; and (3) improved transplantable tissues for biomedical and regenerative medicine applications. With adaptation, this method also offers potential application for production of other tissue types (i.e., bone and cardiac) from corresponding precursor cells.

  3. Saponin, an inhibitory agent of carbon dioxide production by white cells : its use in the microbiologic examination of blood components in an automated bacterial culture system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorne, Hans; van der Tuuk Adriani, W.P A; van der Ven, L.I; Bosch, E.H; de Natris, T; Smit Sibinga, C.Th.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood components with a white cell count >100 x 10(9) per L may cause false-positive results when the BacT/Alert system is used for the microbiologic examination. The effects of different concentrations of saponin on bacterial growth and on carbon dioxide production by blood fractions

  4. A Cultured Learning Environment: Implementing a Problem- and Service-Based Microbiology Capstone Course to Assess Process- and Skill-Based Learning Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Rachel M.; Willford, John D.; Pfeifer, Mariel A.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a problem-based capstone course was designed to assess the University of Wyoming Microbiology Program's skill-based and process-based student learning objectives. Students partnered with a local farm, a community garden, and a free downtown clinic in order to conceptualize, propose, perform, and present studies addressing problems…

  5. Establishing molecular microbiology facilities in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman S. Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Microbiology laboratories play an important role in epidemiology and infection control programs. Within microbiology laboratories, molecular microbiology techniques have revolutionized the identification and surveillance of infectious diseases. The combination of excellent sensitivity, specificity, low contamination levels and speed has made molecular techniques appealing methods for the diagnosis of many infectious diseases. In a well-equipped microbiology laboratory, the facility designated for molecular techniques remains indiscrete. However, in most developing countries, poor infrastructure and laboratory mismanagement have precipitated hazardous consequences. The establishment of a molecular microbiology facility within a microbiology laboratory remains fragmented. A high-quality laboratory should include both conventional microbiology methods and molecular microbiology techniques for exceptional performance. Furthermore, it should include appropriate laboratory administration, a well-designed facility, laboratory procedure standardization, a waste management system, a code of practice, equipment installation and laboratory personnel training. This manuscript lays out fundamental issues that need to be addressed when establishing a molecular microbiology facility in developing countries. Keywords: Developing country, Molecular technique, Molecular microbiology laboratory

  6. Simple method for culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes of Testudinidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T L; Silva, M I A; Venancio, L P R; Zago, C E S; Moscheta, V A G; Lima, A V B; Vizotto, L D; Santos, J R; Bonini-Domingos, C R; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2011-12-06

    We developed and optimized a simple, efficient and inexpensive method for in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes from the Brazilian tortoise Chelonoidis carbonaria (Testudinidae), testing various parameters, including culture medium, mitogen concentration, mitotic index, culture volume, incubation time, and mitotic arrest. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from the costal vein of four couples. The conditions that gave a good mitotic index were lymphocytes cultured at 37°C in minimum essential medium (7.5 mL), with phytohemagglutinin as a mitogen (0.375 mL), plus streptomycin/penicillin (0.1 mL), and an incubation period of 72 h. Mitotic arrest was induced by 2-h exposure to colchicine (0.1 mL), 70 h after establishing the culture. After mitotic arrest, the cells were hypotonized with 0.075 M KCl for 2 h and fixed with methanol/acetic acid (3:1). The non-banded mitotic chromosomes were visualized by Giemsa staining. The diploid chromosome number of C. carbonaria was found to be 52 in females and males, and sex chromosomes were not observed. We were able to culture peripheral blood lymphocytes of a Brazilian tortoise in vitro, for the preparation of mitotic chromosomes.

  7. Dialectical Method and the Critical Political Economy of Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice Nixon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the quality that defines critical political economy is its critical method. Definitions of the critical political economy of culture are considered and shown to focus on specific theoretical concerns while not fully addressing the fundamental issue of method. Method is here discussed in terms of the way human reason is used to produce knowledge. A critical method for Marx is a historical materialist dialectical method, thus this paper argues for a deeper consideration of the Marxist dialectical method in relation to critical political-economic theorizing. Sources for methodological consideration from Marx to 20th-century Western Marxists are outlined. The potential contribution of the Marxist dialectical method in the continued development of the critical political economy of culture is demonstrated by showing the possibility of developing a complementary critical political economy of consciousness. Smythe’s theorizing of audiences as workers is considered as a useful starting point, and its potential development through incorporation of the work of other critical scholars of media and culture is outlined.

  8. Cytokinesis-block micronucleus method in micro-blood cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinwen; Wang Lianzhi; Yang Cangzhen; Yao Yanyu

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports the cytokinesis-block micronucleus method in micro-blood cultures. The observations on detection induced micronuclei of different doses of 60 Co γ-rays irradiation and spontaneous micronucleus of different ages were performed with CB method in comporison with conventional micronucleus (CM) method. The results showed that with direct peripheral micro-blood cultures the cytoknesis-block micronuclei is also obtained. Using CB method, the micronuclei fequency of different ages was linear relationship, Y = 1.62 + 0.74 D, the spontaneous micronuclei frequency of different ages was 4.14%, the induced micronuclei also was a linear relationship, Y = 6.01 + 0.692 D. Using CM method, it showed that the induced micronuclei was a linear relationship, Y = 0.486 D - 1.968, but there is no significant difference between the micronuclei frequency of different ages. Comparison with CM and direct blood smear methods confirmed that the cytokinesis-block method of micro-blood cultures is more sensitive and precise

  9. Radioisotopic indicators in microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isamov, N.N.

    1976-01-01

    The book comprises data obtained by the laboratory of radiobiology (Uzbek Research Veterinary Institute) for 15 years and sums up data of domestic and foreign scientists; it discusses problems of the utilization of radioactive isotopes of sulphur, cadmium, phosphorus and other chemical elements by microorganisms; indicates the specificity of the utilization of radioisotopes in microbiology. The influence is considered of external factors on the inclusion of radioisotopes into microorganisms, methods are discussed of obtaining labelled microorganisms and their antigens, radioactivity of bacteria is considered as affected by the consistency and composition of the nutritive medium and other problems

  10. Sponge cell culture? A molecular identification method for sponge cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipkema, D.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Osinga, R.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Dissociated sponge cells are easily confused with unicellular organisms. This has been an obstacle in the development of sponge-cell lines. We developed a molecular detection method to identify cells of the sponge Dysidea avara in dissociated cell cultures. The 18S ribosomal RNA gene from a Dysidea

  11. Effect of integration of cultural, botanical, and chemical methods of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted from November 2011 to June 2013 to evaluate the effects of botanical, cultural, and chemical methods on termite colony survival, crop and wooden damage, and other biological activities in Ghimbi district of western Ethiopia. The termite mounds were dug and the following treatments were ...

  12. High-pressure microbiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michiels, Chris; Bartlett, Douglas Hoyt; Aertsen, Abram

    2008-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. High Hydrostatic Pressure Effects in the Biosphere: from Molecules to Microbiology * Filip Meersman and Karel Heremans . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Effects...

  13. A simple method for rapid microbial identification from positive monomicrobial blood culture bottles through matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Ge, Mao-Cheng; Liu, Tsui-Ping; Chang, Shih-Cheng; Lu, Jang-Jih

    2017-06-30

    Rapid identification of microbes in the bloodstream is crucial in managing septicemia because of its high disease severity, and direct identification from positive blood culture bottles through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) can shorten the turnaround time. Therefore, we developed a simple method for rapid microbiological identification from positive blood cultures by using MALDI-TOF MS. We modified previously developed methods to propose a faster, simpler and more economical method, which includes centrifugation and hemolysis. Specifically, our method comprises two-stage centrifugation with gravitational acceleration (g) at 600g and 3000g, followed by the addition of a lysis buffer and another 3000g centrifugation. In total, 324 monomicrobial bacterial cultures were identified. The success rate of species identification was 81.8%, which is comparable with other complex methods. The identification success rate was the highest for Gram-negative aerobes (85%), followed by Gram-positive aerobes (78.2%) and anaerobes (67%). The proposed method requires less than 10 min, costs less than US$0.2 per usage, and facilitates batch processing. We conclude that this method is feasible for clinical use in microbiology laboratories, and can serve as a reference for treatments or further complementary diagnostic testing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Evaluation of a multiplex real-time PCR method for detecting shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef and comparison to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology laboratory guidebook method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratamico, Pina M; Wasilenko, Jamie L; Garman, Bradley; Demarco, Daniel R; Varkey, Stephen; Jensen, Mark; Rhoden, Kyle; Tice, George

    2014-02-01

    The "top-six" non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) most frequently associated with outbreaks and cases of foodborne illnesses have been declared as adulterants in beef by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). Regulatory testing in beef began in June 2012. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the DuPont BAX System method for detecting these top six STEC strains and strains of E. coli O157:H7. For STEC, the BAX System real-time STEC suite was evaluated, including a screening assay for the stx and eae virulence genes and two panel assays to identify the target serogroups: panel 1 detects O26, O111, and O121, and panel 2 detects O45, O103, O145. For E. coli O157:H7, the BAX System real-time PCR assay for this specific serotype was used. Sensitivity of each assay for the PCR targets was ≥1.23 × 10(3) CFU/ml in pure culture. Each assay was 100% inclusive for the strains tested (20 to 50 per assay), and no cross-reactivity with closely related strains was observed in any of the assays. The performance of the BAX System methods was compared with that of the FSIS Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) methods for detection of the top six STEC and E. coli O157:H7 strains in ground beef and beef trim. Generally, results of the BAX System method were similar to those of the MLG methods for detecting non-O157 STEC and E. coli O157:H7. Reducing or eliminating novobiocin in modified tryptic soy broth (mTSB) may improve the detection of STEC O111 strains; one beef trim sample inoculated with STEC O111 produced a negative result when enriched in mTSB with 8 mg/liter novobiocin but was positive when enriched in mTSB without novobiocin. The results of this study indicate the feasibility of deploying a panel of real-time PCR assay configurations for the detection and monitoring of the top six STEC and E. coli O157:H7 strains in beef. The approach could easily be adapted

  15. Aquatic Microbiology Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robert C.; And Others

    This laboratory manual presents information and techniques dealing with aquatic microbiology as it relates to environmental health science, sanitary engineering, and environmental microbiology. The contents are divided into three categories: (1) ecological and physiological considerations; (2) public health aspects; and (3)microbiology of water…

  16. Microbiology of middle meatus in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariante, Afonso Ravanello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The nasosinusal microbiology of healthy individuals is not much documented. Its knowledge allows to determine the nasosinusal colonizing agents and to monitor the patterns of bacterial resistance. Objective: To evaluate the microbiology of the middle meatus in healthy individuals and to compare it with that of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Method: 61 healthy individuals were included. The samples were collected under endoscopic view and Gram stained with leucocytes count and aerobic, anaerobic and fungus cultures. 114 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis formed the control group. Results: In healthy individuals 58 microorganisms were isolated. The most frequent ones were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium. Fungi were cultivated in 10%. There were rare or no white blood cells in all samples. There was penicillin resistance in 75% of the Staphylococcus aureus and 69% of the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. As for oxacillin, 100% of Staphylococcus aureus and 92% of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus were sensitive. In the control group 158 microorganisms were cultivated. The most common ones were Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Gram-negatives represented 26% of the aerobics. 73% of the samples with positive cultures presented a few or many white blood cells. Conclusion: Rare or no white blood cell, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium were more frequent in healthy individuals and Streptococcus pneumoniae, anaerobics and oxacillin resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Gram-negative were more frequent in the control group.

  17. The discussion on the qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods for safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Kefu

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental methods for safely culture evaluation are described. Combining with the practice of the quantitative evaluation of safety culture in Daya Bay NPP, the quantitative evaluation method for safety culture are discussed. (author)

  18. ADSA Foundation Scholar Award: Trends in culture-independent methods for assessing dairy food quality and safety: emerging metagenomic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Marie

    2012-12-01

    Enhancing the quality and safety of dairy food is critical to maintaining the competitiveness of dairy products in the food and beverage market and in reinforcing consumer confidence in the dairy industry. Raw milk quality has a significant effect on finished product quality. Several microbial groups found in raw milk have been shown to adversely affect the shelf life of pasteurized milk. Current microbiological criteria used to define milk quality are based primarily on culture-dependent methods, some of which are perceived to lack the desired sensitivity and specificity. To supplement traditional methods, culture-independent methods are increasingly being used to identify specific species or microbial groups, and to detect indicator genes or proteins in raw milk or dairy products. Some molecular subtyping techniques have been developed to track the transmission of microbes in dairy environments. The burgeoning "-omics" technologies offer new and exciting opportunities to enhance our understanding of food quality and safety in relation to microbes. Metagenomics has the potential to characterize microbial diversity, detect nonculturable microbes, and identify unique sequences or other factors associated with dairy product quality and safety. In this review, fluid milk will be used as the primary example to examine the adequacy and validity of conventional methods, the current trend of culture-independent methods, and the potential applications of metagenomics in dairy food research. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of three culture methods on intensive culture system of pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen; Wan, Rong; Song, Xiefa; Gao, Lei

    2013-09-01

    Different culture methods may affect the intensive culture system of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) regarding water quality and growth and economic performance. This study evaluated the potential effects of three culture methods through cultivation of juvenile shrimps under consistent tank management conditions for 84 d. The three methods involved shrimp cultivation in different tanks, i.e., outdoor tanks with cement bottom (mode-C), greenhouse tanks with cement bottom (mode-G) and outdoor tanks with mud-substrate (mode-M). Results showed that water temperature was significantly higher in mode-G than that in mode-C ( P shrimps. In the mid-late period, the average concentrations of TAN, NO2-N, DIP and COD were significantly lower in mode-M and mode-G compared with those in mode-C ( P shrimp weight among different treatments ( P > 0.05), mode-M had significantly higher shrimp yield, survival rate and feed conversion rate ( P < 0.05) than other modes. There were significant differences in revenue and net return among different treatments ( P < 0.05). These demonstrated that the treatments of mode-G and mode-M were conductive to the intensive culture system of L. vannamei.

  20. Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in turkey samples: evaluation of two automated enzyme immunoassays and conventional microbiological techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borck, Birgitte; Stryhn, H.; Ersboll, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of two automated enzyme immunoassays (EIA), EiaFoss and Minividas, and a conventional microbiological culture technique for detecting thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in turkey samples. Methods and Results: A total of 286 samples (faecal, meat...

  1. Automation in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Susan M; Marlowe, Elizabeth M

    2013-09-01

    Imagine a clinical microbiology laboratory where a patient's specimens are placed on a conveyor belt and sent on an automation line for processing and plating. Technologists need only log onto a computer to visualize the images of a culture and send to a mass spectrometer for identification. Once a pathogen is identified, the system knows to send the colony for susceptibility testing. This is the future of the clinical microbiology laboratory. This article outlines the operational and staffing challenges facing clinical microbiology laboratories and the evolution of automation that is shaping the way laboratory medicine will be practiced in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sterilization validation for medical devices at IRASM microbiological laboratory—Practical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandafir, Laura; Alexandru, Mioara; Constantin, Mihai; Ioniţă, Anca; Zorilă, Florina; Moise, Valentin

    2012-09-01

    EN ISO 11137 established regulations for setting or substantiating the dose for achieving the desired sterility assurance level. The validation studies can be designed in particular for different types of products. Each product needs distinct protocols for bioburden determination and sterility testing. The Microbiological Laboratory from Irradiation Processing Center (IRASM) deals with different types of products, mainly for the VDmax25 method. When it comes to microbiological evaluation the most challenging was cotton gauze. A special situation for establishing the sterilization validation method appears in cases of cotton packed in large quantities. The VDmax25 method cannot be applied for items with average bioburden more than 1000 CFU/pack, irrespective of the weight of the package. This is a method limitation and implies increased costs for the manufacturer when choosing other methods. For microbiological tests, culture condition should be selected in both cases of the bioburden and sterility testing. Details about choosing criteria are given.

  3. Methods to Improve Cultural Communication Skills in Special Operations Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wise, J

    1998-01-01

    .... Three culture-specific templates were developed, each describing a culture and identifying culture-specific behaviors that were prioritized through focus groups of cultural informants and clustering analysis...

  4. What do physicians tell laboratories when requesting tests? A multi-method examination of information supplied to the microbiology laboratory before and after the introduction of electronic ordering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Andrew; Prgomet, Mirela; Toouli, George; Callen, Joanne; Westbrook, Johanna

    2011-09-01

    The provision of relevant clinical information on pathology requests is an important part of facilitating appropriate laboratory utilization and accurate results interpretation and reporting. (1) To determine the quantity and importance of handwritten clinical information provided by physicians to the Microbiology Department of a hospital pathology service; and (2) to examine the impact of a Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) system on the nature of clinical information communication to the laboratory. A multi-method and multi-stage investigation which included: (a) a retrospective audit of all handwritten Microbiology requests received over a 1-month period in the Microbiology Department of a large metropolitan teaching hospital; (b) the administration of a survey to laboratory professionals to investigate the impact of different clinical information on the processing and/or interpretation of tests; (c) an expert panel consisting of medical staff and senior scientists to assess the survey findings and their impact on pathology practice and patient care; and (d) a comparison of the provision and value of clinical information before CPOE, and across 3 years after its implementation. The audit of handwritten requests found that 43% (n=4215) contained patient-related clinical information. The laboratory survey showed that 97% (84/86) of the different types of clinical information provided for wound specimens and 86% (43/50) for stool specimens were shown to have an effect on the processing or interpretation of the specimens by one or more laboratory professionals. The evaluation of the impact of CPOE revealed a significant improvement in the provision of useful clinical information from 2005 to 2008, rising from 90.1% (n=749) to 99.8% (n=915) (p<.0001) for wound specimens and 34% (n=129) to 86% (n=422) (p<.0001) for stool specimens. This study showed that the CPOE system provided an integrated platform to access and exchange valuable patient-related information

  5. Diversity of endophytic bacteria of Dendrobium officinale based on culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Pei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were compared and evaluated in the study of the endophytic diversity of Dendrobium officinale. Culture-independent methods consisted of polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE and metagenome methods. According to the results, differences were found between the three methods. Three phyla, namely Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria, were detected using the culture-dependent method, and two phyla, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, were detected by the DGGE method. Using the metagenome method, four major phyla were determined, including Proteobacteria (76.54%, Actinobacteria (18.56%, Firmicutes (2.27%, and Bacteroidetes (1.56%. A distinct trend was obtained at the genus level in terms of the method and the corresponding number of genera determined. There were 449 genera and 16 genera obtained from the metagenome and DGGE methods, respectively, and only 7 genera were obtained through the culture-dependent method. By comparison, all the genera from the culture-dependent and DGGE methods were contained in the members determined using the metagenome method. Overall, culture-dependent methods are limited to ‘finding’ endophytic bacteria in plants. DGGE is an alternative to investigating primary diversity patterns; however, the metagenome method is still the best choice for determining the endophytic profile in plants. It is essential to use multiphasic approaches to study cultured and uncultured microbes.

  6. Microbiological method for radiation sterilization (II). Identification procedure of gram positive bacteria by using BBL CRYSTAL GP identification kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshikawa, Tomihiko

    2004-01-01

    The part II in this title series describes details of the commercially available BBL CRYSTAL GP Identification Kit with the software (Becton, Dickinson and Co., Ltd.), by which identification of Gram positive bacteria as well as their number becoming easier in the radiation sterilization of medical devices. Isolation of a bacterium has to be confirmed by microscopy and its Gram positive property, by the Gram staining. The exponentially growing bacteria are to be inoculated in the Kit and cultured for 18-24 hr at 37 deg C with the lid attached by substrates for identification. Reactions to substrates are to be judged by CRYSTAL auto-reader, which is further to be searched by the computer software (code-book) for final identification. For possible misidentification, re-isolation of the bacterium, prolonged culture, concentrated inoculation and re-consideration for ranking of identification the software provides are necessary as well as other identification approaches. Representative bacteria as the bioburden are spp. of Bacilli, Corynebacteria, Staphylococci and Micrococci. (N.I.)

  7. Development of a New Safety Culture Assessment Method for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) (A study to suggest a new safety culture assessment method in nuclear power plants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Min; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    This study is conducted to suggest a new safety culture assessment method in nuclear power plants. Criteria with various existing safety culture analysis methods are united, and reliability analysis methods are applied. The concept of the most representative methods, Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), are adopted to assess safety culture. Through this application, it is expected that the suggested method will bring results with convenience and objectiveness.

  8. Development of a New Safety Culture Assessment Method for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) (A study to suggest a new safety culture assessment method in nuclear power plants)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Min; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    This study is conducted to suggest a new safety culture assessment method in nuclear power plants. Criteria with various existing safety culture analysis methods are united, and reliability analysis methods are applied. The concept of the most representative methods, Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), are adopted to assess safety culture. Through this application, it is expected that the suggested method will bring results with convenience and objectiveness

  9. Electron microscopy methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, A. L., E-mail: a.vasiliev56@gmail.com; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The history of the development and application of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA) in studies of cultural heritage sites is considered. In fact, investigations based on these methods began when electron microscopes became a commercial product. Currently, these methods, being developed and improved, help solve many historical enigmas. To date, electron microscopy combined with microanalysis makes it possible to investigate any object, from parchment and wooden articles to pigments, tools, and objects of art. Studies by these methods have revealed that some articles were made by ancient masters using ancient “nanotechnologies”; hence, their comprehensive analysis calls for the latest achievements in the corresponding instrumental methods and sample preparation techniques.

  10. Electron microscopy methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, A. L.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B.

    2016-11-01

    The history of the development and application of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA) in studies of cultural heritage sites is considered. In fact, investigations based on these methods began when electron microscopes became a commercial product. Currently, these methods, being developed and improved, help solve many historical enigmas. To date, electron microscopy combined with microanalysis makes it possible to investigate any object, from parchment and wooden articles to pigments, tools, and objects of art. Studies by these methods have revealed that some articles were made by ancient masters using ancient "nanotechnologies"; hence, their comprehensive analysis calls for the latest achievements in the corresponding instrumental methods and sample preparation techniques.

  11. Electron microscopy methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, A. L.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B.

    2016-01-01

    The history of the development and application of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA) in studies of cultural heritage sites is considered. In fact, investigations based on these methods began when electron microscopes became a commercial product. Currently, these methods, being developed and improved, help solve many historical enigmas. To date, electron microscopy combined with microanalysis makes it possible to investigate any object, from parchment and wooden articles to pigments, tools, and objects of art. Studies by these methods have revealed that some articles were made by ancient masters using ancient “nanotechnologies”; hence, their comprehensive analysis calls for the latest achievements in the corresponding instrumental methods and sample preparation techniques.

  12. Clinical, Radiological, Microbiological, and Histopathological Aspects of Acquired Dacryocystoceles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selam Yekta Sendul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study is to investigate the etiology and the clinical, microbiological, histopathological, and radiological findings of acquired dacryocystoceles. Methods. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the clinical records of 10 eyes of 8 patients with dacryocystoceles who underwent external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR surgery. Etiology, presenting symptoms and radiological findings as well as microbiological and histopathological assessment results and outcome were analyzed. Results. The records of 8 patients with dacryocystoceles were included in this study. In the histopathological evaluations of the samples collected from the lacrimal sac wall, chronic inflammation was found in all biopsied samples and fibrosis was observed in two histopathological evaluations. Computerized tomography (CT imaging showed fluid collection separated from adjacent tissues by a thin rim, corresponding to dacryocystoceles in the sac. In the microbiological culture examination of samples collected from the fluid within the cyst, no bacterial growth in 5 eyes, gram-negative bacillus growth in 3 eyes, and gram-positive cocci growth in 2 eyes were found. Conclusions. Acquired dacryocystoceles were observed extremely rarely and a definite pathogenic agent could not be identified in any of the cases, either microbiologically or histologically, whereas chronic inflammation was detected in all cases in our study.

  13. Understanding Global / Local Cultural Leadership : Issues and Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolsteeg, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Cultural leaders sail between the Scylla and Charibdis of aggregated trans- and supranational cultural-political discourses and the cultural needs of local communities. How do these dynamics influence the work of cultural leaders? How can we understand the work of cultural leaders to connect

  14. Comparison of PCR method with the culture method for identification of gonococci from endocervical swabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam A

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Gonococcal infection remains still a major cause of morbidity among sexually active individuals. Diagnosis of the infection in a female case is more difficult than that in a male. This was a prospective study among 269 female commercial sex workers (CSWs to screen them for gonococcal infection, comparing the rapid method of identification of gonococci by polymerase chain reaction (PCR with the selective culture method. A total of 92 (34.2% CSWs were identified positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae by combination of the two methods. The PCR method identified 87 of the specimens to harbour cppB gene of N. gonorrhoeae, whereas culture method identified 83 specimens showing colonies of gonococci. Taking into consideration of the total positive cases (92, the PCR method showed a sensitivity of 94.57%, whereas sensitivity of culture method was 90.22%. The selective culture method appears to be the most applicable in the identification of gonococci from clinical specimens, particularly in the less resourceful countries like Bangladesh.

  15. Microbiological Surveillance and State of the Art Technological Strategies for the Prevention of Dialysis Water Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Galfrè

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods: The present report attempts to illustrate the positive impact on the microbiological quality of dialysis patients over a 15-year period through the progressive implementation of state-of-the-art technological strategies and the optimization of microbiological surveillance procedures in five dialysis units in Sardinia. Results: Following on better microbiological, quality controls of dialysis water and improvement of procedures and equipment, a drastic improvement of microbiological water quality was observed in a total of 945 samples. The main aim was to introduce the use of microbiological culture methods as recommended by the most important guidelines. The microbiological results obtained have led to a progressive refining of controls and introduction of new materials and equipment, including two-stage osmosis and piping distribution rings featuring a greater capacity to prevent biofilm adhesion. The actions undertaken have resulted in unexpected quality improvements. Conclusions: Dialysis water should be viewed by the nephrologist as a medicinal product exerting a demonstrable positive impact on microinflammation in dialysis patients. A synergic effort between nephrologists and microbiologists undoubtedly constitutes the most effective means of preventing dialysis infections.

  16. Automation in Clinical Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the trend toward automation in clinical pathology laboratories has largely bypassed the clinical microbiology laboratory. In this article, we review the historical impediments to automation in the microbiology laboratory and offer insight into the reasons why we believe that we are on the cusp of a dramatic change that will sweep a wave of automation into clinical microbiology laboratories. We review the currently available specimen-processing instruments as well as the total laboratory automation solutions. Lastly, we outline the types of studies that will need to be performed to fully assess the benefits of automation in microbiology laboratories. PMID:23515547

  17. ANALYTICAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment that performs a broad array of microbiological analyses for pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It performs challenge studies...

  18. Environmental Microbiology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, located in Bldg. 644 provides a dual-gas respirometer for measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide evolution...

  19. Culture, Method, and the Content of Self-Concepts: Testing Trait, Individual-Self-Primacy, and Cultural Psychology Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prado, Alicia M; Church, A Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S; Miramontes, Lilia G; Whitty, Monica; Curtis, Guy J; de Jesús Vargas-Flores, José; Ibáñez-Reyes, Joselina; Ortiz, Fernando A; Reyes, Jose Alberto S

    2007-12-01

    Three theoretical perspectives on cultural universals and differences in the content of self-concepts were tested in individualistic (United States, n = 178; Australia, n = 112) and collectivistic (Mexico, n = 157; Philippines, n = 138) cultures, using three methods of self-concept assessment. Support was found for both trait perspectives and the individual-self-primacy hypothesis. In contrast, support for cultural psychology hypotheses was limited because traits and other personal attributes were not more salient, or social attributes less salient, in individualistic cultures than collectivistic cultures. The salience of some aspects of self-concept depended on the method of assessment, calling into question conclusions based on monomethod studies.

  20. A new method to culture sweetpotato in space farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuki, I.; Ishii, Y.; Oda, M.; Kitaya, Y.; Mori, G.

    Sweetpotato production in space has many advantages over that of other crops; the plant has a higher growth rate and a higher yield with less fertilizer and less water, and functions as an efficient CO_2/O_2 converter. In a limited space in space farming, however, it is not favorable that sweetpotato shoots develop vigorously while the roots have not enlarged yet, because the sweetpotato organ of interest is not the shoot but the tuberous root. Cuttings of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam. "Beniazuma") were used in this study. Each cutting was cut off from the 2nd - 10th nodes from the apices of mother branches and consisted of one expanded leaf, one node and five cm long stem. The cuttings were cultured suboptimally on a mixed soil (peat-moss:vermiculite=1:1 in volume) in a greenhouse under sunlight. Growth characteristics of the cuttings removed axillary buds were compared with cuttings with axillary buds in the first experiment. The cuttings without axillary buds started tuberous root bulking about 30 days after the onset of the experiment. The harvest index (tuberous root dry mass/total dry mass) was 0.5 after 70 days. Whereas, the control plant with an axillary bud developed a lateral shoot and formed no tuberous root during 70 days in the experiment. It was necessary to remove the axillary buds in order to form the tuberous roots in this method. To evaluate the effect of light intensity on tuberous root formation, cuttings without axillary buds were shaded with cheesecloth having 43% of light transmittance in the second experiment. The tuberous root formation was retarded 50 days in shaded cuttings compared with control cuttings. The tuberous roots were quickly formed and the large harvest index was ensured in this method with cuttings without axillary buds. Therefore the method is expected to be advantageous to culture sweetpotato at a high density with rapid turn over in a limited culture space in space farming.

  1. Microbiological diagnosis in revision of infected knee arthroplasties in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, Martin; Pitter, Frederik Taylor; Voldstedlund, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    . METHODS: One hundred and two partial revisions (open debridement and exchange of tibial insert) and 213 two-stage procedures performed due to infection in 275 patients from 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2013 were included and analysed by linkage to data from a nationwide registry on microbiological test results....... RESULTS: 78 (24.8%) revisions were culture negative, 192 (60.9%) showed monomicrobial growth and 43 (14.3%) polymicrobial growth. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent isolate in mono-culture in 70 (22.2%) revisions and in polymicrobial culture in 15 revisions with a total frequency of 27.0%. Only...... one case (1.4%) of methicillin-resistance was registered. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were frequent, sole pathogen in 65 revisions and in polymicrobial cultures in 28 revisions with a total frequency of 29.5%. A pre-operative knee aspiration was performed in 50% and preoperative blood...

  2. Preservation of live cultures of basidiomycetes - recent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homolka, Ladislav

    2014-02-01

    Basidiomycetes are used in industrial processes, in basic or applied research, teaching, systematic and biodiversity studies. Efficient work with basidiomycete cultures requires their reliable source, which is ensured by their safe long-term storage. Repeated subculturing, frequently used for the preservation, is time-consuming, prone to contamination, and does not prevent genetic and physiological changes during long-term maintenance. Various storage methods have been developed in order to eliminate these disadvantages. Besides lyophilization (unsuitable for the majority of basidiomycetes), cryopreservation at low temperatures seems to be a very efficient way to attain this goal. Besides survival, another requirement for successful maintenance of fungal strains is the ability to preserve their features unchanged. An ideal method has not been created so far. Therefore it is highly desirable to develop new or improve the current preservation methods, combining advantages and eliminate disadvantages of individual techniques. Many reviews on preservation of microorganisms including basidiomycetes have been published, but the progress in the field requires an update. Although herbaria specimens of fungi (and of basidiomycetes in particular) are very important for taxonomic and especially typological studies, this review is limited to live fungal cultures. Copyright © 2013 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbiology of Animal Bite Wound Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamian, Fredrick M.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans is often polymicrobial, with a broad mixture of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Bacteria recovered from infected bite wounds are most often reflective of the oral flora of the biting animal, which can also be influenced by the microbiome of their ingested prey and other foods. Bacteria may also originate from the victim's own skin or the physical environment at the time of injury. Our review has focused on bite wound infections in humans from dogs, cats, and a variety of other animals such as monkeys, bears, pigs, ferrets, horses, sheep, Tasmanian devils, snakes, Komodo dragons, monitor lizards, iguanas, alligators/crocodiles, rats, guinea pigs, hamsters, prairie dogs, swans, and sharks. The medical literature in this area has been made up mostly of small case series or case reports. Very few studies have been systematic and are often limited to dog or cat bite injuries. Limitations of studies include a lack of established or inconsistent criteria for an infected wound and a failure to utilize optimal techniques in pathogen isolation, especially for anaerobic organisms. There is also a lack of an understanding of the pathogenic significance of all cultured organisms. Gathering information and conducting research in a more systematic and methodical fashion through an organized research network, including zoos, veterinary practices, and rural clinics and hospitals, are needed to better define the microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans. PMID:21482724

  4. Microbiological survey of birds of prey pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Bossa, Luigi Maria De Luca; Pace, Antonino; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Caputo, Vincenzo; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    A microbiological survey of 73 pellets collected from different birds of prey species housed at the Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Center of Napoli (southern Italy) was performed. Pellets were analyzed by culture and biochemical methods as well as by serotyping and polymerase chain reaction. We isolated a wide range of bacteria some of them also pathogens for humans (i.e. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, Campylobacter coli, Escherichia coli O serogroups). This study highlights the potential role of birds of prey as asymptomatic carriers of pathogenic bacteria which could be disseminated in the environment not only through the birds of prey feces but also through their pellets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Are the Conventional Commercial Yeast Identification Methods Still Helpful in the Era of New Clinical Microbiology Diagnostics? A Meta-Analysis of Their Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posteraro, Brunella; Efremov, Ljupcho; Leoncini, Emanuele; Amore, Rosarita; Posteraro, Patrizia; Ricciardi, Walter; Sanguinetti, Maurizio

    2015-08-01

    Accurate identification of pathogenic species is important for early appropriate patient management, but growing diversity of infectious species/strains makes the identification of clinical yeasts increasingly difficult. Among conventional methods that are commercially available, the API ID32C, AuxaColor, and Vitek 2 systems are currently the most used systems in routine clinical microbiology. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate and to compare the accuracy of the three systems, in order to assess whether they are still of value for the species-level identification of medically relevant yeasts. After adopting rigorous selection criteria, we included 26 published studies involving Candida and non-Candida yeasts that were tested with the API ID32C (674 isolates), AuxaColor (1,740 isolates), and Vitek 2 (2,853 isolates) systems. The random-effects pooled identification ratios at the species level were 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.95) for the API ID32C system, 0.89 (95% CI, 0.83 to 0.93) for the AuxaColor system, and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.89 to 0.96) for the Vitek 2 system (P for heterogeneity, 0.255). Overall, the accuracy of studies using phenotypic analysis-based comparison methods was comparable to that of studies using molecular analysis-based comparison methods. Subanalysis of studies conducted on Candida yeasts showed that the Vitek 2 system was significantly more accurate (pooled ratio, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.85 to 0.99]) than the API ID32C system (pooled ratio, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.61 to 0.99]) and the AuxaColor system (pooled ratio, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.67 to 0.84]) with respect to uncommon species (P for heterogeneity, 0.05). Nonetheless, clinical microbiologists should reconsider the usefulness of these systems, particularly in light of new diagnostic tools such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, which allow for considerably shortened turnaround times and/or avoid the requirement

  6. The Effect of Plant Cultivar, Growth Media, Harvest Method and Post Harvest Treatment on the Microbiology of Edible Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummerick, Mary P.; Gates, Justin R.; Nguyen, Bao-Thang; Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    Systems for the growth of crops in closed environments are being developed and tested for potential use in space applications to provide a source of fresh food. Plant growth conditions, growth media composition and harvest methods can have an effect on the microbial population of the plant, and therefore should be considered along with the optimization of plant growth and harvest yields to ensure a safe and palatable food crop. This work examines the effect of plant cultivar, growth media, and harvest method on plant microbial populations. Twelve varieties of leafy greens and herbs were grown on a mixture of Fafard #2 and Arcillite in the pillow root containment system currently being considered for the VEGGIE plant growth unit developed by Orbitec. In addition, ,Sierra and Outredgeous lettuce varieties were grown in three different mixtures (Fafard #2, Ardllite, and Perlite/Vermiculite). The plants were analyzed for microbial density. Two harvest methods, "cut and come again" (CACA) and terminal harvest were also compared. In one set ofexpe'riments red leaf lettuce and mizuna were grown in pots in a Biomass Production System for education. Plants were harvested every two weeks by either method. Another set of experiments was performed using the rooting pillows to grow 5 varieties of leafy greens and cut harvesting at different intervals. Radishes were harvested and replanted at two-week intervals. Results indicate up to a 3 IOglO difference in microbial counts between some varieties of plants. Rooting medium resulted in an approximately 2 IOglO lower count in the lettuce grown in arscillite then those grown in the other mixtures. Harvest method and frequency had less impact on microbial counts only showing a significant increase in one variety of plant. Post harvest methods to decrease the bacterial counts on edible crops were investigated in these and other experiments. The effectiveness of PRO-SAN and UV-C radiation is compared.

  7. Participatory Methods and UCA Project: understanding technologies as culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Pischetola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the complex and changing context of digital culture, the media become an important space of relation, as they have the crucial role of articulating new cultural logics that lead to disruptions in the school environment. To understand this change, new methods of analysis and research have been created, the so-called Participatory Methodologies. They are action research strategies aimed at intervening in a given social situation. In the analysis proposed here, such methodologies will help us to address the challenge of involving digital technologies in school culture, through the participation of different individuals involved. Two qualitative case studies about the project Um Computador por Aluno – the Brazilian One Laptop per Child -, carried out in 2012 in the schools of Santa Catarina and Bahia, are the first of two phases of the research presented. The results concern a "vertical" form of technology insertion in schools, which led to frustration and de-motivation at several levels. Starting from these considerations, the second stage of research proposes a pedagogical intervention in one of four schools in the field. The methodologies of participatory video and photography are chosen as possibilities of action-reflection-action on the sociocultural reality of students through the experience of sharing. The results show the importance of carrying out creative activities, appropriate to a social conception of learning, as well as the centrality of children and youth as agency and a broader need to redefine the relationship between teacher and student, in a more "horizontal" perspective process of teaching and learning. Keywords: Projeto UCA. Participatory Research Method. Innovative teaching-learning.

  8. Evaluation of microbial diversity in the pilot-scale beer brewing process by culture-dependent and culture-independent method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, M; Kita, Y; Kusaka, K; Mizuno, A; Goto-Yamamoto, N

    2015-02-01

    In the brewing industry, microbial management is very important for stabilizing the quality of the product. We investigated the detailed microbial community of beer during fermentation and maturation, to manage beer microbiology in more detail. We brewed a beer (all-malt) and two beerlike beverages (half- and low-malt) in pilot-scale fermentation and investigated the microbial community of them using a next-generation sequencer (454 GS FLX titanium), quantitative PCR, flow cytometry and a culture-dependent method. From 28 to 88 genera of bacteria and from 9 to 38 genera of eukaryotic micro-organisms were detected in each sample. Almost all micro-organisms died out during the boiling process. However, bacteria belonging to the genera Acidovorax, Bacillus, Brevundimonas, Caulobacter, Chryseobacterium, Methylobacterium, Paenibacillus, Polaromonas, Pseudomonas, Ralstonia, Sphingomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Tepidimonas and Tissierella were detected at the early and middle stage of fermentation, even though their cell densities were low (below approx. 10(3) cells ml(-1) ) and they were not almost detected at the end of fermentation. We revealed that the microbial community of beer during fermentation and maturation is very diverse and several bacteria possibly survive during fermentation. In this study, we revealed the detailed microbial communities of beer using next-generation sequencing. Some of the micro-organisms detected in this study were found in beer brewing process for the first time. Additionally, the possibility of growth of several bacteria at the early and middle stage of fermentation was suggested. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...

  10. Evaluation of the performance of the IQ-check kits and the USDA microbiology laboratory guidebook methods for detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli (STEC) and STEC and Salmonella simultaneously in ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To evaluate the performance of the IQ-Check kits and the USDA Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) methods for detection of the top 7 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) (O157:H7, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) in ground beef and both STEC and Salmonella in co-inoculated samples. M...

  11. Evaluation of infectious diseases and clinical microbiology specialists' preferences for hand hygiene: analysis using the multi-attribute utility theory and the analytic hierarchy process methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suner, Aslı; Oruc, Ozlem Ege; Buke, Cagri; Ozkaya, Hacer Deniz; Kitapcioglu, Gul

    2017-08-31

    Hand hygiene is one of the most effective attempts to control nosocomial infections, and it is an important measure to avoid the transmission of pathogens. However, the compliance of healthcare workers (HCWs) with hand washing is still poor worldwide. Herein, we aimed to determine the best hand hygiene preference of the infectious diseases and clinical microbiology (IDCM) specialists to prevent transmission of microorganisms from one patient to another. Expert opinions regarding the criteria that influence the best hand hygiene preference were collected through a questionnaire via face-to-face interviews. Afterwards, these opinions were examined with two widely used multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods, the Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT) and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). A total of 15 IDCM specialist opinions were collected from diverse private and public hospitals located in İzmir, Turkey. The mean age of the participants was 49.73 ± 8.46, and the mean experience year of the participants in their fields was 17.67 ± 11.98. The findings that we obtained through two distinct decision making methods, the MAUT and the AHP, suggest that alcohol-based antiseptic solution (ABAS) has the highest utility (0.86) and priority (0.69) among the experts' choices. In conclusion, the MAUT and the AHP, decision models developed here indicate that rubbing the hands with ABAS is the most favorable choice for IDCM specialists to prevent nosocomial infection.

  12. Residue determination of two co-administered antibacterial agents--cephalexin and colistin--in calf tissues using high-performance liquid chromatography and microbiological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, P; Decolin, D; Nicolas, S; Archimbault, P; Nicolas, A

    1989-01-01

    Residues of two antibacterial agents, cephalexin and colistin, co-administered by intramuscular injection to calves, were quantified in four different tissues (muscle, fat, liver and kidney) by column switching HPLC and by a microbiological method. For cephalexin assay, tissue samples with cephradin as internal standard were homogenized in a 5% trichloroacetic acid solution and filtrates were injected onto a concentration precolumn filled with LiChroprep RP-18 (25-40 microns). A clean-up step was incorporated by flowing a mobile phase (methanol-0.01 M phosphate buffer (pH 3.0); 15:85, v/v) through the enrichment column before elution on a LiChrospher RP-18e (5 microns) column with a methanol-phosphate buffer (30:70, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 ml min-1. Spectrometric detection was at 260 nm. An additional "off-line" washing step of extracts with methylene chloride was operated to achieve higher selectivity in the case of liver and kidney samples. The limit for quantitative assay was 0.045 micrograms g-1 with relative standard deviations in the range 5-8% and recoveries within 70%. For microbiological assay of colistin, samples were homogenized in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid-acetonitrile mixtures (3:1, v/v, for kidney and liver; 3:2, v/v, for fat and muscle). The supernatants were assayed by the cylinder plate method after evaporation to dryness under vacuum. Bordetella bronchiseptica ATCC 4617 was chosen as test organism. After a 3-h diffusion step at room temperature, the medium was incubated at 37 degrees C for 18 h and then the diameter of the growth inhibition zones was measured. Sensitivity reached 0.10-0.15 micrograms g-1. Results from the analysed samples over a 7-28 day period after drug administration show that no cephalexin was found at concentrations higher than the quantitation limit in the four test tissues and that colistin was found in muscle (injection site only) for 15 days and in kidney for 21 days.

  13. Microbiological surveillance and state of the art technological strategies for the prevention of dialysis water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolasco, Piergiorgio; Contu, Antonio; Meloni, Patrizia; Vacca, Dorio; Galfrè, Andrea

    2012-08-01

    The present report attempts to illustrate the positive impact on the microbiological quality of dialysis patients over a 15-year period through the progressive implementation of state-of-the-art technological strategies and the optimization of microbiological surveillance procedures in five dialysis units in Sardinia. Following on better microbiological, quality controls of dialysis water and improvement of procedures and equipment, a drastic improvement of microbiological water quality was observed in a total of 945 samples. The main aim was to introduce the use of microbiological culture methods as recommended by the most important guidelines. The microbiological results obtained have led to a progressive refining of controls and introduction of new materials and equipment, including two-stage osmosis and piping distribution rings featuring a greater capacity to prevent biofilm adhesion. The actions undertaken have resulted in unexpected quality improvements. Dialysis water should be viewed by the nephrologist as a medicinal product exerting a demonstrable positive impact on microinflammation in dialysis patients. A synergic effort between nephrologists and microbiologists undoubtedly constitutes the most effective means of preventing dialysis infections.

  14. Application of the microbiological method DEFT/APC and DNA comet assay to detect ionizing radiation processing of minimally processed vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Michel Mozeika

    2008-01-01

    Marketing of minimally processed vegetables (MPV) are gaining impetus due to its convenience, freshness and apparent healthy. However, minimal processing does not reduce pathogenic microorganisms to safe levels. Food irradiation is used to extend the shelf life and inactivation of food-borne pathogens, Its combination with minimal processing could improve the safety and quality of MPV. Two different food irradiation detection methods, a biological, the DEFT/APC, and another biochemical, the DNA Comet Assay were applied to MPV in order to test its applicability to detect irradiation treatment. DEFT/APC is a microbiological screening method based on the use of the direct epi fluorescent filter technique (DEFT) and the aerobic plate count (APC). DNA Comet Assay detects DNA damage due to ionizing radiation. Samples of lettuce, chard, watercress, dandelion, kale, chicory, spinach, cabbage from retail market were irradiated O.5 kGy and 1.0 kGy using a 60 Co facility. Irradiation treatment guaranteed at least 2 log cycle reduction for aerobic and psychotropic microorganisms. In general, with increasing radiation doses, DEFT counts remained similar independent of irradiation processing while APC counts decreased gradually. The difference of the two counts gradually increased with dose increment in all samples. It could be suggested that a DEFT/APC difference over 2.0 log would be a criteria to judge if a MPV was treated by irradiation. DNA Comet Assay allowed distinguishing non-irradiated samples from irradiated ones, which showed different types of comets owing to DNA fragmentation. Both DEFT/APC method and DNA Comet Assay would be satisfactorily used as a screening method for indicating irradiation processing. (author)

  15. Managing Sonchus arvensis using mechanical and cultural methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. VANHALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Perennial sow-thistle (Sonchus arvensis L. represents an increasing problem in Finland. Options for mechanical and cultural control of S. arvensis were studied in a field experiment on clay soil under organic production. The experiment consisted of different crop sequences: spring cereal (barley, Hordeum vulgare L., in 2001, oats, Avena sativa L., in 2002 with or without inter-row hoeing and/or stubble cultivation, bare fallow, fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L., and ley with mowing. In 2003 the entire field was sown to spring wheat. Crop plant and Sonchus shoot density and dry mass prior to cereal harvest and crop yield were assessed. The control effect was rated: bare fallow > ley > cereal with or without inter-row hoeing > poor growth fibre hemp. Bare fallow was an effective but costly way to reduce S. arvensis infestation. Introduction of a regularly mown green fallow or silage ley in the crop rotation is advisable. Mechanical weed control by inter-row hoeing in cereals limits S. arvensis growth. Infestation might also be reduced by stubble cultivation in autumn. When managing S. arvensis using mechanical and cultural methods, appropriate options, including a competitive crop, should be chosen for the specific field and rotation.;

  16. Effect of different dose gamma radiation and refrigeration on the chemical and sensory properties and microbiological status of aqua cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozden, Ozkan; Inugur, Muege; Erkan, Nuray

    2007-01-01

    Quality and shelf life of non-irradiated and irradiated (2.5 and 5kGy) sea bass in ice conditions and stored at +4 deg. C were investigated by measurement in microbiological, chemical sensory analyses. Microbial counts for non-irradiated sea bass samples were higher than irradiated fish. Among chemical indicators of spoilage, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) values increased to 36.44mg/100g for non-irradiated sea bass during iced storage, whereas for irradiated fish lower values of 25.26mg/100g and 23.61mg/100g were recorded at 2.5 and 5kGy, respectively (day 17). Trimethylamine (TMA-N) values and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values for irradiated samples were lower than that for non-irradiated samples. Acceptability scores for odour, taste and texture of cooked sea bass decreased with storage time. The sensory scores of sea bass stored in control and 2.5-5kGy at +4 deg. C were 13 and 15 days, respectively. The results obtained from this study showed that the shelf life of sea bass stored in ice, as determined by overall acceptability of all data, is 13 days for non-irradiated sea bass and 15 days for 2.5kGy irradiated and 17 days for 5kGy irradiated sea bass

  17. Clinical microbiology informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Daniel D; Sintchenko, Vitali; Rauch, Carol A; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-10-01

    The clinical microbiology laboratory has responsibilities ranging from characterizing the causative agent in a patient's infection to helping detect global disease outbreaks. All of these processes are increasingly becoming partnered more intimately with informatics. Effective application of informatics tools can increase the accuracy, timeliness, and completeness of microbiology testing while decreasing the laboratory workload, which can lead to optimized laboratory workflow and decreased costs. Informatics is poised to be increasingly relevant in clinical microbiology, with the advent of total laboratory automation, complex instrument interfaces, electronic health records, clinical decision support tools, and the clinical implementation of microbial genome sequencing. This review discusses the diverse informatics aspects that are relevant to the clinical microbiology laboratory, including the following: the microbiology laboratory information system, decision support tools, expert systems, instrument interfaces, total laboratory automation, telemicrobiology, automated image analysis, nucleic acid sequence databases, electronic reporting of infectious agents to public health agencies, and disease outbreak surveillance. The breadth and utility of informatics tools used in clinical microbiology have made them indispensable to contemporary clinical and laboratory practice. Continued advances in technology and development of these informatics tools will further improve patient and public health care in the future. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Detection and quantification of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus oralis in blood samples with different microbiological identification methods: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, María José; Ambrosio, Nagore; Virto, Leire; Diz, Pedro; Álvarez, Maximiliano; Herrera, David; Sanz, Mariano; Figuero, Elena

    2017-02-01

    Culture-based methods (culture broth bottles or lysis methods) have been the standard for detecting bacteremia. More recently, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was proposed as a more sensitive and specific test although none of them has been validated for the identification of periodontal pathogens (fastidious growing bacteria) in blood samples. To compare the ability to detect and quantify Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus oralis (alone or in combination) in blood samples with three culture techniques [direct anaerobic culturing (DAC), haemo-culture (BACTEC), and lysis-centrifugation (LC)] and a non-culture dependent approach (qPCR) in an in vitro study. Blood samples from 12 periodontally healthy volunteers were contaminated with three concentrations [10 4 ,10 2 and 10 1 colony forming units (CFU)/mL] of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis and S. oralis, alone or in combination. Samples were analysed by DAC, BACTEC, LC and qPCR. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, kappa index and Lińs correlation coefficients were calculated. DAC, LC and qPCR were able to detect the three target species at all concentrations. An excellent concordance (correlation coefficient r: 0.92-1) was observed between DAC and the reference standard (sensitivity raging 93.33-100% and specificity 88.89-100%) values. BACTEC was not able to identify P. gingivalis in any of the performed experiments. qPCR provided false negative results for S.oralis. DAC showed the best results for the proper identification and quantification of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis and S. oralis, alone or in combination, in blood samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bleeding Efficiency, Microbiological Quality and Oxidative Stability of Meat from Goats Subjected to Slaughter without Stunning in Comparison with Different Methods of Pre-Slaughter Electrical Stunning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabow, Azad Behnan; Zulkifli, Idrus; Goh, Yong Meng; Ab Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Kaka, Ubedullah; Imlan, Jurhamid Columbres; Abubakar, Ahmed Abubakar; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2016-01-01

    The influence of pre-slaughter electrical stunning techniques and slaughter without stunning on bleeding efficiency and shelf life of chevon during a 14 d postmortem aging were assessed. Thirty two Boer crossbred bucks were randomly assigned to four slaughtering techniques viz slaughter without stunning (SWS), low frequency head-only electrical stunning (LFHO; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 50 Hz), low frequency head-to-back electrical stunning (LFHB; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 50 Hz) and high frequency head-to-back electrical stunning (HFHB; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 850 Hz). The SWS, LFHO and HFHB goats had higher (p<0.05) blood loss and lower residual hemoglobin in muscle compared to LFHB. The LFHB meat had higher (p<0.05) TBARS value than other treatments on d 7 and 14 d postmortem. Slaughtering methods had no effect on protein oxidation. Higher bacterial counts were observed in LFHB meat compared to those from SWS, LFHO and HFHB after 3 d postmortem. Results indicate that the low bleed-out in LFHB lowered the lipid oxidative stability and microbiological quality of chevon during aging. PMID:27035716

  20. Effects of sous-vide method at different temperatures, times and vacuum degrees on the quality, structural, and microbiological properties of pork ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kiyoung; O, Hyeonbin; Shin, So Yeon; Kim, Young-Soon

    2018-04-10

    This study evaluated the influence of different factors on pork hams cooked by sous-vide method. The quality and structural and microbiological properties of the treated samples were compared with those of controls. Samples were subjected to treatment at different combinations of temperature (61 °C or 71 °C), time (45 or 90 min), and vacuum degree (98.81% or 96.58%). The control sample was air packaged and boiled for 45 min in boiling water. Temperature and vacuum degree affected quality properties, while the effect of time was limited. Samples cooked at 61 °C showed higher moisture content, redness, and pink color of the meat juice, whereas samples cooked at 71 °C showed higher cooking loss rate, lightness, and volatile basic nitrogen values. Texture analysis indicated tenderer meat for the treatment group than the control. No microbial growth was detected in any treatment groups. Meat cooked at 61 °C and 98.81% vacuum showed more spacious arrangement of meat fiber. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Microbiological Safety of Commercial Prime Rib Preparation Methods: Thermal Inactivation of Salmonella in Mechanically Tenderized Rib Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Alexandra; Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Shoyer, Bradley A; Luchansky, John B; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan

    2015-12-01

    Boneless beef rib eye roasts were surface inoculated on the fat side with ca. 5.7 log CFU/g of a five-strain cocktail of Salmonella for subsequent searing, cooking, and warm holding using preparation methods practiced by restaurants surveyed in a medium-size Midwestern city. A portion of the inoculated roasts was then passed once through a mechanical blade tenderizer. For both intact and nonintact roasts, searing for 15 min at 260°C resulted in reductions in Salmonella populations of ca. 0.3 to 1.3 log CFU/g. For intact (nontenderized) rib eye roasts, cooking to internal temperatures of 37.8 or 48.9°C resulted in additional reductions of ca. 3.4 log CFU/g. For tenderized (nonintact) rib eye roasts, cooking to internal temperatures of 37.8 or 48.9°C resulted in additional reductions of ca. 3.1 or 3.4 log CFU/g, respectively. Pathogen populations remained relatively unchanged for intact roasts cooked to 37.8 or 48.9°C and for nonintact roasts cooked to 48.9°C when held at 60.0°C for up to 8 h. In contrast, pathogen populations increased ca. 2.0 log CFU/g in nonintact rib eye cooked to 37.8°C when held at 60.0°C for 8 h. Thus, cooking at low temperatures and extended holding at relatively low temperatures as evaluated herein may pose a food safety risk to consumers in terms of inadequate lethality and/or subsequent outgrowth of Salmonella, especially if nonintact rib eye is used in the preparation of prime rib, if on occasion appreciable populations of Salmonella are present in or on the meat, and/or if the meat is not cooked adequately throughout.

  2. Use of the Culture Care Theory and ethnonursing method to discover how nursing faculty teach culture care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixer, Sandra J

    2008-04-01

    As the world becomes increasingly multicultural, transcultural nursing education is critical to ensuring a culturally competent workforce. This paper presents a comprehensive review of literature and results of an ethnonursing pilot study using the Culture Care Theory (CCT) to discover how nursing faculty teach culture care. The literature revealed that despite 50 years of transcultural nursing knowledge development through theory, research and practice, there remains a lack of formal, integrated culture education in nursing. The importance of faculty providing generic and professional care to nursing students and using an organising framework to teach culture care was discovered. Additionally, care was essential for faculty health and well-being to enable faculty to teach culture care. This unique use of the theory and method demonstrates its usefulness in discovering and describing the complex nature of teaching culture care. Larger scale studies are predicted to further substantiate the CCT, building the discipline of nursing.

  3. The Teaching Methods of Cultural Factors in The Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Mengyang

    2014-01-01

    Culture knowledge plays an important role in linguistic proficiency and currently most teaching activities are stil happened inthe traditionalclassroom. So this paper introducedsome ofthe practicalteachingmethods ofChinese culture inthe Chinese language classroom.

  4. Molecular, Serological And Microbiological Profiling Evidence Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All items that the boy had contact with including a laboratory coat, bunch of keys and shoes were swabbed. Finally samples of all the boy's food and drinks were taken. Microbiological, Serological and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Profiling Assays. l the samples were cultured on Sorbitol - MacConkey (SMAC) agar, ...

  5. Microbiological, physico-chemical and management parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor working conditions , frequent stock depletion of chemicals , lack of maintenance culture , lack of emergency preparedness and poor communication were also cited. The study has revealed that the microbiological quality of raw water was very poor but that water treatment was efficient in the majority of SWTPs studied ...

  6. Deficits in knowledge, attitude, and practice towards blood culture sampling: results of a nationwide mixed-methods study among inpatient care physicians in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach-Rosin, Heike; Duddeck, Arne; Gehrlich, Maike; Helmke, Charlotte; Huebner, Johannes; Pletz, Mathias W; Mikolajczyk, Rafael; Karch, André

    2017-08-01

    Blood culture (BC) sampling rates in Germany are considerably lower than recommended. Aim of our study was to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practice of physicians in Germany regarding BC diagnostics. We conducted a cross-sectional mixed-methods study among physicians working in inpatient care in Germany. Based on the results of qualitative focus groups, a questionnaire-based quantitative study was conducted in 2015-2016. In total, 706 medical doctors and final-year medical students from 11 out of 16 federal states in Germany participated. BC sampling was considered an important diagnostic tool by 95% of the participants. However, only 23% of them would collect BCs in three scenarios for which BC ordering is recommended by present guidelines in Germany; almost one out of ten physicians would not have taken blood cultures in any of the three scenarios. The majority of participants (74%) reported not to adhere to the guideline recommendation that blood culture sampling should include at least two blood culture sets from two different injection sites. High routine in blood culture sampling, perceived importance of blood culture diagnostics, the availability of an in-house microbiological lab, and the department the physician worked in were identified as predictors for good blood culture practice. Our study suggests that there are substantial deficits in BC ordering and the application of guidelines for good BC practice in Germany. Based on these findings, multimodal interventions appear necessary for improving BC diagnostics.

  7. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    species grow as multicel- lular filaments called hyphae forming a mycelium, some fungal species also grow as single cells. Sexual and asexual...reinforced fluorinated 18 MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION polyimide composites due to hyphae penetration into resin interiors. The

  8. Microbiology, philosophy and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Maureen A

    2016-09-01

    There are not only many links between microbiological and philosophical topics, but good educational reasons for microbiologists to explore the philosophical issues in their fields. I examine three broad issues of classification, causality and model systems, showing how these philosophical dimensions have practical implications. I conclude with a discussion of the educational benefits for recognising the philosophy in microbiology. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Microbiological Quality Control of Probiotic Products

    OpenAIRE

    Astashkina, A.P.; Khudyakova, L.I.; Kolbysheva, Y.V.

    2014-01-01

    Microbiological quality control of probiotic products such as Imunele, Dannon, Pomogayka showed that they contain living cultures of the Lactobacillus Bifidobacterium genus in the amount of 107 CFU/ml, which corresponds to the number indicated on the label of products. It is identified that the survival rate of test-strains cultured with pasteurized products does not exceed 10%. The cell concentration of target-microorganisms was reduced by 20-45% after the interaction with living probiotic b...

  10. Use of Lactobacillus plantarum as Starter Culture and Its Influence on Physicochemical, Microbiological, and Sensory Characteristics of Kunnu-Aya Produced from Sorghum and Tigernut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Olaoye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kunun-aya is a traditional nonalcoholic beverage in the northern part of Nigeria, normally prepared from cereals. In this investigation Lactobacillus plantarum, isolated from fermenting kunun, was applied as starter culture during production of kunun-aya from varying combinations of sorghum and tigernut. The quality attributes of the product indicated increase in ash and protein contents of product inoculated with starter culture (PISC over the uninoculated control sample (UCS. The highest values of 4.43% and 6.95% were recorded for ash and protein, respectively, in the product from fifty percent each of sorghum and tigernut (50SOR/50TIG. Titratable acidity was higher in PISC compared to UCS; the 50SOR/50TIG sample had the highest value of 0.92. The PISC recorded reduced counts of Salmonella, coliforms, and Staphylococci. The SCIS were preferred by panellists in the sensory attributes of appearance, aroma, taste, mouthfeel, and general acceptability. It was concluded that the use of L. plantarum as starter culture in the production of kunun-aya was advantageous as a result of enhanced nutritional, sensory, and microbial qualities recorded compared to UCS. Reduction in Salmonella, coliforms, and Staphylococci in PISC may be of public health significance. This on quality improvement of the traditional beverage has not been previously reported.

  11. Transformation From a Conventional Clinical Microbiology Laboratory to Full Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Camacho, José L; Calva-Espinosa, Diana Y; Leal-Leyva, Yoseli Y; Elizalde-Olivas, Dolores C; Campos-Romero, Abraham; Alcántar-Fernández, Jonathan

    2017-12-22

    To validate the performance, reproducibility, and reliability of BD automated instruments in order to establish a fully automated clinical microbiology laboratory. We used control strains and clinical samples to assess the accuracy, reproducibility, and reliability of the BD Kiestra WCA, the BD Phoenix, and BD Bruker MALDI-Biotyper instruments and compared them to previously established conventional methods. The following processes were evaluated: sample inoculation and spreading, colony counts, sorting of cultures, antibiotic susceptibility test, and microbial identification. The BD Kiestra recovered single colonies in less time than conventional methods (e.g. E. coli, 7h vs 10h, respectively) and agreement between both methodologies was excellent for colony counts (κ=0.824) and sorting cultures (κ=0.821). Antibiotic susceptibility tests performed with BD Phoenix and disk diffusion demonstrated 96.3% agreement with both methods. Finally, we compared microbial identification in BD Phoenix and Bruker MALDI-Biotyper and observed perfect agreement (κ=1) and identification at a species level for control strains. Together these instruments allow us to process clinical urine samples in 36h (effective time). The BD automated technologies have improved performance compared with conventional methods, and are suitable for its implementation in very busy microbiology laboratories. © American Society for Clinical Pathology 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Validation on milk and sprouts of EN ISO 16654:2001 - Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs - Horizontal method for the detection of Escherichia coli O157.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzoli, Rosangela; Maugliani, Antonella; Michelacci, Valeria; Minelli, Fabio; Caprioli, Alfredo; Morabito, Stefano

    2018-05-08

    In 2006, the European Committee for standardisation (CEN)/Technical Committee 275 - Food analysis - Horizontal methods/Working Group 6 - Microbiology of the food chain (TC275/WG6), launched the project of validating the method ISO 16654:2001 for the detection of Escherichia coli O157 in foodstuff by the evaluation of its performance, in terms of sensitivity and specificity, through collaborative studies. Previously, a validation study had been conducted to assess the performance of the Method No 164 developed by the Nordic Committee for Food Analysis (NMKL), which aims at detecting E. coli O157 in food as well, and is based on a procedure equivalent to that of the ISO 16654:2001 standard. Therefore, CEN established that the validation data obtained for the NMKL Method 164 could be exploited for the ISO 16654:2001 validation project, integrated with new data obtained through two additional interlaboratory studies on milk and sprouts, run in the framework of the CEN mandate No. M381. The ISO 16654:2001 validation project was led by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Escherichia coli including VTEC (EURL-VTEC), which organized the collaborative validation study on milk in 2012 with 15 participating laboratories and that on sprouts in 2014, with 14 participating laboratories. In both studies, a total of 24 samples were tested by each laboratory. Test materials were spiked with different concentration of E. coli O157 and the 24 samples corresponded to eight replicates of three levels of contamination: zero, low and high spiking level. The results submitted by the participating laboratories were analyzed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the ISO 16654:2001 method when applied to milk and sprouts. The performance characteristics calculated on the data of the collaborative validation studies run under the CEN mandate No. M381 returned sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 94.4%, respectively for the milk study. As for sprouts matrix, the sensitivity

  13. Microbiological metal extraction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torma, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    Application of biotechnological principles in the mineral processing, especially in hydrometallurgy, has created new opportunities and challenges for these industries. During the 1950's and 60's, the mining wastes and unused complex mineral resources have been successfully treated in bacterial assisted heap and dump leaching processes for copper and uranium. The interest in bio-leaching processes is the consequence of economic advantages associated with these techniques. For example, copper can be produced from mining wastes for about 1/3 to 1/2 of the costs of copper production by the conventional smelting process from high-grade sulfide concentrates. The economic viability of bio leaching technology lead to its world wide acceptance by the extractive industries. During 1970's this technology grew into a more structured discipline called 'bio hydrometallurgy'. Currently, bio leaching techniques are ready to be used, in addition to copper and uranium, for the extraction of cobalt, nickel, zinc, precious metals and for the desulfurization of high-sulfur content pyritic coals. As a developing technology, the microbiological leaching of the less common and rare metals has yet to reach commercial maturity. However, the research in this area is very active. In addition, in a foreseeable future the biotechnological methods may be applied also for the treatment of high-grade ores and mineral concentrates using adapted native and/or genetically engineered microorganisms. (author)

  14. Microbiologically induced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Biological attack is a problem that can affect all metallic materials in a variety of environments and systems. In the power industry, corrosion studies have focused on condensers and service water systems where slime, barnacles, clams, and other macro-organisms are easily detected. Efforts have been made to eliminate the effect of these organisms through the use of chlorination, backflushing, organic coating, or thermal shock. The objective is to maintain component performance by eliminating biofouling and reducing metallic corrosion. Recently, corrosion of power plant components by micro-organisms (bacteria) has been identified even in very clean systems. A system's first exposure to microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC) occurs during its first exposure to an aqueous environment, such as during hydrotest or wet layup. Corrosion of buried pipelines by sulfate-reducing bacteria has been studied by the petrochemical industry for years. This paper discusses various methods of diagnosing, monitoring, and controlling MIC in a variety of systems, as well as indicates areas where further study is needed

  15. Diagnostic trends in Clostridium difficile detection in Finnish microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könönen, Eija; Rasinperä, Marja; Virolainen, Anni; Mentula, Silja; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2009-12-01

    Due to increased interest directed to Clostridium difficile-associated infections, a questionnaire survey of laboratory diagnostics of toxin-producing C. difficile was conducted in Finland in June 2006. Different aspects pertaining to C. difficile diagnosis, such as requests and criteria used for testing, methods used for its detection, yearly changes in diagnostics since 1996, and the total number of investigations positive for C. difficile in 2005, were asked in the questionnaire, which was sent to 32 clinical microbiology laboratories, including all hospital-affiliated and the relevant private clinical microbiology laboratories in Finland. The situation was updated by phone and email correspondence in September 2008. In June 2006, 28 (88%) laboratories responded to the questionnaire survey; 24 of them reported routinely testing requested stool specimens for C. difficile. Main laboratory methods included toxin detection (21/24; 88%) and/or anaerobic culture (19/24; 79%). In June 2006, 18 (86%) of the 21 laboratories detecting toxins directly from feces, from the isolate, or both used methods for both toxin A (TcdA) and B (TcdB), whereas only one laboratory did so in 1996. By September 2008, all of the 23 laboratories performing diagnostics for C. difficile used methods for both TcdA and TcdB. In 2006, the number of specimens processed per 100,000 population varied remarkably between different hospital districts. In conclusion, culturing C. difficile is common and there has been a favorable shift in toxin detection practice in Finnish clinical microbiology laboratories. However, the variability in diagnostic activity reported in 2006 creates a challenge for national monitoring of the epidemiology of C. difficile and related diseases.

  16. Consolidated clinical microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, Robert L; Thomson, Richard B

    2015-05-01

    The manner in which medical care is reimbursed in the United States has resulted in significant consolidation in the U.S. health care system. One of the consequences of this has been the development of centralized clinical microbiology laboratories that provide services to patients receiving care in multiple off-site, often remote, locations. Microbiology specimens are unique among clinical specimens in that optimal analysis may require the maintenance of viable organisms. Centralized laboratories may be located hours from patient care settings, and transport conditions need to be such that organism viability can be maintained under a variety of transport conditions. Further, since the provision of rapid results has been shown to enhance patient care, effective and timely means for generating and then reporting the results of clinical microbiology analyses must be in place. In addition, today, increasing numbers of patients are found to have infection caused by pathogens that were either very uncommon in the past or even completely unrecognized. As a result, infectious disease specialists, in particular, are more dependent than ever on access to high-quality diagnostic information from clinical microbiology laboratories. In this point-counterpoint discussion, Robert Sautter, who directs a Charlotte, NC, clinical microbiology laboratory that provides services for a 40-hospital system spread over 3 states in the southeastern United States explains how an integrated clinical microbiology laboratory service has been established in a multihospital system. Richard (Tom) Thomson of the NorthShore University HealthSystem in Evanston, IL, discusses some of the problems and pitfalls associated with large-scale laboratory consolidation. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. [Microbiological testing of the artificial gingival margin in dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Péter; Klein, Ildikó; Barna, Zsuzsanna; Kaán, Miklós; Fejérdy, Pál

    2004-06-01

    In everyday practice dental laboratories try to reproduce the natural form of sulcus gingivae at the transitional area between artificial teeth and gingiva of removable dentures, even on esthetically less important areas. Aim of these investigations were to examine how artificial recreation of the sulcus gingivae influences plaque retention, and what is the microbiological relevance of these. Investigations were carried out on the vestibular side of removable dentures of 32 randomly selected patients treated at the Department of Prosthodontics at the Faculty of Dentistry, Semmelweis University. Microbiological samples were taken from each patient using the same method. Samples were taken from the left upper first molars' artificial gingival margin using sterile paper points. Paper points were then transported in Eppendorf-tubes, in 2 ml of physiological saline solution, and processed within a two-hour period of time. Series dilutions were made of the sample solutions, then surface-streaked on Subaraud and Gentamycin, blood-agar, eosin-methylene blue and Mitis Salivarius culture enriched with Bacitracin. Subaraud culture was induced under aerob conditions, at room temperature for two days, then the total amount of fungi quantified. After pure-culturing Candida albicans ID-culture was used for identification, and BioMerieux ATB automatic equipment to identify different Candida species. From pure cultures identification was carried out with Gram-staining, Neisser-staining, catalase, oxidase and also with other biochemical reactions. Blood-agar was used to determine total germ count, and normal commensal pharyngeal and oral bacteria. After collecting the microbiological samples, the conventional shape of the dental margin of gingiva was abolished on one side of the dentures and a smooth transition was created between denture teeth and the artificial gingiva in the molar and premolar region. During our investigations only blastomycetes were found. Besides most common

  18. A method to quantify infectious airborne pathogens at concentrations below the threshold of quantification by culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Timothy D.; Wang, Chong; Hoff, Steven J.; Zimmerman, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    In aerobiology, dose-response studies are used to estimate the risk of infection to a susceptible host presented by exposure to a specific dose of an airborne pathogen. In the research setting, host- and pathogen-specific factors that affect the dose-response continuum can be accounted for by experimental design, but the requirement to precisely determine the dose of infectious pathogen to which the host was exposed is often challenging. By definition, quantification of viable airborne pathogens is based on the culture of micro-organisms, but some airborne pathogens are transmissible at concentrations below the threshold of quantification by culture. In this paper we present an approach to the calculation of exposure dose at microbiologically unquantifiable levels using an application of the “continuous-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) model” and the validation of this approach using rhodamine B dye as a surrogate for aerosolized microbial pathogens in a dynamic aerosol toroid (DAT). PMID:24082399

  19. Nutrition and culture in professional football. A mixed method approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Mutsumi; Kennedy, Eileen; Reeves, Sue; Cronin, Linda

    2012-02-01

    An adequate diet is essential for the optimal performance of professional football (soccer) players. Existing studies have shown that players fail to consume such a diet, without interrogating the reasons for this. The aim of this study was to explore the difficulties professional football players experience in consuming a diet for optimal performance. It utilized a mixed method approach, combining nutritional intake assessment with qualitative interviews, to ascertain both what was consumed and the wider cultural factors that affect consumption. The study found a high variability in individual intake which ranged widely from 2648 to 4606 kcal/day. In addition, the intake of carbohydrate was significantly lower than that recommended. The study revealed that the main food choices for carbohydrate and protein intake were pasta and chicken respectively. Interview results showed the importance of tradition within the world of professional football in structuring the players' approach to nutrition. In addition, the players' personal eating habits that derived from their class and national habitus restricted their food choice by conflicting with the dietary choices promoted within the professional football clubs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Research on fuzzy comprehensive assessment method of nuclear power plant safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Yuanyuan; Chen Xukun; Xu Rongbin

    2012-01-01

    Considering the traits of safety culture in nuclear plant, 38 safety culture assessment indexes are established from 4 aspects such as safety values, safety institution, safety behavior and safety sub- stances. Based on it, a comprehensive assessment method for nuclear power plant safety culture is constructed by using AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) approach and fuzzy mathematics. The comprehensive assessment method has the quality of high precision and high operability, which can support the decision making of safety culture development. (authors)

  1. Utilizing the Project Method for Teaching Culture and Intercultural Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Sasha S.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a detailed methodological outline for teaching culture through project work. It is argued that because project work makes it possible to gain transferrable and applicable knowledge and insight, it is the ideal tool for teaching culture with the aim of achieving real intercultural communicative competence (ICC). Preceding the…

  2. Ghetto poverty and pollution in Egypt: a deadly threat for western countries caused by new and infectious mutants. A cultural, social and microbiological synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassili, J H; Baradaeus, Cyril

    2012-10-01

    Egypt, whose soil germinated the first civilization, monotheism, refined ethics and culture of sharing the abundance of extracted natural resources among its populace became the crucible proliferating de-novo genotypes of organic and moral maladies. The enigma is these mutations are synchronized by several factors, namely; failing medical health, if there is any, abundant filth, cultural bankruptcy, over population, dogmatic militarism, societal deprivation and characterization, etc. These domineering ingredients fossilized Egypt as of 1952 coup in an irrevocable national apoptosis, together with the crippled social justice and imbalanced distribution of wealth among Egyptians, rates of bacterial and viral evolution to second generation resistant to known medical interventions are expected to exponentially accelerate. Therefore, it deemed essential to elaborate on pollution and psychosis-induced inflammations and grievous crimes evoked by dogmatic cults at the breeding source, e.g., ghettos and sporadic locations of the homeless in Cairo, Alexandria and Upper Egyptian villages. While this second generation of viral and bacterial diseases could labor plagues threatening the precariously maintained so-called social fabric of Middle Eastern countries, that are uniquely segregating its populace according to their dogmatic affiliations and soaked into intolerance, it would definitely compromise the integrity of the expensively managed medical care system of developed countries.

  3. The Effect of Culture Methods and Serum Supplementation on Developmental Competence of Bovine Embryos Cultured In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare the developmental competence of bovine in vitro fertilized embryos in three different culture methods; microdrop method (50 µl of medium under mineral oil in petri dishes) compared to tube methods (1 ml of medium in tubes) with or without oil overlay, and t...

  4. 21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose culture... several types of pathogenic microorganisms without the need of additional nutritional supplements. Test...

  5. 21 CFR 866.2360 - Selective culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2360 Selective culture... solid biological materials intended for medical purposes to cultivate and identify certain pathogenic...

  6. 21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2330 Enriched culture... solid biological materials intended for medical purposes to cultivate and identify fastidious...

  7. Use of a culture independent method to analyze the diversity of soil fungi surrounding Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing region of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Shouxian; Yin, Yonggang

    2012-01-01

    habitat to facilitate its large-scale cultivation. A culture-independent molecular approach—a powerful technology for microbiological ecology studies—was used to investigate the diversity of soil fungal communities in samples surrounding C. rutilus from the Beijing region of China. Metagenomic DNA...... was isolated from soil samples collected around C. rutilus, and an internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene library was constructed. Subsequently, polymerase chain reaction products were digested with HinfI, HaeIII, MspI, TaqI, or MboI. Clones were selected and sequenced based on their restriction fragment...... length polymorphisms. The diversity of the fungi represented by their ITS sequences was analyzed. Our results indicate the presence of numerous fungi in the C. rutilus habitat. This study is the first demonstration of the fungal ecology surrounding C. rutilus using a culture independent method...

  8. Microbiology of bile in symptomatic uncomplicated gallstone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Akhtar, M.R.; Akhtar, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the microbiology of the bile culture and antimicrobial susceptibility in patients with symptomatic gallstone disease in our setup. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Surgical Department Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Kharian from Oct, 2010 to Jun, 2011. Patients and Methods: A total of 106 patients underwent cholecystectomy due to symptomatic gallstones and their bile was cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and culture sensitivity was performed. Data was analysed by using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 13. Results: Bile culture was negative in 81 patients (76.4%) and was positive in only 25 patients (23.6%). Escheria Coli was the most common cultured organism in 10 (40%) patients, Klebsiella in 5 (20%) patients, Pseudomonas in 5 (20%) patients, Proteus in 2 (8%) patients, Staphlococcus aureus in 2 (8%) patients and mixed organisms were cultured in 1 patient (4%). Cefoperazone with sulbactum and Amikacin were the most effective prophylactic antibiotics. Conclusion: Bile in majority of patients with symtomatic uncomplicated gallstone disease is sterile. E. coli is the most commonly cultured organism and cefoperazone with sulbactum and amikacin are the most appropriate antibiotics in our setup. (author)

  9. Diagnostic virology laboratory within a microbiology setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, S J

    1984-01-01

    The virology section at St. Francis Hospital and Medical Center, Connecticut, is not a separate laboratory division but is a part of the microbiology division and is supervised by the same personnel who supervise bacteriology, mycology, mycobacteriology, and serology. Current volume is over 1,000 cultures yearly with 12 to 24 percent positive. Isolates are confirmed and typed by the Connecticut State Health Department Laboratory. Specimen distribution, percentage positive specimens, and distribution of viral isolates are similar to those reported from microbiology laboratories with separate virology laboratories directed by a full-time doctoral-level virologist. Our seven years' experience demonstrates that a microbiology laboratory without a full-time doctoral-level virologist can provide clinically useful virologic information.

  10. Microbiological and therapeutic challenges in infectious spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roed-Petersen, Casper; Dragsted, Casper

    2013-01-01

    The microbiological diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis is often difficult to establish and the disease requires prolonged antibiotic treatment. We analyzed the medical records of 100 patients admitted for infectious spondylodiscitis from 2006 to 2011 with an emphasis on (1) the diagnostic u...... utility of blood cultures and invasive biopsies in the microbiological diagnosis, (2) clinical features differentiating Staphylococcus aureus infections from those with other aetiologies, and (3) evaluation of the outcome of the antimicrobial therapy.......The microbiological diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis is often difficult to establish and the disease requires prolonged antibiotic treatment. We analyzed the medical records of 100 patients admitted for infectious spondylodiscitis from 2006 to 2011 with an emphasis on (1) the diagnostic...

  11. Microbiological findings of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbulienė, Žana; Venclavičiūtė, Karolina; Ramašauskaite, Diana; Arlauskiene, Audrone; Bumbul, Elžbieta; Drąsutiene, Gražina

    2014-01-01

    To compare vaginal culture results between prepubertal girls with and without vulvovaginitis, and obtain an overview of the most commonly encountered microbes. Prospective descriptive study. Outpatient clinic of Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiu Klinikos during September 2011-December 2012. 115 prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis symptoms and additionally 20 age-matched asymptomatic girls. Each girl had a vaginal smear carried out using a sterile swab from the introitus or lower third of the vagina. All samples were referred to the microbiology laboratory where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Positive microbiological findings were seen in all 115 (100%) symptomatic girls and in 12 (60%) control group girls (pvulvovaginitis and from 5 (25%) girls without vaginal inflammation (pvulvovaginitis. The main causative premenarchal vulvovaginitis agents are faecal in origin.

  12. Quantitative Microbiological Study of Human Carious Dentine by Culture and Real-Time PCR: Association of Anaerobes with Histopathological Changes in Chronic Pulpitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, F. Elizabeth; Nadkarni, Mangala A.; Jacques, Nicholas A.; Hunter, Neil

    2002-01-01

    The bacteria found in carious dentine were correlated with the tissue response of the dental pulps of 65 teeth extracted from patients with advanced caries and pulpitis. Standardized homogenates of carious dentine were plated onto selective and nonselective media under anaerobic and microaerophilic conditions. In addition, real-time PCR was used to quantify the recovery of anaerobic bacteria. Primers and fluorogenic probes were designed to detect the total anaerobic microbial load, the genera Prevotella and Fusobacterium, and the species Prevotella melaninogenica, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Micromonas (formerly Peptostreptococcus) micros. The pulpal pathology was categorized according to the cellular response and degenerative changes. Analysis of cultured bacteria showed a predominance of gram-positive microorganisms, particularly lactobacilli. Gram-negative bacteria were also present in significant numbers with Prevotella spp., the most numerous anaerobic group cultured. Real-time PCR analysis indicated a greater microbial load than that determined by colony counting. The total number of anaerobes detected was 41-fold greater by real-time PCR than by colony counting, while the numbers of Prevotella and Fusobacterium spp. detected were 82- and 2.4-fold greater by real-time PCR than by colony counting, respectively. Real-time PCR also identified M. micros, P. endodontalis, and P. gingivalis in 71, 60, and 52% of carious samples, respectively. Correlation matrices of the real-time PCR data revealed significant positive associations between M. micros and P. endodontalis detection and inflammatory degeneration of pulpal tissues. These anaerobes have been strongly implicated in endodontic infections that occur as sequelae to carious pulpitis. Accordingly, the data suggest that the presence of high levels of these bacteria in carious lesions may be indicative of irreversible pulpal pathology. PMID:11980945

  13. Evaluation of oral microbiology lab curriculum reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Min; Gao, Zhen Y; Wu, Xin Y; Jiang, Chen X; Du, Jia H

    2015-12-07

    According to the updated concept of oral microbiology, the School of Stomatology, Wuhan University, has carried out oral microbiology teaching reforms during the last 5 years. There was no lab curriculum before 2009 except for a theory course of oral microbiology. The school has implemented an innovative curriculum with oral medicine characteristics to strengthen understanding of knowledge, cultivate students' scientific interest and develop their potential, to cultivate the comprehensive ability of students. This study was designed to evaluate the oral microbiology lab curriculum by analyzing student performance and perceptions regarding the curriculum from 2009 to 2013. The lab curriculum adopted modalities for cooperative learning. Students collected dental plaque from each other and isolated the cariogenic bacteria with selective medium plates. Then they purified the enrichment culture medium and identified the cariogenic strains by Gram stain and biochemical tests. Both quantitative and qualitative data for 5 years were analysed in this study. Part One of the current study assessed student performance in the lab from 2009 to 2013. Part Two used qualitative means to assess students' perceptions by an open questionnaire. The 271 study students' grades on oral microbiology improved during the lab curriculum: "A" grades rose from 60.5 to 81.2 %, and "C" grades fell from 28.4 to 6.3 %. All students considered the lab curriculum to be interesting and helpful. Quantitative and qualitative data converge to suggest that the lab curriculum has strengthened students' grasp of important microbiology-related theory, cultivated their scientific interest, and developed their potential and comprehensive abilities. Our student performance and perception data support the continued use of the innovative teaching system. As an extension and complement of the theory course, the oral microbiology lab curriculum appears to improve the quality of oral medicine education and help to

  14. Transnational Cultural Leadership as a Situated Practice : Dilemmas and Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolsteeg, Johan

    2017-01-01

    In a longitudinal transnational research project, a network of European research institutions and field organisations aims to understand how cultural managers mediate global and local pressures concerning creative autonomy, economy and ideology. Among the research questions are which variables

  15. Theory and Method in Cross-Cultural Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpass, Roy S.

    1977-01-01

    Cross cultural psychology is considered as a methodological strategy, as a means of evaluating hypotheses of unicultural origins with evidence of more panhuman relevance, and as a means of developing new theoretical psychological phenomena. (Author)

  16. Agreement between gastrointestinal panel testing and standard microbiology methods for detecting pathogens in suspected infectious gastroenteritis: Test evaluation and meta-analysis in the absence of a reference standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Karoline; Tsertsvadze, Alexander; Taylor-Phillips, Sian; McCarthy, Noel; Mistry, Hema; Manuel, Rohini; Mason, James

    2017-01-01

    Multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) tests simultaneously identify bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens from the stool samples of patients with suspected infectious gastroenteritis presenting in hospital or the community. We undertook a systematic review to compare the accuracy of GPP tests with standard microbiology techniques. Searches in Medline, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane library were undertaken from inception to January 2016. Eligible studies compared GPP tests with standard microbiology techniques in patients with suspected gastroenteritis. Quality assessment of included studies used tailored QUADAS-2. In the absence of a reference standard we analysed test performance taking GPP tests and standard microbiology techniques in turn as the benchmark test, using random effects meta-analysis of proportions. No study provided an adequate reference standard with which to compare the test accuracy of GPP and conventional tests. Ten studies informed a meta-analysis of positive and negative agreement. Positive agreement across all pathogens was 0.93 (95% CI 0.90 to 0.96) when conventional methods were the benchmark and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.58 to 0.77) when GPP provided the benchmark. Negative agreement was high in both instances due to the high proportion of negative cases. GPP testing produced a greater number of pathogen-positive findings than conventional testing. It is unclear whether these additional 'positives' are clinically important. GPP testing has the potential to simplify testing and accelerate reporting when compared to conventional microbiology methods. However the impact of GPP testing upon the management, treatment and outcome of patients is poorly understood and further studies are needed to evaluate the health economic impact of GPP testing compared with standard methods. The review protocol is registered with PROSPERO as CRD42016033320.

  17. Microbiological soil regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, D.; Wiesner, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Interdiciplinary Task Force ''Environmental Biotechnology - Soil'' of DECHEMA aims to pool the knowledge potential of the Dechema study committees on environmental biotechnology and soil protection with a view to the advancement of microbiological soil decontamination techniques. This conference volume on the 9th expert meeting of Dechema on environmental protection subjects entitled ''Microbiological Soil Regeneration'', held on February 27th and 28th, 1991, and the subsequent compilation of results give an intermediate account of the ongoing work of the Dechema Task Force. (orig.) [de

  18. Practical aspects during sterilization validation for medical devices at IRASM Microbiological Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trandafir, L.; Ene, M.; Alexandru, M.; Constantin, M.; Ionita, A.; Zorila, F.; Moise, I.V.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The state of being free of living microorganisms is called sterility. The sterility state can be achieved by different means of sterilization. In practice the results of the process cannot be fully verified by tests, so the efficacy of the sterilization process must be validated. ISO 11137 established regulations for setting or substantiating the dose for achieving the desired sterility assurance level. The validation studies can be designed in particular for different types of product. Each product needs distinct protocol for bioburden determination and sterility testing. During time, the Microbiological Laboratories from Multipurpose Irradiation Center deals with different types of products, mainly for VD max 25 method. When it comes to microbiological evaluation the most challenging was cotton gauze. Special situation for establishing the sterilization validation method appears in cases of cotton, packed in large quantities. VD max 25 method can not be applied for items with average bioburden more than 1000 CFU / pack, no matter which is the weight of the package. This is a method limitation and implies increased costs for manufacturer, when choosing other method. For microbiological tests, culture condition should be selected in both cases the bioburden and sterility testing. These are time and money consuming. The costs can be reduced if taking into account some aspects. Reason for performing the bacteriostasis-fungistasis just for sterility testing will be given. The present study puts forward aspects during the validation studies for medical devices (cotton wool, cotton gauze, surgical sutures, dental screws), at IRASM Microbiological Laboratory.

  19. The evolution of chicken stem cell culture methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaneh, M; Attari, F; Mozdziak, P E; Khoshnam, S E

    2017-12-01

    1. The avian embryo is an excellent model for studying embryology and the production of pharmaceutical proteins in transgenic chickens. Furthermore, chicken stem cells have the potential for proliferation and differentiation and emerged as an attractive tool for various cell-based technologies. 2. The objective of these studies is the derivation and culture of these stem cells is the production of transgenic birds for recombinant biomaterials and vaccine manufacture, drug and cytotoxicity testing, as well as to gain insight into basic science, including cell tracking. 3. Despite similarities among the established chicken stem cell lines, fundamental differences have been reported between their culture conditions and applications. Recent conventional protocols used for expansion and culture of chicken stem cells mostly depend on feeder cells, serum-containing media and static culture. 4. Utilising chicken stem cells for generation of cell-based transgenic birds and a variety of vaccines requires large-scale cell production. However, scaling up the conventional adherent chicken stem cells is challenging and labour intensive. Development of a suspension cell culture process for chicken embryonic stem cells (cESCs), chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) and chicken induced pluripotent stem cells (ciPSCs) will be an important advance for increasing the growth kinetics of these cells. 6. This review describes various approaches and suggestions to achieve optimal cell growth for defined chicken stem cells cultures and use in future manufacturing applications.

  20. Microbiological characterization of deep geological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsotti, V.; Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M.H.; Coulon, S.; Joulian, C.; Garrido, F.; Ollivier, B.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Microbial life in deep sediments and Earth's crust is now acknowledged by the scientific world. The deep subsurface biosphere contributes significantly to fundamental biogeochemical processes. However, despite great advances in geo-microbiological studies, deep terrestrial ecosystems are microbiologically poorly understood, mainly due to their inaccessibility. The drilling down to the base of the Triassic (1980 meters deep) in the geological formations of the eastern Paris Basin performed by ANDRA (EST433) in 2008 provides us a good opportunity to explore the deep biosphere. We conditioned the samples on the coring site, in as aseptic conditions as possible. In addition to storage at atmospheric pressure, a portion of the four Triassic samples was placed in a 190 bars pressurized chamber to investigate the influence of the conservation pressure factor on the found microflora. In parallel, in order to evaluate a potential bacterial contamination of the cores by the drilling fluids, samples of mud just before each sample drilling were taken and analyzed. The microbial exploration can be divided in two parts: - A cultural approach in different culture media for metabolic groups as methanogens, fermenters and sulphate reducing bacteria to stimulate their growth and to isolate microbial cells still viable. - A molecular approach by direct extraction of genomic DNA from the geological samples to explore a larger biodiversity. The limits are here the difficulties to extract DNA from these low biomass containing rocks. After comparison and optimization of several DNA extraction methods, the bacterial diversity present in rock cores was analyzed using DGGE (Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis) and cloning. The detailed results of all these investigations will be presented: - Despite all 400 cultural conditions experimented (with various media, salinities, temperatures, conservation pressure, agitation), no viable and

  1. Multiple Contexts, Multiple Methods: A Study of Academic and Cultural Identity among Children of Immigrant Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdan, Tim; Munoz, Chantico

    2012-01-01

    Multiple methods were used to examine the academic motivation and cultural identity of a sample of college undergraduates. The children of immigrant parents (CIPs, n = 52) and the children of non-immigrant parents (non-CIPs, n = 42) completed surveys assessing core cultural identity, valuing of cultural accomplishments, academic self-concept,…

  2. Individualism-Collectivism and Power Distance Cultural Dimensions: How Each Influences Parental Disciplinary Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Karen Walker

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a literature review using the Douglas-Widavasky Grid/Group theory as a framework to examine, from a cross cultural perspective, preferred parental disciplinary methods. The four rival cultures defined in the Grid/Group theory mirror the cultural dimensions of individualism-collectivism and power distance described by Geert Hofstede.…

  3. Methods and Techniques of Sampling, Culturing and Identifying of Subsurface Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Yeop; Baik, Min Hoon

    2010-11-01

    This report described sampling, culturing and identifying of KURT underground bacteria, which existed as iron-, manganese-, and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The methods of culturing and media preparation were different by bacteria species affecting bacteria growth-rates. It will be possible for the cultured bacteria to be used for various applied experiments and researches in the future

  4. Organizational Culture and the Deployment of Agile Methods: The Competing Values Model View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iivari, Juhani; Iivari, Netta

    A number of researchers have identified organizational culture as a factor that potentially affects the deployment of agile systems development methods. Inspired by the study of Iivari and Huisman (2007), which focused on the deployment of traditional systems development methods, the present paper proposes a number of hypotheses about the influence of organizational culture on the deployment of agile methods.

  5. Development of a microbiological method (heat treatment method) to confirm the irradiation of food samples in a blind trial of collaborating laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takekawa, T.; Koshikawa, T.; Miyahara, M.

    2009-01-01

    A practical screening method is needed so that any laboratory can easily and cheaply distinguish between non-irradiated and irradiated food. We carried out a study last year based on the findings that the sensitivity of bacteria to heat-treatment rose when bacteria was damaged by the irradiation, and the possibility that the irradiation could be detected in certain processing conditions. This method consists of a first assessment based on a general viable cell count and the second assessment based on the difference in the number of bacteria before and after the heat-treatment. A joint research study among a number of laboratories was conducted this year on the detection method by examining the effect of the heat-treatment on viable cells that adhered to spices. From the results, we found that there are two kinds of spices. For one type, both the first and second assessment need to be done, and for the other only the first assessment should be done. Therefore, the target spice should be classified into either the type only requiring the first assessment or the type for which the second assessment must also be carried out. In that case, we were able to obtain a high correct answer rate

  6. ViDiT-CACTUS: an inexpensive and versatile library preparation and sequence analysis method for virus discovery and other microbiology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Joost Theo Petra; Canuti, Marta; Munro, Hannah J; Dufour, Suzanne C; Lang, Andrew S

    2018-04-19

    High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies are becoming increasingly important within microbiology research, but aspects of library preparation, such as high cost per sample or strict input requirements, make HTS difficult to implement in some niche applications and for research groups on a budget. To answer these necessities, we developed ViDiT, a customizable, PCR-based, extremely low-cost (90% coverage), and the characterization and functional profiling of the complete microbial diversity (bacteria, archaea, viruses) within a deep-sea carnivorous sponge. ViDiT-CACTUS demonstrated its validity in a wide range of microbiology applications and its simplicity and modularity make it easily implementable in any molecular biology laboratory, towards various research goals.

  7. Microbiological problems in radiosterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerniawski, E.

    1997-01-01

    Microbiological problems connected with radiosterilization of medical materials, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics have been discussed in detail. Dose-response relationship for different bacteria has been shown. Recommended sterilization and postirradiation control procedures have been described. 24 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  8. Making Microbiology Even Smaller!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Linda Mull; Motz, Vicki Abrams

    2013-01-01

    We outline protocols for producing slant-minis (SLINIs) and mini-deeps (MEEPs) and examples of their use in simple microbiology experiments suitable for high school students. The principal benefits of these protocols are decreased cost associated with significantly reduced media use; easier, less expensive disposal of waste; and increased safety…

  9. Development of an Evaluation Method for Team Safety Culture Competencies using Social Network Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Min; Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, team safety culture competency of a team was estimated through SNA, as a team safety culture index. To overcome the limit of existing safety culture evaluation methods, the concept of competency and SNA were adopted. To estimate team safety culture competency, we defined the definition, range and goal of team safety culture competencies. Derivation of core team safety culture competencies is performed and its behavioral characteristics were derived for each safety culture competency, from the procedures used in NPPs and existing criteria to assess safety culture. Then observation was chosen as a method to provide the input data for the SNA matrix of team members versus insufficient team safety culture competencies. Then through matrix operation, the matrix was converted into the two meaningful values, which are density of team members and degree centralities of each team safety culture competency. Density of tem members and degree centrality of each team safety culture competency represent the team safety culture index and the priority of team safety culture competency to be improved

  10. Development of an Evaluation Method for Team Safety Culture Competencies using Social Network Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Min; Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, team safety culture competency of a team was estimated through SNA, as a team safety culture index. To overcome the limit of existing safety culture evaluation methods, the concept of competency and SNA were adopted. To estimate team safety culture competency, we defined the definition, range and goal of team safety culture competencies. Derivation of core team safety culture competencies is performed and its behavioral characteristics were derived for each safety culture competency, from the procedures used in NPPs and existing criteria to assess safety culture. Then observation was chosen as a method to provide the input data for the SNA matrix of team members versus insufficient team safety culture competencies. Then through matrix operation, the matrix was converted into the two meaningful values, which are density of team members and degree centralities of each team safety culture competency. Density of tem members and degree centrality of each team safety culture competency represent the team safety culture index and the priority of team safety culture competency to be improved.

  11. MALDI-TOF-mass spectrometry applications in clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Piseth; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Fournier, Pierre Edouard; La Scola, Bernard; Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier

    2010-11-01

    MALDI-TOF-mass spectrometry (MS) has been successfully adapted for the routine identification of microorganisms in clinical microbiology laboratories in the past 10 years. This revolutionary technique allows for easier and faster diagnosis of human pathogens than conventional phenotypic and molecular identification methods, with unquestionable reliability and cost-effectiveness. This article will review the application of MALDI-TOF-MS tools in routine clinical diagnosis, including the identification of bacteria at the species, subspecies, strain and lineage levels, and the identification of bacterial toxins and antibiotic-resistance type. We will also discuss the application of MALDI-TOF-MS tools in the identification of Archaea, eukaryotes and viruses. Pathogenic identification from colony-cultured, blood-cultured, urine and environmental samples is also reviewed.

  12. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540 Microbiological... intended for medical purposes to cultivate microorganisms and aid in the diagnosis of disease. (b...

  13. [Onsite microbiology services and outsourcing microbiology and offsite laboratories--advantage and disadvantage, thinking of effective utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Naoto

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, budget restrictions have prompted hospital managers to consider outsourcing microbiology service. But there are many advantages onsite microbiology services. Onsite microbiology services have some advantages. 1) High recovery rate of microorganism. 2) Shorter turn around time. 3) Easy to communicate between physician and laboratory technician. 4) Effective utilization of blood culture. 5) Getting early information about microorganism. 6) Making antibiogram (microbiological local factor). 7) Getting information for infection control. The disadvantages are operating costs and labor cost. The important point of maximal utilization of onsite microbiology service is close communication between physicians to microbiology laboratory. It will be able to provide prompt and efficient report to physicians through discussion about Gram stain findings, agar plate media findings and epidemiological information. The rapid and accurate identification of pathogen affords directed therapy, thereby decreasing the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and shortening the length of hospital stay and unnecessary ancillary procedures. When the physician use outsourcing microbiology services, should discuss with offsite laboratories about provided services. Infection control person has to arrange data of susceptibility about every isolate and monitoring multi-drug resistant organism. Not only onsite microbiology services but also outsourcing microbiology services, to communicate bedside and laboratory is most important point of effective utilization.

  14. Determination of lactic microflora of kefir grains and kefir beverage by using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesmen, Zülal; Kacmaz, Nazife

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the bacterial compositions of kefir grains and kefir beverages collected from different regions of Turkey by using culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. In the culture-independent detection, 10 different species of bacteria were detected in total by using the polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis of the 16S rRNA gene V3 region. Among these species, Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens was the most dominant one in the kefir grains, while Lactococcus lactis was found to be significantly prevalent in the kefir beverages. In the culture-dependent detection, the primary differentiation and grouping of the isolates from kefir beverages and kefir grains were performed using repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprinting, and the results were validated by 16S rDNA full-length sequencing. According to the results of culture-dependent methods, the most frequently isolated species were L. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Lactobacillus kefiri, respectively. Only 3 species, which are L. lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus, were detected with both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. This study showed that the combination of both methods is necessary for a detailed and reliable investigation of microbial communities in kefir grains and kefir beverages. Due to their artisan- and region-dependent microflora, kefir products can be a source of interesting lactic acid bacteria, either new taxa or strains with specific functional properties, which might be used for the development of new starter cultures and innovative food products. Therefore, an increasing demand exists for new strains that show desirable effects on the product characteristics Artisan dairy products are a candidate source of such microorganisms. For this reason, in this study, the bacterial compositions of kefir grains and kefir beverages obtained from

  15. A Method to Preclude Moisture Condensation in Plated Tissue Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex M. Diner

    1992-01-01

    Excessive condensate normally accumulates in in vitro-illuminated petri dishes containing plant tissue cultures, causing avariety of problems. A dark-colored rubber net-mesh placed over the petri dishes prevented such condensation, even when charcoal-supplemented media are used under high light intensity in a growth chamber.

  16. LABORATORY CULTURE METHODS FOR THE MOTTLED SCULPIN (COTTUS BAIRDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish from the family Cottidae (Sculpin Family) are being researched to determine their sensitivity to various metals in freshwater systems. The ability to culture them in the lab would facilitate species sensitivity comparisons. We collected adult mottled sculpins (C. bairdi) f...

  17. Rapid method for culturing embryonic neuron-glial cell cocultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Åsa Fex; Shan, Wei-Song; Colman, David R

    2003-01-01

    neurons is seen after 3 weeks (2 weeks in ascorbic acid), suggesting that basal lamina production is important even for glial ensheathment in the enteric nervous system. No overgrowth of fibroblasts or other nonneuronal cells was noted in any cultures, and myelination of the peripheral nervous system...

  18. Veterinary microbiology and microbial disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quinn, P. J

    2011-01-01

    "Veterinary Microbiology is one of the core subjects for veterinary students. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition covers every aspect of veterinary microbiology for students in both paraclinical and clinical years...

  19. A new cell primo-culture method for freshwater benthic diatom communities

    OpenAIRE

    Debenest, Timothée; Silvestre, Jérôme; Coste, Michel; Delmas, François; Pinelli, Eric

    2009-01-01

    A new cell primo-culture method was developed for the benthic diatom community isolated from biofilm sampled in rivers. The approach comprised three steps: (1) scraping biofilm from river pebbles, (2) diatom isolation from biofilm, and (3) diatom community culture. With a view to designing a method able to stimulate the growth of diatoms, to limit the development of other microorganisms, and to maintain in culture a community similar to the original natural one, different factors were test...

  20. Diagnostic virology laboratory within a microbiology setting.

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    The virology section at St. Francis Hospital and Medical Center, Connecticut, is not a separate laboratory division but is a part of the microbiology division and is supervised by the same personnel who supervise bacteriology, mycology, mycobacteriology, and serology. Current volume is over 1,000 cultures yearly with 12 to 24 percent positive. Isolates are confirmed and typed by the Connecticut State Health Department Laboratory. Specimen distribution, percentage positive specimens, and distr...

  1. Comparison of Standard Culture-Based Method to Culture-Independent Method for Evaluation of Hygiene Effects on the Hand Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapka, C; Leff, J; Henley, J; Tittl, J; De Nardo, E; Butler, M; Griggs, R; Fierer, N; Edmonds-Wilson, S

    2017-03-28

    Hands play a critical role in the transmission of microbiota on one's own body, between individuals, and on environmental surfaces. Effectively measuring the composition of the hand microbiome is important to hand hygiene science, which has implications for human health. Hand hygiene products are evaluated using standard culture-based methods, but standard test methods for culture-independent microbiome characterization are lacking. We sampled the hands of 50 participants using swab-based and glove-based methods prior to and following four hand hygiene treatments (using a nonantimicrobial hand wash, alcohol-based hand sanitizer [ABHS], a 70% ethanol solution, or tap water). We compared results among culture plate counts, 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted directly from hands, and sequencing of DNA extracted from culture plates. Glove-based sampling yielded higher numbers of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but had less diversity in bacterial community composition than swab-based sampling. We detected treatment-induced changes in diversity only by using swab-based samples ( P hand hygiene industry methods and for future hand microbiome studies. On the basis of our results and previously published studies, we propose recommendations for best practices in hand microbiome research. IMPORTANCE The hand microbiome is a critical area of research for diverse fields, such as public health and forensics. The suitability of culture-independent methods for assessing effects of hygiene products on microbiota has not been demonstrated. This is the first controlled laboratory clinical hand study to have compared traditional hand hygiene test methods with newer culture-independent characterization methods typically used by skin microbiologists. This study resulted in recommendations for hand hygiene product testing, development of methods, and future hand skin microbiome research. It also demonstrated the importance of inclusion of skin physiological metadata in

  2. Infection: microbiology and management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Jane; Gillespie, S. H; Bannister, Barbara A

    2006-01-01

    ..., management and control. The presentation, diagnosis and management of individual diseases are described in the systematic chapters. Each chapter introduces the range of diseases that can affect the relevant system, and lists the pathogens responsible for each presentation in approximate order of importance. For each individual pathogen, the epidemiology and microbiology, clinical presentations and diagnosis, and strategies for prevention and control are described. This textbook is designed to be used either as a...

  3. AVALIAÇÃO NUTRICIONAL DE PROTEÍNAS DO GRÃO-DE-BICO (Cicer arietinum L. POR MÉTODO QUÍMICO E MICROBIOLÓGICO Nutritional evaluation of chickpea protein: microbiological and chemical methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. TAVANO

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Um método microbiológio para determinação do valor nutricional relativo (VNR de proteínas de alimentos, utilizando o Enteroccocus zymogenes, foi estudado com relação a sua factibilidade e sensibilidade em detectar diferenças na qualidade nutricional de proteínas de grão-de-bico e o efeito do tratamento térmico nestas. Neste trabalho também foi avaliada a possível correlação entre os resultados do método microbiológico e aqueles determinados pelo do Cômputo de Aminoácidos Corrigido pela Digestibilidade Protéica (CACDP. O método microbiológico mostrou-se eficiente em distinguir entre os diferentes aspectos nutricionais das frações protéicas do grão-de-bico, e foi sensível aos efeitos do tratamento térmico. Uma correlação positiva significativa entre os métodos testados foi encontrada (R=0,8142. Os resultados encontrados para o método do E. zymogenes corroboram seus aspectos de rapidez e simplicidade. A microbiological method to measure the relative nutritional value (RNV of protein foods, using Enteroccocus zymogenes, was studied to detect the differences in nutritional quality of chickpea proteins and the effect of the heat treatment on these proteins. This work also verified the possible correlation between the microbiological method and protein quality evaluation by Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Scoring (PDCAAS. The RNV microbiological method showed to be efficiently able to distinguish different nutritional aspects of chickpea protein fractions, and it was sensible to detect the effect of heat treatment. A significant positive correlation between Relative Nutritional Value by microbiological method and PDCAAS method was found (R = 0.8142. E. zymogenes method results corroborated its aspects of quickness and simplicity.

  4. Microbiological screening of Irish patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy reveals persistence of Candida albicans strains, gradual reduction in susceptibility to azoles, and incidences of clinical signs of oral candidiasis without culture evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Brenda A; McGovern, Eleanor; Moran, Gary P; Healy, Claire M; Nunn, June; Fleming, Pádraig; Costigan, Colm; Sullivan, Derek J; Coleman, David C

    2011-05-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy.

  5. Microbiological Screening of Irish Patients with Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis-Ectodermal Dystrophy Reveals Persistence of Candida albicans Strains, Gradual Reduction in Susceptibility to Azoles, and Incidences of Clinical Signs of Oral Candidiasis without Culture Evidence▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Brenda A.; McGovern, Eleanor; Moran, Gary P.; Healy, Claire M.; Nunn, June; Fleming, Pádraig; Costigan, Colm; Sullivan, Derek J.; Coleman, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy. PMID:21367996

  6. Microbiological screening of Irish patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy reveals persistence of Candida albicans strains, gradual reduction in susceptibility to azoles, and incidences of clinical signs of oral candidiasis without culture evidence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2011-05-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and\\/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14\\/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7\\/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and\\/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3\\/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy.

  7. Proteomics in medical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, P

    2000-04-01

    The techniques of proteomics (high resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis and protein characterisation) are widely used for microbiological research to analyse global protein synthesis as an indicator of gene expression. The rapid progress in microbial proteomics has been achieved through the wide availability of whole genome sequences for a number of bacterial groups. Beyond providing a basic understanding of microbial gene expression, proteomics has also played a role in medical areas of microbiology. Progress has been made in the use of the techniques for investigating the epidemiology and taxonomy of human microbial pathogens, the identification of novel pathogenic mechanisms and the analysis of drug resistance. In each of these areas, proteomics has provided new insights that complement genomic-based investigations. This review describes the current progress in these research fields and highlights some of the technical challenges existing for the application of proteomics in medical microbiology. The latter concern the analysis of genetically heterogeneous bacterial populations and the integration of the proteomic and genomic data for these bacteria. The characterisation of the proteomes of bacterial pathogens growing in their natural hosts remains a future challenge.

  8. Real-Time PCR in Clinical Microbiology: Applications for Routine Laboratory Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy, M. J.; Uhl, J. R.; Sloan, L. M.; Buckwalter, S. P.; Jones, M. F.; Vetter, E. A.; Yao, J. D. C.; Wengenack, N. L.; Rosenblatt, J. E.; Cockerill, F. R.; Smith, T. F.

    2006-01-01

    Real-time PCR has revolutionized the way clinical microbiology laboratories diagnose many human microbial infections. This testing method combines PCR chemistry with fluorescent probe detection of amplified product in the same reaction vessel. In general, both PCR and amplified product detection are completed in an hour or less, which is considerably faster than conventional PCR detection methods. Real-time PCR assays provide sensitivity and specificity equivalent to that of conventional PCR combined with Southern blot analysis, and since amplification and detection steps are performed in the same closed vessel, the risk of releasing amplified nucleic acids into the environment is negligible. The combination of excellent sensitivity and specificity, low contamination risk, and speed has made real-time PCR technology an appealing alternative to culture- or immunoassay-based testing methods for diagnosing many infectious diseases. This review focuses on the application of real-time PCR in the clinical microbiology laboratory. PMID:16418529

  9. Teaching microbiological food safety through case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Dubois-Brissonnet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Higher education students usually ask for more training based on case studies. This was addressed by designing a specific food safety module (24 hours in which students were shown how to predict microbiological risks in food products i.e. they were asked to determine product shelf-life according to product formulation, preservation methods and consumption habits using predictive microbiology tools. Working groups of four students first identified the main microbiological hazards associated with a specific product. To perform this task, they were given several documents including guides for good hygiene practices, reviews on microbiological hazards in the food sector, flow sheets, etc…  After three-hours of work, the working groups prepared and gave an oral presentation in front of their classmates and professors. This raised comments and discussion that allowed students to adjust their conclusions before beginning the next step of their work. This second step consisted in the evaluation of the safety risk associated with the two major microbiological hazards of the product studied, using predictive microbiology. Students then attended a general lecture on the different tools of predictive microbiology and tutorials (6 hours that made them familiar with the modelling of bacterial growth or inactivation. They applied these tools (9 hours to predict the shelf-life of the studied product according to various scenarios of preservation (refrigeration, water activity, concentration of salt or acid, modified atmosphere, etc… and/or consumption procedures (cooking. The module was concluded by oral presentations of each working group and included student evaluation (3 hours.

  10. Identity and quantity of microorganisms in necrotising fasciitis determined by culture and molecular methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudkjøbing, Vibeke Børsholt; Thomsen, Trine Rolighed; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    communities were more common by molecular methods than culture. Correspondence between findings by culture and molecular methods indicates that the latter may be an appropriate method. The advantages of using molecular methods are: 1) identification of the pathogen(s) even when antibiotics have been...... involved in the disease may add to the knowledge of NF pathogenesis and influence the administration of antibiotics, thereby potentially improving the outcome for the patients. In this study the aim was to investigate the applicability of different molecular methods as compared to standard culture......-based methods. We investigated the microbial communities in 21 samples obtained during debridement of NF patients (n=8). Samples were examined by standard bacteriological examination (culture and microscopy) at Rigshospitalet (Copenhagen, Denmark) and a range of molecular methods. The best DNA extraction...

  11. Utilization of a clinical microbiology service at a Cambodian paediatric hospital and its impact on appropriate antimicrobial prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Lewis, Shivani; Pol, Sreymom; Miliya, Thyl; Day, Nicholas P J; Turner, Paul; Turner, Claudia

    2018-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance threatens human health worldwide. Antimicrobial misuse is a major driver of resistance. Promoting appropriate antimicrobial use requires an understanding of how clinical microbiology services are utilized, particularly in resource-limited settings. To assess the appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing and the factors affecting utilization of the established clinical microbiology service (CMS). The CMS comprises the microbiology laboratory, clinical microbiologists (infection doctors) and antimicrobial treatment guidelines. This mixed-methods study was conducted at a non-governmental Cambodian paediatric hospital. Empirical and post-culture antimicrobial prescriptions were reviewed from medical records. The random sample included 10 outpatients per week in 2016 (retrospective) and 20 inpatients per week for 4 weeks in the medical, neonatal and intensive care wards (prospective). Post-culture prescriptions were assessed in patients with positive blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2016. Focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews with clinicians explored barriers and facilitators to use of the CMS. Only 31% of outpatients were prescribed empirical antimicrobials. Post-culture prescriptions (394/443, 89%) were more likely to be appropriate than empirical prescriptions (447/535, 84%), based on treatment guidelines, microbiology advice and antimicrobial susceptibility test results (P = 0.015). Being comprehensive, accessible and trusted enabled CMS utilization. Clinical microbiologists provided a crucial human interface between the CMS and physicians. The main barriers were a strong clinical hierarchy and occasional communication difficulties. Antimicrobial prescribing in this hospital was largely appropriate. A culturally appropriate human interface linking the laboratory and physicians is essential in providing effective microbiology services and ensuring appropriate antimicrobial

  12. A method for isolating identifying and culturing of rat trachea-bronchia epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Fengmei; Su Shibiao; Nie Jihua; Li Bingyan; Tong Jian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore a method for isolating identifying and culturing the rat trachea-bronchia epithelial cells. Methods: The rat trachea-bronchia epithelial cells were isolated by digestion with pronase and brushing with cell brush, identified using confocul and cultured in entire F12 media with no serum. Results: With this method, cells in high purity and high viability could be obtained, and about 10 6 cells per rat. The cells grow well in entire F12 media with no serum. Conclusion: The method is useful for isolating rate trachea-bronchia epithelial cells and the entire F12 media with no serum is effective for culturing. (authors)

  13. Triangulation and the importance of establishing valid methods for food safety culture evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Lone; Wallace, Carol A

    2017-10-01

    The research evaluates maturity of food safety culture in five multi-national food companies using method triangulation, specifically self-assessment scale, performance documents, and semi-structured interviews. Weaknesses associated with each individual method are known but there are few studies in food safety where a method triangulation approach is used for both data collection and data analysis. Significantly, this research shows that individual results taken in isolation can lead to wrong conclusions, resulting in potentially failing tactics and wasted investments. However, by applying method triangulation and reviewing results from a range of culture measurement tools it is possible to better direct investments and interventions. The findings add to the food safety culture paradigm beyond a single evaluation of food safety culture using generic culture surveys. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Microbiology and Treatment of Acute Apical Abscesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, Isabela N.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Acute apical abscess is the most common form of dental abscess and is caused by infection of the root canal of the tooth. It is usually localized intraorally, but in some cases the apical abscess may spread and result in severe complications or even mortality. The reasons why dental root canal infections can become symptomatic and evolve to severe spreading and sometimes life-threatening abscesses remain elusive. Studies using culture and advanced molecular microbiology methods for microbial identification in apical abscesses have demonstrated a multispecies community conspicuously dominated by anaerobic bacteria. Species/phylotypes commonly found in these infections belong to the genera Fusobacterium, Parvimonas, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Dialister, Streptococcus, and Treponema. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies and computational biology have substantially enhanced the knowledge of the microbiota associated with acute apical abscesses and shed some light on the etiopathogeny of this disease. Species richness and abundance and the resulting network of interactions among community members may affect the collective pathogenicity and contribute to the development of acute infections. Disease modifiers, including transient or permanent host-related factors, may also influence the development and severity of acute abscesses. This review focuses on the current evidence about the etiology and treatment of acute apical abscesses and how the process is influenced by host-related factors and proposes future directions in research, diagnosis, and therapeutic approaches to deal with this disease. PMID:23554416

  15. Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Microbiological profile from middle ear and nasopharynx in patients suffering from chronic active mucosal otitis media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, S.F.; Sheikh, N.A.; Aleem, A.; Farooq, M.; Nadeem, K.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic otitis media is described as a tympanic membrane perforation and ear discharge for more than six weeks duration. Ascending infection from the nasopharynx into the middle ear cleft has been attributed to prevent resolution of chronic otitis media. This research aims to determine the association between the microbiological flora of the nasopharynx with that of the middle ear in patients suffering from chronic (active) mucosal otitis media. Methods: Our study is a hospital-based cross-sectional survey. It was conducted from December 2015 to February 2017 at the Department of ENT, Combined Military Hospital, Abbottabad. Ear and nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from 65 patients of chronic active mucosal otitis media and sent for microbiological analysis. Microbiological culture and sensitivity test was performed to identify the microbial spectrum of each specimen. Performa bearing the result of otoscopy, aspirate and swabs were completed for middle ear and the nasopharyngeal culture with reference to each patient. Descriptive statistics and Pearson's chi square analysis were performed using SPSS-22. Results: Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are foremost micro-organisms found in otorrhea culture isolated from patients of chronic active mucosal otitis media. Majority of the cultures from nasopharynx of these patients did not reveal any growth after incubation for 48 hours. Conclusion: A statistically insignificant association exists between the microbiological spectrum of the middle ear and the nasopharynx of patients suffering from chronic active mucosal otitis media. Micro organisms' exposure from a perforated tympanic membrane remains leading cause of persistent otorrhea, rather than ascending infection through the Eustachian tube. (author)

  17. A Method Sustaining the Bioelectric, Biophysical, and Bioenergetic Function of Cultured Rabbit Atrial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Noa Kirschner Peretz; Sofia Segal; Limor Arbel-Ganon; Ronen Ben Jehuda; Ronen Ben Jehuda; Yuval Shemer; Yuval Shemer; Binyamin Eisen; Binyamin Eisen; Moran Davoodi; Ofer Binah; Ofer Binah; Yael Yaniv

    2017-01-01

    Culturing atrial cells leads to a loss in their ability to be externally paced at physiological rates and to maintain their shape. We aim to develop a culture method that sustains the shape of atrial cells along with their biophysical and bioenergetic properties in response to physiological pacing. We hypothesize that adding 2,3-Butanedione 2-monoxime (BDM), which inhibits contraction during the culture period, will preserve these biophysical and bioenergetic properties. Rabbit atrial cells w...

  18. CT an MR imaging of the paranasal sinuses in cystic fibrosis. Correlation with microbiological and histopathological results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggesboe, H.B.; Stiris, M.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To compare CT and MR findings of the paranasal sinuses in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) with microbiology and histopathology. Further, to compare microbiology from the maxillary sinuses, nasopharynx and sputum. Material and methods: CT and MR imaging of the paranasal sinuses were performed in 10 CF patients. Endoscopy and maxillary sinus aspirates were obtained (guided by the MR findings) and analyzed microbiologically and histologically. Samples from the nasopharynx and sputum were analyzed microbiologically. Results: CT and MR were equal in displaying the extent of soft tissue masses, which at CT were homogeneous, while MR showed heterogeneous signals. MR images also demonstrated circumscribed areas with signal void at the STIR sequence with corresponding high to intermediate signal at the T1-weighted sequence. P. aeruginosa was frequently cultured from these areas which we named the 'black hole sign'. Maxillary sinus cultures revealed the same bacteria as nasopharynx and sputum cultures combined. Conclusion: MR images were superior to CT in differentiating soft tissue masses in the paranasal sinuses in CF patients. Bacteria with potential for specialized iron uptake mechanisms were present in areas with signal void at the STIR sequence. Our hypothesis is that the MR 'black hole sign' can be explained by paramagnetic properties related to bacterial agents. (orig.)

  19. [Applications of MALDI-TOF-MS in clinical microbiology laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonnelle, Etienne; Nassif, Xavier

    2011-10-01

    For twenty years, mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a particularly powerful tool for analysis and characterization of proteins in research. It is only recently that this technology, especially MALDI-TOF-MS (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight) has entered the field of routine microbiology. This method has proven to be reliable and safe for the identification of bacteria, yeasts, filamentous fungi and dermatophytes. MALDI-TOF-MS is a rapid, precise and cost-effective method for identification, compared to conventional phenotypic techniques or molecular biology. Its ability to analyse whole microorganisms with few sample preparation has greatly reduced the time to identification (1-2 min). Furthermore, this technology can be used to identify bacteria directly from clinical samples as blood culture bottles or urines. Future applications will be developed in order to provide direct information concerning virulence or resistance protein markers. © 2011 médecine/sciences – Inserm / SRMS.

  20. Emerging Technologies for the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Blake W.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In this review we examine the literature related to emerging technologies that will help to reshape the clinical microbiology laboratory. These topics include nucleic acid amplification tests such as isothermal and point-of-care molecular diagnostics, multiplexed panels for syndromic diagnosis, digital PCR, next-generation sequencing, and automation of molecular tests. We also review matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry methods and their role in identification of microorganisms. Lastly, we review the shift to liquid-based microbiology and the integration of partial and full laboratory automation that are beginning to impact the clinical microbiology laboratory. PMID:25278575

  1. Microbiological Evaluation and Nutritional Quality of Ogi made from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological evaluation and nutritional quality of ogi made from sorghum substituted with millet was carried out in this research work. A standard method was used for the proximate composition analysis and characterization of isolates was carried out by standard microbiological techniques. Protein content was found to ...

  2. Towards a Portuguese database of food microbiological occurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Viegas, Silvia; Machado, Claudia; Dantas, M.Ascenção; Oliveira, Luísa

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To expand the Portuguese Food Information Resource Programme (PortFIR) by building the Portuguese Food Microbiological Information Network (RPIMA) including users, stakeholders, food microbiological data producers that will provide data and information from research, monitoring, epidemiological investigation and disease surveillance. The integration of food data in a national database will improve foodborne risk management. Methods and results Potential members were identified and...

  3. Microbiological and physico-chemical assessment of the quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The domestic raw water sources in Nkonkobe and Gogogo were characterised by using both microbiological and standard physical methods to investigate the quality of the water at the sampling sites. For microbiological analysis, indicator bacteria namely, heterotrophic bacteria, total and faecal coliforms and for physical ...

  4. Common Problems Encountered in the Microbiological Analysis of Biocidal Products

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Güven

    2015-01-01

    As many parameters that affect the success of a biocidal product, under laboratory conditions there are also factors affecting the reliability and accuracy of tests to determine the microbiological efficacy of these products. The assessment of the microbiological efficacy of the biocidal products and in order to ensure standardization between laboratories it is essential the use of internationally accepted methods.

  5. Acceleration of the direct identification of Staphylococcus aureus versus coagulase-negative staphylococci from blood culture material: a comparison of six bacterial DNA extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loonen, A J M; Jansz, A R; Kreeftenberg, H; Bruggeman, C A; Wolffs, P F G; van den Brule, A J C

    2011-03-01

    To accelerate differentiation between Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), this study aimed to compare six different DNA extraction methods from two commonly used blood culture materials, i.e. BACTEC and BacT/ALERT. Furthermore, we analysed the effect of reduced blood culture incubation for the detection of staphylococci directly from blood culture material. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) duplex assay was used to compare the six different DNA isolation protocols on two different blood culture systems. Negative blood culture material was spiked with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Bacterial DNA was isolated with automated extractor easyMAG (three protocols), automated extractor MagNA Pure LC (LC Microbiology Kit M(Grade)), a manual kit MolYsis Plus and a combination of MolYsis Plus and the easyMAG. The most optimal isolation method was used to evaluate reduced bacterial incubation times. Bacterial DNA isolation with the MolYsis Plus kit in combination with the specific B protocol on the easyMAG resulted in the most sensitive detection of S. aureus, with a detection limit of 10 CFU/ml, in BacT/ALERT material, whereas using BACTEC resulted in a detection limit of 100 CFU/ml. An initial S. aureus or CNS load of 1 CFU/ml blood can be detected after 5 h of incubation in BacT/ALERT 3D by combining the sensitive isolation method and the tuf LightCycler assay.

  6. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion: Causative Organisms and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    enviromental composition as a potential method for reversing microbiologically influenced corrosion, Corrosion (NAC’E) International. Houston. Texas...International fellow and associate editor for Biofouling, The Journal of Bioadhesion and Biofilm Research. J. Lee is a Materials and Corrosion Engineer

  7. Bleeding Efficiency, Microbiological Quality and Oxidative Stability of Meat from Goats Subjected to Slaughter without Stunning in Comparison with Different Methods of Pre-Slaughter Electrical Stunning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabow, Azad Behnan; Zulkifli, Idrus; Goh, Yong Meng; Ab Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Kaka, Ubedullah; Imlan, Jurhamid Columbres; Abubakar, Ahmed Abubakar; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2016-01-01

    The influence of pre-slaughter electrical stunning techniques and slaughter without stunning on bleeding efficiency and shelf life of chevon during a 14 d postmortem aging were assessed. Thirty two Boer crossbred bucks were randomly assigned to four slaughtering techniques viz slaughter without stunning (SWS), low frequency head-only electrical stunning (LFHO; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 50 Hz), low frequency head-to-back electrical stunning (LFHB; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 50 Hz) and high frequency head-to-back electrical stunning (HFHB; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 850 Hz). The SWS, LFHO and HFHB goats had higher (pmeat had higher (pmeat compared to those from SWS, LFHO and HFHB after 3 d postmortem. Results indicate that the low bleed-out in LFHB lowered the lipid oxidative stability and microbiological quality of chevon during aging.

  8. Choice of Appropriate Multimedia Technology and Teaching Methods for Different Culture Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taratoukhina, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the prerequisites for development in the area of cross-cultural multimedia didactics. This approach is based on research studies of differences between mentalities, ways of working with educational information, culturally-specific teaching methods and teaching techniques that determine differentiated approaches to the choice…

  9. Perceptions of Organizational Culture of a Multi-Campus Community College District: Mixed Methods in Concert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster Dale, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This concurrent, mixed-methods case study analyzed perceptions of current and preferred organizational culture within a rural, multi-campus community college district. This phenomenon was examined by analyzing and comparing data collected by surveying all full-time employees utilizing the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) and…

  10. EXPLANTATION OF MESANGIAL CELL HILLOCKS - A METHOD FOR OBTAINING HUMAN MESANGIAL CELLS IN CULTURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULLER, EW; KIM, Y; MICHAEL, AF; VERNIER, RL; VANDERHEM, GK; VANDERWOUDE, FJ

    A simple method is presented for selective cell culture of human mesangial cells using explanatation of mesangial cell hillocks. Glomeruli which had been incubated with collagenase were explanted on plastic tissue culture flasks. Three to 6 weeks after explantation, a rapidly growing multilayer of

  11. The comparison of two different embryo culture methods in the course of in vitro fertilization program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Grzechocinska

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare two different embryo culture methods in the course of in vitro fertilization program by means of fertilization rate, embryo development, total time and cost. 98 patients undergoing assisted reproduction procedures due to infertility were analyzed. The inclusion criteria for the study: first IVF-ET program, at least 10 MII oocytes, no indications for ICSI. Oocytes were divided into two study groups: group A- open culture (oocytes placed in four-well dishes together, then inseminated and cultured in successive wells and group B - a closed culture (oocytes placed in microdroplets, each embryo cultured separately. The fertilization rate was assessed around 18 hours from insemination. The embryos were classified into four classes. The best embryos were chosen for transfer. In the group A the fertilization rate obtained was lower than in group B (68% vs. 78%, respectively. The microdroplet culture required more time on the insemination day and on the second day of culture, while the four-well dish method required more time on the first day of culture and on the day of transfer. On analyzing the total cost of the above procedures (MI medium and oil costs it occurred that the microdroplet culture was more expensive than the four-well dish method (due to the intake of paraffin oil. However, the difference was of no practical importance. In the conclusion, microdroplet culture gives a higher fertilization rate than four-well dish culture, probably due to a homogenous sperm distribution. Despite the differences in time outside the incubator and laboratory expenses (which are after all insignificant microdroplet culture allows a better control over the embryo development. The embryos of best developmental potential can therefore be chosen for ET.

  12. Rapid microbiology - raising awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 'high-level overview' of some of the emerging rapid microbiology technologies designed to help healthcare engineering and infection control teams working in hospitals and other healthcare facilities more rapidly identify potentially hazardous levels of waterborne microorganisms in their water systems, enabling them to take prompt remedial action, and a look at the some of the 'pros and cons' of such testing techniques, was given by Nalco technical director, Howard Barnes, the vice-chair of the Legionella Control Association (LCA), at a recent LCA open day. HEJ editor, Jonathan Bailie, reports.

  13. Oxford-Style Debates in a Microbiology Course for Majors: A Method for Delivering Content and Engaging Critical Thinking Skills †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucaud, Dwayne W.; Nabel, Michael; Eggers, Christian H.

    2013-01-01

    Developing scientific expertise in the classroom involves promoting higher-order cognitive skills as well as content mastery. Effective use of constructivism can facilitate these outcomes. However this is often difficult to accomplish when delivery of content is paramount. Utilizing many of the tenets of constructivist pedagogy, we have designed an Oxford-style debate assignment to be used in an introductory microbiology course. Two teams of students were assigned a debatable topic within microbiology. Over a five-week period students completed an informative web page consisting of three parts: background on the topic, data-based positions for each side of the argument, and a data-based persuasive argument to support their assigned position. This was followed by an in-class presentation and debate. Analysis of student performance on knowledge-based questions shows that students retain debate-derived content acquired primarily outside of lectures significantly better than content delivered during a normal lecture. Importantly, students who performed poorly on the lecture-derived questions did as well on debate-derived questions as other students. Students also performed well on questions requiring higher-order cognitive skills and in synthesizing data-driven arguments in support of a position during the debate. Student perceptions of their knowledge-base in areas covered by the debate and their skills in using scientific databases and analyzing primary literature showed a significant increase in pre- and postassignment comparisons. Our data demonstrate that an Oxford-style debate can be used effectively to deliver relevant content, increase higher-order cognitive skills, and increase self-efficacy in science-specific skills, all contributing to developing expertise in the field. PMID:23858349

  14. The Changing Role of the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory in Defining Resistance in Gram-negatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endimiani, Andrea; Jacobs, Michael R

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of resistance in Gram-negatives has challenged the clinical microbiology laboratory to implement new methods for their detection. Multidrug-resistant strains present major challenges to conventional and new detection methods. More rapid pathogen identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing have been developed for use directly on specimens, including fluorescence in situ hybridization tests, automated polymerase chain reaction systems, microarrays, mass spectroscopy, next-generation sequencing, and microfluidics. Review of these methods shows the advances that have been made in rapid detection of resistance in cultures, but limited progress in direct detection from specimens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An Evaluation Method for Team Competencies to Enhance Nuclear Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, S. M.; Seong, P. H.; Kim, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Safety culture has received attention in safety-critical industries, including nuclear power plants (NPPs), due to various prominent accidents such as concealment of a Station Blackout (SBO) of Kori NPP unit 1 in 2012, the Sewol ferry accident in 2014, and the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Analysis reports have pointed out that one of the major contributors to the cause of the accidents is ‘the lack of safety culture’. The term, nuclear safety culture, was firstly defined after the Chernobyl accident by the IAEA in INSAG report no. 4, as follows “Safety culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted their significance.” Afterwards, a wide consensus grew among researchers and nuclear-related organizations, that safety culture should be evaluated and managed in a certain manner. Consequently, each nuclear-related organization defined and developed their own safety culture definitions and assessment methods. However, none of these methods provides a way for an individual or a team to enhance the safety culture of an organization. Especially for a team, which is the smallest working unit in NPPs, team members easily overlook their required practices to improve nuclear safety culture. Therefore in this study, we suggested a method to estimate nuclear safety culture of a team, by approaching with the ‘competency’ point of view. The competency is commonly focused on individuals, and defined as, “underlying characteristics of an individual that are causally related to effective or superior performance in a job.” Similar to safety culture, the definition of competency focuses on characteristics and attitudes of individuals. Thus, we defined ‘safety culture competency’ as “underlying characteristics and outward attitudes of individuals that are causally related to a healthy and strong nuclear safety

  16. Towards the production of reliable quantitative microbiological data for risk assessment: Direct quantification of Campylobacter in naturally infected chicken fecal samples using selective culture and real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Vigre, Håkan; Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam

    2015-01-01

    of Campylobacter by real-time PCR was performed using standard curves designed for two different DNA extraction methods: Easy-DNA™ Kit from Invitrogen (Easy-DNA) and NucliSENS® MiniMAG® from bioMérieux (MiniMAG). Results indicated that the estimation of the numbers of Campylobacter present in chicken fecal samples...... and for the evaluation of control strategies implemented in poultry production. The aim of this study was to compare estimates of the numbers of Campylobacter spp. in naturally infected chicken fecal samples obtained using direct quantification by selective culture and by real-time PCR. Absolute quantification....... Although there were differences in terms of estimates of Campylobacter numbers between the methods and samples, the differences between culture and real-time PCR were not statistically significant for most of the samples used in this study....

  17. Comparison of Standard Culture-Based Method to Culture-Independent Method for Evaluation of Hygiene Effects on the Hand Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, J.; Henley, J.; Tittl, J.; De Nardo, E.; Butler, M.; Griggs, R.; Fierer, N.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hands play a critical role in the transmission of microbiota on one’s own body, between individuals, and on environmental surfaces. Effectively measuring the composition of the hand microbiome is important to hand hygiene science, which has implications for human health. Hand hygiene products are evaluated using standard culture-based methods, but standard test methods for culture-independent microbiome characterization are lacking. We sampled the hands of 50 participants using swab-based and glove-based methods prior to and following four hand hygiene treatments (using a nonantimicrobial hand wash, alcohol-based hand sanitizer [ABHS], a 70% ethanol solution, or tap water). We compared results among culture plate counts, 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted directly from hands, and sequencing of DNA extracted from culture plates. Glove-based sampling yielded higher numbers of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but had less diversity in bacterial community composition than swab-based sampling. We detected treatment-induced changes in diversity only by using swab-based samples (P hand hygiene industry methods and for future hand microbiome studies. On the basis of our results and previously published studies, we propose recommendations for best practices in hand microbiome research. PMID:28351915

  18. Sterilization validation for medical devices at IRASM microbiological laboratory—Practical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trandafir, Laura; Alexandru, Mioara; Constantin, Mihai; Ioniţă, Anca; Zorilă, Florina; Moise, Valentin

    2012-01-01

    EN ISO 11137 established regulations for setting or substantiating the dose for achieving the desired sterility assurance level. The validation studies can be designed in particular for different types of products. Each product needs distinct protocols for bioburden determination and sterility testing. The Microbiological Laboratory from Irradiation Processing Center (IRASM) deals with different types of products, mainly for the VD max 25 method. When it comes to microbiological evaluation the most challenging was cotton gauze. A special situation for establishing the sterilization validation method appears in cases of cotton packed in large quantities. The VD max 25 method cannot be applied for items with average bioburden more than 1000 CFU/pack, irrespective of the weight of the package. This is a method limitation and implies increased costs for the manufacturer when choosing other methods. For microbiological tests, culture condition should be selected in both cases of the bioburden and sterility testing. Details about choosing criteria are given. - Highlights: ► The paper presents aspects and results within the sterilization validation process. ► Critical aspects that can lead to the failure of the process were emphasized. ► Limitation methods were discussed.

  19. Tourismological valorization of intangible cultural heritage of Serbia according to the Hilary du Cros method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Bjeljac

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The folk artistry of Serbia is rich in spiritual values tied to customs, celebrations, music, song, dance, games, stories and legends, and this kind of cultural heritage is presented through numerous festivals, events and tourist manifestations. In 2012, the network for the safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage was formed, comprised of the National committee for intangible cultural heritage, the Commission for admission into the registry of intangible cultural heritage, a network of coordinators and the Center for intangible cultural heritage of Serbia. These institutions have chosen 6 elements of intangible cultural heritage, out of 27 suggestions: the slava, the Đurđevdan ritual, the kolo dance, singing accompanied by gusle, Slovakian naive painting, the custom of making and lighting farmers’ candles, Pirot carpet weaving, and Zlakusa pottery as elements of cultural heritage which reflect the national and cultural identity of the Serbian people, and Slavic minorities. These elements of intangible cultural heritage have a certain tourism potential and can represent an important factor in the forming of the tourist brand of Serbia. In order to determine the importance of the 27 suggestions of intangible cultural elements of Serbia, an analysis was conducted, using an adapted form of the Hilary du Cros method of tourist valorization.

  20. Microbiology Education in Nursing Practice?

    OpenAIRE

    Durrant, Robert J.; Doig, Alexa K.; Buxton, Rebecca L.; Fenn, JoAnn P.

    2017-01-01

    Nurses must have sufficient education and training in microbiology to perform many roles within clinical nursing practice (e.g., administering antibiotics, collecting specimens, preparing specimens for transport and delivery, educating patients and families, communicating results to the healthcare team, and developing care plans based on results of microbiology studies and patient immunological status). It is unclear whether the current microbiology courses required of nursing students in the...

  1. Method for organotypic tissue culture in the aged animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Schommer

    2017-01-01

    • Our method permits slices from mice as old as 16 months and rabbits as old as years of age to survive ex vivo up to 8 weeks [6–9]. Such a slice system may be relevant to investigating age-related brain diseases.

  2. [Microbiological diagnosis of infections of the skin and soft tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burillo, Almudena; Moreno, Antonio; Salas, Carlos

    2007-11-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections are often seen in clinical practice, yet their microbiological diagnosis is among the most complex of laboratory tasks. The diagnosis of a skin and a soft tissue infection is generally based on clinical criteria and not microbiological results. A microbiological diagnosis is reserved for cases in which the etiology of infection is required, e.g., when the infection is particularly severe, when less common microorganisms are suspected as the causative agent (e.g. in immunocompromised patients), when response to antimicrobial treatment is poor, or when a longstanding wound does not heal within a reasonable period of time. We report the indications, sampling and processing techniques, and interpretation criteria for various culture types, including quantitative cultures from biopsy or tissue specimens and semiquantitative and qualitative cultures performed on all types of samples. For non-invasive samples taken from open wounds, application of the Q index to Gram stains is a cost-effective way to standardize sample quality assessment and interpretation of the pathogenic involvement of the different microorganisms isolated from cultures. All these issues are covered in the SEIMC microbiological procedure number 22: Diagnóstico microbiológico de las infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos (Microbiological diagnosis of infections of the skin and soft tissues) (2nd ed., 2006, www.seimc.org/protocolos/microbiologia).

  3. Plant management in natural areas: balancing chemical, mechanical, and cultural control methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven Manning; James. Miller

    2011-01-01

    After determining the best course of action for control of an invasive plant population, it is important to understand the variety of methods available to the integrated pest management professional. A variety of methods are now widely used in managing invasive plants in natural areas, including chemical, mechanical, and cultural control methods. Once the preferred...

  4. A novel method for coral explant culture and micropropagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizel, Maya; Loya, Yossi; Downs, Craig A; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti

    2011-06-01

    We describe here a method for the micropropagation of coral that creates progeny from tissue explants derived from a single polyp or colonial corals. Coral tissue explants of various sizes (0.5-2.5 mm in diameter) were manually microdissected from the solitary coral Fungia granulosa. Explants could be maintained in an undeveloped state or induced to develop into polyps by manipulating environmental parameters such as light and temperature regimes, as well as substrate type. Fully developed polyps were able to be maintained for a long-term in a closed sea water system. Further, we demonstrate that mature explants are also amenable to this technique with the micropropagation of second-generation explants and their development into mature polyps. We thereby experimentally have established coral clonal lines that maintain their ability to differentiate without the need for chemical induction or genetic manipulation. The versatility of this method is also demonstrated through its application to two other coral species, the colonial corals Oculina patigonica and Favia favus.

  5. In Vitro Culturing and Live Imaging of Drosophila Egg Chambers: A History and Adaptable Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Nathaniel C; Berg, Celeste A

    2016-01-01

    The development of the Drosophila egg chamber encompasses a myriad of diverse germline and somatic events, and as such, the egg chamber has become a widely used and influential developmental model. Advantages of this system include physical accessibility, genetic tractability, and amenability to microscopy and live culturing, the last of which is the focus of this chapter. To provide adequate context, we summarize the structure of the Drosophila ovary and egg chamber, the morphogenetic events of oogenesis, the history of egg-chamber live culturing, and many of the important discoveries that this culturing has afforded. Subsequently, we discuss various culturing methods that have facilitated analyses of different stages of egg-chamber development and different types of cells within the egg chamber, and we present an optimized protocol for live culturing Drosophila egg chambers.We designed this protocol for culturing late-stage Drosophila egg chambers and live imaging epithelial tube morphogenesis, but with appropriate modifications, it can be used to culture egg chambers of any stage. The protocol employs a liquid-permeable, weighted "blanket" to gently hold egg chambers against the coverslip in a glass-bottomed culture dish so the egg chambers can be imaged on an inverted microscope. This setup provides a more buffered, stable, culturing environment than previously published methods by using a larger volume of culture media, but the setup is also compatible with small volumes. This chapter should aid researchers in their efforts to culture and live-image Drosophila egg chambers, further augmenting the impressive power of this model system.

  6. Clinical and microbiological profile of infectious keratitis in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Infectious keratitis is a sight-threatening condition for children. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical profile, risk factors and microbiological profile of infectious keratitis in children. Methods Retrospective review of clinical records of patients under 16 years of age with history of microbial keratitis seen at a tertiary referral center. Clinical characteristics, risk factors, visual and surgical outcomes as well as the microbiological profile are analyzed. Results Forty-one eyes of 41 patients. Mean age was 8.7 years. Time between the onset of symptoms and ophthalmological examination was 12.7 days. Predisposing factors were found in 78%; ocular trauma was the most common (25%). Visual acuity equal or worse than 20/200 at admission correlated positively with a poorer visual outcome, p=0.002. Positivity of cultures was 34%. Gram-positive bacteria were isolated in 78.5%; Staphylococcus epidermidis (28.6%) was the most common microorganism. Conclusions Our study emphasizes the importance of a prompt diagnosis and treatment of infectious corneal ulcers in children. Trauma and contact lenses were the main predisposing factors. Gram-positive organisms were isolated in the vast majority of cases and visual outcomes are usually poor. PMID:24131681

  7. Comparison of the quantitative dry culture methods with both conventional media and most probable number method for the enumeration of coliforms and Escherichia coli/coliforms in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramura, H; Sota, K; Iwasaki, M; Ogihara, H

    2017-07-01

    Sanita-kun™ CC (coliform count) and EC (Escherichia coli/coliform count), sheet quantitative culture systems which can avoid chromogenic interference by lactase in food, were evaluated in comparison with conventional methods for these bacteria. Based on the results of inclusivity and exclusivity studies using 77 micro-organisms, sensitivity and specificity of both Sanita-kun™ met the criteria for ISO 16140. Both media were compared with deoxycholate agar, violet red bile agar, Merck Chromocult™ coliform agar (CCA), 3M Petrifilm™ CC and EC (PEC) and 3-tube MPN, as reference methods, in 100 naturally contaminated food samples. The correlation coefficients of both Sanita-kun™ for coliform detection were more than 0·95 for all comparisons. For E. coli detection, Sanita-kun™ EC was compared with CCA, PEC and MPN in 100 artificially contaminated food samples. The correlation coefficients for E. coli detection of Sanita-kun™ EC were more than 0·95 for all comparisons. There were no significant differences in all comparisons when conducting a one-way analysis of variance (anova). Both Sanita-kun™ significantly inhibited colour interference by lactase when inhibition of enzymatic staining was assessed using 40 natural cheese samples spiked with coliform. Our results demonstrated Sanita-kun™ CC and EC are suitable alternatives for the enumeration of coliforms and E. coli/coliforms, respectively, in a variety of foods, and specifically in fermented foods. Current chromogenic media for coliforms and Escherichia coli/coliforms have enzymatic coloration due to breaking down of chromogenic substrates by food lactase. The novel sheet culture media which have film layer to avoid coloration by food lactase have been developed for enumeration of coliforms and E. coli/coliforms respectively. In this study, we demonstrated these media had comparable performance with reference methods and less interference by food lactase. These media have a possibility not only

  8. Towards a culturally independent participatory design method: Fusing game elements into the design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Nakatani, Momoko; Ohno, Takehiko

    2013-01-01

    Historically, Participatory Design (PD) was introduced and applied in the Scandinavian and American context as a practical design method for collective creativity and stakeholder involvement. In this paper, by fusing game elements into PD, we suggest a first step towards a culturally independent ...... imply that the introduction of game elements allows PD to be effectively utilized in culturally diverse settings.......Historically, Participatory Design (PD) was introduced and applied in the Scandinavian and American context as a practical design method for collective creativity and stakeholder involvement. In this paper, by fusing game elements into PD, we suggest a first step towards a culturally independent PD...... method called the ICT Service Design Game to ease the prevailing concern that PD has limited applicability in other cultural settings. We conduct four experiments on ICT Service Design Game in Scandinavia and Asia to evaluate its feasibility. The experiments identify some differences in the PD process...

  9. Comparison of Fluorescence Microscopy and Different Growth Media Culture Methods for Acanthamoeba Keratitis Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Avi; Geffen, Yuval; Socea, Soergiu D; Pastukh, Nina; Graffi, Shmuel

    2015-08-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), a potentially blinding infection of the cornea, is caused by a free-living protozoan. Culture and microscopic examination of corneal scraping tissue material is the conventional method for identifying Acanthamoeba. In this article, we compared several methods for AK diagnosis of 32 patients: microscopic examination using fluorescent dye, specific culture on growth media-non-nutrient agar (NNA), culture on liquid growth media-peptone yeast glucose (PYG), and TYI-S-33. AK was found in 14 patients. Thirteen of the specimens were found AK positive by fluorescence microscopic examination, 11 specimens were found AK positive on PYG growth media, and 9 specimens were found AK positive on TYI-S-33 growth media. Only five specimens were found AK positive on NNA growth media. Therefore, we recommend using fluorescence microscopy technique and culture method, especially PYG liquid media. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  10. Microbiological consequences of indoor composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, A; Reboux, G; Vacheyrou, M; Valot, B; Millon, L; Roussel, S

    2016-08-01

    Recycling of organic waste appeals to more and more people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological contamination around organic waste bins at three distances over a 12-month period. Contamination near the customary trash of control households was evaluated at the beginning to ensure that there is no recruitment bias. Air samples using the MAS 100 impactor were carried out in 38 dwellings that do household waste composting and in 10 dwellings of controls. Collection of particles by CIP 10 rotating cup sampler and dust samples collected by electrostatic dust collector cloths were acquired in dwellings that do household waste composting. Samples were analyzed by culture and by real-time quantitative PCR. Information about dwelling characteristics and inhabitant practices was obtained by a standardized questionnaire. The genera most often isolated were Penicillium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Streptomyces. Near the organic waste bins, bioaerosol samples showed an increase of Acarus siro (P = 0.001). Sedimented dust analyses highlighted an increase of A. siro, Wallemia sebi, Aspergillus versicolor, and Cladosporium sphaerospermum concentrations after a 12-month survey compared to the beginning. Composting favors microorganism development over time, but does not seem to have an effect on the bioaerosol levels and the surface microbiota beyond 0.5 m from the waste bin. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Production of microbiological fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinyeris, S

    1983-01-01

    An examination is made of programs developed in different countries for increasing production of alcohol by fermenting substrates for use in the pure form or in a mixture with gasoline (gasoline alcohol) as liquid fuel for transportation vehicles. Direct conversion of cellulose into alcohol using bacteria excluding hydrolytic processes for production of sugars (substrates for yeast and bacteria Zymomonas) is important. This conversion is done by thermophilic bacteria Clostridium thermocellum with growth temperature 60-65/sup 0/C. It is established that with joint growth of these bacteria with bacteria Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum, there is a considerable acceleration in the process of cellulose conversion to ethanol and decrease in the number of other products of fermentation (acetyl cellulose and hydrogen) formed with the use of the indicated cultures separately. Under corresponding conditions almost any organic compound (sugar, starch, protein) contained in the straw, natural polymers, wastewater, etc. by fermentation can be converted into methane. The methane produced by the method of fermentation can be used for daily needs or be added to natural gas. In the region of London, Tuyknem, anaerobic units generate a quantity of biogas sufficient to generate electricity needed to guarantee operation of the unit for purifying wastewater and pumping stations supplying the wastewater. Under conditions of sanitary dumps (United States) spontaneous formation of methane occurs. The methane is lifted through drilled wells upwards and can be transmitted on pipes. In recent years extensive study and modeling have begun of the process of fermentation of solid wastes.

  12. Medical microbiology: laboratory diagnosis of invasive pneumococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werno, Anja M; Murdoch, David R

    2008-03-15

    The laboratory diagnosis of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) continues to rely on culture-based methods that have been used for many decades. The most significant recent developments have occurred with antigen detection assays, whereas the role of nucleic acid amplification tests has yet to be fully clarified. Despite developments in laboratory diagnostics, a microbiological diagnosis is still not made in most cases of IPD, particularly for pneumococcal pneumonia. The limitations of existing diagnostic tests impact the ability to obtain accurate IPD burden data and to assess the effectiveness of control measures, such as vaccination, in addition to the ability to diagnose IPD in individual patients. There is an urgent need for improved diagnostic tests for pneumococcal disease--especially tests that are suitable for use in underresourced countries.

  13. Diversity of Termitomyces associated with fungus-farming termites assessed by cultural and culture-independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makonde, Huxley M; Boga, Hamadi I; Osiemo, Zipporah; Mwirichia, Romano; Stielow, J Benjamin; Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Fungus-cultivating termites make use of an obligate mutualism with fungi from the genus Termitomyces, which are acquired through either vertical transmission via reproductive alates or horizontally transmitted during the formation of new mounds. Termitomyces taxonomy, and thus estimating diversity and host specificity of these fungi, is challenging because fruiting bodies are rarely found. Molecular techniques can be applied but need not necessarily yield the same outcome than morphological identification. Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were used to comprehensively assess host specificity and gut fungal diversity. Termites were identified using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (COII) genes. Twenty-three Termitomyces cultures were isolated from fungal combs. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) clone libraries were constructed from termite guts. Presence of Termitomyces was confirmed using specific and universal primers. Termitomyces species boundaries were estimated by cross-comparison of macromorphological and sequence features, and ITS clustering parameters accordingly optimized. The overall trends in coverage of Termitomyces diversity and host associations were estimated using Genbank data. Results indicate a monoculture of Termitomyces in the guts as well as the isolation sources (fungal combs). However, cases of more than one Termitomyces strains per mound were observed since mounds can contain different termite colonies. The newly found cultures, as well as the clustering analysis of GenBank data indicate that there are on average between one and two host genera per Termitomyces species. Saturation does not appear to have been reached, neither for the total number of known Termitomyces species nor for the number of Termitomyces species per host taxon, nor for the number of known hosts per Termitomyces species. Considering the rarity of Termitomyces fruiting bodies, it is suggested to base the future taxonomy of the group mainly on well

  14. Diversity of Termitomyces associated with fungus-farming termites assessed by cultural and culture-independent methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huxley M Makonde

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fungus-cultivating termites make use of an obligate mutualism with fungi from the genus Termitomyces, which are acquired through either vertical transmission via reproductive alates or horizontally transmitted during the formation of new mounds. Termitomyces taxonomy, and thus estimating diversity and host specificity of these fungi, is challenging because fruiting bodies are rarely found. Molecular techniques can be applied but need not necessarily yield the same outcome than morphological identification. METHODOLOGY: Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were used to comprehensively assess host specificity and gut fungal diversity. Termites were identified using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (COII genes. Twenty-three Termitomyces cultures were isolated from fungal combs. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS clone libraries were constructed from termite guts. Presence of Termitomyces was confirmed using specific and universal primers. Termitomyces species boundaries were estimated by cross-comparison of macromorphological and sequence features, and ITS clustering parameters accordingly optimized. The overall trends in coverage of Termitomyces diversity and host associations were estimated using Genbank data. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Results indicate a monoculture of Termitomyces in the guts as well as the isolation sources (fungal combs. However, cases of more than one Termitomyces strains per mound were observed since mounds can contain different termite colonies. The newly found cultures, as well as the clustering analysis of GenBank data indicate that there are on average between one and two host genera per Termitomyces species. Saturation does not appear to have been reached, neither for the total number of known Termitomyces species nor for the number of Termitomyces species per host taxon, nor for the number of known hosts per Termitomyces species. Considering the rarity of Termitomyces fruiting bodies, it is

  15. Commutability of food microbiology proficiency testing samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmassih, M; Polet, M; Goffaux, M-J; Planchon, V; Dierick, K; Mahillon, J

    2014-03-01

    Food microbiology proficiency testing (PT) is a useful tool to assess the analytical performances among laboratories. PT items should be close to routine samples to accurately evaluate the acceptability of the methods. However, most PT providers distribute exclusively artificial samples such as reference materials or irradiated foods. This raises the issue of the suitability of these samples because the equivalence-or 'commutability'-between results obtained on artificial vs. authentic food samples has not been demonstrated. In the clinical field, the use of noncommutable PT samples has led to erroneous evaluation of the performances when different analytical methods were used. This study aimed to provide a first assessment of the commutability of samples distributed in food microbiology PT. REQUASUD and IPH organized 13 food microbiology PTs including 10-28 participants. Three types of PT items were used: genuine food samples, sterile food samples and reference materials. The commutability of the artificial samples (reference material or sterile samples) was assessed by plotting the distribution of the results on natural and artificial PT samples. This comparison highlighted matrix-correlated issues when nonfood matrices, such as reference materials, were used. Artificially inoculated food samples, on the other hand, raised only isolated commutability issues. In the organization of a PT-scheme, authentic or artificially inoculated food samples are necessary to accurately evaluate the analytical performances. Reference materials, used as PT items because of their convenience, may present commutability issues leading to inaccurate penalizing conclusions for methods that would have provided accurate results on food samples. For the first time, the commutability of food microbiology PT samples was investigated. The nature of the samples provided by the organizer turned out to be an important factor because matrix effects can impact on the analytical results. © 2013

  16. High yield of culture-based diagnosis in a TB-endemic setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demers, Anne-Marie; Verver, Suzanne; Boulle, Andrew; Warren, Robin; van Helden, Paul; Behr, Marcel A.; Coetzee, David

    2012-01-01

    Background: In most of the world, microbiologic diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is limited to microscopy. Recent guidelines recommend culture-based diagnosis where feasible. Methods: In order to evaluate the relative and absolute incremental diagnostic yield of culture-based diagnosis in a

  17. Comparison of Standard Culture-Based Method to Culture-Independent Method for Evaluation of Hygiene Effects on the Hand Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zapka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hands play a critical role in the transmission of microbiota on one’s own body, between individuals, and on environmental surfaces. Effectively measuring the composition of the hand microbiome is important to hand hygiene science, which has implications for human health. Hand hygiene products are evaluated using standard culture-based methods, but standard test methods for culture-independent microbiome characterization are lacking. We sampled the hands of 50 participants using swab-based and glove-based methods prior to and following four hand hygiene treatments (using a nonantimicrobial hand wash, alcohol-based hand sanitizer [ABHS], a 70% ethanol solution, or tap water. We compared results among culture plate counts, 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted directly from hands, and sequencing of DNA extracted from culture plates. Glove-based sampling yielded higher numbers of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs but had less diversity in bacterial community composition than swab-based sampling. We detected treatment-induced changes in diversity only by using swab-based samples (P < 0.001; we were unable to detect changes with glove-based samples. Bacterial cell counts significantly decreased with use of the ABHS (P < 0.05 and ethanol control (P < 0.05. Skin hydration at baseline correlated with bacterial abundances, bacterial community composition, pH, and redness across subjects. The importance of the method choice was substantial. These findings are important to ensure improvement of hand hygiene industry methods and for future hand microbiome studies. On the basis of our results and previously published studies, we propose recommendations for best practices in hand microbiome research.

  18. Nonlinear Parameter Estimation in Microbiological Degradation Systems and Statistic Test for Common Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Holst, Helle; Spliid, Henrik

    1995-01-01

    Three identical microbiological experiments were carried out and analysed in order to examine the variability of the parameter estimates. The microbiological system consisted of a substrate (toluene) and a biomass (pure culture) mixed together in an aquifer medium. The degradation of the substrate...... and the growth of the biomass are described by the Monod model consisting of two nonlinear coupled first-order differential equations. The objective of this study was to estimate the kinetic parameters in the Monod model and to test whether the parameters from the three identical experiments have the same values....... Estimation of the parameters was obtained using an iterative maximum likelihood method and the test used was an approximative likelihood ratio test. The test showed that the three sets of parameters were identical only on a 4% alpha level....

  19. Diagnostic microbiology in veterinary dermatology: present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Damborg, Peter; Stamm, Ivonne

    2017-01-01

    the identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of key pathogens in veterinary dermatology. Methods The Study Group for Veterinary Microbiology (ESGVM) of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) identified scientific, technological, educational...... not adequately equipped to run up-to-date clinical microbiologic diagnostic tests. Conclusions and clinical importance ESGVM recommends the use of laboratories employing mass spectrometry for ID and broth micro-dilution for AST, and offering assistance by expert microbiologists on pre- and post-analytical issues......Background The microbiology laboratory can be perceived as a service provider rather than an integral part of the healthcare team. Objectives The aim of this review is to discuss the current challenges of providing a state-of-the-art diagnostic veterinary microbiology service including...

  20. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Alita R.; Smith, James J.

    2016-01-01

    An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the continued incorporation of evidence-based teaching practices into microbiology courses at all levels. Next, we review the current status of microbial evolution assessment tools and describe some education resources available for teaching microbial evolution. Successful microbial evolution education will require that evolution be taught across the undergraduate biology curriculum, with a continued focus on applications and applied careers, while aligning with national biology education reform initiatives. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:27158306

  1. A fluorescence anisotropy method for measuring protein concentration in complex cell culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groza, Radu Constantin; Calvet, Amandine; Ryder, Alan G

    2014-04-22

    The rapid, quantitative analysis of the complex cell culture media used in biopharmaceutical manufacturing is of critical importance. Requirements for cell culture media composition profiling, or changes in specific analyte concentrations (e.g. amino acids in the media or product protein in the bioprocess broth) often necessitate the use of complicated analytical methods and extensive sample handling. Rapid spectroscopic methods like multi-dimensional fluorescence (MDF) spectroscopy have been successfully applied for the routine determination of compositional changes in cell culture media and bioprocess broths. Quantifying macromolecules in cell culture media is a specific challenge as there is a need to implement measurements rapidly on the prepared media. However, the use of standard fluorescence spectroscopy is complicated by the emission overlap from many media components. Here, we demonstrate how combining anisotropy measurements with standard total synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (TSFS) provides a rapid, accurate quantitation method for cell culture media. Anisotropy provides emission resolution between large and small fluorophores while TSFS provides a robust measurement space. Model cell culture media was prepared using yeastolate (2.5 mg mL(-1)) spiked with bovine serum albumin (0 to 5 mg mL(-1)). Using this method, protein emission is clearly discriminated from background yeastolate emission, allowing for accurate bovine serum albumin (BSA) quantification over a 0.1 to 4.0 mg mL(-1) range with a limit of detection (LOD) of 13.8 μg mL(-1). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Reproducibility of CSF quantitative culture methods for estimating rate of clearance in cryptococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyal, Jonathan; Akampurira, Andrew; Rhein, Joshua; Morawski, Bozena M; Kiggundu, Reuben; Nabeta, Henry W; Musubire, Abdu K; Bahr, Nathan C; Williams, Darlisha A; Bicanic, Tihana; Larsen, Robert A; Meya, David B; Boulware, David R

    2016-05-01

    Quantitative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures provide a measure of disease severity in cryptococcal meningitis. The fungal clearance rate by quantitative cultures has become a primary endpoint for phase II clinical trials. This study determined the inter-assay accuracy of three different quantitative culture methodologies. Among 91 participants with meningitis symptoms in Kampala, Uganda, during August-November 2013, 305 CSF samples were prospectively collected from patients at multiple time points during treatment. Samples were simultaneously cultured by three methods: (1) St. George's 100 mcl input volume of CSF with five 1:10 serial dilutions, (2) AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) method using 1000, 100, 10 mcl input volumes, and two 1:100 dilutions with 100 and 10 mcl input volume per dilution on seven agar plates; and (3) 10 mcl calibrated loop of undiluted and 1:100 diluted CSF (loop). Quantitative culture values did not statistically differ between St. George-ACTG methods (P= .09) but did for St. George-10 mcl loop (Pmethods was high (r≥0.88). For detecting sterility, the ACTG-method had the highest negative predictive value of 97% (91% St. George, 60% loop), but the ACTG-method had occasional (∼10%) difficulties in quantification due to colony clumping. For CSF clearance rate, St. George-ACTG methods did not differ overall (mean -0.05 ± 0.07 log10CFU/ml/day;P= .14) on a group level; however, individual-level clearance varied. The St. George and ACTG quantitative CSF culture methods produced comparable but not identical results. Quantitative cultures can inform treatment management strategies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. [Chronic bacterial prostatitis. Clinical and microbiological study of 332 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras-Cañas, Víctor; Gutiérrez-Soto, Blanca; Serrano-García, María Luisa; Vázquez-Alonso, Fernando; Navarro-Marí, José María; Gutiérrez-Fernández, José

    2016-08-19

    Chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is characterized by long-lasting symptoms, frequently associated with psychosomatic disorders. The objective of the study was to study PCB in our environment clinically and microbiologically. Between January 2013 and December 2014 761 patients with suspected CBP were studied. Of these patients 332 (43.6%) underwent a complete microbiological study and the major clinical signs and symptoms were collected. Eighteen point four percent of patients were diagnosed microbiologically with CBP, Enterococcus faecalis being the main aetiologic agent (37.7%), followed by Escherichia coli (22.2%). Ninety-six point seven percent of the CBP had positive semen cultures, while only 22.9% had positive urine post-semen cultures. Data of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of semen were 96.7%, 95.9%, 84.3% and 99.3%, respectively and urine post-semen 22.9%, 99.3%, 87.5% and 85.1%, respectively. Testicular perineum pain (44.3%), ejaculatory discomfort (27.9%) and haemospermia (26.2%) were highlighted as the patients' main clinical manifestations. Fractionated culture for the microbiological diagnosis of CBP could be simplified by the culture of urine pre-semen and semen, without the need for the culture of urine post-semen. The main aetiologic agent of CBP in our media was Enterococcus faecalis, followed by Escherichia coli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Cultural continuity, traditional Indigenous language, and diabetes in Alberta First Nations: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Richard T; Grier, Angela; Lightning, Rick; Mayan, Maria J; Toth, Ellen L

    2014-10-19

    We used an exploratory sequential mixed methods approach to study the association between cultural continuity, self-determination, and diabetes prevalence in First Nations in Alberta, Canada. We conducted a qualitative description where we interviewed 10 Cree and Blackfoot leaders (members of Chief and Council) from across the province to understand cultural continuity, self-determination, and their relationship to health and diabetes, in the Alberta First Nations context. Based on the qualitative findings, we then conducted a cross-sectional analysis using provincial administrative data and publically available data for 31 First Nations communities to quantitatively examine any relationship between cultural continuity and diabetes prevalence. Cultural continuity, or "being who we are", is foundational to health in successful First Nations. Self-determination, or "being a self-sufficient Nation", stems from cultural continuity and is seriously compromised in today's Alberta Cree and Blackfoot Nations. Unfortunately, First Nations are in a continuous struggle with government policy. The intergenerational effects of colonization continue to impact the culture, which undermines the sense of self-determination, and contributes to diabetes and ill health. Crude diabetes prevalence varied dramatically among First Nations with values as low as 1.2% and as high as 18.3%. Those First Nations that appeared to have more cultural continuity (measured by traditional Indigenous language knowledge) had significantly lower diabetes prevalence after adjustment for socio-economic factors (p =0.007). First Nations that have been better able to preserve their culture may be relatively protected from diabetes.

  5. [The comparison of different bronchial aspirate culturing methods in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Wojciech; Rybicki, Zbigniew; Tomaszewski, Dariusz; Truszczyński, Andrzej; Guzek, Aneta

    2011-01-01

    Although broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) culture and protected specimen brush (PSB) are regarded as the most effective methods in the diagnosis of VAP, a simple endotracheal aspiration (EA) is frequently performed during routine care, because of its simplicity and low cost. We compared the effectiveness of EA with BAL and PSB in VAP patients. Sixty-one adult VAP patients, ventilated for longer than 48 h, were cultured with all three methods. Positive cultures were obtained from 63.9% of patients, with Acinetobacter baumannii being the most common pathogen. There was a high positive correlation between simple aspirates and BAL (k 0.817, CI 0.664-0.840, p aspirates and PSB (k 0.667, CI 0.483-0.871, p aspirate culturing, compared to BAL and PSB, it can be used successfully in most cases.

  6. A Method Sustaining the Bioelectric, Biophysical, and Bioenergetic Function of Cultured Rabbit Atrial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Kirschner Peretz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Culturing atrial cells leads to a loss in their ability to be externally paced at physiological rates and to maintain their shape. We aim to develop a culture method that sustains the shape of atrial cells along with their biophysical and bioenergetic properties in response to physiological pacing. We hypothesize that adding 2,3-Butanedione 2-monoxime (BDM, which inhibits contraction during the culture period, will preserve these biophysical and bioenergetic properties. Rabbit atrial cells were maintained in culture for 24 h in a medium enriched with a myofilament contraction inhibitor, BDM. The morphology and volume of the cells, including their ability to contract in response to 1–3 Hz electrical pacing, was maintained at the same level as fresh cells. Importantly, the cells could be successfully infected with a GFP adenovirus. Action potentials, Ca2+ transients, and local Ca2+ spark parameters were similar in the cultured and in fresh cells. Finally, these cultured cells' flavoprotein autofluorescence was maintained at a constant level in response to electrical pacing, a response similar to that of fresh cells. Thus, eliminating contraction during the culture period preserves the bioelectric, biophysical and bioenergetic properties of rabbit atrial myocytes. This method therefore has the potential to further improve our understanding of energetic and biochemical regulation in the atria.

  7. A method for establishing human primary gastric epithelial cell culture from fresh surgical gastric tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Faisal; Yang, Xuesong; Wen, Qingping; Yan, Qiu

    2015-08-01

    At present, biopsy specimens, cancer cell lines and tissues obtained by gastric surgery are used in the study and analysis of gastric cancer, including the molecular mechanisms and proteomics. However, fibroblasts and other tissue components may interfere with these techniques. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a procedure for the isolation of viable human gastric epithelial cells from gastric surgical tissues. A method was developed to culture human gastric epithelial cells using fresh, surgically excised tissues and was evaluated using immunocytochemistry, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and cell viability assays. Low cell growth was observed surrounding the gastric tissue on the seventh day of tissue explant culture. Cell growth subsequently increased, and at 12 days post-explant a high number of pure epithelial cells were detected. The gastric cancer cells exhibited rapid growth with a doubling time of 13-52 h, as compared to normal cells, which had a doubling time of 20-53 h. Immunocytochemical analyses of primary gastric cells revealed positive staining for cytokeratin 18 and 19, which indicated that the culture was comprised of pure epithelial cells and contained no fibroblasts. Furthermore, PAS staining demonstrated that the cultured gastric cells produced neutral mucin. Granulin and carbohydrate antigen 724 staining confirmed the purity of gastric cancer and normal cells in culture. This method of cell culture indicated that the gastric cells in primary culture consisted of mucin-secreting gastric epithelial cells, which may be useful for the study of gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

  8. FEATURES OF METHODS OF FUTURE PHYSICAL CULTURE TEACHERS’ TRAINING FOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Петро Джуринський

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the methodical approaches and recommendations on implementation of methods of future Physical Culture teachers to physical education of high school students into study process at a higher educational institution. The role of the approbated study discipline “Theory and methods of physical education at high school” has been determined in this research. It has also been defined, that future Physical Culture teacher’s training for physical education of high school students is a system of organizational and educational measures, ensuring the formation of future teacher’s professional knowledge and skills. The article presents the defined tasks, criteria, tools, forms, pedagogical conditions and stages of students’ training for teaching classes of Physical Education to high school students. Approbation of methodical approaches to future Physical Culture teachers’ training for physical education of high school students demonstrated their efficacy

  9. Microbiology and Epidemiology of Legionnaire's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burillo, Almudena; Pedro-Botet, María Luisa; Bouza, Emilio

    2017-03-01

    Legionnaire's disease (LD) is the pneumonic form of legionellosis caused by aerobic gram-negative bacilli of the genus Legionella. Individuals become infected when they inhale aerosolized water droplets contaminated with Legionella species. Forty years after the identification of Legionella pneumophila as the cause of the 1976 pneumonia outbreak in a hotel in Philadelphia, we have non-culture-based diagnostic tests, effective antibiotics, and preventive measures to handle LD. With a mortality rate still around 10%, underreporting, and sporadic outbreaks, there is still much work to be done. In this article, the authors review the microbiology, laboratory diagnosis, and epidemiology of LD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The microbiological diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, H; Ozturk-Engin, D; Elaldi, N

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to provide data on the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in this largest case series ever reported. The Haydarpasa-1 study involved patients with microbiologically confirmed TBM in Albania, Croatia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Hungary, Iraq, Italy, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia......, Syria and Turkey between 2000 and 2012. A positive culture, PCR or Ehrlich-Ziehl-Neelsen staining (EZNs) from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was mandatory for inclusion of meningitis patients. A total of 506 TBM patients were included. The sensitivities of the tests were as follows: interferon-γ release.......05). Combination of L-J and ACS was superior to using these tests alone (p

  11. The relationship between glass ceiling and power distance as a cultural variable by a new method

    OpenAIRE

    Naide Jahangirov; Guler Saglam Ari; Seymur Jahangirov; Nuray Guneri Tosunoglu

    2015-01-01

    Glass ceiling symbolizes a variety of barriers and obstacles that arise from gender inequality at business life. With this mind, culture influences gender dynamics. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between the glass ceiling and the power distance as a cultural variable within organizations. Gender variable is taken as a moderator variable in relationship between the concepts. In addition to conventional correlation analysis, we employed a new method to investigate ...

  12. Diagnostic microbiology in veterinary dermatology: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Damborg, Peter; Stamm, Ivonne; Kopp, Peter A; Broens, Els M; Toutain, Pierre-Louis

    2017-02-01

    The microbiology laboratory can be perceived as a service provider rather than an integral part of the healthcare team. The aim of this review is to discuss the current challenges of providing a state-of-the-art diagnostic veterinary microbiology service including the identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of key pathogens in veterinary dermatology. The Study Group for Veterinary Microbiology (ESGVM) of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) identified scientific, technological, educational and regulatory issues impacting the predictive value of AST and the quality of the service offered by microbiology laboratories. The advent of mass spectrometry has significantly reduced the time required for ID of key pathogens such as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. However, the turnaround time for validated AST methods has remained unchanged for many years. Beyond scientific and technological constraints, AST methods are not harmonized and clinical breakpoints for some antimicrobial drugs are either missing or inadequate. Small laboratories, including in-clinic laboratories, are usually not adequately equipped to run up-to-date clinical microbiologic diagnostic tests. ESGVM recommends the use of laboratories employing mass spectrometry for ID and broth micro-dilution for AST, and offering assistance by expert microbiologists on pre- and post-analytical issues. Setting general standards for veterinary clinical microbiology, promoting antimicrobial stewardship, and the development of new, validated and rapid diagnostic methods, especially for AST, are among the missions of ESGVM. © 2017 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the ESVD and ACVD.

  13. The bacteriology of chronic venous leg ulcer examined by culture-independent molecular methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Trine R; Aasholm, Martin S; Rudkjøbing, Vibeke B

    2010-01-01

    The bacterial microbiota plays an important role in the prolonged healing of chronic venous leg ulcers. The present study compared the bacterial diversity within ulcer material from 14 skin graft operations of chronic venous leg ulcers using culture-based methods and molecular biological methods...

  14. Microbiological assessment of food crops irrigated with domestic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microbiological safety of this practice needed to be examined to ensure that it would indeed help to uplift communities by the provision of ... according to standard methods. .... due to insufficient disinfection of the exterior surface before.

  15. Microbiological and chemical assessment of spring water from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREG

    2013-06-20

    Jun 20, 2013 ... to the Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Physico-chemical parameters ..... Ademoroti CMA (1996). Standard methods for ... Taulo S, Wetlesen A, Abrahamsen R, Mkakosya R, Kulunlanga G. (2008). Microbiological ...

  16. Culture methods of allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples in Australian bacteriology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varettas, Kerry

    2013-12-01

    Samples of allograft musculoskeletal tissue are cultured by bacteriology laboratories to determine the presence of bacteria and fungi. In Australia, this testing is performed by 6 TGA-licensed clinical bacteriology laboratories with samples received from 10 tissue banks. Culture methods of swab and tissue samples employ a combination of solid agar and/or broth media to enhance micro-organism growth and maximise recovery. All six Australian laboratories receive Amies transport swabs and, except for one laboratory, a corresponding biopsy sample for testing. Three of the 6 laboratories culture at least one allograft sample directly onto solid agar. Only one laboratory did not use a broth culture for any sample received. An international literature review found that a similar combination of musculoskeletal tissue samples were cultured onto solid agar and/or broth media. Although variations of allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples, culture media and methods are used in Australian and international bacteriology laboratories, validation studies and method evaluations have challenged and supported their use in recovering fungi and aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

  17. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of peri-implantitis cases: a retrospective multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampakis, G; Leonhardt, Å; Rabe, P; Dahlén, G

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to follow patient cases retrospectively in a longitudinal manner from the time of implant placement to the time they were diagnosed with peri-implant disease, and to identify associated clinical and microbiological features of peri-implant disease. A total of 281 patient cases were chosen from the archives of the Oral Microbiological Diagnostic Laboratory, Gothenburg, Sweden, based on bacterial samples taken from diseased implants. A form was designed and filled in separately for each case including data on patient, implant and disease profile. Most cases were severe peri-implantitis cases (91.4%). In 41.3% of the patients, peri-implantitis was developed early, already after having implants in function less than 4 years. The type of implant surface was significantly associated with the time in years implants were in function, before disease was developed (P < 0.05). The microbiological results by both culture and checkerboard analysis, although failed to fully correspond to the severity of the disease in terms of magnitude, proved to show that peri-implantitis is a polymicrobial anaerobic infection with increased number of AGNB (aerobic Gram-negative bacilli) in 18.6% of the patients. Peri-implantitis is a biological complication of implants in function that poses a threat to their long-term survival. It may develop earlier around implants with rough surfaces and it may represent a true infection. Microbiological sampling methods should be improved and uniformed so as to fully unveil the microbiological profile of the disease. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. [Applications of MALDI-TOF technology in clinical microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, S; Nassif, X; Ferroni, A

    2015-02-01

    Until now, the identification of micro-organisms has been based on the cultural and biochemical characteristics of bacterial and fungal species. Recently, Mass Spectrometry type Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF MS) was developed in clinical microbiology laboratories. This new technology allows identification of micro-organisms directly from colonies of bacteria and fungi within few minutes. In addition, it can be used to identify germs directly from positive blood culture bottles or directly from urine samples. Other ways are being explored to expand the use of MALDI-TOF in clinical microbiology laboratories. Indeed, some studies propose to detect bacterial antibiotic resistance while others compare strains within species for faster strain typing. The main objective of this review is to update data from the recent literature for different applications of MALDI-TOF technique in microbiological diagnostic routine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Bacterial diversity associated with the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis sp. complex determined by culture-dependent and -independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishino, Ryota; Iehata, Shunpei; Nakano, Miyo; Tanaka, Reiji; Yoshimatsu, Takao; Maeda, Hiroto

    2012-03-01

    The bacterial communities associated with rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis sp. complex) and their culture water were determined using culture-dependent and -independent methods (16S rRNA gene clone library). The bacterial communities determined by the culture-independent method were more diverse than those determined by the culture-dependent method. Although the culture-dependent method indicated the bacterial community of rotifers was relatively similar to that of the culture water, 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses revealed a great difference between the two microbiotas. Our results suggest that most bacteria associated with rotifers are not easily cultured using conventional methods, and that the microbiota of rotifers do not correspond with that of the culture water completely.

  20. Searching for Innovations and Methods of Using the Cultural Heritage on the Example of Upper Silesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    The basic subject of this paper is historical and cultural heritage of some parts of Upper Silesia, bind by common history and similar problems at present days. The paper presents some selected historical phenomena that have influenced contemporary space, mentioned above, and contemporary issues of heritage protection in Upper Silesia. The Silesian architecture interpretation, since 1989, is strongly covered with some ideological and national ideas. The last 25 years are the next level of development which contains rapidly transformation of the space what is caused by another economical transformations. In this period, we can observe landscape transformations, liquidation of objects and historical structures, loos of regional features, spontaneous adaptation processes of objects and many methods of implementation forms of protection, and using of cultural resources. Some upheaval linked to the state borders changes, system, economy and ethnic transformation caused that former Upper Silesia border area focuses phenomena that exists in some other similar European areas which are abutments of cultures and traditions. The latest period in the history of Upper Silesia gives us time to reflect the character of changes in architecture and city planning of the area and appraisal of efficiency these practices which are connected to cultural heritage perseveration. The phenomena of the last decades are: decrement of regional features, elimination of objects, which were a key feature of the regional cultural heritage, deformation of these forms that were shaped in the history and some trials of using these elements of cultural heritage, which are widely recognized as cultural values. In this situation, it is important to seek creative solutions that will neutralize bad processes resulting from bad law and practice. The most important phenomena of temporary space is searching of innovative fields and methods and use of cultural resources. An important part of the article is

  1. Microbiological method for radiation sterilization (III). Development of identification software of spore-forming bacteria by using BBL CRYSTAL GP identification kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hironiwa, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Yoko; Koshikawa, Tomihiko

    2004-01-01

    The part III in this title series describes the development of software for identification of spore-forming bacteria using the commercially available BBL CRYSTAL GP Identification Kit (Becton, Dickinson and Co., Ltd.), which is essentially for identification of Gram positive bacteria and is not always suitable for the spore-former in the radiation sterilization of medical devices. Isolation and identification of a spore-forming bacterium have to be confirmed by phase-contrast microscopy. The bacteria cultured overnight are to be inoculated in the Kit and cultured for 18-24 hr at 35-37 deg C with the lid attached by substrates for identification. Here, 30 substrates and probability of positive reactions to the substrates have been tested for spore-formers to make the computer software for final identification. The system is possible to identify 13 spp. of Bacillus, 4 of Paenibacillus, 2 of Brevibaccilus and 1 of Virgibacillus, which are the usual bioburden. For possible misidentification, re-isolation of the bacterium, prolonged culture, concentrated inoculation and re-consideration for ranking of identification the software provides are necessary as well as other identification approaches. Thus, as described in this series, the radio-resistance of, and radiation dose for, the bioburden can be evaluated more easily than hitherto, with use of the kits in radiation sterilization. (N.I.)

  2. An efficient method for the establishment of cell suspension cultures in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, Z.A.

    2016-01-01

    Cell suspension cultures offers an In vitro system that can be used as a tool for various studies involving mutant selection, mass propagation, protoplast isolation, gene transfer and selection of cell-lines which are resistant to various biotic or abiotic stresses. Research work on the development of cell suspension cultures was carried out to establish the most efficient method in Potato (cv. Desiree). Healthy, well-proliferating tissues from different types of callus cultures (compact, friable, embryogenic or non-embryogenic) were inoculated on various media combinations, i.e., MS, MS2 or AA liquid medium containing 18.09 micro M 2, 4-D. A fixed quantity (0.5-1.0 g) of callus tissue from 60-day-old callus cultures was transferred to 10-25 ml of liquid medium in 100 ml Erlenmeyer flask. Cultures were placed on an orbital shaker and agitated at different speeds (75, 100 or 125 rpm) under 16-h photoperiod at 25 ± 2 degree C. Medium was changed after every 3 days and fractionated tissue was filtered after every 6 days through sterile mesh (100-800 micro m) to develop a cell-line by transferring resulting suspension to fresh medium under the same conditions. Results indicated that eight-week-old translucent, friable, off-white callus cultures were an excellent starting material for the initiation of homogeneous cell suspension cultures as compared to other tested sources. Of the three tested media (MS, MS2 or AA medium containing 18.09 micro M 2, 4-D), MS2 was found to be a better medium for the initiation of cell suspension cultures. Cell suspension cultures, placed in 16-h photoperiod at 25 ± 2 degree C and agitated at 120 rpm using a gyratory shaker showed excellent results. Several other factors influencing quick establishment of cell suspension cultures in this cultivar are also discussed in this communication. (author)

  3. Microbiology of otitis media in Indigenous Australian children: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis-Bardy, J; Carney, A S; Duguid, R; Leach, A J

    2017-07-01

    To review research addressing the polymicrobial aetiology of otitis media in Indigenous Australian children in order to identify research gaps and inform best practice in effective prevention strategies and therapeutic interventions. Literature review. Studies of aspirated middle-ear fluid represented a minor component of the literature reviewed. Most studies relied upon specimens from middle-ear discharge or the nasopharynx. Culture-based middle-ear discharge studies have found that non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae predominate, with Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes isolated in a lower proportion of samples. Alloiococcus otitidis was detected in a number of studies; however, its role in otitis media pathogenesis remains controversial. Nasopharyngeal colonisation is a risk factor for otitis media in Indigenous infants, and bacterial load of otopathogens in the nasopharynx can predict the ear state of Indigenous children. Most studies have used culture-based methods and specimens from middle-ear discharge or the nasopharynx. Findings from these studies are consistent with international literature, but reliance on culture may incorrectly characterise the microbiology of this condition. Advances in genomic technologies are now providing microbiologists with the ability to analyse the entire mixed bacterial communities ('microbiomes') of samples obtained from Indigenous children with otitis media.

  4. Microbiological aspects of the irradiation treatments for preservation of archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorila, F.; Trandafir, L.; Alexandru, M.; Moise, I.V.; Georgescu, R.; Nisipeanu, S.; Haiducu, M.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Cultural heritage conservation is very important for a community, not only for protecting economically valuable physical assets, but also for preserving its practices, history, and a sense of continuity and identity. One of the reasons of decaying of cultural heritage and particularly of archives is the harmful activity of microorganisms. Their activity affects not only the material of books and documents, but also the working personnel, by inducing occupational diseases. One of the methods used to prevent these negative effects is the use of ionizing radiation, in order to decrease the microbial contamination. This work presents microbiological results obtained during the development of irradiation treatments for archive materials: initial contamination of paper items, environment control and radiation resistance of microorganisms isolated from the paper items. The irradiation dose should be effective but as low as possible because it is known that a high dose of radiation could induce damage by modification of the cellulose and its degree of polymerization, making it more fragile and brown-colored. The use of a statistical method derived from VDmax Method (ISO 11137-2) is proposed for the substantiation of the decontamination dose for archives.

  5. Blood culture bottles are superior to conventional media for vitreous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thariya, Patsuda; Yospaiboon, Yosanan; Sinawat, Suthasinee; Sanguansak, Thuss; Bhoomibunchoo, Chavakij; Laovirojjanakul, Wipada

    2016-08-01

    To compare blood culture bottles and conventional media for the vitreous culture in patients with clinically suspected infectious endophthalmitis. Retrospective comparative study at KKU Eye Center, Khon Kaen University. There were 342 patients with clinically suspected infectious endophthalmitis participated in the study. The vitreous specimens were inoculated in both blood culture bottles and on conventional culture media (blood agar, MacConkey agar, chocolate agar, Sabouraud dextrose agar and thioglycolate broth). The number of positive culture yields in both blood culture bottles and conventional media. Positive culture yields in both methods were found in 151 eyes (49.5%). There were 136 of 151 eyes (90.1%) with positive culture in blood culture bottles, whereas 99 of 151 eyes (65.6%) yielded positive cultures in conventional media. These findings were different with a statistical significance (P culture bottles and conventional media improved the yield. Blood culture bottles are superior to conventional media for vitreous culture in clinically suspected infectious endophthalmitis. Vitreous culture using blood culture bottles should be recommended as the primary method for microbiological diagnosis. A combination of both methods further improves the positive culture yield. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  6. Establishment of primary bovine intestinal epithelial cell culture and clone method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Kang; Lin, Miao; Liu, Ming-Mei; Sui, Yang-Nan; Zhao, Guo-Qi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish bovine intestinal epithelial cell (BIEC) line and provide a novel clone cell method. Although various strategies of bovine cell culture and clone techniques have been reported, these methods remain not established. Here, we culture successfully primary BIECs and establish a novel clone cell method. Our result showed that BIECs could be successfully cultured and passaged about generation 5. These cellular aggregates and clusters were adherent loosely at day 2 of culture. Cell aggregates and clusters start to proliferate after approximately 4 d. The BIECs showed positive reaction against cytokeratin 18, E-cadherin, and characteristics of epithelial-like morphology. In addition, the fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs), villin, and intestinal peptidase (IP) band were positive in BIECs. Our results suggest that the establishment of culturing and clone BIEC methods will apply to isolate and clone other primary cells. These BIECs could therefore contribute to the study of bovine intestinal nutrient absorption and regulation, immune regulation, and the pathogenesis of the bovine intestinal disease, which will provide intestinal cell model in vitro.

  7. Meta-analysis in microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Pabalan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of meta-analysis in microbiology may facilitate decision-making that impacts public health policy. Directed at clinicians and researchers in microbiology, this review outlines the steps in performing this statistical technique, addresses its biases and describes its value in this discipline. The survey to estimate extent of the use of meta-analyses in microbiology shows the remarkable growth in the use of this research methodology, from a minimal Asian output to a level comparable with those of Europe and North America in the last 7 years.

  8. A Novel Method for Culturing of Leptothrix sp. Strain OUMS1 in Natural Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Suzuki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Although some strains of Leptothrix spp. isolated from aquatic environments have been characterized by culturing them in laboratory conditions, they often show morphological and chemical features distinct from those found in natural environments. To resolve this discrepancy, a novel cultivation method was devised for culturing such strains in natural groundwater. Leptothrix sp. strain OUMS1 was pre-cultured in a medium lacking Fe for 2 days, and then injected into a small dialysis tube bag and immersed in a container with continuously flowing groundwater for 1–3 and 14 days. Microscopic analysis of the initial phase of sheath formation and arbitrary comparisons with medium cultures revealed that in groundwater the surface coat of the sheath comprised much thinner fibrils, and an inner sheath wall that was much thinner and more indistinct compared with medium cultures. These differences were probably attributable to poorer secretion from the cell surface in groundwater conditions. A nutrient-rich medium likely activates cell metabolism and promotes secretion, resulting in a thicker inner sheath wall and thicker outer coat fibrils. Aqueous-phase Fe was deposited on immature sheaths in a similar manner in both cultures. These results indicate that laboratory culture of isolated microbes does not always reflect their characteristics in natural environments.

  9. Nonlinear Parameter Estimation in Microbiological Degradation Systems and Statistic Test for Common Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Holst, Helle; Spliid, Henrik

    1995-01-01

    Three identical microbiological experiments were carried out and analysed in order to examine the variability of the parameter estimates. The microbiological system consisted of a substrate (toluene) and a biomass (pure culture) mixed together in an aquifer medium. The degradation of the substrate...

  10. Investigation of Legionella Contamination in Bath Water Samples by Culture, Amoebic Co-Culture, and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edagawa, Akiko; Kimura, Akio; Kawabuchi-Kurata, Takako; Adachi, Shinichi; Furuhata, Katsunori; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2015-10-19

    We investigated Legionella contamination in bath water samples, collected from 68 bathing facilities in Japan, by culture, culture with amoebic co-culture, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and real-time qPCR with amoebic co-culture. Using the conventional culture method, Legionella pneumophila was detected in 11 samples (11/68, 16.2%). Contrary to our expectation, the culture method with the amoebic co-culture technique did not increase the detection rate of Legionella (4/68, 5.9%). In contrast, a combination of the amoebic co-culture technique followed by qPCR successfully increased the detection rate (57/68, 83.8%) compared with real-time qPCR alone (46/68, 67.6%). Using real-time qPCR after culture with amoebic co-culture, more than 10-fold higher bacterial numbers were observed in 30 samples (30/68, 44.1%) compared with the same samples without co-culture. On the other hand, higher bacterial numbers were not observed after propagation by amoebae in 32 samples (32/68, 47.1%). Legionella was not detected in the remaining six samples (6/68, 8.8%), irrespective of the method. These results suggest that application of the amoebic co-culture technique prior to real-time qPCR may be useful for the sensitive detection of Legionella from bath water samples. Furthermore, a combination of amoebic co-culture and real-time qPCR might be useful to detect viable and virulent Legionella because their ability to invade and multiply within free-living amoebae is considered to correlate with their pathogenicity for humans. This is the first report evaluating the efficacy of the amoebic co-culture technique for detecting Legionella in bath water samples.

  11. Investigation of Legionella Contamination in Bath Water Samples by Culture, Amoebic Co-Culture, and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Edagawa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated Legionella contamination in bath water samples, collected from 68 bathing facilities in Japan, by culture, culture with amoebic co-culture, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR, and real-time qPCR with amoebic co-culture. Using the conventional culture method, Legionella pneumophila was detected in 11 samples (11/68, 16.2%. Contrary to our expectation, the culture method with the amoebic co-culture technique did not increase the detection rate of Legionella (4/68, 5.9%. In contrast, a combination of the amoebic co-culture technique followed by qPCR successfully increased the detection rate (57/68, 83.8% compared with real-time qPCR alone (46/68, 67.6%. Using real-time qPCR after culture with amoebic co-culture, more than 10-fold higher bacterial numbers were observed in 30 samples (30/68, 44.1% compared with the same samples without co-culture. On the other hand, higher bacterial numbers were not observed after propagation by amoebae in 32 samples (32/68, 47.1%. Legionella was not detected in the remaining six samples (6/68, 8.8%, irrespective of the method. These results suggest that application of the amoebic co-culture technique prior to real-time qPCR may be useful for the sensitive detection of Legionella from bath water samples. Furthermore, a combination of amoebic co-culture and real-time qPCR might be useful to detect viable and virulent Legionella because their ability to invade and multiply within free-living amoebae is considered to correlate with their pathogenicity for humans. This is the first report evaluating the efficacy of the amoebic co-culture technique for detecting Legionella in bath water samples.

  12. Comparing rapid and culture indicator bacteria methods at inland lake beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Brady, Amie M.G.; Kephart, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    A rapid method, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), for quantifying indicator bacteria in recreational waters is desirable for public health protection. We report that replacing current Escherichia coli standards with new US Environmental Protection Agency beach action values (BAVs) for enterococci by culture or qPCR may result in more advisories being posted at inland recreational lakes. In this study, concentrations of E. coli and enterococci by culture methods were compared to concentrations of Enterococcus spp. by qPCR at 3 inland lake beaches in Ohio. The E. coli and enterococci culture results were significantly related at all beaches; however, the relations between culture results and Enterococcus spp. qPCR results were not always significant and differed among beaches. All the qPCR results exceeded the new BAV for Enterococcus spp. by qPCR, whereas only 23.7% of culture results for E. coli and 79% of culture results for enterococci exceeded the current standard for E. coli or BAV for enterococci.

  13. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck O P Stefani

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods.

  14. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Franck O P; Bell, Terrence H; Marchand, Charlotte; de la Providencia, Ivan E; El Yassimi, Abdel; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA) with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media) techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods.

  15. Method and Apparatus for a Miniature Bioreactor System for Long-Term Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleis, Stanley J. (Inventor); Geffert, Sandra K. (Inventor); Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A bioreactor and method that permits continuous and simultaneous short, moderate, or long term cell culturing of one or more cell types or tissue in a laminar flow configuration is disclosed, where the bioreactor supports at least two laminar flow zones, which are isolated by laminar flow without the need for physical barriers between the zones. The bioreactors of this invention are ideally suited for studying short, moderate and long term studies of cell cultures and the response of cell cultures to one or more stressors such as pharmaceuticals, hypoxia, pathogens, or any other stressor. The bioreactors of this invention are also ideally suited for short, moderate or long term cell culturing with periodic cell harvesting and/or medium processing for secreted cellular components.

  16. Deaf: A Concept Analysis From a Cultural Perspective Using the Wilson Method of Concept Analysis Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrass, Kathy M; Newman, Susan D; Jones, Elaine; Jenkins, Carolyn H

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an analysis of the concept Deaf to increase health care provider (HCP) understanding from a cultural perspective. Deaf signers, people with hearing loss who communicate primarily in American Sign Language (ASL), generally define the term Deaf as a cultural heritage. In the health care setting, the term deaf is most often defined as a pathological condition requiring medical intervention. When HCPs are unaware that there are both cultural and pathological views of hearing loss, significant barriers may exist between the HCP and the Deaf individual. The concept of Deaf is analyzed using the Wilsonian method. Essential elements of the concept "Deaf" from a cultural perspective include a personal choice to communicate primarily in ASL and identify with the Deaf community. Resources for HCPs are needed to quickly identify Deaf signers and provide appropriate communication.

  17. [Laboratory unification: advantages and disadvantages for clinical microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Antonia; Matas, Lurdes

    2010-10-01

    This article aims to reflect on which areas or tasks of microbiology laboratories could be unified with those of clinical biochemistry, hematology, immunology or pathology laboratories to benefit patients and the health system, as well as the areas that should remain independent since their amalgamation would not only fail to provide a benefit but could even jeopardize the quality of microbiological diagnosis, and consequently patient care. To do this, the distinct analytic phases of diagnosis are analyzed, and the advantages and disadvantages of amalgamation are evaluated in each phase. The pros and cons of the unification of certain areas such as the computer system, occupational risk units, customer service, purchasing logistics, and materials storage, etc, are also discussed. Lastly, the effect of unification on urgent microbiology diagnosis is analyzed. Microbiological diagnosis should be unique. The microbiologist should perform an overall evaluation of the distinct techniques used for a particular patient, both those that involve direct diagnosis (staining, culture, antigen detection techniques or molecular techniques) and indirect diagnosis (antibody detection). Moreover, the microbiology laboratory should be independent, with highly trained technicians and specialists in microbiology that provide added value as experts in infection and as key figures in the process of establishing a correct etiological diagnosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. The microbiological diagnosis of tuberculosis in a resource - limited ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to audit the processes for the microbiological diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in our resource-limited setting. A total of 694 specimens were received from 333 patients. 129 (38.7%) of these patients were positive for TB. 78 (60.5%) were positive on AFB microscopy alone, 13 (10.0%) on culture ...

  19. the microbiological diagnosis of tuberculosis in a resource

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ? *M.O. Odubanjo, and **H.O. Dada- ... The objective of this study is to audit the processes for the microbiological diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in our .... The current “gold standard” for the diagnosis of tuberculosis is mycobacterial culture.

  20. Comparative evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry and conventional phenotypic-based methods for identification of clinically important yeasts in a UK-based medical microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatania, Nita; Fraser, Mark; Savage, Mike; Hart, Jason; Abdolrasouli, Alireza

    2015-12-01

    Performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was compared in a side-by side-analysis with conventional phenotypic methods currently in use in our laboratory for identification of yeasts in a routine diagnostic setting. A diverse collection of 200 clinically important yeasts (19 species, five genera) were identified by both methods using standard protocols. Discordant or unreliable identifications were resolved by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the rRNA gene. MALDI-TOF and conventional methods were in agreement for 182 isolates (91%) with correct identification to species level. Eighteen discordant results (9%) were due to rarely encountered species, hence the difficulty in their identification using traditional phenotypic methods. MALDI-TOF MS enabled rapid, reliable and accurate identification of clinically important yeasts in a routine diagnostic microbiology laboratory. Isolates with rare, unusual or low probability identifications should be confirmed using robust molecular methods. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. [Microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Delgado, Rafael; García, Federico; Eiros, José M; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl

    2007-12-01

    Currently, there are around 150,000 HIV-infected patients in Spain. This number, together with the fact that this disease is now a chronic condition since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, has generated an increasing demand on the clinical microbiology laboratories in our hospitals. This increase has occurred not only in the diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic diseases, but also in tests related to the diagnosis and therapeutic management of HIV infection. To meet this demand, the Sociedad de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clinica (Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) has updated its standard Procedure for the microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection. The main advances related to serological diagnosis, plasma viral load, and detection of resistance to antiretroviral drugs are reviewed in this version of the Procedure.

  2. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alita R. Burmeister

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the continued incorporation of evidence-based teaching practices into microbiology courses at all levels. Next, we review the current status of microbial evolution assessment tools and describe some education resources available for teaching microbial evolution. Successful microbial evolution education will require that evolution be taught across the undergraduate biology curriculum, with a continued focus on applications and applied careers, while aligning with national biology education reform initiatives.

  3. Medical Microbiology: Deficits and Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabridge, Michael G.

    1974-01-01

    Microbiology is a typical medical science in which basic information can have direct application. Yet, surveys and questionnaires of recent medical school graduates indicate a serious lack of retentiion in regard to basic biological science. (Author)

  4. Updated Cases for Medical Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinda Govindan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 4th ed.; Peter H. Gilligan, Daniel S. Shapiro, and Melissa B. Miller; (2014. ASM Press, Washington, DC. 589 pages.

  5. New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal welcomes papers focusing on microbiological and/or immunological studies from medical or pharmaceutical perspectives. Research pieces on bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, algae, spores, immunity, immune systems, health and pharmaceutical applications are highly relevant ...

  6. Health effects of selected microbiological control agents. A 3-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baelum, Jesper; Larsen, Preben; Doekes, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: Microbiological control agents (MBCA) are widely used in greenhouses, replacing chemical pesticides. The presented study aims to describe health effects of exposure to three types commonly used: Bacillus thuringiensis, Verticillium lecanii, and Trichoderma harzenianum...... covering seven different products in greenhouse workers with emphasis on sensitization and respiratory effects. Methods: 579 persons aged 17-67 years culturing ornamental flowers were included. They were followed for three years with annual examinations including interview about exposure and symptoms, lung...... no effect on the occurrence of respiratory symptoms or lung function was observed. The persons had a relatively long exposure. Therefore, a healthy worker effect may have influenced the results....

  7. Metagenomic Analysis of Dairy Bacteriophages: Extraction Method and Pilot Study on Whey Samples Derived from Using Undefined and Defined Mesophilic Starter Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed, Musemma K; Kot, Witold; Neve, Horst; Mahony, Jennifer; Castro-Mejía, Josué L; Krych, Lukasz; Hansen, Lars H; Nielsen, Dennis S; Sørensen, Søren J; Heller, Knut J; van Sinderen, Douwe; Vogensen, Finn K

    2017-10-01

    Despite being potentially highly useful for characterizing the biodiversity of phages, metagenomic studies are currently not available for dairy bacteriophages, partly due to the lack of a standard procedure for phage extraction. We optimized an extraction method that allows the removal of the bulk protein from whey and milk samples with losses of less than 50% of spiked phages. The protocol was applied to extract phages from whey in order to test the notion that members of Lactococcus lactis 936 (now Sk1virus ), P335, c2 (now C2virus ) and Leuconostoc phage groups are the most frequently encountered in the dairy environment. The relative abundance and diversity of phages in eight and four whey mixtures from dairies using undefined mesophilic mixed-strain cultures containing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis and Leuconostoc species (i.e., DL starter cultures) and defined cultures, respectively, were assessed. Results obtained from transmission electron microscopy and high-throughput sequence analyses revealed the dominance of Lc. lactis 936 phages (order Caudovirales , family Siphoviridae ) in dairies using undefined DL starter cultures and Lc. lactis c2 phages (order Caudovirales , family Siphoviridae ) in dairies using defined cultures. The 936 and Leuconostoc phages demonstrated limited diversity. Possible coinduction of temperate P335 prophages and satellite phages in one of the whey mixtures was also observed. IMPORTANCE The method optimized in this study could provide an important basis for understanding the dynamics of the phage community (abundance, development, diversity, evolution, etc.) in dairies with different sizes, locations, and production strategies. It may also enable the discovery of previously unknown phages, which is crucial for the development of rapid molecular biology-based methods for phage burden surveillance systems. The dominance of only a few phage groups in the dairy environment signifies the depth of knowledge

  8. Optimization of an Efficient Non-Tissue Culture Transformation Method for Brassica Juncea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeem, I.; Munir, I.; Iqbal, A.; Ullah, F.

    2016-01-01

    The major hurdles in successful in vitro transformation of Brassica juncea through standard tissue culture (STC) method are: culture contamination, somaclonal variations, and lack of expertise. Moreover, the current STC method is time consuming and needs continuous electricity. In the present study, the in planta transformation method through floral dip with or without vacuum infiltration was optimized for successful transformation of B. juncea. The B. juncea CV RAYA Anmol was used for transformation through Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101 harboring the binary vector plasmid pBinGlyBar4-EADcT. Based on the resistance reaction to the herbicide Basta, 20 and 40 resistant seedlings were obtained from 2000 seed germinated from the plants transformed through floral dip and vacuum infiltration methods, respectively. The PCR analyses further confirmed the presence of transgene in 3 floral dipped plants without vacuum infiltration and 17 floral dipped plants with vacuum infiltration, giving the transformation frequencies of 1.5*10/sup -3/ and 8.5*10/sup -3/, respectively. This method, which avoids tissue culture, will reduce the somaclonal variation accompanying prolonged culture of cells in a dedifferentiated state, will facilitate functional genomics and improvement of Brassica juncea with novel desirable traits while reducing time and expense. (author)

  9. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  10. Elaboration and validation of the method for the quantification of the emetic toxin of Bacillus cereus as described in EN-ISO 18465 - Microbiology of the food chain - Quantitative determination of emetic toxin (cereulide) using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 't Veld, P H; van der Laak, L F J; van Zon, M; Biesta-Peters, E G

    2018-04-12

    A method for the quantification of the Bacillus cereus emetic toxin (cereulide) was developed and validated. The method principle is based on LC-MS as this is the most sensitive and specific method for cereulide. Therefore the study design is different from the microbiological methods validated under this mandate. As the method had to be developed a two stage validation study approach was used. The first stage (pre-study) focussed on the method applicability and the experience of the laboratories with the method. Based on the outcome of the pre-study and comments received during voting at CEN and ISO level a final method was agreed to be used for the second stage the (final) validation of the method. In the final (validation) study samples of cooked rice (both artificially contaminated with cereulide or contaminated with B. cereus for production of cereulide in the rice) and 6 other food matrices (fried rice dish, cream pastry with chocolate, hotdog sausage, mini pancakes, vanilla custard and infant formula) were used. All these samples were spiked by the participating laboratories using standard solutions of cereulide supplied by the organising laboratory. The results of the study indicate that the method is fit for purpose. Repeatability values were obtained of 0.6 μg/kg at low level spike (ca. 5 μg/kg) and 7 to 9.6 μg/kg at high level spike (ca. 75 μg/kg). Reproducibility at low spike level ranged from 0.6 to 0.9 μg/kg and from 8.7 to 14.5 μg/kg at high spike level. Recovery from the spiked samples ranged between 96.5% for mini-pancakes to 99.3% for fries rice dish. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of orthodontic metallic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Takashi; Oda, Hirotake; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Sano, Natsuki; Batbayar, Nomintsetseg; Terashima, Yukari; Sato, Soh; Terada, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Biocorrosion (microbiologically influenced corrosion; MIC) occur in aquatic habitats varying in nutrient content, temperature, stress and pH. The oral environment of organisms, including humans, should be one of the most hospitable for MIC. Corrosion of metallic appliances in the oral region is one cause of metal allergy in patients. In this study, an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer revealed elution of Fe, Cr and Ni from stainless steel (SUS) appliances incubated with oral bacteria. Three-dimensional laser confocal microscopy also revealed that oral bacterial culture promoted increased surface roughness and corrosion pits in SUS appliances. The pH of the supernatant was lowered after co-culture of appliances and oral bacteria in any combinations, but not reached at the level of depassivation pH of their metallic materials. This study showed that Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis which easily created biofilm on the surfaces of teeth and appliances, did corrode orthodontic SUS appliances.

  12. Methods for culturing saltwater rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) for rearing larval zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Christian; Sanders, Erik; Henry, Eric

    2012-09-01

    The saltwater rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, is widely used in the aquaculture industry as a prey item for first-feeding fishes due to its ease of culture, small size, rapid reproductive rate, and amenability to enrichment with nutrients. Despite the distinct advantages of this approach, rotifers have only been sporadically utilized for rearing larval zebrafish, primarily because of the common misconception that maintaining cultures of rotifers is difficult and excessively time-consuming. Here we present simple methods for maintaining continuous cultures of rotifers capable of supporting even the very largest zebrafish aquaculture facility, with minimal investments in materials, time, labor, and space. Examples of the methods' application in one large, existing facility is provided, and troubleshooting of common problems is discussed.

  13. Transferring methods to teach business administration from one cultural context to another

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Catalo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available What happens when a teaching method is transferred from one cultural context to another? In this article we investigate this question by looking at how Computer Based Simulations (CBS were transposed from a French context to an Egyptian one. In this article we demonstrate, through the case of Egypt, how culture and the characteristics of the school system impact learning abilities. We describe what happens when Egyptian students are confronted with learning modes they have not encountered prior to University, in the context of an Egyptian-French dual-degree programme in business administration and business informatics. We show that the transfer of CBS as a teaching method revealed cultural differences between French and Egyptian students. As a consequence the teaching objectives of CBS were redefined in order to take the Egyptian context into account.

  14. Field Application of the Micro Biological Survey Method for the Assessment of the Microbiological Safety of Different Water Sources in Horn of Africa and the Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Moringa Oleifera in Drinking Water Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losito, Francesca; Arienzo, Alyexandra; Somma, Daniela; Murgia, Lorenza; Stalio, Ottavia; Zuppi, Paolo; Rossi, Elisabetta; Antonini, Giovanni

    2017-06-23

    Water monitoring requires expensive instrumentations and skilled technicians. In developing Countries as Africa, the severe economic restrictions and lack of technology make water safety monitoring approaches applied in developed Countries, still not sustainable. The need to develop new methods that are suitable, affordable, and sustainable in the African context is urgent. The simple, economic and rapid Micro Biological Survey (MBS) method does not require an equipped laboratory nor special instruments and skilled technicians, but it can be very useful for routine water analysis. The aim of this work was the application of the MBS method to evaluate the microbiological safety of different water sources and the effectiveness of different drinking water treatments in the Horn of Africa. The obtained results have proved that this method could be very helpful to monitor water safety before and after various purification treatments, with the aim to control waterborne diseases especially in developing Countries, whose population is the most exposed to these diseases. In addition, it has been proved that Moringa oleifera water treatment is ineffective in decreasing bacterial load of Eritrea water samples.

  15. Room for improvement? Leadership, innovation culture and uptake of quality improvement methods in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apekey, Tanefa A; McSorley, Gerry; Tilling, Michelle; Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2011-04-01

    Leadership and innovation are currently seen as essential elements for the development and maintenance of high-quality care. Little is known about the relationship between leadership and culture of innovation and the extent to which quality improvement methods are used in general practice. This study aimed to assess the relationship between leadership behaviour, culture of innovation and adoption of quality improvement methods in general practice. Self-administered postal questionnaires were sent to general practitioner quality improvement leads in one county in the UK between June and December 2007. The questionnaire consisted of background information, a 12-item scale to assess leadership behaviour, a seven-dimension self-rating scale for culture of innovation and questions on current use of quality improvement tools and techniques. Sixty-three completed questionnaires (62%) were returned. Leadership behaviours were not commonly reported. Most practices reported a positive culture of innovation, featuring relationship most strongly, followed by targets and information but rated lower on other dimensions of rewards, risk and resources. There was a significant positive correlation between leadership behaviour and the culture of innovation (r = 0.57; P improvement methods were not adopted by most participating practices. Leadership behaviours were infrequently reported and this was associated with a limited culture of innovation in participating general practices. There was little use of quality improvement methods beyond clinical and significant event audit. Practices need support to enhance leadership skills, encourage innovation and develop quality improvement skills if improvements in health care are to accelerate. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Development of Nuclear Safety Culture evaluation method for an operation team based on the probabilistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Min; Lee, Seung Min; Yim, Ho Bin; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Highlights: •We proposed a Probabilistic Safety Culture Healthiness Evaluation Method. •Positive relationship between the ‘success’ states of NSC and performance was shown. •The state probability profile showed a unique ratio regardless of the scenarios. •Cutset analysis provided not only root causes but also the latent causes of failures. •Pro-SCHEMe was found to be applicable to Korea NPPs. -- Abstract: The aim of this study is to propose a new quantitative evaluation method for Nuclear Safety Culture (NSC) in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operation teams based on the probabilistic approach. Various NSC evaluation methods have been developed, and the Korea NPP utility company has conducted the NSC assessment according to international practice. However, most of methods are conducted by interviews, observations, and the self-assessment. Consequently, the results are often qualitative, subjective, and mainly dependent on evaluator’s judgement, so the assessment results can be interpreted from different perspectives. To resolve limitations of present evaluation methods, the concept of Safety Culture Healthiness was suggested to produce quantitative results and provide faster evaluation process. This paper presents Probabilistic Safety Culture Healthiness Evaluation Method (Pro-SCHEMe) to generate quantitative inputs for Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) in Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Evaluation items which correspond to a basic event in PSA are derived in the first part of the paper through the literature survey; mostly from nuclear-related organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S.NRC), and the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). Event trees (ETs) and fault trees (FTs) are devised to apply evaluation items to PSA based on the relationships among such items. The Modeling Guidelines are also suggested to classify and calculate NSC characteristics of

  17. Teaching cross-cultural communication skills online: a multi-method evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amy L; Mader, Emily M; Morley, Christopher P

    2015-04-01

    Cultural competency education is an important and required part of undergraduate medical education. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether an online cross-cultural communication module could increase student use of cross-cultural communication questions that assess the patient's definition of the problem, the way the problem affects their life, their concerns about the problem, and what the treatment should be (PACT). We used multi-method assessment of students assigned to family medicine clerkship blocks that were randomized to receive online cultural competency and PACT training added to their standard curriculum or to a control group receiving the standard curriculum only. Outcomes included comparison, via analysis of variance, of number of PACT questions used during an observed Standardized Patient Exercise, end-of-year OSCE scores, and qualitative analysis of student narratives. Students (n=119) who participated in the online module (n=60) demonstrated increased use of cross-cultural communication PACT questions compared to the control group (n=59) and generally had positive themes emerge from their reflective writing. The module had the biggest impact on students who later went on to match in high communication specialties. Online teaching of cross-cultural communication skills can be effective at changing medical student behavior.

  18. Quality assurance in microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Arora D

    2004-01-01

    Quality assurance (QA) is the total process whereby the quality of laboratory reports can be guaranteed. The term quality control covers that part of QA, which primarily concerns the control of errors in the performance of tests and verification of test results. All materials, equipment and procedures must be adequately controlled. Culture media must be tested for sterility and performance. Each laboratory must have standard operating procedures (SOPs). QA of pre-analytical, analytical and po...

  19. a Method of 3d Measurement and Reconstruction for Cultural Relics in Museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, S.; Zhou, Y.; Huang, R.; Zhou, L.; Xu, X.; Wang, C.

    2012-07-01

    Three-dimensional measurement and reconstruction during conservation and restoration of cultural relics have become an essential part of a modem museum regular work. Although many kinds of methods including laser scanning, computer vision and close-range photogrammetry have been put forward, but problems still exist, such as contradiction between cost and good result, time and fine effect. Aimed at these problems, this paper proposed a structure-light based method for 3D measurement and reconstruction of cultural relics in museums. Firstly, based on structure-light principle, digitalization hardware has been built and with its help, dense point cloud of cultural relics' surface can be easily acquired. To produce accurate 3D geometry model from point cloud data, multi processing algorithms have been developed and corresponding software has been implemented whose functions include blunder detection and removal, point cloud alignment and merge, 3D mesh construction and simplification. Finally, high-resolution images are captured and the alignment of these images and 3D geometry model is conducted and realistic, accurate 3D model is constructed. Based on such method, a complete system including hardware and software are built. Multi-kinds of cultural relics have been used to test this method and results prove its own feature such as high efficiency, high accuracy, easy operation and so on.

  20. Anthropology and International Business Research Methods in DBA Teaching: Frameworks for Cultural Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Alma

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for introducing anthropology into a doctoral-level international business research methods course. Describes three anthropological frameworks designed for the course: a cultural awareness model adapted from G. Morgan's (1980) idea of paradigmatic orthodoxy; key organizing principles; and a mapping model allowing researchers…

  1. X-ray and synchrotron methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koval’chuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B.; Blagov, A. E.; Tereshchenko, E. Yu., E-mail: elenatereschenko@yandex.ru; Prosekov, P. A.; Dyakova, Yu. A. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    X-ray and synchrotron methods that are most widely used in studies of cultural heritage objects (including archaeological sites)—X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray spectroscopy, and visualization techniques— have been considered. The reported examples show high efficiency and informativeness of natural science studies when solving most diverse problems of archaeology, history, the study of art, museology, etc.

  2. Learning as Researchers and Teachers: The Development of a Pedagogical Culture for Social Science Research Methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Daniel; Nind, Melanie; Wiles, Rose

    2014-01-01

    In light of calls to improve the capacity for social science research within UK higher education, this article explores the possibilities for an emerging pedagogy for research methods. A lack of pedagogical culture in this field has been identified by previous studies. In response, we examine pedagogical literature surrounding approaches for…

  3. X-ray and synchrotron methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval’chuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B.; Blagov, A. E.; Tereshchenko, E. Yu.; Prosekov, P. A.; Dyakova, Yu. A.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray and synchrotron methods that are most widely used in studies of cultural heritage objects (including archaeological sites)—X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray spectroscopy, and visualization techniques— have been considered. The reported examples show high efficiency and informativeness of natural science studies when solving most diverse problems of archaeology, history, the study of art, museology, etc.

  4. When Smokey says "No": Fire-less methods for growing plants adapted to cultural fire regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniela Shebitz; Justine E. James

    2010-01-01

    Two culturally-significant plants (sweetgrass [Anthoxanthum nitens] and beargrass [Xerophyllum tenax]) are used as case studies for investigating methods of restoring plant populations that are adapted to indigenous burning practices without using fire. Reports from tribal members that the plants of interest were declining in traditional gathering areas provided the...

  5. Digital Storytelling: A Method for Engaging Students and Increasing Cultural Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Natalie S.; Bolin, Brien L.

    2016-01-01

    Digital storytelling is explored as a method of engaging students in the development of media literacy and cultural competency. This paper describes the perceptions and experiences of 96 undergraduate students at a large Midwestern university, after completing a digital storytelling project in a semester-long diversity course. Digital storytelling…

  6. Establishment and Characterization of Primary Cultures from Iranian Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients by Enzymatic Method and Explant Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Ganjibakhsh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC is the most frequent oral cancer worldwide. It is known as the eighth most common cancer in men and as the fifth most common cancer in women. Cytogenetic and biochemical studies in recent decades have emphasized the necessity of providing an appropriate tool for such researches. Cancer cell culture is a useful tool for investigations on biochemical, genetic, molecular and immunological characteristics of different cancers, including oral cancer. Here, we explain the establishment process of five primary oral cancer cells derived from an Iranian population.Materials and Methods: The specimens were obtained from five oral cancer patients. Enzymatic, explant culture and magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS methods were used for cell isolation. After quality control tests, characterization and authentication of primary oral cancer cells were performed by short tandem repeats (STR profiling, chromosome analysis, species identification, and monitoring the growth, morphology and the expression of CD326 and CD133 markers.Results: Five primary oral cancer cells were established from an Iranian population. The flow cytometry results showed that the isolated cells were positive for CD326 and CD133 markers. Furthermore, the cells were free from mycoplasma, bacterial and fungal contamination. No misidentified or cross-contaminated cells were detected by STR analysis.Conclusions: Human primary oral cancer cells provide an extremely useful platform for studying carcinogenesis pathways of oral cancer in Iranian population. They may be helpful in explaining the ethnic differences in cancer biology and the individuality in anticancer drug response in future studies.

  7. Children's activities and their meanings for parents: a mixed-methods study in six Western cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Sara; Zylicz, Piotr Olaf; Super, Charles M; Welles-Nyström, Barbara; Bermúdez, Moisés Ríos; Bonichini, Sabrina; Moscardino, Ughetta; Mavridis, Caroline Johnston

    2011-12-01

    Theoretical perspectives and research in sociology, anthropology, sociolinguistics, and cultural psychology converge in recognizing the significance of children's time spent in various activities, especially in the family context. Knowing how children's time is deployed, however, only gives us a partial answer to how children acquire competence; the other part must take into account the culturally constructed meanings of activities, from the perspective of those who organize and direct children's daily lives. In this article, we report on a study of children's routine daily activities and on the meanings that parents attribute to them in six Western middle-class cultural communities located in Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the United States (N = 183). Using week-long time diaries kept by parents, we first demonstrate similarities as well as significant differences in children's daily routines across the cultural samples. We then present brief vignettes--"a day in the life" --of children from each sample. Parent interviews were coded for themes in the meanings attributed to various activities. Excerpts from parent interviews, focusing on four major activities (meals, family time, play, school- or developmentally related activities), are presented to illustrate how cultural meanings and themes are woven into parents' organization and understanding of their children's daily lives. The results of this mixed-method approach provide a more reliable and nuanced picture of children's and families' daily lives than could be derived from either method alone.

  8. MALDI-TOF identification of Gram-negative bacteria directly from blood culture bottles containing charcoal: Sepsityper® kits versus centrifugation-filtration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riederer, Kathleen; Cruz, Kristian; Shemes, Stephen; Szpunar, Susan; Fishbain, Joel T

    2015-06-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry has dramatically altered the way microbiology laboratories identify clinical isolates. Direct blood culture (BC) detection may be hampered, however, by the presence of charcoal in BC bottles currently in clinical use. This study evaluates an in-house process for extraction and MALDI-TOF identification of Gram-negative bacteria directly from BC bottles containing charcoal. Three hundred BC aliquots were extracted by a centrifugation-filtration method developed in our research laboratory with the first 96 samples processed in parallel using Sepsityper® kits. Controls were colonies from solid media with standard phenotypic and MALDI-TOF identification. The identification of Gram-negative bacteria was successful more often via the in-house method compared to Sepsityper® kits (94.7% versus 78.1%, P≤0.0001). Our in-house centrifugation-filtration method was further validated for isolation and identification of Gram-negative bacteria (95%; n=300) directly from BC bottles containing charcoal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Quality in the molecular microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Paul S; MacKay, William G

    2013-01-01

    In the clinical microbiology laboratory advances in nucleic acid detection, quantification, and sequence analysis have led to considerable improvements in the diagnosis, management, and monitoring of infectious diseases. Molecular diagnostic methods are routinely used to make clinical decisions based on when and how to treat a patient as well as monitor the effectiveness of a therapeutic regime and identify any potential drug resistant strains that may impact on the long term patient treatment program. Therefore, confidence in the reliability of the result provided by the laboratory service to the clinician is essential for patient treatment. Hence, suitable quality assurance and quality control measures are important to ensure that the laboratory methods and service meet the necessary regulatory requirements both at the national and international level. In essence, the modern clinical microbiology laboratory ensures the appropriateness of its services through a quality management system that monitors all aspects of the laboratory service pre- and post-analytical-from patient sample receipt to reporting of results, from checking and upholding staff competency within the laboratory to identifying areas for quality improvements within the service offered. For most European based clinical microbiology laboratories this means following the common International Standard Organization (ISO9001) framework and ISO15189 which sets out the quality management requirements for the medical laboratory (BS EN ISO 15189 (2003) Medical laboratories-particular requirements for quality and competence. British Standards Institute, Bristol, UK). In the United States clinical laboratories performing human diagnostic tests are regulated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) following the requirements within the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments document 1988 (CLIA-88). This chapter focuses on the key quality assurance and quality control requirements within the

  10. Simple Sample Preparation Method for Direct Microbial Identification and Susceptibility Testing From Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hong-Wei; Li, Wei; Li, Rong-Guo; Li, Yong; Zhang, Yi; Sun, En-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Rapid identification and determination of the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the infectious agents in patients with bloodstream infections are critical steps in choosing an effective targeted antibiotic for treatment. However, there has been minimal effort focused on developing combined methods for the simultaneous direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of bacteria in positive blood cultures. In this study, we constructed a lysis-centrifugation-wash procedure to prepare a bacterial pellet from positive blood cultures, which can be used directly for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and antibiotic susceptibility testing by the Vitek 2 system. The method was evaluated using a total of 129 clinical bacteria-positive blood cultures. The whole sample preparation process could be completed in identification was 96.49% for gram-negative bacteria and 97.22% for gram-positive bacteria. Vitek 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria showed an agreement rate of antimicrobial categories of 96.89% with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 2.63, 0.24, and 0.24%, respectively. Category agreement of antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria was 92.81%, with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 4.51, 1.22, and 1.46%, respectively. These results indicated that our direct antibiotic susceptibility analysis method worked well compared to the conventional culture-dependent laboratory method. Overall, this fast, easy, and accurate method can facilitate the direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacteria in positive blood cultures.

  11. Simple Sample Preparation Method for Direct Microbial Identification and Susceptibility Testing From Positive Blood Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-wei Pan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid identification and determination of the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the infectious agents in patients with bloodstream infections are critical steps in choosing an effective targeted antibiotic for treatment. However, there has been minimal effort focused on developing combined methods for the simultaneous direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of bacteria in positive blood cultures. In this study, we constructed a lysis-centrifugation-wash procedure to prepare a bacterial pellet from positive blood cultures, which can be used directly for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and antibiotic susceptibility testing by the Vitek 2 system. The method was evaluated using a total of 129 clinical bacteria-positive blood cultures. The whole sample preparation process could be completed in <15 min. The correct rate of direct MALDI-TOF MS identification was 96.49% for gram-negative bacteria and 97.22% for gram-positive bacteria. Vitek 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria showed an agreement rate of antimicrobial categories of 96.89% with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 2.63, 0.24, and 0.24%, respectively. Category agreement of antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria was 92.81%, with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 4.51, 1.22, and 1.46%, respectively. These results indicated that our direct antibiotic susceptibility analysis method worked well compared to the conventional culture-dependent laboratory method. Overall, this fast, easy, and accurate method can facilitate the direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacteria in positive blood cultures.

  12. Microscale validation of 4-aminoantipyrine test method for quantifying phenolic compounds in microbial culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justiz Mendoza, Ibrahin; Aguilera Rodriguez, Isabel; Perez Portuondo, Irasema

    2014-01-01

    Validation of test methods microscale is currently of great importance due to the economic and environmental advantages possessed, which constitutes a prerequisite for the performance of services and quality assurance of the results to provide customer. This paper addresses the microscale validation of 4-aminoantipyrine spectrophotometric method for the quantification of phenolic compounds in culture medium. Parameters linearity, precision, regression, accuracy, detection limits, quantification limits and robustness were evaluated, addition to the comparison test with no standardized method for determining polyphenols (Folin Ciocalteu). The results showed that both methods are feasible for determining phenols

  13. Evaluation of the Methods of portective Treatment against microbiological damages and prolonged antimicrobic protection of the interior and the equipment of space objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshevaya, E.; Novikova, N.; Polycarpov, N.; Poddubko, S.; Shumilina, G.; Bragina, M.; Zarubina, K.; Tverskoy, V.; Akova, M. D.

    The researches which have been carried out onboard the orbital complex (? C) MIR, testify that environment of the manned space object may be considered as peculiar ecological niche for development of the microbial community generated by microorganisms of various physiological and taxonomic groups. As a result of vital activity of fungi during OC MIR operation zones of fungi growth on various elements of interior and equipment, cases of destruction of the materials and attributes of corrosion of metals were noted. Existing methods of development of microorganisms on a surface of constructional materials using sanitary treatment of the accessible surfaces with disinfectants, represent the big labour input for the crew. More radical solution of the problem is the development and use of methods of superficial modification of constructional materials and use of methods of superficial modification of constructional materials and treatment of their surface of varnish or paint, resistant to biocontamination and growth of the microorganisms. As a result of the conducted research, the following methods of protection of constructional materials against development of microorganisms were chosen: - fluorination, sylilition, radiating graft polymerization etc., resulting in formation of the functional groups having biocide action; For varnish and paint coverings - coverings on a basis stoichiometrical interpolymeric polyelectrolytic complexes, organosilicone coverings, etc. For testing of the biological effects of samples of the materials subjected to the different methods of surface modification, researches were carried out and experimental models of typical biodestructive processes of the constructional materials are developed considering microclimatic parameters of local zones (the increased temperature and humidity), resistance of the materials to the influence of fungi and increased radiating background influence. Biological testing testifying the efficiency of developed

  14. Rapid Molecular Microbiologic Diagnosis of Prosthetic Joint Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazanave, Charles; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E.; Hanssen, Arlen D.; Karau, Melissa J.; Schmidt, Suzannah M.; Gomez Urena, Eric O.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Osmon, Douglas R.; Lough, Lindsay E.; Pritt, Bobbi S.; Steckelberg, James M.

    2013-01-01

    We previously showed that culture of samples obtained by prosthesis vortexing and sonication was more sensitive than tissue culture for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) diagnosis. Despite improved sensitivity, culture-negative cases remained; furthermore, culture has a long turnaround time. We designed a genus-/group-specific rapid PCR assay panel targeting PJI bacteria and applied it to samples obtained by vortexing and sonicating explanted hip and knee prostheses, and we compared the results to those with sonicate fluid and periprosthetic tissue culture obtained at revision or resection arthroplasty. We studied 434 subjects with knee (n = 272) or hip (n = 162) prostheses; using a standardized definition, 144 had PJI. Sensitivities of tissue culture, of sonicate fluid culture, and of PCR were 70.1, 72.9, and 77.1%, respectively. Specificities were 97.9, 98.3, and 97.9%, respectively. Sonicate fluid PCR was more sensitive than tissue culture (P = 0.04). PCR of prosthesis sonication samples is more sensitive than tissue culture for the microbiologic diagnosis of prosthetic hip and knee infection and provides same-day PJI diagnosis with definition of microbiology. The high assay specificity suggests that typical PJI bacteria may not cause aseptic implant failure. PMID:23658273

  15. Feasibility of a molecular screening method for detection of Salmonella enterica and Campylobacter jejuni in a routine community-based clinical microbiology laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, T.; de Boer, R. F.; van Zanten, E.; van Slochteren, K. R.; Scheper, H. R.; Dijk-Alberts, B. G.; Moller, A. V. M.; Kooistra-Smid, A. M. D.

    Conventional diagnostic methods for the detection of Salmonella enterica and Campylobacter jejuni are laborious and time-consuming procedures, resulting in final results, for the majority of specimens, only after 3 to 4 days. Molecular detection can improve the time to reporting of the final results

  16. Application of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in clinical diagnostic microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carolis, Elena; Vella, Antonietta; Vaccaro, Luisa; Torelli, Riccardo; Spanu, Teresa; Fiori, Barbara; Posteraro, Brunella; Sanguinetti, Maurizio

    2014-09-12

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently emerged as a powerful technique for identification of microorganisms, changing the workflow of well-established laboratories so that its impact on microbiological diagnostics has been unparalleled. In comparison with conventional identification methods that rely on biochemical tests and require long incubation procedures, MALDI-TOF MS has the advantage of identifying bacteria and fungi directly from colonies grown on culture plates in a few minutes and with simple procedures. Numerous studies on different systems available demonstrate the reliability and accuracy of the method, and new frontiers have been explored besides microbial species level identification, such as direct identification of pathogens from positive blood cultures, subtyping, and drug susceptibility detection.

  17. Characterization of microbes in prosthetic joint specimens by culture-independent molecular methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yijuan; Rudkjøbing, Vibeke Børsholt; Simonsen, Ole

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the most challenging complications of joint alloplasty. Formation of biofilm is a prominent feature of PJIs and constitutes a challenge to current sampling procedures and culture practices to obtain a reliable diagnosis. The aim of the study was to inves......Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the most challenging complications of joint alloplasty. Formation of biofilm is a prominent feature of PJIs and constitutes a challenge to current sampling procedures and culture practices to obtain a reliable diagnosis. The aim of the study...... was to investigate the microbial diversity in surgical samples (eg. synovial fluid, periprosthetic tissue, removed prosthesis) from 22 prosthetic patients using a range of culture-independent molecular methods including broad range 16S rRNA gene PCR, cloning, phylogeny, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and fluorescence...

  18. Microbial transformation of tannin-rich substrate to gallic acid through co-culture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rintu; Mukherjee, Gargi; Patra, Krushna Chandra

    2005-05-01

    Modified solid-state fermentation (MSSF) of tannin-rich substrate yielding tannase and gallic acid was carried out using a co-culture of the filamentous fungi, Rhizopus oryzae (RO IIT RB-13, NRRL 21498) and Aspergillus foetidus (GMRB013 MTCC 3557). Powdered fruits of Terminalia chebula and powdered pod cover of Caesalpinia digyna was used in the process and the different process parameters for maximum production of tannase and gallic acid by co-culture method were optimized through media engineering. MSSF was carried out at the optimum conditions of 30 degrees C and 80% relative humidity. The optimal pH and incubation period was 5.0 and 48 h respectively. Through the co-culture technique the maximum yield of tannase and gallic acid was found to be 41.3 U/ml and 94.8% respectively.

  19. Reflexive photography: an alternative method for documenting the learning process of cultural competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerson, Roxanne; Livingston, Wade G

    2014-04-01

    This qualitative descriptive study used reflexive photography to evaluate the learning process of cultural competence during an international service-learning project in Guatemala. Reflexive photography is an innovative qualitative research technique that examines participants' interactions with their environment through their personal reflections on images that they captured during their experience. A purposive sample of 10 baccalaureate nursing students traveled to Guatemala, where they conducted family and community assessments, engaged in home visits, and provided health education. Data collection involved over 100 photographs and a personal interview with each student. The themes developed from the photographs and interviews provided insight into the activities of an international experience that influence the cognitive, practical, and affective learning of cultural competence. Making home visits and teaching others from a different culture increased students' transcultural self-efficacy. Reflexive photography is a more robust method of self-reflection, especially for visual learners.

  20. In vitro culture of functionally active buffalo hepatocytes isolated by using a simplified manual perfusion method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Panda

    Full Text Available In farm animals, there is no suitable cell line available to understand liver-specific functions. This has limited our understanding of liver function and metabolism in farm animals. Culturing and maintenance of functionally active hepatocytes is difficult, since they survive no more than few days. Establishing primary culture of hepatocytes can help in studying cellular metabolism, drug toxicity, hepatocyte specific gene function and regulation. Here we provide a simple in vitro method for isolation and short-term culture of functionally active buffalo hepatocytes.Buffalo hepatocytes were isolated from caudate lobes by using manual enzymatic perfusion and mechanical disruption of liver tissue. Hepatocyte yield was (5.3 ± 0.66×107 cells per gram of liver tissue with a viability of 82.3 ± 3.5%. Freshly isolated hepatocytes were spherical with well contrasted border. After 24 hours of seeding onto fibroblast feeder layer and different extracellular matrices like dry collagen, matrigel and sandwich collagen coated plates, hepatocytes formed confluent monolayer with frequent clusters. Cultured hepatocytes exhibited typical cuboidal and polygonal shape with restored cellular polarity. Cells expressed hepatocyte-specific marker genes or proteins like albumin, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α, glucose-6-phosphatase, tyrosine aminotransferase, cytochromes, cytokeratin and α1-antitrypsin. Hepatocytes could be immunostained with anti-cytokeratins, anti-albumin and anti α1-antitrypsin antibodies. Abundant lipid droplets were detected in the cytosol of hepatocytes using oil red stain. In vitro cultured hepatocytes could be grown for five days and maintained for up to nine days on buffalo skin fibroblast feeder layer. Cultured hepatocytes were viable for functional studies.We developed a convenient and cost effective technique for hepatocytes isolation for short-term culture that exhibited morphological and functional characteristics of active hepatocytes

  1. Colloquium and Report on Systems Microbiology: Beyond Microbial Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merry R. Buckley

    2004-12-13

    range from improvements in the management of bacterial infections to the development of commercial-scale microbial hydrogen generation. A number of technical challenges must be met to realize the potential of systems microbiology. Development of a new, comprehensive systems microbiology database that would be available to the entire research community was identified as the single most critical need. Other challenges include difficulties in measuring single-cell parameters, limitations in identifying and measuring metabolites and other products, the inability to cultivate diverse microbes, limits on data accessibility, computational limitations associated with data integration, the lack of sufficient functional gene annotations, needs for quantitative proteomics, and the inapplicability of current high throughput methods to all areas of systems microbiology. Difficulties have also been encountered in acquiring the necessary data, assuring the quality of that data, and in making data available to the community in a useful format. Problems with data quality assurance and data availability could be partially offset by launching a dedicated systems microbiology database. To be of greatest value to the field, a database should include systems data from all levels of analysis, including sequences, microarray data, proteomics data, metabolite measurements, data on protein-protein or protein-nucleic interactions, carbohydrate and small RNA profiles, information on cell surface markers, and appropriate supporting data. Regular updates of these databases and adherence to agreed upon data format standards are critical to the success of these resources. It was recommended that educational requirements for undergraduate and graduate students in microbiology be amended to better prepare the next generation of researchers for the quantitative requirements of applying systems microbiology methods in their work. Systems microbiology research is too complex to be the sole property of any

  2. New method for exopolysaccharide determination in culture broth using stirred ultrafiltration cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmaier, D; Lacroix, C; Guadalupe Macedo, M; Champagne, C P

    2001-10-01

    A new method to remove simple carbohydrates from culture broth prior to the quantification of exopolysaccharides (EPS) was developed and validated for the EPS-producing strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus RW-9595M. This method uses ultrafiltration (UF) in stirred cells followed by polysaccharide detection in the retentate by the phenol-sulfuric acid method. The UF method was compared with a conventional method based on ethanol extraction, dialysis, protein removal by trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and freeze-drying. EPS production during pH-controlled batch fermentations in basal minimum medium, whey permeate (WP). and whey permeate supplemented with yeast extract, minerals and Tween-80 (SWP) was determined by the new UF and conventional methods. EPS recovery by the new method ranged from 83% to 104% for EPS added in the concentration range 40-1,500 mg/l in 0.1 M NaCl solution or culture medium. The UF method was rapid (8 h), accurate and simple, and required only a small sample volume (1-5 ml). A very high maximum EPS production was measured in SWP by both the UF and conventional methods (1,718 and 1,755 mg/l).

  3. Comparison among four proposed direct blood culture microbial identification methods using MALDI-TOF MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. Bazzi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry facilitates rapid and accurate identification of pathogens, which is critical for sepsis patients.In this study, we assessed the accuracy in identification of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, except for Streptococcus viridans, using four rapid blood culture methods with Vitek MALDI-TOF-MS. We compared our proposed lysis centrifugation followed by washing and 30% acetic acid treatment method (method 2 with two other lysis centrifugation methods (washing and 30% formic acid treatment (method 1; 100% ethanol treatment (method 3, and picking colonies from 90 to 180 min subculture plates (method 4. Methods 1 and 2 identified all organisms down to species level with 100% accuracy, except for Streptococcus viridans, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Proteus vulgaris. The latter two were identified to genus level with 100% accuracy. Each method exhibited excellent accuracy and precision in terms of identification to genus level with certain limitations. Keywords: MALDI-TOF, Gram-negative, Gram-positive, Sepsis, Blood culture

  4. Hearsay Ethnography: Conversational Journals as a Method for Studying Culture in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Susan Cotts; Swidler, Ann

    2009-04-01

    Social scientists have long struggled to develop methods adequate to their theoretical understanding of meaning as collective and dynamic. While culture is widely understood as an emergent property of collectivities, the methods we use keep pulling us back towards interview-situated accounts and an image of culture as located in individual experience. Scholars who seek to access supra-individual semiotic structures by studying public rituals and other collectively-produced texts then have difficulty capturing the dynamic processes through which such meanings are created and changed in situ. To try to capture more effectively the way meaning is produced and re-produced in everyday life, we focus here on conversational interactions-the voices and actions that constitute the relational space among actors. Conversational journals provide us with a method: the analysis of texts produced by cultural insiders who keep journals of who-said-what-to-whom in conversations they overhear or events they participate in during the course of their daily lives. We describe the method, distinguishing it from other approaches and noting its drawbacks. We then illustrate the methodological advantages of conversational journals with examples from our texts. We end with a discussion of the method's potential in our setting as well as in other places and times.

  5. Learning through Teaching: A Microbiology Service-Learning Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginny Webb

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Service learning is defined as a strategy in which students apply what they have learned in the classroom to a community service project. Many educators would agree that students often learn best through teaching others. This premise was the motivation for a new service-learning project in which undergraduate microbiology students developed and taught hands-on microbiology lessons to local elementary school children. The lessons included teaching basic information about microbes, disease transmission, antibiotics, vaccines, and methods of disease prevention. This service-learning project benefitted the college students by enforcing their knowledge of microbiology and provided them an opportunity to reach out to children within their community. This project also benefitted the local schools by teaching the younger students about microbes, infections, and handwashing. In this paper, I discuss the development and implementation of this new microbiology service-learning project, as well as the observed impact it had on everyone involved.

  6. Water Quality Improvement of Media Culture for Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with Cleaner Production Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeruddin; Supriharyono; Febrianto, S.

    2018-02-01

    The tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), is known as a high adaptability and brackish water tolerance fish. This fish is also has a meat with high protein content, that ranges about 65 -75%. Generally the tilapia is cultured using a conventional system with high density. It is caused degradation of water quality of media culture, and finally increase mortality rate of fish cultured. The application of tilapia cultivation with cleaner production method by giving enzyme into the feed to upgrade the efficiency of feed utilization, presumed that could improve the water quality of cultivation media. It is due to the lower of feed and feces residues. Therefore the concentration of toxic compounds, such as ammonia, nitrite and sulfide, will be lower. The experiments were conducted for 35 days with a completely factorial randomized design. The first factor was the dosage of enzyme in the feed, consisting of 4 dosages, and the second factor was the duration of the test fish maintenance (5 weeks). Water quality variables examined included ammonia, nitrite and sulfide. The results showed that enzyme dosage had no significantly impact on ammonia, nitrite and sulfide concentrations in the test media culture. However, the feeding with enzyme in low dosage, resulted less concentration of ammonia, nitrite and sulfide than it was without enzyme). The duration of fish cultured has significantly effect on the concentration of ammonia, nitrite and sulfide in the test media. While it is no significantly correlation between dosage and duration of maintenance.

  7. Microbiology and Outcomes of Peritonitis in Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kashi Nath; Singh, Kamini; Rizwan, Arshi; Mishra, Priyanka; Tiwari, Dinesh; Prasad, Narayan; Gupta, Amit

    2014-01-01

    ♦ Background: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an established treatment modality for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Peritonitis remains a serious complication in PD patients and an important cause of drop-out from the program. Types of pathogens and their drug resistance patterns may determine the outcome of peritonitis. The present study was undertaken to determine the microbiology of peritonitis in PD patients, antibiotic resistance in commonly isolated bacterial pathogens and clinical outcomes. ♦ Method: We enrolled 211 patients with ESRD undergoing PD who developed peritonitis during 2002 to 2011. PD fluids were cultured and antibiotic susceptibility test of the bacterial isolates was performed. ♦ Result: A total of 303 peritonitis episodes with an overall incidence of 0.41 episodes per patient-year were recorded. Gram-positive, gram-negative, fungi, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and ≥ 2 organisms were isolated from 102 (33.7%), 89 (29.4%), 41 (13.5%), 11 (3.6%) and five (1.6%) episodes respectively; 55 (18.2%) episodes were culture negative. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (CONS) was the most common isolate. Catheter loss and hospital admission in gram-negative peritonitis were significantly higher than in gram-positive peritonitis (36/89 (40.4%) vs 20/102 (19.6%), p peritonitis due to vancomycin-resistant enterococci, ESBL- and MBL-producing bacteria. ♦ Conclusion: Emerging antimicrobial resistance calls for prompt diagnosis and aggressive empiric therapy based on the local sensitivity data. PMID:24584592

  8. Electrochemical aspects of microbiologically influenced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licina, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a topic that has gained considerable interest over the past decade, particularly in the oil production and nuclear power generation industries. Failures of stainless steels and copper-nickel alloys under conditions that would not be expected to be at all demanding such as during lay-up have been observed as a result of MIC. Failures in the time period between system construction and its operation are often associated with biological activity. Finally, MIC is generally associated with normally stagnant systems or systems which experience intermittent flow conditions. The diverse and redundant design philosophy of nuclear plants necessitates that a large number of systems are operated in this manner. Some of these systems are safety related while still others support safety related systems. As a result, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and all nuclear utilities have become increasingly concerned with MIC. The purpose of this workshop is to provide a review of the most current technology related to the fundamental aspects of microbiologically influenced corrosion, its diagnosis, and its control. This paper reviews how microbes can influence the electrochemical processes that influence and often control corrosion; ways that these processes (hence, MIC) may be monitored; and electrochemical methods for their control. Examples of the influence of microbiological activity on anodic and cathodic reactions on steels, stainless steels, and copper based alloys in both aerated and dearated environments are provided since the electrochemical effects can be significantly different for each combination. 45 refs

  9. Sensitivity assessment of direct method for diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis in comparison with Dorset Culture media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ebrahim badparva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellate protozoan that lives in the genital tract and causes trichomoniasis in women. About 200 million people all over the world are infected with T. vaginalis. There are various methods with different sensitivity and specificity for detection of this parasite, that one of them is direct smear of vaginal secretions which is simpler, rapid and cheaper than other diagnostic methods. Materials and Methods: Demographic data was gathered by a questionnaire which contained different variables. Vaginal secretions samples were taken by spicolum and two swaps that maintained in glucose solution in separate tubes from 160 women referred to health centers of Khorramabad. One of the vaginal samples was examined by direct smear in saline solution and the other was cultured in Dorse medium. Results: Of 160 women suspected of trichomoniasis, 11.8% and 18.75% were positive by direct smear and culture respectively. The sensitivity of the direct method was 63.3%. Our findings indicated that 30% of the infected women belonged to the 31 – 35 age group, which had the most relative frequency of positive cases. Most of the patients (43% were illiterate or had elementary educational level. Conclussion: The sensivity of direct method is 63% in compare to culture ( as a Gold standard , which is ralatively low . Although the efficacy of this test could be imporved by shortening the elapsed time between sampling and examination , use of skilled microscopists , and different samples , but we recommend that more sensitive methods such as culture and PCR should be used .

  10. Detection and isolation of the "Top 7" Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in ground beef: comparison of the Rapidfinder kits to the USDA microbiology laboratory guidebook method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O157:H7 and serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 are often referred to as the “top 7” STEC, and these have been declared as adulterants in beef by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). The aim of this work was to compare the methods des...

  11. Isolation and Identification of Campylobacter spp. from Poultry and Poultry By-Products in Tunisia by Conventional Culture Method and Multiplex Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jribi, Hela; Sellami, Hanen; Mariam, Siala; Smaoui, Salma; Ghorbel, Asma; Hachicha, Salma; Benejat, Lucie; Messadi-Akrout, Feriel; Mégraud, Francis; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2017-10-01

    Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. are one of the primary causes of bacterial human diarrhea. The consumption of poultry meats, by-products, or both is suspected to be a major cause of human campylobacteriosis. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in fresh poultry meat and poultry by-products by conventional culture methods and to confirm Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates by using the multiplex PCR assay. Two hundred fifty fresh poultry samples were collected from a variety of supermarkets and slaughterhouses located in Sfax, Tunisia, including chicken (n =149) and turkey (n =101). The samples were analyzed using conventional microbiological examinations according to the 2006 International Organization for Standardization method (ISO 10272-1) for Campylobacter spp. Concurrently, a real-time PCR was used for identification of C. jejuni and C. coli . Of the 250 samples of poultry meat and poultry by-products, 25.6% (n = 64) were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. The highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was found in chicken meat (26.8%) followed by turkey meat (23.7%). Among the different products, poultry breasts showed the highest contamination (36.6%) followed by poultry by-products (30%), poultry wings (28%) and poultry legs (26%) showed the lowest contamination, and no contamination was found on neck skin. Of the 64 thermophilic Campylobacter isolates, C. jejuni (59.7%) was the most frequently isolated species and 10.9% of the isolates were identified as C. coli . All of the 64 Campylobacter isolates identified by the conventional culture methods were further confirmed by PCR. The seasonal peak of Campylobacter spp. contamination was in the warm seasons (spring and summer). The study concluded that high proportions of poultry meat and poultry by-products marketed in Tunisia are contaminated by Campylobacter spp. Furthermore, to ensure food safety, poultry meats must be properly cooked

  12. Comprehensive Method for Culturing Embryonic Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons for Seahorse Extracellular Flux XF24 Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Miranda; Zeng, Yan; Knight, Andrew; Windebank, Anthony; Trushina, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Changes in mitochondrial dynamics and function contribute to progression of multiple neurodegenerative diseases including peripheral neuropathies. The Seahorse Extracellular Flux XF24 analyzer provides a comprehensive assessment of the relative state of glycolytic and aerobic metabolism in live cells making this method instrumental in assessing mitochondrial function. One of the most important steps in the analysis of mitochondrial respiration using the Seahorse XF24 analyzer is plating a uniform monolayer of firmly attached cells. However, culturing of primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons is associated with multiple challenges, including their propensity to form clumps and detach from the culture plate. This could significantly interfere with proper analysis and interpretation of data. We have tested multiple cell culture parameters including coating substrates, culture medium, XF24 microplate plastics, and plating techniques in order to optimize plating conditions. Here we describe a highly reproducible method to obtain neuron-enriched monolayers of securely attached dissociated primary embryonic (E15) rat DRG neurons suitable for analysis with the Seahorse XF24 platform.

  13. Comprehensive method for culturing embryonic dorsal root ganglion neurons for Seahorse Extracellular Flux XF24 Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda L. Lange

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in mitochondrial dynamics and function contribute to progression of multiple neurodegenerative diseases including peripheral neuropathies. The Seahorse Extracellular Flux XF24 analyzer provides a comprehensive assessment of the relative state of glycolytic and aerobic metabolism in live cells making this method instrumental in assessing mitochondrial function. One of the most important steps in the analysis of mitochondrial respiration using the Seahorse XF24 analyzer is plating a uniform monolayer of firmly attached cells. However, culturing of primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons is associated with multiple challenges, including their propensity to form clumps and detach from the culture plate. This could significantly interfere with proper analysis and interpretation of data. We have tested multiple cell culture parameters including coating substrates, culture medium, XF24 microplate plastics, and plating techniques in order to optimize plating conditions. Here we describe a highly reproducible method to obtain neuron-enriched monolayers of securely attached dissociated primary embryonic (E15 rat DRG neurons suitable for analysis with the Seahorse XF24 platform.

  14. Safe operation of nuclear power plants - Is safety culture an adequate management method?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piirto, A.

    2012-01-01

    One of the characteristics of a good safety culture is a definable commitment to the improvement of safety behaviours and attitudes at all organisational levels. A second characteristic of an organisation with excellent safety culture is free and open communication. The general understanding has been that safety culture is a part of organisation culture. In addition to safety culture thinking, proactive programmes and displays of proactive work to improve safety are required. This work needs to include, qt a minimum, actions aiming at reducing human errors, the development of human error prevention tools, improvements in training, and the development of working methods and the organisation's activities. Safety depends not only on the technical systems, but also on the organisation. There is a need for better methods and tools for organisational assessment and development. Today there is universal acceptance of the significant impact that management and organisational factors have over the safety significance of complex industrial installations such as nuclear power plants. Many events with significant economic and public impact had causes that have been traced to management deficiencies. The objective of this study is development of new methods to increase safety of nuclear power plant operation. The research has been limited to commercial nuclear power plants that are intended for electrical power generation in Finland. Their production activities, especially operation and maintenance, are primarily reviewed from a safety point of view, as well as human performance and organisational factors perspective. This defines the scope and focus of the study. The research includes studies related to knowledge management and tacit knowledge in the project management context and specific studies related to transfer of tacit knowledge in the maintenance organization and transfer of tacit knowledge between workers of old generation and young generation. The empirical results

  15. Safe operation of nuclear power plants - Is safety culture an adequate management method?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piirto, A.

    2012-07-01

    One of the characteristics of a good safety culture is a definable commitment to the improvement of safety behaviours and attitudes at all organisational levels. A second characteristic of an organisation with excellent safety culture is free and open communication. The general understanding has been that safety culture is a part of organisation culture. In addition to safety culture thinking, proactive programmes and displays of proactive work to improve safety are required. This work needs to include, qt a minimum, actions aiming at reducing human errors, the development of human error prevention tools, improvements in training, and the development of working methods and the organisation's activities. Safety depends not only on the technical systems, but also on the organisation. There is a need for better methods and tools for organisational assessment and development. Today there is universal acceptance of the significant impact that management and organisational factors have over the safety significance of complex industrial installations such as nuclear power plants. Many events with significant economic and public impact had causes that have been traced to management deficiencies. The objective of this study is development of new methods to increase safety of nuclear power plant operation. The research has been limited to commercial nuclear power plants that are intended for electrical power generation in Finland. Their production activities, especially operation and maintenance, are primarily reviewed from a safety point of view, as well as human performance and organisational factors perspective. This defines the scope and focus of the study. The research includes studies related to knowledge management and tacit knowledge in the project management context and specific studies related to transfer of tacit knowledge in the maintenance organization and transfer of tacit knowledge between workers of old generation and young generation. The empirical

  16. [Safety in the Microbiology laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Molinero, Estrella; Alados, Juan Carlos; de la Pedrosa, Elia Gómez G; Leiva, José; Pérez, José L

    2015-01-01

    The normal activity in the laboratory of microbiology poses different risks - mainly biological - that can affect the health of their workers, visitors and the community. Routine health examinations (surveillance and prevention), individual awareness of self-protection, hazard identification and risk assessment of laboratory procedures, the adoption of appropriate containment measures, and the use of conscientious microbiological techniques allow laboratory to be a safe place, as records of laboratory-acquired infections and accidents show. Training and information are the cornerstones for designing a comprehensive safety plan for the laboratory. In this article, the basic concepts and the theoretical background on laboratory safety are reviewed, including the main legal regulations. Moreover, practical guidelines are presented for each laboratory to design its own safety plan according its own particular characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiplexed Single Intact Cell Droplet Digital PCR (MuSIC ddPCR) Method for Specific Detection of Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) in Food Enrichment Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Tanis C; Blais, Burton W; Wong, Alex; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2017-01-01

    Foodborne illness attributed to enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), a highly pathogenic subset of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), is increasingly recognized as a significant public health issue. Current microbiological methods for identification of EHEC in foods often use PCR-based approaches to screen enrichment broth cultures for characteristic gene markers [i.e., Shiga toxin ( stx ) and intimin ( eae )]. However, false positives arise when complex food matrices, such as beef, contain mixtures of eae -negative STEC and eae -positive E. coli , but no EHEC with both markers in a single cell. To reduce false-positive detection of EHEC in food enrichment samples, a Multiplexed, Single Intact Cell droplet digital PCR (MuSIC ddPCR) assay capable of detecting the co-occurrence of the stx and eae genes in a single bacterial cell was developed. This method requires: (1) dispersal of intact bacteria into droplets; (2) release of genomic DNA (gDNA) by heat lysis; and (3) amplification and detection of genetic targets ( stx and eae ) using standard TaqMan chemistries with ddPCR. Performance of the method was tested with panels of EHEC and non-target E. coli . By determining the linkage (i.e., the proportion of droplets in which stx and eae targets were both amplified), samples containing EHEC (typically greater than 20% linkage) could be distinguished from samples containing mixtures of eae -negative STEC and eae -positive E. coli (0-2% linkage). The use of intact cells was necessary as this linkage was not observed with gDNA extracts. EHEC could be accurately identified in enrichment broth cultures containing excess amounts of background E. coli and in enrichment cultures derived from ground beef/pork and leafy-green produce samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of dual-target detection in single bacterial cells using ddPCR. The application of MuSIC ddPCR to enrichment-culture screening would reduce false-positives, thereby improving the cost, speed, and

  18. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL QUALITY OF SLOVAK AND EUROPEAN HONEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kunová,Miroslava Kačániová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate microbiological and chemical quality of honey from Slovakia, Czech Republic and Germany. Selected microbiological and chemical parameters were determined in 12 samples of honey. Total Viable Count (TVC, coliform bacteria (CB, microscopic filamentous fungi (MFF moisture content and free acids were determined. Plate dilution method with individual culture conditions was used for microorganisms cultivation. Moisture content was measured by refractometry and free acids content was determined by titration. The minimal value of TVC was 1.87 log CFU.g-1 (sample no. 11, maximal value of TVC in honey was 3.13 logCFU.g-1 (sample no. 7, average value of TVC was 2.52 log CFU.g-1 . Two samples were in accordance with Codex Alimentaius of SR (2009. Samples of honey were negative for coliform bacteria count. Four samples were negative for microscopic fungi count (sampes no. 2, 8, 9 and 11. Maximal value of microscopic fungi was 2.18 log CFU.g-1 in sample no. 5. Average value of microscopic fungi was 1.07 log CFU.g-1. The moisture content values ranged from 16.6 % (sample no. 1 to 20.6 % (no. 3. Sample no. 3 was not in accordance with requirements of Council Directive 2001/110. Average value of moisture content was 18.3 %. The minimal value of free acids was 12 meq.kg-1, maximal value was 42 meq.kg-1. The average value of free acids was 28.9 meq.kg-1.

  19. Lower antibiotic costs attributable to clinical microbiology rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Richard S P; Guervil, David J; Hunter, Robert L; Wanger, Audrey

    2015-09-01

    At our institution, our microbiologist, pharmacist, and infectious disease (ID) team meet to discuss ID patients, and this meeting is referred to as microbiology rounds. We hypothesized that our microbiology rounds reduce antibiotic costs. The study involved a review of 80 patients with an ID consultation order at each of the 3 hospitals: hospital A (HA) (only HA has microbiology rounds), hospital B (HB), and hospital C (HC). Of this population, we included patients with a positive blood culture. Thirty-six patients who met the above criteria were included in the study. The average antibiotic cost/patient/day at HA, HB, and HC were $66.0, $123, and $109, respectively. Also, we found that change in antibiotics was appropriate when compared to the final microbiology results in 90%, 44%, and 40% of the time at HA, HB, and HC, respectively. Herein, we found an association between conducting microbiology rounds and reduction of antibiotic cost. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection of Brucella sp. infection through serological, microbiological, and molecular methods applied to buffaloes in Maranhão State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Larissa Sarmento; Sá, Joicy Cortez; Dos Santos Ribeiro, Diego Luiz; Chaves, Nancyleni Pinto; da Silva Mol, Juliana Pinto; Santos, Renato Lima; da Paixão, Tatiane Alves; de Carvalho Neta, Alcina Vieira

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the current study is to diagnose Brucella spp. infection using methods such as serology, bacterial isolation, and molecular analysis in buffaloes bred in Maranhão State. In order to do so, 390 samples of buffalo serum were subjected to serological tests, to Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and to 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) combined with slow agglutination test (SAT). Vaginal swabs were collected from seropositive animals and subjected to bacterial isolation and to generic PCR. According to the serological test, 16 animals had a positive reaction to the confirmatory test (2-ME/SAT). As for bacterial isolation, three samples resulted in the isolation of Brucella spp.-characteristic colonies, which were confirmed through PCR. These results confirmed Brucella spp. infection in the buffalo herd from Maranhão State.

  1. [A day in Spanish microbiology. Descriptive study of the activity of the clinical microbiology departments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, J; García-Rodríguez, Ja; Barberán, J; Granizo, Jj; Rodicio, Mp; González, J

    2008-12-01

    The laboratory is an essential part of the work in the Clinical Microbiology Department. This study has aimed to measure the activity of these laboratories. A survey was self-administered on the activity occurring during one work day by each hospital in October 2007. Thirty six hospitals reported 14,076 tests. Serology was the most frequently reported test (30.3%) followed by urine culture (27.8 %), blood tests (13.2 %), respiratory tract samples (8%), feces (7.1%), urethral (5.8%), skin (5.3%) and cerebrospinal fluid (2.6%). According to species, 73.2% of the isolates were bacteria (22.9 % were positive), 8.9% were virus (17% positive), fungi 8.1% (25.2% positive), and 5.5% mycobacterias (5.9% were positive) and parasite 4.5% (12.5% positive). Susceptibility test were performed by automatic methods (62.3%) followed by diffusion test (27.1%) and E-test (9.1%). A total of 5.6% of the susceptibility tests showed in vitro resistance to antibiotics. Fungi were identified in 108 isolates. Candida and Aspergillus were the most frequent genus (85.1% and 8.3%, respectively). Origins of the samples were: lower respiratory tract (32.4 %), genital tract (24.1 %), urine (10.2 %), blood (10.2 %) and skin (10.2 %). Twelve identification techniques were used, the most frequent being the morphological test (54.8%) and biochemical test (39.7%). Broken down by departments, 20.4% were sent from the ICU, 16.7% from surgery, 29.6% from medicine and 18.5% from primary care. Although the workload of the laboratories has been measured in this work, aspects such as specimen manipulation, clinical advice and research were not considered.

  2. Comparative analysis of four commercial on-farm culture methods to identify bacteria associated with clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jair C; Gomes, Marilia S; Bonsaglia, Erika C R; Canisso, Igor F; Garrett, Edgar F; Stewart, Jamie L; Zhou, Ziyao; Lima, Fabio S

    2018-01-01

    Several multiple-media culture systems have become commercially available for on-farm identification of mastitis-associated pathogens. However, the accuracy of these systems has not been thoroughly and independently validated against microbiological evaluations performed by referral laboratories. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the performance of commercially available culture plates (Accumast, Minnesota Easy System, SSGN and SSGNC Quad plates) to identify pathogens associated with clinical mastitis in dairy cows. Milk samples from the affected quarter with clinical mastitis were aerobically cultured with the on-farm culture systems and by two additional reference laboratories. Agreeing results from both standard laboratories were denoted as the reference standard (RS). Accuracy (Ac), sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively) and Cohen's kappa coefficient (k) of on-farm plates were determined based on the RS culture of 211 milk samples. All four plate-systems correctly identified ≥ 84.9% of milk samples with no bacterial growth. Accumast had greater values for all overall predictive factors (Ac, Se, Sp, PPV and NPV) and a substantial agreement (k = 0.79) with RS. The inter-rater agreements of Minnesota, SSGN, and SSGNC with RS were moderate (0.45 ≤ k ≤ 0.55). The effectiveness to categorize bacterial colonies at the genus and species was numerically different amongst the commercial plates. Our findings suggest that Accumast was the most accurate on-farm culture system for identification of mastitis-associated pathogens of the four systems included in the analysis.

  3. Does electronic clinical microbiology results reporting influence medical decision making: a pre- and post-interview study of medical specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloembergen Peter

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinicians view the accuracy of test results and the turnaround time as the two most important service aspects of the clinical microbiology laboratory. Because of the time needed for the culturing of infectious agents, final hardcopy culture results will often be available too late to have a significant impact on early antimicrobial therapy decisions, vital in infectious disease management. The clinical microbiologist therefore reports to the clinician clinically relevant preliminary results at any moment during the diagnostic process, mostly by telephone. Telephone reporting is error prone, however. Electronic reporting of culture results instead of reporting on paper may shorten the turnaround time and may ensure correct communication of results. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the implementation of electronic reporting of final microbiology results on medical decision making. Methods In a pre- and post-interview study using a semi-structured design we asked medical specialists in our hospital about their use and appreciation of clinical microbiology results reporting before and after the implementation of an electronic reporting system. Results Electronic reporting was highly appreciated by all interviewed clinicians. Major advantages were reduction of hardcopy handling and the possibility to review results in relation to other patient data. Use and meaning of microbiology reports differ significantly between medical specialties. Most clinicians need preliminary results for therapy decisions quickly. Therefore, after the implementation of electronic reporting, telephone consultation between clinician and microbiologist remained the key means of communication. Conclusions Overall, electronic reporting increased the workflow efficiency of the medical specialists, but did not have an impact on their decision-making.

  4. Studies of Ancient Russian Cultural Objects Using the Neutron Tomography Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Kichanov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron radiography and tomography is a non-destructive method that provides detailed information about the internal structure of cultural heritage objects. The differences in the neutron attenuation coefficients of constituent elements of the studied objects, as well as the application of modern mathematical algorithms to carry out three-dimensional imaging data analysis, allow one to obtain unique information about the spatial distribution of different phases, the presence of internal defects, or the degree of structural degradation inside valuable cultural objects. The results of the neutron studies of several archaeological objects related to different epochs of the Russian history are reported in order to demonstrate the opportunities provided by the neutron tomography method. The obtained 3D structural volume data, as well as the results of the corresponding data analysis, are presented.

  5. Microbiological monitoring of guinea pigs reared conventionally at two breeding facilities in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Baek, Min-Won; Lee, Hui-Young; Kim, Dong-Jae; Cho, Jung-Sik; Kim, Chuel-Kyu; Hwang, Dae-Youn; Park, Jae-Hak

    2006-10-01

    In this study, microbiological monitoring of guinea pigs reared conventionally in two facilities was performed twice in 2004, with a three-month-interval between surveys. This study was based on the recommendations of the FELASA Working Group, with some modifications. In serological tests in the first survey, some animals from facility A showed positive results for Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Sendai virus, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), and Reovirus-3 (Reo-3); facility B showed a positive result only for E. cuniculi. The results of the second survey were similar to the first, except for the presence of Sendai virus; all animals from the two facilities were Sendai virus-negative in the second experiment. No pathogenic bacteria were cultured in the organs of any of the animals in the first survey. However, in the second survey, Bordetella bronchiseptica was cultured from the lung tissue of two 10-week-old animals from facility A. Chlamydial infection was examined by the Macchiavello method, but no animal showed positive results. Tests using fecal flotation or the KOH wet mount method showed no infection of endoparasites, protozoa, ectoparasites, or dermatophytes in any animal in both surveys. However, in the histopathological examination, an infection of protozoa-like organisms was observed in the cecum of some animals from facility A. The present study revealed that microbiological contamination was present in guinea pigs reared conventionally in two facilities in Korea, suggesting that there is a need to improve environmental conditions in order to eradicate microbial contamination.

  6. Growth and accumulation of flavan-3-ol in Camellia sinensis through callus culture and suspension culture method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutini Sutini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to assess flavan-3-ol biomass in C. sinensis through callus cultures and suspension cultures derived from leaf explants. Callus initiation of both cultures were using Murashige and Skoog medium were enriched with plant growth regulators Naphtha-lene Acetic Acid 3.0 mg/L and kinetin 2.0 mg/L. The procedures in this study were: (1 callus initiation by cutting the leaves of C. sinen-sis shoots then planted on Murashige and Skoog medium that were enriched with plant growth regulators, (2 sub callus culture on fresh medium that enriched with the same growth regulators, (3 suspension culture initiation of liquid callus, (4 growth examination of callus and suspension cultures in week 12, (5 examination of qualitative-quantitative content of flavan-3-olin suspension cultures at week 4. The results show that suspension cultures contain biomass flavan-3-ol that increase in the same manner of the increase of callus age and weight

  7. How guiding coalitions promote positive culture change in hospitals: a longitudinal mixed methods interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Elizabeth H; Brewster, Amanda L; McNatt, Zahirah; Linnander, Erika L; Cherlin, Emily; Fosburgh, Heather; Ting, Henry H; Curry, Leslie A

    2018-03-01

    Quality collaboratives are widely endorsed as a potentially effective method for translating and spreading best practices for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) care. Nevertheless, hospital success in improving performance through participation in collaboratives varies markedly. We sought to understand what distinguished hospitals that succeeded in shifting culture and reducing 30-day risk-standardised mortality rate (RSMR) after AMI through their participation in the Leadership Saves Lives (LSL) collaborative. We conducted a longitudinal, mixed methods intervention study of 10 hospitals over a 2-year period; data included surveys of 223 individuals (response rates 83%-94% depending on wave) and 393 in-depth interviews with clinical and management staff most engaged with the LSL intervention in the 10 hospitals. We measured change in culture and RSMR, and key aspects of working related to team membership, turnover, level of participation and approaches to conflict management. The six hospitals that experienced substantial culture change and greater reductions in RSMR demonstrated distinctions in: (1) effective inclusion of staff from different disciplines and levels in the organisational hierarchy in the team guiding improvement efforts (referred to as the 'guiding coalition' in each hospital); (2) authentic participation in the work of the guiding coalition; and (3) distinct patterns of managing conflict. Guiding coalition size and turnover were not associated with success (p values>0.05). In the six hospitals that experienced substantial positive culture change, staff indicated that the LSL learnings were already being applied to other improvement efforts. Hospitals that were most successful in a national quality collaborative to shift hospital culture and reduce RSMR showed distinct patterns in membership diversity, authentic participation and capacity for conflict management. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  8. A safety culture assessment by mixed methods at a public maternity and infant hospital in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listyowardojo TA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tita Alissa Listyowardojo,1 Xiaoling Yan,2,3 Stephen Leyshon,1 Bobbie Ray-Sannerud,1 Xin Yan Yu,4 Kai Zheng,4 Tao Duan2,3 1Life Sciences Program, Group Technology and Research, DNV GL, Hovik, Norway; 2Quality and Safety Department, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, 3Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 4Healthcare Department, Business Assurance, DNV GL, Beijing, China Objective: To assess safety culture at a public maternity hospital in Shanghai, China, using a sequential mixed methods approach. The study was part of a bigger study looking at the application of the mixed methods approach to assess safety culture in health care in different organizations and countries.Methodology: A mixed methods approach was utilized by first distributing the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire measuring six safety culture dimensions and five independent items to all hospital staff (n=1482 working in 18 departments at a single hospital. Afterward, semistructured interviews were conducted using convenience sampling, where 48 hospital staff from nine departments at the same hospital were individually interviewed.Results: The survey received a response rate of 96%. The survey findings show significant differences between the hospital departments in almost all safety culture dimensions and independent items. Similarly, the interview findings revealed that there were different, competing priorities between departments perceived to result in a reduced quality of collaboration and bottlenecks in care delivery. Another major finding was that staff who worked more hours per week would perceive working conditions significantly more negatively. Issues related to working conditions were also the most common concerns discussed in the interviews, especially the issue on high workload. High workload was also reflected in the fact that 91.45% of survey respondents reported that they worked 40 hours or longer per week. Finally, interview findings complemented

  9. [The modern microbiology in the clinical managing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal Román, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The tuberculosis is one of the most important and mortal diseases of the world. The microbiological confirmatory diagnosis and the microbiological therapeutic orientation are fundamental nowadays in the tuberculosis in AIDS and in the Resistant tuberculosis. They are described throughout the time by the classic Microbiology: From 1882 to final 20th century (130 years). With the modern current Microbiology: In the beginning of the 21st century (20-30 years). And as will be done with the future Microbiology: From the years 2020-30. The important advances are outlined in the modern and future clinical microbiology, for the control of the Tuberculosis.

  10. Enlargement of induced variations by combined method of chronic irradiations with callus culture in sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatomi, Shigeki

    1993-01-01

    The present study was conducted to elucidate the effects of gamma ray irradiation and callus culture upon induced variation of the regeneratives. The populations regenerated from young leaf tissue of chronic irradiated plnats grown under a gamma field receiving a total dose of 300 and 100 Gy, showed rather wider variation on quantitative characters than plants from populations of the non-irradiated. This variation extended in both negative and positive directions. Analysis of variance also revealed that variation and heritability in broad sense of most agronomic characters increased significantly among the subclones as the irradiation done rose. Principal component analysis also indicated that the subclones from the irradiated population were more variable than the non-irradiated. Such variation with higher heritability could be transmitted to the following generations by clonal propagation and utilized as genetic sources in mutation breeding. The combined method with chronic irradiation followed by tissue culture is evaluated as an effective method of widening mutation spectrum and increasing mutation frequency in regenerated plants. In addition, this method is valid to improve any crop species which can regenerate plants through callus culture. (author)

  11. Ethnonursing: A Qualitative Research Method for Studying Culturally Competent Care across Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn R. McFarland PhD, RN, FNP-BC, CTN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nurse anthropologist, Madeleine Leininger, developed the culture care theory and ethnonursing research method to help researchers study transcultural human care phenomena and discover the knowledge nurses need to provide care in an increasingly multicultural world. The authors propose that the ethnonursing method can be useful for research that addresses providing care in other disciplines, including education, administration, physical, occupational, and speech therapy, social work, pharmacy, medicine, and other disciplines in which research findings have implications for human care and health. The authors discuss the culture care theory and describe the ethnonursing research method's enablers, data analysis phases, and qualitative evaluation criteria. The theory is presented as a guide for using research findings to design culturally competent and congruent care to promote well-being among diverse people, groups, communities, and institutions. Resources include a reference list of key source publications, a discussion of exemplar studies, and samples of a theory-based, open-ended interview guide and data coding system.

  12. Evaluation of a direct method for the identification and antibiotic susceptibility assessment of microrganisms isolated from blood cultures by automatic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Frugoni

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of blood cultures in the septic patient is to address a correct therapeutic approach. Identification and antibiotic susceptibility test carried out directly from the bottle may give important information in short time.The introduction of the automatic instrumentation has improved the discovering of pathogens in the blood, however the elapsing time between the positive detection and the microbiological report is still along. Is the evaluation of this study a fast, easy, cheap method to be applied to the routine, which could reduce the response time in the bacteraemia diagnosis.The automatic systems Vitek Senior (bioMérieux, and Vitek 2 (bioMérieux were used at Pio Albergo Trivulzio (Centre1 and at Istituto dei Tumori (Centre2 respectivetly.To remove blood cells, 7 ml. of the culture has been moved by vacuum sampling in a test tube and centrifuged for 10 minutes at 1000 rpm the supernatant has been further centrifuged for 10 minutes at 3000 rpm.0.5 ml. of BHI has been added to the pellet o sediment.The concentration of bacterial suspension has been fit for the inoculation. At the same time has been prepared standard cultures in suitable culture media were carried out for comparison. In the centro1 and centro2 have been isolated and identify respectively 63 and 31 Gram negative, and, 32 and 40 gram positive microorganisms have been isolated and identify in the Centre1 and Centre2 respectively.The identification Gram-negative and Gram positive microorganisms showed an agreement of 100% and 86.2% and 93.3% and 65.78% respectively between the direct and the standard method. For antibiotic susceptibility tests, 903 (Centre1 and 491 (Centre2 and 396 and 509 compounds were totally assessed in Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria respectively.The analysis has highlighted that: Centre1 has reported 0.30% very major errors (GE, 0.92% major errors (EM, 1.23% minor errors (Em. Centre 2 showed 0.57% very major errors (GE, 0.09% major errors

  13. A NEW APPROACH FOR CULTURING LEMNA MINOR (DUCKWEED) AND STANDARDIZED METHOD FOR USING ATRAZINE AS A REFERENCE TOXICANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemna minor (Duckweed) is commonly used in aquatic toxicity investigations. Methods for culturing and testing with reference toxicants, such as atrazine, are somewhat variable among researchers. Our goal was to develop standardized methods of culturing and testing for use with L....

  14. The State of the Art of Teaching Research Methods in the Social Sciences: Towards a Pedagogical Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Claire; Garner, Mark; Kawulich, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    No formal pedagogical culture for research methods in the social sciences seems to exist and, as part of the authors' endeavour to establish such a culture, this article reviews current literature about teaching research methods and identifies the gaps in the research. Articles in academic journals spanning a 10-year period were collected by…

  15. 21 CFR 866.2320 - Differential culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2320 Differential culture... occurred. Test results aid in the diagnosis of disease and also provide epidemiological information on...

  16. Critical assessment of extracellular polymeric substances extraction methods from mixed culture biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Domingo Felez, Carlos; Mutlu, Ayten Gizem

    2013-01-01

    . This study presents a rigorous and critical assessment of existing physical and chemical EPS extraction methods applied to mixed-culture biomass samples (nitrifying, nitritation-anammox, and activated sludge biomass). A novel fluorescence-based method was developed and calibrated to quantify the lysis...... potential of different EPS extraction protocols. We concluded that commonly used methods to assess cell lysis (DNA concentrations or G6PDH activities in EPS extracts) do not correlate with cell viability. Furthermore, we discovered that the presence of certain chemicals in EPS extracts results in severe...... underestimation of protein and carbohydrate concentrations by using standard analytical methods. Keeping both maximum EPS extraction yields and minimal biomass lysis as criteria, it was identified a sonication-based extraction method as the best to determine and compare tightly-bound EPS fractions in different...

  17. MICROBIOLOGICAL PATTERN AND EPIDEMIOLOGIC TRENDS OF FUNGAL KERATITIS IN NORTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Rizvi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT Spectrum of fungal keratitis continues to change with geographical location and season. Microbiological and epidemiological data provide guidelines to the treating physician facilitating chances of successful treatment. PURPOSE To report microbiologic and epidemiologic profile of 119 culture-positive cases of fungal keratitis treated at a tertiary centre in North India. SETTINGS AND DESIGN All cases reporting directly or referred to the OPD of Eye Department of Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital, Bareilly, India, diagnosed and treated as fungal keratitis during a 3-year period between March 2012 and Feb 2015. METHODS Retrospective analysis of clinical and microbiological data of 119 culture-positive cases of fungal keratitis. Demographic features, risk factors, clinical course and laboratory findings were reviewed. RESULTS All patients were residents of 11 adjoining districts of Northern India. Of the 119 patients, 76 (63.8% were males (male: female ratio 1.79:1. 81(68% patients were in young productive age group of 20-45 years. 87 (73% were rural based. Ocular trauma with vegetative material, especially sugarcane leaf or dust falling in eyes were the chief precipitating factors; n = 89 (74.7%. Microbiologically Fusarium was the predominant isolate, 64 cases (53.7%, followed by Aspergillus 34(28.6% and Candida 11(9.2%. 2 cases of Alternaria and Curvularia and solitary cases of Acremonium and Scedosporium were reported. 4 strains remained unidentified. Mode of injury had a causal relation with fungal aetiology. Majority of Fusarium infections were caused by vegetative injuries 39(61%. Of these, 15(23.4% were attributed to sugarcane leaves. Soil/dust fall in eye or Surma application were responsible for bulk of Aspergillus infections; 21(61.7%. Candida infections were sporadic with a higher presenting age (Mean av 51.2 years and a frequent association with topical steroid usage, (8 of 11 cases. Aspergillus infections were predominant

  18. Irradiation as a Method of Salvation of Cultural Heritage Objects Under Massive Jeopardy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katusin-Razem, B.; Braun, M.; Jagic, R.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural heritage artefacts made of organic materials are susceptible to deterioration caused by the action of insects, moulds, fungi and bacteria. The problem of biodeterioration becomes especially acute after natural catastrophes and weather inclemencies, or after human activities conducive to an abrupt development of pests. Usually a large number of objects are imperilled at the same time and their sheer number aggravates any organized preservation effort. Irradiation has proven an effective method of preservation under the circumstances, e.g. for the prevention of massive proliferation of fungal infestation of books wetted by flood. War destructions in Croatia 1991 - 1995 seriously jeopardized many cultural objects. Their treatment by 60Co gamma rays in the Radiation Chemistry and Dosimetry Laboratory of the Ruðer Boškoviæ Institute played a significant role in the prevention of massive biodeterioration. In co-operation with the Croatian Conservation Institute, one third of 5000 evacuated objects, mostly polychromic wooden sculptures, were irradiated for desinsection and disinfection, enabling their joint accommodation in depots until restoration. This contribution to the preservation of jeopardized cultural heritage objects has been recognized internationally as a specially significant and successful case of the application of irradiation to cultural heritage. The presentation describes in more detail the preservation and restoration of the altar of the Holy Cross from the church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of the Snow in Kamensko.(author)

  19. Simple and high yielding method for preparing tissue specific extracellular matrix coatings for cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeQuach, Jessica A; Mezzano, Valeria; Miglani, Amar; Lange, Stephan; Keller, Gordon M; Sheikh, Farah; Christman, Karen L

    2010-09-27

    The native extracellular matrix (ECM) consists of a highly complex, tissue-specific network of proteins and polysaccharides, which help regulate many cellular functions. Despite the complex nature of the ECM, in vitro cell-based studies traditionally assess cell behavior on single ECM component substrates, which do not adequately mimic the in vivo extracellular milieu. We present a simple approach for developing naturally derived ECM coatings for cell culture that provide important tissue-specific cues unlike traditional cell culture coatings, thereby enabling the maturation of committed C2C12 skeletal myoblast progenitors and human embryonic stem cells differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Here we show that natural muscle-specific coatings can (i) be derived from decellularized, solubilized adult porcine muscle, (ii) contain a complex mixture of ECM components including polysaccharides, (iii) adsorb onto tissue culture plastic and (iv) promote cell maturation of committed muscle progenitor and stem cells. This versatile method can create tissue-specific ECM coatings, which offer a promising platform for cell culture to more closely mimic the mature in vivo ECM microenvironment.

  20. Generalist palliative care in hospital - Cultural and organisational interactions. Results of a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergenholtz, Heidi; Jarlbaek, Lene; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2016-06-01

    It can be challenging to provide generalist palliative care in hospitals, owing to difficulties in integrating disease-oriented treatment with palliative care and the influences of cultural and organisational conditions. However, knowledge on the interactions that occur is sparse. To investigate the interactions between organisation and culture as conditions for integrated palliative care in hospital and, if possible, to suggest workable solutions for the provision of generalist palliative care. A convergent parallel mixed-methods design was chosen using two independent studies: a quantitative study, in which three independent datasets were triangulated to study the organisation and evaluation of generalist palliative care, and a qualitative, ethnographic study exploring the culture of generalist palliative nursing care in medical departments. A Danish regional hospital with 29 department managements and one hospital management. Two overall themes emerged: (1) 'generalist palliative care as a priority at the hospital', suggesting contrasting issues regarding prioritisation of palliative care at different organisational levels, and (2) 'knowledge and use of generalist palliative care clinical guideline', suggesting that the guideline had not reached all levels of the organisation. Contrasting issues in the hospital's provision of generalist palliative care at different organisational levels seem to hamper the interactions between organisation and culture - interactions that appear to be necessary for the provision of integrated palliative care in the hospital. The implementation of palliative care is also hindered by the main focus being on disease-oriented treatment, which is reflected at all the organisational levels. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Detection of Candida spp. in the vagina of a cohort of nulliparous pregnant women by culture and molecular methods: Is there an association between maternal vaginal and infant oral colonisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Matthew S; Cullinane, Meabh; Garland, Suzanne M; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Donath, Susan M; Bennett, Catherine M; Amir, Lisa H

    2016-04-01

    Most studies describing vaginal Candida spp. in pregnancy focus on symptomatic vaginitis, rather than asymptomatic colonisation, and solely utilise microbiological culture. The extent to which asymptomatic vaginal carriage may represent a reservoir for infant oral colonisation has been highly debated. This study formed part of the Candida and Staphylococcus Transmission Longitudinal Evaluation (CASTLE) study, in Melbourne, Australia, from 2009 to 2011 and used culture and molecular methods to examine vaginal swabs collected late in the third trimester of pregnancy for Candida spp. Oral swabs from infants were also examined using culture methods. Overall, 80 of 356 (22%) women were positive for Candida spp; the majority being Candida albicans (83%). Candida glabrata and other Candida spp. were also identified, but in much lower numbers. Molecular analysis identified numerous positive samples not detected by culture, including 13 cases of C. albicans. In addition, some positive samples only recorded to genus level by culture were accurately identified as either C. albicans or C. glabrata following molecular analyses. Eighteen infants recorded positive Candida spp. cultures, predominantly C. albicans. However, there were only four (25%) mother/infant dyads where C. albicans was detected. This study provides valuable data on asymptomatic colonisation rates of Candida spp. within an asymptomatic population of women late in pregnancy. The utilisation of molecular methods improved the rate of detection and provided a more accurate means for identification of non-albicans Candida spp. The low mother/infant colonisation rate suggests that non-maternal sources are likely involved in determining infant oral colonisation status. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF CONFECTIONARY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomíra Juhaniaková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine microbiological quality of confectionery products. In confectionery products microbiological parameters: total count of bacteria, coliforms bacteria,mesophilic aerobes bacteria and microscopic filamentous fungi were observed. The confectionery products were evaluated: Kremeš and Venčekcake. For microbiological tests 20 samples of confectionery products were used. The numbers of total count of bacteria ranged from 3.29 log CFU.g-1, the number of mesophilic aerobes bacteria ranged from 1.86 to 2.85 log CFU.g-1, coliforms bacteria in confectionery products ranged from 0to 2.06CFU.g-1and the number of microscopic fungi ranged from 1.13 to 1.96CFU.g-1. The samples of cake prom private production showed better microbiological quality as samples from market production. All investigated samples of confectionary products were inaccordance with the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic.

  3. Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 4th edition of Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry Edited by Eldor Paul continues in the vein of the 3rd edition by providing an excellent, broad-reaching introduction to soil biology. The new edition improves on the previous by providing extensive supplementary materials, links to outs...

  4. Veterinary Microbiology, 3rd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...

  5. Modern industrial microbiology and biotechnology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Okafor, Nduka

    2007-01-01

    ... and cells, site-directed mutation and metabolic engineering. Simultaneously, microbiology has addressed itself to some current problems such as the fight against cancer by the production of anti-tumor antibiotics; it has changed the traditional practice in a number of areas: for example the deep sea has now joined the soil as the medium for the search for ...

  6. The microbiology of Lascaux Cave

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bastian, F.; Jurado, V.; Nováková, Alena; Alabouvette, C.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 156, č. 3 (2010), s. 644-652 ISSN 1350-0872 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Lascaux Cave * microbiology * Paleolithic paintings Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.957, year: 2010

  7. Microbiology as if Bird Watching

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 10. Microbiology as if Bird Watching. Milind G Watve. Classroom Volume 1 Issue 10 October 1996 pp 78-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/10/0078-0081. Author Affiliations.

  8. Examination of reproducibility in microbiological degredation experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Spliid, Henrik; Holst, Helle

    1998-01-01

    Experimental data indicate that certain microbiological degradation experiments have a limited reproducibility. Nine identical batch experiments were carried out on 3 different days to examine reproducibility. A pure culture, isolated from soil, grew with toluene as the only carbon and energy...... source. Toluene was degraded under aerobic conditions at a constant temperature of 28 degreesC. The experiments were modelled by a Monod model - extended to meet the air/liquid system, and the parameter values were estimated using a statistical nonlinear estimation procedure. Model reduction analysis...... resulted in a simpler model without the biomass decay term. In order to test for model reduction and reproducibility of parameter estimates, a likelihood ratio test was employed. The limited reproducibility for these experiments implied that all 9 batch experiments could not be described by the same set...

  9. Microbiological decomposition of the organic radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhin, I.V.; Smelov, V.S.; Borsenkov, I.A.; Belyaev, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    This work will determine the applicability of a microbiological oxidation as a replacement process of spent extractant reprocessing. In current 10 days exponential growth of microorganisms is observed, thus of the substratum inhibition is not observed at increase of the extractant concentration up to 6%. In an outcome of experiments in a periodic mode without a cultural solution renewal the degree of destruction diluent varied within the limits of 86-100%, TBP - 28-94% depending on a mode. In view of accumulated biomass a drop of quantity of organic substance in a system in 6 - 10 times was reached. The a-activity decontamination coefficient of water solution after removal biosuspension has made 210. (author)

  10. Methods to induce primary and secondary traumatic damage in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamchik, Y; Frantseva, M V; Weisspapir, M; Carlen, P L; Perez Velazquez, J L

    2000-04-01

    Organotypic brain slice cultures have been used in a variety of studies on neurodegenerative processes [K.M. Abdel-Hamid, M. Tymianski, Mechanisms and effects of intracellular calcium buffering on neuronal survival in organotypic hippocampal cultures exposed to anoxia/aglycemia or to excitotoxins, J. Neurosci. 17, 1997, pp. 3538-3553; D.W. Newell, A. Barth, V. Papermaster, A.T. Malouf, Glutamate and non-glutamate receptor mediated toxicity caused by oxygen and glucose deprivation in organotypic hippocampal cultures, J. Neurosci. 15, 1995, pp. 7702-7711; J.L. Perez Velazquez, M.V. Frantseva, P.L. Carlen, In vitro ischemia promotes glutamate mediated free radical generation and intracellular calcium accumulation in pyramidal neurons of cultured hippocampal slices, J. Neurosci. 23, 1997, pp. 9085-9094; L. Stoppini, L.A. Buchs, D. Muller, A simple method for organotypic cultures of nervous tissue, J. Neurosci. Methods 37, 1991, pp. 173-182; R.C. Tasker, J.T. Coyle, J.J. Vornov, The regional vulnerability to hypoglycemia induced neurotoxicity in organotypic hippocampal culture: protection by early tetrodotoxin or delayed MK 801, J. Neurosci. 12, 1992, pp. 4298-4308.]. We describe two methods to induce traumatic cell damage in hippocampal organotypic cultures. Primary trauma injury was achieved by rolling a stainless steel cylinder (0.9 g) on the organotypic slices. Secondary injury was followed after dropping a weight (0.137 g) on a localised area of the organotypic slice, from a height of 2 mm. The time course and extent of cell death were determined by measuring the fluorescence of the viability indicator propidium iodide (PI) at several time points after the injury. The initial localised impact damage spread 24 and 67 h after injury, cell death being 25% and 54%, respectively, when slices were kept at 37 degrees C. To validate these methods as models to assess neuroprotective strategies, similar insults were applied to slices at relatively low temperatures (30

  11. Co-interviewing across gender and culture: expanding qualitative research methods in Melanesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman-MacLaren, Michelle L; Api, Unia K; Darius, Matupit; Tommbe, Rachael; Mafile'o, Tracie A; MacLaren, David J

    2014-09-06

    The social and cultural positions of both researchers and research participants influence qualitative methods and study findings. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), as in other contexts, gender is a key organising characteristic and needs to be central to the design and conduct of research. The colonial history between researcher and participant is also critical to understanding potential power differences. This is particularly relevant to public health research, much of which has emerged from a positivist paradigm. This paper describes our critical reflection of flexible researcher responses enacted during qualitative research in PNG. Led by a senior male HIV researcher from PNG, a male from a PNG university and a female from an Australian university conducted qualitative interviews about faith-based responses to HIV in PNG. The two researchers planned to conduct one-on-one interviews matching gender of participants and interviewer. However, while conducting the study, four participants explicitly requested to be interviewed by both researchers. This experience led us to critically consider socially and culturally situated ways of understanding semi-structured interviewing for public health research in Melanesia. New understandings about public health research include: (i) a challenge to the convention that the researcher holds more power than the research participant, (ii) the importance of audience in Melanesia, (iii) cultural safety can be provided when two people co-interview and (iv) the effect an esteemed leader heading the research may have on people's willingness to participate. Researchers who occupy insider-outsider roles in PNG may provide participants new possibilities to communicate key ideas. Our recent experience has taught us public health research methods that are gender sensitive and culturally situated are pivotal to successful research in Melanesia. Qualitative research requires adaptability and reflexivity. Public health research methods must continue

  12. Different Donor Cell Culture Methods Can Influence the Developmental Ability of Cloned Sheep Embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LiBing Ma

    Full Text Available It was proposed that arresting nuclear donor cells in G0/G1 phase facilitates the development of embryos that are derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. Full confluency or serum starvation is commonly used to arrest in vitro cultured somatic cells in G0/G1 phase. However, it is controversial as to whether these two methods have the same efficiency in arresting somatic cells in G0/G1 phase. Moreover, it is unclear whether the cloned embryos have comparable developmental ability after somatic cells are subjected to one of these methods and then used as nuclear donors in SCNT. In the present study, in vitro cultured sheep skin fibroblasts were divided into four groups: (1 cultured to 70-80% confluency (control group, (2 cultured to full confluency, (3 starved in low serum medium for 4 d, or (4 cultured to full confluency and then further starved for 4 d. Flow cytometry was used to assay the percentage of fibroblasts in G0/G1 phase, and cell counting was used to assay the viability of the fibroblasts. Then, real-time reverse transcription PCR was used to determine the levels of expression of several cell cycle-related genes. Subsequently, the four groups of fibroblasts were separately used as nuclear donors in SCNT, and the developmental ability and the quality of the cloned embryos were compared. The results showed that the percentage of fibroblasts in G0/G1 phase, the viability of fibroblasts, and the expression levels of cell cycle-related genes was different among the four groups of fibroblasts. Moreover, the quality of the cloned embryos was comparable after these four groups of fibroblasts were separately used as nuclear donors in SCNT. However, cloned embryos derived from fibroblasts that were cultured to full confluency combined with serum starvation had the highest developmental ability. The results of the present study indicate that there are synergistic effects of full confluency and serum starvation on arresting fibroblasts in

  13. Quality control for diagnostic oral microbiology laboratories in European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Smith

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Participation in diagnostic microbiology internal and external quality control (QC processes is good laboratory practice and an essential component of a quality management system. However, no QC scheme for diagnostic oral microbiology existed until 2009 when the Clinical Oral Microbiology (COMB Network was created. At the European Oral Microbiology Workshop in 2008, 12 laboratories processing clinical oral microbiological samples were identified. All these were recruited to participate into the study and six laboratories from six European countries completed both the online survey and the first QC round. Three additional laboratories participated in the second round. Based on the survey, European oral microbiology laboratories process a significant (mean per laboratory 4,135 number of diagnostic samples from the oral cavity annually. A majority of the laboratories did not participate in any internal or external QC programme and nearly half of the laboratories did not have standard operating procedures for the tests they performed. In both QC rounds, there was a large variation in the results, interpretation and reporting of antibiotic susceptibility testing among the laboratories. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate the need for harmonisation of laboratory processing methods and interpretation of results for oral microbiology specimens. The QC rounds highlighted the value of external QC in evaluating the efficacy and safety of processes, materials and methods used in the laboratory. The use of standardised methods is also a prerequisite for multi-centre epidemiological studies that can provide important information on emerging microbes and trends in anti-microbial susceptibility for empirical prescribing in oro-facial infections.

  14. Experimental observation and combined investigation of high-performance fusion of iron-region isotopes in optimal growing microbiological associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vysotskii, Vladimir I.; Kornilova, Alla A.; Tashirev, Alexandr B.; Kornilova, Julia

    2006-01-01

    The report represents the results of combined (Moessbauer and mass-spectroscopy) examinations of isotopes transmutation process in growing microbiological associations in the iron-region of atomic mass (50 < A < 60). It was shown that the effectiveness of isotopes transmutation during the process of growth of microbiological associations at optimal conditions is by 10-20 times more than the effectiveness of the same transmutation in one-line' (clean) microbiological cultures. (author)

  15. Aerospace Toxicology and Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Parmet, A. J.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Toxicology dates to the very earliest history of humanity with various poisons and venom being recognized as a method of hunting or waging war with the earliest documentation in the Evers papyrus (circa 1500 BCE). The Greeks identified specific poisons such as hemlock, a method of state execution, and the Greek word toxos (arrow) became the root of our modern science. The first scientific approach to the understanding of poisons and toxicology was the work during the late middle ages of Paracelsus. He formulated what were then revolutionary views that a specific toxic agent or "toxicon" caused specific dose-related effects. His principles have established the basis of modern pharmacology and toxicology. In 1700, Bernardo Ramazzini published the book De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (The Diseases of Workers) describing specific illnesses associated with certain labor, particularly metal workers exposed to mercury, lead, arsenic, and rock dust. Modern toxicology dates from development of the modern industrial chemical processes, the earliest involving an analytical method for arsenic by Marsh in 1836. Industrial organic chemicals were synthesized in the late 1800 s along with anesthetics and disinfectants. In 1908, Hamilton began the long study of occupational toxicology issues, and by WW I the scientific use of toxicants saw Haber creating war gases and defining time-dosage relationships that are used even today.

  16. Microbiological decontamination of some herbs by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.

    1996-01-01

    The research work on the microbiological decontamination of the medical herbs by electron beam was carried out. The seven samples of the herbs granules were irradiated at the doses 3, 6 and 10 kGy. It has been shown, that D10 values are varied in several samples after irradiation. Additional, research work, by gas chromatographic method, on the composition volatile oils (salvia, orange, peppermint and anise), after irradiation at the dose 4.4 and 8.8 kGy was carried out. It was not significant differences in the compositions between control and irradiated oils. (author). 12 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Development of a Novel Nuclear Safety Culture Evaluation Method for an Operating Team Using Probabilistic Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sangmin; Lee, Seung Min; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    IAEA defined safety culture as follows: 'Safety Culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance'. Also, celebrated behavioral scientist, Cooper, defined safety culture as,'safety culture is that observable degree of effort by which all organizational members direct their attention and actions toward improving safety on a daily basis' with his internal psychological, situational, and behavioral context model. With these various definitions and criteria of safety culture, several safety culture assessment methods have been developed to improve and manage safety culture. To develop a new quantitative safety culture evaluation method for an operating team, we unified and redefined safety culture assessment items. Then we modeled a new safety culture evaluation by adopting level 1 PSA concept. Finally, we suggested the criteria to obtain nominal success probabilities of assessment items by using 'operational definition'. To validate the suggested evaluation method, we analyzed the collected audio-visual recording data collected from a full scope main control room simulator of a NPP in Korea.

  18. Development of a Novel Nuclear Safety Culture Evaluation Method for an Operating Team Using Probabilistic Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sangmin; Lee, Seung Min; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    IAEA defined safety culture as follows: 'Safety Culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance'. Also, celebrated behavioral scientist, Cooper, defined safety culture as,'safety culture is that observable degree of effort by which all organizational members direct their attention and actions toward improving safety on a daily basis' with his internal psychological, situational, and behavioral context model. With these various definitions and criteria of safety culture, several safety culture assessment methods have been developed to improve and manage safety culture. To develop a new quantitative safety culture evaluation method for an operating team, we unified and redefined safety culture assessment items. Then we modeled a new safety culture evaluation by adopting level 1 PSA concept. Finally, we suggested the criteria to obtain nominal success probabilities of assessment items by using 'operational definition'. To validate the suggested evaluation method, we analyzed the collected audio-visual recording data collected from a full scope main control room simulator of a NPP in Korea

  19. The Leukocyte Culture Method in the Diagnosis of Free-martinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagawa, H.; Basrur, Parvathi K.

    1968-01-01

    The clinical application and reliability of the leukocyte culture method for the diagnosis of freemartinism were examined and the length of time that blood samples could be held at room temperature and in the refrigerator prior to culturing, was investigated. The chromosome findings by the leukocyte culture method in 14 freemartins and 9 non-freemartin females belonging to heterosexual twins or triplets revealed that XX-XY cell chimerism exists only in the former, whereas the latter were exclusively of normal female complement. The mitotic index in bovine blood after preservation for varying periods was studied on samples from two animals. Blood samples from these two animals stored at 5°C for 6 hours in a refrigerator showed the mitotic index to be 3.8 and 5.3 per cent which gradually decreased in samples stored for longer than 12 hours. After 72 hours, a very rapid decrease in mitotic index occurred in both cases, reaching zero in samples stored for 96 and 108 hours. Samples kept at room temperature followed a similar pattern as under refrigeration but with slightly lower values throughout. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2. PMID:4234791

  20. Robust Microplate-Based Methods for Culturing and in Vivo Phenotypic Screening of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C. Haire

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr, a unicellular alga, is routinely utilized to study photosynthetic biochemistry, ciliary motility, and cellular reproduction. Its minimal culture requirements, unicellular morphology, and ease of transformation have made it a popular model system. Despite its relatively slow doubling time, compared with many bacteria, it is an ideal eukaryotic system for microplate-based studies utilizing either, or both, absorbance as well as fluorescence assays. Such microplate assays are powerful tools for researchers in the areas of toxicology, pharmacology, chemical genetics, biotechnology, and more. However, while microplate-based assays are valuable tools for screening biological systems, these methodologies can significantly alter the conditions in which the organisms are cultured and their subsequent physiology or morphology. Herein we describe a novel method for the microplate culture and in vivo phenotypic analysis of growth, viability, and photosynthetic pigments of C. reinhardtii. We evaluated the utility of our assay by screening silver nanoparticles for their effects on growth and viability. These methods are amenable to a wide assortment of studies and present a significant advancement in the methodologies available for research involving this model organism.