WorldWideScience

Sample records for microbial surface architecture

  1. Architectural Knitted Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossé, Aurélie

    2010-01-01

    WGSN reports from the Architectural Knitted Surfaces workshop recently held at ShenkarCollege of Engineering and Design, Tel Aviv, which offered a cutting-edge insight into interactive knitted surfaces. With the increasing role of smart textiles in architecture, the Architectural Knitted Surfaces...... workshop brought together architects and interior and textile designers to highlight recent developments in intelligent knitting. The five-day workshop was led by architects Ayelet Karmon and Mette Ramsgaard Thomsen, together with Amir Cang and Eyal Sheffer from the Knitting Laboratory, in collaboration...

  2. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael; Kilian, Martin; Schiftner, Alexander; Mitra, Niloy J.; Pottmann, Helmut; Pauly, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, socalled panels, that can be manufactured with a

  3. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael

    2010-07-26

    The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, socalled panels, that can be manufactured with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication often dominates the panel cost, there is strong incentive to use the same mold for multiple panels. We cast the major practical requirements for architectural surface paneling, including mold reuse, into a global optimization framework that interleaves discrete and continuous optimization steps to minimize production cost while meeting user-specified quality constraints. The search space for optimization is mainly generated through controlled deviation from the design surface and tolerances on positional and normal continuity between neighboring panels. A novel 6-dimensional metric space allows us to quickly compute approximate inter-panel distances, which dramatically improves the performance of the optimization and enables the handling of complex arrangements with thousands of panels. The practical relevance of our system is demonstrated by paneling solutions for real, cutting-edge architectural freeform design projects. © 2010 ACM.

  4. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael

    2010-07-25

    The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, so-called panels, that can be manufactured with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication often dominates the panel cost, there is strong incentive to use the same mold for multiple panels. We cast the major practical requirements for architectural surface paneling, including mold reuse, into a global optimization framework that interleaves discrete and continuous optimization steps to minimize production cost while meeting user-specified quality constraints. The search space for optimization is mainly generated through controlled deviation from the design surface and tolerances on positional and normal continuity between neighboring panels. A novel 6-dimensional metric space allows us to quickly compute approximate inter-panel distances, which dramatically improves the performance of the optimization and enables the handling of complex arrangements with thousands of panels. The practical relevance of our system is demonstrated by paneling solutions for real, cutting-edge architectural freeform design projects.

  5. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael; Kilian, Martin; Schiftner, Alexander; Mitra, Niloy J.; Pottmann, Helmut; Pauly, Mark

    2010-01-01

    with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication

  6. Architectural Surfaces and Structures from Circular Arcs

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Ling

    2013-01-01

    the most attention from geometry researchers. In this thesis, we aim to realize this process with simple geometric primitives, circular arcs. We investigate architectural surfaces and structures consisting of circular arcs. Our focus is lying on how

  7. Innovative Microbial Surface Sampler, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The QS Team will develop an Innovative Microbial Surface Sampling (IMSS) device design and provide prototype kits for use in the International Space Station (ISS)....

  8. Architectural Surfaces and Structures from Circular Arcs

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Ling

    2013-12-01

    In recent decades, the popularity of freeform shapes in contemporary architecture poses new challenges to digital design. One of them is the process of rationalization, i.e. to make freeform skins or structures affordable to manufacture, which draws the most attention from geometry researchers. In this thesis, we aim to realize this process with simple geometric primitives, circular arcs. We investigate architectural surfaces and structures consisting of circular arcs. Our focus is lying on how to employ them nicely and repetitively in architectural design, in order to decrease the cost in manufacturing. Firstly, we study Darboux cyclides, which are algebraic surfaces of order ≤ 4. We provide a computational tool to identify all families of circles on a given cyclide based on the spherical model of M ̈obius geometry. Practical ways to design cyclide patches that pass through certain inputs are presented. In particular, certain triples of circle families on Darboux cyclides may be suitably arranged as 3-webs. We provide a complete classification of all possible 3-webs of circles on Darboux cyclides. We then investigate the circular arc snakes, which are smooth sequences of circu- lar arcs. We evolve the snakes such that their curvature, as a function of arc length, remains unchanged. The evolution of snakes is utilized to approximate given surfaces by circular arcs or to generated freeform shapes, and it is realized by a 2-step pro- cess. More interestingly, certain 6-arc snake with boundary constraints can produce a smooth self motion, which can be employed to build flexible structures. Another challenging topic is approximating smooth freeform skins with simple panels. We contribute to this problem area by approximating a negatively-curved 5 surface with a smooth union of rational bilinear patches. We provide a proof for vertex consistency of hyperbolic nets using the CAGD approach of the rational B ́ezier form. Moreover, we use Darboux transformations for the

  9. Microbial biogeography of public restroom surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto E Flores

    Full Text Available We spend the majority of our lives indoors where we are constantly exposed to bacteria residing on surfaces. However, the diversity of these surface-associated communities is largely unknown. We explored the biogeographical patterns exhibited by bacteria across ten surfaces within each of twelve public restrooms. Using high-throughput barcoded pyrosequencing of the 16 S rRNA gene, we identified 19 bacterial phyla across all surfaces. Most sequences belonged to four phyla: Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. The communities clustered into three general categories: those found on surfaces associated with toilets, those on the restroom floor, and those found on surfaces routinely touched with hands. On toilet surfaces, gut-associated taxa were more prevalent, suggesting fecal contamination of these surfaces. Floor surfaces were the most diverse of all communities and contained several taxa commonly found in soils. Skin-associated bacteria, especially the Propionibacteriaceae, dominated surfaces routinely touched with our hands. Certain taxa were more common in female than in male restrooms as vagina-associated Lactobacillaceae were widely distributed in female restrooms, likely from urine contamination. Use of the SourceTracker algorithm confirmed many of our taxonomic observations as human skin was the primary source of bacteria on restroom surfaces. Overall, these results demonstrate that restroom surfaces host relatively diverse microbial communities dominated by human-associated bacteria with clear linkages between communities on or in different body sites and those communities found on restroom surfaces. More generally, this work is relevant to the public health field as we show that human-associated microbes are commonly found on restroom surfaces suggesting that bacterial pathogens could readily be transmitted between individuals by the touching of surfaces. Furthermore, we demonstrate that we can use high

  10. Chlorine stress mediates microbial surface attachment in drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Le, Yang; Jin, Juliang; Zhou, Yuliang; Chen, Guowei

    2015-03-01

    Microbial attachment to drinking water pipe surfaces facilitates pathogen survival and deteriorates disinfection performance, directly threatening the safety of drinking water. Notwithstanding that the formation of biofilm has been studied for decades, the underlying mechanisms for the origins of microbial surface attachment in biofilm development in drinking water pipelines remain largely elusive. We combined experimental and mathematical methods to investigate the role of environmental stress-mediated cell motility on microbial surface attachment in chlorination-stressed drinking water distribution systems. Results show that at low levels of disinfectant (0.0-1.0 mg/L), the presence of chlorine promotes initiation of microbial surface attachment, while higher amounts of disinfectant (>1.0 mg/L) inhibit microbial attachment. The proposed mathematical model further demonstrates that chlorination stress (0.0-5.0 mg/L)-mediated microbial cell motility regulates the frequency of cell-wall collision and thereby controls initial microbial surface attachment. The results reveal that transport processes and decay patterns of chlorine in drinking water pipelines regulate microbial cell motility and, thus, control initial surface cell attachment. It provides a mechanistic understanding of microbial attachment shaped by environmental disinfection stress and leads to new insights into microbial safety protocols in water distribution systems.

  11. Nanoporous Mo2C functionalized 3D carbon architecture anode for boosting flavins mediated interfacial bioelectrocatalysis in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Long; Lu, Zhisong; Huang, Yunhong; Long, Zhong-er; Qiao, Yan

    2017-08-01

    An efficient microbial electrocatalysis in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) needs both high loading of microbes (biocatalysts) and robust interfacial electron transfer from microbes to electrode. Herein a nanoporous molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) functionalized carbon felt electrode with rich 3D hierarchical porous architecture is applied as MFC anode to achieve superior electrocatalytic performance. The nanoporous Mo2C functionalized anode exhibits strikingly improved microbial electrocatalysis in MFCs with 5-fold higher power density and long-term stability of electricity production. The great enhancement is attributed to the introduction of rough Mo2C nanostructural interface into macroporous carbon architecture for promoting microbial growth with great excretion of endogenous electron shuttles (flavins) and rich available nanopores for enlarging electrochemically active surface area. Importantly, the nanoporous Mo2C functionalized anode is revealed for the first time to have unique electrocatalytic activity towards redox reaction of flavins with more negative redox potential, indicating a more favourable thermodynamic driving force for anodic electron transfer. This work not only provides a promising electrode for high performance MFCs but also brings up a new insight into the effect of nanostructured materials on interfacial bioelectrocatalysis.

  12. MICROBIAL CELL-SURFACE HYDROPHOBICITY - THE INVOLVEMENT OF ELECTROSTATIC INTERACTIONS IN MICROBIAL ADHESION TO HYDROCARBONS (MATH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GEERTSEMADOORNBUSCH, GI; VANDERMEI, HC; BUSSCHER, HJ

    Microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) is the most commonly used method to determine microbial cell surface hydrophobicity. Since, however, the assay is based on adhesion, it is questionable whether the results reflect only the cell surface hydrophobicity or an interplay of hydrophobicity and

  13. Microbial Surface Colonization and Biofilm Development in Marine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Biotic and abiotic surfaces in marine waters are rapidly colonized by microorganisms. Surface colonization and subsequent biofilm formation and development provide numerous advantages to these organisms and support critical ecological and biogeochemical functions in the changing marine environment. Microbial surface association also contributes to deleterious effects such as biofouling, biocorrosion, and the persistence and transmission of harmful or pathogenic microorganisms and their genetic determinants. The processes and mechanisms of colonization as well as key players among the surface-associated microbiota have been studied for several decades. Accumulating evidence indicates that specific cell-surface, cell-cell, and interpopulation interactions shape the composition, structure, spatiotemporal dynamics, and functions of surface-associated microbial communities. Several key microbial processes and mechanisms, including (i) surface, population, and community sensing and signaling, (ii) intraspecies and interspecies communication and interaction, and (iii) the regulatory balance between cooperation and competition, have been identified as critical for the microbial surface association lifestyle. In this review, recent progress in the study of marine microbial surface colonization and biofilm development is synthesized and discussed. Major gaps in our knowledge remain. We pose questions for targeted investigation of surface-specific community-level microbial features, answers to which would advance our understanding of surface-associated microbial community ecology and the biogeochemical functions of these communities at levels from molecular mechanistic details through systems biological integration. PMID:26700108

  14. Rationalization with ruled surfaces in architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Kasper Hornbak

    This thesis addresses the problems of rationalizing and segmenting large scale 3D models, and how to handle difficult production constraints in this area. The design choices when constructing large scale architecture are influenced by the budget. Therefore I strive to minimize the amount of time...... and material needed for production. This makes advanced free form architecture viable for low cost projects, allowing the architects to realize their designs. By pre-cutting building blocks using hot wire robots, the amount of milling necessary can be reduced drastically. I do this by rationalizing...

  15. Microbial rhodopsins on leaf surfaces of terrestrial plants

    OpenAIRE

    Atamna-Ismaeel, Nof; Finkel, Omri M.; Glaser, Fabian; Sharon, Itai; Schneider, Ron; Post, Anton F.; Spudich, John L.; von Mering, Christian; Vorholt, Julia A.; Iluz, David; Béjà, Oded; Belkin, Shimshon

    2011-01-01

    The above-ground surfaces of terrestrial plants, the phyllosphere, comprise the main interface between the terrestrial biosphere and solar radiation. It is estimated to host up to 1026 microbial cells that may intercept part of the photon flux impinging on the leaves. Based on 454-pyrosequencing-generated metagenome data, we report on the existence of diverse microbial rhodopsins in five distinct phyllospheres from tamarisk (Tamarix nilotica), soybean (Glycine max), Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis t...

  16. PRESENTATION OF AN ARCHITECTURAL OBJECT DESIGNED BY WARPED SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VELJKOVIĆ Milica

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of good functional solutions and aesthetic appearance of an object, modeling in architecture is the subject of this study. Application of more modern materials in architecture allows us to perform various geometric surfaces in the production of facade and roof structures. With such complex objects, it is necessary to create detailed three-dimensional models, using some of the modern software package for modeling. This paper provides an example of creating a 3D model of a modern building in whose exterior we can recognize nondevelopmental (becoming warped line-generated surfaces, primarily cylindroids and conoids. The entire process of modeling and presenting an object using augmented reality was carried out using the modern software package for visualization in architecture.

  17. Microporous calcium phosphate ceramics driving osteogenesis through surface architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingwei; Barbieri, Davide; ten Hoopen, Hetty; de Bruijn, Joost D; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Yuan, Huipin

    2015-03-01

    The presence of micropores in calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics has shown its important role in initiating inductive bone formation in ectopic sites. To investigate how microporous CaP ceramics trigger osteoinduction, we optimized two biphasic CaP ceramics (i.e., BCP-R and BCP-S) to have the same chemical composition, equivalent surface area per volume, comparable protein adsorption, similar ion (i.e., calcium and phosphate) exchange and the same surface mineralization potential, but different surface architecture. In particular, BCP-R had a surface roughness (Ra) of 325.4 ± 58.9 nm while for BCP-S it was 231.6 ± 35.7 nm. Ceramic blocks with crossing or noncrossing channels of 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 µm were implanted in paraspinal muscle of dogs for 12 weeks. The percentage of bone volume in the channels was not affected by the type of pores (i.e., crossing vs. closed) or their size, but it was greatly influenced by the ceramic type (i.e., BCP-R vs. BCP-S). Significantly, more bone was formed in the channels of BCP-R than in those of BCP-S. Since the two CaP ceramics differed only in their surface architecture, the results hereby demonstrate that microporous CaP ceramics may induce ectopic osteogenesis through surface architecture. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Removal of Microbial Contamination from Surface by Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinxin; Liu, Hongxia; Shen, Zhenxing; Wang, Taobo

    2018-01-01

    Microbial contamination is closely associated with human and environmental health, they can be tested on food surfaces, medical devices, packing material and so on. In this paper the removal of the microbial contamination from surface using plasma treatment is investigated. The Escherichia coli (E. coli) has been chosen as a bio-indicator enabling to evaluate the effect of plasma assisted microbial inactivation. Oxygen gas was as the working gas. The plasma RF power, plasma exposition time, gas flow and the concentration of organic pollutant were varied in order to see the effect of the plasma treatment on the Gram-negative germ removal. After the treatment, the microbial abatement was evaluated by the standard plate count method. This proved a positive effect of the plasma treatment on Gram-negative germ removal. The kinetics and mathematical model of removal were studied after plasma treatment, and then the removing course of E. coli was analyzed. This work is meaningful for deepening our understanding of the fundamental scientific principles regarding microbial contamination from surface by plasma.

  19. Management of microbial community composition, architecture and performance in autotrophic nitrogen removing bioreactors through aeration regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutlu, A. Gizem

    to describe aggregation and architectural evolution in nitritation/anammox reactors, incorporating the possible influences of intermediates formed with intermittent aeration. Community analysis revealed an abundant fraction of heterotrophic types despite the absence of organic carbon in the feed. The aerobic...... and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing guilds were dominated by fast-growing Nitrosomonas spp. and Ca. Brocadia spp., while the nitrite oxidizing guild was dominated by high affinity Nitrospira spp. Emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) was evaluated from both reactors under dynamic aeration regimes. Contrary to the widely...... impacts could be isolated, increasing process understanding. It was demonstrated that aeration strategy can be used as a powerful tool to manipulate the microbial community composition, its architecture and reactor performance. We suggest operation via intermittent aeration with short aerated periods...

  20. Electrospun fibers for high performance anodes in microbial fuel cells. Optimizing materials and architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shuiliang

    2010-04-15

    A novel porous conducting nanofiber mat (PCNM) with nanostructured polyaniline (nanoPANi) on the fiber surface was successfully prepared by simple oxidative polymerization. The composite PCNM displayed a core/shell structure with highly rough surface. The thickness and the morphology of PANi layer on the electrospun polyamide (PA) fiber surface could be controlled by varying aniline concentration and temperature. The combination of the advantages of electrospinning technique and nanostructured PANi, let the PA/PANi composite PCNM possess more than five good properties, i.e. high conductivity of 6.759 S.m{sup -1}, high specific surface area of 160 m2.g{sup -1}, good strength of 82.88 MPa for mat and 161.75 MPa for highly aligned belts, good thermal properties with 5% weight loss temperature up to 415 C and excellent biocompatibility. In the PA/PANi composite PCNM, PANi is the only conducting component, its conductivity of 6.759 S.m{sup -1} which is measured in dry-state, is not enough for electrode. Moreover, the conductivity decreases in neutral pH environment due to the de-doping of proton. However, the method of spontaneous growth of nanostructured PANi on electrospun fiber mats provides an effective method to produce porous electrically conducting electrospun fiber mats. The combination advantages of nanostructured PANi with the electrospun fiber mats, extends the applications of PANi and electrospun nanofibers, such as chemical- and bio-sensors, actuators, catalysis, electromagnetic shielding, corrosion protection, separation membranes, electro-optic devices, electrochromic devices, tissue engineering and many others. The electrical conductivity of electrospun PCNM with PANi as the only conducting component is too low for application of as anode in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). So, we turn to electrospun carbon fiber due to its high electrical conductivity and environmental stability. The current density is greatly dependent on the microorganism density of anode

  1. COMPOSITION AND METHOD FOR CONTROLLING MICROBIAL ADHESION AND BIOFILM FORMATION OF SURFACES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention describes how coating of surfaces with an extract, particularly a fish extract, can significantly reduce microbial adhesion, attachment, colonization and biofilm formation on surfaces. Such reduction of microbial adherence, attachment and colonization will be applicable...

  2. The impact of land use on microbial surface water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Christiane; Rechenburg, Andrea; Rind, Esther; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Our knowledge relating to water contamination from point and diffuse sources has increased in recent years and there have been many studies undertaken focusing on effluent from sewage plants or combined sewer overflows. However, there is still only a limited amount of microbial data on non-point sources leading to diffuse pollution of surface waters. In this study, the concentrations of several indicator micro-organisms and pathogens in the upper reaches of a river system were examined over a period of 16 months. In addition to bacteria, diffuse pollution caused by Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. was analysed. A single land use type predestined to cause high concentrations of all microbial parameters could not be identified. The influence of different land use types varies between microbial species. The microbial concentration in river water cannot be explained by stable non-point effluent concentrations from different land use types. There is variation in the ranking of the potential of different land use types resulting in surface water contamination with regard to minimum, median and maximum effects. These differences between median and maximum impact indicate that small-scale events like spreading manure substantially influence the general contamination potential of a land use type and may cause increasing micro-organism concentrations in the river water by mobilisation during the next rainfall event. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Air, surfaces and copper halos, interstitial microbial zones. Has it been measured; can it be predicted?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nice, Jaco A

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available microbial modelling, inhibition of microbial contamination and microbial ‘fall out’. However the literature implicitly addresses mechanism of inhibition by ionisation and contact, methods for model development and for airborne and surface microbial ‘fall out...

  4. Mechanical stability of surface architecture--consequences for superhydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyett, Brendan P; Wu, Alex H; Lamb, Robert N

    2014-11-12

    Wet chemistry methods such as sol-gel provide a facile means of preparing coatings with controlled surface chemistry and architecture. The manipulation of colloidal "building blocks," film constituents, and reaction conditions makes it a promising method for simple, scalable, and routine production of superhydrophobic coatings. Despite all of this, the practical application of superhydrophobic coatings remains limited by low mechanical durability. The translation of chemistry to mechanical strength within superhydrophobic films is severely hindered by the requisite physical structure. More specifically, porosity and the surface architecture of roughness in sol-gel-derived films contribute significantly to poor mechanical properties. These physical effects emphasize that collective structure and chemistry-based strategies are required. This challenge is not unique to superhydrophobics, and there are many principles that can be drawn upon to greatly improve performance. The delicate interplay between chemistry and physical structure has been highlighted through theory and characterization of porous and rough interfaces within and outside the framework of superhydrophobics. Insights can further be drawn from biology. Nature's capacity for self-repair remains extremely challenging to mimic in materials. However, nature does demonstrate strategies for structuring nano- and microbuilding blocks to achieve generally mutually exclusive properties. Difficulties with characterization and example mechanical characterization methods have also been emphasized.

  5. Linking microbial diversity and functionality of arctic glacial surface habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Stefanie; Anesio, Alexandre M; Edwards, Arwyn; Benning, Liane G

    2017-02-01

    Distinct microbial habitats on glacial surfaces are dominated by snow and ice algae, which are the critical players and the dominant primary colonisers and net producers during the melt season. Here for the first time we have evaluated the role of these algae in association with the full microbial community composition (i.e., algae, bacteria, archaea) in distinct surface habitats and on 12 glaciers and permanent snow fields in Svalbard and Arctic Sweden. We cross-correlated these data with the analyses of specific metabolites such as fatty acids and pigments, and a full suite of potential critical physico-chemical parameters including major and minor nutrients, and trace metals. It has been shown that correlations between single algal species, metabolites, and specific geochemical parameters can be used to unravel mixed metabolic signals in complex communities, further assign them to single species and infer their functionality. The data also clearly show that the production of metabolites in snow and ice algae is driven mainly by nitrogen and less so by phosphorus limitation. This is especially important for the synthesis of secondary carotenoids, which cause a darkening of glacial surfaces leading to a decrease in surface albedo and eventually higher melting rates. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Microbial Monitoring of Surface Water in South Africa: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan S. Wilhelmi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructural problems force South African households to supplement their drinking water consumption from water resources of inadequate microbial quality. Microbial water quality monitoring is currently based on the Colilert®18 system which leads to rapidly available results. Using Escherichia coli as the indicator microorganism limits the influence of environmental sources on the reported results. The current system allows for understanding of long-term trends of microbial surface water quality and the related public health risks. However, rates of false positive for the Colilert®18-derived concentrations have been reported to range from 7.4% to 36.4%. At the same time, rates of false negative results vary from 3.5% to 12.5%; and the Colilert medium has been reported to provide for cultivation of only 56.8% of relevant strains. Identification of unknown sources of faecal contamination is not currently feasible. Based on literature review, calibration of the antibiotic-resistance spectra of Escherichia coli or the bifidobacterial tracking ratio should be investigated locally for potential implementation into the existing monitoring system. The current system could be too costly to implement in certain areas of South Africa where the modified H2S strip test might be used as a surrogate for the Colilert®18.

  7. Non-enzymatic palladium recovery on microbial and synthetic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Jiang, Wei; Finster, Kai; Skrydstrup, Troels; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    2012-08-01

    The use of microorganisms as support for reduction of dissolved Pd(II) to immobilized Pd(0) nanoparticles is an environmentally friendly approach for Pd recovery from waste. To better understand and engineer Pd(0) nanoparticle synthesis, one has to consider the mechanisms by which Pd(II) is reduced on microbial surfaces. Escherichia coli, Shewanella oneidensis, and Pseudomonas putida were used as model organisms in order to elucidate the role of microbial cells in Pd(II) reduction under acidic conditions. Pd(II) was reduced by formate under acidic conditions, and the process occurred substantially faster in the presence of cells as compared to cell-free controls. We found no difference between native (untreated) and autoclaved cells, and could demonstrate that even a non-enzymatic protein (bovine serum albumin) stimulated Pd(II) reduction as efficiently as bacterial cells. Amine groups readily interact with Pd(II), and to specifically test their role in surface-assisted Pd(II) reduction by formate, we replaced bacterial cells with polystyrene microparticles functionalized with amine or carboxyl groups. Amine-functionalized microparticles had the same effect on Pd(II) reduction as bacterial cells, and the effect could be hampered if the amine groups were blocked by acetylation. The interaction with amine groups was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy on whole cells and amine-functionalized microparticles. In conclusion, bio-supported Pd(II) reduction on microbial surfaces is possibly mediated by a non-enzymatic mechanism. We therefore suggest the use of amine-rich biomaterials rather than intact cells for Pd bio-recovery from waste. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Formation of microbial populations on the surface of protective coatings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopteva, Zh P; Zanina, V V; Piliashenko-Novokhatnyĭ, A I; Kopteva, A E; Kozlova, I A

    2001-01-01

    Formation of microbial cenosis on the surface of polyethylene-, polyurethane- and oil-bitumen-based protective coatings was studied in dynamics during 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. It has been shown that the biofilm was formed on the protective materials during 14 days and consisted of ammonifying, denitrifying, hydrocarbon-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing bacteria referred to Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Kesulfovibrio genera. The bacteria which form the biofilm on coatings possess high denitrifying and sulphate-reducing activities. Corrosion inhibitors-biocydes, introduced in composition of oil-bitumen coatings suppressed growth and metabolic activity of corrosion-active bacteria.

  9. Rationalization in architecture with surfaces foliated by elastic curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge

    analytic form using elliptic functions. We use a gradient-driven optimization to approximate arbitrary planar curves by planar elastic curves. The method depends on an explicit parameterization of the space of elastic curves and on a method for finding a good initial guess for the optimization. We......We develop methods for rationalization of CAD surfaces using elastic curves, aiming at a costeffective fabrication method for architectural designs of complex shapes. By moving a heated flexible metal rod though a block of expanded polystyrene, it is possible to produce shapes with both positive...... and negative Gaussian curvature, either for direct use or for use as moulds for concrete casting. If we can control the shape of the rod, while moving, we can produce prescribed shapes. The flexible rod assumes at all times the shape of an Euler elastica (or elastic curve). The elastica are given in closed...

  10. Open System Architecture design for planet surface systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, D. A.; Pieniazek, L. A.; Toups, L. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Open System Architecture is an approach to meeting the needs for flexibility and evolution of the U.S. Space Exploration Initiative program of the manned exploration of the solar system and its permanent settlement. This paper investigates the issues that future activities of the planet exploration program must confront, defines the basic concepts that provide the basis for establishing an Open System Architecture, identifies the appropriate features of such an architecture, and discusses examples of Open System Architectures.

  11. Non-enzymatic palladium recovery on microbial and synthetic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Jiang, Wei; Finster, Kai

    2012-01-01

    in the presence of cells as compared to cell-free controls. We found no difference between native (untreated) and autoclaved cells, and could demonstrate that even a non-enzymatic protein (bovine serum albumin) stimulated Pd(II) reduction as efficiently as bacterial cells. Amine groups readily interact with Pd......(II), and to specifically test their role in surface-assisted Pd(II) reduction by formate, we replaced bacterial cells with polystyrene microparticles functionalized with amine or carboxyl groups. Amine-functionalized microparticles had the same effect on Pd(II) reduction as bacterial cells, and the effect could...... be hampered if the amine groups were blocked by acetylation. The interaction with amine groups was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy on whole cells and amine-functionalized microparticles. In conclusion, bio-supported Pd(II) reduction on microbial surfaces is possibly mediated by a non-enzymatic mechanism...

  12. Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Clear, Nic

    2014-01-01

    When discussing science fiction’s relationship with architecture, the usual practice is to look at the architecture “in” science fiction—in particular, the architecture in SF films (see Kuhn 75-143) since the spaces of literary SF present obvious difficulties as they have to be imagined. In this essay, that relationship will be reversed: I will instead discuss science fiction “in” architecture, mapping out a number of architectural movements and projects that can be viewed explicitly as scien...

  13. Surface confined metallosupramolecular architectures: formation and scanning tunneling microscopy characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan-Shan; Northrop, Brian H; Yuan, Qun-Hui; Wan, Li-Jun; Stang, Peter J

    2009-02-17

    Metallosupramolecular compounds have attracted a great deal of attention over the past two decades largely because of their unique, highly complex structural characteristics and their potential electronic, magnetic, optical, and catalytic properties. These molecules can be prepared with relative ease using coordination-driven self-assembly techniques. In particular, the use of electron-poor square-planar Pt(II) transition metals in conjunction with rigid, electron-rich pyridyl donors has enabled the spontaneous self-assembly of a rich library of 2D metallacyclic and 3D metallacage assemblies via the directional-bonding approach. With this progress in the preparation and characterization of metallosupramolecules, researchers have now turned their attention toward fully exploring and developing their materials properties. Assembling metallosupramolecular compounds on solid supports represents a vitally important step toward developing their materials properties. Surfaces provide a means of uniformly aligning and orienting these highly symmetric metallacycles and metallacages. This uniformity increases the level of coherence between molecules above that which can be achieved in the solution phase and provides a way to integrate adsorbed layers, or adlayers, into a solid-state materials setting. The dynamic nature of kinetically labile Pt(II)-N coordination bonds requires us to adjust deposition and imaging conditions to retain the assemblies' stability. Toward these aims, we have used scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to image these adlayers and to understand the factors that govern surface self-assembly and the interactions that influence their structure and stability. This Account describes our efforts to deposit 2D rectangular and square metallacycles and 3D trigonal bipyramidal and chiral trigonal prism metallacages on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and Au(111) substrates to give intact assemblies and ordered adlayers. We have investigated the effects

  14. Microbial Diversity in Hydrothermal Surface to Sub-surface Environment of Suiyo Seamount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Y.; Sunamura, M.; Kitamura, K.; Kurusu, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Maruyama, A.

    2002-12-01

    After excavation trials to a hydrothermal subsurface biosphere of the Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, microbial diversity was examined using samples collected from drilled boreholes and natural vents with an catheter-type in situ microbial entrapment/incubator. This instrument consisted of a heat-tolerant cylindrical pipe with entrapment of a titanium-mesh capsule, containing sterilized inorganic porous grains, on the tip. After 3-10 day deployment in venting fluids with the maximum temperatures from 156 to 305degC, Microbial DNA was extracted from the grains and a 16S rDNA region was amplified and sequenced. Through the phylogenetic analysis of total 72 Bacteria and 30 Archaea clones, we found three novel phylogenetic groups in this hydrothermal surface to subsurface biosphere. Some new clades within the epsilon-Proteobacteria, which seemed to be microaerophilic, moderate thermophilic, and/or sulfur oxidizing, were detected. Clones related to moderate thermophilic and photosynthetic microbes were found in grain-attached samples at collapsed borehole and natural vent sites. We also detected a new clade closely related to a hyperthermophilic Archaea, Methanococcus jannashii, which has the capability of growing autotrophically on hydrogen and producing methane. However, the later two phylogroups were estimated as below a detection limit in microscopic cell counting, i.e., fluorescence in situ hybridization and direct counting. Most of microbes in venting fluids were assigned to be Bacteria, but difficult in specifying them using any known probes. The environment must be notable in microbial and genetic resources, while the ecosystem seems to be mainly supported by chemosynthetic products through the microbial sulfur oxidation, as in most deep-sea hydrothermal systems.

  15. Development of a Lunar Surface Architecture Using the Deep Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, A. M.; Kitmanyen, V. A.; Prakash, A.

    2018-02-01

    Prior to sending crews to Mars, the ability to perform activities intended for martian missions must first be thoroughly tested and successfully demonstrated in a similar environment. This paper outlines a lunar surface architecture to meet this goal.

  16. Surface characterization of pretreated and microbial-treated populus cross-sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolbert, Allison K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The first objective of this thesis is to illustrate the advantages of surface characterization in biomass utilization studies. The second objective is to gain insight into the workings of potential consolidated bioprocessing microorganisms on the surface of poplar samples. The third objective is to determine the impact biomass recalcitrance has on enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial fermentation in relation to the surface chemistry.

  17. Versatile microbial surface-display for environmental remediation and biofuels production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Cindy H.; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, wilfred

    2008-02-14

    Surface display is a powerful technique that utilizes natural microbial functional components to express proteins or peptides on the cell exterior. Since the reporting of the first surface-display system in the mid-1980s, a variety of new systems have been reported for yeast, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Non-conventional display methods are emerging, eliminating the generation of genetically modified microorganisms. Cells with surface display are used as biocatalysts, biosorbents and biostimulants. Microbial cell-surface display has proven to be extremely important for numerous applications ranging from combinatorial library screening and protein engineering to bioremediation and biofuels production.

  18. Spatial Molecular Architecture of the Microbial Community of a Peltigera Lichen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neha; Zeng, Yi; Edlund, Anna; Melnik, Alexey V.; Mohimani, Hosein; Gurevich, Alexey; Miao, Vivian; Schiffler, Stefan; Lim, Yan Wei; Luzzatto-Knaan, Tal; Cai, Shengxin; Rohwer, Forest; Pevzner, Pavel A.; Cichewicz, Robert H.; Alexandrov, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbes are commonly studied as individual species, but they exist as mixed assemblages in nature. At present, we know very little about the spatial organization of the molecules, including natural products that are produced within these microbial networks. Lichens represent a particularly specialized type of symbiotic microbial assemblage in which the component microorganisms exist together. These composite microbial assemblages are typically comprised of several types of microorganisms representing phylogenetically diverse life forms, including fungi, photosymbionts, bacteria, and other microbes. Here, we employed matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) imaging mass spectrometry to characterize the distributions of small molecules within a Peltigera lichen. In order to probe how small molecules are organized and localized within the microbial consortium, analytes were annotated and assigned to their respective producer microorganisms using mass spectrometry-based molecular networking and metagenome sequencing. The spatial analysis of the molecules not only reveals an ordered layering of molecules within the lichen but also supports the compartmentalization of unique functions attributed to various layers. These functions include chemical defense (e.g., antibiotics), light-harvesting functions associated with the cyanobacterial outer layer (e.g., chlorophyll), energy transfer (e.g., sugars) surrounding the sun-exposed cyanobacterial layer, and carbohydrates that may serve a structural or storage function and are observed with higher intensities in the non-sun-exposed areas (e.g., complex carbohydrates). IMPORTANCE Microbial communities have evolved over centuries to live symbiotically. The direct visualization of such communities at the chemical and functional level presents a challenge. Overcoming this challenge may allow one to visualize the spatial distributions of specific molecules involved in symbiosis and to define

  19. Salinity shapes microbial diversity and community structure in surface sediments of the Qinghai-Tibetan Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Ma, Li'an; Jiang, Hongchen; Wu, Geng; Dong, Hailiang

    2016-04-26

    Investigating microbial response to environmental variables is of great importance for understanding of microbial acclimatization and evolution in natural environments. However, little is known about how microbial communities responded to environmental factors (e.g. salinity, geographic distance) in lake surface sediments of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). In this study, microbial diversity and community structure in the surface sediments of nine lakes on the QTP were investigated by using the Illumina Miseq sequencing technique and the resulting microbial data were statistically analyzed in combination with environmental variables. The results showed total microbial community of the studied lakes was significantly correlated (r = 0.631, P diversity and community structure in the studied samples. In addition, the abundant and rare taxa (OTUs with relative abundance higher than 1% and lower than 0.01% within one sample, respectively) were significantly (P < 0.05) correlated (r = 0.427 and 0.783, respectively) with salinity, suggesting rare taxa might be more sensitive to salinity than their abundant counterparts, thus cautions should be taken in future when evaluating microbial response (abundant vs. rare sub-communities) to environmental conditions.

  20. The Role of Cell Surface Architecture of Lactobacilli in Host-Microbe Interactions in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjita Sengupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus species can exert health promoting effects in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT through many mechanisms, which include pathogen inhibition, maintenance of microbial balance, immunomodulation, and enhancement of the epithelial barrier function. Different species of the genus Lactobacillus can evoke different responses in the host, and not all strains of the same species can be considered beneficial. Strain variations may be related to diversity of the cell surface architecture of lactobacilli and the bacteria's ability to express certain surface components or secrete specific compounds in response to the host environment. Lactobacilli are known to modify their surface structures in response to stress factors such as bile and low pH, and these adaptations may help their survival in the face of harsh environmental conditions encountered in the GIT. In recent years, multiple cell surface-associated molecules have been implicated in the adherence of lactobacilli to the GIT lining, immunomodulation, and protective effects on intestinal epithelial barrier function. Identification of the relevant bacterial ligands and their host receptors is imperative for a better understanding of the mechanisms through which lactobacilli exert their beneficial effects on human health.

  1. Mineralogic control on abundance and diversity of surface-adherent microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauck, Brena S.; Roberts, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of mineral-bound P and Fe in defining microbial abundance and diversity in a carbon-rich groundwater. Field colonization experiments of initially sterile mineral surfaces were combined with community structure characterization of the attached microbial population. Silicate minerals containing varying concentrations of P (∼1000 ppm P) and Fe (∼4 wt % Fe 2 O3), goethite (FeOOH), and apatite [Ca5(PO4)3(OH)] were incubated for 14 months in three biogeochemically distinct zones within a petroleum-contaminated aquifer. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis of incubated mineral surfaces and groundwater was used as a measure of microbial community structure and biomass. Microbial biomass on minerals exhibited distinct trends as a function of mineralogy depending on the environment of incubation. In the carbon-rich, aerobic groundwater attached biomass did not correlate to the P- or Fe- content of the mineral. In the methanogenic groundwater, however, biomass was most abundant on P-containing minerals. Similarly, in the Fe-reducing groundwater a correlation between Fe-content and biomass was observed. The community structure of the mineral-adherent microbial population was compared to the native groundwater community. These two populations were significantly different regardless of mineralogy, suggesting differentiation of the planktonic community through attachment, growth, and death of colonizing cells. Biomarkers specific for dissimilatory Fe-reducing bacteria native to the aquifer were identified only on Fe-containing minerals in the Fe-reducing groundwater. These results demonstrate that the trace nutrient content of minerals affects both the abundance and diversity of surface-adherent microbial communities. This behavior may be a means to access limiting nutrients from the mineral, creating a niche for a particular microbial population. These results suggest that heterogeneity of microbial populations and their associated

  2. Hard surface biocontrol in hospitals using microbial-based cleaning products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberta Vandini

    Full Text Available Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs are one of the most frequent complications occurring in healthcare facilities. Contaminated environmental surfaces provide an important potential source for transmission of many healthcare-associated pathogens, thus indicating the need for new and sustainable strategies.This study aims to evaluate the effect of a novel cleaning procedure based on the mechanism of biocontrol, on the presence and survival of several microorganisms responsible for HAIs (i.e. coliforms, Staphyloccus aureus, Clostridium difficile, and Candida albicans on hard surfaces in a hospital setting.The effect of microbial cleaning, containing spores of food grade Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus megaterium, in comparison with conventional cleaning protocols, was evaluated for 24 weeks in three independent hospitals (one in Belgium and two in Italy and approximately 20000 microbial surface samples were collected.Microbial cleaning, as part of the daily cleaning protocol, resulted in a reduction of HAI-related pathogens by 50 to 89%. This effect was achieved after 3-4 weeks and the reduction in the pathogen load was stable over time. Moreover, by using microbial or conventional cleaning alternatively, we found that this effect was directly related to the new procedure, as indicated by the raise in CFU/m2 when microbial cleaning was replaced by the conventional procedure. Although many questions remain regarding the actual mechanisms involved, this study demonstrates that microbial cleaning is a more effective and sustainable alternative to chemical cleaning and non-specific disinfection in healthcare facilities.This study indicates microbial cleaning as an effective strategy in continuously lowering the number of HAI-related microorganisms on surfaces. The first indications on the actual level of HAIs in the trial hospitals monitored on a continuous basis are very promising, and may pave the way for a novel and cost

  3. Hard surface biocontrol in hospitals using microbial-based cleaning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandini, Alberta; Temmerman, Robin; Frabetti, Alessia; Caselli, Elisabetta; Antonioli, Paola; Balboni, Pier Giorgio; Platano, Daniela; Branchini, Alessio; Mazzacane, Sante

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs) are one of the most frequent complications occurring in healthcare facilities. Contaminated environmental surfaces provide an important potential source for transmission of many healthcare-associated pathogens, thus indicating the need for new and sustainable strategies. This study aims to evaluate the effect of a novel cleaning procedure based on the mechanism of biocontrol, on the presence and survival of several microorganisms responsible for HAIs (i.e. coliforms, Staphyloccus aureus, Clostridium difficile, and Candida albicans) on hard surfaces in a hospital setting. The effect of microbial cleaning, containing spores of food grade Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus megaterium, in comparison with conventional cleaning protocols, was evaluated for 24 weeks in three independent hospitals (one in Belgium and two in Italy) and approximately 20000 microbial surface samples were collected. Microbial cleaning, as part of the daily cleaning protocol, resulted in a reduction of HAI-related pathogens by 50 to 89%. This effect was achieved after 3-4 weeks and the reduction in the pathogen load was stable over time. Moreover, by using microbial or conventional cleaning alternatively, we found that this effect was directly related to the new procedure, as indicated by the raise in CFU/m2 when microbial cleaning was replaced by the conventional procedure. Although many questions remain regarding the actual mechanisms involved, this study demonstrates that microbial cleaning is a more effective and sustainable alternative to chemical cleaning and non-specific disinfection in healthcare facilities. This study indicates microbial cleaning as an effective strategy in continuously lowering the number of HAI-related microorganisms on surfaces. The first indications on the actual level of HAIs in the trial hospitals monitored on a continuous basis are very promising, and may pave the way for a novel and cost-effective strategy

  4. Surface nano-architecture of a metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiura, Rie; Motoyama, Soichiro; Umemura, Yasushi; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Sakata, Osami; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    The rational assembly of ultrathin films of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)--highly ordered microporous materials--with well-controlled growth direction and film thickness is a critical and as yet unrealized issue for enabling the use of MOFs in nanotechnological devices, such as sensors, catalysts and electrodes for fuel cells. Here we report the facile bottom-up fabrication at ambient temperature of such a perfect preferentially oriented MOF nanofilm on a solid surface (NAFS-1), consisting of metalloporphyrin building units. The construction of NAFS-1 was achieved by the unconventional integration in a modular fashion of a layer-by-layer growth technique coupled with the Langmuir-Blodgett method. NAFS-1 is endowed with highly crystalline order both in the out-of-plane and in-plane orientations to the substrate, as demonstrated by synchrotron X-ray surface crystallography. The proposed structural model incorporates metal-coordinated pyridine molecules projected from the two-dimensional sheets that allow each further layer to dock in a highly ordered interdigitated manner in the growth of NAFS-1. We expect that the versatility of the solution-based growth strategy presented here will allow the fabrication of various well-ordered MOF nanofilms, opening the way for their use in a range of important applications.

  5. Shift in the microbial community composition of surface water and sediment along an urban river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Zhang, Jing; Li, Huilin; Yang, Hong; Peng, Chao; Peng, Zhengsong; Lu, Lu

    2018-06-15

    Urban rivers represent a unique ecosystem in which pollution occurs regularly, leading to significantly altered of chemical and biological characteristics of the surface water and sediments. However, the impact of urbanization on the diversity and structure of the river microbial community has not been well documented. As a major tributary of the Yangtze River, the Jialing River flows through many cities. Here, a comprehensive analysis of the spatial microbial distribution in the surface water and sediments in the Nanchong section of Jialing River and its two urban branches was conducted using 16S rRNA gene-based Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The results revealed distinct differences in surface water bacterial composition along the river with a differential distribution of Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria (P urban water. PICRUSt metabolic inference analysis revealed a growing number of genes associated with xenobiotic metabolism and nitrogen metabolism in the urban water, indicating that urban discharges might act as the dominant selective force to alter the microbial communities. Redundancy analysis suggested that the microbial community structure was influenced by several environmental factors. TP (P urban river. These results highlight that river microbial communities exhibit spatial variation in urban areas due to the joint influence of chemical variables associated with sewage discharging and construction of hydropower stations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Wind and sunlight shape microbial diversity in surface waters of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jessica A; Aylward, Frank O; Eppley, John M; Karl, David M; Church, Matthew J; DeLong, Edward F

    2016-06-01

    Few microbial time-series studies have been conducted in open ocean habitats having low seasonal variability such as the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG), where surface waters experience comparatively mild seasonal variation. To better describe microbial seasonal variability in this habitat, we analyzed rRNA amplicon and shotgun metagenomic data over two years at the Hawaii Ocean Time-series Station ALOHA. We postulated that this relatively stable habitat might reveal different environmental factors that influence planktonic microbial community diversity than those previously observed in more seasonally dynamic habitats. Unexpectedly, the data showed that microbial diversity at 25 m was positively correlated with average wind speed 3 to 10 days prior to sampling. In addition, microbial community composition at 25 m exhibited significant correlations with solar irradiance. Many bacterial groups whose relative abundances varied with solar radiation corresponded to taxa known to exhibit strong seasonality in other oceanic regions. Network co-correlation analysis of 25 m communities showed seasonal transitions in composition, and distinct successional cohorts of co-occurring phylogenetic groups. Similar network analyses of metagenomic data also indicated distinct seasonality in genes originating from cyanophage, and several bacterial clades including SAR116 and SAR324. At 500 m, microbial community diversity and composition did not vary significantly with any measured environmental parameters. The minimal seasonal variability in the NPSG facilitated detection of more subtle environmental influences, such as episodic wind variation, on surface water microbial diversity. Community composition in NPSG surface waters varied in response to solar irradiance, but less dramatically than reported in other ocean provinces.

  7. Evaluation of ATP measurements to detect microbial ingress by wastewater and surface water in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vang, Óluva K; Corfitzen, Charlotte B; Smith, Christian; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-11-01

    Fast and reliable methods are required for monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was investigated as a potential real-time parameter for detecting microbial ingress in drinking water contaminated with wastewater or surface water. To investigate the ability of the ATP assay in detecting different contamination types, the contaminant was diluted with non-chlorinated drinking water. Wastewater, diluted at 10(4) in drinking water, was detected with the ATP assay, as well as 10(2) to 10(3) times diluted surface water. To improve the performance of the ATP assay in detecting microbial ingress in drinking water, different approaches were investigated, i.e. quantifying microbial ATP or applying reagents of different sensitivities to reduce measurement variations; however, none of these approaches contributed significantly in this respect. Compared to traditional microbiological methods, the ATP assay could detect wastewater and surface water in drinking water to a higher degree than total direct counts (TDCs), while both heterotrophic plate counts (HPC 22 °C and HPC 37 °C) and Colilert-18 (Escherichia coli and coliforms) were more sensitive than the ATP measurements, though with much longer response times. Continuous sampling combined with ATP measurements displays definite monitoring potential for microbial drinking water quality, since microbial ingress in drinking water can be detected in real-time with ATP measurements. The ability of the ATP assay to detect microbial ingress is influenced by both the ATP load from the contaminant itself and the ATP concentration in the specific drinking water. Consequently, a low ATP concentration of the specific drinking water facilitates a better detection of a potential contamination of the water supply with the ATP assay. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of Surface Roughness of Stainless steel on Microbial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, D.; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Gram, L.

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation is of growing interest in the food processing industry where bacteria can survive on surfaces and resist cleaning and disinfection. The condition of the surfaces (eg lack of cracks) and their general roughness is assumed to be important for the hygienic...

  9. The effect of substrate modification on microbial growth on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Angela Ann

    1998-01-01

    The principle aim of the program was to produce a novel, non-leaching antimicrobial surface for commercial development and future use in the liquid food packaging industry. Antimicrobial surfaces which exist presently have been produced to combat the growth of prokaryotic organisms and usually function as slow release systems. A system which could inhibit eukaryotic growth without contaminating the surrounding 'environment' with the inhibitor was considered of great commercial importance. The remit of this study was concerned with creating a surface which could control the growth of eukaryotic organisms found in fruit juice with particular interest in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Putative antimicrobial surfaces were created by the chemical modification of the test substrate polymers; nylon and ethylvinyl alcohol (EVOH). Surfaces were chemically modified by the covalent coupling of antimicrobial agents known to be active against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as ascertained by the screening process determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of agents in the desired test medium. During the study it was found that a number of surfaces did appear to inhibit yeast growth in fruit juice, however on further investigation the apparent inhibitory effect was discovered to be the result of un-bound material free in the test medium. On removing the possibility of any un-bound material present on the test surface, by a series of surface washings, the inhibitory effect on yeast growth was eliminated. Of the agents tested only one appeared to have an inhibitory effect which could be attributed to a true antimicrobial surface effect, Amical 48. As there is little known about this agent in the literature, its affect on yeast growth was examined and in particular a proposal for the mode of action on yeast is discussed, providing a plausible explanation for the inhibitory effect observed when this agent is covalently immobilised onto nylon. (author)

  10. Urban Transit System Microbial Communities Differ by Surface Type and Interaction with Humans and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Tiffany; Joice, Regina; Vallarino, Jose; Abu-Ali, Galeb; Hartmann, Erica M; Shafquat, Afrah; DuLong, Casey; Baranowski, Catherine; Gevers, Dirk; Green, Jessica L; Morgan, Xochitl C; Spengler, John D; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2016-01-01

    Public transit systems are ideal for studying the urban microbiome and interindividual community transfer. In this study, we used 16S amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequencing to profile microbial communities on multiple transit surfaces across train lines and stations in the Boston metropolitan transit system. The greatest determinant of microbial community structure was the transit surface type. In contrast, little variation was observed between geographically distinct train lines and stations serving different demographics. All surfaces were dominated by human skin and oral commensals such as Propionibacterium , Corynebacterium , Staphylococcus , and Streptococcus . The detected taxa not associated with humans included generalists from alphaproteobacteria, which were especially abundant on outdoor touchscreens. Shotgun metagenomics further identified viral and eukaryotic microbes, including Propionibacterium phage and Malassezia globosa . Functional profiling showed that Propionibacterium acnes pathways such as propionate production and porphyrin synthesis were enriched on train holding surfaces (holds), while electron transport chain components for aerobic respiration were enriched on touchscreens and seats. Lastly, the transit environment was not found to be a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes. Our results suggest that microbial communities on transit surfaces are maintained from a metapopulation of human skin commensals and environmental generalists, with enrichments corresponding to local interactions with the human body and environmental exposures. IMPORTANCE Mass transit environments, specifically, urban subways, are distinct microbial environments with high occupant densities, diversities, and turnovers, and they are thus especially relevant to public health. Despite this, only three culture-independent subway studies have been performed, all since 2013 and all with widely differing designs and conclusions. In this study, we

  11. MICROBIAL DIVERSITY IN SURFACE SEDIMENTS: A COMPARISON OF TWO ESTUARINE CONTINUUMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial diversity in estuarine sediments of the Altamaha and Savannah Rivers in Georgia were compared temporally and spatially using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Surface sediment samples collected along a salinity gradient were also analyzed for ATP, TOC, and C ...

  12. Method for the prioritization of areas experiencing microbial pollution of surface water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, SN

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased threat of faecal pollution in recent years and the high priority of protecting human health by the government led to the initiation of a national microbial monitoring programme for surface water in South Africa. According to the design...

  13. Monolayer assembly and striped architecture of Co nanoparticles on organic functionalized Si surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, S.-S.; Lim, D.K.; Park, J.-I.; Kim, S. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry and School of Molecular Science (BK 21), Daejeon (Korea); Cheon, J. [Yonsei University, Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Seoul (Korea); Jeon, I.C. [Chonbuk National University, Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Chonbuk (Korea)

    2005-03-01

    We present a new strategy to fabricate a monolayer assembly of Br-terminated Co nanoparticles on functionalized Si surfaces by using chemical covalent bonding and microcontact printing method. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of the Co nanoparticles formed on the hydroxyl-terminated Si surface exhibit two-dimensional island networks with locally ordered arrays via covalent linkage between nanoparticles and surface. On the other hand, SAMs of the nanoparticles on the aminopropyl-terminated Si surface show an individual and random distribution over an entire surface. Furthermore, we have fabricated striped architectures of Co nanoparticles using a combination of microcontact printing and covalent linkage. Microcontact printing of octadecyltrichlorosilane and selective covalent linkage between nanoparticles and functionalized Si surfaces lead to a hybrid nanostructure with selectively assembled nanoparticles stripes on the patterned functionalized Si surfaces. (orig.)

  14. Cooperation in carbon source degradation shapes spatial self-organization of microbial consortia on hydrated surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecon, Robin; Or, Dani

    2017-03-06

    Mounting evidence suggests that natural microbial communities exhibit a high level of spatial organization at the micrometric scale that facilitate ecological interactions and support biogeochemical cycles. Microbial patterns are difficult to study definitively in natural environments due to complex biodiversity, observability and variable physicochemical factors. Here, we examine how trophic dependencies give rise to self-organized spatial patterns of a well-defined bacterial consortium grown on hydrated surfaces. The model consortium consisted of two Pseudomonas putida mutant strains that can fully degrade the aromatic hydrocarbon toluene. We demonstrated that obligate cooperation in toluene degradation (cooperative mutualism) favored convergence of 1:1 partner ratio and strong intermixing at the microscale (10-100 μm). In contrast, competition for benzoate, a compound degraded independently by both strains, led to distinct segregation patterns. Emergence of a persistent spatial pattern has been predicted for surface attached microbial activity in liquid films that mediate diffusive exchanges while permitting limited cell movement (colony expansion). This study of a simple microbial consortium offers mechanistic glimpses into the rules governing the assembly and functioning of complex sessile communities, and points to general principles of spatial organization with potential applications for natural and engineered microbial systems.

  15. The porous surface model, a novel experimental system for online quantitative observation of microbial processes under unsaturated conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Or, D.; Gulez, Gamze

    2008-01-01

    Water is arguably the most important constituent of microbial microhabitats due to its control of physical and physiological processes critical to microbial activity. In natural environments, bacteria often live on unsaturated surfaces, in thin (micrometric) liquid films. Nevertheless, no experim....... The PSM constitutes a tool uniquely adapted to study the influence of liquid film geometry on microbial processes. It should therefore contribute to uncovering mechanisms of microbial adaptation to unsaturated environments.......Water is arguably the most important constituent of microbial microhabitats due to its control of physical and physiological processes critical to microbial activity. In natural environments, bacteria often live on unsaturated surfaces, in thin (micrometric) liquid films. Nevertheless......, no experimental systems are available that allow real-time observation of bacterial processes in liquid films of controlled thickness. We propose a novel, inexpensive, easily operated experimental platform, termed the porous surface model (PSM) that enables quantitative real-time microscopic observations...

  16. Modification of the surfaces of medical devices to prevent microbial adhesion and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrousseaux, C; Sautou, V; Descamps, S; Traoré, O

    2013-10-01

    The development of devices with surfaces that have an effect against microbial adhesion or viability is a promising approach to the prevention of device-related infections. To review the strategies used to design devices with surfaces able to limit microbial adhesion and/or growth. A PubMed search of the published literature. One strategy is to design medical devices with a biocidal agent. Biocides can be incorporated into the materials or coated or covalently bonded, resulting either in release of the biocide or in contact killing without release of the biocide. The use of biocides in medical devices is debated because of the risk of bacterial resistance and potential toxicity. Another strategy is to modify the chemical or physical surface properties of the materials to prevent microbial adhesion, a complex phenomenon that also depends directly on microbial biological structure and the environment. Anti-adhesive chemical surface modifications mostly target the hydrophobicity features of the materials. Topographical modifications are focused on roughness and nanostructures, whose size and spatial organization are controlled. The most effective physical parameters to reduce bacterial adhesion remain to be determined and could depend on shape and other bacterial characteristics. A prevention strategy based on reducing microbial attachment rather than on releasing a biocide is promising. Evidence of the clinical efficacy of these surface-modified devices is lacking. Additional studies are needed to determine which physical features have the greatest potential for reducing adhesion and to assess the usefulness of antimicrobial coatings other than antibiotics. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microbial deterioration of surface paint coatings. | Ogbulie | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial and fungal species associated with the normal and deteriorated painted surface in Owerri, Imo State were isolated and identified. The bacteria genera isolated were Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Enterobacter and Streptomces, whereas the fungal genera isolated were Rhizopus, ...

  18. Surface sterilization method for reducing microbial contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An effective disinfection method for strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cv. Senga Sengana micropropagation using runner tips and nodal segments as explants was developed. The explants were surface sterilized with different sterilants for different durations. The present studies on the effect of different regimes of ...

  19. Initial steps in the microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of metallic surfaces in a natural marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteso, M.A.; Estrella, C.N.; Dolores de la Rosa, M.; Martinez-Trujillo, R.; Rosales, B.M.; Podesta, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    Immersion of various metal samples in polluted seawater from Tenerife Harbor was followed by microbial attachment as an intermediate step in fouling development. The purpose of this research was to determine the initial steps in MIC by identifying the different microbial species attached to the respective metal or alloy. Image analysis was used to determine the morphologic changes in the metal surfaces. The corrosion products were determined by X-ray diffraction. The open circuit potentials were measured periodically and their variation with time used to assess the electrochemical behavior in the aforementioned marine environment

  20. Preclinical trial of a novel surface architecture for improved primary fixation of cementless orthopaedic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Noel; Field, John R; Quondamatteo, Fabio; Curtin, William; McHugh, Peter E; Mc Donnell, Pat

    2014-09-01

    A new surface architecture for cementless orthopaedic implants (OsteoAnchor), which incorporates a multitude of tiny anchor features for enhancing primary fixation, was tested in an ovine hemi-arthroplasty pilot study. Test animals were implanted with a hip stem component incorporating the OsteoAnchor surface architecture produced using additive layer manufacturing and control animals were implanted with stems containing a standard plasma sprayed titanium coating. Intra-operative surgeon feedback indicated that superior primary fixation was achieved for the OsteoAnchor stems and rapid return to normal gait and load bearing was observed post-operation. Following a 16-week recovery time, histological evaluation of the excised femurs revealed in-growth of healthy bone into the porous structure of the OsteoAnchor stems. Bone in-growth was not achieved for the plasma sprayed stems. These results indicate the potential for the OsteoAnchor surface architecture to enhance both the initial stability and long term lifetime of cementless orthopaedic implants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Diversity changes of microbial communities into hospital surface environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Rika; Shimoda, Tomoko; Watanabe, Reina; Kuroki, Yasutoshi; Okubo, Torahiko; Nakamura, Shinji; Matsuo, Junji; Yoshimura, Sadako; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2017-07-01

    Previous works have demonstrated considerable variability in hospital cleanliness in Japan, suggesting that contamination is driven by factors that are currently poorly controlled. We undertook 16S rRNA sequence analysis to study population structures of hospital environmental microbiomes to see which factor(s) impacted contamination. One hundred forty-four samples were collected from surfaces of three hospitals with distinct sizes ("A": >500 beds, "B": 100-500 beds, "C": diversity changes of hospital environmental microbiomes with a skewed population, presumably by medical staff pushing NWs or sinks shared by patients or visitors. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Microbial Community Structure on the Root Surface of Patients with Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ju-Mei; Zhou, Jian-Ye; Bo, Lei; Hu, Xiao-Pan; Jiao, Kang-Li; Li, Zhi-Jie; Li, Yue-Hong; Li, Zhi-Qiang

    2016-11-01

    To study the microbial community structure on the root surface of patients with periodontitis. Bacterial plaque and tissues from the root neck (RN group),root middle (RM group) and root tine (RT group) of six teeth with mobility 3 in one patient with periodontitis were sampled.The V3V4 region of 16S rRNA was sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform.The microbial community structure was analyzed by Mothur,Qiime and SPSS software. The principal component analysis (PCoA) results indicated that the RM samples had a similar microbial community structure as that of the RT samples,which was significant different from that of the RN samples.Thirteen phyla were detected in the three groups of samples,which included 7 dominant phyla.29 dominant genera were detected in 184 genera.The abundance of Bacteroidetes _[G-6] and Peptostre ptococcaceae _[XI][G-4] had a positive correlation with the depth of the collection site of samples ( P microbial community structure on the root surface of patients with periodontitis.

  3. A Case Study of a Hybrid Parallel 3D Surface Rendering Graphics Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Lund, Hans Erik; Madsen, Jan; Pedersen, Steen

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a case study in the design strategy used inbuilding a graphics computer, for drawing very complex 3Dgeometric surfaces. The goal is to build a PC based computer systemcapable of handling surfaces built from about 2 million triangles, andto be able to render a perspective view...... of these on a computer displayat interactive frame rates, i.e. processing around 50 milliontriangles per second. The paper presents a hardware/softwarearchitecture called HPGA (Hybrid Parallel Graphics Architecture) whichis likely to be able to carry out this task. The case study focuses ontechniques to increase...

  4. Out of Thin Air: Microbial Utilization of Atmospheric Gaseous Organics in the Surface Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Arrieta, J M; Duarte, Carlos M.; Sala, M. Montserrat; Dachs, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Volatile and semi-volatile gas-phase organic carbon (GOC) is a largely neglected component of the global carbon cycle, with poorly resolved pools and fluxes of natural and anthropogenic GOC in the biosphere. Substantial amounts of atmospheric GOC are exchanged with the surface ocean, and subsequent utilization of specific GOC compounds by surface ocean microbial communities has been demonstrated. Yet, the final fate of the bulk of the atmospheric GOC entering the surface ocean is unknown. Our data show experimental evidence of efficient use of atmospheric GOC by marine prokaryotes at different locations in the NE Subtropical Atlantic, the Arctic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. We estimate that between 2 and 27% of the prokaryotic carbon demand was supported by GOC with a major fraction of GOC inputs being consumed within the mixed layer. The role of the atmosphere as a key vector of organic carbon subsidizing marine microbial metabolism is a novel link yet to be incorporated into the microbial ecology of the surface ocean as well as into the global carbon budget.

  5. Out of Thin Air: Microbial Utilization of Atmospheric Gaseous Organics in the Surface Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Arrieta, Jesus

    2016-01-20

    Volatile and semi-volatile gas-phase organic carbon (GOC) is a largely neglected component of the global carbon cycle, with poorly resolved pools and fluxes of natural and anthropogenic GOC in the biosphere. Substantial amounts of atmospheric GOC are exchanged with the surface ocean, and subsequent utilization of specific GOC compounds by surface ocean microbial communities has been demonstrated. Yet, the final fate of the bulk of the atmospheric GOC entering the surface ocean is unknown. Our data show experimental evidence of efficient use of atmospheric GOC by marine prokaryotes at different locations in the NE Subtropical Atlantic, the Arctic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. We estimate that between 2 and 27% of the prokaryotic carbon demand was supported by GOC with a major fraction of GOC inputs being consumed within the mixed layer. The role of the atmosphere as a key vector of organic carbon subsidizing marine microbial metabolism is a novel link yet to be incorporated into the microbial ecology of the surface ocean as well as into the global carbon budget.

  6. Out of Thin Air: Microbial Utilization of Atmospheric Gaseous Organics in the Surface Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Jesús M; Duarte, Carlos M; Sala, M Montserrat; Dachs, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Volatile and semi-volatile gas-phase organic carbon (GOC) is a largely neglected component of the global carbon cycle, with poorly resolved pools and fluxes of natural and anthropogenic GOC in the biosphere. Substantial amounts of atmospheric GOC are exchanged with the surface ocean, and subsequent utilization of specific GOC compounds by surface ocean microbial communities has been demonstrated. Yet, the final fate of the bulk of the atmospheric GOC entering the surface ocean is unknown. Our data show experimental evidence of efficient use of atmospheric GOC by marine prokaryotes at different locations in the NE Subtropical Atlantic, the Arctic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. We estimate that between 2 and 27% of the prokaryotic carbon demand was supported by GOC with a major fraction of GOC inputs being consumed within the mixed layer. The role of the atmosphere as a key vector of organic carbon subsidizing marine microbial metabolism is a novel link yet to be incorporated into the microbial ecology of the surface ocean as well as into the global carbon budget.

  7. Out of thin air: Microbial utilization of atmospheric gaseous organics in the surface ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus M Arrieta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile and semi-volatile gas-phase organic carbon (GOC is a largely neglected component of the global carbon cycle, with poorly resolved pools and fluxes of natural and anthropogenic GOC in the biosphere. Substantial amounts of atmospheric GOC are exchanged with the surface ocean, and subsequent utilization of specific GOC compounds by surface ocean microbial communities has been demonstrated. Yet, the final fate of the bulk of the atmospheric GOC entering the surface ocean is unknown. Our data show experimental evidence of efficient use of atmospheric GOC by marine prokaryotes at different locations in the NE Subtropical Atlantic, the Arctic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. We estimate that between 2 to 27% of the prokaryotic carbon demand was supported by GOC with a major fraction of GOC inputs being consumed within the mixed layer. The role of the atmosphere as a key vector of organic carbon subsidising marine microbial metabolism is a novel link yet to be incorporated into the microbial ecology of the surface ocean as well as into the global carbon budget.

  8. Effects of bone substitute architecture and surface properties on cell response, angiogenesis, and structure of new bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, F.S.L.; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    The success of bone substitutes used to repair bone defects such as critical sized defects depends on the architecture of the porous biomaterial. The architectural parameters and surface properties affect cell seeding efficiency, cell response, angiogenesis, and eventually bone formation. The

  9. IMPLICATIONS OF MICROBIAL ADHESION TO HYDROCARBONS FOR EVALUATING CELL-SURFACE HYDROPHOBICITY .1. ZETA-POTENTIALS OF HYDROCARBON DROPLETS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUSSCHER, HJ; VANDEBELTGRITTER, B; VANDERMEI, HC

    1995-01-01

    Microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) is generally considered to be a measure of the organisms cell surface hydrophobicity. As microbial adhesion is a complicated interplay of long-range van der Waals and electrostatic forces and various short-range interactions, the above statement only holds

  10. Surface-to-surface biofilm transfer: a quick and reliable startup strategy for mixed culture microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Andreas; Bischof, Franz; Wichern, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The startup of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is known to be prone to failure or result in erratic performance impeding the research. The aim of this study was to advise a quick launch strategy for laboratory-scale MFCs that ensures steady operation performance in a short period of time. Different startup strategies were investigated and compared with membraneless single chamber MFCs. A direct surface-to-surface biofilm transfer (BFT) in an operating MFC proved to be the most efficient method. It provided steady power densities of 163 ± 13 mWm(-2) 4 days after inoculation compared to 58 ± 15 mWm(-2) after 30 days following a conventional inoculation approach. The in situ BFT eliminates the need for microbial acclimation during startup and reduces performance fluctuations caused by shifts in microbial biodiversity. Anaerobic pretreatment of the substrate and addition of suspended enzymes from an operating MFC into the new MFC proved to have a beneficial effect on startup and subsequent operation. Polarization methods were applied to characterize the startup phase and the steady state operation in terms of power densities, internal resistance and power overshoot during biofilm maturation. Applying this method a well-working MFC can be multiplied into an array of identically performing MFCs.

  11. An assessment of microbial communities associated with surface mining-disturbed overburden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncelet, Dominique M; Cavender, Nicole; Cutright, Teresa J; Senko, John M

    2014-03-01

    To assess the microbiological changes that occur during the maturation of overburden that has been disturbed by surface mining of coal, a surface mining-disturbed overburden unit in southeastern Ohio, USA was characterized. Overburden from the same unit that had been disturbed for 37 and 16 years were compared to undisturbed soil from the same region. Overburden and soil samples were collected as shallow subsurface cores from each subregion of the mined area (i.e., land 16 years and 37 years post-mining, and unmined land). Chemical and mineralogical characteristics of overburden samples were determined, as were microbial respiration rates. The composition of microbial communities associated with overburden and soil were determined using culture-independent, nucleic acid-based approaches. Chemical and mineralogical evaluation of overburden suggested that weathering of disturbed overburden gave rise to a setting with lower pH and more oxidized chemical constituents. Overburden-associated microbial biomass and respiration rates increased with time after overburden disturbance. Evaluation of 16S rRNA gene libraries that were produced by "next-generation" sequencing technology revealed that recently disturbed overburden contained an abundance of phylotypes attributable to sulfur-oxidizing Limnobacter spp., but with increasing time post-disturbance, overburden-associated microbial communities developed a structure similar to that of undisturbed soil, but retained characteristics of more recently disturbed overburden. Our results indicate that over time, the biogeochemical weathering of disturbed overburden leads to the development of geochemical conditions and microbial communities that approximate those of undisturbed soil, but that this transition is incomplete after 37 years of overburden maturation.

  12. Surface and contour-preserving origamic architecture paper pop-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Sang N; Leow, Su-Jun; Le-Nguyen, Tuong-Vu; Ruiz, Conrado; Low, Kok-Lim

    2014-02-01

    Origamic architecture (OA) is a form of papercraft that involves cutting and folding a single sheet of paper to produce a 3D pop-up, and is commonly used to depict architectural structures. Because of the strict geometric and physical constraints, OA design requires considerable skill and effort. In this paper, we present a method to automatically generate an OA design that closely depicts an input 3D model. Our algorithm is guided by a novel set of geometric conditions to guarantee the foldability and stability of the generated pop-ups. The generality of the conditions allows our algorithm to generate valid pop-up structures that are previously not accounted for by other algorithms. Our method takes a novel image-domain approach to convert the input model to an OA design. It performs surface segmentation of the input model in the image domain, and carefully represents each surface with a set of parallel patches. Patches are then modified to make the entire structure foldable and stable. Visual and quantitative comparisons of results have shown our algorithm to be significantly better than the existing methods in the preservation of contours, surfaces, and volume. The designs have also been shown to more closely resemble those created by real artists.

  13. Surface- and Contour-Preserving Origamic Architecture Paper Pop-Ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Sang N; Leow, Su-Jun; Le-Nguyen, Tuong-Vu; Ruiz, Conrado; Low, Kok-Lim

    2013-08-02

    Origamic architecture (OA) is a form of papercraft that involves cutting and folding a single sheet of paper to produce a 3D pop-up, and is commonly used to depict architectural structures. Because of the strict geometric and physical constraints, OA design requires considerable skill and effort. In this paper, we present a method to automatically generate an OA design that closely depicts an input 3D model. Our algorithm is guided by a novel set of geometric conditions to guarantee the foldability and stability of the generated pop-ups. The generality of the conditions allows our algorithm to generate valid pop-up structures that are previously not accounted for by other algorithms. Our method takes a novel image-domain approach to convert the input model to an OA design. It performs surface segmentation of the input model in the image domain, and carefully represents each surface with a set of parallel patches. Patches are then modified to make the entire structure foldable and stable. Visual and quantitative comparisons of results have shown our algorithm to be significantly better than the existing methods in the preservation of contours, surfaces and volume. The designs have also been shown to more closely resemble those created by real artists.

  14. CoBOP: Microbial Biofilms: A Parameter Altering the Apparent Optical Properties of Sediments, Seagrasses and Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-30

    CoBOP: Microbial Biofilms: A Parameter Altering the Apparent Optical Properties of Sediments, Seagrasses and Surfaces Alan W. Decho Department...TITLE AND SUBTITLE CoBOP: Microbial Biofilms: A Parameter Altering the Apparent Optical Properties of Sediments, Seagrasses and Surfaces 5a. CONTRACT...structures produced by bacteria. Their growth appears to depend on biofilm processes and light distributions ( photosynthesis ). Therefore, the data acquired

  15. From Landsat through SLI: Ball Aerospace Instrument Architecture for Earth Surface Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, P. R.; Gilmore, A. S.; Malone, K. J.; Kampe, T. U.; Good, W. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Landsat legacy spans more than forty years of moderate resolution, multi-spectral imaging of the Earth's surface. Applications for Landsat data include global environmental change, disaster planning and recovery, crop and natural resource management, and glaciology. In recent years, coastal water science has been greatly enhanced by the outstanding on-orbit performance of Landsat 8. Ball Aerospace designed and built the Operational Land Imager (OLI) instrument on Landsat 8, and is in the process of building OLI 2 for Landsat 9. Both of these instruments have the same design however improved performance is expected from OLI 2 due to greater image bit depth (14 bit on OLI 2 vs 12 bit on OLI). Ball Aerospace is currently working on two novel instrument architectures applicable to Sustainable Land Imaging for Landsat 10 and beyond. With increased budget constraints probable for future missions, technological improvements must be included in future instrument architectures to enable increased capabilities at lower cost. Ball presents the instrument architectures and associated capabilities enabling new science in past, current, and future Landsat missions.

  16. Tales from the tomb: the microbial ecology of exposed rock surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Tess E; Fierer, Noah

    2018-03-01

    Although a broad diversity of eukaryotic and bacterial taxa reside on rock surfaces where they can influence the weathering of rocks and minerals, these communities and their contributions to mineral weathering remain poorly resolved. To build a more comprehensive understanding of the diversity, ecology and potential functional attributes of microbial communities living on rock, we sampled 149 tombstones across three continents and analysed their bacterial and eukaryotic communities via marker gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing. We found that geographic location and climate were important factors structuring the composition of these communities. Moreover, the tombstone-associated microbial communities varied as a function of rock type, with granite and limestone tombstones from the same cemeteries harbouring taxonomically distinct microbial communities. The granite and limestone-associated communities also had distinct functional attributes, with granite-associated bacteria having more genes linked to acid tolerance and chemotaxis, while bacteria on limestone were more likely to be lichen associated and have genes involved in photosynthesis and radiation resistance. Together these results indicate that rock-dwelling microbes exhibit adaptations to survive the stresses of the rock surface, differ based on location, climate and rock type, and seem pre-disposed to different ecological strategies (symbiotic versus free-living lifestyles) depending on the rock type. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Salt impact studies at WIPP effects of surface storage of salt on microbial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) currently under construction in southeastern New Mexico is a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic waste in a deep geological formation (bedded salt). The Ecological Monitoring Program at WIPP is designed to detect and measure changes in the local ecosystem which may be the result of WIPP construction activities. The primary factor which may affect the system prior to waste emplacement is windblown salt from discrete stockpiles. Both vegetation and soil microbial processes should reflect changes in soil chemistry due to salt importation. Control and experimental (potentially affected) plots have been established at the site, and several parameters are measured quarterly in each plot as part of the soil microbial sampling subprogram. This subprogram was designed to monitor a portion of the biological community which can be affected by changes in the chemical properties at the soil surface

  18. Chirality in microbial biofilms is mediated by close interactions between the cell surface and the substratum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauffred, Liselotte; Munk Vejborg, Rebecca; Korolev, Kirill S; Brown, Stanley; Oddershede, Lene B

    2017-01-01

    From microbial biofilms to human migrations, spatial competition is central to the evolutionary history of many species. The boundary between expanding populations is the focal point of competition for space and resources and is of particular interest in ecology. For all Escherichia coli strains studied here, these boundaries move in a counterclockwise direction even when the competing strains have the same fitness. We find that chiral growth of bacterial colonies is strongly suppressed by the expression of extracellular features such as adhesive structures and pili. Experiments with other microbial species show that chiral growth is found in other bacteria and exclude cell wall biosynthesis and anisotropic shape as the primary causes of chirality. Instead, intimate contact with the substratum is necessary for chirality. Our results demonstrate that through a handful of surface molecules cells can fundamentally reorganize their migration patterns, which might affect intra- and interspecific competitions through colony morphology or other mechanisms. PMID:28362723

  19. Investigation of extractive microbial transformation in nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yingying; Qian, Chen; Wang, Zhilong; Xu, Jian-He; Yang, Rude; Qi, Hanshi

    2010-01-01

    Extractive microbial transformation of L-phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC) in nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 micelle aqueous solution was investigated by response surface methodology. Based on the Box-Behnken design, a mathematical model was developed for the predication of mutual interactions between benzaldehyde, Triton X-100, and glucose on L-PAC production. It indicated that the negative or positive effect of nonionic surfactant strongly depended on the substrate concentration. The model predicted that the optimal concentration of benzaldehyde, Triton X-100, and glucose was 1.2 ml, 15 g, and 2.76 g per 100 ml, respectively. Under the optimal condition, the maximum L-PAC production was 27.6 mM, which was verified by a time course of extractive microbial transformation. A discrete fed-batch process for verification of cell activity was also presented.

  20. Hierarchical Surface Architecture of Plants as an Inspiration for Biomimetic Fog Collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, M A K; Barthlott, W; Koch, K

    2015-12-08

    Fog collectors can enable us to alleviate the water crisis in certain arid regions of the world. A continuous fog-collection cycle consisting of a persistent capture of fog droplets and their fast transport to the target is a prerequisite for developing an efficient fog collector. In regard to this topic, a biological superior design has been found in the hierarchical surface architecture of barley (Hordeum vulgare) awns. We demonstrate here the highly wettable (advancing contact angle 16° ± 2.7 and receding contact angle 9° ± 2.6) barbed (barb = conical structure) awn as a model to develop optimized fog collectors with a high fog-capturing capability, an effective water transport, and above all an efficient fog collection. We compare the fog-collection efficiency of the model sample with other plant samples naturally grown in foggy habitats that are supposed to be very efficient fog collectors. The model sample, consisting of dry hydrophilized awns (DH awns), is found to be about twice as efficient (fog-collection rate 563.7 ± 23.2 μg/cm(2) over 10 min) as any other samples investigated under controlled experimental conditions. Finally, a design based on the hierarchical surface architecture of the model sample is proposed for the development of optimized biomimetic fog collectors.

  1. Graphite anode surface modification with controlled reduction of specific aryl diazonium salts for improved microbial fuel cells power output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, Matthieu; Lapinsonnière, Laure; Rothballer, Michael; Barrière, Frédéric

    2011-10-15

    Graphite electrodes were modified with reduction of aryl diazonium salts and implemented as anodes in microbial fuel cells. First, reduction of 4-aminophenyl diazonium is considered using increased coulombic charge density from 16.5 to 200 mC/cm(2). This procedure introduced aryl amine functionalities at the surface which are neutral at neutral pH. These electrodes were implemented as anodes in "H" type microbial fuel cells inoculated with waste water, acetate as the substrate and using ferricyanide reduction at the cathode and a 1000 Ω external resistance. When the microbial anode had developed, the performances of the microbial fuel cells were measured under acetate saturation conditions and compared with those of control microbial fuel cells having an unmodified graphite anode. We found that the maximum power density of microbial fuel cell first increased as a function of the extent of modification, reaching an optimum after which it decreased for higher degree of surface modification, becoming even less performing than the control microbial fuel cell. Then, the effect of the introduction of charged groups at the surface was investigated at a low degree of surface modification. It was found that negatively charged groups at the surface (carboxylate) decreased microbial fuel cell power output while the introduction of positively charged groups doubled the power output. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the microbial anode modified with positively charged groups was covered by a dense and homogeneous biofilm. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses showed that this biofilm consisted to a large extent of bacteria from the known electroactive Geobacter genus. In summary, the extent of modification of the anode was found to be critical for the microbial fuel cell performance. The nature of the chemical group introduced at the electrode surface was also found to significantly affect the performance of the microbial fuel cells. The method used for

  2. Microbial counts of food contact surfaces at schools depending on a feeding scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nthabiseng Nhlapo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The prominence of disease transmission between individuals in confined environments is a concern, particularly in the educational environment. With respect to school feeding schemes, food contact surfaces have been shown to be potential vehicles of foodborne pathogens. The aim of this study was to assess the cleanliness of the surfaces that come into contact with food that is provided to children through the National School Nutrition Programme in central South Africa. In each school under study, microbiological samples were collected from the preparation surface and the dominant hand and apron of the food handler. The samples were analysed for total viable counts, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts and moulds. The criteria specified in the British Columbia Guide for Environmental Health Officers were used to evaluate the results. Total viable counts were high for all surfaces, with the majority of colonies being too numerous to count (over 100 colonies per plate. Counts of organisms were relatively low, with 20% of the surfaces producing unsatisfactory enumeration of S. aureus and E. coli and 30% unsatisfactory for coliforms. Yeast and mould produced 50% and 60% unsatisfactory counts from preparation surfaces and aprons, respectively. Statistically significant differences could not be established amongst microbial counts of the surfaces, which suggests cross-contamination may have occurred. Contamination may be attributed to foodstuffs and animals in the vicinity of the preparation area rather than to the food handlers, because hands had the lowest counts of enumerated organisms amongst the analysed surfaces.

  3. A facile strategy to design zeolite L crystals with tunable morphology and surface architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupulescu, Alexandra I; Kumar, Manjesh; Rimer, Jeffrey D

    2013-05-01

    Tailoring the anisotropic growth rates of materials to achieve desired structural outcomes is a pervasive challenge in synthetic crystallization. Here we discuss a method to selectively control the growth of zeolite crystals, which are used extensively in a wide range of industrial applications. This facile method cooperatively tunes crystal properties, such as morphology and surface architecture, through the use of inexpensive, commercially available chemicals with specificity for binding to crystallographic surfaces and mediating anisotropic growth. We examined over 30 molecules as potential zeolite growth modifiers (ZGMs) of zeolite L (LTL type) crystallization. ZGM efficacy was quantified through a combination of macroscopic (bulk) and microscopic (surface) investigations that identified modifiers capable of dramatically altering the cylindrical morphology of LTL crystals. We demonstrate an ability to tailor properties critical to zeolite performance, such as external porous surface area, crystal shape, and pore length, which can enhance sorbate accessibility to LTL pores, tune the supramolecular organization of guest-host composites, and minimize the diffusion path length, respectively. We report that a synergistic combination of ZGMs and the judicious adjustment of synthesis parameters produce LTL crystals with unique surface features, and a range of length-to-diameter aspect ratios spanning 3 orders of magnitude. A systematic examination of different ZGM structures and molecular compositions (i.e., hydrophobicity and binding moieties) reveal interesting physicochemical properties governing their efficacy and specificity. Results of this study suggest this versatile strategy may prove applicable for a host of framework types to produce unrivaled materials that have eluded more conventional techniques.

  4. Enriching acid rock drainage related microbial communities from surface-deposited oil sands tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Courtney; Xiao, Yeyuan; Roberts, Deborah J

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about the microbial communities native to surface-deposited pyritic oil sands tailings, an environment where acid rock drainage (ARD) could occur. The goal of this study was to enrich sulfur-oxidizing organisms from these tailings and determine whether different populations exist at pH levels 7, 4.5, and 2.5. Using growth-based methods provides model organisms for use in the future to predict potential activities and limitations of these organisms and to develop possible control methods. Thiosulfate-fed enrichment cultures were monitored for approximately 1 year. The results showed that the enrichments at pH 4.5 and 7 were established quicker than at pH 2.5. Different microbial community structures were found among the 3 pH environments. The sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms identified were most closely related to Halothiobacillus neapolitanus, Achromobacter spp., and Curtobacterium spp. While microorganisms related to Chitinophagaceae and Acidocella spp. were identified as the only possible iron-oxidizing and -reducing microbes. These results contribute to the general knowledge of the relatively understudied microbial communities that exist in pyritic oil sands tailings and indicate these communities may have a potential role in ARD generation, which may have implications for future tailings management.

  5. Chemical characteristics of fulvic acids from Arctic surface waters: Microbial contributions and photochemical transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory, Rose M.; McKnight, Diane M.; Chin, Yu-Ping; Miller, Penney; Jaros, Chris L.

    2007-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) originating from the extensive Arctic tundra is an important source of organic material to the Arctic Ocean. Chemical characteristics of whole water dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the fulvic acid fraction of DOM were studied from nine surface waters in the Arctic region of Alaska to gain insight into the extent of microbial and photochemical transformation of this DOM. All the fulvic acids had a strong terrestrial/higher plant signature, with uniformly depleted δ13C values of -28‰, and low fluorescence indices around 1.3. Several of the measured chemical characteristics of the Arctic fulvic acids were related to water residence time, a measure of environmental exposure to sunlight and microbial activity. For example, fulvic acids from Arctic streams had higher aromatic contents, higher specific absorbance values, lower nitrogen content, lower amino acid-like fluorescence and were more depleted in δ15N relative to fulvic acids isolated from lake and coastal surface waters. The differences in the nitrogen signature between the lake and coastal fulvic acids compared to the stream fulvic acids indicated that microbial contributions to the fulvic acid pool increased with increasing water residence time. The photo-lability of the fulvic acids was positively correlated with water residence time, suggesting that the fulvic acids isolated from source waters with larger water residence times (i.e., lakes and coastal waters) have experienced greater photochemical degradation than the stream fulvic acids. In addition, many of the initial differences in fulvic acid chemical characteristics across the gradient of water residence times were consistent with changes observed in fulvic acid photolysis experiments. Taken together, results from this study suggest that photochemical processes predominantly control the chemical character of fulvic acids in Arctic surface waters. Our findings show that hydrologic transport in addition to

  6. Methanotrophs, methanogens and microbial community structure in livestock slurry surface crusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Y.F.; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel

    2014-01-01

    , and Methylosarcina of Type I, and Methylocystis of Type II, dominated the methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) community, whereas Methanocorpusculum was the predominant methanogen. Higher numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) representing Type I than Type II MOB were found in all crusts. Potential CH4 oxidation...... rates were determined by incubating crusts with CH4, and CH4 oxidization was observed in cattle, but not in swine slurry crusts. Conclusions: Slurry surface crusts harbour a diverse microbial community. Type I MOB are more diverse and abundant than Type II MOB in this environment. The distinct CH4...

  7. A microbial-mineralization approach for syntheses of iron oxides with a high specific surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagita, Naoki; Oaki, Yuya; Imai, Hiroaki

    2013-04-02

    Of minerals and microbes: A microbial-mineralization-inspired approach was used to facilitate the syntheses of iron oxides with a high specific surface area, such as 253 m(2)g(-1) for maghemite (γ-Fe(2)O(3)) and 148 m(2)g(-1) for hematite (α-Fe(2)O(3)). These iron oxides can be applied to electrode material of lithium-ion batteries, adsorbents, and catalysts. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Mineralogical controls on surface colonization by sulfur-metabolizing microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. A.; Bennett, P.

    2012-12-01

    When characterizing microbial diversity and the microbial ecosystem of the shallow subsurface the mineral matrix is generally assumed to be homogenous and unreactive. We report here experimental evidence that microorganisms colonize rock surfaces according to the rock's chemistry and the organism's metabolic requirements and tolerances. We investigated this phenomenon using laboratory biofilm reactors with both a pure culture of sulfur-oxidizing Thiothrix unzii and a mixed environmental sulfur-metabolizing community from Lower Kane, Cave, WY, USA. Reactors contained rock and mineral chips (calcite, albite, microcline, quartz, chert, Madison Limestone (ML), Madison Dolostone (MD), and basalt) amended with one of the two inoculants. Biomass of attached microorganisms on each mineral surface was quantified. The 16S rRNA of attached microbial communities were compared using Roche FLX and Titanium 454 next generation pyrosequencing. A primary controlling factor on taxonomy of attached microorganisms in both pure and mixed culture experiments was mineral buffering capacity. In mixed culture experiments acid-buffering carbonates were preferentially colonized by neutrophilic sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms (~18% to ~27% of microorganisms), while acidophilic sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms colonized non-buffering quartz exclusively (~46% of microorganisms). The nutrient content of the rock was a controlling factor on biomass accumulation, with neutrophilic organisms selecting between carbonate surfaces of equivalent buffer capacities according to the availability of phosphate. Dry biomass on ML was 17.8 ± 2.3 mg/cm2 and MD was 20.6 ± 6.8 mg/cm2; while nutrient poor calcite accumulated 2.4 ± 0.3 mg/cm2. Biomass accumulation was minimal on non-buffering nutrient-limited surfaces. These factors are countered by the competitive exclusion of some populations. A pure culture of T. unzii preferentially colonizes carbonates while a very closely related Thiothrix spp is excluded

  9. Microbial air quality and bacterial surface contamination in ambulances during patient services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Pipitsangjan, Sirikun

    2015-03-01

    We sought to assess microbial air quality and bacterial surface contamination on medical instruments and the surrounding areas among 30 ambulance runs during service. We performed a cross-sectional study of 106 air samples collected from 30 ambulances before patient services and 212 air samples collected during patient services to assess the bacterial and fungal counts at the two time points. Additionally, 226 surface swab samples were collected from medical instrument surfaces and the surrounding areas before and after ambulance runs. Groups or genus of isolated bacteria and fungi were preliminarily identified by Gram's stain and lactophenol cotton blue. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient with a p-value of less than 0.050 considered significant. The mean and standard deviation of bacterial and fungal counts at the start of ambulance runs were 318±485cfu/m(3) and 522±581cfu/m(3), respectively. Bacterial counts during patient services were 468±607cfu/m(3) and fungal counts were 656±612cfu/m(3). Mean bacterial and fungal counts during patient services were significantly higher than those at the start of ambulance runs, p=0.005 and p=0.030, respectively. For surface contamination, the overall bacterial counts before and after patient services were 0.8±0.7cfu/cm(2) and 1.3±1.1cfu/cm(2), respectively (pair samples and bacterial counts on medical instruments and allocated areas. This study revealed high microbial contamination (bacterial and fungal) in ambulance air during services and higher bacterial contamination on medical instrument surfaces and allocated areas after ambulance services compared to the start of ambulance runs. Additionally, bacterial and fungal counts in ambulance air showed a significantly positive correlation with the bacterial surface contamination on medical instruments and allocated areas. Further studies should be conducted to determine the optimal intervention to reduce

  10. Growth, viability and architecture of biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes formed on abiotic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Barbosa dos Reis-Teixeira

    Full Text Available Abstract The pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes can persist in food processing plants for many years, even when appropriate hygienic measures are in place, with potential for contaminating ready-to-eat products and, its ability to form biofilms on abiotic surfaces certainly contributes for the environmental persistence. In this research, L. monocytogenes was grown in biofilms up 8 days attached to stainless steel and glass surfaces, contributing for advancing the knowledge on architecture of mature biofilms, since many literature studies carried out on this topic considered only early stages of cell adhesion. In this study, biofilm populations of two strains of L. monocytogenes (serotypes 1/2a and 4b on stainless steel coupons and glass were examined using regular fluorescence microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy and classic culture method. The biofilms formed were not very dense and microscopic observations revealed uneven biofilm structures, with presence of exopolymeric matrix surrounding single cells, small aggregates and microcolonies, in a honeycomb-like arrangement. Moreover, planktonic population of L. monocytogenes (present in broth media covering the abiotic surface remained stable throughout the incubation time, which indicates an efficient dispersal mechanism, since the culture medium was replaced daily. In conclusion, even if these strains of L. monocytogenes were not able to form thick multilayer biofilms, it was noticeable their high persistence on abiotic surfaces, reinforcing the need to focus on measures to avoid biofilm formation, instead of trying to eradicate mature biofilms.

  11. Growth, viability and architecture of biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes formed on abiotic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis-Teixeira, Fernanda Barbosa Dos; Alves, Virgínia Farias; de Martinis, Elaine Cristina Pereira

    The pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes can persist in food processing plants for many years, even when appropriate hygienic measures are in place, with potential for contaminating ready-to-eat products and, its ability to form biofilms on abiotic surfaces certainly contributes for the environmental persistence. In this research, L. monocytogenes was grown in biofilms up 8 days attached to stainless steel and glass surfaces, contributing for advancing the knowledge on architecture of mature biofilms, since many literature studies carried out on this topic considered only early stages of cell adhesion. In this study, biofilm populations of two strains of L. monocytogenes (serotypes 1/2a and 4b) on stainless steel coupons and glass were examined using regular fluorescence microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy and classic culture method. The biofilms formed were not very dense and microscopic observations revealed uneven biofilm structures, with presence of exopolymeric matrix surrounding single cells, small aggregates and microcolonies, in a honeycomb-like arrangement. Moreover, planktonic population of L. monocytogenes (present in broth media covering the abiotic surface) remained stable throughout the incubation time, which indicates an efficient dispersal mechanism, since the culture medium was replaced daily. In conclusion, even if these strains of L. monocytogenes were not able to form thick multilayer biofilms, it was noticeable their high persistence on abiotic surfaces, reinforcing the need to focus on measures to avoid biofilm formation, instead of trying to eradicate mature biofilms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  12. Final Report: Molecular Basis for Microbial Adhesion and Geochemical Surface Reactions: A Study Across Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, David Adams [The University of Alabama

    2013-06-27

    Computational chemistry was used to help provide a molecular level description of the interactions of Gram-negative microbial membranes with subsurface materials. The goal is to develop a better understanding of the molecular processes involved in microbial metal binding, microbial attachment to mineral surfaces, and, eventually, oxidation/reduction reactions (electron transfer) that can occur at these surfaces and are mediated by the bacterial exterior surface. The project focused on the interaction of the outer microbial membrane, which is dominated by an exterior lipopolysaccharide (LPS) portion, of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with the mineral goethite and with solvated ions in the environment. This was originally a collaborative project with T.P. Straatsma and B. Lowery of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The University of Alabama effort used electronic structure calculations to predict the molecular behavior of ions in solution and the behavior of the sugars which form a critical part of the LPS. The interactions of the sugars with metal ions are expected to dominate much of the microscopic structure and transport phenomena in the LPS. This work, in combination with the molecular dynamics simulations of Straatsma and the experimental electrochemistry and microscopy measurements of Lowry, both at PNNL, is providing new insights into the detailed molecular behavior of these membranes in geochemical environments. The effort at The University of Alabama has three components: solvation energies and structures of ions in solution, prediction of the acidity of the critical groups in the sugars in the LPS, and binding of metal ions to the sugar anions. An important aspect of the structure of the LPS membrane as well as ion transport in the LPS is the ability of the sugar side groups such as the carboxylic acids and the phosphates to bind positively charged ions. We are studying the acidity of the acidic side groups in order to better understand the ability of

  13. Partitioning of functional and taxonomic diversity in surface-associated microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth-Schulze, Alexandra J; Zozaya-Valdés, Enrique; Steinberg, Peter D; Thomas, Torsten

    2016-12-01

    Surfaces, including those submerged in the marine environment, are subjected to constant interactions and colonisation by surrounding microorganisms. The principles that determine the assembly of those epibiotic communities are however poorly understood. In this study, we employed a hierarchical design to assess the functionality and diversity of microbial communities on different types of host surfaces (e.g. macroalgae, seagrasses). We found that taxonomic diversity was unique to each type of host, but that the majority of functions (> 95%) could be found in any given surface community, suggesting a high degree of functional redundancy. However, some community functions were enriched on certain surfaces and were related to host-specific properties (e.g. the degradation of specific polysaccharides). Together these observations support a model, whereby communities on surfaces are assembled from guilds of microorganisms with a functionality that is partitioned into general properties for a surface-associated life-style, but also specific features that mediate host-specificity. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. In situ formation of graphene layers on graphite surfaces for efficient anodes of microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiahuan; Chen, Shanshan; Yuan, Yong; Cai, Xixi; Zhou, Shungui

    2015-09-15

    Graphene can be used to improve the performance of the anode in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) due to its good biocompatibility, high electrical conductivity and large surface area. However, the chemical production and modification of the graphene on the anode are environmentally hazardous because of the use of various harmful chemicals. This study reports a novel method based on the electrochemical exfoliation of a graphite plate (GP) for the in situ formation of graphene layers on the surface of a graphite electrode. When the resultant graphene-layer-based graphite plate electrode (GL/GP) was used as an anode in an MFC, a maximum power density of 0.67 ± 0.034 W/m(2) was achieved. This value corresponds to 1.72-, 1.56- and 1.26-times the maximum power densities of the original GP, exfoliated-graphene-modified GP (EG/GP) and chemically-reduced-graphene-modified GP (rGO/GP) anodes, respectively. Electrochemical measurements revealed that the high performance of the GL/GP anode was attributable to its macroporous structure, improved electron transfer and high electrochemical capacitance. The results demonstrated that the proposed method is a facile and environmentally friendly synthesis technique for the fabrication of high-performance graphene-based electrodes for use in microbial energy harvesting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Distinct respiratory responses of soils to complex organic substrate are governed predominantly by soil architecture and its microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, F C; Todman, L C; Corstanje, R; Deeks, L K; Harris, J A; Pawlett, M; Whitmore, A P; Ritz, K

    2016-12-01

    Factors governing the turnover of organic matter (OM) added to soils, including substrate quality, climate, environment and biology, are well known, but their relative importance has been difficult to ascertain due to the interconnected nature of the soil system. This has made their inclusion in mechanistic models of OM turnover or nutrient cycling difficult despite the potential power of these models to unravel complex interactions. Using high temporal-resolution respirometery (6 min measurement intervals), we monitored the respiratory response of 67 soils sampled from across England and Wales over a 5 day period following the addition of a complex organic substrate (green barley powder). Four respiratory response archetypes were observed, characterised by different rates of respiration as well as different time-dependent patterns. We also found that it was possible to predict, with 95% accuracy, which type of respiratory behaviour a soil would exhibit based on certain physical and chemical soil properties combined with the size and phenotypic structure of the microbial community. Bulk density, microbial biomass carbon, water holding capacity and microbial community phenotype were identified as the four most important factors in predicting the soils' respiratory responses using a Bayesian belief network. These results show that the size and constitution of the microbial community are as important as physico-chemical properties of a soil in governing the respiratory response to OM addition. Such a combination suggests that the 'architecture' of the soil, i.e. the integration of the spatial organisation of the environment and the interactions between the communities living and functioning within the pore networks, is fundamentally important in regulating such processes.

  16. Prime focus architectures for large space telescopes: reduce surfaces to save cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Lillie, C. F.

    2016-07-01

    Conceptual architectures are now being developed to identify future directions for post JWST large space telescope systems to operate in the UV Optical and near IR regions of the spectrum. Here we show that the cost of optical surfaces within large aperture telescope/instrument systems can exceed $100M/reflection when expressed in terms of the aperture increase needed to over come internal absorption loss. We recommend a program in innovative optical design to minimize the number of surfaces by considering multiple functions for mirrors. An example is given using the Rowland circle imaging spectrometer systems for UV space science. With few exceptions, current space telescope architectures are based on systems optimized for ground-based astronomy. Both HST and JWST are classical "Cassegrain" telescopes derived from the ground-based tradition to co-locate the massive primary mirror and the instruments at the same end of the metrology structure. This requirement derives from the dual need to minimize observatory dome size and cost in the presence of the Earth's 1-g gravitational field. Space telescopes, however function in the zero gravity of space and the 1- g constraint is relieved to the advantage of astronomers. Here we suggest that a prime focus large aperture telescope system in space may have potentially have higher transmittance, better pointing, improved thermal and structural control, less internal polarization and broader wavelength coverage than Cassegrain telescopes. An example is given showing how UV astronomy telescopes use single optical elements for multiple functions and therefore have a minimum number of reflections.

  17. Integrating Sound Scattering Measurements in the Design of Complex Architectural Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Brady

    2010-01-01

    Digital tools present the opportunity for incorporating performance analysis into the architectural design process. Acoustic performance is an important criterion for architectural design. There is much known about sound absorption but little about sound scattering, even though scattering is reco...

  18. Modular assembly of low-dimensional coordination architectures on metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanow, Sebastian; Lin, Nian; Barth, Johannes V

    2008-01-01

    The engineering of highly organized molecular architectures has attracted strong interest because of its potential for novel materials and functional nanoscopic devices. An important factor in the development, integration, and exploitation of such systems is the capability to prepare them on surfaces or in nanostructured environments. Recent advances in supramolecular design on metal substrates provide atomistic insight into the underlying self-assembly processes, mainly by scanning tunneling microscopy observations. This review summarizes progress in noncovalent synthesis strategies under ultra-high vacuum conditions employing metal ions as coordination centers directing the molecular organization. The realized metallosupramolecular compounds and arrays combine the properties of their constituent metal ions and organic ligands, and present several attractive features: their redox, magnetic and spin-state transitions. The presented exemplary molecular level studies elucidate the arrangement of organic adsorbates on metal surfaces, demonstrating the interplay between intermolecular and molecule-substrate interactions that needs to be controlled for the fabrication of low-dimensional structures. The understanding of metallosupramolecular organization and metal-ligand interactions on solid surfaces is important for the control of structure and concomitant function

  19. Hierarchical synthesis of corrugated photocatalytic TiO{sub 2} microsphere architectures on natural pollen surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdogan, Deniz Altunoz; Ozensoy, Emrah, E-mail: ozensoy@fen.bilkent.edu.tr

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Biotemplate-based photocatalytic material was synthesized in the form of corrugated TiO{sub 2} microspheres. • Characterization of photocatalysts as a function of temperature. • Photocatalytic activities studied in the gas and solution phases. - Abstract: Biomaterials are challenging, yet vastly promising templates for engineering unusual inorganic materials with unprecedented surface and structural properties. In the current work, a novel biotemplate-based photocatalytic material was synthesized in the form of corrugated TiO{sub 2} microspheres by utilizing a sol-gel methodology where Ambrosia trifida (Ab, Giant ragweed) pollen was exploited as the initial biological support surface. Hierarchically synthesized TiO{sub 2} microspheres were structurally characterized in detail via SEM-EDX, Raman spectroscopy, XRD and BET techniques in order to shed light on the surface chemistry, crystal structure, chemical composition and morphology of these novel material architectures. Photocatalytic functionality of the synthesized materials was demonstrated both in gas phase as well as in liquid phase. Along these lines, air and water purification capabilities of the synthesized TiO{sub 2} microspheres were established by performing photocatalytic oxidative NOx(g) storage and Rhodamine B(aq) degradation experiments; respectively. The synthetic approach presented herein offers new opportunities to design and create sophisticated functional materials that can be used in micro reactor systems, adsorbents, drug delivery systems, catalytic processes, and sensor technologies.

  20. Detection of microbial biofilms on food processing surfaces: hyperspectral fluorescence imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Won; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kaunglin; Lefcourt, Alan M.; Roberts, Michael S.; McNaughton, James L.

    2009-05-01

    We used a portable hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system to evaluate biofilm formations on four types of food processing surface materials including stainless steel, polypropylene used for cutting boards, and household counter top materials such as formica and granite. The objective of this investigation was to determine a minimal number of spectral bands suitable to differentiate microbial biofilm formation from the four background materials typically used during food processing. Ultimately, the resultant spectral information will be used in development of handheld portable imaging devices that can be used as visual aid tools for sanitation and safety inspection (microbial contamination) of the food processing surfaces. Pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella cells were grown in low strength M9 minimal medium on various surfaces at 22 +/- 2 °C for 2 days for biofilm formation. Biofilm autofluorescence under UV excitation (320 to 400 nm) obtained by hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system showed broad emissions in the blue-green regions of the spectrum with emission maxima at approximately 480 nm for both E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella biofilms. Fluorescence images at 480 nm revealed that for background materials with near-uniform fluorescence responses such as stainless steel and formica cutting board, regardless of the background intensity, biofilm formation can be distinguished. This suggested that a broad spectral band in the blue-green regions can be used for handheld imaging devices for sanitation inspection of stainless, cutting board, and formica surfaces. The non-uniform fluorescence responses of granite make distinctions between biofilm and background difficult. To further investigate potential detection of the biofilm formations on granite surfaces with multispectral approaches, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using the hyperspectral fluorescence image data. The resultant PCA score images revealed distinct contrast between

  1. Limits determination of microbial contamination present on surfaces from a pharmaceutical microbiology district reference laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Charry

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: The bioburden present on the pharmaceutical microbiology laboratory’s surfaces, may increase the risk of cross-contamination when analytical tests are being carried out; periodic monitoring allows to set limits that reduce the risk. Aims: To determinate the limits of bioburden present on seven surfaces of the pharmaceutical microbiology laboratory, after the cleaning and disinfection process. Methods: The swabbing method was used for sampling. With a 25 cm2 stencil and a sterile swab, a sample was taken, passing the swab over five points of every surface chosen. A total aerobic microbial count and a total yeast and mold count was done. Finally, the average and the standard deviation of the counts was obtained. Results: The average from the counts obtained on each surface selected for the study, were below the recommended limits by international entities like the World Health Organization and the European Union, between others; also, the results generated in this study, allow to classify the biosafety cabinet as an ISO 5 area and the other areas as ISO 7. Conclusions: Bioburden levels on the tested surfaces are considered low, reducing the risk of cross-contamination, which could have a negative impact on laboratory’s activities. Also, it follows that disinfectant concentration used, is effectively.

  2. Did Mineral Surface Chemistry and Toxicity Contribute to Evolution of Microbial Extracellular Polymeric Substances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jay M.; Zhang, Nianli; Hickey, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Modern ecological niches are teeming with an astonishing diversity of microbial life in biofilms closely associated with mineral surfaces, which highlights the remarkable success of microorganisms in conquering the challenges and capitalizing on the benefits presented by the mineral–water interface. Biofilm formation capability likely evolved on early Earth because biofilms provide crucial cell survival functions. The potential toxicity of mineral surfaces toward cells and the complexities of the mineral–water–cell interface in determining the toxicity mechanisms, however, have not been fully appreciated. Here, we report a previously unrecognized role for extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which form biofilms in shielding cells against the toxicity of mineral surfaces. Using colony plating and LIVE/DEAD staining methods in oxide suspensions versus oxide-free controls, we found greater viability of wild-type, EPS-producing strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 compared to their isogenic knockout mutant with defective biofilm-producing capacity. Oxide toxicity was specific to its surface charge and particle size. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images and assays for highly reactive oxygen species (hROS) on mineral surfaces suggested that EPS shield via both physical and chemical mechanisms. Intriguingly, qualitative as well as quantitative measures of EPS production showed that toxic minerals induced EPS production in bacteria. By determining the specific toxicity mechanisms, we provide insight into the potential impact of mineral surfaces in promoting increased complexity of cell surfaces, including EPS and biofilm formation, on early Earth. Key Words: Mineral toxicity—Bacteria—EPS evolution—Biofilms—Cytotoxicity—Silica—Anatase—Alumina. Astrobiology 12, 785–798. PMID:22934560

  3. Enhancing biodegradation and energy generation via roughened surface graphite electrode in microbial desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Atieh; Yousefi Kebria, Daryoush; Najafpour Darzi, Ghasem

    2017-09-01

    The microbial desalination cell (MDC) is known as a newly developed technology for water and wastewater treatment. In this study, desalination rate, organic matter removal and energy production in the reactors with and without desalination function were compared. Herein, a new design of plain graphite called roughened surface graphite (RSG) was used as the anode electrode in both microbial fuel cell (MFC) and MDC reactors for the first time. Among the three type of anode electrodes investigated in this study, RSG electrode produced the highest power density and salt removal rate of 10.81 W/m 3 and 77.6%, respectively. Such a power density was 2.33 times higher than the MFC reactor due to the junction potential effect. In addition, adding the desalination function to the MFC reactor enhanced columbic efficiency from 21.8 to 31.4%. These results provided a proof-of-concept that the use of MDC instead of MFC would improve wastewater treatment efficiency and power generation, with an added benefit of water desalination. Furthermore, RSG can successfully be employed in an MDC or MFC, enhancing the bio-electricity generation and salt removal.

  4. Biocontainment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on flat concrete surfaces by microbial carbonate precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwadha, George D O; Li, Jin

    2011-10-01

    In this study, a biosealant obtained from microbial carbonate precipitation (MCP) was evaluated as an alternative to an epoxy-coating system. A bacterium Sporosarcina pasteurii strain ATCC 11859, which metabolizes urea and precipitates calcite in a calcium-rich environment, was used in this study to generate the biosealant on a PCB-contaminated concrete surface. Concrete cylinders measuring 3 in (76.2 mm) by 6 in (152.4 mm) were made in accordance with ASTM C33 and C192 and used for this purpose. The PCB, urea, Ca(2+), and bacterial cell concentrations were set at 10 ppm, 666 mM, 250 mM, and about 2.1 × 10(8) cells mL(-1), respectively. The results indicate that the biosealed surfaces reduced water permeability by 1-5 orders of magnitude, and had a high resistance to carbonation. Since the MCP biosealant is thermally stable under temperatures of up to 840 °C, the high temperatures that normally exist in the surrounding equipment, which may contain PCB-based fluids, have no effect on the biosealed surfaces. Consequently, there is greater potential to obtain a stronger, coherent, and durable surface by MCP. No measurable amount of PCBs was detected in the permeating water, indicating that the leaching water, if any, will have a minimum impact on the surrounding environment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Biofilm three-dimensional architecture influences in situ pH distribution pattern on the human enamel surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jin; Hara, Anderson T; Kim, Dongyeop; Zero, Domenick T; Koo, Hyun; Hwang, Geelsu

    2017-06-01

    To investigate how the biofilm three-dimensional (3D) architecture influences in situ pH distribution patterns on the enamel surface. Biofilms were formed on human tooth enamel in the presence of 1% sucrose or 0.5% glucose plus 0.5% fructose. At specific time points, biofilms were exposed to a neutral pH buffer to mimic the buffering of saliva and subsequently pulsed with 1% glucose to induce re-acidification. Simultaneous 3D pH mapping and architecture of intact biofilms was performed using two-photon confocal microscopy. The enamel surface and mineral content characteristics were examined successively via optical profilometry and microradiography analyses. Sucrose-mediated biofilm formation created spatial heterogeneities manifested by complex networks of bacterial clusters (microcolonies). Acidic regions (pHinterior of microcolonies, which impedes rapid neutralization (taking more than 120 min for neutralization). Glucose exposure rapidly re-created the acidic niches, indicating formation of diffusion barriers associated with microcolonies structure. Enamel demineralization (white spots), rougher surface, deeper lesion and more mineral loss appeared to be associated with the localization of these bacterial clusters at the biofilm-enamel interface. Similar 3D architecture was observed in plaque-biofilms formed in vivo in the presence of sucrose. The formation of complex 3D architectures creates spatially heterogeneous acidic microenvironments in close proximity of enamel surface, which might correlate with the localized pattern of the onset of carious lesions (white spot like) on teeth.

  6. Biomass assessment of microbial surface communities by means of hyperspectral remote sensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Caballero, Emilio; Paul, Max; Tamm, Alexandra; Caesar, Jennifer; Büdel, Burkhard; Escribano, Paula; Hill, Joachim; Weber, Bettina

    2017-05-15

    Dryland vegetation developed morphological and physiological strategies to cope with drought. However, as aridity increases, vascular plant coverage gets sparse and microbially-dominated surface communities (MSC), comprising cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and bryophytes together with heterotropic bacteria, archaea and fungi, gain relevance. Nevertheless, the relevance of MSC net primary productivity has only rarely been considered in ecosystem scale studies, and detailed information on their contribution to the total photosynthetic biomass reservoir is largely missing. In this study, we mapped the spatial distribution of two different MSC (biological soil crusts and quartz fields hosting hypolithic crusts) at two different sites within the South African Succulent Karoo (Soebatsfontein and Knersvlakte). Then we characterized both types of MSC in terms of chlorophyll content, and combining these data with the biocrust and quartz field maps, we estimated total biomass values of MSCs and their spatial patterns within the two different ecosystems. Our results revealed that MSC are important vegetation components of the South African Karoo biome, revealing clear differences between the two sites. At Soebatsfontein, MSC occurred as biological soil crusts (biocrusts), which covered about one third of the landscape reaching an overall biomass value of ~480gha -1 of chlorophyll a+b at the landscape scale. In the Knersvlakte, which is characterized by harsher environmental conditions (i.e. higher solar radiation and potential evapotranspiration), MSC occurred as biocrusts, but also formed hypolithic crusts growing on the lower soil-immersed parts of translucent quartz pebbles. Whereas chlorophyll concentrations of biocrusts and hypolithic crusts where insignificantly lower in the Knersvlakte, the overall MSC biomass reservoir was by far larger with ~780gha -1 of chlorophyll a+b. Thus, the complementary microbially-dominated surface communities promoted biomass formation within

  7. Microbial colonisation in diverse surface soil types in Surtsey and diversity analysis of its subsurface microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteinsson, V.; Klonowski, A.; Reynisson, E.; Vannier, P.; Sigurdsson, B. D.; Ólafsson, M.

    2014-09-01

    Colonisation of life on Surtsey has been observed systematically since the formation of the island 50 years ago. Although the first colonisers were prokaryotes, such as bacteria and blue-green algae, most studies have been focusing on settlement of plants and animals but less on microbial succession. To explore microbial colonization in diverse soils and the influence of associate vegetation and birds on numbers of environmental bacteria, we collected 45 samples from different soils types on the surface of the island. Total viable bacterial counts were performed with plate count at 22, 30 and 37 °C for all soils samples and the amount of organic matter and nitrogen (N) was measured. Selected samples were also tested for coliforms, faecal coliforms aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The deep subsurface biosphere was investigated by collecting liquid subsurface samples from a 182 m borehole with a special sampler. Diversity analysis of uncultivated biota in samples was performed by 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis and cultivation. Correlation was observed between N deficits and the number of microorganisms in surface soils samples. The lowest number of bacteria (1 × 104-1 × 105 g-1) was detected in almost pure pumice but the count was significant higher (1 × 106-1 × 109 g-1) in vegetated soil or pumice with bird droppings. The number of faecal bacteria correlated also to the total number of bacteria and type of soil. Bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae were only detected in vegetated and samples containing bird droppings. The human pathogens Salmonella, Campylobacter and Listeria were not in any sample. Both thermophilic bacteria and archaea 16S rDNA sequences were found in the subsurface samples collected at 145 m and 172 m depth at 80 °C and 54 °C, respectively, but no growth was observed in enrichments. The microbiota sequences generally showed low affiliation to any known 16S rRNA gene sequences.

  8. Microbial colonization in diverse surface soil types in Surtsey and diversity analysis of its subsurface microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteinsson, V.; Klonowski, A.; Reynisson, E.; Vannier, P.; Sigurdsson, B. D.; Ólafsson, M.

    2015-02-01

    Colonization of life on Surtsey has been observed systematically since the formation of the island 50 years ago. Although the first colonisers were prokaryotes, such as bacteria and blue-green algae, most studies have been focused on the settlement of plants and animals but less on microbial succession. To explore microbial colonization in diverse soils and the influence of associated vegetation and birds on numbers of environmental bacteria, we collected 45 samples from different soil types on the surface of the island. Total viable bacterial counts were performed with the plate count method at 22, 30 and 37 °C for all soil samples, and the amount of organic matter and nitrogen (N) was measured. Selected samples were also tested for coliforms, faecal coliforms and aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The subsurface biosphere was investigated by collecting liquid subsurface samples from a 181 m borehole with a special sampler. Diversity analysis of uncultivated biota in samples was performed by 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis and cultivation. Correlation was observed between nutrient deficits and the number of microorganisms in surface soil samples. The lowest number of bacteria (1 × 104-1 × 105 cells g-1) was detected in almost pure pumice but the count was significantly higher (1 × 106-1 × 109 cells g-1) in vegetated soil or pumice with bird droppings. The number of faecal bacteria correlated also to the total number of bacteria and type of soil. Bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae were only detected in vegetated samples and samples containing bird droppings. The human pathogens Salmonella, Campylobacter and Listeria were not in any sample. Both thermophilic bacteria and archaea 16S rDNA sequences were found in the subsurface samples collected at 145 and 172 m depth at 80 and 54 °C, respectively, but no growth was observed in enrichments. The microbiota sequences generally showed low affiliation to any known 16S rRNA gene sequences.

  9. Validated measurements of microbial loads on environmental surfaces in intensive care units before and after disinfecting cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickmann, H; Bachert, S; Warnke, P; Podbielski, A

    2018-03-01

    Preanalytic aspects can make results of hygiene studies difficult to compare. Efficacy of surface disinfection was assessed with an evaluated swabbing procedure. A validated microbial screening of surfaces was performed in the patients' environment and from hands of healthcare workers on two intensive care units (ICUs) prior to and after a standardized disinfection procedure. From a pure culture, the recovery rate of the swabs for Staphylococcus aureus was 35%-64% and dropped to 0%-22% from a mixed culture with 10-times more Staphylococcus epidermidis than S. aureus. Microbial surface loads 30 min before and after the cleaning procedures were indistinguishable. The quality-ensured screening procedure proved that adequate hygiene procedures are associated with a low overall colonization of surfaces and skin of healthcare workers. Unchanged microbial loads before and after surface disinfection demonstrated the low additional impact of this procedure in the endemic situation when the pathogen load prior to surface disinfection is already low. Based on a validated screening system ensuring the interpretability and reliability of the results, the study confirms the efficiency of combined hand and surface hygiene procedures to guarantee low rates of bacterial colonization. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Microbial activities and dissolved organic matter dynamics in oil-contaminated surface seawater from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziervogel, Kai; McKay, Luke; Rhodes, Benjamin; Osburn, Christopher L; Dickson-Brown, Jennifer; Arnosti, Carol; Teske, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill triggered a complex cascade of microbial responses that reshaped the dynamics of heterotrophic carbon degradation and the turnover of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in oil contaminated waters. Our results from 21-day laboratory incubations in rotating glass bottles (roller bottles) demonstrate that microbial dynamics and carbon flux in oil-contaminated surface water sampled near the spill site two weeks after the onset of the blowout were greatly affected by activities of microbes associated with macroscopic oil aggregates. Roller bottles with oil-amended water showed rapid formation of oil aggregates that were similar in size and appearance compared to oil aggregates observed in surface waters near the spill site. Oil aggregates that formed in roller bottles were densely colonized by heterotrophic bacteria, exhibiting high rates of enzymatic activity (lipase hydrolysis) indicative of oil degradation. Ambient waters surrounding aggregates also showed enhanced microbial activities not directly associated with primary oil-degradation (β-glucosidase; peptidase), as well as a twofold increase in DOC. Concurrent changes in fluorescence properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) suggest an increase in oil-derived, aromatic hydrocarbons in the DOC pool. Thus our data indicate that oil aggregates mediate, by two distinct mechanisms, the transfer of hydrocarbons to the deep sea: a microbially-derived flux of oil-derived DOC from sinking oil aggregates into the ambient water column, and rapid sedimentation of the oil aggregates themselves, serving as vehicles for oily particulate matter as well as oil aggregate-associated microbial communities.

  11. Functional response of a near-surface soil microbial community to a simulated underground CO2 storage leak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Sergio E; Holben, William E

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of leaks from geologic carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, is key to developing effective strategies for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions management and mitigation of potential negative effects. Here, we provide the first report on the potential effects of leaks from carbon capture and storage sites on microbial functional groups in surface and near-surface soils. Using a simulated subsurface CO2 storage leak scenario, we demonstrate how CO2 flow upward through the soil column altered both the abundance (DNA) and activity (mRNA) of microbial functional groups mediating carbon and nitrogen transformations. These microbial responses were found to be seasonally dependent and correlated to shifts in atmospheric conditions. While both DNA and mRNA levels were affected by elevated CO2, they did not react equally, suggesting two separate mechanisms for soil microbial community response to high CO2 levels. The results did not always agree with previous studies on elevated atmospheric (rather than subsurface) CO2 using FACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment) systems, suggesting that microbial community response to CO2 seepage from the subsurface might differ from its response to atmospheric CO2 increases.

  12. The desorption of Phosphorous (32 P) fixed on iron and aluminum oxy-hydroxide surfaces by the soil microbial biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Lilian Maria Cesar de.

    1995-02-01

    This work determines whether the soil microbial biomass, with an ample supply of available C, can utilize P adsorber in the surfaces of oxy-hydroxides of Fe or Al of soil-P deficient soils. To simulate the surfaces of the natural Fe and Al compounds, synthetic oxy-hydroxides of Fe and Al, impregnated in strips of filter paper, and containing P tagged with 32 P, were used. (author). 60 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Biofilm removal technique using sands as a research tool for accessing microbial attachment on surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanon Trachoo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms have profound impacts on improved survival of the constituent microorganisms in nature. Biofilms were believed to protect constituent microorganisms from sanitizer treatment, provide a more suitable habitat for microorganisms, and become a site for genetic material exchanges between microorganisms. As we realize more about the significance of biofilm, methods used for biofilm study should be consistently developed and evaluated. To determine microbial attachment on surfaces, usually biofilms are grown on substratum surfaces and removed by vortexing with glass beads or scraping. However, scraping is not as effective as vortexing with glass beads. Another approach is direct-agar overlaying which cannot be used with high density biofilm. In this experiment, we compared effectiveness of glass beads (298±28 μm in diameter and sands (width: 221±55 μm and length: 329±118 μm in removing biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by vortexing method. The results suggested that acid-washed sands, which are significantly less inexpensive than glass beads, were as effective as (P>0.05 analytical grade glass beads in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm removal without inhibiting growth of the organism.

  14. Effect of microbial treatment on the prevention and removal of paraffin deposits on stainless steel surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meng; Li, Wen-Hong; Lu, Mang; Zhang, Zhong-Zhi; Luo, Yi-Jing; Qiao, Wei; Sun, Shan-Shan; Zhong, Wei-Zhang; Zhang, Min

    2012-11-01

    In this study, biosurfactant-producing strain N2 and non-biosurfactant producing stain KB18 were used to investigate the effects of microbial treatment on the prevention and removal of paraffin deposits on stainless steel surfaces. Strain N2, with a biosurfactant production capacity, reduced the contact angle of stainless steel to 40.04°, and the corresponding adhesion work of aqueous phase was decreased by 26.5 mJ/m(2). By contrast, KB18 could only reduce the contact angle to 50.83°, with a corresponding 7.6 mJ/m(2) decrease in the aqueous phase work adhesion. The paraffin removal test showed that the paraffin removal efficiencies of strain N2 and KB18 were 79.0% and 61.2%, respectively. Interestingly, the N2 cells could attach on the surface of the oil droplets to inhibit droplets coalescence. These results indicate that biosurfactant-producing strains can alter the wettability of stainless steel and thus eliminate paraffin deposition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Architectural elements and bounding surfaces in fluvial deposits: anatomy of the Kayenta formation (lower jurassic), Southwest Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miall, Andrew D.

    1988-03-01

    Three well-exposed outcrops in the Kayenta Formation (Lower Jurassic), near Dove Creek in southwestern Colorado, were studied using lateral profiles, in order to test recent regarding architectural-element analysis and the classification and interpretation of internal bounding surfaces. Examination of bounding surfaces within and between elements in the Kayenta outcrops raises problems in applying the three-fold classification of Allen (1983). Enlarging this classification to a six-fold hierarchy permits the discrimination of surfaces intermediate between Allen's second- and third-order types, corresponding to the upper bounding surfaces of macroforms, and internal erosional "reactivation" surfaces within the macroforms. Examples of the first five types of surface occur in the Kayenta outcrops at Dove Creek. The new classifications is offered as a general solution to the problem of description of complex, three-dimensional fluvial sandstone bodies. The Kayenta Formation at Dove Creek consists of a multistorey sandstone body, including the deposits of lateral- and downstream-accreted macroforms. The storeys show no internal cyclicity, neither within individual elements nor through the overall vertical thickness of the formation. Low paleocurrent variance indicates low sinuosity flow, whereas macroform geometry and orientation suggest low to moderate sinuosity. The many internal minor erosion surfaces draped with mud and followed by intraclast breccias imply frequent rapid stage fluctuation, consistent with variable (seasonal? monsonal? ephemmeral?) flow. The results suggest a fluvial architecture similar to that of the South Saskatchewan River, through with a three-dimensional geometry unlike that interpreted from surface studies of that river.

  16. Seasonal and spatial variations in microbial activity at various phylogenetic resolutions at a groundwater – surface water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ran; Smets, Barth F.; Gan, Ping

    2014-01-01

    analysis. Consistently higher microbial activities with less variation in depth were measured in the AIMC traps than in the ambient sediments. Flood disturbance appeared to control AIMC activity distributions at the gradually elevated GSI. The highest AIMC activities were generally obtained from locations...... closest to the free surface water boundary except during the dry season when microbial activities were similar across the entire GSI. A clone library of AIMC 16S rRNA genes was constructed, and it confirmed the predominant role of the targeted alphaproteobacterial group in AIMC activity and composition...... phylogenetically related to putative IOB, supporting the occurrence and persistence of active microbial iron oxidation across the studied iron-rich GSI ecosystem....

  17. Leveraging Service Oriented Architecture to Enhance Information Sharing for Surface Transportation Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chatterjee, Ash

    2008-01-01

    .... These were analyzed to identify gaps in information sharing practices and technology. Requirements for the architecture were established to close the gaps, accounting for the variability in size, capability, risk and ownership characteristics of MTS...

  18. Alkali treatment of microrough titanium surfaces affects macrophage/monocyte adhesion, platelet activation and architecture of blood clot formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Milleret

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Titanium implants are most commonly used for bone augmentation and replacement due to their favorable osseointegration properties. Here, hyperhydrophilic sand-blasted and acid-etched (SBA titanium surfaces were produced by alkali treatment and their responses to partially heparinized whole human blood were analyzed. Blood clot formation, platelet activation and activation of the complement system was analyzed revealing that exposure time between blood and the material surface is crucial as increasing exposure time results in higher amount of activated platelets, more blood clots formed and stronger complement activation. In contrast, the number of macrophages/monocytes found on alkali-treated surfaces was significantly reduced as compared to untreated SBA Ti surfaces. Interestingly, when comparing untreated to modified SBA Ti surfaces very different blood clots formed on their surfaces. On untreated Ti surfaces blood clots remain thin (below 15 mm, patchy and non-structured lacking large fibrin fiber networks whereas blood clots on differentiated surfaces assemble in an organized and layered architecture of more than 30 mm thickness. Close to the material surface most nucleated cells adhere, above large amounts of non-nucleated platelets remain entrapped within a dense fibrin fiber network providing a continuous cover of the entire surface. These findings might indicate that, combined with findings of previous in vivo studies demonstrating that alkali-treated SBA Ti surfaces perform better in terms of osseointegration, a continuous and structured layer of blood components on the blood-facing surface supports later tissue integration of an endosseous implant.

  19. Do European Standard Disinfectant tests truly simulate in-use microbial and organic soiling conditions on food preparation surfaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, B; Morin, V N; Rödger, H-J; Holah, J; Bird, C

    2010-04-01

    The results from European standard disinfectant tests are used as one basis to approve the use of disinfectants in Europe. The design of these laboratory-based tests should thus simulate as closely as possible the practical conditions and challenges that the disinfectants would encounter in use. No evidence is available that the organic and microbial loading in these tests simulates actual levels in the food service sector. Total organic carbon (TOC) and total viable count (TVC) were determined on 17 visibly clean and 45 visibly dirty surfaces in two restaurants and the food preparation surfaces of a large retail store. These values were compared to reference values recovered from surfaces soiled with the organic and microbial loading, following the standard conditions of the European Surface Test for bactericidal efficacy, EN 13697. The TOC reference values for clean and dirty conditions were higher than the data from practice, but cannot be regarded as statistical outliers. This was considered as a conservative assessment; however, as additional nine TOC samples from visibly dirty surfaces were discarded from the analysis, as their loading made them impossible to process. Similarly, the recovery of test organisms from surfaces contaminated according to EN 13697 was higher than the TVC from visibly dirty surfaces in practice; though they could not be regarded as statistical outliers of the whole data field. No correlation was found between TVC and TOC in the sampled data, which re-emphasizes the potential presence of micro-organisms on visibly clean surfaces and thus the need for the same degree of disinfection as visibly dirty surfaces. The organic soil and the microbial burden used in EN disinfectant standards represent a realistic worst-case scenario for disinfectants used in the food service and food-processing areas.

  20. Evaluating radiative transfer schemes treatment of vegetation canopy architecture in land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braghiere, Renato; Quaife, Tristan; Black, Emily

    2016-04-01

    Incoming shortwave radiation is the primary source of energy driving the majority of the Earth's climate system. The partitioning of shortwave radiation by vegetation into absorbed, reflected, and transmitted terms is important for most of biogeophysical processes, including leaf temperature changes and photosynthesis, and it is currently calculated by most of land surface schemes (LSS) of climate and/or numerical weather prediction models. The most commonly used radiative transfer scheme in LSS is the two-stream approximation, however it does not explicitly account for vegetation architectural effects on shortwave radiation partitioning. Detailed three-dimensional (3D) canopy radiative transfer schemes have been developed, but they are too computationally expensive to address large-scale related studies over long time periods. Using a straightforward one-dimensional (1D) parameterisation proposed by Pinty et al. (2006), we modified a two-stream radiative transfer scheme by including a simple function of Sun zenith angle, so-called "structure factor", which does not require an explicit description and understanding of the complex phenomena arising from the presence of vegetation heterogeneous architecture, and it guarantees accurate simulations of the radiative balance consistently with 3D representations. In order to evaluate the ability of the proposed parameterisation in accurately represent the radiative balance of more complex 3D schemes, a comparison between the modified two-stream approximation with the "structure factor" parameterisation and state-of-art 3D radiative transfer schemes was conducted, following a set of virtual scenarios described in the RAMI4PILPS experiment. These experiments have been evaluating the radiative balance of several models under perfectly controlled conditions in order to eliminate uncertainties arising from an incomplete or erroneous knowledge of the structural, spectral and illumination related canopy characteristics typical

  1. Microbial nitrogen transformation potential in surface run-off leachate from a tropical landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangimbulude, Jubhar C.; Straalen, Nico M. van; Röling, Wilfred F.M.

    2012-01-01

    combination of nitrate reduction to nitrite and anammox. Such optimization of microbial nitrogen transformations can contribute to alleviating the ammonium discharge to surface water draining the landfill.

  2. A method to evaluate utility for architectural comparisons for a campaign to explore the surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Eric D.; Webb, Ryan R.; deWeck, Olivier L.

    2016-11-01

    There is a general consensus that Mars is the next high priority destination for human space exploration. There has been no lack of analysis and recommendations for human missions to Mars, including, for example, the NASA Design Reference Architectures and the Mars Direct proposal. These studies and others usually employ the traditional approach of selecting a baseline mission architecture and running individual trade studies. However, this can cause blind spots, as not all combinations are explored. An alternative approach is to holistically analyze the entire architectural trade-space such that all of the possible system interactions are identified and measured. In such a framework, an optimal design is sought by minimizing cost for maximal value. While cost is relatively easy to model for manned spaceflight, value is more difficult to define. In our efforts to develop a surface base architecture for the MIT Mars 2040 project, we explored several methods for quantifying value, including technology development benefits, challenge, and various metrics for measuring scientific return. We developed a science multi-score method that combines astrobiology and geologic research goals, which is weighted by the crew-member hours that can be used for scientific research rather than other activities.

  3. The impact of new cathode materials relative to baseline performance of microbial fuel cells all with the same architecture and solution chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Wulin

    2017-04-21

    Differences in microbial fuel cell (MFC) architectures, materials, and solution chemistries, have previously hindered direct comparisons of improvements in power production due to new cathode materials. However, one common reactor design has now been used in many different laboratories around the world under similar operating conditions based on using: a graphite fiber brush anode, a platinum cathode catalyst, a single-chamber cube-shaped (4-cm) MFC with a 3-cm diameter anolyte chamber, 50 mM phosphate buffer, and an acetate fuel. Analysis of several publications over 10 years from a single laboratory showed that even under such identical operational conditions, maximum power densities varied by 15%, with an average of 1.36 ± 0.20 W m–2 (n=24), normalized to cathode projected area (34 W m–3 liquid volume). In other laboratories, maximum power was significantly less, with an average of 1.03 ± 0.46 W m–2 (n=11), despite identical conditions. One likely reason for the differences in power is cathode age. Power production with Pt catalyst cathodes significantly declined after one month of operation or more to 0.87 ± 0.31 W m–2 (n=18) based on studies where cathode aging was examined, while in many studies the age of the cathode was not reported. Using these studies as a performance baseline, we review the claims of improvements in power generation due to new anode or cathode materials, or changes in solution conductivities and substrates.

  4. Microbial activities and dissolved organic matter dynamics in oil-contaminated surface seawater from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ziervogel

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon oil spill triggered a complex cascade of microbial responses that reshaped the dynamics of heterotrophic carbon degradation and the turnover of dissolved organic carbon (DOC in oil contaminated waters. Our results from 21-day laboratory incubations in rotating glass bottles (roller bottles demonstrate that microbial dynamics and carbon flux in oil-contaminated surface water sampled near the spill site two weeks after the onset of the blowout were greatly affected by activities of microbes associated with macroscopic oil aggregates. Roller bottles with oil-amended water showed rapid formation of oil aggregates that were similar in size and appearance compared to oil aggregates observed in surface waters near the spill site. Oil aggregates that formed in roller bottles were densely colonized by heterotrophic bacteria, exhibiting high rates of enzymatic activity (lipase hydrolysis indicative of oil degradation. Ambient waters surrounding aggregates also showed enhanced microbial activities not directly associated with primary oil-degradation (β-glucosidase; peptidase, as well as a twofold increase in DOC. Concurrent changes in fluorescence properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM suggest an increase in oil-derived, aromatic hydrocarbons in the DOC pool. Thus our data indicate that oil aggregates mediate, by two distinct mechanisms, the transfer of hydrocarbons to the deep sea: a microbially-derived flux of oil-derived DOC from sinking oil aggregates into the ambient water column, and rapid sedimentation of the oil aggregates themselves, serving as vehicles for oily particulate matter as well as oil aggregate-associated microbial communities.

  5. Performance assessment and microbial diversity of two pilot scale multi-stage sub-surface flow constructed wetland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatunde, A O; Miranda-CasoLuengo, Raul; Imtiaz, Mehreen; Zhao, Y Q; Meijer, Wim G

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the performance and diversity of microbial communities in multi-stage sub-surface flow constructed wetland systems (CWs). Our aim was to assess the impact of configuration on treatment performance and microbial diversity in the systems. Results indicate that at loading rates up to 100gBOD5/(m(2)·day), similar treatment performances can be achieved using either a 3 or 4 stage configuration. In the case of phosphorus (P), the impact of configuration was less obvious and a minimum of 80% P removal can be expected for loadings up to 10gP/(m(2)·day) based on the performance results obtained within the first 16months of operation. Microbial analysis showed an increased bacterial diversity in stage four compared to the first stage. These results indicate that the design and configuration of multi-stage constructed wetland systems may have an impact on the treatment performance and the composition of the microbial community in the systems, and such knowledge can be used to improve their design and performance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Cooperation in carbon source degradation shapes spatial self-organization of microbial consortia on hydrated surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Tecon, Robin; Or, Dani

    2017-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that natural microbial communities exhibit a high level of spatial organization at the micrometric scale that facilitate ecological interactions and support biogeochemical cycles. Microbial patterns are difficult to study definitively in natural environments due to complex biodiversity, observability and variable physicochemical factors. Here, we examine how trophic dependencies give rise to self-organized spatial patterns of a well-defined bacterial consortium grow...

  7. Engineering the Surface/Interface Structures of Titanium Dioxide Micro and Nano Architectures towards Environmental and Electrochemical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 materials have been intensively studied in the past years because of many varied applications. This mini review article focuses on TiO2 micro and nano architectures with the prevalent crystal structures (anatase, rutile, brookite, and TiO2(B, and summarizes the major advances in the surface and interface engineering and applications in environmental and electrochemical applications. We analyze the advantages of surface/interface engineered TiO2 micro and nano structures, and present the principles and growth mechanisms of TiO2 nanostructures via different strategies, with an emphasis on rational control of the surface and interface structures. We further discuss the applications of TiO2 micro and nano architectures in photocatalysis, lithium/sodium ion batteries, and Li–S batteries. Throughout the discussion, the relationship between the device performance and the surface/interface structures of TiO2 micro and nano structures will be highlighted. Then, we discuss the phase transitions of TiO2 nanostructures and possible strategies of improving the phase stability. The review concludes with a perspective on the current challenges and future research directions.

  8. Rapid microbial respiration of oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in offshore surface waters of the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Bethanie R; Reddy, Christopher M; Carmichael, Catherine A; Longnecker, Krista; Van Mooy, Benjamin A S; Camilli, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was one of the largest oil spills in history, and the fate of this oil within the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem remains to be fully understood. The goal of this study-conducted in mid-June of 2010, approximately two months after the oil spill began-was to understand the key role that microbes would play in the degradation of the oil in the offshore oligotrophic surface waters near the Deepwater Horizon site. As the utilization of organic carbon by bacteria in the surface waters of the Gulf had been previously shown to be phosphorus limited, we hypothesized that bacteria would be unable to rapidly utilize the oil released from the Macondo well. Although phosphate was scarce throughout the sampling region and microbes exhibited enzymatic signs of phosphate stress within the oil slick, microbial respiration within the slick was enhanced by approximately a factor of five. An incubation experiment to determine hydrocarbon degradation rates confirmed that a large fraction of this enhanced respiration was supported by hydrocarbon degradation. Extrapolating our observations to the entire area of the slick suggests that microbes had the potential to degrade a large fraction of the oil as it arrived at the surface from the well. These observations decidedly refuted our hypothesis. However, a concomitant increase in microbial abundance or biomass was not observed in the slick, suggesting that microbial growth was nutrient limited; incubations amended with nutrients showed rapid increases in cell number and biomass, which supported this conclusion. Our study shows that the dynamic microbial community of the Gulf of Mexico supported remarkable rates of oil respiration, despite a dearth of dissolved nutrients.

  9. Limitations on Inferring 3D Architecture and Dynamics From Surface Velocities in the India-Eurasia Collision Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, L.; Bendick, R.; Bischoff, S.

    2018-02-01

    Surface velocities derived from Global Positioning System observations and Quaternary fault slip rates measured throughout an extended region of high topography in South Asia vary smoothly over thousands of kilometers and are broadly symmetrical, with components of both north-south shortening and east-west extension relative to stable Eurasia. The observed velocity field does not contain discontinuities or steep gradients attributable to along-strike differences in collision architecture, despite the well-documented presence of a lithospheric slab beneath the Pamir but not the Tibetan Plateau. We use a modified Akaike information criterion (AICc) to show that surface velocities do not efficiently constrain 3D rheology, geometry, or force balance. Therefore, although other geophysical and geological observations may indicate the presence of mechanical or dynamic heterogeneities within the Indian-Asian collision, the surface Global Positioning System velocities contain little or no usable information about them.

  10. Controlled lecithin release from a hierarchical architecture on blood-contacting surface to reduce hemolysis of stored red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiang; Fan, Qunfu; Ye, Wei; Hou, Jianwen; Wong, Shing-Chung; Xu, Xiaodong; Yin, Jinghua

    2014-06-25

    Hemolysis of red blood cells (RBCs) caused by implant devices in vivo and nonpolyvinyl chloride containers for RBC preservation in vitro has recently gained much attention. To develop blood-contacting biomaterials with long-term antihemolysis capability, we present a facile method to construct a hydrophilic, 3D hierarchical architecture on the surface of styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene elastomer (SEBS) with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)/lecithin nano/microfibers. The strategy is based on electrospinning of PEO/lecithin fibers onto the surface of poly [poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate] [P(PEGMEMA)]-modified SEBS, which renders SEBS suitable for RBC storage in vitro. We demonstrate that the constructed 3D architecture is composed of hydrophilic micro- and nanofibers, which transforms to hydrogel networks immediately in blood; the controlled release of lecithin is achieved by gradual dissolution of PEO/lecithin hydrogels, and the interaction of lecithin with RBCs maintains the membrane flexibility and normal RBC shape. Thus, the blood-contacting surface reduces both mechanical and oxidative damage to RBC membranes, resulting in low hemolysis of preserved RBCs. This work not only paves new way to fabricate high hemocompatible biomaterials for RBC storage in vitro, but provides basic principles to design and develop antihemolysis biomaterials for implantation in vivo.

  11. Newly developed surface coil for endoluminal MRI, depiction of pig gastric wall layers and vascular architecture in ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yoshinori; Kutsumi, Hiromu; Yoshinaka, Hayato; Matsuoka, Yuichiro; Kuroda, Kagayaki; Gotanda, Masakazu; Sekino, Naomi; Kumamoto, Etsuko; Yoshida, Masaru; Inokuchi, Hideto; Azuma, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to visualize the gastric wall layers and to depict the vascular architecture in vitro by using resected porcine stomachs studied with high-spatial resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Normal dissected porcine stomach samples (n = 4) were examined with a 3 Tesla MR system using a newly developed surface coil. MR images were obtained by the surface coil as receiver and a head coil as transmitter. High-spatial-resolution spin-echo MR images were obtained with a field of view of 8 x 8 cm, a matrix of 256 x 128 and slice thicknesses of 3 and 5 mm. T1 and T2-weighted MR images clearly depicted the normal porcine gastric walls as consisting of four distinct layers. In addition, vascular architectures in proper muscle layers were also visualized, which were confirmed by histological examinations to correspond to blood vessels. High-spatial-resolution MR imaging using a surface coil placed closely to the gastric wall enabled the differentiation of porcine gastric wall layers and the depiction of the blood vessels in proper muscle layer in this experimental study.

  12. Newly developed surface coil for endoluminal MRI, depiction of pig gastric wall layers and vascular architecture in ex vivo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Yoshinori; Kutsumi, Hiromu; Yoshinaka, Hayato

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to visualize the gastric wall layers and to depict the vascular architecture in vitro by using resected porcine stomachs studied with high-spatial resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Normal dissected porcine stomach samples (n=4) were examined with a 3 Tesla MR system using a newly developed surface coil. MR images were obtained by the surface coil as receiver and a head coil as transmitter. High-spatial-resolution spin-echo MR images were obtained with a field of view of 8 x 8 cm, a matrix of 256 x 128 and slice thicknesses of 3 and 5 mm. T1 and T2-weighted MR images clearly depicted the normal porcine gastric walls as consisting of four distinct layers. In addition, vascular architectures in proper muscle layers were also visualized, which were confirmed by histological examinations to correspond to blood vessels. High-spatial-resolution MR imaging using a surface coil placed closely to the gastric wall enabled the differentiation of porcine gastric wall layers and the depiction of the blood vessels in proper muscle layer in this experimental study. (author)

  13. Surface Area Expansion of Electrodes with Grass-like Nanostructures to Enhance Electricity Generation in Microbial Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Atraktchi, Fatima Al-Zahraa; Zhang, Yifeng; Noori, Jafar Safaa

    2012-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have applications possibilities for wastewater treatment, biotransformation, and biosensor, but the development of highly efficient electrode materials is critical for enhancing the power generation. Two types of electrodes modified with nanoparticles or grass-like nan......Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have applications possibilities for wastewater treatment, biotransformation, and biosensor, but the development of highly efficient electrode materials is critical for enhancing the power generation. Two types of electrodes modified with nanoparticles or grass...... of plain silicium showed a maximum power density of 86.0 mW/m2. Further expanding the surface area of carbon paper electrodes with gold nanoparticles resulted in a maximum stable power density of 346.9 mW/m2 which is 2.9 times higher than that achieved with conventional carbon paper. These results show...

  14. Variation in PAH inputs and microbial community in surface sediments of Hamilton Harbour: Implications to remediation and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, G.F.; Cowie, B.R.; Harper, N.; Droppo, I.G.

    2008-01-01

    Variations in concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and microbial community indicators were investigated in representative highly contaminated and less contaminated surface sediment sites of Hamilton Harbour. Inputs of PAH to the upper 3 cm of sediments up to four times the average upper sediment concentrations were observed. Associated PAH fingerprint profiles indicated that the source was consistent with the PAH source to the industrial region of the harbour. Increased PAH loadings were associated with decreased bacterial populations as indicated by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) concentrations. However, relatively minor impacts on overall community composition were indicated. Porewater methane concentrations and isotopic data indicated a difference in the occurrence of methane oxidation between the two sites. This study confirms temporally limited transport of contaminants from highly impacted regions as a vector for contaminants within the harbour and the impact on microbial carbon cycling and bed stability. - Variations in PAH inputs to harbour sediments have implications to implementation and monitoring of mitigation/remediation efforts

  15. Beneath the surface of the heritage enterprise. Governmentality and cultural representation of rural architecture in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Luís

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the construction of heritage in rural Portugal. Drawing on anthropological fieldwork in the village of Castelo Rodrigo, it analyses the extensive protection and exhibition of domestic architecture in the framework of a State-led local development programme. By bringing in the messiness of daily practices, the article goes beyond neat theoretical formulations in the study of heritage such as Foucault’s theory of “governmentality” and Kirshenblatt-Gimblett’s notion of “s...

  16. Bacteria at glacier surfaces: microbial community structures in debris covered glaciers and cryoconites in the Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzoni, Roberto; Franzetti, Andrea; Ambrosini, Roberto; D'Agata, Carlo; Senese, Antonella; Minora, Umberto; Tagliaferri, Ilario; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina

    2014-05-01

    Supraglacial debris has an important role in the glacier energy budget and has strong influence on the glacial ecosystem. Sediment derives generally from rock inputs from nesting rockwalls and are abundant and continuous at the surface of debris-covered glaciers (i.e. DCGs; glaciers where the ablation area is mainly covered by rock debris) and sparse and fine on debris-free glaciers (DFGs). Recently, evidence for significant tongue darkening on retreating debris-free glaciers has been drawing increasing attention. Fine particles, the cryoconite, are locally abundant and may form cryoconite holes that are water-filled depressions on the surface of DFGs that form when a thin layer of cryoconite is heated by the sun and melts the underlying ice. There is increasing evidence that cryoconite holes also host highly diverse microbial communities and can significantly contribute to global carbon cycle. However, there is almost no study on microbial communities of the debris cover of DCGs and there is a lack of data from the temporal evolution of the microbial communities in the cryoconites. To fill these gaps in our knowledge we characterized the supraglacial debris of two Italian DCGs and we investigated the temporal evolution of microbial communities on cryoconite holes in DFG. We used the Illumina technology to analyse the V5 and V6 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplified from samples collected distances from the terminus of two DCGs (Miage and Belvedere Glaciers - Western Italian Alps). Heterotrophic taxa dominated bacterial communities, whose structure changed during downwards debris transport. Organic carbon of these recently exposed substrates therefore is probably provided more by allochthonous deposition of organic matter than by primary production by autotrophic organisms. We used ARISA fingerprinting and quantitative PCR to describe the structure and the evolution of the microbial communities and to estimate the number of the total

  17. Influence of Additive Manufactured Scaffold Architecture on the Distribution of Surface Strains and Fluid Flow Shear Stresses and Expected Osteochondral Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikson, Wim J; Deegan, Anthony J; Yang, Ying; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Verdonschot, Nico; Moroni, Lorenzo; Rouwkema, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    Scaffolds for regenerative medicine applications should instruct cells with the appropriate signals, including biophysical stimuli such as stress and strain, to form the desired tissue. Apart from that, scaffolds, especially for load-bearing applications, should be capable of providing mechanical stability. Since both scaffold strength and stress-strain distributions throughout the scaffold depend on the scaffold's internal architecture, it is important to understand how changes in architecture influence these parameters. In this study, four scaffold designs with different architectures were produced using additive manufacturing. The designs varied in fiber orientation, while fiber diameter, spacing, and layer height remained constant. Based on micro-CT (μCT) scans, finite element models (FEMs) were derived for finite element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). FEA of scaffold compression was validated using μCT scan data of compressed scaffolds. Results of the FEA and CFD showed a significant impact of scaffold architecture on fluid shear stress and mechanical strain distribution. The average fluid shear stress ranged from 3.6 mPa for a 0/90 architecture to 6.8 mPa for a 0/90 offset architecture, and the surface shear strain from 0.0096 for a 0/90 offset architecture to 0.0214 for a 0/90 architecture. This subsequently resulted in variations of the predicted cell differentiation stimulus values on the scaffold surface. Fluid shear stress was mainly influenced by pore shape and size, while mechanical strain distribution depended mainly on the presence or absence of supportive columns in the scaffold architecture. Together, these results corroborate that scaffold architecture can be exploited to design scaffolds with regions that guide specific tissue development under compression and perfusion. In conjunction with optimization of stimulation regimes during bioreactor cultures, scaffold architecture optimization can be used to improve

  18. Microbial Communities and Organic Matter Composition in Surface and Subsurface Sediments of the Helgoland Mud Area, North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oni, Oluwatobi E.; Schmidt, Frauke; Miyatake, Tetsuro; Kasten, Sabine; Witt, Matthias; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Friedrich, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    The role of microorganisms in the cycling of sedimentary organic carbon is a crucial one. To better understand relationships between molecular composition of a potentially bioavailable fraction of organic matter and microbial populations, bacterial and archaeal communities were characterized using pyrosequencing-based 16S rRNA gene analysis in surface (top 30 cm) and subsurface/deeper sediments (30–530 cm) of the Helgoland mud area, North Sea. Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was used to characterize a potentially bioavailable organic matter fraction (hot-water extractable organic matter, WE-OM). Algal polymer-associated microbial populations such as members of the Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Verrucomicrobia were dominant in surface sediments while members of the Chloroflexi (Dehalococcoidales and candidate order GIF9) and Miscellaneous Crenarchaeota Groups (MCG), both of which are linked to degradation of more recalcitrant, aromatic compounds and detrital proteins, were dominant in subsurface sediments. Microbial populations dominant in subsurface sediments (Chloroflexi, members of MCG, and Thermoplasmata) showed strong correlations to total organic carbon (TOC) content. Changes of WE-OM with sediment depth reveal molecular transformations from oxygen-rich [high oxygen to carbon (O/C), low hydrogen to carbon (H/C) ratios] aromatic compounds and highly unsaturated compounds toward compounds with lower O/C and higher H/C ratios. The observed molecular changes were most pronounced in organic compounds containing only CHO atoms. Our data thus, highlights classes of sedimentary organic compounds that may serve as microbial energy sources in methanic marine subsurface environments. PMID:26635758

  19. Microbial Functional Diversity, Biomass and Activity as Affected by Soil Surface Mulching in a Semiarid Farmland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufang Shen

    Full Text Available Mulching is widely used to increase crop yield in semiarid regions in northwestern China, but little is known about the effect of different mulching systems on the microbial properties of the soil, which play an important role in agroecosystemic functioning and nutrient cycling. Based on a 4-year spring maize (Zea mays L. field experiment at Changwu Agricultural and Ecological Experimental Station, Shaanxi, we evaluated the responses of soil microbial activity and crop to various management systems. The treatments were NMC (no mulching with inorganic N fertilizer, GMC (gravel mulching with inorganic N fertilizer, FMC (plastic-film mulching with inorganic N fertilizer and FMO (plastic-film mulching with inorganic N fertilizer and organic manure addition. The results showed that the FMO soil had the highest contents of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, dehydrogenase activity, microbial activity and Shannon diversity index. The relative use of carbohydrates and amino acids by microbes was highest in the FMO soil, whereas the relative use of polymers, phenolic compounds and amines was highest in the soil in the NMC soil. Compared with the NMC, an increased but no significant trend of biomass production and nitrogen accumulation was observed under the GMC treatment. The FMC and FMO led a greater increase in biomass production than GMC and NMC. Compare with the NMC treatment, FMC increased grain yield, maize biomass and nitrogen accumulation by 62.2, 62.9 and 86.2%, but no significant difference was found between the FMO and FMC treatments. Some soil biological properties, i.e. microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, being sensitive to the mulching and organic fertilizer, were significant correlated with yield and nitrogen availability. Film mulching over gravel mulching can serve as an effective measure for crop production and nutrient cycling, and plus organic fertilization additions may thus have improvements in the biological

  20. Characterization of the cell surface properties of drinking water pathogens by microbial adhesion to hydrocarbon and electrophoretic mobility measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovici, Jonathan; White, Colin P; Hoelle, Jill; Kinkle, Brian K; Lytle, Darren A

    2014-06-01

    The surface characteristics of microbial cells directly influence their mobility and behavior within aqueous environments. The cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) and electrophoretic mobility (EPM) of microbial cells impact a number of interactions and processes including aggregation, adhesion to surfaces, and stability of the cells within the aqueous environments. These cell characteristics are unique to the bacterial species and are a reflection of the large diversity of surface structures, proteins, and appendages of microorganisms. CSH and EPM of bacterial cells contribute substantially to the effectiveness of drinking water treatment to remove them, and therefore an investigation of these properties will be useful in predicting their removal through drinking water treatment processes and transport through drinking water distribution systems. EPM and CSH measurements of six microbiological pathogen or surrogate species suspended in phosphate-buffered water are reported in this work. Two strains of Vibrio cholerae were hydrophobic, while three strains of Escherichia coli were hydrophilic. Bacillus cereus was categorized as moderately hydrophobic. The strains of E. coli had the highest (most negative) EPM. Based on the measurements, E. coli species is predicted to be most difficult to remove from water while V. cholerae will be the easiest to remove. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduction of microbial contamination and improvement of germination of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) seeds via surface dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrico, Paolo F.; Šimek, Milan; Morano, Massimo; De Miccolis Angelini, Rita M.; Minafra, Angelantonio; Trotti, Pasquale; Ambrico, Marianna; Prukner, Václav; Faretra, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    Naturally contaminated basil seeds were treated by a surface dielectric barrier discharge driven in the humid air by an amplitude modulated AC high voltage to avoid heat shock. In order to avoid direct contact of seeds with microdischarge filaments, the seeds to be treated were placed at sufficient distance from the surface discharge. After treatment, the seeds were analyzed in comparison with control samples for their microbial contamination as well as for the capability of germination and seedling growth. Moreover, chemical modification of seed surface was observed through the elemental energy dispersive x-ray analysis and wettability tests. We found that treatment applied at 20% duty cycle (effective discharge duration up to 20 s) significantly decreases microbial load without reducing the viability of the seeds. On the other side, seedling growth was considerably accelerated after the treatment, and biometric growth parameters of seedlings (total length, weight, leaf extension) considerably increased compared to the controls. Interestingly, scanning electron microscopy images taken for the different duration of treatment revealed that seed radicle micropylar regions underwent significant morphological changes while the coat was substantially undamaged. Inside the seed, the embryo seemed to be well preserved while the endosperm body was detached from the epithelial tegument. A total of 9 different genera of fungi were recovered from the analyzed seeds. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that conidia were localized especially in the micropylar region, and after plasma treatment, most of them showed substantial damages. Therefore, the overall effect of the treatment of naturally contaminated seeds by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species produced by plasma and the consequent changes in surface chemistry and microbial load can significantly improve seed vigor.

  2. Reduction of microbial contamination and improvement of germination of sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.) seeds via surface dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrico, Paolo F; Ambrico, Marianna; Šimek, Milan; Prukner, Václav; Morano, Massimo; De Miccolis Angelini, Rita M; Trotti, Pasquale; Faretra, Francesco; Minafra, Angelantonio

    2017-01-01

    Naturally contaminated basil seeds were treated by a surface dielectric barrier discharge driven in the humid air by an amplitude modulated AC high voltage to avoid heat shock. In order to avoid direct contact of seeds with microdischarge filaments, the seeds to be treated were placed at sufficient distance from the surface discharge. After treatment, the seeds were analyzed in comparison with control samples for their microbial contamination as well as for the capability of germination and seedling growth. Moreover, chemical modification of seed surface was observed through the elemental energy dispersive x-ray analysis and wettability tests. We found that treatment applied at 20% duty cycle (effective discharge duration up to 20 s) significantly decreases microbial load without reducing the viability of the seeds. On the other side, seedling growth was considerably accelerated after the treatment, and biometric growth parameters of seedlings (total length, weight, leaf extension) considerably increased compared to the controls. Interestingly, scanning electron microscopy images taken for the different duration of treatment revealed that seed radicle micropylar regions underwent significant morphological changes while the coat was substantially undamaged. Inside the seed, the embryo seemed to be well preserved while the endosperm body was detached from the epithelial tegument. A total of 9 different genera of fungi were recovered from the analyzed seeds. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that conidia were localized especially in the micropylar region, and after plasma treatment, most of them showed substantial damages. Therefore, the overall effect of the treatment of naturally contaminated seeds by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species produced by plasma and the consequent changes in surface chemistry and microbial load can significantly improve seed vigor. (paper)

  3. Effects of synthetic cohesin-containing scaffold protein architecture on binding dockerin-enzyme fusions on the surface of Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieczorek Andrew S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The microbial synthesis of fuels, commodity chemicals, and bioactive compounds necessitates the assemblage of multiple enzyme activities to carry out sequential chemical reactions, often via substrate channeling by means of multi-domain or multi-enzyme complexes. Engineering the controlled incorporation of enzymes in recombinant protein complexes is therefore of interest. The cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum is an extracellular enzyme complex that efficiently hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose. Enzymes interact with protein scaffolds via type 1 dockerin/cohesin interactions, while scaffolds in turn bind surface anchor proteins by means of type 2 dockerin/cohesin interactions, which demonstrate a different binding specificity than their type 1 counterparts. Recombinant chimeric scaffold proteins containing cohesins of different specificity allow binding of multiple enzymes to specific sites within an engineered complex. Results We report the successful display of engineered chimeric scaffold proteins containing both type 1 and type 2 cohesins on the surface of Lactococcus lactis cells. The chimeric scaffold proteins were able to form complexes with the Escherichia coli β-glucuronidase fused to either type 1 or type 2 dockerin, and differences in binding efficiencies were correlated with scaffold architecture. We used E. coli β-galactosidase, also fused to type 1 or type 2 dockerins, to demonstrate the targeted incorporation of two enzymes into the complexes. The simultaneous binding of enzyme pairs each containing a different dockerin resulted in bi-enzymatic complexes tethered to the cell surface. The sequential binding of the two enzymes yielded insights into parameters affecting assembly of the complex such as protein size and position within the scaffold. Conclusions The spatial organization of enzymes into complexes is an important strategy for increasing the efficiency of biochemical pathways. In this study

  4. Shifts in microbial community structure and function in surface waters impacted by unconventional oil and gas wastewater revealed by metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenfeld, N.L.; Reyes, Hannah Delos; Eramo, Alessia; Akob, Denise M.; Mumford, Adam; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2017-01-01

    Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) production produces large quantities of wastewater with complex geochemistry and largely uncharacterized impacts on surface waters. In this study, we assessed shifts in microbial community structure and function in sediments and waters upstream and downstream from a UOG wastewater disposal facility. To do this, quantitative PCR for 16S rRNA and antibiotic resistance genes along with metagenomic sequencing were performed. Elevated conductivity and markers of UOG wastewater characterized sites sampled downstream from the disposal facility compared to background sites. Shifts in overall high level functions and microbial community structure were observed between background sites and downstream sediments. Increases in Deltaproteobacteria and Methanomicrobia and decreases in Thaumarchaeota were observed at downstream sites. Genes related to dormancy and sporulation and methanogenic respiration were 18–86 times higher at downstream, impacted sites. The potential for these sediments to serve as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance was investigated given frequent reports of the use of biocides to control the growth of nuisance bacteria in UOG operations. A shift in resistance profiles downstream of the UOG facility was observed including increases in acrB and mexB genes encoding for multidrug efflux pumps, but not overall abundance of resistance genes. The observed shifts in microbial community structure and potential function indicate changes in respiration, nutrient cycling, and markers of stress in a stream impacted by UOG waste disposal operations.

  5. Identification of a Supramolecular Functional Architecture of Streptococcus mutans Adhesin P1 on the Bacterial Cell Surface*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Kyle P.; Sullan, Ruby May A.; Crowley, Paula J.; El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Tang, Wenxing; Besingi, Richard; Dufrene, Yves F.; Brady, L. Jeannine

    2015-01-01

    P1 (antigen I/II) is a sucrose-independent adhesin of Streptococcus mutans whose functional architecture on the cell surface is not fully understood. S. mutans cells subjected to mechanical extraction were significantly diminished in adherence to immobilized salivary agglutinin but remained immunoreactive and were readily aggregated by fluid-phase salivary agglutinin. Bacterial adherence was restored by incubation of postextracted cells with P1 fragments that contain each of the two known adhesive domains. In contrast to untreated cells, glutaraldehyde-treated bacteria gained reactivity with anti-C-terminal monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), whereas epitopes recognized by mAbs against other portions of the molecule were masked. Surface plasmon resonance experiments demonstrated the ability of apical and C-terminal fragments of P1 to interact. Binding of several different anti-P1 mAbs to unfixed cells triggered release of a C-terminal fragment from the bacterial surface, suggesting a novel mechanism of action of certain adherence-inhibiting antibodies. We also used atomic force microscopy-based single molecule force spectroscopy with tips bearing various mAbs to elucidate the spatial organization and orientation of P1 on living bacteria. The similar rupture lengths detected using mAbs against the head and C-terminal regions, which are widely separated in the tertiary structure, suggest a higher order architecture in which these domains are in close proximity on the cell surface. Taken together, our results suggest a supramolecular organization in which additional P1 polypeptides, including the C-terminal segment originally identified as antigen II, associate with covalently attached P1 to form the functional adhesive layer. PMID:25666624

  6. Identification of a supramolecular functional architecture of Streptococcus mutans adhesin P1 on the bacterial cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Kyle P; Sullan, Ruby May A; Crowley, Paula J; El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Tang, Wenxing; Besingi, Richard; Dufrene, Yves F; Brady, L Jeannine

    2015-04-03

    P1 (antigen I/II) is a sucrose-independent adhesin of Streptococcus mutans whose functional architecture on the cell surface is not fully understood. S. mutans cells subjected to mechanical extraction were significantly diminished in adherence to immobilized salivary agglutinin but remained immunoreactive and were readily aggregated by fluid-phase salivary agglutinin. Bacterial adherence was restored by incubation of postextracted cells with P1 fragments that contain each of the two known adhesive domains. In contrast to untreated cells, glutaraldehyde-treated bacteria gained reactivity with anti-C-terminal monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), whereas epitopes recognized by mAbs against other portions of the molecule were masked. Surface plasmon resonance experiments demonstrated the ability of apical and C-terminal fragments of P1 to interact. Binding of several different anti-P1 mAbs to unfixed cells triggered release of a C-terminal fragment from the bacterial surface, suggesting a novel mechanism of action of certain adherence-inhibiting antibodies. We also used atomic force microscopy-based single molecule force spectroscopy with tips bearing various mAbs to elucidate the spatial organization and orientation of P1 on living bacteria. The similar rupture lengths detected using mAbs against the head and C-terminal regions, which are widely separated in the tertiary structure, suggest a higher order architecture in which these domains are in close proximity on the cell surface. Taken together, our results suggest a supramolecular organization in which additional P1 polypeptides, including the C-terminal segment originally identified as antigen II, associate with covalently attached P1 to form the functional adhesive layer. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Examining microbial community response to a strong chemical gradient: the effects of surface coal mining on stream bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, R.; Lindberg, T. T.; Wang, S.; Ellis, J. C.; Di Giulio, R. T.; Bernhardt, E. S.

    2012-12-01

    Surface coal mining is the dominant form of land cover change in northern and central Appalachia. In this process, shallow coal seams are exposed by removing overlying rock with explosives. The resulting fragmented carbonate rock and coal residues are disposed of in stream valleys. These valley fills generate alkaline mine drainage (AlkMD), dramatically increasing alkalinity, ionic strength, substrate supply (esp. SO42-), and trace element (Mn, Li, Se, U) concentrations in downstream rivers as well as significant losses of sensitive fish and macroinvertebrate species. In prior work within the Mud River, which drains the largest surface mine complex in Appalachia, we found that concentrations of AlkMD increase proportionally with the extent of upstream mining. Here we ask "How do stream microbial communities change along this strong chemical gradient?" We collected surface water and benthic biofilms from 25 stream reaches throughout the Mud River spanning the full range of surface mining impacts, with 0-96% of the contributing watershed area converted to surface coal mines. Microbial communities were collected from biofilms grown on a common substrate (red maple veneers) that were incubated in each stream reach for four months prior to collection in April, 2011. 16S rRNA genes from microbial communities at each study site were examined using 454 sequencing and compared with a generalized UniFrac distance matrix (674 sequence eveness) that was used in statistical analyses. Water chemistry at the sites was sampled monthly from July 2010 to December 2010 and again in April 2011. In April, surface water concentrations of SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Se2- increased linearly with the extent of upstream mining (all regressions R2 >0.43; pPERMANOVA; p=0.029). Bacterial diversity (OTU richness defined at 3% sequence difference) peaked at intermediate conductivities (600 μS cm-1). Environmental data that correlated significantly with the ordination axes were a variety of surface

  8. Detrital floc and surface soil microbial biomarker responses to active management of the nutrient impacted Florida everglades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, Brent J; Hagerthey, Scot E; Newman, Susan; Cook, Mark I

    2012-11-01

    Alterations in microbial community composition, biomass, and function in the Florida Everglades impacted by cultural eutrophication reflect a new physicochemical environment associated with monotypic stands of Typha domingensis. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarkers were used to quantify microbial responses in detritus and surface soils in an active management experiment in the eutrophic Everglades. Creation of open plots through removal of Typha altered the physical and chemical characteristics of the region. Mass of PLFA biomarkers increased in open plots, but magnitude of changes differed among microbial groups. Biomarkers indicative of Gram-negative bacteria and fungi were significantly greater in open plots, reflective of the improved oxic environment. Reduction in the proportion of cyclopropyl lipids and the ratio of Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacteria in open plots further suggested an altered oxygen environment and conditions for the rapid growth of Gram-negative bacteria. Changes in the PLFA composition were greater in floc relative to soils, reflective of rapid inputs of new organic matter and direct interaction with the new physicochemical environment. Created open plot microbial mass and composition were significantly different from the oligotrophic Everglades due to differences in phosphorus availability, plant community structure, and a shift to organic peat from marl-peat soils. PLFA analysis also captured the dynamic inter-annual hydrologic variability, notably in PLFA concentrations, but to a lesser degree content. Recently, use of concentration has been advocated over content in studies of soil biogeochemistry, and our results highlight the differential response of these two quantitative measures to similar pressures.

  9. Yet Another Lunar Surface Geologic Exploration Architecture Concept (What, Again?): A Senior Field Geologist's Integrated View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, D. B.

    2015-01-01

    Lunar surface geological exploration should be founded on a number of key elements that are seemingly disparate, but which can form an integrated operational concept when properly conceived and deployed. If lunar surface geological exploration is to be useful, this integration of key elements needs to be undertaken throughout the development of both mission hardware, training and operational concepts. These elements include the concept of mission class, crew makeup and training, surface mobility assets that are matched with mission class, and field tools and IT assets that make data collection, sharing and archiving transparent to the surface crew.

  10. Ionic self-assembly of surface functionalized metal-organic polyhedra nanocages and their ordered honeycomb architecture at the air/water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yantao; Zhang, Daojun; Gai, Fangyuan; Zhu, Xingqi; Guo, Ya-nan; Ma, Tianliang; Liu, Yunling; Huo, Qisheng

    2012-08-18

    Metal-organic polyhedra (MOP) nanocages were successfully surface functionalized via ionic self-assembly and the ordered honeycomb architecture of the encapsulated MOP nanocages was also fabricated at the air/water surface. The results provide a novel synthetic method and membrane processing technique of amphiphilic MOP nanocages for various applications.

  11. Excavating the Role of Aloe Vera Wrapped Mesoporous Hydroxyapatite Frame Ornamentation in Newly Architectured Polyurethane Scaffolds for Osteogenesis and Guided Bone Regeneration with Microbial Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, M; Pawar, Harpreet Singh; Francis, Nimmy K; Das, Bodhisatwa; Dhara, Santanu; Chattopadhyay, Santanu

    2016-03-09

    scaffold compared to pristine SPU scaffold. Organ toxicity studies further confirm the absence of appreciable tissue architecture abnormalities in the renal hepatic and cardiac tissue sections. The entire results of this study manifest the feasibility of fabricating a mechanically adequate tailored nanofibrous SPU scaffold based on combinatorial soft segments of PCL, PEC, and PDMS by a biomimetic approach and the advantages of an Aloe vera wrapped mHA frame in promoting osteoblast phenotype progression with microbial protection for potential GBR applications.

  12. Bacterial sulfur cycle shapes microbial communities in surface sediments of an ultramafic hydrothermal vent field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauer, Regina; Røy, Hans; Augustin, Nico

    2011-01-01

    RNA sequence analysis, was characterized by the capability to metabolize sulfur components. High sulfate reduction rates as well as sulfide depleted in (34)S further confirmed the importance of the biogeochemical sulfur cycle. In contrast, methane was found to be of minor relevance for microbial life in mat......, these sediments were investigated in order to determine biogeochemical processes and key organisms relevant for primary production. Temperature profiling at two mat-covered sites showed a conductive heating of the sediments. Elemental sulfur was detected in the overlying mat and metal-sulfides in the upper...

  13. Surface topography and ultrastructural architecture of the tegument of adult Carmyerius spatiosus Brandes, 1898.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuracpreeda, Panat; Phutong, Sumittra; Ngamniyom, Arin; Panyarachun, Busaba; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-03-01

    Adult Carmyerius spatiosus or stomach fluke has an elongate, cylindrical-shaped, straight to slightly curved body, with conical anterior end and truncated posterior end. The worm measures about 8.7-11.2mm in body length and 2.3-3.0mm in body width across the mid-section. When observed by SEM, the tegumental surface in all part of the body appears highly corrugated with ridges and furrows, and having no spines. The ventral surface has more complex corrugation than those of the dorsal surface. Both anterior and posterior suckers have thick edges covered with transverse folds and appear spineless. The genital pore is located at the anterior part of the body. There are two types of sensory papillae on the surface: type 1 is bulbous in shape with nipple-like tips; type 2 has a similar shape with short cilia on the tip. The dorsal surface exhibits similar surface features, but papillae appear less numerous and are smaller. When observed by TEM, the tegument is divided into four layers. The first layer includes the ridges and furrows which are covered by a trilaminate membrane underlined by a dense lamina and coated externally with the glycocalyx. The second layer of the tegument is a narrow region of cytoplasm that contains high concentrations of ovoid electron lucent tegumental granules (TG1), and disc-shaped electron dense tegumental granules (TG2) as well as lysosomes. TG1 close to the surface invariably exocytose their content into bottoms of the ridges, while some TG2 are fused and have their membrane joined up with the surface membrane. The third layer is the widest middle area of the tegument which contains numerous and evenly distributed mitochondria. Both TG1 and TG2 granules are present but in much fewer number than in the first and second layers. The fourth layer is the innermost zone that rests on and couples with a thick basal lamina. The cytoplasm in this layer is loosely packed and contains numerous infoldings of the basal plasma membrane with closely

  14. Modelling of microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate surface binding protein PhaP for rational mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyu; Yao, Zhenyu; Chen, Xiangbin; Wang, Xinquan; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2017-11-01

    Phasins are unusual amphiphilic proteins that bind to microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granules in nature and show great potential for various applications in biotechnology and medicine. Despite their remarkable diversity, only the crystal structure of PhaP A h from Aeromonas hydrophila has been solved to date. Based on the structure of PhaP A h , homology models of PhaP A z from Azotobacter sp. FA-8 and PhaP TD from Halomonas bluephagenesis TD were successfully established, allowing rational mutagenesis to be conducted to enhance the stability and surfactant properties of these proteins. PhaP A z mutants, including PhaP A z Q38L and PhaP A z Q78L, as well as PhaP TD mutants, including PhaP TD Q38M and PhaP TD Q72M, showed better emulsification properties and improved thermostability (6-10°C higher melting temperatures) compared with their wild-type homologues under the same conditions. Importantly, the established PhaP homology-modelling approach, based on the high-resolution structure of PhaP A h , can be generalized to facilitate the study of other PhaP members. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Out of the dark: Transitional subsurface-to-surface microbial diversity in a terrestrial serpentinizing seep (Manleluag, Pangasinan, the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin eWoycheese

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Zambales ophiolite range terrestrial serpentinizing fluid seeps host diverse microbial assemblages. The fluids fall within the profile of Ca2+-OH--type waters, indicative of active serpentinization, and are low in dissolved inorganic carbon (<0.5 ppm. Influx of atmospheric carbon dioxide affects the solubility of calcium carbonate as distance from the source increases, triggering the formation of meter-scale travertine terraces. Samples were collected at the source and along the outflow channel to determine subsurface microbial community response to surface exposure. DNA was extracted and submitted for high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Taxonomic assignment of the sequence data indicates that 8.1% of the total sequence reads at the source of the seep affiliate with the genus Methanobacterium. Other major classes detected at the source include anaerobic taxa such as Bacteroidetes (40.7% of total sequence reads and Firmicutes (19.1% of total reads. Hydrogenophaga spp. increase in relative abundance as redox potential increases. At the carbonate terrace, 45% of sequence reads affiliate with Meiothermus spp. Taxonomic observations and geochemical data suggest that several putative metabolisms may be favorable, including hydrogen oxidation, H2-associated sulfur cycling, methanogenesis, methanotrophy, nitrogen fixation, ammonia oxidation, denitrification, nitrate respiration, methylotrophy, carbon monoxide respiration, and ferrous iron oxidation, based on capabilities of nearest known neighbors. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy suggest that microbial activity produces chemical and physical traces in the precipitated carbonates forming downstream of the seep’s source. These data provide context for future serpentinizing seep ecosystem studies, particularly with regards to tropical biomes.

  16. The adult brain tissue response to hollow fiber membranes of varying surface architecture with or without cotransplanted cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning

    A variety of biomaterials have been chronically implanted into the central nervous system (CNS) for repair or therapeutic purposes. Regardless of the application, chronic implantation of materials into the CNS induces injury and elicits a wound healing response, eventually leading to the formation of a dense extracellular matrix (ECM)-rich scar tissue that is associated with the segregation of implanted materials from the surrounding normal tissue. Often this reaction results in impaired performance of indwelling CNS devices. In order to enhance the performance of biomaterial-based implantable devices in the CNS, this thesis investigated whether adult brain tissue response to implanted biomaterials could be manipulated by changing biomaterial surface properties or further by utilizing the biology of co-transplanted cells. Specifically, the adult rat brain tissue response to chronically implanted poly(acrylonitrile-vinylchloride) (PAN-PVC) hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) of varying surface architecture were examined temporally at 2, 4, and 12 weeks postimplantation. Significant differences were discovered in the brain tissue response to the PAN-PVC HFMs of varying surface architecture at 4 and 12 weeks. To extend this work, whether the soluble factors derived from a co-transplanted cellular component further affect the brain tissue response to an implanted HFM in a significant way was critically exploited. The cells used were astrocytes, whose ability to influence scar formation process following CNS injury by physical contact with the host tissue had been documented in the literature. Data indicated for the first time that astrocyte-derived soluble factors ameliorate the adult brain tissue reactivity toward HFM implants in an age-dependent manner. While immature astrocytes secreted soluble factors that suppressed the brain tissue reactivity around the implants, mature astrocytes secreted factors that enhanced the gliotic response. These findings prove the feasibility

  17. Reduction in infection risk through treatment of microbially contaminated surfaces with a novel, portable, saturated steam vapor disinfection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Benjamin D

    2009-02-01

    Surface-mediated infectious disease transmission is a major concern in various settings, including schools, hospitals, and food-processing facilities. Chemical disinfectants are frequently used to reduce contamination, but many pose significant risks to humans, surfaces, and the environment, and all must be properly applied in strict accordance with label instructions to be effective. This study set out to determine the capability of a novel chemical-free, saturated steam vapor disinfection system to kill microorganisms, reduce surface-mediated infection risks, and serve as an alternative to chemical disinfectants. High concentrations of Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Salmonella enterica, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, MS2 coliphage (used as a surrogate for nonenveloped viruses including norovirus), Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, and the endospores of Clostridium difficile were dried individually onto porous clay test surfaces. Surfaces were treated with the saturated steam vapor disinfection system for brief periods and then numbers of surviving microorganisms were determined. Infection risks were calculated from the kill-time data using microbial dose-response relationships published in the scientific literature, accounting for surface-to-hand and hand-to-mouth transfer efficiencies. A diverse assortment of pathogenic microorganisms was rapidly killed by the steam disinfection system; all of the pathogens tested were completely inactivated within 5 seconds. Risks of infection from the contaminated surfaces decreased rapidly with increasing periods of treatment by the saturated steam vapor disinfection system. The saturated steam vapor disinfection system tested for this study is chemical-free, broadly active, rapidly efficacious, and therefore represents a novel alternative to liquid chemical disinfectants.

  18. CMEIAS bioimage informatics that define the landscape ecology of immature microbial biofilms developed on plant rhizoplane surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank B Dazzo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Colonization of the rhizoplane habitat is an important activity that enables certain microorganisms to promote plant growth. Here we describe various types of computer-assisted microscopy that reveal important ecological insights of early microbial colonization behavior within biofilms on plant root surfaces grown in soil. Examples of the primary data are obtained by analysis of processed images of rhizoplane biofilm landscapes analyzed at single-cell resolution using the emerging technology of CMEIAS bioimage informatics software. Included are various quantitative analyses of the in situ biofilm landscape ecology of microbes during their pioneer colonization of white clover roots, and of a rhizobial biofertilizer strain colonized on rice roots where it significantly enhances the productivity of this important crop plant. The results show that spatial patterns of immature biofilms developed on rhizoplanes that interface rhizosphere soil are highly structured (rather than distributed randomly when analyzed at the appropriate spatial scale, indicating that regionalized microbial cell-cell interactions and the local environment can significantly affect their cooperative and competitive colonization behaviors.

  19. Subcortical volume and cortical surface architecture in women with acute and remitted anorexia nervosa: An exploratory neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Amy E; Voineskos, Aristotle N; French, Leon; Kaplan, Allan S

    2018-04-13

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a highly heritable psychiatric disorder characterized by starvation and emaciation and associated with changes in brain structure. The precise nature of these changes remains unclear, as does their developmental time course and capacity for reversal with weight-restoration. In this comprehensive neuroimaging study, we sought to characterize these changes by measuring subcortical volume and cortical surface architecture in women with acute and remitted AN. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data was acquired from underweight women with a current diagnosis of AN (acAN: n = 23), weight-recovered women with a past diagnosis of AN (recAN: n = 24), and female controls (HC: n = 24). Subcortical segmentation and cortical surface reconstruction were performed with FreeSurfer 6.0.0, and group differences in regional volume and vertex-wise, cortex-wide thickness, surface area, and local gyrification index (LGI), a measure of folding, were tested with separate univariate analyses of covariance. Mean hippocampal and thalamic volumes were significantly reduced in acAN participants, as was mean cortical thickness in four frontal and temporal clusters. Mean LGI was significantly reduced in acAN and recAN participants in five frontal and parietal clusters. No significant group differences in cortical surface area were detected. Reductions in subcortical volume, cortical thickness, and right postcentral LGI were unique to women with acute AN, indicating state-dependence and pointing towards cellular remodeling and sulcal widening as consequences of disease manifestation. Reductions in bilateral frontal LGI were observed in women with acute and remitted AN, suggesting a role of atypical neurodevelopment in disease vulnerability. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Carapace surface architecture facilitates camouflage of the decorator crab Tiarinia cornigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanka, Immanuel; Suyono, Eko Agus; Rivero-Müller, Adolfo; Alam, Parvez

    2016-09-01

    This paper elucidates the unique setal morphology of the decorator crab Tiarinia cornigera, and further presents evidence to that setal morphology promotes micro-organism nucleation and adhesion. The carapace of this crab is covered by clusters of setae, each comprising a hollow acicular stem that is enveloped by a haystack-like structure. Using computational fluid dynamics, we find that these setae are responsible for manipulating water flow over the carapace surface. Micro-organisms in the sea water, nest in areas of flow stagnation and as a result, nucleate to and biofoul the setae by means of chemical adhesion. Attached micro-organisms secrete extracellular polymeric substances, which we deduce must also provide an additional element of chemical adhesion to mechanically interlocked mesoscopic and macroscopic biomatter. By coupling physical and chemical methods for adhesion, T. cornigera is able to hierarchically decorate its carapace. Our paper brings to light the unique decorator crab carapace morphology of T. cornigera; and furthermore evidences its function in micro-organism nucleation and adhesion. We show how this special carapace morphology directs and guides water flow to form nesting regions of water stagnation where micro-organisms can nucleate and adhere. In the literature, decorator crab carapaces are presumed to be able to mechanically interlock biomatter as camouflage using hook-like setal outgrowths. T. cornigera contrarily exhibits clusters of hay-stack like structures. By encouraging micro-organism adhesion to the carapace setae, T. cornigera is able to effectively attach biomatter using both chemical and physical principles of adhesion. T. cornigera essentially has a super-biofouling carapace surface, for at least micro-organisms. Our work will have an impact on researchers interested in biofouling, adhesion, biomedical and purification filter systems, and in the development of novel biomimetic surfaces with tailored properties. Copyright

  1. Processing and surface modification of novel natural-origin architectures aimed for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Simone dos Santos

    In the last decades, tissue engineering has emerged as a potential therapeutical tool aimed at developing substitutes that are able to restore proper function of the damaged organs/tissues. Nature-inspired routes involving natural origin polymer-based systems represent an attractive alternative to produce novel materials by mimicking the tissue environment required for tissue regeneration. Moreover, further modifications of these systems allow the adjustment of their properties in accordance with the requirements for successful biomedical applications. The main goal of the present thesis is to develop and modify natural origin polymer-based systems using simple methodologies such as sol-gel, surface modification by means of plasma treatment and blending of chitosan with proteins (soy protein isolate and silk fibroin). A sol-gel method was used to improve the bulk properties of chitosan by the incorporation of an inorganic component at the sub-nanometric level. Chitosan/siloxane hybrid materials were synthesised, where essentially urea bridges covalently bond the chitosan to the polysiloxane network. These bifunctional materials exhibit interesting photoluminescence features and a bioactive behaviour. In most situations in the biomedical field, the surface of a biomaterial is in direct contact with living tissues. Therefore, the surface characteristics play a fundamental role on the implant biocompatibility. In this thesis, nitrogen and argon plasma treatment was applied on chitosan membranes in order to improve their surface properties. The applied modifications promoted differences on surface chemistry, wettability and roughness, which reflected in a significant improvement of fibroblast adhesion and proliferation onto chitosan membranes. Besides the surface modification, blending of chitosan with proteins such as soy protein isolate and silk fibroin was also used to modify the bulk properties of chitosan. In situ cross-linking with glutaraldehyde solutions was

  2. Architecture-dependent surface chemistry for Pt monolayers on carbon-supported Au.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuang; Rettew, Robert E; Sauerbrey, Marc; Alamgir, Faisal M

    2011-10-01

    Pt monolayers were grown by surface-limited redox replacement (SLRR) on two types of Au nanostructures. The Au nanostructures were fabricated electrochemically on carbon fiber paper (CFP) by either potentiostatic deposition (PSD) or potential square wave deposition (PSWD). The morphology of the Au/CFP heterostructures, examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), was found to depend on the type of Au growth method employed. The properties of the Pt deposit, as studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV), were found to depend strongly on the morphology of the support. Specifically, it was found that smaller Au morphologies led to a higher degree of cationicity in the resulting Pt deposit, with Pt(4+) and Pt(2+) species being identified using XPS and XAS. For fuel-cell catalysts, the resistance of ultrathin catalyst deposits to surface area loss through dissolution, poisoning, and agglomeration is critical. This study shows that an equivalent of two monolayers (ML) is the low-loading limit of Pt on Au. At 1 ML or below, the Pt film decreases in activity and durability very rapidly due to presence of cationic Pt. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  3. Mathematical estimation of the level of microbial contamination on spacecraft surfaces by volumetric air sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxborrow, G. S.; Roark, A. L.; Fields, N. D.; Puleo, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Microbiological sampling methods presently used for enumeration of microorganisms on spacecraft surfaces require contact with easily damaged components. Estimation of viable particles on surfaces using air sampling methods in conjunction with a mathematical model would be desirable. Parameters necessary for the mathematical model are the effect of angled surfaces on viable particle collection and the number of viable cells per viable particle. Deposition of viable particles on angled surfaces closely followed a cosine function, and the number of viable cells per viable particle was consistent with a Poisson distribution. Other parameters considered by the mathematical model included deposition rate and fractional removal per unit time. A close nonlinear correlation between volumetric air sampling and airborne fallout on surfaces was established with all fallout data points falling within the 95% confidence limits as determined by the mathematical model.

  4. Influence of surface roughness of stainless steel on microbial adhesion and corrosion resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Bagge-Ravn, Dorthe; Kold, John

    2003-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate if hygienic characteristics of stainless steel used in the food industry could be improved by smoothing surface roughness from an Ra of 0.9 to 0.01 ƒÝm. The adherence of Pseudomonas sp., Listeria monocytogenes and Candida lipolytica to stainless steel...... was not affected by surface roughness (Ra) ranging from grit 4000 polished stainless steel (Ra steel (Ra 0.9). Neither adhesion of Ps. aeruginosa nor its removal by an alkaline commercial cleaner in a flow system was affected by surface roughness. Pitting corrosion resistance...... was evaluated in a commercial disinfectant and in 1 M NaCl. Electropolished and grit 4000 polished steel proved more corrosion resistant as opposed to grit 80 and 120 polished surfaces. In conclusion, the surface finish did not influence bacterial attachment, colonisation, or removal, but is an important...

  5. Antimicrobial activity of transition metal acid MoO3 prevents microbial growth on material surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zollfrank, Cordt; Gutbrod, Kai; Wechsler, Peter; Guggenbichler, Josef Peter

    2012-01-01

    Serious infectious complications of patients in healthcare settings are often transmitted by materials and devices colonised by microorganisms (nosocomial infections). Current strategies to generate material surfaces with an antimicrobial activity suffer from the consumption of the antimicrobial agent and emerging multidrug-resistant pathogens amongst others. Consequently, materials surfaces exhibiting a permanent antimicrobial activity without the risk of generating resistant microorganisms are desirable. This publication reports on the extraordinary efficient antimicrobial properties of transition metal acids such as molybdic acid (H 2 MoO 4 ), which is based on molybdenum trioxide (MoO 3 ). The modification of various materials (e.g. polymers, metals) with MoO 3 particles or sol–gel derived coatings showed that the modified materials surfaces were practically free of microorganisms six hours after contamination with infectious agents. The antimicrobial activity is based on the formation of an acidic surface deteriorating cell growth and proliferation. The application of transition metal acids as antimicrobial surface agents is an innovative approach to prevent the dissemination of microorganisms in healthcare units and public environments. Highlights: ► The presented modifications of materials surfaces with MoO 3 are non-cytotoxic and decrease biofilm growth and bacteria transmission. ► The material is insensitive towards emerging resistances of bacteria. ► Strong potential to reduce spreading of infectious agents on inanimate surfaces.

  6. The role of diffusive architectural surfaces on auditory spatial discrimination in performance venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Philip W; Pätynen, Jukka; Lokki, Tapio; Jang, Hyung Suk; Jeon, Jin Yong; Xiang, Ning

    2013-06-01

    In musical or theatrical performance, some venues allow listeners to individually localize and segregate individual performers, while others produce a well blended ensemble sound. The room acoustic conditions that make this possible, and the psycho-acoustic effects at work are not fully understood. This research utilizes auralizations from measured and simulated performance venues to investigate spatial discrimination of multiple acoustic sources in rooms. Signals were generated from measurements taken in a small theater, and listeners in the audience area were asked to distinguish pairs of speech sources on stage with various spatial separations. This experiment was repeated with the proscenium splay walls treated to be flat, diffusive, or absorptive. Similar experiments were conducted in a simulated hall, utilizing 11 early reflections with various characteristics, and measured late reverberation. The experiments reveal that discriminating the lateral arrangement of two sources is possible at narrower separation angles when reflections come from flat or absorptive rather than diffusive surfaces.

  7. Conceptual Design and Architecture of Mars Exploration Rover (MER) for Seismic Experiments Over Martian Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Akshay; Singh, Amit

    2012-07-01

    Keywords: MER, Mars, Rover, Seismometer Mars has been a subject of human interest for exploration missions for quite some time now. Both rover as well as orbiter missions have been employed to suit mission objectives. Rovers have been preferentially deployed for close range reconnaissance and detailed experimentation with highest accuracy. However, it is essential to strike a balance between the chosen science objectives and the rover operations as a whole. The objective of this proposed mechanism is to design a vehicle (MER) to carry out seismic studies over Martian surface. The conceptual design consists of three units i.e. Mother Rover as a Surrogate (Carrier) and Baby Rovers (two) as seeders for several MEMS-based accelerometer / seismometer units (Nodes). Mother Rover can carry these Baby Rovers, having individual power supply with solar cells and with individual data transmission capabilities, to suitable sites such as Chasma associated with Valles Marineris, Craters or Sand Dunes. Mother rover deploys these rovers in two opposite direction and these rovers follow a triangulation pattern to study shock waves generated through firing tungsten carbide shells into the ground. Till the time of active experiments Mother Rover would act as a guiding unit to control spatial spread of detection instruments. After active shock experimentation, the babies can still act as passive seismometer units to study and record passive shocks from thermal quakes, impact cratering & landslides. Further other experiments / payloads (XPS / GAP / APXS) can also be carried by Mother Rover. Secondary power system consisting of batteries can also be utilized for carrying out further experiments over shallow valley surfaces. The whole arrangement is conceptually expected to increase the accuracy of measurements (through concurrent readings) and prolong life cycle of overall experimentation. The proposed rover can be customised according to the associated scientific objectives and further

  8. Microbial survival on food contact surfaces in the context of food hygiene regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart-Moonlight, Belinda Isobel

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial food poisoning causes substantial suffering and financial loss worldwide. One way organisms enter foods is via cross contamination directly or indirectly from structural and food contact surfaces. An 'in situ' method was developed for the detection of surviving bacteria on surfaces. Samples of test surfaces were overlaid with agar and after incubation, colonies were visualised by reaction with nitroblue tetrazolium, which was reduced to a purple insoluble dye. It was shown that the death of bacteria applied as liquid films to surfaces, occurred largely at the point of drying. For impervious surfaces (ceramic, stainless steel, glass and polystyrene), surface type had little effect on survival. In contrast, survival was markedly affected by the nature of the suspension fluid in which cells were dried. In deionised water, survival was low and for Gram negative organisms was strongly influenced by cell density. Where cells were dried in simulated food films (containing brain heart infusion, NaCI, serum or sucrose), survival values increased with increasing concentrations and approached 100% for Staphylococcus aureus cells suspended in 10% w/v sucrose. The survival of Gram positive organisms on impervious surfaces was generally greater than for Gram negative organisms and consistent with this observation, scanning electron microscopy indicated that Gram negative cells collapsed during drying. On wood surfaces, survival was generally similar to or higher than on impervious surfaces. However, neither of the Gram positive organisms tested (Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes) could be recovered following inoculation onto the surface of the African hard-wood, iroko, although Gram negative organisms survived well. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that cells had not been adsorbed below the wood surface and an ethanol-soluble toxic factor was extracted from iroko, which killed Staphylococcus aureus cells, but had no effect on the viability of

  9. Microbial biofilm detection on food contact surfaces by macro-scale fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral fluorescence imaging methods were utilized to evaluate the potential of multispectral fluorescence methods for detection of pathogenic biofilm formations on four types of food contact surface materials: stainless steel, high density polyethylene (HDPE) commonly used for cutting boards,...

  10. Estimating the solar radiation environment on the soil surface between rows using crop canopy architectural models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuge, K.; Haraguchi, T.; Nakano, Y.; Kuroda, M.; Funakoshi, T.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study is quantification of the solar radiation in the farmland located in the hilly and mountainous areas, considering the effect of the shelter adjacent to the field, such as the forest (This effect is called as the edge-effect in this study.). To evaluate the edge-effect on the solar radiation environment in the farmland, solar radiations are measured at the center and edge of the study site adjacent to the forest. The simulation model is composed, coupling with the fish-eye projection method and procedure for the separating direct and diffuse solar radiations. Using this model, the diurnal solar radiations are simulated at the center and edge of the study site. The simulation result showed good agreement with the observation. The spatial distribution of the solar radiation in an observational field is quantified by this method, considering the edge-effect. The simulation result indicated that the solar radiation environment on the field surface is affected by the shelter adjacent to the field and the field direction. (author)

  11. Microbial control of food-related surfaces: Na-Chlorophyllin-based photosensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksiene, Zivile; Paskeviciute, Egle

    2011-10-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate efficiency of photosensitization as surface sanitation alternative using model systems when food pathogens, their spores and biofilms were attached to the food-related surface (polyolefine). In addition it was important to compare antibacterial efficiency of Na-Chlorophyllin (Na-Chl)-based photosensitization with conventional sanitizers. Obtained results indicate that Bacilluscereus ATCC 12826 and Listeriamonocytogenes ATCC 7644 as well as their thermoresistant strains B.cereus SV90 and L.monocytogenes 56LY were effectively inactivated (7 log) by Na-Chl-based photosensitization in vitro. Inactivation rate of thermoresistant strains was slower. The number of attached to the surface B.cereus ATCC 12826 and L.monocytogenes ATCC 7644 was reduced from 4-4.5 log to 0 log after photosensitization treatment. To achieve adequate inactivation of thermoresistant strains the higher Na-Chl concentration and longer illumination times had to be used. Comparison of different surface decontamination treatments reveal that photosensitization is much more effective against all surface-attached B.cereus and L.monocytogenes strains than washing with water or 200 ppm Na-hypochlorite. It is important to note, that surface-attached B.cereus spores and L.monocytogenes biofilms can be eliminated from it by photosensitization as well. Our data support the idea that Na-Chlorophyllin-based photosensitization has high antibacterial potential which may serve in the future for the development of human and environment friendly, non-thermal surface decontamination technique. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Microbial communities on glacier surfaces in Svalbard: the impact of physical and chemical properties on abundance and structure of cyanobacteria and algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stibal, Marek; Šabacká, Marie; Kaštovská, Klára

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2006), s. 644-654 ISSN 0095-3628 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB6005409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Microbial community * Svalbard * glacier surface Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.332, year: 2006

  13. Biofilm growth on polyvinylchloride surface incubated in suboptimal microbial warm water and effect of sanitizers on biofilm removal post biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An in vitro experiment was conducted to understand the nature of biofilm growth on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surface when exposed to sub optimal quality microbial water (> 4 log10 cfu/ml) obtained from poultry drinking water source mimicking water in waterlines during the first week of poultry broodi...

  14. Adsorption of human serum albumin: Dependence on molecular architecture of the oppositely charged surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.; Granick, Steve

    1999-05-01

    We contrast the adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA) onto two solid substrates previously primed with the same polyelectrolyte of net opposite charge to form one of two alternative structures: randomly adsorbed polymer and the "brush" configuration. These structures were formed either by the adsorption of quaternized poly-4-vinylpyridine (QPVP) or by end-grafting QPVP chains of the same chemical makeup and the same molecular weight to surfaces onto which QPVP segments did not adsorb. The adsorption of HSA was quantified by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR). The two substrates showed striking differences with regard to HSA adsorption. First, the brush substrate induced lesser perturbations in the secondary structure of the adsorbed HSA, reflecting easier conformational adjustment for longer free segments of polyelectrolyte upon binding with the protein. Second, the penetration of HSA into the brush substrate was kinetically retarded relative to the randomly adsorbed polymer, probably due to both pore size restriction and electrostatic sticking between charged groups of HSA and QPVP molecules. Third, release of HSA from the adsorbed layer, as the ionic strength was increased from a low level up to the high level of 1 M NaCl, was largely inhibited for the brush substrate, but occurred easily and rapidly for the substrate with statistically adsorbed QPVP chains. Finally, even after addition of a strong polymeric adsorption competitor (sodium polystyrene sulfonate), HSA remained trapped within a brush substrate though it desorbed slowly from the preadsorbed QPVP layer. This method to produce irreversible trapping of the protein within a brush substrate without major conformational change may find application in biosensor design.

  15. Architectural prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2004-01-01

    A major part of software architecture design is learning how specific architectural designs balance the concerns of stakeholders. We explore the notion of "architectural prototypes", correspondingly architectural prototyping, as a means of using executable prototypes to investigate stakeholders...

  16. A study on role of triiodothyronine (T3) hormone on the improvement of articular cartilage surface architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Pei-Tong; Zhang, Xing-Lin; Zuo, Hai-Ning; Lu, Xing; Gai, Peng-Zhou

    2017-10-02

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of triiodothyronine (T3) on the improvement of articular cartilage surface architecture at in vitro level. The T3 hormone was applied to neo-tissues in the range of 50, 100, 150 and 200ng/ml for 5 weeks. At the end of the treatment, biochemical and histological evaluation was carried out in the neo-tissues. T3 hormone application significantly increased the collagen production in neo-cartilage tissues. The properties of tensile and compressive were significantly increased compared to the controls. However, T3 hormone application also induced hypertrophy. At the higher dose concentration of T3 hormone application, tensile and compressive properties were tremendously increased 4.3 and 4.6 fold respectively. Taking all these data together, it suggested that the T3 hormone application could be a potential agent to increase the functional properties such tensile and compressive in neo-tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of ATP measurements to detect microbial ingress by wastewater and surface water in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Óluva Karin; Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Smith, Christian

    2014-01-01

    in this respect. Compared to traditional microbiological methods, the ATP assay could detect wastewater and surface water in drinking water to a higher degree than total direct counts (TDCs), while both heterotrophic plate counts (HPC 22 °C and HPC 37 °C) and Colilert-18 (Escherichia coli and coliforms) were more...

  18. Detection of microbial biofilms on food processing surfaces: Hyperspectral fluorescence imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used a portable hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system to evaluate biofilm formations on four types of food processing surface materials including stainless steel, polypropylene used for cutting boards, and household counter top materials such as formica and granite. The objective of this inve...

  19. Quantitative microbial risk assessment to estimate the health risk from exposure to noroviruses in polluted surface water in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Abel, Nicole; Mans, Janet; Taylor, Maureen B

    2017-10-01

    This study assessed the risks posed by noroviruses (NoVs) in surface water used for drinking, domestic, and recreational purposes in South Africa (SA), using a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) methodology that took a probabilistic approach coupling an exposure assessment with four dose-response models to account for uncertainty. Water samples from three rivers were found to be contaminated with NoV GI (80-1,900 gc/L) and GII (420-9,760 gc/L) leading to risk estimates that were lower for GI than GII. The volume of water consumed and the probabilities of infection were lower for domestic (2.91 × 10 -8 to 5.19 × 10 -1 ) than drinking water exposures (1.04 × 10 -5 to 7.24 × 10 -1 ). The annual probabilities of illness varied depending on the type of recreational water exposure with boating (3.91 × 10 -6 to 5.43 × 10 -1 ) and swimming (6.20 × 10 -6 to 6.42 × 10 -1 ) being slightly greater than playing next to/in the river (5.30 × 10 -7 to 5.48 × 10 -1 ). The QMRA was sensitive to the choice of dose-response model. The risk of NoV infection or illness from contaminated surface water is extremely high in SA, especially for lower socioeconomic individuals, but is similar to reported risks from limited international studies.

  20. Surface-oxidized cobalt phosphide used as high efficient electrocatalyst in activated carbon air-cathode microbial fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingting; Wang, Zhong; Li, Kexun; Liu, Yi; Liu, Di; Wang, Junjie

    2017-09-01

    Herein, we report a simplistic method to fabricate the surface-oxidized cobalt phosphide (CoP) nanocrystals (NCs), which is used as electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in microbial fuel cell (MFC) for the first time. The corallite-like CoP NCs are successfully prepared by a hydrothermal reaction following a phosphating treatment in N2 atmosphere. When used as an ORR catalyst, cobalt phosphide shows comparable onset potential, inferior resistance, as well as a small Tafel slope with long-term stability in neutral media. The maximum power density of MFC embellished with 10% CoP reached 1914.4 ± 59.7 mW m-2, which is 108.5% higher than the control. The four-electron pathway, observed by the RDE, plays a crucial role in electrochemical catalytic activity. In addition, material characterizations indicate that the surface oxide layer (CoOx) around the metallic CoP core is important and beneficial for ORR. Accordingly, it can be expected that the as-synthesized CoP will be a promising candidate of the non-precious metal ORR electrocatalysts for electrochemical energy applications.

  1. Architecture on Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Karen

    2016-01-01

    that is not scientific or academic but is more like a latent body of data that we find embedded in existing works of architecture. This information, it is argued, is not limited by the historical context of the work. It can be thought of as a virtual capacity – a reservoir of spatial configurations that can...... correlation between the study of existing architectures and the training of competences to design for present-day realities.......This paper will discuss the challenges faced by architectural education today. It takes as its starting point the double commitment of any school of architecture: on the one hand the task of preserving the particular knowledge that belongs to the discipline of architecture, and on the other hand...

  2. Wipe-rinse technique for quantitating microbial contamination on large surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, L. E.; Puleo, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The evaluation of an improved wipe-rinse technique for the bioassay of large areas was undertaken due to inherent inadequacies in the cotton swab-rinse technique to which assay of spacecraft is currently restricted. Four types of contamination control cloths were initially tested. A polyester-bonded cloth (PBC) was selected for further evaluation because of its superior efficiency and handling characteristics. Results from comparative tests with PBC and cotton swabs on simulated spacecraft surfaces indicated a significantly higher recovery efficiency for the PBC than for the cotton (90.4 versus 75.2%). Of the sampling area sites studied, PBC was found to be most effective on surface areas not exceeding 0.74 sq m (8.0 sq ft).

  3. Microbial Community and Biochemical Dynamics of Biological Soil Crusts across a Gradient of Surface Coverage in the Central Mojave Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogul, Rakesh; Vaishampayan, Parag; Bashir, Mina; McKay, Chris P; Schubert, Keith; Bornaccorsi, Rosalba; Gomez, Ernesto; Tharayil, Sneha; Payton, Geoffrey; Capra, Juliana; Andaya, Jessica; Bacon, Leonard; Bargoma, Emily; Black, David; Boos, Katie; Brant, Michaela; Chabot, Michael; Chau, Danny; Cisneros, Jessica; Chu, Geoff; Curnutt, Jane; DiMizio, Jessica; Engelbrecht, Christian; Gott, Caroline; Harnoto, Raechel; Hovanesian, Ruben; Johnson, Shane; Lavergne, Britne; Martinez, Gabriel; Mans, Paul; Morales, Ernesto; Oei, Alex; Peplow, Gary; Piaget, Ryan; Ponce, Nicole; Renteria, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Veronica; Rodriguez, Joseph; Santander, Monica; Sarmiento, Khamille; Scheppelmann, Allison; Schroter, Gavin; Sexton, Devan; Stephenson, Jenin; Symer, Kristin; Russo-Tait, Tatiane; Weigel, Bill; Wilhelm, Mary B

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we expand upon the biogeography of biological soil crusts (BSCs) and provide molecular insights into the microbial community and biochemical dynamics along the vertical BSC column structure, and across a transect of increasing BSC surface coverage in the central Mojave Desert, CA, United States. Next generation sequencing reveals a bacterial community profile that is distinct among BSCs in the southwestern United States. Distribution of major phyla in the BSC topsoils included Cyanobacteria (33 ± 8%), Proteobacteria (26 ± 6%), and Chloroflexi (12 ± 4%), with Phormidium being the numerically dominant genus. Furthermore, BSC subsurfaces contained Proteobacteria (23 ± 5%), Actinobacteria (20 ± 5%), and Chloroflexi (18 ± 3%), with an unidentified genus from Chloroflexi (AKIW781, order) being numerically dominant. Across the transect, changes in distribution at the phylum ( p < 0.0439) and genus ( p < 0.006) levels, including multiple biochemical and geochemical trends ( p < 0.05), positively correlated with increasing BSC surface coverage. This included increases in (a) Chloroflexi abundance, (b) abundance and diversity of Cyanobacteria, (b) OTU-level diversity in the topsoil, (c) OTU-level differentiation between the topsoil and subsurface, (d) intracellular ATP abundances and catalase activities, and (e) enrichments in clay, silt, and varying elements, including S, Mn, Co, As, and Pb, in the BSC topsoils. In sum, these studies suggest that BSCs from regions of differing surface coverage represent early successional stages, which exhibit increasing bacterial diversity, metabolic activities, and capacity to restructure the soil. Further, these trends suggest that BSC successional maturation and colonization across the transect are inhibited by metals/metalloids such as B, Ca, Ti, Mn, Co, Ni, Mo, and Pb.

  4. Microbial Community and Biochemical Dynamics of Biological Soil Crusts across a Gradient of Surface Coverage in the Central Mojave Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Mogul

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we expand upon the biogeography of biological soil crusts (BSCs and provide molecular insights into the microbial community and biochemical dynamics along the vertical BSC column structure, and across a transect of increasing BSC surface coverage in the central Mojave Desert, CA, United States. Next generation sequencing reveals a bacterial community profile that is distinct among BSCs in the southwestern United States. Distribution of major phyla in the BSC topsoils included Cyanobacteria (33 ± 8%, Proteobacteria (26 ± 6%, and Chloroflexi (12 ± 4%, with Phormidium being the numerically dominant genus. Furthermore, BSC subsurfaces contained Proteobacteria (23 ± 5%, Actinobacteria (20 ± 5%, and Chloroflexi (18 ± 3%, with an unidentified genus from Chloroflexi (AKIW781, order being numerically dominant. Across the transect, changes in distribution at the phylum (p < 0.0439 and genus (p < 0.006 levels, including multiple biochemical and geochemical trends (p < 0.05, positively correlated with increasing BSC surface coverage. This included increases in (a Chloroflexi abundance, (b abundance and diversity of Cyanobacteria, (b OTU-level diversity in the topsoil, (c OTU-level differentiation between the topsoil and subsurface, (d intracellular ATP abundances and catalase activities, and (e enrichments in clay, silt, and varying elements, including S, Mn, Co, As, and Pb, in the BSC topsoils. In sum, these studies suggest that BSCs from regions of differing surface coverage represent early successional stages, which exhibit increasing bacterial diversity, metabolic activities, and capacity to restructure the soil. Further, these trends suggest that BSC successional maturation and colonization across the transect are inhibited by metals/metalloids such as B, Ca, Ti, Mn, Co, Ni, Mo, and Pb.

  5. Microbial background flora in small-scale cheese production facilities does not inhibit growth and surface attachment of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, B C T; Heir, E; Møretrø, T; Skaar, I; Langsrud, S

    2013-10-01

    The background microbiota of 5 Norwegian small-scale cheese production sites was examined and the effect of the isolated strains on the growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes was investigated. Samples were taken from the air, food contact surfaces (storage surfaces, cheese molds, and brine) and noncontact surfaces (floor, drains, and doors) and all isolates were identified by sequencing and morphology (mold). A total of 1,314 isolates were identified and found to belong to 55 bacterial genera, 1 species of yeast, and 6 species of mold. Lactococcus spp. (all of which were Lactococcus lactis), Staphylococcus spp., Microbacterium spp., and Psychrobacter sp. were isolated from all 5 sites and Rhodococcus spp. and Chryseobacterium spp. from 4 sites. Thirty-two genera were only found in 1 out of 5 facilities each. Great variations were observed in the microbial background flora both between the 5 producers, and also within the various production sites. The greatest diversity of bacteria was found in drains and on rubber seals of doors. The flora on cheese storage shelves and in salt brines was less varied. A total of 62 bacterial isolates and 1 yeast isolate were tested for antilisterial activity in an overlay assay and a spot-on-lawn assay, but none showed significant inhibitory effects. Listeria monocytogenes was also co-cultured on ceramic tiles with bacteria dominating in the cheese production plants: Lactococcus lactis, Pseudomonas putida, Staphylococcus equorum, Rhodococcus spp., or Psychrobacter spp. None of the tested isolates altered the survival of L. monocytogenes on ceramic tiles. The conclusion of the study was that no common background flora exists in cheese production environments. None of the tested isolates inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes. Hence, this study does not support the hypothesis that the natural background flora in cheese production environments inhibits the growth or survival of L. monocytogenes. Copyright © 2013 American

  6. Immobilization of microbial cells on cellulose-polymer surfaces by radiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.

    1983-01-01

    Streptomyces phaeochromogens cells were immobilized on cellulose-polymer surfaces by radiation polymerization using hydrophilic monomers and paper. The enzyme activity of immobilized cell sheets was higher than that of immobilized cell composites obtained by the usual radiation polymerization technique. The enzyme activity of the sheets was affected by monomer concentration, the thickness of paper, and the degree of polymerization of paper. The copolymerization of hydroxyethyl methacrylate and methoxytetraethyleneglycol methacrylate in the sheets led to a further increase of the enzyme activity due to the increase of the hydrophilicity of the polymer matrix. The Michaelis constant of the sheets from low monomer concentration was close to that of intact cells

  7. Lithospheric architecture of NE China from joint Inversions of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion through Bayesian optimisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Nita; Kim, Seongryong; Tkalčić, Hrvoje; Sippl, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an integrated inference on the lithospheric structure of NE China using three passive seismic networks comprised of 92 stations. The NE China plain consists of complex lithospheric domains characterised by the co-existence of complex geodynamic processes such as crustal thinning, active intraplate cenozoic volcanism and low velocity anomalies. To estimate lithospheric structures with greater detail, we chose to perform the joint inversion of independent data sets such as receiver functions and surface wave dispersion curves (group and phase velocity). We perform a joint inversion based on principles of Bayesian transdimensional optimisation techniques (Kim etal., 2016). Unlike in the previous studies of NE China, the complexity of the model is determined from the data in the first stage of the inversion, and the data uncertainty is computed based on Bayesian statistics in the second stage of the inversion. The computed crustal properties are retrieved from an ensemble of probable models. We obtain major structural inferences with well constrained absolute velocity estimates, which are vital for inferring properties of the lithosphere and bulk crustal Vp/Vs ratio. The Vp/Vs estimate obtained from joint inversions confirms the high Vp/Vs ratio ( 1.98) obtained using the H-Kappa method beneath some stations. Moreover, we could confirm the existence of a lower crustal velocity beneath several stations (eg: station SHS) within the NE China plain. Based on these findings we attempt to identify a plausible origin for structural complexity. We compile a high-resolution 3D image of the lithospheric architecture of the NE China plain.

  8. Candida Biofilms: Development, Architecture, and Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHANDRA, JYOTSNA; MUKHERJEE, PRANAB K.

    2015-01-01

    Intravascular device–related infections are often associated with biofilms (microbial communities encased within a polysaccharide-rich extracellular matrix) formed by pathogens on the surfaces of these devices. Candida species are the most common fungi isolated from catheter-, denture-, and voice prosthesis–associated infections and also are commonly isolated from contact lens–related infections (e.g., fungal keratitis). These biofilms exhibit decreased susceptibility to most antimicrobial agents, which contributes to the persistence of infection. Recent technological advances have facilitated the development of novel approaches to investigate the formation of biofilms and identify specific markers for biofilms. These studies have provided extensive knowledge of the effect of different variables, including growth time, nutrients, and physiological conditions, on biofilm formation, morphology, and architecture. In this article, we will focus on fungal biofilms (mainly Candida biofilms) and provide an update on the development, architecture, and resistance mechanisms of biofilms. PMID:26350306

  9. Evaluating the influence of process parameters on soluble microbial products formation using response surface methodology coupled with grey relational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juan; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Luo, Hong-Wei; Fang, Fang; Li, Wen-Wei; Zeng, Raymond J; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Yu, Han-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Soluble microbial products (SMPs) present a major part of residual chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the effluents from biological wastewater treatment systems, and the SMP formation is greatly influenced by a variety of process parameters. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with grey relational analysis (GRA) method was used to evaluate the effects of substrate concentration, temperature, NH(4)(+)-N concentration and aeration rate on the SMP production in batch activated sludge reactors. Carbohydrates were found to be the major component of SMP, and the influential priorities of these factors were: temperature>substrate concentration > aeration rate > NH(4)(+)-N concentration. On the basis of the RSM results, the interactive effects of these factors on the SMP formation were evaluated, and the optimal operating conditions for a minimum SMP production in such a batch activated sludge system also were identified. These results provide useful information about how to control the SMP formation of activated sludge and ensure the bioreactor high-quality effluent. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of polymer architecture on antigens camouflage, CD47 protection and complement mediated lysis of surface grafted red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapanian, Rafi; Constantinescu, Iren; Rossi, Nicholas A A; Medvedev, Nadia; Brooks, Donald E; Scott, Mark D; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N

    2012-11-01

    Hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers with similar hydrodynamic sizes in solution were grafted to red blood cells (RBCs) to investigate the impact of polymer architecture on the cell structure and function. The hydrodynamic sizes of polymers were calculated from the diffusion coefficients measured by pulsed field gradient NMR. The hydration of the HPG and PEG was determined by differential scanning calorimetry analyses. RBCs grafted with linear PEG had different properties compared to the compact HPG grafted RBCs. HPG grafted RBCs showed much higher electrophoretic mobility values than PEG grafted RBCs at similar grafting concentrations and hydrodynamic sizes indicating differences in the structure of the polymer exclusion layer on the cell surface. PEG grafting impacted the deformation properties of the membrane to a greater degree than HPG. The complement mediated lysis of the grafted RBCs was dependent on the type of polymer, grafting concentration and molecular size of grafted chains. At higher molecular weights and graft concentrations both HPG and PEG triggered complement activation. The magnitude of activation was higher with HPG possibly due to the presence of many hydroxyl groups per molecule. HPG grafted RBCs showed significantly higher levels of CD47 self-protein accessibility than PEG grafted RBCs at all grafting concentrations and molecular sizes. PEG grafted polymers provided, in general, a better shielding and protection to ABO and minor antigens from antibody recognition than HPG polymers, however, the compact HPGs provided greater protection of certain antigens on the RBC surface. Our data showed that HPG 20 kDa and HPG 60 kDa grafted RBCs exhibited properties that are more comparable to the native RBC than PEG 5 kDa and PEG 10 kDa grafted RBCs of comparable hydrodynamic sizes. The study shows that small compact polymers such as HPG 20 kDa have a greater potential in the generation of functional RBC for therapeutic

  11. Optimizing pressurized liquid extraction of microbial lipids using the response surface method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cescut, J; Severac, E; Molina-Jouve, C; Uribelarrea, J-L

    2011-01-21

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the determination of optimum extraction parameters to reach maximum lipid extraction yield with yeast. Total lipids were extracted from oleaginous yeast (Rhodotorula glutinis) using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The effects of extraction parameters on lipid extraction yield were studied by employing a second-order central composite design. The optimal condition was obtained as three cycles of 15 min at 100°C with a ratio of 144 g of hydromatrix per 100 g of dry cell weight. Different analysis methods were used to compare the optimized PLE method with two conventional methods (Soxhlet and modification of Bligh and Dyer methods) under efficiency, selectivity and reproducibility criteria thanks to gravimetric analysis, GC with flame ionization detector, High Performance Liquid Chromatography linked to Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (HPLC-ELSD) and thin-layer chromatographic analysis. For each sample, the lipid extraction yield with optimized PLE was higher than those obtained with referenced methods (Soxhlet and Bligh and Dyer methods with, respectively, a recovery of 78% and 85% compared to PLE method). Moreover, the use of PLE led to major advantages such as an analysis time reduction by a factor of 10 and solvent quantity reduction by 70%, compared with traditional extraction methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Adaptive Architectural Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    . The general scopes of this paper are to develop a new adaptive kinetic architectural structure, particularly a reconfigurable architectural structure which can transform body shape from planar geometries to hyper-surfaces using different control strategies, i.e. a transformation into more than one or two...

  13. MICROBIAL LOAD AND MULTIPLE DRUG RESISTANCE OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM FEACES AND BODY SURFACES OF COCKROACHES IN AN URBAN AREA OF SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monsuru Adebayo Adeleke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the microbial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of pathogenic bacteria isolated from the faeces and body surfaces of cockroaches in Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria. The cockroaches collected from residential areas and hospital vicinities were screened for microbial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern using standard protocols. A total of twenty- three microorganisms namely Klebsiella aerogenes, Bacillius cereus, Proteus spp, Staphyloccocus aureus, S. saprophyticus, Enteroccocus faecalis, Staphylococus epididermis, E. coli, Listeria monoctogene, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Psuedomonas species, Seretia mensence, Candida albicans, Candida spp., Aspergilius spp., A. flavus, A. fumigates, Mucor species and Penicilium species were isolated. The microbial load of the microorganisms was significantly higher in the isolates from hospital as compared with the residential area (p<0.05 with the exception of Canidida species, Mucor and Penicillium which had higher or equal microbial load at the residential areas. All the pathogenic bacteria isolated had multiple resistance to antibiotics most importantly, Ampicillin, Augumentin, Amoxicillin and Septrin (30μg. Efforts geared towards controlling the insects will be indispensable in curbing the wide spread of multi-drug resistant pathogens in the study area.

  14. Architectural slicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2013-01-01

    Architectural prototyping is a widely used practice, con- cerned with taking architectural decisions through experiments with light- weight implementations. However, many architectural decisions are only taken when systems are already (partially) implemented. This is prob- lematic in the context...... of architectural prototyping since experiments with full systems are complex and expensive and thus architectural learn- ing is hindered. In this paper, we propose a novel technique for harvest- ing architectural prototypes from existing systems, \\architectural slic- ing", based on dynamic program slicing. Given...... a system and a slicing criterion, architectural slicing produces an architectural prototype that contain the elements in the architecture that are dependent on the ele- ments in the slicing criterion. Furthermore, we present an initial design and implementation of an architectural slicer for Java....

  15. Microbial adhesion on novel yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) implant surfaces with nitrogen-doped hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H:N) coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schienle, Stefanie; Al-Ahmad, Ali; Kohal, Ralf Joachim; Bernsmann, Falk; Adolfsson, Erik; Montanaro, Laura; Palmero, Paola; Fürderer, Tobias; Chevalier, Jérôme; Hellwig, Elmar; Karygianni, Lamprini

    2016-09-01

    Biomaterial surfaces are at high risk for initial microbial colonization, persistence, and concomitant infection. The rationale of this study was to assess the initial adhesion on novel implant surfaces of Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans upon incubation. The tested samples were 3 mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP) samples with nitrogen-doped hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H:N) coating (A) and 3Y-TZP samples coated with ceria-stabilized zirconia-based (Ce-TZP) composite and a-C:H:N (B). Uncoated 3Y-TZP samples (C) and bovine enamel slabs (BES) served as controls. Once the surface was characterized, the adherent microorganisms were quantified by estimating the colony-forming units (CFUs). Microbial vitality was assessed by live/dead staining, and microbial-biomaterial surface topography was visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Overall, A and B presented the lowest CFU values for all microorganisms, while C sheltered significantly less E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans than BES. Compared to the controls, B demonstrated the lowest vitality values for E. coli (54.12 %) and C. albicans (67.99 %). Interestingly, A (29.24 %) exhibited higher eradication rates for S. aureus than B (13.95 %). Within the limitations of this study, a-C:H:N-coated 3Y-TZP surfaces tended to harbor less initially adherent microorganisms and selectively interfered with their vitality. This could enable further investigation of the new multi-functional zirconia surfaces to confirm their favorable antimicrobial properties in vivo.

  16. Environmental Impact of Tributyltin-Resistant Marine Bacteria in the Indigenous Microbial Population of Tributyltin-Polluted Surface Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Haruo; Yagi, Masahiro; Yoshida, Kazutoshi

    2017-01-01

     We compared the TBT-resistant ability of resting cells prepared from isolates that formed colonies on nutrient agar plates containing 100 µM tributyltin (TBT) chloride, such as Photobacterium sp. TKY1, Halomonas sp. TKY2, and Photobacterium sp. NGY1, with those from taxonomically similar type strains. Photobacterium sp. TKY1 showed the highest ability among those three isolates. The number of surviving Photobacterium sp. TKY1 cells was hardly decreased after 1 h of exposure to 100 µM TBTCl, regardless of the number of resting cells in the range from 10 9.4 to 10 4.2 CFU mL -1 . In such an experimental condition, the maximum number of TBT molecules available to associate with a single cell was estimated to be approximately 6.0 x 10 11.8 . Resting cells prepared from type strains Photobacterium ganghwense JCM 12487 T and P. halotolerans LMG 22194 T , which have 16S rDNA sequences highly homologous with those of Photobacterium sp. TKY1, showed sensitivity to TBT, indicating that TBT-resistant marine bacterial species are not closely related in spite of their taxonomic similarity. We also estimated the impact of TBT-resistant bacterial species to indigenous microbial populations of TBT-polluted surface sediments. The number of surviving TBT-sensitive Vibrio natriegens ATCC 14048 T cells, 10 6.2±0.3 CFU mL -1 , was reduced to 10 4.4±0.4 CFU mL -1 when TBT-resistant Photobacterium sp. TKY1 cells, 10 9.1±0.2 CFU mL -1 , coexisted with 10 9.4±0.2 CFU mL -1 of V. natriegens ATCC 14048 T cells in the presence of 100 µM TBTCl. These results indicate that the toxicity of TBT to TBT-sensitive marine bacterial populations might be enhanced when a TBT-resistant marine bacterial species inhabits TBT-polluted surface sediments.

  17. Preparation and antifouling properties of 2-(meth-acryloyloxy)ethyl cholinephosphate based polymers modified surface with different molecular architectures by ATRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuchen; Su, Yuling; Zhao, Lili; Meng, Fancui; Wang, Quanxin; Ding, Chunmei; Luo, Jianbin; Li, Jianshu

    2017-08-01

    Choline phosphate (CP) containing polymers modified surfaces have been shown good resist to the adhesion of proteins while prompt the attaching of mammalian cells due to the dipole pairing between the CP groups of the polymer and the phosphorylcholine (PC) groups on the cell membrane. However, the antifouling activities of CP modified surface against microbes have not been investigated at present. In addition, CP containing polymers modified surface with different molecular architectures has not been prepared and studied. To this end, glass slides surface modified with two different 2-(meth-acryloyloxy)ethyl cholinephosphate (MCP) containing polymer (PMCP) structures, i.e. brush-like (Glass-PMCP) and bottle brush-like (Glass-PHEMA-g-PMCP) architectures, were prepared in this work by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The surface physichemical and antifouling properties of the prepared surfaces were characterized and studied. The Glass-PMCP shows improved antifouling properties against proteins and bacteria as compared to pristine glass slides (Glass-OH) and glass slides grafted with poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (Glass-PHEMA). Notably, a synergetic fouling resistant properties of PHEMA and PMCP is presented for Glass-PHEMA-g-PMCP, which shows superior antifouling activities over Glass-PHEMA and Glass-PMCP. Furthermore, glass slides containing PMCP, i.e. Glass-PMCP and Glas-PHEMA-g-PMCP, decrease platelet adhesion and prevent their activation significantly. Therefore, the combination of antifouling PHEMA and PMCP into one system holds potential for prevention of bacterial fouling and biomaterial-centered infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbial diversity in the hydrate-containing and -free surface sediments in the Shenhu area, South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Jiao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbial diversity in the hydrate-containing (sites SH3B and SH7B and -free (sites SH1B, SH5B, SH5C sediments collected from the Shenhu area of the South China Sea (SCS was investigated using 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis. The phylogenetic results indicate difference in microbial communities between hydrate-containing and -free sediments. At the gas hydrate-containing sites, bacterial communities were dominated by Deltaproteobacteria (30.5%, and archaeal communities were dominated by Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (33.8%; In contrast, Planctomycetes was the major group (43.9% in bacterial communities, while Marine Benthic Group-D (MBG-D (32.4% took up the largest proportion in the archaeal communities. Moreover, the microbial communities have characteristics different from those in other hydrate-related sediments around the world, indicating that the presence of hydrates can affect the microbial distribution. In addition, the microbial community composition in the studied sediments has its own uniqueness, which may result from co-effect of geochemical characteristics and presence/absence of hydrate.

  19. Changes in optical characteristics of surface microlayers hint to photochemically and microbially-mediated DOM turnover in the upwelling region off Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, L.; Engel, A.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal upwelling system off Peru is characterized by high biological activity and a pronounced subsurface oxygen minimum zone, as well as associated emissions of atmospheric trace gases such as N2O, CH4 and CO2. During the Meteor (M91) cruise to the Peruvian upwelling system in 2012, we investigated the composition of the sea-surface microlayer (SML), the oceanic uppermost boundary directly subject to high solar radiation, often enriched in specific organic compounds of biological origin like Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) and marine gels. In the SML, the continuous photochemical and microbial recycling of organic matter may strongly influence gas exchange between marine systems and the atmosphere. In order to understand organic matter cycling in surface films, we analyzed SML and underlying water samples at 38 stations determining DOC concentration, amino acid composition, marine gels, CDOM and bacterial and phytoplankton abundance as indicators of photochemical and microbial alteration processes. CDOM composition was characterized by spectral slope (S) values and Excitation-Emission Matrix fluorescence (EEMs), which allow to track changes in molecular weight (MW) of DOM, and to determine potential DOM sources and sinks. We identified five fluorescent components of the CDOM pool, of which two had excitation/emission characteristics of protein-like fluorophores and were highly enriched in the SML. CDOM composition and changes in spectral slope properties suggested a local microbial release of HMW DOM directly in the SML as a response to light exposure in this extreme environment. Our results suggest that microbial and photochemical processes play an important role for the production, alteration and loss of optically active substances in the SML.

  20. ErpC, a member of the complement regulator-acquiring family of surface proteins from Borrelia burgdorferi, possesses an architecture previously unseen in this protein family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caesar, Joseph J. E.; Johnson, Steven; Kraiczy, Peter; Lea, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of ErpC, a member of the complement regulator-acquiring surface protein family from B. burgdorferi, has been solved, providing insights into the strategies of complement evasion by this zoonotic bacterium and suggesting a common architecture for other members of this protein family. Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete responsible for Lyme disease, the most commonly occurring vector-borne disease in Europe and North America. The bacterium utilizes a set of proteins, termed complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins (CRASPs), to aid evasion of the human complement system by recruiting and presenting complement regulator factor H on its surface in a manner that mimics host cells. Presented here is the atomic resolution structure of a member of this protein family, ErpC. The structure provides new insights into the mechanism of recruitment of factor H and other factor H-related proteins by acting as a molecular mimic of host glycosaminoglycans. It also describes the architecture of other CRASP proteins belonging to the OspE/F-related paralogous protein family and suggests that they have evolved to bind specific complement proteins, aiding survival of the bacterium in different hosts

  1. Converting a manned LCU into an unmanned surface vehicle (USV): an open systems architecture (OSA) case study

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Montrell F.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis demonstrates the process by which the concepts of open systems architecture (OSA) might be applied within the context of an existing systems engineering methodology to result in a flexible system. This is accomplished by combining an existing systems engineering process model with OSA management and business principles to execute a successful asset-repurposing program. To demonstrate utility of this OSA approach to systems ...

  2. Correction to: Evaluation of cell binding to collagen and gelatin: a study of the effect of 2D and 3D architecture and surface chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidenko, Natalia; Schuster, Carlos F; Bax, Daniel V; Farndale, Richard W; Hamaia, Samir; Best, Serena M; Cameron, Ruth E

    2018-03-21

    The article "Evaluation of cell binding to collagen and gelatin: a study of the effect of 2D and 3D architecture and surface chemistry", written by Natalia Davidenko, Carlos F. Schuster, Daniel V. Bax, Richard W. Farndale, Samir Hamaia, Serena M. Best and Ruth E. Cameron, was originally published Online First without open access. After publication in volume 27, issue 10, page 148 it was noticed that the copyright was wrong in the PDF version of the article. The copyright of the article should read as "© The Author(s) 2016". The Open Access license terms were also missing.

  3. Microbial community structure of Arctic multiyear sea ice and surface seawater by 454 sequencing of the 16S RNA gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowman, Jeff S.; Rasmussen, Simon; Blom, Nikolaj

    2011-01-01

    community in MYI at two sites near the geographic North Pole using parallel tag sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Although the composition of the MYI microbial community has been characterized by previous studies, microbial community structure has not been. Although richness was lower in MYI than....... In addition, several low-abundance clades not previously reported in sea ice were present, including the phylum TM7 and the classes Spartobacteria and Opitutae. Members of Coraliomargarita, a recently described genus of the class Opitutae, were present in sufficient numbers to suggest niche occupation within...

  4. Out of the dark: transitional subsurface-to-surface microbial diversity in a terrestrial serpentinizing seep (Manleluag, Pangasinan, the Philippines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woycheese, Kristin M; Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R; Cardace, Dawn; Argayosa, Anacleto M; Arcilla, Carlo A

    2015-01-01

    In the Zambales ophiolite range, terrestrial serpentinizing fluid seeps host diverse microbial assemblages. The fluids fall within the profile of Ca(2+)-OH(-)-type waters, indicative of active serpentinization, and are low in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) (serpentinizing seep ecosystem studies, particularly with regards to tropical biomes.

  5. Comparative plant uptake and microbial degradation of trichloroethylene in the rhizospheres of five plant species-- implications for bioremediation of contaminated surface soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T. A. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Walton, B. T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to collect data that would provide a foundation for the concept of using vegetation to enhance in situ bioremediation of contaminated surface soils. Soil and vegetation (Lespedeza cuneata, Paspalum notatum, Pinus taeda, and Solidago sp.) samples from the Miscellaneous Chemicals Basin (MCB) at the Savannah River Site were used in tests to identify critical plant and microbiological variables affecting the fate of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the root zone. Microbiological assays including phospholipid acid analyses, and 14C-acetate incorporation were conducted to elucidate differences in rhizosphere and nonvegetated soil microbial communities from the MCB. The microbial activity, biomass, and degradation of TCE in rhizosphere soils were significantly greater than corresponding nonvegetated soils. Vegetation had a positive effect on microbial degradation of 14C-TCE in whole-plant experiments. Soils from the MCB containing Lespedeza cuneata, Pinus taeda, and Glycine max mineralized greater than 25% of the 14C- TCE added compared with less than 20% in nonvegetated soils. Collectively, these results provide evidence for the positive role of vegetation in enhancing biodegradation.

  6. Comparative plant uptake and microbial degradation of trichloroethylene in the rhizospheres of five plant species-- implications for bioremediation of contaminated surface soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.A. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)); Walton, B.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to collect data that would provide a foundation for the concept of using vegetation to enhance in situ bioremediation of contaminated surface soils. Soil and vegetation (Lespedeza cuneata, Paspalum notatum, Pinus taeda, and Solidago sp.) samples from the Miscellaneous Chemicals Basin (MCB) at the Savannah River Site were used in tests to identify critical plant and microbiological variables affecting the fate of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the root zone. Microbiological assays including phospholipid acid analyses, and {sup 14}C-acetate incorporation were conducted to elucidate differences in rhizosphere and nonvegetated soil microbial communities from the MCB. The microbial activity, biomass, and degradation of TCE in rhizosphere soils were significantly greater than corresponding nonvegetated soils. Vegetation had a positive effect on microbial degradation of {sup 14}C-TCE in whole-plant experiments. Soils from the MCB containing Lespedeza cuneata, Pinus taeda, and Glycine max mineralized greater than 25% of the {sup 14}C- TCE added compared with less than 20% in nonvegetated soils. Collectively, these results provide evidence for the positive role of vegetation in enhancing biodegradation.

  7. Changes in optical characteristics of surface microlayers in the Peruvian upwelling region hint to photochemically and microbially-mediated DOM turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, A.; Galgani, L.

    2016-02-01

    The coastal upwelling system off Peru is characterized by high biological activity and associated subsurface oxygen minimum zone, leading to an enhanced emission of atmospheric trace gases. High biological productivity in the water column may promote the establishment of enriched organic surface films, key environments for processes regulating gas fluxes across the water-air interface. During M91 cruise to the Peruvian upwelling, we focused our attention on the composition of the sea-surface microlayer (SML), the oceanic uppermost boundary directly subject to high solar radiation, often enriched in specific organic compounds of biological origin like Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) and marine gels. In the SML, the continuous photochemical and microbial recycling of organic matter may strongly influence gas exchange between marine systems and the atmosphere. In order to understand organic matter cycling in surface films, we analyzed SML and underlying water samples in 38 stations determining DOC concentrations, amino acids composition, marine gels, CDOM and bacterial abundance as indicators of photochemical and microbial alteration processes. CDOM composition was characterized by spectral slopes (S) values and Excitation-Emission Matrix fluorescence (EEMs), which allow to track changes in molecular weight (MW) of DOM, and to determine potential DOM sources. Profound changes in spectral slope properties were observed suggesting smaller MW CDOM in the SML compared to underlying water. Microbial and photochemical degradation are likely the main drivers for organic matter cycling in the top layer of the ocean. Consequences on the formation of inorganic and organic species highly relevant for air-sea gas exchange and for climate dynamics will be discussed.

  8. Microbial food web components, bulk metabolism, and single-cell physiology of piconeuston in surface microlayers of high-altitude lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo eSarmento

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sharp boundaries in the physical environment are usually associated with abrupt shifts in organism’s abundance, activity and diversity. Aquatic surface microlayers (SML form a steep gradient between two contrasted environments, the atmosphere and surface waters, where they regulate the gas exchange between both environments. They usually harbor an abundant and active microbial life: the neuston. Few ecosystems are subjected to such a high UVR regime as high altitude lakes during summer. Here, we measured bulk estimates of heterotrophic activity, community structure and single-cell physiological properties by flow cytometry in 19 high-altitude remote Pyrenean lakes and compared the biological processes in the SML with those in the underlying surface waters. Phototrophic picoplankton (PPP populations, were generally present in high abundances and in those lakes containing PPP populations with phycoerythrin (PE, total PPP abundance was higher at the SML. Heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF were also more abundant in the SML. Bacteria in the SµL had lower leucine incorporation rates, lower percentages of live cells, and higher numbers of highly-respiring cells, likely resulting in a lower growth efficiency. No simple and direct linear relationships could be found between microbial abundances or activities and environmental variables, but factor analysis revealed that, despite their physical proximity, microbial life in SML and underlying waters was governed by different and independent processes. Overall, we demonstrate that piconeuston in high altitude lakes has specific features different from those of the picoplankton, and that they are highly affected by potential stressful environmental factors, such as high UVR radiation.

  9. Robotic architectures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mtshali, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the development of mobile robotic systems, a robotic architecture plays a crucial role in interconnecting all the sub-systems and controlling the system. The design of robotic architectures for mobile autonomous robots is a challenging...

  10. Ag-protein plasmonic architectures for surface plasmon-coupled emission enhancements and Fabry-Perot mode-coupled directional fluorescence emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiya, Pradeep Kumar; Patnaik, Sai Gourang; Srinivasan, Venkatesh; Reddy, Narendra; Manohar, Chelli Sai; Vedarajan, Raman; Mastumi, Noriyoshi; Belliraj, Siva Kumar; Ramamurthy, Sai Sathish

    2017-10-01

    We report the use of silver decorated plant proteins as spacer material for augmented surface plasmon-coupled emission (120-fold enhancement) and plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering. We extracted several proteins from different plant sources [Triticum aestivum (TA), Aegle marmelos (AM), Ricinus communis (RC), Jatropha curcas (JC) and Simarouba glauca (SG)] followed by evaluation of their optical properties and simulations to rationalize observed surface plasmon resonance. Since the properties exhibited by protein thin films is currently gaining research interest, we have also carried out simulation studies with Ag-protein biocomposites as spacer materials in metal-dielectric-metal planar microcavity architecture for guided emission of Fabry-Perot mode-coupled fluorescence.

  11. Biogeochemical and microbial variation across 5500 km of Antarctic surface sediment implicates organic matter as a driver of benthic community structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deric R Learman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Western Antarctica, one of the fastest warming locations on Earth, is a unique environment that is underexplored with regards to biodiversity. Although pelagic microbial communities in the Southern Ocean and coastal Antarctic waters have been well studied, there are fewer investigations of benthic communities and most have a focused geographic range. We sampled surface sediment from 24 sites across a 5,500 km region of Western Antarctica (covering the Ross Sea to the Weddell Sea to examine relationships between microbial communities and sediment geochemistry. Sequencing of the 16S and 18S rRNA genes showed microbial communities in sediments from the Antarctic Peninsula (AP and Western Antarctica (WA, including the Ross, Amundsen, and Bellingshausen Seas, could be distinguished by correlations with organic matter concentrations and stable isotope fractionation (total organic carbon; TOC, nitrogen, and δ13C. Overall, samples from the AP were higher in nutrient content (TOC, nitrogen, and NH4+ and communities in these samples had higher relative abundances of operational taxonomic units (OTUs classified as the diatom, Chaetoceros, a marine cercozoan and four OTUs classified as Cytophaga or Flavobacteria. As these OTUs were strongly correlated with TOC, the data suggests the diatoms could be a source of organic matter and the Bacteroidetes and cercozoan are grazers that consume the organic matter. Additionally, samples from WA have lower nutrients and were dominated by Thaumarchaeota, which could be related to their known ability to thrive as lithotrophs. This study documents the largest analysis of benthic microbial communities to date in the Southern Ocean, representing almost half the continental shoreline of Antarctica, and documents trophic interactions and coupling of pelagic and benthic communities. Our results indicate potential modifications in carbon sequestration processes related to change in community composition, identifying a

  12. Architecture & Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  13. Methane and nitrous oxide cycling microbial communities in soils above septic leach fields: Abundances with depth and correlations with net surface emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Baca, Cristina P; Truhlar, Allison M; Omar, Amir-Eldin H; Rahm, Brian G; Walter, M Todd; Richardson, Ruth E

    2018-05-31

    Onsite septic systems use soil microbial communities to treat wastewater, in the process creating potent greenhouse gases (GHGs): methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O). Subsurface soil dispersal systems of septic tank overflow, known as leach fields, are an important part of wastewater treatment and have the potential to contribute significantly to GHG cycling. This study aimed to characterize soil microbial communities associated with leach field systems and quantify the abundance and distribution of microbial populations involved in CH 4 and N 2 O cycling. Functional genes were used to target populations producing and consuming GHGs, specifically methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) and particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA) for CH 4 and nitric oxide reductase (cnorB) and nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) for N 2 O. All biomarker genes were found in all soil samples regardless of treatment (leach field, sand filter, or control) or depth (surface or subsurface). In general, biomarker genes were more abundant in surface soils than subsurface soils suggesting the majority of GHG cycling is occurring in near-surface soils. Ratios of production to consumption gene abundances showed a positive relationship with CH 4 emissions (mcrA:pmoA, p  0.05). Of the three measured soil parameters (volumetric water content (VWC), temperature, and conductivity), only VWC was significantly correlated to a biomarker gene, mcrA (p = 0.0398) but not pmoA or either of the N 2 O cycling genes (p > 0.05 for cnorB and nosZ). 16S rRNA amplicon library sequencing results revealed soil VWC, CH 4 flux and N 2 O flux together explained 64% of the microbial community diversity between samples. Sequencing of mcrA and pmoA amplicon libraries revealed treatment had little effect on diversity of CH 4 cycling organisms. Overall, these results suggest GHG cycling occurs in all soils regardless of whether or not they are associated with a leach field system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B

  14. Reduction in the microbial load on high-touch surfaces in hospital rooms by treatment with a portable saturated steam vapor disinfection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Jonathan D; Tanner, Benjamin D; Maxwell, Sheri L; Gerba, Charles P

    2011-10-01

    Recent scientific literature suggests that portable steam vapor systems are capable of rapid, chemical-free surface disinfection in controlled laboratory studies. This study evaluated the efficacy of a portable steam vapor system in a hospital setting. The study was carried out in 8 occupied rooms of a long-term care wing of a hospital. Six surfaces per room were swabbed before and after steam treatment and analyzed for heterotrophic plate count (HPC), total coliforms, methicillin-intermediate and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MISA and MRSA), and Clostridium difficile. The steam vapor device consistently reduced total microbial and pathogen loads on hospital surfaces, to below detection in most instances. Treatment reduced the presence of total coliforms on surfaces from 83% (40/48) to 13% (6/48). Treatment reduced presumptive MISA (12/48) and MRSA (3/48) to below detection after cleaning, except for 1 posttreatment isolation of MISA (1/48). A single C difficile colony was isolated from a door push panel before treatment, but no C difficile was detected after treatment. The steam vapor system reduced bacterial levels by >90% and reduced pathogen levels on most surfaces to below the detection limit. The steam vapor system provides a means to reduce levels of microorganisms on hospital surfaces without the drawbacks associated with chemicals, and may decrease the risk of cross-contamination. Copyright © 2011 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Engineering the Surface/Interface Structures of Titanium Dioxide Micro and Nano Architectures towards Environmental and Electrochemical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Yanyan; Mølhave, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    advances in the surface and interface engineering and applications in environmental and electrochemical applications. We analyze the advantages of surface/interface engineered TiO₂ micro and nano structures, and present the principles and growth mechanisms of TiO₂ nanostructures via different strategies...

  16. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 1: Concepts of Use, Initial System Requirements, Architecture, and AeroMACS Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Isaacs, James; Henriksen, Steve; Zelkin, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this document) is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  17. Using Flux Site Observations to Calibrate Root System Architecture Stencils for Water Uptake of Plant Functional Types in Land Surface Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouda, M.

    2017-12-01

    Root system architecture (RSA) can significantly affect plant access to water, total transpiration, as well as its partitioning by soil depth, with implications for surface heat, water, and carbon budgets. Despite recent advances in land surface model (LSM) descriptions of plant hydraulics, RSA has not been included because of its three-dimensional complexity, which makes RSA modelling generally too computationally costly. This work builds upon the recently introduced "RSA stencil," a process-based 1D layered model that captures the dynamic shifts in water potential gradients of 3D RSA in response to heterogeneous soil moisture profiles. In validations using root systems calibrated to the rooting profiles of four plant functional types (PFT) of the Community Land Model, the RSA stencil predicts plant water potentials within 2% of the outputs of full 3D models, despite its trivial computational cost. In transient simulations, the RSA stencil yields improved predictions of water uptake and soil moisture profiles compared to a 1D model based on root fraction alone. Here I show how the RSA stencil can be calibrated to time-series observations of soil moisture and transpiration to yield a water uptake PFT definition for use in terrestrial models. This model-data integration exercise aims to improve LSM predictions of soil moisture dynamics and, under water-limiting conditions, surface fluxes. These improvements can be expected to significantly impact predictions of downstream variables, including surface fluxes, climate-vegetation feedbacks and soil nutrient cycling.

  18. Microbial ecology of phototrophic biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeselers, G.

    2007-01-01

    Biofilms are layered structures of microbial cells and an extracellular matrix of polymeric substances, associated with surfaces and interfaces. Biofilms trap nutrients for growth of the enclosed microbial community and help prevent detachment of cells from surfaces in flowing systems. Phototrophic

  19. Disinfectant wipes are appropriate to control microbial bioburden from surfaces: use of a new ASTM standard test protocol to demonstrate efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, S A; Bradley, C; Kibbee, R; Wesgate, R; Wilkinson, M A C; Sharpe, T; Maillard, J-Y

    2015-12-01

    The use of disinfectant pre-soaked wipes (DPW) to decontaminate high-touch environmental surfaces (HTES) by wiping is becoming increasingly widespread in the healthcare environment. However, DPW are rarely tested using conditions simulating their field use, and the label claims of environmental surface disinfectants seldom include wiping action. To evaluate the new E2967-15 standard test specific to wipes, particularly their ability to decontaminate surfaces and to transfer acquired contamination to clean surfaces. ASTM Standard E2967-15 was used by three independent laboratories to test the efficacy of five types of commercially available wipe products. All data generated were pulled together, and reproducibility and repeatability of the standard were measured. All the commercial DPW tested achieved a >4log10 (>99.99%) reduction in colony-forming units (CFU) of Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumanii with 10s of wiping, but only one DPW containing 0.5% accelerated H2O2 prevented the transfer of bacteria to another surface. This newly introduced standard method represents a significant advance in assessing DPW for microbial decontamination of HTES, and should greatly assist research and development, and in making more relevant and reliable claims on marketed DPW. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Changes in optical characteristics of surface microlayers hint to photochemically and microbially mediated DOM turnover in the upwelling region off the coast of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, Luisa; Engel, Anja

    2016-04-01

    The coastal upwelling system off the coast of Peru is characterized by high biological activity and a pronounced subsurface oxygen minimum zone, as well as associated emissions of atmospheric trace gases such as N2O, CH4 and CO2. From 3 to 23 December 2012, R/V Meteor (M91) cruise took place in the Peruvian upwelling system between 4.59 and 15.4° S, and 82.0 to 77.5° W. During M91 we investigated the composition of the sea-surface microlayer (SML), the oceanic uppermost boundary directly subject to high solar radiation, often enriched in specific organic compounds of biological origin like chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and marine gels. In the SML, the continuous photochemical and microbial recycling of organic matter may strongly influence gas exchange between marine systems and the atmosphere. We analyzed SML and underlying water (ULW) samples at 38 stations focusing on CDOM spectral characteristics as indicator of photochemical and microbial alteration processes. CDOM composition was characterized by spectral slope (S) values and excitation-emission matrix fluorescence (EEMs), which allow us to track changes in molecular weight (MW) of DOM, and to determine potential DOM sources and sinks. Spectral slope S varied between 0.012 to 0.043 nm-1 and was quite similar between SML and ULW, with no significant differences between the two compartments. Higher S values were observed in the ULW of the southern stations below 15° S. By EEMs, we identified five fluorescent components (F1-5) of the CDOM pool, of which two had excitation/emission characteristics of amino-acid-like fluorophores (F1, F4) and were highly enriched in the SML, with a median ratio SML : ULW of 1.5 for both fluorophores. In the study region, values for CDOM absorption ranged from 0.07 to 1.47 m-1. CDOM was generally highly concentrated in the SML, with a median enrichment with respect to the ULW of 1.2. CDOM composition and changes in spectral slope properties suggested a local

  1. Application of Multi-Species Microbial Bioassay to Assess the Effects of Engineered Nanoparticles in the Aquatic Environment: Potential of a Luminous Microbial Array for Toxicity Risk Assessment (LumiMARA on Testing for Surface-Coated Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YounJung Jung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Four different manufactured surface-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs with coating of citrate, tannic acid, polyethylene glycol, and branched polyethylenimine were used in this study. The toxicity of surface-coated AgNPs was evaluated by a luminous microbial array for toxicity risk assessment (LumiMARA using multi-species of luminescent bacteria. The salt stability of four different AgNPs was measured by UV absorbance at 400 nm wavelength, and different surface-charged AgNPs in combination with bacteria were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Both branched polyethylenimine (BPEI-AgNPs and polyethylene glycol (PEG-AgNPs were shown to be stable with 2% NaCl (non-aggregation, whereas both citrate (Cit-AgNPs and tannic acid (Tan-AgNPs rapidly aggregated in 2% NaCl solution. The values of the 50% effective concentration (EC50 for BPEI-AgNPs in marine bacteria strains (1.57 to 5.19 mg/L were lower than those for the other surface-coated AgNPs (i.e., Cit-AgNPs, Tan-AgNPs, and PEG-AgNPs. It appears that the toxicity of AgNPs could be activated by the interaction of positively charged AgNPs with the negatively charged bacterial cell wall from the results of LumiMARA. LumiMARA for toxicity screening has advantageous compared to a single-species bioassay and is applicable for environmental samples as displaying ranges of assessment results.

  2. Surface Hydrophilicity of Poly(l-Lactide Acid Polymer Film Changes the Human Adult Adipose Stem Cell Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Argentati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Current knowledge indicates that the molecular cross-talk between stem cells and biomaterials guides the stem cells’ fate within a tissue engineering system. In this work, we have explored the effects of the interaction between the poly(l-lactide acid (PLLA polymer film and human adult adipose stem cells (hASCs, focusing on the events correlating the materials’ surface characteristics and the cells’ plasma membrane. hASCs were seeded on films of pristine PLLA polymer and on a PLLA surface modified by the radiofrequency plasma method under oxygen flow (PLLA+O2. Comparative experiments were performed using human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs and human umbilical matrix stem cells (hUCMSCs. After treatment with oxygen-plasma, the surface of PLLA films became hydrophilic, whereas the bulk properties were not affected. hASCs cultured on pristine PLLA polymer films acquired a spheroid conformation. On the contrary, hASCs seeded on PLLA+O2 film surface maintained the fibroblast-like morphology typically observed on tissue culture polystyrene. This suggests that the surface hydrophilicity is involved in the acquisition of the spheroid conformation. Noteworthy, the oxygen treatment had no effects on hBM-MSC and hUCMSC cultures and both stem cells maintained the same shape observed on PLLA films. This different behavior suggests that the biomaterial-interaction is stem cell specific.

  3. Colonial vs planktonic type of growth: mathematical modeling of microbial dynamics on surfaces and in liquid, semi-liquid and solid foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis N. Skandamis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Predictive models are mathematical expressions that describe the growth, survival, inactivation or biochemical processes of foodborne bacteria. During processing of contaminated raw materials and food preparation, bacteria are entrapped into the food residues, potentially transferred to the equipment surfaces (abiotic or inert surfaces or cross-contaminate other foods (biotic surfaces. Growth of bacterial cells can either occur planktonically in liquid or immobilized as colonies. Colonies are on the surface or confined in the interior (submerged colonies of structured foods. For low initial levels of bacterial population leading to large colonies, the immobilized growth differs from planktonic growth due to physical constrains and to diffusion limitations within the structured foods. Indeed, cells in colonies experience substrate starvation and/or stresses from the accumulation of toxic metabolites such as lactic acid. Furthermore, the micro-architecture of foods also influences the rate and extent of growth. The micro-architecture is determined by (i the non-aqueous phase with the distribution and size of oil particles and the pore size of the network when proteins or gelling agent are solidified, and by (ii the available aqueous phase within which bacteria may swarm or swim. As a consequence, the micro-environment of bacterial cells when they grow in colonies might greatly differs from that when they grow planktonically. The broth-based data used for modeling (lag time and generation time, the growth rate and population level are poorly transferable to solid foods. It may lead to an over-estimation or under-estimation of the predicted population compared to the observed population in food. If the growth prediction concerns pathogen bacteria, it is a major importance for the safety of foods to improve the knowledge on immobilized growth. In this review, the different types of models are presented taking into account the stochastic behavior of

  4. Extracellular Saccharide-Mediated Reduction of Au3+ to Gold Nanoparticles: New Insights for Heavy Metals Biomineralization on Microbial Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Fuxing; Qu, Xiaolei; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2017-03-07

    Biomineralization is a critical process controlling the biogeochemical cycling, fate, and potential environmental impacts of heavy metals. Despite the indispensability of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) to microbial life and their ubiquity in soil and aquatic environments, the role played by EPS in the transformation and biomineralization of heavy metals is not well understood. Here, we used gold ion (Au 3+ ) as a model heavy metal ion to quantitatively assess the role of EPS in biomineralization and discern the responsible functional groups. Integrated spectroscopic analyses showed that Au 3+ was readily reduced to zerovalent gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, 2-15 nm in size) in aqueous suspension of Escherichia coli or dissolved EPS extracted from microbes. The majority of AuNPs (95.2%) was formed outside Escherichia coli cells, and the removal of EPS attached to cells pronouncedly suppressed Au 3+ reduction, reflecting the predominance of the extracellular matrix in Au 3+ reduction. XPS, UV-vis, and FTIR analyses corroborated that Au 3+ reduction was mediated by the hemiacetal groups (aldehyde equivalents) of reducing saccharides of EPS. Consistently, the kinetics of AuNP formation obeyed pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics with respect to the concentrations of Au 3+ and the hemiacetal groups in EPS, with minimal dependency on the source of microbial EPS. Our findings indicate a previously overlooked, universally significant contribution of EPS to the reduction, mineralization, and potential detoxification of metal species with high oxidation state.

  5. Assessment of Microbial Contamination of Surfaces and Medical Equipment in Wards of the Panjom Azar Hospital of Gorgan in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghaye Noroozi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Methods: In this cross-sectional study, different wards of panjom Azar educational hospital including ICU, dialysis and surgery room were investigated. Samples were collected randomly, for three months from July to September 2014, from beds, oxygen masks, oxygen manometer, patient table, covers of the patient's medical records, nurse's desk, border walls and water tap.  Samples were then cultured on blood agar and EMB agar. In order to determine the bacteria type, specific culture media with specific biochemical tests and diagnostic disks were used. Results: Results showed that from 216 samples collected from the levels, the 190 cases (88% had microbial contamination. Most of the recognized bacteria were Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter and klebsiela. Results of microbial culture of equipments and levels were positive in case of bacterial contamination and maximum contamination was observed in the dialysis ward of the hospital. Conclusion: Due to the relatively high detected contamination, contamination control of levels and patient care equipments could considered as an effective action in reducing nosocomial infections. Thus, using appropriate disinfectant equipment, monitoring the disinfectants preparation, continuous monitoring and detection of common microorganisms are the most important ways for infection control in hospitals.

  6. Anti-microbial surfaces: An approach for deposition of ZnO nanoparticles on PVA-Gelatin composite film by screen printing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshram, J.V.; Koli, V.B.; Phadatare, M.R.; Pawar, S.H., E-mail: shpawar1946@gmail.com

    2017-04-01

    Initially micro-organisms get exposed to the surfaces, this demands development of anti-microbial surfaces to inhibit their proliferation. Therefore, herein, we attempt screen printing technique for development of PVA-GE/ZnO nanocomposite (PG/ZnO) films. The synthesis of PG/ZnO nanocomposite includes two steps as: (i) Coating of Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) by poly ethylene glycol in order to be compatible with organic counterparts. (ii) Deposition of coated nanoparticles on the PG film surface. The results suggest the enhancement in anti-microbial activity of PG/ZnO nanocomposite over pure ZnO NPs against both Gram positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram negative Escherichia coli from zone of inhibition. The uniformity in deposition is further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The phase identification of ZnO NPs and formation of PG/ZnO nanocomposite has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and UV–vis spectroscopy (UV–vis). The Attenuated total reflection Spectroscopy (ATR) analysis indicates the ester bond between PVA and gelatin molecules. The thermal stability of nanocomposite is studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealing increase in crystallinity due to ZnO NPs which could be utilized to inhibit the growth of micro-organisms. The tensile strength is found to be higher and percent elongation is double of PG/ZnO nanocomposite than PG composite film. - Highlights: • Synthesis of PG/ZnO nanocomposite by screen printing technique • Antimicrobial activity is due presence of ZnO nanoparticles on PG composite. • Improved tensile strength due to ZnO nanoparticles.

  7. Modifying TiO{sub 2} surface architecture by oxygen plasma to increase dye sensitized solar cell efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajmohan, Gayathri Devi [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong Waurn Ponds, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Dai, Xiujuan J., E-mail: jane.dai@deakin.edu.au [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong Waurn Ponds, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Tsuzuki, Takuya; Lamb, Peter R. [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong Waurn Ponds, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Plessis, Johan du [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476 V, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia); Huang, Fuzhi; Cheng, Yi-Bing [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2013-10-31

    Oxygen plasma treatment of TiO{sub 2} films has been used to improve the efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells. Both a commercial TiO{sub 2} sample and a TiO{sub 2} thin film synthesized by a sol-gel technique were treated using a custom built inductively coupled plasma apparatus. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that oxygen-plasma treatment increased the number of oxygen functional groups (hydroxyl groups) and introduced some Ti{sup 3+} species on the surface of TiO{sub 2}. A sample solar cell with plasma treated TiO{sub 2} showed an overall solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 4.3%, about a 13% increase over untreated TiO{sub 2}. The photon conversion efficiency for the plasma treated TiO{sub 2} was 34% higher than untreated TiO{sub 2}. This enhanced cell-performance is partly due to increased dye adsorption from an increase in surface oxygen functional groups and also may be partly due to Ti{sup 3+} states on the surface of TiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Oxygen plasma is used to generate hydroxyl groups on the surface of TiO{sub 2} • Parallel study was conducted using a spin coated TiO{sub 2} and a Commercial TiO{sub 2} film. • The plasma functionalization caused increased dye uptake. • Some species in Ti{sup 3+} state are also generated after oxygen plasma. • Dye sensitised solar cell with functionalised electrode showed improved efficiency.

  8. Architectural Contestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merle, J.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the reductive reading of Georges Bataille's work done within the field of architectural criticism and theory which tends to set aside the fundamental ‘broken’ totality of Bataille's oeuvre and also to narrowly interpret it as a mere critique of architectural form,

  9. Architecture Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Stal, Michael; Hilliard, Rich

    2013-01-01

    Software architecture is the foundation of software system development, encompassing a system's architects' and stakeholders' strategic decisions. A special issue of IEEE Software is intended to raise awareness of architecture sustainability issues and increase interest and work in the area. The

  10. Memory architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A memory architecture is presented. The memory architecture comprises a first memory and a second memory. The first memory has at least a bank with a first width addressable by a single address. The second memory has a plurality of banks of a second width, said banks being addressable by components

  11. Architectural Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2010-01-01

    a functional framework for these concepts, but tries increasingly to endow the main idea of the cultural project with a spatially aesthetic expression - a shift towards “experience architecture.” A great number of these projects typically recycle and reinterpret narratives related to historical buildings......In this essay, I focus on the combination of programs and the architecture of cultural projects that have emerged within the last few years. These projects are characterized as “hybrid cultural projects,” because they intend to combine experience with entertainment, play, and learning. This essay...... and architectural heritage; another group tries to embed new performative technologies in expressive architectural representation. Finally, this essay provides a theoretical framework for the analysis of the political rationales of these projects and for the architectural representation bridges the gap between...

  12. Microbial diversity and dynamics throughout manufacturing and ripening of surface ripened semi-hard Danish Danbo cheeses investigated by culture-independent techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryssel, Mia; Johansen, Pernille; Al-Soud, Waleed Abu; Sørensen, Søren; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-12-23

    Microbial successions on the surface and in the interior of surface ripened semi-hard Danish Danbo cheeses were investigated by culture-dependent and -independent techniques. Culture-independent detection of microorganisms was obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing, using amplicons of 16S and 26S rRNA genes for prokaryotes and eukaryotes, respectively. With minor exceptions, the results from the culture-independent analyses correlated to the culture-dependent plating results. Even though the predominant microorganisms detected with the two culture-independent techniques correlated, a higher number of genera were detected by pyrosequencing compared to DGGE. Additionally, minor parts of the microbiota, i.e. comprising surface and the interior of the cheeses diverged. During cheese production pyrosequencing determined Lactococcus as the dominating genus on cheese surfaces, representing on average 94.7%±2.1% of the OTUs. At day 6 Lactococcus spp. declined to 10.0% of the OTUs, whereas Staphylococcus spp. went from 0.0% during cheese production to 75.5% of the OTUs at smearing. During ripening, i.e. from 4 to 18 weeks, Corynebacterium was the dominant genus on the cheese surface (55.1%±9.8% of the OTUs), with Staphylococcus (17.9%±11.2% of the OTUs) and Brevibacterium (10.4%±8.3% of the OTUs) being the second and third most abundant genera. Other detected bacterial genera included Clostridiisalibacter (5.0%±4.0% of the OTUs), as well as Pseudoclavibacter, Alkalibacterium and Marinilactibacillus, which represented surface ripened semi-hard cheeses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Suppression of surface-originated gate lag by a dual-channel AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deen, David A.; Storm, David F.; Scott Katzer, D.; Bass, R.; Meyer, David J.

    2016-01-01

    A dual-channel AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) architecture is demonstrated that leverages ultra-thin epitaxial layers to suppress surface-related gate lag. Two high-density two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) channels are utilized in an AlN/GaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure wherein the top 2DEG serves as a quasi-equipotential that screens potential fluctuations resulting from distributed surface and interface states. The bottom channel serves as the transistor's modulated channel. Dual-channel AlN/GaN heterostructures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on free-standing hydride vapor phase epitaxy GaN substrates. HEMTs fabricated with 300 nm long recessed gates demonstrated a gate lag ratio (GLR) of 0.88 with no degradation in drain current after bias stressed in subthreshold. These structures additionally achieved small signal metrics f_t/f_m_a_x of 27/46 GHz. These performance results are contrasted with the non-recessed gate dual-channel HEMT with a GLR of 0.74 and 82 mA/mm current collapse with f_t/f_m_a_x of 48/60 GHz.

  14. Suppression of surface-originated gate lag by a dual-channel AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, David A.; Storm, David F.; Scott Katzer, D.; Bass, R.; Meyer, David J.

    2016-08-01

    A dual-channel AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) architecture is demonstrated that leverages ultra-thin epitaxial layers to suppress surface-related gate lag. Two high-density two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) channels are utilized in an AlN/GaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure wherein the top 2DEG serves as a quasi-equipotential that screens potential fluctuations resulting from distributed surface and interface states. The bottom channel serves as the transistor's modulated channel. Dual-channel AlN/GaN heterostructures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on free-standing hydride vapor phase epitaxy GaN substrates. HEMTs fabricated with 300 nm long recessed gates demonstrated a gate lag ratio (GLR) of 0.88 with no degradation in drain current after bias stressed in subthreshold. These structures additionally achieved small signal metrics ft/fmax of 27/46 GHz. These performance results are contrasted with the non-recessed gate dual-channel HEMT with a GLR of 0.74 and 82 mA/mm current collapse with ft/fmax of 48/60 GHz.

  15. Suppression of surface-originated gate lag by a dual-channel AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deen, David A., E-mail: david.deen@alumni.nd.edu; Storm, David F.; Scott Katzer, D.; Bass, R.; Meyer, David J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Electronics Science and Technology Division, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2016-08-08

    A dual-channel AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) architecture is demonstrated that leverages ultra-thin epitaxial layers to suppress surface-related gate lag. Two high-density two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) channels are utilized in an AlN/GaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure wherein the top 2DEG serves as a quasi-equipotential that screens potential fluctuations resulting from distributed surface and interface states. The bottom channel serves as the transistor's modulated channel. Dual-channel AlN/GaN heterostructures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on free-standing hydride vapor phase epitaxy GaN substrates. HEMTs fabricated with 300 nm long recessed gates demonstrated a gate lag ratio (GLR) of 0.88 with no degradation in drain current after bias stressed in subthreshold. These structures additionally achieved small signal metrics f{sub t}/f{sub max} of 27/46 GHz. These performance results are contrasted with the non-recessed gate dual-channel HEMT with a GLR of 0.74 and 82 mA/mm current collapse with f{sub t}/f{sub max} of 48/60 GHz.

  16. Survivability of bare, individual Bacillus subtilis spores to high-velocity surface impact: Implications for microbial transfer through space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Brandon L.; Pratt, Sara N.; Austin, Daniel E.

    2016-06-01

    Laboratory experiments show that endospores of Bacillus subtilis survive impact against a solid surface at velocities as high as 299 ±28 m/s. During impact, spores experience and survive accelerations of at least 1010 m/s2. The spores were introduced into a vacuum chamber using an electrospray source and accelerated to a narrow velocity distribution by entrainment in a differentially pumped gas flow. Different velocity ranges were studied by modifying the gas flow parameters. The spores were electrically charged, allowing direct measurement of the velocity of each spore as it passed through an image charge detector prior to surface impact. Spores impacted a glass surface and were collected for subsequent analysis by culturing. Most spores survived impact at all measured velocities. These experiments differ fundamentally from other studies that show either shock or impact survivability of bacteria embedded within or on the surface of a projectile. Bacteria in the present experiments undergo a single interaction with a solid surface at the full impact velocity, in the absence of any other effects such as cushioning due to microbe agglomerations, deceleration due to air or vapor, or transfer of impact shock through solid or liquid media. During these full-velocity impact events, the spores experience extremely high decelerations. This study is the first reported instance of accelerations of this magnitude experienced during a bacteria impact event. These results are discussed in the context of potential transfer of viable microbes in space and other scenarios involving surface impacts at high velocities.

  17. Architectural technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The booklet offers an overall introduction to the Institute of Architectural Technology and its projects and activities, and an invitation to the reader to contact the institute or the individual researcher for further information. The research, which takes place at the Institute of Architectural...... Technology at the Roayl Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, reflects a spread between strategic, goal-oriented pilot projects, commissioned by a ministry, a fund or a private company, and on the other hand projects which originate from strong personal interests and enthusiasm of individual...

  18. Systemic Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poletto, Marco; Pasquero, Claudia

    -up or tactical design, behavioural space and the boundary of the natural and the artificial realms within the city and architecture. A new kind of "real-time world-city" is illustrated in the form of an operational design manual for the assemblage of proto-architectures, the incubation of proto-gardens...... and the coding of proto-interfaces. These prototypes of machinic architecture materialize as synthetic hybrids embedded with biological life (proto-gardens), computational power, behavioural responsiveness (cyber-gardens), spatial articulation (coMachines and fibrous structures), remote sensing (FUNclouds...

  19. Humanizing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2015-01-01

    The article proposes the urban digital gallery as an opportunity to explore the relationship between ‘human’ and ‘technology,’ through the programming of media architecture. It takes a curatorial perspective when proposing an ontological shift from considering media facades as visual spectacles...... agency and a sense of being by way of dematerializing architecture. This is achieved by way of programming the symbolic to provide new emotional realizations and situations of enlightenment in the public audience. This reflects a greater potential to humanize the digital in media architecture....

  20. Architectural Theatricality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen

    environments and a knowledge gap therefore exists in present hospital designs. Consequently, the purpose of this thesis has been to investigate if any research-based knowledge exist supporting the hypothesis that the interior architectural qualities of eating environments influence patient food intake, health...... and well-being, as well as outline a set of basic design principles ‘predicting’ the future interior architectural qualities of patient eating environments. Methodologically the thesis is based on an explorative study employing an abductive approach and hermeneutic-interpretative strategy utilizing tactics...... and food intake, as well as a series of references exist linking the interior architectural qualities of healthcare environments with the health and wellbeing of patients. On the basis of these findings, the thesis presents the concept of Architectural Theatricality as well as a set of design principles...

  1. Reduction of microbial contamination and improvement of germination of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) seeds via surface dielectric barrier discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ambrico, P. F.; Šimek, Milan; Morano, M.; De Miccolis Angelini, R.M.; Minafra, A.; Trotti, P.; Ambrico, M.; Prukner, Václav; Faretra, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 30 (2017), č. článku 305401. ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-04023S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) * bio-decontamination * etching * polymers * biomolecules * spores * surface treatment Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016 https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6463/aa77c8

  2. Colonial vs. planktonic type of growth: mathematical modeling of microbial dynamics on surfaces and in liquid, semi-liquid and solid foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandamis, Panagiotis N; Jeanson, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Predictive models are mathematical expressions that describe the growth, survival, inactivation, or biochemical processes of foodborne bacteria. During processing of contaminated raw materials and food preparation, bacteria are entrapped into the food residues, potentially transferred to the equipment surfaces (abiotic or inert surfaces) or cross-contaminate other foods (biotic surfaces). Growth of bacterial cells can either occur planktonically in liquid or immobilized as colonies. Colonies are on the surface or confined in the interior (submerged colonies) of structured foods. For low initial levels of bacterial population leading to large colonies, the immobilized growth differs from planktonic growth due to physical constrains and to diffusion limitations within the structured foods. Indeed, cells in colonies experience substrate starvation and/or stresses from the accumulation of toxic metabolites such as lactic acid. Furthermore, the micro-architecture of foods also influences the rate and extent of growth. The micro-architecture is determined by (i) the non-aqueous phase with the distribution and size of oil particles and the pore size of the network when proteins or gelling agent are solidified, and by (ii) the available aqueous phase within which bacteria may swarm or swim. As a consequence, the micro-environment of bacterial cells when they grow in colonies might greatly differs from that when they grow planktonically. The broth-based data used for modeling (lag time and generation time, the growth rate, and population level) are poorly transferable to solid foods. It may lead to an over-estimation or under-estimation of the predicted population compared to the observed population in food. If the growth prediction concerns pathogen bacteria, it is a major importance for the safety of foods to improve the knowledge on immobilized growth. In this review, the different types of models are presented taking into account the stochastic behavior of single cells

  3. Microbial biomass and viral infections of heterotrophic prokaryotes in the sub-surface layer of the central Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Grieg F.; Fandino, Laura B.; Hollibaugh, James T.; Whitledge, Terry E.; Azam, Farooq

    2007-10-01

    Seawater samples were collected for microbial analyses between 55 and 235 m depth across the Arctic Ocean during the SCICEX 97 expedition (03 September-02 October 1997) using a nuclear submarine as a research platform. Abundances of prokaryotes (range 0.043-0.47×10 9 dm -3) and viruses (range 0.68-11×10 9 dm -3) were correlated ( r=0.66, n=150) with an average virus:prokaryote ratio of 26 (range 5-70). Biomass of prokaryotes integrated from 55 to 235 m ranged from 0.27 to 0.85 g C m -2 exceeding that of phytoplankton (0.005-0.2 g C m -2) or viruses (0.02-0.05 g C m -2) over the same depth range by an order of magnitude on average. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we estimated that 0.5% of the prokaryote community on average (range 0-1.4%) was visibly infected with viruses, which suggests that very little of prokaryotic secondary production was lost due to viral lysis. Intracellular viruses ranged from 5 to >200/cell, with an average apparent burst size of 45±38 (mean±s.d.; n=45). TEM also revealed the presence of putative metal-precipitating bacteria in 8 of 13 samples, which averaged 0.3% of the total prokaryote community (range 0-1%). If these prokaryotes are accessible to protistan grazers, the Fe and Mn associated with their capsules might be an important source of trace metals to the planktonic food web. After combining our abundance and mortality data with data from the literature, we conclude that the biomass of prokaryoplankton exceeds that of phytoplankton when averaged over the upper 250 m of the central Arctic Ocean and that the fate of this biomass is poorly understood.

  4. Spatial variations in microbial community composition in surface seawater from the ultra-oligotrophic center to rim of the South Pacific Gyre.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Yin

    Full Text Available Surface seawater in the South Pacific Gyre (SPG is one of the cleanest oceanic environments on earth, and the photosynthetic primary production is extremely low. Despite the ecological significance of the largest aquatic desert on our planet, microbial community composition in the ultra-oligotrophic seawater remain largely unknown. In this study, we collected surface seawater along a southern transect of the SPG during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 329. Samples from four distinct sites (Sites U1368, U1369, U1370 and U1371 were examined, representing ~5400 kilometers of transect line from the gyre heart to the edge area. Real-time PCR analysis showed 16S rRNA gene abundance in the gyre seawater, ranging from 5.96×10(5 to 2.55×10(6 copies ml(-1 for Bacteria and 1.17×10(3 to 1.90×10(4 copies ml(-1 for Archaea. The results obtained by statistic analyses of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed the community composition in the southern SPG area: diversity richness estimators in the gyre center (Sites U1368 & U1369 are generally lower than those at sites in the gyre edge (Sites U1370 & U1371 and their community structures are clearly distinguishable. Phylogenetic analysis showed the predominance of Proteobacteria (especially Alphaproteobacteria and Cyanobacteria in bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, whereas phylotypes of Betaproteobacteria were only detected in the central gyre. Archaeal 16S rRNA genes in the clone libraries were predominated by the sequences of Marine Group II within the Euryarchaeota, and the Crenarchaeota sequences were rarely detected, which is consistent with the real-time PCR data (only 9.9 to 22.1 copies ml(-1. We also performed cultivation of heterotrophic microbes onboard, resulting in 18.9% of phylogenetically distinct bacterial isolates at least at the species level. Our results suggest that the distribution and diversity of microbial communities in the SPG surface seawater are closely

  5. The effect of titanium implant surface modification on the dynamic process of initial microbial adhesion and biofilm formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, A.; Li, X.; Huang, B.; Tsoi, J.K.-H.; Matinlinna, J.P.; Chen, Z.; Deng, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the dynamic process of biofilm adhesion on titanium implant with two surface treatments, either pickled (PT) or moderately roughened by sandblasting with large grits and acid-etched (SLA). Materials and methods: Two types of titanium disks with

  6. Architectural freedom and industrialized architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    to explain that architecture can be thought as a complex and diverse design through customization, telling exactly the revitalized storey about the change to a contemporary sustainable and better performing expression in direct relation to the given context. Through the last couple of years we have...... proportions, to organize the process on site choosing either one room wall components or several rooms wall components – either horizontally or vertically. Combined with the seamless joint the playing with these possibilities the new industrialized architecture can deliver variations in choice of solutions...... for retrofit design. If we add the question of the installations e.g. ventilation to this systematic thinking of building technique we get a diverse and functional architecture, thereby creating a new and clearer story telling about new and smart system based thinking behind architectural expression....

  7. Architectural freedom and industrialized architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    to explain that architecture can be thought as a complex and diverse design through customization, telling exactly the revitalized storey about the change to a contemporary sustainable and better performing expression in direct relation to the given context. Through the last couple of years we have...... expression in the specific housing area. It is the aim of this article to expand the different design strategies which architects can use – to give the individual project attitudes and designs with architectural quality. Through the customized component production it is possible to choose different...... for retrofit design. If we add the question of the installations e.g. ventilation to this systematic thinking of building technique we get a diverse and functional architecture, thereby creating a new and clearer story telling about new and smart system based thinking behind architectural expression....

  8. Architectural freedom and industrialised architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Architectural freedom and industrialized architecture. Inge Vestergaard, Associate Professor, Cand. Arch. Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Noerreport 20, 8000 Aarhus C Telephone +45 89 36 0000 E-mai l inge.vestergaard@aarch.dk Based on the repetitive architecture from the "building boom" 1960...... customization, telling exactly the revitalized storey about the change to a contemporary sustainable and better performed expression in direct relation to the given context. Through the last couple of years we have in Denmark been focusing a more sustainable and low energy building technique, which also include...... to the building physic problems a new industrialized period has started based on light weight elements basically made of wooden structures, faced with different suitable materials meant for individual expression for the specific housing area. It is the purpose of this article to widen up the different design...

  9. PICNIC Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranummi, Niilo

    2005-01-01

    The PICNIC architecture aims at supporting inter-enterprise integration and the facilitation of collaboration between healthcare organisations. The concept of a Regional Health Economy (RHE) is introduced to illustrate the varying nature of inter-enterprise collaboration between healthcare organisations collaborating in providing health services to citizens and patients in a regional setting. The PICNIC architecture comprises a number of PICNIC IT Services, the interfaces between them and presents a way to assemble these into a functioning Regional Health Care Network meeting the needs and concerns of its stakeholders. The PICNIC architecture is presented through a number of views relevant to different stakeholder groups. The stakeholders of the first view are national and regional health authorities and policy makers. The view describes how the architecture enables the implementation of national and regional health policies, strategies and organisational structures. The stakeholders of the second view, the service viewpoint, are the care providers, health professionals, patients and citizens. The view describes how the architecture supports and enables regional care delivery and process management including continuity of care (shared care) and citizen-centred health services. The stakeholders of the third view, the engineering view, are those that design, build and implement the RHCN. The view comprises four sub views: software engineering, IT services engineering, security and data. The proposed architecture is founded into the main stream of how distributed computing environments are evolving. The architecture is realised using the web services approach. A number of well established technology platforms and generic standards exist that can be used to implement the software components. The software components that are specified in PICNIC are implemented in Open Source.

  10. Architectural freedom and industrialised architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    to the building physic problems a new industrialized period has started based on light weight elements basically made of wooden structures, faced with different suitable materials meant for individual expression for the specific housing area. It is the purpose of this article to widen up the different design...... to this systematic thinking of the building technique we get a diverse and functional architecture. Creating a new and clearer story telling about new and smart system based thinking behind the architectural expression....

  11. Investigating the Role of Surface Materials and Three Dimensional Architecture on In Vitro Differentiation of Porcine Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Sofie Bruun; Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Brogaard, Louise; Flagstad, Frederikke Bjergvang; Emnéus, Jenny; Wolff, Anders; Summerfield, Artur; Jungersen, Gregers

    2016-01-01

    In vitro generation of dendritic-like cells through differentiation of peripheral blood monocytes is typically done using two-dimensional polystyrene culture plates. In the process of optimising cell culture techniques, engineers have developed fluidic micro-devises usually manufactured in materials other than polystyrene and applying three-dimensional structures more similar to the in vivo environment. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is an often used polymer for lab-on-a-chip devices but not much is known about the effect of changing the culture surface material from polystyrene to PDMS. In the present study the differentiation of porcine monocytes to monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) was investigated using CD172apos pig blood monocytes stimulated with GM-CSF and IL-4. Monocytes were cultured on surfaces made of two- and three-dimensional polystyrene as well as two- and three-dimensional PDMS and carbonised three-dimensional PDMS. Cells cultured conventionally (on two-dimensional polystyrene) differentiated into moDCs as expected. Interestingly, gene expression of a wide range of cytokines, chemokines, and pattern recognition receptors was influenced by culture surface material and architecture. Distinct clustering of cells, based on similar expression patterns of 46 genes of interest, was seen for cells isolated from two- and three-dimensional polystyrene as well as two- and three-dimensional PDMS. Changing the material from polystyrene to PDMS resulted in cells with expression patterns usually associated with macrophage expression (upregulation of CD163 and downregulation of CD1a, FLT3, LAMP3 and BATF3). However, this was purely based on gene expression level, and no functional assays were included in this study which would be necessary in order to classify the cells as being macrophages. When changing to three-dimensional culture the cells became increasingly activated in terms of IL6, IL8, IL10 and CCR5 gene expression. Further stimulation with LPS resulted

  12. Investigating the Role of Surface Materials and Three Dimensional Architecture on In Vitro Differentiation of Porcine Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Bruun Hartmann

    Full Text Available In vitro generation of dendritic-like cells through differentiation of peripheral blood monocytes is typically done using two-dimensional polystyrene culture plates. In the process of optimising cell culture techniques, engineers have developed fluidic micro-devises usually manufactured in materials other than polystyrene and applying three-dimensional structures more similar to the in vivo environment. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS is an often used polymer for lab-on-a-chip devices but not much is known about the effect of changing the culture surface material from polystyrene to PDMS. In the present study the differentiation of porcine monocytes to monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs was investigated using CD172apos pig blood monocytes stimulated with GM-CSF and IL-4. Monocytes were cultured on surfaces made of two- and three-dimensional polystyrene as well as two- and three-dimensional PDMS and carbonised three-dimensional PDMS. Cells cultured conventionally (on two-dimensional polystyrene differentiated into moDCs as expected. Interestingly, gene expression of a wide range of cytokines, chemokines, and pattern recognition receptors was influenced by culture surface material and architecture. Distinct clustering of cells, based on similar expression patterns of 46 genes of interest, was seen for cells isolated from two- and three-dimensional polystyrene as well as two- and three-dimensional PDMS. Changing the material from polystyrene to PDMS resulted in cells with expression patterns usually associated with macrophage expression (upregulation of CD163 and downregulation of CD1a, FLT3, LAMP3 and BATF3. However, this was purely based on gene expression level, and no functional assays were included in this study which would be necessary in order to classify the cells as being macrophages. When changing to three-dimensional culture the cells became increasingly activated in terms of IL6, IL8, IL10 and CCR5 gene expression. Further stimulation

  13. Architectural geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut; Eigensatz, Michael; Vaxman, Amir; Wallner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Around 2005 it became apparent in the geometry processing community that freeform architecture contains many problems of a geometric nature to be solved, and many opportunities for optimization which however require geometric understanding. This area of research, which has been called architectural geometry, meanwhile contains a great wealth of individual contributions which are relevant in various fields. For mathematicians, the relation to discrete differential geometry is significant, in particular the integrable system viewpoint. Besides, new application contexts have become available for quite some old-established concepts. Regarding graphics and geometry processing, architectural geometry yields interesting new questions but also new objects, e.g. replacing meshes by other combinatorial arrangements. Numerical optimization plays a major role but in itself would be powerless without geometric understanding. Summing up, architectural geometry has become a rewarding field of study. We here survey the main directions which have been pursued, we show real projects where geometric considerations have played a role, and we outline open problems which we think are significant for the future development of both theory and practice of architectural geometry.

  14. Architectural geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2014-11-26

    Around 2005 it became apparent in the geometry processing community that freeform architecture contains many problems of a geometric nature to be solved, and many opportunities for optimization which however require geometric understanding. This area of research, which has been called architectural geometry, meanwhile contains a great wealth of individual contributions which are relevant in various fields. For mathematicians, the relation to discrete differential geometry is significant, in particular the integrable system viewpoint. Besides, new application contexts have become available for quite some old-established concepts. Regarding graphics and geometry processing, architectural geometry yields interesting new questions but also new objects, e.g. replacing meshes by other combinatorial arrangements. Numerical optimization plays a major role but in itself would be powerless without geometric understanding. Summing up, architectural geometry has become a rewarding field of study. We here survey the main directions which have been pursued, we show real projects where geometric considerations have played a role, and we outline open problems which we think are significant for the future development of both theory and practice of architectural geometry.

  15. Advantages of using microbial technology over traditional chemical technology in removal of black crusts from stone surfaces of historical monuments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappitelli, Francesca; Toniolo, Lucia; Sansonetti, Antonio; Gulotta, Davide; Ranalli, Giancarlo; Zanardini, Elisabetta; Sorlini, Claudia

    2007-09-01

    This study compares two cleaning methods, one involving an ammonium carbonate-EDTA mixture and the other involving the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. vulgaris ATCC 29579, for the removal of black crust (containing gypsum) on marble of the Milan Cathedral (Italy). In contrast to the chemical cleaning method, the biological procedure resulted in more homogeneous removal of the surface deposits and preserved the patina noble under the black crust. Whereas both of the treatments converted gypsum to calcite, allowing consolidation, the chemical treatment also formed undesirable sodium sulfate.

  16. Advantages of Using Microbial Technology over Traditional Chemical Technology in Removal of Black Crusts from Stone Surfaces of Historical Monuments▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappitelli, Francesca; Toniolo, Lucia; Sansonetti, Antonio; Gulotta, Davide; Ranalli, Giancarlo; Zanardini, Elisabetta; Sorlini, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    This study compares two cleaning methods, one involving an ammonium carbonate-EDTA mixture and the other involving the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. vulgaris ATCC 29579, for the removal of black crust (containing gypsum) on marble of the Milan Cathedral (Italy). In contrast to the chemical cleaning method, the biological procedure resulted in more homogeneous removal of the surface deposits and preserved the patina noble under the black crust. Whereas both of the treatments converted gypsum to calcite, allowing consolidation, the chemical treatment also formed undesirable sodium sulfate. PMID:17601804

  17. Relational Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    in a scholarly institution (element #3), as well as the certified PhD scholar (element #4) and the architectural profession, notably its labour market (element #5). This first layer outlines the contemporary context which allows architectural research to take place in a dynamic relationship to doctoral education...... a human and institutional development going on since around 1990 when the present PhD institution was first implemented in Denmark. To be sure, the model is centred around the PhD dissertation (element #1). But it involves four more components: the PhD candidate (element #2), his or her supervisor...... and interrelated fields in which history, place, and sound come to emphasize architecture’s relational qualities rather than the apparent three-dimensional solidity of constructed space. A third layer of relational architecture is at stake in the professional experiences after the defence of the authors...

  18. Architectural Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    Architecture and anthropology have always had a common focus on dwelling, housing, urban life and spatial organisation. Current developments in both disciplines make it even more relevant to explore their boundaries and overlaps. Architects are inspired by anthropological insights and methods......, while recent material and spatial turns in anthropology have also brought an increasing interest in design, architecture and the built environment. Understanding the relationship between the social and the physical is at the heart of both disciplines, and they can obviously benefit from further...... collaboration: How can qualitative anthropological approaches contribute to contemporary architecture? And just as importantly: What can anthropologists learn from architects’ understanding of spatial and material surroundings? Recent theoretical developments in anthropology stress the role of materials...

  19. Architectural Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Premer

    engineering is addresses from two perspectives – as an educational response and an occupational constellation. Architecture and engineering are two of the traditional design professions and they frequently meet in the occupational setting, but at educational institutions they remain largely estranged....... The paper builds on a multi-sited study of an architectural engineering program at the Technical University of Denmark and an architectural engineering team within an international engineering consultancy based on Denmark. They are both responding to new tendencies within the building industry where...... the role of engineers and architects increasingly overlap during the design process, but their approaches reflect different perceptions of the consequences. The paper discusses some of the challenges that design education, not only within engineering, is facing today: young designers must be equipped...

  20. Microbial Diversity in Surface Iron-Rich Aqueous Environments: Implications for Seeking Signs of Life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. I.; Allen, C. C.; Tringe, S. G.; Klatt, C. G.; Bryant, D. A.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Garrison, D. H.; McKay, D. S.

    2010-01-01

    The success of selecting future landing sites on Mars to discover extinct and/or extant extraterrestrial life is dependent on the correct approximation of available knowledge about terrestrial paleogeochemistry and life evolution to Martian (paleo) geology and geochemistry. It is well known that both Earth and Mars are Fe rich. This widespread occurrence suggests that Fe may have played a key role in early life forms, where it probably served as a key constituent in early prosthetic moieties in many proteins of ancient microbes on Earth and likely Mars. The second critical idea is the premise that Life on Mars could most likely have developed when Mars experienced tectonic activity [1] which dramatically decreased around 1 bin years after Martian creation. After that Martian life could have gone extinct or hibernated in the deep subsurface, which would be expensive to reach in contrast to the successful work of Martian surface rovers. Here we analyze the diversity of microbes in several terrestrial Fe rich surface environments in conjunction with the phylogeny and molecular timing of emergence of those microbes on Earth. Anticipated results should help evaluate future landing sites on Mars in searches for biosignatures.

  1. Mineralisation of low concentrations of organic compounds and microbial biomass in surface and vadose zone soils from the Swan Coastal Plain, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzmann, P. D.; Zappia, L. R.; Patterson, B. M.; Rayner, J.L.; Davis, G. B.

    1998-01-01

    Mineralisation rates for ring-labelled 14 C-atrazine, benzene, and toluene were determined for a number of Swan Coastal Plain soils which had not been previously in contact with these contaminants. Microbial biomass was estimated by phospholipid techniques in soil samples from the same sites. Mineralisation rates for the volatile aromatic hydrocarbons in the thin (up to 30 cm) surface soils (23.4-42.6 μmol/kg . day when fitted to zeroth-order rate kinetics) were appreciably faster than the mineralisation rates measured in soils collected from a depth of 1 m (0.11-3.0 μmol/kg per day). The pesticide atrazine was degraded slowly, with degradation rates in surface soils ranging from 1.22x10 -3 to 2.78x10 -4 μmol/kg . day, and those in soils at 1 m ranging from 5. 13x10 -4 to 3.1610 -4 μmol/kg per day. When mineralisation data were fitted to first-order kinetics then half-lives for atrazine mineralisation ranged from about 1 year in surface soils to 3.1-5.1 years in soils at 1 m. These rates were comparable to atrazine mineralisation rates measured in soils that had not been previously in contact with atrazine, as reported by others. The extent of mineralisation of the organic compounds v. time generally fitted better to zeroth-order kinetics than to first-order kinetics. Confidence in the determination of the mineralisation rate at slow rates of mineralisation was low (r 2 as low as 0.2 in plots of the extent of mineralisation v. time in zeroth-order and first-order plots for samples that showed slow mineralisation). Biomass, expressed as stationary phase Escherichia coli equivalents (SPEE), ranged from 1.4 x10 7 to 1x2x10 8 SPEE/g dry weight for surface soils, and from 8.6x10 5 to 7.3x10 6 SPEE/g dry weight for soils at 1 m. The phospholipids extracted from surface soils tended to contain higher proportions of unsaturated and hydroxy fatty acids than soils at 1 m, which contained higher relative concentrations of branched fatty acids, which is consistent with the

  2. Reframing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2013-01-01

    I would like to thank Prof. Stephen Read (2011) and Prof. Andrew Benjamin (2011) for both giving inspiring and elaborate comments on my article “Dwelling in-between walls: the architectural surround”. As I will try to demonstrate below, their two different responses not only supplement my article...... focuses on how the absence of an initial distinction might threaten the endeavour of my paper. In my reply to Read and Benjamin, I will discuss their suggestions and arguments, while at the same time hopefully clarifying the postphenomenological approach to architecture....

  3. Microbial Carbonate Precipitation by Synechococcus PCC8806, LS0519 and Synechocystis PCC6803 on Concrete Surfaces and in Low Saturation Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, T.; Lin, Y.; Dittrich, M.

    2015-12-01

    Microbial carbonate precipitation (MCP) by cyanobacteria has been recognized in a variety of environment such as freshwater, marine, cave, and even desert. Recently, their calcification potential has been tested in an emerging technology-- bioconcrete. This study is to explore the calcification by three cyanobacteria strains under different environmental conditions. Experiment A was carried out in 2mM NaHCO3 and 5mM CaCl2, with a cell concentration of 107 cells L-1. In experiment B, one side of the concrete surface was treated with bacteria and then immersed in the solution containing 0.4 mM NaHCO3 and 300 mM CaCl2. In experiment A, the pH of the abiotic condition remained constant around 8.55, while that of biotic conditions increased by 0.15 units in the presence of LS0519, and by 0.3 units in the presence of PCC8806 or PCC6803 within 8 hours. Over a period of 30 hours, PCC8806, LS0519 and PCC6803 removed 0.1, 0.12 and 0.2 mM calcium from the solution respectively. After 30 hours, the alkalinity of the solution decreased by 30 mg/L, 10 mg/L and 5 mg/L respectively in the presence of PCC6803, LS0519 and PCC8806. Under scanning electron microscopy (SEM), no precipitate was found in the abiotic condition, while calcium carbonate was associated by all the three strains. Among them, PCC6803 precipitated more carbonates. In experiment B, LS0519 and PCC8806 increased the pH with a value of 0.25, while PCC6803 increased the pH by 0.33 units. SEM shows LS0519 was less likely attached to the concrete surface. Neither did the precipitates on concrete surface differ from that in the abiotic condition. In comparison, PCC8806 and PCC6803 were closely associated with 8-μm porous precipitates. Cells were either found enclosed in precipitates or connecting two precipitates. In conclusion, all the three strains triggered the calcium carbonate precipitation. LS0519 has a little impact on the carbonate precipitation in the solution, but negligent influence on the concrete surface

  4. The Effect of Two Different Sterilization Methods on The Surface Topography and Microbial Contamination of Different Types of Endodontic Files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousri, H.R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Sterilization is an integral part of the dental field. Sterilization should be used for instruments, surgical gloves and other items that come in direct contact with the blood stream or normally sterile tissues. Because sterilization is a process, not a single event, all components must be carried out correctly for sterilization to occur. To be effective, sterilization requires time, contact, temperature and with steam sterilization, high pressure. The effectiveness of any method of sterilization is also dependent upon four other factors: The type of microorganism present, the number of microorganisms present, the amount and type of organic material that protects the microorganisms and the number of cracks and crevices on an instrument that might harbor microorganisms. The most commonly used and standard methods of sterilization is the steam under pressure method using the autoclaves. However, it's not free from drawbacks; where it is not suitable for the heat sensitive equipment's such as the plastics, rubber. Also repeated autoclaving can cause pitting and dulling of cutting edges of instruments which might affect their clinical performance. Another alternative method of sterilization is by gamma rays which have been introduced for the sterilization of heat sensitive equipment's. Therefore conducting a study to investigate the effect of repeated sterilization cycles by either steam under pressure or gamma radiation on the surface topography of root canal enlarging instruments was thought to be valuable. The null hypothesis tested is that there is no difference in the effect of repeated sterilization by either steam under pressure or gamma radiation on the surface topography of root canal enlarging instruments

  5. New methods for determination of microbial adherence and colonization to bio material surface pre and post-irradiation treatment in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehata, M.M.K.K.

    2007-01-01

    Biomaterials are being used with increasing frequency in medical fields in the saving of patients' lives and enhancing the quality of life for many others.Colonization of biomaterials by some pathogenic microorganisms depends on their ability to grow and adhere to the solid surface which then allows microorganisms to from bio films in which they are protected from host defense mechanisms and antimicrobial chemotherapy. Adherence and colonization followed by biofilm formation has been implicated as a potential virulence factor of some pathogenic strains responsible for catheter related infections in immuno-compromised cancer patients. Adherence assay and quantitation of bio films of microorganisms isolated and identified from catheter associated urinary tract infections from bladder cancer patients was performed by spectrophotometric method, hydrophobicities of some tested strains were also evaluated by adhesion to p-xylene, MICs of various antibiotics for isolated strains in conjunction with plasmid profiles and algD gene responsible for biofilm formation of selected strains were determined before and after in-vitro exposure to test dose of 24.14 Gy gamma radiation in studying the role of radiotherapy on the microorganisms and their virulence and also enable the design for new approaches to the prevention of serious microbial infections by interfering with adhesion process

  6. Textile Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen

    2010-01-01

    Textiles can be used as building skins, adding new aesthetic and functional qualities to architecture. Just like we as humans can put on a coat, buildings can also get dressed. Depending on our mood, or on the weather, we can change coat, and so can the building. But the idea of using textiles...

  7. Review of the surface architecture of the equine neopallium: Principle elements of a cartographic pattern of sulci revisited and further elaborated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, A; Wirth, G; Gasse, H

    2018-03-14

    The surface architecture of the equine telencephalon is far more complex and complicated than, for example, that of the carnivore's brain, and basic organization patterns are more difficult to recognize. This is due to species differences, to interindividual variations and even to asymmetries between right and left hemispheres. Moreover, a very heterogeneous anatomical terminology, especially in the pioneering older literature, does not allow easy access to a unanimous topographical orientation. This review article presents the key features of this heterogeneity and its anatomical and terminological backgrounds, focusing on the cerebral sulci. The abundant, often divergent data from the reviewed literature are displayed by means of graphical illustrations highlighting the key issues and comparing them with the terminology of the present Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria. These illustrations are supposed to convey the relevant conformities and discrepancies regarding locations, courses and names of cerebral sulci in an easier and more effective manner than written texts could possibly do with such a complex and heterogeneous matter. The data from the selected literature are supplemented by and discussed together with photographs and drawings of brains from our own collection. This combination of a classic review article and own findings is supposed to confirm, to further elaborate and to evaluate the key sulci serving as landmarks for an orientation on the equine neopallium. These are, laterally, the Sulcus suprasylvius, coronalis and praesylvius; dorsally, the Sulcus marginalis; and medially, the Sulcus genualis, cinguli and splenialis. Special attention is also given to the Fissura sylvia; a Fissura sylvia accessoria is proposed. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Microbial contaminants isolated from items and work surfaces in the post- operative ward at Kawolo general hospital, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sserwadda, Ivan; Lukenge, Mathew; Mwambi, Bashir; Mboowa, Gerald; Walusimbi, Apollo; Segujja, Farouk

    2018-02-06

    Nosocomial infections are a major setback in the healthcare delivery system especially in developing countries due to the limited resources. The roles played by medical care equipment and work surfaces in the transmission of such organisms have inevitably contributed to the elevated mortality, morbidity and antibiotic resistances. A total 138 samples were collected during the study from Kawolo general hospital. Swab samples were collected from various work surfaces and fomites which consisted of; beds, sink taps, infusion stands, switches, work tables and scissors. Cultures were done and the susceptibility patterns of the isolates were determined using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Data was analyzed using Stata 13 and Microsoft Excel 2013 packages. A total of 44.2% (61/138) of the collected swab specimens represented the overall bacterial contamination of the sampled articles. Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae accounted for the highest bacterial contaminants constituting of 75.4% (46/61) and 11.5% (7/61) respectively. Infusion stands and patient beds were found to have the highest bacterial contamination levels both constituting 19.67% (12/61). The highest degree of transmission of organisms to patients was found to be statistically significant for patient beds with OR: 20.1 and P-value 8X10 - 4 . Vancomycin, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin were the most effective antibiotics with 100%, 80% and 80% sensitivity patterns among the isolates respectively. Multi-drug resistant (MDR) Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 52% (24/46) with 4% (1/24) classified as a possible extensively drug resistant (XDR) whereas Gram negative isolates had 27% (4/15) MDR strains out of which 50%(2/4) were classified as possible pan-drug resistant (PDR). The high prevalence of bacterial contaminants in the hospital work environment is an indicator of poor or ineffective decontamination. The study findings reiterate the necessity to formulate drug usage policies and re

  9. Microbial surface displayed enzymes based biofuel cell utilizing degradation products of lignocellulosic biomass for direct electrical energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shuqin; Hou, Chuantao; Liang, Bo; Feng, Ruirui; Liu, Aihua

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a bacterial surface displaying enzyme based two-compartment biofuel cell for the direct electrical energy conversion from degradation products of lignocellulosic biomass is reported. Considering that the main degradation products of the lignocellulose are glucose and xylose, xylose dehydrogenase (XDH) displayed bacteria (XDH-bacteria) and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) displayed bacteria (GDH-bacteria) were used as anode catalysts in anode chamber with methylene blue as electron transfer mediator. While the cathode chamber was constructed with laccase/multi-walled-carbon nanotube/glassy-carbon-electrode. XDH-bacteria exhibited 1.75 times higher catalytic efficiency than GDH-bacteria. This assembled enzymatic fuel cell exhibited a high open-circuit potential of 0.80 V, acceptable stability and energy conversion efficiency. Moreover, the maximum power density of the cell could reach 53 μW cm(-2) when fueled with degradation products of corn stalk. Thus, this finding holds great potential to directly convert degradation products of biomass into electrical energy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbial biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Yu; Chen, Wilfred; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2006-01-01

    A microbial biosensor is an analytical device that couples microorganisms with a transducer to enable rapid, accurate and sensitive detection of target analytes in fields as diverse as medicine, environmental monitoring, defense, food processing and safety. The earlier microbial biosensors used the respiratory and metabolic functions of the microorganisms to detect a substance that is either a substrate or an inhibitor of these processes. Recently, genetically engineered microorganisms based on fusing of the lux, gfp or lacZ gene reporters to an inducible gene promoter have been widely applied to assay toxicity and bioavailability. This paper reviews the recent trends in the development and application of microbial biosensors. Current advances and prospective future direction in developing microbial biosensor have also been discussed

  11. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    that describes the architectural exclusivity of this particular architecture genre. The adjective green expresses architectural qualities differentiating green architecture from none-green architecture. Currently, adding trees and vegetation to the building’s facade is the main architectural characteristics...... they have overshadowed the architectural potential of green architecture. The paper questions how a green space should perform, look like and function. Two examples are chosen to demonstrate thorough integrations between green and space. The examples are public buildings categorized as pavilions. One......The paper investigates the topic of green architecture from an architectural point of view and not an energy point of view. The purpose of the paper is to establish a debate about the architectural language and spatial characteristics of green architecture. In this light, green becomes an adjective...

  12. Deep subsurface microbial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    Information on the microbiology of the deep subsurface is necessary in order to understand the factors controlling the rate and extent of the microbially catalyzed redox reactions that influence the geophysical properties of these environments. Furthermore, there is an increasing threat that deep aquifers, an important drinking water resource, may be contaminated by man's activities, and there is a need to predict the extent to which microbial activity may remediate such contamination. Metabolically active microorganisms can be recovered from a diversity of deep subsurface environments. The available evidence suggests that these microorganisms are responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of organic matter coupled to a variety of electron acceptors just as microorganisms do in surface sediments, but at much slower rates. The technical difficulties in aseptically sampling deep subsurface sediments and the fact that microbial processes in laboratory incubations of deep subsurface material often do not mimic in situ processes frequently necessitate that microbial activity in the deep subsurface be inferred through nonmicrobiological analyses of ground water. These approaches include measurements of dissolved H2, which can predict the predominant microbially catalyzed redox reactions in aquifers, as well as geochemical and groundwater flow modeling, which can be used to estimate the rates of microbial processes. Microorganisms recovered from the deep subsurface have the potential to affect the fate of toxic organics and inorganic contaminants in groundwater. Microbial activity also greatly influences 1 the chemistry of many pristine groundwaters and contributes to such phenomena as porosity development in carbonate aquifers, accumulation of undesirably high concentrations of dissolved iron, and production of methane and hydrogen sulfide. Although the last decade has seen a dramatic increase in interest in deep subsurface microbiology, in comparison with the study of

  13. ARCHITECTURE AND ITS WINDAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Limonad Mikhail Yurievich

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the composition of the landscape and building on the basis of the laws of aerodynamic resistance of objects to the wind flow and the resulting physical effect of sail. The application of landscape-visual assessment based on windage properties as a criterion for the development of the architectural and town-planning appearance of buildings is presented. Windage is studied as a physical phenomenon arising in landscape forms, buildings, loose materials, surface and vegetat...

  14. MUF architecture /art London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen Kajita, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Om MUF architecture samt interview med Liza Fior og Katherine Clarke, partnere i muf architecture/art......Om MUF architecture samt interview med Liza Fior og Katherine Clarke, partnere i muf architecture/art...

  15. Architectural fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jacob Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    I have created a large collection of plaster models: a collection of Obstructions, errors and opportunities that may develop into architecture. The models are fragments of different complex shapes as well as more simple circular models with different profiling and diameters. In this contect I have....... I try to invent the ways of drawing the models - that decode and unfold them into architectural fragments- into future buildings or constructions in the landscape. [1] Luigi Moretti: Italian architect, 1907 - 1973 [2] Man Ray: American artist, 1890 - 1976. in 2015, I saw the wonderful exhibition...... "Man Ray - Human Equations" at the Glyptotek in Copenhagen, organized by the Philips Collection in Washington D.C. and the Israel Museum in Jerusalem (in 2013). See also: "Man Ray - Human Equations" catalogue published by Hatje Cantz Verlag, Germany, 2014....

  16. Kosmos = architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Kurent

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available The old Greek word "kosmos" means not only "cosmos", but also "the beautiful order", "the way of building", "building", "scenography", "mankind", and, in the time of the New Testament, also "pagans". The word "arhitekton", meaning first the "master of theatrical scenography", acquired the meaning of "builder", when the words "kosmos" and ~kosmetes" became pejorative. The fear that architecture was not considered one of the arts before Renaissance, since none of the Muses supervised the art of building, results from the misunderstanding of the word "kosmos". Urania was the Goddes of the activity implied in the verb "kosmein", meaning "to put in the beautiful order" - everything, from the universe to the man-made space, i. e. the architecture.

  17. Metabolistic Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Textile Spaces presents different approaches to using textile as a spatial definer and artistic medium. The publication collages images and text, art and architecture, science, philosophy and literature, process and product, past, present and future. It forms an insight into soft materials' funct......' functional and poetic potentials, linking the disciplines through fragments that aim to inspire a further look into the artists' and architects' practices, while simultaneously framing these textile visions in a wider context.......Textile Spaces presents different approaches to using textile as a spatial definer and artistic medium. The publication collages images and text, art and architecture, science, philosophy and literature, process and product, past, present and future. It forms an insight into soft materials...

  18. Corrosion of copper in oxygen-deficient groundwater with and without deep bedrock micro-organisms: Characterisation of microbial communities and surface processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen-Saarivirta, E., E-mail: elina.huttunen-saarivirta@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Materials Performance, Kemistintie 3, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Rajala, P. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Materials Performance, Kemistintie 3, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Bomberg, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Geobiotechnology, Tietotie 2, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Carpén, L. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Materials Performance, Kemistintie 3, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Copper was exposed to groundwater with and without deep bedrock micro-organisms. • Biofilm composition was determined and correlated with the behaviour of copper. • Under biotic conditions, the film of Cu{sub 2}S formed on copper surfaces. • Bacterial pool was in a key role for the morphology and properties of Cu{sub 2}S film. • Under abiotic conditions, Cu{sub 2}O systematically developed on copper surfaces. - Abstract: Copper specimens were exposed to oxygen-deficient artificial groundwater in the presence and absence of micro-organisms enriched from the deep bedrock of the planned nuclear waste repository site at Olkiluoto island on the western coast of Finland. During the exposure periods of 4 and 10 months, the copper specimens were subjected to electrochemical measurements. The biofilm developed on the specimens and the water used in the exposures were subjected to microbiological analyses. Changes in the water chemistry were also determined and surfaces of the copper specimens were characterized with respect to the morphology and composition of the formed corrosion products. The results showed that under biotic conditions, redox of the water and open circuit potential (OCP) of the copper specimens were generally negative and resulted in the build-up of a copper sulphide, Cu{sub 2}S, layer due to the activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) that were included in the system. In the 4-month test, the electrochemical behaviour of the specimens changed during the exposure and alphaproteobactria Rhizobiales were the dominant bacterial group in the biofilm where the highest corrosion rate was observed. In the 10-month test, however, deltaproteobacteria SRB flourished and the initial electrochemical behaviour and the low corrosion rate of the copper were retained until the end of the test period. Under abiotic conditions, the positive water redox potential and specimen OCP correlated with the formation of copper oxide, Cu{sub 2}O

  19. Corrosion of copper in oxygen-deficient groundwater with and without deep bedrock micro-organisms: Characterisation of microbial communities and surface processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttunen-Saarivirta, E.; Rajala, P.; Bomberg, M.; Carpén, L.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Copper was exposed to groundwater with and without deep bedrock micro-organisms. • Biofilm composition was determined and correlated with the behaviour of copper. • Under biotic conditions, the film of Cu_2S formed on copper surfaces. • Bacterial pool was in a key role for the morphology and properties of Cu_2S film. • Under abiotic conditions, Cu_2O systematically developed on copper surfaces. - Abstract: Copper specimens were exposed to oxygen-deficient artificial groundwater in the presence and absence of micro-organisms enriched from the deep bedrock of the planned nuclear waste repository site at Olkiluoto island on the western coast of Finland. During the exposure periods of 4 and 10 months, the copper specimens were subjected to electrochemical measurements. The biofilm developed on the specimens and the water used in the exposures were subjected to microbiological analyses. Changes in the water chemistry were also determined and surfaces of the copper specimens were characterized with respect to the morphology and composition of the formed corrosion products. The results showed that under biotic conditions, redox of the water and open circuit potential (OCP) of the copper specimens were generally negative and resulted in the build-up of a copper sulphide, Cu_2S, layer due to the activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) that were included in the system. In the 4-month test, the electrochemical behaviour of the specimens changed during the exposure and alphaproteobactria Rhizobiales were the dominant bacterial group in the biofilm where the highest corrosion rate was observed. In the 10-month test, however, deltaproteobacteria SRB flourished and the initial electrochemical behaviour and the low corrosion rate of the copper were retained until the end of the test period. Under abiotic conditions, the positive water redox potential and specimen OCP correlated with the formation of copper oxide, Cu_2O. Furthermore, in the absence of

  20. Layered architecture for quantum computing

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, N. Cody; Van Meter, Rodney; Fowler, Austin G.; McMahon, Peter L.; Kim, Jungsang; Ladd, Thaddeus D.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    We develop a layered quantum-computer architecture, which is a systematic framework for tackling the individual challenges of developing a quantum computer while constructing a cohesive device design. We discuss many of the prominent techniques for implementing circuit-model quantum computing and introduce several new methods, with an emphasis on employing surface-code quantum error correction. In doing so, we propose a new quantum-computer architecture based on optical control of quantum dot...

  1. Nutrient, metal and microbial loss in surface runoff following treated sludge and dairy cattle slurry application to an Irish grassland soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, D.P. [Teagasc, Environment Research Centre, Johnstown Castle, Co. Wexford (Ireland); Civil Engineering, National University of Ireland, Galway, Co. Galway (Ireland); Healy, M.G. [Civil Engineering, National University of Ireland, Galway, Co. Galway (Ireland); Fleming, G.T.A. [Microbiology, National University of Ireland, Galway, Co. Galway (Ireland); Grant, J. [Teagasc, Ashtown, Co. Dublin (Ireland); Wall, D. [Teagasc, Environment Research Centre, Johnstown Castle, Co. Wexford (Ireland); Morrison, L. [Earth and Ocean Sciences and Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Co. Galway (Ireland); Cormican, M. [School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway, Co. Galway (Ireland); Fenton, O., E-mail: owen.fenton@teagasc.ie [Teagasc, Environment Research Centre, Johnstown Castle, Co. Wexford (Ireland)

    2016-01-15

    Treated municipal sewage sludge (“biosolids”) and dairy cattle slurry (DCS) may be applied to agricultural land as an organic fertiliser. This study investigates losses of nutrients in runoff water (nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)), metals (copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr)), and microbial indicators of pollution (total and faecal coliforms) arising from the land application of four types of treated biosolids and DCS to field micro-plots at three time intervals (24, 48, 360 h) after application. Losses from biosolids-amended plots or DCS-amended plots followed a general trend of highest losses occurring during the first rainfall event and reduced losses in the subsequent events. However, with the exception of total and faecal coliforms and some metals (Ni, Cu), the greatest losses were from the DCS-amended plots. For example, average losses over the three rainfall events for dissolved reactive phosphorus and ammonium-nitrogen from DCS-amended plots were 5 and 11.2 mg L{sup −1}, respectively, which were in excess of the losses from the biosolids plots. When compared with slurry treatments, for the parameters monitored biosolids generally do not pose a greater risk in terms of losses along the runoff pathway. This finding has important policy implications, as it shows that concern related to the reuse of biosolids as a soil fertiliser, mainly related to contaminant losses upon land application, may be unfounded. - Highlights: • This study investigated surface runoff of contaminants from biosolids in field plots. • Contaminants investigated were nutrients, metals, microbes and trace elements. • Compared to slurry, biosolids do not pose a greater risk of contaminant losses. • Fears concerning contaminant losses from land applied biosolids may be unfounded.

  2. Nutrient, metal and microbial loss in surface runoff following treated sludge and dairy cattle slurry application to an Irish grassland soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyton, D.P.; Healy, M.G.; Fleming, G.T.A.; Grant, J.; Wall, D.; Morrison, L.; Cormican, M.; Fenton, O.

    2016-01-01

    Treated municipal sewage sludge (“biosolids”) and dairy cattle slurry (DCS) may be applied to agricultural land as an organic fertiliser. This study investigates losses of nutrients in runoff water (nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)), metals (copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr)), and microbial indicators of pollution (total and faecal coliforms) arising from the land application of four types of treated biosolids and DCS to field micro-plots at three time intervals (24, 48, 360 h) after application. Losses from biosolids-amended plots or DCS-amended plots followed a general trend of highest losses occurring during the first rainfall event and reduced losses in the subsequent events. However, with the exception of total and faecal coliforms and some metals (Ni, Cu), the greatest losses were from the DCS-amended plots. For example, average losses over the three rainfall events for dissolved reactive phosphorus and ammonium-nitrogen from DCS-amended plots were 5 and 11.2 mg L −1 , respectively, which were in excess of the losses from the biosolids plots. When compared with slurry treatments, for the parameters monitored biosolids generally do not pose a greater risk in terms of losses along the runoff pathway. This finding has important policy implications, as it shows that concern related to the reuse of biosolids as a soil fertiliser, mainly related to contaminant losses upon land application, may be unfounded. - Highlights: • This study investigated surface runoff of contaminants from biosolids in field plots. • Contaminants investigated were nutrients, metals, microbes and trace elements. • Compared to slurry, biosolids do not pose a greater risk of contaminant losses. • Fears concerning contaminant losses from land applied biosolids may be unfounded.

  3. Connecting Architecture and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchgeher, Georg; Weinreich, Rainer

    Software architectures are still typically defined and described independently from implementation. To avoid architectural erosion and drift, architectural representation needs to be continuously updated and synchronized with system implementation. Existing approaches for architecture representation like informal architecture documentation, UML diagrams, and Architecture Description Languages (ADLs) provide only limited support for connecting architecture descriptions and implementations. Architecture management tools like Lattix, SonarJ, and Sotoarc and UML-tools tackle this problem by extracting architecture information directly from code. This approach works for low-level architectural abstractions like classes and interfaces in object-oriented systems but fails to support architectural abstractions not found in programming languages. In this paper we present an approach for linking and continuously synchronizing a formalized architecture representation to an implementation. The approach is a synthesis of functionality provided by code-centric architecture management and UML tools and higher-level architecture analysis approaches like ADLs.

  4. Architecture and communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Hudnik

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents effects of technology, science and capital strategies on changes in traditional forms and definitions of space, architecture and bodies. It confronts us with new processes of thinking and living that are constantly being transformed into new dynamic time and spatial contexts. Space is becoming the information filter, communication network. A cross-section of three landscapes: landscape of megastructures, nomadic landscapes and psychedelic landscapes, theory contributes to understanding of media and space-age technology, information technology and electronical language. It offers designs of various megastructures, media surfaces and envelopes of contemporary information society: the anthropological module, hyper- and infra-bodies, bio-electronical bodies and population genetics bodies. It presents the architecture of communication.

  5. Microbial glycoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Adnan; Anonsen, Jan Haug

    2017-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based "-omics" technologies are important tools for global and detailed mapping of post-translational modifications. Protein glycosylation is an abundant and important post translational modification widespread throughout all domains of life. Characterization of glycoproteins...... and research in this area is rapidly accelerating. Here, we review recent developments in glycoproteomic technologies with a special focus on microbial protein glycosylation....

  6. Layered Architecture for Quantum Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cody Jones

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We develop a layered quantum-computer architecture, which is a systematic framework for tackling the individual challenges of developing a quantum computer while constructing a cohesive device design. We discuss many of the prominent techniques for implementing circuit-model quantum computing and introduce several new methods, with an emphasis on employing surface-code quantum error correction. In doing so, we propose a new quantum-computer architecture based on optical control of quantum dots. The time scales of physical-hardware operations and logical, error-corrected quantum gates differ by several orders of magnitude. By dividing functionality into layers, we can design and analyze subsystems independently, demonstrating the value of our layered architectural approach. Using this concrete hardware platform, we provide resource analysis for executing fault-tolerant quantum algorithms for integer factoring and quantum simulation, finding that the quantum-dot architecture we study could solve such problems on the time scale of days.

  7. Application of Tessellation in Architectural Geometry Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei

    2018-06-01

    Tessellation plays a significant role in architectural geometry design, which is widely used both through history of architecture and in modern architectural design with the help of computer technology. Tessellation has been found since the birth of civilization. In terms of dimensions, there are two- dimensional tessellations and three-dimensional tessellations; in terms of symmetry, there are periodic tessellations and aperiodic tessellations. Besides, some special types of tessellations such as Voronoi Tessellation and Delaunay Triangles are also included. Both Geometry and Crystallography, the latter of which is the basic theory of three-dimensional tessellations, need to be studied. In history, tessellation was applied into skins or decorations in architecture. The development of Computer technology enables tessellation to be more powerful, as seen in surface control, surface display and structure design, etc. Therefore, research on the application of tessellation in architectural geometry design is of great necessity in architecture studies.

  8. Architectural Drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai

    2018-01-01

    In a time of computer aided design, computer graphics and parametric design tools, the art of architectural drawing is in a state of neglect. But design and drawing are inseparably linked in ways which often go unnoticed. Essentially, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to conceive of a design...... is that computers can represent graphic ideas both faster and better than most medium-skilled draftsmen, drawing in design is not only about representing final designs. In fact, several steps involving the capacity to draw lie before the representation of a final design. Not only is drawing skills an important...... prerequisite for learning about the nature of existing objects and spaces, and thus to build a vocabulary of design. It is also a prerequisite for both reflecting and communicating about design ideas. In this paper, a taxonomy of notation, reflection, communication and presentation drawing is presented...

  9. Architectural Theatricality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen; Fisker, Anna Marie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    In the attempt to improve patient treatment and recovery, researchers focus on applying concepts of hospitality to hospitals. Often these concepts are dominated by hotel-metaphors focusing on host–guest relationships or concierge services. Motivated by a project trying to improve patient treatment...... is known for his writings on theatricality, understood as a holistic design approach emphasizing the contextual, cultural, ritual and social meanings rooted in architecture. Relative hereto, the International Food Design Society recently argued, in a similar holistic manner, that the methodology used...... to provide an aesthetic eating experience includes knowledge on both food and design. Based on a hermeneutic reading of Semper’s theory, our thesis is that this holistic design approach is important when debating concepts of hospitality in hospitals. We use this approach to argue for how ‘food design...

  10. Lab architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2008-04-01

    There are few more dramatic illustrations of the vicissitudes of laboratory architecturethan the contrast between Building 20 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and its replacement, the Ray and Maria Stata Center. Building 20 was built hurriedly in 1943 as temporary housing for MIT's famous Rad Lab, the site of wartime radar research, and it remained a productive laboratory space for over half a century. A decade ago it was demolished to make way for the Stata Center, an architecturally striking building designed by Frank Gehry to house MIT's computer science and artificial intelligence labs (above). But in 2004 - just two years after the Stata Center officially opened - the building was criticized for being unsuitable for research and became the subject of still ongoing lawsuits alleging design and construction failures.

  11. The role of hydrodynamics in shaping the composition and architecture of epilithic biofilms in fluvial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risse-Buhl, Ute; Anlanger, Christine; Kalla, Katalin; Neu, Thomas R; Noss, Christian; Lorke, Andreas; Weitere, Markus

    2017-12-15

    Previous laboratory and on-site experiments have highlighted the importance of hydrodynamics in shaping biofilm composition and architecture. In how far responses to hydrodynamics can be found in natural flows under the complex interplay of environmental factors is still unknown. In this study we investigated the effect of near streambed turbulence in terms of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) on the composition and architecture of biofilms matured in two mountainous streams differing in dissolved nutrient concentrations. Over both streams, TKE significantly explained 7% and 8% of the variability in biofilm composition and architecture, respectively. However, effects were more pronounced in the nutrient richer stream, where TKE significantly explained 12% and 3% of the variability in biofilm composition and architecture, respectively. While at lower nutrient concentrations seasonally varying factors such as stoichiometry of dissolved nutrients (N/P ratio) and light were more important and explained 41% and 6% of the variability in biofilm composition and architecture, respectively. Specific biofilm features such as elongated ripples and streamers, which were observed in response to the uniform and unidirectional flow in experimental settings, were not observed. Microbial biovolume and surface area covered by the biofilm canopy increased with TKE, while biofilm thickness and porosity where not affected or decreased. These findings indicate that under natural flows where near bed flow velocities and turbulence intensities fluctuate with time and space, biofilms became more compact. They spread uniformly on the mineral surface as a film of densely packed coccoid cells appearing like cobblestone pavement. The compact growth of biofilms seemed to be advantageous for resisting hydrodynamic shear forces in order to avoid displacement. Thus, near streambed turbulence can be considered as important factor shaping the composition and architecture of biofilms grown under natural

  12. Undoped TiO2 and nitrogen-doped TiO2 thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition on planar and architectured surfaces for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Liang; Soum-Glaude, Adurey; Volpi, Fabien; Salvo, Luc; Berthomé, Grégory; Coindeau, Stéphane; Mantoux, Arnaud; Boichot, Raphaël; Lay, Sabine; Brizé, Virginie; Blanquet, Elisabeth; Giusti, Gaël; Bellet, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Undoped and nitrogen doped TiO 2 thin films were deposited by atomic layer deposition on planar substrates. Deposition on 3D-architecture substrates made of metallic foams was also investigated to propose architectured photovoltaic stack fabrication. All the films were deposited at 265 °C and nitrogen incorporation was achieved by using titanium isopropoxide, NH 3 and/or N 2 O as precursors. The maximum nitrogen incorporation level obtained in this study was 2.9 at. %, resulting in films exhibiting a resistivity of 115 Ω cm (+/−10 Ω cm) combined with an average total transmittance of 60% in the 400–1000 nm wavelength range. Eventually, TiO 2 thin films were deposited on the 3D metallic foam template

  13. Architecture for autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broten, Gregory S.; Monckton, Simon P.; Collier, Jack; Giesbrecht, Jared

    2006-05-01

    In 2002 Defence R&D Canada changed research direction from pure tele-operated land vehicles to general autonomy for land, air, and sea craft. The unique constraints of the military environment coupled with the complexity of autonomous systems drove DRDC to carefully plan a research and development infrastructure that would provide state of the art tools without restricting research scope. DRDC's long term objectives for its autonomy program address disparate unmanned ground vehicle (UGV), unattended ground sensor (UGS), air (UAV), and subsea and surface (UUV and USV) vehicles operating together with minimal human oversight. Individually, these systems will range in complexity from simple reconnaissance mini-UAVs streaming video to sophisticated autonomous combat UGVs exploiting embedded and remote sensing. Together, these systems can provide low risk, long endurance, battlefield services assuming they can communicate and cooperate with manned and unmanned systems. A key enabling technology for this new research is a software architecture capable of meeting both DRDC's current and future requirements. DRDC built upon recent advances in the computing science field while developing its software architecture know as the Architecture for Autonomy (AFA). Although a well established practice in computing science, frameworks have only recently entered common use by unmanned vehicles. For industry and government, the complexity, cost, and time to re-implement stable systems often exceeds the perceived benefits of adopting a modern software infrastructure. Thus, most persevere with legacy software, adapting and modifying software when and wherever possible or necessary -- adopting strategic software frameworks only when no justifiable legacy exists. Conversely, academic programs with short one or two year projects frequently exploit strategic software frameworks but with little enduring impact. The open-source movement radically changes this picture. Academic frameworks

  14. Microbial xanthophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, Prakash; Bernstein, Paul S

    2005-09-01

    Xanthophylls are oxygenated carotenoids abundant in the human food supply. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and cryptoxanthin are major xanthophyll carotenoids in human plasma. The consumption of these xanthophylls is directly associated with reduction in the risk of cancers, cardiovascular disease, age-related macular degeneration, and cataract formation. Canthaxanthin and astaxanthin also have considerable importance in aquaculture for salmonid and crustacean pigmentation, and are of commercial interest for the pharmaceutical and food industries. Chemical synthesis is a major source for the heavy demand of xanthophylls in the consumer market; however, microbial producers also have potential as commercial sources. In this review, we discuss the biosynthesis, commercial utility, and major microbial sources of xanthophylls. We also present a critical review of current research and technologies involved in promoting microbes as potential commercial sources for mass production.

  15. Seasonality in ocean microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannoni, Stephen J; Vergin, Kevin L

    2012-02-10

    Ocean warming occurs every year in seasonal cycles that can help us to understand long-term responses of plankton to climate change. Rhythmic seasonal patterns of microbial community turnover are revealed when high-resolution measurements of microbial plankton diversity are applied to samples collected in lengthy time series. Seasonal cycles in microbial plankton are complex, but the expansion of fixed ocean stations monitoring long-term change and the development of automated instrumentation are providing the time-series data needed to understand how these cycles vary across broad geographical scales. By accumulating data and using predictive modeling, we gain insights into changes that will occur as the ocean surface continues to warm and as the extent and duration of ocean stratification increase. These developments will enable marine scientists to predict changes in geochemical cycles mediated by microbial communities and to gauge their broader impacts.

  16. SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE : WHAT ARCHITECTURE STUDENTS THINK

    OpenAIRE

    SATWIKO, PRASASTO

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable architecture has become a hot issue lately as the impacts of climate change become more intense. Architecture educations have responded by integrating knowledge of sustainable design in their curriculum. However, in the real life, new buildings keep coming with designs that completely ignore sustainable principles. This paper discusses the results of two national competitions on sustainable architecture targeted for architecture students (conducted in 2012 and 2013). The results a...

  17. Aerobot Autonomy Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfes, Alberto; Hall, Jeffery L.; Kulczycki, Eric A.; Cameron, Jonathan M.; Morfopoulos, Arin C.; Clouse, Daniel S.; Montgomery, James F.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Machuzak, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    An architecture for autonomous operation of an aerobot (i.e., a robotic blimp) to be used in scientific exploration of planets and moons in the Solar system with an atmosphere (such as Titan and Venus) is undergoing development. This architecture is also applicable to autonomous airships that could be flown in the terrestrial atmosphere for scientific exploration, military reconnaissance and surveillance, and as radio-communication relay stations in disaster areas. The architecture was conceived to satisfy requirements to perform the following functions: a) Vehicle safing, that is, ensuring the integrity of the aerobot during its entire mission, including during extended communication blackouts. b) Accurate and robust autonomous flight control during operation in diverse modes, including launch, deployment of scientific instruments, long traverses, hovering or station-keeping, and maneuvers for touch-and-go surface sampling. c) Mapping and self-localization in the absence of a global positioning system. d) Advanced recognition of hazards and targets in conjunction with tracking of, and visual servoing toward, targets, all to enable the aerobot to detect and avoid atmospheric and topographic hazards and to identify, home in on, and hover over predefined terrain features or other targets of scientific interest. The architecture is an integrated combination of systems for accurate and robust vehicle and flight trajectory control; estimation of the state of the aerobot; perception-based detection and avoidance of hazards; monitoring of the integrity and functionality ("health") of the aerobot; reflexive safing actions; multi-modal localization and mapping; autonomous planning and execution of scientific observations; and long-range planning and monitoring of the mission of the aerobot. The prototype JPL aerobot (see figure) has been tested extensively in various areas in the California Mojave desert.

  18. Modeling Architectural Patterns Using Architectural Primitives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zdun, Uwe; Avgeriou, Paris

    2005-01-01

    Architectural patterns are a key point in architectural documentation. Regrettably, there is poor support for modeling architectural patterns, because the pattern elements are not directly matched by elements in modeling languages, and, at the same time, patterns support an inherent variability that

  19. Software architecture 2

    CERN Document Server

    Oussalah, Mourad Chabanne

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, software architectures have significantly contributed to the development of complex and distributed systems. Nowadays, it is recognized that one of the critical problems in the design and development of any complex software system is its architecture, i.e. the organization of its architectural elements. Software Architecture presents the software architecture paradigms based on objects, components, services and models, as well as the various architectural techniques and methods, the analysis of architectural qualities, models of representation of architectural templa

  20. Lightweight enterprise architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Theuerkorn, Fenix

    2004-01-01

    STATE OF ARCHITECTUREArchitectural ChaosRelation of Technology and Architecture The Many Faces of Architecture The Scope of Enterprise Architecture The Need for Enterprise ArchitectureThe History of Architecture The Current Environment Standardization Barriers The Need for Lightweight Architecture in the EnterpriseThe Cost of TechnologyThe Benefits of Enterprise Architecture The Domains of Architecture The Gap between Business and ITWhere Does LEA Fit? LEA's FrameworkFrameworks, Methodologies, and Approaches The Framework of LEATypes of Methodologies Types of ApproachesActual System Environmen

  1. Software architecture 1

    CERN Document Server

    Oussalah , Mourad Chabane

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, software architectures have significantly contributed to the development of complex and distributed systems. Nowadays, it is recognized that one of the critical problems in the design and development of any complex software system is its architecture, i.e. the organization of its architectural elements. Software Architecture presents the software architecture paradigms based on objects, components, services and models, as well as the various architectural techniques and methods, the analysis of architectural qualities, models of representation of architectural template

  2. Carnegie Mellon University Space Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2016-01-01

    A traditional architecture studio focusing on a "post-pioneering" settlement (a first step research station with an emphasis on material, resources, closed-loop systems, as well as programmatic network and spatial considerations) for the surface of Mars or for Earth-Mars transit.

  3. Microbially induced magnetosusceptibility anomalies below the surface of emerged carbonate banks - observed pathway of their origin (San Salvador Island, The Bahamas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladil, Jindřich; Bosák, Pavel; Carew, J. L.; Zawidzki, P.; Lacka, B.; Charvátová, K.; Mylroie, J. E.; Langrová, Anna; Galle, Arnošt

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 5, - (2003), s. Abstract Number 06936 ISSN 1029-7006. [EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly. 06.04.2003-11.04.2003, Nice] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3013209 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : microbial diagenesis * carbonate platforms * Quaternary Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.cosis.net/abstracts/EAE03/06936/EAE03-J-06936.pdf

  4. Microbial effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, V.J.

    1985-10-01

    The long term safety and integrity of radioactive waste disposal sites proposed for use by Ontario Hydro may be affected by the release of radioactive gases. Microbes mediate the primary pathways of waste degradation and hence an assessment of their potential to produce gaseous end products from the breakdown of low level waste was performed. Due to a number of unknown variables, assumptions were made regarding environmental and waste conditions that controlled microbial activity; however, it was concluded that 14 C and 3 H would be produced, albeit over a long time scale of about 1500 years for 14 C in the worst case situation

  5. Architectural design decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Antonius Gradus Johannes

    2008-01-01

    A software architecture can be considered as the collection of key decisions concerning the design of the software of a system. Knowledge about this design, i.e. architectural knowledge, is key for understanding a software architecture and thus the software itself. Architectural knowledge is mostly

  6. Information Integration Architecture Development

    OpenAIRE

    Faulkner, Stéphane; Kolp, Manuel; Nguyen, Duy Thai; Coyette, Adrien; Do, Thanh Tung; 16th International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering

    2004-01-01

    Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) architectures are gaining popularity for building open, distributed, and evolving software required by systems such as information integration applications. Unfortunately, despite considerable work in software architecture during the last decade, few research efforts have aimed at truly defining patterns and languages for designing such multiagent architectures. We propose a modern approach based on organizational structures and architectural description lan...

  7. Fragments of Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jacob Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Topic 3: “Case studies dealing with the artistic and architectural work of architects worldwide, and the ties between specific artistic and architectural projects, methodologies and products”......Topic 3: “Case studies dealing with the artistic and architectural work of architects worldwide, and the ties between specific artistic and architectural projects, methodologies and products”...

  8. Lunar Navigation Architecture Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Christopher; Getchius, Joel; Holt, Greg; Moreau, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program is aiming to establish a long-term presence on the lunar surface. The Constellation elements (Orion, Altair, Earth Departure Stage, and Ares launch vehicles) will require a lunar navigation architecture for navigation state updates during lunar-class missions. Orion in particular has baselined earth-based ground direct tracking as the primary source for much of its absolute navigation needs. However, due to the uncertainty in the lunar navigation architecture, the Orion program has had to make certain assumptions on the capabilities of such architectures in order to adequately scale the vehicle design trade space. The following paper outlines lunar navigation requirements, the Orion program assumptions, and the impacts of these assumptions to the lunar navigation architecture design. The selection of potential sites was based upon geometric baselines, logistical feasibility, redundancy, and abort support capability. Simulated navigation covariances mapped to entry interface flightpath- angle uncertainties were used to evaluate knowledge errors. A minimum ground station architecture was identified consisting of Goldstone, Madrid, Canberra, Santiago, Hartebeeshoek, Dongora, Hawaii, Guam, and Ascension Island (or the geometric equivalent).

  9. Characteristics of the surface water basins of the Ukrainian Danube region toxicity with the use of microbial test–system Salmonella typhimurium ТА 98

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Kovalchuk

    2015-04-01

      The results of  the surface water basins of the Ukrainian Danube region  toxicity with the use of microbial test –system Salmonella typhimurium ТА 98.  The samples investigated testify about a majority of pollutants which are in the water. It has been shown that the most part of the samples under analysis had a powerful toxic effect. The percentage of the water samples with test – system toxicity equal to 90.0% was 13,3 %; with toxicity equal to 80,0 %  – 13,3 %;  with toxicity  > 50,0%  – 53,0 %; with toxicity 50,0%  – 53,0 %; на рівні 50,0%  – 53,0 %; на уровне < 20,0%  – 13,3 %. Процент нетоксичных образцов воды   составлял 6,6 %. Посколько тест-система Salmonella typhimurium ТА 98 более чувствительна к загрязнителям органического происхождения, высказана мысль, что загрязнение образцов воды связано именно с присутствием некоторых органических соединений, которые имеют большой негативный биологический потенциал. Принимая во внимание персистирующий характер загрязнения поверхностных водоемов Украинского Придунавья, признано необходимым продолжение исследований токсичности  воды этих водных объектов на бактериальной тест-системе Salmonella typhimurium ТА 98.   Ключевые слова: вода, водные объекты, токсичность,  тест-система Salmonella typhimurium TA 98, Украинское Придунавье.

  10. Combined use of atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry for cell surface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dague, Etienne; Delcorte, Arnaud; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Dufrêne, Yves F

    2008-04-01

    Understanding the surface properties of microbial cells is a major challenge of current microbiological research and a key to efficiently exploit them in biotechnology. Here, we used three advanced surface analysis techniques with different sensitivity, probing depth, and lateral resolution, that is, in situ atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry, to gain insight into the surface properties of the conidia of the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. We show that the native ultrastructure, surface protein and polysaccharide concentrations, and amino acid composition of three mutants affected in hydrophobin production are markedly different from those of the wild-type, thereby providing novel insight into the cell wall architecture of A. fumigatus. The results demonstrate the power of using multiple complementary techniques for probing microbial cell surfaces.

  11. Bubble dynamic templated deposition of three-dimensional palladium nanostructure catalysts: Approach to oxygen reduction using macro-, micro-, and nano-architectures on electrode surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guimei; Chen Xing; Li Jie; Guo Zheng; Liu Jinhuai; Huang Xingjiu

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We synthesize the Pd nanostructures by bubbles dynamic templated. → We obtain Pd nanobuds and Pd nanodendrites by changing the reaction precursor. → We obtain Pd macroelectrode voltammertric behavior using small amount of Pd materials. → We proved a ECE process. → The Pd nanostructures/GCE for O 2 reduction is a 2-step 4-electron process. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) palladium (Pd) nanostructures (that is, nano-buds or nano-dendrites) are fabricated by bubble dynamic templated deposition of Pd onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The morphology can be tailored by changing the precursor concentration and reaction time. Scanning electron microscopy images reveal that nano-buds or nano-dendrites consist of nanoparticles of 40-70 nm in diameter. The electrochemical reduction of oxygen is reported at such kinds of 3D nanostructure electrodes in aqueous solution. Data were collected using cyclic voltammetry. We demonstrate the Pd macroelectrode behavior of Pd nanostructure modified electrode by exploiting the diffusion model of macro-, micro-, and nano-architectures. In contrast to bare GCE, a significant positive shift and splitting of the oxygen reduction peak (vs Ag/AgCl/saturated KCl) at Pd nanostructure modified GCE was observed.

  12. Microbial Electrolysis Cells for High Yield Hydrogen Gas Production from Organic Matter

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.; Call, Douglas; Cheng, Shaoan; Hamelers, Hubertus V. M.; Sleutels, Tom H. J. A.; Jeremiasse, Adriaan W.; Rozendal, René A.

    2008-01-01

    production rates. MECs used to make hydrogen gas are similar in design to microbial fuel cells (MFCs) that produce electricity, but there are important differences in architecture and analytical methods used to evaluate performance. We review here

  13. Modeling Architectural Patterns’ Behavior Using Architectural Primitives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waqas Kamal, Ahmad; Avgeriou, Paris

    2008-01-01

    Architectural patterns have an impact on both the structure and the behavior of a system at the architecture design level. However, it is challenging to model patterns’ behavior in a systematic way because modeling languages do not provide the appropriate abstractions and because each pattern

  14. Lunar architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Shahin

    The climatic conditions of Earth and human trends for discover the space, make these questions that how we can design a camp on the moon as a base for traveling in space or how we can live on that condition and what kind of camp we can have on the moon?!The first step in this way was creating the International Space Station on earth's orbit. (International Space Station, 2001) Settlement on moon was proposed since knowledge about it growth. Regarding to new technologies, architects parallel to engineers are trying to design and invent new ways for human settlement on moon because of its suitable conditions. Proposed habitats range from the actual spacecraft lander or their used fuel tanks, to inflatable modules of various shapes. Due to the researches until now, the first requirement for the living on other planets is water existence for human breath and fuel and after that we need to solve air pressure and gravity difference. (Colonization of the Moon, 2004) The Goal of this research is to answer to the question which is designing a camp on the Moon. But for this goal, there is need to think and study more about the subject and its factors. With qualitative and comparative methodology, the conditions of the Earth and the Moon will be comparing in different categories such as nature, human and design. I think that after water discovery, with using local materials and appropriate building design which can be on surface or underground, along with new sciences, we can plan for long period living on Moon. The important point is to consider Function, Form and Structure together in designing on the Moon. References: Colonization of the Moon. (2004). Retrieved December 14, 2009, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonizationo ft heM oonStructure, InternationalSpaceStation.(2001).Retrie http : //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/InternationalS paceS tation

  15. Subsurface microbial habitats on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, P. J.; Mckay, C. P.

    1991-01-01

    We developed scenarios for shallow and deep subsurface cryptic niches for microbial life on Mars. Such habitats could have considerably prolonged the persistence of life on Mars as surface conditions became increasingly inhospitable. The scenarios rely on geothermal hot spots existing below the near or deep subsurface of Mars. Recent advances in the comparatively new field of deep subsurface microbiology have revealed previously unsuspected rich aerobic and anaerobic microbal communities far below the surface of the Earth. Such habitats, protected from the grim surface conditions on Mars, could receive warmth from below and maintain water in its liquid state. In addition, geothermally or volcanically reduced gases percolating from below through a microbiologically active zone could provide the reducing power needed for a closed or semi-closed microbial ecosystem to thrive.

  16. Religious architecture: anthropological perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaaik, O.

    2013-01-01

    Religious Architecture: Anthropological Perspectives develops an anthropological perspective on modern religious architecture, including mosques, churches and synagogues. Borrowing from a range of theoretical perspectives on space-making and material religion, this volume looks at how religious

  17. Avionics Architecture for Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the AES Avionics Architectures for Exploration (AAE) project is to develop a reference architecture that is based on standards and that can be scaled and...

  18. RATS: Reactive Architectures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christensen, Marc

    2004-01-01

    This project had two goals: To build an emulation prototype board for a tiled architecture and to demonstrate the utility of a global inter-chip free-space photonic interconnection fabric for polymorphous computer architectures (PCA...

  19. Rhein-Ruhr architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    katalog til udstillingen 'Rhein - Ruhr architecture' Meldahls smedie, 15. marts - 28. april 2002. 99 sider......katalog til udstillingen 'Rhein - Ruhr architecture' Meldahls smedie, 15. marts - 28. april 2002. 99 sider...

  20. MICROBIAL SURFACTANTS IN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Pirog

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It was shown literature and own experimental data concerning the use of microbial surface active glycolipids (rhamno-, sophoro- and trehalose lipids and lipopeptides for water and soil purification from oil and other hydrocarbons, removing toxic heavy metals (Cu2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, degradation of complex pollution (oil and other hydrocarbons with heavy metals, and the role of microbial surfactants in phytoremediation processes. The factors that limit the use of microbial surfactants in environmental technologies are discussed. Thus, at certain concentrations biosurfactant can exhibit antimicrobial properties and inhibit microorganisms destructing xenobiotics. Microbial biodegradability of surfactants may also reduce the effectiveness of bioremediation. Development of effective technologies using microbial surfactants should include the following steps: monitoring of contaminated sites to determine the nature of pollution and analysis of the autochthonous microbiota; determining the mode of surfactant introduction (exogenous addition of stimulation of surfactant synthesis by autochthonous microbiota; establishing an optimal concentration of surfactant to prevent exhibition of antimicrobial properties and rapid biodegradation; research both in laboratory and field conditions.

  1. Architecture and Film

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Javaheri, Saharnaz

    2016-01-01

    Film does not exist without architecture. In every movie that has ever been made throughout history, the cinematic image of architecture is embedded within the picture. Throughout my studies and research, I began to see that there is no director who can consciously or unconsciously deny the use of architectural elements in his or her movies. Architecture offers a strong profile to distinguish characters and story. In the early days, films were shot in streets surrounde...

  2. Accounting for microbial habitats in modeling soil organic matter dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenu, Claire; Garnier, Patricia; Nunan, Naoise; Pot, Valérie; Raynaud, Xavier; Vieublé, Laure; Otten, Wilfred; Falconer, Ruth; Monga, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    The extreme heterogeneity of soils constituents, architecture and inhabitants at the microscopic scale is increasingly recognized. Microbial communities exist and are active in a complex 3-D physical framework of mineral and organic particles defining pores of various sizes, more or less inter-connected. This results in a frequent spatial disconnection between soil carbon, energy sources and the decomposer organisms and a variety of microhabitats that are more or less suitable for microbial growth and activity. However, current biogeochemical models account for C dynamics at the macroscale (cm, m) and consider time- and spatially averaged relationships between microbial activity and soil characteristics. Different modelling approaches have intended to account for this microscale heterogeneity, based either on considering aggregates as surrogates for microbial habitats, or pores. Innovative modelling approaches are based on an explicit representation of soil structure at the fine scale, i.e. at µm to mm scales: pore architecture and their saturation with water, localization of organic resources and of microorganisms. Three recent models are presented here, that describe the heterotrophic activity of either bacteria or fungi and are based upon different strategies to represent the complex soil pore system (Mosaic, LBios and µFun). These models allow to hierarchize factors of microbial activity in soil's heterogeneous architecture. Present limits of these approaches and challenges are presented, regarding the extensive information required on soils at the microscale and to up-scale microbial functioning from the pore to the core scale.

  3. Elements of Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elements of Architecture explores new ways of engaging architecture in archaeology. It conceives of architecture both as the physical evidence of past societies and as existing beyond the physical environment, considering how people in the past have not just dwelled in buildings but have existed...

  4. Architectures and Mechanical Properties of Drugs and Complexes of Surface-active Compounds at Air-water and Oil-water Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Dipak K

    2017-11-17

    Drugs can represents a multitude of compounds from proteins and peptides, such as growth hormones and insulin and on to simple organic molecules such as flurbiprofen, ibuprofen and lidocaine. Given the chemical nature of these compounds two features are always present. A portion or portions of the molecule that has little affinity for apolar surfaces and media and the opposite a series of part or one large part that has considerable affinity for hydrophilic, polar or charged media and surfaces. A series of techniques are routinely used to probe the molecular interactions that can arise between components, such as the drug, a range of surface-active excipients and flavor compounds, for example terpenoids and the solvent or dispersion medium. Fifty-eight papers were included in the review, a large number (16) being of a theoretical nature and an equally large number (14) directly pertaining to medicine and pharmacy; alongside experimental data and phenomenological modelling. The review therefore simultaneously represents an amalgam of review article and research paper, with routinely used or established (10) and well-reported methodologies (also included in the citations within the review). Experimental data included from various sources as diverse as foam micro-conductivity, interferometric measurements of surface adsorbates and laser fluorescence spectroscopy (FRAP) are used to indicate the complexity and utility of foams and surface soft matter structures for a range of purposes but specifically, here for encapsulation and incorporation of therapeutics actives (pharmaceutical molecules, vaccines and excipients used in medicaments). Techniques such as interfacial tensiometry, interfacial rheology (viscosity, elasticity and visco-elasticity) and nanoparticle particle size (hydrodynamic diameter) and charge measurements (zeta potential), in addition to atomic force and scanning electron microscopy have proven to be very useful in understanding how such elemental

  5. Microbial biofilms: biosurfactants as antibiofilm agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banat, Ibrahim M; De Rienzo, Mayri A Díaz; Quinn, Gerry A

    2014-12-01

    Current microbial inhibition strategies based on planktonic bacterial physiology have been known to have limited efficacy on the growth of biofilm communities. This problem can be exacerbated by the emergence of increasingly resistant clinical strains. All aspects of biofilm measurement, monitoring, dispersal, control, and inhibition are becoming issues of increasing importance. Biosurfactants have merited renewed interest in both clinical and hygienic sectors due to their potential to disperse microbial biofilms in addition to many other advantages. The dispersal properties of biosurfactants have been shown to rival those of conventional inhibitory agents against bacterial and yeast biofilms. This makes them suitable candidates for use in new generations of microbial dispersal agents and for use as adjuvants for existing microbial suppression or eradication strategies. In this review, we explore aspects of biofilm characteristics and examine the contribution of biologically derived surface-active agents (biosurfactants) to the disruption or inhibition of microbial biofilms.

  6. Vital architecture, slow momentum policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2010-01-01

    A reflection on the relation between Danish landscape architecture policy and the statements made through current landscape architectural project.......A reflection on the relation between Danish landscape architecture policy and the statements made through current landscape architectural project....

  7. Microbial micropatches within microbial hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Renee J.; Tobe, Shanan S.; Paterson, James S.; Seymour, Justin R.; Oliver, Rod L.; Mitchell, James G.

    2018-01-01

    The spatial distributions of organism abundance and diversity are often heterogeneous. This includes the sub-centimetre distributions of microbes, which have ‘hotspots’ of high abundance, and ‘coldspots’ of low abundance. Previously we showed that 300 μl abundance hotspots, coldspots and background regions were distinct at all taxonomic levels. Here we build on these results by showing taxonomic micropatches within these 300 μl microscale hotspots, coldspots and background regions at the 1 μl scale. This heterogeneity among 1 μl subsamples was driven by heightened abundance of specific genera. The micropatches were most pronounced within hotspots. Micropatches were dominated by Pseudomonas, Bacteroides, Parasporobacterium and Lachnospiraceae incertae sedis, with Pseudomonas and Bacteroides being responsible for a shift in the most dominant genera in individual hotspot subsamples, representing up to 80.6% and 47.3% average abundance, respectively. The presence of these micropatches implies the ability these groups have to create, establish themselves in, or exploit heterogeneous microenvironments. These genera are often particle-associated, from which we infer that these micropatches are evidence for sub-millimetre aggregates and the aquatic polymer matrix. These findings support the emerging paradigm that the microscale distributions of planktonic microbes are numerically and taxonomically heterogeneous at scales of millimetres and less. We show that microscale microbial hotspots have internal structure within which specific local nutrient exchanges and cellular interactions might occur. PMID:29787564

  8. Microbial diversity in hydrothermal surface to subsurface environments of Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, using a catheter-type in situ growth chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Yowsuke; Sunamura, Michinari; Kitamura, Keiko; Nakamura, Ko-ichi; Kurusu, Yasurou; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Urabe, Tetsuro; Maruyama, Akihiko

    2004-03-01

    After excavation using a portable submarine driller near deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, microbial diversity was examined in samples collected from inside the boreholes using an in situ growth chamber called a vent catheter. This instrument, which we devised for this study, consists of a heat-tolerant pipe tipped with a titanium mesh entrapment capsule that is packed with sterilized inorganic porous grains, which serve as an adhesion substrate. After this instrument was deployed inside each of the boreholes, as well as a natural vent, for 3-10 days in the vicinity of hot vent fluids (maxima: 156-305 degrees C), DNA was extracted from the adhesion grains, 16S rDNA was amplified, and randomly selected clones were sequenced. In phylogenetic analysis of more than 120 clones, several novel phylotypes were detected within the epsilon-Proteobacteria, photosynthetic bacteria (PSB)-related alpha-Proteobacteria, and Euryarchaeota clusters. Members of epsilon-Proteobacteria were frequently encountered. Half of these were classified between two known groups, Corre's B and D. The other half of the clones were assigned to new groups, SSSV-BE1 and SSSV-BE2 (Suiyo Seamount sub-vent origin, Bacteria domain, epsilon-Proteobacteria, groups 1 and 2). From this hydrothermal vent field, we detected a novel lineage within the PSB cluster, SSNV-BA1 (Suiyo Seamount natural vent origin, Bacteria domain, alpha-Proteobacteria, group 1), which is closely related to Rhodopila globiformis isolated from a hot spring. A number of archaeal clones were also detected from the borehole samples. These clones formed a novel monophyletic clade, SSSV-AE1 (Suiyo Seamount sub-vent origin, Archaea domain, Euryarchaeota, group 1), approximately between methanogenic hyperthermophilic members of Methanococcales and environmental clone members of DHVE Group II. Thus, this hydrothermal vent environment appears to be a noteworthy microbial and genetic resource. It is also

  9. The Impact of the discreteness of low-fluence ion beam processing on the spatial architecture of GaN nanostructures fabricated by surface charge lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiginyanu, I.M.; Volciuc, O.; Gutowski, J.; Stevens-Kalceff, M.A.; Popa, V.; Wille, S.; Adelung, R.; Foell, H.

    2013-01-01

    We show that the discrete nature of ion beam processing used as a component in the approach of surface charge lithography leads to spatial modulation of the edges of the GaN nanostructures such as nanobelts and nanoperforated membranes. According to the performed Monte Carlo simulations, the modulation of the nanostructure edges is caused by the stochastic spatial distribution of the radiation defects generated by the impacting ions and related recoils. The obtained results pave the way for direct visualization of the networks of radiation defects induced by individual ions impacting a solid-state material. (authors)

  10. Anti-Microbial and Self-Cleaning Properties of Photocatalytic Surface Treatments and their Potential Use for Space-Based Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project was to implement a method to assess self-cleaning properties of commercially available photocatalytic surface treatments for their...

  11. Exporting Humanist Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The article is a chapter in the catalogue for the Danish exhibition at the 2016 Architecture Biennale in Venice. The catalogue is conceived at an independent book exploring the theme Art of Many - The Right to Space. The chapter is an essay in this anthology tracing and discussing the different...... values and ethical stands involved in the export of Danish Architecture. Abstract: Danish architecture has, in a sense, been driven by an unwritten contract between the architects and the democratic state and its institutions. This contract may be viewed as an ethos – an architectural tradition...... with inherent aesthetic and moral values. Today, however, Danish architecture is also an export commodity. That raises questions, which should be debated as openly as possible. What does it mean for architecture and architects to practice in cultures and under political systems that do not use architecture...

  12. Software architecture evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barais, Olivier; Le Meur, Anne-Francoise; Duchien, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Software architectures must frequently evolve to cope with changing requirements, and this evolution often implies integrating new concerns. Unfortunately, when the new concerns are crosscutting, existing architecture description languages provide little or no support for this kind of evolution....... The software architect must modify multiple elements of the architecture manually, which risks introducing inconsistencies. This chapter provides an overview, comparison and detailed treatment of the various state-of-the-art approaches to describing and evolving software architectures. Furthermore, we discuss...... one particular framework named Tran SAT, which addresses the above problems of software architecture evolution. Tran SAT provides a new element in the software architecture descriptions language, called an architectural aspect, for describing new concerns and their integration into an existing...

  13. Investigating the Role of Surface Materials and Three Dimensional Architecture on In Vitro Differentiation of Porcine Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Sofie Bruun; Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    In vitro generation of dendritic-like cells through differentiation of peripheral blood monocytes is typically done using two-dimensional polystyrene culture plates. In the process of optimising cell culture techniques, engineers have developed fluidic micro-devises usually manufactured in materi......In vitro generation of dendritic-like cells through differentiation of peripheral blood monocytes is typically done using two-dimensional polystyrene culture plates. In the process of optimising cell culture techniques, engineers have developed fluidic micro-devises usually manufactured......-dimensional PDMS and carbonised three-dimensional PDMS. Cells cultured conventionally (on two-dimensional polystyrene) differentiated into moDCs as expected. Interestingly, gene expression of a wide range of cytokines, chemokines, and pattern recognition receptors was influenced by culture surface material...... and IL23A) but the influence of the surfaces was unchanged. These findings highlights future challenges of combining and comparing data generated from microfluidic cell culture-devices made using alternative materials to data generated using conventional polystyrene plates used by most laboratories today....

  14. Nutrient, metal and microbial loss in surface runoff following treated sludge and dairy cattle slurry application to an Irish grassland soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyton, D P; Healy, M G; Fleming, G T A; Grant, J; Wall, D; Morrison, L; Cormican, M; Fenton, O

    2016-01-15

    Treated municipal sewage sludge ("biosolids") and dairy cattle slurry (DCS) may be applied to agricultural land as an organic fertiliser. This study investigates losses of nutrients in runoff water (nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)), metals (copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr)), and microbial indicators of pollution (total and faecal coliforms) arising from the land application of four types of treated biosolids and DCS to field micro-plots at three time intervals (24, 48, 360 h) after application. Losses from biosolids-amended plots or DCS-amended plots followed a general trend of highest losses occurring during the first rainfall event and reduced losses in the subsequent events. However, with the exception of total and faecal coliforms and some metals (Ni, Cu), the greatest losses were from the DCS-amended plots. For example, average losses over the three rainfall events for dissolved reactive phosphorus and ammonium-nitrogen from DCS-amended plots were 5 and 11.2 mg L(-1), respectively, which were in excess of the losses from the biosolids plots. When compared with slurry treatments, for the parameters monitored biosolids generally do not pose a greater risk in terms of losses along the runoff pathway. This finding has important policy implications, as it shows that concern related to the reuse of biosolids as a soil fertiliser, mainly related to contaminant losses upon land application, may be unfounded. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. MAPLE fabricated magnetite@eugenol and (3-hidroxybutyric acid-co-3-hidroxyvaleric acid)–polyvinyl alcohol microspheres coated surfaces with anti-microbial properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grumezescu, Valentina [Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Department of Science and Engineering of Oxidic Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 1–7 Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Holban, Alina Maria [Microbiology Immunology Department, Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, 1–3 Portocalelor Lane, Sector 5, 77206Bucharest (Romania); Iordache, Florin [Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology of Romanian Academy, “Nicolae Simionescu”, Department of Fetal and Adult Stem Cell Therapy, 8, B.P. Hasdeu, Bucharest 050568 (Romania); Socol, Gabriel [Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Mogoşanu, George Dan [Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, 2 PetruRareş Street, 200349 Craiova (Romania); Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai, E-mail: grumezescu@yahoo.com [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxidic Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 1–7 Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Ficai, Anton; Vasile, Bogdan Ştefan [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxidic Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 1–7 Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Truşcă, Roxana [S.C. Metav-CD S.A., 31Rosetti Str., 020015 Bucharest (Romania); Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen [Microbiology Immunology Department, Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, 1–3 Portocalelor Lane, Sector 5, 77206Bucharest (Romania); others, and

    2014-07-01

    This study reports the biological applications of a newly fabricated water dispersible nanostructure, based on magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) and eugenol (E), prepared in a well-shaped spherical form by precipitation method. The presence of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@E nanoparticles has been confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nanoparticles have been embedded into poly(3-hidroxybutyric acid-co-3-hidroxyvaleric acid)–polyvinyl alcohol (P(3HB-3HV)–PVA) microspheres by oil-in-water emulsion technique. Functionalized P(3HB-3HV)–PVA–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@E microspheres coatings have been fabricated by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). The coatings have been characterized by infrared microscopy (IRM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In vitro biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was assessed by the viable cell counts technique. Nanomaterial biocompatibility has been investigated by analyzing the phenotypic changes of cultured eukaryotic cells. Besides their excellent anti-adherence and anti-biofilm properties, the MAPLE coatings have the advantages of using bioactive natural compounds, which are less toxic and easily biodegradable than current antibiotics. This approach could be used as a successful alternative or adjuvant method to control and prevent microbial biofilms associated infections.

  16. MAPLE fabricated magnetite@eugenol and (3-hidroxybutyric acid-co-3-hidroxyvaleric acid)–polyvinyl alcohol microspheres coated surfaces with anti-microbial properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grumezescu, Valentina; Holban, Alina Maria; Iordache, Florin; Socol, Gabriel; Mogoşanu, George Dan; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Ficai, Anton; Vasile, Bogdan Ştefan; Truşcă, Roxana; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the biological applications of a newly fabricated water dispersible nanostructure, based on magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) and eugenol (E), prepared in a well-shaped spherical form by precipitation method. The presence of Fe 3 O 4 @E nanoparticles has been confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nanoparticles have been embedded into poly(3-hidroxybutyric acid-co-3-hidroxyvaleric acid)–polyvinyl alcohol (P(3HB-3HV)–PVA) microspheres by oil-in-water emulsion technique. Functionalized P(3HB-3HV)–PVA–Fe 3 O 4 @E microspheres coatings have been fabricated by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). The coatings have been characterized by infrared microscopy (IRM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In vitro biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was assessed by the viable cell counts technique. Nanomaterial biocompatibility has been investigated by analyzing the phenotypic changes of cultured eukaryotic cells. Besides their excellent anti-adherence and anti-biofilm properties, the MAPLE coatings have the advantages of using bioactive natural compounds, which are less toxic and easily biodegradable than current antibiotics. This approach could be used as a successful alternative or adjuvant method to control and prevent microbial biofilms associated infections.

  17. Algorithms, architectures and information systems security

    CERN Document Server

    Sur-Kolay, Susmita; Nandy, Subhas C; Bagchi, Aditya

    2008-01-01

    This volume contains articles written by leading researchers in the fields of algorithms, architectures, and information systems security. The first five chapters address several challenging geometric problems and related algorithms. These topics have major applications in pattern recognition, image analysis, digital geometry, surface reconstruction, computer vision and in robotics. The next five chapters focus on various optimization issues in VLSI design and test architectures, and in wireless networks. The last six chapters comprise scholarly articles on information systems security coverin

  18. Effect of nanoporous TiO2 coating and anodized Ca2+ modification of titanium surfaces on early microbial biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wennerberg Ann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The soft tissue around dental implants forms a barrier between the oral environment and the peri-implant bone and a crucial factor for long-term success of therapy is development of a good abutment/soft-tissue seal. Sol-gel derived nanoporous TiO2 coatings have been shown to enhance soft-tissue attachment but their effect on adhesion and biofilm formation by oral bacteria is unknown. Methods We have investigated how the properties of surfaces that may be used on abutments: turned titanium, sol-gel nanoporous TiO2 coated surfaces and anodized Ca2+ modified surfaces, affect biofilm formation by two early colonizers of the oral cavity: Streptococcus sanguinis and Actinomyces naeslundii. The bacteria were detected using 16S rRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization together with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results Interferometry and atomic force microscopy revealed all the surfaces to be smooth (Sa ≤ 0.22 μm. Incubation with a consortium of S. sanguinis and A. naeslundii showed no differences in adhesion between the surfaces over 2 hours. After 14 hours, the level of biofilm growth was low and again, no differences between the surfaces were seen. The presence of saliva increased the biofilm biovolume of S. sanguinis and A. naeslundii ten-fold compared to when saliva was absent and this was due to increased adhesion rather than biofilm growth. Conclusions Nano-topographical modification of smooth titanium surfaces had no effect on adhesion or early biofilm formation by S. sanguinis and A. naeslundii as compared to turned surfaces or those treated with anodic oxidation in the presence of Ca2+. The presence of saliva led to a significantly greater biofilm biovolume but no significant differences were seen between the test surfaces. These data thus suggest that modification with sol-gel derived nanoporous TiO2, which has been shown to improve osseointegration and soft-tissue healing in vivo, does not cause greater biofilm

  19. Environmental drivers of soil microbial community structure and function at the Avon River Critical Zone Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Deirdre; Mathes, Falko; Farrell, Mark; Leopold, Matthias

    2016-11-15

    The Critical Zone is defined as the thin, permeable layer from the tops of the trees to the bottom of the bedrock that sustains terrestrial life on Earth. The geometry and shape of the various weathering zones are known as the critical zone architecture. At the centre of the Critical Zone are soils and the microorganisms that inhabit them. In Western Australia, the million-year-old stable weathering history and more recent lateral erosion during the past hundreds of thousands of years have created a geomorphic setting where deep weathering zones are now exposed on the surface along the flanks of many lateritic hills. These old weathering zones provide diverse physical and chemical properties that influence near surface pedologic conditions and thus likely shape current surface microbiology. Here, we present data derived from a small lateritic hill on the UWA Farm Ridgefield. Spatial soil sampling revealed the contrasting distribution patterns of simple soil parameters such as pH (CaCl2) and electric conductivity. These are clearly linked with underlying changes of the critical zone architecture and show a strong contrast with low values of pH3.3 at the top of the hill to pH5.3 at the bottom. These parameters were identified as major drivers of microbial spatial variability in terms of bacterial and archaeal community composition but not abundance. In addition, we used sensitive (14)C labelling to assess turnover of three model organic nitrogen compounds - an important biogeochemical functional trait relating to nutrient availability. Though generally rapid and in the order of rates reported elsewhere (t½10h). In conclusion, we have shown that the weathering and erosion history of ancient Western Australia affects the surface pedology and has consequences for microbial community structure and function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Monitoring Microbially Influenced Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    and diffusional effects and unreliable corrosion rates, when biofilm and ferrous sulphide corrosion products cover the steel surface. Corrosion rates can be overestimated by a factor of 10 to 100 by electrochemical techniques. Weight loss coupons and ER are recommended as necessary basic monitoring techniques......Abstract Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon steel may occur in media with microbiological activity of especially sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The applicability and reliability of a number of corrosion monitoring techniques for monitoring MIC has been evaluated in experiments....... EIS might be used for detection of MIC as the appearance of very large capacitances can be attributed to the combined ferrous sulphide and biofilm formation. Capacitance correlates directly with sulphide concentration in sterile sulphide media. Keywords: Corrosion monitoring, carbon steel, MIC, SRB...

  1. Microbial Signatures of Cadaver Gravesoil During Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Sheree J; Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Robertson, B K; Javan, Gulnaz T

    2016-04-01

    Genomic studies have estimated there are approximately 10(3)-10(6) bacterial species per gram of soil. The microbial species found in soil associated with decomposing human remains (gravesoil) have been investigated and recognized as potential molecular determinants for estimates of time since death. The nascent era of high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the conserved 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene region of gravesoil microbes is allowing research to expand beyond more subjective empirical methods used in forensic microbiology. The goal of the present study was to evaluate microbial communities and identify taxonomic signatures associated with the gravesoil human cadavers. Using 16S rRNA gene amplicon-based sequencing, soil microbial communities were surveyed from 18 cadavers placed on the surface or buried that were allowed to decompose over a range of decomposition time periods (3-303 days). Surface soil microbial communities showed a decreasing trend in taxon richness, diversity, and evenness over decomposition, while buried cadaver-soil microbial communities demonstrated increasing taxon richness, consistent diversity, and decreasing evenness. The results show that ubiquitous Proteobacteria was confirmed as the most abundant phylum in all gravesoil samples. Surface cadaver-soil communities demonstrated a decrease in Acidobacteria and an increase in Firmicutes relative abundance over decomposition, while buried soil communities were consistent in their community composition throughout decomposition. Better understanding of microbial community structure and its shifts over time may be important for advancing general knowledge of decomposition soil ecology and its potential use during forensic investigations.

  2. 11 Soil Microbial Biomass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    186–198. Insam H. (1990). Are the soil microbial biomass and basal respiration governed by the climatic regime? Soil. Biol. Biochem. 22: 525–532. Insam H. D. and Domsch K. H. (1989). Influence of microclimate on soil microbial biomass. Soil Biol. Biochem. 21: 211–21. Jenkinson D. S. (1988). Determination of microbial.

  3. Molecular microbial ecology manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalchuk, G.A.; Bruijn, de F.J.; Head, I.M.; Akkermans, A.D.L.

    2004-01-01

    The field of microbial ecology has been revolutionized in the past two decades by the introduction of molecular methods into the toolbox of the microbial ecologist. This molecular arsenal has helped to unveil the enormity of microbial diversity across the breadth of the earth's ecosystems, and has

  4. Microbial Rechargeable Battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, Sam D.; Mol, Annemerel R.; Sleutels, Tom H.J.A.; Heijne, Ter Annemiek; Buisman, Cees J.N.

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems hold potential for both conversion of electricity into chemicals through microbial electrosynthesis (MES) and the provision of electrical power by oxidation of organics using microbial fuel cells (MFCs). This study provides a proof of concept for a microbial

  5. Childhood microbial keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah G Al Otaibi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Children with suspected microbial keratitis require comprehensive evaluation and management. Early recognition, identifying the predisposing factors and etiological microbial organisms, and instituting appropriate treatment measures have a crucial role in outcome. Ocular trauma was the leading cause of childhood microbial keratitis in our study.

  6. Enterprise architecture management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Fatemeh; Gøtze, John; Møller, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in enterprise architecture management, researchers and practitioners lack a shared understanding of its applications in organizations. Building on findings from a literature review and eight case studies, we develop a taxonomy that categorizes applications of enterprise...... architecture management based on three classes of enterprise architecture scope. Organizations may adopt enterprise architecture management to help form, plan, and implement IT strategies; help plan and implement business strategies; or to further complement the business strategy-formation process....... The findings challenge the traditional IT-centric view of enterprise architecture management application and suggest enterprise architecture management as an approach that could support the consistent design and evolution of an organization as a whole....

  7. Can You Hear Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Taking an off set in the understanding of architectural quality being based on multisensory architecture, the paper aims to discuss the current acoustic discourse in inclusive design and its implications to the integration of inclusive design in architectural discourse and practice as well...... as the understanding of user needs. The paper further points to the need to elaborate and nuance the discourse much more, in order to assure inclusion to the many users living with a hearing impairment or, for other reasons, with a high degree of auditory sensitivity. Using the authors’ own research on inclusive...... design and architectural quality for people with a hearing disability and a newly conducted qualitative evaluation research in Denmark as well as architectural theories on multisensory aspects of architectural experiences, the paper uses examples of existing Nordic building cases to discuss the role...

  8. Enterprise architecture management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Fatemeh; Gøtze, John; Møller, Charles

    2017-01-01

    architecture management based on three classes of enterprise architecture scope. Organizations may adopt enterprise architecture management to help form, plan, and implement IT strategies; help plan and implement business strategies; or to further complement the business strategy-formation process......Despite the growing interest in enterprise architecture management, researchers and practitioners lack a shared understanding of its applications in organizations. Building on findings from a literature review and eight case studies, we develop a taxonomy that categorizes applications of enterprise....... The findings challenge the traditional IT-centric view of enterprise architecture management application and suggest enterprise architecture management as an approach that could support the consistent design and evolution of an organization as a whole....

  9. ARCHITECTURE AND ITS WINDAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limonad Mikhail Yurievich

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the composition of the landscape and building on the basis of the laws of aerodynamic resistance of objects to the wind flow and the resulting physical effect of sail. The application of landscape-visual assessment based on windage properties as a criterion for the development of the architectural and town-planning appearance of buildings is presented. Windage is studied as a physical phenomenon arising in landscape forms, buildings, loose materials, surface and vegetation of the relief. Similarities are found between the silhouettes of windage ships and urban buildings. It is revealed that in the architectural qualification the center of the sail and the center of the lateral resistance of the object can help assess the relative position of the elements of the landscape and the appearance of the building in order to achieve compositional integrity. Thus, a technique for assessing visual appearance based on a system of visual moments of sailness with respect to the object’s observation center has been developed. The influence of high-rise buildings on the conditions of the active surface for human stay on domestic and foreign examples is analyzed. Among the described objects there are high-rise buildings on Novy Arbat in Moscow, the sculpture “Motherland Calls!” In Volgograd, Spinaker Tower in Portsmouth (United Kingdom, Burj Al Arab Hotel in Dubai (United Arab Emirates. It is noted that to assess the compositional integrity of the observed landscapes by visual windage, photographs from the ground level and significant heights of window openings are used. It is proposed to use this to assess the existing types and panoramas, for which they need to capture a photo or video of planar or volumetric images, while performing editing to establish the adequacy of visual perception of a person in real conditions. In conclusion, the result of the study reveals the application of the method of assessing visual windage to

  10. Aerobic microbial dolomite at the nanometer scale : Implications for the geologic record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Román, Mónica; Vasconcelos, Crisógono; Schmid, Thomas; Dittrich, Maria; McKenzie, Judith A.; Zenobi, Renato; Rivadeneyra, Maria A.

    2008-01-01

    Microbial experiments are the only proven approach to produce experimental dolomite under Earth's surface conditions. Although microbial metabolisms are known to induce dolomite precipitation by favoring dolomite growth kinetics, the involvement of microbes in the dolomite nucleation process is

  11. An Architecture of Reconciliation

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, Carlton Robert

    2001-01-01

    The reconciliation of architectural idea and built form is accomplished by the materialization of the idea through the use of specific materials with their inherent qualities and restrictions. The learning begins when one sees these restrictions not as a hinderance to the idea, but that which can reveal the very essence of Architecture. The virtue of this architecture of reconciliation lies in its ability to help Man understand his surroundings and place in the world at large. This is acc...

  12. Flexible weapons architecture design

    OpenAIRE

    Pyant, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Present day air-delivered weapons are of a closed architecture, with little to no ability to tailor the weapon for the individual engagement. The closed architectures require weaponeers to make the target fit the weapon instead of fitting the individual weapons to a target. The concept of a flexible weapons aims to modularize weapons design using an open architecture shell into which different modules are inserted to achieve the desired target fractional damage while reducing cost and civilia...

  13. Architecture for the senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Accommodating sensory disabilities in architectural design requires specific design considerations. These are different from the ones included by the existing design concept 'accessibility', which primarily accommodates physical disabilites. Hence a new design concept 'sensory accessbility......' is presented as a parallel and complementary concept to the existing one. Sensory accessiblity accommodates sensory disabilities and describes architectural design requirements needed to ensure access to to the sensory experiences and architectural quality of a given space. The article is based on research...

  14. Architecture humanitarian emergencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez-Guillamon, Maria; Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen; Contreras, Jorge Lobos

    2013-01-01

    Introduced by scientific articles conserning architecture and human rights in light of cultures, emergencies, social equality and sustainability, democracy, economy, artistic development and science into architecture. Concluding in definition of needs for new roles, processes and education of arc......, Architettura di Alghero in Italy, Architecture and Design of Kocaeli University in Turkey, University of Aguascalientes in Mexico, Architectura y Urbanismo of University of Chile and Escuela de Architectura of Universidad Austral in Chile....

  15. Architecture in Everyday Life

    OpenAIRE

    Costa Agarez, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    For most architects, architecture is not only art, craft, passion and engagement; it is their ‘bread-and-butter’, too, and has been so since long. Architecture, consciously or unconsciously, is also the ‘bread-and-butter’ of communities across the world: successfully or unsuccessfully it is part of the daily lives of ordinary women and men. Yet practitioners, theoreticians and historians of architecture often disregard the more quotidian side of the discipline, a neglect that is inversely pro...

  16. The ATLAS Analysis Architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranmer, K.S.

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of the ATLAS analysis architecture including the relevant aspects of the computing model and the major architectural aspects of the Athena framework. Emphasis will be given to the interplay between the analysis use cases and the technical aspects of the architecture including the design of the event data model, transient-persistent separation, data reduction strategies, analysis tools, and ROOT interoperability

  17. Architecture for Data Management

    OpenAIRE

    Vukolic, Marko

    2015-01-01

    In this document we present the preliminary architecture of the SUPERCLOUD data management and storage. We start by defining the design requirements of the architecture, motivated by use cases and then review the state-of-the-art. We survey security and dependability technologies and discuss designs for the overall unifying architecture for data management that serves as an umbrella for different security and dependability data management features. Specifically the document lays out the archi...

  18. Architecture and Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2009-01-01

    as "experiencescape" - a space between tourism, culture, learning and economy. Strategies related to these challenges involve new architectural concepts and art as ‘engines' for a change. New expressive architecture and old industrial buildings are often combined into hybrid narratives, linking the past...... with the future. But this is not enough. The agenda is to develop architectural spaces, where social interaction and learning are enhanced by art and fun. How can we develop new architectural designs in our inner cities and waterfronts where eventscapes, learning labs and temporal use are merged with everyday...

  19. Grid Architecture 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taft, Jeffrey D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The report describes work done on Grid Architecture under the auspices of the Department of Electricity Office of Electricity Delivery and Reliability in 2015. As described in the first Grid Architecture report, the primary purpose of this work is to provide stakeholder insight about grid issues so as to enable superior decision making on their part. Doing this requires the creation of various work products, including oft-times complex diagrams, analyses, and explanations. This report provides architectural insights into several important grid topics and also describes work done to advance the science of Grid Architecture as well.

  20. Towards a Media Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebsen, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    This text explores the concept of media architecture as a phenomenon of visual culture that describes the use of screen-technology in new spatial configurations in practices of architecture and art. I shall argue that this phenomenon is not necessarily a revolutionary new approach, but rather...... a result of conceptual changes in both modes visual representation and in expressions of architecture. These are changes the may be described as an evolution of ideas and consequent experiments that can be traced back to changes in the history of art and the various styles and ideologies of architecture....

  1. Decentralized Software Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khare, Rohit

    2002-01-01

    .... While the term "decentralization" is familiar from political and economic contexts, it has been applied extensively, if indiscriminately, to describe recent trends in software architecture towards...

  2. High-Resolution Spore Coat Architecture and Assembly of Bacillus Spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkin, A J; Elhadj, S; Plomp, M

    2011-03-14

    Elucidating the molecular architecture of bacterial and cellular surfaces and its structural dynamics is essential to understanding mechanisms of pathogenesis, immune response, physicochemical interactions, environmental resistance, and provide the means for identifying spore formulation and processing attributes. I will discuss the application of in vitro atomic force microscopy (AFM) for studies of high-resolution coat architecture and assembly of several Bacillus spore species. We have demonstrated that bacterial spore coat structures are phylogenetically and growth medium determined. We have proposed that strikingly different species-dependent coat structures of bacterial spore species are a consequence of sporulation media-dependent nucleation and crystallization mechanisms that regulate the assembly of the outer spore coat. Spore coat layers were found to exhibit screw dislocations and two-dimensional nuclei typically observed on inorganic and macromolecular crystals. This presents the first case of non-mineral crystal growth patterns being revealed for a biological organism, which provides an unexpected example of nature exploiting fundamental materials science mechanisms for the morphogenetic control of biological ultrastructures. We have discovered and validated, distinctive formulation-specific high-resolution structural spore coat and dimensional signatures of B. anthracis spores (Sterne strain) grown in different formulation condition. We further demonstrated that measurement of the dimensional characteristics of B. anthracis spores provides formulation classification and sample matching with high sensitivity and specificity. I will present data on the development of an AFM-based immunolabeling technique for the proteomic mapping of macromolecular structures on the B. anthracis surfaces. These studies demonstrate that AFM can probe microbial surface architecture, environmental dynamics and the life cycle of bacterial and cellular systems at near

  3. Smooth surfaces from bilinear patches: Discrete affine minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Kä ferbö ck, Florian; Pottmann, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by applications in freeform architecture, we study surfaces which are composed of smoothly joined bilinear patches. These surfaces turn out to be discrete versions of negatively curved affine minimal surfaces and share many properties

  4. Architectural Growth of Cu Nanoparticles Through Electrodeposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ching-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cu particles with different architectures such as pyramid, cube, and multipod have been successfully fabricated on the surface of Au films, which is the polycrystalline Au substrate with (111 domains, using the electrodeposition technique in the presence of the surface-capping reagents of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid and poly(vinylpyrrolidone. Further, the growth evolution of pyramidal Cu nanoparticles was observed for the first time. We believe that our method might open new possibilities for fabricating nanomaterials of non-noble transition metals with various novel architectures, which can then potentially be utilized in applications such as biosensors, catalysis, photovoltaic cells, and electronic nanodevices.

  5. Discrete geometric structures for architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2010-06-13

    The emergence of freeform structures in contemporary architecture raises numerous challenging research problems, most of which are related to the actual fabrication and are a rich source of research topics in geometry and geometric computing. The talk will provide an overview of recent progress in this field, with a particular focus on discrete geometric structures. Most of these result from practical requirements on segmenting a freeform shape into planar panels and on the physical realization of supporting beams and nodes. A study of quadrilateral meshes with planar faces reveals beautiful relations to discrete differential geometry. In particular, we discuss meshes which discretize the network of principal curvature lines. Conical meshes are among these meshes; they possess conical offset meshes at a constant face/face distance, which in turn leads to a supporting beam layout with so-called torsion free nodes. This work can be generalized to a variety of multilayer structures and laid the ground for an adapted curvature theory for these meshes. There are also efforts on segmenting surfaces into planar hexagonal panels. Though these are less constrained than planar quadrilateral panels, this problem is still waiting for an elegant solution. Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we present a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces\\' in-circles form a packing, i.e., the in-circles of two triangles with a common edge have the same contact point on that edge. These "circle packing (CP) meshes" exhibit an aesthetic balance of shape and size of their faces. They are closely tied to sphere packings on surfaces and to various remarkable structures and patterns which are of interest in art, architecture, and design. CP meshes constitute a new link between architectural freeform design and computational conformal geometry. Recently, certain timber structures motivated us to study discrete patterns of geodesics on surfaces. This

  6. Module Architecture for in Situ Space Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes internal outfitting architectures for space exploration laboratory modules. ISS laboratory architecture is examined as a baseline for comparison; applicable insights are derived. Laboratory functional programs are defined for seven planet-surface knowledge domains. Necessary and value-added departures from the ISS architecture standard are defined, and three sectional interior architecture options are assessed for practicality and potential performance. Contemporary guidelines for terrestrial analytical laboratory design are found to be applicable to the in-space functional program. Densepacked racks of system equipment, and high module volume packing ratios, should not be assumed as the default solution for exploration laboratories whose primary activities include un-scriptable investigations and experimentation on the system equipment itself.

  7. Simultaneous monitoring of biofilm growth, microbial activity, and inorganic deposits on surfaces with an in situ, online, real-time, non-destructive, optical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathmann, Martin; Mittenzwey, Klaus-Henrik; Sinn, Gert; Papadakis, Wassilios; Flemming, Hans-Curt

    2013-01-01

    Deposits on surfaces in water-bearing systems, also known as 'fouling', can lead to substantial losses in the performance of industrial processes as well as a decreased product quality. Early detection and localization of such deposits can, to a considerable extent, save such losses. However, most of the surfaces that become fouled, for example, in process water pipes, membrane systems, power plants, and food and beverage industries, are difficult to access and analyses conducted on the water phase do not reveal the site or extent of deposits. Furthermore, it is of interest to distinguish biological from non-biological deposits. Although they usually occur together, different countermeasures are necessary. Therefore, sensors are required that indicate the development of surface fouling in real-time, non-destructively, and in situ, preferably allowing for discrimination between chemical and/or biological deposits. In this paper, an optical deposit sensor is presented which fulfills these requirements. Based on multiple fluorescence excitation emission matrix analysis, it detects autofluorescence of amino acids as indicators of biomass. Autofluorescence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide + hydrogen is interpreted as an indicator of biological activity, thus it acts as a viability marker, making the method suited for assessing the efficacy of disinfection treatments. Scattering signals from abiotic deposits such as calcium carbonate or corrosion products can clearly be distinguished from biotic substances and monitored separately. The sensor provides an early warning of fouling, allowing for timely countermeasures to be deployed. It also provides an assessment of the success of cleaning treatments and is a promising tool for integrated antifouling strategies.

  8. An Integrated Hybrid Transportation Architecture for Human Mars Expeditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Raymond G.; Chai, Patrick R.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture that uses both chemical and electric propulsion systems on the same vehicle to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By applying chemical and electrical propulsion where each is most effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper presents an integrated Hybrid in-space transportation architecture for piloted missions and delivery of cargo. A concept for a Mars campaign including orbital and Mars surface missions is described in detail including a system concept of operations and conceptual design. Specific constraints, margin, and pinch points are identified for the architecture and opportunities for critical path commercial and international collaboration are discussed.

  9. The Mothership Mission Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, S. M.; DiCorcia, J. D.; Bonin, G.; Gump, D.; Lewis, J. S.; Foulds, C.; Faber, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Mothership is considered to be a dedicated deep space carrier spacecraft. It is currently being developed by Deep Space Industries (DSI) as a mission concept that enables a broad participation in the scientific exploration of small bodies - the Mothership mission architecture. A Mothership shall deliver third-party nano-sats, experiments and instruments to Near Earth Asteroids (NEOs), comets or moons. The Mothership service includes delivery of nano-sats, communication to Earth and visuals of the asteroid surface and surrounding area. The Mothership is designed to carry about 10 nano-sats, based upon a variation of the Cubesat standard, with some flexibility on the specific geometry. The Deep Space Nano-Sat reference design is a 14.5 cm cube, which accommodates the same volume as a traditional 3U CubeSat. To reduce cost, Mothership is designed as a secondary payload aboard launches to GTO. DSI is offering slots for nano-sats to individual customers. This enables organizations with relatively low operating budgets to closely examine an asteroid with highly specialized sensors of their own choosing and carry out experiments in the proximity of or on the surface of an asteroid, while the nano-sats can be built or commissioned by a variety of smaller institutions, companies, or agencies. While the overall Mothership mission will have a financial volume somewhere between a European Space Agencies' (ESA) S- and M-class mission for instance, it can be funded through a number of small and individual funding sources and programs, hence avoiding the processes associated with traditional space exploration missions. DSI has been able to identify a significant interest in the planetary science and nano-satellite communities.

  10. Scalable air cathode microbial fuel cells using glass fiber separators, plastic mesh supporters, and graphite fiber brush anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Cheng, Shaoan; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia; Logan, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    The combined use of brush anodes and glass fiber (GF1) separators, and plastic mesh supporters were used here for the first time to create a scalable microbial fuel cell architecture. Separators prevented short circuiting of closely

  11. Changes in the internal resistance of a single chamber microbial fuel cell associated with architectural changes and inoculation; Cambios en la resistencia interna de una celda de combustible microbiana de una camara asociados a cambios de arquitectura y tipo de inoculo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Larios, A.L.; Vazquez-Huerta, G.; Esparza-Garcia, F.; Solorza-Feria, O.; Poggi Varaldo, H.M. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: hectorpoggi2001@gmail.com; linevazquez@yahoo.com.mx

    2009-09-15

    The objective of this work was to electrochemically characterize a new type of microbial fuel cell (MFC-A) and evaluate the effect of three inoculated types on internal resistance (Ir). The results were compared with those from a standard fuel cell (MFC-B). The MFC-A consisted of a horizontal acrylate cylinder equipped with two sandwiched electrode systems (each with a anode proton exchange membrane-cathode) at each end of the chamber. The MFC-B consisted of an anode and cathode each placed at opposing faces of the chamber, separated by 78 mm. The Ir of the cells were determined using a polarization curve. The inoculates were from continuous complete-mix reactors, biomass in suspension, at the laboratory scale. The inoculate with the lowest Ir value (1 200 and 3900 {Omega}) was sulfate reduction (SR-In). The second corresponded to methanogen inoculated cells (M-In) with Ir of 5300 and 7500 {Omega}. Aerobic inoculated cells (A-IN) had extremely high Ir values, 100000 and 130000 {Omega} for MFC-A and MFC-B, respectively. The Ir for all the inoculates was the lowest in the MFC-A, attributed to the change in the cell's architecture and the design of the electrodes. These results are encouraging since a decrease in Ir is required to increase the power and efficiency of a microbial fuel cell. [Spanish] El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar electroquimicamente una celda de combustible microbiana de nuevo tipo (CCM-A), y evaluar el efecto de tres tipos de inoculos sobre la resistencia interna (R{sub i}). Los resultados fueron comparados con los de una celda de combustible estandar (CCM-B). La CCM-A consistio de un cilindro horizontal de acrilato, equipado con dos sistemas de electrodos emparedados (cada uno con catodo/membrana de intercambio protonico/anodo) en cada uno de los extremos de la camara. La CCM-B consistio de un anodo y un catodo colocados cada uno en las caras opuestas de la celda, separados por 78 mm. Las Ri de las celdas fueron determinadas por

  12. Architecture and Intelligentsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rappaport

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article observes intellectual and cultural level of architecture and its important functions in social process. Historical analysis shows constant decline of intellectual level of profession, as a reaction on radical changes in its social functions and mass scale, leading to degrading of individual critical reflection and growing dependence of architecture to political and economical bureaucracy.

  13. Architecture and Intelligentsia

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Rappaport

    2015-01-01

    The article observes intellectual and cultural level of architecture and its important functions in social process. Historical analysis shows constant decline of intellectual level of profession, as a reaction on radical changes in its social functions and mass scale, leading to degrading of individual critical reflection and growing dependence of architecture to political and economical bureaucracy.

  14. OS Friendly Microprocessor Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    NOTES Patrick La Fratta is now affiliated with Micron Technology, Inc., Boise, Idaho. 14. ABSTRACT We present an introduction to the patented ...Operating System Friendly Microprocessor Architecture (OSFA). The software framework to support the hardware-level security features is currently patent ...Army is assignee. OS Friendly Microprocessor Architecture. United States Patent 9122610. 2015 Sep. 2. Jungwirth P, inventor; US Army is assignee

  15. Architecture, Drawing, Topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard, Morten

    This book presents contributions of drawing and text along with their many relationalities from ontology to history and vice versa in a range of reflections on architecture, drawing and topology. We hope to thereby indicate the potential of the theme in understanding not only the architecture of ...

  16. Software Architecture Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Many software systems eventually undergo changes to their basic architectural structure. Such changes may be prompted by new feature requests, new quality attribute requirements, changing technology, or other reasons. Whatever the causes, architecture evolution is commonplace in real-world software projects. Today's software architects, however,…

  17. FTS2000 network architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenart, John

    1991-01-01

    The network architecture of FTS2000 is graphically depicted. A map of network A topology is provided, with interservice nodes. Next, the four basic element of the architecture is laid out. Then, the FTS2000 time line is reproduced. A list of equipment supporting FTS2000 dedicated transmissions is given. Finally, access alternatives are shown.

  18. Architecture and energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob; Lauring, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Traditional low-energy architecture has not necessarily led to reduced energy consumption. A paradigm shift is proposed promoting pluralistic energy-saving strategies.......Traditional low-energy architecture has not necessarily led to reduced energy consumption. A paradigm shift is proposed promoting pluralistic energy-saving strategies....

  19. Re[valuating]-architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira Roders, A.R.; Post, J.M.; Erkelens, P.A.; Haugen, T.I.

    2006-01-01

    The architectural hierarchy of aims altered in the last decades. Quality and comfort have dethroned functionality! We are already familiar with the taxonomy – quality certification in the construction world; but in architectural designs, it is not common to evaluate scientifically, if the design has

  20. Digitally-Driven Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Bier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The shift from mechanical to digital forces architects to reposition themselves: Architects generate digital information, which can be used not only in designing and fabricating building components but also in embedding behaviours into buildings. This implies that, similar to the way that industrial design and fabrication with its concepts of standardisation and serial production influenced modernist architecture, digital design and fabrication influences contemporary architecture. While standardisation focused on processes of rationalisation of form, mass-customisation as a new paradigm that replaces mass-production, addresses non-standard, complex, and flexible designs. Furthermore, knowledge about the designed object can be encoded in digital data pertaining not just to the geometry of a design but also to its physical or other behaviours within an environment. Digitally-driven architecture implies, therefore, not only digitally-designed and fabricated architecture, it also implies architecture – built form – that can be controlled, actuated, and animated by digital means.In this context, this sixth Footprint issue examines the influence of digital means as pragmatic and conceptual instruments for actuating architecture. The focus is not so much on computer-based systems for the development of architectural designs, but on architecture incorporating digital control, sens­ing, actuating, or other mechanisms that enable buildings to inter­act with their users and surroundings in real time in the real world through physical or sensory change and variation.

  1. Digitally-Driven Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Bier

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The shift from mechanical to digital forces architects to reposition themselves: Architects generate digital information, which can be used not only in designing and fabricating building components but also in embedding behaviours into buildings. This implies that, similar to the way that industrial design and fabrication with its concepts of standardisation and serial production influenced modernist architecture, digital design and fabrication influences contemporary architecture. While standardisa­tion focused on processes of rationalisation of form, mass-customisation as a new paradigm that replaces mass-production, addresses non-standard, complex, and flexible designs. Furthermore, knowledge about the designed object can be encoded in digital data pertaining not just to the geometry of a design but also to its physical or other behaviours within an environment. Digitally-driven architecture implies, therefore, not only digitally-designed and fabricated architecture, it also implies architecture – built form – that can be controlled, actuated, and animated by digital means. In this context, this sixth Footprint issue examines the influence of digital means as prag­matic and conceptual instruments for actuating architecture. The focus is not so much on computer-based systems for the development of architectural designs, but on architecture incorporating digital control, sens­ing, actuating, or other mechanisms that enable buildings to inter­act with their users and surroundings in real time in the real world through physical or sensory change and variation.

  2. Architecture in Everyday Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agarez, R.; Mota, N.

    2015-01-01

    For most architects, architecture is not only art, craft, passion and engagement; it is their ‘bread-and-butter’, too, and has been so since long. Architecture, consciously or unconsciously, is also the ‘bread-and-butter’ of communities across the world: successfully or unsuccessfully it is part of

  3. Enterprise architecture intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veneberg, R.K.M.; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Bodenstaff, L.; Reichert, M.U.; Rinderle-Ma, S.; Grossmann, G.

    2014-01-01

    Combining enterprise architecture and operational data is complex (especially when considering the actual ‘matching’ of data with enterprise architecture objects), and little has been written on how to do this. Therefore, in this paper we aim to fill this gap and propose a method to combine

  4. Information Architecture: Looking Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Louis

    2002-01-01

    Considers the future of the field of information architecture. Highlights include a comparison with the growth of the field of professional management; the design of information systems since the Web; more demanding users; the need for an interdisciplinary approach; and how to define information architecture. (LRW)

  5. Architectural Physics: Lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, R. G.

    The author coordinates the many diverse branches of knowledge which have dealt with the field of lighting--physiology, psychology, engineering, physics, and architectural design. Part I, "The Elements of Architectural Physics", discusses the physiological aspects of lighting, visual performance, lighting design, calculations and measurements of…

  6. Architecture or Sculpture?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumeister, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Jørn Utzon´s museum design for Asger Jorn´s collection in Silkeborg contextualized in the postwar context of an organic architecture.......Jørn Utzon´s museum design for Asger Jorn´s collection in Silkeborg contextualized in the postwar context of an organic architecture....

  7. Globalization and Landscape Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Robert R. Hewitt

    2014-01-01

    The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive concept...

  8. Research Through Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peder Pedersen, Claus

    2018-01-01

    Presentation of the PhD research at the Aarhus School of Architecture and selected PhD projects in relation to PhD exhibition at Godsbanen.......Presentation of the PhD research at the Aarhus School of Architecture and selected PhD projects in relation to PhD exhibition at Godsbanen....

  9. Aesthetics of sustainable architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Hill, G.; Sauerbruch, M.; Hutton, L.; Knowles, R.; Bothwell, K.; Brennan, J.; Jauslin, D.; Holzheu, H.; AlSayyad, N.; Arboleda, G.; Bharne, V.; Røstvik, H.; Kuma, K.; Sunikka-Blank, M.; Glaser, M.; Pero, E.; Sjkonsberg, M.; Teuffel, P.; Mangone, G.; Finocchiaro, L.; Hestnes, A.; Briggs, D.; Frampton, K.; Lee, S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to reveal, explore and further the debate on the aesthetic potentials of sustainable architecture and its practice. This book opens a new area of scholarship and discourse in the design and production of sustainable architecture, one that is based in aesthetics. The

  10. Teaching American Indian Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Dick

    1991-01-01

    Reviews "Native American Architecture," by Nabokov and Easton, an encyclopedic work that examines technology, climate, social structure, economics, religion, and history in relation to house design and the "meaning" of space among tribes of nine regions. Describes this book's use in a college course on Native American architecture. (SV)

  11. Community genomics among stratified microbial assemblages in the ocean's interior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeLong, Edward F; Preston, Christina M; Mincer, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    Microbial life predominates in the ocean, yet little is known about its genomic variability, especially along the depth continuum. We report here genomic analyses of planktonic microbial communities in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, from the ocean's surface to near-sea floor depths. Sequence......, and host-viral interactions. Comparative genomic analyses of stratified microbial communities have the potential to provide significant insight into higher-order community organization and dynamics....

  12. Smooth surfaces from bilinear patches: Discrete affine minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Käferböck, Florian

    2013-06-01

    Motivated by applications in freeform architecture, we study surfaces which are composed of smoothly joined bilinear patches. These surfaces turn out to be discrete versions of negatively curved affine minimal surfaces and share many properties with their classical smooth counterparts. We present computational design approaches and study special cases which should be interesting for the architectural application. 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Knowledge and Architectural Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Johan

    2017-01-01

    of the level of research methods and will explain that the research methods and processes in creative practice research are very similar to grounded theory which is an established research method in the social sciences. Finally, an argument will be made for a more explicit research attitude in architectural......This paper focuses on the specific knowledge residing in architectural practice. It is based on the research of 35 PhD fellows in the ADAPT-r (Architecture, Design and Art Practice Training-research) project. The ADAPT-r project innovates architectural research in combining expertise from academia...... and from practice in order to highlight and extract the specific kind of knowledge which resides and is developed in architectural practice (creative practice research). The paper will discuss three ongoing and completed PhD projects and focusses on the outcomes and their contribution to the field...

  14. Product Architecture Modularity Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to integrate various perspectives on product architecture modularity into a general framework, and also to propose a way to measure the degree of modularization embedded in product architectures. Various trade-offs between modular and integral product architectures...... and how components and interfaces influence the degree of modularization are considered. In order to gain a better understanding of product architecture modularity as a strategy, a theoretical framework and propositions are drawn from various academic literature sources. Based on the literature review......, the following key elements of product architecture are identified: components (standard and new-to-the-firm), interfaces (standardization and specification), degree of coupling, and substitutability. A mathematical function, termed modularization function, is introduced to measure the degree of modularization...

  15. Can architecture be barbaric?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hürol, Yonca

    2009-06-01

    The title of this article is adapted from Theodor W. Adorno's famous dictum: 'To write poetry after Auschwitz is barbaric.' After the catastrophic earthquake in Kocaeli, Turkey on the 17th of August 1999, in which more than 40,000 people died or were lost, Necdet Teymur, who was then the dean of the Faculty of Architecture of the Middle East Technical University, referred to Adorno in one of his 'earthquake poems' and asked: 'Is architecture possible after 17th of August?' The main objective of this article is to interpret Teymur's question in respect of its connection to Adorno's philosophy with a view to make a contribution to the politics and ethics of architecture in Turkey. Teymur's question helps in providing a new interpretation of a critical approach to architecture and architectural technology through Adorno's philosophy. The paper also presents a discussion of Adorno's dictum, which serves for a better understanding of its universality/particularity.

  16. Architecture in the Islamic Civilization: Muslim Building or Islamic Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Yassin, Ayat Ali; Utaberta, Dr. Nangkula

    2012-01-01

    The main problem of the theory in the arena of islamic architecture is affected by some of its Westernthoughts, and stereotyping the islamic architecture according to Western thoughts; this leads to the breakdownof the foundations in the islamic architecture. It is a myth that islamic architecture is subjected to theinfluence from foreign architectures. This paper will highlight the dialectical concept of islamic architecture ormuslim buildings and the areas of recognition in islamic architec...

  17. Minimalism in architecture: Abstract conceptualization of architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilski Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimalism in architecture contains the idea of the minimum as a leading creative tend to be considered and interpreted in working through phenomena of empathy and abstraction. In the Western culture, the root of this idea is found in empathy of Wilhelm Worringer and abstraction of Kasimir Malevich. In his dissertation, 'Abstraction and Empathy' Worringer presented his thesis on the psychology of style through which he explained the two opposing basic forms: abstraction and empathy. His conclusion on empathy as a psychological basis of observation expression is significant due to the verbal congruence with contemporary minimalist expression. His intuition was enhenced furthermore by figure of Malevich. Abstraction, as an expression of inner unfettered inspiration, has played a crucial role in the development of modern art and architecture of the twentieth century. Abstraction, which is one of the basic methods of learning in psychology (separating relevant from irrelevant features, Carl Jung is used to discover ideas. Minimalism in architecture emphasizes the level of abstraction to which the individual functions are reduced. Different types of abstraction are present: in the form as well as function of the basic elements: walls and windows. The case study is an example of Sou Fujimoto who is unequivocal in its commitment to the autonomy of abstract conceptualization of architecture.

  18. Optimization of biostimulant for bioremediation of contaminated coastal sediment by response surface methodology (RSM) and evaluation of microbial diversity by pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subha, Bakthavachallam; Song, Young Chae; Woo, Jung Hui

    2015-09-15

    The present study aims to optimize the slow release biostimulant ball (BSB) for bioremediation of contaminated coastal sediment using response surface methodology (RSM). Different bacterial communities were evaluated using a pyrosequencing-based approach in contaminated coastal sediments. The effects of BSB size (1-5cm), distance (1-10cm) and time (1-4months) on changes in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and volatile solid (VS) reduction were determined. Maximum reductions of COD and VS, 89.7% and 78.8%, respectively, were observed at a 3cm ball size, 5.5cm distance and 4months; these values are the optimum conditions for effective treatment of contaminated coastal sediment. Most of the variance in COD and VS (0.9291 and 0.9369, respectively) was explained in our chosen models. BSB is a promising method for COD and VS reduction and enhancement of SRB diversity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. New strategy for enhancement of microbial viability in simulated gastric conditions based on display of starch-binding domain on cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarahomjoo, Shirin; Katakura, Yoshio; Shioya, Suteaki

    2008-05-01

    The C-terminal region of the peptidoglycan hydrolase (CPH) of Lactococcus lactis IL1403 fused to the linker region and the starch-binding domain (SBD) of the *-amylase of Streptococcus bovis 148 was produced intracellularly in Escherichia coli. The fusion protein (CPH-SBD) was able to bind to the cell surface of Lactobacillus casei NRRL B-441 and to corn starch. Therefore, adhesion of cells to corn starch was mediated by the fusion protein. At a cell density of 10(9) cfu/ml and a starch concentration of 5 mg/ml, CPH-SBD-displaying L. casei cells aggregated with corn starch, whereas the free cells of L. casei did not form any aggregates with corn starch. After incubation in simulated gastric juice (pH 3.0, 1 h), the survival percentages of free cells, amylose-coated free cells, and free cells mixed with corn starch were 0.074%, 7.2%, and 3.1% respectively. When CPH-SBD-displaying bacteria aggregated with corn starch, their survival percentage was 8% higher than that of free cells mixed with corn starch. The survival of the amylose-coated CPH-SBD-displaying L. casei cells was comparable to that of amylose-coated free cells, whereas the survival percentage of amylose-coated aggregates of CPH-SBD-displaying bacteria with corn starch was 28% higher than that of amylose-coated mixture of free cells with corn starch. These results demonstrate the potential usefulness of the cell-surface display technique for enhancement of the delivery of viable microorganisms to the intestinal tract.

  20. Functional webs for freeform architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Bailin

    2011-08-01

    Rationalization and construction-aware design dominate the issue of realizability of freeform architecture. The former means the decomposition of an intended shape into parts which are sufficiently simple and efficient to manufacture; the latter refers to a design procedure which already incorporates rationalization. Recent contributions to this topic have been concerned mostly with small-scale parts, for instance with planar faces of meshes. The present paper deals with another important aspect, namely long-range parts and supporting structures. It turns out that from the pure geometry viewpoint this means studying families of curves which cover surfaces in certain well-defined ways. Depending on the application one has in mind, different combinatorial arrangements of curves are required. We here restrict ourselves to so-called hexagonal webs which correspond to a triangular or tri-hex decomposition of a surface. The individual curve may have certain special properties, like being planar, being a geodesic, or being part of a circle. Each of these properties is motivated by manufacturability considerations and imposes constraints on the shape of the surface. We investigate the available degrees of freedom, show numerical methods of optimization, and demonstrate the effectivity of our approach and the variability of construction solutions derived from webs by means of actual architectural designs.

  1. Urban architecture in urban renewal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgren, Steen; Svensson, Ole

    2001-01-01

    and without obvious architectural value. These issues raise pertinent questions: what urban architectural problems and qualities exist in the complex, inner suburbs? What differences exist between professionals' and residents' perceptions and assessments of urban architecture? How can a shared language...

  2. Geometric Computing for Freeform Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Wallner, J.

    2011-06-03

    Geometric computing has recently found a new field of applications, namely the various geometric problems which lie at the heart of rationalization and construction-aware design processes of freeform architecture. We report on our work in this area, dealing with meshes with planar faces and meshes which allow multilayer constructions (which is related to discrete surfaces and their curvatures), triangles meshes with circle-packing properties (which is related to conformal uniformization), and with the paneling problem. We emphasize the combination of numerical optimization and geometric knowledge.

  3. Travels in Architectural History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Deriu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Travel is a powerful force in shaping the perception of the modern world and plays an ever-growing role within architectural and urban cultures. Inextricably linked to political and ideological issues, travel redefines places and landscapes through new transport infrastructures and buildings. Architecture, in turn, is reconstructed through visual and textual narratives produced by scores of modern travellers — including writers and artists along with architects themselves. In the age of the camera, travel is bound up with new kinds of imaginaries; private records and recollections often mingle with official, stereotyped views, as the value of architectural heritage increasingly rests on the mechanical reproduction of its images. Whilst students often learn about architectural history through image collections, the place of the journey in the formation of the architect itself shifts. No longer a lone and passionate antiquarian or an itinerant designer, the modern architect eagerly hops on buses, trains, and planes in pursuit of personal as well as professional interests. Increasingly built on a presumption of mobility, architectural culture integrates travel into cultural debates and design experiments. By addressing such issues from a variety of perspectives, this collection, a special 'Architectural Histories' issue on travel, prompts us to rethink the mobile conditions in which architecture has historically been produced and received.

  4. On Detailing in Contemporary Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Claus; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    Details in architecture have a significant influence on how architecture is experienced. One can touch the materials and analyse the detailing - thus details give valuable information about the architectural scheme as a whole. The absence of perceptual stimulation like details and materiality...... / tactility can blur the meaning of the architecture and turn it into an empty statement. The present paper will outline detailing in contemporary architecture and discuss the issue with respect to architectural quality. Architectural cases considered as sublime piece of architecture will be presented...

  5. Fractionated Spacecraft Architectures Seeding Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathieu, Charlotte; Weigel, Annalisa

    2006-01-01

    .... Models were developed from a customer-centric perspective to assess different fractionated spacecraft architectures relative to traditional spacecraft architectures using multi-attribute analysis...

  6. Microbial electrosynthetic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Harold D.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Labelle, Edward V.

    2018-01-30

    Methods are provided for microbial electrosynthesis of H.sub.2 and organic compounds such as methane and acetate. Method of producing mature electrosynthetic microbial populations by continuous culture is also provided. Microbial populations produced in accordance with the embodiments as shown to efficiently synthesize H.sub.2, methane and acetate in the presence of CO.sub.2 and a voltage potential. The production of biodegradable and renewable plastics from electricity and carbon dioxide is also disclosed.

  7. Microbial biosurfactants with their high-value functional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial world is a rich source for finding valuable industrial chemicals and ingredients. Specifically, many microbial metabolites are surface-active compounds that can be developed into bio-based surfactants, detergents, and emulsifiers. Techno-economic analyses for the production of bio-based ...

  8. A Workflow to Model Microbial Loadings in Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many watershed models simulate overland and instream microbial fate and transport, but few actually provide loading rates on land surfaces and point sources to the water body network. This paper describes the underlying general equations for microbial loading rates associated wit...

  9. A Workflow to Model Microbial Loadings in Watersheds (proceedings)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many watershed models simulate overland and instream microbial fate and transport, but few actually provide loading rates on land surfaces and point sources to the water body network. This paper describes the underlying general equations for microbial loading rates associated wit...

  10. Microbial control of the dark end of the biological pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herndl, G.J.; Reinthaler, T.

    2013-01-01

    A fraction of the carbon captured by phytoplankton in the sunlit surface ocean sinks to depth as dead organic matter and faecal material. The microbial breakdown of this material in the subsurface ocean generates carbon dioxide. Collectively, this microbially mediated flux of carbon from the

  11. Towards Adaptive Evolutionary Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Sebastian HOlt; Rask, Nina; Risi, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents first results from an interdisciplinary project, in which the fields of architecture, philosophy and artificial life are combined to explore possible futures of architecture. Through an interactive evolutionary installation, called EvoCurtain, we investigate aspects of how...... to the development of designs tailored to the individual preferences of inhabitants, changing the roles of architects and designers entirely. Architecture-as-it-could-be is a philosophical approach conducted through artistic methods to anticipate the technological futures of human-centered development within...

  12. Computer architecture technology trends

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. This year's edition of Computer Architecture Technology Trends analyses the trends which are taking place in the architecture of computing systems today. Due to the sheer number of different applications to which computers are being applied, there seems no end to the different adoptions which proliferate. There are, however, some underlying trends which appear. Decision makers should be aware of these trends when specifying architectures, particularly for future applications. This report is fully revised and updated and provides insight in

  13. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  14. An Architecture Design Project: "Building" Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Sarah B.; Albanese, Judith; Karp, Karen S.; Karp, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Middle school students need relevant, meaningful contexts to apply emerging mathematical ideas. In this project, through the context of an architecture investigation, seventh-grade students engaged in mathematics involving area, surface area, volume, ratios and proportional thinking, number sense, and technology integration. Students, working in…

  15. Architectures of prototypes and architectural prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Christensen, Michael; Sandvad, Elmer

    1998-01-01

    together as a team, but developed a prototype that more than fulfilled the expectations of the shipping company. The prototype should: - complete the first major phase within 10 weeks, - be highly vertical illustrating future work practice, - continuously live up to new requirements from prototyping......This paper reports from experience obtained through development of a prototype of a global customer service system in a project involving a large shipping company and a university research group. The research group had no previous knowledge of the complex business of shipping and had never worked...... sessions with users, - evolve over a long period of time to contain more functionality - allow for 6-7 developers working intensively in parallel. Explicit focus on the software architecture and letting the architecture evolve with the prototype played a major role in resolving these conflicting...

  16. Radiant exchange in partially specular architectural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, C. Walter; Muehleisen, Ralph T.

    2003-10-01

    The radiant exchange method, also known as radiosity, was originally developed for thermal radiative heat transfer applications. Later it was used to model architectural lighting systems, and more recently it has been extended to model acoustic systems. While there are subtle differences in these applications, the basic method is based on solving a system of energy balance equations, and it is best applied to spaces with mainly diffuse reflecting surfaces. The obvious drawback to this method is that it is based around the assumption that all surfaces in the system are diffuse reflectors. Because almost all architectural systems have at least some partially specular reflecting surfaces in the system it is important to extend the radiant exchange method to deal with this type of surface reflection. [Work supported by NSF.

  17. Microbial ecology of hot desert edaphic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Valverde, Angel; Gunnigle, Eoin; Frossard, Aline; Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Cowan, Don A

    2015-03-01

    A significant proportion of the Earth's surface is desert or in the process of desertification. The extreme environmental conditions that characterize these areas result in a surface that is essentially barren, with a limited range of higher plants and animals. Microbial communities are probably the dominant drivers of these systems, mediating key ecosystem processes. In this review, we examine the microbial communities of hot desert terrestrial biotopes (including soils, cryptic and refuge niches and plant-root-associated microbes) and the processes that govern their assembly. We also assess the possible effects of global climate change on hot desert microbial communities and the resulting feedback mechanisms. We conclude by discussing current gaps in our understanding of the microbiology of hot deserts and suggest fruitful avenues for future research. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Analysis of Architecture Pattern Usage in Legacy System Architecture Documentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison, Neil B.; Avgeriou, Paris

    2008-01-01

    Architecture patterns are an important tool in architectural design. However, while many architecture patterns have been identified, there is little in-depth understanding of their actual use in software architectures. For instance, there is no overview of how many patterns are used per system or

  19. Bionics in architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugár Viktória

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of the forms and phenomena of nature is not a recent concept. Observation of natural mechanisms has been a primary source of innovation since prehistoric ages, which can be perceived through the history of architecture. Currently, this idea is coming to the front again through sustainable architecture and adaptive design. Investigating natural innovations and the clear-outness of evolution during the 20th century led to the creation of a separate scientific discipline, Bionics. Architecture and Bionics are strongly related to each other, since the act of building is as old as the human civilization - moreover its first formal and structural source was obviously the surrounding environment. Present paper discusses the definition of Bionics and its connection with the architecture.

  20. DSP Architecture Design Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Marković, Dejan

    2012-01-01

    In DSP Architecture Design Essentials, authors Dejan Marković and Robert W. Brodersen cover a key subject for the successful realization of DSP algorithms for communications, multimedia, and healthcare applications. The book addresses the need for DSP architecture design that maps advanced DSP algorithms to hardware in the most power- and area-efficient way. The key feature of this text is a design methodology based on a high-level design model that leads to hardware implementation with minimum power and area. The methodology includes algorithm-level considerations such as automated word-length reduction and intrinsic data properties that can be leveraged to reduce hardware complexity. From a high-level data-flow graph model, an architecture exploration methodology based on linear programming is used to create an array of architectural solutions tailored to the underlying hardware technology. The book is supplemented with online material: bibliography, design examples, CAD tutorials and custom software.

  1. METRIC context unit architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    METRIC is an architecture for a simple but powerful Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC). Its speed comes from the simultaneous processing of several instruction streams, with instructions from the various streams being dispatched into METRIC's execution pipeline as they become available for execution. The pipeline is thus kept full, with a mix of instructions for several contexts in execution at the same time. True parallel programming is supported within a single execution unit, the METRIC Context Unit. METRIC's architecture provides for expansion through the addition of multiple Context Units and of specialized Functional Units. The architecture thus spans a range of size and performance from a single-chip microcomputer up through large and powerful multiprocessors. This research concentrates on the specification of the METRIC Context Unit at the architectural level. Performance tradeoffs made during METRIC's design are discussed, and projections of METRIC's performance are made based on simulation studies.

  2. Flexible weapons architecture design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyant, William C., III

    Present day air-delivered weapons are of a closed architecture, with little to no ability to tailor the weapon for the individual engagement. The closed architectures require weaponeers to make the target fit the weapon instead of fitting the individual weapons to a target. The concept of a flexible weapons aims to modularize weapons design using an open architecture shell into which different modules are inserted to achieve the desired target fractional damage while reducing cost and civilian casualties. This thesis shows that the architecture design factors of damage mechanism, fusing, weapons weight, guidance, and propulsion are significant in enhancing weapon performance objectives, and would benefit from modularization. Additionally, this thesis constructs an algorithm that can be used to design a weapon set for a particular target class based on these modular components.

  3. Border information flow architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    This brochure describes the Border Information Flow Architecture (BIFA). The Transportation Border Working Group, a bi-national group that works to enhance coordination and planning between the United States and Canada, identified collaboration on th...

  4. Layered Fault Management Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sztipanovits, Janos

    2004-01-01

    ... UAVs or Organic Air Vehicles. The approach of this effort was to analyze fault management requirements of formation flight for fleets of UAVs, and develop a layered fault management architecture which demonstrates significant...

  5. Thermal Space in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines

    Present research is revolving around the design process and the use of digital applications to support the design process among architects. This work is made in relation to the current discussions about sustainable architecture and the increased focus on energy consumption and the comfort in our...... and understanding of spaces in buildings can change significantly and instead of the creation of frozen geometrical spaces, thermal spaces can be created as it is suggested in meteorological architecture where functions are distributed in relation to temperature gradients. This creates an interesting contrast......-introducing an increased adaptability in the architecture can be a part of re-defining the environmental agenda and re-establish a link between the environment of the site and the environment of the architecture and through that an increased appreciation of the sensuous space here framed in discussions about thermal...

  6. The toolbus coordination architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Klint, P.

    1996-01-01

    Building large, heterogeneous, distributed software systems poses serious problems for the software engineer; achieving interoperability of software systems is still a major challenge. We describe an experiment in designing a generic software architecture for solving these problems. To get

  7. Service Modularity and Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brax, Saara A.; Bask, Anu; Hsuan, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    , platform-based and mass-customized service business models, comparative research designs, customer perspectives and service experience, performance in context of modular services, empirical evidence of benefits and challenges, architectural innovation in services, modularization in multi-provider contexts......Purpose: Services are highly important in a world economy which has increasingly become service driven. There is a growing need to better understand the possibilities for, and requirements of, designing modular service architectures. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the roots...... of the emerging research stream on service modularity, provide a concise overview of existing work on the subject, and outline an agenda for future research on service modularity and architecture. The articles in the special issue offer four diverse sets of research on service modularity and architecture. Design...

  8. Microbial Cell Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Sullivan, Claretta [Eastern Virginia Medical School; Mortensen, Ninell P [ORNL; Allison, David P [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    limitation on the maximum scan size (roughly 100 x 100 {mu}m) and the restricted movement of the cantilever in the Z (or height) direction. In most commercial AFMs, the Z range is restricted to roughly 10 {mu}m such that the height of cells to be imaged must be seriously considered. Nevertheless, AFM can provide structural-functional information at nanometer resolution and do so in physiologically relevant environments. Further, instrumentation for scanning probe microscopy continues to advance. Systems for high-speed imaging are becoming available, and techniques for looking inside the cells are being demonstrated. The ability to combine AFM with other imaging modalities is likely to have an even greater impact on microbiological studies. AFM studies of intact microbial cells started to appear in the literature in the 1990s. For example, AFM studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae examined buddings cars after cell division and detailed changes related to cell growth processes. Also, the first AFM studies of bacterial biofilms appeared. In the late 1990s, AFM studies of intact fungal spores described clear changes in spore surfaces upon germination, and studies of individual bacterial cells were also described. These early bacterial imaging studies examined changes in bacterial morphology due to antimicrobial peptides exposure and bacterial adhesion properties. The majority of these early studies were carried out on dried samples and took advantage of the resolving power of AFM. The lack of cell mounting procedures presented an impediment for cell imaging studies. Subsequently, several approaches to mounting microbial cells have been developed, and these techniques are described later. Also highlighted are general considerations for microbial imaging and a description of some of the various applications of AFM to microbiology.

  9. Models in architectural design

    OpenAIRE

    Pauwels, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Whereas architects and construction specialists used to rely mainly on sketches and physical models as representations of their own cognitive design models, they rely now more and more on computer models. Parametric models, generative models, as-built models, building information models (BIM), and so forth, they are used daily by any practitioner in architectural design and construction. Although processes of abstraction and the actual architectural model-based reasoning itself of course rema...

  10. Artificial cognition architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Friess, Shelli A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this book is to establish the foundation, principles, theory, and concepts that are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are some basic human intelligence concepts framed for Artificial Intelligence systems. These include concepts like Metacognition and Metamemory, along with architectural constructs for Artificial Intelligence versions of human brain functions like the prefrontal cortex. Also presented are possible hardware and software architectures that lend themselves to learning, reasoning, and self-evolution

  11. Religious Architecture : Anthropological Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Religious Architecture: Anthropological Perspectives develops an anthropological perspective on modern religious architecture, including mosques, churches and synagogues. Borrowing from a range of theoretical perspectives on space-making and material religion, this volume looks at how religious buildings take their place in opposition to the secular surroundings, how they, as evocations of the sublime, help believers to move beyond the boundaries of modern subjectivity, and how they, in their...

  12. Climate and architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tind Kristensen, Eva; Friis Møller, Winnie; Rotne, Georg

    Climate and Architecture analyserer klimaets rolle i arkitekturen. Intentionen med bogen er at pege på nogle af de mange muligheder for bygningers klimaregulering, som et mere detaljeret studie af de lokale klimatiske forhold og den stedlige byggeskik tilbyder.......Climate and Architecture analyserer klimaets rolle i arkitekturen. Intentionen med bogen er at pege på nogle af de mange muligheder for bygningers klimaregulering, som et mere detaljeret studie af de lokale klimatiske forhold og den stedlige byggeskik tilbyder....

  13. Greek architecture now

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skousbøll, Karin Merete

    2006-01-01

    With the author's Scandinavian viewpoint the aim of this book has been an investigation into contemporary Greek architecture and at the same time providing an understanding for its essential characteristics based on the historic, cultural heritage of Hellas.......With the author's Scandinavian viewpoint the aim of this book has been an investigation into contemporary Greek architecture and at the same time providing an understanding for its essential characteristics based on the historic, cultural heritage of Hellas....

  14. Essential software architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Gorton, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Job titles like ""Technical Architect"" and ""Chief Architect"" nowadays abound in software industry, yet many people suspect that ""architecture"" is one of the most overused and least understood terms in professional software development. Gorton's book tries to resolve this dilemma. It concisely describes the essential elements of knowledge and key skills required to be a software architect. The explanations encompass the essentials of architecture thinking, practices, and supporting technologies. They range from a general understanding of structure and quality attributes through technical i

  15. Microbial Metabolism in Serpentinite Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Medina, M.; Brazelton, W. J.; Twing, K. I.; Kubo, M.; Hoehler, T. M.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    Serpentinization is the process in which ultramafic rocks, characteristic of the upper mantle, react with water liberating mantle carbon and reducing power to potenially support chemosynthetic microbial communities. These communities may be important mediators of carbon and energy exchange between the deep Earth and the surface biosphere. Our work focuses on the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory (CROMO) in Northern California where subsurface fluids are accessible through a series of wells. Preliminary analyses indicate that the highly basic fluids (pH 9-12) have low microbial diversity, but there is limited knowledge about the metabolic capabilities of these communties. Metagenomic data from similar serpentine environments [1] have identified Betaproteobacteria belonging to the order Burkholderiales and Gram-positive bacteria from the order Clostridiales as key components of the serpentine microbiome. In an effort to better characterize the microbial community, metabolism, and geochemistry at CROMO, fluids from two representative wells (N08B and CSWold) were sampled during recent field campaigns. Geochemical characterization of the fluids includes measurements of dissolved gases (H2, CO, CH4), dissolved inorganic and organic carbon, volatile fatty acids, and nutrients. The wells selected can be differentiated in that N08B had higher pH (10-11), lower dissolved oxygen, and cell counts ranging from 105-106 cells mL-1 of fluid, with an abundance of the betaproteobacterium Hydrogenophaga. In contrast, fluids from CSWold have slightly lower pH (9-9.5), DO, and conductivity, as well as higher TDN and TDP. CSWold fluid is also characterized for having lower cell counts (~103 cells mL-1) and an abundance of Dethiobacter, a taxon within the phylum Clostridiales. Microcosm experiments were conducted with the purpose of monitoring carbon fixation, methanotrophy and metabolism of small organic compounds, such as acetate and formate, while tracing changes in fluid

  16. Microbial accumulation of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Dong Faqin; Dai Qunwei

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of microbial accumulation of uranium and the effects of some factors (including pH, initial uranium concentration, pretreatment of bacteria, and so on) on microbial accumulation of uranium are discussed briefly. The research direction and application prospect are presented. (authors)

  17. MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A novel microbial fuel cell construction for the generation of electrical energy. The microbial fuel cell comprises: (i) an anode electrode, (ii) a cathode chamber, said cathode chamber comprising an in let through which an influent enters the cathode chamber, an outlet through which an effluent...

  18. Microbial control of pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, J C; Gadd, G M; Herbert, R A; Jones, C W; Watson-Craik, I A [eds.

    1992-01-01

    12 papers are presented on the microbial control of pollution. Topics covered include: bioremediation of oil spills; microbial control of heavy metal pollution; pollution control using microorganisms and magnetic separation; degradation of cyanide and nitriles; nitrogen removal from water and waste; and land reclamation and restoration.

  19. The ABC Adaptive Fusion Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunde-Pedersen, Jonathan; Mogensen, Martin; Bardram, Jakob Eyvind

    2006-01-01

    and early implementation of a systemcapable of adapting to its operating environment, choosingthe best fit combination of the client-server and peerto-peer architectures. The architecture creates a seamlessintegration between a centralized hybrid architecture and adecentralized architecture, relying on what...

  20. New Energy Architecture. Myanmar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    A global transition towards a new energy architecture is under way, driven by countries' need to respond to the changing dynamics of economic growth, environmental sustainability and energy security. The World Economic Forum, in collaboration with Accenture, has created the New Energy Architecture Initiative to address and accelerate this transition. The Initiative supports the development of national strategies and policy frameworks as countries seek to achieve the combined goals of energy security and access, sustainability, and economic growth and development. The World Economic Forum has formed a partnership with the Ministry of Energy of Myanmar to help apply the Initiative's approach to this developing and resource-rich nation. The Asian Development Bank and the World Economic Forum's Project Adviser, Accenture, have collaborated with the Forum on this consultation process, and have been supported by relevant government, industry and civil society stakeholders. The consultation process aims to understand the nation's current energy architecture challenges and provide an overview of a path to a New Energy Architecture through a series of insights. These insights could form the basis for a long-term multistakeholder roadmap to build Myanmar's energy sector in a way that is secure and sustainable, and promotes economic growth as the country makes its democratic transition. While not all recommendations can be implemented in the near term, they do provide options for creating a prioritized roadmap for Myanmar's energy transition. This report is the culmination of a nine-month multistakeholder process investigating Myanmar's energy architecture. Over the course of many visits to the country, the team has conducted numerous interviews, multistakeholder workshops, and learning and data-gathering exercises to ensure a comprehensive range of information and views. The team has also engaged with a variety of stakeholders to better inform their findings, which have come

  1. New Energy Architecture. Myanmar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    A global transition towards a new energy architecture is under way, driven by countries' need to respond to the changing dynamics of economic growth, environmental sustainability and energy security. The World Economic Forum, in collaboration with Accenture, has created the New Energy Architecture Initiative to address and accelerate this transition. The Initiative supports the development of national strategies and policy frameworks as countries seek to achieve the combined goals of energy security and access, sustainability, and economic growth and development. The World Economic Forum has formed a partnership with the Ministry of Energy of Myanmar to help apply the Initiative's approach to this developing and resource-rich nation. The Asian Development Bank and the World Economic Forum's Project Adviser, Accenture, have collaborated with the Forum on this consultation process, and have been supported by relevant government, industry and civil society stakeholders. The consultation process aims to understand the nation's current energy architecture challenges and provide an overview of a path to a New Energy Architecture through a series of insights. These insights could form the basis for a long-term multistakeholder roadmap to build Myanmar's energy sector in a way that is secure and sustainable, and promotes economic growth as the country makes its democratic transition. While not all recommendations can be implemented in the near term, they do provide options for creating a prioritized roadmap for Myanmar's energy transition. This report is the culmination of a nine-month multistakeholder process investigating Myanmar's energy architecture. Over the course of many visits to the country, the team has conducted numerous interviews, multistakeholder workshops, and learning and data-gathering exercises to ensure a comprehensive range of information and views. The team has also engaged with a variety of stakeholders to better

  2. Microbial adhesion in flow displacement systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, HJ; van der Mei, HC

    Flow displacement systems are superior to many other (static) systems for studying microbial adhesion to surfaces because mass transport and prevailing shear conditions can be adequately controlled and notoriously ill-defined slight rinsing steps to remove so-called "loosely adhering organisms" can

  3. The Microbial Burden Load of Eggshells from Different Poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    In this study, the microbial load of egg shell from different poultry system in .... eggshell surface and also decrease bacterial and fungal invasion ... measures of central tendency (mean ± standard .... Salmonella Contamination and Disinfection.

  4. Proceedings of the 8. International Symposium on Microbial Ecology : microbial biosystems : new frontiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, C.R.; Brylinsky, M.; Johnson-Green, P.

    2000-01-01

    A wide range of disciplines were presented at this conference which reflected the importance of microbial ecology and provided an understanding of the factors that determine the growth and activities of microorganisms. The conference attracted 1444 delegates from 54 countries. The research emerging from the rapidly expanding frontier of microbial ecosystems was presented in 62 oral presentation and 817 poster presentations. The two volumes of these proceedings presented a total of 27 areas in microbial ecology, some of which included terrestrial biosystems, aquatic, estuarine, surface and subsurface microbial ecology. Other topics included bioremediation, microbial ecology in industry and microbial ecology of oil fields. Some of the papers highlighted the research that is underway to determine the feasibility of using microorganisms for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Research has shown that microbial EOR can increase production at lower costs than conventional oil recovery. The use of bacteria has also proven to be a feasible treatment method in the biodegradation of hydrocarbons associated with oil spills. refs., tabs., figs

  5. Microbial ecology of terrestrial Antarctica: Are microbial systems at risk from human activities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.

    1996-08-01

    Many of the ecological systems found in continental Antarctica are comprised entirely of microbial species. Concerns have arisen that these microbial systems might be at risk either directly through the actions of humans or indirectly through increased competition from introduced species. Although protection of native biota is covered by the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, strict measures for preventing the introduction on non-native species or for protecting microbial habitats may be impractical. This report summarizes the research conducted to date on microbial ecosystems in continental Antarctica and discusses the need for protecting these ecosystems. The focus is on communities inhabiting soil and rock surfaces in non-coastal areas of continental Antarctica. Although current polices regarding waste management and other operations in Antarctic research stations serve to reduce the introduction on non- native microbial species, importation cannot be eliminated entirely. Increased awareness of microbial habitats by field personnel and protection of certain unique habitats from physical destruction by humans may be necessary. At present, small-scale impacts from human activities are occurring in certain areas both in terms of introduced species and destruction of habitat. On a large scale, however, it is questionable whether the introduction of non-native microbial species to terrestrial Antarctica merits concern.

  6. Towards a semantic web layered architecture

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gerber, AJ

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available as an architectural pattern or architectural style [6, 43]. In this section we give a brief description of the con- cepts software architecture and layered architecture. In ad- dition we provide a summary of a list of criteria for layered architectures identified...- els caused some architectural recurrences to evolve. These are described as architectural patterns [6] or architectural styles [43]. Examples of the best known architectural patterns include, but are not limited to, the client/server architectural...

  7. Neural Architectures for Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, James K.

    1991-01-01

    The cerebellar model articulated controller (CMAC) neural architectures are shown to be viable for the purposes of real-time learning and control. Software tools for the exploration of CMAC performance are developed for three hardware platforms, the MacIntosh, the IBM PC, and the SUN workstation. All algorithm development was done using the C programming language. These software tools were then used to implement an adaptive critic neuro-control design that learns in real-time how to back up a trailer truck. The truck backer-upper experiment is a standard performance measure in the neural network literature, but previously the training of the controllers was done off-line. With the CMAC neural architectures, it was possible to train the neuro-controllers on-line in real-time on a MS-DOS PC 386. CMAC neural architectures are also used in conjunction with a hierarchical planning approach to find collision-free paths over 2-D analog valued obstacle fields. The method constructs a coarse resolution version of the original problem and then finds the corresponding coarse optimal path using multipass dynamic programming. CMAC artificial neural architectures are used to estimate the analog transition costs that dynamic programming requires. The CMAC architectures are trained in real-time for each obstacle field presented. The coarse optimal path is then used as a baseline for the construction of a fine scale optimal path through the original obstacle array. These results are a very good indication of the potential power of the neural architectures in control design. In order to reach as wide an audience as possible, we have run a seminar on neuro-control that has met once per week since 20 May 1991. This seminar has thoroughly discussed the CMAC architecture, relevant portions of classical control, back propagation through time, and adaptive critic designs.

  8. Architecture is Life... ...Life is Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Snider, David E

    2001-01-01

    When thinking about architecture, I cannot help but think about my life and the things that have affected my life. How does the environment around us effect the daily decisions we make? How do the experiences throughout our life impact who we are and who we become? The people and surroundings we choose will ultimately decide the type of people we become. When we select our surroundings we are in turn selecting our ideal community. Everyone is trying to achieve community in some sense, from in...

  9. Microbial community structure elucidates performance of Glyceria maxima plant microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Ruud A; Rothballer, Michael; Strik, David P B T B; Engel, Marion; Schulz, Stephan; Schloter, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Hamelers, Bert; Buisman, Cees

    2012-04-01

    The plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) is a technology in which living plant roots provide electron donor, via rhizodeposition, to a mixed microbial community to generate electricity in a microbial fuel cell. Analysis and localisation of the microbial community is necessary for gaining insight into the competition for electron donor in a PMFC. This paper characterises the anode-rhizosphere bacterial community of a Glyceria maxima (reed mannagrass) PMFC. Electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) were located on the root surfaces, but they were more abundant colonising the graphite granular electrode. Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria dominated the area where most of the EAB were found, indicating that the current was probably generated via the hydrolysis of cellulose. Due to the presence of oxygen and nitrate, short-chain fatty acid-utilising denitrifiers were the major competitors for the electron donor. Acetate-utilising methanogens played a minor role in the competition for electron donor, probably due to the availability of graphite granules as electron acceptors.

  10. Base Camp Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warebi Gabriel Brisibe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal or time line studies of change in the architecture of a particular culture are common, but an area still open to further research is change across space or place. In particular, there is need for studies on architectural change of cultures stemming from the same ethnic source split between their homeland and other Diasporas. This change may range from minor deviations to drastic shifts away from an architectural norm and the accumulation of these shifts within a time frame constitutes variations. This article focuses on identifying variations in the architecture of the Ijo fishing group that migrates along the coastline of West Africa. It examines the causes of cross-cultural variation between base camp dwellings of Ijo migrant fishermen in the Bakassi Peninsula in Cameroon and Bayelsa State in Nigeria. The study draws on the idea of the inevitability of cultural and social change over time as proposed in the theories of cultural dynamism and evolution. It tests aspects of cultural transmission theory using the principal coordinates analysis to ascertain the possible causes of variation. From the findings, this research argues that migration has enhanced the forces of cultural dynamism, which have resulted in significant variations in the architecture of this fishing group.

  11. Architecture and Phenomenology: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan O’ Byrne

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The implications of philosophical aesthetics in the consideration of architecture have been relatively slight. Part of the reason is the neglect of architecture in the work of Baumgarten, Burke and Kant. Within the discourse of architecture the questions raised for philosophical consideration arising out of practice restricted the area of reflection and investigation. The dominant positions were to become either a version of neo-Kantianism, or a direct re-working of Hegel’s Lectures on Aesthetics. The significance of Kant’s distinction between ‘free’ and ‘dependent beauty’ is analysed, and in consequence the need to philosophically question again the relation of architecture to buiding, to dwelling and space. For this the question of accessibility as raised in the phenomenological enquiry, in the work of Brentano, Sartre, Bachelard, Merleau-Ponty, and especially Heidegger points to a different route for the appraisal of philosophical and architectural relations which are exhibited in the contributions of the 10 authors to this issue of Footprint.

  12. Architecture and Phenomenology: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan O’ Byrne

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The implications of philosophical aesthetics in the consideration of architecture have been relatively slight. Part of the reason is the neglect of architecture in the work of Baumgarten, Burke and Kant. Within the discourse of architecture the questions raised for philosophical consideration arising out of practice restricted the area of reflection and investigation. The dominant positions were to become either a version of neo-Kantianism, or a direct re-working of Hegel’s Lectures on Aesthetics. The significance of Kant’s distinction between ‘free’ and ‘dependent beauty’ is analysed, and in consequence the need to philosophically question again the relation of architecture to building, to dwelling and space. For this the question of accessibility as raised in the phenomenological enquiry, in the work of Brentano, Sartre, Bachelard, Merleau-Ponty, and especially Heidegger points to a different route for the appraisal of philosophical and architectural relations which are exhibited in the contributions of the 10 authors to this issue of Footprint.

  13. The Simulation Intranet Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, V.P.; Linebarger, J.M.; Miller, D.J.; Vandewart, R.L.

    1998-12-02

    The Simdarion Infranet (S1) is a term which is being used to dcscribc one element of a multidisciplinary distributed and distance computing initiative known as DisCom2 at Sandia National Laboratory (http ct al. 1998). The Simulation Intranet is an architecture for satisfying Sandia's long term goal of providing an end- to-end set of scrviccs for high fidelity full physics simu- lations in a high performance, distributed, and distance computing environment. The Intranet Architecture group was formed to apply current distributed object technologies to this problcm. For the hardware architec- tures and software models involved with the current simulation process, a CORBA-based architecture is best suited to meet Sandia's needs. This paper presents the initial desi-a and implementation of this Intranct based on a three-tier Network Computing Architecture(NCA). The major parts of the architecture include: the Web Cli- ent, the Business Objects, and Data Persistence.

  14. Globalization and Landscape Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R. Hewitt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive conceptual and co-relational frameworks. Three “higher order” dimensions frame the review’s conceptual organization, facilitating the organization of subordinate/subtopical areas of interest useful for comparative analysis. Comparative analysis of the literature suggests an uneven clustering of discipline-related subject matter across the literature’s “higher order” dimensions, with a much smaller body of literature related to landscape architecture confined primarily to topics associated with the dispersion of global phenomena. A subcomponent of this smaller body of literature is associated with other fields of study, but inferentially related to landscape architecture. The review offers separate references and bibliographies for globalization literature in general and globalization and landscape architecture literature, specifically.

  15. Generative Algorithmic Techniques for Architectural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Martin

    2012-01-01

    Architectural design methodology is expanded through the ability to create bespoke computational methods as integrated parts of the design process. The rapid proliferation of digital production techniques within building industry provides new means for establishing seamless flows between digital...... form-generation and the realisation process. A tendency in recent practice shows an increased focus on developing unique tectonic solutions as a crucial ingredient in the design solution. These converging trajectories form the contextual basis for this thesis. In architectural design, digital tools....... The principles are further developed to form new modes of articulation in architectural design. Certain methods are contributions, which suggest a potential for future use and development. Thus, a method is directed towards bottom-up generation of surface topology through the use of an agentbased logic. Another...

  16. Microbial processes in radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazso, L.; Farkas-Galgoczi, G.; Diosi, G.

    2002-01-01

    Microbial processes could potentially affect the performance of a radioactive waste disposal system and related factors that could have an influence on the mobility of radionuclides are outlined. Analytical methods, including sampling of water, rock and surface swabs from a potential disposal site, are described and the quantitative as well as qualitative experimental results obtained are given. Although the results contribute to an understanding of the impact of microbial processes on deep geological disposal of nuclear waste, there is not yet sufficient information for a model which will predict the consequences of these processes. (author)

  17. Trans-architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Gough

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the intense experience of the gay club, this paper asks whether that experience or event can be acknowledged by architectural theory. Via a reading of Judith Butler’s Gender Trouble and Jacques Derrida’s Before the Law, it posits that the transing of gender can be a clue as to the transing of architecture away from essentialising ontologies. It then uses Deleuze and Guattari’s idea of an assemblage to show how this can be done, making reference to the assemblage of the gay seduction scene in Proust’s Remembrance of Things Past and the image of the interplay of orchid and wasp that is inspired by it. The paper concludes by showing how this ontology relates to a specific instance of transing architecture in the gay and SM clubs of Vauxhall, South London.

  18. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  19. Towards an Architectural Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Architecture and anthropology have always had overlapping interests regarding issues such as spatial organisation, forms of human dwellings, and the interplay between social life and physical surroundings. Recent developments in both disciplines make it even more relevant to explore and evolve...... their overlaps and collaboration. However, there are also challenging differences to take into account regarding disciplinary traditions of, for example, communication, temporality, and normativity. This article explores the potentials and challenges of architectural anthropology as a distinct sub......-discipline and outlines its possible theoretical, methodological, and applied contributions. It is proposed that the ambition to understand people in a different way than they understand themselves is key in both disciplines, and that architectural anthropology is consequently not only relevant in studies of vernacular...

  20. Islamic Architecture and Arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mahbubur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The arch, an essential architectural element since the early civilizations, permitted the construction of lighter walls and vaults, often covering a large span. Visually it was an important decorative feature that was trans-mitted from architectural decoration to other forms of art worldwide. In early Islamic period, Muslims were receiving from many civilizations, which they improved and re-introduced to bring about the Renaissance. Arches appeared in Mesopotamia, Indus, Egyptian, Babylonian, Greek and Assyrian civilizations; but the Romans applied the technique to a wide range of structures. The Muslims mastered the use and design of the arch, employed for structural and functional purposes, progressively meeting decorative and symbolic pur-poses. Islamic architecture is characterized by arches employed in all types of buildings; most common uses being in arcades. This paper discusses the process of assimilation and charts how they contributed to other civilizations.

  1. Architecture of Environmental Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Alting, Leo

    2006-01-01

    An architecture of Environmental Engineering has been developed comprising the various disciplines and tools involved. It identifies industry as the major actor and target group, and it builds on the concept of Eco-efficiency. To improve Eco-efficiency, there is a limited number of intervention......-efficiency is the aim of Environmental Engineering, the discipline of synthesis – design and creation of solutions – will form a core pillar of the architecture. Other disciplines of Environmental Engineering exist forming the necessary background and frame for the synthesis. Environmental Engineering, thus, in essence...... comprise the disciplines of: management, system description & inventory, analysis & assessment, prioritisation, synthesis, and communication, each existing at all levels of intervention. The developed architecture of Environmental Engineering, thus, consists of thirty individual disciplines, within each...

  2. Architectural Competition and BIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nils Lykke; Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Øien, Turid Borgestrand

    2015-01-01

    on architecturalcompetitions, a series of interviews was conducted with building clients as well as architects, focusing on the impact of the above-mentioned changes within the building sector on architectural competitions as an institution. In the interviews, ICT and notleast BIM was a recurring theme that both parties saw...... as having a positive impact on competitions. But when looking closely into the answers, these revealed diverse understandings of how and why the impact of BIM on competitions could be said to be positive. The paper sheds light on the interaction between the actors (building clients, architects and client...... consultants) and the applied technologies (competition forms, ICT tools, directives) in architectural competitions in a theoretical actor-network perspective. The diverging understandings of the role of BIM are demonstrating one of many negotiations in progress in the network of architectural competitions...

  3. Persian architecture and mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volulme features eight original papers dedicated to the theme “Persian Architecture and Mathematics,” guest edited by Reza Sarhangi. All papers were approved through a rigorous process of blind peer review and edited by an interdisciplinary scientific editorial committee. Topics range from symmetry in ancient Persian architecture to the elaborate geometric patterns and complex three-dimensional structures of standing monuments of historical periods, from the expression of mathematical ideas to architectonic structures, and from decorative ornament to the representation of modern group theory and quasi-crystalline patterns. The articles discuss unique monuments Persia, including domed structures and two-dimensional patterns, which have received significant scholarly attention in recent years. This book is a unique contribution to studies of Persian architecture in relation to mathematics.

  4. Art and Architectural Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    the number of museums went up from 300 by 1980 to estimated 3000 museums by 2015. In urban discourses, new museums and buildings for art have been considered as drivers for ´cultural sustainability´ of cities. The notion is diffuse and the reality is more an economic centred ´city branding´ to help...... the promotion of tourism. What surprises: in many cities, the buildings for art are better known and more published and discussed than the art they accommodate. A lot of them are considered as art objects. This raises two questions: How much is architecture itself a form of arts? (in Western architecture...... historically considered even the mother of all arts) - but more relevant: what are appropriate architectural spaces for presenting, exhibiting, contemplating, reflecting, meditating, discussing, enjoying, dissenting, debating creations of art. Simplified, this is a question about the relation between package...

  5. Performative Urban Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bo Stjerne; Jensen, Ole B.

    The paper explores how performative urban architecture can enhance community-making and public domain using socio-technical systems and digital technologies to constitute an urban reality. Digital medias developed for the web are now increasingly occupying the urban realm as a tool for navigating...... the physical world e.g. as exemplified by the Google Walk Score and the mobile extension of the Google Maps to the iPhone. At the same time the development in pervasive technologies and situated computing extends the build environment with digital feedback systems that are increasingly embedded and deployed...... using sensor technologies opening up for new access considerations in architecture as well as the ability for a local environment to act as real-time sources of information and facilities. Starting from the NoRA pavilion for the 10th International Architecture Biennale in Venice the paper discusses...

  6. Architecture of Environmental Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Alting, Leo

    2004-01-01

    An architecture of Environmental Engineering has been developed comprising the various disciplines and tools involved. It identifies industry as the major actor and target group, and it builds on the concept of Eco-efficiency. To improve Eco-efficiency, there is a limited number of intervention...... of Eco-efficiency is the aim of Environmental Engineering, the discipline of synthesis – design and creation of solutions – will form a core pillar of the architecture. Other disciplines of Environmental Engineering exist forming the necessary background and frame for the synthesis. Environmental...... Engineering, thus, in essence comprise the disciplines of: management, system description & inventory, analysis & assessment, prioritisation, synthesis, and communication, each existing at all levels of intervention. The developed architecture of Environmental Engineering, thus, consists of thirty individual...

  7. AUTOMATIC ARCHITECTURAL STYLE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mathias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Procedural modeling has proven to be a very valuable tool in the field of architecture. In the last few years, research has soared to automatically create procedural models from images. However, current algorithms for this process of inverse procedural modeling rely on the assumption that the building style is known. So far, the determination of the building style has remained a manual task. In this paper, we propose an algorithm which automates this process through classification of architectural styles from facade images. Our classifier first identifies the images containing buildings, then separates individual facades within an image and determines the building style. This information could then be used to initialize the building reconstruction process. We have trained our classifier to distinguish between several distinct architectural styles, namely Flemish Renaissance, Haussmannian and Neoclassical. Finally, we demonstrate our approach on various street-side images.

  8. Information architecture. Volume 3: Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this document, as presented in Volume 1, The Foundations, is to assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in developing and promulgating information architecture guidance. This guidance is aimed at increasing the development of information architecture as a Departmentwide management best practice. This document describes departmental information architecture principles and minimum design characteristics for systems and infrastructures within the DOE Information Architecture Conceptual Model, and establishes a Departmentwide standards-based architecture program. The publication of this document fulfills the commitment to address guiding principles, promote standard architectural practices, and provide technical guidance. This document guides the transition from the baseline or defacto Departmental architecture through approved information management program plans and budgets to the future vision architecture. This document also represents another major step toward establishing a well-organized, logical foundation for the DOE information architecture.

  9. Architecture in Its Own Shadow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rappaport

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Those who consider themselves architects disapprove of the statements about destruction of the subject of architectural culture, profession and of the subject of architectural theory. At the same time, a deep crisis of both theory and practice is obvious. When theorists of architecture of the 20th and early 21st centuries turned to the subjects external to architecture – sociology, psychology, semiotics, ecology, post-structuralist criticism, etc., instead of enriching and renovating the architectural theory, the results were just the opposite. A brand new and independent paradigm of architecture is needed. It should contain three parts specific by their logical-subject nature: ontology of architecture, methodology of architectural thought and axiology of architectural thought.

  10. Reframing information architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Resmini, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Information architecture has changed dramatically since the mid-1990s and earlier conceptions of the world and the internet being different and separate have given way to a much more complex scenario in the present day. In the post-digital world that we now inhabit the digital and the physical blend easily and our activities and usage of information takes place through multiple contexts and via multiple devices and unstable, emergent choreographies. Information architecture now is steadily growing into a channel- or medium-specific multi-disciplinary framework, with contributions coming from a

  11. 3D ARCHITECTURAL VIDEOMAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Catanese

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D architectural mapping is a video projection technique that can be done with a survey of a chosen building in order to realize a perfect correspondence between its shapes and the images in projection. As a performative kind of audiovisual artifact, the real event of the 3D mapping is a combination of a registered video animation file with a real architecture. This new kind of visual art is becoming very popular and its big audience success testifies new expressive chances in the field of urban design. My case study has been experienced in Pisa for the Luminara feast in 2012.

  12. Cartography of architectural controversies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotz, Katrine

    2009-01-01

    on the visual materials and documents produced during the process, and interviews with architects, clients and engineers, I describe the continuous efforts to establish and strengthen architectural motives, and how they eventually gain the ability to align other motives and other actors. I suggest...... that employing the visualising methods of the recent development of Actor-Network-Theory called ‘Cartography of Controversies' might contribute to trans-disciplinary efforts to develop analytic understanding of the conflicting human purposes and power-struggles at stake in the be-coming of architecture....

  13. The Value of Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    2018-01-01

    of Europe’s architectural heritage. This resulted in a greater emphasis on building conservation and led to the development of the Survey of Architectural Values in the Environment (SAVE) by the Danish heritage authorities. The value assessment was initially meant for evaluating building heritage...... and authorities in efforts to evaluate the cultural value of the built environment. The National Trust of Norway is a voluntary association, a trust, and a property owner. Since 1845, it has developed expertise in restoration and maintenance of historical monuments. It is based on personal memberships...

  14. Lunar architecture and urbanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    Human civilization and architecture have defined each other for over 5000 years on Earth. Even in the novel environment of space, persistent issues of human urbanism will eclipse, within a historically short time, the technical challenges of space settlement that dominate our current view. By adding modern topics in space engineering, planetology, life support, human factors, material invention, and conservation to their already renaissance array of expertise, urban designers can responsibly apply ancient, proven standards to the exciting new opportunities afforded by space. Inescapable facts about the Moon set real boundaries within which tenable lunar urbanism and its component architecture must eventually develop.

  15. Evolution of microbial pathogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DiRita, Victor J; Seifert, H. Steven

    2006-01-01

    ... A. Hogan vvi ■ CONTENTS 8. Evolution of Pathogens in Soil Rachel Muir and Man-Wah Tan / 131 9. Experimental Models of Symbiotic Host-Microbial Relationships: Understanding the Underpinnings of ...

  16. CONTEMPORARY SLOVENIAN TIMBER ARCHITECTURE INTERNATIONAL RECOGNIZED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manja Kitek Kuzman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The book presents Slovenia' s contemporary timber architecture. Thanks to its abundant forests, Slovenia has preserved the tradition of wood construction. As much as 60% of its surface is covered by forests. Slovenia is also the third most forested country in Europe. The high share of forest-covered surface allows for a sustainable production of high-quality wood. In the past, wood was used primarily in the construction of farm buildings, but now timber architecture is used for everything from residences and office buildings to public buildings such as community centres and schools. Timber construction is becoming increasingly popular. Apart from larger companies taking this approach, a great number of wooden houses have sprung up, built either on personal initiative or with the support of carpenter workshops. Slovenian timber architecture has taken a new approach to environmental and energy-efficiency problems and received great international recognition. The book discusses over fifty projects built over a ten-year period, and includes descriptions, photographs, and plans. The projects include residential areas, administration, and office, as well as tourist, educational, and industrial buildings. Timber architecture is presented as an integral part of the Slovenian landscape. The monograph will be useful to designers and future experts in their planning of optimal timber buildings and will highlight the main benefits of using timber construction.

  17. ACTIVIDAD MICROBIANA EN SEDIMENTOS SUPERFICIALES DEL BOSQUE DE MANGLAR (Rhizophora mangle DE LA BAHÍA DE PERTIGALETE (ANZOÁTEGUI, VENEZUELA, DURANTE LOS PERÍODOS DE SURGENCIA Y TRANSICIÓN | MICROBIAL ACTIVITY IN SURFACE SEDIMENTS OF MANGROVE FOREST OF PERTIGALETE BAY (ANZOÁTEGUI, VENEZUELA, DURING THE UP WELLING AND TRANSITION PERIODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meximara Rodríguez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Pertigalete Bay is bordered by an extensive mangrove zone and it is affected by an intense boating and sailing traffic, the pouring of the waste water coming from the nearing population and effluent from the company Cements of Venezuela. The objective of this research was to determinate the microbial activity and the possible anthropogenic impact in surface sediments of mangrove zones in the Pertigalete Bay during the up welling and transition periods. The microbial biomass (Cmic, the basal respiration (RB, dehydrogenases activity (DHS, fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (HDAF and the metabolic quotient (qCO2 were used in the determination of the microbial activity. In three zones of the bay three transects of 30 m of length were established with a separation of 10 m among them. In each transect, three sampling points were placed and triplicate samples of the surface sediments were taken from each. The results showed that during the up welling period there is a higher Cmic in the three selected zones: 851.01; 539.87 and 533.66 mg Cmic kg-1 sediment in zones I, II and III, respectively. The DHS indicated that there is a predominance of the anaerobic heterotrophic population during this period. The HDAF confirmed that there is a higher heterotrophic activity during the up welling and the qCO2 indicated a greater efficiency in the use of carbon by the microorganism present in the sediments. The results showed that the predominance of the microbial flora and its activity in the sediments is mainly determined by the up welling and transition periods, especially in the zone I, which is less exposed to the anthropogenic action.

  18. Discrete optimization in architecture architectural & urban layout

    CERN Document Server

    Zawidzki, Machi

    2016-01-01

    This book presents three projects that demonstrate the fundamental problems of architectural design and urban composition – the layout design, evaluation and optimization. Part I describes the functional layout design of a residential building, and an evaluation of the quality of a town square (plaza). The algorithm for the functional layout design is based on backtracking using a constraint satisfaction approach combined with coarse grid discretization. The algorithm for the town square evaluation is based on geometrical properties derived directly from its plan. Part II introduces a crowd-simulation application for the analysis of escape routes on floor plans, and optimization of a floor plan for smooth crowd flow. The algorithms presented employ agent-based modeling and cellular automata.

  19. Synthetic Electric Microbial Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-10

    domains and DNA-binding domains into a single protein for deregulation of down stream genes of have been favored [10]. Initially experiments with... Germany DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited.   Talk title: “Synthetic biology based microbial biosensors for the...toolbox” in Heidelberg, Germany Poster title: “Anaerobic whole cell microbial biosensors” Link: http://phdsymposium.embl.org/#home   September, 2014

  20. Microbial bioinformatics 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallen, Mark J

    2016-09-01

    Microbial bioinformatics in 2020 will remain a vibrant, creative discipline, adding value to the ever-growing flood of new sequence data, while embracing novel technologies and fresh approaches. Databases and search strategies will struggle to cope and manual curation will not be sustainable during the scale-up to the million-microbial-genome era. Microbial taxonomy will have to adapt to a situation in which most microorganisms are discovered and characterised through the analysis of sequences. Genome sequencing will become a routine approach in clinical and research laboratories, with fresh demands for interpretable user-friendly outputs. The "internet of things" will penetrate healthcare systems, so that even a piece of hospital plumbing might have its own IP address that can be integrated with pathogen genome sequences. Microbiome mania will continue, but the tide will turn from molecular barcoding towards metagenomics. Crowd-sourced analyses will collide with cloud computing, but eternal vigilance will be the price of preventing the misinterpretation and overselling of microbial sequence data. Output from hand-held sequencers will be analysed on mobile devices. Open-source training materials will address the need for the development of a skilled labour force. As we boldly go into the third decade of the twenty-first century, microbial sequence space will remain the final frontier! © 2016 The Author. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. EMI Security Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    White, J.; Schuller, B.; Qiang, W.; Groep, D.; Koeroo, O.; Salle, M.; Sustr, Z.; Kouril, D.; Millar, P.; Benedyczak, K.; Ceccanti, A.; Leinen, S.; Tschopp, V.; Fuhrmann, P.; Heyman, E.; Konstantinov, A.

    2013-01-01

    This document describes the various architectures of the three middlewares that comprise the EMI software stack. It also outlines the common efforts in the security area that allow interoperability between these middlewares. The assessment of the EMI Security presented in this document was performed internally by members of the Security Area of the EMI project.

  2. Interface, a dispersed architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    Past and current specification techniques use timing diagrams and written text to describe the phenomenology of an interface. This paper treats an interface as the architecture of a number of processes, which are dispersed over the related system parts and the message path. This approach yields a

  3. Architecture-Conscious Hashing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Zukowski (Marcin); S. Héman (Sándor); P.A. Boncz (Peter)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractHashing is one of the fundamental techniques used to implement query processing operators such as grouping, aggregation and join. This paper studies the interaction between modern computer architecture and hash-based query processing techniques. First, we focus on extracting maximum

  4. Internationalising architectural education

    OpenAIRE

    Byrd, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    This is a track record of my involvement and success in internationalizing architectural education since 2009. It includes projects and outcomes that cover several continents and celebrates the success of my students in various areas of teaching and research including: • International design competitions • International employment • International PhD Students • Student publications in international journals and conferences

  5. The PSIM environment architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossenaerts, J.B.M.; Reyneri, C.; van den Berg, R.J.; Eijnatten, van F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract. This chapter describes the architecture of the PSIM environment. It briefly presents the PSIM objectives and the role the PSIM environment plays in meeting these objectives. It then states the role and place of each of technological components of the environment: the ontology, the

  6. Architectural Creation of Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Bidraget "Architectural Creation of Light" indgår sammen med 108 andre bidrag i bogen "You Say Light, I Think Shadow". Bogens indhold undersøger: "Hvad er lys". I dette bidrag besvares spørgsmålet gennem iagttagelser af arkitektstuderendes undersøgelser af lyset i deres arbejdsmodeller i...

  7. Paper relief architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latka, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The article presents two contemporary projects of paper structures relief architecture designed and built by Shigeru Ban Architects and Voluntary Architect Network. Author of the article took part in design and construction process of one of the projects. The project of Yaan Nursery School, which

  8. Architectural Guide of Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Architectural and cultural guidebook for Jordan that also includes a view on the Syrian refugee situation, especially in the large UNHCR camp of Zaatari. The guide book is a preparatory study for a field trip our master studio undertook to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in Fall 2016....

  9. Light Rhythms in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Katja

    2013-01-01

    formation and rhythm. When integrated into an architectural concept, electrical lighting non-intended for poetic composition has the ability to contribute to place, time, and function-telling aspects of places in urban contexts. Urban environments are information wise challenging to pre-historic human...

  10. Encountering empty architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This essay is published in the Festschrift to art historian Donald Preziosi on his 75th birthday in 2016 and delves into the exploration of architectural perception and semiotic experience. The argument is the following: Claire Farago and Donald Preziosi once pointed out how recent art museums...

  11. Architecture of Intermodal Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Herneoja, Aulikki; Österlund, Toni; Markkanen, Piia

    This paper focuses on the conception and design of architecture as the work of producing media about buildings and other environmental artifacts. I approach
    the questions regarding simplicity and complexity through "interdependence" and "intermodality." I believe the two concepts offer more

  12. Test Architecture, Test Retrofit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Just like buildings, tests are designed and built for specific purposes, people, and uses. However, both buildings and tests grow and change over time as the needs of their users change. Sometimes, they are also both used for purposes other than those intended in the original designs. This paper explores architecture as a metaphor for language…

  13. Terra Harvest software architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeniuk, Dave; Klawon, Kevin

    2012-06-01

    Under the Terra Harvest Program, the DIA has the objective of developing a universal Controller for the Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) community. The mission is to define, implement, and thoroughly document an open architecture that universally supports UGS missions, integrating disparate systems, peripherals, etc. The Controller's inherent interoperability with numerous systems enables the integration of both legacy and future UGS System (UGSS) components, while the design's open architecture supports rapid third-party development to ensure operational readiness. The successful accomplishment of these objectives by the program's Phase 3b contractors is demonstrated via integration of the companies' respective plug-'n'-play contributions that include controllers, various peripherals, such as sensors, cameras, etc., and their associated software drivers. In order to independently validate the Terra Harvest architecture, L-3 Nova Engineering, along with its partner, the University of Dayton Research Institute, is developing the Terra Harvest Open Source Environment (THOSE), a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) running on an embedded Linux Operating System. The Use Cases on which the software is developed support the full range of UGS operational scenarios such as remote sensor triggering, image capture, and data exfiltration. The Team is additionally developing an ARM microprocessor-based evaluation platform that is both energy-efficient and operationally flexible. The paper describes the overall THOSE architecture, as well as the design decisions for some of the key software components. Development process for THOSE is discussed as well.

  14. Architecture and monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen Oosterman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The relation between architectural history and heritage is ambiguous. Both domains are confronted with rapid changes in scale and complexity, leaving practitioners in both fields with the challenging task to provide new methods and a new vocabulary to enable research and communication. 70 years ago Nicolaus Pevsner could write about Lincoln cathedral and the bicycle shed to discern between architecture and building. These days not only housing and urban development have been accepted as ‘objects’ of research, in fact all material manifestation of human occupation, at least as far as design is involved, is considered worth studying. On the heritage side, developments are comparable: horizontally and vertically the domain has been enlarged tremendously: from a collection of ‘diamonds’ to complete cities, to landscapes and structures. This is not only true for scale and layers, but also for cultural norms of quality. Cultural relativism requires that ‘beauty’ and ‘quality’ are defined in relation to the social group or culture they refer to. The logic that an elite determines what is good and what is right is challenged by the notion that popular taste is in principle equal. So what does this do to our museum collections and lists of protected monuments? The consequences for architectural history are not yet clear. Including new realities like digital design and new fields of practice like the virtual, the knowledge base and toolbox of the architectural historian has to expand beyond the Renaissance ideal of the ‘uomo universale’.

  15. Information network architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, N. D.

    1985-01-01

    Graphs, charts, diagrams and outlines of information relative to information network architectures for advanced aerospace missions, such as the Space Station, are presented. Local area information networks are considered a likely technology solution. The principle needs for the network are listed.

  16. Radiology systems architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibel, S R; Greenes, R A

    1996-05-01

    This article focuses on the software requirements for enterprise integration in radiology. The needs of a future radiology systems architecture are examined, both at a concrete functional level and at an abstract system-properties level. A component-based approach to software development is described and is validated in the context of each of the abstract system requirements for future radiology computing environments.

  17. Architecture Sauvage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumeister, Ruth

    Danish artist Asger Jorn (1914-1973) is internationally renowed as a proponent of Nordic art and for his activities as a member of Cobra and the Situationist International. Quite apart from his art, Jorn produced a remarkable quantity of writing on art, architecture and urbanism and engaged in di...

  18. [Architecture, budget and dignity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on its dynamic strengths, a psychiatric unit develops various projects and care techniques. In this framework, the institute director must make a number of choices with regard to architecture. Why renovate the psychiatry building? What financial investments are required? What criteria should be followed? What if the major argument was based on the respect of the patient's dignity?

  19. [Architecture and movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivallan, Armel

    2012-01-01

    Leading an architectural project means accompanying the movement which it induces within the teams. Between questioning, uncertainty and fear, the organisational changes inherent to the new facility must be subject to constructive and ongoing exchanges. Ethics, safety and training are revised and the unit projects are sometimes modified.

  20. Principles of landscape architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Urbanism at the Faculty of Architecture and Built Environment, TU Delft considers urbanism as a planning and design oriented activity towards urban and rural landscapes. It aims to enhance, restore or create landscapes from a perspective of sustainable development, so as to guide,