WorldWideScience

Sample records for microbial respiratory response

  1. Distinct respiratory responses of soils to complex organic substrate are governed predominantly by soil architecture and its microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, F C; Todman, L C; Corstanje, R; Deeks, L K; Harris, J A; Pawlett, M; Whitmore, A P; Ritz, K

    2016-12-01

    Factors governing the turnover of organic matter (OM) added to soils, including substrate quality, climate, environment and biology, are well known, but their relative importance has been difficult to ascertain due to the interconnected nature of the soil system. This has made their inclusion in mechanistic models of OM turnover or nutrient cycling difficult despite the potential power of these models to unravel complex interactions. Using high temporal-resolution respirometery (6 min measurement intervals), we monitored the respiratory response of 67 soils sampled from across England and Wales over a 5 day period following the addition of a complex organic substrate (green barley powder). Four respiratory response archetypes were observed, characterised by different rates of respiration as well as different time-dependent patterns. We also found that it was possible to predict, with 95% accuracy, which type of respiratory behaviour a soil would exhibit based on certain physical and chemical soil properties combined with the size and phenotypic structure of the microbial community. Bulk density, microbial biomass carbon, water holding capacity and microbial community phenotype were identified as the four most important factors in predicting the soils' respiratory responses using a Bayesian belief network. These results show that the size and constitution of the microbial community are as important as physico-chemical properties of a soil in governing the respiratory response to OM addition. Such a combination suggests that the 'architecture' of the soil, i.e. the integration of the spatial organisation of the environment and the interactions between the communities living and functioning within the pore networks, is fundamentally important in regulating such processes.

  2. Pharmacokinetics, microbial response, and pulmonary outcomes of multidose intravenous azithromycin in preterm infants at risk for Ureaplasma respiratory colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchan, L Marcela; Hassan, Hazem E; Terrin, Michael L; Waites, Ken B; Kaufman, David A; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Donohue, Pamela; Dulkerian, Susan J; Schelonka, Robert; Magder, Laurence S; Shukla, Sagar; Eddington, Natalie D; Viscardi, Rose M

    2015-01-01

    The study objectives were to refine the population pharmacokinetics (PK) model, determine microbial clearance, and assess short-term pulmonary outcomes of multiple-dose azithromycin treatment in preterm infants at risk for Ureaplasma respiratory colonization. Fifteen subjects (7 of whom were Ureaplasma positive) received intravenous azithromycin at 20 mg/kg of body weight every 24 h for 3 doses. Azithromycin concentrations were determined in plasma samples obtained up to 168 h post-first dose by using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Respiratory samples were obtained predose and at three time points post-last dose for Ureaplasma culture, PCR, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and cytokine concentration determinations. Pharmacokinetic data from these 15 subjects as well as 25 additional subjects (who received either a single 10-mg/kg dose [n = 12] or a single 20-mg/kg dose [n = 13]) were analyzed by using a nonlinear mixed-effect population modeling (NONMEM) approach. Pulmonary outcomes were assessed at 36 weeks post-menstrual age and 6 months adjusted age. A 2-compartment model with all PK parameters allometrically scaled on body weight best described the azithromycin pharmacokinetics in preterm neonates. The population pharmacokinetics parameter estimates for clearance, central volume of distribution, intercompartmental clearance, and peripheral volume of distribution were 0.15 liters/h · kg(0.75), 1.88 liters · kg, 1.79 liters/h · kg(0.75), and 13 liters · kg, respectively. The estimated area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h (AUC24)/MIC90 value was ∼ 4 h. All posttreatment cultures were negative, and there were no drug-related adverse events. One Ureaplasma-positive infant died at 4 months of age, but no survivors were hospitalized for respiratory etiologies during the first 6 months (adjusted age). Thus, a 3-day course of 20 mg/kg/day intravenous azithromycin shows preliminary efficacy in eradicating

  3. Microbial flora variations in the respiratory tract of mice

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    Rosa Cangemi de Gutierrez

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A stable microbial system in the respiratory tract acts as an important defense mechanism against pathogenic microorganisms. Perturbations in this system may allow pathogens to establish. In an ecological environment such as the respiratory tract, there are many diverse factors that play a role in the establishment of the indigenous flora. In the present work we studied the normal microbial flora of different areas of the respiratory tract of mice and their evolution from the time the mice were born. Our interest was to know which were the dominant groups of microorganisms in each area, which were the first capable of colonizing and which dominated over time to be used as probiotic microorganisms. Our results show that Gram negative facultatively anaerobic bacilli and strict anaerobic microorganisms were the last ones to appear in the bronchia, while aerobic and Gram positive cocci were present in all the areas of the respiratory tract. The number of facultative aerobes and strict anaerobes were similar in the nasal passage, pharynx instilled and trachea, but lower in bronchia. The dominant species were Streptococcus viridans and Staphylococcus saprophyticcus, followed by S. epidermidis, Lactobacilli and S. cohnii I which were present on every studied days but at different proportions. This paper is the first part of a research topic investigating the protective effect of the indigenous flora against pathogens using the mice as an experimental model.

  4. Cellular immune responses to respiratory viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Helden, M.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    When a respiratory virus successfully infects the lungs, cascades of immune responses are initiated aimed to remove the pathogen. Immediate non-specific protection is provided by the innate immune system and this reduces the viral load during the first days of infection. The adaptive immune response

  5. Impact of the Respiratory Microbiome on Host Responses to Respiratory Viral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Pichon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are responsible for most of both upper and lower acute respiratory infections (ARIs. The microbiome—the ecological community of microorganisms sharing the body space, which has gained considerable interest over the last decade—is modified in health and disease states. Even if most of these disturbances have been previously described in relation to chronic disorders of the gastrointestinal microbiome, after a short reminder of microbiome characteristics and methods of characterization, this review will describe the impact of the microbiome (mainly respiratory on host responses to viral ARIs. The microbiome has a direct environmental impact on the host cells but also an indirect impact on the immune system, by enhancing innate or adaptive immune responses. In microbial infections, especially in viral infections, these dramatic modifications could lead to a dramatic impact responsible for severe clinical outcomes. Studies focusing on the microbiome associated with transcriptomic analyses of the host response and deep characterization of the pathogen would lead to a better understanding of viral pathogenesis and open avenues for biomarker development and innovative therapeutics.

  6. Respiratory innate immune proteins differentially modulate the neutrophil respiratory burst response to influenza A virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Mitchell R; Crouch, Erika; Vesona, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    of IAV with SP-D in vitro strongly increases neutrophil respiratory burst responses to the virus. Several factors are shown to modify this apparent proinflammatory effect of SP-D. Although multimeric forms of SP-D show dose-dependent augmentation of respiratory burst responses, trimeric, single-arm forms...... of IAV while reducing the respiratory burst response to virus....

  7. Enhancement of Immune Memory Responses to Respiratory Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0360 TITLE: Enhancement of Immune Memory Responses to Respiratory Infection PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORs: Dr Min Chen PhD...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Enhancement of Immune Memory Responses to Respiratory Infection 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0360 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...entitled “ENHANCEMENT OF IMMUNE MEMORY RESPONSES TO RESPIRATORY INFECTION: AUTOPHAGY IN MEMORY B-CELLS RESPONSE TO INFLUENZA VACCINE (AMBRIV

  8. Respiratory Effects and Systemic Stress Response Following ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to the pulmonary irritant ozone causes myriad systemic metabolic and pulmonary effects attributed to sympathetic and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, which are exacerbated in metabolically impaired models. We examined respiratory and systemic effects following exposure to a sensory irritant acrolein to elucidate the systemic and pulmonary consequences in healthy and diabetic rat models. Male Wistar and Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats, a nonobese type II diabetic Wistar-derived model, were exposed by inhalation to 0, 2, or 4 ppm acrolein, 4 h/d for 1 or 2 days. Exposure at 4 ppm significantly increased pulmonary and nasal inflammation in both strains with vascular protein leakage occurring only in the nose. Acrolein exposure (4 ppm) also caused metabolic impairment by inducing hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance (GK > Wistar). Serum total cholesterol (GKs only), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (both strains), and free fatty acids (GK > Wistar) levels increased; however, no acrolein-induced changes were noted in branched-chain amino acid or insulin levels. These responses corresponded with a significant increase in corticosterone and modest but insignificant increases in adrenaline in both strains, suggesting activation of the HPA axis. Collectively, these data demonstrate that acrolein exposure has a profound effect on nasal and pulmonary inflammation, as well as glucose and lipid metabolis

  9. Responses to microbial challenges by SLAMF receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boaz Job Van Driel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The SLAMF Family (SLAMF of cell surface glycoproteins is comprised of nine glycoproteins and whilst SLAMF1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 are self-ligand receptors, SLAMF2 and SLAMF4 interact with each other. Their interactions induce signal transduction networks in trans, thereby shaping immune cell-cell communications. Collectively, these receptors modulate a wide range of functions, such as myeloid cell and lymphocyte development and, T and B cell responses to microbes and parasites. In addition, several SLAMF receptors serve as microbial sensors, which either positively or negatively modulate the function of macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils and NK cells in response to microbial challenges. The SLAMF receptor-microbe interactions contribute both to intracellular microbicidal activity as well as to migration of phagocytes to the site of inflammation. In this review, we describe the current knowledge on how the SLAMF receptors and their specific adapters SAP and EAT-2 regulate innate and adaptive immune responses to microbes.

  10. Soil microbial community response to land use and various soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil microbial community response to land use and various soil elements in a city landscape of north China. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Legumes played an important role in stimulating the growth and reproduction of various soil microbial populations, accordingly promoting the microbial catabolic activity.

  11. The effect of stable bedding materials on dust levels, microbial air contamination and equine respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowska-Stenzel, Agnieszka; Witkowska, Dorota; Sowińska, Janina; Stopyra, Artur

    2017-12-01

    The choice of bedding material affects the quality of air in a stable and, consequently, the respiratory health of horses and humans. The risk of respiratory problems can be mitigated by improving the quality of air in the stable. The choice of bedding material is particularly important in cold climate conditions where horses are kept indoors throughout the year. This study examined the impact of three bedding materials: straw (S), peat with shavings (PS), and crushed wood pellets (CWP). The investigated factors were air contamination, including dust contamination and microbial (bacterial and fungal) contamination, and the condition of the equine respiratory tract. The condition of the respiratory tract was evaluated based on the results of arterial blood biochemistry tests and endoscopic evaluations of the upper respiratory tract. Mechanical dust contamination was lowest for PS (1.09mg/m 3 ) and highest for CWP (4.07mg/m 3 ). Bacterial contamination (in CFU - colony forming units) was highest for PS (5.14log 10 CFU/m 3 ) and lowest for CWP (4.81log 10 CFU/m 3 ). Fungal air contamination was lowest for CWP (4.54log 10 CFU/m 3 ) and highest for S (4.82log 10 CFU/m 3 ) and PS (4.88log 10 CFU/m 3 ). An analysis of physiological indicators revealed that all horses were clinically healthy regardless of the type of applied bedding. The type of bedding material did not exert a clear influence on arterial blood biochemistry or the results of endoscopic evaluations of the respiratory tract; however, the use of alternative for straw bedding materials improved endoscopy results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of the local microbial ecosystem in respiratory health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Bogaert, Debby

    2015-08-19

    Respiratory tract infections are a major global health concern, accounting for high morbidity and mortality, especially in young children and elderly individuals. Traditionally, highly common bacterial respiratory tract infections, including otitis media and pneumonia, were thought to be caused by a limited number of pathogens including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. However, these pathogens are also frequently observed commensal residents of the upper respiratory tract (URT) and form-together with harmless commensal bacteria, viruses and fungi-intricate ecological networks, collectively known as the 'microbiome'. Analogous to the gut microbiome, the respiratory microbiome at equilibrium is thought to be beneficial to the host by priming the immune system and providing colonization resistance, while an imbalanced ecosystem might predispose to bacterial overgrowth and development of respiratory infections. We postulate that specific ecological perturbations of the bacterial communities in the URT can occur in response to various lifestyle or environmental effectors, leading to diminished colonization resistance, loss of containment of newly acquired or resident pathogens, preluding bacterial overgrowth, ultimately resulting in local or systemic bacterial infections. Here, we review the current body of literature regarding niche-specific upper respiratory microbiota profiles within human hosts and the changes occurring within these profiles that are associated with respiratory infections. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Bronchodilator responsiveness and reported respiratory symptoms in an adult population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan C Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between patient-reported symptoms and objective measures of lung function is poorly understood. AIM: To determine the association between responsiveness to bronchodilator and respiratory symptoms in random population samples. METHODS: 4669 people aged 40 years and older from 8 sites in Canada completed interviewer-administered respiratory questionnaires and performed spirometry before and after administration of 200 ug of inhaled salbutamol. The effect of anthropometric variables, smoking exposure and doctor-diagnosed asthma (DDA on bronchodilator responsiveness in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and in forced vital capacity (FVC were evaluated. Multiple logistic regression was used to test for association between quintiles of increasing changes in FEV1 and in FVC after bronchodilator and several respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: Determinants of bronchodilator change in FEV1 and FVC included age, DDA, smoking, respiratory drug use and female gender [p<0.005 to p<0.0001 ]. In subjects without doctor-diagnosed asthma or COPD, bronchodilator response in FEV1 was associated with wheezing [p for trend<0.0001], while bronchodilator response for FVC was associated with breathlessness. [p for trend <0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchodilator responsiveness in FEV1 or FVC are associated with different respiratory symptoms in the community. Both flow and volume bronchodilator responses are useful parameters which together can be predictive of both wheezing and breathlessness in the general population.

  14. Carbon dioxide induces erratic respiratory responses in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Dean F; Craighead, Brandie; Lorenz, Laura

    2009-01-01

    CO(2) respiration stimulates both anxiety and dyspnea ("air hunger") and has long been used to study panic vulnerability and respiratory control. High comorbidity with panic attacks suggests individuals with bipolar disorder may also mount a heightened anxiety response to CO(2). Moreover, problems in the arousal and modulation of appetites are central to the clinical syndromes of mania and depression; hence CO(2) may arouse an abnormal respiratory response to "air hunger". 72 individuals (34 bipolar I, 25 depressive and bipolar spectrum, 13 with no major affective diagnosis) breathed air and air with 5% CO(2) via facemask for up to 15 min each; subjective and respiratory responses were recorded. Nearly half the subjects diverged from the typical response to a fixed, mildly hypercapneic environment, which is to increase breathing acutely, and then maintain a hyperpneic plateau. The best predictors of an abnormal pattern were bipolar diagnosis and anxiety from air alone. 25 individuals had a panic response; panic responses from CO(2) were more likely in subjects with bipolar I compared to other subjects, however the best predictors of a panic response overall were anxiety from air alone and prior history of panic attacks. Heterogeneous sample, liberal definition of panic attack. Carbon dioxide produces abnormal respiratory and heightened anxiety responses among individuals with bipolar and depressive disorders. These may be due to deficits in emotional conditioning related to fear and appetite. Although preliminary, this work suggests a potentially useful test of a specific functional deficit in bipolar disorder.

  15. The CD8 T Cell Response to Respiratory Virus Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Megan E; Varga, Steven M

    2018-01-01

    Humans are highly susceptible to infection with respiratory viruses including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus, human metapneumovirus, rhinovirus, coronavirus, and parainfluenza virus. While some viruses simply cause symptoms of the common cold, many respiratory viruses induce severe bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and even death following infection. Despite the immense clinical burden, the majority of the most common pulmonary viruses lack long-lasting efficacious vaccines. Nearly all current vaccination strategies are designed to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies, which prevent severe disease following a subsequent infection. However, the mucosal antibody response to many respiratory viruses is not long-lasting and declines with age. CD8 T cells are critical for mediating clearance following many acute viral infections in the lung. In addition, memory CD8 T cells are capable of providing protection against secondary infections. Therefore, the combined induction of virus-specific CD8 T cells and antibodies may provide optimal protective immunity. Herein, we review the current literature on CD8 T cell responses induced by respiratory virus infections. Additionally, we explore how this knowledge could be utilized in the development of future vaccines against respiratory viruses, with a special emphasis on RSV vaccination.

  16. Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography of Respiratory Quinones for Microbial Community Analysis in Environmental and Biological Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Hanif, Muhammad; Atsuta, Yoichi; Fujie, Koichi; Daimon, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Microbial community structure plays a significant role in environmental assessment and animal health management. The development of a superior analytical strategy for the characterization of microbial community structure is an ongoing challenge. In this study, we developed an effective supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method for the analysis of bacterial respiratory quinones (RQ) in environmental and biological samples. RQ profile analysi...

  17. Respiratory Effects and Systemic Stress Response Following ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to ozone, a pulmonary irritant, causes myriad systemic metabolic and pulmonary effects that are attributed to neuronal and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, which are exacerbated in metabolically-impaired models. In order to elucidate the systemic consequences and the contribution of the HPA axis in mediating metabolic and respiratory effects of acrolein, a sensory irritant, we examined pulmonary, nasal, and systemic effects in rats following exposure. Male, 10 week old Wistar and Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats, a non-obese type II diabetic Wistar-derived model, were exposed to 0, 2 or 4 ppm acrolein, 4h/day for 1 or 2 days. Acrolein exposure at 4 ppm significantly increased pulmonary and nasal damage in both strains as demonstrated by increased inspiratory and expiratory times indicating labored breathing, elevated biomarkers of injury, and neutrophilic inflammation. Overall, at both time points acrolein exposure caused noticeably more damage in the nasal passages as opposed to the lung with vascular protein leakage occurring only in the nose. Acrolein exposure (4 ppm) also led to metabolic impairment by inducing hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance (GK>Wistar) as indicated by glucose tolerance testing. In addition, serum total cholesterol (GKs only), LDL cholesterol (both strains), and free fatty acids (GK>Wistar) levels increased; however, no acrolein-induced changes were noted in branched-c

  18. Respiratory Changes in Response to Cognitive Load: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassmann, Mariel; Vlemincx, Elke; von Leupoldt, Andreas; Mittelstädt, Justin M; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2016-01-01

    When people focus attention or carry out a demanding task, their breathing changes. But which parameters of respiration vary exactly and can respiration reliably be used as an index of cognitive load? These questions are addressed in the present systematic review of empirical studies investigating respiratory behavior in response to cognitive load. Most reviewed studies were restricted to time and volume parameters while less established, yet meaningful parameters such as respiratory variability have rarely been investigated. The available results show that respiratory behavior generally reflects cognitive processing and that distinct parameters differ in sensitivity: While mentally demanding episodes are clearly marked by faster breathing and higher minute ventilation, respiratory amplitude appears to remain rather stable. The present findings further indicate that total variability in respiratory rate is not systematically affected by cognitive load whereas the correlated fraction decreases. In addition, we found that cognitive load may lead to overbreathing as indicated by decreased end-tidal CO2 but is also accompanied by elevated oxygen consumption and CO2 release. However, additional research is needed to validate the findings on respiratory variability and gas exchange measures. We conclude by outlining recommendations for future research to increase the current understanding of respiration under cognitive load.

  19. Cellular and mucosal immune responses in the respiratory tract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the cellular and mucosal responses in the respiratory tract of Nigerian goats vaccinated intranasally with recombinant Mannheimia hemolytica bacterine. Twenty one goats were divided into five groups, five goats each in three vaccinated groups while three goats each ...

  20. Respiratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The words "respiratory" and "respiration" refer to the lungs and breathing. ... Boron WF. Organization of the respiratory system. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 26.

  1. Respiratory activity as a determinant of radiation survival response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, A K; Berner, J D [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA). Dept. of Biology

    1976-09-01

    Respiration is depressed in irradiated bacteria reaching a minimum level in most strains at 1-3 h after exposure when incubated in growth medium. Since a delay in response is observed, direct action on respiratory enzymes is unlikely. The dosage response of respiration varies widely in the strains studied. All strains exhibit two-component dosage-response curves. The facts suggest that respiration is a major factor in influencing cell survival and may be the principal mechanism through which chemical agents modify radiation response.

  2. Acute renal response to rapid onset respiratory acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Jayanth; Stewart, Randolph H; Cudd, Timothy A

    2011-03-01

    Renal strong ion compensation to chronic respiratory acidosis has been established, but the nature of the response to acute respiratory acidosis is not well defined. We hypothesized that the response to acute respiratory acidosis in sheep is a rapid increase in the difference in renal fractional excretions of chloride and sodium (Fe(Cl) - Fe(Na)). Inspired CO(2) concentrations were increased for 1 h to significantly alter P(a)CO(2) and pH(a) from 32 ± 1 mm Hg and 7.52 ± 0.02 to 74 ± 2 mm Hg and 7.22 ± 0.02, respectively. Fe(Cl) - Fe(Na) increased significantly from 0.372 ± 0.206 to 1.240 ± 0.217% and returned to baseline at 2 h when P(a)CO(2) and pH(a) were 37 ± 0.6 mm Hg and 7.49 ± 0.01, respectively. Arterial pH and Fe(Cl) - Fe(Na) were significantly correlated. We conclude that the kidney responds rapidly to acute respiratory acidosis, within 30 min of onset, by differential reabsorption of sodium and chloride.

  3. Enhancement of Immune Memory Responses to Respiratory Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Unlimited Distribution 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Maintenance of long - term immunological memory against pathogens is crucial for the rapid...highly expressed in memory B cells in mice, and Atg7 is required for maintenance of long - term memory B cells needed to protect against influenza...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0361 TITLE: Enhancement of Immune Memory Responses to Respiratory Infection PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORs: Dr Farrah

  4. Renal acidification responses to respiratory acid-base disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madias, Nicolaos E

    2010-01-01

    Respiratory acid-base disorders are those abnormalities in acid-base equilibrium that are expressed as primary changes in the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). An increase in PaCO2 (hypercapnia) acidifies body fluids and initiates the acid-base disturbance known as respiratory acidosis. By contrast, a decrease in PaCO2 (hypocapnia) alkalinizes body fluids and initiates the acid-base disturbance known as respiratory alkalosis. The impact on systemic acidity of these primary changes in PaCO2 is ameliorated by secondary, directional changes in plasma [HCO3¯] that occur in 2 stages. Acutely, hypercapnia or hypocapnia yields relatively small changes in plasma [HCO3¯] that originate virtually exclusively from titration of the body's nonbicarbonate buffers. During sustained hypercapnia or hypocapnia, much larger changes in plasma [HCO3¯] occur that reflect adjustments in renal acidification mechanisms. Consequently, the deviation of systemic acidity from normal is smaller in the chronic forms of these disorders. Here we provide an overview of the renal acidification responses to respiratory acid-base disorders. We also identify gaps in knowledge that require further research.

  5. Transient cardio-respiratory responses to visually induced tilt illusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S. J.; Ramsdell, C. D.; Mullen, T. J.; Oman, C. M.; Harm, D. L.; Paloski, W. H.

    2000-01-01

    Although the orthostatic cardio-respiratory response is primarily mediated by the baroreflex, studies have shown that vestibular cues also contribute in both humans and animals. We have demonstrated a visually mediated response to illusory tilt in some human subjects. Blood pressure, heart and respiration rate, and lung volume were monitored in 16 supine human subjects during two types of visual stimulation, and compared with responses to real passive whole body tilt from supine to head 80 degrees upright. Visual tilt stimuli consisted of either a static scene from an overhead mirror or constant velocity scene motion along different body axes generated by an ultra-wide dome projection system. Visual vertical cues were initially aligned with the longitudinal body axis. Subjective tilt and self-motion were reported verbally. Although significant changes in cardio-respiratory parameters to illusory tilts could not be demonstrated for the entire group, several subjects showed significant transient decreases in mean blood pressure resembling their initial response to passive head-up tilt. Changes in pulse pressure and a slight elevation in heart rate were noted. These transient responses are consistent with the hypothesis that visual-vestibular input contributes to the initial cardiovascular adjustment to a change in posture in humans. On average the static scene elicited perceived tilt without rotation. Dome scene pitch and yaw elicited perceived tilt and rotation, and dome roll motion elicited perceived rotation without tilt. A significant correlation between the magnitude of physiological and subjective reports could not be demonstrated.

  6. Supercritical fluid extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography of respiratory quinones for microbial community analysis in environmental and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Atsuta, Yoichi; Fujie, Koichi; Daimon, Hiroyuki

    2012-03-05

    Microbial community structure plays a significant role in environmental assessment and animal health management. The development of a superior analytical strategy for the characterization of microbial community structure is an ongoing challenge. In this study, we developed an effective supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method for the analysis of bacterial respiratory quinones (RQ) in environmental and biological samples. RQ profile analysis is one of the most widely used culture-independent tools for characterizing microbial community structure. A UPLC equipped with a photo diode array (PDA) detector was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of ubiquinones (UQ) and menaquinones (MK) without tedious pretreatment. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)) extraction with the solid-phase cartridge trap proved to be a more effective and rapid method for extracting respiratory quinones, compared to a conventional organic solvent extraction method. This methodology leads to a successful analytical procedure that involves a significant reduction in the complexity and sample preparation time. Application of the optimized methodology to characterize microbial communities based on the RQ profile was demonstrated for a variety of environmental samples (activated sludge, digested sludge, and compost) and biological samples (swine and Japanese quail feces).

  7. Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography of Respiratory Quinones for Microbial Community Analysis in Environmental and Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Fujie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial community structure plays a significant role in environmental assessment and animal health management. The development of a superior analytical strategy for the characterization of microbial community structure is an ongoing challenge. In this study, we developed an effective supercritical fluid extraction (SFE and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC method for the analysis of bacterial respiratory quinones (RQ in environmental and biological samples. RQ profile analysis is one of the most widely used culture-independent tools for characterizing microbial community structure. A UPLC equipped with a photo diode array (PDA detector was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of ubiquinones (UQ and menaquinones (MK without tedious pretreatment. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 extraction with the solid-phase cartridge trap proved to be a more effective and rapid method for extracting respiratory quinones, compared to a conventional organic solvent extraction method. This methodology leads to a successful analytical procedure that involves a significant reduction in the complexity and sample preparation time. Application of the optimized methodology to characterize microbial communities based on the RQ profile was demonstrated for a variety of environmental samples (activated sludge, digested sludge, and compost and biological samples (swine and Japanese quail feces.

  8. Vena Cava Responsiveness to Controlled Isovolumetric Respiratory Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folino, Anna; Benzo, Marco; Pasquero, Paolo; Laguzzi, Andrea; Mesin, Luca; Messere, Alessandro; Porta, Massimo; Roatta, Silvestro

    2017-10-01

    Respirophasic variation of inferior vena cava (IVC) size is affected by large variability with spontaneous breathing. This study aims at characterizing the dependence of IVC size on controlled changes in intrathoracic pressure. Ten healthy subjects, in supine position, performed controlled isovolumetric respiratory efforts at functional residual capacity, attaining positive (5, 10, and 15 mmHg) and negative (-5, -10, and -15 mmHg) alveolar pressure levels. The isovolumetric constraint implies that equivalent changes are exhibited by alveolar and intrathoracic pressures during respiratory tasks. The IVC cross-sectional area equal to 2.88 ± 0.43 cm 2 at baseline (alveolar pressure = 0 mmHg) was progressively decreased by both expiratory and inspiratory efforts of increasing strength, with diaphragmatic efforts producing larger effects than thoracic ones: -55 ± 15% decrease, at +15 mmHg of alveolar pressure (P < .01), -80 ± 33 ± 12% at -15 mmHg diaphragmatic (P < .01), -33 ± 12% at -15 mmHg thoracic. Significant IVC changes in size (P < .01) and pulsatility (P < .05), along with non significant reduction in the response to respiratory efforts, were also observed during the first 30 minutes of supine rest, detecting an increase in vascular filling, and taking place after switching from the standing to the supine position. This study quantified the dependence of the IVC cross-sectional area on controlled intrathoracic pressure changes and evidenced the stronger influence of diaphragmatic over thoracic activity. Individual variability in thoracic/diaphragmatic respiratory pattern should be considered in the interpretation of the respirophasic modulations of IVC size. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  9. Respiratory symptoms, sensitization, and exposure-response relationships in spray painters exposed to isocyanates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.; Preller, L.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Jonkers, I.C.L.; Lammers, J.-W.; Wouters, I.M.; Doekes, G.; Wisnewski, A.V.; Heederik, D.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Associations between oligomeric isocyanate exposure, sensitization, and respiratory disease have received little attention, despite the extensive use of isocyanate oligomers. Objectives: To investigate exposure-response relationships of respiratory symptoms and sensitization in a large

  10. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF MICROBIAL PATHOGENS ISOLATED FROM CALVES WITH RESPIRATORY DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    George Cosmin Nadas; Flore Chirila; Cosmina Bouari; Nicodim Fit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Respiratory disease in calves is an actual problem, a major cause of economic losses due to mortality, growth delay and improper development. These conditions are frequent in calves due to the weaning stress, transport and environmental changes. Aims: The aim of this study was the isolation of bacteria from 30 calves with respiratory disorders and their antibiotic susceptibility testing. Materials and methods: Samples were collected from calves with respiratory disorders...

  11. Response of soil microbial activities and microbial community structure to vanadium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xi-Yuan; Wang, Ming-Wei; Zhu, Hui-Wen; Guo, Zhao-Hui; Han, Xiao-Qing; Zeng, Peng

    2017-08-01

    High levels of vanadium (V) have long-term, hazardous impacts on soil ecosystems and biological processes. In the present study, the effects of V on soil enzymatic activities, basal respiration (BR), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and the microbial community structure were investigated through 12-week greenhouse incubation experiments. The results showed that V content affected soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA), BR, and MBC, while urease activity (UA) was less sensitive to V stress. The average median effective concentration (EC 50 ) thresholds of V were predicted using a log-logistic dose-response model, and they were 362mgV/kg soil for BR and 417mgV/kg soil for DHA. BR and DHA were more sensitive to V addition and could be used as biological indicators for soil V pollution. According to a polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis, the structural diversity of the microbial community decreased for soil V contents ranged between 254 and 1104mg/kg after 1 week of incubation. As the incubation time increased, the diversity of the soil microbial community structure increased for V contents ranged between 354 and 1104mg/kg, indicating that some new V-tolerant bacterial species might have replicated under these conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Response of soil microbial communities and microbial interactions to long-term heavy metal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqi; Meng, Delong; Li, Juan; Yin, Huaqun; Liu, Hongwei; Liu, Xueduan; Cheng, Cheng; Xiao, Yunhua; Liu, Zhenghua; Yan, Mingli

    2017-12-01

    Due to the persistence of metals in the ecosystem and their threat to all living organisms, effects of heavy metal on soil microbial communities were widely studied. However, little was known about the interactions among microorganisms in heavy metal-contaminated soils. In the present study, microbial communities in Non (CON), moderately (CL) and severely (CH) contaminated soils were investigated through high-throughput Illumina sequencing of 16s rRNA gene amplicons, and networks were constructed to show the interactions among microbes. Results showed that the microbial community composition was significantly, while the microbial diversity was not significantly affected by heavy metal contamination. Bacteria showed various response to heavy metals. Bacteria that positively correlated with Cd, e.g. Acidobacteria_Gp and Proteobacteria_thiobacillus, had more links between nodes and more positive interactions among microbes in CL- and CH-networks, while bacteria that negatively correlated with Cd, e.g. Longilinea, Gp2 and Gp4 had fewer network links and more negative interactions in CL and CH-networks. Unlike bacteria, members of the archaeal domain, i.e. phyla Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota, class Thermoprotei and order Thermoplasmatales showed only positive correlation with Cd and had more network interactions in CH-networks. The present study indicated that (i) the microbial community composition, as well as network interactions was shift to strengthen adaptability of microorganisms to heavy metal contamination, (ii) archaea were resistant to heavy metal contamination and may contribute to the adaption to heavy metals. It was proposed that the contribution might be achieved either by improving environment conditions or by cooperative interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genomic Circuitry Underlying Immunological Response to Pediatric Acute Respiratory Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Sarah E; Manne, Sasikanth; Dolfi, Douglas V; Mansfield, Kathleen D; Parkhouse, Kaela; Mistry, Rakesh D; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Hensley, Scott E; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Coffin, Susan E; Wherry, E John

    2018-01-09

    Acute respiratory tract viral infections (ARTIs) cause significant morbidity and mortality. CD8 T cells are fundamental to host responses, but transcriptional alterations underlying anti-viral mechanisms and links to clinical characteristics remain unclear. CD8 T cell transcriptional circuitry in acutely ill pediatric patients with influenza-like illness was distinct for different viral pathogens. Although changes included expected upregulation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), transcriptional downregulation was prominent upon exposure to innate immune signals in early IFV infection. Network analysis linked changes to severity of infection, asthma, sex, and age. An influenza pediatric signature (IPS) distinguished acute influenza from other ARTIs and outperformed other influenza prediction gene lists. The IPS allowed a deeper investigation of the connection between transcriptional alterations and clinical characteristics of acute illness, including age-based differences in circuits connecting the STAT1/2 pathway to ISGs. A CD8 T cell-focused systems immunology approach in pediatrics identified age-based alterations in ARTI host response pathways. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Augmenting Plant Immune Responses and Biological Control by Microbial Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Moo Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant have developed sophisticated defence mechanisms against microbial pathogens. The recent accumulated information allow us to understand the nature of plant immune responses followed by recognition of microbial factors/determinants through cutting-edge genomics and multi-omics techniques. However, the practical approaches to sustain plant health using enhancement of plant immunity is yet to be fully appreciated. Here, we overviewed the general concept and representative examples on the plant immunity. The fungal, bacterial, and viral determinants that was previously reported as the triggers of plant immune responses are introduced and described as the potential protocol of biological control. Specifically, the role of chitin, glucan, lipopolysaccharides/extracellular polysaccharides, microbe/pathogen-associated molecular pattern, antibiotics, mimic-phytohormones, N-acyl homoserine lactone, harpin, vitamins, and volatile organic compounds are considered. We hope that this review stimulates scientific community and farmers to broaden their knowledge on the microbial determinant-based biological control and to apply the technology on the integrated pest management program.

  15. Ready or Not: Microbial Adaptive Responses in Dynamic Symbiosis Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mengyi; Goodrich-Blair, Heidi

    2017-08-01

    In mutually beneficial and pathogenic symbiotic associations, microbes must adapt to the host environment for optimal fitness. Both within an individual host and during transmission between hosts, microbes are exposed to temporal and spatial variation in environmental conditions. The phenomenon of phenotypic variation, in which different subpopulations of cells express distinctive and potentially adaptive characteristics, can contribute to microbial adaptation to a lifestyle that includes rapidly changing environments. The environments experienced by a symbiotic microbe during its life history can be erratic or predictable, and each can impact the evolution of adaptive responses. In particular, the predictability of a rhythmic or cyclical series of environments may promote the evolution of signal transduction cascades that allow preadaptive responses to environments that are likely to be encountered in the future, a phenomenon known as adaptive prediction. In this review, we summarize environmental variations known to occur in some well-studied models of symbiosis and how these may contribute to the evolution of microbial population heterogeneity and anticipatory behavior. We provide details about the symbiosis between Xenorhabdus bacteria and Steinernema nematodes as a model to investigate the concept of environmental adaptation and adaptive prediction in a microbial symbiosis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Nasally administered Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains differentially modulate respiratory antiviral immune responses and induce protection against respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomosada, Yohsuke; Chiba, Eriko; Zelaya, Hortensia; Takahashi, Takuya; Tsukida, Kohichiro; Kitazawa, Haruki; Alvarez, Susana; Villena, Julio

    2013-08-15

    Some studies have shown that nasally administered immunobiotics had the potential to improve the outcome of influenza virus infection. However, the capacity of immunobiotics to improve protection against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection was not investigated before. The aims of this study were: a) to evaluate whether the nasal administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 (Lr05) and L. rhamnosus CRL1506 (Lr06) are able to improve respiratory antiviral defenses and beneficially modulate the immune response triggered by TLR3/RIG-I activation; b) to investigate whether viability of Lr05 or Lr06 is indispensable to modulate respiratory immunity and; c) to evaluate the capacity of Lr05 and Lr06 to improve the resistance of infant mice against RSV infection. Nasally administered Lr05 and Lr06 differentially modulated the TLR3/RIG-I-triggered antiviral respiratory immune response. Lr06 administration significantly modulated the production of IFN-α, IFN-β and IL-6 in the response to poly(I:C) challenge, while nasal priming with Lr05 was more effective to improve levels of IFN-γ and IL-10. Both viable Lr05 and Lr06 strains increased the resistance of infant mice to RSV infection while only heat-killed Lr05 showed a protective effect similar to those observed with viable strains. The present work demonstrated that nasal administration of immunobiotics is able to beneficially modulate the immune response triggered by TLR3/RIG-I activation in the respiratory tract and to increase the resistance of mice to the challenge with RSV. Comparative studies using two Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains of the same origin and with similar technological properties showed that each strain has an specific immunoregulatory effect in the respiratory tract and that they differentially modulate the immune response after poly(I:C) or RSV challenges, conferring different degree of protection and using distinct immune mechanisms. We also demonstrated in this work that it is possible

  17. Respiratory epithelial cell responses to cigarette smoke: the unfolded protein response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Steven G

    2012-12-01

    Cigarette smoking exposes the respiratory epithelium to highly toxic, reactive oxygen nitrogen species which damage lung proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the cell organelle in which all secreted and membrane proteins are processed. Accumulation of damaged or misfolded proteins in the ER, a condition termed ER stress, activates a complex cellular process termed the unfolded protein responses (UPR). The UPR acts to restore cellular protein homeostasis by regulating all aspects of protein metabolism including: protein translation and syntheses; protein folding; and protein degradation. However, activation of the UPR may also induce signaling pathways which induce inflammation and cell apoptosis. This review discusses the role of UPR in the respiratory epithelial cell response to cigarette smoke and the pathogenesis of lung diseases like COPD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Respiratory Pathogens Adopt a Chronic Lifestyle in Response to Bile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reen, F. Jerry; Woods, David F.; Mooij, Marlies J.; Adams, Claire; O'Gara, Fergal

    2012-01-01

    Chronic respiratory infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, most particularly in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. The recent finding that gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) frequently occurs in CF patients led us to investigate the impact of bile on the behaviour of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other CF-associated respiratory pathogens. Bile increased biofilm formation, Type Six Secretion, and quorum sensing in P. aeruginosa, all of which are associated with the switch from acute to persistent infection. Furthermore, bile negatively influenced Type Three Secretion and swarming motility in P. aeruginosa, phenotypes associated with acute infection. Bile also modulated biofilm formation in a range of other CF-associated respiratory pathogens, including Burkholderia cepacia and Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, our results suggest that GER-derived bile may be a host determinant contributing to chronic respiratory infection. PMID:23049911

  19. Lineage-specific responses of microbial communities to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblut, Nicholas D; Shade, Ashley; Read, Jordan S; McMahon, Katherine D; Whitaker, Rachel J

    2013-01-01

    A great challenge facing microbial ecology is how to define ecologically relevant taxonomic units. To address this challenge, we investigated how changing the definition of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) influences the perception of ecological patterns in microbial communities as they respond to a dramatic environmental change. We used pyrosequenced tags of the bacterial V2 16S rRNA region, as well as clone libraries constructed from the cytochrome oxidase C gene ccoN, to provide additional taxonomic resolution for the common freshwater genus Polynucleobacter. At the most highly resolved taxonomic scale, we show that distinct genotypes associated with the abundant Polynucleobacter lineages exhibit divergent spatial patterns and dramatic changes over time, while the also abundant Actinobacteria OTUs are highly coherent. This clearly demonstrates that different bacterial lineages demand different taxonomic definitions to capture ecological patterns. Based on the temporal distribution of highly resolved taxa in the hypolimnion, we demonstrate that change in the population structure of a single genotype can provide additional insight into the mechanisms of community-level responses. These results highlight the importance and feasibility of examining ecological change in microbial communities across taxonomic scales while also providing valuable insight into the ecological characteristics of ecologically coherent groups in this system.

  20. Soil microbial community responses to acid exposure and neutralization treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Doyun; Lee, Yunho; Park, Jeonghyun; Moon, Hee Sun; Hyun, Sung Pil

    2017-12-15

    Changes in microbial community induced by acid shock were studied in the context of potential release of acids to the environment due to chemical accidents. The responses of microbial communities in three different soils to the exposure to sulfuric or hydrofluoric acid and to the subsequent neutralization treatment were investigated as functions of acid concentration and exposure time by using 16S-rRNA gene based pyrosequencing and DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). Measurements of soil pH and dissolved ion concentrations revealed that the added acids were neutralized to different degrees, depending on the mineral composition and soil texture. Hydrofluoric acid was more effectively neutralized by the soils, compared with sulfuric acid at the same normality. Gram-negative ß-Proteobacteria were shown to be the most acid-sensitive bacterial strains, while spore-forming Gram-positive Bacilli were the most acid-tolerant. The results of this study suggest that the Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacterial ratio may serve as an effective bio-indicator in assessing the impact of the acid shock on the microbial community. Neutralization treatments helped recover the ratio closer to their original values. The findings of this study show that microbial community changes as well as geochemical changes such as pH and dissolved ion concentrations need to be considered in estimating the impact of an acid spill, in selecting an optimal remediation strategy, and in deciding when to end remedial actions at the acid spill impacted site. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF MICROBIAL PATHOGENS ISOLATED FROM CALVES WITH RESPIRATORY DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Cosmin Nadas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Respiratory disease in calves is an actual problem, a major cause of economic losses due to mortality, growth delay and improper development. These conditions are frequent in calves due to the weaning stress, transport and environmental changes. Aims: The aim of this study was the isolation of bacteria from 30 calves with respiratory disorders and their antibiotic susceptibility testing. Materials and methods: Samples were collected from calves with respiratory disorders (nasal discharge aged 6 to 9 weeks in 2 series, using sterile swabs. Samples were initially inoculated on blood agar and MacConkey agar following the characteristics of the colonies and microscopic examination that enabled the identification of bacterial species. Isolated strains were used to flood Mueller-Hinton agar to carry out sensitivity testing. The antibiotics tested were represented by: Amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, Gentamicin, Florfenicol, Enrofloxacin, Marbofloxacin, Penicillin G, Cefquinone, Tulathromycin, Ceftiofur, Tylosin and Cephalotin. Results: Genus Streptococcus have been identified in 23 samples, followed by Staphylococcus identified in 14 samples, and Bacillus spp., in 10 nasal swabs; The most common bacteria associations were represented by Streptococcus-Staphylococcus, Streptococcus-Staphylococcus-Bacillus, and Streptococcus-E.coli. The most efficient antibiotic was Cefquinome (Cobactan, followed by Penicillin G and Amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (Amoxiclav; the least effective antibiotics were Florfenicol and Tulathromycin. Conclusions: The study carried out on nasal discharge samples collected from calves with respiratory disorders and their antimicrobial profile testing led to the following conclusions: 1 Low susceptibility to Florfenicol is caused by previous treatments when this molecule was excessively used and without prior sensitivity testing. 2 Cefquinome may represent an emergency therapeutic antibiotic for respiratory

  2. Middle East Respiratory Coronavirus Accessory Protein 4a Inhibits PKR-Mediated Antiviral Stress Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabouw, Huib H; Langereis, Martijn A; Knaap, Robert C M; Dalebout, Tim J; Canton, Javier; Sola, Isabel; Enjuanes, Luis; Bredenbeek, Peter J; Kikkert, Marjolein; de Groot, Raoul J; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe respiratory infections that can be life-threatening. To establish an infection and spread, MERS-CoV, like most other viruses, must navigate through an intricate network of antiviral host responses. Besides the well-known type I

  3. Soil microbial responses to nitrogen addition in arid ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L Sinsabaugh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The N cycle of arid ecosystems is influenced by low soil organic matter, high soil pH and extremes in water potential and temperature that lead to open canopies and development of biological soil crusts (biocrusts. We investigated the effects of N amendment on soil microbial dynamics in a Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa shrubland site in southern Nevada USA. Sites were fertilized with a NO3-NH4 mix at 0, 7, and 15 kg ha-1 yr-1 from March 2012 to March 2013. In March 2013, biocrust (0-0.5 cm and bulk soils (0-10 cm were collected beneath Ambrosia canopies and in the interspaces between plants. Biomass responses were assessed as bacterial and fungal SSU rRNA gene copy number and chlorophyll a concentration. Metabolic responses were measured by five ecoenzyme activities (EEA and rates of N transformation. By most measures, nutrient availability, microbial biomass and process rates were greater in soils beneath the shrub canopy compared to the interspace between plants, and greater in the surface biocrust horizon compared to the deeper 10 cm soil profile. Most measures responded positively to experimental N addition. Effect sizes were generally greater for bulk soil than biocrust. Results were incorporated into a meta-analysis of arid ecosystem responses to N.

  4. Respiratory symptoms among industrial workers exposed to water aerosol. A pilot study of process water and air microbial quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Krogulska

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The frequency of respiratory symptoms in workers exposed to water aerosol was evaluated along with the preliminary assessment of microbiological contamination of air and water used in glass processing plants. Material and Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted in 131 workers from 9 glass processing plants. Questions focused on working conditions, respiratory symptoms and smoking habits. A pilot study of air and water microbiological contamination in one glass processing plant was performed. Water samples were tested for Legionella in accordance with EN ISO 11731-2:2008 and for total colony count according to PN-EN ISO 6222:2004. Air samples were tested for total numbers of molds and mildews. Results: During the year preceding the survey acute respiratory symptoms occurred in 28.2% of participants, while chronic symptoms were reported by 29% of respondents. Increased risks of cough and acute symptoms suggestive of pneumonia were found among the respondents working at a distance up to 20 m from the source of water aerosol compared to other workers (OR = 2.7, with no difference in the frequency of other symptoms. A microbiological analysis of water samples from selected glass plant revealed the presence of L. pneumophila, exceeding 1000 cfu/100 ml. The number of bacteria and fungi detected in air samples (above 1000 cfu/m3 suggested that water aerosol at workplaces can be one of the sources of the air microbial contamination. Conclusions: The questionnaire survey revealed an increased risk of cough and acute symptoms suggestive of pneumonia in the group working at a shortest distance form the source of water aerosol. Med Pr 2013;64(1:47–55

  5. A meta-analysis of soil microbial biomass responses to forest disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Robin Holden

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate warming is likely to increase the frequency and severity of forest disturbances, with uncertain consequences for soil microbial communities and their contribution to ecosystem C dynamics. To address this uncertainty, we conducted a meta-analysis of 139 published soil microbial responses to forest disturbances. These disturbances included abiotic (fire, harvesting, storm and biotic (insect, pathogen disturbances. We hypothesized that soil microbial biomass would decline following forest disturbances, but that abiotic disturbances would elicit greater reductions in microbial biomass than biotic disturbances. In support of this hypothesis, across all published studies, disturbances reduced soil microbial biomass by an average of 29.4%. However, microbial responses differed between abiotic and biotic disturbances. Microbial responses were significantly negative following fires, harvest, and storms (48.7%, 19.1%, and 41.7% reductions in microbial biomass, respectively. In contrast, changes in soil microbial biomass following insect infestation and pathogen-induced tree mortality were non-significant, although biotic disturbances were poorly represented in the literature. When measured separately, fungal and bacterial responses to disturbances mirrored the response of the microbial community as a whole. Changes in microbial abundance following disturbance were significantly positively correlated with changes in microbial respiration. We propose that the differential effect of abiotic and biotic disturbances on microbial biomass may be attributable to differences in soil disruption and organic C removal from forests among disturbance types. Altogether, these results suggest that abiotic forest disturbances may significantly decrease soil microbial abundance, with corresponding consequences for microbial respiration. Further studies are needed on the effect of biotic disturbances on forest soil microbial communities and soil C dynamics.

  6. Bibliographic review on the potential of microorganisms, microbial products and enzymes to induce respiratory sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Cyril; Nielsen, Gunnar D.; Mari, Adriano

    respiratory sensitization when used as food and feed additives was investigated in this report. A short review of the state-of-the-art methods to predict allergenicity was also conducted. Our results indicate that there is currently no established model to predict the allergenicity of a molecule. Although in......-silico models can be useful to predict cross-reactivity between allergens, they do not take into account phenomenons like the context of presentation of the antigen to the immune system. There is no realiable, predictive in-vitro or in-vivo model of allergenicity. Cases of occupational allergy to both fungi...

  7. Respiratory symptoms and bronchial responsiveness in competitive swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Katrin; Stensrud, Trine; Carlsen, Kai-Haakon

    2011-03-01

    A high prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and respiratory symptoms has been reported among competitive swimmers. From the 2002 Winter Olympics, BHR measurements or bronchodilator reversibility have been required for approved use of β2-agonists in sports. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship among respiratory symptoms in young elite swimmers, eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea (EVH), and the inhaled dose of methacholine, causing a 20% decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1; PD(20 methacholine)). The second aim of this study was to assess the repeatability of the EVH test. For this study, 15 male and 9 female adolescent elite swimmers, aged 15 to 25 yr, performed one PD(20 methacholine) test and two EVH tests in a randomized order. Dry air containing 5% CO2 was inhaled for 6 min with a target ventilation of ≥85% of maximum voluntary ventilation (minimum = 65%). PD(20 methacholine) ≤2 μmol and EVH with FEV1 reduction ≥10% were considered positive. Respiratory symptoms and medication were reported in the modified AQUA2008 questionnaire. Twenty swimmers (83%) reported respiratory symptoms, 13 (65%) of them had a positive provocation test. Fourteen (58%) had at least one positive test to either EVH or PD(20 methacholine); three had only one positive EVH test. One athlete had BHR without symptoms. The sensitivity of PD(20 methacholine) ≤2 μmol for respiratory symptoms was 50% versus 60% and 47.37% for the two EVH tests, respectively, and 75% for PD(20 methacholine) ≤4 μmol. The Bland-Altman plot of the two EVH tests showed a consistent distribution, with only one subject outside the limits of agreement. BHR was frequently found among adolescent competitive swimmers. PD(20 methacholine) ≤2 μmol and EVH ≥ 10% compared well, but PD(20 methacholine) ≤4 μmol had the highest sensitivity for respiratory symptoms. The EVH test has high repeatability but is very expensive and uncomfortable to perform.

  8. The Role of Microbial Community Composition in Controlling Soil Respiration Responses to Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffret, Marc D; Karhu, Kristiina; Khachane, Amit; Dungait, Jennifer A J; Fraser, Fiona; Hopkins, David W; Wookey, Philip A; Singh, Brajesh K; Freitag, Thomas E; Hartley, Iain P; Prosser, James I

    2016-01-01

    Rising global temperatures may increase the rates of soil organic matter decomposition by heterotrophic microorganisms, potentially accelerating climate change further by releasing additional carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. However, the possibility that microbial community responses to prolonged warming may modify the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration creates large uncertainty in the strength of this positive feedback. Both compensatory responses (decreasing temperature sensitivity of soil respiration in the long-term) and enhancing responses (increasing temperature sensitivity) have been reported, but the mechanisms underlying these responses are poorly understood. In this study, microbial biomass, community structure and the activities of dehydrogenase and β-glucosidase enzymes were determined for 18 soils that had previously demonstrated either no response or varying magnitude of enhancing or compensatory responses of temperature sensitivity of heterotrophic microbial respiration to prolonged cooling. The soil cooling approach, in contrast to warming experiments, discriminates between microbial community responses and the consequences of substrate depletion, by minimising changes in substrate availability. The initial microbial community composition, determined by molecular analysis of soils showing contrasting respiration responses to cooling, provided evidence that the magnitude of enhancing responses was partly related to microbial community composition. There was also evidence that higher relative abundance of saprophytic Basidiomycota may explain the compensatory response observed in one soil, but neither microbial biomass nor enzymatic capacity were significantly affected by cooling. Our findings emphasise the key importance of soil microbial community responses for feedbacks to global change, but also highlight important areas where our understanding remains limited.

  9. Association of serum Clara cell protein CC16 with respiratory infections and immune response to respiratory pathogens in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurowski, Marcin; Jurczyk, Janusz; Jarzębska, Marzanna; Moskwa, Sylwia; Makowska, Joanna S; Krysztofiak, Hubert; Kowalski, Marek L

    2014-04-15

    Respiratory epithelium integrity impairment caused by intensive exercise may lead to exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Clara cell protein (CC16) has anti-inflammatory properties and its serum level reflects changes in epithelium integrity and airway inflammation. This study aimed to investigate serum CC16 in elite athletes and to seek associations of CC16 with asthma or allergy, respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and immune response to respiratory pathogens. The study was performed in 203 Olympic athletes. Control groups comprised 53 healthy subjects and 49 mild allergic asthmatics. Serum levels of CC16 and IgG against respiratory viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae were assessed. Allergy questionnaire for athletes was used to determine symptoms and exercise pattern. Current versions of ARIA and GINA guidelines were used when diagnosing allergic rhinitis and asthma, respectively. Asthma was diagnosed in 13.3% athletes, of whom 55.6% had concomitant allergic rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis without asthma was diagnosed in 14.8% of athletes. Mean CC16 concentration was significantly lower in athletes versus healthy controls and mild asthmatics. Athletes reporting frequent RTIs had significantly lower serum CC16 and the risk of frequent RTIs was more than 2-fold higher in athletes with low serum CC16 (defined as equal to or less than 4.99 ng/ml). Athletes had significantly higher anti-adenovirus IgG than healthy controls while only non-atopic athletes had anti-parainfluenza virus IgG significantly lower than controls. In all athletes weak correlation of serum CC16 and anti-parainfluenza virus IgG was present (R = 0.20, p athletes a weak positive correlations of CC16 with IgG specific for respiratory syncytial virus (R = 0.29, p = 0.009), parainfluenza virus (R = 0.31, p = 0.01) and adenovirus (R = 0.27, p = 0.02) were seen as well. Regular high-load exercise is associated with decrease in serum CC16 levels. Athletes with decreased CC16 are

  10. INTERACTION BETWEEN DELTA OPIOID RECEPTORS AND BENZODIAZEPINES IN CO2- INDUCED RESPIRATORY RESPONSES IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Anne H.; Barnes, Dylan C.; Blanchette, Derek R.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Klein, Donald F.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2011-01-01

    The false-suffocation hypothesis of panic disorder (Klein, 1993) suggested δ-opioid receptors as a possible source of the respiratory dysfunction manifested in panic attacks occurring in panic disorder (Preter and Klein, 2008). This study sought to determine if a lack of δ-opioid receptors in a mouse model affects respiratory response to elevated CO2, and whether the response is modulated by benzodiazepines, which are widely used to treat panic disorder. In a whole-body plethysmograph, respiratory responses to 5% CO2 were compared between δ-opioid receptor knockout mice and wild-type mice after saline, diazepam (1 mg/kg), and alprazolam (0.3 mg/kg) injection. The results show that lack of δ-opioid receptors does not affect normal response to elevated CO2, but does prevent benzodiazepines from modulating that response. Thus, in the presence of benzodiazepine agonists, respiratory responses to elevated CO2 were enhanced in δ-opioid receptor knockout mice compared to wild-type mice. This suggests an interplay between benzodiazepine receptors and δ-opioid receptors in regulating the respiratory effects of elevated CO2, which might be related to CO2 induced panic. PMID:21561601

  11. Microbial endogenous response to acute inhibitory impact of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala-Ozkok, I; Kor-Bicakci, G; Çokgör, E U; Jonas, D; Orhon, D

    2017-06-13

    Enhanced endogenous respiration was observed as the significant/main response of the aerobic microbial culture under pulse exposure to antibiotics: sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and erythromycin. Peptone mixture and acetate were selected as organic substrates to compare the effect of complex and simple substrates. Experiments were conducted with microbial cultures acclimated to different sludge ages of 10 and 2 days, to visualize the effect of culture history. Evaluation relied on modeling of oxygen uptake rate profiles, reflecting the effect of all biochemical reactions associated with substrate utilization. Model calibration exhibited significant increase in values of endogenous respiration rate coefficient with all antibiotic doses. Enhancement of endogenous respiration was different with antibiotic type and initial dose. Results showed that both peptone mixture and acetate cultures harbored resistance genes against the tested antibiotics, which suggests that biomass spends cellular maintenance energy for activating the required antibiotic resistance mechanisms to survive, supporting higher endogenous decay rates. [Formula: see text]: maximum growth rate for X H (day -1 ); K S : half saturation constant for growth of X H (mg COD/L); b H : endogenous decay rate for X H (day -1 ); k h : maximum hydrolysis rate for S H1 (day -1 ); K X : hydrolysis half saturation constant for S H1 (mg COD/L); k hx : maximum hydrolysis rate for X S1 (day -1 ); K XX : hydrolysis half saturation constant for X S1 (mg COD/L); k STO : maximum storage rate of PHA by X H (day -1 ); [Formula: see text]: maximum growth rate on PHA for X H (day -1 ); K STO : half saturation constant for storage of PHA by X H (mg COD/L); X H1 : initial active biomass (mg COD/L).

  12. Variation among sows in response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rashidi, H.; Mulder, H.A.; Mathur, P.K.; Knol, E.F.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a viral disease with negative impacts on reproduction of sows. Genetic selection to improve the response of sows to PRRS could be an approach to control the disease. Determining sow response to PRRS requires knowing pathogen burden and sow

  13. Dose-response relationships and threshold levels in skin and respiratory allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Mommers, C.; Heer, C.de

    2006-01-01

    A literature study was performed to evaluate dose-response relationships and no-effect levels for sensitization and elicitation in skin- and respiratory allergy. With respect to the skin, dose-response relationships and no-effect levels were found for both intradermal and topical induction, as well

  14. Dose response effect of cement dust on respiratory muscles competence in cement mill workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan A; Azeem, Muhammad A; Qureshi, Aijaz A; Ghori, G Moinudin; Al-Drees, Abdul Majeed; Feisal Subhan, Mirza Muhammad

    2006-12-01

    Electromyography (EMG) of respiratory muscles is a reliable method of assessing the ventilatory muscle function, but still its use has not been fully utilized to determine the occupational and environmental hazards on respiratory muscles. Therefore, EMG of intercostal muscles was performed to determine the dose response effect of cement dust on respiratory muscles competence. Matched cross-sectional study of EMG in 50 non-smoking cement mill workers with an age range of 20 - 60 years, who worked without the benefit of cement dust control ventilation or respiratory protective devices. EMG was performed by using surface electrodes and chart recorder. Significant reduction was observed in number of peaks (p competence and stratification of results shows a dose-effect of years of exposure in cement mill.

  15. TRPM8 mechanism of autonomic nerve response to cold in respiratory airway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Cong-Yi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breathing cold air without proper temperature exchange can induce strong respiratory autonomic responses including cough, airway constriction and mucosal secretion, and can exacerbate existing asthma conditions and even directly trigger an asthma attack. Vagal afferent fiber is thought to be involved in the cold-induced respiratory responses through autonomic nerve reflex. However, molecular mechanisms by which vagal afferent fibers are excited by cold remain unknown. Using retrograde labeling, immunostaining, calcium imaging, and electrophysiological recordings, here we show that a subpopulation of airway vagal afferent nerves express TRPM8 receptors and that activation of TRPM8 receptors by cold excites these airway autonomic nerves. Thus activation of TRPM8 receptors may provoke autonomic nerve reflex to increase airway resistance. This putative autonomic response may be associated with cold-induced exacerbation of asthma and other pulmonary disorders, making TRPM8 receptors a possible target for prevention of cold-associated respiratory disorders.

  16. Fire vs. Metal: A Laboratory Study Demonstrating Microbial Responses to Soil Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberger, Mary E.

    2005-01-01

    Incubation studies are traditionally used in soil microbiology laboratory classes to demonstrate microbial respiration and N mineralization-immobilization processes. Sometimes these exercises are done to calculate a N balance in N fertilizer-amended soils. However, examining microbial responses to environmental perturbations would appeal to soil…

  17. 2012 Gordon Research Conference on Microbial Stress Response, Schedule and Speaker/Poster Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohue, Timothy J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-07-20

    The Gordon Research Conference on Microbial Stress Response was held at Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, Massachusetts, July 15-20, 2012. The Conference was well-attended with 180 participants. The 2012 Microbial Stress Responses Gordon Research Conference will provide a forum for the open reporting of recent discoveries on the diverse mechanisms employed by microbes to respond to stress. Approaches range from analysis at the molecular level (how are signals perceived and transmitted to change gene expression or function) to cellular and microbial community responses. Attached is a copy of the formal schedule and speaker program and the poster program.

  18. Soil microbial community response to aboveground vegetation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lenovo

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... magnitude, activity, structure and function of soil microbial community may .... CaO were quantified by inductively coupled plasmaatomic emission spectroscopy ...... Validation of signature polarlipid fatty acid biomarkers for ...

  19. Microbial Threats to Health: Emergence, Detection, and Response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smolinski, Mark S; Hamburg, Margaret A; Lederberg, Joshua

    2003-01-01

    .... The recent SARS outbreak is a prime example. Knowing neither geographic nor political borders, often arriving silently and lethally, microbial pathogens constitute a grave threat to the health of humans...

  20. The responses of microbial temperature relationships to seasonal change and winter warming in a temperate grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgander, Johanna; Olsson, Pål Axel; Rousk, Johannes

    2018-01-18

    Microorganisms dominate the decomposition of organic matter and their activities are strongly influenced by temperature. As the carbon (C) flux from soil to the atmosphere due to microbial activity is substantial, understanding temperature relationships of microbial processes is critical. It has been shown that microbial temperature relationships in soil correlate with the climate, and microorganisms in field experiments become more warm-tolerant in response to chronic warming. It is also known that microbial temperature relationships reflect the seasons in aquatic ecosystems, but to date this has not been investigated in soil. Although climate change predictions suggest that temperatures will be mostly affected during winter in temperate ecosystems, no assessments exist of the responses of microbial temperature relationships to winter warming. We investigated the responses of the temperature relationships of bacterial growth, fungal growth, and respiration in a temperate grassland to seasonal change, and to 2 years' winter warming. The warming treatments increased winter soil temperatures by 5-6°C, corresponding to 3°C warming of the mean annual temperature. Microbial temperature relationships and temperature sensitivities (Q 10 ) could be accurately established, but did not respond to winter warming or to seasonal temperature change, despite significant shifts in the microbial community structure. The lack of response to winter warming that we demonstrate, and the strong response to chronic warming treatments previously shown, together suggest that it is the peak annual soil temperature that influences the microbial temperature relationships, and that temperatures during colder seasons will have little impact. Thus, mean annual temperatures are poor predictors for microbial temperature relationships. Instead, the intensity of summer heat-spells in temperate systems is likely to shape the microbial temperature relationships that govern the soil-atmosphere C

  1. Respiratory Responses to Stimulation of Branchial Vagus Nerve Ganglia of a Teleost Fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballintijn, C.M.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of electrical stimulation of epibranchial vagus ganglia upon respiration of the carp were investigated. Single shocks evoked fast twitch responses in a number of respiratory muscles with latencies around 18 msec to the beginning and 30-35 msec to the peak of activity. Shocks given during

  2. Progress in Global Surveillance and Response Capacity 10 Years After Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-10

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases' synopsis, Progress in Global Surveillance and Response Capacity 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome.  Created: 4/10/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/11/2013.

  3. Decoupling of microbial carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycling in response to extreme temperature events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooshammer, Maria; Hofhansl, Florian; Frank, Alexander H.; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hämmerle, Ieda; Leitner, Sonja; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Watzka, Margarete; Keiblinger, Katharina M.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Richter, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Predicted changes in the intensity and frequency of climate extremes urge a better mechanistic understanding of the stress response of microbially mediated carbon (C) and nutrient cycling processes. We analyzed the resistance and resilience of microbial C, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) cycling processes and microbial community composition in decomposing plant litter to transient, but severe, temperature disturbances, namely, freeze-thaw and heat. Disturbances led temporarily to a more rapid cycling of C and N but caused a down-regulation of P cycling. In contrast to the fast recovery of the initially stimulated C and N processes, we found a slow recovery of P mineralization rates, which was not accompanied by significant changes in community composition. The functional and structural responses to the two distinct temperature disturbances were markedly similar, suggesting that direct negative physical effects and costs associated with the stress response were comparable. Moreover, the stress response of extracellular enzyme activities, but not that of intracellular microbial processes (for example, respiration or N mineralization), was dependent on the nutrient content of the resource through its effect on microbial physiology and community composition. Our laboratory study provides novel insights into the mechanisms of microbial functional stress responses that can serve as a basis for field studies and, in particular, illustrates the need for a closer integration of microbial C-N-P interactions into climate extremes research. PMID:28508070

  4. Immune response in the lungs following oral immunization with bacterial lysates of respiratory pathogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruedl, C; Frühwirth, M; Wick, G; Wolf, H

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the local immune response of the BALB/c mouse respiratory tract after oral immunization with a bacterial lysate of seven common respiratory pathogens. After two immunization on five consecutive days, we examined the immunoglobulin (immunoglobulin G [IgG], IgM, and IgA) secretion rates of cells isolated from the lungs and compared them with those of spleen cells of orally immunized and nonimmunized animals by using a new test system based on time-resolved fluorescence. The...

  5. Low-complexity Wireless Monitoring of Respiratory Movements Using Ultra-wideband Impulse Response Estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Sana, Furrukh

    2014-03-01

    In this paper; we present a comprehensive scheme for wireless monitoring of the respiratory movements in humans. Our scheme overcomes the challenges low signal-to-noise ratio, background clutter and high sampling rates. It is based on the estimation of the ultra-wideband channel impulse response. We suggest techniques for dealing with background clutter in situations when it might be time variant. We also present a novel methodology for reducing the required sampling rate of the system significantly while achieving the accuracy offered by the Nyquist rate. Performance results from simulations conducted with pre-recorded respiratory signals demonstrate the robustness of our scheme for tackling the above challenges and providing a low-complexity solution for the monitoring of respiratory movements.

  6. Fluoxetine treatment abolishes the in vitro respiratory response to acidosis in neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voituron, Nicolas; Shvarev, Yuri; Menuet, Clément; Bevengut, Michelle; Fasano, Caroline; Vigneault, Erika; El Mestikawy, Salah; Hilaire, Gérard

    2010-10-26

    To secure pH homeostasis, the central respiratory network must permanently adapt its rhythmic motor drive to environment and behaviour. In neonates, it is commonly admitted that the retrotrapezoid/parafacial respiratory group of neurons of the ventral medulla plays the primary role in the respiratory response to acidosis, although the serotonergic system may also contribute to this response. Using en bloc medullary preparations from neonatal mice, we have shown for the first time that the respiratory response to acidosis is abolished after pre-treatment with the serotonin-transporter blocker fluoxetine (25-50 µM, 20 min), a commonly used antidepressant. Using mRNA in situ hybridization and immunohistology, we have also shown the expression of the serotonin transporter mRNA and serotonin-containing neurons in the vicinity of the RTN/pFRG of neonatal mice. These results reveal that the serotonergic system plays a pivotal role in pH homeostasis. Although obtained in vitro in neonatal mice, they suggest that drugs targeting the serotonergic system should be used with caution in infants, pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers.

  7. Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration rates enhanced by microbial community response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhu, Kristiina; Auffret, Marc D; Dungait, Jennifer A J; Hopkins, David W; Prosser, James I; Singh, Brajesh K; Subke, Jens-Arne; Wookey, Philip A; Agren, Göran I; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa; Gouriveau, Fabrice; Bergkvist, Göran; Meir, Patrick; Nottingham, Andrew T; Salinas, Norma; Hartley, Iain P

    2014-09-04

    Soils store about four times as much carbon as plant biomass, and soil microbial respiration releases about 60 petagrams of carbon per year to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. Short-term experiments have shown that soil microbial respiration increases exponentially with temperature. This information has been incorporated into soil carbon and Earth-system models, which suggest that warming-induced increases in carbon dioxide release from soils represent an important positive feedback loop that could influence twenty-first-century climate change. The magnitude of this feedback remains uncertain, however, not least because the response of soil microbial communities to changing temperatures has the potential to either decrease or increase warming-induced carbon losses substantially. Here we collect soils from different ecosystems along a climate gradient from the Arctic to the Amazon and investigate how microbial community-level responses control the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. We find that the microbial community-level response more often enhances than reduces the mid- to long-term (90 days) temperature sensitivity of respiration. Furthermore, the strongest enhancing responses were observed in soils with high carbon-to-nitrogen ratios and in soils from cold climatic regions. After 90 days, microbial community responses increased the temperature sensitivity of respiration in high-latitude soils by a factor of 1.4 compared to the instantaneous temperature response. This suggests that the substantial carbon stores in Arctic and boreal soils could be more vulnerable to climate warming than currently predicted.

  8. Shifts in the Physiology and Stoichiometric Needs of Soil Microbial Communities from Subarctic Soils in Response to Warming: Icelandic Geothermal Gradients as a Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón-Jiménez, S.; Soong, J.; Leblans, N. I. W.; Sigurdsson, B. D.; Peñuelas, J.; Richter, A.; Asensio, D.; Fransen, E.; Janssens, I. A.

    2017-12-01

    Large amounts of CO2 can be released to the atmosphere from a faster mineralization of soil organic matter at warmer temperatures, thus inducing climate change feedbacks. Specifically, soils at high northern latitudes store more than half of the global surface soil carbon and are particularly vulnerable to temperature-driven C losses, since they warm more rapidly. Alterations to the temperature sensitivity, physiological functioning and stoichiometric constrains of soil microorganisms in response to rising temperatures can play a key role in these soil carbon (C) losses. We present results of several incubation experiments using soils from geothermal soil temperature gradients in Iceland that have undergone a range of warming intensities for seven years, encompassing the full range of IPCC warming scenarios for the northern region. Soil microbes from warmed soils did not show changes in their temperature sensitivity at the physiological level. On the contrary, seven years of chronic soil warming provoked a permanent increase of microbial metabolic quotients (i.e., respiration per unit of biomass), and a subsequent reduction in the C retained in biomass as substrate became limiting. After the initial depletion of labile soil C, increasing energy demands for metabolic maintenance and resource acquisition at higher temperatures may have triggered permanent functional changes or community shifts towards increasing respiratory costs of soil decomposers. Pointing to this, microbial communities showed a strong C limitation even at ambient soil temperatures, obscuring any metabolic response to nitrogen and phosphorous additions. The tight C:N stoichiometric constrains of soil microbial communities and the strong C limitation for microbial biomass may lead to a reduced capacity of microbial N retention, explaining the equivalent soil C and N losses found in response to soil warming. These results highlight the need to incorporate potential changes in microbial physiological

  9. Are Microbial Nanowires Responsible for Geoelectrical Changes at Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, C.; Atekwana, E. A.; Gorby, Y. A.; Duris, J. W.; Allen, J. P.; Atekwana, E. A.; Ownby, C.; Rossbach, S.

    2007-05-01

    Significant advances in near-surface geophysics and biogeophysics in particular, have clearly established a link between geoelectrical response and the growth and enzymatic activities of microbes in geologic media. Recent studies from hydrocarbon contaminated sites suggest that the activities of distinct microbial populations, specifically syntrophic, sulfate reducing, and dissimilatory iron reducing microbial populations are a contributing factor to elevated sediment conductivity. However, a fundamental mechanistic understanding of the processes and sources resulting in the measured electrical response remains uncertain. The recent discovery of bacterial nanowires and their electron transport capabilities suggest that if bacterial nanowires permeate the subsurface, they may in part be responsible for the anomalous conductivity response. In this study we investigated the microbial population structure, the presence of nanowires, and microbial-induced alterations of a hydrocarbon contaminated environment and relate them to the sediments' geoelectrical response. Our results show that microbial communities varied substantially along the vertical gradient and at depths where hydrocarbons saturated the sediments, ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) revealed signatures of microbial communities adapted to hydrocarbon impact. In contrast, RISA profiles from a background location showed little community variations with depth. While all sites showed evidence of microbial activity, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of sediment from the contaminated location showed pervasive development of "nanowire-like structures" with morphologies consistent with nanowires from laboratory experiments. SEM analysis suggests extensive alteration of the sediments by microbial Activity. We conclude that, excess organic carbon (electron donor) but limited electron acceptors in these environments cause microorganisms to produce nanowires to shuttle the electrons as they seek for

  10. Soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation in rice paddies under long-term agro-ecosystem experiments in southern China - VI. Changes in microbial community structure and respiratory activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y.; Li, L.; Pan, G.; Crowley, D.; Tippkötter, R.

    2011-02-01

    Biological stabilization within accumulated soil organic carbon (SOC) has not been well understood, while its role in physical and chemical protection as well as of chemical recalcitrance had been addressed in Chinese rice paddies. In this study, topsoil samples were collected and respiratory activity measured in situ following rice harvest under different fertilization treatments of three long-term experimental sites across southern China in 2009. The SOC contents, microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) and nitrogen (SMBN) were analysed using chemical digestion and microbial community structure assessment via clony dilute plate counting methods. While SOC contents were consistently higher under compound chemical fertilization (Comp-Fert) or combined organic and inorganic fertilization (Comb-Fert) compared to N fertilization only (N-Fert), there was significantly higher fungal-bacterial ratio under Comb-Fert than under N-Fert and Comp-Fert. When subtracting the background effect under no fertilization treatment (Non-Fert), the increase both in SMBC and SMBN under fertilization treatment was found very significantly correlated to the increase in SOC over controls across the sites. Also, the ratio of culturable fungal to bacterial population numbers (F/B ratio) was well correlated with soil organic carbon contents in all samples across the sites studied. SOC accumulation favoured a build-up the microbial community with increasing fungal dominance in the rice paddies under fertilization treatments. While soil respiration rates were high under Comb-Fert as a result of enhanced microbial community build-up, the specific soil respiratory activity based on microbial biomass carbon was found in a significantly negatively correlation with the SOC contents for overall samples. Thus, a fungal-dominated microbial community seemed to slow SOC turnover, thereby favouring SOC accumulation under Comp-Fert or under Comb-Fert in the rice paddies. Therefore, the biological stabilization

  11. 2010 MICROBIAL STRESS RESPONSE GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JULY 18-23, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarah Ades

    2011-07-23

    The 2010 Gordon Research Conference on Microbial Stress Responses provides an open and exciting forum for the exchange of scientific discoveries on the remarkable mechanisms used by microbes to survive in nearly every niche on the planet. Understanding these stress responses is critical for our ability to control microbial survival, whether in the context of biotechnology, ecology, or pathogenesis. From its inception in 1994, this conference has traditionally employed a very broad definition of stress in microbial systems. Sessions will cover the major steps of stress responses from signal sensing to transcriptional regulation to the effectors that mediate responses. A wide range of stresses will be represented. Some examples include (but are not limited to) oxidative stress, protein quality control, antibiotic-induced stress and survival, envelope stress, DNA damage, and nutritional stress. The 2010 meeting will also focus on the role of stress responses in microbial communities, applied and environmental microbiology, and microbial development. This conference brings together researchers from both the biological and physical sciences investigating stress responses in medically- and environmentally relevant microbes, as well as model organisms, using cutting-edge techniques. Computational, systems-level, and biophysical approaches to exploring stress responsive circuits will be integrated throughout the sessions alongside the more traditional molecular, physiological, and genetic approaches. The broad range of excellent speakers and topics, together with the intimate and pleasant setting at Mount Holyoke College, provide a fertile ground for the exchange of new ideas and approaches.

  12. Water regime history drives responses of soil Namib Desert microbial communities to wetting events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, Aline; Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Seely, Mary; Cowan, Don A.

    2015-07-01

    Despite the dominance of microorganisms in arid soils, the structures and functional dynamics of microbial communities in hot deserts remain largely unresolved. The effects of wetting event frequency and intensity on Namib Desert microbial communities from two soils with different water-regime histories were tested over 36 days. A total of 168 soil microcosms received wetting events mimicking fog, light rain and heavy rainfall, with a parallel “dry condition” control. T-RFLP data showed that the different wetting events affected desert microbial community structures, but these effects were attenuated by the effects related to the long-term adaptation of both fungal and bacterial communities to soil origins (i.e. soil water regime histories). The intensity of the water pulses (i.e. the amount of water added) rather than the frequency of wetting events had greatest effect in shaping bacterial and fungal community structures. In contrast to microbial diversity, microbial activities (enzyme activities) showed very little response to the wetting events and were mainly driven by soil origin. This experiment clearly demonstrates the complexity of microbial community responses to wetting events in hyperarid hot desert soil ecosystems and underlines the dynamism of their indigenous microbial communities.

  13. Atmospheric plasma processes for microbial inactivation: food applications and stress response in Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Gozzi, Giorgia

    2015-01-01

    This PhD thesis is focused on cold atmospheric plasma treatments (GP) for microbial inactivation in food applications. In fact GP represents a promising emerging technology alternative to the traditional methods for the decontamination of foods. The objectives of this work were to evaluate: - the effects of GP treatments on microbial inactivation in model systems and in real foods; - the stress response in L. monocytogenes following exposure to different GP treatments. As far as t...

  14. RSV-induced bronchiolitis but not upper respiratory tract infection is accompanied by an increased nasal IL-18 response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benten, Inesz J.; van Drunen, Cornelis M.; Koopman, Laurens P.; Kleinjan, Alex; van Middelkoop, Barbara C.; de Waal, Leon; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Neijens, Herman J.; Fokkens, Wytske J.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate potential differences in the local nasal immune response between bronchiolitis and upper respiratory tract infection induced by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Nasal brush samples were obtained from 14 infants with RSV bronchiolitis and from 8 infants with

  15. Effect of Menthol on Respiratory and Perceptual Responses to Exercise in Firefighter Protective Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Impaired respiration reduces firefighters’ work capacity. This study evaluated the effect of menthol lozenge on respiratory and perceptual responses during exercise in a hot environment. Ten participants wearing firefighter protective gear performed two repeated exercise and rest trials in a counter-balanced order. Exercise consisted of two bouts of 20-min treadmill exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake and one bout of 20-min stepping exercise at a wet bulb global temperature of 35°C. Participants either took 10-mg menthol or control lozenges prior to the beginning of each exercise bout. Respiratory gas exchange, heart rate, thermal sensation, and breathing comfort were continuously recorded. Menthol lozenges significantly increased pulmonary ventilation (menthol: 45.0±6.6 L•min-1 vs. control: 41.4±5.8 L•min-1 and menthol: 52.7±9.7 L•min-1 vs. control: 46.5±7.0 L•min-1, for the 1st and 2nd treadmill exercise, respectively and oxygen consumption (menthol: 26.7±2.0 ml•kg-1•min-1 vs. control: 25.2±2.3 ml•kg-1•min-1 and menthol: 28.8±2.3 ml•kg-1•min-1 vs. control: 26.9±1.9 ml•kg-1•min-1, for the 1st and 2nd treadmill exercise, respe¬cti¬ve¬ly (p0.05. The ventilatory equivalents though were not different throughout the exercise (p>0.05. Ratings of thermal sensation and breathing comfort were not different (p>0.05. It was concluded that menthol could alter breathing pattern and increase respiratory responses during strenuous exercise in the heat. There was no favorable effect of menthol on respiratory or perceptual responses under exercise-heat stress.

  16. Modification of Traffic-related Respiratory Response by Asthma Control in a Population of Car Commuters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabelli, Maria C.; Golan, Rachel; Greenwald, Roby; Raysoni, Amit U.; Holguin, Fernando; Kewada, Priya; Winquist, Andrea; Flanders, W. Dana; Sarnat, Jeremy A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Effects of traffic-related exposures on respiratory health are well documented, but little information is available about whether asthma control influences individual susceptibility. We analyzed data from the Atlanta Commuter Exposure study to evaluate modification of associations between rush-hour commuting, in-vehicle air pollution, and selected respiratory health outcomes by asthma control status. Methods Between 2009 and 2011, 39 adults participated in Atlanta Commuter Exposure, and each conducted two scripted rush-hour highway commutes. In-vehicle particulate components were measured during all commutes. Among adults with asthma, we evaluated asthma control by questionnaire and spirometry. Exhaled nitric oxide, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and other metrics of respiratory health were measured precommute and 0, 1, 2, and 3 hours postcommute. We used mixed effects linear regression to evaluate associations between commute-related exposures and postcommute changes in metrics of respiratory health by level of asthma control. Results We observed increased exhaled nitric oxide across all levels of asthma control compared with precommute measurements, with largest postcommute increases observed among participants with below-median asthma control (2 hours postcommute: 14.6% [95% confidence interval {CI} = 5.7, 24.2]; 3 hours postcommute: 19.5% [95% CI = 7.8, 32.5]). No associations between in-vehicle pollutants and percent of predicted FEV1 were observed, although higher PM2.5 was associated with lower FEV1 % predicted among participants with below-median asthma control (3 hours postcommute: −7.2 [95% CI = −11.8, −2.7]). Conclusions Level of asthma control may influence respiratory response to in-vehicle exposures experienced during rush-hour commuting. PMID:25901844

  17. Taxonomic and Functional Responses of Soil Microbial Communities to Annual Removal of Aboveground Plant Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xue; Zhou, Xishu; Hale, Lauren; Yuan, Mengting; Feng, Jiajie; Ning, Daliang; Shi, Zhou; Qin, Yujia; Liu, Feifei; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Liu, Xueduan; Luo, Yiqi; Tiedje, James M.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2018-01-01

    Clipping, removal of aboveground plant biomass, is an important issue in grassland ecology. However, few studies have focused on the effect of clipping on belowground microbial communities. Using integrated metagenomic technologies, we examined the taxonomic and functional responses of soil microbial communities to annual clipping (2010–2014) in a grassland ecosystem of the Great Plains of North America. Our results indicated that clipping significantly (P microbial respiration rates. Annual temporal variation within the microbial communities was much greater than the significant changes introduced by clipping, but cumulative effects of clipping were still observed in the long-term scale. The abundances of some bacterial and fungal lineages including Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were significantly (P microbial communities were significantly correlated with soil respiration and plant productivity. Intriguingly, clipping effects on microbial function may be highly regulated by precipitation at the interannual scale. Altogether, our results illustrated the potential of soil microbial communities for increased soil organic matter decomposition under clipping land-use practices. PMID:29904372

  18. Gene Expression Profiles Link Respiratory Viral Infection, Platelet Response to Aspirin, and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Derek D.; Lucas, Joseph E.; Zaas, Aimee K.; Woods, Christopher W.; Newby, L. Kristin; Kraus, William E.; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Influenza infection is associated with myocardial infarction (MI), suggesting that respiratory viral infection may induce biologic pathways that contribute to MI. We tested the hypotheses that 1) a validated blood gene expression signature of respiratory viral infection (viral GES) was associated with MI and 2) respiratory viral exposure changes levels of a validated platelet gene expression signature (platelet GES) of platelet function in response to aspirin that is associated with MI. Methods A previously defined viral GES was projected into blood RNA data from 594 patients undergoing elective cardiac catheterization and used to classify patients as having evidence of viral infection or not and tested for association with acute MI using logistic regression. A previously defined platelet GES was projected into blood RNA data from 81 healthy subjects before and after exposure to four respiratory viruses: Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) (n=20), Human Rhinovirus (HRV) (n=20), Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (H1N1) (n=24), Influenza A Virus subtype H3N2 (H3N2) (n=17). We tested for the change in platelet GES with viral exposure using linear mixed-effects regression and by symptom status. Results In the catheterization cohort, 32 patients had evidence of viral infection based upon the viral GES, of which 25% (8/32) had MI versus 12.2% (69/567) among those without evidence of viral infection (OR 2.3; CI [1.03-5.5], p=0.04). In the infection cohorts, only H1N1 exposure increased platelet GES over time (time course p-value = 1e-04). Conclusions A viral GES of non-specific, respiratory viral infection was associated with acute MI; 18% of the top 49 genes in the viral GES are involved with hemostasis and/or platelet aggregation. Separately, H1N1 exposure, but not exposure to other respiratory viruses, increased a platelet GES previously shown to be associated with MI. Together, these results highlight specific genes and pathways that link viral infection

  19. Immune response in the lungs following oral immunization with bacterial lysates of respiratory pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedl, C; Frühwirth, M; Wick, G; Wolf, H

    1994-03-01

    We have investigated the local immune response of the BALB/c mouse respiratory tract after oral immunization with a bacterial lysate of seven common respiratory pathogens. After two immunization on five consecutive days, we examined the immunoglobulin (immunoglobulin G [IgG], IgM, and IgA) secretion rates of cells isolated from the lungs and compared them with those of spleen cells of orally immunized and nonimmunized animals by using a new test system based on time-resolved fluorescence. The procedure followed the principle of the classical ELISPOT test with nitrocellulose-bottomed microtiter plates, but europium (Eu3+)-linked streptavidin rather than enzyme-conjugated streptavidin was used, with the advantage of quantifying secreted immunoglobulins instead of detecting single antibody-secreting cells. Lymphocytes isolated from the lungs of treated animals revealed significant increases in total and antigen-specific IgA synthesis compared with the rates of the controls, whereas IgG and IgM production rates showed no remarkable differences. In addition, the sera of treated mice revealed higher antigen-specific IgA titers but not increased IgM and IgG levels. We conclude that priming the gut-associated lymphoid tissue with bacterial antigens of pneumotropic microorganisms can elicit an enhanced IgA response in a distant mucosal effector site, such as the respiratory tract, according to the concept of a common mucosa-associated immune system.

  20. Metagenomic analysis of permafrost microbial community response to thaw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackelprang, R.; Waldrop, M.P.; DeAngelis, K.M.; David, M.M.; Chavarria, K.L.; Blazewicz, S.J.; Rubin, E.M.; Jansson, J.K.

    2011-07-01

    We employed deep metagenomic sequencing to determine the impact of thaw on microbial phylogenetic and functional genes and related this data to measurements of methane emissions. Metagenomics, the direct sequencing of DNA from the environment, allows for the examination of whole biochemical pathways and associated processes, as opposed to individual pieces of the metabolic puzzle. Our metagenome analyses revealed that during transition from a frozen to a thawed state there were rapid shifts in many microbial, phylogenetic and functional gene abundances and pathways. After one week of incubation at 5°C, permafrost metagenomes converged to be more similar to each other than while they were frozen. We found that multiple genes involved in cycling of C and nitrogen shifted rapidly during thaw. We also constructed the first draft genome from a complex soil metagenome, which corresponded to a novel methanogen. Methane previously accumulated in permafrost was released during thaw and subsequently consumed by methanotrophic bacteria. Together these data point towards the importance of rapid cycling of methane and nitrogen in thawing permafrost.

  1. Systemic signature of the lung response to respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen L A Pennings

    Full Text Available Respiratory Syncytial Virus is a frequent cause of severe bronchiolitis in children. To improve our understanding of systemic host responses to RSV, we compared BALB/c mouse gene expression responses at day 1, 2, and 5 during primary RSV infection in lung, bronchial lymph nodes, and blood. We identified a set of 53 interferon-associated and innate immunity genes that give correlated responses in all three murine tissues. Additionally, we identified blood gene signatures that are indicative of acute infection, secondary immune response, and vaccine-enhanced disease, respectively. Eosinophil-associated ribonucleases were characteristic for the vaccine-enhanced disease blood signature. These results indicate that it may be possible to distinguish protective and unfavorable patient lung responses via blood diagnostics.

  2. Reassessment of the cardio-respiratory stress response, using the king penguin as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willener, Astrid S T; Halsey, Lewis G; Strike, Siobhán; Enstipp, Manfred R; Georges, Jean-Yves; Handrich, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Research in to short-term cardio-respiratory changes in animals in reaction to a psychological stressor typically describes increases in rate of oxygen consumption (V̇(O2)) and heart rate. Consequently, the broad consensus is that they represent a fundamental stressor response generalizable across adult species. However, movement levels can also change in the presence of a stressor, yet studies have not accounted for this possible confound on heart rate. Thus the direct effects of psychological stressors on the cardio-respiratory system are not resolved. We used an innovative experimental design employing accelerometers attached to king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) to measure and thus account for movement levels in a sedentary yet free-to-move animal model during a repeated measures stress experiment. As with previous studies on other species, incubating king penguins (N = 6) exhibited significant increases in both V̇(O2) and heart rate when exposed to the stressor. However, movement levels, while still low, also increased in response to the stressor. Once this was accounted for by comparing periods of time during the control and stress conditions when movement levels were similar as recorded by the accelerometers, only V̇(O2) significantly increased; there was no change in heart rate. These findings offer evidence that changing movement levels have an important effect on the measured stress response and that the cardio-respiratory response per se to a psychological stressor (i.e. the response as a result of physiological changes directly attributable to the stressor) is an increase in V̇(O2) without an increase in heart rate.

  3. Microbial nitrogen cycling response to forest-based bioenergy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minick, Kevan J; Strahm, Brian D; Fox, Thomas R; Sucre, Eric B; Leggett, Zakiya H

    2015-12-01

    Concern over rising atmospheric CO2 and other greenhouse gases due to fossil fuel combustion has intensified research into carbon-neutral energy production. Approximately 15.8 million ha of pine plantations exist across the southeastern United States, representing a vast land area advantageous for bioenergy production without significant landuse change or diversion of agricultural resources from food production. Furthermore, intercropping of pine with bioenergy grasses could provide annually harvestable, lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks along with production of traditional wood products. Viability of such a system hinges in part on soil nitrogen (N) availability and effects of N competition between pines and grasses on ecosystem productivity. We investigated effects of intercropping loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) on microbial N cycling processes in the Lower Coastal Plain of North Carolina, USA. Soil samples were collected from bedded rows of pine and interbed space of two treatments, composed of either volunteer native woody and herbaceous vegetation (pine-native) or pure switchgrass (pine-switchgrass) in interbeds. An in vitro 15N pool-dilution technique was employed to quantify gross N transformations at two soil depths (0-5 and 5-15 cm) on four dates in 2012-2013. At the 0-5 cm depth in beds of the pine-switchgrass treatment, gross N mineralization was two to three times higher in November and February compared to the pine-native treatment, resulting in increased NH4(+) availability. Gross and net nitrification were also significantly higher in February in the same pine beds. In interbeds of the pine-switchgrass treatment, gross N mineralization was lower from April to November, but higher in February, potentially reflecting positive effects of switchgrass root-derived C inputs during dormancy on microbial activity. These findings indicate soil N cycling and availability has increased in pine beds of the pine

  4. Early immune response patterns to pathogenic bacteria are associated to increased risk of lower respiratory infections in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, N. H.; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Rasmussen, Mette Annelie

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal colonisation of the airways with respiratory pathogens is associated with increased risk of lower respiratory infections (LRI) in early childhood (1). Therefore, we hypothesized that children developing LRI have an abnormal immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. We aimed...... to characterise the systemic immune response to pathogenic bacteria at the age of 6 months and study the association with incidence of LRI during the first 3 years of life....

  5. Response of Microbial Soil Carbon Mineralization Rates to Oxygen Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiluweit, M.; Denney, A.; Nico, P. S.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The rate of soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is known to be controlled by climatic factors as well as molecular structure, mineral-organic associations, and physical protection. What remains elusive is to what extent oxygen (O2) limitations impact overall rates of microbial SOM mineralization (oxidation) in soils. Even within upland soils that are aerobic in bulk, factors limiting O2 diffusion such as texture and soil moisture can result in an abundance of anaerobic microsites in the interior of soil aggregates. Variation in ensuing anaerobic respiration pathways can further impact SOM mineralization rates. Using a combination of (first) aggregate model systems and (second) manipulations of intact field samples, we show how limitations on diffusion and carbon bioavailability interact to impose anaerobic conditions and associated respiration constraints on SOM mineralization rates. In model aggregates, we examined how particle size (soil texture) and amount of dissolved organic carbon (bioavailable carbon) affect O2 availability and distribution. Monitoring electron acceptor profiles (O2, NO3-, Mn and Fe) and SOM transformations (dissolved, particulate, mineral-associated pools) across the resulting redox gradients, we then determined the distribution of operative microbial metabolisms and their cumulative impact on SOM mineralization rates. Our results show that anaerobic conditions decrease SOM mineralization rates overall, but those are partially offset by the concurrent increases in SOM bioavailability due to transformations of protective mineral phases. In intact soil aggregates collected from soils varying in texture and SOM content, we mapped the spatial distribution of anaerobic microsites. Optode imaging, microsensor profiling and 3D tomography revealed that soil texture regulates overall O2 availability in aggregate interiors, while particulate SOM in biopores appears to control the fine-scale distribution of anaerobic microsites. Collectively, our

  6. Ecological and soil hydraulic implications of microbial responses to stress - A modeling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brangarí, Albert C.; Fernàndez-Garcia, Daniel; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier; Manzoni, Stefano

    2018-06-01

    A better understanding of microbial dynamics in porous media may lead to improvements in the design and management of a number of technological applications, ranging from the degradation of contaminants to the optimization of agricultural systems. To this aim, there is a recognized need for predicting the proliferation of soil microbial biomass (often organized in biofilms) under different environments and stresses. We present a general multi-compartment model to account for physiological responses that have been extensively reported in the literature. The model is used as an explorative tool to elucidate the ecological and soil hydraulic consequences of microbial responses, including the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), the induction of cells into dormancy, and the allocation and reuse of resources between biofilm compartments. The mechanistic model is equipped with indicators allowing the microorganisms to monitor environmental and biological factors and react according to the current stress pressures. The feedbacks of biofilm accumulation on the soil water retention are also described. Model runs simulating different degrees of substrate and water shortage show that adaptive responses to the intensity and type of stress provide a clear benefit to microbial colonies. Results also demonstrate that the model may effectively predict qualitative patterns in microbial dynamics supported by empirical evidence, thereby improving our understanding of the effects of pore-scale physiological mechanisms on the soil macroscale phenomena.

  7. Soil microbial respiration and PICT responses to an industrial and historic lead pollution: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérard, Annette; Capowiez, Line; Mombo, Stéphane; Schreck, Eva; Dumat, Camille; Deola, Frédéric; Capowiez, Yvan

    2016-03-01

    We performed a field investigation to study the long-term impacts of Pb soil contamination on soil microbial communities and their catabolic structure in the context of an industrial site consisting of a plot of land surrounding a secondary lead smelter. Microbial biomass, catabolic profiles, and ecotoxicological responses (PICT) were monitored on soils sampled at selected locations along 110-m transects established on the site. We confirmed the high toxicity of Pb on respirations and microbial and fungal biomasses by measuring positive correlations with distance from the wall factory and negative correlation with total Pb concentrations. Pb contamination also induced changes in microbial and fungal catabolic structure (from carbohydrates to amino acids through carboxylic malic acid). Moreover, PICT measurement allowed to establish causal linkages between lead and its effect on biological communities taking into account the contamination history of the ecosystem at community level. The positive correlation between qCO2 (based on respiration and substrate use) and PICT suggested that the Pb stress-induced acquisition of tolerance came at a greater energy cost for microbial communities in order to cope with the toxicity of the metal. In this industrial context of long-term polymetallic contamination dominated by Pb in a field experiment, we confirmed impacts of this metal on soil functioning through microbial communities, as previously observed for earthworm communities.

  8. Rapid Response of Eastern Mediterranean Deep Sea Microbial Communities to Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiang; Techtmann, Stephen M.; Woo, Hannah L.; Ning, Daliang; Fortney, Julian L.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2017-07-18

    Deep marine oil spills like the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) in the Gulf of Mexico have the potential to drastically impact marine systems. Crude oil contamination in marine systems remains a concern, especially for countries around the Mediterranean Sea with off shore oil production. The goal of this study was to investigate the response of indigenous microbial communities to crude oil in the deep Eastern Mediterranean Sea (E. Med.) water column and to minimize potential bias associated with storage and shifts in microbial community structure from sample storage. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was combined with GeoChip metagenomic analysis to monitor the microbial community changes to the crude oil and dispersant in on-ship microcosms set up immediately after water collection. After 3 days of incubation at 14 °C, the microbial communities from two different water depths: 824 m and 1210 m became dominated by well-known oil degrading bacteria. The archaeal population and the overall microbial community diversity drastically decreased. Similarly, GeoChip metagenomic analysis revealed a tremendous enrichment of genes related to oil biodegradation, which was consistent with the results from the DWH oil spill. These results highlight a rapid microbial adaption to oil contamination in the deep E. Med., and indicate strong oil biodegradation potentia

  9. Hypoxia increases the behavioural activity of schooling herring: a response to physiological stress or respiratory distress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Neill A.; Steffensen, John F.

    2006-01-01

    a deviation in physiological homeostasis is associated with any change in behavioural activity, we exposed C. harengus in a school to a progressive stepwise decline in water oxygen pressure  and measured fish swimming speed and valid indicators of primary and secondary stress (i.e. blood cortisol, lactate......Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, increase their swimming speed during low O2 (hypoxia) and it has been hypothesised that the behavioural response is modulated by the degree of "respiratory distress" (i.e. a rise in anaerobic metabolism and severe physiological stress). To test directly whether...

  10. Non-response in a cross-sectional study of respiratory health in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsen, Regine; Svendsen, Martin Veel; Henneberger, Paul K; Gundersen, G?lin Finckenhagen; Tor?n, Kjell; Kongerud, Johny; Fell, Anne Kristin M?ller

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Declining participation in epidemiological studies has been reported in recent decades and may lead to biased prevalence estimates and selection bias. The aim of the study was to identify possible causes and effects of non-response in a population-based study of respiratory health in Norway. Design The Telemark study is a longitudinal study that began with a cross-sectional survey in 2013. Setting In 2013, a random sample of 50?000 inhabitants aged 16?50?years, living in Telemark c...

  11. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Response of Microbial Reactions to High CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qusheng; Kirk, Matthew F

    2016-01-01

    Geological carbon sequestration captures CO 2 from industrial sources and stores the CO 2 in subsurface reservoirs, a viable strategy for mitigating global climate change. In assessing the environmental impact of the strategy, a key question is how microbial reactions respond to the elevated CO 2 concentration. This study uses biogeochemical modeling to explore the influence of CO 2 on the thermodynamics and kinetics of common microbial reactions in subsurface environments, including syntrophic oxidation, iron reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis. The results show that increasing CO 2 levels decreases groundwater pH and modulates chemical speciation of weak acids in groundwater, which in turn affect microbial reactions in different ways and to different extents. Specifically, a thermodynamic analysis shows that increasing CO 2 partial pressure lowers the energy available from syntrophic oxidation and acetoclastic methanogenesis, but raises the available energy of microbial iron reduction, hydrogenotrophic sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. Kinetic modeling suggests that high CO 2 has the potential of inhibiting microbial sulfate reduction while promoting iron reduction. These results are consistent with the observations of previous laboratory and field studies, and highlight the complexity in microbiological responses to elevated CO 2 abundance, and the potential power of biogeochemical modeling in evaluating and quantifying these responses.

  12. Thermodynamic and kinetic response of microbial reactions to high CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qusheng Jin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Geological carbon sequestration captures CO2 from industrial sources and stores the CO2 in subsurface reservoirs, a viable strategy for mitigating global climate change. In assessing the environmental impact of the strategy, a key question is how microbial reactions respond to the elevated CO2 concentration. This study uses biogeochemical modeling to explore the influence of CO2 on the thermodynamics and kinetics of common microbial reactions in subsurface environments, including syntrophic oxidation, iron reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis. The results show that increasing CO2 levels decreases groundwater pH and modulates chemical speciation of weak acids in groundwater, which in turn affect microbial reactions in different ways and to different extents. Specifically, a thermodynamic analysis shows that increasing CO2 partial pressure lowers the energy available from syntrophic oxidation and acetoclastic methanogenesis, but raises the available energy of microbial iron reduction, hydrogenotrophic sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. Kinetic modeling suggests that high CO2 has the potential of inhibiting microbial sulfate reduction while promoting iron reduction. These results are consistent with the observations of previous laboratory and field studies, and highlight the complexity in microbiological responses to elevated CO2 abundance, and the potential power of biogeochemical modeling in evaluating and quantifying these responses.

  13. CATALASE FROM A FUNGAL MICROBIAL PESTICIDE INDUCES A UNIQUE IGE RESPONSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BALB/c mice exposed by involuntary aspiration to Metarhizium anisopliae extract (MACA), a microbial pesticide, have shown responses characteristic of human allergic lung disease/asthma. IgE-binding proteins have been identified in MACA by Western blot analysis, 2-dimensio...

  14. RESPONSE OF SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS AND COMMUNITY COMPOSITION TO CHRONIC NITROGEN ADDITIONS AT HARVARD FOREST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil microbial communities may respond to anthropogenic increases in ecosystem nitrogen (N) availability, and their response may ultimately feedback on ecosystem carbon and N dynamics. We examined the long-term effects of chronic N additions on soil microbes by measuring soil mi...

  15. [Lower lymphocyte response in severe cases of acute bronchiolitis due to respiratory syncytial virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Fernández, José Miguel; Moreno-Pérez, David; Antúnez-Fernández, Cristina; Milano-Manso, Guillermo; Cordón-Martínez, Ana María; Urda-Cardona, Antonio

    2017-08-14

    Acute bronchiolitis (AB) of the infant has a serious outcome in 6-16% of the hospital admitted cases. Its pathogenesis and evolution is related to the response of the T lymphocytes. The objective of the present study is to determine if the lower systemic lymphocytic response is related to a worse outcome of AB in hospitalised infants. Retrospective observational-analytical study of cases-controls nested in a cohort of patients admitted due to RSV-AB between the period from October 2010 to March 2015. Those with a full blood count in the first 48hours of respiratory distress were included. Infants with underlying disease, bacterial superinfection, and premature infants <32 weeks of gestation were excluded. The main dichotomous variable was PICU admission. Other variables were: gender, age, post-menstrual age, gestational and post-natal tobacco exposure, admission month, type of lactation, and days of onset of respiratory distress. Lymphocyte counts were categorised by quartiles. Bivariate analysis was performed with the main variable and then by logistic regression to analyse confounding factors. The study included 252 infants, of whom 6.6% (17) required PICU admission. The difference in mean±SD of lymphocytes for patients admitted to and not admitted to PICU was 4,044±1755 and 5,035±1786, respectively (Student-t test, P<.05). An association was found between PICU admission and lymphocyte count <3700/ml (Chi-squared, P=.019; OR: 3.2) and it was found to be maintained in the logistic regression, regardless of age and all other studied factors (Wald 4.191 P=.041, OR: 3.8). A relationship was found between lymphocytosis <3700/ml in the first days of respiratory distress and a worse outcome in previously healthy infants <12 months and gestational age greater than 32 weeks with RSV-AB. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  16. Microbial control of soil organic matter mineralization responses to labile carbon in subarctic climate change treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousk, Kathrin; Michelsen, Anders; Rousk, Johannes

    2016-12-01

    Half the global soil carbon (C) is held in high-latitude systems. Climate change will expose these to warming and a shift towards plant communities with more labile C input. Labile C can also increase the rate of loss of native soil organic matter (SOM); a phenomenon termed 'priming'. We investigated how warming (+1.1 °C over ambient using open top chambers) and litter addition (90 g m -2  yr -1 ) treatments in the subarctic influenced the susceptibility of SOM mineralization to priming, and its microbial underpinnings. Labile C appeared to inhibit the mineralization of C from SOM by up to 60% within hours. In contrast, the mineralization of N from SOM was stimulated by up to 300%. These responses occurred rapidly and were unrelated to microbial successional dynamics, suggesting catabolic responses. Considered separately, the labile C inhibited C mineralization is compatible with previously reported findings termed 'preferential substrate utilization' or 'negative apparent priming', while the stimulated N mineralization responses echo recent reports of 'real priming' of SOM mineralization. However, C and N mineralization responses derived from the same SOM source must be interpreted together: This suggested that the microbial SOM-use decreased in magnitude and shifted to components richer in N. This finding highlights that only considering SOM in terms of C may be simplistic, and will not capture all changes in SOM decomposition. The selective mining for N increased in climate change treatments with higher fungal dominance. In conclusion, labile C appeared to trigger catabolic responses of the resident microbial community that shifted the SOM mining to N-rich components; an effect that increased with higher fungal dominance. Extrapolating from these findings, the predicted shrub expansion in the subarctic could result in an altered microbial use of SOM, selectively mining it for N-rich components, and leading to a reduced total SOM-use. © 2016 John Wiley

  17. Respiratory responses of the air-breathing fish Hoplosternum littorale to hypoxia and hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affonso, E G; Rantin, F T

    2005-07-01

    The present study analyzes the respiratory responses of the neotropical air-breathing fish Hoplosternum littorale to graded hypoxia and increased sulfide concentrations. The oxygen uptake (VO2), critical O2 tension (PcO2), respiratory (fR) and air-breathing (fRA) frequencies in response to graded hypoxia were determined for fish acclimated to 28 degrees C. H. littorale was able to maintain a constant VO2 down to a PcO2 of 50 mm Hg, below which fish became dependent on the environmental O2 even with significant increases in fR. The fRA was kept constant around 1 breath h(-1) above 50 mm Hg and increased significantly below 40 mm Hg, reaching maximum values (about 4.5 breaths h(-1)) at 10 mm Hg. The lethality to sulfide concentrations under normoxic and hypoxic conditions were also determined along with the fRA. For the normoxic fish the sulfide lethal limit was about 70 microM, while in the hypoxic ones this limit increased to 87 muM. The high sulfide tolerance of H. littorale may be attributed to the air-breathing capability, which is stimulated by this compound.

  18. Factors affecting responses of infants with respiratory distress syndrome to exogenous surfactant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, N K

    1993-02-01

    Approximately 20% to 30% of infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) do not respond to surfactant replacement therapy. Unfortunately there is no uniform definition of 'response' or 'non-response' to surfactant therapy. Response was based on improvement in a/A PO2 and/or mean airway pressure (MAP) by some and on improvement in FIO2 and/or MAP by others. Even the point of time at which evaluation of response was done is different in various reports. There is an urgent need to adopt an uniform definition. Most premature babies are surfactant deficient which is the aetiological factor of RDS. Generally good antenatal care and perinatal management are essential in avoidance of premature birth. Babies with lung hypoplasia and who are extremely premature (less than 24 weeks of gestation) do not respond well to exogenous surfactant replacement because of structural immaturity. Prompt management of asphyxiated birth and shock are necessary as there may be negative response to surfactant replacement. Foetal exposure to glucocorticoids improves responsiveness to postnatal administration of surfactant. Antenatal steroid therapy has become an important part of management of RDS with surfactant replacement. The premature lungs with high alveolar permeability tend to develop pulmonary oedema. With the presence of plasma-derived surfactant inhibitors, the response to exogenous surfactant may be affected. These inhibitors may also be released following ventilator barotrauma. The standard of neonatal intensive care such as ventilatory techniques has an important bearing on the outcome of the RDS babies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Response of microbial activities and diversity to PAHs contamination at coal tar contaminated land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Sun, Yujiao; Ding, Aizhong; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Dayi

    2015-04-01

    Coal tar is one of the most hazardous and concerned organic pollutants and the main hazards are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The indigenous microorganisms in soils are capable to degrade PAHs, with essential roles in biochemical process for PAHs natural attenuation. This study investigated 48 soil samples (from 8 depths of 6 boreholes) in Beijing coking and chemistry plant (China) and revealed the correlation between PAHs contamination, soil enzyme activities and microbial community structure, by 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). At the site, the key contaminants were identified as naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene, and the total PAHs concentration ranged from 0.1 to 923.9 mg/kg dry soil. The total PAHs contamination level was positively correlated (pcatalase activities (0.554-6.230 mL 0.02 M KMnO4/g•h) and dehydrogenase activities (1.9-30.4 TF μg/g•h soil), showing the significant response of microbial population and degrading functions to the organic contamination in soils. The PAHs contamination stimulated the PAHs degrading microbes and promoted their biochemical roles in situ. The positive relationship between bacteria count and dehydrogenase activities (p<0.05) suggested the dominancy of PAHs degrading bacteria in the microbial community. More interestingly, the microbial community deterioration was uncovered via the decline of microbial biodiversity (richness from 16S rRNA DGGE) against total PAHs concentration (p<0.05). Our research described the spatial profiles of PAHs contamination and soil microbial functions at the PAHs heavily contaminated sites, offering deeper understanding on the roles of indigenous microbial community in natural attenuation process.

  20. Exposure to field vs. storage wheat dust: different consequences on respiratory symptoms and immune response among grain workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Coralie; Wild, Pascal; Dorribo, Victor; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Laboissière, Audrey; Pralong, Jacques A; Danuser, Brigitta; Krief, Peggy; Millon, Laurence; Reboux, Gabriel; Niculita-Hirzel, Hélène

    2018-05-26

    The aim of this study was to understand the differential acute effects of two distinct wheat-related dusts, such as field or stored wheat dust handling, on workers' health and how those effects evolved at 6 month intervals. Exposure, work-related symptoms, changes in lung function, and blood samples of 81 workers handling wheat and 61 controls were collected during the high exposure season and 6 months after. Specific IgG, IgE, and precipitins against 12 fungi isolated from wheat dust were titrated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay, and electrosyneresis. The level of fungi was determined in the workers' environment. Levels of exhaled fraction of nitrogen monoxide (F E NO) and total IgE were obtained. Exposure response associations were investigated by mixed logistic and linear regression models. The recent exposure to field wheat dust was associated with a higher prevalence for five of six self-reported airway symptoms and with a lower F E NO than those in the control population. Exposure to stored wheat dust was only associated with cough. No acute impact of exposure on respiratory function was observed. Exposure to field wheat dust led to workers' sensitization against the three field fungi Aureobasidum, Cryptococcus, and Phoma, although exposure to storage wheat dust was associated with tolerance. The level of Ig remained stable 6 months after exposure. The clinical picture of workers exposed to field or storage wheat dust differed. The systematic characterization of the aerosol microbial profile may help to understand the reasons for those differences.

  1. Instrumentation for Examining Microbial Response to Changes In Environmental Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaich, J.; Storrs, A.; Wang, J.; Ouandji, C.; Arismendi, D.; Hernandez, J.; Sardesh, N.; Ibanez, C. R.; Owyang, S.; Gentry, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Automated Adaptive Directed Evolution Chamber (AADEC) is a device that allows operators to generate a micro-scale analog of real world systems that can be used to model the local-scale effects of climate change on microbial ecosystems. The AADEC uses an artificial environment to expose cultures of micro-organisms to environmental pressures, such as UV-C radiation, chemical toxins, and temperature. The AADEC autonomously exposes micro-organisms to slection pressures. This improves upon standard manual laboratory techniques: the process can take place over a longer period of time, involve more stressors, implement real-time adjustments based on the state of the population, and minimize the risk of contamination. We currently use UV-C radiation as the main selection pressure, UV-C is well studied both for its cell and DNA damaging effects as a type of selection pressure and for its related effectiveness as a mutagen; having these functions united makes it a good choice for a proof of concept. The AADEC roadmap includes expansion to different selection pressures, including heavy metal toxicity, temperature, and other forms of radiation. The AADEC uses closed-loop control to feedback the current state of the culture to the AADEC controller that modifies selection pressure intensity during experimentation, in this case culture density and growth rate. Culture density and growth rate are determined by measuring the optical density of the culture using 600 nm light. An array of 600 nm LEDs illuminate the culture and photodiodes are used to measure the shadow on the opposite side of the chamber. Previous experiments showed that we can produce a million fold increase to UV-C radiation over seven iterations. The most recent implements a microfluidic system that can expose cultures to multiple different selection pressures, perform non-survival based selection, and autonomously perform hundreds of exposure cycles. A scalable pump system gives the ability to pump in various

  2. Microbial responses to carbon and nitrogen supplementation in an Antarctic dry valley soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dennis, P. G.; Sparrow, A. D.; Gregorich, E. G.

    2013-01-01

    The soils of the McMurdo Dry Valleys are exposed to extremely dry and cold conditions. Nevertheless, they contain active biological communities that contribute to the biogeochemical processes. We have used ester-linked fatty acid (ELFA) analysis to investigate the effects of additions of carbon...... and nitrogen in glucose and ammonium chloride, respectively, on the soil microbial community in a field experiment lasting three years in the Garwood Valley. In the control treatment, the total ELFA concentration was small by comparison with temperate soils, but very large when expressed relative to the soil...... organic carbon concentration, indicating efficient conversion of soil organic carbon into microbial biomass and rapid turnover of soil organic carbon. The ELFA concentrations increased significantly in response to carbon additions, indicating that carbon supply was the main constraint to microbial...

  3. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia responses to cognitive tasks: effects of task factors and RSA indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeek, Thérèse J M; van Boxtel, Anton; Westerink, Joyce H D M

    2014-05-01

    Many studies show that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) decreases while performing cognitive tasks. However, there is uncertainty about the role of contaminating factors such as physical activity and stress-inducing task variables. Different methods to quantify RSA may also contribute to variable results. In 83 healthy subjects, we studied RSA responses to a working memory task requiring varying levels of cognitive control and a perceptual attention task not requiring strong cognitive control. RSA responses were quantified in the time and frequency domain and were additionally corrected for differences in mean interbeat interval and respiration rate, resulting in eight different RSA indices. The two tasks were clearly differentiated by heart rate and facial EMG reference measures. Cognitive control induced inhibition of RSA whereas perceptual attention generally did not. However, the results show several differences between different RSA indices, emphasizing the importance of methodological variables. Age and sex did not influence the results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cardio-respiratory and plasma lactate responses to exercise with low draught resistances in standardbred trotters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb-Vedi, M; Essén-Gustavsson, B; Lindholm, A

    1996-12-01

    Five Standardbred trotters performed treadmill exercise with incrementally increasing trotting velocities for 2 min intervals in three different tests until fatigue. Each test was performed with draught loads of either 10, 20 or 30 kilopond (kp). Each trotting interval was followed by 2 min periods at a walk without draught load. Recordings were made of heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), plasma lactate (PLA) and stride frequency (SF) at the end of each trotting interval. The HR increased to average values of 191 +/- 10,203 +/- 10 and 214 +/- 7 bpm and PLA increased to 3.8 +/- 0.7, 7.3 +/- 3.8 and 10.8 +/- 6.4 mmol/l at 9 m/s in the three tests, respectively. The HR response to exercise was significantly higher with increasing draught loads, and PLA was significantly higher with 30 kp compared to 10 kp draught resistance. The lowest respiratory rate was seen in the test with 30 kp loading. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) was measured in a separate test on a sloped treadmill with increasing velocities without draught load and averaged 70.4 +/- 9.11/min. Muscle biopsies were taken from the gluteus muscle. Individual variations were seen in VO2peak, muscle fibre composition and HR and PLA responses to exercise. In conclusion, at a certain velocity a small increase in draught resistance from 10 to 30 kp significantly increases both the HR and PLA responses. At comparable work intensities the horses differed in circulatory and metabolic responses to exercise.

  5. Toll-8/Tollo negatively regulates antimicrobial response in the Drosophila respiratory epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idir Akhouayri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Barrier epithelia that are persistently exposed to microbes have evolved potent immune tools to eliminate such pathogens. If mechanisms that control Drosophila systemic responses are well-characterized, the epithelial immune responses remain poorly understood. Here, we performed a genetic dissection of the cascades activated during the immune response of the Drosophila airway epithelium i.e. trachea. We present evidence that bacteria induced-antimicrobial peptide (AMP production in the trachea is controlled by two signalling cascades. AMP gene transcription is activated by the inducible IMD pathway that acts non-cell autonomously in trachea. This IMD-dependent AMP activation is antagonized by a constitutively active signalling module involving the receptor Toll-8/Tollo, the ligand Spätzle2/DNT1 and Ect-4, the Drosophila ortholog of the human Sterile alpha and HEAT/ARMadillo motif (SARM. Our data show that, in addition to Toll-1 whose function is essential during the systemic immune response, Drosophila relies on another Toll family member to control the immune response in the respiratory epithelium.

  6. Does treadmill running performance, heart rate and breathing rate response during maximal graded exercise improve after volitional respiratory muscle training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, K; Sharma, V K; Subramanian, S K

    2017-05-10

    Maximal physical exertion in sports usually causes fatigue in the exercising muscles, but not in the respiratory muscles due to triggering of the Respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, a sympathetic vasoconstrictor response leading to preferential increment in blood flow to respiratory muscles. 1 We planned to investigate whether a six week yogic pranayama based Volitional Respiratory Muscle Training (VRMT) can improve maximal Graded Exercise Treadmill Test (GXTT) performance in healthy adult recreational sportspersons. Consecutive, consenting healthy adult recreational sportspersons aged 20.56±2.49 years (n=30), volunteered to 'baseline recording' of resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), respiratory rate (RR), and Bruce ramp protocol maximal GXTT until volitional exhaustion providing total test time (TTT), derived VO2max, Metabolic Equivalent of Task (METs), HR and BP response during maximal GXTT and drop in recovery HR data. After six weeks of observation, they underwent 'pre-intervention recording' followed by supervised VRMT intervention for 6 weeks (30 minutes a day; 5 days a week) and then 'post-intervention recording'. Repeated measures ANOVA with pairwise t statistical comparison was used to analyse the data. After supervised VRMT, we observed significant decrease in their resting supine RR (prespiratory muscle aerobic capacity, attenuation of respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, increase in cardiac stroke volume and autonomic resetting towards parasympatho-dominance. Yogic Pranayama based VRMT can be used in sports conditioning programme of athletes to further improve their maximal exercise performance, and as part of rehabilitation training during return from injury.

  7. Historical precipitation predictably alters the shape and magnitude of microbial functional response to soil moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, Colin; Waring, Bonnie G; Hawkes, Christine V

    2016-05-01

    Soil moisture constrains the activity of decomposer soil microorganisms, and in turn the rate at which soil carbon returns to the atmosphere. While increases in soil moisture are generally associated with increased microbial activity, historical climate may constrain current microbial responses to moisture. However, it is not known if variation in the shape and magnitude of microbial functional responses to soil moisture can be predicted from historical climate at regional scales. To address this problem, we measured soil enzyme activity at 12 sites across a broad climate gradient spanning 442-887 mm mean annual precipitation. Measurements were made eight times over 21 months to maximize sampling during different moisture conditions. We then fit saturating functions of enzyme activity to soil moisture and extracted half saturation and maximum activity parameter values from model fits. We found that 50% of the variation in maximum activity parameters across sites could be predicted by 30-year mean annual precipitation, an indicator of historical climate, and that the effect is independent of variation in temperature, soil texture, or soil carbon concentration. Based on this finding, we suggest that variation in the shape and magnitude of soil microbial response to soil moisture due to historical climate may be remarkably predictable at regional scales, and this approach may extend to other systems. If historical contingencies on microbial activities prove to be persistent in the face of environmental change, this approach also provides a framework for incorporating historical climate effects into biogeochemical models simulating future global change scenarios. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF EFFICACY IN APPLICATION OF TOPICAL IMMUNOLOGIC RESPONSE MODIFIER FOR PREVENTION OF INFLUENZA AND ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Lytkina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to assess the efficacy of bacterial lysate for prevention of acute respiratory infections. The article provides results of monitoring children in the orphanage who were administered the medication of this group as a prophylactic drug against acute respiratory infections. Children also from orphanages who were not administered the medication were selected as a control group. It was found that out of 80 children who underwent preventive treatment, only 26 children fell ill, while out of 80 children in the control group so did 78 orphans. The results achieved allowed the topical immunologic response modifier to be recommended as a general preventive medication for wide use in children in the period of seasonal respiratory infection incidence rate pickup.Key words: influenza, acute respiratory infections, preventive treatment, children.

  9. The viral transcription group determines the HLA class I cellular immune response against human respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Carolina; Lorente, Elena; Barriga, Alejandro; Barnea, Eilon; Infantes, Susana; Lemonnier, François A; David, Chella S; Admon, Arie; López, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated killing of virus-infected cells requires previous recognition of short viral antigenic peptides bound to human leukocyte antigen class I molecules that are exposed on the surface of infected cells. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response is critical for the clearance of human respiratory syncytial virus infection. In this study, naturally processed viral human leukocyte antigen class I ligands were identified with mass spectrometry analysis of complex human leukocyte antigen-bound peptide pools isolated from large amounts of human respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells. Acute antiviral T-cell response characterization showed that viral transcription determines both the immunoprevalence and immunodominance of the human leukocyte antigen class I response to human respiratory syncytial virus. These findings have clear implications for antiviral vaccine design. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. The Viral Transcription Group Determines the HLA Class I Cellular Immune Response Against Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Carolina; Lorente, Elena; Barriga, Alejandro; Barnea, Eilon; Infantes, Susana; Lemonnier, François A.; David, Chella S.; Admon, Arie; López, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated killing of virus-infected cells requires previous recognition of short viral antigenic peptides bound to human leukocyte antigen class I molecules that are exposed on the surface of infected cells. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response is critical for the clearance of human respiratory syncytial virus infection. In this study, naturally processed viral human leukocyte antigen class I ligands were identified with mass spectrometry analysis of complex human leukocyte antigen-bound peptide pools isolated from large amounts of human respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells. Acute antiviral T-cell response characterization showed that viral transcription determines both the immunoprevalence and immunodominance of the human leukocyte antigen class I response to human respiratory syncytial virus. These findings have clear implications for antiviral vaccine design. PMID:25635267

  11. Grassland to woodland transitions: Dynamic response of microbial community structure and carbon use patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Courtney A.; Filley, Timothy R.; Boutton, Thomas W.; Rowe, Helen I.

    2016-06-01

    Woodland encroachment into grasslands is a globally pervasive phenomenon attributed to land use change, fire suppression, and climate change. This vegetation shift impacts ecosystem services such as ground water allocation, carbon (C) and nutrient status of soils, aboveground and belowground biodiversity, and soil structure. We hypothesized that woodland encroachment would alter microbial community structure and function and would be related to patterns in soil C accumulation. To address this hypothesis, we measured the composition and δ13C values of soil microbial phospholipids (PLFAs) along successional chronosequences from C4-dominated grasslands to C3-dominated woodlands (small discrete clusters and larger groves) spanning up to 134 years. Woodland development increased microbial biomass, soil C and nitrogen (N) concentrations, and altered microbial community composition. The relative abundance of gram-negative bacteria (cy19:0) increased linearly with stand age, consistent with decreases in soil pH and/or greater rhizosphere development and corresponding increases in C inputs. δ13C values of all PLFAs decreased with time following woody encroachment, indicating assimilation of woodland C sources. Among the microbial groups, fungi and actinobacteria in woodland soils selectively assimilated grassland C to a greater extent than its contribution to bulk soil. Between the two woodland types, microbes in the groves incorporated relatively more of the relict C4-C than those in the clusters, potentially due to differences in below ground plant C allocation and organo-mineral association. Changes in plant productivity and C accessibility (rather than C chemistry) dictated microbial C utilization in this system in response to shrub encroachment.

  12. Expression profile of immune response genes in patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Dessmon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS emerged in later February 2003, as a new epidemic form of life-threatening infection caused by a novel coronavirus. However, the immune-pathogenesis of SARS is poorly understood. To understand the host response to this pathogen, we investigated the gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs derived from SARS patients, and compared with healthy controls. Results The number of differentially expressed genes was found to be 186 under stringent filtering criteria of microarray data analysis. Several genes were highly up-regulated in patients with SARS, such as, the genes coding for Lactoferrin, S100A9 and Lipocalin 2. The real-time PCR method verified the results of the gene array analysis and showed that those genes that were up-regulated as determined by microarray analysis were also found to be comparatively up-regulated by real-time PCR analysis. Conclusions This differential gene expression profiling of PBMCs from patients with SARS strongly suggests that the response of SARS affected patients seems to be mainly an innate inflammatory response, rather than a specific immune response against a viral infection, as we observed a complete lack of cytokine genes usually triggered during a viral infection. Our study shows for the first time how the immune system responds to the SARS infection, and opens new possibilities for designing new diagnostics and treatments for this new life-threatening disease.

  13. Effects of exposure to grain dust in Polish farmers: work-related symptoms and immunologic response to microbial antigens associated with dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skórska, C; Mackiewicz, B; Dutkiewicz, J; Krysińska-Traczyk, E; Milanowski, J; Feltovich, H; Lange, J; Thorne, P

    1998-01-01

    Medical examinations were performed in a group of 76 Polish farmers heavily exposed to grain dust during harvesting and threshing, and in a group of 63 healthy urban dwellers not exposed to organic dusts (controls). The examinations included: interview concerning the occurrence of respiratory disorders and work-related symptoms, physical examination, lung function tests, and allergological tests comprising skin prick test with 4 microbial antigens associated with grain dust and agar-gel precipitation test with 12 microbial antigens. As many as 34 farmers (44.7%) reported the occurrence of work-related symptoms during harvesting and threshing. The most common was dry cough reported by 20 individuals (26.3%). Dyspnoea was reported by 15 farmers (19.7%), tiredness by 12 (15.7%), chest tightness by 8 (10.5%), plugging of nose and hoarseness by 5 each (6. 5%). No control subjects reported these work-related symptoms. The mean spirometric values in the examined group of farmers were within the normal range, but a significant post-shift decrease of these values was observed after work with grain. The farmers showed a frequency of the positive early skin reactions to environmental allergens in the range of 10.8 - 45.5%, and a frequency of positive precipitin reactions in range of 3.9 - 40.8%. The control group responded to the majority of allergens with a significantly lower frequency of positive results compared to the farmers. The obtained results showed a high response of grain farmers to inhalant microbial allergens and indicate a potential risk of occupational respiratory diseases (such as allergic alveolitis, asthma, Organic Dust Toxic Syndrome) among this population

  14. Responses of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen to experimental warming: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W.; Yuan, W.

    2017-12-01

    Soil microbes play important roles in regulating terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycling and strongly influence feedbacks of ecosystem to global warming. However, the inconsistent responses of microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) to experimental warming have been observed, and the response on ratio between MBC and MBN (MBC:MBN) has not been identified. This meta-analysis synthesized the warming experiments at 58 sites globally to investigate the responses of MBC:MBN to climate warming. Our results showed that warming significantly increased MBC by 3.61 ± 0.80% and MBN by 5.85 ± 0.90% and thus decreased the MBC:MBN by 3.34 ± 0.66%. MBC showed positive responses to warming but MBN exhibited negative responses to warming at low warming magnitude (2°C) the results were inverted. The different effects of warming magnitude on microbial biomass resulted from the warming-induced decline in soil moisture and substrate supply. Moreover, MBC and MBN had strong positive responses to warming at the mid-term (3-4 years) or short-term (1-2 years) duration, but the responses tended to decrease at long-term (≥ 5 years) warming duration. This study fills the knowledge gap on the responses of MBC:MBN to warming and may benefit the development of coupled carbon and nitrogen models.

  15. Lipoxin A4, a 5-lipoxygenase pathway metabolite, modulates immune response during acute respiratory tularemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anju; Rahman, Tabassum; Bartiss, Rose; Arabshahi, Alireza; Prasain, Jeevan; Barnes, Stephen; Musteata, Florin Marcel; Sellati, Timothy J

    2017-02-01

    Respiratory infection with Francisella tularensis (Ft) is characterized by a muted, acute host response, followed by sepsis-like syndrome that results in death. Infection with Ft establishes a principally anti-inflammatory environment that subverts host-cell death programs to facilitate pathogen replication. Although the role of cytokines has been explored extensively, the role of eicosanoids in tularemia pathogenesis is not fully understood. Given that lipoxin A 4 (LXA 4 ) has anti-inflammatory properties, we investigated whether this lipid mediator affects host responses manifested early during infection. The addition of exogenous LXA 4 inhibits PGE 2 release by Ft-infected murine monocytes in vitro and diminishes apoptotic cell death. Tularemia pathogenesis was characterized in 5‑lipoxygenase-deficient (Alox5 -/- ) mice that are incapable of generating LXA 4 Increased release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as increased apoptosis, was observed in Alox5 -/- mice as compared with their wild-type counterparts. Alox5 -/- mice also exhibited elevated recruitment of neutrophils during the early phase of infection and increased resistance to lethal challenge. Conversely, administration of exogenous LXA 4 to Alox5 -/- mice made them more susceptible to infection thus mimicking wild-type animals. Taken together, our results suggest that 5-LO activity is a critical regulator of immunopathology observed during the acute phase of respiratory tularemia, regulating bacterial burden and neutrophil recruitment and production of proinflammatory modulators and increasing morbidity and mortality. These studies identify a detrimental role for the 5-LO-derived lipid mediator LXA 4 in Ft-induced immunopathology. Targeting this pathway may have therapeutic benefit as an adjunct to treatment with antibiotics and conventional antimicrobial peptides, which often have limited efficacy against intracellular bacteria. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  16. Aerobic carbon-cycle related microbial communities in boreal peatlands: responses to water-level drawdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltoniemi, K

    2010-07-01

    Boreal peatlands represent a considerable portion of the global carbon (C) pool. Water-level drawdown (WLD) causes peatland drying and induces a vegetation change, which affects the decomposition of soil organic matter and the release of greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}). The objective of this thesis was to study the microbial communities related to the C cycle and their response to WLD in two boreal peatlands. Both sampling depth and site type had a strong impact on all microbial communities. In general, bacteria dominated the deeper layers of the nutrient-rich fen and the wettest surfaces of the nutrient-poor bog sites, whereas fungi seemed more abundant in the drier surfaces of the bog. WLD clearly affected the microbial communities but the effect was dependent on site type. The fungal and methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) community composition changed at all sites but the actinobacterial community response was apparent only in the fen after WLD. Microbial communities became more similar among sites after long-term WLD. Litter quality had a large impact on community composition, whereas the effects of site type and WLD were relatively minor. The decomposition rate of fresh organic matter was influenced slightly by actinobacteria, but not at all by fungi. Field respiration measurements in the northern fen indicated that WLD accelerates the decomposition of soil organic matter. In addition, a correlation between activity and certain fungal sequences indicated that community composition affects the decomposition of older organic matter in deeper peat layers. WLD had a negative impact on CH{sub 4} oxidation, especially in the oligotrophic fen. Fungal sequences were matched to taxa capable of utilizing a broad range of substrates. Most of the actinobacterial sequences could not be matched to characterized taxa in reference databases. This thesis represents the first investigation of microbial communities and their response to WLD among a variety of boreal

  17. Microbial phylogeny determines transcriptional response of resistome to dynamic composting processes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Cheng; Dong, Da; Strong, P. J.; Zhu, Weijing; Ma, Zhuang; Qin, Yong; Wu, Weixiang

    2017-01-01

    Background Animal manure is a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) that pose a potential health risk globally, especially for resistance to the antibiotics commonly used in livestock production (such as tetracycline, sulfonamide, and fluoroquinolone). Currently, the effects of biological treatment (composting) on the transcriptional response of manure ARGs and their microbial hosts are not well characterized. Composting is a dynamic process that consists of four distinct phases tha...

  18. Maximum in the Middle: Nonlinear Response of Microbial Plankton to Ultraviolet Radiation and Phosphorus

    OpenAIRE

    Medina-S?nchez, Juan Manuel; Delgado-Molina, Jos? Antonio; Bratbak, Gunnar; Bullejos, Francisco Jos?; Villar-Argaiz, Manuel; Carrillo, Presentaci?n

    2013-01-01

    The responses of heterotrophic microbial food webs (HMFW) to the joint action of abiotic stressors related to global change have been studied in an oligotrophic high-mountain lake. A 2??5 factorial design field experiment performed with large mesocosms for >2 months was used to quantify the dynamics of the entire HMFW (bacteria, heterotrophic nanoflagellates, ciliates, and viruses) after an experimental P-enrichment gradient which approximated or surpassed current atmospheric P pulses in the ...

  19. Temporal dynamics of hot desert microbial communities reveal structural and functional responses to water input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Alacia; Valverde, Angel; Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Jansson, Janet K; Hopkins, David W; Aspray, Thomas J; Seely, Mary; Trindade, Marla I; Cowan, Don A

    2016-09-29

    The temporal dynamics of desert soil microbial communities are poorly understood. Given the implications for ecosystem functioning under a global change scenario, a better understanding of desert microbial community stability is crucial. Here, we sampled soils in the central Namib Desert on sixteen different occasions over a one-year period. Using Illumina-based amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we found that α-diversity (richness) was more variable at a given sampling date (spatial variability) than over the course of one year (temporal variability). Community composition remained essentially unchanged across the first 10 months, indicating that spatial sampling might be more important than temporal sampling when assessing β-diversity patterns in desert soils. However, a major shift in microbial community composition was found following a single precipitation event. This shift in composition was associated with a rapid increase in CO 2 respiration and productivity, supporting the view that desert soil microbial communities respond rapidly to re-wetting and that this response may be the result of both taxon-specific selection and changes in the availability or accessibility of organic substrates. Recovery to quasi pre-disturbance community composition was achieved within one month after rainfall.

  20. Temporal dynamics of hot desert microbial communities reveal structural and functional responses to water input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Alacia; Valverde, Angel; Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Makhalanyane, Thulani P.; Jansson, Janet K.; Hopkins, David W.; Aspray, Thomas J.; Seely, Mary; Trindade, Marla I.; Cowan, Don A.

    2016-09-29

    The temporal dynamics of desert soil microbial communities are poorly understood. Given the implications for ecosystem functioning under a global change scenario, a better understanding of desert microbial community stability is crucial. Here, we sampled soils in the central Namib Desert on sixteen different occasions over a one-year period. Using Illumina-based amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we found that α-diversity (richness) was more variable at a given sampling date (spatial variability) than over the course of one year (temporal variability). Community composition remained essentially unchanged across the first 10 months, indicating that spatial sampling might be more important than temporal sampling when assessing β-diversity patterns in desert soils. However, a major shift in microbial community composition was found following a single precipitation event. This shift in composition was associated with a rapid increase in CO2 respiration and productivity, supporting the view that desert soil microbial communities respond rapidly to re-wetting and that this response may be the result of both taxon-specific selection and changes in the availability or accessibility of organic substrates. Recovery to quasi pre-disturbance community composition was achieved within one month after rainfall.

  1. Is the mineralisation response to root exudation controlled by the microbial stoichiometric demand in subarctic soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousk, Johannes; Hicks, Lettice; Leizeaga, Ainara; Michelsen, Anders; Rousk, Kathrin

    2017-04-01

    Climate change will expose arctic and subarctic systems to warming and a shift towards plant communities with more rhizosphere labile C input. Labile C can also increase the rate of loss of native soil organic matter (SOM); a phenomenon termed 'priming'. We investigated how warming (+1.1˚ C over ambient using open top chambers) and the addition of plant litter (90 g m-2 y-1) or organic nitrogen (N) (fungal fruit bodies; 90 g m-2 y-1) in the Subarctic influenced the susceptibility of SOM mineralisation to priming, and its microbial underpinnings. Root exudation were simulated with the addition of labile organic matter both in the form of only labile C (13C-glucose) or in the form of labile C and N (13C-alanine). We hypothesized that labile C would induce a higher mineralization of N than C sourced from SOM ("N mining"); a response unrelated to microbial growth responses. We also hypothesized that the N mining effect would be more pronounced in climate change simulation treatments of higher C/N (plant litter) than treatments with lower C/N (fungal fruitbodies and warming), with the control treatments intermediate. We also hypothesized that the addition of labile C and N would not result in selective N mining, but instead coupled responses of C and N mineralisation sourced from SOM; a response that would coincide with stimulated microbial growth responses. Labile C appeared to inhibit the mineralisation of C from SOM by up to 60% within hours. In contrast, the mineralisation of N from SOM was stimulated by up to 300%. These responses occurred rapidly and were unrelated to microbial successional dynamics, suggesting catabolic responses. Considered separately, the labile-C inhibited C mineralisation is compatible with previously reported findings termed 'preferential substrate utilisation' or 'negative apparent priming', while the stimulated N mineralisation responses echo recent reports of 'real priming' of SOM mineralisation. However, C and N mineralisation responses

  2. Cytokine responses to two common respiratory pathogens in children are dependent on interleukin-1β

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice C-H. Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB in young children is a common cause of prolonged wet cough and may be a precursor to bronchiectasis in some children. Although PBB and bronchiectasis are both characterised by neutrophilic airway inflammation and a prominent interleukin (IL-1β signature, the contribution of the IL-1β pathway to host defence is not clear. This study aimed to compare systemic immune responses against common pathogens in children with PBB, bronchiectasis and control children and to determine the importance of the IL-1β pathway. Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from control subjects (n=20, those with recurrent PBB (n=20 and bronchiectasis (n=20 induced high concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, interferon (IFN-γ and IL-10. Blocking with an IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra modified the cellular response to pathogens, inhibiting cytokine synthesis by NTHi-stimulated PBMCs and rhinovirus-stimulated PBMCs (in a separate PBB cohort. Inhibition of IFN-γ production by IL-1Ra was observed across multiple cell types, including CD3+ T cells and CD56+ NK cells. Our findings highlight the extent to which IL-1β regulates the cellular immune response against two common respiratory pathogens. While blocking the IL-1β pathway has the potential to reduce inflammation, this may come at the cost of protective immunity against NTHi and rhinovirus.

  3. Metabolic response to feeding in Tupinambis merianae: circadian rhythm and a possible respiratory constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Wilfried; Perry, Steven F; Abe, Augusto S; Andrade, Denis V

    2006-01-01

    The diurnal tegu lizard Tupinambis merianae exhibits a marked circadian variation in metabolism that is characterized by the significant increase in metabolism during part of the day. These increases in metabolic rate, found in the fasting animal, are absent during the first 2 d after meal ingestion but reappear subsequently, and the daily increase in metabolic rate is added to the increase in metabolic rate caused by digestion. During the first 2 d after feeding, priority is given to digestion, while on the third and following days, the metabolic demands are clearly added to each other. This response seems to be a regulated response of the animal, which becomes less active after food ingestion, rather than an inability of the respiratory system to support simultaneous demands at the beginning of digestion. The body cavity of Tupinambis is divided into two compartments by a posthepatic septum (PHS). Animals that had their PHS surgically removed showed no significant alteration in the postprandial metabolic response compared to tegus with intact PHS. The maximal metabolic increment during digestion, the relative cost of meal digestion, and the duration of the process were virtually unaffected by the removal of the PHS.

  4. Muscles provide protection during microbial infection by activating innate immune response pathways in Drosophila and zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunita Chatterjee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscle contraction brings about movement and locomotion in animals. However, muscles have also been implicated in several atypical physiological processes including immune response. The role of muscles in immunity and the mechanism involved has not yet been deciphered. In this paper, using Drosophila indirect flight muscles (IFMs as a model, we show that muscles are immune-responsive tissues. Flies with defective IFMs are incapable of mounting a potent humoral immune response. Upon immune challenge, the IFMs produce anti-microbial peptides (AMPs through the activation of canonical signaling pathways, and these IFM-synthesized AMPs are essential for survival upon infection. The trunk muscles of zebrafish, a vertebrate model system, also possess the capacity to mount an immune response against bacterial infections, thus establishing that immune responsiveness of muscles is evolutionarily conserved. Our results suggest that physiologically fit muscles might boost the innate immune response of an individual.

  5. Changing patterns of inpatient respiratory care services over a decade at the Cleveland Clinic: challenges posed and proposed responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orens, Douglas K; Kester, Lucy; Konrad, Dale J; Stoller, James K

    2005-08-01

    ,921 services/y). The number of respiratory therapy consults performed yearly, beginning in 1992 when the service was first implemented, rose to over 10,000/y by 2001. At the same time, the cost of respiratory therapy services delivered per patient decreased by 4.2%. Regarding staffing trends, the number of full-time-equivalent employees increased by 50% (from 65 to 97.5). However, the percent turnover rate among respiratory therapists decreased by 2.3-fold (from 11.5% to 5%). In the face of these trends, the hospital mortality rate for patients with diagnosis-related group 088 (high users of respiratory care services) decreased by 53%, and the length of hospital stay for all patients receiving respiratory treatments decreased by 30%. This analysis shows that trends of growing demands for respiratory care services have been accompanied by generally improving clinical outcomes and favorable retention of respiratory therapists in our section. We believe that a focus on the process of care, including enhanced professionalism, communication, and participation, has permitted a favorable response to these rising demands.

  6. LACK OF EFFECT OF AGE AND ANTIOXIDANT DEPLETION ON RESPIRATORY RESPONSES TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES (CAPS) IN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003 AAR PM MeetingParticulate Matter: Atmospheric Sciences,Exposure and the Fourth Colloquium on PM and Human HealthLACK OF EFFECT OF AGE AND ANTIOXIDANT DEPLETION ON RESPIRATORY RESPONSES TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES (CAPs) IN RATS. JA Dye, LC Walsh, C...

  7. Interaction between gas cooking and GSTM1 null genotype in bronchial responsiveness: results from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, A.F.S.; Ramasamy, A.; Castro-Giner, F.; Minelli, C.; Accordini, S.; Sorheim, I.C.; Pin, I.; Kogevinas, M.; Jögi, R.; Balding, D.J.; Norbäck, D.; Verlato, G.; Olivieri, M.; Probst-Hensch, N.; Janson, C.; Zock, J.P.; Heinrich, J.; Jarvis, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increased bronchial responsiveness is characteristic of asthma. Gas cooking, which is a major indoor source of the highly oxidant nitrogen dioxide, has been associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function. However, little is known about the effect of gas cooking on

  8. Zinc source and concentration altered physiological responses of beef heifers during a combined viral-bacterial respiratory challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three treatments were evaluated in feedlot heifers to determine the effects of zinc supplementation on the immune response to a combined viral-bacterial respiratory disease challenge. Thirty-two beef heifers (255+/-15 kg) were subjected to a 30d period of Zn depletion, then randomly assigned to one ...

  9. Effects of triclosan on host response and microbial biomarkers during experimental gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancer, Brooke A; Kott, Diana; Sugai, James V; Panagakos, Fotinos S; Braun, Thomas M; Teles, Ricardo P; Giannobile, William V; Kinney, Janet S

    2016-05-01

    This exploratory randomized, controlled clinical trial sought to evaluate anti-inflammatory and -microbial effects of triclosan during experimental gingivitis as assessed by host response biomarkers and biofilm microbial pathogens. Thirty participants were randomized to triclosan or control dentifrice groups who ceased homecare for 21 days in an experimental gingivitis (EG) protocol. Plaque and gingival indices and saliva, plaque, and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were assessed/collected at days 0, 14, 21 and 35. Levels and proportions of 40 bacterial species from plaque samples were determined using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Ten biomarkers associated with inflammation, matrix degradation, and host protection were measured from GCF and saliva and analysed using a multiplex array. Participants were stratified as "high" or "low" responders based on gingival index and GCF biomarkers and bacterial biofilm were combined to generate receiver operating characteristic curves and predict gingivitis susceptibility. No differences in mean PI and GI values were observed between groups and non-significant trends of reduction of host response biomarkers with triclosan treatment. Triclosan significantly reduced levels of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis during induction of gingivitis. Triclosan reduced microbial levels during gingivitis development (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01799226). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Cross-reactive microbial peptides can modulate HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Pohlmeyer

    Full Text Available Heterologous immunity is an important aspect of the adaptive immune response. We hypothesized that this process could modulate the HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cell response, which has been shown to play an important role in HIV-1 immunity and control. We found that stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from HIV-1-positive subjects with microbial peptides that were cross-reactive with immunodominant HIV-1 epitopes resulted in dramatic expansion of HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells. Interestingly, the TCR repertoire of HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells generated by ex vivo stimulation of PBMCs using HIV-1 peptide was different from that of cells stimulated with cross-reactive microbial peptides in some HIV-1-positive subjects. Despite these differences, CD8+ T cells stimulated with either HIV-1 or cross-reactive peptides effectively suppressed HIV-1 replication in autologous CD4+ T cells. These data suggest that exposure to cross-reactive microbial antigens can modulate HIV-1-specific immunity.

  11. Differences in stability of seed-associated microbial assemblages in response to invasion by phytopathogenic microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Rezki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Seeds are involved in the vertical transmission of microorganisms from one plant generation to another and consequently act as reservoirs for the plant microbiota. However, little is known about the structure of seed-associated microbial assemblages and the regulators of assemblage structure. In this work, we have assessed the response of seed-associated microbial assemblages of Raphanus sativus to invading phytopathogenic agents, the bacterial strain Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc 8004 and the fungal strain Alternaria brassicicola Abra43. According to the indicators of bacterial (16S rRNA gene and gyrB sequences and fungal (ITS1 diversity employed in this study, seed transmission of the bacterial strain Xcc 8004 did not change the overall composition of resident microbial assemblages. In contrast seed transmission of Abra43 strongly modified the richness and structure of fungal assemblages without affecting bacterial assemblages. The sensitivity of seed-associated fungal assemblage to Abra43 is mostly related to changes in relative abundance of closely related fungal species that belong to the Alternaria genus. Variation in stability of the seed microbiota in response to Xcc and Abra43 invasions could be explained by differences in seed transmission pathways employed by these micro-organisms, which ultimately results in divergence in spatio-temporal colonization of the seed habitat.

  12. Microbial Community Structure of a Leachfield Soil: Response to Intermittent Aeration and Tetracycline Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Potts

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil-based wastewater treatment systems, or leachfields, rely on microbial processes for improving the quality of wastewater before it reaches the groundwater. These processes are affected by physicochemical system properties, such as O2 availability, and disturbances, such as the presence of antimicrobial compounds in wastewater. We examined the microbial community structure of leachfield mesocosms containing native soil and receiving domestic wastewater under intermittently-aerated (AIR and unaerated (LEACH conditions before and after dosing with tetracycline (TET. Community structure was assessed using phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA, analysis of dominant phylotypes using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR–DGGE, and cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Prior to dosing, the same PLFA biomarkers were found in soil from AIR and LEACH treatments, although AIR soil had a larger active microbial population and higher concentrations for nine of 32 PLFA markers found. AIR soil also had a larger number of dominant phylotypes, most of them unique to this treatment. Dosing of mesocosms with TET had a more marked effect on AIR than LEACH soil, reducing the size of the microbial population and the number and concentration of PLFA markers. Dominant phylotypes decreased by ~15% in response to TET in both treatments, although the AIR treatment retained a higher number of phylotypes than the LEACH treatment. Fewer than 10% of clones were common to both OPEN ACCESS Water 2013, 5 506 AIR and LEACH soil, and fewer than 25% of the clones from either treatment were homologous with isolates of known genus and species. These included human pathogens, as well as bacteria involved in biogeochemical transformations of C, N, S and metals, and biodegradation of various organic contaminants. Our results show that intermittent aeration has a marked effect on the size and structure of the microbial community that develops in

  13. Soil microbial community structure and nitrogen cycling responses to agroecosystem management and carbon substrate addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthrong, S. T.; Buckley, D. H.; Drinkwater, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    Fertilizer application in conventional agriculture leads to N saturation and decoupled soil C and N cycling, whereas organic practices, e.g. complex rotations and legume incorporation, often results in increased SOM and tightly coupled cycles of C and N. These legacy effects of management on soils likely affect microbial community composition and microbial process rates. This project tested if agricultural management practices led to distinct microbial communities and if those communities differed in ability to utilize labile plant carbon substrates and to produce more plant available N. We addressed several specific questions in this project. 1) Do organic and conventional management legacies on similar soils produce distinct soil bacterial and fungal community structures and abundances? 2) How do these microbial community structures change in response to carbon substrate addition? 3) How do the responses of the microbial communities influence N cycling? To address these questions we conducted a laboratory incubation of organically and conventionally managed soils. We added C-13 labelled glucose either in one large dose or several smaller pulses. We extracted genomic DNA from soils before and after incubation for TRFLP community fingerprinting. We measured C in soil pools and respiration and N in soil extracts and leachates. Management led to different compositions of bacteria and fungi driven by distinct components in organic soils. Biomass did not differ across treatments indicating that differences in cycling were due to composition rather than abundance. C substrate addition led to convergence in bacterial communities; however management still strongly influenced the difference in communities. Fungal communities were very distinct between managements and plots with substrate addition not altering this pattern. Organic soils respired 3 times more of the glucose in the first week than conventional soils (1.1% vs 0.4%). Organic soils produced twice as much

  14. Predictors of bronchodilator responsiveness in infants with wheezing associated respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deerojanawong, J; Prapphal, N

    1994-07-01

    The responsiveness to bronchodilator is variable in infants with wheezing associated respiratory illness (WARI). Factors for prediction of the response will lead to more rational use of the bronchodilator in these infants. We examined the possible predictive factors in 44 children under 2 years of age who had their first episode of WARI. All of them were treated with 0.15 mg/kg of nebulized salbutamol. Thirty patients (68%) with decreasing clinical score > or = 3 after treatment were considered as the responders while the remainder (14 infants) were non responders. By using Chi-square test, Fisher exact test and Mann-Whitney U test to compare the data of the 2 groups, the significant factors for the responders were older than 6 months and history of previous LRI (p < 0.01). The significant factors for the non-responders included concurrent diarrhea, patchy pulmonary infiltration and positive RSV in the nasopharyngeal secretion (p < 0.01). These results suggested effective bronchodilator therapy in infants older than 6 months or having a history of previous LRI. Those who had acute RSV infection or patchy infiltration in chest X-ray and associated diarrhea were less likely to respond.

  15. Investigation of extractive microbial transformation in nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yingying; Qian, Chen; Wang, Zhilong; Xu, Jian-He; Yang, Rude; Qi, Hanshi

    2010-01-01

    Extractive microbial transformation of L-phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC) in nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 micelle aqueous solution was investigated by response surface methodology. Based on the Box-Behnken design, a mathematical model was developed for the predication of mutual interactions between benzaldehyde, Triton X-100, and glucose on L-PAC production. It indicated that the negative or positive effect of nonionic surfactant strongly depended on the substrate concentration. The model predicted that the optimal concentration of benzaldehyde, Triton X-100, and glucose was 1.2 ml, 15 g, and 2.76 g per 100 ml, respectively. Under the optimal condition, the maximum L-PAC production was 27.6 mM, which was verified by a time course of extractive microbial transformation. A discrete fed-batch process for verification of cell activity was also presented.

  16. Response of microbial communities to experimental warming and precipitation decrease in Rzecin peatland (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basińska, Anna M.; Gąbka, Maciej; Reczuga, Monika; Łuców, Dominika; Stróżecki, Marcin; Samson, Mateusz; Józefczyk, Damian; Chojnicki, Bogdan; Urbaniak, Marek; Leśny, Jacek; Olejnik, Janusz; Gilbert, Daniel; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Juszczak, Radosław; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2017-04-01

    In the last decade researchers are intensively testing the consequences of different climate change scenarios. Due to high biodiversity, huge amount of stored carbon and their sensitivity to environmental changes, peatlands became important for the temperature increase and drought experiments. Analyses showed that mosses, vascular plants and microbial communities were affected by warming or drought, but still not all effects are clear. Studying the response of microbial groups and indicators (e.g. mixotrophic species of testate amoeba) to warming in combination with decrease of precipitation will allow to better understand the future environmental changes. To recognize the inflow of organic matter and the carbon fixing processes in disturbed environment, we need to analyse the structure and biomass of main groups living in peatlands and the response of those groups to disturbances. The Polish - Norway "WETMAN" project was designed to recognize biotic and abiotic components of ecosystem response to active warming and decrease of precipitation. In this study we present the response of microbial communities and chosen testate amoeba species (TA) to different treatments: warming, warming and decreased precipitation and only decreased precipitation, in relation to control plots. The microbial biomass of upper and lower Sphagnum segments were analysed separately. Particular microbial groups were positively correlated with manipulations e. g. microalgae and rotifers, and other were negatively affected by combination of drought and warming e.g. cyanobacteria and testate amoeba. The structure of community was modified by manipulations, and differed in the case of upper and lower segment of Sphagnum. RDA analyses showed that different factors were crucial for the biomass of microbial groups in upper (conductivity, temperature and phosphorus) and lower (nitrates and sodium) segment. Considering higher taxonomic resolution we found that at the beginning of the experiment TA

  17. Diverse and Tissue Specific Mitochondrial Respiratory Response in A Mouse Model of Sepsis-Induced Multiple Organ Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Michael; Hara, Naomi; Morata, Saori

    2016-01-01

    control ratio was also significantly increased. Maximal Protonophore-induced respiratory (uncoupled) capacity was similar between the two treatment groups.The present study suggests a diverse and tissue specific mitochondrial respiratory response to sepsis. The brain displayed an early impaired...... C57BL/6 mice were analyzed at either 6 hours or 24 hours. ROS-production was simultaneously measured in brain samples using fluorometry.Septic brain tissue exhibited an early increased uncoupling of respiration. Temporal changes between the two time points were diminutive and no difference in ROS...

  18. Annual Removal of Aboveground Plant Biomass Alters Soil Microbial Responses to Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xue

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Clipping (i.e., harvesting aboveground plant biomass is common in agriculture and for bioenergy production. However, microbial responses to clipping in the context of climate warming are poorly understood. We investigated the interactive effects of grassland warming and clipping on soil properties and plant and microbial communities, in particular, on microbial functional genes. Clipping alone did not change the plant biomass production, but warming and clipping combined increased the C4 peak biomass by 47% and belowground net primary production by 110%. Clipping alone and in combination with warming decreased the soil carbon input from litter by 81% and 75%, respectively. With less carbon input, the abundances of genes involved in degrading relatively recalcitrant carbon increased by 38% to 137% in response to either clipping or the combined treatment, which could weaken long-term soil carbon stability and trigger positive feedback with respect to warming. Clipping alone also increased the abundance of genes for nitrogen fixation, mineralization, and denitrification by 32% to 39%. Such potentially stimulated nitrogen fixation could help compensate for the 20% decline in soil ammonium levels caused by clipping alone and could contribute to unchanged plant biomass levels. Moreover, clipping tended to interact antagonistically with warming, especially with respect to effects on nitrogen cycling genes, demonstrating that single-factor studies cannot predict multifactorial changes. These results revealed that clipping alone or in combination with warming altered soil and plant properties as well as the abundance and structure of soil microbial functional genes. Aboveground biomass removal for biofuel production needs to be reconsidered, as the long-term soil carbon stability may be weakened.

  19. Multitaxon activity profiling reveals differential microbial response to reduced seawater pH and oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Francisco J R C; Cleary, Daniel F R; Costa, Rodrigo; Ferreira, Marina; Polónia, Ana R M; Silva, Artur M S; Simões, Mário M Q; Oliveira, Vanessa; Gomes, Newton C M

    2016-09-01

    There is growing concern that predicted changes to global ocean chemistry will interact with anthropogenic pollution to significantly alter marine microbial composition and function. However, knowledge of the compounding effects of climate change stressors and anthropogenic pollution is limited. Here, we used 16S and 18S rRNA (cDNA)-based activity profiling to investigate the differential responses of selected microbial taxa to ocean acidification and oil hydrocarbon contamination under controlled laboratory conditions. Our results revealed that a lower relative abundance of sulphate-reducing bacteria (Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus clade) due to an adverse effect of seawater acidification and oil hydrocarbon contamination (reduced pH-oil treatment) may be coupled to changes in sediment archaeal communities. In particular, we observed a pronounced compositional shift and marked reduction in the prevalence of otherwise abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the archaeal Marine Benthic Group B and Marine Hydrothermal Vent Group (MHVG) in the reduced pH-oil treatment. Conversely, the abundance of several putative hydrocarbonoclastic fungal OTUs was higher in the reduced pH-oil treatment. Sediment hydrocarbon profiling, furthermore, revealed higher concentrations of several alkanes in the reduced pH-oil treatment, corroborating the functional implications of the structural changes to microbial community composition. Collectively, our results advance the understanding of the response of a complex microbial community to the interaction between reduced pH and anthropogenic pollution. In future acidified marine environments, oil hydrocarbon contamination may alter the typical mixotrophic and k-/r-strategist composition of surface sediment microbiomes towards a more heterotrophic state with lower doubling rates, thereby impairing the ability of the ecosystem to recover from acute oil contamination events. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Proinflammatory Cytokine Responses in Extra-Respiratory Tissues During Severe Influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Short, Kirsty R; Veeris, Rebecca; Leijten, Lonneke M; van den Brand, Judith M; Jong, Victor L; Stittelaar, Koert J; Osterhaus, Ab D M E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074960172; Andeweg, Arno C; van Riel, Debby

    2017-01-01

    Severe influenza is often associated with disease manifestations outside the respiratory tract. While proinflammatory cytokines can be detected in the lungs and blood of infected patients, the role of extra-respiratory organs in the production of proinflammatory cytokines is unknown. Here, we show

  1. Proinflammatory Cytokine Responses in Extra-Respiratory Tissues during Severe Influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Short, Kirsty R.; Veeris, Rebecca; Leijten, Lonneke M.; van den Brand, Judith M A; Jong, Victor L.; Stittelaar, Koert; Osterhaus, Ab D.M.E.; Andeweg, Arno C; Van Riel, Debby

    2017-01-01

    Severe influenza is often associated with disease manifestations outside the respiratory tract. While proinflammatory cytokines can be detected in the lungs and blood of infected patients, the role of extra-respiratory organs in the production of proinflammatory cytokines is unknown. Here, we show

  2. Final technical report. Can microbial functional traits predict the response and resilience of decomposition to global change?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Steven D. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2015-09-24

    The role of specific micro-organisms in the carbon cycle, and their responses to environmental change, are unknown in most ecosystems. This knowledge gap limits scientists’ ability to predict how important ecosystem processes, like soil carbon storage and loss, will change with climate and other environmental factors. The investigators addressed this knowledge gap by transplanting microbial communities from different environments into new environments and measuring the response of community composition and carbon cycling over time. Using state-of-the-art sequencing techniques, computational tools, and nanotechnology, the investigators showed that microbial communities on decomposing plant material shift dramatically with natural and experimentally-imposed drought. Microbial communities also shifted in response to added nitrogen, but the effects were smaller. These changes had implications for carbon cycling, with lower rates of carbon loss under drought conditions, and changes in the efficiency of decomposition with nitrogen addition. Even when transplanted into the same conditions, microbial communities from different environments remained distinct in composition and functioning for up to one year. Changes in functioning were related to differences in enzyme gene content across different microbial groups. Computational approaches developed for this project allowed the conclusions to be tested more broadly in other ecosystems, and new computer models will facilitate the prediction of microbial traits and functioning across environments. The data and models resulting from this project benefit the public by improving the ability to predict how microbial communities and carbon cycling functions respond to climate change, nutrient enrichment, and other large-scale environmental changes.

  3. Microbial phylogeny determines transcriptional response of resistome to dynamic composting processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Dong, Da; Strong, P J; Zhu, Weijing; Ma, Zhuang; Qin, Yong; Wu, Weixiang

    2017-08-16

    Animal manure is a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) that pose a potential health risk globally, especially for resistance to the antibiotics commonly used in livestock production (such as tetracycline, sulfonamide, and fluoroquinolone). Currently, the effects of biological treatment (composting) on the transcriptional response of manure ARGs and their microbial hosts are not well characterized. Composting is a dynamic process that consists of four distinct phases that are distinguished by the temperature resulting from microbial activity, namely the mesophilic, thermophilic, cooling, and maturing phases. In this study, changes of resistome expression were determined and related to active microbiome profiles during the dynamic composting process. This was achieved by integrating metagenomic and time series metatranscriptomic data for the evolving microbial community during composting. Composting noticeably reduced the aggregated expression level of the manure resistome, which primarily consisted of genes encoding for tetracycline, vancomycin, fluoroquinolone, beta-lactam, and aminoglycoside resistance, as well as efflux pumps. Furthermore, a varied transcriptional response of resistome to composting at the ARG levels was highlighted. The expression of tetracycline resistance genes (tetM-tetW-tetO-tetS) decreased during composting, where distinctive shifts in the four phases of composting were related to variations in antibiotic concentration. Composting had no effect on the expression of sulfonamide and fluoroquinolone resistance genes, which increased slightly during the thermophilic phase and then decreased to initial levels. As indigenous populations switched greatly throughout the dynamic composting, the core resistome persisted and their reservoir hosts' composition was significantly correlated with dynamic active microbial phylogenetic structure. Hosts for sulfonamide and fuoroquinolone resistance genes changed notably in phylognetic structure

  4. Exposure of neonates to Respiratory Syncytial Virus is critical in determining subsequent airway response in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daly Melissa

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most common cause of acute bronchiolitis in infants and the elderly. Furthermore, epidemiological data suggest that RSV infection during infancy is a potent trigger of subsequent wheeze and asthma development. However, the mechanism by which RSV contributes to asthma is complex and remains largely unknown. A recent study indicates that the age of initial RSV infection is a key factor in determining airway response to RSV rechallenge. We hypothesized that severe RSV infection during neonatal development significantly alters lung structure and the pulmonary immune micro-environment; and thus, neonatal RSV infection is crucial in the development of or predisposition to allergic inflammatory diseases such as asthma. Methods To investigate this hypothesis the present study was conducted in a neonatal mouse model of RSV-induced pulmonary inflammation and airway dysfunction. Seven-day-old mice were infected with RSV (2 × 105 TCID50/g body weight and allowed to mature to adulthood. To determine if neonatal RSV infection predisposed adult animals to enhanced pathophysiological responses to allergens, these mice were then sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Various endpoints including lung function, histopathology, cytokine production, and cellularity in bronchoalveolar lavage were examined. Results RSV infection in neonates alone led to inflammatory airway disease characterized by airway hyperreactivity, peribronchial and perivascular inflammation, and subepithelial fibrosis in adults. If early RSV infection was followed by allergen exposure, this pulmonary phenotype was exacerbated. The initial response to neonatal RSV infection resulted in increased TNF-α levels in bronchoalveolar lavage. Interestingly, increased levels of IL-13 and mucus hyperproduction were observed almost three months after the initial infection with RSV. Conclusion Neonatal RSV exposure results in long term

  5. FDG PET/CT for therapeutic response monitoring in multi-site non-respiratory tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Tian; Yong Xiao; Bin Chen; Jun Xia; Hong Guan; Qunyi Deng

    2010-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) can produce positive signals during 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) scanning. Until now, there has been no better method than clinical assessment to evaluate the therapeutic response of non-respiratory TB (NRTB). Purpose: To retrospectively assess the ability of FDG PET/CT to evaluate the response to anti-TB treatment in patients with NRTB. Material and Methods: Three patients with multi-site NRTB underwent repeat PET/CT scans during anti-TB treatment. Changes in maximal standard uptake value (SUVmax) of the TB lesions on PET/CT images were analyzed between two scans. Initial PET/CT scans were performed before the start of anti-TB treatment, and later scans were performed after completion of the treatment. Results: Patient 1, a 63-year-old female, and patient 2, a 50-year-old male, were diagnosed as multi-site NRTB by biopsy. Patient 3, a 37-year-old male was diagnosed clinically. These patients demonstrated multiple FDG-avid lesions in whole body on initial PET/CT images. The highest SUVmax of patient 1, 2, and 3 were 13.6, 17.7, and 13.9 separately. After completion of the treatment, all positive signals of patient 1, 2, and 3 decreased to undetectable value on repeated PET/CT scans with intervals of 318 days, 258 days, and 182 days separately. Conclusion: FDG PET/CT scan may be useful for monitoring responses to anti-TB treatment in patients with NRTB

  6. Phenotypic responses to interspecies competition and commensalism in a naturally-derived microbial co-culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Nymul; Maezato, Yukari; McClure, Ryan S.; Brislawn, Colin J.; Mobberley, Jennifer M.; Isern, Nancy; Chrisler, William B.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Barney, Brett M.; Song, Hyun-Seob; Nelson, William C.; Bernstein, Hans C.

    2018-01-10

    The fundamental question of whether different microbial species will co-exist or compete in a given environment depends on context, composition and environmental constraints. Model microbial systems can yield some general principles related to this question. In this study we employed a naturally occurring co-culture composed of heterotrophic bacteria, Halomonas sp. HL-48 and Marinobacter sp. HL-58, to ask two fundamental scientific questions: 1) how do the phenotypes of two naturally co-existing species respond to partnership as compared to axenic growth? and 2) how do growth and molecular phenotypes of these species change with respect to competitive and commensal interactions? We hypothesized – and confirmed – that co-cultivation under glucose as the sole carbon source would result in a competitive interactions. Similarly, when glucose was swapped with xylose, the interactions became commensal because Marinobacter HL-58 was supported by metabolites derived from Halomonas HL-48. Each species responded to partnership by changing both its growth and molecular phenotype as assayed via batch growth kinetics and global transcriptomics. These phenotypic responses depended nutrient availability and so the environment ultimately controlled how they responded to each other. This simplified model community revealed that microbial interactions are context-specific and different environmental conditions dictate how interspecies partnerships will unfold.

  7. Microbial biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Yu; Chen, Wilfred; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2006-01-01

    A microbial biosensor is an analytical device that couples microorganisms with a transducer to enable rapid, accurate and sensitive detection of target analytes in fields as diverse as medicine, environmental monitoring, defense, food processing and safety. The earlier microbial biosensors used the respiratory and metabolic functions of the microorganisms to detect a substance that is either a substrate or an inhibitor of these processes. Recently, genetically engineered microorganisms based on fusing of the lux, gfp or lacZ gene reporters to an inducible gene promoter have been widely applied to assay toxicity and bioavailability. This paper reviews the recent trends in the development and application of microbial biosensors. Current advances and prospective future direction in developing microbial biosensor have also been discussed

  8. Respiratory and cardiovascular response during electronic control device (ECD exposure in law enforcement trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. VanMeenen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Law enforcement represents a large population of workers who may be exposed to electronic control devices (ECDs. Little is known about the potential effect of exposure to these devices on respiration or cardiovascular response during current discharge. Methods: Participants (N=23 were trainees exposed to 5 seconds of an ECD (Taser X26® as a component of training. Trainees were asked to volitionally inhale during exposure. Respiratory recordings involved a continuous waveform recorded throughout the session including during the exposure period. Heart rate was calculated from a continuous pulse oximetry recording. Results: The exposure period resulted in the cessation of normal breathing patterns in all participants and in particular a decrease in inspiratory activity. No significant changes in heart rate during ECD exposure were found. Conclusions: This is the first study to examine breathing patterns during ECD exposure with the resolution to detect changes over this discrete period of time. In contrast to reports suggesting respiration is unaffected by ECDs, present evidence suggests that voluntary inspiration is severely compromised. There is no evidence of cardiac disruption during ECD exposure.

  9. Response of soil microbial communities to roxarsone pollution along a concentration gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaci; Zhang, Zhaoji; Li, Yasong; Wen, Yi; Fei, Yuhong

    2017-07-29

    The extensive use of roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid) as a feed additive in the broiler poultry industry can lead to environmental arsenic contamination. This study was conducted to reveal the response of soil microbial communities to roxarsone pollution along a concentration gradient. To explore the degradation process and degradation kinetics of roxarsone concentration gradients in soil, the concentration shift of roxarsone at initial concentrations of 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, as well as that of the arsenic derivatives, was detected. The soil microbial community composition and structure accompanying roxarsone degradation were investigated by high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that roxarsone degradation was inhibited by a biological inhibitor, confirming that soil microbes were absolutely essential to its degradation. Moreover, soil microbes had considerable potential to degrade roxarsone, as a high initial concentration of roxarsone resulted in a substantially increased degradation rate. The concentrations of the degradation products HAPA (3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid), AS(III), and AS(V) in soils were significantly positively correlated. The soil microbial community composition and structure changed significantly across the roxarsone contamination gradient, and the addition of roxarsone decreased the microbial diversity. Some bacteria tended to be inhibited by roxarsone, while Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Arthrobacter, Lysobacter, and Alkaliphilus played important roles in roxarsone degradation. Moreover, HAPA, AS(III), and AS(V) were significantly positively correlated with Symbiobacterium, which dominated soils containing roxarsone, and their abundance increased with increasing initial roxarsone concentration. Accordingly, Symbiobacterium could serve as indicator of arsenic derivatives released by roxarsone as well as the initial roxarsone concentration. This is the first investigation of microbes closely related to roxarsone

  10. Soil Microbial Responses to Elevated CO2 and O3 in a Nitrogen-Aggrading Agroecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lei; Booker, Fitzgerald L.; Burkey, Kent O.; Tu, Cong; Shew, H. David; Rufty, Thomas W.; Fiscus, Edwin L.; Deforest, Jared L.; Hu, Shuijin

    2011-01-01

    Climate change factors such as elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) can exert significant impacts on soil microbes and the ecosystem level processes they mediate. However, the underlying mechanisms by which soil microbes respond to these environmental changes remain poorly understood. The prevailing hypothesis, which states that CO2- or O3-induced changes in carbon (C) availability dominate microbial responses, is primarily based on results from nitrogen (N)-limiting forests and grasslands. It remains largely unexplored how soil microbes respond to elevated CO2 and O3 in N-rich or N-aggrading systems, which severely hinders our ability to predict the long-term soil C dynamics in agroecosystems. Using a long-term field study conducted in a no-till wheat-soybean rotation system with open-top chambers, we showed that elevated CO2 but not O3 had a potent influence on soil microbes. Elevated CO2 (1.5×ambient) significantly increased, while O3 (1.4×ambient) reduced, aboveground (and presumably belowground) plant residue C and N inputs to soil. However, only elevated CO2 significantly affected soil microbial biomass, activities (namely heterotrophic respiration) and community composition. The enhancement of microbial biomass and activities by elevated CO2 largely occurred in the third and fourth years of the experiment and coincided with increased soil N availability, likely due to CO2-stimulation of symbiotic N2 fixation in soybean. Fungal biomass and the fungi∶bacteria ratio decreased under both ambient and elevated CO2 by the third year and also coincided with increased soil N availability; but they were significantly higher under elevated than ambient CO2. These results suggest that more attention should be directed towards assessing the impact of N availability on microbial activities and decomposition in projections of soil organic C balance in N-rich systems under future CO2 scenarios. PMID:21731722

  11. Microbial Shifts in the Intestinal Microbiota of Salmonella Infected Chickens in Response to Enrofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Hao, Haihong; Cheng, Guyue; Liu, Chunbei; Ahmed, Saeed; Shabbir, Muhammad A B; Hussain, Hafiz I; Dai, Menghong; Yuan, Zonghui

    2017-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are important antibiotics used for treatment of Salmonella infection in poultry in many countries. However, oral administration of fluoroquinolones may affect the composition and abundance of a number of bacterial taxa in the chicken intestine. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the microbial shifts in the gut of Salmonella infected chickens in response to enrofloxacin treatments at different dosages (0, 0.1, 4, and 100 mg/kg b.w.) were quantitatively evaluated. The results showed that the shedding levels of Salmonella were significantly reduced in the high dosage group as demonstrated by both the culturing method and 16S rRNA sequencing method. The average values of diversity indices were higher in the control group than in the three medicated groups. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis results showed that the microbial community of high dosage group was clearly separated from the other three groups. In total, 25 genera were significantly enriched (including 6 abundant genera: Lactococcus , Bacillus , Burkholderia , Pseudomonas , Rhizobium , and Acinetobacter ) and 23 genera were significantly reduced in the medicated groups than in the control group for the treatment period, but these bacterial taxa recovered to normal levels after therapy withdrawal. Additionally, 5 genera were significantly reduced in both treatment and withdrawal periods (e.g., Blautia and Anaerotruncus ) and 23 genera (e.g., Enterobacter and Clostridium ) were significantly decreased only in the withdrawal period, indicating that these genera might be the potential targets for the fluoroquinolones antimicrobial effects. Specially, Enterococcus was significantly reduced under high dosage of enrofloxacin treatment, while significantly enriched in the withdrawal period, which was presumably due to the resistance selection. Predicted microbial functions associated with genetic information processing were significantly decreased in the high dosage group. Overall

  12. Microbial Shifts in the Intestinal Microbiota of Salmonella Infected Chickens in Response to Enrofloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroquinolones (FQs are important antibiotics used for treatment of Salmonella infection in poultry in many countries. However, oral administration of fluoroquinolones may affect the composition and abundance of a number of bacterial taxa in the chicken intestine. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the microbial shifts in the gut of Salmonella infected chickens in response to enrofloxacin treatments at different dosages (0, 0.1, 4, and 100 mg/kg b.w. were quantitatively evaluated. The results showed that the shedding levels of Salmonella were significantly reduced in the high dosage group as demonstrated by both the culturing method and 16S rRNA sequencing method. The average values of diversity indices were higher in the control group than in the three medicated groups. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS analysis results showed that the microbial community of high dosage group was clearly separated from the other three groups. In total, 25 genera were significantly enriched (including 6 abundant genera: Lactococcus, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, and Acinetobacter and 23 genera were significantly reduced in the medicated groups than in the control group for the treatment period, but these bacterial taxa recovered to normal levels after therapy withdrawal. Additionally, 5 genera were significantly reduced in both treatment and withdrawal periods (e.g., Blautia and Anaerotruncus and 23 genera (e.g., Enterobacter and Clostridium were significantly decreased only in the withdrawal period, indicating that these genera might be the potential targets for the fluoroquinolones antimicrobial effects. Specially, Enterococcus was significantly reduced under high dosage of enrofloxacin treatment, while significantly enriched in the withdrawal period, which was presumably due to the resistance selection. Predicted microbial functions associated with genetic information processing were significantly decreased in the high dosage group

  13. Microbial Community Response to Simulated Petroleum Seepage in Caspian Sea Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Knittel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic microbial hydrocarbon degradation is a major biogeochemical process at marine seeps. Here we studied the response of the microbial community to petroleum seepage simulated for 190 days in a sediment core from the Caspian Sea using a sediment-oil-flow-through (SOFT system. Untreated (without simulated petroleum seepage and SOFT sediment microbial communities shared 43% bacterial genus-level 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic units (OTU0.945 but shared only 23% archaeal OTU0.945. The community differed significantly between sediment layers. The detection of fourfold higher deltaproteobacterial cell numbers in SOFT than in untreated sediment at depths characterized by highest sulfate reduction rates and strongest decrease of gaseous and mid-chain alkane concentrations indicated a specific response of hydrocarbon-degrading Deltaproteobacteria. Based on an increase in specific CARD-FISH cell numbers, we suggest the following groups of sulfate-reducing bacteria to be likely responsible for the observed decrease in aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentration in SOFT sediments: clade SCA1 for propane and butane degradation, clade LCA2 for mid- to long-chain alkane degradation, clade Cyhx for cycloalkanes, pentane and hexane degradation, and relatives of Desulfobacula for toluene degradation. Highest numbers of archaea of the genus Methanosarcina were found in the methanogenic zone of the SOFT core where we detected preferential degradation of long-chain hydrocarbons. Sequencing of masD, a marker gene for alkane degradation encoding (1-methylalkylsuccinate synthase, revealed a low diversity in SOFT sediment with two abundant species-level MasD OTU0.96.

  14. Acute exposure to realistic acid fog: effects on respiratory function and airway responsiveness in asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, D; Fally, S; De Vuyst, P; Wollast, R; Yernault, J C

    1995-11-01

    Naturally occurring fogs in industrialized cities are contaminated by acidic air pollutants. In Brussels, Belgium, the pH of polluted fogwater may be as low as 3 with osmolarity as low as 30 mOsm. In order to explore short-term respiratory effects of a realistic acid-polluted fog, we collected samples of acid fog in Brussels, Belgium, which is a densely populated and industrialized city, we defined characteristics of this fog and exposed asthmatic volunteers at rest through a face mask to fogs with physical and chemical characteristics similar to those of natural fogs assessed in this urban area. Fogwater was sampled using a screen collector where droplets are collected by inertial impaction and chemical content of fogwater was assessed by measurement of conductivity, pH, visible colorimetry, high pressure liquid chromatography, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry over a period of one year. The fogwater composition was dominated by NH4+ and SO4- ions. First we evaluated the possible effect of fog acidity alone. For this purpose 14 subjects with asthma were exposed at rest for 1 hr [mass median aerodynamic diameter to a large-particle (MMAD), 9 microns] aerosol with H2SO4 concentration of 500 micrograms/m3 (pH 2.5) and osmolarity of 300 mOsm. We did not observe significant change in pulmonary function or bronchial responsiveness to metacholine. In the second part of the work, 10 asthmatic subjects were exposed to acid fog (MMAD, 7 microns) containing sulfate and ammonium ions (major ions recovered in naturally occurring fogs) with pH 3.5 and osmolarity 30 mOsm. Again, pulmonary function and bronchial reactivity were not modified after inhalation of this fog. It was concluded that short-term exposure to acid fog reproducing acidity and hypoosmolarity of natural polluted fogs does not induce bronchoconstriction and does not change bronchial responsiveness in asthmatics.

  15. Quantitative trait loci associated with the immune response to a bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Leach

    Full Text Available Infectious disease is an important problem for animal breeders, farmers and governments worldwide. One approach to reducing disease is to breed for resistance. This linkage study used a Charolais-Holstein F2 cattle cross population (n = 501 which was genotyped for 165 microsatellite markers (covering all autosomes to search for associations with phenotypes for Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV specific total-IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 concentrations at several time-points pre- and post-BRSV vaccination. Regions of the bovine genome which influenced the immune response induced by BRSV vaccination were identified, as well as regions associated with the clearance of maternally derived BRSV specific antibodies. Significant positive correlations were detected within traits across time, with negative correlations between the pre- and post-vaccination time points. The whole genome scan identified 27 Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL on 13 autosomes. Many QTL were associated with the Thymus Helper 1 linked IgG2 response, especially at week 2 following vaccination. However the most significant QTL, which reached 5% genome-wide significance, was on BTA 17 for IgG1, also 2 weeks following vaccination. All animals had declining maternally derived BRSV specific antibodies prior to vaccination and the levels of BRSV specific antibody prior to vaccination were found to be under polygenic control with several QTL detected.Heifers from the same population (n = 195 were subsequently immunised with a 40-mer Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus peptide (FMDV in a previous publication. Several of these QTL associated with the FMDV traits had overlapping peak positions with QTL in the current study, including the QTL on BTA23 which included the bovine Major Histocompatibility Complex (BoLA, and QTL on BTA9 and BTA24, suggesting that the genes underlying these QTL may control responses to multiple antigens. These results lay the groundwork for future investigations to identify the

  16. The transcriptional response of microbial communities in thawing Alaskan permafrost soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M J L Coolen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thawing of permafrost soils is expected to stimulate microbial decomposition and respiration of sequestered carbon. This could, in turn, increase atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, and create a positive feedback to climate warming. Recent metagenomic studies suggest that permafrost has a large metabolic potential for carbon processing, including pathways for fermentation and methanogenesis. Here, we performed a pilot study using ultrahigh throughput Illumina HiSeq sequencing of reverse transcribed messenger RNA to obtain a detailed overview of active metabolic pathways and responsible organisms in up to 70 cm deep permafrost soils at a moist acidic tundra location in Arctic Alaska. The transcriptional response of the permafrost microbial community was compared before and after eleven days of thaw. In general, the transcriptional profile under frozen conditions suggests a dominance of stress responses, survival strategies, and maintenance processes, whereas upon thaw a rapid enzymatic response to decomposing soil organic matter (SOM was observed. Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, ascomycete fungi, and methanogens were responsible for largest transcriptional response upon thaw. Transcripts indicative of heterotrophic methanogenic pathways utilizing acetate, methanol, and methylamine were found predominantly in the permafrost table after thaw. Furthermore, transcripts involved in acetogenesis were expressed exclusively after thaw suggesting that acetogenic bacteria are a potential source of acetate for acetoclastic methanogenesis in freshly thawed permafrost. Metatranscriptomics is shown here to be a useful approach for inferring the activity of permafrost microbes that has potential to improve our understanding of permafrost SOM bioavailability and biogeochemical mechanisms contributing to greenhouse gas emissions as a result of permafrost thaw.

  17. The transcriptional response of microbial communities in thawing Alaskan permafrost soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolen, Marco J. L.; Orsi, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Thawing of permafrost soils is expected to stimulate microbial decomposition and respiration of sequestered carbon. This could, in turn, increase atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gasses, such as carbon dioxide and methane, and create a positive feedback to climate warming. Recent metagenomic studies suggest that permafrost has a large metabolic potential for carbon processing, including pathways for fermentation and methanogenesis. Here, we performed a pilot study using ultrahigh throughput Illumina HiSeq sequencing of reverse transcribed messenger RNA to obtain a detailed overview of active metabolic pathways and responsible organisms in up to 70 cm deep permafrost soils at a moist acidic tundra location in Arctic Alaska. The transcriptional response of the permafrost microbial community was compared before and after 11 days of thaw. In general, the transcriptional profile under frozen conditions suggests a dominance of stress responses, survival strategies, and maintenance processes, whereas upon thaw a rapid enzymatic response to decomposing soil organic matter (SOM) was observed. Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, ascomycete fungi, and methanogens were responsible for largest transcriptional response upon thaw. Transcripts indicative of heterotrophic methanogenic pathways utilizing acetate, methanol, and methylamine were found predominantly in the permafrost table after thaw. Furthermore, transcripts involved in acetogenesis were expressed exclusively after thaw suggesting that acetogenic bacteria are a potential source of acetate for acetoclastic methanogenesis in freshly thawed permafrost. Metatranscriptomics is shown here to be a useful approach for inferring the activity of permafrost microbes that has potential to improve our understanding of permafrost SOM bioavailability and biogeochemical mechanisms contributing to greenhouse gas emissions as a result of permafrost thaw. PMID:25852660

  18. Low-complexity Wireless Monitoring of Respiratory Movements Using Ultra-wideband Impulse Response Estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Sana, Furrukh; Ballal, Tarig; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper; we present a comprehensive scheme for wireless monitoring of the respiratory movements in humans. Our scheme overcomes the challenges low signal-to-noise ratio, background clutter and high sampling rates. It is based on the estimation

  19. [The response of the upper respiratory tract to the impact of atmospheric pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhamadiev, R A; Ismagilov, Sh M

    2015-01-01

    The present literature review characterizes the environmental conditions in the Russian Federation in general and the Republic of Tatarstan in particular with special reference to the influence of atmospheric pollution on the development and the clinical picture of the diseases of the respiratory organs including pathology of the upper respiratory tract in the populations of the industrial centres and other environmentally unfriendly areas. The views of the domestic and foreign authors concerning the role of the environmental factors in the clinical picture of the upper respiratory tract disorders are described in detail. The authors emphasize the necessity of the further investigationsinto this problem and the development of the methods for the prevention of diseases of the upper respiratory react.

  20. Phrenic and hypoglossal nerve activity during respiratory response to hypoxia in 6-OHDA unilateral model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejewski, Kryspin; Budzińska, Krystyna; Kaczyńska, Katarzyna

    2017-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients apart from motor dysfunctions exhibit respiratory disturbances. Their mechanism is still unknown and requires investigation. Our research was designed to examine the activity of phrenic (PHR) and hypoglossal (HG) nerves activity during a hypoxic respiratory response in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of PD. Male adult Wistar rats were injected unilaterally with 6-OHDA (20μg) or the vehicle into the right medial forebrain bundle (MFB). Two weeks after the surgery the activity of the phrenic and hypoglossal nerve was registered in anesthetized, vagotomized, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated rats under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Lesion effectiveness was confirmed by the cylinder test, performed before the MFB injection and 14days after, before the respiratory experiment. 6-OHDA lesioned animals showed a significant increase in normoxic inspiratory time. Expiratory time and total time of the respiratory cycle were prolonged in PD rats after hypoxia. The amplitude of the PHR activity and its minute activity were increased in comparison to the sham group at recovery time and during 30s of hypoxia. The amplitude of the HG activity was increased in response to hypoxia in 6-OHDA lesioned animals. The degeneration of dopaminergic neurons decreased the pre-inspiratory/inspiratory ratio of the hypoglossal burst amplitude during and after hypoxia. Unilateral MFB lesion changed the activity of the phrenic and hypoglossal nerves. The altered pre-inspiratory hypoglossal nerve activity indicates modifications to the central mechanisms controlling the activity of the HG nerve and may explain respiratory disorders seen in PD, i.e. apnea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Overview of preparedness and response for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Al-Abaidani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several countries in the Middle East and around 22 countries worldwide have reported cases of human infection with the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV. The exceptionally high fatality rate resulting from MERS-CoV infection in conjunction with the paucity of knowledge about this emerging virus has led to major public and international concern. Within the framework of the national acute respiratory illness surveillance, the Ministry of Health in the Sultanate of Oman has announced two confirmed cases of MERS-CoV to date. The aim of this report is to describe the epidemiological aspects of these two cases and to highlight the importance of public health preparedness and response. The absence of secondary cases among contacts of the reported cases can be seen as evidence of the effectiveness of infection prevention and control precautions as an important pillar of the national preparedness and response plan applied in the health care institutions in Oman.

  2. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia responses to induced emotional states: effects of RSA indices, emotion induction method, age, and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeek, Thérèse J M; van Boxtel, Anton; Westerink, Joyce H D M

    2012-09-01

    The literature shows large inconsistencies in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) responses to induced emotional states. This may be caused by differences in emotion induction methods, RSA quantification, and non-emotional demands of the situation. In 83 healthy subjects, we studied RSA responses to pictures and film fragments eliciting six different discrete emotions relative to neutral baseline stimuli. RSA responses were quantified in the time and frequency domain and were additionally corrected for differences in mean heart rate and respiration rate, resulting in eight different RSA response measures. Subjective ratings of emotional stimuli and facial electromyographic responses indicated that pictures and film fragments elicited the intended emotions. Although RSA measures showed various emotional effects, responses were quite heterogeneous and frequently nonsignificant. They were substantially influenced by methodological factors, in particular time vs. frequency domain response measures, correction for changes in respiration rate, use of pictures vs. film fragments, and sex of participants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbial UV fluence-response assessment using a novel UV-LED collimated beam system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Colleen; Sain, Amanda; Shatalov, Max; Ducoste, Joel

    2011-02-01

    A research study has been performed to determine the ultraviolet (UV) fluence-response of several target non-pathogenic microorganisms to UV light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) by performing collimated beam tests. UV-LEDs do not contain toxic mercury, offer design flexibility due to their small size, and have a longer operational life than mercury lamps. Comsol Multiphysics was utilized to create an optimal UV-LED collimated beam design based on number and spacing of UV-LEDs and distance of the sample from the light source while minimizing the overall cost. The optimized UV-LED collimated beam apparatus and a low-pressure mercury lamp collimated beam apparatus were used to determine the UV fluence-response of three surrogate microorganisms (Escherichia coli, MS-2, T7) to 255 nm UV-LEDs, 275 nm UV-LEDs, and 254 nm low-pressure mercury lamps. Irradiation by low-pressure mercury lamps produced greater E. coli and MS-2 inactivation than 255 nm and 275 nm UV-LEDs and similar T7 inactivation to irradiation by 275 nm UV-LEDs. The 275 nm UV-LEDs produced more efficient T7 and E. coli inactivation than 255 nm UV-LEDs while both 255 nm and 275 nm UV-LEDs produced comparable microbial inactivation for MS-2. Differences may have been caused by a departure from the time-dose reciprocity law due to microbial repair mechanisms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibitors degradation and microbial response during continuous anaerobic conversion of hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Buchun; Li, Jiaming; Zhu, Zhangbing; Shen, Mengmeng; Lu, Jianwen; Duan, Na; Zhang, Yuanhui; Liao, Qiang; Huang, Yun; Liu, Zhidan

    2018-07-15

    One critical challenge of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is its complex aqueous product, which has a high concentration of organic pollutants (up to 100gCOD/L) and diverse fermentation inhibitors, such as furfural, phenolics and N-heterocyclic compounds. Here we report continuous anaerobic digestion of HTL wastewater via an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed reactor (UASB) and packed bed reactor (PBR). Specifically, we investigated the transformation of fermentation inhibitors and microbial response. GC-MS identified the complete degradation of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), and partial degradation (54.0-74.6%) of organic nitrogen and phenolic compounds, including 3-hydroxypyridine, phenol and 4-ethyl-phenol. Illumina MiSeq sequencing revealed that the bacteria families related to detoxification increased in response to the HTL aqueous phase. In addition, the increase of acetate-oxidizing bacteria in UASB and acetogens in PBR showed a strengthened acetogenesis. As for the archaeal communities, an increase in hydrogenotrophic methanogens was observed. Based on GC-MS/HPLC and microbial analysis, we speculate that dominant fermentation inhibitors were transformed into intermediates (Acetyl-CoA and acetate), further contributing to biomethane formation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. New insights into microbial responses to oil spills from the Deepwater Horizon incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, O.U.; Hazen, T.C.

    2011-06-15

    On April 20, 2010, a catastrophic eruption of methane caused the Deepwater Horizon exploratory drill rig drilling the Macondo Well in Mississippi Canyon Block 252 (MC252) to explode. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was unprecendeted for several reasons: the volume of oil released; the spill duration; the well depth; the distance from the shore-line (77 km or about 50 miles); the type of oil (light crude); and the injection of dispersant directly at the wellhead. This study clearly demonstrated that there was a profound and significant response by certain members of the in situ microbial community in the deep-sea in the Gulf of Mexico. In particular putative hydrocarbon degrading Bacteria appeared to bloom in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, even though the temperature at these depths is never >5 C. As the plume aged the shifts in the microbial community on a temporal scale suggested that different, yet metabolically important members of the community were able to respond to a myriad of plume constituents, e.g. shifting from propane/ethane to alkanes and finally to methane. Thus, the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in the plume by Bacteria was a highly significant process in the natural attenuation of many compounds released during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

  6. Renal responses of trout to chronic respiratory and metabolic acidoses and metabolic alkalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C M; Milligan, C L; Walsh, P J

    1999-08-01

    Exposure to hyperoxia (500-600 torr) or low pH (4.5) for 72 h or NaHCO(3) infusion for 48 h were used to create chronic respiratory (RA) or metabolic acidosis (MA) or metabolic alkalosis in freshwater rainbow trout. During alkalosis, urine pH increased, and [titratable acidity (TA) - HCO(-)(3)] and net H(+) excretion became negative (net base excretion) with unchanged NH(+)(4) efflux. During RA, urine pH did not change, but net H(+) excretion increased as a result of a modest rise in NH(+)(4) and substantial elevation in [TA - HCO(-)(3)] efflux accompanied by a large increase in inorganic phosphate excretion. However, during MA, urine pH fell, and net H(+) excretion was 3.3-fold greater than during RA, reflecting a similar increase in [TA - HCO(-)(3)] and a smaller elevation in phosphate but a sevenfold greater increase in NH(+)(4) efflux. In urine samples of the same pH, [TA - HCO(-)(3)] was greater during RA (reflecting phosphate secretion), and [NH(+)(4)] was greater during MA (reflecting renal ammoniagenesis). Renal activities of potential ammoniagenic enzymes (phosphate-dependent glutaminase, glutamate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) and plasma levels of cortisol, phosphate, ammonia, and most amino acids (including glutamine and alanine) increased during MA but not during RA, when only alanine aminotransferase increased. The differential responses to RA vs. MA parallel those in mammals; in fish they may be keyed to activation of phosphate secretion by RA and cortisol mobilization by MA.

  7. Circulatory, respiratory and metabolic responses in Thoroughbred horses during the first 400 meters of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, A; Snow, D H

    1988-01-01

    These studies investigated circulatory, respiratory and metabolic responses in four Thoroughbred geldings during the first 400 metres of galloping (mean speed 14.4 +/- 0.38 m.s-1), cantering (mean speed 10.0 +/- 0.61 m.s-1) and walking (mean speed 1.58 +/- 0.05 m.s-1) from a standing start. A radio-controlled device which collected blood samples anaerobically during each 100 m section of the exercise track allowed analyses of changes in and functional relationships of the variables measured. During the 400 m gallop, the mean heart rate (HR) increased from 125 to 201 beats.min-1 and the haematocrit (Hct) from 0.513 to 0.589 l/l-1. The haemoglobin [Hb], lactate [LA] and potassium [K+] concentrations increased significantly, while the pH and the partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) decreased significantly. The arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and the plasma bicarbonate concentration did not change significantly. There were significant correlations between HR and Hct, HR and [Hb], HR and PaO2, HR and pH, HR and PvCO2, HR and [LA], HR and [K+], pH and [K+], Hct and PaO2, [Hb] and PaO2, PaCO2 and PaO2, [LA] and PaO2, pH and PaO2, [K+] and PaO2, stride frequency and PaO2. With the exception of the PvCO2 which increased significantly, changes in venous blood during the gallop were in the same direction as those of arterial blood. Thirty seconds before the start of the gallop, both HR and [Hb] were significantly higher than at rest, providing an approximate three-fold increase in oxygen delivery compared to that of the resting state.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Different Mechanisms of Soil Microbial Response to Global Change Result in Different Outcomes in the MIMICS-CN Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyker-Snowman, E.; Wieder, W. R.; Grandy, S.

    2017-12-01

    Microbial-explicit models of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling have improved upon simulations of C and N stocks and flows at site-to-global scales relative to traditional first-order linear models. However, the response of microbial-explicit soil models to global change factors depends upon which parameters and processes in a model are altered by those factors. We used the MIcrobial-MIneral Carbon Stabilization Model with coupled N cycling (MIMICS-CN) to compare modeled responses to changes in temperature and plant inputs at two previously-modeled sites (Harvard Forest and Kellogg Biological Station). We spun the model up to equilibrium, applied each perturbation, and evaluated 15 years of post-perturbation C and N pools and fluxes. To model the effect of increasing temperatures, we independently examined the impact of decreasing microbial C use efficiency (CUE), increasing the rate of microbial turnover, and increasing Michaelis-Menten kinetic rates of litter decomposition, plus several combinations of the three. For plant inputs, we ran simulations with stepwise increases in metabolic litter, structural litter, whole litter (structural and metabolic), or labile soil C. The cumulative change in soil C or N varied in both sign and magnitude across simulations. For example, increasing kinetic rates of litter decomposition resulted in net releases of both C and N from soil pools, while decreasing CUE produced short-term increases in respiration but long-term accumulation of C in litter pools and shifts in soil C:N as microbial demand for C increased and biomass declined. Given that soil N cycling constrains the response of plant productivity to global change and that soils generate a large amount of uncertainty in current earth system models, microbial-explicit models are a critical opportunity to advance the modeled representation of soils. However, microbial-explicit models must be improved by experiments to isolate the physiological and stoichiometric

  9. Differential gene expression responses distinguish contact and respiratory sensitizers and nonsensitizing irritants in the local lymph node assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenuga, David; Woolhiser, Michael R; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar; Boverhof, Darrell R

    2012-04-01

    Genomic approaches have the potential to enhance the specificity and predictive accuracy of existing toxicology endpoints, including those for chemical sensitization. The present study was conducted to determine whether gene expression responses can distinguish contact sensitizers (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene [DNCB] and hexyl cinnamic aldehyde [HCA]), respiratory sensitizers (ortho-phthalaldehyde and trimellitic anhydride [TMA]), and nonsensitizing irritants (methyl salicylate [MS] and nonanoic acid [NA]) in the local lymph node assay (LLNA). Female Balb/c mice received doses of each chemical as per the standard LLNA dosing regimen on days 1, 2, and 3. Auricular lymph nodes were analyzed for tritiated thymidine ((3)HTdR) incorporation on day 6 and for gene expression responses on days 6 and 10. All chemicals induced dose-dependent increases in stimulation index, which correlated strongly with the number of differentially expressed genes. A majority of genes modulated by the irritants were similarly altered by the sensitizers, consistent with the irritating effects of the sensitizers. However, a select number of responses involved with immune-specific functions, such as dendritic cell activation, were unique to the sensitizers and may offer the ability to distinguish sensitizers from irritants. Genes for the mast cell proteases 1 and 8, Lgals7, Tim2, Aicda, Il4, and Akr1c18 were more strongly regulated by respiratory sensitizers compared with contact sensitizers and may represent potential biomarkers for discriminating between contact and respiratory sensitizers. Collectively, these data suggest that gene expression responses may serve as useful biomarkers to distinguish between respiratory and contact sensitizers and nonsensitizing irritants in the LLNA.

  10. Exposure to Silver Nanospheres Leads to Altered Respiratory Mechanics and Delayed Immune Response in an in Vivo Murine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Botelho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we examine the organ level toxicology of both carbon black (CB and silver nanoparticles (AgNP. We aim to determine metal-specific effects to respiratory function, inflammation and potential interactions with lung lining fluid (LLF. C57Bl6/J male mice were intratracheally instilled with saline (control, low (0.05 μg/g or high (0.5 μg/g doses of either AgNP or CB 15 nm nanospheres. Lung histology, cytology, surfactant composition and function, inflammatory gene expression, and pulmonary function were measured at 1, 3, and 7 days post-exposure. Acutely, high dose CB resulted in an inflammatory response, increased neutrophilia and cytokine production, without alteration in surfactant composition or respiratory mechanics. Low dose CB had no effect. Neither low nor high dose AgNPs resulted in an acute inflammatory response, but there was an increase in work of breathing. Three days post-exposure with CB, a persistent neutrophilia was noted. High dose AgNP resulted in an elevated number of macrophages and invasion of lymphocytes. Additionally, AgNP treated mice displayed increased expression of IL1B, IL6, CCL2, and IL10. However, there were no significant changes in respiratory mechanics. At day 7, inflammation had resolved in AgNP-treated mice, but tissue stiffness and resistance were significantly decreased, which was accompanied by an increase in surfactant protein D (SP-D content. These data demonstrate that the presence of metal alters the response of the lung to nanoparticle exposure. AgNP-surfactant interactions may alter respiratory function and result in a delayed immune response, potentially due to modified airway epithelial cell function.

  11. Cross-shift study of exposure-response relationships between bioaerosol exposure and respiratory effects in the Norwegian grain and animal feed production industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straumfors, Anne; Heldal, Kari Kulvik; Eduard, Wijnand; Wouters, Inge M; Ellingsen, Dag G; Skogstad, Marit

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We have studied cross-shift respiratory responses of several individual bioaerosol components of the dust in the grain and feed industry in Norway. METHODS: Cross-shift changes in lung function and nasal congestion, as well as in respiratory and systemic symptoms of 56 exposed workers and

  12. Reduced nasal IL-10 and enhanced TNFalpha responses during rhinovirus and RSV-induced upper respiratory tract infection in atopic and non-atopic infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benten, I. J.; van Drunen, C. M.; Koevoet, J. L. M.; Koopman, L. P.; Hop, W. C. J.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Neijens, H. J.; Fokkens, W. J.

    2005-01-01

    Rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are the most prevalent inducers of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in infants and may stimulate immune maturation. To estimate the amount of immune stimulation, nasal immune responses were examined during rhinovirus and RSV-induced URTI in

  13. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide as a predictor of response to inhaled corticosteroids in patients with non-specific respiratory symptoms and insignificant bronchodilator reversibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, David B; Buhl, Roland; Chan, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic non-specific respiratory symptoms are difficult to manage. This trial aimed to evaluate the association between baseline fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and the response to inhaled corticosteroids in patients with non-specific respiratory symptoms. METHODS: In this doub...

  14. The retrotrapezoid nucleus neurons expressing Atoh1 and Phox2b are essential for the respiratory response to CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruffault, Pierre Louis; D’Autréaux, Fabien; Hayes, John A.

    2015-01-01

    . Photostimulation of these neurons entrains the respiratory rhythm. Conversely, abrogating expression of Atoh1 or Phox2b or glutamatergic transmission in these cells curtails the phrenic nerve response to low pH in embryonic preparations and abolishes the respiratory chemoreflex in behaving animals. Thus, the RTN...

  15. Attend or defend? Sex differences in behavioral, autonomic, and respiratory response patterns to emotion-eliciting films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Frank H; Rattel, Julina A; Wegerer, Melanie; Liedlgruber, Michael; Schweighofer, Simon; Kreibig, Sylvia D; Kolodyazhniy, Vitaliy; Blechert, Jens

    2017-12-01

    Sex differences in emotional reactivity have been studied primarily for negative but less so for positive stimuli; likewise, sex differences in the psychophysiological response-patterning during such stimuli are poorly understood. Thus, the present study examined sex differences in response to negative/positive and high/low arousing films (classified as threat-, loss-, achievement-, and recreation-related, vs. neutral films), while measuring 18 muscular, autonomic, and respiratory parameters. Sex differences emerged for all films, but were most prominent for threat-related films: Despite equivalent valence and arousal ratings, women displayed more facial-muscular and respiratory responding than men and pronounced sympathetic activation (preejection period, other cardiovascular and electrodermal measures), while men showed coactivated sympathetic/parasympathetic responding (including increased respiratory sinus arrhythmia). This indicates a prototypical threat-related defense response in women, while men showed a pattern of sustained orienting, which can be understood as a shift toward less threat proximity in the defense cascade model. Clinical implications are discussed within a socio-evolutionary framework. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional response of a near-surface soil microbial community to a simulated underground CO2 storage leak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Sergio E; Holben, William E

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of leaks from geologic carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, is key to developing effective strategies for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions management and mitigation of potential negative effects. Here, we provide the first report on the potential effects of leaks from carbon capture and storage sites on microbial functional groups in surface and near-surface soils. Using a simulated subsurface CO2 storage leak scenario, we demonstrate how CO2 flow upward through the soil column altered both the abundance (DNA) and activity (mRNA) of microbial functional groups mediating carbon and nitrogen transformations. These microbial responses were found to be seasonally dependent and correlated to shifts in atmospheric conditions. While both DNA and mRNA levels were affected by elevated CO2, they did not react equally, suggesting two separate mechanisms for soil microbial community response to high CO2 levels. The results did not always agree with previous studies on elevated atmospheric (rather than subsurface) CO2 using FACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment) systems, suggesting that microbial community response to CO2 seepage from the subsurface might differ from its response to atmospheric CO2 increases.

  17. A Meta-Analysis of the Association between Gender and Protective Behaviors in Response to Respiratory Epidemics and Pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Kelly R; Del Valle, Sara Y

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory infectious disease epidemics and pandemics are recurring events that levy a high cost on individuals and society. The health-protective behavioral response of the public plays an important role in limiting respiratory infectious disease spread. Health-protective behaviors take several forms. Behaviors can be categorized as pharmaceutical (e.g., vaccination uptake, antiviral use) or non-pharmaceutical (e.g., hand washing, face mask use, avoidance of public transport). Due to the limitations of pharmaceutical interventions during respiratory epidemics and pandemics, public health campaigns aimed at limiting disease spread often emphasize both non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical behavioral interventions. Understanding the determinants of the public's behavioral response is crucial for devising public health campaigns, providing information to parametrize mathematical models, and ultimately limiting disease spread. While other reviews have qualitatively analyzed the body of work on demographic determinants of health-protective behavior, this meta-analysis quantitatively combines the results from 85 publications to determine the global relationship between gender and health-protective behavioral response. The results show that women in the general population are about 50% more likely than men to adopt/practice non-pharmaceutical behaviors. Conversely, men in the general population are marginally (about 12%) more likely than women to adopt/practice pharmaceutical behaviors. It is possible that factors other than pharmaceutical/non-pharmaceutical status not included in this analysis act as moderators of this relationship. These results suggest an inherent difference in how men and women respond to epidemic and pandemic respiratory infectious diseases. This information can be used to target specific groups when developing non-pharmaceutical public health campaigns and to parameterize epidemic models incorporating demographic information.

  18. A Meta-Analysis of the Association between Gender and Protective Behaviors in Response to Respiratory Epidemics and Pandemics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly R Moran

    Full Text Available Respiratory infectious disease epidemics and pandemics are recurring events that levy a high cost on individuals and society. The health-protective behavioral response of the public plays an important role in limiting respiratory infectious disease spread. Health-protective behaviors take several forms. Behaviors can be categorized as pharmaceutical (e.g., vaccination uptake, antiviral use or non-pharmaceutical (e.g., hand washing, face mask use, avoidance of public transport. Due to the limitations of pharmaceutical interventions during respiratory epidemics and pandemics, public health campaigns aimed at limiting disease spread often emphasize both non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical behavioral interventions. Understanding the determinants of the public's behavioral response is crucial for devising public health campaigns, providing information to parametrize mathematical models, and ultimately limiting disease spread. While other reviews have qualitatively analyzed the body of work on demographic determinants of health-protective behavior, this meta-analysis quantitatively combines the results from 85 publications to determine the global relationship between gender and health-protective behavioral response. The results show that women in the general population are about 50% more likely than men to adopt/practice non-pharmaceutical behaviors. Conversely, men in the general population are marginally (about 12% more likely than women to adopt/practice pharmaceutical behaviors. It is possible that factors other than pharmaceutical/non-pharmaceutical status not included in this analysis act as moderators of this relationship. These results suggest an inherent difference in how men and women respond to epidemic and pandemic respiratory infectious diseases. This information can be used to target specific groups when developing non-pharmaceutical public health campaigns and to parameterize epidemic models incorporating demographic information.

  19. Respiratory acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventilatory failure; Respiratory failure; Acidosis - respiratory ... Causes of respiratory acidosis include: Diseases of the airways (such as asthma and COPD ) Diseases of the lung tissue (such as ...

  20. High Fat Diet Inhibits Dendritic Cell and T Cell Response to Allergens but Does Not Impair Inhalational Respiratory Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Pizzolla

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity has risen to epidemic proportions in recent decades, most commonly attributed to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle, and a 'western' diet high in fat and low in fibre. Although non-allergic asthma is a well-established co-morbidity of obesity, the influence of obesity on allergic asthma is still under debate. Allergic asthma is thought to result from impaired tolerance to airborne antigens, so-called respiratory tolerance. We sought to investigate whether a diet high in fats affects the development of respiratory tolerance. Mice fed a high fat diet (HFD for 8 weeks showed weight gain, metabolic disease, and alteration in gut microbiota, metabolites and glucose metabolism compared to age-matched mice fed normal chow diet (ND. Respiratory tolerance was induced by repeated intranasal (i.n. administration of ovalbumin (OVA, prior to induction of allergic airway inflammation (AAI by sensitization with OVA in alum i.p. and subsequent i.n. OVA challenge. Surprisingly, respiratory tolerance was induced equally well in HFD and ND mice, as evidenced by decreased lung eosinophilia and serum OVA-specific IgE production. However, in a pilot study, HFD mice showed a tendency for impaired activation of airway dendritic cells and regulatory T cells compared with ND mice after induction of respiratory tolerance. Moreover, the capacity of lymph node cells to produce IL-5 and IL-13 after AAI was drastically diminished in HFD mice compared to ND mice. These results indicate that HFD does not affect the inflammatory or B cell response to an allergen, but inhibits priming of Th2 cells and possibly dendritic cell and regulatory T cell activation.

  1. Susceptibility to Lower Respiratory Infections in Childhood is Associated with Perturbation of the Cytokine Response to Pathogenic Airway Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Brix, Susanne; Bisgaard, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Neonatal colonization of the airways with respiratory pathogens is associated with increased risk of lower respiratory infections (LRI) in early childhood. Therefore, we hypothesized that children developing LRI have an aberrant immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. The objective was to characterize in vitro the early life systemic immune response to pathogenic bacteria and study the possible association with incidence of LRI during the first 3 years of life. The Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2000 (COPSAC2000) is a clinical birth cohort study of 411 children born of mothers with asthma. LRI incidence was prospectively captured from 6-monthly planned visits and visits at acute respiratory episodes. The in vitro systemic immune response to Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae was characterized by the production of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 and IL-17 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated at age 6 months from 291 infants. Data were analyzed by Poisson regression against incidence of LRI in infancy. A multivariable model including all cytokine responses from the 3 different bacterial stimulations significantly identified children at risk of LRI (P = 0.006). The immune response pattern associated with LRI was characterized by perturbed production of several cytokines rather than production of one specific cytokine, and was independent of concurrent asthma. TNF-α and IL-5 were key drivers but did not explain the entire variation in LRI susceptibility. Children at risk of future LRI present a perturbed systemic immune response upon exposure to common airway pathogens in early life.

  2. Contrasting response to nutrient manipulation in Arctic mesocosms are reproduced by a minimum microbial food web model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Aud; Egge, Jorun K; Nejstgaard, Jens C; Di Capua, Iole; Thyrhaug, Runar; Bratbak, Gunnar; Thingstad, T Frede

    2015-03-01

    A minimum mathematical model of the marine pelagic microbial food web has previously shown to be able to reproduce central aspects of observed system response to different bottom-up manipulations in a mesocosm experiment Microbial Ecosystem Dynamics (MEDEA) in Danish waters. In this study, we apply this model to two mesocosm experiments (Polar Aquatic Microbial Ecology (PAME)-I and PAME-II) conducted at the Arctic location Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. The different responses of the microbial community to similar nutrient manipulation in the three mesocosm experiments may be described as diatom-dominated (MEDEA), bacteria-dominated (PAME-I), and flagellated-dominated (PAME-II). When allowing ciliates to be able to feed on small diatoms, the model describing the diatom-dominated MEDEA experiment give a bacteria-dominated response as observed in PAME I in which the diatom community comprised almost exclusively small-sized cells. Introducing a high initial mesozooplankton stock as observed in PAME-II, the model gives a flagellate-dominated response in accordance with the observed response also of this experiment. The ability of the model originally developed for temperate waters to reproduce population dynamics in a 10°C colder Arctic fjord, does not support the existence of important shifts in population balances over this temperature range. Rather, it suggests a quite resilient microbial food web when adapted to in situ temperature. The sensitivity of the model response to its mesozooplankton component suggests, however, that the seasonal vertical migration of Arctic copepods may be a strong forcing factor on Arctic microbial food webs.

  3. Duox2-induced innate immune responses in the respiratory epithelium and intranasal delivery of Duox2 DNA using polymer that mediates immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yung Jin; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2018-05-01

    Respiratory mucosa especially nasal epithelium is well known as the first-line barrier of air-borne pathogens. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are detected in in vitro cultured human epithelial cells and in vivo lung. With identification of NADPH oxidase (Nox) system of respiratory epithelium, the antimicrobial role of ROS has been studied. Duox2 is the most abundant Nox isoform and produces the regulated amount of ROS in respiratory epithelium. Duox2-derived ROS are involved in antiviral innate immune responses but more studies are needed to verify the mechanism. In respiratory epithelium, Duox2-derived ROS is critical for recognition of virus through families retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) at the early stage of antiviral innate immune responses. Various secreted interferons (IFNs) play essential roles for antiviral host defense by downstream cell signaling, and transcription of IFN-stimulated genes is started to suppress viral replication. Type I and type III IFNs are verified more responsible for influenza A virus (IAV) infection in respiratory epithelium and Duox2 is required to regulate IFN-related immune responses. Transient overexpression of Duox2 using cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI) induces secretion of type I and type III IFNs and significantly attenuated IAV replication in respiratory epithelium. Here, we discuss Duox2-mediated antiviral innate immune responses and the role of Duox2 as a mucosal vaccine to resist respiratory viral infection.

  4. Microbial community responses to organophosphate substrate additions in contaminated subsurface sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Martinez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Radionuclide- and heavy metal-contaminated subsurface sediments remain a legacy of Cold War nuclear weapons research and recent nuclear power plant failures. Within such contaminated sediments, remediation activities are necessary to mitigate groundwater contamination. A promising approach makes use of extant microbial communities capable of hydrolyzing organophosphate substrates to promote mineralization of soluble contaminants within deep subsurface environments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Uranium-contaminated sediments from the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Research Center (ORFRC Area 2 site were used in slurry experiments to identify microbial communities involved in hydrolysis of 10 mM organophosphate amendments [i.e., glycerol-2-phosphate (G2P or glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P] in synthetic groundwater at pH 5.5 and pH 6.8. Following 36 day (G2P and 20 day (G3P amended treatments, maximum phosphate (PO4(3- concentrations of 4.8 mM and 8.9 mM were measured, respectively. Use of the PhyloChip 16S rRNA microarray identified 2,120 archaeal and bacterial taxa representing 46 phyla, 66 classes, 110 orders, and 186 families among all treatments. Measures of archaeal and bacterial richness were lowest under G2P (pH 5.5 treatments and greatest with G3P (pH 6.8 treatments. Members of the phyla Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria demonstrated the greatest enrichment in response to organophosphate amendments and the OTUs that increased in relative abundance by 2-fold or greater accounted for 9%-50% and 3%-17% of total detected Archaea and Bacteria, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work provided a characterization of the distinct ORFRC subsurface microbial communities that contributed to increased concentrations of extracellular phosphate via hydrolysis of organophosphate substrate amendments. Within subsurface environments that are not ideal for reductive precipitation of uranium

  5. The Egyptian Red Sea coastal microbiome: A study revealing differential microbial responses to diverse anthropogenic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ghada A; Abd-Elgawad, Amr; Ouf, Amged; Siam, Rania

    2016-07-01

    The Red Sea is considered one of the youngest oceanic systems, with unique physical, geochemical and biological characteristics. Tourism, industrialization, extensive fishing, oil processing and shipping are extensive sources of pollution in the Red Sea. We analyzed the geochemical characteristics and microbial community of sediments along the Egyptian coast of the Red Sea. Our sites mainly included 1) four ports used for shipping aluminum, ilmenite and phosphate; 2) a site previously reported to have suffered extensive oil spills; and 3) a site impacted by tourism. Two major datasets for the sediment of ten Red Sea coastal sites were generated; i) a chemical dataset included measurements of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur, metals and selected semi-volatile oil; and ii) a 16S rRNA Pyrotags bacterial metagenomic dataset. Based on the taxonomic assignments of the 16S rRNA Pyrotags to major bacterial groups, we report 30 taxa constituting an Egyptian Red Sea Coastal Microbiome. Bacteria that degrade hydrocarbons were predominant in the majority of the sites, particularly in two ports where they reached up to 76% of the total identified genera. In contrast, sulfate-reducing and sulfate-oxidizing bacteria dominated two lakes at the expense of other hydrocarbon metabolizers. Despite the reported "Egyptian Red Sea Coastal Microbiome," sites with similar anthropogenic pollutants showed unique microbial community abundances. This suggests that the abundance of a specific bacterial community is an evolutionary mechanism induced in response to selected anthropogenic pollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Soil microbial functionality in response to the inclusion of cover crop mixtures in agricultural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego N. Chavarría

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural systems where monoculture prevails are characterized by fertility losses and reduced contribution to ecosystem services. Including cover crops (CC as part of an agricultural system is a promising choice in sustainable intensification of those demanding systems. We evaluated soil microbial functionality in cash crops in response to the inclusion of CC by analyzing soil microbial functions at two different periods of the agricultural year (cash crop harvest and CC desiccation during 2013 and 2014. Three plant species were used as CC: oat (Avena sativa L., vetch (Vicia sativa L. and radish (Raphanus sativus L. which were sown in two different mixtures of species: oat and radish mix (CC1 and oat, radish and vetch mix (CC2, with soybean monoculture and soybean/corn being the cash crops. The study of community level physiological profiles showed statistical differences in respiration of specific C sources indicating an improvement of catabolic diversity in CC treatments. Soil enzyme activities were also increased with the inclusion of CC mixtures, with values of dehydrogenase activity and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis up to 38.1% and 35.3% higher than those of the control treatment, respectively. This research evidenced that CC inclusion promotes soil biological quality through a contribution of soil organic carbon, improving the sustainability of agrosystems. The use of a CC mixture of three plant species including the legume vetch increased soil biological processes and catabolic diversity, with no adverse effects on cash crop grain yield.

  7. Soil microbial functionality in response to the inclusion of cover crop mixtures in agricultural systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavarría, D.N.; Verdenelli, R.A.; Muñoz, M.J.; Conforto, C.; Restovich, S.B.; Andriulo, A.E.; Meriles, J.M.; Vargas-Gil, S.

    2016-11-01

    Agricultural systems where monoculture prevails are characterized by fertility losses and reduced contribution to ecosystem services. Including cover crops (CC) as part of an agricultural system is a promising choice in sustainable intensification of those demanding systems. We evaluated soil microbial functionality in cash crops in response to the inclusion of CC by analyzing soil microbial functions at two different periods of the agricultural year (cash crop harvest and CC desiccation) during 2013 and 2014. Three plant species were used as CC: oat (Avena sativa L.), vetch (Vicia sativa L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) which weresown in two different mixtures of species: oat and radish mix (CC1) and oat, radish and vetch mix (CC2), with soybean monoculture and soybean/corn being the cash crops. The study of community level physiological profiles showed statistical differences in respiration of specific C sources indicating an improvement of catabolic diversity in CC treatments. Soil enzyme activities were also increased with the inclusion of CC mixtures, with values of dehydrogenase activity and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis up to 38.1% and 35.3% higher than those of the control treatment, respectively. This research evidenced that CC inclusion promotes soil biological quality through a contribution of soil organic carbon, improving the sustainability of agrosystems. The use of a CC mixture of three plant species including the legume vetch increased soil biological processes and catabolic diversity, with no adverse effects on cash crop grain yield. (Author)

  8. Susceptibility to Lower Respiratory Infections in Childhood is Associated with Perturbation of the Cytokine Response to Pathogenic Airway Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt

    2016-01-01

    of 411 children born of mothers with asthma. LRI incidence was prospectively captured from 6-monthly planned visits and visits at acute respiratory episodes. The in vitro systemic immune response to H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis and S. pneumoniae was characterized by the production of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2......, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, and IL-17 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated at age 6 months from 291 infants. Data were analyzed by Poisson regression against incidence of LRI in infancy. RESULTS:: A multivariable model including all cytokine responses from the three different bacterial stimulations...

  9. Antibiotics and Manure Effects on Microbial Communities Responsible for Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo, M.; Song, B.; Sparrer, T.; Crozier, C.; Tobias, C. R.; Phillips, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    Agroecosystems are major contributors of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Denitrification and nitrification are the primary pathways of N2O emission in soils. However, there is uncertainty regarding the organisms responsible for N2O production. Bacteria were previously considered the only microbial N2O source, however, current studies indicate that fungi also produce N2O by denitrification. Denitrifying bacteria can be a source or sink of N2O depending on the presence and expression of nitrous oxide reductase genes (nosZ), encoding for the enzyme converting N2O to N2. Fungal denitrification may produce only N2O as an end product due to missing the nosZ gene. Animal manures applied to agricultural fields can transfer antibiotics to soils as a result of antibiotic use in the livestock industry. These antibiotics target mostly bacteria and may promote fungal growth. The growth inhibition of denitrifying bacteria may favor fungal denitrifiers potentially enhancing N2O emissions. Our objective is to examine the effects of antibiotic exposure and manure fertilization on the microbial communities responsible for N2 and N2O production in grasslands. Soil slurry incubations were conducted with tetracycline at different concentrations. A mesocosm experiment was also performed with soil cores exposed to tetracycline and cow manure. Production of N2O and N2 was measured using gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), respectively. Antibiotic inhibition of soil N2 production was found to be dose dependent, reaching up to 80% inhibition with 1g Kg-1 of tetracycline treatment, while N2O production was enhanced up to 8 times. These results suggest higher fungal denitrification with a concomitant decrease in bacterial denitrification after antibiotic exposure. We also found higher N2O fluxes in the soil mesocosms treated with manure plus tetracycline. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) will be conducted to examine the changes in

  10. Cardiovascular, respiratory and metabolic responses to temperature and hypoxia of the winter frog Rana catesbeiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha P.L.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of hypoxia and temperature on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and plasma glucose levels of the winter bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. Body temperature was maintained at 10, 15, 25 and 35oC for measurements of breathing frequency, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, metabolic rate, plasma glucose levels, blood gases and acid-base status. Reducing body temperature from 35 to 10oC decreased (P<0.001 heart rate (bpm from 64.0 ± 3.1 (N = 5 to 12.5 ± 2.5 (N = 6 and blood pressure (mmHg (P<0.05 from 41.9 ± 2.1 (N = 5 to 33.1 ± 2.1 (N = 6, whereas no significant changes were observed under hypoxia. Hypoxia-induced changes in breathing frequency and acid-base status were proportional to body temperature, being pronounced at 25oC, less so at 15oC, and absent at 10oC. Hypoxia at 35oC was lethal. Under normoxia, plasma glucose concentration (mg/dl decreased (P<0.01 from 53.0 ± 3.4 (N = 6 to 35.9 ± 1.7 (N = 6 at body temperatures of 35 and 10oC, respectively. Hypoxia had no significant effect on plasma glucose concentration at 10 and 15oC, but at 25oC there was a significant increase under conditions of 3% inspired O2. The arterial PO2 and pH values were similar to those reported in previous studies on non-estivating Rana catesbeiana, but PaCO2 (37.5 ± 1.9 mmHg, N = 5 was 3-fold higher, indicating increased plasma bicarbonate levels. The estivating bullfrog may be exposed not only to low temperatures but also to hypoxia. These animals show temperature-dependent responses that may be beneficial since during low body temperatures the sensitivity of most physiological systems to hypoxia is reduced

  11. Respiratory immune responses in the chicken; Towards development of mucosal avian influenza virus vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geus, E.D.

    2012-01-01

    Several important poultry pathogens, including avian influenza virus (AIV), enter the host through the mucosae of the respiratory tract (RT) and subsequently disseminate towards other organs in the body. Therefore, animal health significantly depends on the control of infection in the lung tissue by

  12. Autonomic and cardio-respiratory responses to exercise in Brugada Syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoyrin Chanavirut, MSc

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Thai BrS patients had a more rapid rate of restoration of the parasympathetic and smaller level of sympathetic activation after exercise. They had mild hyperkalemia which is reduced according to the exercise. Furthermore, they exhibited impaired cardio-respiratory fitness.

  13. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia responses to cognitive tasks : effects of task factors and RSA indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, T.; Boxtel, van Anton; Westerink, J.H.D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies show that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) decreases while performing cognitive tasks. However, there is uncertainty about the role of contaminating factors such as physical activity and stress-inducing task variables. Different methods to quantify RSA may also contribute to variable

  14. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia responses to cognitive tasks: Effects of task factors and RSA indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, T.J.M.; van Boxtel, A.; Westerink, J.H.D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies show that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) decreases while performing cognitive tasks. However, there is uncertainty about the role of contaminating factors such as physical activity and stress-inducing task variables. Different methods to quantify RSA may also contribute to variable

  15. Immunological response to quadrivalent HPV vaccine in treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjon Pian Gi, Robin E. A.; San Giorgi, Michel R. M.; Pawlita, Michael; Michel, Angelika; van Hemel, Bettien M.; Schuuring, Ed M. D.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Dikkers, Frederik G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study was to explore influence of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (Gardasil(A (R))) on the immune status of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) patients. In retrospective observational study, six RRP patients who received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine and whose HPV seroreactivity was

  16. Immunological response to quadrivalent HPV vaccine in treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjon Pian Gi, R.E.A.; San Giorgi, M.R.M.; Pawlita, M.; Michel, A.; van Hemel, B.M.; Schuuring, E.M.D.; van den Heuvel, E.R.; van der Laan, B.F.A.M.; Dikkers, F.G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study was to explore influence of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (Gardasil®) on the immune status of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) patients. In retrospective observational study, six RRP patients who received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine and whose HPV seroreactivity was

  17. Respiratory variation in peak aortic velocity accurately predicts fluid responsiveness in children undergoing neurosurgery under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morparia, Kavita G; Reddy, Srijaya K; Olivieri, Laura J; Spaeder, Michael C; Schuette, Jennifer J

    2018-04-01

    The determination of fluid responsiveness in the critically ill child is of vital importance, more so as fluid overload becomes increasingly associated with worse outcomes. Dynamic markers of volume responsiveness have shown some promise in the pediatric population, but more research is needed before they can be adopted for widespread use. Our aim was to investigate effectiveness of respiratory variation in peak aortic velocity and pulse pressure variation to predict fluid responsiveness, and determine their optimal cutoff values. We performed a prospective, observational study at a single tertiary care pediatric center. Twenty-one children with normal cardiorespiratory status undergoing general anesthesia for neurosurgery were enrolled. Respiratory variation in peak aortic velocity (ΔVpeak ao) was measured both before and after volume expansion using a bedside ultrasound device. Pulse pressure variation (PPV) value was obtained from the bedside monitor. All patients received a 10 ml/kg fluid bolus as volume expansion, and were qualified as responders if stroke volume increased >15% as a result. Utility of ΔVpeak ao and PPV and to predict responsiveness to volume expansion was investigated. A baseline ΔVpeak ao value of greater than or equal to 12.3% best predicted a positive response to volume expansion, with a sensitivity of 77%, specificity of 89% and area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.90. PPV failed to demonstrate utility in this patient population. Respiratory variation in peak aortic velocity is a promising marker for optimization of perioperative fluid therapy in the pediatric population and can be accurately measured using bedside ultrasonography. More research is needed to evaluate the lack of effectiveness of pulse pressure variation for this purpose.

  18. TLR-dependent human mucosal epithelial cell responses to microbial pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eMassari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractToll-Like Receptor (TLR signaling represents one of the best studied pathways to implement defense mechanisms against invading microbes in humans as well as in animals. TLRs respond to specific microbial ligands and to danger signals produced by the host during infection, and initiate downstream cascades that activate both innate and adaptive immunity. TLRs are expressed by professional immune cells and by the large majority of non-hematopoietic cells, including epithelial cells. In epithelial tissues, TLR functions are particularly important because these sites are constantly exposed to microorganisms, due to their location at the host interface with the environment. While at these sites, specific defense mechanisms and inflammatory responses are initiated via TLR signaling against pathogens, suppression or lack of TLR activation is also observed in response to the commensal microbiota. The mechanisms by which TLR signaling is regulated in mucosal epithelial cells include differential expression and levels of TLRs (and their signaling partners, their cellular localization and positioning within the tissue in a fashion that favors responses to pathogens while dampening responses to commensals and maintaining tissue homeostasis in physiologic conditions. In this review, the expression and activation of TLRs in mucosal epithelial cells of several sites of the human body are examined. Specifically, the oral cavity, the ear canal and eye, the airways, the gut and the reproductive tract are discussed, along with how site-specific host defense mechanisms are implemented via TLR signaling.

  19. Maximum in the middle: nonlinear response of microbial plankton to ultraviolet radiation and phosphorus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Medina-Sánchez

    Full Text Available The responses of heterotrophic microbial food webs (HMFW to the joint action of abiotic stressors related to global change have been studied in an oligotrophic high-mountain lake. A 2×5 factorial design field experiment performed with large mesocosms for >2 months was used to quantify the dynamics of the entire HMFW (bacteria, heterotrophic nanoflagellates, ciliates, and viruses after an experimental P-enrichment gradient which approximated or surpassed current atmospheric P pulses in the presence vs. absence of ultraviolet radiation. HMFW underwent a mid-term (<20 days acute development following a noticeable unimodal response to P enrichment, which peaked at intermediate P-enrichment levels and, unexpectedly, was more accentuated under ultraviolet radiation. However, after depletion of dissolved inorganic P, the HMFW collapsed and was outcompeted by a low-diversity autotrophic compartment, which constrained the development of HMFW and caused a significant loss of functional biodiversity. The dynamics and relationships among variables, and the response patterns found, suggest the importance of biotic interactions (predation/parasitism and competition in restricting HMFW development, in contrast to the role of abiotic factors as main drivers of autotrophic compartment. The response of HMFW may contribute to ecosystem resilience by favoring the maintenance of the peculiar paths of energy and nutrient-mobilization in these pristine ecosystems, which are vulnerable to threats by the joint action of abiotic stressors related to global change.

  20. Differential Responses of Soil Microbial Community to Four-Decade Long Grazing and Cultivation in a Semi-Arid Grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yating He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grazing and cultivation are two important management practices worldwide that can cause significant soil organic carbon (SOC losses. However, it remains elusive how soil microbes have responded to soil carbon changes under these two practices. Based on a four-decade long field experiment, this study investigated the effects of grazing and cultivation on SOC stocks and microbial properties in the semi-arid grasslands of China. We hypothesize that grazing and cultivation would deplete SOC and depress microbial activities under both practices. However, our hypotheses were only partially supported. As compared with the adjacent indigenous grasslands, SOC and microbial biomass carbon (MBC were decreased by 20% or more under grazing and cultivation, which is consistent with the reduction of fungi abundance by 40% and 71%, respectively. The abundance of bacteria and actinomycetes was decreased under grazing but increased under cultivation, which likely enhanced microbial diversity in cultivation. Invertase activity decreased under the two treatments, while urease activity increased under grazing. These results suggest that nitrogen fertilizer input during cultivation may preferentially favor bacterial growth, in spite of SOC loss, due to rapid decomposition, while overgrazing may deteriorate the nitrogen supply to belowground microbes, thus stimulating the microbial production of nitrogen acquisition enzymes. This decade-long study demonstrated differential soil microbial responses under grazing and cultivation and has important applications for better management practices in the grassland ecosystem.

  1. Soil microbial communities buffer physiological responses to drought stress in three hardwood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannenberg, Steven A; Phillips, Richard P

    2017-03-01

    Trees possess myriad adaptations for coping with drought stress, but the extent to which their drought responses are influenced by interactions with soil microbes is poorly understood. To explore the role of microbes in mediating tree responses to drought stress, we exposed saplings of three species (Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus alba) to a four week experimental drought in mesocosms. Half of the pots were inoculated with a live soil slurry (i.e., a microbial inoculum derived from soils beneath the canopies of mature A. saccharum, L. tulipifera or Q. alba stands), while the other half of the pots received a sterile soil slurry. Soil microbes ameliorated drought stress in L. tulipifera by minimizing reductions in leaf water potential and by reducing photosynthetic declines. In A. saccharum, soil microbes reduced drought stress by lessening declines in leaf water potential, though these changes did not buffer the trees from declining photosynthetic rates. In Q. alba, soil microbes had no effects on leaf physiological parameters during drought stress. In all species, microbes had no significant effects on dynamic C allocation during drought stress, suggesting that microbial effects on plant physiology were unrelated to source-sink dynamics. Collectively, our results suggest that soil microbes have the potential to alter key parameters that are used to diagnose drought sensitivity (i.e., isohydry or anisohydry). To the extent that our results reflect dynamics occurring in forests, a revised perspective on plant hydraulic strategies that considers root-microbe interactions may lead to improved predictions of forest vulnerability to drought.

  2. Repetitive hypoxia rapidly depresses cardio-respiratory responses during active sleep but not quiet sleep in the newborn lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Renea V; Grant, Daniel A; Wilkinson, Malcolm H; Walker, Adrian M

    1999-01-01

    Arousal from sleep is an important protective response to hypoxia that becomes rapidly depressed in active sleep (AS) when hypoxia is repeated. This study questioned whether there might also be selective depression of cardio-respiratory responses to hypoxia during AS. Nine newborn lambs (7-22 days of age) were studied over three successive nights. The first and third nights were baseline studies (inspired oxygen fraction, Fi,O2= 0.21). During the second night, during every epoch of sleep, lambs were exposed to 60 s episodes of isocapnic hypoxia (Fi,O2= 0.10). During quiet sleep (QS), the probability of arousal in hypoxia exceeded the probability of spontaneous arousal (P ventilatory and blood pressure responses in AS, but not in QS. Selective depression of responses during AS may render the newborn particularly vulnerable to hypoxia in this state. PMID:10457072

  3. Microbial Community Response to Carbon Substrate Amendment in Mercury Impacted Sediments: Implications on Microbial Methylation of Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, D. A.; Somenahally, A. C.; Moberly, J. G.; Hurt, R. A., Jr.; Brown, S. D.; Podar, M.; Palumbo, A. V.; Gilmour, C. C.

    2015-12-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxic and bio-accumulative product of the microbial methylation of inorganic mercury (Hg(II)). Methylating organisms are now known to exist in almost all anaerobic niches including fermentation, Fe(III)- and sulfate- reduction as well as methanogenesis. The study objective was to determine the effect of different carbon sources on the microbial community and methylating populations in particular along a Hg contaminated creek. Sediment cores from upstream and downstream at the Hg contaminated East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC), Oak Ridge TN, and a background site were sectioned by depth, and Hg-methylation potential (HgMP) assays were performed using stable isotope spikes. Sediments from the lowest depth possessed the highest in-situ activity. Replicate samples were amended with different carbon substrates (cellulose, acetate, propionate, lactate, ethanol and methanol), spiked with stable isotopes for HgMP assays and incubated for 24hrs. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was performed to determine alterations in Bacterial and Archaeal population dynamics. Additionally, bioinformatics and our new qualitative and quantitative hgcAB primers were utilized to determine microbial community structure alterations and correlate organism and gene abundance with altered MeHg generation. HgMP was significantly reduced in cellulose amended sediments while acetate and propionate slightly decreased HgMP in both sites. Methanol, ethanol and lactate increased the HgMP in EFPC downstream while cellulose amendment significantly decreased the Proteobacteria, and the Firmicutes increased but none are currently known to produce MeHg. Geobacter bemidjiensis in particular significantly decreased in cellulose amended sediments in all three sites from being predominant in-situ. This suggests that in EFPC downstream and background sites, the prevalent Hg-methyaltors might be Deltaprotebacteria, since upstream, cellulose amendment did not reduce HgMP even though

  4. Divergent taxonomic and functional responses of microbial communities to field simulation of aeolian soil erosion and deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xingyu; Zhao, Cancan; Gao, Ying; Liu, Bin; Wang, Tengxu; Yuan, Tong; Hale, Lauren; Nostrand, Joy D Van; Wan, Shiqiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng

    2017-08-01

    Aeolian soil erosion and deposition have worldwide impacts on agriculture, air quality and public health. However, ecosystem responses to soil erosion and deposition remain largely unclear in regard to microorganisms, which are the crucial drivers of biogeochemical cycles. Using integrated metagenomics technologies, we analysed microbial communities subjected to simulated soil erosion and deposition in a semiarid grassland of Inner Mongolia, China. As expected, soil total organic carbon and plant coverage were decreased by soil erosion, and soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was increased by soil deposition, demonstrating that field simulation was reliable. Soil microbial communities were altered (p soil erosion and deposition, with dramatic increase in Cyanobacteria related to increased stability in soil aggregates. amyA genes encoding α-amylases were specifically increased (p = .01) by soil deposition and positively correlated (p = .02) to DOC, which likely explained changes in DOC. Surprisingly, most of microbial functional genes associated with carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium cycling were decreased or unaltered by both erosion and deposition, probably arising from acceleration of organic matter mineralization. These divergent responses support the necessity to include microbial components in evaluating ecological consequences. Furthermore, Mantel tests showed strong, significant correlations between soil nutrients and functional structure but not taxonomic structure, demonstrating close relevance of microbial function traits to nutrient cycling. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Maximum in the middle: nonlinear response of microbial plankton to ultraviolet radiation and phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Delgado-Molina, José Antonio; Bratbak, Gunnar; Bullejos, Francisco José; Villar-Argaiz, Manuel; Carrillo, Presentación

    2013-01-01

    The responses of heterotrophic microbial food webs (HMFW) to the joint action of abiotic stressors related to global change have been studied in an oligotrophic high-mountain lake. A 2×5 factorial design field experiment performed with large mesocosms for >2 months was used to quantify the dynamics of the entire HMFW (bacteria, heterotrophic nanoflagellates, ciliates, and viruses) after an experimental P-enrichment gradient which approximated or surpassed current atmospheric P pulses in the presence vs. absence of ultraviolet radiation. HMFW underwent a mid-term (ultraviolet radiation. However, after depletion of dissolved inorganic P, the HMFW collapsed and was outcompeted by a low-diversity autotrophic compartment, which constrained the development of HMFW and caused a significant loss of functional biodiversity. The dynamics and relationships among variables, and the response patterns found, suggest the importance of biotic interactions (predation/parasitism and competition) in restricting HMFW development, in contrast to the role of abiotic factors as main drivers of autotrophic compartment. The response of HMFW may contribute to ecosystem resilience by favoring the maintenance of the peculiar paths of energy and nutrient-mobilization in these pristine ecosystems, which are vulnerable to threats by the joint action of abiotic stressors related to global change.

  6. Numerical Simulation of Hemodynamic and Physiological Responses of Human Cardiovascular and Respiratory System under Drugs Administration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Převorovská, Světlana; Maršík, František

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2004), s. 295-304 ISSN 1567-8822 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/03/1073; GA ČR(CZ) GA106/03/0958 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : human cardiovascular and respiratory system * baroreflex and chemoreflex control * physiologically based pharmacokinetic model Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  7. Using community trait-distributions to assign microbial responses to pH changes and Cd in forest soils treated with wood ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz Paredes, Carla; Wallander, Håkan; Kjøller, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    is the current land-use. In forestry, wood ash has been proposed as a liming agent and a fertilizer, but has been questioned due to the risk associated with its Cd content. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of wood ash on the structure and function of decomposer microbial communities in forest......The identification of causal links between microbial community structure and ecosystem functions are required for a mechanistic understanding of ecosystem responses to environmental change. One of the most influential factors affecting plants and microbial communities in soil in managed ecosystems...... soils and to assign them to causal mechanisms. To do this, we assessed the responses to wood ash application of (i) the microbial community size and structure, (ii) microbial community trait-distributions, including bacterial pH relationships and Cd-tolerance, to assign the microbial responses to p...

  8. Ecosystem and physiological scales of microbial responses to nutrients in a detritus-based stream: results of a 5-year continuous enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller Suberkropp; Vladislav Gulis; Amy D. Rosemond; Jonathan Benstead

    2010-01-01

    Our study examined the response of leaf detritus–associated microorganisms (both bacteria and fungi) to a 5-yr continuous nutrient enrichment of a forested headwater stream. Leaf litter dominates detritus inputs to such streams and, on a system wide scale, serves as the key substrate for microbial colonization. We determined physiological responses as microbial biomass...

  9. Assessment of respiratory and ion transport potential of Penaeus japonicus gills in response to environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. ABDEL-MOHSEN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to pinpoint the respiratory and ion transport potential of gills of Penaeus japonicus living in Abu-Qir Bay, East of Alexandria, Egypt. Our results revealed clear histological impairments in gill structure. These alterations were mainly represented by the presence of large vacuoles in gill axis and gill lamellae. In addition, narrow, disrupted gill lamellae with wavy cuticle and shrunk pillar cells were detected. Moreover, some cells clearly showed pyknosis. Gill ultrastructure also showed abnormal chromatin condensation inside the nucleus. Obvious alterations in the typical shape and structure of mitochondria were observed. Noticeably, the main characteristics of ion regulating gill epithelium were absent thus suggesting a low ion transport activity of P. japonicus gills. Statistically, this was further proved by the significantly higher activity levels of respiratory enzymes, namely, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH compared to those of the ion transport enzymes, namely, adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase and carbonic anhydrase (CA in gills and haemolymph. SDH activity levels were higher than the corresponding levels of LDH in gills and its own level in haemolymph, indicating a contradictory effect of pollution on respiratory enzyme activity levels.

  10. Taxonomic and functional diversity provides insight into microbial pathways and stress responses in the saline Qinghai Lake, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuyuan Huang

    Full Text Available Microbe-mediated biogeochemical cycles contribute to the global climate system and have sensitive responses and feedbacks to environmental stress caused by climate change. Yet, little is known about the effects of microbial biodiversity (i.e., taxonmic and functional diversity on biogeochemical cycles in ecosytems that are highly sensitive to climate change. One such sensitive ecosystem is Qinghai Lake, a high-elevation (3196 m saline (1.4% lake located on the Tibetan Plateau, China. This study provides baseline information on the microbial taxonomic and functional diversity as well as the associated stress response genes. Illumina metagenomic and metatranscriptomic datasets were generated from lake water samples collected at two sites (B and E. Autotrophic Cyanobacteria dominated the DNA samples, while heterotrophic Proteobacteria dominated the RNA samples at both sites. Photoheterotrophic Loktanella was also present at both sites. Photosystem II was the most active pathway at site B; while, oxidative phosphorylation was most active at site E. Organisms that expressed photosystem II or oxidative phosphorylation also expressed genes involved in photoprotection and oxidative stress, respectively. Assimilatory pathways associated with the nitrogen cycle were dominant at both sites. Results also indicate a positive relationship between functional diversity and the number of stress response genes. This study provides insight into the stress resilience of microbial metabolic pathways supported by greater taxonomic diversity, which may affect the microbial community response to climate change.

  11. Respiratory symptoms and bronchial responsiveness are related to dietary salt intake and urinary potassium excretion in male children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistelli, R; Forastiere, F; Corbo, G M; Dell'Orco, V; Brancato, G; Agabiti, N; Pizzabiocca, A; Perucci, C A

    1993-04-01

    To investigate whether dietary salt intake and urinary sodium and potassium levels are related to respiratory symptoms and bronchial responsiveness, a cross-sectional study among 2593 subjects aged 9 to 16 was conducted in four communities of the Latium region (Italy). Questionnaires were administered to the parents, urine samples were collected, lung function, methacholine challenge tests and prick tests were performed. Information about familial and personal dietary salt use and respiratory health was collected from the parents of 2439 (94%) subjects. A total of 2020 methacholine challenge tests and 916 urinary sodium and potassium levels were available for analysis. Personal table salt use was strongly related to cough and phlegm apart from colds (adjusted odds ratios, OR, 1.87, 95% confidence intervals, CI, 1.20-2.90), wheezing apart from colds (OR, 2.19, 95% CI, 1.27-3.77), wheezing with dyspnoea (OR, 1.45, 95% CI, 0.98-2.12) and wheezing after exercise (OR, 2.16, 95% CI, 1.35-3.44). These associations were mainly found in boys. Use of familial table salt and canned food showed no relation to respiratory symptoms. Increased bronchial responsiveness was associated with a higher urinary potassium excretion in boys, but not with urinary sodium. In conclusion, personal table salt use is related to an increased prevalence of bronchial symptoms; an increase in bronchial responsiveness among those with higher potassium excretion also seems to be implied. Although it is difficult to interpret the results of this study in causal terms, the findings might be relevant to the distribution of bronchial symptoms and diseases in the population.

  12. Interaction between gas cooking and GSTM1 null genotype in bronchial responsiveness: results from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, André F S; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Castro-Giner, Francesc; Minelli, Cosetta; Accordini, Simone; Sørheim, Inga-Cecilie; Pin, Isabelle; Kogevinas, Manolis; Jõgi, Rain; Balding, David J; Norbäck, Dan; Verlato, Giuseppe; Olivieri, Mario; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Janson, Christer; Zock, Jan-Paul; Heinrich, Joachim; Jarvis, Deborah L

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased bronchial responsiveness is characteristic of asthma. Gas cooking, which is a major indoor source of the highly oxidant nitrogen dioxide, has been associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function. However, little is known about the effect of gas cooking on bronchial responsiveness and on how this relationship may be modified by variants in the genes GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1, which influence antioxidant defences. Methods The study was performed in subjects with forced expiratory volume in one second at least 70% of predicted who took part in the multicentre European Community Respiratory Health Survey, had bronchial responsiveness assessed by methacholine challenge and had been genotyped for GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1-rs1695. Information on the use of gas for cooking was obtained from interviewer-led questionnaires. Effect modification by genotype on the association between the use of gas for cooking and bronchial responsiveness was assessed within each participating country, and estimates combined using meta-analysis. Results Overall, gas cooking, as compared with cooking with electricity, was not associated with bronchial responsiveness (β=−0.08, 95% CI −0.40 to 0.25, p=0.648). However, GSTM1 significantly modified this effect (β for interaction=−0.75, 95% CI −1.16 to −0.33, p=4×10−4), with GSTM1 null subjects showing more responsiveness if they cooked with gas. No effect modification by GSTT1 or GSTP1-rs1695 genotypes was observed. Conclusions Increased bronchial responsiveness was associated with gas cooking among subjects with the GSTM1 null genotype. This may reflect the oxidant effects on the bronchi of exposure to nitrogen dioxide. PMID:24613990

  13. Selective progressive response of soil microbial community to wild oat roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeAngelis, K.M.; Brodie, E.L.; DeSantis, T.Z.; Andersen, G.L.; Lindow, S.E.; Firestone, M.K.

    2008-10-01

    Roots moving through soil enact physical and chemical changes that differentiate rhizosphere from bulk soil, and the effects of these changes on soil microorganisms have long been a topic of interest. Use of a high-density 16S rRNA microarray (PhyloChip) for bacterial and archaeal community analysis has allowed definition of the populations that respond to the root within the complex grassland soil community; this research accompanies previously reported compositional changes, including increases in chitinase and protease specific activity, cell numbers and quorum sensing signal. PhyloChip results showed a significant change in 7% of the total rhizosphere microbial community (147 of 1917 taxa); the 7% response value was confirmed by16S rRNA T-RFLP analysis. This PhyloChip-defined dynamic subset was comprised of taxa in 17 of the 44 phyla detected in all soil samples. Expected rhizosphere-competent phyla, such as Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, were well represented, as were less-well-documented rhizosphere colonizers including Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Nitrospira. Richness of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria decreased in soil near the root tip compared to bulk soil, but then increased in older root zones. Quantitative PCR revealed {beta}-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria present at about 10{sup 8} copies of 16S rRNA genes g{sup -1} soil, with Nitrospira having about 10{sup 5} copies g{sup -1} soil. This report demonstrates that changes in a relatively small subset of the soil microbial community are sufficient to produce substantial changes in function in progressively more mature rhizosphere zones.

  14. Virus-like particle vaccine primes immune responses preventing inactivated-virus vaccine-enhanced disease against respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Ko, Eun-Ju; Lee, Youri; Kwon, Young-Man; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2017-11-01

    Formalin inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) vaccination caused vaccine-enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) upon exposure to RSV in children. Virus-like particles presenting RSV F fusion protein (F VLP) are known to increase T helper type-1 (Th1) immune responses and avoid ERD in animal models. We hypothesized that F VLP would prime immune responses preventing ERD upon subsequent exposure to ERD-prone FI-RSV. Here, we demonstrated that heterologous F VLP priming and FI-RSV boosting of mice prevented FI-RSV vaccine-enhanced lung inflammation and eosinophilia upon RSV challenge. F VLP priming redirected pulmonary T cells toward effector CD8 T cells producing Th1 cytokines and significantly suppressed pulmonary Th2 cytokines. This study suggests that RSV F VLP priming would modulate and shift immune responses to subsequent exposure to ERD-prone FI-RSV vaccine and RSV infection, suppressing Th2 immune-mediated pulmonary histopathology and eosinophilia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Investigating the legacy effect of drought on microbial responses to drying and rewetting along a Texan precipitation gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Lettice; Leizeaga, Ainara; Hawkes, Christine; Rousk, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological regimes will intensify due to climate change, thus increasing the duration and intensity of drought and rainfall events. Rewetting of dry soil is known to stimulate dramatic CO2 releases. A clear understanding of the mechanisms that determine the dynamics of CO2 loss upon rewetting is therefore required to characterise ecosystem C-budgets and predict responses to climate change. Laboratory studies have identified two distinct responses upon rewetting; bacterial growth either increases linearly immediately, with maximal respiration also occurring immediately and decreasing exponentially with time ("Type 1"), or bacterial growth increases exponentially after a period of near-zero growth, with a sustained period of elevated respiration, sometimes followed by a secondary increase in respiration coinciding with the onset of bacterial growth ("Type 2"). A shift from a Type 1 to a Type 2 response has been observed with increasing duration and intensity of drying prior to rewetting. The size of the surviving microbial community after drying, relative to resources available after rewetting, is suggested to dictate whether a Type 1 or 2 response occurs, with more 'harsh' (i.e. longer or more severe) drying reducing microbial biomass such that carbon available upon rewetting is sufficient to support exponential growth (leading to Type 2 response). However, this is yet to be tested in intact ecosystems. We investigated the legacy of drought on microbial responses to drying and rewetting using grassland soils from a natural precipitation gradient in Texas. Mean annual precipitation spanned a 500 mm range (400-900 mm year-1) across the 400 km gradient, while mean annual temperature was constant. Soil properties (pH, SOM) did not vary systematically across the gradient, with differences reflecting land-use history rather than rainfall. Air dried soils from 18 sites were rewetted to 50 % water holding capacity with bacterial growth, fungal growth and respiration

  16. Compositional differences in simulated root exudates elicit a limited functional and compositional response in soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Michael S; McCulley, Rebecca L; Nelson, Jim A; Bradford, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Inputs of low molecular weight carbon (LMW-C) to soil - primarily via root exudates- are expected to be a major driver of microbial activity and source of stable soil organic carbon. It is expected that variation in the type and composition of LMW-C entering soil will influence microbial community composition and function. If this is the case then short-term changes in LMW-C inputs may alter processes regulated by these communities. To determine if change in the composition of LMW-C inputs influences microbial community function and composition, we conducted a 90 day microcosm experiment whereby soils sourced from three different land covers (meadows, deciduous forests, and white pine stands) were amended, at low concentrations, with one of eight simulated root exudate treatments. Treatments included no addition of LMW-C, and the full factorial combination of glucose, glycine, and oxalic acid. After 90 days, we conducted a functional response assay and determined microbial composition via phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Whereas we noted a statistically significant effect of exudate treatments, this only accounted for ∼3% of the variation observed in function. In comparison, land cover and site explained ∼46 and ∼41% of the variation, respectively. This suggests that exudate composition has little influence on function compared to site/land cover specific factors. Supporting the finding that exudate effects were minor, we found that an absence of LMW-C elicited the greatest difference in function compared to those treatments receiving any LMW-C. Additionally, exudate treatments did not alter microbial community composition and observable differences were instead due to land cover. These results confirm the strong effects of land cover/site legacies on soil microbial communities. In contrast, short-term changes in exudate composition, at meaningful concentrations, may have little impact on microbial function and composition.

  17. Coral microbial community dynamics in response to anthropogenic impacts near a major city in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ziegler, Maren; Roik, Anna Krystyna; Porter, Adam; Zubier, Khalid; Mudarris, Mohammed S.; Ormond, Rupert; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Coral-associated bacteria play an increasingly recognized part in coral health. We investigated the effect of local anthropogenic impacts on coral microbial communities on reefs near Jeddah, the largest city on the Saudi Arabian coast of the central Red Sea. We analyzed the bacterial community structure of water and corals (Pocillopora verrucosa and Acropora hemprichii) at sites that were relatively unimpacted, exposed to sedimentation & local sewage, or in the discharge area of municipal wastewaters. Coral microbial communities were significantly different at impacted sites: in both corals the main symbiotic taxon decreased in abundance. In contrast, opportunistic bacterial families, such as e.g. Vibrionaceae and Rhodobacteraceae, were more abundant in corals at impacted sites. In conclusion, microbial community response revealed a measurable footprint of anthropogenic impacts to coral ecosystems close to Jeddah, even though the corals appeared visually healthy.

  18. Coral microbial community dynamics in response to anthropogenic impacts near a major city in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ziegler, Maren

    2016-01-04

    Coral-associated bacteria play an increasingly recognized part in coral health. We investigated the effect of local anthropogenic impacts on coral microbial communities on reefs near Jeddah, the largest city on the Saudi Arabian coast of the central Red Sea. We analyzed the bacterial community structure of water and corals (Pocillopora verrucosa and Acropora hemprichii) at sites that were relatively unimpacted, exposed to sedimentation & local sewage, or in the discharge area of municipal wastewaters. Coral microbial communities were significantly different at impacted sites: in both corals the main symbiotic taxon decreased in abundance. In contrast, opportunistic bacterial families, such as e.g. Vibrionaceae and Rhodobacteraceae, were more abundant in corals at impacted sites. In conclusion, microbial community response revealed a measurable footprint of anthropogenic impacts to coral ecosystems close to Jeddah, even though the corals appeared visually healthy.

  19. Response of African marigold (Tagetes erecta L. to different concentrations of chlorpyrifos and microbial diversity in root rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Santhoshkumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the response of African marigold (Tagetes erecta L. to exposed different concentration of chlorpyrifos by evaluating morphology (root and shoot length, biomass (fresh weight and dry weight, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b, protein and microbial diversity in root rhizosphere. Methods: The study was carried out in pot culture and treated with various concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, and 2.5% as well as control treatments. The morphological, biomass, photosynthetic pigments, protein, and microbial diversity were analyzed on 30, 60, and 90 days. Results: The obtained results revealed that the tested pesticide reduced the growth, biomass and photosynthetic pigment of African marigold when applied at higher concentration than the optimum dosage. But the lower dose the pesticide had some stimulatory effect of analyzed parameters. A similar effect of pesticide was observed on the microbial population of root rhizosphere that is decreased in microbial population was caused at higher doses. But it was increased at lower doses. Conclusions: It can be concluded that pesticide above the certain dosage level adversely affect all the analyzed parameters at higher doses. The application of recommended doses should be discouraged. Further study is needed for the effect of pesticide use on microbial diversity, since these studies are carried out in a controlled pot experiment, including the current study. Thus, future study directed towards by studying the phyoremediation of theses contaminted site with intraction of microbes.

  20. Acute exposure to realistic acid fog: effects on respiratory function and airway responsiveness in asthmatics.

    OpenAIRE

    Leduc, Dimitri; Fally, Sophie; De Vuyst, Paul; Wollast, Roland; Yernault, Jean Claude

    1995-01-01

    Naturally occurring fogs in industrialized cities are contaminated by acidic air pollutants. In Brussels, Belgium, the pH of polluted fogwater may be as low as 3 with osmolarity as low as 30 mOsm. In order to explore short-term respiratory effects of a realistic acid-polluted fog, we collected samples of acid fog in Brussels, Belgium, which is a densely populated and industrialized city, we defined characteristics of this fog and exposed asthmatic volunteers at rest through a face mask to fog...

  1. Facial Involuntary Movements and Respiratory Failure in CANOMAD, Responsive to IVIG Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CANOMAD is a rare chronic neuropathy, characterized by chronic sensory ataxia and intermittent brain stem symptoms due to antidisialosyl antibodies. The disorder results in significant morbidity but is poorly understood and often misdiagnosed. We describe a unique case of CANOMAD, associated with involuntary movements of the face; patient reported exacerbations with citrus and chocolate and respiratory muscle weakness. Our patient was initially misdiagnosed with Miller Fisher Syndrome, highlighting the need for vigilance should neurological symptoms recur in patients initially diagnosed with a Guillain Barre variant. Moreover, the optimal treatment is unknown. This patient responded remarkably to intravenous immunoglobulin and has been maintained on this treatment, without further exacerbations.

  2. Soil Microbial Activity Responses to Fire in a Semi-arid Savannah Ecosystem Pre- and Post-Monsoon Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, J. R.; Raub, H. D.; Jong, E. L.; Muscarella, C. R.; Smith, W. K.; Gallery, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    Extracellular enzyme activities (EEA) of soil microorganisms can act as important proxies for nutrient limitation and turnover in soil and provide insight into the biochemical requirements of microbes in terrestrial ecosystems. In semi-arid ecosystems, microbial activity is influenced by topography, disturbances such as fire, and seasonality from monsoon rains. Previous studies from forest ecosystems show that microbial communities shift to similar compositions after severe fires despite different initial conditions. In semi-arid ecosystems with high spatial heterogeniety, we ask does fire lead to patch intensification or patch homogenization and how do monsoon rains influence the successional trajectories of microbial responses? We analyzed microbial activity and soil biogeochemistry throughout the monsoon season in paired burned and unburned sites in the Santa Rita Experimental Range, AZ. Surface soil (5cm) from bare-ground patches, bole, canopy drip line, and nearby grass patches for 5 mesquite trees per site allowed tests of spatiotemporal responses to fire and monsoon rain. Microbial activity was low during the pre-monsoon season and did not differ between the burned and unburned sites. We found greater activity near mesquite trees that reflects soil water and nutrient availability. Fire increased soil alkalinity, though soils near mesquite trees were less affected. Soil water content was significantly higher in the burned sites post-monsoon, potentially reflecting greater hydrophobicity of burned soils. Considering the effects of fire in these semi-arid ecosystems is especially important in the context of the projected changing climate regime in this region. Assessing microbial community recovery pre-, during, and post-monsoon is important for testing predictions about whether successional pathways post-fire lead to recovery or novel trajectories of communities and ecosystem function.

  3. Divergent Responses of Forest Soil Microbial Communities under Elevated CO2 in Different Depths of Upper Soil Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; He, Zhili; Wang, Aijie; Xie, Jianping; Wu, Liyou; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Jin, Decai; Shao, Zhimin; Schadt, Christopher W; Zhou, Jizhong; Deng, Ye

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the continuous increase of atmosphere CO 2 concentrations may have profound effects on the forest ecosystem and its functions. However, little is known about the response of belowground soil microbial communities under elevated atmospheric CO 2 (eCO 2 ) at different soil depth profiles in forest ecosystems. Here, we examined soil microbial communities at two soil depths (0 to 5 cm and 5 to 15 cm) after a 10-year eCO 2 exposure using a high-throughput functional gene microarray (GeoChip). The results showed that eCO 2 significantly shifted the compositions, including phylogenetic and functional gene structures, of soil microbial communities at both soil depths. Key functional genes, including those involved in carbon degradation and fixation, methane metabolism, denitrification, ammonification, and nitrogen fixation, were stimulated under eCO 2 at both soil depths, although the stimulation effect of eCO 2 on these functional markers was greater at the soil depth of 0 to 5 cm than of 5 to 15 cm. Moreover, a canonical correspondence analysis suggested that NO 3 -N, total nitrogen (TN), total carbon (TC), and leaf litter were significantly correlated with the composition of the whole microbial community. This study revealed a positive feedback of eCO 2 in forest soil microbial communities, which may provide new insight for a further understanding of forest ecosystem responses to global CO 2 increases. IMPORTANCE The concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has continuously been increasing since the industrial revolution. Understanding the response of soil microbial communities to elevated atmospheric CO 2 (eCO 2 ) is important for predicting the contribution of the forest ecosystem to global atmospheric change. This study analyzed the effect of eCO 2 on microbial communities at two soil depths (0 to 5 cm and 5 to 15 cm) in a forest ecosystem. Our findings suggest that the compositional and functional structures of microbial

  4. Biodegradable nanoparticle-entrapped vaccine induces cross-protective immune response against a virulent heterologous respiratory viral infection in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Dwivedi

    Full Text Available Biodegradable nanoparticle-based vaccine development research is unexplored in large animals and humans. In this study, we illustrated the efficacy of nanoparticle-entrapped UV-killed virus vaccine against an economically important respiratory viral disease of pigs called porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. We entrapped PLGA [poly (lactide-co-glycolides] nanoparticles with killed PRRSV antigens (Nano-KAg and detected its phagocytosis by pig alveolar macrophages. Single doses of Nano-KAg vaccine administered intranasally to pigs upregulated innate and PRRSV specific adaptive responses. In a virulent heterologous PRRSV challenge study, Nano-KAg vaccine significantly reduced the lung pathology and viremia, and the viral load in the lungs. Immunologically, enhanced innate and adaptive immune cell population and associated cytokines with decreased secretion of immunosuppressive mediators were observed at both mucosal sites and blood. In summary, we demonstrated the benefits of intranasal delivery of nanoparticle-based viral vaccine in eliciting cross-protective immune response in pigs, a potential large animal model.

  5. Overview of preparedness and response for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abaidani, I S; Al-Maani, A S; Al-Kindi, H S; Al-Jardani, A K; Abdel-Hady, D M; Zayed, B E; Al-Harthy, K S; Al-Shaqsi, K H; Al-Abri, S S

    2014-12-01

    Several countries in the Middle East and around 22 countries worldwide have reported cases of human infection with the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The exceptionally high fatality rate resulting from MERS-CoV infection in conjunction with the paucity of knowledge about this emerging virus has led to major public and international concern. Within the framework of the national acute respiratory illness surveillance, the Ministry of Health in the Sultanate of Oman has announced two confirmed cases of MERS-CoV to date. The aim of this report is to describe the epidemiological aspects of these two cases and to highlight the importance of public health preparedness and response. The absence of secondary cases among contacts of the reported cases can be seen as evidence of the effectiveness of infection prevention and control precautions as an important pillar of the national preparedness and response plan applied in the health care institutions in Oman. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Microbial Composition in Decomposing Pine Litter Shifts in Response to Common Soil Secondary Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty-Bernard, A. T.; Heckman, K.; Vazquez, A.; Rasmussen, C.; Chorover, J.; Schwartz, E.

    2011-12-01

    A range of environmental and biotic factors have been identified that drive microbial community structure in soils - carbon substrates, redox conditions, mineral nutrients, salinity, pH, and species interactions. However, soil mineralogy has been largely ignored as a candidate in spite of recent studies that indicate that minerals have a substantial impact on soil organic matter stores and subsequent fluxes from soils. Given that secondary minerals and organic colloids govern a soil's biogeochemical activity due to surface area and electromagnetic charge, we propose that secondary minerals are a strong determinant of the communities that are responsible for process rates. To test this, we created three microcosms to study communities during decomposition using pine forest litter mixed with two common secondary minerals in soils (goethite and gibbsite) and with quartz as a control. Changes in bacterial and fungal communities were tracked over the 154-day incubation by pyrosequencing fragments of the bacterial 16S and fungal 18S rRNA genes. Ordination using nonmetric multidimensional scaling showed that bacterial communities separated on the basis of minerals. Overall, a single generalist - identified as an Acidobacteriaceae isolate - dominated all treatments over the course of the experiment, representing roughly 25% of all communities. Fungal communities discriminated between the quartz control alone and mineral treatments as a whole. Again, several generalists dominated the community. Coniochaeta ligniaria dominated communities with abundances ranging from 29 to 40%. The general stability of generalist populations may explain the similarities between treatment respiration rates. Variation between molecular fingerprints, then, were largely a function of unique minor members with abundances ranging from 0.01 to 8%. Carbon availability did not surface as a possible mechanism responsible for shifts in fingerprints due to the relatively large mass of needles in the

  7. Short-term population-based non-linear concentration-response associations between fine particulate matter and respiratory diseases in Taipei (Taiwan): a spatiotemporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chien, Lung-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Fine particulate matter respiratory disease remain inconsistent. The short-term, population-based association between the respiratory clinic visits of children and PM2.5 exposure levels were investigated by considering both the spatiotemporal distributions of ambient pollution and clinic visit data. We applied a spatiotemporal structured additive regression model to examine the concentration-response (C-R) association between children's respiratory clinic visits and PM2.5 concentrations. This analysis was separately performed on three respiratory disease categories that were selected from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance database, which includes 41 districts in the Taipei area of Taiwan from 2005 to 2007. The findings reveal a non-linear C-R pattern of PM2.5, particularly in acute respiratory infections. However, a PM2.5 increase at relatively lower levels can elevate the same-day respiratory health risks of both preschool children (increase from 0.76 to 7.44 μg/m(3), and in schoolchildren, same-day health risks rise when concentrations increase from 0.76 to 7.52 μg/m(3). Changes in PM2.5 levels generally exhibited no significant association with same-day respiratory risks, except in instances where PM2.5 levels are extremely high, and these occurrences do exhibit a significant positive influence on respiratory health that is especially notable in schoolchildren. A significant high relative rate of respiratory clinic visits are concentrated in highly populated areas. We highlight the non-linearity of the respiratory health effects of PM2.5 on children to investigate this population-based association. The C-R relationship in this study can provide a highly valuable alternative for assessing the effects of ambient air pollution on human health.

  8. An Epithelial Integrin Regulates the Amplitude of Protective Lung Interferon Responses against Multiple Respiratory Pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A Meliopoulos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The healthy lung maintains a steady state of immune readiness to rapidly respond to injury from invaders. Integrins are important for setting the parameters of this resting state, particularly the epithelial-restricted αVβ6 integrin, which is upregulated during injury. Once expressed, αVβ6 moderates acute lung injury (ALI through as yet undefined molecular mechanisms. We show that the upregulation of β6 during influenza infection is involved in disease pathogenesis. β6-deficient mice (β6 KO have increased survival during influenza infection likely due to the limited viral spread into the alveolar spaces leading to reduced ALI. Although the β6 KO have morphologically normal lungs, they harbor constitutively activated lung CD11b+ alveolar macrophages (AM and elevated type I IFN signaling activity, which we traced to the loss of β6-activated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β. Administration of exogenous TGF-β to β6 KO mice leads to reduced numbers of CD11b+ AMs, decreased type I IFN signaling activity and loss of the protective phenotype during influenza infection. Protection extended to other respiratory pathogens such as Sendai virus and bacterial pneumonia. Our studies demonstrate that the loss of one epithelial protein, αVβ6 integrin, can alter the lung microenvironment during both homeostasis and respiratory infection leading to reduced lung injury and improved survival.

  9. Microbial community responses in forest mineral soil to compaction, organic matter removal, and vegetation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt D. Busse; Samual E. Beattie; Robert F. Powers; Filpe G. Sanchez; Allan E. Tiarks

    2006-01-01

    We tested three disturbance hypotheses in young conifer plantations: H1: soil compaction and removal of surface organic matter produces sustained changes in microbial community size, activity, and structure in mineral soil; H2: microbial community characteristics in mineral soil are linked to the recovery of plant diversity...

  10. Microbial response of an acid forest soil to experimental soil warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.S. Arnold; I.J. Fernandez; L.E. Rustad; L.M. Zibilske

    1999-01-01

    Effects of increased soil temperature on soil microbial biomass and dehydrogenase activity were examined on organic (O) horizon material in a low-elevation spruce-fir ecosystem. Soil temperature was maintained at 5 °C above ambient during the growing season in the experimental plots, and soil temperature, moisture, microbial biomass, and dehydrogenase activity were...

  11. Anatomical architecture and responses to acidosis of a novel respiratory neuron group in the high cervical spinal cord (HCRG) of the neonatal rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Y; Yokota, S; Shinozaki, Y; Aoyama, R; Yasui, Y; Ishiguro, M; Oku, Y

    2009-01-01

    It has been postulated that there exists a neuronal mechanism that generates respiratory rhythm and modulates respiratory output pattern in the high cervical spinal cord. Recently, we have found a novel respiratory neuron group in the ventral portion of the high cervical spinal cord, and named it the high cervical spinal cord respiratory group (HCRG). In the present study, we analyzed the detailed anatomical architecture of the HCRG region by double immunostaining of the region using a neuron-specific marker (NeuN) and a marker for motoneurons (ChAT) in the neonatal rat. We found a large number of small NeuN-positive cells without ChAT-immunoreactivity, which were considered interneurons. We also found two and three clusters of motoneurons in the ventral portion of the ventral horn at C1 and C2 levels, respectively. Next, we examined responses of HCRG neurons to respiratory and metabolic acidosis in vitro by voltage-imaging together with cross correlation techniques, i.e., by correlation coefficient imaging, in order to understand the functional role of HCRG neurons. Both respiratory and metabolic acidosis caused the same pattern of changes in their spatiotemporal activation profiles, and the respiratory-related area was enlarged in the HCRG region. After acidosis was introduced, preinspiratory phase-dominant activity was recruited in a number of pixels, and more remarkably inspiratory phase-dominant activity was recruited in a large number of pixels. We suggest that the HCRG composes a local respiratory neuronal network consisting of interneurons and motoneurons and plays an important role in respiratory augmentation in response to acidosis.

  12. Regular Exercise Enhances the Immune Response Against Microbial Antigens Through Up-Regulation of Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qishi Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Regular physical exercise can enhance resistance to many microbial infections. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying the changes in the immune system induced by regular exercise. Methods: We recruited members of a university badminton club as the regular exercise (RE group and healthy sedentary students as the sedentary control (SC group. We investigated the distribution of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC subsets and functions in the two groups. Results: There were no significant differences in plasma cytokine levels between the RE and SC groups in the true resting state. However, enhanced levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-α and IL-12 were secreted by PBMCs in the RE group following microbial antigen stimulation, when compared to the SC group. In contrast, the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 secreted by PBMC in the RE group were suppressed compared with those in SC group following non-microbial antigen stimulation (concanavalin A or α-galactosylceramide. Furthermore, PBMC expression of TLR2, TLR7 and MyD88 was significantly increased in the RE group in response to microbial antigen stimulation. Conclusion: Regular exercise enhances immune cell activation in response to pathogenic stimulation leading to enhanced cytokine production mediated via the TLR signaling pathways.

  13. Respiratory alkalosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkalosis - respiratory ... leads to shortness of breath can also cause respiratory alkalosis (such as pulmonary embolism and asthma). ... Treatment is aimed at the condition that causes respiratory alkalosis. Breathing into a paper bag -- or using ...

  14. Organic Matter Loading Modifies the Microbial Community Responsible for Nitrogen Loss in Estuarine Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbin, Andrew R; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess B

    2016-04-01

    Coastal marine sediments, as locations of substantial fixed nitrogen loss, are very important to the nitrogen budget and to the primary productivity of the oceans. Coastal sediment systems are also highly dynamic and subject to periodic natural and anthropogenic organic substrate additions. The response to organic matter by the microbial community involved in nitrogen loss processes was evaluated using mesocosms of Chesapeake Bay sediments. Over the course of a 50-day incubation, rates of anammox and denitrification were measured weekly using (15)N tracer incubations, and samples were collected for genetic analysis. Rates of both nitrogen loss processes and gene abundances associated with them corresponded loosely, probably because heterogeneities in sediments obscured a clear relationship. The rates of denitrification were stimulated more, and the fraction of nitrogen loss attributed to anammox slightly reduced, by the higher organic matter addition. Furthermore, the large organic matter pulse drove a significant and rapid shift in the denitrifier community composition as determined using a nirS microarray, indicating that the diversity of these organisms plays an essential role in responding to anthropogenic inputs. We also suggest that the proportion of nitrogen loss due to anammox in these coastal estuarine sediments may be underestimated due to temporal dynamics as well as from methodological artifacts related to conventional sediment slurry incubation approaches.

  15. Microbial Community Changes in Response to Ethanol or Methanol Amendments for U(VI) Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Brandt, Craig C.; Madden, Andrew; Drake, Meghan M.; Kostka, Joel; Akob, Denise M.; Kusel, Kirsten; Palumbo, Anthony Vito

    2010-01-01

    Microbial community responses to ethanol, methanol and methanol + humics amendments in relationship to uranium bioremediation were studied in laboratory microcosm experiments using sediments and ground water from a uranium-contaminated site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Ethanol addition always resulted in uranium reduction at rate of 0.8-1.0 mol l -1 d -1 while methanol addition did so occasionally at rate 0.95 mol l -1 d -1 . The type of carbon source added, the duration of incubation, and the sampling site influenced the bacterial community structure upon incubation. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries indicated (1) bacterial communities found in ethanol- and methanol-amended samples with U(VI) reduction were similar due to presence of -Proteobacteria, and -Proteobacteria (members of the families Burkholderiaceae, Comamonadaceae, Oxalobacteraceae, and Rhodocyclaceae); (2) methanol-amended samples without U(VI) reduction exhibited the lowest diversity and the bacterial community contained 69.2-92.8% of the family Methylophilaceae; and (3) the addition of humics resulted in an increase of phylogenetic diversity of -Proteobacteria (Rodoferax, Polaromonas, Janthinobacterium, Methylophilales, unclassified) and Firmicutes (Desulfosporosinus, Clostridium).

  16. Immunological response to quadrivalent HPV vaccine in treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjon Pian Gi, Robin E A; San Giorgi, Michel R M; Pawlita, Michael; Michel, Angelika; van Hemel, Bettien M; Schuuring, Ed M D; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Dikkers, Frederik G

    2016-10-01

    Aim of this study was to explore influence of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (Gardasil(®)) on the immune status of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) patients. In retrospective observational study, six RRP patients who received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine and whose HPV seroreactivity was measured were included. Multiplex HPV Serology was used to determine HPV-specific antibodies pre- and post-vaccination. Surgical interventions and patient records were analyzed. Five HPV6 and 1 HPV11 infected patient were included. Mean antibody reactivity against the associated HPV type rose from 1125 median fluorescence intensity (MFI) pre-vaccination to 4690 MFI post-vaccination (p immunological increase can cause decrease in number of surgeries.

  17. Characterization of the CD8(+)T cell responses directed against respiratory syncytial virus during primary and secondary infection in C57BL/6 mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukens, M.V.; Claassen, E.A.W.; Graaff, de P.M.A.; Dijk, van M.E.A.; Hoogerhout, P.; Toebes, M.; Schumacher, T.N.; Most, van der R.G.; Kimpen, J.L.L.; Bleek, van G.M.

    2006-01-01

    The BALB/c mouse model for human respiratory syncytial virus infection has contributed significantly to our understanding of the relative role for CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to immune protection and pathogenic immune responses. To enable comparison of RSV-specific T cell responses in different mouse

  18. Cigarette smoke induces molecular responses in respiratory tissues of ApoE−/− mice that are progressively deactivated upon cessation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boué, Stéphanie; De León, Héctor; Schlage, Walter K.; Peck, Michael J.; Weiler, Horst; Berges, An; Vuillaume, Grégory; Martin, Florian; Friedrichs, Baerbel; Lebrun, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the primary etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and a risk factor for both lung and cardiovascular (CV) diseases, which are rarely investigated concomitantly. Although smoking cessation shows clear CV risk benefit, lung-related disease risk remains higher in former smokers than in never smokers. We sought to determine the differential molecular responses of murine respiratory tissues to better understand the toxicity pathways involved in smoking-related disease risk and those related to the benefits of smoking cessation. ApoE −/− mice were exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke (CS) or a smoking cessation-mimicking protocol for up to 6 months and transcriptomics analysis of nasal epithelium and lung parenchyma performed. We supported our gene expression profiling approach with standard lung histopathology and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis. Many BALF analytes involved in functions ranging from inflammation to cell proliferation and tissue remodeling were found elevated in BALF. Gene expression levels of these molecules were also increased in lung tissue, suggesting that the inflammatory response was the result of local tissue activation and the contribution of recruited inflammatory cells. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of expression data from murine lungs and nasal epithelium showed distinct activation patterns of inflammation, complement, and xenobiotic metabolism pathways during CS exposure that were deactivated upon smoking cessation. Pathways involved in cell proliferation and tissue remodeling were activated by CS and progressively deactivated upon smoke exposure cessation. Differential CS-mediated responses of pulmonary and nasal tissues reflect common mechanisms but also the varying degrees of epithelial functional specialization and exposure along the respiratory tract

  19. Acute respiratory syndrome after inhalation of waterproofing sprays: a posteriori exposure-response assessment in 102 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernez, David; Bruzzi, Raffaella; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; De-Batz, Alice; Droz, Pierre; Lazor, Romain

    2006-05-01

    Waterproofing agents are widely used to protect leather and textiles in both domestic and occupational activities. An outbreak of acute respiratory syndrome following exposure to waterproofing sprays occurred during the winter 2002-2003 in Switzerland. About 180 cases were reported by the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre between October 2002 and March 2003, whereas fewer than 10 cases per year had been recorded previously. The reported cases involved three brands of sprays containing a common waterproofing mixture, that had undergone a formulation change in the months preceding the outbreak. A retrospective analysis was undertaken in collaboration with the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre and the Swiss Registries for Interstitial and Orphan Lung Diseases to clarify the circumstances and possible causes of the observed health effects. Individual exposure data were generated with questionnaires and experimental emission measurements. The collected data was used to conduct numeric simulation for 102 cases of exposure. A classical two-zone model was used to assess the aerosol dispersion in the near- and far-field during spraying. The resulting assessed dose and exposure levels obtained were spread on large scales, of several orders of magnitude. No dose-response relationship was found between exposure indicators and health effects indicators (perceived severity and clinical indicators). Weak relationships were found between unspecific inflammatory response indicators (leukocytes, C-reactive protein) and the maximal exposure concentration. The results obtained disclose a high interindividual response variability and suggest that some indirect mechanism(s) predominates in the respiratory disease occurrence. Furthermore, no threshold could be found to define a safe level of exposure. These findings suggest that the improvement of environmental exposure conditions during spraying alone does not constitute a sufficient measure to prevent future outbreaks of

  20. Short-term population-based and spatiotemporal nonlinear concentration-response associations between fine particulate matter and children's respiratory clinic visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chien, Lung-Chang

    2014-05-01

    Advert health impacts associated with the PM2.5 exposure have been confirmed in mortality and cardiovascular diseases; however, findings of the influence of PM2.5 on respiratory diseases investigated among previous studies are still inconsistent. We investigated the short-term population-based associations between the respiratory clinic visits of children population and the PM2.5 exposure levels with considering both the spatiotemporal distributions of the ambient pollution and clinic visit data. We applied a spatiotemporal structured additive regression model to examine the concentration-response (C-R) association between daily children's respiratory clinic visits and PM2.5 concentrations. The analysis was performed separately on the four selected respiratory disease categories of the population-based dataset, obtained from Taiwan National Health Insurance database, covering the 41 districts in Taipei area during the period of 2005 to 2007. This study reveals a strong nonlinear C-R pattern that the PM2.5 increment can significantly affect respiratory health at PM2.5 concentration ≤ 18.17µg/m3 for both preschool children and schoolchildren. The elevated risks are especially present in the category of acute respiratory infections. PM2.5 increase is mostly non-significant to the more severe respiratory diseases, e.g., COPD and pneumonia, over the ranges of 8.85-92.45µg/m3. The significantly higher relative rate of respiratory clinic visit most likely concentrated at populated areas. We highlight the nonlinearity of the respiratory health impacts of PM2.5 on children's populations from the first study, to our knowledge, to investigate this population-based association. The strong nonlinearity can possibly cause the inconsistency of PM2.5 health impact assessments with linear assumptions.

  1. Distinct responses of soil microbial communities to elevated CO2 and O3 in a soybean agro-ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhili; Xiong, Jinbo; Kent, Angela D; Deng, Ye; Xue, Kai; Wang, Gejiao; Wu, Liyou; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong

    2014-03-01

    The concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3) have been rising due to human activities. However, little is known about how such increases influence soil microbial communities. We hypothesized that elevated CO2 (eCO2) and elevated O3 (eO3) would significantly affect the functional composition, structure and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities, and that various functional groups would respond to such atmospheric changes differentially. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed 96 soil samples from a soybean free-air CO2 enrichment (SoyFACE) experimental site using a comprehensive functional gene microarray (GeoChip 3.0). The results showed the overall functional composition and structure of soil microbial communities shifted under eCO2, eO3 or eCO2+eO3. Key functional genes involved in carbon fixation and degradation, nitrogen fixation, denitrification and methane metabolism were stimulated under eCO2, whereas those involved in N fixation, denitrification and N mineralization were suppressed under eO3, resulting in the fact that the abundance of some eO3-supressed genes was promoted to ambient, or eCO2-induced levels by the interaction of eCO2+eO3. Such effects appeared distinct for each treatment and significantly correlated with soil properties and soybean yield. Overall, our analysis suggests possible mechanisms of microbial responses to global atmospheric change factors through the stimulation of C and N cycling by eCO2, the inhibition of N functional processes by eO3 and the interaction by eCO2 and eO3. This study provides new insights into our understanding of microbial functional processes in response to global atmospheric change in soybean agro-ecosystems.

  2. Microbial Community Dynamics from Permafrost Across the Pleistocene-Holocene Boundary and Response to Abrupt Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, A.; Mahony, M.; Froese, D. G.; Lanoil, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Earth is currently undergoing rapid warming similar to that observed about 10,000 years ago at the end of the Pleistocene. We know a considerable amount about the adaptations and extinctions of mammals and plants at the Pleistocene/Holocene (P/H) boundary, but relatively little about changes at the microbial level. Due to permafrost soils' freezing anoxic conditions, they act as microbial diversity archives allowing us to determine how microbial communities adapted to the abrupt warming at the end of P. Since microbial community composition only helps differentiate viable and extant microorganisms in frozen permafrost, microbial activity in thawing permafrost must be investigated to provide a clear understanding of microbial response to climate change. Current increased temperatures will result in warming and potential thaw of permafrost and release of stored organic carbon, freeing it for microbial utilization; turning permafrost into a carbon source. Studying permafrost viable microbial communities' diversity and activity will provide a better understanding of how these microorganisms respond to soil edaphic variability due to climate change across the P/H boundary, providing insight into the changes that the soil community is currently undergoing in this modern era of rapid climate change. Modern soil, H and P permafrost cores were collected from Lucky Lady II site outside Dawson City, Yukon. 16S rRNA high throughput sequencing of permafrost DNA showed the same trends for total and viable community richness and diversity with both decreasing with permafrost depth and only the richness increasing in mid and early P. The modern, H and P soils had 50.9, 33.9, and 27.3% unique viable species and only 14% of the total number of viable species were shared by all soils. Gas flux measurements of thawed permafrost showed metabolic activity in modern and permafrost soils, aerobic CH­­4 consumption in modern, some H and P soils, and anaerobic CH­­4 production in one H

  3. Systems-level analysis of Escherichia coli response to silver nanoparticles: the roles of anaerobic respiration in microbial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huamao; Lo, Tat-Ming; Sitompul, Johnner; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2012-08-10

    Despite extensive use of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications, cellular mechanisms underlying microbial response to silver nanoparticles remain to be further elucidated at the systems level. Here, we report systems-level response of Escherichia coli to silver nanoparticles using transcriptome-based biochemical and phenotype assays. Notably, we provided the evidence that anaerobic respiration is induced upon exposure to silver nanoparticles. Further we showed that anaerobic respiration-related regulators and enzymes play an important role in E. coli resistance to silver nanoparticles. In particular, our results suggest that arcA is essential for resistance against silver NPs and the deletion of fnr, fdnH and narH significantly increases the resistance. We envision that this study offers novel insights into modes of antimicrobial action of silver nanoparticles, and cellular mechanisms contributing to the development of microbial resistance to silver nanoparticles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Actual measurement, hygrothermal response experiment and growth prediction analysis of microbial contamination of central air conditioning system in Dalian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yang; Hu, Guangyao; Wang, Chunyang; Yuan, Wenjie; Wei, Shanshan; Gao, Jiaoqi; Wang, Boyuan; Song, Fangchao

    2017-04-03

    The microbial contamination of central air conditioning system is one of the important factors that affect the indoor air quality. Actual measurement and analysis were carried out on microbial contamination in central air conditioning system at a venue in Dalian, China. Illumina miseq method was used and three fungal samples of two units were analysed by high throughput sequencing. Results showed that the predominant fungus in air conditioning unit A and B were Candida spp. and Cladosporium spp., and two fungus were further used in the hygrothermal response experiment. Based on the data of Cladosporium in hygrothermal response experiment, this paper used the logistic equation and the Gompertz equation to fit the growth predictive model of Cladosporium genera in different temperature and relative humidity conditions, and the square root model was fitted based on the two environmental factors. In addition, the models were carried on the analysis to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the established model equation.

  5. Adjuvants and the vaccine response to the DS-Cav1-stabilized fusion glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallika Sastry

    Full Text Available Appropriate adjuvant selection may be essential to optimize the potency and to tailor the immune response of subunit vaccines. To induce protective responses against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV-a highly prevalent childhood pathogen without a licensed vaccine-we previously engineered a pre-fusion-stabilized trimeric RSV F (pre-F "DS-Cav1" immunogen, which induced high titer RSV-neutralizing antibodies, in mice and non-human primates, when formulated with adjuvants Poly (I:C and Poly (IC:LC, respectively. To assess the impact of different adjuvants, here we formulated RSV F DS-Cav1 with multiple adjuvants and assessed immune responses. Very high RSV-neutralizing antibody responses (19,006 EC50 were observed in naïve mice immunized with 2 doses of DS-Cav1 adjuvanted with Sigma adjuvant system (SAS, an oil-in-water adjuvant, plus Carbopol; high responses (3658-7108 were observed with DS-Cav1 adjuvanted with Alum, SAS alone, Adjuplex, Poly (I:C and Poly (IC:LC; and moderate responses (1251-2129 were observed with DS-Cav1 adjuvanted with the TLR4 agonist MPLA, Alum plus MPLA or AddaVax. In contrast, DS-Cav1 without adjuvant induced low-level responses (6. A balanced IgG1 and IgG2a (Th2/Th1 immune response was elicited in most of the high to very high response groups (all but Alum and Adjuplex. We also tested the immune response induced by DS-Cav1 in elderly mice with pre-existing DS-Cav1 immunity; we observed that DS-Cav1 adjuvanted with SAS plus Carbopol boosted the response 2-3-fold, whereas DS-Cav1 adjuvanted with alum boosted the response 5-fold. Finally, we tested whether a mixture of ISA 71 VG and Carbopol would enhanced the antibody response in DS-Cav1 immunized calves. While pre-F-stabilized bovine RSV F induced very high titers in mice when adjuvanted with SAS plus Carbopol, the addition of Carbopol to ISA 71 VG did not enhance immune responses in calves. The vaccine response to pre-F-stabilized RSV F is augmented by adjuvant, but the

  6. [Characteristics of the sympathoadrenal system response to psychoemotional stress under hypoxic conditions in aged people with physiological and accelerated aging of the respiratory system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanov, E O; Os'mak, Ie D; Kuz'mins'ka, L A

    2013-01-01

    The peculiarities of the response of the sympathoadrenal system to psychoemotional and hypoxic stress in healthy young people and in aged people with physiological and accelerated aging of respiratory system were studied. It was shown that in aging a more pronounced response of the sympathoadrenal system to psychoemotional stress. At the same time, elderly people with different types of aging of the respiratory system did not demonstrate a difference in the response of the sympathoadrenal system to psychoemotional stress. Unlike in young people, in aged people, combination of psychoemotional and hypoxic stresses resulted in further activation of the sympathoadrenal system. The reaction of the sympathoadrenal system was more expressed in elderly people with accelerated ageing of the respiratory system.

  7. The response of CD1d-restricted invariant NKT cells to microbial pathogens and their products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc eVan Kaer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells become activated during a wide variety of infections. This includes organisms lacking cognate CD1d-binding glycolipid antigens recognized by the semi-invariant T cell receptor of iNKT cells. Additional studies have shown that iNKT cells also become activated in vivo in response to microbial products such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide, a potent inducer of cytokine production in antigen-presenting cells (APCs. Other studies have shown that iNKT cells are highly responsive to stimulation by cytokines such as interleukin-12. These findings have led to the concept that microbial pathogens can activate iNKT cells either directly via glycolipids, or indirectly by inducing cytokine production in APCs. iNKT cells activated in this manner produce multiple cytokines that can influence the outcome of infection, usually in favor of the host, although potent iNKT cell activation may contribute to an uncontrolled cytokine storm and sepsis. One aspect of the response of iNKT cells to microbial pathogens is that it is short-lived and followed by an extended time period of unresponsiveness to reactivation. This refractory period may represent a means to avoid chronic activation and cytokine production by iNKT cells, thus protecting the host against some of the negative effects of iNKT cell activation, but potentially putting the host at risk for secondary infections. These effects of microbial pathogens and their products on iNKT cells are not only important for understanding the role of these cells in immune responses against infections but also for the development of iNKT cell-based therapies.

  8. Response of Functional Structure of Soil Microbial Community to Multi-level Nitrogen Additions on the Central Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Yuan, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The use of fossil fuels and fertilizers has increased the amount of biologically reactive nitrogen in the atmosphere over the past century. Tibet is the one of the most threatened regions by nitrogen deposition, thus understanding how its microbial communities function maybe of high importance to predicting microbial responses to nitrogen deposition. Here we describe a short-time nitrogen addition conducted in an alpine steppe ecosystem to investigate the response of functional structure of soil microbial community to multi-level nitrogen addition. Using a GeoChip 4.0, we showed that functional diversities and richness of functional genes were unchanged at low level of nitrogen fertilizer inputs (=40 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Detrended correspondence analysis indicated that the functional structure of microbial communities was markedly different across the nitrogen gradients. Most C degradation genes whose abundances significantly increased under elevated N fertilizer were those involved in the degradation of relatively labile C (starch, hemicellulose, cellulose), whereas the abundance of certain genes involved in the degradation of recalcitrant C (i.e. lignin) was largely decreased (such as manganese peroxidase, mnp). The results suggest that the elevated N fertilization rates might significantly accelerate the labile C degradation, but might not spur recalcitrant C degradation. The combined effect of gdh and ureC genes involved in N cycling appeared to shift the balance between ammonia and organic N toward organic N ammonification and hence increased the N mineralization potential. Moreover, Urease directly involved in urea mineralization significantly increased. Lastly, Canonical correspondence analysis showed that soil (TOC+NH4++NO3-+NO2-+pH) and plant (Aboveground plant productivity + Shannon Diversity) variables could explain 38.9% of the variation of soil microbial community composition. On the basis of above observations, we predict that increasing of nitrogen

  9. Compositional differences in simulated root exudates elicit a limited functional and compositional response in soil microbial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Strickland

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inputs of low molecular weight carbon (LMW-C to soil −primarily via root exudates− are expected to be a major driver of microbial activity and source of stable soil organic carbon. It is expected that variation in the type and composition of LMW-C entering soil will influence microbial community composition and function. If this is the case then short-term changes in LMW-C inputs may alter processes regulated by these communities. To determine if change in the composition of LMW-C inputs influences microbial community function and composition, we conducted a 90 day microcosm experiment whereby soils sourced from three different land covers (meadows, deciduous forests, and white pine stands were amended, at low concentrations, with one of eight simulated root exudate treatments. Treatments included no addition of LMW-C, and the full factorial combination of glucose, glycine, and oxalic acid. After 90 days, we conducted a functional response assay and determined microbial composition via phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Whereas we noted a statistically significant effect of exudate treatments, this only accounted for ~3% of the variation observed in function. In comparison, land cover and site explained ~46 and ~41% of the variation, respectively. This suggests that exudate composition has little influence on function

  10. Soil microbial community responses to antibiotic-contaminated manure under different soil moisture regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Rüdiger; Radl, Viviane; Rosendahl, Ingrid; Albert, Andreas; Amelung, Wulf; Schloter, Michael; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören

    2014-01-01

    Sulfadiazine (SDZ) is an antibiotic frequently administered to livestock, and it alters microbial communities when entering soils with animal manure, but understanding the interactions of these effects to the prevailing climatic regime has eluded researchers. A climatic factor that strongly controls microbial activity is soil moisture. Here, we hypothesized that the effects of SDZ on soil microbial communities will be modulated depending on the soil moisture conditions. To test this hypothesis, we performed a 49-day fully controlled climate chamber pot experiments with soil grown with Dactylis glomerata (L.). Manure-amended pots without or with SDZ contamination were incubated under a dynamic moisture regime (DMR) with repeated drying and rewetting changes of >20 % maximum water holding capacity (WHCmax) in comparison to a control moisture regime (CMR) at an average soil moisture of 38 % WHCmax. We then monitored changes in SDZ concentration as well as in the phenotypic phospholipid fatty acid and genotypic 16S rRNA gene fragment patterns of the microbial community after 7, 20, 27, 34, and 49 days of incubation. The results showed that strongly changing water supply made SDZ accessible to mild extraction in the short term. As a result, and despite rather small SDZ effects on community structures, the PLFA-derived microbial biomass was suppressed in the SDZ-contaminated DMR soils relative to the CMR ones, indicating that dynamic moisture changes accelerate the susceptibility of the soil microbial community to antibiotics.

  11. Responses of Soil Microbial Community Structure and Diversity to Agricultural Deintensification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-Jian; S.HU; RUI Wen-Yi; C.TU; H.G.DIAB; F.J.LOUWS; J.P.MUELLER; N.CREAMER; M.BELL; M.G.WAGGER

    2005-01-01

    Using a scheme of agricultural fields with progressively less intensive management (deintensification), different management practices in six agroecosystems located near Goldsboro, NC, USA were tested in a large-scale experiment, including two cash-grain cropping systems employing either tillage (CT) or no-tillage (NT), an organic farming system (OR), an integrated cropping system with animals (IN), a successional field (SU), and a plantation woodlot (WO). Microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles and substrate utilization patterns (BIOLOG ECO plates) were measured to examine the effects of deintensification on the structure and diversity of soil microbial communities. Principle component analyses of PLFA and BIOLOG data showed that the microbial community structure diverged among the soils of the six systems.Lower microbial diversity was found in lowly managed ecosystem than that in intensive and moderately managed agroecosystems, and both fungal contribution to the total identified PLFAs and the ratio of microbial biomass C/N increased along with agricultural deintensification. Significantly higher ratios of C/N (P < 0.05) were found in the WO and SU systems, and for fungal/bacterial PLFAs in the WO system (P < 0.05). There were also significant decreases (P < 0.05)along with agricultural deintensification for contributions of total bacterial and gram positive (G+) bacterial PLFAs.Agricultural deintensification could facilitate the development of microbial communities that favor soil fungi over bacteria.

  12. Respiratory response of fifth-instar codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to rapidly changing temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, L G

    1998-02-01

    Fifth-instar codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae were exposed to 10 simulated heat treatments of apples and pears and CO2 levels were monitored as a measure of respiration. Marked increases in respiration rates (microliter CO2/mg/min) were noted during these treatments. Respiration peaked between 3.5 and 4.8 microliters CO2/mg/min; the amount of time to peak respiration depended on the heating rate and was correlated to the LT95. No differences were observed between male and female larvae in the timing of the peaks of CO2 production. In treatments where mortality occurred, CO2 levels dropped to zero, but only after a considerable time after death. Respiratory recovery rates, the time it took for CO2 levels to return to normal, were recorded after treatments at time points where CO2 production reached 3/4 and maximum peak. Respiration rates at constant temperatures were recorded within the range of 10-30 degrees C. Q10 over this range was 1.49, whereas Q10 was the greatest, 2.54, between 10 and 15 degrees C.

  13. Structural and Nonstructural Viral Proteins Are Targets of T-Helper Immune Response against Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Elena; Barriga, Alejandro; Barnea, Eilon; Mir, Carmen; Gebe, John A; Admon, Arie; López, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Proper antiviral humoral and cellular immune responses require previous recognition of viral antigenic peptides that are bound to HLA class II molecules, which are exposed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. The helper immune response is critical for the control and the clearance of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) infection, a virus with severe health risk in infected pediatric, immunocompromised, and elderly populations. In this study, using a mass spectrometry analysis of complex HLA class II-bound peptide pools that were isolated from large amounts of HRSV-infected cells, 19 naturally processed HLA-DR ligands, most of them included in a complex nested set of peptides, were identified. Both the immunoprevalence and the immunodominance of the HLA class II response to HRSV were focused on one nonstructural (NS1) and two structural (matrix and mainly fusion) proteins of the infective virus. These findings have clear implications for analysis of the helper immune response as well as for antiviral vaccine design. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Gradual development of the interferon-γ response of swine to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection or vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, William A.; Galeota, Judy; Osorio, Fernando A.; Husmann, Robert J.; Schnitzlein, William M.; Zuckermann, Federico A.

    2003-01-01

    Infection of swine with virulent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus induced a rapid, robust antibody response that comprised predominantly nonneutralizing antibodies and waned after approximately 3 months. In contrast, the initial onset of virus-specific interferon (IFN)-γ-secreting cells (SC) in the pig lymphocyte population remained at a fairly low level during this period and then increased gradually in frequency, plateauing at 6 months postinfection. A similar polarization of the host humoral and cellular immune responses was also observed in pigs immunized with a PRRS-modified live virus (MLV) vaccine. Even coadministration of an adjuvant that enhanced the immune response to a pseudorabies (PR) MLV vaccine failed to alter the induction of PRRS virus-specific IFN-γ SC (comprising predominately CD4/CD8α double positive memory T cells with a minority being typical CD4 - /CD8αβ + T cells) and the generation of neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, unlike inactivated PR virus, nonviable PRRS virus did not elicit virus-neutralizing antibody production. Presumably, an intrinsic property of this pathogen delays the development of the host IFN-γ response and preferentially stimulates the synthesis of antibodies incapable of neutralization

  15. Cardiac and respiratory responses of rainbow trout, bluegills and brown bullhead catfish during rapid hypoxia and recovery under normoxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvin, Jr, D E; Burton, D T

    1973-01-01

    Heart rate, ventilation rate and routine oxygen consumption were measured in Salmo gairdneri, Lepomis macrochirus and Ictalurus nebulosus during rapid hypoxic stress and recovery under normoxic conditions. Cardiac and respiratory responses during hypoxia were similar to those reported in the literature for teleost fish. Immediate increases in heart rate and ventilation rate occurred in all three species after stress. When the mean heart rate for each species at 1 hr post-stress was compared with its pre-stress rate, differences in recovery patterns were found in all species. During recovery from hypoxia, rapid increases in oxygen consumption, above pre-stress levels, occurred in S. gairdneri and L. macrochirus. No significant differences between pre-stress and post-stress values were found in I. nebulosus.

  16. Age related changes in T cell mediated immune response and effector memory to Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campoccia Giuseppe

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the major pathogen causing respiratory disease in young infants and it is an important cause of serious illness in the elderly since the infection provides limited immune protection against reinfection. In order to explain this phenomenon, we investigated whether healthy adults of different age (20-40; 41-60 and > 60 years, have differences in central and effector memory, RSV-specific CD8+ T cell memory immune response and regulatory T cell expression status. In the peripheral blood of these donors, we were unable to detect any age related difference in term of central (CD45RA-CCR7+ and effector (CD45RA-CCR7- memory T cell frequency. On the contrary, we found a significant increase in immunosuppressive regulatory (CD4+25+FoxP3+ T cells (Treg in the elderly. An immunocytofluorimetric RSV pentamer analysis performed on these donors' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, in vitro sensitized against RSV antigen, revealed a marked decline in long-lasting RSV specific CD8+ memory T cell precursors expressing interleukin 7 receptor α (IL-7Rα, in the elderly. This effect was paralleled by a progressive switch from a Th1 (IFN-γ and TNF-α to a Th2 (IL-10 functional phenotype. On the contrary, an increase in Treg was observed with aging. The finding of Treg over-expression status, a prominent Th2 response and an inefficient RSV-specific effector memory CD8+ T cell expansion in older donors could explain the poor protection against RSV reinfection and the increased risk to develop an RSV-related severe illness in this population. Our finding also lays the basis for new therapeutic perspectives that could limit or prevent severe RSV infection in elderly.

  17. 10 CFR 850.28 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Respiratory protection. 850.28 Section 850.28 Energy... Respiratory protection. (a) The responsible employer must establish a respiratory protection program that complies with the respiratory protection program requirements of 29 CFR 1910.134, Respiratory Protection...

  18. Effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root mucilage on microbial community response and capacity for phenanthrene remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ran; Belcher, Richard W; Liang, Jianqiang; Wang, Li; Thater, Brian; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-07-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is normally limited by their low solubility and poor bioavailability. Prior research suggests that biosurfactants are synthesized as intermediates during the production of mucilage at the root tip. To date the effects of mucilage on PAH degradation and microbial community response have not been directly examined. To address this question, our research compared 3 cowpea breeding lines (Vigna unguiculata) that differed in mucilage production for their effects on phenanthrene (PHE) degradation in soil. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography results indicated that the highest PHE degradation rate was achieved in soils planted with mucilage producing cowpea line C1, inoculated with Bradyrhizobium, leading to 91.6% PHE disappearance in 5 weeks. In root printing tests, strings treated with mucilage and bacteria produced larger clearing zones than those produced on mucilage treated strings with no bacteria or bacteria inoculated strings. Experiments with 14C-PHE and purified mucilage in soil slurry confirmed that the root mucilage significantly enhanced PHE mineralization (82.7%), which is 12% more than the control treatment without mucilage. The profiles of the PHE degraders generated by Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis suggested that cowpea C1, producing a high amount of root mucilage, selectively enriched the PHE degrading bacteria population in rhizosphere. These findings indicate that root mucilage may play a significant role in enhancing PHE degradation and suggests that differences in mucilage production may be an important criterion for selection of the best plant species for use in phytoremediation of PAH contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Quantifying the Importance of the Rare Biosphere for Microbial Community Response to Organic Pollutants in a Freshwater Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanqi; Hatt, Janet K; Tsementzi, Despina; Rodriguez-R, Luis M; Ruiz-Pérez, Carlos A; Weigand, Michael R; Kizer, Heidi; Maresca, Gina; Krishnan, Raj; Poretsky, Rachel; Spain, Jim C; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T

    2017-04-15

    A single liter of water contains hundreds, if not thousands, of bacterial and archaeal species, each of which typically makes up a very small fraction of the total microbial community (biosphere." How often, and via what mechanisms, e.g., clonal amplification versus horizontal gene transfer, the rare taxa and genes contribute to microbial community response to environmental perturbations represent important unanswered questions toward better understanding the value and modeling of microbial diversity. We tested whether rare species frequently responded to changing environmental conditions by establishing 20-liter planktonic mesocosms with water from Lake Lanier (Georgia, USA) and perturbing them with organic compounds that are rarely detected in the lake, including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), and caffeine. The populations of the degraders of these compounds were initially below the detection limit of quantitative PCR (qPCR) or metagenomic sequencing methods, but they increased substantially in abundance after perturbation. Sequencing of several degraders (isolates) and time-series metagenomic data sets revealed distinct cooccurring alleles of degradation genes, frequently carried on transmissible plasmids, especially for the 2,4-D mesocosms, and distinct species dominating the post-enrichment microbial communities from each replicated mesocosm. This diversity of species and genes also underlies distinct degradation profiles among replicated mesocosms. Collectively, these results supported the hypothesis that the rare biosphere can serve as a genetic reservoir, which can be frequently missed by metagenomics but enables community response to changing environmental conditions caused by organic pollutants, and they provided insights into the size of the pool of rare genes and species. IMPORTANCE A single liter of water or gram of soil contains hundreds of low-abundance bacterial and archaeal species, the so called rare biosphere. The

  20. Microbial biomass dynamics dominate N cycle responses to warming in a sub-arctic peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedon, J. T.; Aerts, R.; Kowalchuk, G. K.; van Bodegom, P. M.

    2012-04-01

    The balance of primary production and decomposition in sub-arctic peatlands may shift with climate change. Nitrogen availability will modulate this shift, but little is known about the drivers of soil nitrogen dynamics in these environments, and how they are influenced by rising soil temperatures. We used a long-term open top chamber warming experiment in Abisko, Sweden, to test for the interactive effects of spring warming, summer warming and winter snow addition on soil organic and inorganic nitrogen fluxes, potential activities of carbon and nitrogen cycle enzymes, and the structure of the soil-borne microbial communities. Summer warming increased the flux of soil organic nitrogen over the growing season, while simultaneously causing a seasonal decrease in microbial biomass, suggesting that N flux is driven by large late-season dieback of microbes. This change in N cycle dynamics was not reflected in any of the measured potential enzyme activities. Moreover, the soil microbial community structure was stable across treatments, suggesting non-specific microbial dieback. To further test whether the observed patterns were driven by direct temperature effects or indirect effects (via microbial biomass dynamics), we conducted follow-up controlled experiments in soil mesocosms. Experimental additions of dead microbial cells had stronger effects on N pool sizes and enzyme activities than either plant litter addition or a 5 °C alteration in incubation temperatures. Peat respiration was positively affected by both substrate addition and higher incubation temperatures, but the temperature-only effect was not sufficient to account for the increases in respiration observed in previous field experiments. We conclude that warming effects on peatland N cycling (and to some extent C cycling) are dominated by indirect effects, acting through alterations to the seasonal flux of microbe-derived organic matter. We propose that climate change models of soil carbon and nitrogen

  1. Behavioral Responses of Concholepas concholepas (Bruguière, 1789) Larvae to Natural and Artificial Settlement Cues and Microbial Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, S R; Riquelme, C; Campos, E O; Chavez, P; Brandan, E; Inestrosa, N C

    1995-12-01

    The behavioral responses of veliger larvae of the gastropod Concholepas concholepas were studied in the presence of different natural and artificial settlement cues and microbial films. Early pre-competent larvae stopped swimming, sank (due to ciliary arrests, retraction of the velum into the shell, or both), and remained inactive on the substratum when exposed to conspecific mucus and hemolymph. In both cases the effect was time-dependent and the number of larvae showing these behaviors decreased over time. Larvae exposed to NH4Cl (ammonium ion) showed a similar time- and dose-dependent response. A positive and time-dependent response was also observed when larvae were exposed to different extracellular matrix (ECM) components (i.e., collagen, gelatin, and fibronectin) and sulfated polysaccharides (i.e., carrageenan, heparin, and chondroitin sulfate). In this case the larvae remained attached to the substratum. However, the effect of sulfated polysaccharides on C. concholepas larval behavior was faster than that observed with other ECM molecules. We also studied the responses of premetamorphic C. concholepas larvae exposed to different microbial films. In chemotaxis experiments with different films, with glass as the substratum, larvae showed a significant preference for multispecific and diatoms films. When shells of C. concholepas were used as the substratum, the preference for multispecific films was clear and significant. Likewise, larvae showed velar contractions in the presence of all the films tested. Larvae exposed to multispecific films and to the microalga Prasinocladus marinus showed an increased ciliar movement. The finding that mucus and hemolymph of conspecific adults and ECM molecules (mainly sulfated polysaccharides) induce the cessation of swimming of C. concholepas larvae suggests a possible role for cell-surface receptors in mediating the larval response of marine organisms. Likewise, the positive chemotaxis responses of C. concholepas larvae to

  2. Microbial community responses to soil tillage and crop rotation in a corn/soybean agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chris R; Blair, Peter L; Boyd, Charlie; Cody, Brianne; Hazel, Alexander; Hedrick, Ashley; Kathuria, Hitesh; Khurana, Parul; Kramer, Brent; Muterspaw, Kristin; Peck, Charles; Sells, Emily; Skinner, Jessica; Tegeler, Cara; Wolfe, Zoe

    2016-11-01

    The acreage planted in corn and soybean crops is vast, and these crops contribute substantially to the world economy. The agricultural practices employed for farming these crops have major effects on ecosystem health at a worldwide scale. The microbial communities living in agricultural soils significantly contribute to nutrient uptake and cycling and can have both positive and negative impacts on the crops growing with them. In this study, we examined the impact of the crop planted and soil tillage on nutrient levels, microbial communities, and the biochemical pathways present in the soil. We found that farming practice, that is conventional tillage versus no-till, had a much greater impact on nearly everything measured compared to the crop planted. No-till fields tended to have higher nutrient levels and distinct microbial communities. Moreover, no-till fields had more DNA sequences associated with key nitrogen cycle processes, suggesting that the microbial communities were more active in cycling nitrogen. Our results indicate that tilling of agricultural soil may magnify the degree of nutrient waste and runoff by altering nutrient cycles through changes to microbial communities. Currently, a minority of acreage is maintained without tillage despite clear benefits to soil nutrient levels, and a decrease in nutrient runoff-both of which have ecosystem-level effects and both direct and indirect effects on humans and other organisms.

  3. Dietary supplementation with Lactobacilli improves emergency granulopoiesis in protein-malnourished mice and enhances respiratory innate immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Herrera

    Full Text Available This work studied the effect of protein malnutrition on the hemato-immune response to the respiratory challenge with Streptococcus pneumoniae and evaluated whether the dietary recovery with a probiotic strain has a beneficial effect in that response. Three important conclusions can be inferred from the results presented in this work: a protein-malnutrition significantly impairs the emergency myelopoiesis induced by the generation of the innate immune response against pneumococcal infection; b repletion of malnourished mice with treatments including nasally or orally administered Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 are able to significantly accelerate the recovery of granulopoiesis and improve innate immunity and; c the immunological mechanisms involved in the protective effect of immunobiotics vary according to the route of administration. The study demonstrated that dietary recovery of malnourished mice with oral or nasal administration of L. rhamnosus CRL1505 improves emergency granulopoiesis and that CXCR4/CXCR12 signaling would be involved in this effect. Then, the results summarized here are a starting point for future research and open up broad prospects for future applications of probiotics in the recovery of immunocompromised malnourished hosts.

  4. Environmental proteomics reveals early microbial community responses to biostimulation at a uranium- and nitrate-contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chourey, Karuna [ORNL; Nissen, Silke [ORNL; Vishnivetskaya, T. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Pffifner, Susan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Loeffler, Frank E [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    High performance mass spectrometry instrumentation coupled with improved protein extraction techniques enable metaproteomics to identify active members of soil and groundwater microbial communities. Metaproteomics workflows were applied to study the initial responses (i.e., 4 days post treatment) of the indigenous aquifer microbiota to biostimulation with emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) at a uranium-contaminated site. Members of the Betaproteobacteria (i.e., Dechloromonas, Ralstonia, Rhodoferax, Polaromonas, Delftia, Chromobacterium) and Firmicutes dominated the biostimulated aquifer community. Proteome characterization revealed distinct differences in protein expression between the microbial biomass collected from groundwater influenced by biostimulation and groundwater collected up-gradient of the EVO injection points. In particular, proteins involved in ammonium assimilation, EVO degradation, and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) granule formation were prominent following biostimulation. Interestingly, the atypical NosZ of a Dechloromonas sp. was highly expressed suggesting active nitrous oxide (N2O) respiration. c-type cytochromes were barely detected, as was citrate synthase, a biomarker for hexavalent uranium reduction activity, suggesting that metal reduction has not commenced 4 days post EVO delivery. Environmental metaproteomics identified microbial community responses to biostimulation and elucidated active pathways demonstrating the value of this technique for complementing nucleic acid-based approaches.

  5. Microbial population responses in three stratified Antarctic meltwater ponds during the autumn freeze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safi, Karl; Hawes, Ian; Sorrell, Brian Keith

    2012-01-01

    The planktonic microbial communities of three meltwater ponds, located on the McMurdo Ice Shelf, were investigated from the end of January 2008 to early April, during which almost the entire pond volumes froze. The ponds were comprised of an upper mixed layer overlying a salt-stabilized density g...... for increasing heterotrophy within the remaining microbial communities, although all components of the food web eventually decline as the final freeze approaches....... role of autotrophic and heterotrophic microplankton within the ponds. The results showed that microbial groups responded to the onset of winter by declining in abundance, though an exception was the appearance of filamentous cyanobacteria in the water column in March. As freezing progressed, autotrophs...... declined more rapidly than heterotrophs and grazing rates and abundances of mixotrophic and heterotrophic organisms increased. Grazing pressure on bacteria and picophytoplankton also increased, in part explaining their decline over time. The results indicate that stressors imposed during freezing select...

  6. Microbial community changes in biological phosphate-removal systems on altering sludge phosphorus content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, WT; Linning, KD; Nakamura, K; Mino, T; Matsuo, T; Forney, LJ

    Biomarkers (respiratory quinones and cellular fatty acids) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes were used to characterize the microbial community structure of lab-scale enhanced biological phosphate-removal (EBPR) systems in response to altering sludge

  7. Responses of microbial community functional structures to pilot-scale uranium in situ bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, M.; Wu, W.-M.; Wu, L.; He, Z.; Van Nostrand, J.D.; Deng, Y.; Luo, J.; Carley, J.; Ginder-Vogel, M.; Gentry, T.J.; Gu, B.; Watson, D.; Jardine, P.M.; Marsh, T.L.; Tiedje, J.M.; Hazen, T.C.; Criddle, C.S.; Zhou, J.

    2010-02-15

    A pilot-scale field test system with an inner loop nested within an outer loop was constructed for in situ U(VI) bioremediation at a US Department of Energy site, Oak Ridge, TN. The outer loop was used for hydrological protection of the inner loop where ethanol was injected for biostimulation of microorganisms for U(VI) reduction/immobilization. After 2 years of biostimulation with ethanol, U(VI) levels were reduced to below drinking water standard (<30 {micro}gl{sup -1}) in the inner loop monitoring wells. To elucidate the microbial community structure and functions under in situ uranium bioremediation conditions, we used a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip) to examine the microbial functional gene composition of the sediment samples collected from both inner and outer loop wells. Our study results showed that distinct microbial communities were established in the inner loop wells. Also, higher microbial functional gene number, diversity and abundance were observed in the inner loop wells than the outer loop wells. In addition, metal-reducing bacteria, such as Desulfovibrio, Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter and Shewanella, and other bacteria, for example, Rhodopseudomonas and Pseudomonas, are highly abundant in the inner loop wells. Finally, the richness and abundance of microbial functional genes were highly correlated with the mean travel time of groundwater from the inner loop injection well, pH and sulfate concentration in groundwater. These results suggest that the indigenous microbial communities can be successfully stimulated for U bioremediation in the groundwater ecosystem, and their structure and performance can be manipulated or optimized by adjusting geochemical and hydrological conditions.

  8. Microbial community functional structure in response to antibiotics in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Xie, Jianping; Liu, Miaomiao; Tian, Zhe; He, Zhili; van Nostrand, Joy D; Ren, Liren; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Min

    2013-10-15

    It is widely demonstrated that antibiotics in the environment affect microbial community structure. However, direct evidence regarding the impacts of antibiotics on microbial functional structures in wastewater treatment systems is limited. Herein, a high-throughput functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0) in combination with quantitative PCR and clone libraries were used to evaluate the microbial functional structures in two biological wastewater treatment systems, which treat antibiotic production wastewater mainly containing oxytetracycline. Despite the bacteriostatic effects of antibiotics, the GeoChip detected almost all key functional gene categories, including carbon cycling, nitrogen cycling, etc., suggesting that these microbial communities were functionally diverse. Totally 749 carbon-degrading genes belonging to 40 groups (24 from bacteria and 16 from fungi) were detected. The abundance of several fungal carbon-degrading genes (e.g., glyoxal oxidase (glx), lignin peroxidase or ligninase (lip), manganese peroxidase (mnp), endochitinase, exoglucanase_genes) was significantly correlated with antibiotic concentrations (Mantel test; P functional genes have been enhanced by the presence of antibiotics. However, from the fact that the majority of carbon-degrading genes were derived from bacteria and diverse antibiotic resistance genes were detected in bacteria, it was assumed that many bacteria could survive in the environment by acquiring antibiotic resistance and may have maintained the position as a main player in nutrient removal. Variance partitioning analysis showed that antibiotics could explain 24.4% of variations in microbial functional structure of the treatment systems. This study provides insights into the impacts of antibiotics on microbial functional structure of a unique system receiving antibiotic production wastewater, and reveals the potential importance of the cooperation between fungi and bacteria with antibiotic resistance in maintaining the

  9. Local and disseminated acute phase response during bacterial respiratory infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2010-01-01

    The acute phase response is playing an important role, aiming to restore the healthy state after tissue injury, inflammation and infection. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other parts of innate defense reactions remain somewhat elusive. Expression of acute phase...... locations of the infected lung (necrotic areas, areas bordering on necrotic areas, and from visually unaffected areas). Expression differences was also studied in the liver and in peripheral lymphoid tissue (tracheobronchial lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils) of infected (n=10) and non-infected (n=5) pigs using......-phase proteins was found 14-18h after experimental infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. This firmly establishes that expression of APPs is widely disseminated, involving changes in the expression of APPs at a dynamic scale comparable to the hepatic response. These results suggest that many different cell...

  10. Detrital floc and surface soil microbial biomarker responses to active management of the nutrient impacted Florida everglades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, Brent J; Hagerthey, Scot E; Newman, Susan; Cook, Mark I

    2012-11-01

    Alterations in microbial community composition, biomass, and function in the Florida Everglades impacted by cultural eutrophication reflect a new physicochemical environment associated with monotypic stands of Typha domingensis. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarkers were used to quantify microbial responses in detritus and surface soils in an active management experiment in the eutrophic Everglades. Creation of open plots through removal of Typha altered the physical and chemical characteristics of the region. Mass of PLFA biomarkers increased in open plots, but magnitude of changes differed among microbial groups. Biomarkers indicative of Gram-negative bacteria and fungi were significantly greater in open plots, reflective of the improved oxic environment. Reduction in the proportion of cyclopropyl lipids and the ratio of Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacteria in open plots further suggested an altered oxygen environment and conditions for the rapid growth of Gram-negative bacteria. Changes in the PLFA composition were greater in floc relative to soils, reflective of rapid inputs of new organic matter and direct interaction with the new physicochemical environment. Created open plot microbial mass and composition were significantly different from the oligotrophic Everglades due to differences in phosphorus availability, plant community structure, and a shift to organic peat from marl-peat soils. PLFA analysis also captured the dynamic inter-annual hydrologic variability, notably in PLFA concentrations, but to a lesser degree content. Recently, use of concentration has been advocated over content in studies of soil biogeochemistry, and our results highlight the differential response of these two quantitative measures to similar pressures.

  11. Response of Microbial Community Function to Fluctuating Geochemical Conditions within a Legacy Radioactive Waste Trench Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Campos, Xabier; Kinsela, Andrew S; Bligh, Mark W; Harrison, Jennifer J; Payne, Timothy E; Waite, T David

    2017-09-01

    During the 1960s, small quantities of radioactive materials were codisposed with chemical waste at the Little Forest Legacy Site (Sydney, Australia) in 3-meter-deep, unlined trenches. Chemical and microbial analyses, including functional and taxonomic information derived from shotgun metagenomics, were collected across a 6-week period immediately after a prolonged rainfall event to assess the impact of changing water levels upon the microbial ecology and contaminant mobility. Collectively, results demonstrated that oxygen-laden rainwater rapidly altered the redox balance in the trench water, strongly impacting microbial functioning as well as the radiochemistry. Two contaminants of concern, plutonium and americium, were shown to transition from solid-iron-associated species immediately after the initial rainwater pulse to progressively more soluble moieties as reducing conditions were enhanced. Functional metagenomics revealed the potentially important role that the taxonomically diverse microbial community played in this transition. In particular, aerobes dominated in the first day, followed by an increase of facultative anaerobes/denitrifiers at day 4. Toward the mid-end of the sampling period, the functional and taxonomic profiles depicted an anaerobic community distinguished by a higher representation of dissimilatory sulfate reduction and methanogenesis pathways. Our results have important implications to similar near-surface environmental systems in which redox cycling occurs. IMPORTANCE The role of chemical and microbiological factors in mediating the biogeochemistry of groundwaters from trenches used to dispose of radioactive materials during the 1960s is examined in this study. Specifically, chemical and microbial analyses, including functional and taxonomic information derived from shotgun metagenomics, were collected across a 6-week period immediately after a prolonged rainfall event to assess how changing water levels influence microbial ecology and

  12. Respiratory Allergy to Trimellitic Anhydride in Rats: Concentration-Response Relationships during Elicitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Koning, M.W. de; Bloksma, N.; Kuper, C.F.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated whether airway responses of sensitized rats to trimellitic anhydride (TMA) were concentration dependent and whether these were related to irritation by TMA. Groups of BN and Wistar rats were sensitized by two dermal applications of TMA (50% w/v, followed by 25% w/v in

  13. Pulmonary vascular responses during acute and sustained respiratory alkalosis or acidosis in intact newborn piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J B; Rehorst-Paea, L A; Hoffman, G M; Nelin, L D

    1999-12-01

    Acute alkalosis-induced pulmonary vasodilation and acidosis-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction have been well described, but responses were generally measured within 5-30 min of changing pH. In contrast, several in vitro studies have found that relatively brief periods of sustained alkalosis can enhance, and sustained acidosis can decrease, vascular reactivity. In this study of intact newborn piglets, effects of acute (20 min) and sustained (60-80 min) alkalosis or acidosis on baseline (35% O2) and hypoxic (12% O2) pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were compared with control piglets exposed only to eucapnia. Acute alkalosis decreased hypoxic PVR, but sustained alkalosis failed to attenuate either baseline PVR or the subsequent hypoxic response. Acute acidosis did not significantly increase hypoxic PVR, but sustained acidosis markedly increased both baseline PVR and the subsequent hypoxic response. Baseline PVR was similar in all piglets after resumption of eucapnic ventilation, but the final hypoxic response was greater in piglets previously exposed to alkalosis than in controls. Thus, hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction was not attenuated during sustained alkalosis, but was accentuated during sustained acidosis and after the resumption of eucapnia in alkalosis-treated piglets. Although extrapolation of data from normal piglets to infants and children with pulmonary hypertension must be done with caution, this study suggests that sustained alkalosis may be of limited efficacy in treating acute hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and the risks of pulmonary hypertension must be considered when using ventilator strategies resulting in permissive hypercapnic acidosis.

  14. Interferon alpha inhibits viral replication of a live-attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine preventing development of an adaptive immune response in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Type I interferons, such as interferon alpha (IFNa), contribute to innate antiviral immunity by promoting production of antiviral mediators and are also involved in promoting an adaptive immune response. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most devastating and c...

  15. GH and cortisol responses following an acute session of respiratory muscle endurance training in severely obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorio, A; Agosti, F; Patrizi, A; Gattico, A; Tringali, G; Giunta, M; Muller, E E; Rigamonti, A E

    2013-03-01

    It is well established that obese patients are hypo-responsive to classical GH-releasing stimuli, including aerobic exercise. Recently, we have demonstrated that whole body vibration was able to markedly stimulate GH secretion in obese patients, thus suggesting that this refractoriness is not absolute but dependent on the GH-releasing stimulus. Furthermore, we have shown the ability of a respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) to stimulate GH and cortisol secretion in healthy subjects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of RMET on GH and cortisol responses in severely obese patients. Eight severely obese patients (4 M/4 F, mean age±SEM: 22.8±1.6 years, body mass index, BMI: 39.9±1.1 kg/m2) underwent an incremental progressive RMET protocol of 11 daily sessions, obtained through the use of a specifically designed respiratory device (Spiro Tiger®). The 12th session of RMET (15 min duration: 1 min at a respiration rate of 28 acts/min, 5 min at 32 acts/min, 5 min at 34 acts/min, 4 min at 36 acts/min) was associated with blood samplings for determination of GH, cortisol, and lactate (LA) levels. An age- and sex-matched normal-weighted control group (n=7, 4 M/3 F, age: 26.1±3.1 years, BMI: 22.4±0.6 kg/m2) was also recruited. In both normal-weighted subjects and obese patients, GH secretion significantly increased after a 15-min RMET session. Although serum GH levels at 30 min were higher in normal-weighted subjects than in obese patients, there was no statistically significant difference in either GH peaks or net GH areas under the curve between the 2 groups. RMET significantly increased serum cortisol levels in normal-weighted subjects, but was associated to a progressive cortisol decline in obese patients. RMET stimulated LA production, with no significant differences in normal-weighted subjects and in obese patients. A 15-min RMET session was capable to induce a GH response in severely obese patients, which was comparable to that

  16. The microbiota of the respiratory tract : Gatekeeper to respiratory health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Man, Wing Ho; De Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A.A.; Bogaert, Debby

    2017-01-01

    The respiratory tract is a complex organ system that is responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The human respiratory tract spans from the nostrils to the lung alveoli and is inhabited by niche-specific communities of bacteria. The microbiota of the respiratory tract probably acts

  17. Microbial Activity Response to Solar Radiation across Contrasting Environmental Conditions in Salar de Huasco, Northern Chilean Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Klaudia L; Yannicelli, Beatriz; Olsen, Lasse M; Dorador, Cristina; Menschel, Eduardo J; Molina, Verónica; Remonsellez, Francisco; Hengst, Martha B; Jeffrey, Wade H

    2016-01-01

    In high altitude environments, extreme levels of solar radiation and important differences of ionic concentrations over narrow spatial scales may modulate microbial activity. In Salar de Huasco, a high-altitude wetland in the Andean mountains, the high diversity of microbial communities has been characterized and associated with strong environmental variability. Communities that differed in light history and environmental conditions, such as nutrient concentrations and salinity from different spatial locations, were assessed for bacterial secondary production (BSP, 3 H-leucine incorporation) response from short-term exposures to solar radiation. We sampled during austral spring seven stations categorized as: (a) source stations, with recently emerged groundwater (no-previous solar exposure); (b) stream running water stations; (c) stations connected to source waters but far downstream from source points; and (d) isolated ponds disconnected from ground sources or streams with a longer isolation and solar exposure history. Very high values of 0.25 μE m -2 s -1 , 72 W m -2 and 12 W m -2 were measured for PAR, UVA, and UVB incident solar radiation, respectively. The environmental factors measured formed two groups of stations reflected by principal component analyses (near to groundwater sources and isolated systems) where isolated ponds had the highest BSP and microbial abundance (35 microalgae taxa, picoeukaryotes, nanoflagellates, and bacteria) plus higher salinities and PO 4 3- concentrations. BSP short-term response (4 h) to solar radiation was measured by 3 H-leucine incorporation under four different solar conditions: full sun, no UVB, PAR, and dark. Microbial communities established in waters with the longest surface exposure (e.g., isolated ponds) had the lowest BSP response to solar radiation treatments, and thus were likely best adapted to solar radiation exposure contrary to ground source waters. These results support our light history (solar exposure

  18. Modulation of neonatal microbial recognition: TLR-mediated innate immune responses are specifically and differentially modulated by human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBouder, Emmanuel; Rey-Nores, Julia E; Raby, Anne-Catherine; Affolter, Michael; Vidal, Karine; Thornton, Catherine A; Labéta, Mario O

    2006-03-15

    The mechanisms controlling innate microbial recognition in the neonatal gut are still to be fully understood. We have sought specific regulatory mechanisms operating in human breast milk relating to TLR-mediated microbial recognition. In this study, we report a specific and differential modulatory effect of early samples (days 1-5) of breast milk on ligand-induced cell stimulation via TLRs. Although a negative modulation was exerted on TLR2 and TLR3-mediated responses, those via TLR4 and TLR5 were enhanced. This effect was observed in human adult and fetal intestinal epithelial cell lines, monocytes, dendritic cells, and PBMC as well as neonatal blood. In the latter case, milk compensated for the low capacity of neonatal plasma to support responses to LPS. Cell stimulation via the IL-1R or TNFR was not modulated by milk. This, together with the differential effect on TLR activation, suggested that the primary effect of milk is exerted upstream of signaling proximal to TLR ligand recognition. The analysis of TLR4-mediated gene expression, used as a model system, showed that milk modulated TLR-related genes differently, including those coding for signal intermediates and regulators. A proteinaceous milk component of > or =80 kDa was found to be responsible for the effect on TLR4. Notably, infant milk formulations did not reproduce the modulatory activity of breast milk. Together, these findings reveal an unrecognized function of human milk, namely, its capacity to influence neonatal microbial recognition by modulating TLR-mediated responses specifically and differentially. This in turn suggests the existence of novel mechanisms regulating TLR activation.

  19. Interactions Between Stress and Sex in Microbial Responses Within the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsilimigras, Matthew C B; Gharaibeh, Raad Z; Sioda, Michael; Gray, Laura; Fodor, Anthony A; Lyte, Mark

    2018-05-01

    Animal models are frequently used to examine stress response, but experiments seldom include females. The connection between the microbiota-gut-brain axis and behavioral stress response is investigated here using a mixed-sex mouse cohort. CF-1 mice underwent alternating days of restraint and forced swim for 19 days (male n = 8, female n = 8) with matching numbers of control animals at which point the 16S rRNA genes of gut microbiota were sequenced. Mixed linear models accounting for stress status and sex with individuals nested in cage to control for cage effects evaluated these data. Murine behaviors in elevated plus-maze, open-field, and light/dark box were investigated. Community-level associations with sex, stress, and their interaction were significant. Males had higher microbial diversity than females (p = .025). Of the 638 operational taxonomic units detected in at least 25% of samples, 94 operational taxonomic units were significant: 31 (stress), 61 (sex), and 34 (sex-stress interaction). Twenty of the 39 behavioral measures were significant for stress, 3 for sex, and 6 for sex-stress. However, no significant associations between behavioral measures and specific microbes were detected. These data suggest sex influences stress response and the microbiota-gut-brain axis and that studies of behavior and the microbiome therefore benefit from consideration of how sex differences drive behavior and microbial community structure. Host stress resilience and absence of associations between stress-induced behaviors with specific microbes suggests that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation represents a threshold for microbial influence on host behavior. Future studies are needed in examining the intersection of sex, stress response, and the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

  20. Reduced neonatal regulatory T cell response to microbial stimuli associates with subsequent eczema in high-risk infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Intan H; Boyle, Robert J; Mah, Li-Jeen; Licciardi, Paul V; Tang, Mimi L K

    2014-11-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) play an essential role in early immune programming and shaping the immune response towards a pro-allergic or tolerant state. We evaluated cord blood Treg and cytokine responses to microbial and non-microbial stimuli in infants at high risk of allergic disease and their associations with development of allergic disease in the first year. Cord blood mononuclear cells from 72 neonates were cultured with toll-like receptors (TLR2) ligands: lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and heat-killed Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (HKL); TLR4 ligand: lipopolysaccharide (LPS); ovalbumin (OVA); anti-CD3; or media for 48 h. Treg numbers and Treg cytokines were assessed in relation to allergic disease outcomes during the first year of life (eczema and atopic sensitization). Infants with eczema (n = 24) had reduced percentages of FoxP3(hi)CD25(hi) Treg in LTA (p = 0.01, adj p = 0.005) and HKL (p = 0.04, adj p = 0.02) stimulated cultures as well as reduced IL-10 (p = 0.01) production following HKL stimulation compared to those without eczema (n = 48). No differences in Treg or cytokine responses to LPS, OVA or anti-CD3 were seen. Infants who developed sensitization had lower percentages of Treg following TLR2 stimulation (but not other stimuli) compared to non-sensitized infants. High-risk children who develop allergic disease in the first year of life have deficient Treg responses to microbial stimuli but not allergen from the time of birth, which may contribute to failure of immune tolerance development in infancy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Responses of microbial community to pH stress in bioleaching of low grade copper sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuguang; Li, Kai; Chen, Xinhua; Zhou, Hongbo

    2018-02-01

    The microbial diversity and dynamics in the leachates and on the ore surfaces of different depth of the column were analyzed during bioleaching of low grade copper sulfide at different pH, after inoculation with the same inoculum containing mesophiles and moderate thermophiles. The results indicate that low pH was beneficial to enhance copper extraction. The highest copper extraction (86%) was obtained when pH was controlled at 1.0-1.5. The microbial structures on the ore surfaces were independent of community structures in the leachate, even at the top portion of column. Microbial richness and evenness increased with decreasing pH during bioleaching. pH had significant effects on microbial community structure in the leachate and on the mineral surface of different depth of the column. Leptospirillum ferriphilum accounted for the highest proportions of the community at most times when pH was operated during bioleaching, especially at the end of run. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural and metabolic responses of microbial community to sewage-borne chlorpyrifos in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Wang, Chuan; Zhang, Liping; Xu, Dong; Liu, Biyun; Zhou, Qiaohong; Wu, Zhenbin

    2016-06-01

    Long-term use of chlorpyrifos poses a potential threat to the environment that cannot be ignored, yet little is known about the succession of substrate microbial communities in constructed wetlands (CWs) under chlorpyrifos stress. Six pilot-scale CW systems receiving artificial wastewater containing 1mg/L chlorpyrifos were established to investigate the effects of chlorpyrifos and wetland vegetation on the microbial metabolism pattern of carbon sources and community structure, using BIOLOG and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches. Based on our samples, BIOLOG showed that Shannon diversity (H') and richness (S) values distinctly increased after 30days when chlorpyrifos was added. At the same time, differences between the vegetated and the non-vegetated systems disappeared. DGGE profiles indicated that H' and S had no significant differences among four different treatments. The effect of chlorpyrifos on the microbial community was mainly reflected at the physiological level. Principal component analysis (PCA) of both BIOLOG and DGGE showed that added chlorpyrifos made a difference on test results. Meanwhile, there was no difference between the vegetation and no-vegetation treatments after addition of chlorpyrifos at the physiological level. Moreover, the vegetation had no significant effect on the microbial community at the genetic level. Comparisons were made between bacteria in this experiment and other known chlorpyrifos-degrading bacteria. The potential chlorpyrifos-degrading ability of bacteria in situ may be considerable. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Cucumber rhizosphere microbial community response to biocontrol agent Bacillus subtilis B068150

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis B068150 has been used as a biocontrol agent against the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cucumerinum. However, their survival ability in cucumber rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere as well as their influence on native microbial communities has not been fully i...

  4. Responses of redwood soil microbial community structure and N transformations to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon C. Bradbury; Mary K. Firestone

    2012-01-01

    Soil microorganisms perform critical ecosystem functions, including decomposition, nitrogen (N) mineralization and nitrification. Soil temperature and water availability can be critical determinants of the rates of these processes as well as microbial community composition and structure. This research examined how changes in climate affect bacterial and fungal...

  5. The YNP Metagenome Project: Environmental Parameters Responsible for Microbial Distribution in the Yellowstone Geothermal Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Inskeep

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Yellowstone geothermal complex contains over 10,000 diverse geothermal features that host numerous phylogenetically deeply-rooted and poorly understood archaea, bacteria and viruses. Microbial communities in high-temperature environments are generally less diverse than soil, marine, sediment or lake habitats and therefore offer a tremendous opportunity for studying the structure and function of different model microbial communities using environmental metagenomics. One of the broader goals of this study was to establish linkages among microbial distribution, metabolic potential and environmental variables. Twenty geochemically distinct geothermal ecosystems representing a broad spectrum of Yellowstone hot-spring environments were used for metagenomic and geochemical analysis and included approximately equal numbers of: (1 phototrophic mats, (2 ‘filamentous streamer’ communities, and (3 archaeal-dominated sediments. The metagenomes were analyzed using a suite of complementary and integrative bioinformatic tools, including phylogenetic and functional analysis of both individual sequence reads and assemblies of predominant phylotypes. This volume identifies major environmental determinants of a large number of thermophilic microbial lineages, many of which have not been fully described in the literature nor previously cultivated to enable functional and genomic analyses. Moreover, protein family abundance comparisons and in-depth analyses of specific genes and metabolic pathways relevant to these hot-spring environments reveal hallmark signatures of metabolic capabilities that parallel the distribution of phylotypes across specific types of geochemical environments.

  6. Microbial Community Response of an Organohalide Respiring Enrichment Culture to Permanganate Oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, N.B.; Atashgahi, S.; Saccenti, E.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Smidt, H.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    While in situ chemical oxidation is often used to remediate tetrachloroethene (PCE) contaminated locations, very little is known about its influence on microbial composition and organohalide respiration (OHR) activity. Here, we investigate the impact of oxidation with permanganate on OHR rates, the

  7. Response of microbial communities to pesticide residues in soil restored with Azolla imbricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen

    2018-01-01

    Under conditions of Azolla imbricata restoration, the high-throughput sequencing technology was employed to determine change trends of microbial community structures in the soil that had undergone long-term application of pesticides. The relationship between the content of pesticide residues in the soil and the microbial community structure was analyzed. The results indicated that the microbial diversity was strongly negatively correlated with the contents of pesticide residues in the soil. At a suitable dosage of 5 kg fresh A. imbricata per square meter of soil area, the soil microbial diversity increased by 12.0%, and the contents of pesticide residues decreased by 26.8-72.1%. Sphingobacterium, Sphingopyxis, Thermincola, Sphingobium, Acaryochloris, Megasphaera, Ralstonia, Pseudobutyrivibrio, Desulfitobacterium, Nostoc, Oscillochloris, and Aciditerrimonas may play major roles in the degradation of pesticide residues. Thauera, Levilinea, Geothrix, Thiobacillus, Thioalkalispira, Desulfobulbus, Polycyclovorans, Fluviicola, Deferrisoma, Erysipelothrix, Desulfovibrio, Cytophaga, Vogesella, Zoogloea, Azovibrio, Halomonas, Paludibacter, Crocinitomix, Haliscomenobacter, Hirschia, Silanimonas, Alkalibacter, Woodsholea, Peredibacter, Leptolinea, Chitinivorax, Candidatus_Lumbricincola, Anaerovorax, Propionivibrio, Parasegetibacter, Byssovorax, Runella, Leptospira, and Nitrosomonas may be indicators to evaluate the contents of pesticide residues.

  8. Metagenomics reveals sediment microbial community response to Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mason, Olivia U.; Scott, Nicole M.; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the spring of 2010 resulted in an input of similar to 4.1 million barrels of oil to the Gulf of Mexico; >22% of this oil is unaccounted for, with unknown environmental consequences. Here we investigated the impact of oil deposition on microbial communities...

  9. ABO blood group is associated with response to inhaled nitric oxide in neonates with respiratory failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George T El-Ferzli

    Full Text Available Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO reduces death or need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO in infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN. However, the response to iNO is variable and only 50-60% of infants demonstrate a response to iNO. It is not known why only some infants respond to iNO. Adults and children with blood groups B or AB do not respond as well to iNO as those with blood groups O/A.To determine if blood group was associated with iNO response in newborn infants, a retrospective medical record review was done of infants admitted to a regional NICU from 2002-9 with a diagnosis of PPHN. Data were collected during the first twelve hours post-initiation of treatment. Of 86 infants diagnosed with PPHN, 23 infants had blood group A [18 received iNO], 21 had group B [18 with iNO], 40 had group O [36 with iNO], and 2 had group AB [both received iNO]. Change in PaO(2/FiO(2 was less in infants with blood group A, of whom less than half were responders (ΔPaO(2/FiO(2>20% at 12 h versus 90% of infants with either O or B. Race, sex, birth weight, gestational age, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes, and baseline PaO(2/FiO(2 were similar among groups. Outcomes including need for ECMO, death, length of ventilatory support, length of iNO use, and hospital stay were statistically not different by blood groups.Our results indicate that blood group influences iNO response in neonates. We hypothesize that either there is genetic linkage of the ABO gene locus with vasoregulatory genes, or that blood group antigens directly affect vascular reactivity.

  10. Respiratory dysfunction in swine production facility workers: dose-response relationships of environmental exposures and pulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donham, K J; Reynolds, S J; Whitten, P; Merchant, J A; Burmeister, L; Popendorf, W J

    1995-03-01

    Human respiratory health hazards for people working in livestock confinement buildings have been recognized since 1974. However, before comprehensive control programs can be implemented, more knowledge is needed of specific hazardous substances present in the air of these buildings, and at what concentrations they are harmful. Therefore, a medical epidemiological and exposure-response study was conducted on 207 swine producers using intensive housing systems (108 farms). Dose-response relationships between pulmonary function and exposures are reported here. Positive correlations were seen between change in pulmonary function over a work period and exposure to total dust, respirable dust, ammonia, respirable endotoxin, and the interactions of age-of-producer and dust exposure and years-of-working-in-the-facility and dust exposure. Relationships between baseline pulmonary function and exposures were not strong and therefore, not pursued in this study. The correlations between exposure and response were stronger after 6 years of exposure. Multiple regression models were used to identify total dust and ammonia as the two primary environmental predictors of pulmonary function decrements over a work period. The regression models were then used to determine exposure concentrations related to pulmonary function decrements suggestive of a health hazard. Total dust concentrations > or = 2.8 mg/m3 were predictive of a work period decrement of > or = 10% in FEV1. Ammonia concentrations of > or = 7.5 ppm were predictive of a > or = 3% work period decrement in FEV1. These predictive concentrations were similar to a previous dose-response study, which suggested 2.5 mg/m3 of total dust and 7 ppm of NH3 were associated with significant work period decrements. Therefore, dust > or = 2.8 mg/m3 and ammonia > or = 7.5 ppm should be considered reasonable evidence for guidelines regarding hazardous exposure concentrations in this work environment.

  11. Microbial shifts in the swine nasal microbiota in response to parenteral antimicrobial administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeineldin, Mohamed; Aldridge, Brian; Blair, Benjamin; Kancer, Katherine; Lowe, James

    2018-05-24

    The continuous administration of antimicrobials in swine production has been widely criticized with the increase of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and dysbiosis of the beneficial microbial communities. While an increasing number of studies investigate the effects of antimicrobial administration on swine gastrointestinal microbiota biodiversity, the impact of their use on the composition and diversity of nasal microbial communities has not been widely explored. The objective of this study was to characterize the short-term impact of different parenteral antibiotics administration on the composition and diversity of nasal microbial communities in growing pigs. Five antimicrobial treatment groups, each consisting of four, eight-week old piglets, were administered one of the antimicrobials; Ceftiofur Crystalline free acid (CCFA), Ceftiofur hydrochloride (CHC), Tulathromycin (TUL), Oxytetracycline (OTC), and Procaine Penicillin G (PPG) at label dose and route. Individual deep nasal swabs were collected immediately before antimicrobial administration (control = day 0), and again on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after dosing. The nasal microbiota across all the samples were dominated by Firmicutes, proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. While, the predominant bacterial genera were Moraxella, Clostridium and Streptococcus. Linear discriminant analysis, showed a pronounced, antimicrobial-dependent microbial shift in the composition of nasal microbiota and over time from day 0. By day 14, the nasal microbial compositions of the groups receiving CCFA and OTC had returned to a distribution that closely resembled that observed on day 0. In contrast, pigs that received CHC, TUL and PPG appeared to deviate away from the day 0 composition by day 14. Based on our results, it appears that the impact of parenteral antibiotics on the swine nasal microbiota is variable and has a considerable impact in modulating the nasal microbiota structure. Our results will aid in developing alternative

  12. Response of the soil microbial community to imazethapyr application in a soybean field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Guo, Liqun; Dong, Fengshou; Liu, Xingang; Wu, Xiaohu; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Ying; Zheng, Yongquan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of imazethapyr on soil microbial communities combined with its effect on soybean growth. A short-term field experiment was conducted, and imazethapyr was applied to the soil at three different doses [1-fold, 10-fold, and 50-fold of the recommended field rate (H1, H10, H50)] during the soybean seedling period (with two leaves). Soil sampling was performed after 1, 7, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of application to determine the imazethapyr concentration and microbial community structure by investigating phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC). The half-lives of the imazethapyr in the field soil varied from 30.1 to 43.3 days. Imazethapyr at H1 was innocuous to soybean plants, but imazethapyr at H10 and H50 led to a significant inhibition in soybean plant height and leaf number. The soil MBC, total PLFA, and bacterial PLFA were decreased by the application of imazethapyr during the initial period and could recover by the end of the experiment. The ratio of Gram-negative/Gram-positive (GN/GP) bacteria during the three treatments went through increases and decreases, and then recovered at the end of the experiment. The fungal PLFA of all three treatments increased during the initial period and then declined, and only the fungal PLFA at H50 recovered by the end of the treatment. A principal component analysis (PCA) of the PLFA clearly separated the treatments and sampling times, and the results demonstrate that imazethapyr alters the microbial community structure. This is the first systemic study reporting the effects of imazethapyr on the soil microbial community structure under soybean field conditions.

  13. Response of soil microbial activity and biodiversity in soils polluted with different concentrations of cypermethrin insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Manuel; García, Carlos; Hernández, Teresa; Gómez, Isidoro

    2015-07-01

    We performed a laboratory study into the effect of cypermethrin insecticide applied to different concentrations on biological properties in two soils [Typic Xerofluvent (soil A) and Xerollic Calciorthid (soil B)]. Two kg of each soil were polluted with cypermethrin at a rate of 60, 300, 600, and 1,200 g ha(-1) (C1, C2, C3, and C4 treatments). A nonpolluted soil was used as a control (C0 treatment). For all treatments and each experimental soil, soil dehydrogenase, urease, β-glucosidase, phosphatase, and arylsulphatase activities and soil microbial community were analysed by phospholipid fatty acids, which were measured at six incubation times (3, 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days). The behavior of the enzymatic activities and microbial population were dependent on the dose of insecticide applied to the soil. Compared with the C0 treatment, in soil A, the maximum inhibition of the enzymatic activities was at 15, 30, 45, and 90 days for the C1, C2, C3, and C4 treatments, respectively. However, in soil B, the maximum inhibition occurred at 7, 15, 30, and 45 days for the C1, C2, C3, and C4 treatments, respectively. These results suggest that the cypermethrin insecticide caused a negative effect on soil enzymatic activities and microbial diversity. This negative impact was greater when a greater dose of insecticide was used; this impact was also greater in soil with lower organic matter content. For both soils, and from these respective days onward, the enzymatic activities and microbial populations progressively increased by the end of the experimental period. This is possibly due to the fact that the insecticide or its breakdown products and killed microbial cells, subsequently killed by the insecticide, are being used as a source of energy or as a carbon source for the surviving microorganisms for cell proliferation.

  14. Systemic Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccination in Cattle Promotes Specific Antibody-Secreting Cells at the Respiratory Tract and Triggers Local Anamnestic Responses upon Aerosol Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pega, J; Di Giacomo, S; Bucafusco, D; Schammas, J M; Malacari, D; Barrionuevo, F; Capozzo, A V; Rodríguez, L L; Borca, M V; Pérez-Filgueira, M

    2015-09-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease affecting biungulate species. Commercial vaccines, formulated with inactivated FMD virus (FMDV), are regularly used worldwide to control the disease. Here, we studied the generation of antibody responses in local lymphoid tissues along the respiratory system in vaccinated and further aerosol-infected cattle. Animals immunized with a high-payload monovalent FMD vaccine developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies at 7 days postvaccination (dpv), reaching a plateau at 29 dpv. FMDV-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC), predominantly IgM, were evident at 7 dpv in the prescapular lymph node (LN) draining the vaccination site and in distal LN draining the respiratory mucosa, although in lower numbers. At 29 dpv, a significant switch to IgG1 was clear in prescapular LN, while FMDV-specific ASC were detected in all lymphoid tissues draining the respiratory tract, mostly as IgM-secreting cells. None of the animals (n = 10) exhibited FMD symptoms after oronasal challenge at 30 dpv. Three days postinfection, a large increase in ASC numbers and rapid isotype switches to IgG1 were observed, particularly in LN-draining virus replication sites already described. These results indicate for the first time that systemic FMD vaccination in cattle effectively promotes the presence of anti-FMDV ASC in lymphoid tissues associated with the respiratory system. Oronasal infection triggered an immune reaction compatible with a local anamnestic response upon contact with the replicating FMDV, suggesting that FMD vaccination induces the circulation of virus-specific B lymphocytes, including memory B cells that differentiate into ASC soon after contact with the infective virus. Over recent decades, world animal health organizations as well as national sanitary authorities have supported the use of vaccination as an essential component of the official FMD control programs in both endemic and disease-free settings. Very few

  15. Respiratory Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can' ...

  16. Respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  17. Evaluation of the ability of standardized supports to improve public health response to syndromic surveillance for respiratory diseases in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Rivera

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite widespread implementation of syndromic surveillance systems within public health agencies, previous studies of the implementation and use of these systems have indicated that the functions and responses taken in response to syndromic surveillance data vary widely according to local context and preferences. The objective of the Syndromic Surveillance Evaluation Study was to develop and implement standardized supports in local public health agencies in Ontario, Canada, and evaluate the ability of these supports to affect actions taken as part of public health communicable disease control programs. Methods Local public health agencies (LPHA in Ontario, which used syndromic surveillance based on emergency department visits for respiratory disease, were recruited and randomly allocated to the study intervention or control group. The intervention group health agencies received standardized supports in terms of a standardized aberrant event detection algorithm and a response protocol dictating steps to investigate and assess the public health significance of syndromic surveillance alerts. The control group continued with their pre-existing syndromic surveillance infrastructure and processes. Outcomes were assessed using logbooks, which collected quantitative and qualitative information about alerts received, investigation steps taken, and public health responses. The study was conducted prospectively for 15 months (October 2013 to February 2015. Results Fifteen LPHAs participated in the study (n = 9 intervention group, n = 6 control group. A total of 1,969 syndromic surveillance alerts were received by all LPHAs. Variations in the types and amount of responses varied by LPHA, in particularly differences were noted by the size of the health unit. Smaller health units had more challenges to both detect and mount a response to any alerts. LPHAs in the control group were more likely to declare alerts to have public

  18. Microbial response to oil enrichment in Gulf of Mexico sediment measured using a novel long-term benthic lander system

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    Beth N. Orcutt

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Weathered crude oil sank to the seafloor following the 'Deepwater Horizon' disaster in 2010, removing this oil from further physical and photo-chemical degradation processes and leaving benthic processes as the mechanisms for altering and remediating this hydrocarbon source. To quantify potential microbial oil degradation rates at the seafloor, and associated changes in sediment microbial community structure and pore fluid composition, we used a benthic lander system to deploy novel sediment flow-through chambers at a natural hydrocarbon seep in the Gulf of Mexico (at a depth of 1226 m in lease block GC600 roughly 265 km southwest of the 'Deepwater Horizon' wellhead (at 1500 m depth. Sediment amended with 20% unweathered crude oil had elevated rates of sulfate reduction over the course of the 5-month-long experiment as compared to an unamended control, yielding potential rates of sulfate reduction (600–800 mmol m–2 d–1 among the highest measured in hydrocarbon-influenced seafloor sediment. Oil amendment also stimulated methane production towards the end of the experiment, and led to slightly higher cell densities without significant changes in microbial community structure, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence libraries and fatty acid profiles. Assuming a link between sulfate reduction and hydrocarbon degradation, these results suggest that electron acceptor availability may become limiting in heavily oiled deep-sea environments, resulting in minimal degradation of deposited oil. This study provides unique data on seafloor sediment responses to oil deposition, and reveals the value of using observatories to fill the gap in understanding deep-sea microbial processes, especially for ephemeral and stochastic events such as oil spills.

  19. Effect of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, L. casei 431 on immune response to influenza vaccination and upper respiratory tract infections in healthy adult volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lillian; Tarnow, Inge; Eskesen, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Probiotics can modulate the immune system in healthy individuals and may help reduce symptoms related to respiratory infections. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, L. casei 431 (Chr...... inhibition) 21 d after vaccination. Other outcomes were seroconversion rate and mean titers, influenza A-specific antibodies and incidence, and duration and severity of upper respiratory symptoms. Antibiotic use and use of health care resources were recorded. RESULTS: There was no effect of L. casei 431...... on immune responses to influenza vaccination. Generalized linear mixed modeling showed a shorter duration of upper respiratory symptoms in the probiotic group compared with placebo (mean ± SD: 6.4 ± 6.1 d vs. 7.3 ± 9.7 d, P = 0.0059) in the last 3 wk of the intervention period. No statistically significant...

  20. Immune sensitization to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI resulting from skin exposure: albumin as a carrier protein connecting skin exposure to subsequent respiratory responses

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    Redlich Carrie A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI, a reactive chemical used for commercial polyurethane production, is a well-recognized cause of occupational asthma. The major focus of disease prevention efforts to date has been respiratory tract exposure; however, skin exposure may also be an important route for inducing immune sensitization, which may promote subsequent airway inflammatory responses. We developed a murine model to investigate pathogenic mechanisms by which MDI skin exposure might promote subsequent immune responses, including respiratory tract inflammation. Methods Mice exposed via the skin to varying doses (0.1-10% w/v of MDI diluted in acetone/olive oil were subsequently evaluated for MDI immune sensitization. Serum levels of MDI-specific IgG and IgE were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA, while respiratory tract inflammation, induced by intranasal delivery of MDI-mouse albumin conjugates, was evaluated based on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL. Autologous serum IgG from "skin only" exposed mice was used to detect and guide the purification/identification of skin proteins antigenically modified by MDI exposure in vivo. Results Skin exposure to MDI resulted in specific antibody production and promoted subsequent respiratory tract inflammation in animals challenged intranasally with MDI-mouse albumin conjugates. The degree of (secondary respiratory tract inflammation and eosinophilia depended upon the (primary skin exposure dose, and was maximal in mice exposed to 1% MDI, but paradoxically limited in mice receiving 10-fold higher doses (e.g. 10% MDI. The major antigenically-modified protein at the local MDI skin exposure site was identified as albumin, and demonstrated biophysical changes consistent with MDI conjugation. Conclusions MDI skin exposure can induce MDI-specific immune sensitivity and promote subsequent respiratory tract inflammatory responses and thus, may play an important role in MDI asthma

  1. Unfolding Role of a Danger Molecule Adenosine Signaling in Modulation of Microbial Infection and Host Cell Response

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    Jaden S. Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73, specific nucleotide metabolizing enzymes located on the surface of the host, can convert a pro-inflammatory environment driven by a danger molecule extracellular-ATP to an adenosine-mediated anti-inflammatory milieu. Accordingly, CD39/CD73 signaling has been strongly implicated in modulating the intensity, duration, and composition of purinergic danger signals delivered to host. Recent studies have eluted potential roles for CD39 and CD73 in selective triggering of a variety of host immune cells and molecules in the presence of pathogenic microorganisms or microbial virulence molecules. Growing evidence also suggests that CD39 and CD73 present complimentary, but likely differential, actions against pathogens to shape the course and severity of microbial infection as well as the associated immune response. Similarly, adenosine receptors A2A and A2B have been proposed to be major immunomodulators of adenosine signaling during chronic inflammatory conditions induced by opportunistic pathogens, such as oral colonizer Porphyromonas gingivalis. Therefore, we here review the recent studies that demonstrate how complex network of molecules in the extracellular adenosine signaling machinery and their interactions can reshape immune responses and may also be targeted by opportunistic pathogens to establish successful colonization in human mucosal tissues and modulate the host immune response.

  2. Microbial Community Response of an Organohalide Respiring Enrichment Culture to Permanganate Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Nora B; Atashgahi, Siavash; Saccenti, Edoardo; Grotenhuis, Tim; Smidt, Hauke; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2015-01-01

    While in situ chemical oxidation is often used to remediate tetrachloroethene (PCE) contaminated locations, very little is known about its influence on microbial composition and organohalide respiration (OHR) activity. Here, we investigate the impact of oxidation with permanganate on OHR rates, the abundance of organohalide respiring bacteria (OHRB) and reductive dehalogenase (rdh) genes using quantitative PCR, and microbial community composition through sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. A PCE degrading enrichment was repeatedly treated with low (25 μmol), medium (50 μmol), or high (100 μmol) permanganate doses, or no oxidant treatment (biotic control). Low and medium treatments led to higher OHR rates and enrichment of several OHRB and rdh genes, as compared to the biotic control. Improved degradation rates can be attributed to enrichment of (1) OHRB able to also utilize Mn oxides as a terminal electron acceptor and (2) non-dechlorinating community members of the Clostridiales and Deltaproteobacteria possibly supporting OHRB by providing essential co-factors. In contrast, high permanganate treatment disrupted dechlorination beyond cis-dichloroethene and caused at least a 2-4 orders of magnitude reduction in the abundance of all measured OHRB and rdh genes, as compared to the biotic control. High permanganate treatments resulted in a notably divergent microbial community, with increased abundances of organisms affiliated with Campylobacterales and Oceanospirillales capable of dissimilatory Mn reduction, and decreased abundance of presumed supporters of OHRB. Although OTUs classified within the OHR-supportive order Clostridiales and OHRB increased in abundance over the course of 213 days following the final 100 μmol permanganate treatment, only limited regeneration of PCE dechlorination was observed in one of three microcosms, suggesting strong chemical oxidation treatments can irreversibly disrupt OHR. Overall, this detailed investigation into dose

  3. Response of core microbial consortia to hydrocarbon contaminations in coastal sediment habitats

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    Mathilde Jeanbille

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, microbial surveys investigating the effect of chronic anthropogenic pressure such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs contaminations consider just the alpha and beta diversity and ignore the interactions among the different taxa forming the microbial community. Here, we investigated the ecological relationships between the three domains of life (i.e. Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya using 454 pyrosequencing data of the 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes from chronically impacted and pristine sediments, along the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lion, Vermillion coast, Corsica, Bizerte lagoon and Lebanon and the French Atlantic Ocean (Bay of Biscay and English Channel. Our approach provided a robust ecological framework for the partition of the taxa abundance distribution into 859 core OTUs and 6629 satellite OTUs. OTUs forming the core microbial community showed the highest sensitivity to changes in environmental and contaminant variations, with salinity, latitude, temperature, particle size distribution, total organic carbon (TOC and PAH concentrations as main drivers of community assembly. The core communities were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria for Bacteria, by Thaumarchaeota, Bathyarchaeota and Thermoplasmata for Archaea and Metazoa and Dinoflagellata for Eukarya. In order to find associations among microorganisms, we generated a co-occurrence network in which PAHs were found to impact significantly the potential predator – prey relationship in one microbial consortium composed of ciliates and Actinobacteria. Comparison of network topological properties between contaminated and non-contaminated samples showed substantial differences in the structure of the network and indicated a higher vulnerability to environmental perturbations in the contaminated sediments.

  4. Soil microbial community structure and function responses to successive planting of Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Falin; Zheng, Hua; Zhang, Kai; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Li, Huailin; Wu, Bing; Shi, Qian

    2013-10-01

    Many studies have shown soil degradation after the conversion of native forests to exotic Eucalyptus plantations. However, few studies have investigated the long-term impacts of short-rotation forestry practices on soil microorganisms. The impacts of Eucalyptus successive rotations on soil microbial communities were evaluated by comparing phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) abundances, compositions, and enzyme activities of native Pinus massoniana plantations and adjacent 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th generation Eucalyptus plantations. The conversion from P. massoniana to Eucalyptus plantations significantly decreased soil microbial community size and enzyme activities, and increased microbial physiological stress. However, the PLFA abundances formed "u" shaped quadratic functions with Eucalyptus plantation age. Alternatively, physiological stress biomarkers, the ratios of monounsaturated to saturated fatty acid and Gram+ to Gram- bacteria, formed "n"' shaped quadratic functions, and the ratio of cy17:0 to 16:1omega7c decreased with plantation age. The activities of phenol oxidase, peroxidase, and acid phosphatase increased with Eucalyptus plantation age, while the cellobiohydrolase activity formed "u" shaped quadratic functions. Soil N:P, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, soil organic carbon, and understory cover largely explained the variation in PLFA profiles while soil N:P, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, and understory cover explained most of the variability in enzyme activity. In conclusion, soil microbial structure and function under Eucalyptus plantations were strongly impacted by plantation age. Most of the changes could be explained by altered soil resource availability and understory cover associated with successive planting of Eucalyptus. Our results highlight the importance of plantation age for assessing the impacts of plantation conversion as well as the importance of reducing disturbance for plantation management.

  5. Microbial characteristics of purple paddy soil in response to Pb pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiu-Ju; Zhang, Yue-Qiang; Zhang, La-Mei; Zhou, Xin-Bin; Shi, Xiao-Jun

    2014-05-01

    The study focused on the change of microbial characteristics affected by Plumbum pollution with purple paddy soil in an incubation experiment. The results showed that low concentration of Plumbum had little effect on most of microbial amounts, biological activity and enzymatic activity. However, denitrifying activity was inhibited severely, and inhibition rate was up to 98%. Medium and high concentration of Plumbum significantly reduced the amounts and activity of all microorganisms and enzymatic activity, which increased with incubation time. Negative correlations were found between Plumbum concentrations and microbial amounts, biological activity and enzymatic activities except fungi and actinomyces. Thus they can be used to indicate the Plumbum pollution levels to some extent. LD(50) of denitrifying bacteria (DB) and ED50 of denitrifying activity were 852mg/kg and 33.5mg/kg. Across all test soil microbes, denitrifying bacteria was most sensitive to Plumbum pollution in purple paddy soil. Value of early warning showed that anaerobic cellulose-decomposing bacteria (ACDB) and actinomyces were also sensitive to Plumbum pollution. We concluded that denitrifying activity, actinomyces, ACDB or DB can be chosen as predictor of Plumbum contamination in purple paddy soil.

  6. Responses of soil microbial activity to cadmium pollution and elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi Ping; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Yong Jun; Jia, Feng An; He, Xin Hua

    2014-03-06

    To address the combined effects of cadmium (Cd) and elevated CO2 on soil microbial communities, DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) profiles, respiration, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentrations, loessial soils were exposed to four levels of Cd, i.e., 0 (Cd0), 1.5 (Cd1.5), 3.0 (Cd3.0) and 6.0 (Cd6.0) mg Cd kg(-1) soil, and two levels of CO2, i.e., 360 (aCO2) and 480 (eCO2) ppm. Compared to Cd0, Cd1.5 increased fungal abundance but decreased bacterial abundance under both CO2 levels, whilst Cd3.0 and Cd6.0 decreased both fungal and bacterial abundance. Profiles of DGGE revealed alteration of soil microbial communities under eCO2. Soil respiration decreased with Cd concentrations and was greater under eCO2 than under aCO2. Soil total C and N were greater under higher Cd. These results suggest eCO2 could stimulate, while Cd pollution could restrain microbial reproduction and C decomposition with the restraint effect alleviated by eCO2.

  7. Microbial Community Response to Terrestrially Derived Dissolved Organic Matter in the Coastal Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Sipler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Warming at nearly twice the global rate, higher than average air temperatures are the new ‘normal’ for Arctic ecosystems. This rise in temperature has triggered hydrological and geochemical changes that increasingly release carbon-rich water into the coastal ocean via increased riverine discharge, coastal erosion, and the thawing of the semi-permanent permafrost ubiquitous in the region. To determine the biogeochemical impacts of terrestrially derived dissolved organic matter (tDOM on marine ecosystems we compared the nutrient stocks and bacterial communities present under ice-covered and ice-free conditions, assessed the lability of Arctic tDOM to coastal microbial communities from the Chukchi Sea, and identified bacterial taxa that respond to rapid increases in tDOM. Once thought to be predominantly refractory, we found that ∼7% of dissolved organic carbon and ∼38% of dissolved organic nitrogen from tDOM was bioavailable to receiving marine microbial communities on short 4 – 6 day time scales. The addition of tDOM shifted bacterial community structure toward more copiotrophic taxa and away from more oligotrophic taxa. Although no single order was found to respond universally (positively or negatively to the tDOM addition, this study identified 20 indicator species as possible sentinels for increased tDOM. These data suggest the true ecological impact of tDOM will be widespread across many bacterial taxa and that shifts in coastal microbial community composition should be anticipated.

  8. Cardio-respiratory response of young adult Indian male subjects to stress: Effects of progressive muscle relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunima Chaudhuri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress and anxiety have become an integral part of our lives. Of late, this has resulted in the increase in incidence of hypertension and coronary heart disease. Objectives: To assess the effect of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR on young adult males and its role in the modulation of cardio-respiratory response on exposure to stress. Materials and Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care referral hospital. Undergraduate male students under stress were chosen for the study. Fasting blood samples were drawn to analyze sugar and lipid profile, followed by anthropometric measurements and ECG. In the resting condition, blood pressure, pulse rate, and spirometric parameters; forced vital capacities (FVC, and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV 1 % were measured. Then, they were made to exercise with bicycle ergometer and post exercise, the vital parameters were recorded. All subjects were given a training of Jacobson′s Progressive Muscular Relaxation and asked to practice this technique for 3 months. All parameters were re-evaluated. Results: Significant decreases in resting heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol levels of subjects were seen after PMR training. Exercise-induced rise in heart rate and blood pressure were also significantly less in subjects following PMR training. Conclusion: Progressive muscle relaxation helps in modulation of heart rate, blood pressure, and lipid profile in healthy normal adult male individuals.

  9. Analysis of the influence of respiratory disorders observed in preoperative spirometry on the dynamics of early inflammatory response in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szylińska, Aleksandra; Listewnik, Mariusz J; Rotter, Iwona; Rył, Aleksandra; Biskupski, Andrzej; Brykczyński, Mirosław

    2017-01-01

    Preoperative spirometry provides measurable information about the occurrence of respiratory disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the association between preoperative spirometry abnormalities and the intensification of early inflammatory responses in patients following coronary artery bypass graft in extracorporeal circulation. The study involved 810 patients (625 men and 185 women) aged 65.4±7.9 years who were awaiting isolated coronary artery bypass surgery. On the basis of spirometry performed on the day of admittance to the hospital, the patients were divided into three groups. Patients without respiratory problems constituted 78.8% of the entire group. Restricted breathing was revealed by spirometry in 14.9% and obstructive breathing in 6.3% of patients. Inter-group analysis showed statistically significant differences in C-reactive protein (CRP) between patients with restrictive spirometry abnormalities and patients without any pulmonary dysfunction. CRP concentrations differed before surgery ( P =0.006) and on the second ( P spirometry results from restrictive respiratory disorders have an elevated level of generalized inflammatory response both before and after the isolated coronary artery bypass surgery. Therefore, this group of patients should be given special postoperative monitoring and, in particular, intensive respiratory rehabilitation immediately after reconstitution.

  10. Dynamic innate immune responses of human bronchial epithelial cells to severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Yoshikawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human lung epithelial cells are likely among the first targets to encounter invading severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV. Not only can these cells support the growth of SARS-CoV infection, but they are also capable of secreting inflammatory cytokines to initiate and, eventually, aggravate host innate inflammatory responses, causing detrimental immune-mediated pathology within the lungs. Thus, a comprehensive evaluation of the complex epithelial signaling to SARS-CoV is crucial for paving the way to better understand SARS pathogenesis. Based on microarray-based functional genomics, we report here the global gene response of 2B4 cells, a cloned bronchial epithelial cell line derived from Calu-3 cells. Specifically, we found a temporal and spatial activation of nuclear factor (NFkappaB, activator protein (AP-1, and interferon regulatory factor (IRF-3/7 in infected 2B4 cells at 12-, 24-, and 48-hrs post infection (p.i., resulting in the activation of many antiviral genes, including interferon (IFN-beta, -lambdas, inflammatory mediators, and many IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs. We also showed, for the first time, that IFN-beta and IFN-lambdas were capable of exerting previously unrecognized, non-redundant, and complementary abilities to limit SARS-CoV replication, even though their expression could not be detected in infected 2B4 bronchial epithelial cells until 48 hrs p.i. Collectively, our results highlight the mechanics of the sequential events of antiviral signaling pathway/s triggered by SARS-CoV in bronchial epithelial cells and identify novel cellular targets for future studies, aiming at advancing strategies against SARS.

  11. Novel insights into host responses and reproductive pathophysiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome caused by PRRSV-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, John C S; Ladinig, Andrea; Novakovic, Predrag; Detmer, Susan E; Wilkinson, Jamie M; Yang, Tianfu; Lunney, Joan K; Plastow, Graham S

    2017-09-01

    A large challenge experiment using North American porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV-2) provided new insights into the pathophysiology of reproductive PRRS. Deep phenotyping of dams and fetuses identified maternal and fetal predictors of PRRS severity and resilience. PRRSV infection resulted in dramatic decreases in all leukocyte subsets by 2days post inoculation. Apoptosis in the interface region was positively related to endometrial vasculitis, viral load in endometrium and fetal thymus, and odds of meconium staining. Viral load at the maternal-fetal interface was a strong predictor of viral load in fetal thymus and odds of fetal death. However, interferon-alpha suppression, a consequence of PRRSV infection, was protective against fetal death. Although the prevalence of fetal lesions was low, their presence in fetal organs and umbilical cord was strongly associated with fetal compromise. Fetal death and viral load clustered in litters suggesting inter-fetal transmission starting from a limited number of index fetuses. Factors associated with index fetal infection are unclear, but large fetuses appear at greater risk. Disease progression in fetuses was associated with an up-regulation of genes associated with inflammation, innate immunity, and cell death signaling, and down-regulation of genes associated with cell cycle and lymphocyte quality. A number of maternal transcriptomic responses were associated with PRRS resilience including higher basal gene expression correlated with platelet function, interferon and pro-inflammatory responses. Twenty-one genomic regions across 10 chromosomes were associated with important traits including fetal viral load, fetal death and viability suggesting that selection for reproductive PRRS resilience may be possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Electricity generation and microbial community in response to short-term changes in stack connection of self-stacked submersible microbial fuel cell powered by glycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Nannan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    2017-01-01

    community. In this study, a self-stacked submersible microbial fuel cell (SSMFC) powered by glycerol was tested to elucidate this important issue. In series connection, the maximum voltage output reached to 1.15 V, while maximum current density was 5.73 mA in parallel. In both connections, the maximum power......Stack connection (i.e., in series or parallel) of microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an efficient way to boost the power output for practical application. However, there is little information available on short-term changes in stack connection and its effect on the electricity generation and microbial...... density increased with the initial glycerol concentration. However, the glycerol degradation was even faster in parallel connection. When the SSMFC was shifted from series to parallel connection, the reactor reached to a stable power output without any lag phase. Meanwhile, the anodic microbial community...

  13. Mycobacterial r32-kDa antigen-specific T-cell responses correlate with successful treatment and a heightened anti-microbial response in human leprosy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neela, Venkata Sanjeev Kumar; Devalraju, Kamakshi Prudhula; Pydi, Satya Sudheer; Sunder, Sharada Ramaseri; Adiraju, Kameswara Rao; Singh, Surya Satyanarayana; Anandaraj, M P J S; Valluri, Vijaya Lakshmi

    2016-09-01

    Immunological characterization of mycobacterial peptides may help not only in the preparation of a vaccine for leprosy but also in developing in vitro T-cell assays that could perhaps be used as an in vitro correlate for treatment outcome. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the use of Mycobacterium bovis recombinant 32-kDa protein (r32-kDa) antigen-stimulated T-cell assay as a surrogate marker for treatment outcome and monitor vitamin D receptor (VDR)-mediated anti-microbial responses during multidrug therapy (MDT) in leprosy. Newly diagnosed tuberculoid and lepromatous leprosy patients were enrolled and followed up during their course of MDT at 6 and 12 months. IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-17 and IL-23 levels in culture supernatants and expression of VDR, TLR2, LL37 and DEFB in r32-kDa-stimulated PBMCs were measured. Controls comprised household contacts (HHCs) and healthy endemic subjects (HCs). Significant differences were observed in the levels of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-23, VDR and anti-microbial peptides LL37 and DEFB after treatment and when compared with that of HHCs and HCs, respectively. These findings suggest that responses to r32-kDa antigen reflect an improved immunological and anti-microbial response in leprosy patients during therapy, thereby indicating its potential use as an immune correlate in the treatment of leprosy patients. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Immunoregulation by airway epithelial cells (AECs against respiratory virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan YAN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The respiratory tract is primary contact site of the body and environment, and it is ventilated by 10-20 thousand liters of air per day. Inevitably, the respiratory system comes into contact with airborne microbes, which contain the disease-causing pathogens. Airway epithelial cells (AECs are known to have innate sensor functions, which are similar to the "professional" immune cells, such as alveolar macrophage and sub- or intra-epithelial dendritic cells (DCs. Thus AECs are able to detect invading microbial danger including different types of respiratory viruses, and mount a potent host response, for example, activating type Ⅰ interferon signaling pathway genes. To avoid chronic inflammation and maintain the immunological homeostasis, the pulmonary system has developed intrinsic mechanisms to control local immune responses. Most recently, the role of AECs in control of local immunity has gained much attention, as 1 AECs express the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs, such as Toll-like receptors, retinoic acid inducible gene Ⅰ (RIG-I-like receptor, and so on, thus AECs are equipped to participate in innate detection of microbial encounter; 2 To keep immunological homeostasis in the respiratory tract, AECs behave not only as innate immune sensors but also as immune modulators in parallel, through modulating the sensitivity of innate immune sensing of both AECs per se and sub- or intra-epithelial immune cells; 3 Loss of modularity capacity of AECs might be involved in the development of chronic airway diseases. In present review, how the AECs act will be intensively discussed in response to respiratory viruses and modulate the local immunity through cis- and trans-factors (direct and indirect factors, as well as the consequence of impairment of this control of local immunity, in the development and exacerbation of airway diseases, such as acute and chronic rhinosinusitis. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.10.02

  15. Responses of microbial community from tropical pristine coastal soil to crude oil contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Morais

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian offshore crude oil exploration has increased after the discovery of new reservoirs in the region known as pré-sal, in a depth of 7.000 m under the water surface. Oceanic islands near these areas represent sensitive environments, where changes in microbial communities due oil contamination could stand for the loss of metabolic functions, with catastrophic effects to the soil services provided from these locations. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of petroleum contamination on microbial community shifts (Archaea, Bacteria and Fungi from Trindade Island coastal soils. Microcosms were assembled and divided in two treatments, control and contaminated (weathered crude oil at the concentration of 30 g kg−1, in triplicate. Soils were incubated for 38 days, with CO2 measurements every four hours. After incubation, the total DNA was extracted, purified and submitted for target sequencing of 16S rDNA, for Bacteria and Archaea domains and Fungal ITS1 region, using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Three days after contamination, the CO2 emission rate peaked at more than 20 × the control and the emissions remained higher during the whole incubation period. Microbial alpha-diversity was reduced for contaminated-samples. Fungal relative abundance of contaminated samples was reduced to almost 40% of the total observed species. Taxonomy comparisons showed rise of the Actinobacteria phylum, shifts in several Proteobacteria classes and reduction of the Archaea class Nitrososphaerales. This is the first effort in acquiring knowledge concerning the effect of crude oil contamination in soils of a Brazilian oceanic island. This information is important to guide any future bioremediation strategy that can be required.

  16. Soil microbial responses to climate warming in Northern Andean alpine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallery, R. E.; Lasso, E.

    2017-12-01

    The historically cooler temperatures and waterlogged soils of tropical alpine grasslands (páramo) have resulted in low decomposition rates and a large buildup of organic matter, making páramo one of the most important carbon sinks in tropical biomes. The climatic factors that favored the carbon accumulation are changing, and as a result páramo could play a disproportionate role in driving climate feedbacks through increased carbon released from these large soil carbon stores. Open top chamber warming experiments were established in the Colombian Andes in 2016 to quantify the magnitude of climate change on carbon balance and identify microbial and plant traits that regulate these impacts. Two focal sites differ in mean annual temperature, precipitation, and plant community richness. Heterotrophic respiration (RH,) was measured from soil cores incubated at temperatures representing current and projected warming. The warming effect on RH was sensitive to soil moisture, which could reflect shifts in microbial community composition and/or extracellular enzyme production or efficiency as soils dry. Bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities in ambient and warmed plots were measured through high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA and ITS1 rRNA gene regions. Communities showed strong spatial structuring both within and among páramo, reflecting the topographic heterogeneity of these ecosystems. Significant differences in relative abundance of dominant microbial taxa between páramo could be largely explained by soil bulk density, water holding capacity, and non-vascular plant cover. Phototrophs common to anoxic soils (e.g., Rhodospirillaceae, Hyphomicrobiaceae) were abundant. Taxa within Euryarchaeota were recovered, suggesting methanogenesis potential. Exploration of the magnitude and temperature sensitivity of methane flux is needed in these seasonally anoxic soils whose dynamics could have significant implications for the global climate system.

  17. Role of EPS, Dispersant and Nutrients on the Microbial Response and MOS Formation in the Subarctic Northeast Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Gutierrez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we report the formation of marine oil snow (MOS, its associated microbial community, the factors influencing its formation, and the microbial response to crude oil in surface waters of the Faroe-Shetland Channel (FSC. The FSC is a subarctic region that is hydrodynamically complex located in the northeast Atlantic where oil extraction is currently occurring and where exploration is likely to expand into its deeper waters (>500 m. A major oil spill in this region may mirror the aftermath that ensued following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH blowout in the Gulf of Mexico, where the massive influx of Macondo crude oil triggered the formation of copious quantities of rapidly sinking MOS and successional blooms of opportunistic oil-degrading bacteria. In laboratory experiments, we simulated environmental conditions in sea surface waters of the FSC using water collected from this site during the winter of 2015. We demonstrated that the presence of dispersant triggers the formation of MOS, and that nutrient amendments magnify this. Illumina MiSeq sequencing revealed the enrichment on MOS of associated oil-degrading (Cycloclasticus, Thalassolituus, Marinobacter and EPS-producing (Halomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Alteromonas bacteria, and included major representation by Psychrobacter and Cobetia with putative oil-degrading/EPS-producing qualities. The formation of marine snow, in the absence of crude oil and dispersant, in seawater amended with nutrients alone indicated that the de novo synthesis of bacterial EPS is a key factor in MOS formation, and the glycoprotein composition of the MOS aggregates confirmed that its amorphous biopolymeric matrix was of microbial (likely bacterial origin. The presence of dispersants and crude oil with/without nutrients resulted in distinct microbial responses marked by intermittent, and in some cases short-lived, blooms of opportunistic heterotrophs, principally obligate hydrocarbonoclastic (Alcanivorax

  18. Functional and compositional responses in soil microbial communities along two metal pollution gradients: does the level of historical pollution affect resistance against secondary stress?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azarbad, H.; Niklinska, M.; Nikiel, K.; van Straalen, N.M.; Röling, W.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    We examined how the exposure to secondary stressors affected the functional and compositional responses of microbial communities along two metal pollution gradients in Polish forests and whether responses were influenced by the level of metal pollution. Basal respiration rate and community

  19. Microbial quality of soil from the Pampa biome in response to different grazing pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael S. Vargas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different grazing pressures on the activity and diversity of soil bacteria. We performed a long-term experiment in Eldorado do Sul, southern Brazil, that assessed three levels of grazing pressure: high pressure (HP, with 4% herbage allowance (HA, moderate pressure (MP, with 12% HA, and low pressure (LP, with 16% HA. Two reference areas were also assessed, one of never-grazed native vegetation (NG and another of regenerated vegetation after two years of grazing (RG. Soil samples were evaluated for microbial biomass and enzymatic (β-glucosidase, arylsulfatase and urease activities. The structure of the bacterial community and the population of diazotrophic bacteria were evaluated by RFLP of the 16S rRNA and nifH genes, respectively. The diversity of diazotrophic bacteria was assessed by partial sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene. The presence of grazing animals increased soil microbial biomass in MP and HP. The structures of the bacterial community and the populations of diazotrophic bacteria were altered by the different grazing managements, with a greater diversity of diazotrophic bacteria in the LP treatment. Based on the characteristics evaluated, the MP treatment was the most appropriate for animal production and conservation of the Pampa biome.

  20. Respiratory medicine of reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Juergen

    2011-05-01

    Noninfectious and infectious causes have been implicated in the development of respiratory tract disease in reptiles. Treatment modalities in reptiles have to account for species differences in response to therapeutic agents as well as interpretation of diagnostic findings. Data on effective drugs and dosages for the treatment of respiratory diseases are often lacking in reptiles. Recently, advances have been made on the application of advanced imaging modalities, especially computed tomography for the diagnosis and treatment monitoring of reptiles. This article describes common infectious and noninfectious causes of respiratory disease in reptiles, including diagnostic and therapeutic regimen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Responses of Microbial Community Composition to Temperature Gradient and Carbon Steel Corrosion in Production Water of Petroleum Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xiao Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil reservoir production systems are usually associated with a temperature gradient and oil production facilities frequently suffer from pipeline corrosion failures. Both bacteria and archaea potentially contribute to biocorrosion of the oil production equipment. Here the response of microbial populations from the petroleum reservoir to temperature gradient and corrosion of carbon steel coupons were investigated under laboratory condition. Carbon steel coupons were exposed to production water from a depth of 1809 m of Jiangsu petroleum reservoir (China and incubated for periods of 160 and 300 days. The incubation temperatures were set at 37, 55, and 65°C to monitoring mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms associated with anaerobic carbon steel corrosion. The results showed that corrosion rate at 55°C (0.162 ± 0.013 mm year-1 and 37°C (0.138 ± 0.008 mm year-1 were higher than that at 65°C (0.105 ± 0.007 mm year-1, and a dense biofilm was observed on the surface of coupons under all biotic incubations. The microbial community analysis suggests a high frequency of bacterial taxa associated with families Porphyromonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Spirochaetaceae at all three temperatures. While the majority of known sulfate-reducing bacteria, in particular Desulfotignum, Desulfobulbus and Desulfovibrio spp., were predominantly observed at 37°C; Desulfotomaculum spp., Thermotoga spp. and Thermanaeromonas spp. as well as archaeal members closely related to Thermococcus and Archaeoglobus spp. were substantially enriched at 65°C. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens of the family Methanobacteriaceae were dominant at both 37 and 55°C; acetoclastic Methanosaeta spp. and methyltrophic Methanolobus spp. were enriched at 37°C. These observations show that temperature changes significantly alter the microbial community structure in production fluids and also affected the biocorrosion of carbon steel under anaerobic conditions.

  2. SaeRS Is Responsive to Cellular Respiratory Status and Regulates Fermentative Biofilm Formation in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashruwala, Ameya A; Gries, Casey M; Scherr, Tyler D; Kielian, Tammy; Boyd, Jeffrey M

    2017-08-01

    Biofilms are multicellular communities of microorganisms living as a quorum rather than as individual cells. The bacterial human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus uses oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor during respiration. Infected human tissues are hypoxic or anoxic. We recently reported that impaired respiration elicits a p rogrammed c ell l ysis (PCL) phenomenon in S. aureus leading to the release of cellular polymers that are utilized to form biofilms. PCL is dependent upon the AtlA murein hydrolase and is regulated, in part, by the SrrAB two-component regulatory system (TCRS). In the current study, we report that the SaeRS TCRS also governs fermentative biofilm formation by positively influencing AtlA activity. The SaeRS-modulated factor fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA) also contributed to the fermentative biofilm formation phenotype. SaeRS-dependent biofilm formation occurred in response to changes in cellular respiratory status. Genetic evidence presented suggests that a high cellular titer of phosphorylated SaeR is required for biofilm formation. Epistasis analyses found that SaeRS and SrrAB influence biofilm formation independently of one another. Analyses using a mouse model of orthopedic implant-associated biofilm formation found that both SaeRS and SrrAB govern host colonization. Of these two TCRSs, SrrAB was the dominant system driving biofilm formation in vivo We propose a model wherein impaired cellular respiration stimulates SaeRS via an as yet undefined signal molecule(s), resulting in increasing expression of AtlA and FnBPA and biofilm formation. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Physiologic response to varying levels of pressure support and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist in patients with acute respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Davide; Cammarota, Gianmaria; Bergamaschi, Valentina; De Lucia, Marta; Corte, Francesco Della; Navalesi, Paolo

    2008-11-01

    Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) is a new mode wherein the assistance is provided in proportion to diaphragm electrical activity (EAdi). We assessed the physiologic response to varying levels of NAVA and pressure support ventilation (PSV). ICU of a University Hospital. Fourteen intubated and mechanically ventilated patients. DESIGN AND PROTOCOL: Cross-over, prospective, randomized controlled trial. PSV was set to obtain a VT/kg of 6-8 ml/kg with an active inspiration. NAVA was matched with a dedicated software. The assistance was decreased and increased by 50% with both modes. The six assist levels were randomly applied. Arterial blood gases (ABGs), tidal volume (VT/kg), peak EAdi, airway pressure (Paw), neural and flow-based timing. Asynchrony was calculated using the asynchrony index (AI). There was no difference in ABGs regardless of mode and assist level. The differences in breathing pattern, ventilator assistance, and respiratory drive and timing between PSV and NAVA were overall small at the two lower assist levels. At the highest assist level, however, we found greater VT/kg (9.1 +/- 2.2 vs. 7.1 +/- 2 ml/kg, P < 0.001), and lower breathing frequency (12 +/- 6 vs. 18 +/- 8.2, P < 0.001) and peak EAdi (8.6 +/- 10.5 vs. 12.3 +/- 9.0, P < 0.002) in PSV than in NAVA; we found mismatch between neural and flow-based timing in PSV, but not in NAVA. AI exceeded 10% in five (36%) and no (0%) patients with PSV and NAVA, respectively (P < 0.05). Compared to PSV, NAVA averted the risk of over-assistance, avoided patient-ventilator asynchrony, and improved patient-ventilator interaction.

  4. Distinct mechanisms underlie adaptation of proximal tubule Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 in response to chronic metabolic and respiratory acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro Henrique Imenez; Girardi, Adriana Castello Costa; Neri, Elida Adalgisa; Rebouças, Nancy Amaral

    2012-04-01

    The Na(+/)H(+) exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) is essential for HCO(3)(-) reabsorption in renal proximal tubules. The expression and function of NHE3 must adapt to acid-base conditions. The goal of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for higher proton secretion in proximal tubules during acidosis and to evaluate whether there are differences between metabolic and respiratory acidosis with regard to NHE3 modulation and, if so, to identify the relevant parameters that may trigger these distinct adaptive responses. We achieved metabolic acidosis by lowering HCO(3)(-) concentration in the cell culture medium and respiratory acidosis by increasing CO(2) tension in the incubator chamber. We found that cell-surface NHE3 expression was increased in response to both forms of acidosis. Mild (pH 7.21 ± 0.02) and severe (6.95 ± 0.07) metabolic acidosis increased mRNA levels, at least in part due to up-regulation of transcription, whilst mild (7.11 ± 0.03) and severe (6.86 ± 0.01) respiratory acidosis did not up-regulate NHE3 expression. Analyses of the Nhe3 promoter region suggested that the regulatory elements sensitive to metabolic acidosis are located between -466 and -153 bp, where two consensus binding sites for SP1, a transcription factor up-regulated in metabolic acidosis, were localised. We conclude that metabolic acidosis induces Nhe3 promoter activation, which results in higher mRNA and total protein level. At the plasma membrane surface, NHE3 expression was increased in metabolic and respiratory acidosis alike, suggesting that low pH is responsible for NHE3 displacement to the cell surface.

  5. Asthma and respiratory symptoms in hospital workers related to dampness and biological contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox-Ganser, J M; Rao, C Y; Park, J-H; Schumpert, J C; Kreiss, K

    2009-08-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health investigated respiratory symptoms and asthma in relation to damp indoor environments in employees of two hospitals. A cluster of six work-related asthma cases from one hospital department, whose symptoms arose during a time of significant water incursions, led us to conduct a survey of respiratory health in 1171/1834 employees working in the sentinel cases hospital and a nearby hospital without known indoor environmental concerns. We carried out observational assessment of dampness, air, chair, and floor dust sampling for biological contaminants, and investigation of exposure-response associations for about 500 participants. Many participants with post-hire onset asthma reported diagnosis dates in a period of water incursions and renovations. Post-hire asthma and work-related lower respiratory symptoms were positively associated with the dampness score. Work-related lower respiratory symptoms showed monotonically increasing odds ratios with ergosterol, a marker of fungal biomass. Other fungal and bacterial indices, particle counts, cat allergen and latex allergen were associated with respiratory symptoms. Our data imply new-onset of asthma in relation to water damage, and indicate that work-related respiratory symptoms in hospital workers may be associated with diverse biological contaminants. In healthcare facilities with indoor dampness and microbial contamination, possible associations between such conditions and respiratory health effects should be considered. Good building maintenance and housekeeping procedures should lead to improvements in employee respiratory health.

  6. Microbial Response to UV Exposure and Nitrogen Limitation in Desert Soil Crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J. M.; Van Mooy, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Microbiotic soil crusts have diverse biomarker distributions and C and N stable isotopic compositions that covary with soil type. Sparse plant cover and the relative lack of soil disturbance in arid/semi-arid landscapes allows populations of soil cyanobacteria to develop along with fungi and heterotrophic bacteria. Microbial communities in this extreme environment depend in part on the production of scytonemin, a UV protective pigment, by cyanobacteria near the top of the crust. N limitation of microbial growth also affects soil crust population dynamics, increasing the requirement of N2fixation by diazotrophic cyanobacteria. We collected 56 soil crust samples from 27 locations throughout the Great Salt Lake Desert, including four transects spanning high-elevation, erosion-dominated soils to lower elevation soils dominated by silt-accumulation. Erosion-dominated soil surfaces included rounded gravel and cobbles; in the interstices there were poorly-developed microbiotic crusts on sandy loam with low δ15N values near 0‰ that point toward microbial growth dependent on cyanobacterial N2 fixation. Nutrients regenerated by heterotrophic bacteria may have been eroded from the system, providing a positive feedback for N2 fixation. High scytonemin:chlorophyll a ratios suggest that cyanobacteria required enhanced protection from UV damage in these crusts. A similar increase in scytonemin:chlorophyll a ratio during soil crust rehydration experiments also points toward the importance of UV protection. Glycolipid:phospholipid ratios were lowest where N2 fixation was favored, however, suggesting that the cyanobacterial population was relatively small, possibly because of the metabolic cost of N2fixation. Microbiotic crusts on silt loam soils, on the other hand, had higher δ15N values between 3.5 and 7.8‰, consistent with heterotrophic growth and nutrient recycling. Lower scytonemin:chlorophyll a ratios suggest that relatively high photosynthetic activity was supported in

  7. Responses of vegetation and soil microbial communities to warming and simulated herbivory in a subarctic heath

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnan, Riikka; Stark, Sari; Tolvanen, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Climate warming increases the cover of deciduous shrubs in arctic ecosystems and herbivory is also known to have a strong influence on the biomass and composition of vegetation. However, research combining herbivory with warming is largely lacking. Our study describes how warming and simulated...... setup of the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX). Wounding of the dominant deciduous dwarf shrub Vaccinium myrtillus L. to simulate herbivory was carried out annually. We measured vegetation cover in 2003 and 2007, soil nutrient concentrations in 2003 and 2006, soil microbial respiration in 2003...... and herbivory. 6 Synthesis. Our results show that warming increases the cover of V. myrtillus, which seems to enhance the nutrient sink strength of vegetation in the studied ecosystem. However, herbivory partially negates the effect of warming on plant N uptake and interacts with the effect of warming...

  8. Functional responses and adaptation of mesophilic microbial communities to psychrophilic anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnigle, Eoin; Nielsen, Jeppe L; Fuszard, Matthew; Botting, Catherine H; Sheahan, Jerome; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Abram, Florence

    2015-12-01

    Psychrophilic (functions. Methanomicrobiales abundance increased at low temperature, which correlated with an increased contribution of CH4 production from hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis at 15°C. Methanosarcinales utilized acetate and H2/CO2 as CH4 precursors at both temperatures and a partial shift from acetoclastic to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was observed for this archaeal population at 15°C. An upregulation of protein expression was reported at low temperature as well as the detection of chaperones indicating that mesophilic communities experienced stress during long-term exposure to 15°C. Overall, changes in microbial community structure and function were found to underpin the adaptation of mesophilic sludge to psychrophilic AD. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Bacillus licheniformis in geogenic dust induces inflammation in respiratory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Janessa; Teo, Teck Hui; Thornton, Ruth B; Kirkham, Lea-Ann; Zosky, Graeme R; Clifford, Holly D

    2018-07-01

    Exposure to environmental geogenic (or earth-derived) dust can lead to more frequent and severe infections in the human airway. Particulate matter respiratory diseases. We have previously demonstrated that mice exposed to geogenic dust PM 10 experienced an exacerbation of inflammatory responses to influenza A virus. Whether geogenic dust PM 10 also exacerbates respiratory bacterial infection is not yet known, nor are the components of the dust that drive these responses. We treated airway bronchial epithelial cells (NuLi-1) with UV-irradiated geogenic dust PM 10 from six remote Western Australian towns. High levels of IL-6 and IL-8 production were observed, as well as persistent microbial growth. 16 S rRNA sequencing of the growth identified the microbe as Bacillus licheniformis, a spore-forming, environmentally abundant bacterium. We next investigated the interaction of B. licheniformis with respiratory epithelium in vitro to determine whether this exacerbated infection with a bacterial respiratory pathogen (non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, NTHi). Heat treatment (100 °C) of all PM 10 samples eliminated B. licheniformis contamination and reduced epithelial inflammatory responses, suggesting that heat-labile and/or microbial factors were involved in the host response to geogenic dust PM 10 . We then exposed NuLi-1 epithelium to increasing doses of the isolated Bacillus licheniformis (multiplicity of infection of 10:1, 1:1 or 0.1:1 bacteria: cells) for 1, 3, and 24 h. B. licheniformis and NTHi infection (association and invasion) was assessed using a standard gentamicin survival assay, and epithelial release of IL-6 and IL-8 was measured using a bead based immunoassay. B. licheniformis was cytotoxic to NuLi-1 cells at 24 h. At 3 h post-challenge, B. licheniformis elicited high IL-6 and IL-8 inflammatory responses from NuLi-1 cells compared with cells treated with heat-treated geogenic dust PM 10 (p respiratory epithelium. The impact on respiratory

  10. Microbial responses to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in temporary river sediments: Experimental insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppini, Annamaria; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Amalfitano, Stefano; Capri, Silvio; Casella, Patrizia; Fazi, Stefano; Marxsen, Juergen; Patrolecco, Luisa

    2016-01-15

    Temporary rivers are characterized by dry-wet phases and represent an important water resource in semi-arid regions worldwide. The fate and effect of contaminants have not been firmly established in temporary rivers such as in other aquatic environments. In this study, we assessed the effects of sediment amendment with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on benthic microbial communities. Experimental microcosms containing natural (Control) and amended sediments (2 and 20 mg PAHs kg(-1) were incubated for 28 days. The PAH concentrations in sediments were monitored weekly together with microbial community structural (biomass and phylogenetic composition by TGGE and CARD-FISH) and functional parameters (ATP concentration, community respiration rate, bacterial carbon production rate, extracellular enzyme activities). The concentration of the PAH isomers did not change significantly with the exception of phenanthrene. No changes were observed in the TGGE profiles, whereas the occurrence of Alpha- and Beta-Proteobacteria was significantly affected by the treatments. In the amended sediments, the rates of carbon production were stimulated together with aminopeptidase enzyme activity. The community respiration rates showed values significantly lower than the Control after 1 day from the amendment then recovering the Control values during the incubation. A negative trend between the respiration rates and ATP concentration was observed only in the amended sediments. This result indicates a potential toxic effect on the oxidative phosphorylation processes. The impoverishment of the energetic resources that follows the PAH impact may act as a domino on the flux of energy from prokaryotes to the upper level of the trophic chain, with the potential to alter the temporary river functioning.

  11. Investigation of the rumen microbial community responsible for degradation of a putative toxin in Acacia angustissima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.M.C.; Blackall, L.L.; Mcsweeney, C.S.; Krause, D.O.

    2005-01-01

    Acacia angustissima has been proposed as a protein supplement in countries where availability of high quality fodder for grazing animals is a problem due to extreme, dry climates. While A. angustissima thrives in harsh environments and provides valuable nutrients required by ruminants, it has also been found to contain anti-nutritive factors that currently preclude its widespread application. A number of non-protein amino acids have been identified in the leaves of A. angustissima and in the past these have been linked to toxicity in ruminants. The non-protein amino acid 4-n-acetyl-2,4-diaminobutyric acid (ADAB) had been determined to be the major non-protein amino acid in the leaves of A. angustissima. Thus, in this study, the aim was to identify microorganisms from the rumen environment capable of degrading ADAB. Using an ADAB-containing plant extract, a mixed enrichment culture was obtained that exhibited substantial ADAB-degrading ability. Attempts to isolate an ADAB-degrading micro-organism were carried out, but no isolates were able to degrade ADAB in pure culture. The mixed microbial community of the ADAB-degrading enrichment culture was further examined through the use of pure-culture-independent techniques. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was employed to investigate the diversity within this sample. In addition two bacterial 16S rDNA clone libraries were constructed in an attempt to further elucidate the members of the microbial population. The clone libraries were constructed from serial dilutions of the enrichment culture, a 10 -5 dilution where complete degradation of ADAB occurred, and a 10 -7 dilution where ADAB degradation did not occur. Through the comparison of these two libraries it was hypothesized that clones belonging to the Firmicutes phylum were involved in ADAB degradation. A FISH probe, ADAB1268, was then designed to target these clones and was applied to the enrichment cultures to investigate their relative abundance within the

  12. Root carbon decomposition and microbial biomass response at different soil depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpel, C.

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between root litter addition and soil organic matter (SOM) formation in top- versus subsoils is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate root litter decomposition and stabilisation in relation to microbial parameters in different soil depths. Our conceptual approach included incubation of 13C-labelled wheat roots at 30, 60 and 90 cm soil depth for 36 months under field conditions. Quantitative root carbon contribution to SOM was assessed, changes of bulk root chemistry studied by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy and lignin content and composition was assessed after CuO oxidation. Compound-specific isotope analysis allowed to assess the role of root lignin for soil C storage in the different soil depths. Microbial biomass and community structure was determined after DNA extraction. After three years of incubation, O-alkyl C most likely assigned to polysaccharides decreased in all soil depth compared to the initial root material. The degree of root litter decomposition assessed by the alkyl/O-alkyl ratio decreased with increasing soil depth, while aryl/O-alkyl ratio was highest at 60 cm depth. Root-derived lignin showed depth specific concentrations (30 fungi contribution increased after root litter addition. Their community structure changed after root litter addition and showed horizon specific dynamics. Our study shows that root litter addition can contribute to C storage in subsoils but did not influence C storage in topsoil. We conclude that specific conditions of single soil horizons have to be taken into account if root C dynamics are to be fully understood.

  13. Microbial community response to chlorine conversion in a chloraminated drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Proctor, Caitlin R; Edwards, Marc A; Pryor, Marsha; Santo Domingo, Jorge W; Ryu, Hodon; Camper, Anne K; Olson, Andrew; Pruden, Amy

    2014-09-16

    Temporary conversion to chlorine (i.e., "chlorine burn") is a common approach to controlling nitrification in chloraminated drinking water distribution systems, yet its effectiveness and mode(s) of action are not fully understood. This study characterized occurrence of nitrifying populations before, during and after a chlorine burn at 46 sites in a chloraminated distribution system with varying pipe materials and levels of observed nitrification. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of gene markers present in nitrifying populations indicated higher frequency of detection of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) (72% of samples) relative to ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) (28% of samples). Nitrospira nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were detected at 45% of samples, while presence of Nitrobacter NOB could not be confirmed at any of the samples. During the chlorine burn, the numbers of AOA, AOB, and Nitrospira greatly reduced (i.e., 0.8-2.4 log). However, rapid and continued regrowth of AOB and Nitrospira were observed along with nitrite production in the bulk water within four months after the chlorine burn, and nitrification outbreaks appeared to worsen 6-12 months later, even after adopting a twice annual burn program. Although high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed a distinct community shift and higher diversity index during the chlorine burn, it steadily returned towards a condition more similar to pre-burn than burn stage. Significant factors associated with nitrifier and microbial community composition included water age and sampling location type, but not pipe material. Overall, these results indicate that there is limited long-term effect of chlorine burns on nitrifying populations and the broader microbial community.

  14. Surfactant Protein D in Respiratory and Non-Respiratory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Grith L.

    2018-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a multimeric collectin that is involved in innate immune defense and expressed in pulmonary, as well as non-pulmonary, epithelia. SP-D exerts antimicrobial effects and dampens inflammation through direct microbial interactions and modulation of host cell responses via a series of cellular receptors. However, low protein concentrations, genetic variation, biochemical modification, and proteolytic breakdown can induce decomposition of multimeric SP-D into low-molecular weight forms, which may induce pro-inflammatory SP-D signaling. Multimeric SP-D can decompose into trimeric SP-D, and this process, and total SP-D levels, are partly determined by variation within the SP-D gene, SFTPD. SP-D has been implicated in the development of respiratory diseases including respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, allergic asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Disease-induced breakdown or modifications of SP-D facilitate its systemic leakage from the lung, and circulatory SP-D is a promising biomarker for lung injury. Moreover, studies in preclinical animal models have demonstrated that local pulmonary treatment with recombinant SP-D is beneficial in these diseases. In recent years, SP-D has been shown to exert antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects in various non-pulmonary organs and to have effects on lipid metabolism and pro-inflammatory effects in vessel walls, which enhance the risk of atherosclerosis. A common SFTPD polymorphism is associated with atherosclerosis and diabetes, and SP-D has been associated with metabolic disorders because of its effects in the endothelium and adipocytes and its obesity-dampening properties. This review summarizes and discusses the reported genetic associations of SP-D with disease and the clinical utility of circulating SP-D for respiratory disease prognosis. Moreover, basic research on the mechanistic links between SP-D and respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases

  15. The progestin etonogestrel enhances the respiratory response to metabolic acidosis in newborn rats. Evidence for a mechanism involving supramedullary structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, Camille; Osinski, Diane; Joubert, Fanny; Straus, Christian; Similowski, Thomas; Bodineau, Laurence

    2014-05-01

    Central congenital hypoventilation syndrome is a neuro-respiratory disease characterized by the dysfunction of the CO2/H(+) chemosensitive neurons of the retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group. A recovery of CO2/H(+) chemosensitivity has been observed in some central congenital hypoventilation syndrome patients coincidental with contraceptive treatment by a potent progestin, desogestrel (Straus et al., 2010). The mechanisms of this progestin effect remain unknown, although structures of medulla oblongata, midbrain or diencephalon are known to be targets for progesterone. In the present study, on ex vivo preparations of central nervous system of newborn rats, we show that acute exposure to etonogestrel (active metabolite of desogestrel) enhanced the increased respiratory frequency induced by metabolic acidosis via a mechanism involving supramedullary structures located in pontine, mesencephalic or diencephalic regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Response localization of the pharmacological agents histamine and salbutamol along the respiratory system by forced oscillations in asthmatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, E F; Polko, A H; Visser, B F

    1989-01-01

    The bronchodilating effect of 1 mg and 0.4 mg salbutamol on the impedance of the respiratory system was studied in 25 asthmatic subjects after histamine-induced bronchoconstriction. Histamine caused an increase of respiratory resistance (Rrs) at lower frequencies and a frequency dependence of Rrs. Respiratory reactance (Xrs) decreased at all frequencies after histamine challenge. These changes can be explained by peripheral airway obstruction. Impedance measurements performed 5 min after inhalation of 1 mg and 0.4 mg salbutamol showed a decrease of Rrs values at lower frequencies, a disappearance of the frequency dependence of Rrs, and a significant increase of Xrs values. No significant differences in absolute changes of Rrs and Xrs are observed between the salbutamol regimens. These changes after inhalation of salbutamol can be explained by supposing a predominant action on the peripheral airways.

  17. Respiratory mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Theodore A

    2016-01-01

    This book thoroughly covers each subfield of respiratory mechanics: pulmonary mechanics, the respiratory pump, and flow. It presents the current understanding of the field and serves as a guide to the scientific literature from the golden age of respiratory mechanics, 1960 - 2010. Specific topics covered include the contributions of surface tension and tissue forces to lung recoil, the gravitational deformation of the lung, and the interdependence forces that act on pulmonary airways and blood vessels. The geometry and kinematics of the ribs is also covered in detail, as well as the respiratory action of the external and internal intercostal muscles, the mechanics of the diaphragm, and the quantitative compartmental models of the chest wall is also described. Additionally, flow in the airways is covered thoroughly, including the wave-speed and viscous expiratory flow-limiting mechanisms; convection, diffusion and the stationary front; and the distribution of ventilation. This is an ideal book for respiratory ...

  18. Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

  19. Landscape Change and Microbial Response in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, A. G.; Levy, J.; Gooseff, M. N.; Van Horn, D. J.; Obryk, M.; Pettersson, R.; Telling, J. W.; Glennie, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost in the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV), Antarctica is ubiquitous with active layer depths ranging from a few cm at the highest elevations to 1 m near sea level. Although many landscapes in this region have been considered stable over millennia, ad-hoc field observations have documented extreme geomorphic changes in the valley bottoms over the past decade. To assess these changes across the region, we compared a lidar dataset surveyed in the austral summers of 2001-2002 against one surveyed in 2014-2015. Results showed that the vertical resolution of the surveys was resolution of the elevation differences and we ignored differences 1m) landscape changes, including stream channel incision into buried ice deposits (implying the advection of heat by stream water locally degrades thermokarst) and slope failures in thermokarst landforms from block failure and insolation-driven retreat. Smaller changes (bank erosion intercepted buried ice, or in thermokarst ponds. The magnitude and rate of change is much larger than observed previously in this otherwise stable and slowly changing environment. Biological surveys and experimental manipulations show that wetted soils host microbial communities different from those hosted by adjacent dry soils, and are hotspots of biodiversity highly susceptible to changing physical conditions. In all cases field-checked, the association of sediment and rock debris blanketing buried ice was noted, indicating these are the most vulnerable landscapes to climate warming. Ground penetrating radar mapping of buried ice showed, however, that not all buried ice is associated with landscape change due to the depth of burial, slope, and proximity to stream water. Similarly, modeling of soil temperatures suggests a spatial heterogeneity in warming rates across the valley bottom, as a consequence of microclimatic influences, topographic shading and moisture content. Collectively, these conditions imply that landscapes in the MDV will become

  20. Response of aerobic granular sludge to the long-term presence to nanosilver in sequencing batch reactors: Reactor performance, sludge property, microbial activity and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, Xiangchun, E-mail: xchquan@bnu.edu.cn; Cen, Yan; Lu, Fang; Gu, Lingyun; Ma, Jingyun

    2015-02-15

    The increasing use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) raises concerns about their potential toxic effects on the environment. Granular shape sludge is a special type of microbial aggregate. The response of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) to the long-term presence of Ag NPs has not been well studied. In this study, AGS was exposed to 5 and 50 mg/L Ag NPs in sequence batch reactors (SBRs) for 69 days, and its response was evaluated based on the sludge properties, microbial activity and community, and reactor performance. The results showed that Ag NPs caused inhibition to microbial activities of AGS from Day 35. At the end of 69 days of Ag NPs exposure, the microbial activity of AGS was significantly inhibited in terms of inhibitions of the ammonia oxidizing rate (33.0%), respiration rate (17.7% and 45.6%) and denitrification rate (6.8%), as well as decreases in the ammonia mono-oxygenase and nitrate reductase activities. During the long-term exposure, the AGS maintained its granular shape and large granule size (approximately 900 μm); the microbial community of AGS slightly changed, but the dominant microbial population remained. Overall, the AGS tolerated the toxicity of Ag NPs well, but a long-term exposure may produce chronic toxicity to the AGS, which is concerning. - Highlights: • AGS demonstrated a good tolerance to the long-term presence of Ag NPs. • Ag NPs did not produce acute toxicity but cause chronic toxicity to AGS. • AGS maintained granular shape, granule size and good settling ability. • The microbial community of AGS slightly changed after long-term Ag NPs exposure.

  1. Response of aerobic granular sludge to the long-term presence to nanosilver in sequencing batch reactors: Reactor performance, sludge property, microbial activity and community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, Xiangchun; Cen, Yan; Lu, Fang; Gu, Lingyun; Ma, Jingyun

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) raises concerns about their potential toxic effects on the environment. Granular shape sludge is a special type of microbial aggregate. The response of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) to the long-term presence of Ag NPs has not been well studied. In this study, AGS was exposed to 5 and 50 mg/L Ag NPs in sequence batch reactors (SBRs) for 69 days, and its response was evaluated based on the sludge properties, microbial activity and community, and reactor performance. The results showed that Ag NPs caused inhibition to microbial activities of AGS from Day 35. At the end of 69 days of Ag NPs exposure, the microbial activity of AGS was significantly inhibited in terms of inhibitions of the ammonia oxidizing rate (33.0%), respiration rate (17.7% and 45.6%) and denitrification rate (6.8%), as well as decreases in the ammonia mono-oxygenase and nitrate reductase activities. During the long-term exposure, the AGS maintained its granular shape and large granule size (approximately 900 μm); the microbial community of AGS slightly changed, but the dominant microbial population remained. Overall, the AGS tolerated the toxicity of Ag NPs well, but a long-term exposure may produce chronic toxicity to the AGS, which is concerning. - Highlights: • AGS demonstrated a good tolerance to the long-term presence of Ag NPs. • Ag NPs did not produce acute toxicity but cause chronic toxicity to AGS. • AGS maintained granular shape, granule size and good settling ability. • The microbial community of AGS slightly changed after long-term Ag NPs exposure

  2. Responses of microbial tolerance to heavy metals along a century-old metal ore pollution gradient in a subarctic birch forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousk, Johannes; Rousk, Kathrin

    2018-05-07

    Heavy metals are some of the most persistent and potent anthropogenic environmental contaminants. Although heavy metals may compromise microbial communities and soil fertility, it is challenging to causally link microbial responses to heavy metals due to various confounding factors, including correlated soil physicochemistry or nutrient availability. A solution is to investigate whether tolerance to the pollutant has been induced, called Pollution Induced Community Tolerance (PICT). In this study, we investigated soil microbial responses to a century-old gradient of metal ore pollution in an otherwise pristine subarctic birch forest generated by a railway source of iron ore transportation. To do this, we determined microbial biomass, growth, and respiration rates, and bacterial tolerance to Zn and Cu in replicated distance transects (1 m-4 km) perpendicular to the railway. Microbial biomass, growth and respiration rates were stable across the pollution gradient. The microbial community structure could be distinguished between sampled distances, but most of the variation was explained by soil pH differences, and it did not align with distance from the railroad pollution source. Bacterial tolerance to Zn and Cu started from background levels at 4 km distance from the pollution source, and remained at background levels for Cu throughout the gradient. Yet, bacterial tolerance to Zn increased 10-fold 100 m from the railway source. Our results show that the microbial community structure, size and performance remained unaffected by the metal ore exposure, suggesting no impact on ecosystem functioning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Exaggerated compensatory response to acute respiratory alkalosis in panic disorder is induced by increased lactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yoshiyasu; Aizawa, Masayo; Takahashi, Atsushi; Fujii, Masamitsu; Isaka, Yoshitaka

    2009-03-01

    In acute respiratory alkalosis, the severity of alkalaemia is ameliorated by a decrease in plasma [HCO(3)(-)] of 0.2 mEq/L for each 1 mmHg decrease in PaCO(2). Although hyperventilation in panic disorder patients is frequently encountered in outpatients, the drop in plasma [HCO(3)(-)] sometimes surpasses the expectation calculated from the above formula. The quantitative relationship between reduced PaCO(2) and plasma [HCO(3)(-)] in acute respiratory alkalosis has not been studied in panic disorder patients. Our objective was to provide reference data for the compensatory metabolic changes in acute respiratory alkalosis in panic disorder patients. In 34 panic disorder patients with hyperventilation attacks, we measured arterial pH, PaCO(2), plasma [HCO(3)(-)] and lactate on arrival at the emergency room. For each decrease of 1 mmHg in PaCO(2), plasma [HCO(3)(-)] decreased by 0.41 mEq/L. During hypocapnia, panic disorder patients exhibited larger increases in serum lactate levels (mean +/- SD; 2.59 +/- 1.50 mmol/L, range; 0.78-7.78 mmol/L) than previously reported in non-panic disorder subjects. Plasma lactate accumulation was correlated with PaCO(2) (P respiratory alkalosis is exaggerated by increased lactic acid production in panic disorder patients. Here, we call attention to the diagnosis of acid-base derangements by means of plasma [HCO(3)(-)] and lactate concentration in panic disorder patients.

  4. Increased pathogenicity of European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus is associated with enhanced adaptive responses and viral clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgan, S.B.; Graham, S.P.; Salguero, F.J.; Sánchez Cordón, P.J.; Mokhtar, H.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Weesendorp, E.; Bodman-Smith, K.B.; Steinbach, F.; Frossard, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically important diseases of swine worldwide. Since its first emergence in 1987 the PRRS virus (PRRSV) has become particularly divergent with highly pathogenic strains appearing in both Europe and Asia. However, the

  5. Resilience of Soil Microbial Communities to Metals and Additional Stressors: DNA-Based Approaches for Assessing “Stress-on-Stress” Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Azarbad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many microbial ecology studies have demonstrated profound changes in community composition caused by environmental pollution, as well as adaptation processes allowing survival of microbes in polluted ecosystems. Soil microbial communities in polluted areas with a long-term history of contamination have been shown to maintain their function by developing metal-tolerance mechanisms. In the present work, we review recent experiments, with specific emphasis on studies that have been conducted in polluted areas with a long-term history of contamination that also applied DNA-based approaches. We evaluate how the “costs” of adaptation to metals affect the responses of metal-tolerant communities to other stress factors (“stress-on-stress”. We discuss recent studies on the stability of microbial communities, in terms of resistance and resilience to additional stressors, focusing on metal pollution as the initial stress, and discuss possible factors influencing the functional and structural stability of microbial communities towards secondary stressors. There is increasing evidence that the history of environmental conditions and disturbance regimes play central roles in responses of microbial communities towards secondary stressors.

  6. Phospholipids fatty acids of drinking water reservoir sedimentary microbial community: Structure and function responses to hydrostatic pressure and other physico-chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Bei-Bei; Huang, Ting-Lin; Zhao, Xiao-Guang; Li, Ya-Jiao

    2015-07-01

    Microbial communities in three drinking water reservoirs, with different depth in Xi'an city, were quantified by phospholipids fatty acids analysis and multivariate statistical analysis was employed to interpret their response to different hydrostatic pressure and other physico-chemical properties of sediment and overlying water. Principle component analyses of sediment characteristics parameters showed that hydrostatic pressure was the most important effect factor to differentiate the overlying water quality from three drinking water reservoirs from each other. NH4+ content in overlying water was positive by related to hydrostatic pressure, while DO in water-sediment interface and sediment OC in sediment were negative by related with it. Three drinking water reservoir sediments were characterized by microbial communities dominated by common and facultative anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria, as well as, by sulfur oxidizing bacteria. Hydrostatic pressure and physico-chemical properties of sediments (such as sediment OC, sediment TN and sediment TP) were important effect factors to microbial community structure, especially hydrostatic pressure. It is also suggested that high hydrostatic pressure and low dissolved oxygen concentration stimulated Gram-positive and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) bacterial population in drinking water reservoir sediment. This research supplied a successful application of phospholipids fatty acids and multivariate analysis to investigate microbial community composition response to different environmental factors. Thus, few physico-chemical factors can be used to estimate composition microbial of community as reflected by phospholipids fatty acids, which is difficult to detect.

  7. Cucumber Rhizosphere Microbial Community Response to Biocontrol Agent Bacillus subtilis B068150

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis B068150 has been used as a biocontrol agent against the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum cucumerinum. Cucumber was grown in three soils with strain B068150 inoculated in a greenhouse for 90 days, and the colonization ability of strain B068150 in cucumber rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils was determined. Changes in total bacteria and fungi community composition and structures using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and sequencing were determined. Colony counts showed that B068150 colonization in the rhizosphere was significantly higher (p < 0.001 than in non-rhizosphere soils. Based on our data, the introduction of B. bacillus B068150 did not change the diversity of microbial communities significantly in the rhizosphere of three soils. Our data showed that population density of B068150 in clay soil had a significant negative correlation on bacterial diversity in cucumber rhizosphere in comparison to loam and sandy soils, suggesting that the impact of B068150 might be soil specific.

  8. Effect of the pacing strategy during half-duration resistance test on the mechanic, metabolic and cardio-respiratory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pérez-Guerra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Changes in pacing rhythm are translated into functional and metabolic changes that can be significantly reflected in the final results of an athlete. Method: Ten male subjects, with moderate performance level (age: 25.2 ± 2.2 years; VO2max: 56.9 ± 5.7 ml kg−1 min−1, performed four 5-min races with different pacing strategies: constant-pace (CP, record-pace (RP, kicker-pace (KP, incremental-pace (IP. Results: The cardio-respiratory response did not show statistically significant. There were statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 in the energetic efficiency among the protocols CP vs. RP, CP vs. KP and RP vs. IP. When results were analyzed by partials (1-min duration phases, significant differences were observed in the energetic efficiency during the 3rd-min among CP vs. KP, RP vs. KP and KP vs. IP. These significant differences were extended to the 4th-min when comparing CP vs. IP, CP vs. KP, KP vs. RP and KP vs. IP. In the last minute of the test, there were significant differences among CP vs. KP. No significant differences were found in any of the variables assessing anaerobic metabolism (accumulated oxygen deficit, oxygen debt, oxygen uptake kinetics and blood lactate between both protocols. Conclusions: Results suggest that the main functional systems response are significantly affected by the pacing strategy used by middle-level subjects during middle-distance running. Resumen: Objetivo: Los cambios en el ritmo de carrera se traducen en cambios funcionales y metabólicos que pueden reflejarse significativamente en los resultados finales de un atleta. Método: Diez sujetos varones, con un nivel medio (edad: 25.2 ± 2.2 años; VO2max: 56.9 ± 5.7 mlkg−1min−1, llevaron a cabo carreras de 5 minutos con diferentes estrategias: ritmo constante (RC, ritmo récord (RR, ritmo kicker (RK y ritmo incremental (RI. Resultados: La respuesta

  9. Marine Microbial Gene Abundance and Community Composition in Response to Ocean Acidification and Elevated Temperature in Two Contrasting Coastal Marine Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashleigh R. Currie

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine ecosystems are exposed to a range of human-induced climate stressors, in particular changing carbonate chemistry and elevated sea surface temperatures as a consequence of climate change. More research effort is needed to reduce uncertainties about the effects of global-scale warming and acidification for benthic microbial communities, which drive sedimentary biogeochemical cycles. In this research, mesocosm experiments were set up using muddy and sandy coastal sediments to investigate the independent and interactive effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentrations (750 ppm CO2 and elevated temperature (ambient +4°C on the abundance of taxonomic and functional microbial genes. Specific quantitative PCR primers were used to target archaeal, bacterial, and cyanobacterial/chloroplast 16S rRNA in both sediment types. Nitrogen cycling genes archaeal and bacterial ammonia monooxygenase (amoA and bacterial nitrite reductase (nirS were specifically targeted to identify changes in microbial gene abundance and potential impacts on nitrogen cycling. In muddy sediment, microbial gene abundance, including amoA and nirS genes, increased under elevated temperature and reduced under elevated CO2 after 28 days, accompanied by shifts in community composition. In contrast, the combined stressor treatment showed a non-additive effect with lower microbial gene abundance throughout the experiment. The response of microbial communities in the sandy sediment was less pronounced, with the most noticeable response seen in the archaeal gene abundances in response to environmental stressors over time. 16S rRNA genes (amoA and nirS were lower in abundance in the combined stressor treatments in sandy sediments. Our results indicated that marine benthic microorganisms, especially in muddy sediments, are susceptible to changes in ocean carbonate chemistry and seawater temperature, which ultimately may have an impact upon key benthic biogeochemical cycles.

  10. Gastrointestinal and microbial responses to sulfate-supplemented drinking water in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deplancke, Bart; Finster, Kai; Graham, W Vallen; Collier, Chad T; Thurmond, Joel E; Gaskins, H Rex

    2003-04-01

    There is increasing evidence that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), produced by intestinal sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), may be involved in the etiopathogenesis of chronic diseases such as ulcerative colitis and colorectal cancer. The activity of SRB, and thus H2S production, is likely determined by the availability of sulfur-containing compounds in the intestine. However, little is known about the impact of dietary or inorganic sulfate on intestinal sulfate and SRB-derived H2S concentrations. In this study, the effects of short-term (7 day) and long-term (1 year) inorganic sulfate supplementation of the drinking water on gastrointestinal (GI) sulfate and H2S concentrations (and thus activity of resident SRBs), and the density of large intestinal sulfomucin-containing goblet cells, were examined in C3H/HeJBir mice. Additionally, a PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-based molecular ecology technique was used to examine the impact of sulfate-amended drinking water on microbial community structure throughout the GI tract. Average H2S concentrations ranged from 0.1 mM (stomach) to 1 mM (cecum). A sulfate reduction assay demonstrated in situ production of H2S throughout the GI tract, confirming the presence of SRB. However, H2S generation and concentrations were greatest in the cecum and colon. Sulfate supplementation of drinking water did not significantly increase intestinal sulfate or H2S concentrations, suggesting that inorganic sulfate is not an important modulator of intestinal H2S concentrations, although it altered the bacterial profiles of the stomach and distal colon of 1-year-old mice. This change in colonic bacterial profiles may reflect a corresponding increase in the density of sulfomucin-containing goblet cells in sulfate-supplemented compared with control mice.

  11. The acute phase response of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A (SAA) in cattle undergoing experimental infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Godson, D.L.; Toussaint, M.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), analysing the induction of the two most dominant bovine acute phase proteins haptoglobin and serum amyloid A (SAA). Strong and reproducible acute phase responses were detected for both proteins, peaking at around 7-8 days after inoculation of BRSV, while no response...... was seen in mock-inoculated control animals. The serum concentrations reached for SAA and haptoglobin during the BRSV-induced acute phase response were generally the same or higher than previously reported for bacterial infections in calves. The magnitude and the duration of the haptoglobin response...... was found to correlate well with the severity of clinical signs (fever) and with the extent of lung consolidation while SAA responded most rapidly to infection....

  12. Timescales of Growth Response of Microbial Mats to Environmental Change in an Ice-Covered Antarctic Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne D. Jungblut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lake Vanda is a perennially ice-covered, closed-basin lake in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Laminated photosynthetic microbial mats cover the floor of the lake from below the ice cover to >40 m depth. In recent decades, the water level of Lake Vanda has been rising, creating a “natural experiment” on development of mat communities on newly flooded substrates and the response of deeper mats to declining irradiance. Mats in recently flooded depths accumulate one lamina (~0.3 mm per year and accrue ~0.18 µg chlorophyll-a cm−2 y−1. As they increase in thickness, vertical zonation becomes evident, with the upper 2-4 laminae forming an orange-brown zone, rich in myxoxanthophyll and dominated by intertwined Leptolyngbya trichomes. Below this, up to six phycobilin-rich green/pink-pigmented laminae form a subsurface zone, inhabited by Leptolyngbya, Oscillatoria and Phormidium morphotypes. Laminae continued to increase in thickness for several years after burial, and PAM fluorometry indicated photosynthetic potential in all pigmented laminae. At depths that have been submerged for >40 years, mats showed similar internal zonation and formed complex pinnacle structures that were only beginning to appear in shallower mats. Chlorophyll-a did not change over time and these mats appear to represent resource-limited “climax” communities. Acclimation of microbial mats to changing environmental conditions is a slow process, and our data show how legacy effects of past change persist into the modern community structure.

  13. Response of microbial community and catabolic genes to simulated petroleum hydrocarbon spills in soils/sediments from different geographic locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q; Tang, J; Liu, X; Song, B; Zhen, M; Ashbolt, N J

    2017-10-01

    Study the response of microbial communities and selected petroleum hydrocarbon (PH)-degrading genes on simulated PH spills in soils/sediments from different geographic locations. A microcosm experiment was conducted by spiking mixtures of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) to soils/sediments collected from four different regions of China, including the Dagang Oilfield (DG), Sand of Bohai Sea (SS), Northeast China (NE) and Xiamen (XM). Changes in bacterial community and the abundance of PH-degrading genes (alkB, nah and phe) were analysed by denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) and qPCR, respectively. Degradation of alkanes and PAHs in SS and NE materials were greater (P < 0·05) than those in DG and XM. Clay content was negatively correlated with the degradation of total alkanes by 112 days and PAHs by 56 days, while total organic carbon content was negatively correlated with initial degradation of total alkanes as well as PAHs. Abundances of alkB, nah and phe genes increased 10- to 100-fold and varied by soil type over the incubation period. DGGE fingerprints identified the dominance of α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria (Gram -ve) and Actinobacteria (Gram +ve) bacteria associated with degradation of PHs in the materials studied. The geographic divergence resulting from the heterogeneity of physicochemical properties of soils/sediments appeared to influence the abundance of metabolic genes and community structure of microbes capable of degrading PHs. When developing practical in-situ bioremediation approaches for PHs contamination of soils/sediment, appropriate microbial community structures and the abundance of PH-degrading genes appear to be influenced by geographic location. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Soil mineral composition matters: response of microbial communities to phenanthrene and plant litter addition in long-term matured artificial soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, Doreen; Vogel, Cordula; Zühlke, Sebastian; Schloter, Michael; Pronk, Geertje Johanna; Heister, Katja; Spiteller, Michael; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Smalla, Kornelia

    2014-01-01

    The fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil is determined by a suite of biotic and abiotic factors, and disentangling their role in the complex soil interaction network remains challenging. Here, we investigate the influence of soil composition on the microbial community structure and its response to the spiked model PAH compound phenanthrene and plant litter. We used long-term matured artificial soils differing in type of clay mineral (illite, montmorillonite) and presence of charcoal or ferrihydrite. The soils received an identical soil microbial fraction and were incubated for more than two years with two sterile manure additions. The matured artificial soils and a natural soil were subjected to the following spiking treatments: (I) phenanthrene, (II) litter, (III) litter + phenanthrene, (IV) unspiked control. Total community DNA was extracted from soil sampled on the day of spiking, 7, 21, and 63 days after spiking. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer amplicons were quantified by qPCR and subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DGGE analysis revealed that the bacterial community composition, which was strongly shaped by clay minerals after more than two years of incubation, changed in response to spiked phenanthrene and added litter. DGGE and qPCR showed that soil composition significantly influenced the microbial response to spiking. While fungal communities responded only in presence of litter to phenanthrene spiking, the response of the bacterial communities to phenanthrene was less pronounced when litter was present. Interestingly, microbial communities in all artificial soils were more strongly affected by spiking than in the natural soil, which might indicate the importance of higher microbial diversity to compensate perturbations. This study showed the influence of soil composition on the microbiota and their response to phenanthrene and litter, which may increase our understanding of

  15. SIgA response and incidence of upper respiratory tract infections during intensified training in youth basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, H; Aoki, M S; Freitas, C G; Arruda, Afs; Drago, G; Moreira, A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of an intensified training phase followed by a tapering phase on the salivary immunoglobulin A concentration and on the upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) symptoms in young male basketball players. The session rating of perceived exertion method was used to quantify the internal training load, and the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 questionnaire was used to assess URTI symptoms. The Yo-Yo IR1 test and saliva collection were carried out at the beginning of the study (T1), after the intensified phase (T2), and after tapering (T3). A higher internal training load was observed for the intensified phase compared with the tapering phase (t=19.10; ptraining load followed by a tapering period negatively affects the mucosal immune function with no significant change in severity of URTI in young basketball players.

  16. A case of imported Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus infection and public health response, Greece, April 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiodras, S; Baka, A; Mentis, A; Iliopoulos, D; Dedoukou, X; Papamavrou, G; Karadima, S; Emmanouil, M; Kossyvakis, A; Spanakis, N; Pavli, A; Maltezou, H; Karageorgou, A; Spala, G; Pitiriga, V; Kosmas, E; Tsiagklis, S; Gkatzias, S; Koulouris, Ng; Koutsoukou, A; Bakakos, P; Markozanhs, E; Dionellis, G; Pontikis, K; Rovina, N; Kyriakopoulou, M; Efstathiou, P; Papadimitriou, T; Kremastinou, J; Tsakris, A; Saroglou, G

    2014-04-24

    On 18 April 2014, a case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection was laboratory confirmed in Athens, Greece in a patient returning from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Main symptoms upon initial presentation were protracted fever and diarrhoea, during hospitalisation he developed bilateral pneumonia and his condition worsened. During 14 days prior to onset of illness, he had extensive contact with the healthcare environment in Jeddah. Contact tracing revealed 73 contacts, no secondary cases had occurred by 22 April.

  17. Medium-term response of microbial community to rhizodeposits of white clover and ryegrass and tracing of active processes induced by 13C and 15N labelled exudates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusliene, Gedrime; Rasmussen, Jim; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-01-01

    and actinomycetes was unaffected by plant species, but pool of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was greater under white clover at the 10 percent significance level. In the short term, microorganisms more actively utilised fresh exudates (13C-labelled) of ryegrass than of white clover. We expected ryegrass...... microbial groups in soil under white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) following leaf-labelling with 13C-bicarbonate and 15N-urea. In this way microbial N and 15N and the composition of PLFAs reflect the medium-term (two months) response of microorganisms to rhizodeposits......, whereas the 13C-label of the PLFAs reflects the short-term (one week) utilisation of root exudates following labelling of shoots. In the medium term, microbial biomass N and 15N were greater under the ryegrass, whereas total PLFA was higher under white clover. The relative abundance of fungi...

  18. 17-β-Estradiol Upregulates the Stress Response in Candida albicans: Implications for Microbial Virulence

    OpenAIRE

    C. O’Connor; M. Essmann; B. Larsen

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The influence of 17-β-estradiol on the stress response of Candida albicans was studied.Methods: The survival of clinical isolates of C. albicans treated with 17-β-estradiol after heat and oxidative stress was measured by viable plate counts. Cellular proteins were analyzed via SDSPAGE.Results: The heat stress response induced by 17-β-estradiol in C. albicans grown at 25 ℃ protected the organisms against the lethal temperature of 48.5 ℃, as shown by viable plate counts. 17-β-estradi...

  19. 17-beta-estradiol upregulates the stress response in Candida albicans: implications for microbial virulence.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, C; Essmann, M; Larsen, B

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The influence of 17-beta-estradiol on the stress response of Candida albicans was studied. METHODS: The survival of clinical isolates of C. albicans treated with 17-beta-estradiol after heat and oxidative stress was measured by viable plate counts. Cellular proteins were analyzed via SDS-PAGE. RESULTS: The heat stress response induced by 17-beta-estradiol in C. albicans grown at 25 degrees C protected the organisms against the lethal temperature of 48.5 degrees C, as shown by viabl...

  20. Response of soil microbial and invertebrate communities to tracked vehicle disturbance in tallgrass prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.S. Althoff; T.C. Todd; S.J. Thien; M.A. Callaham

    2009-01-01

    Soil biota drive fundamental ecosystem processes such as decomposition, nutrient cycling, and maintenance of soil structure. They are especially active in grassland ecosystems such as the tallgrass by heterotrophic soil organisms. Because both soil microbes and soil fauna display perturbation responses that integrate the physical, chemical, and biological changes to...

  1. Response and resilience of soil microbial communities inhabiting in edible oil stress/contamination from industrial estates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vrutika; Sharma, Anukriti; Lal, Rup; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Madamwar, Datta

    2016-03-22

    Gauging the microbial community structures and functions become imperative to understand the ecological processes. To understand the impact of long-term oil contamination on microbial community structure soil samples were taken from oil fields located in different industrial regions across Kadi, near Ahmedabad, India. Soil collected was hence used for metagenomic DNA extraction to study the capabilities of intrinsic microbial community in tolerating the oil perturbation. Taxonomic profiling was carried out by two different complementary approaches i.e. 16S rDNA and lowest common ancestor. The community profiling revealed the enrichment of phylum "Proteobacteria" and genus "Chromobacterium," respectively for polluted soil sample. Our results indicated that soil microbial diversity (Shannon diversity index) decreased significantly with contamination. Further, assignment of obtained metagenome reads to Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) of protein and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) hits revealed metabolic potential of indigenous microbial community. Enzymes were mapped on fatty acid biosynthesis pathway to elucidate their roles in possible catalytic reactions. To the best of our knowledge this is first study for influence of edible oil on soil microbial communities via shotgun sequencing. The results indicated that long-term oil contamination significantly affects soil microbial community structure by acting as an environmental filter to decrease the regional differences distinguishing soil microbial communities.

  2. Impact of drying-rewetting events on the response of soil microbial functions to dairyfibre and Miscanthus biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnett, Sam; Vink, Stefanie; Baker, Kate; Saghir, Muhammad; Hornung, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    dissolution of alkaline minerals, high ash content (Lehmann et al. 2011) and solubility of DOC. Biochar treatments buffered changes in pH caused by drying and flooding but resulted in an increase in DOC. Biochar in general stabilised glucosidase activity whilst Miscanthus biochar stimulated chitinase and phosphatase activity that may have been due to adsorption of either enzyme or substrate as observed by Bailey et al. (2011). Surprisingly, alkaline phosphatase activity was not stimulated by the rise in pH in the diaryfibre treatment and was lower than the control along with the other hydrolase enzymes suggesting that deprotonation of soil phenols at higher pH inhibited activity via the enzyme-latch mechanism that in peatlands explains low rates of decomposition (Freeman et al., 2001; Sinsabaugh et al. 2010). This was supported by observation of higher phenol oxidase activity within the dairyfibre treatment that increased in response to greater availability of substrate and/or increases in pH. All biochars inhibited the production of N2O that was stimulated by the supply of labile carbon from SIR, suggesting that biochar decreased C-substrate availability through adsorption at its surface (Clough and Condron, 2010). Overall, this study has shown that specific feedstocks may be used to produce biochars to control microbial functions in soil such as inhibiting hydrolase enzymes for carbon sequestration as occurs naturally in peatlands or suppress the production of the potent greenhouse gas N2O. References Bailey, V., Fansler, S.J., Smith, J.L. Bolton, H. (2011) Reconciling apparent variability in effects of biochar amendment on soil enzyme activities by assay optimization. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 43, 296-301. Clough, T. and Condron, L. (2010) Biochar and the nitrogen cycle: introduction. Journal of Environmental Quality, 39,1218-1223. Freeman, C., Ostle, N. and Kang, H. (2001) An enzymic 'latch' on a global carbon store. Nature 409, 149. Lehmann, J and Joseph, S (2009

  3. Microbial and biogeochemical responses to projected future nitrate enrichment in the California upwelling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rose Marie Mackey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Coastal California is a dynamic upwelling region where nitrogen (N and iron (Fe can both limit productivity and influence biogeochemistry over different spatial and temporal scales. With global change, the flux of nitrate from upwelling is expected to increase over the next century, potentially driving additional oceanic regions toward Fe limitation. In this study we explored the effect of changes in Fe/N ratio on native phytoplankton from five currently Fe-replete sites near the major California upwelling centers at Bodega Bay and Monterey Bay using nutrient addition incubation experiments. Despite the high nitrate levels (13-30 M in the upwelled water, phytoplankton at three of the five sites showed increased growth when 10 M nitrate was added. None of the sites showed enhanced growth following addition of 10 nM Fe. Nitrate additions favored slow sinking single-celled diatoms over faster sinking chain-forming diatoms, suggesting that future increases in nitrate flux could affect carbon and silicate export and alter grazer populations. In particular, solitary cells of Cylindrotheca were more abundant than the toxin-producing genus Pseudonitzschia following nitrate addition. These responses suggest the biogeochemistry of coastal California could change in response to future increases in nitrate, and multiple stressors like ocean acidification and hypoxia may further result in ecosystem shifts.

  4. Activity modulation of microbial enzymes by llama (Lama glama) heavy-chain polyclonal antibodies during in vivo immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, A; Weill, F S; Paz, M L; Cela, E M; González Maglio, D H; Leoni, J

    2012-03-01

    Since they were first described in 1993, it was found that recombinant variable fragments (rVHHs) of heavy-chain antibodies (HCAbs) from Camelidae have unusual biophysical properties, as well as a special ability to interact with epitopes that are cryptic for conventional Abs. It has been assumed that in vivo raised polyclonal HCAbs (pHCAbs) should behave in a similar manner than rVHHs; however, this assumption has not been tested sufficiently. Furthermore, our own preliminary work on a single serum sample from a llama immunized with a β-lactamase, has suggested that pHCAbs have no special ability to down-modulate catalytic activity. In this work, we further explored the interaction of pHCAbs from four llamas raised against two microbial enzymes and analyzed it within a short and a long immunization plan. The relative contribution of pHCAbs to serum titer was found to be low compared with that of the most abundant conventional subisotype (IgG(1)), during the whole immunization schedule. Furthermore, pHCAbs not only failed to inhibit the enzymes, but also activated one of them. Altogether, these results suggest that raising high titer inhibitory HCAbs is not a straightforward strategy - neither as a biotechnological strategy nor in the biological context of an immune response against infection - as raising inhibitory rVHHs.

  5. Determination of charge transfer resistance and capacitance of microbial fuel cell through a transient response analysis of cell voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Phuc Thi; Moon, Hyunsoo; Kim, Byung Hong; Ng, How Yong; Chang, In Seop

    2010-03-15

    An alternative method for determining the charge transfer resistance and double-layer capacitance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs), easily implemented without a potentiostat, was developed. A dynamic model with two parameters, the charge transfer resistance and double-layer capacitance of electrodes, was derived from a linear differential equation to depict the current generation with respect to activation overvoltage. This model was then used to fit the transient cell voltage response to the current step change during the continuous operation of a flat-plate type MFC fed with acetate. Variations of the charge transfer resistance and the capacitance value with respect to the MFC design conditions (biocatalyst existence and electrode area) and operating parameters (acetate concentration and buffer strength in the catholyte) were then determined to elucidate the validity of the proposed method. This model was able to describe the dynamic behavior of the MFC during current change in the activation loss region; having an R(2) value of over 0.99 in most tests. Variations of the charge transfer resistance value (thousands of Omega) according to the change of the design factors and operational factors were well-correlated with the corresponding MFC performances. However, though the capacitance values (approximately 0.02 F) reflected the expected trend according to the electrode area change and catalyst property, they did not show significant variation with changes in either the acetate concentration or buffer strength. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluating the influence of process parameters on soluble microbial products formation using response surface methodology coupled with grey relational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juan; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Luo, Hong-Wei; Fang, Fang; Li, Wen-Wei; Zeng, Raymond J; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Yu, Han-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Soluble microbial products (SMPs) present a major part of residual chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the effluents from biological wastewater treatment systems, and the SMP formation is greatly influenced by a variety of process parameters. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with grey relational analysis (GRA) method was used to evaluate the effects of substrate concentration, temperature, NH(4)(+)-N concentration and aeration rate on the SMP production in batch activated sludge reactors. Carbohydrates were found to be the major component of SMP, and the influential priorities of these factors were: temperature>substrate concentration > aeration rate > NH(4)(+)-N concentration. On the basis of the RSM results, the interactive effects of these factors on the SMP formation were evaluated, and the optimal operating conditions for a minimum SMP production in such a batch activated sludge system also were identified. These results provide useful information about how to control the SMP formation of activated sludge and ensure the bioreactor high-quality effluent. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of the CD8+ T cell responses directed against respiratory syncytial virus during primary and secondary infection in C57BL/6 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukens, Michael V.; Claassen, Erwin A.W.; Graaff, Patricia M.A. de; Dijk, Mariska E.A. van; Hoogerhout, Peter; Toebes, Mireille; Schumacher, Ton N.; Most, Robbert G. van der; Kimpen, Jan L.L.; Bleek, Grada M. van

    2006-01-01

    The BALB/c mouse model for human respiratory syncytial virus infection has contributed significantly to our understanding of the relative role for CD4 + and CD8 + T cells to immune protection and pathogenic immune responses. To enable comparison of RSV-specific T cell responses in different mouse strains and allow dissection of immune mechanisms by using transgenic and knockout mice that are mostly available on a C57BL/6 background, we characterized the specificity, level and functional capabilities of CD8 + T cells during primary and secondary responses in lung parenchyma, airways and spleens of C57BL/6 mice. During the primary response, epitopes were recognized originating from the matrix, fusion, nucleo- and attachment proteins, whereas the secondary response focused predominantly on the matrix epitope. C57BL/6 mice are less permissive for hRSV infection than BALB/c mice, yet we found CD8 + T cell responses in the lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage, comparable to the responses described for BALB/c mice

  8. A survey of alterations in microbial community diversity in marine sediments in response to oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill: Northern Gulf of Mexico shoreline, Texas to Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisle, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial community genomic DNA was extracted from sediment samples collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) coast. These samples had a high probability of being impacted by Macondo-1 (M-1) well oil from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drilling site. The hypothesis for this project was that presence of M-1 oil in coastal sediments would significantly alter the diversity within the microbial communities associated with the impacted sediments. To determine if community-level changes did or did not occur following exposure to M-1 oil, microbial community-diversity fingerprints were generated and compared. Specific sequences within the community's genomic DNA were first amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a primer set that provides possible resolution to the species level. A second nested PCR that was performed on the primary PCR products using a primer set on which a GC-clamp was attached to one of the primers. These nested PCR products were separated using denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) that resolves the nested PCR products based on sequence dissimilarities (or similarities), forming a genomic fingerprint of the microbial diversity within the respective samples. Sediment samples with similar fingerprints were grouped and compared to oil-fingerprint data from Rosenbauer and others (2010). The microbial community fingerprints grouped closely when identifying those sites that had been impacted by M-1 oil (N=12) and/or some mixture of M-1 and other oil (N=4), based upon the oil fingerprints. This report represents some of the first information on naturally occurring microbial communities in sediment from shorelines along the NGOM coast. These communities contain microbes capable of degrading oil and related hydrocarbons, making this information relevant to response and recovery of the NGOM from the DWH incident.

  9. Prescriber and Patient Responsibilities in Treatment of Acute Respiratory Tract Infections — Essential for Conservation of Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. Pignatari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate antibiotic use in normally self-limiting acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs, such as sore throat and the common cold, is a global problem and an important factor for increasing levels of antibiotic resistance. A new group of international experts—the Global Respiratory Infection Partnership (GRIP—is committed to addressing this issue, with the interface between primary care practitioners and their patients as their core focus. To combat the overuse of antibiotics in the community, and facilitate a change from prescribing empiric antibiotic treatment towards cautious deferment combined with symptomatic relief, there is a need to introduce and enhance evidence-based dialogue between primary care practitioners and their patients. Communication with patients should focus on the de-medicalisation of self-limiting viral infections, which can be achieved via a coherent globally endorsed framework outlining the rationale for appropriate antibiotic use in acute RTIs in the context of antibiotic stewardship and conservancy. The planned framework is intended to be adaptable at a country level to reflect local behaviours, cultures and healthcare systems, and has the potential to serve as a model for change in other therapeutic areas.

  10. Human neutrophil clearance of bacterial pathogens triggers anti-microbial γδ T cell responses in early infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin S Davey

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Human blood Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells, monocytes and neutrophils share a responsiveness toward inflammatory chemokines and are rapidly recruited to sites of infection. Studying their interaction in vitro and relating these findings to in vivo observations in patients may therefore provide crucial insight into inflammatory events. Our present data demonstrate that Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells provide potent survival signals resulting in neutrophil activation and the release of the neutrophil chemoattractant CXCL8 (IL-8. In turn, Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells readily respond to neutrophils harboring phagocytosed bacteria, as evidenced by expression of CD69, interferon (IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. This response is dependent on the ability of these bacteria to produce the microbial metabolite (E-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMB-PP, requires cell-cell contact of Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells with accessory monocytes through lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, and results in a TNF-α dependent proliferation of Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells. The antibiotic fosmidomycin, which targets the HMB-PP biosynthesis pathway, not only has a direct antibacterial effect on most HMB-PP producing bacteria but also possesses rapid anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting γδ T cell responses in vitro. Patients with acute peritoneal-dialysis (PD-associated bacterial peritonitis--characterized by an excessive influx of neutrophils and monocytes into the peritoneal cavity--show a selective activation of local Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells by HMB-PP producing but not by HMB-PP deficient bacterial pathogens. The γδ T cell-driven perpetuation of inflammatory responses during acute peritonitis is associated with elevated peritoneal levels of γδ T cells and TNF-α and detrimental clinical outcomes in infections caused by HMB-PP positive microorganisms. Taken together, our findings indicate a direct link between invading pathogens, neutrophils, monocytes and microbe-responsive γδ T cells in

  11. Human Neutrophil Clearance of Bacterial Pathogens Triggers Anti-Microbial γδ T Cell Responses in Early Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gareth W.; Heuston, Sinéad; Brown, Amanda C.; Chess, James A.; Toleman, Mark A.; Gahan, Cormac G. M.; Hill, Colin; Parish, Tanya; Williams, John D.; Davies, Simon J.; Johnson, David W.; Topley, Nicholas; Moser, Bernhard; Eberl, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Human blood Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells, monocytes and neutrophils share a responsiveness toward inflammatory chemokines and are rapidly recruited to sites of infection. Studying their interaction in vitro and relating these findings to in vivo observations in patients may therefore provide crucial insight into inflammatory events. Our present data demonstrate that Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells provide potent survival signals resulting in neutrophil activation and the release of the neutrophil chemoattractant CXCL8 (IL-8). In turn, Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells readily respond to neutrophils harboring phagocytosed bacteria, as evidenced by expression of CD69, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. This response is dependent on the ability of these bacteria to produce the microbial metabolite (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMB-PP), requires cell-cell contact of Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells with accessory monocytes through lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), and results in a TNF-α dependent proliferation of Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells. The antibiotic fosmidomycin, which targets the HMB-PP biosynthesis pathway, not only has a direct antibacterial effect on most HMB-PP producing bacteria but also possesses rapid anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting γδ T cell responses in vitro. Patients with acute peritoneal-dialysis (PD)-associated bacterial peritonitis – characterized by an excessive influx of neutrophils and monocytes into the peritoneal cavity – show a selective activation of local Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells by HMB-PP producing but not by HMB-PP deficient bacterial pathogens. The γδ T cell-driven perpetuation of inflammatory responses during acute peritonitis is associated with elevated peritoneal levels of γδ T cells and TNF-α and detrimental clinical outcomes in infections caused by HMB-PP positive microorganisms. Taken together, our findings indicate a direct link between invading pathogens, neutrophils, monocytes and microbe-responsive γδ T cells in early

  12. Carbon use efficiency (CUE) and biomass turnover of soil microbial communities as affected by bedrock, land management and soil temperature and moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qing; Hu, Yuntao; Richter, Andreas; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Soil microbial carbon use efficiency (CUE), defined as the proportion of organic C taken up that is allocated to microbial growth, represents an important synthetic representation of microbial community C metabolism that describes the flux partitioning between microbial respiration and growth. Therefore, studying microbial CUE is critical for the understanding of soil C cycling. Microbial CUE is thought to vary with environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and soil moisture). Microbial CUE is thought to decrease with increasing temperature and declining soil moisture, as the latter may trigger stress responses (e.g. the synthesis of stress metabolites), which may consequently lower microbial community CUE. However, these effects on microbial CUE have not been adequately measured so far due to methodological restrictions. The most widely used methods for microbial CUE estimation are based on tracing 13C-labeled substrates into microbial biomass and respiratory CO2, approaches that are known to overestimate microbial CUE of native organic matter in soil. Recently, a novel substrate-independent approach based on the measurement of (i) respiration rates and (ii) the incorporation rates of 18O from labelled water into newly formed microbial DNA has been developed in our laboratory for measuring microbial CUE. This approach overcomes the shortcomings of previously used methods and has already been shown to yield realistic estimations of soil microbial CUE. This approach can also be applied to concurrently measure microbial biomass turnover rates, which also influence the sequestration of soil organic C. Microbial turnover rates are also thought to be impacted by environmental factors, but rarely have been directly measured so far. Here, we aimed at determining the short-term effects of environmental factors (soil temperature and soil moisture) on microbial CUE and microbial biomass turnover rates based on the novel 18O approach. Soils from three land-use types (arable

  13. Microbial dynamics in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactor granules in response to short-term changes in substrate feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacik, William P.; Scholten, Johannes C.; Culley, David E.; Hickey, Robert; Zhang, Weiwen; Brockman, Fred J.

    2010-08-01

    The complexity and diversity of the microbial communities in biogranules from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactor were determined in response to short-term changes in substrate feeds. The reactor was fed simulated brewery wastewater (SBWW) (70% ethanol, 15% acetate, 15% propionate) for 1.5 months (phase 1), acetate / sulfate for 2 months (phase 2), acetate-alone for 3 months (phase 3), and then a return to SBWW for 2 months (phase 4). Performance of the reactor remained relatively stable throughout the experiment as shown by COD removal and gas production. 16S rDNA, methanogen-associated mcrA and sulfate reducer-associated dsrAB genes were PCR amplified, then cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis of 16S clone libraries showed a relatively simple community composed mainly of the methanogenic Archaea (Methanobacterium and Methanosaeta), members of the Green Non-Sulfur (Chloroflexi) group of Bacteria, followed by fewer numbers of Syntrophobacter, Spirochaeta, Acidobacteria and Cytophaga-related Bacterial sequences. Methanogen-related mcrA clone libraries were dominated throughout by Methanobacter and Methanospirillum related sequences. Although not numerous enough to be detected in our 16S rDNA libraries, sulfate reducers were detected in dsrAB clone libraries, with sequences related to Desulfovibrio and Desulfomonile. Community diversity levels (Shannon-Weiner index) generally decreased for all libraries in response to a change from SBWW to acetate-alone feed. But there was a large transitory increase noted in 16S diversity at the two-month sampling on acetate-alone, entirely related to an increase in Bacterial diversity. Upon return to SBWW conditions in phase 4, all diversity measures returned to near phase 1 levels.

  14. Characterization of the antibody response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in children with recurrent lower respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, K; Barington, T; Pressler, T

    1995-01-01

    single total IgG subclass, but total IgG measured as the sum of all four subclasses was significantly lower in the children with RLRI than in the controls (P = 0.036). Before vaccination, the children with RLRI had significantly less IgG antipolysaccharide Hib antibody than the controls (P = 0......M response to Hib conjugate vaccine in these children, since this isotype predominates in the primary immune response, i.e., in the absence of immunologic memory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)......Children with recurrent lower respiratory tract infection (RLRI) may respond poorly to polysaccharide antigens. To examine how such children respond to a polysaccharide coupled to a protein carrier, we immunized 15 children with RLRI aged 8-69 months and 15 carefully age-matched healthy controls...

  15. Optimizing pressurized liquid extraction of microbial lipids using the response surface method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cescut, J; Severac, E; Molina-Jouve, C; Uribelarrea, J-L

    2011-01-21

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the determination of optimum extraction parameters to reach maximum lipid extraction yield with yeast. Total lipids were extracted from oleaginous yeast (Rhodotorula glutinis) using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The effects of extraction parameters on lipid extraction yield were studied by employing a second-order central composite design. The optimal condition was obtained as three cycles of 15 min at 100°C with a ratio of 144 g of hydromatrix per 100 g of dry cell weight. Different analysis methods were used to compare the optimized PLE method with two conventional methods (Soxhlet and modification of Bligh and Dyer methods) under efficiency, selectivity and reproducibility criteria thanks to gravimetric analysis, GC with flame ionization detector, High Performance Liquid Chromatography linked to Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (HPLC-ELSD) and thin-layer chromatographic analysis. For each sample, the lipid extraction yield with optimized PLE was higher than those obtained with referenced methods (Soxhlet and Bligh and Dyer methods with, respectively, a recovery of 78% and 85% compared to PLE method). Moreover, the use of PLE led to major advantages such as an analysis time reduction by a factor of 10 and solvent quantity reduction by 70%, compared with traditional extraction methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Carbon turnover in topsoil and subsoil: The microbial response to root litter additions and different environmental conditions in a reciprocal soil translocation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preusser, Sebastian; Poll, Christian; Marhan, Sven; Kandeler, Ellen

    2017-04-01

    At the global scale, soil organic carbon (SOC) represents the largest active terrestrial organic carbon (OC) pool. Carbon dynamics in subsoil, however, vary from those in topsoil with much lower C concentrations in subsoil than in topsoil horizons, although more than 50 % of SOC is stored in subsoils below 30 cm soil depth. In addition, microorganisms in subsoil are less abundant, more heterogeneously distributed and the microbial communities have a lower diversity than those in topsoil. Especially in deeper soil, the impact of changes in habitat conditions on microorganisms involved in carbon cycling are largely unexplored and consequently the understanding of microbial functioning is limited. A reciprocal translocation experiment allowed us to investigate the complex interaction effects of altered environmental and substrate conditions on microbial decomposer communities in both topsoil and subsoil habitats under in situ conditions. We conducted this experiment with topsoil (5 cm soil depth) and subsoil (110 cm) samples of an acid and sandy Dystric Cambisol from a European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest in Lower Saxony, Germany. In total 144 samples were buried into three depths (5 cm, 45 cm and 110 cm) and 13C-labelled root litter was added to expose the samples to different environmental conditions and to increase the substrate availability, respectively. Samples were taken in three month intervals up to a maximum exposure time of one year to follow the temporal development over the experimental period. Analyses included 13Cmic and 13C PLFA measurements to investigate the response of microbial abundance, community structure and 13C-root decomposition activity under the different treatments. Environmental conditions in the respective soil depths such as soil temperature and water content were recorded throughout the experimental period. All microbial groups (gram+ and gram- bacteria, fungi) showed highest relative 13C incorporation in 110 cm depth and samples

  17. Effects of heavy metal Cd pollution on microbial activities in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weilin; Ma, Xiying

    2017-12-23

    Heavy metal contamination of soil occurs when heavy metals are introduced to soil through human activities, leading to the gradual deterioration of the ecology and environment. Microorganism activity reflects the intensity of various biochemical reactions in soil, and changes in it reflect the level of heavy metal pollution affecting the soil. The effects were studied of heavy metal Cd on the microbial activity of soil at different concentrations by investigating the respiratory intensity, urease activity, and catalase activity in forest soil and garden soil. The results showed that the respiratory intensity, urease and catalase activities in the garden soil were all higher than in the forest soil. Cd has obvious inhibitory effects on microbial activities. The three parameters exhibited a downward trend with increasing concentrations of Cd. Catalase activity increased when the mass concentration of Cd reached 1.0 mg/kg, indicating that low concentrations of Cd can promote the activity of some microorganisms. Respiratory intensity and urease activity also increased when the concentration reached 10.0 mg/kg, showing that respiratory intensity and urease activity have strong response mechanisms to adverse conditions. The effective state of Cd in soil, as well as inhibition of microbial activity, decreased with incubation time.

  18. Effects of heavy metal Cd pollution on microbial activities in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Shi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal contamination of soil occurs when heavy metals are introduced to soil through human activities, leading to the gradual deterioration of the ecology and environment. Microorganism activity reflects the intensity of various biochemical reactions in soil, and changes in it reflect the level of heavy metal pollution affecting the soil. The effects were studied of heavy metal Cd on the microbial activity of soil at different concentrations by investigating the respiratory intensity, urease activity, and catalase activity in forest soil and garden soil. The results showed that the respiratory intensity, urease and catalase activities in the garden soil were all higher than in the forest soil. Cd has obvious inhibitory effects on microbial activities. The three parameters exhibited a downward trend with increasing concentrations of Cd. Catalase activity increased when the mass concentration of Cd reached 1.0 mg/kg, indicating that low concentrations of Cd can promote the activity of some microorganisms. Respiratory intensity and urease activity also increased when the concentration reached 10.0 mg/kg, showing that respiratory intensity and urease activity have strong response mechanisms to adverse conditions. The effective state of Cd in soil, as well as inhibition of microbial activity, decreased with incubation time.

  19. Shifts in the microbial community structure explain the response of soil respiration to land-use change but not to climate warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaries, Loïc; Tottey, William; Robinson, Lucinda

    2015-01-01

    Soil stores more carbon (C) than plants and atmosphere combined and it is vulnerable to increased microbial respiration under projected global changes including land-use change and future climate scenarios (mainly elevated temperature). Land-use change is known to have a direct impact on soil...... of this feedback response of Rs to global change. To identify the mechanisms of Rs response to land-use change and climate warming, we first investigated Rs from different land use types. Soil respiration was estimated seasonally from four different Scottish land uses: moorland, birch woodland, grassland and pine......, estimated by Multiplex Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (MT-RFLP) and 454 pyrosequencing, was significantly different under each land use type. A strong correlation of Rs with soil properties (pH, inorganic N, C:N ratio and moisture) and with microbial community structure was identified...

  20. Antigen-specific H1N1 influenza antibody responses in acute respiratory tract infections and their relation to influenza infection and disease course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haran, John Patrick; Hoaglin, David C; Chen, Huaiqing; Boyer, Edward W; Lu, Shan

    2014-08-01

    Early antibody responses to influenza infection are important in both clearance of virus and fighting the disease. Acute influenza antibody titers directed toward H1-antigens and their relation to infection type and patient outcomes have not been well investigated. Using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays, we aimed to characterize the H1-specific antibody titers in patients with influenza infection or another respiratory infection before and after the H1N1-pandemic influenza outbreak. Among patients with acute influenza infection we related duration of illness, severity of symptoms, and need for hospitalization to antibody titers. There were 134 adult patients (average age 34.7) who presented to an urban academic emergency department (ED) from October through March during the 2008-2011 influenza seasons with symptoms of fever and a cough. Nasal aspirates were tested by viral culture, and peripheral blood serum was run in seven H1-subtype HI assays. Acutely infected influenza patients had markedly lower antibody titers for six of the seven pseudotype viruses. For the average over the seven titers (log units, base 2) their mean was 7.24 (95% CI 6.88, 7.61) compared with 8.60 (95% CI 8.27, 8.92) among patients who had a non-influenza respiratory illness, pinfection, titers of some antibodies correlated with severity of symptoms and with total duration of illness (pacute respiratory infections, lower concentrations of H1-influenza-specific antibodies were associated with influenza infection. Among influenza-infected patients, higher antibody titers were present in patients with a longer duration of illness and with higher severity-of-symptom scores. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Employee guide to respiratory protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    This employee guide discusses use of respiratory protective equipment for particulates, gases, vapors, supplied air, and self-contained breathing apparatus. It also covers equipment selection medical factors, fitting criteria; care; and employee responsibilities

  2. The oxygen effect and adaptive response of cells. Report 3. Simulation of respiratory oxygenation and oxygen permeability of cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehpshtejn, I.M.

    1978-01-01

    Variations in the oxygen concentration in extracellural [O 2 ] 0 and intracellular [Osub(2)]sub(i) media of cells small in size (d = 2 ] 0 - t-curves). It is shown that the Value of [Osub(2)]sub(i) may be expressed by four variants of its functional dependence: (a) on enzymic reaction of oxygen consumption, (b) on the order of reaction with respect to oxygen, (c) on physiological parameters of cells, and (d) on characteristic oxygen concentrations in the system. Items (c) and (d) are based on the postulated diffusion-kinetic model of oxygen consumption by an idealized cell of small size that consists of a drop of homogenous solution of the respiratory enzyme which is characterized by an equivalent Michaelis constant. The drop is enveloped in a uniform membrane that possesses a definite diffuse resistance to oxygen

  3. Soil microbial abundance, activity and diversity response in two different altitude-adapted plant communities affected by wildfire in Sierra Nevada National Park (Granada, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcenas-Moreno, Gema; Zavala, Lorena; Jordan, Antonio; Bååth, Erland; Mataix-Beneyto, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Plant communities can play an important role in fire severity and post-fire ecosystem recovery due to their role as combustible and different plant-soil microorganisms interactions. Possible differences induced by plant and microorganisms response after fire could affect the general ecosystem short and long-term response and its sustainability. The main objective of this work was the evaluation of the effect of wildfire on soil microbial abundance, activity and diversity in two different plant communities associated to different altitudes in Sierra Nevada National Park (Granada, Spain). Samples were collected in two areas located on the Sierra Nevada Mountain between 1700 and 2000 m above sea level which were affected by a large wildfire in 2005. Two samplings were carried out 8 and 20 months after fire and samples were collected in both burned and unburned (control) zones in each plant community area. Area A is located at 1700m and it is formed by Quercus rotundifolia forest while area B is located at 2000 m altitude and is composed of alpine vegetation formed by creeping bearing shrubs. Microbial biomass measured by Fumigation-Extraction method followed the same trend in both areas showing slight and no significant differences between burned and unburned area during the study period while viable and cultivable bacteria abundance were markedly higher in fire affected samples than in the control ones in both samplings. Viable and cultivable filamentous fungi had different behavior depending of plant vegetation community studied showing no differences between burned and unburned area in area A while was significantly higher in burned samples than in the control ones in area B. Microbial activity monitoring with soil microbial respiration appears to had been affected immediately after fire since microbial respiration was lower in burned samples from area A than in unburned one only 8 months after fire and no significant differences were observed between burned and

  4. SigTree: A Microbial Community Analysis Tool to Identify and Visualize Significantly Responsive Branches in a Phylogenetic Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, John R.; Jones, Todd R.; Lefevre, Michael; Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Weimer, Bart C.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial community analysis experiments to assess the effect of a treatment intervention (or environmental change) on the relative abundance levels of multiple related microbial species (or operational taxonomic units) simultaneously using high throughput genomics are becoming increasingly common. Within the framework of the evolutionary phylogeny of all species considered in the experiment, this translates to a statistical need to identify the phylogenetic branches that exhibit a significan...

  5. Responses of the functional structure of soil microbial community to livestock grazing in the Tibetan alpine grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunfeng; Wu, Linwei; Lin, Qiaoyan; Yuan, Mengting; Xu, Depeng; Yu, Hao; Hu, Yigang; Duan, Jichuang; Li, Xiangzhen; He, Zhili; Xue, Kai; van Nostrand, Joy; Wang, Shiping; Zhou, Jizhong

    2013-02-01

    Microbes play key roles in various biogeochemical processes, including carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling. However, changes of microbial community at the functional gene level by livestock grazing, which is a global land-use activity, remain unclear. Here we use a functional gene array, GeoChip 4.0, to examine the effects of free livestock grazing on the microbial community at an experimental site of Tibet, a region known to be very sensitive to anthropogenic perturbation and global warming. Our results showed that grazing changed microbial community functional structure, in addition to aboveground vegetation and soil geochemical properties. Further statistical tests showed that microbial community functional structures were closely correlated with environmental variables, and variations in microbial community functional structures were mainly controlled by aboveground vegetation, soil C/N ratio, and NH4 (+) -N. In-depth examination of N cycling genes showed that abundances of N mineralization and nitrification genes were increased at grazed sites, but denitrification and N-reduction genes were decreased, suggesting that functional potentials of relevant bioprocesses were changed. Meanwhile, abundances of genes involved in methane cycling, C fixation, and degradation were decreased, which might be caused by vegetation removal and hence decrease in litter accumulation at grazed sites. In contrast, abundances of virulence, stress, and antibiotics resistance genes were increased because of the presence of livestock. In conclusion, these results indicated that soil microbial community functional structure was very sensitive to the impact of livestock grazing and revealed microbial functional potentials in regulating soil N and C cycling, supporting the necessity to include microbial components in evaluating the consequence of land-use and/or climate changes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Microbial community responses to 17 years of altered precipitation are seasonally dependent and coupled to co-varying effects of water content on vegetation and soil C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Patrick O.; Germino, Matthew J.; Feris, Kevin P.

    2013-01-01

    Precipitation amount and seasonal timing determine the duration and distribution of water available for plant and microbial activity in the cold desert sagebrush steppe. In this study, we sought to determine if a sustained shift in the amount and timing of precipitation would affect soil microbial diversity, community composition, and soil carbon (C) storage. Field plots were irrigated (+200 mm) during the dormant or growing-season for 17 years. Microbial community responses were assessed over the course of a year at two depths (15–20 cm, 95–100 cm) by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), along with co-occurring changes in plant cover and edaphic properties. Bacterial richness, Shannon Weaver diversity, and composition in shallow soils (15–20 cm) as well as evenness in deep soils (95–100 cm) differed across irrigation treatments during July. Irrigation timing affected fungal community diversity and community composition during the dormant season and most strongly in deep soils (95–100 cm). Dormant-season irrigation increased the ratio of shrubs to forbs and reduced soil C in shallow soils by 16% relative to ambient conditions. It is unclear whether or not soil C will continue to decline with continued treatment application or if microbial adaptation could mitigate sustained soil C losses. Future changes in precipitation timing will affect soil microbes in a seasonally dependent manner and be coupled to co-varying effects of water content on vegetation and soil C.

  7. Bar-coded pyrosequencing reveals the responses of PBDE-degrading microbial communities to electron donor amendments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiying Xu

    Full Text Available Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs can be reductively degraded by microorganisms under anaerobic conditions. However, little is known about the effect of electron donors on microbial communities involved in PBDEs degradation. Here we employed 454 Titanium pyrosequencing to examine the phylogenetic diversity, composition, structure and dynamics of microbial communities from microcosms under the conditions of different electron donor amendments. The community structures in each of the five alternate electron donor enrichments were significantly shifted in comparison with those of the control microcosm. Commonly existing OTUs between the treatment and control consortia increased from 5 to 17 and more than 50% of OTUs increased around 13.7 to 186 times at least in one of the microcosms after 90-days enrichment. Although the microbial communities at different taxonomic levels were significantly changed by different environmental variable groups in redundancy analysis, significant correlations were observed between the microbial communities and PBDE congener profiles. The lesser-brominated PBDE congeners, tri-BDE congener (BDE-32 and hexa-BDE, were identified as the key factors shaping the microbial community structures at OTU level. Some rare populations, including the known dechlorinating bacterium, Dehalobacter, showed significant positive-correlation with the amounts of PBDE congeners in the consortia. The same results were also observed on some unclassified bacteria. These results suggest that PBDEs-degrading microbial communities can be successfully enriched, and their structures and compositions can be manipulated through adjusting the environmental parameters.

  8. Metal oxides, clay minerals and charcoal determine the composition of microbial communities in matured artificial soils and their response to phenanthrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, Doreen; Ding, Guo-Chun; Pronk, Geertje Johanna; Heister, Katja; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Smalla, Kornelia

    2013-10-01

    Microbial communities in soil reside in a highly heterogeneous habitat where diverse mineral surfaces, complex organic matter and microorganisms interact with each other. This study aimed to elucidate the long-term effect of the soil mineral composition and charcoal on the microbial community composition established in matured artificial soils and their response to phenanthrene. One year after adding sterile manure to different artificial soils and inoculating microorganisms from a Cambisol, the matured soils were spiked with phenanthrene or not and incubated for another 70 days. 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer fragments amplified from total community DNA were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Metal oxides and clay minerals and to a lesser extent charcoal influenced the microbial community composition. Changes in the bacterial community composition in response to phenanthrene differed depending on the mineral composition and presence of charcoal, while no shifts in the fungal community composition were observed. The abundance of ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes was increased in phenanthrene-spiked soils except for charcoal-containing soils. Here we show that the formation of biogeochemical interfaces in soil is an ongoing process and that different properties present in artificial soils influenced the bacterial response to the phenanthrene spike. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Respiratory Home Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Home > Healthy Living > Living With Lung Disease > Respiratory Home Health Care Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources ... Teenagers Living With Lung Disease Articles written by Respiratory Experts Respiratory Home Health Care Respiratory care at ...

  10. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a predictor of eating disorder symptoms in college students: Moderation by responses to stress and parent psychological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaied, Jamie L; Wagner, Caitlin; Breslend, Nicole Lafko; Flynn, Megan

    2016-04-01

    This longitudinal study examined the prospective contribution of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a key physiological indicator of self-regulation, to eating disorder symptoms in college students, and whether this link was moderated by maladaptive responses to stress and parent psychological control. At Wave 1, college students' RSA was measured at rest. At Waves 1 and 2 (six-month follow-up), students reported on their eating disorder symptoms, coping and involuntary responses to stress, and perceptions of their parents' use of psychological control. Significant three-way interactions indicated that the link between RSA and subsequent eating disorder symptoms was contingent on responses to stress and parent psychological control. In the context of maladaptive responses to stress and high psychological control, RSA predicted increased eating disorder symptoms over time. In the absence of parent psychological control, high RSA was beneficial in most cases, even when individuals reported maladaptive responses to stress. This study presents novel evidence that high RSA contributes to risk for or resilience to eating disorder symptoms over time. RSA can be protective against eating disorder symptoms, but in some contexts, the self-regulation resources that high RSA provides may be inappropriately applied to eating cognitions and behaviors. This research highlights the importance of examining physiological functioning conjointly with other risk factors as precursors to eating disorder symptoms over time. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Interferon alpha inhibits replication of a live-attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine preventing development of an adaptive immune response in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeier, Susan L; Loving, Crystal L; Eberle, Kirsten C; Hau, Samantha J; Buckley, Alexandra; Van Geelen, Albert; Montiel, Nestor A; Nicholson, Tracy; Lager, Kelly M

    2017-12-01

    Type I interferons, such as interferon alpha (IFN-α), contribute to innate antiviral immunity by promoting production of antiviral mediators and are also involved in promoting an adaptive immune response. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most devastating and costly viruses to the swine industry world-wide and has been shown to induce a meager IFN-α response. Previously we administered porcine IFN-α using a replication-defective adenovirus vector (Ad5-IFN-α) at the time of challenge with virulent PRRSV and demonstrated an increase in the number of virus-specific IFNγ secreting cells, indicating that the presence of IFN-α at the time of infection can alter the adaptive immune responses to PRRSV. In the current experiment, we explored the use of IFN-α as an adjuvant administered with live-attenuated PRRSV vaccine as a method to enhance immune response to the vaccine. Unlike the previous studies with fully virulent virus, one injection of the Ad5-IFN-α abolished replication of the vaccine virus and as a result there was no detectible adaptive immune response. Although IFN-α did not have the desired adjuvant effect, the results further highlight the use of IFN-α as a treatment for PRRSV infection. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Evaluation of serologic and antigenic relationships between middle eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus and other coronaviruses to develop vaccine platforms for the rapid response to emerging coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Gopal, Robin; Yount, Boyd L; Donaldson, Eric F; Menachery, Vineet D; Graham, Rachel L; Scobey, Trevor D; Gralinski, Lisa E; Denison, Mark R; Zambon, Maria; Baric, Ralph S

    2014-04-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in 2012, causing severe acute respiratory disease and pneumonia, with 44% mortality among 136 cases to date. Design of vaccines to limit the virus spread or diagnostic tests to track newly emerging strains requires knowledge of antigenic and serologic relationships between MERS-CoV and other CoVs.  Using synthetic genomics and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicons (VRPs) expressing spike and nucleocapsid proteins from MERS-CoV and other human and bat CoVs, we characterize the antigenic responses (using Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and serologic responses (using neutralization assays) against 2 MERS-CoV isolates in comparison with those of other human and bat CoVs.  Serologic and neutralization responses against the spike glycoprotein were primarily strain specific, with a very low level of cross-reactivity within or across subgroups. CoV N proteins within but not across subgroups share cross-reactive epitopes with MERS-CoV isolates. Our findings were validated using a convalescent-phase serum specimen from a patient infected with MERS-CoV (NA 01) and human antiserum against SARS-CoV, human CoV NL63, and human CoV OC43.  Vaccine design for emerging CoVs should involve chimeric spike protein containing neutralizing epitopes from multiple virus strains across subgroups to reduce immune pathology, and a diagnostic platform should include a panel of nucleocapsid and spike proteins from phylogenetically distinct CoVs.

  13. Review of microbial responses to abiotic environmental factors in the context of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meike, A [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Stroes-Gascoyne, S

    2000-10-01

    A workshop on Microbial Activities at Yucca Mountain (May 1995, Lafayette, CA) was held with the intention to compile information on all pertinent aspects of microbial activity for application to a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. The findings of this workshop set off a number of efforts intended to eventually incorporate the impacts of microbial behaviour into performance assessment models. One effort was to expand an existing modelling approach to include the distinctive characteristics of a repository at Yucca Mountain (e.g., unsaturated conditions and a significant thermal load). At the same time, a number of experimental studies were initiated as well as a compilation of relevant literature to more thoroughly study the physical, chemical and biological parameters that would affect microbial activity under Yucca Mountain-like conditions. This literature search (completed in 1996) is the subject of the present document. The collected literature can be divided into four categories, 1) abiotic factors, 2) community dynamics and in-situ considerations, 3) nutrient considerations and 4) transport of radionuclides. The complete bibliography (included in Appendix A) represents a considerable resource, but is too large to be discussed in one document. Therefore, the present report focuses on the first category, abiotic factors, and a discussion of these factors in order to facilitate the development of a model for Yucca Mountain. The first part of the report (Chapters 1-3) is a review of general microbial states, phases and requirements for growth, conditions for 'normal growth' and other types of growth, survival strategies and cell death. It contains primarily well-established ideas in microbiology. Microbial capabilities for survival and adaptation to environmental changes are examined because a repository placed at Yucca Mountain would have two effects. First, the natural environment would be perturbed by the excavation and construction of the repository and

  14. Review of microbial responses to abiotic environmental factors in the context of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meike, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Stroes-Gascoyne, S

    2000-10-01

    A workshop on Microbial Activities at Yucca Mountain (May 1995, Lafayette, CA) was held with the intention to compile information on all pertinent aspects of microbial activity for application to a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. The findings of this workshop set off a number of efforts intended to eventually incorporate the impacts of microbial behaviour into performance assessment models. One effort was to expand an existing modelling approach to include the distinctive characteristics of a repository at Yucca Mountain (e.g., unsaturated conditions and a significant thermal load). At the same time, a number of experimental studies were initiated as well as a compilation of relevant literature to more thoroughly study the physical, chemical and biological parameters that would affect microbial activity under Yucca Mountain-like conditions. This literature search (completed in 1996) is the subject of the present document. The collected literature can be divided into four categories, 1) abiotic factors, 2) community dynamics and in-situ considerations, 3) nutrient considerations and 4) transport of radionuclides. The complete bibliography (included in Appendix A) represents a considerable resource, but is too large to be discussed in one document. Therefore, the present report focuses on the first category, abiotic factors, and a discussion of these factors in order to facilitate the development of a model for Yucca Mountain. The first part of the report (Chapters 1-3) is a review of general microbial states, phases and requirements for growth, conditions for 'normal growth' and other types of growth, survival strategies and cell death. It contains primarily well-established ideas in microbiology. Microbial capabilities for survival and adaptation to environmental changes are examined because a repository placed at Yucca Mountain would have two effects. First, the natural environment would be perturbed by the excavation and construction of the

  15. Functional Resilience and Response to a Dietary Additive (Kefir) in Models of Foregut and Hindgut Microbial Fermentation In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Gabriel; Jones, Eleanor; Jones, Shann; Newbold, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    Stability in gut ecosystems is an important area of study that impacts on the use of additives and is related with several pathologies. Kefir is a fermented milk drink made with a consortium of yeast and bacteria as a fermentation starter, of which the use as additive in companion and livestock animals has increased in the last few years. To investigate the effect of kefir milk on foregut and hindgut digestive systems, an in vitro approach was followed. Either rumen fluid or horse fecal contents were used as a microbial inoculate and the inclusion of kefir (fresh, autoclaved, or pasteurized) was tested. Gas production over 72 h of incubation was recorded and pH, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), lactate and ammonia concentration as well as lactic acid (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria, and yeast total numbers were also measured. Both direct and indirect (by subtracting their respective blanks) effects were analyzed and a multivariate analysis was performed to compare foregut and hindgut fermentation models. Addition of kefir boosted the fermentation by increasing molar concentration of VFAs and ammonia and shifting the Acetate to Propionate ratio in both models but heat processing techniques like pasteurization or autoclaving influenced the way the kefir is fermented and reacts with the present microbiota. In terms of comparison between both models, the foregut model seems to be less affected by the inclusion of Kefir than the hindgut model. In terms of variability in the response, the hindgut model appeared to be more variable than the foregut model in the way that it reacted indirectly to the addition of different types of kefir. PMID:28702019

  16. Functional Resilience and Response to a Dietary Additive (Kefir in Models of Foregut and Hindgut Microbial Fermentation In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel de la Fuente

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stability in gut ecosystems is an important area of study that impacts on the use of additives and is related with several pathologies. Kefir is a fermented milk drink made with a consortium of yeast and bacteria as a fermentation starter, of which the use as additive in companion and livestock animals has increased in the last few years. To investigate the effect of kefir milk on foregut and hindgut digestive systems, an in vitro approach was followed. Either rumen fluid or horse fecal contents were used as a microbial inoculate and the inclusion of kefir (fresh, autoclaved, or pasteurized was tested. Gas production over 72 h of incubation was recorded and pH, volatile fatty acids (VFAs, lactate and ammonia concentration as well as lactic acid (LAB and acetic acid bacteria, and yeast total numbers were also measured. Both direct and indirect (by subtracting their respective blanks effects were analyzed and a multivariate analysis was performed to compare foregut and hindgut fermentation models. Addition of kefir boosted the fermentation by increasing molar concentration of VFAs and ammonia and shifting the Acetate to Propionate ratio in both models but heat processing techniques like pasteurization or autoclaving influenced the way the kefir is fermented and reacts with the present microbiota. In terms of comparison between both models, the foregut model seems to be less affected by the inclusion of Kefir than the hindgut model. In terms of variability in the response, the hindgut model appeared to be more variable than the foregut model in the way that it reacted indirectly to the addition of different types of kefir.

  17. Functional Resilience and Response to a Dietary Additive (Kefir) in Models of Foregut and Hindgut Microbial Fermentation In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Gabriel; Jones, Eleanor; Jones, Shann; Newbold, Charles J

    2017-01-01

    Stability in gut ecosystems is an important area of study that impacts on the use of additives and is related with several pathologies. Kefir is a fermented milk drink made with a consortium of yeast and bacteria as a fermentation starter, of which the use as additive in companion and livestock animals has increased in the last few years. To investigate the effect of kefir milk on foregut and hindgut digestive systems, an in vitro approach was followed. Either rumen fluid or horse fecal contents were used as a microbial inoculate and the inclusion of kefir (fresh, autoclaved, or pasteurized) was tested. Gas production over 72 h of incubation was recorded and pH, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), lactate and ammonia concentration as well as lactic acid (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria, and yeast total numbers were also measured. Both direct and indirect (by subtracting their respective blanks) effects were analyzed and a multivariate analysis was performed to compare foregut and hindgut fermentation models. Addition of kefir boosted the fermentation by increasing molar concentration of VFAs and ammonia and shifting the Acetate to Propionate ratio in both models but heat processing techniques like pasteurization or autoclaving influenced the way the kefir is fermented and reacts with the present microbiota. In terms of comparison between both models, the foregut model seems to be less affected by the inclusion of Kefir than the hindgut model. In terms of variability in the response, the hindgut model appeared to be more variable than the foregut model in the way that it reacted indirectly to the addition of different types of kefir.

  18. Seasonal microbial and nutrient responses during a 5-year reduction in the daily temperature range of soil in a Chihuahuan Desert ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gestel, Natasja C; Dhungana, Nirmala; Tissue, David T; Zak, John C

    2016-01-01

    High daily temperature range of soil (DTRsoil) negatively affects soil microbial biomass and activity, but its interaction with seasonal soil moisture in regulating ecosystem function remains unclear. For our 5-year field study in the Chihuahuan Desert, we suspended shade cloth 15 cm above the soil surface to reduce daytime temperature and increase nighttime soil temperature compared to unshaded plots, thereby reducing DTRsoil (by 5 ºC at 0.2 cm depth) without altering mean temperatures. Microbial biomass production was primarily regulated by seasonal precipitation with the magnitude of the response dependent on DTRsoil. Reduced DTRsoil more consistently increased microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN; +38%) than microbial biomass carbon (MBC) with treatment responses being similar in spring and summer. Soil respiration depended primarily on soil moisture with responses to reduced DTRsoil evident only in wetter summer soils (+53%) and not in dry spring soils. Reduced DTRsoil had no effect on concentrations of dissolved organic C, soil organic matter (SOM), nor soil inorganic N (extractable NO3 (-)-N + NH4 (+)-N). Higher MBN without changes in soil inorganic N suggests faster N cycling rates or alternate sources of N. If N cycling rates increased without a change to external N inputs (atmospheric N deposition or N fixation), then productivity in this desert system, which is N-poor and low in SOM, could be negatively impacted with continued decreases in daily temperature range. Thus, the future N balance in arid ecosystems, under conditions of lower DTR, seems linked to future precipitation regimes through N deposition and regulation of soil heat load dynamics.

  19. Microbial community evolution during simulated managed aquifer recharge in response to different biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) concentrations

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Dong

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates the evolution of the microbial community in laboratory-scale soil columns simulating the infiltration zone of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems and analogous natural aquifer sediment ecosystems. Parallel systems were supplemented with either moderate (1.1 mg/L) or low (0.5 mg/L) biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) for a period of six months during which time, spatial (1 cm, 30 cm, 60 cm, 90 cm, and 120 cm) and temporal (monthly) analyses of sediment-associated microbial community structure were analyzed. Total microbial biomass associated with sediments was positively correlated with BDOC concentration where a significant decline in BDOC was observed along the column length. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated dominance by Bacteria with Archaea comprising less than 1 percent of the total community. Proteobacteria was found to be the major phylum in samples from all column depths with contributions from Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Microbial community structure at all the phylum, class and genus levels differed significantly at 1 cm between columns receiving moderate and low BDOC concentrations; in contrast strong similarities were observed both between parallel column systems and across samples from 30 to 120 cm depths. Samples from 1 cm depth of the low BDOC columns exhibited higher microbial diversity (expressed as Shannon Index) than those at 1 cm of moderate BDOC columns, and both increased from 5.4 to 5.9 at 1 cm depth to 6.7-8.3 at 30-120 cm depths. The microbial community structure reached steady state after 3-4 months since the initiation of the experiment, which also resulted in an improved DOC removal during the same time period. This study suggested that BDOC could significantly influence microbial community structure regarding both composition and diversity of artificial MAR systems and analogous natural aquifer sediment ecosystems. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Effects of pesticides on community composition and activity of sediment microbes - responses at various levels of microbial community organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widenfalk, Anneli; Bertilsson, Stefan; Sundh, Ingvar; Goedkoop, Willem

    2008-01-01

    A freshwater sediment was exposed to the pesticides captan, glyphosate, isoproturon, and pirimicarb at environmentally relevant and high concentrations. Effects on sediment microorganisms were studied by measuring bacterial activity, fungal and total microbial biomass as community-level endpoints. At the sub-community level, microbial community structure was analysed (PLFA composition and bacterial 16S rRNA genotyping, T-RFLP). Community-level endpoints were not affected by pesticide exposure. At lower levels of microbial community organization, however, molecular methods revealed treatment-induced changes in community composition. Captan and glyphosate exposure caused significant shifts in bacterial community composition (as T-RFLP) at environmentally relevant concentrations. Furthermore, differences in microbial community composition among pesticide treatments were found, indicating that test compounds and exposure concentrations induced multidirectional shifts. Our study showed that community-level end points failed to detect these changes, underpinning the need for application of molecular techniques in aquatic ecotoxicology. - Molecular techniques revealed pesticide-induced changes at lower levels of microbial community organization that were not detected by community-level end points

  1. Effects of pesticides on community composition and activity of sediment microbes - responses at various levels of microbial community organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widenfalk, Anneli [Department of Environmental Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7050, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: anneli.widenfalk@kemi.se; Bertilsson, Stefan [Limnology/Department of Ecology and Evolution, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 20, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Sundh, Ingvar [Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7025, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Goedkoop, Willem [Department of Environmental Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7050, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2008-04-15

    A freshwater sediment was exposed to the pesticides captan, glyphosate, isoproturon, and pirimicarb at environmentally relevant and high concentrations. Effects on sediment microorganisms were studied by measuring bacterial activity, fungal and total microbial biomass as community-level endpoints. At the sub-community level, microbial community structure was analysed (PLFA composition and bacterial 16S rRNA genotyping, T-RFLP). Community-level endpoints were not affected by pesticide exposure. At lower levels of microbial community organization, however, molecular methods revealed treatment-induced changes in community composition. Captan and glyphosate exposure caused significant shifts in bacterial community composition (as T-RFLP) at environmentally relevant concentrations. Furthermore, differences in microbial community composition among pesticide treatments were found, indicating that test compounds and exposure concentrations induced multidirectional shifts. Our study showed that community-level end points failed to detect these changes, underpinning the need for application of molecular techniques in aquatic ecotoxicology. - Molecular techniques revealed pesticide-induced changes at lower levels of microbial community organization that were not detected by community-level end points.

  2. Differential response of microbial respiration to supplied nitrogen forms in 3 contrasting alpine meadow soils on the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Zeng

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An incubation experiment was conducted to examine the effects of nitrogen (N applications in different forms (NH4NO3, NH4Cl, and KNO3 on microbial respiration considering 3 different alpine meadow soils (C poor soil, pH = 8.1, 1.6% C; C moderate soil, pH = 6.0, 5.0% C; C rich soil, pH = 7.1, 7.4% C in the Tibetan Plateau. The addition of NH4NO3 and NH4Cl increased the microbial respiration in C poor soil, but KNO3 had no effect. The inorganic N forms had no effects on C rich soil, but decreased microbial respiration in C moderate soil. Soil microbial respiration levels across the different types were ordered as follows: C poor soil < C rich soil < C moderate soil, regardless of N addition. These results suggest that the effect of N on microbial respiration in alpine meadow soils is more dependent on the initial soil pH than on soil C availability.

  3. Rhizosphere microbial communities from resistant and susceptible watermelon cultivars showed different response to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum inoculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi, W.F.; Can, C.S.; Ling, C.; Hui, X.W.

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON), a soil-borne pathogen of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), can cause substantial production losses worldwide. In this study, plate culture and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) methods were used to evaluate the effects of inoculation of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum on rhizosphere microbial communities of different watermelon cultivars to FON. Two methods indicated that the effects of watermelon rhizosphere microbial community of different resistance cultivars to FON were much different. Populations of culturable bacteria and actinomycetes in the rhizosphere of susceptible watermelon cultivar were significantly lower than in the resistant cultivar after inoculation (P<0.05), but the opposite result was observed for fungi. Principal component analysis of bacterial and fungal community structure also showed that the cultivar of FON-inoculated soil treatment were separated from the non-inoculated controls after inoculation, and there was clear discrimination between the susceptible cultivars and the resistant cultivars. Sequence analysis of specific bands from DGGE profiles showed that specific rhizosphere bacterial and fungal groups differed between watermelon cultivars after inoculation . Both methods demonstrated that different resistant watermelon cultivars occupied different rhizosphere microbial communities, and and disease suppression might be correlated with high microbial diversity. F. oxysporum f. sp. Niveum alters the structure and functional diversity of microbial communities associated with watermelon rhizosphere. (author)

  4. The acute thermal respiratory response is unique among species in a guild of larval anuran amphibians-Implications for energy economy in a warmer future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Christopher L; Crandall, Erin A

    2018-03-15

    Climate change is bringing about increased temperatures of amphibian habitats throughout the world, where ectothermic larvae will experience elevated respiratory (metabolic) energy demands. We compared the acute, thermal respiratory response ("TRR") of four species of sympatric larval amphibians (Lithobates sphenocephalus, L. catesbeianus, Scaphiopus holbrookii, and Hyla chrysoscelis) to determine species-specific differences in the rate at which metabolic energy requirements increase with temperature. The TRR, the slope of the relationship between respiration rate and temperature within critical thermal limits, varied significantly among species such that the absolute, per capita change in metabolic energy requirement as temperature increased was greater for L. sphenocephalus and L. catesbeianus than for H. chrysoscelis and S. holbrookii. This was also reflected in the temperature coefficients (Q 10,18.5-25.5 ), which ranged from 1.77 (S. holbrookii) to 2.70 (L. sphenocephalus) for per capita respiration rates. Our results suggest that L. sphenocephalus and L. catesbeianus will experience a more rapid increase in energetic requirements as temperature increases relative to the other species, possibly magnifying their influences on the resource pool. There is a critical paucity of information on the metabolic responses of most larval amphibians across a range of temperatures, despite that this relationship dictates the magnitude of the priority investment of assimilated energy in respiration, thus shaping the energetic economy of the individual. A broader knowledge of species-specific TRRs, combined with research to determine thermal acclimatory or adaptive potentials over chronic time scales, will provide a framework for evaluating whether asymmetric, climate-mediated differences in energetic demands among species could ultimately influence larval amphibian ecology in a warmer future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Long-term performance of anaerobic digestion for crop residues containing heavy metals and response of microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongkeun; Kim, Joonrae Roger; Jeong, Seulki; Cho, Jinwoo; Kim, Jae Young

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate the long-term stability on the performance of the anaerobic digestion process, a laboratory-scale continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) was operated for 1100 days with sunflower harvested in a heavy metal contaminated site. Changes of microbial communities during digestion were identified using pyrosequencing. According to the results, soluble heavy metal concentrations were lower than the reported inhibitory level and the reactor performance remained stable up to OLR of 2.0g-VS/L/day at HRT of 20days. Microbial communities commonly found in anaerobic digestion for cellulosic biomass were observed and stably established with respect to the substrate. Thus, the balance of microbial metabolism was maintained appropriately and anaerobic digestion seems to be feasible for disposal of heavy metal-containing crop residues from phytoremediation sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Respiratory care manpower issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Paul; Drumheller, Lois; Carlow, John J

    2006-03-01

    Although respiratory care is a relatively new profession, its practitioners are deeply involved in providing patient care in the critical care. In preparation for writing this article, we sought to explore the respiratory therapy manpower needs and activities designed to fulfill those needs in critical care practice. We began by delineating the historical development of respiratory care as a profession, the development of its education, and the professional credentialing system. We then conducted several literature reviews with few articles generated. We requested and received data from the American Association for Respiratory Care (AARC), The National Board for Respiratory Care (NBRC), and the Committee on Accreditation of Respiratory Care education (CoARC) relative to their membership, number of credentialed individuals, and educational program student and graduate data for 2000 through 2004. We then conducted two electronic surveys. Survey 1 was a six-item survey that examined the use of mandatory overtime in respiratory care departments. We used a convenience sample of 30 hospitals stratified by size (or=500 beds). Survey 2 was a five-item instrument distributed by blast E-mail to the Society of Critical Care Medicine's Respiratory Care Section members and members of the RC_World list serve. This survey elicited 51 usable and non-duplicative responses from geographically and size-varied institutions. We analyzed these data in several ways from distribution analysis to one-way analysis of variance procedure and appropriate post hoc analysis techniques. Where appropriate, a matched-pairs analysis was performed and these were compared across the variables intensive care unit (ICU) beds per actual number of respiratory care practitioners (RCPs) and ICU beds per preferred number of RCPs. The data gathered from the professional organizations indicated a relatively stable attrition rate (35.2%+/-1.7-3.1%), even in the face of varying enrollments (6,231 in 2004 vs. 4

  7. Response of broiler chickens to diets containing artificially dried high-moisture maize supplemented with microbial enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuiyan, M.M; Islam, A.F; Iji, P.A

    2010-01-01

    The effect of feeding high-moisture maize grains dried in the sun or artificially in a forced draught oven at 80, 90 or 100 ºC for 24 hours and supplemented with microbial enzymes (Avizyme 1502 and Phyzyme XP) on growth performance, visceral organs, tissue protein, enzyme activity and gut development was investigated in a broiler growth trial. Feed intake (FI) up to 21 days decreased as a results of oven drying of grains whereas supplementation with microbial enzymes increased FI compared to ...

  8. Used of microbial phytase to replace inorganic phosphorus in sex-reversed red tilapia: 1 dose response

    OpenAIRE

    Wutiporn Phromkunthong; Jacques Gabaudan

    2006-01-01

    Sex-reversed red tilapia of average initial body weight 5.5 g were fed seven practical diets containing 0, 500, 1,000, 2,000 and 4,000 units of microbial phytase/kg and two diets containing 0.2 and 0.3% feed grade dicalcium phosphate (DCP) (but no microbial phytase), respectively. The experiment was carried out in 235- l glass aquaria filled with 180 l water and attached with a closed-recirculating water system with 0.8 l/min flow rate. The experimental period was 10 weeks. All experimental d...

  9. Respiratory and metabolic acidosis differentially affect the respiratory neuronal network in the ventral medulla of neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yasumasa; Masumiya, Haruko; Tamura, Yoshiyasu; Oku, Yoshitaka

    2007-11-01

    Two respiratory-related areas, the para-facial respiratory group/retrotrapezoid nucleus (pFRG/RTN) and the pre-Bötzinger complex/ventral respiratory group (preBötC/VRG), are thought to play key roles in respiratory rhythm. Because respiratory output patterns in response to respiratory and metabolic acidosis differ, we hypothesized that the responses of the medullary respiratory neuronal network to respiratory and metabolic acidosis are different. To test these hypotheses, we analysed respiratory-related activity in the pFRG/RTN and preBötC/VRG of the neonatal rat brainstem-spinal cord in vitro by optical imaging using a voltage-sensitive dye, and compared the effects of respiratory and metabolic acidosis on these two populations. We found that the spatiotemporal responses of respiratory-related regional activities to respiratory and metabolic acidosis are fundamentally different, although both acidosis similarly augmented respiratory output by increasing respiratory frequency. PreBötC/VRG activity, which is mainly inspiratory, was augmented by respiratory acidosis. Respiratory-modulated pixels increased in the preBötC/VRG area in response to respiratory acidosis. Metabolic acidosis shifted the respiratory phase in the pFRG/RTN; the pre-inspiratory dominant pattern shifted to inspiratory dominant. The responses of the pFRG/RTN activity to respiratory and metabolic acidosis are complex, and involve either augmentation or reduction in the size of respiratory-related areas. Furthermore, the activation pattern in the pFRG/RTN switched bi-directionally between pre-inspiratory/inspiratory and post-inspiratory. Electrophysiological study supported the results of our optical imaging study. We conclude that respiratory and metabolic acidosis differentially affect activities of the pFRG/RTN and preBötC/VRG, inducing switching and shifts of the respiratory phase. We suggest that they differently influence the coupling states between the pFRG/RTN and preBötC/VRG.

  10. Soil Microbial and Faunal Community Responses to Bt-Maize and Insecticide in Two Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, B. S.; Caul, S.; Thompson, J.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of maize (Zea mays L.), genetically modified to express the Cry1Ab protein (Bt), and an insecticide on soil microbial and faunal communities were assessed in a glasshouse experiment. Soil for the experiment was taken from field sites where the same maize cultivars were grown to allow...

  11. Functional and community-level soil microbial responses to zinc addition may depend on test system biocomplexity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sverdrup, L.E.; Linjordet, R.; Stomman, G.; Hagen, S.B.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Frostegard, A.; Sorheim, R.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of zinc on soil nitrification and composition of the microbial community in soil was investigated using a full factorial experiment with five zinc concentrations and four levels of biological complexity (microbes only, microbes and earthworms (Eisenia fetida), microbes and Italian

  12. Belowground Response to Drought in a Tropical Forest Soil. II. Change in Microbial Function Impacts Carbon Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas J. Bouskill; Tana E. Wood; Richard Baran; Zhao Hao; Zaw Ye; Ben P. Bowen; Hsiao Chien Lim; Peter S. Nico; Hoi-Ying Holman; Benjamin Gilbert; Whendee L. Silver; Trent R. Northen; Eoin L. Brodie

    2016-01-01

    Climate model projections for tropical regions show clear perturbation of precipitation patterns leading to increased frequency and severity of drought in some regions. Previous work has shown declining soil moisture to be a strong driver of changes in microbial trait distribution, however...

  13. Review of Microbial Responses to Abiotic Environmental Factors in the Context of the Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meike, A.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.

    2000-01-01

    A workshop on Microbial Activities at Yucca Mountain (May 1995, Lafayette, CA) was held with the intention to compile information on all pertinent aspects of microbial activity for application to a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. The findings of this workshop set off a number of efforts intended to eventually incorporate the impacts of microbial behavior into performance assessment models. One effort was to expand an existing modeling approach to include the distinctive characteristics of a repository at Yucca Mountain (e.g., unsaturated conditions and a significant thermal load). At the same time, a number of experimental studies were initiated as well as a compilation of relevant literature to more thoroughly study the physical, chemical and biological parameters that would affect microbial activity under Yucca Mountain-like conditions. This literature search (completed in 1996) is the subject of the present document. The collected literature can be divided into four categories: (1) abiotic factors, (2) community dynamics and in-situ considerations, (3) nutrient considerations and (4) transport of radionuclides. The complete bibliography represents a considerable resource, but is too large to be discussed in one document. Therefore, the present report focuses on the first category, abiotic factors, and a discussion of these factors in order to facilitate the development of a model for Yucca Mountain

  14. Microbial community evolution during simulated managed aquifer recharge in response to different biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Alidina, Mazahirali; Ouf, Mohamed; Sharp, Jonathan O; Saikaly, Pascal; Drewes, Jörg E

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates the evolution of the microbial community in laboratory-scale soil columns simulating the infiltration zone of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems and analogous natural aquifer sediment ecosystems. Parallel systems were supplemented with either moderate (1.1 mg/L) or low (0.5 mg/L) biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) for a period of six months during which time, spatial (1 cm, 30 cm, 60 cm, 90 cm, and 120 cm) and temporal (monthly) analyses of sediment-associated microbial community structure were analyzed. Total microbial biomass associated with sediments was positively correlated with BDOC concentration where a significant decline in BDOC was observed along the column length. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated dominance by Bacteria with Archaea comprising less than 1 percent of the total community. Proteobacteria was found to be the major phylum in samples from all column depths with contributions from Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Microbial community structure at all the phylum, class and genus levels differed significantly at 1 cm between columns receiving moderate and low BDOC concentrations; in contrast strong similarities were observed both between parallel column systems and across samples from 30 to 120 cm depths. Samples from 1 cm depth of the low BDOC columns exhibited higher microbial diversity (expressed as Shannon Index) than those at 1 cm of moderate BDOC columns, and both increased from 5.4 to 5.9 at 1 cm depth to 6.7-8.3 at 30-120 cm depths. The microbial community structure reached steady state after 3-4 months since the initiation of the experiment, which also resulted in an improved DOC removal during the same time period. This study suggested that BDOC could significantly influence microbial community structure regarding both composition and diversity of artificial MAR systems and analogous natural aquifer sediment ecosystems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd

  15. Peripheral blood leukocyte phagocytosis and respiratory response to certain macromolecular substances in the ABCC-JNIH adult health study, Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barerras, R F; Finch, S C

    1974-01-01

    The functional integrity of the peripheral blood leukocytes of 10 heavily exposed subjects and 10 matched controls was evaluated by measuring oxygen consumption following the addition of latex particles and E. coli endotoxin, and measuring sensitized and unsensitized starch granule phagocytosis. There was no significant difference in the responses of leukocytes from exposed subjects and controls following the addition of latex particles. The ultimate response of leukocytes from exposed subjects to the stimulus of E. coli endotoxin was comparable to that of the controls. Depressed early response in 5 of 10 exposed and 1 of 10 control subjects was observed. Interpretation is unclear. No evidence of radiation-related impairment of starch granule phagocytosis was observed. Results fail to demonstrate any late radiation-related functional impairment of peripheral blood leukocytes during phagocytosis. The serum-related changes were inconstant and probably were of little significance. (auth)

  16. Dysrhythmias of the respiratory oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paydarfar, David; Buerkel, Daniel M.

    1995-03-01

    Breathing is regulated by a central neural oscillator that produces rhythmic output to the respiratory muscles. Pathological disturbances in rhythm (dysrhythmias) are observed in the breathing pattern of children and adults with neurological and cardiopulmonary diseases. The mechanisms responsible for genesis of respiratory dysrhythmias are poorly understood. The present studies take a novel approach to this problem. The basic postulate is that the rhythm of the respiratory oscillator can be altered by a variety of stimuli. When the oscillator recovers its rhythm after such perturbations, its phase may be reset relative to the original rhythm. The amount of phase resetting is dependent upon stimulus parameters and the level of respiratory drive. The long-range hypothesis is that respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli that impinge upon or arise within the respiratory oscillator with certain combinations of strength and timing relative to the respiratory cycle. Animal studies were performed in anesthetized or decerebrate preparations. Neural respiratory rhythmicity is represented by phrenic nerve activity, allowing use of open-loop experimental conditions which avoid negative chemical feedback associated with changes in ventilation. In animal experiments, respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli having specific combinations of strength and timing. Newborn animals readily exhibit spontaneous dysrhythmias which become more prominent at lower respiratory drives. In human subjects, swallowing was studied as a physiological perturbation of respiratory rhythm, causing a pattern of phase resetting that is characterized topologically as type 0. Computational studies of the Bonhoeffer-van der Pol (BvP) equations, whose qualitative behavior is representative of many excitable systems, supports a unified interpretation of these experimental findings. Rhythmicity is observed when the BvP model exhibits recurrent periods of excitation alternating with

  17. Succession of microbial functional communities in response to a pilot-scale ethanol-blended fuel release throughout the plume life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jie; Deng, Ye; Yuan, Tong; Zhou, Jizhong; Alvarez, Pedro J.J.

    2015-01-01

    GeoChip, a comprehensive gene microarray, was used to examine changes in microbial functional gene structure throughout the 4-year life cycle of a pilot-scale ethanol blend plume, including 2-year continuous released followed by plume disappearance after source removal. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and Mantel tests showed that dissolved O 2 (which was depleted within 5 days of initiating the release and rebounded 194 days after source removal) was the most influential environmental factor on community structure. Initially, the abundance of anaerobic BTEX degradation genes increased significantly while that of aerobic BTEX degradation genes decreased. Gene abundance for N fixation, nitrification, P utilization, sulfate reduction and S oxidation also increased, potentially changing associated biogeochemical cycle dynamics. After plume disappearance, most genes returned to pre-release abundance levels, but the final functional structure significantly differed from pre-release conditions. Overall, observed successions of functional structure reflected adaptive responses that were conducive to biodegradation of ethanol-blend releases. - Highlights: • GeoChip discerned microbial functional changes through an ethanol blend plume. • The release increased gene abundance for anaerobic BTEX degradation. • The release changed key biogeochemical (N, P, C, and S) cycling gene abundance. • The functional structure did not recover 4 months after the plume attenuated. • Dissolved O 2 was the most influential factor shaping community structure. - Geochip analysis discerned adaptive shifts in microbial functional structure and controlling environmental factors throughout a 4-year life cycle of a pilot-scale ethanol blend plume

  18. The ecological and physiological responses of the microbial community from a semiarid soil to hydrocarbon contamination and its bioremediation using compost amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida, F; Jehmlich, N; Lima, K; Morris, B E L; Richnow, H H; Hernández, T; von Bergen, M; García, C

    2016-03-01

    The linkage between phylogenetic and functional processes may provide profound insights into the effects of hydrocarbon contamination and biodegradation processes in high-diversity environments. Here, the impacts of petroleum contamination and the bioremediation potential of compost amendment, as enhancer of the microbial activity in semiarid soils, were evaluated in a model experiment. The analysis of phospholipid fatty-acids (PLFAs) and metaproteomics allowed the study of biomass, phylogenetic and physiological responses of the microbial community in polluted semiarid soils. Petroleum pollution induced an increase of proteobacterial proteins during the contamination, while the relative abundance of Rhizobiales lowered in comparison to the non-contaminated soil. Despite only 0.55% of the metaproteome of the compost-treated soil was involved in biodegradation processes, the addition of compost promoted the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkanes up to 88% after 50 days. However, natural biodegradation of hydrocarbons was not significant in soils without compost. Compost-assisted bioremediation was mainly driven by Sphingomonadales and uncultured bacteria that showed an increased abundance of catabolic enzymes such as catechol 2,3-dioxygenases, cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase and 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde. For the first time, metaproteomics revealed the functional and phylogenetic relationships of petroleum contamination in soil and the microbial key players involved in the compost-assisted bioremediation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Likeness between respiratory responses on CO2 in conditions of natural breathing and voluntary-controlled mechanical ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogodin, M A; Granstrem, M P; Dimitrienko, A I

    2007-04-01

    We did Read CO2 rebreathing tests in 8 adult males. Both at natural breathing, and at self-controlled mechanical ventilation, volunteers increased ventilation proportionally to growth end-tidal PCO2. Inside individual distinctions of responses to CO2 during controlled mechanical ventilation are result of the voluntary motor control.

  20. NEUROTROPHINS OPERATE AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT IN RESPONSES OF ALLERGIC MICE TO DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES (DEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurotrophins including NGF, NT-3, and BDNF are linked to allergic responses. Treatment with anti-p75 (pan-neurotrophin receptor) prevents the increase in airflow obstruction caused by exposure to DEP in ovalbumin (OVA)-allergic mice (Toxicol Sci 84(S1):91, 2005). Our present goa...

  1. Resource Limitations on Soil Microbial Activity in an Antarctic Dry Valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparrow, Asley; Gregorich, Ed; Hopkins, David

    2011-01-01

    Although Antarctic dry valley soils function under some of the harshest environmental conditions on the planet, there is significant biological activity concentrated in small areas in the landscape. These productive areas serve as a source of C and N in organic matter redistributed...... to the surrounding biologically impoverished soils. We conducted a 3-yr replicated field experiment involving soil amendment with C and N in simple (glucose and NH4Cl) and complex (glycine and lacustrine detritus) forms to evaluate the resource limitations on soil microbial activity in an Antarctic dry valley....... The respiratory response for all substrates was slow, with a significant but weak response to NH4Cl, followed by a more widespread response to all substrates after 2 yr and in laboratory incubations conducted 3 yr after substrate addition. This response suggests that the soil microbial community is N limited and...

  2. Response of Soil Microbial Communities to Elevated Antimony and Arsenic Contamination Indicates the Relationship between the Innate Microbiota and Contaminant Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weimin; Xiao, Enzong; Xiao, Tangfu; Krumins, Valdis; Wang, Qi; Häggblom, Max; Dong, Yiran; Tang, Song; Hu, Min; Li, Baoqin; Xia, Bingqing; Liu, Wei

    2017-08-15

    Mining of sulfide ore deposits containing metalloids, such as antimony and arsenic, has introduced serious soil contamination around the world, posing severe threats to food safety and human health. Hence, it is important to understand the behavior and composition of the microbial communities that control the mobilization or sequestration of these metal(loid)s. Here, we selected two sites in Southwest China with different levels of Sb and As contamination to study interactions among various Sb and As fractions and the soil microbiota, with a focus on the microbial response to metalloid contamination. Comprehensive geochemical analyses and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing demonstrated distinct soil taxonomic inventories depending on Sb and As contamination levels. Stochastic gradient boosting indicated that citric acid extractable Sb(V) and As(V) contributed 5% and 15%, respectively, to influencing the community diversity. Random forest predicted that low concentrations of Sb(V) and As(V) could enhance the community diversity but generally, the Sb and As contamination impairs microbial diversity. Co-occurrence network analysis indicated a strong correlation between the indigenous microbial communities and various Sb and As fractions. A number of taxa were identified as core genera due to their elevated abundances and positive correlation with contaminant fractions (total Sb and As concentrations, bioavailable Sb and As extractable fractions, and Sb and As redox species). Shotgun metagenomics indicated that Sb and As biogeochemical redox reactions may exist in contaminated soils. All these observations suggest the potential for bioremediation of Sb- and As-contaminated soils.

  3. Permafrost soil characteristics and microbial community structure across a boreal forest watershed vary over short spatial scales and dictate community responses to thaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegen, J.; Bottos, E. M.; Kennedy, D.; Romero, E. B.; Fansler, S.; Chu, R. K.; Tfaily, M.; Jansson, J.; Bernstein, H. C.; Brown, J. M.; Markillie, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding drivers of permafrost microbial community structure and function is critical for understanding permafrost microbiology and predicting ecosystem responses to thaw; however, studies describing ecological controls on these communities are lacking. We hypothesize that permafrost communities are uniquely shaped by constraints imposed by prolonged freezing, and decoupled from the selective factors that influence non-permafrost soil communities, but that pre-thaw environmental and community characteristics will be strong determinants of community structure and function post-thaw. We characterized patterns of environmental variation and microbial community composition in sixty permafrost samples spanning landscape gradients in a boreal forest watershed, and monitored community responses to thaw. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found that, proportionally, the strongest process influencing permafrost community composition was dispersal limitation (0.36), exceeding the influence of homogenous selection (0.21) and variable selection (0.16), and that deterministic selection arose primarily from energetic constraints of the permafrost environment. Our data supported a structural equation model in which organic carbon thermodynamics and organic acid content, influenced redox conditions and total selection. Post-thaw community composition was found to be driven primarily by pre-thaw community composition, indicating a strong influence of historical conditions. Together, these results suggest that community responses to thaw may be highly varied over short distances and that changes in community structure and function are likely to be drastic, as changes to system hydrology mobilize organisms and nutrients, thereby relieving the primary constraints on the system. These findings are being integrated with metabolomic and metatranscriptomic analyses to improve understanding of how pre-thaw conditions can be used to predict microbial activity post-thaw.

  4. Microbial functional diversity responses to 2 years since biochar application in silt-loam soils on the Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Xia; Xiao, Qian; Shen, Yu-Fang; Li, Shi-Qing

    2017-10-01

    The structure and function of soil microbial communities have been widely used as indicators of soil quality and fertility. The effect of biochar application on carbon sequestration has been studied, but the effect on soil microbial functional diversity has received little attention. We evaluated effects of biochar application on the functional diversities of microbes in a loam soil. The effects of biochar on microbial activities and related processes in the 0-10 and 10-20cm soil layers were determined in a two-year experiment in maize field on the Loess Plateau in China. Low-pyrolysis biochar produced from maize straw was applied into soils at rates of 0 (BC0), 10 (BC10) and 30 (BC30)tha -1 . Chemical analysis indicated that the biochar did not change the pH, significantly increased the amounts of organic carbon and nitrogen, and decreased the amount of mineral nitrogen and the microbial quotient. The biochar significantly decreased average well colour development (AWCD) values in Biolog EcoPlates™ for both layers, particularly for the rate of 10tha -1 . Biochar addition significantly decreased substrate richness (S) except for BC30 in the 0-10cm layer. Effects of biochar on the Shannon-Wiener index (H) and Simpson's dominance (D) were not significant, except for a significant increase in evenness index (E) in BC10 in the 10-20cm layer. A principal component analysis clearly differentiated the treatments, and microbial use of six categories of substrates significantly decreased in both layers after biochar addition, although the use of amines and amides did not differ amongst the three treatments in the deeper layer. Maize above ground dry biomass and height did not differ significantly amongst the treatments, and biochar had no significant effect on nitrogen uptake by maize seedlings. H was positively correlated with AWCD, and negatively with pH. AWCD was positively correlated with mineral N and negatively with pH. Our results indicated that shifts in soil

  5. The innate immune response to lower respiratory tract E. Coli infection and the role of the CCL2-CCR2 axis in neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A; Ndeh, Roland; Collaco, Joseph M; Poupore, Amy K; Dikeman, Dustin; Zhong, Qiong; Singer, Benjamin D; D'Alessio, Franco; Scott, Alan

    2017-09-01

    Neonates have greater morbidity/mortality from lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) compared to older children. Lack of conditioning of the pulmonary immune system due to limited environmental exposures and/or infectious challenges likely contributes to the increase susceptibility in the neonate. In this study, we sought to gain insights into the nature and dynamics of the neonatal pulmonary immune response to LRTI using a murine model. Wildtype (WT) and Ccr2 -/- C57BL/6 neonatal and juvenile mice received E. coli or PBS by direct pharyngeal aspiration. Flow cytometry was used to measure immune cell dynamics and identify cytokine-producing cells. Real-time PCR and ELISA were used to measure cytokine/chemokine expression. Innate immune cell recruitment in response to E. coli-induced LRTI was delayed in the neonatal lung compared to juvenile lung. Lung clearance of bacteria was also significantly delayed in the neonate. Ccr2 -/- neonates, which lack an intact CCL2-CCR2 axis, had higher mortality after E. coli challenged than Ccr2 +/+ neonates. A greater percentage of CD8 + T cells and monocytes from WT neonates challenged with E. coli produced TNF compared to controls. The pulmonary immune response to E. coli-induced LRTI differed significantly between neonatal and juvenile mice. Neonates were more susceptible to increasing doses of E. coli and exhibited greater mortality than juveniles. In the absence of an intact CCL2-CCR2 axis, susceptibility to LRTI-induced mortality was further increased in neonatal mice. Taken together these findings underscore the importance of age-related differences in the innate immune response to LRTI during early stages of postnatal life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improved Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses to Vaccination with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in 4-1BB Transgenic Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangping Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is the most reliable measure to prevent infectious diseases in domestic animals. Development of novel vaccines demands extensive studies with new technologies, such as using novel adjuvants and immunomodulatory molecules. The co-stimulatory molecule 4-1BB provides a key signal that directs the fate of T cells during activation, and thus is important to their function in immune protection. To determine whether host immune responses to viral infection could be promoted by enhancing 4-1BB co-stimulation, in this study, we produced transgenic pig clones expressing an extra copy of the 4-1BB gene by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated gene 9-mediated homologous recombination at the Rosa26 locus. The immune responses of transgenic pigs to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV vaccine were determined on day 14. We show that peripheral blood lymphocytes of transgenic pigs expressed around twice the level of 4-1BB mRNA than those of control pigs. We also found IL-2, TNF-α, and granzyme B mRNA levels as well as PRRSV-specific IFN-γ response were significantly upregulated in 4-1BB transgenic pigs, leading to more efficient cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL killing, whereas the expressions of IL-4, IL-17, and Foxp3 were not affected. These results indicate that higher levels of 4-1BB expression involve in promoting Th1 differentiation and enhancing specific CTL responses to PRRSV, and provide a novel approach to increase the efficacy of current vaccines to control the infectious diseases.

  7. Partnering for optimal respiratory home care: physicians working with respiratory therapists to optimally meet respiratory home care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, G; Petty, T L

    2001-05-01

    The need for respiratory care services continues to increase, reimbursement for those services has decreased, and cost-containment measures have increased the frequency of home health care. Respiratory therapists are well qualified to provide home respiratory care, reduce misallocation of respiratory services, assess patient respiratory status, identify problems and needs, evaluate the effect of the home setting, educate the patient on proper equipment use, monitor patient response to and complications of therapy, monitor equipment functioning, monitor for appropriate infection control procedures, make recommendations for changes to therapy regimen, and adjust therapy under the direction of the physician. Teamwork benefits all parties and offers cost and time savings, improved data collection and communication, higher job satisfaction, and better patient monitoring, education, and quality of life. Respiratory therapists are positioned to optimize treatment efficacy, maximize patient compliance, and minimize hospitalizations among patients receiving respiratory home care.

  8. Evaluation of a model training program for respiratory-protection preparedness at local health departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano-Sobsey, Edie; Kennedy, Bobby; Beck, Frank; Combs, Brian; Kady, Wendy; Ramsey, Steven; Stockweather, Allison; Service, Will

    2006-04-01

    Respiratory-protection programs have had limited application in local health departments and have mostly focused on protecting employees against exposure to tuberculosis (TB). The need to provide the public health workforce with effective respiratory protection has, however, been underscored by recent concerns about emerging infectious diseases, bioterrorism attacks, drug-resistant microbes, and environmental exposures to microbial allergens (as in recent hurricane flood waters). Furthermore, OSHA has revoked the TB standard traditionally followed by local health departments, replacing it with a more stringent regulation. The additional OSHA requirements may place increased burdens on health departments with limited resources and time. For these reasons, the North Carolina Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response and industrial hygienists of the Public Health Regional Surveillance Teams have developed a training program to facilitate implementation of respiratory protection programs at local health departments. To date, more than 1,400 North Carolina health department employees have been properly fit-tested for respirator use and have received training in all aspects of respiratory protection. This article gives an overview of the development and evaluation of the program. The training approach presented here can serve as a model that other health departments and organizations can use in implementing similar respiratory-protection programs.

  9. Marked Response in Microbial Community and Metabolism in the Ileum and Cecum of Suckling Piglets After Early Antibiotics Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Yu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In modern swine husbandry systems, antibiotics have been used as growth promoters for piglets during suckling or weaning period. However, while early colonization of intestinal microbiota has been regarded crucial for the host’s later life performance and well-being, little is known about the impact of antibiotics on intestinal microbiota in suckling piglets. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of early antibiotics exposure on gut microbiota and microbial metabolism of suckling piglets. Sixteen litters of suckling piglets were fed a creep feed diet with (Antibiotic or without (Control antibiotics from postnatal days 7–23 (n = 8. The ileal and cecal digesta were obtained for microbial composition and microbial metabolites analysis. The results showed that the antibiotics significantly altered the bacterial community composition by decreasing (P < 0.05 the diversity and richness in the ileum. The antibiotics significantly reduced the abundance of Lactobacillus in both the ileum and cecum, increased the abundance of Streptococcus, unclassified Enterococcaceae, unclassified Fusobacteriales, and Corynebacterium in the ileum, and the abundance of unclassified Ruminococcaceae and unclassified Erysipelotrichaceae in the cecum. The antibiotics decreased (P < 0.05 ileal lactate concentration and cecal concentration of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs. But the antibiotics enhanced protein fermentation (P < 0.05 in the ileum and cecum, as ileal concentrations of putrescine and cadaverine, and cecal concentrations of isobutyrate, isovalerate, putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, and spermidine were significantly increased (P < 0.05. These results indicated that early antibiotics exposure significantly altered the microbial composition of suckling piglets toward a vulnerable and unhealthy gut environment. The findings provide a new insight on the antibiotics impact on neonates and may provide new framework for designing alternatives to the

  10. Microbial metabolism and community structure in response to bioelectrochemically enhanced remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Huggins, Tyler; Jin, Song; Zuo, Yi; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2014-04-01

    This study demonstrates that electrodes in a bioelectrochemical system (BES) can potentially serve as a nonexhaustible electron acceptor for in situ bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The deployment of BES not only eliminates aeration or supplement of electron acceptors as in contemporary bioremediation but also significantly shortens the remediation period and produces sustainable electricity. More interestingly, the study reveals that microbial metabolism and community structure distinctively respond to the bioelectrochemically enhanced remediation. Tubular BESs with carbon cloth anode (CCA) or biochar anode (BCA) were inserted into raw water saturated soils containing petroleum hydrocarbons for enhancing in situ remediation. Results show that total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal rate almost doubled in soils close to the anode (63.5-78.7%) than that in the open circuit positive controls (37.6-43.4%) during a period of 64 days. The maximum current density from the BESs ranged from 73 to 86 mA/m(2). Comprehensive microbial and chemical characterizations and statistical analyses show that the residual TPH has a strongly positive correlation with hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (HDM) numbers, dehydrogenase activity, and lipase activity and a negative correlation with soil pH, conductivity, and catalase activity. Distinctive microbial communities were identified at the anode, in soil with electrodes, and soil without electrodes. Uncommon electrochemically active bacteria capable of hydrocarbon degradation such as Comamonas testosteroni, Pseudomonas putida, and Ochrobactrum anthropi were selectively enriched on the anode, while hydrocarbon oxidizing bacteria were dominant in soil samples. Results from genus or phylum level characterizations well agree with the data from cluster analysis. Data from this study suggests that a unique constitution of microbial communities may play a key role in BES enhancement of petroleum hydrocarbons

  11. Response of rhizosphere microbial community structure and diversity to heavy metal co-pollution in arable soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Linjing; Zeng, Guangming; Fan, Changzheng; Lu, Lunhui; Chen, Xunfeng; Chen, Ming; Wu, Haipeng; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Yan

    2015-10-01

    Due to the emerging environmental issues related to heavy metals, concern about the soil quality of farming lands near manufacturing district is increasing. Investigating the function of soil microorganisms exposed to long-term heavy metal contamination is meaningful and important for agricultural soil utilization. This article studied the potential influence of several heavy metals on microbial biomass, activity, abundance, and community composition in arable soil near industrial estate in Zhuzhou, Hunan province, China. The results showed that soil organic contents (SOC) were significantly positive correlated with heavy metals, whereas dehydrogenase activity (DHA) was greatly depressed by the heavy metal stress. Negative correlation was found between heavy metals and basal soil respiration (BSR), and no correlation was found between heavy metals and microbial biomass content (MBC). The quantitative PCR (QPCR) and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis could suggest that heavy metal pollution has significantly decreased abundance of bacteria and fungi and also changed their community structure. The results could contribute to evaluate heavy metal pollution level in soil. By combining different environmental parameters, it would promote the better understanding of heavy metal effect on the size, structure, and activity of microbial community in arable soil.

  12. Btp Proteins from Brucella abortus Modulate the Lung Innate Immune Response to Infection by the Respiratory Route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hielpos, Maria Soledad; Ferrero, Mariana C; Fernández, Andrea G; Falivene, Juliana; Vanzulli, Silvia; Comerci, Diego J; Baldi, Pablo C

    2017-01-01

    Although inhalation of infected aerosols is a frequent route for Brucella infection in humans, it rarely causes pulmonary clinical manifestations, suggesting a mild or nearly absent local inflammatory response. The goal of this study was to characterize the early innate immune response to intratracheal infection with Brucella abortus in mice and to evaluate whether it is modulated by this pathogen. After infection with 10 6  CFU of B. abortus , the pulmonary bacterial burden at 7 days post-infection (p.i.) was comparable to the initial inoculum, despite an initial transient decline. Brucella was detected in spleen and liver as early as 1 day p.i. IL-1β and MCP-1 increased at 3 days p.i., whereas IL-12, KC, TNF-α, and IFN-γ only increased at 7 days p.i. Histological examination did not reveal peribronchial or perivascular infiltrates in infected mice. Experiments were conducted to evaluate if the limited inflammatory lung response to B. abortus is caused by a bacterial mechanism of TLR signaling inhibition. Whereas inoculation of E. coli LPS to control mice [phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)/LPS] caused lung inflammation, almost no histological changes were observed in mice preinfected intratracheally with B. abortus (WT/LPS). We speculated that the Brucella TIR-containing proteins (Btps) A and B, which impair TLR signaling in vitro , may be involved in this modulation. After LPS challenge, mice preinfected with the B. abortus btpAbtpB double mutant exhibited a stronger pulmonary polymorphonuclear infiltrate than WT/LPS mice, although milder than that of the PBS/LPS group. In addition, lungs from B. abortus btpAbtpB -infected mice presented a stronger inflammatory infiltrate than those infected with the WT strain, and at day 7 p.i., the pulmonary levels of KC, MCP-1, and IL-12 were higher in mice infected with the mutant. This study shows that B. abortus infection produces a mild proinflammatory response in murine lungs, partially due to immune modulation

  13. Btp Proteins from Brucella abortus Modulate the Lung Innate Immune Response to Infection by the Respiratory Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Soledad Hielpos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although inhalation of infected aerosols is a frequent route for Brucella infection in humans, it rarely causes pulmonary clinical manifestations, suggesting a mild or nearly absent local inflammatory response. The goal of this study was to characterize the early innate immune response to intratracheal infection with Brucella abortus in mice and to evaluate whether it is modulated by this pathogen. After infection with 106 CFU of B. abortus, the pulmonary bacterial burden at 7 days post-infection (p.i. was comparable to the initial inoculum, despite an initial transient decline. Brucella was detected in spleen and liver as early as 1 day p.i. IL-1β and MCP-1 increased at 3 days p.i., whereas IL-12, KC, TNF-α, and IFN-γ only increased at 7 days p.i. Histological examination did not reveal peribronchial or perivascular infiltrates in infected mice. Experiments were conducted to evaluate if the limited inflammatory lung response to B. abortusis caused by a bacterial mechanism of TLR signaling inhibition. Whereas inoculation of E. coli LPS to control mice [phosphate-buffered saline (PBS/LPS] caused lung inflammation, almost no histological changes were observed in mice preinfected intratracheally with B. abortus (WT/LPS. We speculated that the Brucella TIR-containing proteins (Btps A and B, which impair TLR signaling in vitro, may be involved in this modulation. After LPS challenge, mice preinfected with the B. abortus btpAbtpB double mutant exhibited a stronger pulmonary polymorphonuclear infiltrate than WT/LPS mice, although milder than that of the PBS/LPS group. In addition, lungs from B. abortus btpAbtpB-infected mice presented a stronger inflammatory infiltrate than those infected with the WT strain, and at day 7 p.i., the pulmonary levels of KC, MCP-1, and IL-12 were higher in mice infected with the mutant. This study shows that B. abortus infection produces a mild proinflammatory response in murine lungs, partially due to immune

  14. Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth / For Parents / Lungs and Respiratory System ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't ...

  15. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... improves slowly after that. Some infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome will die. This most often occurs ...

  16. Acute Responses to Diuretic Therapy in Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns: Results from the Prematurity and Respiratory Outcomes Program Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaisdell, Carol J; Troendle, James; Zajicek, Anne

    2018-06-01

    To determine if daily respiratory status improved more in extremely low gestational age (GA) premature infants after diuretic exposure compared with those not exposed in modern neonatal intensive care units. The Prematurity and Respiratory Outcomes Program (PROP) was a multicenter observational cohort study of 835 extremely premature infants, GAs of 23 0/7 -28 6/7 weeks, enrolled in the first week of life from 13 US tertiary neonatal intensive care units. We analyzed the PROP study daily medication and respiratory support records of infants ≤34 weeks postmenstrual age. We determined whether there was a temporal association between the administration of diuretics and an acute change in respiratory status in premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit, using an ordered categorical ranking of respiratory status. Infants in the diuretic exposed group of PROP were of lower mean GA and lower mean birth weight (P respiratory status before receiving diuretics) that the exposed infants were on a higher level of respiratory support was significantly greater (OR, >1) for each day after the initial day of diuretic exposure. Our analysis did not support the ability of diuretics to substantially improve the extremely premature infant's respiratory status. Further study of both safety and efficacy of diuretics in this setting are warranted. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01435187. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Response of Methanogenic Microbial Communities to Desiccation Stress in Flooded and Rain-Fed Paddy Soil from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Reim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice paddies in central Thailand are flooded either by irrigation (irrigated rice or by rain (rain-fed rice. The paddy soils and their microbial communities thus experience permanent or arbitrary submergence, respectively. Since methane production depends on anaerobic conditions, we hypothesized that structure and function of the methanogenic microbial communities are different in irrigated and rain-fed paddies and react differently upon desiccation stress. We determined rates and relative proportions of hydrogenotrophic and aceticlastic methanogenesis before and after short-term drying of soil samples from replicate fields. The methanogenic pathway was determined by analyzing concentrations and δ13C of organic carbon and of CH4 and CO2 produced in the presence and absence of methyl fluoride, an inhibitor of aceticlastic methanogenesis. We also determined the abundance (qPCR of genes and transcripts of bacterial 16S rRNA, archaeal 16S rRNA and methanogenic mcrA (coding for a subunit of the methyl coenzyme M reductase and the composition of these microbial communities by T-RFLP fingerprinting and/or Illumina deep sequencing. The abundances of genes and transcripts were similar in irrigated and rain-fed paddy soil. They also did not change much upon desiccation and rewetting, except the transcripts of mcrA, which increased by more than two orders of magnitude. In parallel, rates of CH4 production also increased, in rain-fed soil more than in irrigated soil. The contribution of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis increased in rain-fed soil and became similar to that in irrigated soil. However, the relative microbial community composition on higher taxonomic levels was similar between irrigated and rain-fed soil. On the other hand, desiccation and subsequent anaerobic reincubation resulted in systematic changes in the composition of microbial communities for both Archaea and Bacteria. It is noteworthy that differences in the community composition were

  18. Mortality from non‐malignant respiratory diseases among people with silicosis in Hong Kong: exposure–response analyses for exposure to silica dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, L A; Yu, I T S; Leung, C C; Tam, W; Wong, T W

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To examine the exposure–response relationships between various indices of exposure to silica dust and the mortality from non‐malignant respiratory diseases (NMRDs) or chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs) among a cohort of workers with silicosis in Hong Kong. Methods The concentrations of respirable silica dust were assigned to each industry and job task according to historical industrial hygiene measurements documented previously in Hong Kong. Exposure indices included cumulative dust exposure (CDE) and mean dust concentration (MDC). Penalised smoothing spline models were used as a preliminary step to detect outliers and guide further analyses. Multiple Cox's proportional hazard models were used to estimate the dust effects on the risk of mortality from NMRDs or COPDs after truncating the highest exposures. Results 371 of the 853 (43.49%) deaths occurring among 2789 workers with silicosis during 1981–99 were from NMRDs, and 101 (27.22%) NMRDs were COPDs. Multiple Cox's proportional hazard models showed that CDE (p = 0.009) and MDC (pcaisson workers and among those ever employed in other occupations with high exposure to silica dust. No exposure–response relationship was observed for surface construction workers with low exposures. A clear upward trend for both NMRDs and COPDs mortality was found with increasing severity of radiological silicosis. Conclusion This study documented an exposure–response relationship between exposure to silica dust and the risk of death from NMRDs or COPDs among workers with silicosis, except for surface construction workers with low exposures. The risk of mortality from NMRDs increased significantly with the progression of International Labor Organization categories, independent of dust effects. PMID:16973737

  19. Mortality from non-malignant respiratory diseases among people with silicosis in Hong Kong: exposure-response analyses for exposure to silica dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, L A; Yu, I T S; Leung, C C; Tam, W; Wong, T W

    2007-02-01

    To examine the exposure-response relationships between various indices of exposure to silica dust and the mortality from non-malignant respiratory diseases (NMRDs) or chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs) among a cohort of workers with silicosis in Hong Kong. The concentrations of respirable silica dust were assigned to each industry and job task according to historical industrial hygiene measurements documented previously in Hong Kong. Exposure indices included cumulative dust exposure (CDE) and mean dust concentration (MDC). Penalised smoothing spline models were used as a preliminary step to detect outliers and guide further analyses. Multiple Cox's proportional hazard models were used to estimate the dust effects on the risk of mortality from NMRDs or COPDs after truncating the highest exposures. 371 of the 853 (43.49%) deaths occurring among 2789 workers with silicosis during 1981-99 were from NMRDs, and 101 (27.22%) NMRDs were COPDs. Multiple Cox's proportional hazard models showed that CDE (p = 0.009) and MDC (pcaisson workers and among those ever employed in other occupations with high exposure to silica dust. No exposure-response relationship was observed for surface construction workers with low exposures. A clear upward trend for both NMRDs and COPDs mortality was found with increasing severity of radiological silicosis. This study documented an exposure-response relationship between exposure to silica dust and the risk of death from NMRDs or COPDs among workers with silicosis, except for surface construction workers with low exposures. The risk of mortality from NMRDs increased significantly with the progression of International Labor Organization categories, independent of dust effects.

  20. Nutrient limitation of soil microbial activity during the earliest stages of ecosystem development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Sarah C; Sullivan, Benjamin W; Knelman, Joseph; Hood, Eran; Nemergut, Diana R; Schmidt, Steven K; Cleveland, Cory C

    2017-11-01

    A dominant paradigm in ecology is that plants are limited by nitrogen (N) during primary succession. Whether generalizable patterns of nutrient limitation are also applicable to metabolically and phylogenetically diverse soil microbial communities, however, is not well understood. We investigated if measures of N and phosphorus (P) pools inform our understanding of the nutrient(s) most limiting to soil microbial community activities during primary succession. We evaluated soil biogeochemical properties and microbial processes using two complementary methodological approaches-a nutrient addition microcosm experiment and extracellular enzyme assays-to assess microbial nutrient limitation across three actively retreating glacial chronosequences. Microbial respiratory responses in the microcosm experiment provided evidence for N, P and N/P co-limitation at Easton Glacier, Washington, USA, Puca Glacier, Peru, and Mendenhall Glacier, Alaska, USA, respectively, and patterns of nutrient limitation generally reflected site-level differences in soil nutrient availability. The activities of three key extracellular enzymes known to vary with soil N and P availability developed in broadly similar ways among sites, increasing with succession and consistently correlating with changes in soil total N pools. Together, our findings demonstrate that during the earliest stages of soil development, microbial nutrient limitation and activity generally reflect soil nutrient supply, a result that is broadly consistent with biogeochemical theory.

  1. Assessment of microbial communities in PM1 and PM10 of Urumqi during winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, Huange; Lu, Jianjiang; Li, Shanman; Tong, Yanbin; Xie, Chunbin; Zheng, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    Recently, inhalable particulate matter has been reported to carry microorganisms responsible for human allergy and respiratory disease. The unique geographical environment and adverse weather conditions of Urumqi cause double pollution of dust and smog, but research on the microbial content of the atmosphere has not been commenced. In this study, 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequencing were conducted to investigate the microbial composition of Urumqi's PM 1 and PM 10 pollutants in winter. Results showed that the bacterial community is mainly composed of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria accounted for the most proportion which was significant difference in some aforementioned studies. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota constitute the main part of the fungal microbial community. The difference of bacterial relative abundance in sample point is greater than in particle sizes. The sequences of several pathogenic bacteria and opportunistic pathogens were also detected, such as Acinetobacter, Delftia, Serratia, Chryseobacterium, which may impact on immunocompromised populations (elderly, children and postoperative convalescence patients), and some fungal genera may cause several plant diseases. Our findings may serve an important reference value in the global air microbial propagation and air microbial research in desert. - Highlights: • Using 16 s rDNA double variable region (V3 + V4) sequencing to elucidate the bacterial communities. • Several potential microbial allergens and pathogens present in PM 1 and PM 10 were found. • Providing a great supplement to environmental science and human health assessment.

  2. The response of soil carbon storage and microbially mediated carbon turnover to simulated climatic disturbance in a northern peatland forest. Revisiting the concept of soil organic matter recalcitrance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostka, Joel [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-09-14

    The goal of this project was to investigate changes in the structure of dissolved and solid phase organic matter, the production of CO2 and CH4, and the composition of decomposer microbial communities in response to the climatic forcing of environmental processes that determine the balance between carbon gas production versus storage and sequestration in peatlands. Cutting-edge analytical chemistry and next generation sequencing of microbial genes were been applied to habitats at the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF), where the US DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the USDA Forest Service are constructing a large-scale ecosystem study entitled, “Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change”(SPRUCE). Our study represented a comprehensive characterization of the sources, transformation, and decomposition of organic matter in the S1 bog at MEF. Multiple lines of evidence point to distinct, vertical zones of organic matter transformation: 1) the acrotelm consisting of living mosses, root material, and newly formed litter (0-30 cm), 2) the mesotelm, a mid-depth transition zone (30-75 cm) characterized by labile organic C compounds and intense decomposition, and 3) the underlying catotelm (below 75cm) characterized by refractory organic compounds as well as relatively low decomposition rates. These zones are in part defined by physical changes in hydraulic conductivity and water table depth. O-alkyl-C, which represents the carbohydrate fraction in the peat, was shown to be an excellent proxy for soil decomposition rates. The carbon cycle in deep peat was shown to be fueled by modern carbon sources further indicating that hydrology and surface vegetation play a role in belowground carbon cycling. We provide the first metagenomic study of an ombrotrophic peat bog, with novel insights into microbial specialization and functions in this unique terrestrial ecosystem. Vertical structuring of microbial communities

  3. Changes in the microbial community structure of bacteria, archaea and fungi in response to elevated CO(2) and warming in an Australian native grassland soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Helen L; Mele, Pauline M; Bougoure, Damian S; Allan, Claire Y; Norng, Sorn; Piceno, Yvette M; Brodie, Eoin L; Desantis, Todd Z; Andersen, Gary L; Williams, Amity L; Hovenden, Mark J

    2012-12-01

    The microbial community structure of bacteria, archaea and fungi is described in an Australian native grassland soil after more than 5 years exposure to different atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) (ambient, +550 ppm) and temperatures (ambient, + 2°C) under different plant functional types (C3 and C4 grasses) and at two soil depths (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm). Archaeal community diversity was influenced by elevated [CO2], while under warming archaeal 16S rRNA gene copy numbers increased for C4 plant Themeda triandra and decreased for the C3 plant community (P fungi in soil responded differently to elevated [CO2], warming and their interaction. Taxa identified as significantly climate-responsive could show differing trends in the direction of response ('+' or '-') under elevated CO2 or warming, which could then not be used to predict their interactive effects supporting the need to investigate interactive effects for climate change. The approach of focusing on specific taxonomic groups provides greater potential for understanding complex microbial community changes in ecosystems under climate change. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Single histidine button in cardiac troponin I sustains heart performance in response to severe hypercapnic respiratory acidosis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palpant, Nathan J; D'Alecy, Louis G; Metzger, Joseph M

    2009-05-01

    Intracellular acidosis is a profound negative regulator of myocardial performance. We hypothesized that titrating myofilament calcium sensitivity by a single histidine substituted cardiac troponin I (A164H) would protect the whole animal physiological response to acidosis in vivo. To experimentally induce severe hypercapnic acidosis, mice were exposed to a 40% CO(2) challenge. By echocardiography, it was found that systolic function and ventricular geometry were maintained in cTnI A164H transgenic (Tg) mice. By contrast, non-Tg (Ntg) littermates experienced rapid and marked cardiac decompensation during this same challenge. For detailed hemodymanic assessment, Millar pressure-conductance catheterization was performed while animals were treated with a beta-blocker, esmolol, during a severe hypercapnic acidosis challenge. Survival and load-independent measures of contractility were significantly greater in Tg vs. Ntg mice. This assay showed that Ntg mice had 100% mortality within 5 min of acidosis. By contrast, systolic and diastolic function were protected in Tg mice during acidosis, and they had 100% survival. This study shows that, independent of any beta-adrenergic compensation, myofilament-based molecular manipulation of inotropy by histidine-modified troponin I maintains cardiac inotropic and lusitropic performance and markedly improves survival during severe acidosis in vivo.

  5. Structural Factors of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Outbreak as a Public Health Crisis in Korea and Future Response Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hyun Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV outbreak has originated from a failure in the national quarantine system in the Republic of Korea as most basic role of protecting the safety and lives of its citizens. Furthermore, a number of the Korean healthcare system’s weaknesses seem to have been completely exposed. The MERS-CoV outbreak can be considered a typical public health crisis in that the public was not only greatly terrorized by the actual fear of the disease, but also experienced a great impact to their daily lives, all in a short period of time. Preparedness for and an appropriate response to a public health crisis require comprehensive systematic public healthcare measures to address risks comprehensively with an all-hazards approach. Consequently, discussion regarding establishment of post-MERS-CoV improvement measures must focus on the total reform of the national quarantine system and strengthening of the public health infrastructure. In addition, the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention must implement specific strategies of action including taking on the role of “control tower” in a public health emergency, training of Field Epidemic Intelligence Service officers, establishment of collaborative governance between central and local governments for infection prevention and control, strengthening the roles and capabilities of community-based public hospitals, and development of nationwide crisis communication methods.

  6. Biomethane production and microbial community response according to influent concentration of molasses wastewater in a UASB reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jeonghee; Lee, Sang Don; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the interaction between methane production performance and active microbial community dynamics at different loading rates by increasing influent substrate concentration. The model system was an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor using molasses wastewater. The active microbial community was analyzed using a ribosomal RNA-based approach in order to reflect active members in the UASB system. The methane production rate (MPR) increased with an increase in organic loading rate (OLR) from 3.6 to 5.5 g COD·L(-1)·day(-1) and then it decreased with further OLR addition until 9.7 g COD·L(-1)·day(-1). The UASB reactor achieved a maximum methane production rate of 0.48 L·L(-1)·day(-1) with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 91.2 % at an influent molasses concentration of 16 g COD·L(-1) (OLR of 5.5 g COD·L(-1)·day(-1)). In the archaeal community, Methanosarcina was predominant irrespective of loading rate, and the relative abundance of Methanosaeta increased with loading rate. In the bacterial community, Firmicutes and Eubacteriaceae were relatively abundant in the loading conditions tested. The network analysis between operation parameters and microbial community indicated that MPR was positively associated with most methanogenic archaea, including the relatively abundant Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta, except Methanofollis. The most abundant Methanosarcina was negatively associated with Bifidobacterium and Methanosaeta, whereas Methanosaeta was positively associated with Bifidobacterium.

  7. Evaluation of an intranasal virosomal vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus in mice: effect of TLR2 and NOD2 ligands on induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shafique

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: RSV infection remains a serious threat to newborns and the elderly. Currently, there is no vaccine available to prevent RSV infection. A mucosal RSV vaccine would be attractive as it could induce mucosal as well as systemic antibodies, capable of protecting both the upper and lower respiratory tract. Previously, we reported on a virosomal RSV vaccine for intramuscular injection with intrinsic adjuvant properties mediated by an incorporated lipophilic Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 ligand. However, it has not been investigated whether this virosomal RSV vaccine candidate would be suitable for use in mucosal immunization strategies and if additional incorporation of other innate receptor ligands, like NOD2-ligand, could further enhance the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the vaccine. OBJECTIVE: To explore if intranasal (IN immunization with a virosomal RSV vaccine, supplemented with TLR2 and/or NOD2-ligands, is an effective strategy to induce RSV-specific immunity. METHODS: We produced RSV-virosomes carrying TLR2 (Pam3CSK4 and/or NOD2 (L18-MDP ligands. We tested the immunopotentiating properties of these virosomes in vitro, using TLR2- and/or NOD2-ligand-responsive murine and human cell lines, and in vivo by assessing induction of protective antibody and cellular responses upon IN immunization of BALB/c mice. RESULTS: Incorporation of Pam3CSK4 and/or L18-MDP potentiates the capacity of virosomes to activate (antigen-presenting cells in vitro, as demonstrated by NF-κB induction. In vivo, incorporation of Pam3CSK4 in virosomes boosted serum IgG antibody responses and mucosal antibody responses after IN immunization. While L18-MDP alone was ineffective, incorporation of L18-MDP in Pam3CSK4-carrying virosomes further boosted mucosal antibody responses. Finally, IN immunization with adjuvanted virosomes, particularly Pam3CSK4/L18-MDP-adjuvanted-virosomes, protected mice against infection with RSV, without priming for enhanced

  8. Integrated responses of Na+/HCO3- cotransporters and V-type H+-ATPases in the fish gill and kidney during respiratory acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, S F; Furimsky, M; Bayaa, M; Georgalis, T; Shahsavarani, A; Nickerson, J G; Moon, T W

    2003-12-30

    Using degenerate primers, followed by 3' and 5' RACE and "long" PCR, a continuous 4050-bp cDNA was obtained and sequenced from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gill. The cDNA included an open reading frame encoding a deduced protein of 1088 amino acids. A BLAST search of the GenBank protein database demonstrated that the trout gene shared high sequence similarity with several vertebrate Na(+)/HCO(3)(-) cotransporters (NBCs) and in particular, NBC1. Protein alignment revealed that the trout NBC is >80% identical to vertebrate NBC1s and phylogenetic analysis provided additional evidence that the trout NBC is indeed a homolog of NBC1. Using the same degenerate primers, a partial cDNA (404 bp) for NBC was obtained from eel (Anguilla rostrata) kidney. Analysis of the tissue distribution of trout NBC, as determined by Northern blot analysis and real-time PCR, indicated high transcript levels in several absorptive/secretory epithelia including gill, kidney and intestine and significant levels in liver. NBC mRNA was undetectable in eel gill by real-time PCR. In trout, the levels of gill NBC1 mRNA were increased markedly during respiratory acidosis induced by exposure to hypercarbia; this response was accompanied by a transient increase in branchial V-type H(+)-ATPase mRNA levels. Assuming that the branchial NBC1 is localised to basolateral membranes of gill cells and operates in the influx mode (HCO(3)(-) and Na(+) entry into the cell), it would appear that in trout, the expression of branchial NBC1 is transcriptionally regulated to match the requirements of gill pHi regulation rather than to match trans-epithelial HCO(3)(-) efflux requirements for systemic acid-base balance. By analogy with mammalian systems, NBC1 in the kidney probably plays a role in the tubular reabsorption of both Na(+) and HCO(3)(-). During periods of respiratory acidosis, levels of renal NBC1 mRNA increased (after a transient reduction) in both trout and eel, presumably to increase HCO(3

  9. Respiratory gas exchange as a new aid to monitor acidosis in endotoxemic rats: relationship to metabolic fuel substrates and thermometabolic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Alexandre A; Flatow, Elizabeth A; Brito, Camila F; Fonseca, Monique T; Komegae, Evilin N

    2017-01-01

    This study introduces the respiratory exchange ratio (RER; the ratio of whole-body CO 2 production to O 2 consumption) as an aid to monitor metabolic acidosis during the early phase of endotoxic shock in unanesthetized, freely moving rats. Two serotypes of lipopolysaccharide (lipopolysaccharide [LPS] O55:B5 and O127:B8) were tested at shock-inducing doses (0.5-2 mg/kg). Phasic rises in RER were observed consistently across LPS serotypes and doses. The RER rise often exceeded the ceiling of the quotient for oxidative metabolism, and was mirrored by depletion of arterial bicarbonate and decreases in pH It occurred independently of ventilatory adjustments. These data indicate that the rise in RER results from a nonmetabolic CO 2 load produced via an acid-induced equilibrium shift in the bicarbonate buffer. Having validated this new experimental aid, we asked whether acidosis was interconnected with the metabolic and thermal responses that accompany endotoxic shock in unanesthetized rats. Contrary to this hypothesis, however, acidosis persisted regardless of whether the ambient temperature favored or prevented downregulation of mitochondrial oxidation and regulated hypothermia. We then asked whether the substrate that fuels aerobic metabolism could be a relevant factor in LPS-induced acidosis. Food deprivation was employed to divert metabolism away from glucose oxidation and toward fatty acid oxidation. Interestingly, this intervention attenuated the RER response to LPS by 58%, without suppressing other key aspects of systemic inflammation. We conclude that acid production in unanesthetized rats with endotoxic shock results from a phasic activation of glycolysis, which occurs independently of physiological changes in mitochondrial oxidation and body temperature. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  10. Transcriptional activation of LON Gene by a new form of mitochondrial stress: A role for the nuclear respiratory factor 2 in StAR overload response (SOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahat, Assaf; Perlberg, Shira; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Isaac, Sara; Eden, Amir; Lauria, Ines; Langer, Thomas; Orly, Joseph

    2015-06-15

    High output of steroid hormone synthesis in steroidogenic cells of the adrenal cortex and the gonads requires the expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) that facilitates cholesterol mobilization to the mitochondrial inner membrane where the CYP11A1/P450scc enzyme complex converts the sterol to the first steroid. Earlier studies have shown that StAR is active while pausing on the cytosolic face of the outer mitochondrial membrane while subsequent import of the protein into the matrix terminates the cholesterol mobilization activity. Consequently, during repeated activity cycles, high level of post-active StAR accumulates in the mitochondrial matrix. To prevent functional damage due to such protein overload effect, StAR is degraded by a sequence of three to four ATP-dependent proteases of the mitochondria protein quality control system, including LON and the m-AAA membranous proteases AFG3L2 and SPG7/paraplegin. Furthermore, StAR expression in both peri-ovulatory ovarian cells, or under ectopic expression in cell line models, results in up to 3-fold enrichment of the mitochondrial proteases and their transcripts. We named this novel form of mitochondrial stress as StAR overload response (SOR). To better understand the SOR mechanism at the transcriptional level we analyzed first the unexplored properties of the proximal promoter of the LON gene. Our findings suggest that the human nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2), also known as GA binding protein (GABP), is responsible for 88% of the proximal promoter activity, including the observed increase of transcription in the presence of StAR. Further studies are expected to reveal if common transcriptional determinants coordinate the SOR induced transcription of all the genes encoding the SOR proteases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modulation of systemic immune responses through commensal gastrointestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle M Schachtschneider

    Full Text Available Colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI tract is initiated during birth and continually seeded from the individual's environment. Gastrointestinal microorganisms play a central role in developing and modulating host immune responses and have been the subject of investigation over the last decades. Animal studies have demonstrated the impact of GI tract microbiota on local gastrointestinal immune responses; however, the full spectrum of action of early gastrointestinal tract stimulation and subsequent modulation of systemic immune responses is poorly understood. This study explored the utility of an oral microbial inoculum as a therapeutic tool to affect porcine systemic immune responses. For this study a litter of 12 pigs was split into two groups. One group of pigs was inoculated with a non-pathogenic oral inoculum (modulated, while another group (control was not. DNA extracted from nasal swabs and fecal samples collected throughout the study was sequenced to determine the effects of the oral inoculation on GI and respiratory microbial communities. The effects of GI microbial modulation on systemic immune responses were evaluated by experimentally infecting with the pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Coughing levels, pathology, toll-like receptors 2 and 6, and cytokine production were measured throughout the study. Sequencing results show a successful modulation of the GI and respiratory microbiomes through oral inoculation. Delayed type hypersensitivity responses were stronger (p = 0.07, and the average coughing levels and respiratory TNF-α variance were significantly lower in the modulated group (p<0.0001 and p = 0.0153, respectively. The M. hyopneumoniae infection study showed beneficial effects of the oral inoculum on systemic immune responses including antibody production, severity of infection and cytokine levels. These results suggest that an oral microbial inoculation can be used to modulate microbial communities, as well as

  12. Functional and community-level soil microbial responses to zinc addition may depend on test system biocomplexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdrup, Line E; Linjordet, Roar; Strømman, Gjermund; Hagen, Snorre B; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Frostegård, Sa; Sørheim, Roald

    2006-12-01

    The effect of zinc on soil nitrification and composition of the microbial community in soil was investigated using a full factorial experiment with five zinc concentrations and four levels of biological complexity (microbes only, microbes and earthworms (Eisenia fetida), microbes and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum var. Macho), and microbes, ryegrass and earthworms). After 6 weeks of exposure, the activity of soil nitrifying bacteria was measured and the microbial community structure was characterized by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Soil nitrification and several PLFA markers were significantly influenced by either zinc addition and/or the presence of earthworms or ryegrass, and one of the most pronounced changes was the increase of fungi and decrease of bacteria with increasing concentrations of zinc. Of particular interest, however, was the potential interaction between the presence of plants and/or earthworms and the effect of zinc, which the factorial study design allowed us to explore. Such an effect was observed in two cases: Earthworms reduced the positive effect of zinc on the fungal biomass (ANOVA, p=0.03), and the effect of earthworms on the soil nitrification activity depended on zinc concentration (ANOVA, p<0.05). The effect of earthworm presence was not very large, but it does show that multispecies tests might give information about metal toxicity or bioavailability that cannot be predicted from single-species tests.

  13. Response of soil microbial communities to red mud-based stabilizer remediation of cadmium-contaminated farmland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Liu, Lemian; Luo, Lin; Liu, Yan; Wei, Jianhong; Zhang, Jiachao; Yang, Yuan; Chen, Anwei; Mao, Qiming; Zhou, Yaoyu

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a field test was conducted to investigate the effects of heavy metal stabilizer addition on brown rice and microbial variables in a cadmium (Cd)-contaminated farmland from April to October in 2016. Compared with the control, red mud-based stabilizer (RMDL) effectively reduced the concentration of Cd in brown rice (with the removal rate of 48.14% in early rice, 20.24 and 47.62% in late rice). The results showed that adding 0.3 kg m -2 RDML in early rice soil or soil for both early and late rice increased the microbial biomass carbon (MBC), th