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Sample records for microbial pyrite oxidation

  1. Influence of heterotrophic microbial growth on biological oxidation of pyrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, E.A.; Silverstein, J. [University of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2002-12-15

    Experiments were carried out to examine the possibility that enhanced growth of heterotrophic (non-iron-oxidising) bacteria would inhibit pyrite oxidation by Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans by out-competing the more slowly growing autotrophs for oxygen, nutrients or even attachment sites on the mineral surface. Glucose was added to microcosms containing pyrite, acidic mineral solution and cultures of A-ferrooxidans and Acidiphilium acidophilus under various experimental conditions. Results suggest that encouraging the growth of heterotrophic microorganisms under acid mine drainage conditions may be a feasible strategy for decreasing both the rate and the extent of sulfide mineral oxidation. 43 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Effect of Phospholipid on Pyrite Oxidation and Microbial Communities under Simulated Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre Louis, Andro-Marc; Yu, Hui; Shumlas, Samantha L; Van Aken, Benoit; Schoonen, Martin A A; Strongin, Daniel R

    2015-07-07

    The effect of phospholipid on the biogeochemistry of pyrite oxidation, which leads to acid mine drainage (AMD) chemistry in the environment, was investigated. Metagenomic analyses were carried out to understand how the microbial community structure, which developed during the oxidation of pyrite-containing coal mining overburden/waste rock (OWR), was affected by the presence of adsorbed phospholipid. Using columns packed with OWR (with and without lipid adsorption), the release of sulfate (SO4(2-)) and soluble iron (FeTot) was investigated. Exposure of lipid-free OWR to flowing pH-neutral water resulted in an acidic effluent with a pH range of 2-4.5 over a 3-year period. The average concentration of FeTot and SO4(2-) in the effluent was ≥20 and ≥30 mg/L, respectively. In contrast, in packed-column experiments where OWR was first treated with phospholipid, the effluent pH remained at ∼6.5 and the average concentrations of FeTot and SO4(2-) were ≤2 and l.6 mg/L, respectively. 16S rDNA metagenomic pyrosequencing analysis of the microbial communities associated with OWR samples revealed the development of AMD-like communities dominated by acidophilic sulfide-oxidizing bacteria on untreated OWR samples, but not on refuse pretreated with phospholipid.

  3. Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria dominate the microbial diversity shift during the pyrite and low-grade pyrolusite bioleaching process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yifan; Ma, Xiaomei; Zhao, Wei; Chang, Yunkang; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Wang, Xingbiao; Wang, Jingjing; Huang, Zhiyong

    2013-10-01

    The microbial ecology of the pyrite-pyrolusite bioleaching system and its interaction with ore has not been well-described. A 16S rRNA gene clone library was created to evaluate changes in the microbial community at different stages of the pyrite-pyrolusite bioleaching process in a shaken flask. The results revealed that the bacterial community was disturbed after 5 days of the reaction. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences demonstrated that the predominant microorganisms were members of a genus of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, Thiomonas sp., that subsequently remained dominant during the bioleaching process. Compared with iron-oxidizing bacteria, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were more favorable to the pyrite-pyrolusite bioleaching system. Decreased pH due to microbial acid production was an important condition for bioleaching efficiency. Iron-oxidizing bacteria competed for pyrite reduction power with Mn(IV) in pyrolusite under specific conditions. These results extend our knowledge of microbial dynamics during pyrite-pyrolusite bioleaching, which is a key issue to improve commercial applications. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sources and Contributions of Oxygen During Microbial Pyrite Oxidation: the Triple Oxygen Isotopes of Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, K.; Coleman, M. L.; Mielke, R. E.; Young, E. D.

    2008-12-01

    The triple isotopes of oxygen (Δ17O' = δ17O'-0.528 × δ18O' using logarithmic deltas) can trace the oxygen sources of sulfate produced during sulfide oxidation, an important biogeochemical process on Earth's surface and possibly also on Mars [1]. δ18OSO4 compositions are determined by the isotopic selectivity of the mechanism(s) responsible for their changes, and the δ18O value of the reactants (O2 vs. H2O). The relative proportional importance and contribution of each of those sources and mechanisms, as well as their associated isotopic fractionations, are not well understood. We are investigating the use of Δ 17O as a quantitative and qualitative tracer for the different processes and oxygen sources involved in sulfate production. Δ17O signatures are distinct fingerprints of these reservoirs, independent of fractionation factors that can be ambiguous. We conducted controlled abiotic and biotic (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, A.f.) laboratory experiments in which water was spiked with 18O, allowing us to quantify the sources of sulfate oxygen and therefore the processes attending sulfate formation. Results of this Δ17O tracer study show that A.f. microbes initiate pyrite S-oxidation within hours of exposure, and that sulfate is produced from ~90% atmospheric oxygen. This initial lag-phase (behavior in the initial lag-phase will aid in the understanding of the ecological conditions required for microbial populations to establish and survive. An exponential phase of growth, facilitated by microbial Fe2+-oxidation, follows. The source of sulfate rapidly switches to abiotic sulfide oxidation during exponential growth and the source of oxygen switches from atmospheric O2 to nearly ~100% water. Pending acquisition of complimentary chemistry data (in progress), we interpret our isotope data to indicate that the biotic fractionation factor ɛ18OSO4-O2 of at least ~ -25 to - 35‰ is augmented by microbially induced kinetic fractionation; it is larger than

  5. Microbial Oxidation of Pyrite Coupled to Nitrate Reduction in Anoxic Groundwater Sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Juncher; Elberling, Bo; Jacobsen, Ole Stig

    2009-01-01

    denitrification process with pyrite as the primary electron donor. The process demonstrates a temperature dependency (Q10) of 1.8 and could be completely inhibited by addition of a bactericide (NaN3). Experimentally determined denitrification rates show that more than 50% of the observed nitrate reduction can...... be ascribed to pyrite oxidation. The apparent zero-order denitrification rate in anoxic pyrite containing sediment at groundwater temperature has been determined to be 2-3 µmol NO3- kg-1 day-1. The in situ groundwater chemistry at the boundary between the redoxcline and the anoxic zone reveals that between 65......-anoxic boundary in sandy aquifers thus determining the position and downward progression of the redox boundary between nitrate-containing and nitrate-free groundwater....

  6. Oxidation of pyrite: Consequences and significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Mile D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the most important studies on the oxidation of pyrite particularly in aqueous solutions. The consequences of pyrite oxidation was examined, as well as its importance, from both the technical-technological and environmental points of view. The oxidation of pyrite was considered in two parts. The spontaneous oxidation of pyrite in nature was described in the first part, with this part comprising pyrite oxidation in deposits depots and mines. It is explained how way natural electrochemical processes lead to the decomposition of pyrite and other minerals associated with pyrite. The oxidation of pyrite occurring during technological processes such as grinding, flotation and leaching, was shown in the second part. Particular emphasis was placed on the oxidation of pyrite during leaching. This part includes the leaching of sulphide and oxide ores, the leaching of pyrite coal and the leaching of refractory gold-bearing ores (pressure oxidation, bacterial oxidation, oxidation by means of strong oxidants and the electrolysis of pyrite suspensions. Various mechanisms of pyrite oxidation and of the galvanic interaction of pyrite with other sulphide minerals are shown.

  7. Pyrite oxidation at circumneutral pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Carl O.; Herman, Janet S.

    1991-02-01

    Previous studies of pyrite oxidation kinetics have concentrated primarily on the reaction at low pH, where Fe(III) has been assumed to be the dominant oxidant. Studies at circumneutral pH, necessitated by effective pH buffering in some pyrite oxidation systems, have often implicitly assumed that the dominant oxidant must be dissolved oxygen (DO), owing to the diminished solubility of Fe(III). In fact, Fe(III)(aq) is an effective pyrite oxidant at circumneutral pH, but the reaction cannot be sustained in the absence of DO. The purpose of this experimental study was to ascertain the relative roles of Fe(III) and DO in pyrite oxidation at circumneutral pH. The rate of pyrite oxidation was first-order with respect to the ratio of surface area to solution volume. Direct determinations of both Fe(II) (aq)> and Fe(III) (aq) demonstrated a dramatic loss of Fe(II) from the solution phase in excess of the loss for which oxidation alone could account. Based on rate data, we have concluded that Fe(II) is adsorbed onto the pyrite surface. Furthermore, Fe(II) is preferred as an adsorbate to Fe(III), which we attribute to both electrostatic and acid-base selectivity. We also found that the rate of pyrite oxidation by either Fe(III) (aq) or DO is reduced in the presence of aqueous Fe(II), which leads us to conclude that, under most natural conditions, neither Fe(III) (aq) nor DO directly attacks the pyrite surface. The present evidence suggests a mechanism for pyrite oxidation that involves adsorbed Fe( II ) giving up electrons to DO and the resulting Fe(III) rapidly accepting electrons from the pyrite. The adsorbed Fe is, thus, cyclically oxidized and reduced, while it acts as a conduit for electrons traveling from pyrite to DO. Oxygen is transferred from the hydration sphere of the adsorbed Fe to pyrite S. The cycle of adsorbed Fe oxidation and reduction and the successive addition of oxygen to pyrite S continues until a stable sulfoxy species dissociates from the surface. Prior

  8. The effects of trace element content on pyrite oxidation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, D. D.; Lyons, T.; Cliff, J. B.; Perea, D. E.; Johnson, A.; Romaniello, S. J.; Large, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    Pyrite acts as both an important source and sink for many different metals and metalloids in the environment, including many that are toxic. Oxidation of pyrite can release these elements while at the same time producing significant amounts of sulfuric acid. Such issues are common in the vicinity of abandoned mines and smelters, but, as pyrite is a common accessory mineral in many different lithologies, significant pyrite oxidation can occur whenever pyritic rocks are exposed to oxygenated water or the atmosphere. Accelerated exposure to oxygen can occur during deforestation, fracking for petroleum, and construction projects. Geochemical models for pyrite oxidation can help us develop strategies to mitigate these deleterious effects. An important component of these models is an accurate pyrite oxidation rate; however, current pyrite oxidation rates have been determined using relatively pure pyrite. Natural pyrite is rarely pure and has a wide range of trace element concentrations that may affect the oxidation rate. Furthermore, the position of trace elements within the mineral lattice can also affect the oxidation rate. For example, elements such as Ni and Co, which substitute into the pyrite lattice, are thought to stabilize the lattice and thus prevent pyrite oxidation. Alternatively, trace elements that are held within inclusions of other minerals could form a galvanic cell with the surrounding pyrite, thus enhancing pyrite oxidation rates. In this study, we present preliminary analyses from three different pyrite oxidation experiments each using natural pyrite with different trace element compositions. These results show that the pyrite with the highest trace element concentration has approximately an order of magnitude higher oxidation rate compared to the lowest trace element sample. To further elucidate the mechanisms, we employed microanalytical techniques to investigate how the trace elements are held within the pyrite. LA-ICPMS was used to determine the

  9. A dynamic mathematical model for microbial removal of pyritic sulfur from coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargi, F; Weissman, J G

    1984-06-01

    A dynamic mathematical model has been developed to describe microbial desulfurization of coal by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The model considers adsorption and desorption of cells on coal particles and microbial oxidation of pyritic sulfur on particle surfaces. The influence of certain parameters, such as microbial growth rate constants, adsorption-description constants, pulp density, coal particle size, initial cell and solid phase substrate concentration on the maximum rate of pyritic sulfur removal, have been elucidated. The maximum rate of pyritic sulfur removal was strongly dependent upon the number of attached cells per coal particle. At sufficiently high initial cell concentrations, the surfaces of coal particles are nearly saturated by the cells and the maximum leaching rate is limited either by total external surface area of coal particles or by the concentration of pyritic sulfur in the coal phase. The maximum volumetric rate of pyritic sulfur removal (mg S/h cm(3) mixture) increases with the pulp density of coal and reaches a saturation level at high pulp densities (e.g. 45%). The maximum rate also increases with decreasing particle diameter in a hyperbolic form. Increases in adsorption coefficient or decreases in the desorption coefficient also result in considerable improvements in this rate. The model can be applied to other systems consisting of suspended solid substrate particles in liquid medium with microbial oxidation occurring on the particle surfaces (e.g., bacterial ore leaching). The results obtained from this model are in good agreement with published experimental data on microbial desulfurization of coal and bacterial ore leaching.

  10. Practical considerations of pyrite oxidation control in uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    The problems posed by the oxidation of pyrite in uranium tailings include the generation of sulfuric acid and acid sulfate metal salts. These have substantial negative impacts on watercourse biota by themselves, and the lowered pH levels tend to mobilize heavy metals present in the tailings the rate of oxidation of pyrite at lower pH levels is catalyzed by sulfur and iron oxidizing bacteria present in soils. No single clear solution to the problems came from this study. Exclusion of air is a most important preventative of bacterial catalysis of oxidation. Bactericides, chemically breaking the chain of integrated oxidation reactions, maintaining anaerobic conditions, or maintaining a neutral or alkaline pH all reduce the oxidation rate. Removal of pyrite by flotation will reduce but not eliminate the impact of pyrite oxidation. Controlled oxidation of the remaining sulfide in the flotation tails would provide an innocuous tailing so far as acidity generation is concerned

  11. Biogeochemistry of pyrite and iron sulfide oxidation in marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schippers, A.; Jørgensen, BB

    2002-01-01

    as substrates and NO3- as electron acceptor, in the presence of (FeS2)-Fe-55, to test for co-oxidation of FeS2, but an anaerobic microbial dissolution of (FeS2)-Fe-55, could not been detected. FeS2 and FeS were not oxidized by amorphous Fe(III) oxide in the presence of Fe-complexing organic compounds......Pyrite (FeS2) and iron monosulfide (FeS) play a central role in the sulfur and iron cycles of marine sediments, They may be buried in the sediment or oxidized by O-2 after transport by bioturbation to the sediment surface. FeS2 and FeS may also be oxidized within the anoxic sediment in which NO3...... marine sediments and incubated at different temperatures for > 1 yr. Bacteria could not be enriched with FeS2 as substrate or with FeS and amorphous Fe(III) oxide. With FeS and NO3-, 14 enrichments were obtained. One of these enrichments was further cultivated anaerobically with Fe2+ and S-0...

  12. A model of pyritic oxidation in waste rock dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.B.; Ritchie, A.I.M.

    1983-01-01

    The oxidation of pyrite can lead to high acid levels and high concentrations of trace metals in the water that runs off and percolates through pyritic material. This is the situation at the abandoned uranium mine at Rum Jungle in the Northern Territory of Australia, where pyritic oxidation in the waste rock dumps resulting from open cut mining of the uranium orebody has led to pollution of the nearby East Branch of the Finniss River, with trace metals such as copper, manganese and zinc. Mathematical equations are formulated which describe a model of pyritic oxidation within a waste rock dump, where it is assumed that oxygen transport is the rate limiting step in the oxidation process and that oxygen is transported by gaseous diffusion through the pore space of the dump, followed by diffusion into oxidation sites within the particles that comprise the dump. The equations have been solved numerically assuming values for such parameters as porosity, sulphur density and oxygen diffusion coefficients which are applicable to the waste rock dumps at Rum Jungle. An approximate solution to the equations is also presented. Calculations of the heat source distribution and the total SO 4 production rate are presented for both single size particles and for a range of particle sizes in the dump. The usefulness of the approximate solution, and of calculations based on single size particles in the dump in assessing the effectiveness of strategies to reduce pollution from such waste rock dumps are discussed

  13. The mechanisms of pyrite oxidation and leaching: A fundamental perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, A. P.; Gerson, A. R.

    2010-09-01

    Pyrite is the earth's most abundant sulfide mineral. Its frequent undesirable association with minerals of economic value such as sphalerite, chalcopyrite and galena, and precious metals such as gold necessitates costly separation processes such as leaching and flotation. Additionally pyrite oxidation is a major contributor to the environmental problem of acid rock drainage. The surface oxidation reactions of pyrite are therefore important both economically and environmentally. Significant variations in electrical properties resulting from lattice substitution of minor and trace elements into the lattice structure exist between pyrite from different geographical locations. Furthermore the presence of low coordination surface sites as a result of conchoidal fracture causes a reduction in the band gap at the surface compared to the bulk thus adding further electrochemical variability. Given the now general acceptance after decades of research that electrochemistry dominates the oxidation process, the geographical location, elemental composition and semi-conductor type (n or p) of pyrite are important considerations. Aqueous pyrite oxidation results in the production of sulfate and ferrous iron. However other products such as elemental sulfur, polysulfides, hydrogen sulfide, ferric hydroxide, iron oxide and iron(III) oxyhydroxide may also form. Intermediate species such as thiosulfate, sulfite and polythionates are also proposed to occur. Oxidation and leach rates are generally influenced by solution Eh, pH, oxidant type and concentration, hydrodynamics, grain size and surface area in relation to solution volume, temperature and pressure. Of these, solution Eh is most critical as expected for an electrochemically controlled process, and directly correlates with surface area normalised rates. Studies using mixed mineral systems further indicate the importance of electrochemical processes during the oxidation process. Spatially resolved surface characterisation of fresh

  14. Trace metal pyritization variability in response to mangrove soil aerobic and anaerobic oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, W; Borrelli, N L; Ferreira, T O; Marques, A G B; Osterrieth, M; Guizan, C

    2014-02-15

    The degree of iron pyritization (DOP) and degree of trace metal pyritization (DTMP) were evaluated in mangrove soil profiles from an estuarine area located in Rio de Janeiro (SE Brazil). The soil pH was negatively correlated with redox potential (Eh) and positively correlated with DOP and DTMP of some elements (Mn, Cu and Pb), suggesting that pyrite oxidation generated acidity and can affect the importance of pyrite as a trace metal-binding phase, mainly in response to spatial variability in tidal flooding. Besides these aerobic oxidation effects, results from a sequential extraction analyses of reactive phases evidenced that Mn oxidized phase consumption in reaction with pyrite can be also important to determine the pyritization of trace elements. Cumulative effects of these aerobic and anaerobic oxidation processes were evidenced as factors affecting the capacity of mangrove soils to act as a sink for trace metals through pyritization processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pyrite oxidation in unsaturated aquifer sediments. Reaction stoichiometry and rate of oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Søgaard; Larsen, Flemming; Postma, Diederik Jan

    2001-01-01

    The oxidation of pyrite (FeS2) contained in unsaturated aquifer sediment was studied by sediment incubation in gas impermeable polymer laminate bags. Reaction progress was followed over a period of nearly 2 months by monitoring the gas composition within the laminate bag. The gas phase in the inc......The oxidation of pyrite (FeS2) contained in unsaturated aquifer sediment was studied by sediment incubation in gas impermeable polymer laminate bags. Reaction progress was followed over a period of nearly 2 months by monitoring the gas composition within the laminate bag. The gas phase...... in the incubation bags became depleted in O2 and enriched in CO2 and N2 and was interpreted as due to pyrite oxidation in combination with calcite dissolution. Sediment incubation provides a new method to estimate low rates of pyrite oxidation in unsaturated zone aquifer sediments. Oxidation rates of up to 9.4â10......-10 mol FeS2/gâs are measured, and the rates are only weakly correlated with the sediment pyrite content. The reactivity of pyrite, including the inhibition by FeOOH layers formed on its surface, apparently has a major effect on the rate of oxidation. The code PHREEQC 2.0 was used to calculate...

  16. THE DEPRESSION OF PYRITE FLOTATION BY THIOBACILLUS FERROOXIDANS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The experimental studies on the microbial flotation of a pure pyrite sample using Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was conducted in the laboratory. The results indicate that Thiobacillus ferrooaidans has strong depression effect on the flotation of pyrite. Thiobacillus f errooxidans can adsorb on the surface of pyrite in a very short time (a few min. ), changing the surface from hydrophobic into hydrophilic and making the pyrite particles to lose their floatability. Therefore, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans is an effective microbial depressant of pyrite. It has also been pointed out that the depression of pyrite by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans is caused by the adsorption of the microbial colloids, but not by the oxidation effect.

  17. Report on assessment of the mechanism of bacterially assisted oxidation of pyritic uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbert, B.B.; Scharer, J.M.; Knapp, R.A.

    1984-07-01

    The oxidation of pyritic minerals has been shown to be catalyzed by the presence of iron- and sulphur-oxidizing bacteria. Thiobacillus ferroxidans plays the most significant role in the formation and propagation of acidic conditions. Optimum growth conditions for the T. ferroxidans occurs at a temperature of 35 degrees C and pH of 2 to 3. Bacterially assisted oxidation of pyrite involves both direct and indirect contact mechanisms. The direct contact mechanism entails enzymatic oxidation of the insoluble sulphide moiety. The indirect mechanism involves bacterial oxidation of the dissolved ferrous component to the ferric state. The ferric iron, in turn, acts as the prime oxidant of pyrite and is reduced to ferrous iron. The re-oxidation of the dissolved ferrous component which is catalyzed by bacterial activity, completes the cyclic process. The rate of bacterial oxidation is affected by: the geochemistry and reactivity of the pyritic material; the amount of pyrite present in the waste material and the exposed surface area of the pyritic component; the availability of oxygen and carbon dioxide; the pH and temperature of the leach solution; and the presence (or absence) of organic inhibitors. Of the above factors, oxygen has been frequently identified as the rate limiting reactant in tailings

  18. The role of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria Thiobacillus thiooxidans in pyrite weathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, K.; Tsunekawa, M.; Ohtsuka, T.; Konno, H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper investigates the role of the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria Thiobacillus thiooxidans in pyrite weathering in order to clarify the effects of the bacteria on the dissolution behavior of pyrite and the formation of secondary minerals using Raman spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) in addition to solution analysis. It was found that T. thiooxidans, when present with the iron-oxidizing bacteria Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, enhanced the dissolution of Fe and S species for pyrite, whereas T. thiooxidans alone did not oxidize pyrite. Enhancement of the consumption of elemental sulfur and regeneration of Fe(II) ions were also observed with T. thiooxidans together with T. ferrooxidans, while this did not occur with T. ferrooxidans alone

  19. Pyrite oxidation under simulated acid rain weathering conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kai; Li, Heping; Wang, Luying; Wen, Xiaoying; Liu, Qingyou

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the electrochemical corrosion behavior of pyrite in simulated acid rain with different acidities and at different temperatures. The cyclic voltammetry, polarization curve, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results showed that pyrite has the same electrochemical interaction mechanism under different simulated acid rain conditions, regardless of acidity or environmental temperature. Either stronger acid rain acidity or higher environmental temperature can accelerate pyrite corrosion. Compared with acid rain having a pH of 5.6 at 25 °C, the prompt efficiency of pyrite weathering reached 104.29% as the acid rain pH decreased to 3.6, and it reached 125.31% as environmental temperature increased to 45 °C. Increasing acidity dramatically decreases the charge transfer resistance, and increasing temperature dramatically decreases the passivation film resistance, when other conditions are held constant. Acid rain always causes lower acidity mine drainage, and stronger acidity or high environmental temperatures cause serious acid drainage. The natural parameters of latitude, elevation, and season have considerable influence on pyrite weathering, because temperature is an important influencing factor. These experimental results are of direct significance for the assessment and management of sulfide mineral acid drainage in regions receiving acid rain.

  20. Spatial Mapping for Managing Oxidized Pyrite (FeS2 in South Sumatra Wetlands, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Edi Armanto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to analyze spatial mapping for managing oxidized pyrite (FeS2 in South Sumatra wetlands, Indonesia. The field observations are done by exploring several transect on land units. The field description refers to Soil Survey Staff (2014. Water and soil samples were taken from selected key areas for laboratory analysis. The vegetation data was collected by making sample plots (squares method placed on each vegetation type with plot sizes depending on the vegetation type, namely 10 x 10 m for secondary forests and 5 x 5 m for shrubs and grass. The observations of surface water level were done during the river receding with units of m above sea level (m asl. The research results showed that pyrite formation is largely determined by the availability of natural vegetation as Sulfur (S donors, climate and uncontrolled water balance and supporting fauna such as crabs and mud shrimp.  Climate and water balance as well as supporting faunas is the main supporting factors to accelerate the process of pyrite formation. Oxidized pyrite serves to increase soil acidity, becomes toxic to fish ponds and arable soils, plant growth and disturbing the water and soil nutrient balances. Oxidized pyrite is predominantly accelerated by the dynamics of river water and disturbed natural vegetation by human activities.  The pyrite oxidation management approach is divided into three main components of technologies, namely water management, land management and commodity management.

  1. Conditioning in the flotation of gold, uranium oxide, and pyrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stassen, F.J.N.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of conditioning energy on the flotation of gold, U 3 O 8 , and pyrite was investigated in the range 0,1 to 100 kWh per tonne of dry ore for various combinations of conditioning time and impeller speed in a cylindrical conditioning tank. It was found that, when the conditioning energy was increased to between 5 and 10 kWh per tonne of dry ore, the total recovery and flotation rate of the valuable minerals (expressed as Klimpel parameters) increased substantially. The Klimpel parameters are dependent on conditioning energy, but are independent of conditioning time or impeller speed (at constant conditioning energy). The Klimpel parameters of the gangue are independent of conditioning energy. 23 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs

  2. Advective and diffusive contributions to reactive gas transport during pyrite oxidation in the unsaturated zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binning, P. J.; POSTMA, D; Russell, T. F.; Wesselingh, J. A.; Boulin, P. F.

    2007-01-01

    [1] Pyrite oxidation in unsaturated mine waste rock dumps and soils is limited by the supply of oxygen from the atmosphere. In models, oxygen transport through the subsurface is often assumed to be driven by diffusion. However, oxygen comprises 23.2% by mass of dry air, and when oxygen is consumed

  3. Surface structure-dependent pyrite oxidation in relatively dry and moist air: Implications for the reaction mechanism and sulfur evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianxi; Xian, Haiyang; Lin, Xiaoju; Tang, Hongmei; Du, Runxiang; Yang, Yiping; Zhu, Runliang; Liang, Xiaoliang; Wei, Jingming; Teng, H. Henry; He, Hongping

    2018-05-01

    Pyrite oxidation not only is environmentally significant in the formation of acid mine (or acid rock) drainage and oxidative acidification of lacustrine sediment but also is a critical stage in geochemical sulfur evolution. The oxidation process is always controlled by the reactivity of pyrite, which in turn is controlled by its surface structure. In this study, the oxidation behavior of naturally existing {1 0 0}, {1 1 1}, and {2 1 0} facets of pyrite was investigated using a comprehensive approach combining X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry with periodic density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations. The experimental results show that (i) the initial oxidation rates of both pyrite {1 1 1} and {2 1 0} are much greater than that of pyrite {1 0 0}; (ii) the initial oxidation rate of pyrite {2 1 0} is greater than that of pyrite {1 1 1} in low relative humidity, which is reversed in high relative humidity; and (iii) inner sphere oxygen-bearing sulfur species are originally generated from surface reactions and then converted to outer sphere species. The facet dependent rate law can be expressed as: r{hkl} =k{hkl}haP0.5(t + 1) - 0.5 , where r{hkl} is the orientation dependent reaction rate, k{hkl} is the orientation dependent rate constant, h is the relative humidity, P is the oxygen partial pressure, and t is the oxidation time in seconds. {1 1 1} is the most sensitive facet for pyrite oxidation. Combined with DFT theoretical investigations, water catalyzed electron transfer is speculated as the rate-limiting step. These findings disclose the structure-reactivity dependence of pyrite, which not only presents new insight into the mechanism of pyrite oxidation but also provides fundamental data to evaluate sulfur speciation evolution, suggesting that the surface structure sensitivity should be considered to estimate the reactivity at the mineral

  4. Pyrite oxidation in the presence of hematite and alumina: I. Batch leaching experiments and kinetic modeling calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabelin, Carlito Baltazar; Veerawattananun, Suchol; Ito, Mayumi; Hiroyoshi, Naoki; Igarashi, Toshifumi

    2017-02-15

    Pyrite is one of the most common and geochemically important sulfide minerals in nature because of its role in the redox recycling of iron (Fe). It is also the primary cause of acid mine drainage (AMD) that is considered as a serious and widespread problem facing the mining and mineral processing industries. In the environment, pyrite oxidation occurs in the presence of ubiquitous metal oxides, but the roles that they play in this process remain largely unknown. This study evaluates the effects of hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) and alumina (α-Al 2 O 3 ) on pyrite oxidation by batch-reactor type experiments, surface-sensitive characterization of the oxidation layer and thermodynamic/kinetic modeling calculations. In the presence of hematite, dissolved sulfur (S) concentration dramatically decreased independent of the pH, and the formation of intermediate sulfoxy anionic species on the surface of pyrite was retarded. These results indicate that hematite minimized the overall extent of pyrite oxidation, but the kinetic model could not explain how this suppression occurred. In contrast, pyrite oxidation was enhanced in the alumina suspension as suggested by the higher dissolved S concentration and stronger infrared (IR) absorption bands of surface-bound oxidation products. Based on the kinetic model, alumina enhanced the oxidative dissolution of pyrite because of its strong acid buffering capacity, which increased the suspension pH. The higher pH values increased the oxidation of Fe 2+ to Fe 3+ by dissolved O 2 (DO) that enhanced the overall oxidative dissolution kinetics of pyrite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Attenuation of pyrite oxidation with a fly ash pre-barrier: Reactive transport modelling of column experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lopez, R.; Cama, J.; Nieto, J.M.; Ayora, C.; Saaltink, M.W. [University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain). Dept. of Geology

    2009-09-15

    Conventional permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for passive treatment of groundwater contaminated by acid mine drainage (AMD) use limestone as reactive material that neutralizes water acidity. However, the limestone-alkalinity potential ceases as inevitable precipitation of secondary metal-phases on grain surfaces occurs, limiting its efficiency. In the present study, fly ash derived from coal combustion is investigated as an alternative alkalinity generating material for the passive treatment of AMD using solution-saturated column experiments. Unlike conventional systems, the utilization of fly ash in a pre-barrier to intercept the non-polluted recharge water before this water reacts with pyrite-rich wastes is proposed. Chemical variation in the columns was interpreted with the reactive transport code RETRASO. In parallel, kinetics of fly ash dissolution at alkaline pH were studied using flow-through experiments and incorporated into the model. In a saturated column filled solely with pyritic sludge-quartz sand (1: 10), oxidation took place at acidic conditions (pH 3.7). According to SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} release and pH, pyrite dissolution occurred favourably in the solution-saturated porous medium until dissolved O{sub 2} was totally consumed. In a second saturated column, pyrite oxidation took place at alkaline conditions (pH 10.45) as acidity was neutralized by fly ash dissolution in a previous level. At this pH Fe release from pyrite dissolution was immediately depleted as Fe-oxy(hydroxide) phases that precipitated on the pyrite grains, forming Fe-coatings (microencapsulation). With time, pyrite microencapsulation inhibited oxidation in practically 97% of the pyritic sludge. Rapid pyrite-surface passivation decreased its reactivity, preventing AMD production in the relatively short term.

  6. Oxygen isotope evidence for sorption of molecular oxygen to pyrite surface sites and incorporation into sulfate in oxidation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tichomirowa, Marion; Junghans, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate (i) the rate of O-isotope exchange between SO 4 and water molecules at low pH and surface temperatures typical for conditions of acid mine drainage (AMD) and (ii) the O- and S-isotope composition of sulfates produced by pyrite oxidation under closed and open conditions (limited and free access of atmospheric O 2 ) to identify the O source/s in sulfide oxidation (water or atmospheric molecular O 2 ) and to better understand the pyrite oxidation pathway. An O-isotope exchange between SO 4 and water was observed over a pH range of 0-2 only at 50 deg. C, whereas no exchange occurred at lower temperatures over a period of 8 a. The calculated half-time of the exchange rate for 50 deg. C (pH = 0 and 1) is in good agreement with former experimental data for higher and lower temperatures and excludes the possibility of isotope exchange for typical AMD conditions (T ≤ 25 deg. C, pH ≥ 3) for decades. Pyrite oxidation experiments revealed two dependencies of the O-isotope composition of dissolved sulfates: O-isotope values decreased with longer duration of experiments and increasing grain size of pyrite. Both changes are interpreted as evidence for chemisorption of molecular O 2 to pyrite surface sites. The sorption of molecular O 2 is important at initial oxidation stages and more abundant in finer grained pyrite fractions and leads to its incorporation in the produced SO 4 . The calculated bulk contribution of atmospheric O 2 in the dissolved SO 4 reached up to 50% during initial oxidation stages (first 5 days, pH 2, fine-grained pyrite fraction) and decreased to less than 20% after about 100 days. Based on the direct incorporation of molecular O 2 in the early-formed sulfates, chemisorption and electron transfer of molecular O 2 on S sites of the pyrite surface are proposed, in addition to chemisorption on Fe sites. After about 10 days, the O of all newly-formed sulfates originates only from water, indicating direct interaction

  7. Microbial Diversity and Its Relationship to Physicochemical Characteristics of the Water in Two Extreme Acidic Pit Lakes from the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Santofimia

    Full Text Available The Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB hosts one of the world's largest accumulations of acidic mine wastes and pit lakes. The mineralogical and textural characteristics of the IPB ores have favored the oxidation and dissolution of metallic sulfides, mainly pyrite, and the subsequent formation of acidic mining drainages. This work reports the physical properties, hydrogeochemical characteristics, and microbial diversity of two pit lakes located in the IPB. Both pit lakes are acidic and showed high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved metals. Concentrations of sulfate and heavy metals were higher in the Nuestra Señora del Carmen lake (NSC by one order of magnitude than in the Concepción (CN lake. The hydrochemical characteristics of NSC were typical of acid mine waters and can be compared with other acidic environments. When compared to other IPB acidic pit lakes, the superficial water of CN is more diluted than that of any of the others due, probably, to the strong influence of runoff water. Both pit lakes showed chemical and thermal stratification with well defined chemoclines. One particular characteristic of NSC is that it has developed a chemocline very close to the surface (2 m depth. Microbial community composition of the water column was analyzed by 16S and 18S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing. The microorganisms detected in NSC were characteristic of acid mine drainage (AMD, including iron oxidizing bacteria (Leptospirillum, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and facultative iron reducing bacteria and archaea (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidiphilium, Actinobacteria, Acidimicrobiales, Ferroplasma detected in the bottom layer. Diversity in CN was higher than in NSC. Microorganisms known from AMD systems (Acidiphilium, Acidobacteria and Ferrovum and microorganisms never reported from AMD systems were identified. Taking into consideration the hydrochemical characteristics of these pit lakes and the spatial distribution of the identified

  8. Photoactive thin film semiconducting iron pyrite prepared by sulfurization of iron oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smestad, G.; Ennaoui, A.; Fiechter, S.; Tributsch, H.; Hofmann, W.K.; Birkholz, M. (Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Solare Energetik Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Materialforschung); Kautek, W. (Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-03-01

    Photoactive iron pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) thin film layers have been synthesized by a simple method involving the reaction of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} or Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with elemental sulfur. The films were formed on a variety of different substrate materials by converting or sulfurizing iron oxide layers. The subsequent sulfur treatment of the oxide layers consisted of exposure of the films to gaseous sulfur in open or closed ampules at 350degC for 0.5-2 h. The morphology, composition and photoactivity of the films produced were checked using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA), optical absorption, steady state and transient photoconductivity. The best films showed good crystallinity and purity with concurrent photoconductivity and photoelectrochemical response. The ability of this technique to produce photoactive material can be explained by interpretation of the Gibbs ternary phase diagram for the Fe-O-S system, and may be related to the production of photoactive pyrite in nature. A discussion is made as to the future improvement of the solar cell response by proper optimization of geometric and configurational properties. (orig.).

  9. Correlation of Surface Adsorption and Oxidation with a Floatability Difference of Galena and Pyrite in High-Alkaline Lime Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaopeng; Ruan, Renman; Xia, Liuyin; Li, Li; Sun, Heyun; Jia, Yan; Tan, Qiaoyi

    2018-02-27

    When it comes to Pb-Zn ores with high amounts of pyrite, the major problem encountered is the low separation efficiency between galena and pyrite. By virtue of high dosage of lime and collector sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate (DDTC), pyrite and zinc minerals are depressed, allowing the galena to be floated. However, there have been significant conflicting reports on the flotation behavior of galena at high pH. In this context, correlation of the surface adsorption and oxidation with the floatability difference of galena and pyrite in high-alkaline lime systems would be a key issue for process optimization. Captive bubble contact angle measurements were performed on freshly polished mineral surfaces in situ exposed to lime solutions of varying pH as a function of immersion time. Furthermore, single mineral microflotation tests were conducted. Both tests indicated that the degree of hydrophobicity on the surfaces of galena and pyrite increased in the presence of DDTC at natural or mild pulp pH. While in a saturated lime solution, at pH 12.5, DDTC only worked for galena, but not for pyrite. Surface chemistry analysis by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (Tof-SIMS) confirmed the preference of DDTC on the galena surface at pH 12.5, which contributed to a merit recovery. Further important evidence through measurements of Tof-SIMS, ion chromatography, and high-performance liquid chromatography indicated that in high-alkaline lime systems, the merit floatability of galena could exclude the insignificant contribution of elemental sulfur (S 8 ) and was dominantly attributed by the strong adsorption of DDTC. In contrast, the poor flotation response of pyrite at high pH was due to the prevailing adsorption of CaOH + species. This study provides an important surface chemistry evidence for a better understanding of the mechanism on the better selectivity in the galena-pyrite separation adopting high-alkaline lime systems.

  10. [Oxidation of sulfur-containing substrates by aboriginal and experimentally designed microbial communities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarova, T A; Bulaev, A G; Roshchupko, P V; Belyĭ, A V; Kondrat'eva, T F

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal and experimental (constructed of pure microbial cultures) communities of acidophilic chemolithotrophs have been studied. The oxidation of elemental sulfur, sodium thiosulfate, and potassium tetrathionate as sole sources of energy has been monitored. The oxidation rate of the experimental community is higher as compared to the aboriginal community isolated from a flotation concentrate of pyrrhotine-containing pyrite-arsenopyrite gold-arsenic sulfide ore. The degree of oxidation of the mentioned S substrates amounts to 17.91, 68.30, and 93.94% for the experimental microbial community and to 10.71, 56.03, and 79.50% for the aboriginal community, respectively. The degree of oxidation of sulfur sulfide forms in the ore flotation concentrate is 59.15% by the aboriginal microbial community and 49.40% by the experimental microbial community. Despite a higher rate of oxidation of S substrates as a sole source of energy by the experimental microbial community, the aboriginal community oxidizes S substrates at a higher rate in the flotation concentrate of pyrrhotine-containing pyrite-arsenopyrite gold-arsenic sulfide ore, from which it was isolated. Bacterial-chemical oxidation of the flotation concentrate by the aboriginal microbial community allows for the extraction of an additional 32.3% of gold from sulfide minerals, which is by 5.7% larger compared to the yield obtained by the experimental microbial community.

  11. Advective and diffusive contributions to reactive gas transport during pyrite oxidation in the unsaturated zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binning, Philip John; Postma, Diederik Jan; Russel, T.F.

    2007-01-01

    Pyrite oxidation in unsaturated mine waste rock dumps and soils is limited by the supply of oxygen from the atmosphere. In models, oxygen transport through the subsurface is often assumed to be driven by diffusion. However, oxygen comprises 23.2% by mass of dry air, and when oxygen is consumed at...... parameters; for example, the time to approach steady state depends exponentially on the distance between the soil surface and the subsurface reactive zone. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union....... at depth in the unsaturated zone, a pressure gradient is created between the reactive zone and the ground surface, causing a substantial advective air flow into the subsurface. To determine the balance between advective and diffusive transport, a one-dimensional multicomponent unsaturated zone gas...

  12. Microbial leaching of iron from pyrite by moderate thermophile chemolithotropic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyas, S.; Niazi, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    The present work was aimed at studying the bioleachability of iron from pyrite by the selected moderately thermophilic strains of acidophilic chemolithotrophic and acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria. These included Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans (chemolithotroph) and an un-identified strain of acidophilic heterotroph (code 6A1TSB) isolated from local environments. As compared to inoculated flasks, dissolution of metal (due to acid leaching) was significantly low in the un-inoculated control flasks in all the experiments in ore. A decrease in the bioleaching activity was observed at the later stages of bioleaching of metal from ore. Among the strategies adopted to enhance the metal leaching rates, a mixed consortium of the metal adapted cultures of the above-mentioned bacteria was found to exhibit the maximum metal leaching efficiency. In all the flasks where high metal leaching rates were observed, concomitantly biomass production rates were also high indicating high growth rates. It showed that the metal bioleaching capability of the bacteria was associated with their growth. Pyrite contained 42% iron. (author)

  13. A combined kinetic and diffusion model for pyrite oxidation in tailings - a change in controls with time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elberling, B.; Nicholson, R.V.; Scharer, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Acidic drainage from the oxidation of mine tailing wastes is an important environmental problem. The purpose of this paper is to develop a model (1) to simulate the rate of oxidation of pyrite over time, (2) to verify the importance of chemical kinetic control and diffusion control on the oxidation rate with time and, (3) to evaluate the sensitivity of the model to critical parameters of the tailings, such as grain size, pyrite content and the effective diffusion coefficient. The source code comprises four main modules including parameter allocation (kinetics, transport), sulphide oxidation (shrinking particle), oxygen transport and pyrite mass balance. The results show that high oxidation rates are observed in the initial time after tailings deposition. During this initial period of high rates, an apparent shift occurs from kinetic to diffusional control over a period of time that depends on the composition and properties of the tailings. Based on the simulation results, it is evident that the overall rate of oxidation after a few years will be controlled dominantly by the diffusion of oxygen rather than by biological or non-biological kinetics in the tailings

  14. Model-based analysis of δ34S signatures to trace sedimentary pyrite oxidation during managed aquifer recharge in a heterogeneous aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Simone; Descourvieres, Carlos; Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Deng, Hailin; Prommer, Henning

    2017-05-01

    The oxidation of pyrite is often one of the main drivers affecting groundwater quality during managed aquifer recharge in deep aquifers. Data and techniques that allow detailed identification and quantification of pyrite oxidation are therefore crucial for assessing and predicting the adverse water quality changes that may be associated with this process. In this study, we explore the benefits of combining stable sulphur isotope analysis with reactive transport modelling to improve the identification and characterisation of pyrite oxidation during an aquifer storage and recovery experiment in a chemically and physically heterogeneous aquifer. We characterise the stable sulphur isotope signal (δ34S) in both the ambient groundwater and the injectant as well as its spatial distribution within the sedimentary sulphur species. The identified stable sulphur isotope signal for pyrite was found to vary between -32 and +34‰, while the signal of the injectant ranged between +9.06 and +14.45‰ during the injection phase of the experiment. Both isotope and hydrochemical data together suggest a substantial contribution of pyrite oxidation to the observed, temporally variable δ34S signals. The variability of the δ34S signal in pyrite and the injectant were both found to complicate the analysis of the stable isotope data. However, the incorporation of the data into a numerical modelling approach allowed to successfully employ the δ34S signatures as a valuable additional constraint for identifying and quantifying the contribution of pyrite oxidation to the redox transformations that occur in response to the injection of oxygenated water.

  15. Oxidation state of gold and arsenic in gold-bearing arsenian pyrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, G.; Huang, H.; Penner-Hahn, J.E.; Kesler, S.E.; Kao, L.S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1999-07-01

    XANES measurements on gold-bearing arsenian pyrite from the Twin Creeks Carlin-type gold deposits show that gold is present as both Au{sup 0} and Au{sup 1+} and arsenic is present as As{sup 1{minus}}. Au{sup 0} is attributed to sub-micrometer size inclusions of free gold, whereas Au{sup 1+} is attributed to gold in the lattice of the arsenian pyrite. STEM observations suggest that As{sup 1{minus}} is probably concentrated in angstrom-scale, randomly distributed layers with a marcasite or arsenopyrite structure. Ionic gold (Au{sup 1+}) could be concentrated in these layers as well, and is present in both twofold- and fourfold-coordinated forms, with fourfold-coordinated Au{sup 1+} more abundant. Twofold-coordinated Au{sup 1+} is similar to gold in Au{sub 2}S in which it is linearly coordinated to two sulfur atoms. The nature of fourfold-coordinated Au{sup 1+} is not well understood, although it might be present as an Au-As-S compound where gold is bonded in fourfold coordination to sulfur and arsenic atoms, or in vacancy positions on a cation site in the arsenian pyrite. Au{sup 1+} was probably incorporated into arsenian pyrite by adsorption onto pyrite surfaces during crystal growth. The most likely compound in the case of twofold-coordinated Au{sup 1+} was probably a tri-atomic surface complex such as S{sub pyrite}-Au{sup 1+}-S{sub bi-sulfide}H or Au{sup 1+}-S-Au{sup 1+}. The correlation between gold and arsenic might be related to the role of arsenic in enhancing the adsorption of gold complexes of this type on pyrite surfaces, possibly through semiconductor effects.

  16. Microbiological oxidative dissolution of a complex mineral sample containing pyrite (FeS2), pyrrotite (Fe1-xS) and molybdenite (MoS2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco Junior, Wilmo E.; Bevilaqua, Denise; Garcia Junior, Oswaldo

    2007-01-01

    This work aims to study the oxidation of a complex molybdenite mineral which contains pyrite and pyrrotite, by Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans. This study was performed by respirometric essays and bioleaching in shake flasks. Respirometric essays yielded the kinetics of mineral oxidation. The findings showed that sulfide oxidation followed classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Bioleaching in shake flasks allowed evaluation of chemical and mineralogical changes resulting from sulfide oxidation. The results demonstrated that pyrrotite and pyrite were completely oxidized in A. ferrooxidans cultures whereas molybdenite was not consumed. These data indicated that molybdenite was the most recalcitrant sulfide in the sample. (author)

  17. Soil pollution by oxidation of tailings from toxic spill of a pyrite mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, M.; Martin, F.; Ortiz, I.; Garcia, I.; Fernandez, J.; Fernandez, E.; Dorronsoro, C.; Aguilar, J.

    2001-01-01

    On the 25th April 1998, toxic water and tailings from a pyrite mine of Aznalcollar (southern Spain) spilled into the Agrio and Guadiamar River Basin affecting some 40 km 2 . In five sectors throughout the basin, we monitored the physical and chemical properties of the tailings as well as the degree of pollution in the soils on four different sampling dates: 5 May, 20 May, 4 June and 22 July 1998. The characteristics of the tailings deposited on the soils are shown to be related to distance from the spill. The oxidation rate of the tailings and the solubilization of the pollutant elements were more pronounced in the middle and lower sectors of the basin, where the particle size was finer, the sulfur content higher and the bulk density less. The increases in water-soluble sulfates, Zn, Cd and Cu were very rapid (the highest values being reached 25 days after the spill) and intense (reaching 45% of the total Cu, 65% of the total Zn and Cd). Meanwhile, the increases in water-soluble As, Bi, Sb, Pb and Tl were far lower (ranging between 0.002% of the total Tl and 2.5% of the total As) and less rapid in the case of As, Bi and Pb (the highest values for these elements being reached 40 days after the spill). These soluble elements infiltrated the soils with the rainwater, swiftly augmenting the soil pollution. Twenty-five days after the spill, when the rainfall ranged between 45 and 63 mm, the first 10-cm of the soils in the middle and lower sectors of the basin exceeded the maximum concentration permitted for agricultural soils in Zn, Cu and Tl. At 40 days after the spill, when the rainfall ranged between 60 and 89 mm, all the soils reached or exceeded the maximum permitted concentrations for As and Tl. Nevertheless, the pollutants tended to concentrate in the first 10 cm of the soils without seriously contaminating either the subsoil or the groundwaters. Consequently, a rapid removal of the tailings and the ploughing of the first 25-30 cm of the soils would be urgent

  18. Complete removal of AHPS synthetic dye from water using new electro-fenton oxidation catalyzed by natural pyrite as heterogeneous catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labiadh, Lazhar; Oturan, Mehmet A; Panizza, Marco; Hamadi, Nawfel Ben; Ammar, Salah

    2015-10-30

    The mineralization of a new azo dye - the (4-amino-3-hydroxy-2-p-tolylazo-naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid) (AHPS) - has been studied by a novel electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP), consisting in electro-Fenton (EF) oxidation, catalyzed by pyrite as the heterogeneous catalyst - the so-called 'pyrite-EF'. This solid pyrite used as heterogeneous catalyst instead of a soluble iron salt, is the catalyst the system needs for production of hydroxyl radicals. Experiments were performed in an undivided cell equipped with a BDD anode and a commercial carbon felt cathode to electrogenerate in situ H2O2 and regenerate ferrous ions as catalyst. The effects on operating parameters, such as applied current, pyrite concentration and initial dye content, were investigated. AHPS decay and mineralization efficiencies were monitored by HPLC analyses and TOC measurements, respectively. Experimental results showed that AHPS was quickly oxidized by hydroxyl radicals (OH) produced simultaneously both on BDD surface by water discharge and in solution bulk from electrochemically assisted Fenton's reaction with a pseudo-first-order reaction. AHPS solutions with 175 mg L(-1) (100 mg L(-1) initial TOC) content were then almost completely mineralized in 8h. Moreover, the results demonstrated that, under the same conditions, AHPS degradation by pyrite electro-Fenton process was more powerful than the conventional electro-Fenton process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Iron isotope fractionation during pyrite formation in a sulfidic Precambrian ocean analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolison, John M.; Stirling, Claudine H.; Middag, Rob; Gault-Ringold, Melanie; George, Ejin; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.

    2018-04-01

    The chemical response of the Precambrian oceans to rising atmospheric O2 levels remains controversial. The iron isotope signature of sedimentary pyrite is widely used to trace the microbial and redox states of the ocean, yet the iron isotope fractionation accompanying pyrite formation in nature is difficult to constrain due to the complexity of the pyrite formation process, difficulties in translating the iron isotope systematics of experimental studies to natural settings, and insufficient iron isotope datasets for natural euxinic (i.e. anoxic and sulfidic) marine basins where pyrite formation occurs. Herein we demonstrate, that a large, permil-level shift in the isotope composition of dissolved iron occurs in the Black Sea euxinic water column during syngenetic pyrite formation. Specifically, iron removal to syngenetic pyrite gives rise to an iron isotope fractionation factor between Fe(II) and FeS2 of 2.75 permil (‰), the largest yet reported for reactions under natural conditions that do not involve iron redox chemistry. These iron isotope systematics offer the potential to generate permil-level shifts in the sedimentary pyrite iron isotope record due to partial drawdown of the oceanic iron inventory. The implication is that the iron stable isotope signatures of sedimentary pyrites may record fundamental regime shifts between pyrite formation under sulfur-limited conditions and pyrite formation under iron-limited conditions. To this end, the iron isotope signatures of sedimentary pyrite may best represent the extent of euxinia in the past global ocean, rather than its oxygenation state. On this basis, the reinterpreted sedimentary pyrite Fe isotope record suggests a fundamental shift towards more sulfidic oceanic conditions coincident with the 'Great Oxidation Event' around 2.3 billion years ago. Importantly, this does not require the chemical state of the ocean to shift from mainly de-oxygenated to predominantly oxygenated in parallel with the permanent rise

  20. Production of hydroxyl radicals from abiotic oxidation of pyrite by oxygen under circumneutral conditions in the presence of low-molecular-weight organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Yuan, Songhu

    2017-12-01

    Besides acidic environments, pyrite oxidation also occurs in circumneutral environments, such as well-buffered marine and estuarine sediments and salt marshes where low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) (e.g., citrate and oxalate) prevail. However, the production of hydroxyl radicals (radOH) from pyrite oxidation by oxygen (O2) in these circumneutral environments is poorly understood. In this study, radOH production was measured during the abiotic oxidation of pyrite by O2 under circumneutral conditions. A pyrite suspension (50 g/L pyrite) that was buffered at pH 6-8 was exposed to air for oxygenation in the dark. Benzoate (20 mM) was added into the suspension to trap radOH. At pH 7, the cumulative radOH reached 7.5 μM within 420 min in the absence of LMWOAs, whereas it increased to 14.8, 12 and 11.2 μM in the presence of 1 mM ethylenediaminotetraacetate, citrate and oxalate, respectively. When the citrate concentration, which serves as a LMWOAs model, was increased from 0.5 to 5 mM, the cumulative radOH increased from 10.3 to 27.3 μM within 420 min at pH 7. With the decrease in pH from 8 to 6, the cumulative radOH increased from 2.1 to 23.3 μM in the absence of LMWOAs, but it increased from 8.8 to 134.9 μM in the presence of 3 mM citrate. The presence of LMWOAs enhanced the radOH production from pyrite oxidation under circumneutral conditions. In the absence of LMOWAs, radOH is produced mostly from the oxidation of adsorbed Fe(II) by O2. In the presence of citrate, radOH production is attributed mainly to the oxidation of Fe(II)-citrate- by O2 and secondarily to the oxidation of H2O on surface-sulfur defects. The acceleration of pyrite oxidation by Fe(III)-citrate increases radOH production. Fe(II)-citrate- is generated mainly from the complexation of adsorbed Fe(II) by citrate and the reduction of Fe(III)-citrate, and the generation is suppressed by the oxidation of adsorbed Fe(II). Fe(III)-citrate is generated predominantly from Fe

  1. The quality and quantity of runoff and groundwater in two overburden dumps undergoing pyritic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, J.A.; Harries, J.R.; Ritchie, A.I.M.

    1983-01-01

    The quality and quantity of runoff and seepage water from two waste rock dumps at the abandoned uranium mine at Rum Jungle, N.T., have been monitored over various time intervals since 1975. Both dumps contain pyrite which is oxidising and solubilising trace metals within the dumps. Results are presented for the quality and quantity of runoff from both dumps measured in the 1980-81 wet season. The rainfall/runoff characteristics of the two dumps measured during this wet season are similar and in good agreement with measurements made in previous wet seasons. Pollution loads in runoff were only a few per cent of pollution loads in water percolating through to the base of the dumps. The rainfall/runoff characteristics and the dominance of pollution loads in water percolating through the dumps are likely to apply to other similar waste rock dumps

  2. A sustainable process to utilize ferrous sulfate waste from titanium oxide industry by reductive decomposition reaction with pyrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Penghui; Deng, Shaogang; Zhang, Zhiye; Wang, Xinlong; Chen, Xiaodong; Yang, Xiushan; Yang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A newly developed treating process of ferrous sulfate was proposed. • The reaction process was discussed by thermodynamic analysis. • Thermodynamic analysis was compared with experiments results. • The kinetic model of the decomposition reaction was determined. • The reaction mechanism of autocatalytic reactions was explored. - Abstract: Ferrous sulfate waste has become a bottleneck in the sustainable development of the titanium dioxide industry in China. In this study, we propose a new method for the reductive decomposition of ferrous sulfate waste using pyrite. Thermodynamics analysis, tubular reactor experiments, and kinetics analysis were performed to analyze the reaction process. The results of the thermodynamic simulation showed that the reaction process and products were different when molar ratio of FeSO_4/FeS_2 was changed. The suitable molar ratio of FeSO_4/FeS_2 was 8–12. The reaction temperature of ferrous sulfate with pyrite was 580–770 K and the main products were Fe_3O_4 and SO_2. The simulation results agreed well with the experimental results. The desulphurization rate reached 98.55% and main solid products were Fe_3O_4 at 823.15 K when mole ratio of FeSO_4/FeS_2 was 8. Nano-sized magnetite was obtained at this condition. The kinetic model was investigated by isoconversional methods. The average E value was 244.34 kJ mol"−"1. The ferrous sulfate decomposition process can be treated as autocatalytic reaction mechanism, which corresponded to the expanded Prout–Tompson (Bna) model. The reaction mechanism of autocatalytic reactions during the process of ferrous sulfate decomposition were explored, the products of Fe oxide substances are the catalyst components.

  3. Thermodynamic controls on the kinetics of microbial low-pH Fe(II) oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Lance N; Sánchez-España, Javier; Kaley, Bradley; Sheng, Yizhi; Bibby, Kyle; Burgos, William D

    2014-08-19

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a major worldwide environmental threat to surface and groundwater quality. Microbial low-pH Fe(II) oxidation could be exploited for cost-effective AMD treatment; however, its use is limited because of uncertainties associated with its rate and ability to remove Fe from solution. We developed a thermodynamic-based framework to evaluate the kinetics of low-pH Fe(II) oxidation. We measured the kinetics of low-pH Fe(II) oxidation at five sites in the Appalachian Coal Basin in the US and three sites in the Iberian Pyrite Belt in Spain and found that the fastest rates of Fe(II) oxidation occurred at the sites with the lowest pH values. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the Gibbs free energy of Fe(II) oxidation (ΔG(oxidation)) was also most negative at the sites with the lowest pH values. We then conducted two series of microbial Fe(II) oxidation experiments in laboratory-scale chemostatic bioreactors operated through a series of pH values (2.1-4.2) and found the same relationships between Fe(II) oxidation kinetics, ΔG(oxidation), and pH. Conditions that favored the fastest rates of Fe(II) oxidation coincided with higher Fe(III) solubility. The solubility of Fe(III) minerals, thus plays an important role on Fe(II) oxidation kinetics. Methods to incorporate microbial low-pH Fe(II) oxidation into active and passive AMD treatment systems are discussed in the context of these findings. This study presents a simplified model that describes the relationship between free energy and microbial kinetics and should be broadly applicable to many biogeochemical systems.

  4. Synergistic effect of biogenic Fe3+ coupled to S° oxidation on simultaneous bioleaching of Cu, Co, Zn and As from hazardous Pyrite Ash Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sandeep; Akcil, Ata; Mishra, Srabani; Erust, Ceren

    2017-03-05

    Pyrite ash, a waste by-product formed during roasting of pyrite ores, is a good source of valuable metals. The waste is associated with several environmental issues due to its dumping in sea and/or land filling. Although several other management practices are available for its utilization, the waste still awaits and calls for an eco-friendly biotechnological application for metal recovery. In the present study, chemolithotrophic meso-acidophilic iron and sulphur oxidisers were evaluated for the first time towards simultaneous mutli-metal recovery from pyrite ash. XRD and XRF analysis indicated higher amount of Hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) in the sample. ICP-OES analysis indicated concentrations of Cu>Zn>Co>As that were considered for bioleaching. Optimization studies indicated Cu - 95%, Co - 97%, Zn - 78% and As - 60% recovery within 8days at 10% pulp density, pH - 1.75, 10% (v/v) inoculum and 9g/L Fe 2+ . The productivity of the bioleaching system was found to be Cu - 1696ppm/d (12% dissolution/d), Co - 338ppm/d (12.2% dissolution/d), Zn k 576ppm/d (9.8% dissolution/d) and As - 75ppm/d (7.5% dissolution/d). Synergistic actions for Fe 2+ - S° oxidation by iron and sulphur oxidisers were identified as the key drivers for enhanced metal dissolution from pyrite ash sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Abiotic oxidation of pyrite by Fe(III) in acidic media and its implications for sulfur isotope measurements of lattice-bound sulfate in sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mazumdar, A.; Goldberg, T.; Strauss, H.

    (OH) 3 (Perez-Lopez et al., 2007) and hydrated iron sulfate (Lefticariu et al., 2006) havealsobeen reported. Someflaky material deposited in some of the reaction pits (Fig. 5C) in our experiment probably resembles ferric oxide/hydroxide (Perez-Lopez et al...–160. Perez-Lopez, R., Cama, J., Nieto, J.M., Ayora, C., 2007. The iron-coating role on the oxidation kinetics of a pyritic sludge doped with flyash. Geochim Cosmochim Acta. 71, 1921–1934. Piper, D.Z., Kolodny, Y.,1987. The stable isotopic composition of a...

  6. Simultaneous oxidation of arsenic and antimony at low and circumneutral pH, with and without microbial catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asta, Maria P.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic and Sb are common mine-water pollutants and their toxicity and fate are strongly influenced by redox processes. In this study, simultaneous Fe(II), As(III) and Sb(III) oxidation experiments were conducted to obtain rates under laboratory conditions similar to those found in the field for mine waters of both low and circumneutral pH. Additional experiments were performed under abiotic sterile conditions to determine the biotic and abiotic contributions to the oxidation processes. The results showed that under abiotic conditions in aerated Fe(III)–H2SO4 solutions, Sb(III) oxidizes slightly faster than As(III). The oxidation rates of both elements were accelerated by increasing As(III), Sb(III), Fe(III), and Cl− concentrations in the presence of light. For unfiltered circumneutral water from the Giant Mine (Yellowknife, NWT, Canada), As(III) oxidized at 15–78 μmol/L/h whereas Sb(III) oxidized at 0.03–0.05 μmol/L/h during microbial exponential growth. In contrast, As(III) and Sb(III) oxidation rates of 0.01–0.03 and 0.01–0.02 μmol/L/h, respectively, were obtained in experiments performed with acid unfiltered mine waters from the Iberian Pyritic Belt (SW Spain). These results suggest that the Fe(III) formed from microbial oxidation abiotically oxidized As(III) and Sb(III). After sterile filtration of both mine water samples, neither As(III), Sb(III), nor Fe(II) oxidation was observed. Hence, under the experimental conditions, bacteria were catalyzing As and Sb oxidation in the Giant Mine waters and Fe oxidation in the acid waters of the Iberian Pyrite Belt.

  7. Oxidation of dibenzothiophene as a model substrate for the removal of organic sulphur from fossil fuels by iron(III ions generated from pyrite by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR P. BESKOSKI

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Within this paper a new idea for the removal of organically bonded sulphur from fossil fuels is discussed. Dibenzothiophene (DBT was used as a model compound of organicmolecules containing sulphur. This form of (biodesulphurization was performed by an indirect mechanism in which iron(III ions generated from pyrite by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans performed the abiotic oxidation. The obtained reaction products, dibenzothiopene sulfoxide and dibenzothiophene sulfone, are more soluble in water than the basic substrate and the obtained results confirmed the basic hypothesis and give the posibility of continuing the experiments related to application of this (biodesulphurization process.

  8. Exploring Microbial Iron Oxidation in Wetland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Muyzer, G.; Bodelier, P. L. E.; den Oudsten, F.; Laanbroek, H. J.

    2009-04-01

    Iron is one of the most abundant elements on earth and is essential for life. Because of its importance, iron cycling and its interaction with other chemical and microbial processes has been the focus of many studies. Iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) have been detected in a wide variety of environments. Among those is the rhizosphere of wetland plants roots which release oxygen into the soil creating suboxic conditions required by these organisms. It has been reported that in these rhizosphere microbial iron oxidation proceeds up to four orders of magnitude faster than strictly abiotic oxidation. On the roots of these wetland plants iron plaques are formed by microbial iron oxidation which are involved in the sequestering of heavy metals as well organic pollutants, which of great environmental significance.Despite their important role being catalysts of iron-cycling in wetland environments, little is known about the diversity and distribution of iron-oxidizing bacteria in various environments. This study aimed at developing a PCR-DGGE assay enabling the detection of iron oxidizers in wetland habitats. Gradient tubes were used to enrich iron-oxidizing bacteria. From these enrichments, a clone library was established based on the almost complete 16s rRNA gene using the universal bacterial primers 27f and 1492r. This clone library consisted of mainly α- and β-Proteobacteria, among which two major clusters were closely related to Gallionella spp. Specific probes and primers were developed on the basis of this 16S rRNA gene clone library. The newly designed Gallionella-specific 16S rRNA gene primer set 122f/998r was applied to community DNA obtained from three contrasting wetland environments, and the PCR products were used in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. A second 16S rRNA gene clone library was constructed using the PCR products from one of our sampling sites amplified with the newly developed primer set 122f/998r. The cloned 16S rRNA gene

  9. Thermal decomposition of pyrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.; Ristic, M.; Popovic, S.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of natural pyrite (cubic, FeS 2 ) has been investigated using X-ray diffraction and 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis of pyrite ore from different sources showed the presence of associated minerals, such as quartz, szomolnokite, stilbite or stellerite, micas and hematite. Hematite, maghemite and pyrrhotite were detected as thermal decomposition products of natural pyrite. The phase composition of the thermal decomposition products depends on the terature, time of heating and starting size of pyrite chrystals. Hematite is the end product of the thermal decomposition of natural pyrite. (author) 24 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  10. Carbon mineralization and pyrite oxidation in groundwater: Importance for silicate weathering in boreal forest soils and stream base-flow chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaminder, J.; Grip, H.; Moerth, C.-M.; Laudon, H.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Organic compounds is mineralized during later transport in deep groundwater aquifers. → Carbonic acid generated by this process stimulates dissolution of silicate minerals. → Protons derived from pyrite oxidation also affects weathering in deep groundwater. → The identified weathering mechanisms affect base-flow chemistry in boreal streams. - Abstract: What role does mineralized organic C and sulfide oxidation play in weathering of silicate minerals in deep groundwater aquifers? In this study, how H 2 CO 3 , produced as a result of mineralization of organic matter during groundwater transport, affects silicate weathering in the saturated zone of the mineral soil along a 70 m-long boreal hillslope is demonstrated. Stream water measurements of base cations and δ 18 O are included to determine the importance of the deep groundwater system for downstream surface water. The results suggest that H 2 CO 3 generated from organic compounds being mineralized during the lateral transport stimulates weathering at depths between 0.5 and 3 m in the soil. This finding is indicated by progressively increasing concentrations of base cations-, silica- and inorganic C (IC) in the groundwater along the hillslope that co-occur with decreasing organic C (OC) concentrations. Protons derived from sulfide oxidation appear to be an additional driver of the weathering process as indicated by a build-up of SO 4 2- in the groundwater during lateral transport and a δ 34 S per mille value of +0.26-3.76 per mille in the deep groundwater indicating S inputs from pyrite. The two identified active acids in the deep groundwater are likely to control the base-flow chemistry of streams draining larger catchments (>1 km 2 ) as evident by δ 18 O signatures and base cation concentrations that overlap with that of the groundwater.

  11. Carbon mineralization and pyrite oxidation in groundwater: Importance for silicate weathering in boreal forest soils and stream base-flow chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaminder, J., E-mail: jonatan.klaminder@emg.umu.se [Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, SE-901 83 Umea (Sweden)] [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umea University, SE-901 87 (Sweden); Grip, H. [Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, SE-901 83 Umea (Sweden); Moerth, C.-M. [Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Laudon, H. [Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, SE-901 83 Umea (Sweden)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Organic compounds is mineralized during later transport in deep groundwater aquifers. {yields} Carbonic acid generated by this process stimulates dissolution of silicate minerals. {yields} Protons derived from pyrite oxidation also affects weathering in deep groundwater. {yields} The identified weathering mechanisms affect base-flow chemistry in boreal streams. - Abstract: What role does mineralized organic C and sulfide oxidation play in weathering of silicate minerals in deep groundwater aquifers? In this study, how H{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, produced as a result of mineralization of organic matter during groundwater transport, affects silicate weathering in the saturated zone of the mineral soil along a 70 m-long boreal hillslope is demonstrated. Stream water measurements of base cations and {delta}{sup 18}O are included to determine the importance of the deep groundwater system for downstream surface water. The results suggest that H{sub 2}CO{sub 3} generated from organic compounds being mineralized during the lateral transport stimulates weathering at depths between 0.5 and 3 m in the soil. This finding is indicated by progressively increasing concentrations of base cations-, silica- and inorganic C (IC) in the groundwater along the hillslope that co-occur with decreasing organic C (OC) concentrations. Protons derived from sulfide oxidation appear to be an additional driver of the weathering process as indicated by a build-up of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in the groundwater during lateral transport and a {delta}{sup 34}S per mille value of +0.26-3.76 per mille in the deep groundwater indicating S inputs from pyrite. The two identified active acids in the deep groundwater are likely to control the base-flow chemistry of streams draining larger catchments (>1 km{sup 2}) as evident by {delta}{sup 18}O signatures and base cation concentrations that overlap with that of the groundwater.

  12. Pyrite-coated granite cobbles at Lee Bay, Stewart Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brathwaite, R.L.; Skinner, D.N.B.; Faure, K.; Edwards, E.

    2014-01-01

    On the west side of Lee Bay on the northeast coast of Stewart Island, ventifact cobbles of pyrite-coated granite occur on the beach near the high tide mark and appear to be derived from a sand-cemented gravel deposit that forms a low bank at the back of the beach. The pyrite coat (up to 1 mm thick) completely covers the granitic cobbles and is zoned, with an inner zone of fine-grained colloform pyrite and an outer framboidal zone. Framboidal pyrite is typically formed in anoxic sedimentary environments. Subrounded grains of hematite, ilmenite with hematite blebs, magnetite, feldspar, biotite, quartz and zircon are present in the outer framboidal zone, with some ilmenite and hematite grains being partially replaced by pyrite. The assemblage of ilmenite-hematite-magnetite-biotite-zircon is similar both in mineralogy and size range to that found in heavy mineral beach sands. Sulphur isotope values of the pyrite coat are consistent with formation of the pyrite by microbial sulphate reduction of seawater sulphate. The framboidal texture together with the presence of grains of beach sand in the pyrite coating indicate that it was deposited in a low-temperature sedimentary environment. (author)

  13. Role of the carbonate impurities on the surface state of pyrite and arsenopyrite under treatment by high power electromagnetic pulses (HPEMP): oxidation of 50-100 μm size particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippova, I; Filippov, L; Ryazantseva, M; Chanturiya, V; Bunin, I

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) have shown the variation of surface phase compositions of carbonate bearing pyrite and arsenopyrite as a result of the combined action of chemical oxidation and thermal processes after the treatment by high power electromagnetic pulses (HPEMP). The monitoring of the surface phase composition allowed to determine the correlation between the treatment conditions, the surface phase composition, and the flotation yield. Thus, HPEMP treatment may be regarded as a tool controlling the surface composition and the sorption ability of flotation collector onto minerals surface, and therefore, allowing to control the hydrophobic-hydrophilic surface balance. It was confirmed in this study that the flotation of pyrite with xanthate as a result of the influence HPEMP may vary depending on the presence of impurities such as calcite.

  14. Pyrite footprinting of RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlatterer, Jörg C.; Wieder, Matthew S.; Jones, Christopher D.; Pollack, Lois; Brenowitz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► RNA structure is mapped by pyrite mediated · OH footprinting. ► Repetitive experiments can be done in a powdered pyrite filled cartridge. ► High · OH reactivity of nucleotides imply dynamic role in Diels–Alderase catalysis. -- Abstract: In RNA, function follows form. Mapping the surface of RNA molecules with chemical and enzymatic probes has revealed invaluable information about structure and folding. Hydroxyl radicals ( · OH) map the surface of nucleic acids by cutting the backbone where it is accessible to solvent. Recent studies showed that a microfluidic chip containing pyrite (FeS 2 ) can produce sufficient · OH to footprint DNA. The 49-nt Diels–Alder RNA enzyme catalyzes the C–C bond formation between a diene and a dienophile. A crystal structure, molecular dynamics simulation and atomic mutagenesis studies suggest that nucleotides of an asymmetric bulge participate in the dynamic architecture of the ribozyme’s active center. Of note is that residue U42 directly interacts with the product in the crystallized RNA/product complex. Here, we use powdered pyrite held in a commercially available cartridge to footprint the Diels–Alderase ribozyme with single nucleotide resolution. Residues C39 to U42 are more reactive to · OH than predicted by the solvent accessibility calculated from the crystal structure suggesting that this loop is dynamic in solution. The loop’s flexibility may contribute to substrate recruitment and product release. Our implementation of pyrite-mediated · OH footprinting is a readily accessible approach to gleaning information about the architecture of small RNA molecules.

  15. Estudo da dissolução oxidativa microbiológica de uma complexa amostra mineral contendo pirita (FeS2, Pirrotita (Fe1-xS e Molibdenita (MoS2 Microbiological oxidative dissolution of a complex mineral sample containing pyrite (FeS2, pyrrotite (Fe1-xS and molybdenite (MoS2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmo E. Francisco Jr

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study the oxidation of a complex molybdenite mineral which contains pyrite and pyrrotite, by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. This study was performed by respirometric essays and bioleaching in shake flasks. Respirometric essays yielded the kinetics of mineral oxidation. The findings showed that sulfide oxidation followed classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Bioleaching in shake flasks allowed evaluation of chemical and mineralogical changes resulting from sulfide oxidation. The results demonstrated that pyrrotite and pyrite were completely oxidized in A. ferrooxidans cultures whereas molybdenite was not consumed. These data indicated that molybdenite was the most recalcitrant sulfide in the sample.

  16. Microbiological oxidative dissolution of a complex mineral sample containing pyrite (FeS{sub 2}), pyrrotite (Fe{sub 1-x}S) and molybdenite (MoS{sub 2}); Estudo da dissolucao oxidativa microbiologica de uma complexa amostra mineral contendo pirita (FeS{sub 2}), Pirrotita (Fe{sub 1-x}S) e Molibdenita (MoS{sub 2})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco Junior, Wilmo E.; Bevilaqua, Denise; Garcia Junior, Oswaldo [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Bioquimica e Tecnologia Quimica]. E-mail: wilmojr@bol.com.br

    2007-09-15

    This work aims to study the oxidation of a complex molybdenite mineral which contains pyrite and pyrrotite, by Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans. This study was performed by respirometric essays and bioleaching in shake flasks. Respirometric essays yielded the kinetics of mineral oxidation. The findings showed that sulfide oxidation followed classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Bioleaching in shake flasks allowed evaluation of chemical and mineralogical changes resulting from sulfide oxidation. The results demonstrated that pyrrotite and pyrite were completely oxidized in A. ferrooxidans cultures whereas molybdenite was not consumed. These data indicated that molybdenite was the most recalcitrant sulfide in the sample. (author)

  17. Potential for microbial oxidation of ferrous iron in basaltic glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Mai Yia; Shelobolina, Evgenya S; Roden, Eric E

    2015-05-01

    Basaltic glass (BG) is an amorphous ferrous iron [Fe(II)]-containing material present in basaltic rocks, which are abundant on rocky planets such as Earth and Mars. Previous research has suggested that Fe(II) in BG can serve as an energy source for chemolithotrophic microbial metabolism, which has important ramifications for potential past and present microbial life on Mars. However, to date there has been no direct demonstration of microbially catalyzed oxidation of Fe(II) in BG. In this study, three different culture systems were used to investigate the potential for microbial oxidation of Fe(II) in BG, including (1) the chemolithoautotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing "Straub culture"; (2) the mixotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing organism Desulfitobacterium frappieri strain G2; and (3) indigenous microorganisms from a streambed Fe seep in Wisconsin. The BG employed consisted of clay and silt-sized particles of freshly quenched lava from the TEB flow in Kilauea, Hawaii. Soluble Fe(II) or chemically reduced NAu-2 smectite (RS) were employed as positive controls to verify Fe(II) oxidation activity in the culture systems. All three systems demonstrated oxidation of soluble Fe(II) and/or structural Fe(II) in RS, whereas no oxidation of Fe(II) in BG material was observed. The inability of the Straub culture to oxidize Fe(II) in BG was particularly surprising, as this culture can oxidize other insoluble Fe(II)-bearing minerals such as biotite, magnetite, and siderite. Although the reason for the resistance of the BG toward enzymatic oxidation remains unknown, it seems possible that the absence of distinct crystal faces or edge sites in the amorphous glass renders the material resistant to such attack. These findings have implications with regard to the idea that Fe(II)-Si-rich phases in basalt rocks could provide a basis for chemolithotrophic microbial life on Mars, specifically in neutral-pH environments where acid-promoted mineral dissolution and

  18. Genesis of uranium-gold pyritic conglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    The ancient pyritic ore conglomerates have a common origin best exemplified by the Witwatersrand deposits. All contain detrital pyrite and uraninite, which are unstable in modern oxygenated environments and were deposited in a reducing atmosphere. The Rand reefs are not similar to modern gold placers. Placers result from the near incapacity of streams and currents to transport coarse gold. Placers as rich as Rand reef occur only in narrow paystreaks within 15 kilometers of a coarse-gold source. The board dispersion of gold in the reefs is due to solution transport of metal complexed as aurous sulfide, leached anoxygenically from crustal rocks, probably from sea-floor basalt, and precipitated by a slow reaction driven by the radioactive decay of detrital uraninite. Radiolysis of water on shallow marine unconformities resulted in diffusion of hydrogen to the atmosphere and a slight excess of hydroxyl free radical in the reef environment. The mild oxidizing tendency slowly dissolved uranium, precipitated gold, and oxygenated thucholite. These actions define a maturing process. A uraninite placer accumulating on an unconformity becomes progressively converted to a gold reef with little residual uraninite. The most mature reefs tend to grade toward the thucholite-seam type, very thin but exceedingly rich in gold. A combination of chemical attack and physical reworking accounts for the general thinness of mature reefs. Pyrite, like uraninite, decreases in abundance with increasing maturity; buffering by pyrite moderated the oxidative depletion of uranium. Where pyrite was scanty or absent, uraninite was completely dissolved by the effects of radiolysis and no ore formed

  19. Mathematical modelling of transport of gaseous and liquid substances induced by pyrite oxidation in spoil banks of lignite mines; Mathematische Modellierung der durch Pyritoxidation induzierten Stofftransporte in Braunkohleabraumkippen in gasfoermiger und fluessiger Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, R.

    2001-07-01

    Pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) oxidation due to open-pit lignite mining activities may result in acid mine drainage and dissolved metals in the soil and ground water of the overburden spoil piles. The pyrite oxidation takes place firstly during the mining process and at the temporary surfaces of the mine, secondly in deep zones of the overburden spoil pile as a result of gas transport through the unsaturated zone. The second process continues after mine closure possibly over several decades and therefore contaminates the environment for a long time. Whereas some studies deal with a minimisation by geochemical means, this research focuses on a minimisation by impacting the physical boundary conditions. Special attention is given to the transport of oxygen from the soil surface to the pyrite oxidation zone. Soil column experiments with columns of 2.90 m height yield experimental data concerning the pyrite oxidation and the related transport processes in the unsaturated zone. Experimental data are compared to simulation results obtained with the model MUSIC; it calculates coupled reaction and transport processes in a one-dimensional soil profile using the finite volume method. Pyrite oxidation is described by means of a first order kinetics, the gas transport takes place by diffusion as well as convection. The transport of solutes in the soil water is described by the convection-dispersion equation (Cl{sup -}, Fe{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}). The simulations are able to reproduce the measured time series of oxygen concentrations in the soil profile. (orig.) [German] Die durch Braunkohlegewinnung im Tagebau hervorgerufene Pyritoxidation (Pyrit: FeS{sub 2}) kann zu Versauerung, Schwermetallfreisetzung und Aufmineralisierung des Boden- und Grundwassers in den Abraumkippen fuehren. Die Pyritoxidation findet zum einen waehrend des Abbaubetriebs und an den temporaeren Oberflaechen des Tagebaus statt, zum anderen in tieferen Bereichen der Abraumkippe durch Gastransport durch die

  20. Silane-based coatings on the pyrite for remediation of acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Zenghui; Shi, Taihong; Wang, Shizhong; Huang, Xiongfei; Zhang, Tao; Tang, Yetao; Zhang, Xiaying; Qiu, Rongliang

    2013-09-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) resulting from the oxidation of pyrite and other metal sulfides has caused significant environmental problems, including acidification of rivers and streams as well as leaching of toxic metals. With the goal of controlling AMD at the source, we evaluated the potential of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and n-propyltrimethoxysilane (NPS) coatings to suppress pyrite oxidation. The release of total Fe and SO4(-2) from uncoated and coated pyrite in the presence of a chemical oxidizing agent (H2O2) or iron-oxidizing bacteria (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans) was measured. Results showed that TEOS- and NPS-based coatings reduced chemical oxidation of pyrite by as much as 59 and 96% (based on Fe release), respectively, while biological oxidation of pyrite was reduced by 69 and 95%, respectively. These results were attributed to the formation of a dense network of Fe-O-Si and Si-O-Si bonds on the pyrite surface that limited permeation of oxygen, water, and bacteria. Compared with results for TEOS-coated pyrite, higher pH and lower concentrations of total Fe and SO4(-2) were observed for oxidation of NPS-coated pyrite, which was attributed to its crack-free morphology and the presence of hydrophobic groups on the NPS-based coating surface. The silane-based NPS coating was shown to be highly effective in suppressing pyrite oxidation, making it a promising alternative for remediation of AMD at its source. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pyrite Passivation by Triethylenetetramine: An Electrochemical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of triethylenetetramine (TETA to inhibit the oxidation of pyrite in H2SO4 solution had been investigated by using the open-circuit potential (OCP, cyclic voltammetry (CV, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance (EIS, respectively. Experimental results indicate that TETA is an efficient coating agent in preventing the oxidation of pyrite and that the inhibition efficiency is more pronounced with the increase of TETA. The data from potentiodynamic polarization show that the inhibition efficiency (η% increases from 42.08% to 80.98% with the concentration of TETA increasing from 1% to 5%. These results are consistent with the measurement of EIS (43.09% to 82.55%. The information obtained from potentiodynamic polarization also displays that the TETA is a kind of mixed type inhibitor.

  2. Bacterial leaching of pyritic gold ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliardi, F.M.; Cashion, J.D.; Brown, J.; Jay, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Pyritic ores (pyrite and arsenopyrite) containing gold concentrations in excess of 50g Au/t can be processed to recover the gold by the removal of the sulphur from the ore. This may be achieved by roasting (producing sulphur dioxide emissions), pressure oxidation (expensive and suitable for large high grade deposits), pressure leaching (still currently being developed) or bacterial oxidation. The bacterial oxidation process is a well known process in nature but has only recently come under investigation as a economically viable and relatively clean method of gold recovery from deep low grade sulphidic ores. Samples were obtained from the Wiluna Gold Mine in Western Australia consisting of the original ore, six successive bacterial reactors and the final products. Moessbauer experiments have been performed at room temperature, liquid nitrogen and liquid helium temperatures, and in applied magnetic fields. The main components of the iron phases which were present during the bacterial treatment were pyrite and arsenopyrite which were readily oxidised by the bacteria. Ferric sulfates and ferric arsenates were identified as by-products of the process with a small amount of the oxyhydroxide goethite. These results are in contrast to the similar study of the Fairview Mine in South Africa where principally Fe(II) species were observed

  3. Production of ferric sulphate from pyrite by thiobacillus ferrooxidans. Application to uranium ore leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouas, C.

    1988-12-01

    A process for uranium extraction by oxidizing solutions of ferric sulphate produced by T. ferrooxidans from pyrite is developed. A new counting method specific of T. ferrooxidans is designed. An uranium resistant wild strain, with oxidizing properties as high as the strain ATCC 19859, is isolated. Optimal conditions for ferric sulphate production from pyrite are defined (pH 1.8, density of the medium 1.2%, pyrite granulometry [fr

  4. Method of synthesizing pyrite nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadia, Cyrus; Wu, Yue

    2013-04-23

    A method of synthesizing pyrite nanocrystals is disclosed which in one embodiment includes forming a solution of iron (III) diethyl dithiophosphate and tetra-alkyl-ammonium halide in water. The solution is heated under pressure. Pyrite nanocrystal particles are then recovered from the solution.

  5. Retention and reduction of uranium on pyrite surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eglizaud, N.

    2006-12-01

    In the hypothesis of a storage of the spent fuel in a deep geological formation, understanding the uranium dispersion in the environment is important. Pyrite is a reducing mineral present in the Callovo-Oxfordian argilites, the geological formation actually studied for such a storage. However, pyrite impact on uranium migration has already been poorly studied. The aim of the study was to understand the mechanisms of uranium(VI) retention and reduction on the pyrite surface (FeS 2 ). Solution chemistry was therefore coupled with solid spectroscopic studies (XPS and Raman spectroscopy). All uranium-pyrite interactions experiments were performed under an anoxic atmosphere, in a glove box. Pyrite dissolution under anoxic conditions releases sulfoxy-anions and iron(II), which can then be adsorbed on the pyrite surface. This adsorption was confirmed by interaction experiments using iron(II) isotopic dilution. Uranium(VI) is retained by an exchange reaction with iron(II) adsorbed on sulphur sites, with a maximal amount of sorbed uranium at pH ≥ 5.5. Cobalt(II) and europium(III) are also adsorbed on the pyrite surface above pH 5.5 confirming then that reduction is not required for species to adsorb on pyrite. When the concentration of uranium retained is lower than 4 x 10 -9 mol g -1 , an oxidation-reduction reaction leads to the formation of a uranium (VI) (IV) mixed oxide and to solid sulphur (d.o. ≥ -I). During this reaction, iron remains mostly at the +II oxidation degree. The reaction products seem to passivate the pyrite surface: at higher amounts of retained uranium, the oxidation-reduction reaction is no longer observed. The surface is saturated by the retention of (3.4 ± 0.8) x 10 -7 mol L -1 of uranium(VI). Modelling of uranium sorption at high surface coverage (≥ 4 x 10 -9 mol g -1 ) by the Langmuir model yields an adsorption constant of 8 x 10 7 L mol -1 . Finally, a great excess of uranium(VI) above the saturation concentration allows the observation of

  6. Isotopic and microbiological signatures of pyrite-driven denitrification in a sandy aquifer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.-C.; Slomp, C.P.; Broers, H.P.; Bostick, B.; Passier, H.F.; Böttcher, M.E.; Omoregie, E.O.; Lloyd, J.R.; Polya, D.A.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Denitrificationdriven by pyrite oxidation can play a major role in the removal of nitrate from groundwater systems. As yet, limited information is available on the interactions between the micro-organisms and aqueous and mineral phases in aquifers where pyrite oxidation is occurring. In this study,

  7. Isotopic and microbiological signatures of pyrite-driven denitrification in a sandy aquifer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.C.; Slomp, C.P.; Broers, H.P.; Bostick, B.; Passier, H.F.; Böttcher, M.E.; Omoregie, E.O.; Lloyd, J.R.; Polya, D.A.; Cappellen, P. van

    2012-01-01

    Denitrification driven by pyrite oxidation can play a major role in the removal of nitrate from groundwater systems. As yet, limited information is available on the interactions between the micro-organisms and aqueous and mineral phases in aquifers where pyrite oxidation is occurring. In this study,

  8. Arsenopyrite and pyrite bioleaching: evidence from XPS, XRD and ICP techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantauzzi, Marzia; Licheri, Cristina; Atzei, Davide; Loi, Giovanni; Elsener, Bernhard; Rossi, Giovanni; Rossi, Antonella

    2011-10-01

    In this work, a multi-technical bulk and surface analytical approach was used to investigate the bioleaching of a pyrite and arsenopyrite flotation concentrate with a mixed microflora mainly consisting of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray-induced Auger electron spectroscopy mineral surfaces investigations, along with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy and carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur determination (CHNS) analyses, were carried out prior and after bioleaching. The flotation concentrate was a mixture of pyrite (FeS(2)) and arsenopyrite (FeAsS); after bioleaching, 95% of the initial content of pyrite and 85% of arsenopyrite were dissolved. The chemical state of the main elements (Fe, As and S) at the surface of the bioreactor feed particles and of the residue after bioleaching was investigated by X-ray photoelectron and X-ray excited Auger electron spectroscopy. After bioleaching, no signals of iron, arsenic and sulphur originating from pyrite and arsenopyrite were detected, confirming a strong oxidation and the dissolution of the particles. On the surfaces of the mineral residue particles, elemental sulphur as reaction intermediate of the leaching process and precipitated secondary phases (Fe-OOH and jarosite), together with adsorbed arsenates, was detected. Evidence of microbial cells adhesion at mineral surfaces was also produced: carbon and nitrogen were revealed by CHNS, and nitrogen was also detected on the bioleached surfaces by XPS. This was attributed to the deposition, on the mineral surfaces, of the remnants of a bio-film consisting of an extra-cellular polymer layer that had favoured the bacterial action. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  9. Methane-oxidizing seawater microbial communities from an Arctic shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Christiane; Kirkpatrick, John B.; D'Hondt, Steven; Loose, Brice

    2018-06-01

    Marine microbial communities can consume dissolved methane before it can escape to the atmosphere and contribute to global warming. Seawater over the shallow Arctic shelf is characterized by excess methane compared to atmospheric equilibrium. This methane originates in sediment, permafrost, and hydrate. Particularly high concentrations are found beneath sea ice. We studied the structure and methane oxidation potential of the microbial communities from seawater collected close to Utqiagvik, Alaska, in April 2016. The in situ methane concentrations were 16.3 ± 7.2 nmol L-1, approximately 4.8 times oversaturated relative to atmospheric equilibrium. The group of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in the natural seawater and incubated seawater was > 97 % dominated by Methylococcales (γ-Proteobacteria). Incubations of seawater under a range of methane concentrations led to loss of diversity in the bacterial community. The abundance of MOB was low with maximal fractions of 2.5 % at 200 times elevated methane concentration, while sequence reads of non-MOB methylotrophs were 4 times more abundant than MOB in most incubations. The abundances of MOB as well as non-MOB methylotroph sequences correlated tightly with the rate constant (kox) for methane oxidation, indicating that non-MOB methylotrophs might be coupled to MOB and involved in community methane oxidation. In sea ice, where methane concentrations of 82 ± 35.8 nmol kg-1 were found, Methylobacterium (α-Proteobacteria) was the dominant MOB with a relative abundance of 80 %. Total MOB abundances were very low in sea ice, with maximal fractions found at the ice-snow interface (0.1 %), while non-MOB methylotrophs were present in abundances similar to natural seawater communities. The dissimilarities in MOB taxa, methane concentrations, and stable isotope ratios between the sea ice and water column point toward different methane dynamics in the two environments.

  10. Chemical Interactions of Hydraulic Fracturing Biocides with Natural Pyrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolazio, Nizette A.

    In conjunction with horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing or fracking has enabled the recovery of natural gas from low permeable shale formations. In addition to water, these fracking fluids employ proppants and up to 38 different chemical additives to improve the efficiency of the process. One important class of additives used in hydraulic fracturing is biocides. When applied appropriately, they limit the growth of harmful microorganisms within the well, saving energy producers 4.5 billion dollars each year. However, biocides or their harmful daughter products may return to the surface in produced water, which must then be appropriately stored, treated and disposed of. Little is known about the effect of mineral-fluid interactions on the fate of the biocides employed in hydraulic fracturing. In this study, we employed laboratory experiments to determine changes in the persistence and products of these biocides under controlled environments. While many minerals are present in shale formations, pyrite, FeS2(s) is particularly interesting because of its prevalence and reactivity. The FeII groups on the face of pyrite may be oxidized to form FeIII phases. Both of these surfaces have been shown to be reactive with organic compounds. Chlorinated compounds undergo redox reactions at the pyrite-fluid interface, and sulfur-containing compounds undergo exceptionally strong sorption to both pristine and oxidized pyrite. This mineral may significantly influence the degradation of biocides in the Marcellus Shale. Thus, the overall goal of this study was to understand the effect of pyrite on biocide reactivity in hydraulic fracturing, focusing on the influence of pyrite on specific functional groups. The first specific objective was to demonstrate the effect of pyrite and pyrite reaction products on the degradation of the bromine-containing biocide, DBNPA. On the addition of pyrite to DBNPA, degradation rates of the doubly brominated compound were found to increase

  11. Spectroscopic study of cystine adsorption on pyrite surface: From vacuum to solution conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Arenillas, M.; Mateo-Marti, E., E-mail: mateome@cab.inta-csic.es

    2015-09-08

    Highlights: • Successful adsorption of cystine on pyrite surface under several conditions. • Detailed XPS spectroscopic characterization of cystine adsorption on pyrite surface. • Spectroscopy evidence, oxidation and anoxic conditions adjust molecular adsorption. • Molecular chemistry on pyrite is driven depending on the surrounding conditions. • The cystine/pyrite(100) model is in good agreement with Wächtershäuser’s theory. - Abstract: We characterized the adsorption of cystine molecules on pyrite surface via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Anoxic conditions were simulated under ultra-high-vacuum conditions. In contrast, to simulate oxidation conditions, the molecules were adsorbed on pyrite surface from solution. A novel comparative analysis revealed remarkable differences with respect to molecular adsorption and surface chemistry induced by environmental conditions. Molecular adsorption under anoxic conditions was observed to be more favorable, concentrating a large number of molecules on the surface and two different chemical species. In contrast, the presence of oxygen induced an autocatalytic oxidation process on the pyrite surface, which facilitated water binding on pyrite surface and partially blocked molecular adsorption. Pyrite is a highly reactive surface and contains two crucial types of surface functional groups that drive molecular chemistry on the surface depending on the surrounding conditions. Therefore, the system explored in this study holds interesting implications for supporting catalyzed prebiotic chemistry reactions.

  12. Spectroscopic study of cystine adsorption on pyrite surface: From vacuum to solution conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Arenillas, M.; Mateo-Marti, E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Successful adsorption of cystine on pyrite surface under several conditions. • Detailed XPS spectroscopic characterization of cystine adsorption on pyrite surface. • Spectroscopy evidence, oxidation and anoxic conditions adjust molecular adsorption. • Molecular chemistry on pyrite is driven depending on the surrounding conditions. • The cystine/pyrite(100) model is in good agreement with Wächtershäuser’s theory. - Abstract: We characterized the adsorption of cystine molecules on pyrite surface via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Anoxic conditions were simulated under ultra-high-vacuum conditions. In contrast, to simulate oxidation conditions, the molecules were adsorbed on pyrite surface from solution. A novel comparative analysis revealed remarkable differences with respect to molecular adsorption and surface chemistry induced by environmental conditions. Molecular adsorption under anoxic conditions was observed to be more favorable, concentrating a large number of molecules on the surface and two different chemical species. In contrast, the presence of oxygen induced an autocatalytic oxidation process on the pyrite surface, which facilitated water binding on pyrite surface and partially blocked molecular adsorption. Pyrite is a highly reactive surface and contains two crucial types of surface functional groups that drive molecular chemistry on the surface depending on the surrounding conditions. Therefore, the system explored in this study holds interesting implications for supporting catalyzed prebiotic chemistry reactions

  13. Mechanisms of interaction between arsenian pyrite and aqueous arsenite under anoxic and oxic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guohong; Gao, Tianyu; Hong, Jun; Luo, Yao; Liu, Lihu; Tan, Wenfeng; Liu, Fan

    2018-05-01

    Pyrite affects the conversion and migration processes of arsenic in soils and waters. Adsorption and redox reactions of arsenite (As(III)) occur on the surface of pyrite, and the interaction processes are influenced by the arsenic incorporated into pyrite. This work examined the effects of arsenic content, pH and oxygen on the interaction between arsenian pyrite and aqueous As(III) and investigated the underlying mechanisms. The results indicated that arsenic incorporation led to a high content of Fe(III) in pyrite, and that As(III) was mainly adsorbed on pyrite surface and part of As(III) was oxidized to As(V) by the newly formed intermediates including hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide. The oxidation rate increased with increasing arsenic content in the pyrite and the presence of air (oxygen), and first decreased and then increased with increasing pH from 3.0 to 11.0. Hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide significantly contributed to the oxidation of pyrite and aqueous As(III) in acidic and alkaline solutions, respectively. Although pyrite oxidation increased with increasing arsenic content as indicated by the elevated concentrations of elemental S and SO42-, the percentage of released arsenic in total arsenic of the arsenian pyrite decreased due to the adsorption of arsenic on the surface of newly formed ferric (hydr)oxides, especially the ferric arsenate precipitate formed in high pH solutions. The present study enables a better understanding of the important interaction process of dissolved arsenite and natural pyrites in the study of groundwater contamination, arsenic migration/sequestration, and acid mine drainage formation.

  14. Bacterial leaching of pyritic gold ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, F.M.; Cashion, J.D.; Brown, L.J. [Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Jay, W.H. [Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia). Chemical Engineering Department

    1996-12-31

    The bacterial oxidation process is well known in nature but has only recently come under investigation as a viable and relatively clean method of gold recovery from ores. However there is currently little information about the process at an atomic scale. It is known that the bacterial attack progresses preferentially along grain boundaries which is precisely where the gold has been deposited from aqueous infiltration. Samples have been obtained from the Wiluna mine in Western Australia consisting of the original ore, 2 pre-treatments, and from six successive bacterial reactors. {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectra taken at room temperature show only two quadrupole split doublets which can be ascribed to pyrite, FeS{sub 2}, and arsenopyrite, FeAsS. However, the presence of any superparamagnetic oxide or oxyhydroxide species would be expected to give a spectrum very similar to that of pyrite and would be undetectable in small quantities. At a temperature of 5K, a broad magnetically split sextet is observable with a mean hyperfine field of approximately 50T. This field is characteristic of magnetically ordered ferric iron surrounded by an octahedron of oxygens. The intensity and characteristics of this subspectrum alters through the series and interpretations will be given on the oxidation products of the bacterial leaching

  15. Bacterial leaching of pyritic gold ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliardi, F.M.; Cashion, J.D.; Brown, L.J.; Jay, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    The bacterial oxidation process is well known in nature but has only recently come under investigation as a viable and relatively clean method of gold recovery from ores. However there is currently little information about the process at an atomic scale. It is known that the bacterial attack progresses preferentially along grain boundaries which is precisely where the gold has been deposited from aqueous infiltration. Samples have been obtained from the Wiluna mine in Western Australia consisting of the original ore, 2 pre-treatments, and from six successive bacterial reactors. 57 Fe Moessbauer spectra taken at room temperature show only two quadrupole split doublets which can be ascribed to pyrite, FeS 2 , and arsenopyrite, FeAsS. However, the presence of any superparamagnetic oxide or oxyhydroxide species would be expected to give a spectrum very similar to that of pyrite and would be undetectable in small quantities. At a temperature of 5K, a broad magnetically split sextet is observable with a mean hyperfine field of approximately 50T. This field is characteristic of magnetically ordered ferric iron surrounded by an octahedron of oxygens. The intensity and characteristics of this subspectrum alters through the series and interpretations will be given on the oxidation products of the bacterial leaching

  16. Thin film preparation of semiconducting iron pyrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smestad, Greg P.; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Fiechter, Sebastian; Hofmann, Wolfgang; Tributsch, Helmut; Kautek, Wolfgang

    1990-08-01

    Pyrite (Fe52) has been investigated as a promising new absorber material for thin film solar cell applications because of its high optical absorption coefficient of 1OL cm1, and its bandgap of 0.9 to 1.0 eV. Thin layers have been prepared by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition, MOCVD, Chemical Spray Pyrolysis, CSP, Chemical Vapor Transport, CVT, and Sulfurization of Iron Oxide films, 510. It is postulated that for the material FeS2, if x is not zero, a high point defect concentration results from replacing 2 dipoles by single S atoms. This causes the observed photovoltages and solar conversion efficiencies to be lower than expected. Using the Fe-O-S ternary phase diagram and the related activity plots, a thermodynamic understanding is formulated for the resulting composition of each of these types of films. It is found that by operating in the oxide portion of the phase diagram, the resulting oxidation state favors pyrite formation over FeS. By proper orientation of the grains relative to the film surface, and by control of pinholes and stoichiometry, an efficient thin film photovolatic solar cell material could be achieved.

  17. Iberian Pyrite Belt Subsurface Life (IPBSL), a drilling project in a geochemical Mars terrestrial analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amils, R.; Fernández-Remolar, D. C.; Parro, V.; Manfredi, J. A.; Timmis, K.; Oggerin, M.; Sánchez-Román, M.; López, F. J.; Fernández, J. P.; Omoregie, E.; Gómez-Ortiz, D.; Briones, C.; Gómez, F.; García, M.; Rodríguez, N.; Sanz, J. L.

    2012-09-01

    Iberian Pyrite Belt Subsurface Life (IPBSL) is a drilling project specifically designed to characterize the subsurface ecosystems operating in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), in the area of Peña de Hierro, and responsible of the extreme acidic conditions existing in the Rio Tinto basin [1]. Rio Tinto is considered a good geochemical terrestrial analogue of Mars [2, 3]. A dedicated geophysical characterization of the area selected two drilling sites (4) due to the possible existence of water with high ionic content (low resistivity). Two wells have been drilled in the selected area, BH11 and BH10, of depths of 340 and 620 meters respectively, with recovery of cores and generation of samples in anaerobic and sterile conditions. Preliminary results showed an important alteration of mineral structures associated with the presence of water, with production of expected products from the bacterial oxidation of pyrite (sulfates and ferric iron). Ion chromatography of water soluble compounds from uncontaminated samples showed the existence of putative electron donors (ferrous iron, nitrite in addition of the metal sulfides), electron acceptors (sulfate, nitrate, ferric iron) as well as variable concentration of metabolic organic acids (mainly acetate, formate, propionate and oxalate), which are strong signals of the presence of active subsurface ecosystem associated to the high sulfidic mineral content of the IPB. The system is driven by oxidants that appear to be provided by the rock matrix, only groundwater is needed to launch microbial metabolism. The geological, geomicrobiological and molecular biology analysis which are under way, should allow the characterization of this ecosystem of paramount interest in the design of an astrobiological underground Mars exploration mission in the near future.

  18. Carrier-microencapsulation using Si-catechol complex for suppressing pyrite floatability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, R.K.T.; Satur, J.; Hiroyoshi, N.; Ito, M.; Tsunekawa, M. [Hokkaido University, Hokkaido (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    2008-11-15

    Pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) is a common sulfide mineral associated with valuable metal minerals and coal, and it is rejected as a gangue mineral using physical separation techniques such as froth flotation and discharged into tailing pond. In the flotation, pyrite is frequently entrapped in the froth due to its hydrophobic nature. Formation of acid mine drainage due to the air-oxidation of pyrite in the tailing pond is also a serious problem. The authors have proposed carrier-microencapsulation (CME) as a method for suppressing both the floatability and oxidation of pyrite. In this method, pyrite is coated with a thin layer of metal oxide or hydroxide using catechol solution as a carrier combined with metal ions. The layer converts the pyrite surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic and acts as a protective coating against oxidation. The present study demonstrates the effect of CME using Si-catechol complex to suppress the pyrite floatability: The bubble pick-up experiments showed that attachment of pyrite particles to air bubble is suppressed by the CME treatment at pH 4-10, Si-catechol complex concentration over 0.5 mol m{sup -3} and treatment time within 2 min. The Hallimond tube flotation experiments showed that the pyrite floatability is suppressed by the CME treatment even in the presence of typical flotation collectors such as kerosene and xanthate. SEM-EDX analysis confirmed that Si present on the pyrite surface treated by Si-catechol complex, implying that SiO{sub 2} or SiOH{sub 4} layer formed by the CME treatment convert the pyrite surface hydrophobic to hydrophilic.

  19. Hydrogeologic and environmental impact of amjhore pyrite mines, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, Vishnu D.; Rawat, Rajendra K.

    1991-01-01

    Drainage from active and inactive pyrite mines has produced chemical and physical pollution of both ground- and surface water in Amjhore region. In the present case, chemical pollution is caused by exposing pyrite minerals to oxidation or leaching, resulting in undesirable concentrations of dissolved materials. Pyrite mining suddenly exposed large quantities of sulfides to direct contact with oxygen, and oxidation proceeds rapidly, resulting in acidity and release of metal (Fe) and sulfates to the water system, eventually resulting in water pollution in the region. The magnitude and impact of the problem is just being recognized and, as the present and the future projected demand for clean water is of top priority, the present studies were undertaken. Mine drainage includes water flowing from the surface and underground mines and runoff or seepage from the pyrite mines. This article describes the various hydrologic factors that control acid water formation and its transport. The mine drainage is obviously a continuing source of pollution and, therefore, remedial measures mainly consisting of a double-stage limestone-lime treatment technique have been suggested. The present results will be used to develop an alternative and more effective abatement technology to mitigate acid production at the source, namely, the technique of revegetation of the soil cover applied to the waste mine dump material. Water quality change is discussed in detail, with emphasis on acidity formed from exposed pyrite material and on increase in dissolved solids. Preventive and treatment measures are recommended.

  20. Production of aromas and fragrances through microbial oxidation of monoterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Rozenbaum

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Aromas and fragrances can be obtained through the microbial oxidation of monoterpenes. Many microorganisms can be used to carry out extremely specific conversions using substrates of low commercial value. However, for many species, these substrates are highly toxic, consequently inhibiting their metabolism. In this work, the conversion ability of Aspergillus niger IOC-3913 for terpenic compounds was examined. This species was preselected because of its high resistance to toxic monoterpenic substrates. Though it has been grown in media containing R-limonene (one of the cheapest monoterpenic hydrocarbons, which is widely available on the market, the species has not shown the ability to metabolize it, since biotransformation products were not detected in high resolution gas chromatography analyses. For this reason, other monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and camphor were used as substrates. These compounds were shown to be metabolized by the selected strain, producing oxidized compounds. Four reaction systems were used: a biotransformation in a liquid medium with cells in growth b with pre-grown cultures c with cells immobilized in a synthetic polymer network and d in a solid medium to which the substrate was added via the gas phase. The main biotransformation products were found in all the reaction systems, although the adoption of previously cultivated cells seemed to favor biotransformation. Cell immobilization seemed to be a feasible strategy for alleviating the toxic effect of the substrate. Through mass spectrometry it was possible to identify verbenone and alpha-terpineol as the biotransformation products of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, respectively. The structures of the other oxidation products are described.

  1. Thermophilic anaerobic oxidation of methane by marine microbial consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Thomas; Widdel, Friedrich; Knittel, Katrin; Amann, Rudolf; Kellermann, Matthias Y; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Teske, Andreas; Boetius, Antje; Wegener, Gunter

    2011-12-01

    The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) with sulfate controls the emission of the greenhouse gas methane from the ocean floor. AOM is performed by microbial consortia of archaea (ANME) associated with partners related to sulfate-reducing bacteria. In vitro enrichments of AOM were so far only successful at temperatures ≤25 °C; however, energy gain for growth by AOM with sulfate is in principle also possible at higher temperatures. Sequences of 16S rRNA genes and core lipids characteristic for ANME as well as hints of in situ AOM activity were indeed reported for geothermally heated marine environments, yet no direct evidence for thermophilic growth of marine ANME consortia was obtained to date. To study possible thermophilic AOM, we investigated hydrothermally influenced sediment from the Guaymas Basin. In vitro incubations showed activity of sulfate-dependent methane oxidation between 5 and 70 °C with an apparent optimum between 45 and 60 °C. AOM was absent at temperatures ≥75 °C. Long-term enrichment of AOM was fastest at 50 °C, yielding a 13-fold increase of methane-dependent sulfate reduction within 250 days, equivalent to an apparent doubling time of 68 days. The enrichments were dominated by novel ANME-1 consortia, mostly associated with bacterial partners of the deltaproteobacterial HotSeep-1 cluster, a deeply branching phylogenetic group previously found in a butane-amended 60 °C-enrichment culture of Guaymas sediments. The closest relatives (Desulfurella spp.; Hippea maritima) are moderately thermophilic sulfur reducers. Results indicate that AOM and ANME archaea could be of biogeochemical relevance not only in cold to moderate but also in hot marine habitats.

  2. Incorporating Geochemical And Microbial Kinetics In Reactive Transport Models For Generation Of Acid Rock Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, B. J.; Rajaram, H.; Silverstein, J.

    2010-12-01

    Acid mine drainage, AMD, results from the oxidation of metal sulfide minerals (e.g. pyrite), producing ferrous iron and sulfuric acid. Acidophilic autotrophic bacteria such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans obtain energy by oxidizing ferrous iron back to ferric iron, using oxygen as the electron acceptor. Most existing models of AMD do not account for microbial kinetics or iron geochemistry rigorously. Instead they assume that oxygen limitation controls pyrite oxidation and thus focus on oxygen transport. These models have been successfully used for simulating conditions where oxygen availability is a limiting factor (e.g. source prevention by capping), but have not been shown to effectively model acid generation and effluent chemistry under a wider range of conditions. The key reactions, oxidation of pyrite and oxidation of ferrous iron, are both slow kinetic processes. Despite being extensively studied for the last thirty years, there is still not a consensus in the literature about the basic mechanisms, limiting factors or rate expressions for microbially enhanced oxidation of metal sulfides. An indirect leaching mechanism (chemical oxidation of pyrite by ferric iron to produce ferrous iron, with regeneration of ferric iron by microbial oxidation of ferrous iron) is used as the foundation of a conceptual model for microbially enhanced oxidation of pyrite. Using literature data, a rate expression for microbial consumption of ferrous iron is developed that accounts for oxygen, ferrous iron and pH limitation. Reaction rate expressions for oxidation of pyrite and chemical oxidation of ferrous iron are selected from the literature. A completely mixed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) model is implemented coupling the kinetic rate expressions, speciation calculations and flow. The model simulates generation of AMD and effluent chemistry that qualitatively agrees with column reactor and single rock experiments. A one dimensional reaction

  3. Microbial dechlorination activity during and after chemical oxidant treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doğan-Subaşı, Eylem [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Separation and Conversion Technology, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Laboratory of Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET), Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Bastiaens, Leen, E-mail: leen.bastiaens@vito.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Separation and Conversion Technology, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Boon, Nico [Laboratory of Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET), Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Dejonghe, Winnie [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Separation and Conversion Technology, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Combined treatment was possible below 0.5 g/L of KMnO{sub 4} and 1 g/L of Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8}. • By-products SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and MnO{sub 2(s)} had inhibitory effects on dehalogenating bacteria. • Oxidation reduction potential (ORP) was identified as a crucial parameter for recovery of oxidant exposed cells. • Bioaugmentation is a necessity at 0.5 g/L of KMnO{sub 4} and 1 g/L of Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} and above. -- Abstract: Potassium permanganate (PM) and sodium persulfate (PS) are used in soil remediation, however, their compatibility with a coinciding or subsequent biotreatment is poorly understood. In this study, different concentrations of PM (0.005–2 g/L) and PS (0.01–4.52 g/L) were applied and their effects on the abundance, activity, and reactivation potential of a dechlorinating enrichment culture were investigated. Expression of the tceA, vcrA and 16S rRNA genes of Dehalococcoides spp. were detected at 0.005–0.01 g/L PM and 0.01–0.02 g/L PS. However, with 0.5–2 g/L PM and 1.13–4.52 g/L PS no gene expression was recorded, neither were indicator molecules for total cell activity (Adenosine triphosphate, ATP) detected. Dilution did not promote the reactivation of the microbial cells when the redox potential was above −100 mV. Similarly, inoculated cells did not dechlorinate trichloroethene (TCE) above −100 mV. When the redox potential was decreased to −300 mV and the reactors were bioaugmented for a second time, dechlorination activity recovered, but only in the reactors with 1.13 and 2.26 g/L PS. In conclusion, our results show that chemical oxidants can be combined with a biotreatment at concentrations below 0.5 g/L PM and 1 g/L PS.

  4. Recovery of microbial diversity and activity during bioremediation following chemical oxidation of diesel contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Nora B; Langenhoff, Alette A M; Lasso, Daniel Hidalgo; van der Zaan, Bas; van Gaans, Pauline; Maphosa, Farai; Smidt, Hauke; Grotenhuis, Tim; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2014-03-01

    To improve the coupling of in situ chemical oxidation and in situ bioremediation, a systematic analysis was performed of the effect of chemical oxidation with Fenton's reagent, modified Fenton's reagent, permanganate, or persulfate, on microbial diversity and activity during 8 weeks of incubation in two diesel-contaminated soils (peat and fill). Chemical oxidant and soil type affected the microbial community diversity and biodegradation activity; however, this was only observed following treatment with Fenton's reagent and modified Fenton's reagent, and in the biotic control without oxidation. Differences in the highest overall removal efficiencies of 69 % for peat (biotic control) and 59 % for fill (Fenton's reagent) were partially explained by changes in contaminant soil properties upon oxidation. Molecular analysis of 16S rRNA and alkane monooxygenase (alkB) gene abundances indicated that oxidation with Fenton's reagent and modified Fenton's reagent negatively affected microbial abundance. However, regeneration occurred, and final relative alkB abundances were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher in chemically treated microcosms than in the biotic control. 16S rRNA gene fragment fingerprinting with DGGE and prominent band sequencing illuminated microbial community composition and diversity differences between treatments and identified a variety of phylotypes within Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria. Understanding microbial community dynamics during coupled chemical oxidation and bioremediation is integral to improved biphasic field application.

  5. Degradation of Diclofenac by sonosynthesis of pyrite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabbaz, M; Entezari, M H

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the ability of synthesized pyrite nanoparticles (NPs) on the degradation of Diclofenac (DCF) as a model pharmaceutical pollutant. Pyrite NPs were synthesized by sonication with 20 kHz apparatus under optimum conditions. The effects of pyrite loading (0.02-0.20 g/L), DCF concentration (10-50 mg/L) and initial pH (2-10) on the degradation were investigated. The results revealed that the NPs have a great activity in the degradation of DCF with 25 mg/L concentration. A first-order kinetic model was found to match the experimental data. Complete degradation (100%) of DCF was achieved by pyrite within 3 min and 20 min in acidic and natural pH, respectively. To gain an understanding of the degradation mechanism and the role of pyrite, a UV-Vis spectrophotometer was employed to follow the DCF concentration. In addition, the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and the amounts of ammonium and chloride ions verified complete degradation of DCF in both pH values. The results demonstrated that Fe 2+ ions were generated by the pyrite surface and the hydroxyl radical (OH) was formed by Fe 2+ ions through the Fenton reaction. Based on using radical scavengers in the degradation process, OH was mainly responsible for the fast degradation of DCF. COD measurements confirmed that DCF finally degraded to further oxidized forms (NH 4 + , Cl - ). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Recovery of microbial diversity and activity during bioremediation following chemical oxidation of diesel contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, N.B.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Hidalgo Lasso, D.; Zaan, van der B.M.; Gaans, van P.; Maphosa, F.; Smidt, H.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    To improve the coupling of in situ chemical oxidation and in situ bioremediation, a systematic analysis was performed of the effect of chemical oxidation with Fenton's reagent, modified Fenton's reagent, permanganate, or persulfate, on microbial diversity and activity during 8 weeks of incubation in

  7. Microbial Community Response of an Organohalide Respiring Enrichment Culture to Permanganate Oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, N.B.; Atashgahi, S.; Saccenti, E.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Smidt, H.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    While in situ chemical oxidation is often used to remediate tetrachloroethene (PCE) contaminated locations, very little is known about its influence on microbial composition and organohalide respiration (OHR) activity. Here, we investigate the impact of oxidation with permanganate on OHR rates, the

  8. Use of a Burkholderia cenocepacia ABTS Oxidizer in a Microbial Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) often use biological processes to generate electrons from organic material contained in the anode chamber and abiotic processes employing atmospheric oxygen as the oxidant in the cathode chamber. This study investigated the accumulation of an oxidant in bacterial cultures...

  9. A remediation strategy based on active phytoremediation followed by natural attenuation in a soil contaminated by pyrite waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, Rafael; Almela, Concepcion; Bernal, M. Pilar

    2006-01-01

    Phytoremediation of metal-polluted soils can be promoted by the proper use of soil amendments and agricultural practices. A 4-year phytoremediation programme was applied to a site affected by the toxic spill of pyrite residue at Aznalcollar (Spain) in 1998, contaminated with heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) and arsenic. This consisted of active phytoremediation, using organic amendments (cow manure and compost) and lime and growing two successive crops of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern., followed by natural attenuation without further intervention. Changes in soil pH, extractable metal and As concentrations, organic carbon content and microbial biomass was evaluated. The initial oxidation of metal sulphides from pyrite residues released soluble metals and reduced soil pH to extremely acidic values (mean 4.1, range 2.0-7.0). The addition of lime (up to 64 t ha -1 ) increased soil pH to adequate values for plant growth, resulting in a significant decrease in DTPA-extractable metal concentrations in all plots. Natural attenuation phase showed also a decrease in extractable metals. Organic treatments increased the soil total organic carbon, which led to higher values of microbial biomass (11.6, 15.2 and 14.9 g kg -1 TOC and 123, 170 and 275 μg g -1 biomass-C in control, compost and manure plots, respectively). Active phytoremediation followed by natural attenuation, was effective for remediation of this pyrite-polluted soil. - The addition of lime and organic amendments decreased heavy metal solubility and promoted Natural attenuation of a recently-contaminated soil

  10. A remediation strategy based on active phytoremediation followed by natural attenuation in a soil contaminated by pyrite waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente, Rafael [Department of Soil and Water Conservation and Organic Waste Management, Centro de Edafologia y Biologia Aplicada del Segura, CSIC, Campus Universitario de Espinardo, Apartado 164, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia (Spain)]. E-mail: rclemente@cebas.csic.es; Almela, Concepcion [Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, CSIC, Apartado 73, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Bernal, M. Pilar [Department of Soil and Water Conservation and Organic Waste Management, Centro de Edafologia y Biologia Aplicada del Segura, CSIC, Campus Universitario de Espinardo, Apartado 164, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia (Spain)

    2006-10-15

    Phytoremediation of metal-polluted soils can be promoted by the proper use of soil amendments and agricultural practices. A 4-year phytoremediation programme was applied to a site affected by the toxic spill of pyrite residue at Aznalcollar (Spain) in 1998, contaminated with heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) and arsenic. This consisted of active phytoremediation, using organic amendments (cow manure and compost) and lime and growing two successive crops of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern., followed by natural attenuation without further intervention. Changes in soil pH, extractable metal and As concentrations, organic carbon content and microbial biomass was evaluated. The initial oxidation of metal sulphides from pyrite residues released soluble metals and reduced soil pH to extremely acidic values (mean 4.1, range 2.0-7.0). The addition of lime (up to 64 t ha{sup -1}) increased soil pH to adequate values for plant growth, resulting in a significant decrease in DTPA-extractable metal concentrations in all plots. Natural attenuation phase showed also a decrease in extractable metals. Organic treatments increased the soil total organic carbon, which led to higher values of microbial biomass (11.6, 15.2 and 14.9 g kg{sup -1} TOC and 123, 170 and 275 {mu}g g{sup -1} biomass-C in control, compost and manure plots, respectively). Active phytoremediation followed by natural attenuation, was effective for remediation of this pyrite-polluted soil. - The addition of lime and organic amendments decreased heavy metal solubility and promoted Natural attenuation of a recently-contaminated soil.

  11. Presentation on mechanisms and applications of chalcopyrite and pyrite bioleaching in biohydrometallurgy - a presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Huang; Dongwei, Li

    2014-12-01

    This review outlines classic and current research, scientific documents and research achievements in bioleaching, particularly in respect of the bioleaching of chalcopyrite and pyrite. The diversity and commonality of the microbial leaching process can be easily studied through comparing the bioleaching mechanism and the application of these two metal sulfides. The crystal, electronic and surface structures of chalcopyrite and pyrite are summarized in detail in this paper. It determines the specific and complicated interaction pathways, kinetics of the atmospheric/aqueous oxidation, and the control process of bioleaching of the minerals as the precondition. Bioleaching of metal sulfides is performed by a diverse group of microorganisms and microbial communities. The species of the bacteria which have a significant effect on leaching ores are miraculously diverse. The newly identified acidophilic microorganisms with unique characteristics for efficient bioleaching of sulfidic minerals are increasing sharply. The cell-to-cell communication mechanisms, which are still implicit, elusive and intangible at present day, have gradually become a research hotspot. The different mineralogy characteristics and the acid solubility of the metal sulfides (e.g., chalcopyrite and pyrite) cause two different dissolution pathways, the thiosulfate and the polysulfide pathways. The bioleaching mechanisms are categorized by contact (an electrostatic attachment) and noncontact (planktonic) process, with emphasis on the produce of extracellular polymeric substances and formation of biofilm on the surface of the metal sulfides in this paper. The division of the direct and indirect effect are not adopted due to the redox chain, the reduction of the ferric iron and oxidation of the ferrous iron. The molecular oxygen is reduced by the electrons extracted from the specific metal sulfide, via a redox chain forming a supercomplex spanning the periplasmic space and connecting both outer and inner

  12. Retention and reduction of uranium on pyrite surface; Retention et reduction de l'uranium a la surface de la pyrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eglizaud, N

    2006-12-15

    In the hypothesis of a storage of the spent fuel in a deep geological formation, understanding the uranium dispersion in the environment is important. Pyrite is a reducing mineral present in the Callovo-Oxfordian argilites, the geological formation actually studied for such a storage. However, pyrite impact on uranium migration has already been poorly studied. The aim of the study was to understand the mechanisms of uranium(VI) retention and reduction on the pyrite surface (FeS{sub 2}). Solution chemistry was therefore coupled with solid spectroscopic studies (XPS and Raman spectroscopy). All uranium-pyrite interactions experiments were performed under an anoxic atmosphere, in a glove box. Pyrite dissolution under anoxic conditions releases sulfoxy-anions and iron(II), which can then be adsorbed on the pyrite surface. This adsorption was confirmed by interaction experiments using iron(II) isotopic dilution. Uranium(VI) is retained by an exchange reaction with iron(II) adsorbed on sulphur sites, with a maximal amount of sorbed uranium at pH {>=} 5.5. Cobalt(II) and europium(III) are also adsorbed on the pyrite surface above pH 5.5 confirming then that reduction is not required for species to adsorb on pyrite. When the concentration of uranium retained is lower than 4 x 10{sup -9} mol g{sup -1}, an oxidation-reduction reaction leads to the formation of a uranium (VI) (IV) mixed oxide and to solid sulphur (d.o. {>=} -I). During this reaction, iron remains mostly at the +II oxidation degree. The reaction products seem to passivate the pyrite surface: at higher amounts of retained uranium, the oxidation-reduction reaction is no longer observed. The surface is saturated by the retention of (3.4 {+-} 0.8) x 10{sup -7} mol L{sup -1} of uranium(VI). Modelling of uranium sorption at high surface coverage ({>=} 4 x 10{sup -9} mol g{sup -1}) by the Langmuir model yields an adsorption constant of 8 x 10{sup 7} L mol{sup -1}. Finally, a great excess of uranium(VI) above the

  13. Effect of Pyrite on Thiosulfate Leaching of Gold and the Role of Ammonium Alcohol Polyvinyl Phosphate (AAPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pyrite and the role of ammonium alcohol polyvinyl phosphate (AAPP during gold leaching in ammoniacal thiosulfate solutions were investigated using pure gold foils. The results showed that pyrite catalyzed the decomposition and also significantly increased the consumption of thiosulfate. This detrimental effect became more severe with increasing pyrite content. Further, the presence of pyrite also substantially slowed the gold leaching kinetics and reduced the overall gold dissolution. The reduction in gold dissolution was found to be caused primarily by the surface passivation of the gold. The negative effects of pyrite, however, can be alleviated by the addition of AAPP. Comparison of zeta potentials of pyrite with and without AAPP suggests that AAPP had adsorbed on the surface of the pyrite and weakened the catalytic effect of pyrite on the thiosulfate decomposition by blocking the contact between the pyrite and thiosulfate anions. AAPP also competed with thiosulfate anions to complex with the cupric ion at the axial coordinate sites, and thus abated the oxidation of thiosulfate by cupric ions. Moreover, the indiscriminate adsorption of AAPP on the surfaces of gold and passivation species prevented the passivation of the gold surface by surface charge and electrostatic repulsion. Therefore, AAPP effectively stabilized the thiosulfate in the solution and facilitated the gold leaching in the presence of pyrite.

  14. Structural characterization of terrestrial microbial Mn oxides from Pinal Creek, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, J.R.; Fuller, C.C.; Marcus, M.A.; Brearley, A.J.; Perez De la Rosa, M.; Webb, S.M.; Caldwell, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    The microbial catalysis of Mn(II) oxidation is believed to be a dominant source of abundant sorption- and redox-active Mn oxides in marine, freshwater, and subsurface aquatic environments. In spite of their importance, environmental oxides of known biogenic origin have generally not been characterized in detail from a structural perspective. Hyporheic zone Mn oxide grain coatings at Pinal Creek, Arizona, a metals-contaminated stream, have been identified as being dominantly microbial in origin and are well studied from bulk chemistry and contaminant hydrology perspectives. This site thus presents an excellent opportunity to study the structures of terrestrial microbial Mn oxides in detail. XRD and EXAFS measurements performed in this study indicate that the hydrated Pinal Creek Mn oxide grain coatings are layer-type Mn oxides with dominantly hexagonal or pseudo-hexagonal layer symmetry. XRD and TEM measurements suggest the oxides to be nanoparticulate plates with average dimensions on the order of 11 nm thick ?? 35 nm diameter, but with individual particles exhibiting thickness as small as a single layer and sheets as wide as 500 nm. The hydrated oxides exhibit a 10-?? basal-plane spacing and turbostratic disorder. EXAFS analyses suggest the oxides contain layer Mn(IV) site vacancy defects, and layer Mn(III) is inferred to be present, as deduced from Jahn-Teller distortion of the local structure. The physical geometry and structural details of the coatings suggest formation within microbial biofilms. The biogenic Mn oxides are stable with respect to transformation into thermodynamically more stable phases over a time scale of at least 5 months. The nanoparticulate layered structural motif, also observed in pure culture laboratory studies, appears to be characteristic of biogenic Mn oxides and may explain the common occurrence of this mineral habit in soils and sediments. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Microbial involvement in the formation of Cambrian sea-floor silica-iron oxide deposits, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhig, Nathan C.; Davidson, Garry J.; Stolz, Joe

    1992-06-01

    The Cambrian-Ordovician Mount Windsor volcanic belt in northern Australia is host to stratiform lenses of massive ferruginous chert that are spatially associated with volcanogenic massive sulfide occurrences, in particular the Thalanga zinc-lead-copper-silver deposit. The rocks are composed principally of Fe2O3 and SiO2, with very low concentrations of alkalic elements, and lithogenous elements such as Al, Zr, and Ti; they are interpreted as nearly pure chemical sediments. Textural evidence is documented of the integral role of filamentous bacteria (and/or fungi) in depositing iron from hydrothermal fluids, and of the inorganic precipitation of silica-iron-oxyhydroxide gels that subsequently matured to subcrystalline and crystalline silica forms. At least three distinct iron-accumulating microbial forms are distinguished: networks of septate filaments, nonseptate filament networks, and extremely coarse branching filaments that do not reconnect. Values for δ34S in disseminated pyrite are up to 50‰ lighter than those of contemporaneous Cambrian seawater, suggesting postdepositional colonization of some ironstones by sulfur-reducing bacteria. The site not only preserves the textural interplay of biological and inorganic depositional processes in exhalites, but also extends the oldest known instance of microbial mediation in vent-proximal hydrothermal iron precipitation to at least 500 Ma.

  16. Modelling the reactive-path between pyrite and radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Mingliang; Wu Shijun; Dou Shunmei; Chen Fanrong; Yang Yongqiang

    2008-01-01

    The mobility of redox sensitive nuclides is largely dependent on their valence state. The radionuclides that make the dominant contributions to final dose calculations are redox sensitive. Almost all the radionuclides (except 129 I) have higher mobility at high valence state, and correspond to immobilization at low valence state due to the much lower solubility. Pyrite is an ubiquitous and stable mineral in geological environment, and would be used as a low-cost long time reductant for the immobilization of radionuclides. However, pyrite oxidation is supposed to generate acid, which will enhance the mobility of nuclides. In this paper, the reaction path of the reactions between radionuclides (U, Se and Tc) and pyrite in the groundwater from Wuyi well in Beishan area of China has been simulated using geochemical modeling software. According to the results, pyrite can reduce high valence nuclides to a dinky-level effectively, with the pH slightly increasing under anaerobic condition that is common in deep nuclear waste repositories. (authors)

  17. Assembly and Succession of Iron Oxide Microbial Mat Communities in Acidic Geothermal Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob P. Beam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomineralized ferric oxide microbial mats are ubiquitous features on Earth, are common in hot springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP, WY, USA, and form due to direct interaction between microbial and physicochemical processes. The overall goal of this study was to determine the contribution of different community members to the assembly and succession of acidic high-temperature Fe(III-oxide mat ecosystems. Spatial and temporal changes in Fe(III-oxide accretion and the abundance of relevant community members were monitored over 70 days using sterile glass microscope slides incubated in the outflow channels of two acidic geothermal springs (pH = 3 - 3.5; temperature = 68 - 75 °C in YNP. Hydrogenobaculum spp. were the most abundant taxon identified during early successional stages (4 - 40 d, and have been shown to oxidize arsenite, sulfide, and hydrogen coupled to oxygen reduction. Iron-oxidizing populations of Metallosphaera yellowstonensis were detected within 4 d, and reached steady-state levels within 14 - 30 d, corresponding to visible Fe(III-oxide accretion. Heterotrophic archaea colonized near 30 d, and emerged as the dominant functional guild after 70 d and in mature Fe(III-oxide mats (1 - 2 cm thick. First-order rate constants of Fe(III-oxide accretion ranged from 0.046 - 0.05 d-1, and in situ microelectrode measurements showed that the oxidation of Fe(II is limited by the diffusion of O2 into the Fe(III-oxide mat. The formation of microterracettes also implicated O2 as a major variable controlling microbial growth and subsequent mat morphology. The assembly and succession of Fe(III-oxide mat communities follows a repeatable pattern of colonization by lithoautotrophic organisms, and the subsequent growth of diverse organoheterotrophs. The unique geochemical signatures and micromorphology of extant biomineralized Fe(III-oxide mats are useful for understanding other Fe(II-oxidizing systems.

  18. Microbial acetate oxidation in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    shaped partition walls that served as carriers for micro- bial biomass. Mixing ... from soil sample collected from Zagreb mountain. This microbial culture was ... HRTB was made of a plastic tube 1⋅8 m long with an inner diameter of 0⋅25 m.

  19. Two-Step Oxidation of Refractory Gold Concentrates with Different Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Hua; Xie, Jian-Ping; Li, Shou-Peng; Guo, Yu-Jie; Pan, Ying; Wu, Haiyan; Liu, Xin-Xing

    2016-11-28

    Bio-oxidation is an effective technology for treatment of refractory gold concentrates. However, the unsatisfactory oxidation rate and long residence time, which cause a lower cyanide leaching rate and gold recovery, are key factors that restrict the application of traditional bio-oxidation technology. In this study, the oxidation rate of refractory gold concentrates and the adaption of microorganisms were analyzed to evaluate a newly developed two-step pretreatment process, which includes a high temperature chemical oxidation step and a subsequent bio-oxidation step. The oxidation rate and recovery rate of gold were improved significantly after the two-step process. The results showed that the highest oxidation rate of sulfide sulfur could reach to 99.01 % with an extreme thermophile microbial community when the pulp density was 5%. Accordingly, the recovery rate of gold was elevated to 92.51%. Meanwhile, the results revealed that moderate thermophiles performed better than acidophilic mesophiles and extreme thermophiles, whose oxidation rates declined drastically when the pulp density was increased to 10% and 15%. The oxidation rates of sulfide sulfur with moderate thermophiles were 93.94% and 65.73% when the pulp density was increased to 10% and 15%, respectively. All these results indicated that the two-step pretreatment increased the oxidation rate of refractory gold concentrates and is a potential technology to pretreat the refractory sample. Meanwhile, owing to the sensitivity of the microbial community under different pulp density levels, the optimization of microbial community in bio-oxidation is necessary in industry.

  20. Natural attenuation process via microbial oxidation of arsenic in a high Andean watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Eduardo D; Rámila, Consuelo d P; Vargas, Ignacio T; Escauriaza, Cristian R; Bonilla, Carlos A; Pizarro, Gonzalo E; Regan, John M; Pasten, Pablo A

    2014-01-01

    Rivers in northern Chile have arsenic (As) concentrations at levels that are toxic for humans and other organisms. Microorganism-mediated redox reactions have a crucial role in the As cycle; the microbial oxidation of As (As(III) to As(V)) is a critical transformation because it favors the immobilization of As in the solid phase. We studied the role of microbial As oxidation for controlling the mobility of As in the extreme environment found in the Chilean Altiplano (i.e., > 4000 meters above sea level (masl) and Azufre River sub-basin, where the natural attenuation of As from hydrothermal discharge (pH 4-6) was observed. As(III) was actively oxidized by a microbial consortium, leading to a significant decrease in the dissolved As concentrations and a corresponding increase in the sediment's As concentration downstream of the hydrothermal source. In-situ oxidation experiments demonstrated that the As oxidation required biological activity, and microbiological molecular analysis confirmed the presence of As(III)-oxidizing groups (aroA-like genes) in the system. In addition, the pH measurements and solid phase analysis strongly suggested that the As removal mechanism involved adsorption or coprecipitation with Fe-oxyhydroxides. Taken together, these results indicate that the microorganism-mediated As oxidation contributed to the attenuation of As concentrations and the stabilization of As in the solid phase, therefore controlling the amount of As transported downstream. This study is the first to demonstrate the microbial oxidation of As in Altiplano basins and its relevance in the immobilization of As. © 2013.

  1. Microbial methane oxidation processes and technologies for mitigation of landfill gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Bogner, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Landfill gas containing methane is produced by anaerobic degradation of organic waste. Methane is a strong greenhouse gas and landfills are one of the major anthropogenic sources of atmospheric methane. Landfill methane may be oxidized by methanotrophic microorganisms in soils or waste materials...... to predict methane emissions from landfills. Additional research and technology development is needed before methane mitigation technologies utilizing microbial methane oxidation processes can become commercially viable and widely deployed....

  2. A microbial-mineralization-inspired approach for synthesis of manganese oxide nanostructures with controlled oxidation states and morphologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oba, Manabu; Oaki, Yuya; Imai, Hiroaki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2010-12-21

    Manganese oxide nanostructures are synthesized by a route inspired by microbial mineralization in nature. The combination of organic molecules, which include antioxidizing and chelating agents, facilitates the parallel control of oxidation states and morphologies in an aqueous solution at room temperature. Divalent manganese hydroxide (Mn(OH){sub 2}) is selectively obtained as a stable dried powder by using a combination of ascorbic acid as an antioxidizing agent and other organic molecules with the ability to chelate to manganese ions. The topotactic oxidation of the resultant Mn(OH){sub 2} leads to the selective formation of trivalent manganese oxyhydroxide ({beta}-MnOOH) and trivalent/tetravalent sodium manganese oxide (birnessite, Na{sub 0.55}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}.1.5H{sub 2}O). For microbial mineralization in nature, similar synthetic routes via intermediates have been proposed in earlier works. Therefore, these synthetic routes, which include in the present study the parallel control over oxidation states and morphologies of manganese oxides, can be regarded as new biomimetic routes for synthesis of transition metal oxide nanostructures. As a potential application, it is demonstrated that the resultant {beta}-MnOOH nanostructures perform as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Preparation of Authigenic Pyrite from Methane-bearing Sediments for In Situ Sulfur Isotope Analysis Using SIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhiyong; Sun, Xiaoming; Peckmann, Jörn; Lu, Yang; Strauss, Harald; Xu, Li; Lu, Hongfeng; Teichert, Barbara M A

    2017-08-31

    Different sulfur isotope compositions of authigenic pyrite typically result from the sulfate-driven anaerobic oxidation of methane (SO4-AOM) and organiclastic sulfate reduction (OSR) in marine sediments. However, unravelling the complex pyritization sequence is a challenge because of the coexistence of different sequentially formed pyrite phases. This manuscript describes a sample preparation procedure that enables the use of secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) to obtain in situ δ 34 S values of various pyrite generations. This allows researchers to constrain how SO4-AOM affects pyritization in methane-bearing sediments. SIMS analysis revealed an extreme range in δ 34 S values, spanning from -41.6 to +114.8‰, which is much wider than the range of δ 34 S values obtained by the traditional bulk sulfur isotope analysis of the same samples. Pyrite in the shallow sediment mainly consists of 34 S-depleted framboids, suggesting early diagenetic formation by OSR. Deeper in the sediment, more pyrite occurs as overgrowths and euhedral crystals, which display much higher SIMS δ 34 S values than the framboids. Such 34 S-enriched pyrite is related to enhanced SO4-AOM at the sulfate-methane transition zone, postdating OSR. High-resolution in situ SIMS sulfur isotope analyses allow for the reconstruction of the pyritization processes, which cannot be resolved by bulk sulfur isotope analysis.

  4. Acid Rock Drainage or Not—Oxidative vs. Reductive Biofilms—A Microbial Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Kalin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Measures to counteract Acid Rock Drainage (ARD generation need to start at the mineral surface, inhibiting mineral-oxidizing, acidophilic microbes. Laboratory and long-term field tests with pyrite-containing mining wastes—where carbonaceous phosphate mining waste (CPMW was added—resulted in low acidity and near neutral drainage. The effect was reproducible and confirmed by several independent research groups. The improved drainage was shown to involve an organic coating, likely a biofilm. The biofilm formation was confirmed when CPMW was added to lignite coal waste with an initial pH of 1. Forty-five days after the addition, the coal waste was dominated by heterotrophic microorganisms in biofilms. Reviewing the scientific literature provides ample support that CPMW has physical and chemical characteristics which can induce a strong inhibitory effect on sulphide oxidation by triggering the formation of an organic coating, a biofilm, over the mineral surface. CPMW characteristics provide the cornerstone of a new technology which might lead to reduction of sulphide oxidation in mine wastes. A hypothesis for testing this technology is presented. The use of such a technology could result in an economical and sustainable approach to mine waste and water management.

  5. Enhancement of electricity production by graphene oxide in soil microbial fuel cells and plant microbial fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko eGoto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of graphene oxide (GO on electricity generation in soil microbial fuel cells (SMFCs and plant microbial fuel cell (PMFCs were investigated. GO at concentrations ranging from 0 to 1.9 g•kg-1 was added to soil and reduced for 10 days under anaerobic incubation. All SMFCs (GO-SMFCs utilizing the soils incubated with GO produced electricity at a greater rate and in higher quantities than the SMFCs which did not contain GO. In fed-batch operations, the overall average electricity generation in GO-SMFCs containing 1.0 g•kg-1 of GO was 40 ± 19 mW•m-2, which was significantly higher than the value of 6.6 ± 8.9 mW•m-2 generated from GO-free SMFCs (p -2 of electricity after 27 days of operation. Collectively, this study demonstrates that GO added to soil can be microbially reduced in soil, and facilitates electron transfer to the anode in both SMFCs and PMFCs.

  6. Thallium-rich pyrite ores from the Apuan Alps, Tuscany, Italy:constraints for their origin and environmental concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazio, Massimo; Biagioni, Cristian; Dini, Andrea; Vezzoni, Simone

    2017-06-01

    The southern sector of the Apuan Alps (AA) massif, Tuscany, Italy, is characterized by the occurrence of a series of baryte-pyrite-iron oxide orebodies whose Tl-rich nature was recognized only recently. The geochemistry of the pyrite ore was investigated through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In addition, lead isotope data for selected pyrite ores from AA were collected. Pyrite ores are characterized by a complex geochemistry, with high concentrations of Tl (up to 1100 μg/g) coupled with high As and Sb contents; the Co/Ni ratio is always <1. Geochemical data of pyrite and marcasite ore samples from other mining districts of Tuscany have been collected in order to compare them with those from the AA. These samples usually have very low Tl content (less than 2 μg/g) and high to very high Co/Ni and As/Sb ratios. Only some samples from the Sb-Hg ore deposits showed very high Tl concentrations (up to 3900 μg/g). Another difference is related to the lead isotope composition, with pyrite ores from AA markedly less radiogenic than those from the other deposits from Tuscany. Geochemical data of pyrite ores from AA give new insights on the genesis of the baryte-pyrite-iron oxide orebodies, relating their formation to low-temperature hydrothermal systems active during early Paleozoic; in addition, these data play a fundamental role in assessing the environmental impact of these deposits.

  7. A marine microbial consortium apparently mediating anaerobic oxidation of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boetius, A.; Ravenschlag, K.; Schubert, CJ

    2000-01-01

    microorganisms mediating this reaction have not yet been isolated, and the pathway of anaerobic oxidation of methane is insufficiently understood. Recent data suggest that certain archaea reverse the process of methanogenesis by interaction with sulphate-reducing bacteria(5-7). Here we provide microscopic...... cells and are surrounded by sulphate-reducing bacteria. These aggregates were abundant in gas-hydrate-rich sediments with extremely high rates of methane-based sulphate reduction, and apparently mediate anaerobic oxidation of methane.......A large fraction of globally produced methane is converted to CO2 by anaerobic oxidation in marine sediments(1). Strong geochemical evidence for net methane consumption in anoxic sediments is based on methane profiles(2), radiotracer experiments(3) and stable carbon isotope data(4). But the elusive...

  8. Application of fuel cell for pyrite and heavy metal containing mining waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, H.; Ju, W. J.; Jho, E. H.; Nam, K.

    2015-12-01

    Once pyrite and heavy metal containing mining waste reacts with water and air it produces acid mine drainage (AMD) and leads to the other environmental problems such as contamination of surrounding soils. Pyrite is the major source of AMD and it can be controlled using a biological-electrochemical dissolution method. By enhancing the dissolution of pyrite using fuel cell technology, not only mining waste be beneficially utilized but also be treated at the same time by. As pyrite-containing mining waste is oxidized in the anode of the fuel cell, electrons and protons are generated, and electrons moves through an external load to cathode reducing oxygen to water while protons migrate to cathode through a proton exchange membrane. Iron-oxidizing bacteria such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, which can utilize Fe as an electron donor promotes pyrite dissolution and hence enhances electrochemical dissolution of pyrite from mining waste. In this study mining waste from a zinc mine in Korea containing 17 wt% pyrite and 9% As was utilized as a fuel for the fuel cell inoculated with A. ferrooxidans. Electrochemically dissolved As content and chemically dissolved As content was compared. With the initial pH of 3.5 at 23℃, the dissolved As concentration increased (from 4.0 to 13 mg/L after 20 d) in the fuel cell, while it kept decreased in the chemical reactor (from 12 to 0.43 mg/L after 20 d). The fuel cell produced 0.09 V of open circuit voltage with the maximum power density of 0.84 mW/m2. Dissolution of As from mining waste was enhanced through electrochemical reaction. Application of fuel cell technology is a novel treatment method for pyrite and heavy metals containing mining waste, and this method is beneficial for mining environment as well as local community of mining areas.

  9. Microbial Oxidation of Iron Sulfides in Anaerobic Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaclavkova, Sarka

    Abstract (shortened): Iron sulfides (FeSx), representing 0.04-10 % of Danish dry soil weight, oxidize in a presence of oxygen, releasing sulfuric acid and free iron. Environmental impact of FeSx oxidation is commonly seen on agricultural sites cultivated by drainage as acid sulfate soil formation....... MISON was found to count for about 1/3 of the net NO3- reduction in MISON active environments, despite the presence of alternative electron donor, organic carbon. The rate of MISON was found to be dependent on the available reactive surface area of FeSx and on the microorganism involved. The findings...

  10. Microbial Community Response of an Organohalide Respiring Enrichment Culture to Permanganate Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Nora B; Atashgahi, Siavash; Saccenti, Edoardo; Grotenhuis, Tim; Smidt, Hauke; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2015-01-01

    While in situ chemical oxidation is often used to remediate tetrachloroethene (PCE) contaminated locations, very little is known about its influence on microbial composition and organohalide respiration (OHR) activity. Here, we investigate the impact of oxidation with permanganate on OHR rates, the abundance of organohalide respiring bacteria (OHRB) and reductive dehalogenase (rdh) genes using quantitative PCR, and microbial community composition through sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. A PCE degrading enrichment was repeatedly treated with low (25 μmol), medium (50 μmol), or high (100 μmol) permanganate doses, or no oxidant treatment (biotic control). Low and medium treatments led to higher OHR rates and enrichment of several OHRB and rdh genes, as compared to the biotic control. Improved degradation rates can be attributed to enrichment of (1) OHRB able to also utilize Mn oxides as a terminal electron acceptor and (2) non-dechlorinating community members of the Clostridiales and Deltaproteobacteria possibly supporting OHRB by providing essential co-factors. In contrast, high permanganate treatment disrupted dechlorination beyond cis-dichloroethene and caused at least a 2-4 orders of magnitude reduction in the abundance of all measured OHRB and rdh genes, as compared to the biotic control. High permanganate treatments resulted in a notably divergent microbial community, with increased abundances of organisms affiliated with Campylobacterales and Oceanospirillales capable of dissimilatory Mn reduction, and decreased abundance of presumed supporters of OHRB. Although OTUs classified within the OHR-supportive order Clostridiales and OHRB increased in abundance over the course of 213 days following the final 100 μmol permanganate treatment, only limited regeneration of PCE dechlorination was observed in one of three microcosms, suggesting strong chemical oxidation treatments can irreversibly disrupt OHR. Overall, this detailed investigation into dose

  11. The Arsenite Oxidation Potential of Native Microbial Communities from Arsenic-Rich Freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazi, Stefano; Crognale, Simona; Casentini, Barbara; Amalfitano, Stefano; Lotti, Francesca; Rossetti, Simona

    2016-07-01

    Microorganisms play an important role in speciation and mobility of arsenic in the environment, by mediating redox transformations of both inorganic and organic species. Since arsenite [As(III)] is more toxic than arsenate [As(V)] to the biota, the microbial driven processes of As(V) reduction and As(III) oxidation may play a prominent role in mediating the environmental impact of arsenic contamination. However, little is known about the ecology and dynamics of As(III)-oxidizing populations within native microbial communities exposed to natural high levels of As. In this study, two techniques for single cell quantification (i.e., flow cytometry, CARD-FISH) were used to analyze the structure of aquatic microbial communities across a gradient of arsenic (As) contamination in different freshwater environments (i.e., groundwaters, surface and thermal waters). Moreover, we followed the structural evolution of these communities and their capacity to oxidize arsenite, when experimentally exposed to high As(III) concentrations in experimental microcosms. Betaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria were the main groups retrieved in groundwaters and surface waters, while Beta and Gammaproteobacteria dominated the bacteria community in thermal waters. At the end of microcosm incubations, the communities were able to oxidize up to 95 % of arsenite, with an increase of Alphaproteobacteria in most of the experimental conditions. Finally, heterotrophic As(III)-oxidizing strains (one Alphaproteobacteria and two Gammaproteobacteria) were isolated from As rich waters. Our findings underlined that native microbial communities from different arsenic-contaminated freshwaters can efficiently perform arsenite oxidation, thus contributing to reduce the overall As toxicity to the aquatic biota.

  12. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria: A model for molecular microbial ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalchuk, G.A.; Stephen, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    The eutrophication of many ecosystems in recent decades has led to an increased interest in the ecology of nitrogen transformation. Chemolitho-autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria are responsible for the rate-limiting step of nitrification in a wide variety of environments, making them important

  13. Pyritization processes and greigite formation in the advancing sulfidization front in the Upper Pleistocene sediments of the Black Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neretin, LN; Bottcher, ME; Jørgensen, BB

    2004-01-01

    Pyritization in late Pleistocene sediments of the Black Sea is driven by sulfide formed during anaerobic methane oxidation. A sulfidization front is formed by the opposing gradients of sulfide and dissolved iron. The sulfidization processes are controlled by the diffusion flux of sulfide from above...... and by the solid reactive iron content. Two processes of diffusion-limited pyrite formation were identified. The first process includes pyrite precipitation with the accumulation of iron sulfide precursors with the average chemical composition of FeSn (n = 1.10-1.29), including greigite. Elemental sulfur...... and polysulfides, formed from H,S by a reductive dissolution of Fe(Ill)-containing minerals, serve as intermediates to convert iron sulfides into pyrite. In the second process, a "direct" pyrite precipitation occurs through prolonged exposure of iron-containing minerals to dissolved sulfide. Methane-driven sulfate...

  14. Influence of the Interaction between Sphalerite and Pyrite on the Copper Activation of Sphalerite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of pyrite on the activation of sphalerite was investigated by micro-flotation, copper adsorption experiments, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and electrochemical measurement. The micro-flotation test results showed that the recovery and flotation rate of sphalerite with copper sulphate as activator and butyl xanthate as collector were significantly decreased with the increasing content of pyrite in pulp. Cu2+ adsorption results indicated that the adsorption of Cu2+ on the sphalerite surface were decreased when pyrite was present in the pulp. XPS surface analysis demonstrated that the proportion of Cu+ species increased in the activation products on the sphalerite surface, but the total atomic concentration of Cu atom was decreased. Linear voltammetry measurement suggested that the current density of Cu+ species oxidizing to Cu2+ species was increased when sphalerite was electrically contacted with pyrite, which confirmed the increased proportion of Cu+ species on Cu-activation sphalerite surface when contacting with pyrite. These results indicated that there is not only a competitive adsorption for cupric ions (Cu2+, but the galvanic interaction between sphalerite and pyrite also has a significant influence on the copper activation of sphalerite.

  15. Calorimetric investigation on mechanically activated storage energy mechanism of sphalerite and pyrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zhongliang; Chen Qiyuan; Yin Zhoulan; Hu Huiping; Wu Daoxin

    2005-01-01

    The structural changes of mechanically activated sphalerite and pyrite under different grinding conditions were determined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), laser particle size analyzer and elemental analysis. The storage energy of mechanically activated sphalerite and pyrite was measured by a calorimetric method. A thermochemical cycle was designed so that mechanically activated and non-activated minerals reached the same final state when dissolved in the same oxidizing solvent. The results show that the storage energy of mechanically activated sphalerite and pyrite rises with increased in grinding time, and reaches a maximum after a certain grinding period. The storage energy of mechanically activated pyrite decreases when heated under inert atmosphere. The storage energy of mechanically activated sphalerite and pyrite remains constant when treated below 573 K under inert atmosphere. The percentage of the storage energy caused by surface area increase during mechanical activation decreases with increasing grinding time. These results support our opinion that the mechanically activated storage energy of sphalerite is closely related to lattice distortions, and the mechanically activated storage energy of pyrite is mainly caused by the formation of reactive sites on the surface

  16. Enhanced bioleaching on attachment of indigenous acidophilic bacteria to pyrite surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi, D. W.; Cho, K. H.; Kim, B. J.; Choi, N. C.; Park, C. Y.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, bioleaching has been widely applied on an industrial scale due to the advantages of low cost and environment friendliness. The direct contact mechanism of bioleaching assumes the action of a metal sulfide-attached cell oxidizing the mineral by an enzyme system with oxygen to sulfate and metal cations. Fundamental surface properties of sulfide particles and leaching-bacteria in bioleaching play the key role in the efficiency of this process. The aim of this work is to investigate of direct contact bioleaching mechanism on pyrite through attachment properties between indigenous acidophilic bacteria and pyrite surfaces. The bacteria were obtained from sulfur hot springs, Hatchobaru thermal electricity plant in Japan. And pyrite was collected from mine waste from Gwang-yang abandoned gold mines, Korea. In XRD analyses of the pyrite, x-ray diffracted d-value belong to pyrite was observed. The indigenous acidophilic bacteria grew well in a solution and over the course of incubation pH decreased and Eh increased. In relation to a bacterial growth-curve, the lag phase was hardly shown while the exponential phase was very fast. Bioleaching experiment result was showed that twenty days after the indigenous acidophilic bacteria were inoculated to a pyrite-leaching medium, the bacterial sample had a greater concentration of Fe and Zn than within the control sample. In SEM-EDS analyses, rod-shaped bacteria and round-shaped microbes were well attached to the surface of pyrite. The size of the rod-shaped bacteria ranged from 1.05~1.10 ? to 4.01~5.38 ?. Round-shaped microbes were more than 3.0 ? in diameter. Paired cells of rod-shaped bacteria were attached to the surface of pyrite linearly.

  17. Pyrite in the Mesoarchean Witwatersrand Supergroup, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Ph.D. Petrographic, chemical and multiple sulfur isotope analyses were conducted on pyrite from argillaceous, arenaceous and rudaceous sedimentary rocks from the Mesoarchean Witwatersrand Supergroup. Following detailed petrographic analyses, four paragenetic associations of pyrite were identified. These include: 1) Detrital pyrite (derived from an existing rock via weathering and/or erosion). 2) Syngenetic pyrite (formed at the same time as the surrounding sediment). 3) Diagenetic pyrite (...

  18. A microbial-mineralization approach for syntheses of iron oxides with a high specific surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagita, Naoki; Oaki, Yuya; Imai, Hiroaki

    2013-04-02

    Of minerals and microbes: A microbial-mineralization-inspired approach was used to facilitate the syntheses of iron oxides with a high specific surface area, such as 253 m(2)g(-1) for maghemite (γ-Fe(2)O(3)) and 148 m(2)g(-1) for hematite (α-Fe(2)O(3)). These iron oxides can be applied to electrode material of lithium-ion batteries, adsorbents, and catalysts. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Copper-arsenic decoupling in an active geothermal system: A link between pyrite and fluid composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardani, Daniele; Reich, Martin; Deditius, Artur P.; Chryssoulis, Stephen; Sánchez-Alfaro, Pablo; Wrage, Jackie; Roberts, Malcolm P.

    2017-05-01

    Over the past few decades several studies have reported that pyrite hosts appreciable amounts of trace elements which commonly occur forming complex zoning patterns within a single mineral grain. These chemical zonations in pyrite have been recognized in a variety of hydrothermal ore deposit types (e.g., porphyry Cu-Mo-Au, epithermal Au deposits, iron oxide-copper-gold, Carlin-type and Archean lode Au deposits, among others), showing, in some cases, marked oscillatory alternation of metals and metalloids in pyrite growth zones (e.g., of Cu-rich, As-(Au, Ag)-depleted zones and As-(Au, Ag)-rich, Cu-depleted zones). This decoupled geochemical behavior of Cu and As has been interpreted as a result of chemical changes in ore-forming fluids, although direct evidence connecting fluctuations in hydrothermal fluid composition with metal partitioning into pyrite growth zones is still lacking. In this study, we report a comprehensive trace element database of pyrite from the Tolhuaca Geothermal System (TGS) in southern Chile, a young and active hydrothermal system where fewer pyrite growth rims and mineralization events are present and the reservoir fluid (i.e. ore-forming fluid) is accessible. We combined the high-spatial resolution and X-ray mapping capabilities of electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) with low detection limits and depth-profiling capacity of secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in a suite of pyrite samples retrieved from a ∼1 km drill hole that crosses the argillic (20-450 m) and propylitic (650-1000 m) alteration zones of the geothermal system. We show that the concentrations of precious metals (e.g., Au, Ag), metalloids (e.g., As, Sb, Se, Te), and base and heavy metals (e.g., Cu, Co, Ni, Pb) in pyrite at the TGS are significant. Among the elements analyzed, As and Cu are the most abundant with concentrations that vary from sub-ppm levels to a few wt.% (i.e., up to ∼5 wt.% As, ∼1.5 wt.% Cu). Detailed wavelength-dispersive spectrometry (WDS) X

  20. Biomineralization associated with microbial reduction of Fe3+ and oxidation of Fe2+ in solid minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Dong, H.; Jiang, H.; Kukkadapu, R.K.; Kim, J.; Eberl, D.; Xu, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Iron-reducing and oxidizing microorganisms gain energy through reduction or oxidation of iron, and by doing so play an important role in the geochemical cycling of iron. This study was undertaken to investigate mineral transformations associated with microbial reduction of Fe3+ and oxidation of Fe2+ in solid minerals. A fluid sample from the 2450 m depth of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling project was collected, and Fe3+-reducing and Fe2+-oxidizing microorganisms were enriched. The enrichment cultures displayed reduction of Fe3+ in nontronite and ferric citrate, and oxidation of Fe2+ in vivianite, siderite, and monosulfide (FeS). Additional experiments verified that the iron reduction and oxidation was biological. Oxidation of FeS resulted in the formation of goethite, lepidocrocite, and ferrihydrite as products. Although our molecular microbiological analyses detected Thermoan-aerobacter ethanolicus as a predominant organism in the enrichment culture, Fe3+ reduction and Fe2+ oxidation may be accomplished by a consortia of organisms. Our results have important environmental and ecological implications for iron redox cycling in solid minerals in natural environments, where iron mineral transformations may be related to the mobility and solubility of inorganic and organic contaminants.

  1. Decomposition of pyrite and the interaction of pyrite with coal organic matrix in pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Li, B.; Zhang, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

    1999-07-01

    The thermal decomposition and reduction behaviour of pure pyrite crystals were studied under nitrogen and hydrogen atmospheres. Decomposition of pyrite in coal during pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis, and the behaviour of organic sulphur, are discussed. Temperature and pressure effects are considered. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Petroleum Oxidation in Marine Microcosms by Natural Microbial Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardlaw, G. D.; Reddy, C. M.; Nelson, R. K.; Ehrhardt, C. J.; Valentine, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    Millions of gallons of petroleum are emitted into marine environments each year and the oxidation of this oil by microbes is an important mechanism for mediating toxicity. In terms of quantity, petroleum is the most abundant organic pollutant impacting marine environments today. Recent advances in chromatography have led to the development of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC &GC). The acronym, GC GC, is used because orthogonal gas chromatographic separations are achieved in both analytical dimensions by using stationary phases with varying partitioning abilities and selectivity. This novel method has greatly expanded the analytical window of petroleum hydrocarbons and was used to track the loss of petroleum hydrocarbons in aerobic marine microcosm experiments. Sediment microcosms were composed of seawater and sediment collected from the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field off the coast of Santa Barbara, CA. Oil collected directly from the reservoir underlying the seep field was added to each microcosm, and samples were incubated for one year. Net metabolism was tracked by quantifying oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. The loss of petroleum components was tracked with GC GC, whereas the bacterial and archaeal community structures were tracked using T-RFLP. Results of these incubation studies will be presented.

  3. Microbial Iron Oxidation in the Arctic Tundra and Its Implications for Biogeochemical Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jarrod J.; Benes, Joshua; Bowden, William B.

    2015-01-01

    The role that neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria play in the Arctic tundra is unknown. This study surveyed chemosynthetic iron-oxidizing communities at the North Slope of Alaska near Toolik Field Station (TFS) at Toolik Lake (lat 68.63, long −149.60). Microbial iron mats were common in submerged habitats with stationary or slowly flowing water, and their greatest areal extent is in coating plant stems and sediments in wet sedge meadows. Some Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) produce easily recognized sheath or stalk morphotypes that were present and dominant in all the mats we observed. The cool water temperatures (9 to 11°C) and reduced pH (5.0 to 6.6) at all sites kinetically favor microbial iron oxidation. A microbial survey of five sites based on 16S rRNA genes found a predominance of Proteobacteria, with Betaproteobacteria and members of the family Comamonadaceae being the most prevalent operational taxonomic units (OTUs). In relative abundance, clades of lithotrophic FeOB composed 5 to 10% of the communities. OTUs related to cyanobacteria and chloroplasts accounted for 3 to 25% of the communities. Oxygen profiles showed evidence for oxygenic photosynthesis at the surface of some mats, indicating the coexistence of photosynthetic and FeOB populations. The relative abundance of OTUs belonging to putative Fe-reducing bacteria (FeRB) averaged around 11% in the sampled iron mats. Mats incubated anaerobically with 10 mM acetate rapidly initiated Fe reduction, indicating that active iron cycling is likely. The prevalence of iron mats on the tundra might impact the carbon cycle through lithoautotrophic chemosynthesis, anaerobic respiration of organic carbon coupled to iron reduction, and the suppression of methanogenesis, and it potentially influences phosphorus dynamics through the adsorption of phosphorus to iron oxides. PMID:26386054

  4. Decomposition of pyrite and the interaction of pyrite with coal organic matrix in pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Li, B.; Zhang, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Conversion, Inst. of Coal Chemistry

    2000-10-01

    The thermal behaviour of pure pyrite was studied under nitrogen and hydrogen atmospheres in a pressurized thermal balance. The transfer of pyrite in coal during pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis was investigated in a fixed-bed reactor. The results suggest that the indigenous hydro-carbon with hydrogen donor ability in coal can promote the reduction of pyrite in pyrolysis. At low temperatures, organic sulfur removal is almost the same in pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of two coals. It is likely that indigenous hydrogen in coal is the dominant factor in organic sulfur elimination in the low-temperature stage. An increase of organic sulfur in pyrolysis of Hongmiao coal indicates that the lack of the indigenous hydrogen may be the key factor determining the transformation of pyritic sulfur into organic sulfur. Oxygen affects the conversion of pyrite into organic sulfur through the competitive consumption of hydrogen. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Microbially catalyzed nitrate-dependent metal/radionuclide oxidation in shallow subsurface sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, K.; Healy, O.; Spanbauer, T. L.; Snow, D. D.

    2011-12-01

    Anaerobic, microbially catalyzed nitrate-dependent metal/radionuclide oxidation has been demonstrated in a variety of sediments, soils, and groundwater. To date, studies evaluating U bio-oxidation and mobilization have primarily focused on anthropogenically U contaminated sites. In the Platte River Basin U originating from weathering of uranium-rich igneous rocks in the Rocky Mountains was deposited in shallow alluvial sediments as insoluble reduced uranium minerals. These reduced U minerals are subject to reoxidation by available oxidants, such nitrate, in situ. Soluble uranium (U) from natural sources is a recognized contaminant in public water supplies throughout the state of Nebraska and Colorado. Here we evaluate the potential of anaerobic, nitrate-dependent microbially catalyzed metal/radionuclide oxidation in subsurface sediments near Alda, NE. Subsurface sediments and groundwater (20-64ft.) were collected from a shallow aquifer containing nitrate (from fertilizer) and natural iron and uranium. The reduction potential revealed a reduced environment and was confirmed by the presence of Fe(II) and U(IV) in sediments. Although sediments were reduced, nitrate persisted in the groundwater. Nitrate concentrations decreased, 38 mg/L to 30 mg/L, with increasing concentrations of Fe(II) and U(IV). Dissolved U, primarily as U(VI), increased with depth, 30.3 μg/L to 302 μg/L. Analysis of sequentially extracted U(VI) and U(IV) revealed that virtually all U in sediments existed as U(IV). The presence of U(IV) is consistent with reduced Fe (Fe(II)) and low reduction potential. The increase in aqueous U concentrations with depth suggests active U cycling may occur at this site. Tetravalent U (U(IV)) phases are stable in reduced environments, however the input of an oxidant such as oxygen or nitrate into these systems would result in oxidation. Thus co-occurrence of nitrate suggests that nitrate could be used by bacteria as a U(IV) oxidant. Most probable number

  6. The origin of copiapite from chlorite pyritic schist (Wiesciszowice, Lower Silesia, Poland) in the light of Moessbauer analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczyk, Z., E-mail: zdzislaw.adamczyk@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Applied Geology (Poland); Komraus, J. L., E-mail: komraus@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Institute of Physics (Poland)

    2008-01-15

    This work presents the results of the analysis of copiapite, formed from weathering and oxidation of pyrite in pyritic schist from Wiesciszowice, Lower Silesia (Poland). The pure phase of copiapite was found in secondary minerals after pyrite and identified by optical microscopy, XRD and Moessbauer spectroscopy. In the analyzed copiapite major cations appear to be Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. Some Fe{sup 3+} is substituted by other cations, mainly Al{sup 3+}. Al{sup 3+} probably comes from leaching of chlorite from which hydrated sulphates of iron, mainly szomolnokite, form followed by hydrated sulphates fibroferrite, which is replaced by copiapite.

  7. A combined chemical, isotopic and microstructural study of pyrite from roll-front uranium deposits, Lake Eyre Basin, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Edwina S.; Cook, Nigel J.; Cliff, John; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Huddleston, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The common sulfide mineral pyrite is abundant throughout sedimentary uranium systems at Pepegoona, Pepegoona West and Pannikan, Lake Eyre Basin, South Australia. Combined chemical, isotopic and microstructural analysis of pyrite indicates variation in fluid composition, sulfur source and precipitation conditions during a protracted mineralization event. The results show the significant role played by pyrite as a metal scavenger and monitor of fluid changes in low-temperature hydrothermal systems. In-situ micrometer-scale sulfur isotope analyses of pyrite demonstrated broad-scale isotopic heterogeneity (δ34S = -43.9 to +32.4‰VCDT), indicative of complex, multi-faceted pyrite evolution, and sulfur derived from more than a single source. Preserved textures support this assertion and indicate a genetic model involving more than one phase of pyrite formation. Authigenic pyrite underwent prolonged evolution and recrystallization, evidenced by a genetic relationship between archetypal framboidal aggregates and pyrite euhedra. Secondary hydrothermal pyrite commonly displays hyper-enrichment of several trace elements (Mn, Co, Ni, As, Se, Mo, Sb, W and Tl) in ore-bearing horizons. Hydrothermal fluids of magmatic and meteoric origins supplied metals to the system but the geochemical signature of pyrite suggests a dominantly granitic source and also the influence of mafic rock types. Irregular variation in δ34S, coupled with oscillatory trace element zonation in secondary pyrite, is interpreted in terms of continuous variations in fluid composition and cycles of diagenetic recrystallization. A late-stage oxidizing fluid may have mobilized selenium from pre-existing pyrite. Subsequent restoration of reduced conditions within the aquifer caused ongoing pyrite re-crystallization and precipitation of selenium as native selenium. These results provide the first qualitative constraints on the formation mechanisms of the uranium deposits at Beverley North. Insights into

  8. Microbial leakage of MTA, Portland cement, Sealapex and zinc oxide-eugenol as root-end filling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrela, Carlos; Estrada-Bernabé, Pedro-Felício; de Almeida-Decurcio, Daniel; Almeida-Silva, Julio; Rodrigues-Araújo-Estrela, Cyntia; Poli-Figueiredo, José-Antonio

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the microbial leakage of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Portland cement (PC), Sealapex and zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) as root-end filling materials. An in vitro microbial leakage test (MLT) with a split chamber was used in this study. A mixture of facultative bacteria and one yeast (S. aureus+E. faecalis+P. aeruginosa+B. subtilis+C. albicans) was placed in the upper chamber and it could only reach the lower chamber containing Brain Heart Infusion broth by way of leakage through the root-end filling. Microbial leakage was observed daily for 60 days. Sixty maxillary anterior human teeth were randomly assigned to different groups--MTA and PC (gray and white), Sealapex+zinc oxide and ZOE, control groups and subgroups to evaluate the influence of EDTA for smear layer removal. These materials were further evaluated by an agar diffusion test (ADT) to verify their antimicrobial efficacy. Data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test. In the MLT, Sealapex+zinc oxide and ZOE did not show evidence of microbial leakage over the 60-day experimental period. The other materials showed leakage from the 15th day. The presence of smear layer influenced microbial leakage. Microbial inhibition zones were not observed in all samples tested by ADT. Sealapex+zinc oxide and ZOE did not show microbial leakage over the experimental period, whereas it was verified within 15 to 45 days in MTA and Portland cement.

  9. Electron acceptors for anaerobic oxidation of methane drive microbial community structure and diversity in mud volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ge; Ma, Anzhou; Zhang, Yanfen; Deng, Ye; Zheng, Guodong; Zhuang, Xuliang; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Fortin, Danielle

    2018-04-06

    Mud volcanoes (MVs) emit globally significant quantities of methane into the atmosphere, however, methane cycling in such environments is not yet fully understood, as the roles of microbes and their associated biogeochemical processes have been largely overlooked. Here, we used data from high-throughput sequencing of microbial 16S rRNA gene amplicons from six MVs in the Junggar Basin in northwest China to quantify patterns of diversity and characterize the community structure of archaea and bacteria. We found anaerobic methanotrophs and diverse sulfate- and iron-reducing microbes in all of the samples, and the diversity of both archaeal and bacterial communities was strongly linked to the concentrations of sulfate, iron and nitrate, which could act as electron acceptors in anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). The impacts of sulfate/iron/nitrate on AOM in the MVs were verified by microcosm experiments. Further, two representative MVs were selected to explore the microbial interactions based on phylogenetic molecular ecological networks. The sites showed distinct network structures, key species and microbial interactions, with more complex and numerous linkages between methane-cycling microbes and their partners being observed in the iron/sulfate-rich MV. These findings suggest that electron acceptors are important factors driving the structure of microbial communities in these methane-rich environments. © 2018 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Short communication: Adverse effect of surface-active reagents on the bioleaching of pyrite and chalcopyrite by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, G; Escobar, B; Rubio, J; Badilla-Ohlbaum, R

    1995-09-01

    Oxidation of Fe(II) iron and bioleaching of pyrite and chalcopyrite by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was adversely affected by isopropylxanthate, a flotation agent, and by LIX 984, a solvent-extraction agent, each at ≤ 1 g/l. The reagents/l were adsorbed on the bacterial surface, decreasing the bacteria's development and preventing biooxidation. Both reagents inhibited the bioleaching of pyrite and LIX 984 also inhibited the bioleaching of chalcopyrite.

  11. Isolation and characterization of bacteria on the drainage water from Ratones mine and its behaviour on pyrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino, J. L.; Saez, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    This paper describes some of the studies made about iron and sulfur oxidizing bacteria on the drainage water from Ratones mine. Different liquid and solid media were utilized as well as some energy sources, ferrous sulphate, thiosulfate and sulfur. Some experiment were al so realized on museum grade pyrite aimed at determining the possibilities of applying the mentioned bacteria on the leaching of pyrite and subsequently on the leaching of uranium ores. (Author) 27 refs

  12. Catalytic activity of pyrite for coal liquefaction reaction; Tennen pyrite no shokubai seino ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, K.; Kozu, M.; Okada, T.; Kobayashi, M. [Nippon Coal Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Since natural pyrite is easy to obtain and cheap as coal liquefaction catalyst, it is to be used for the 150 t/d scale NEDOL process bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant. NEDO and NCOL have investigated the improvement of catalytic activity of pulverized natural pyrite for enhancing performance and economy of the NEDOL process. In this study, coal liquefaction tests were conducted using natural pyrite catalyst pulverized by dry-type bowl mill under nitrogen atmosphere. Mechanism of catalytic reaction of the natural pyrite was discussed from relations between properties of the catalyst and liquefaction product. The natural pyrite provided an activity to transfer gaseous hydrogen into the liquefaction product. It was considered that pulverized pyrite promotes the hydrogenation reaction of asphaltene because pulverization increases its contact rate with reactant and the amount of active points on its surface. It was inferred that catalytic activity of pyrite is affected greatly by the chemical state of Fe and S on its surface. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. The determination of uranium in pyrite samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    An existing method for the determination of uranium in rocks and minerals is examined for the determination of uranium in materials containing pyrite. The results are comparable with those obtained by a spectrophotometric method, the precision (relative standard deviation) of the method for standards with U 3 O 8 contents of 1500 and 300 p.p.m. being 0,03 and 0,08 respectively when prepared in pyrite, and 0,15 and 0,06 respectively when made up with inert diluent. Full details of the procedure are given in accompanying appendices [af

  14. Chemistry and phase evolution during roasting of toxic thallium-bearing pyrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Arce, Paula; Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Garrido, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    In the frame of a research project on microscopic distribution and speciation of geogenic thallium (Tl) from contaminated mine soils, Tl-bearing pyrite ore samples from Riotinto mining district (Huelva, SW Spain) were experimentally fired to simulate a roasting process. Concentration and volatility behavior of Tl and other toxic heavy metals was determined by quantitative ICP-MS, whereas semi-quantitative mineral phase transitions were identified by in situ thermo X-Ray Diffraction (HT-XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analyses after each firing temperature. Sample with initial highest amount of quartz (higher Si content), lowest quantity of pyrite and traces of jarosite (lower S content) developed hematite and concentrated Tl (from 10 up to 72 mg kg -1 ) after roasting at 900 °C in an oxidizing atmosphere. However, samples with lower or absent quartz content and higher pyrite amount mainly developed magnetite, accumulating Tl between 400 and 500 °C and releasing Tl from 700 up to 900 °C (from 10-29 mg kg -1 down to 4-1 mg kg -1 ). These results show the varied accumulative, or volatile, behaviors of one of the most toxic elements for life and environment, in which oxidation of Tl-bearing Fe sulfides produce Fe oxides wastes with or without Tl. The initial chemistry and mineralogy of pyrite ores should be taken into account in coal-fired power stations, cement or sulfuric acid production industry involving pyrite roasting processes, and steel, brick or paint industries, which use iron ore from roasted pyrite ash, where large amounts of Tl entail significant environmental pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Microbial Fe(III) Oxide Reduction in Chocolate Pots Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, N. W.; Roden, E. E.; Boyd, E. S.; Converse, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    Previous work on dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) has focused on high temperature, low pH environments where soluble Fe(III) is utilized as an electron acceptor for respiration. Much less attention has been paid to DIR in lower temperature, circumneutral pH environments, where solid phase Fe(III) oxides are the dominant forms of Fe(III). This study explored the potential for DIR in the warm (ca. 40-50°C), circumneutral pH Chocolate Pots hot springs (CP) in YNP. Most probable number (MPN) enumerations and enrichment culture studies confirmed the presence of endogenous microbial communities that reduced native CP Fe(III) oxides. Enrichment cultures demonstrated sustained DIR coupled to acetate and lactate oxidation through repeated transfers over ca. 450 days. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes indicated that the dominant organisms in the enrichments were closely affiliated with the well known Fe(III) reducer Geobacter metallireducens. Additional taxa included relatives of sulfate reducing bacterial genera Desulfohalobium and Thermodesulfovibrio; however, amendment of enrichments with molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, suggested that sulfate reduction was not a primary metabolic pathway involved in DIR in the cultures. A metagenomic analysis of enrichment cultures is underway in anticipation of identifying genes involved in DIR in the less well-characterized dominant organisms. Current studies are aimed at interrogating the in situ microbial community at CP. Core samples were collected along the flow path (Fig. 1) and subdivided into 1 cm depth intervals for geochemical and microbiological analysis. The presence of significant quantities of Fe(II) in the solids indicated that DIR is active in situ. A parallel study investigated in vitro microbial DIR in sediments collected from three of the coring sites. DNA was extracted from samples from both studies for 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequencing in order to obtain a

  16. Prevention of Acid Mine Drainage Through Complexation of Ferric Iron by Soluble Microbial Growth Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, S.; Yacob, T. W.; Silverstein, J.; Rajaram, H.; Minchow, K.; Basta, J.

    2011-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a widespread environmental problem with deleterious impacts on water quality in streams and watersheds. AMD is generated largely by the oxidation of metal sulfides (i.e. pyrite) by ferric iron. This abiotic reaction is catalyzed by conversion of ferrous to ferric iron by iron and sulfur oxidizing microorganisms. Biostimulation is currently being investigated as an attempt to inhibit the oxidation of pyrite and growth of iron oxidizing bacteria through addition of organic carbon. This may stimulate growth of indigenous communities of acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria to compete for oxygen. The goal of this research is to investigate a secondary mechanism associated with carbon addition: complexation of free Fe(III) by soluble microbial growth products (SMPs) produced by microorganisms growing in waste rock. Exploratory research at the laboratory scale examined the effect of soluble microbial products (SMPs) on the kinetics of oxidation of pure pyrite during shaker flask experiments. The results confirmed a decrease in the rate of pyrite oxidation that was dependent upon the concentration of SMPs in solution. We are using these data to verify results from a pyrite oxidation model that accounts for SMPs. This reactor model involves differential-algebraic equations incorporating total component mass balances and mass action laws for equilibrium reactions. Species concentrations determined in each time step are applied to abiotic pyrite oxidation rate expressions from the literature to determine the evolution of total component concentrations. The model was embedded in a parameter estimation algorithm to determine the reactive surface area of pyrite in an abiotic control experiment, yielding an optimized value of 0.0037 m2. The optimized model exhibited similar behavior to the experiment for this case; the root mean squared of residuals for Fe(III) was calculated to be 7.58 x 10-4 M, which is several orders of magnitude less than the actual

  17. Effects of pyrite and sphalerite on population compositions, dynamics and copper extraction efficiency in chalcopyrite bioleaching process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yunhua; Liu, Xueduan; Dong, Weiling; Liang, Yili; Niu, Jiaojiao; Gu, Yabing; Ma, Liyuan; Hao, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xian; Xu, Zhen; Yin, Huaqun

    2017-07-01

    This study used an artificial microbial community with four known moderately thermophilic acidophiles (three bacteria including Acidithiobacillus caldus S1, Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans ST and Leptospirillum ferriphilum YSK, and one archaea, Ferroplasma thermophilum L1) to explore the variation of microbial community structure, composition, dynamics and function (e.g., copper extraction efficiency) in chalcopyrite bioleaching (C) systems with additions of pyrite (CP) or sphalerite (CS). The community compositions and dynamics in the solution and on the ore surface were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The results showed that the addition of pyrite or sphalerite changed the microbial community composition and dynamics dramatically during the chalcopyrite bioleaching process. For example, A. caldus (above 60%) was the dominant species at the initial stage in three groups, and at the middle stage, still dominated C group (above 70%), but it was replaced by L. ferriphilum (above 60%) in CP and CS groups; at the final stage, L. ferriphilum dominated C group, while F. thermophilum dominated CP group on the ore surface. Furthermore, the additions of pyrite or sphalerite both made the increase of redox potential (ORP) and the concentrations of Fe 3+ and H + , which would affect the microbial community compositions and copper extraction efficiency. Additionally, pyrite could enhance copper extraction efficiency (e.g., improving around 13.2% on day 6) during chalcopyrite bioleaching; on the contrary, sphalerite restrained it.

  18. Nitric oxide and nitrous oxide turnover in natural and engineered microbial communities: biological pathways, chemical reactions, and novel technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Frank; Wunderlin, Pascal; Udert, Kai M.; Wells, George F.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an environmentally important atmospheric trace gas because it is an effective greenhouse gas and it leads to ozone depletion through photo-chemical nitric oxide (NO) production in the stratosphere. Mitigating its steady increase in atmospheric concentration requires an understanding of the mechanisms that lead to its formation in natural and engineered microbial communities. N2O is formed biologically from the oxidation of hydroxylamine (NH2OH) or the reduction of nitrite (NO−2) to NO and further to N2O. Our review of the biological pathways for N2O production shows that apparently all organisms and pathways known to be involved in the catabolic branch of microbial N-cycle have the potential to catalyze the reduction of NO−2 to NO and the further reduction of NO to N2O, while N2O formation from NH2OH is only performed by ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). In addition to biological pathways, we review important chemical reactions that can lead to NO and N2O formation due to the reactivity of NO−2, NH2OH, and nitroxyl (HNO). Moreover, biological N2O formation is highly dynamic in response to N-imbalance imposed on a system. Thus, understanding NO formation and capturing the dynamics of NO and N2O build-up are key to understand mechanisms of N2O release. Here, we discuss novel technologies that allow experiments on NO and N2O formation at high temporal resolution, namely NO and N2O microelectrodes and the dynamic analysis of the isotopic signature of N2O with quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS). In addition, we introduce other techniques that use the isotopic composition of N2O to distinguish production pathways and findings that were made with emerging molecular techniques in complex environments. Finally, we discuss how a combination of the presented tools might help to address important open questions on pathways and controls of nitrogen flow through complex microbial communities that eventually lead to N2O build

  19. Nitric oxide and nitrous oxide turnover in natural and engineered microbial communities: biological pathways, chemical reactions and novel technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eSchreiber

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O is an environmentally important atmospheric trace gas because it is an effective greenhouse gas and it leads to ozone depletion through photo-chemical nitric oxide (NO production in the stratosphere. Mitigating its steady increase in atmospheric concentration requires an understanding of the mechanisms that lead to its formation in natural and engineered microbial communities. N2O is formed biologically from the oxidation of hydroxylamine (NH2OH or the reduction of nitrite (NO2- to NO and further to N2O. Our review of the biological pathways for N2O production shows that apparently all organisms and pathways known to be involved in the catabolic branch of microbial N-cycle have the potential to catalyze the reduction of NO2- to NO and the further reduction of NO to N2O, while N2O formation from NH2OH is only performed by ammonia oxidizing bacteria. In addition to biological pathways, we review important chemical reactions that can lead to NO and N2O formation due to the reactivity of NO2-, NH2OH and nitroxyl (HNO. Moreover, biological N2O formation is highly dynamic in response to N-imbalance imposed on a system. Thus, understanding NO formation and capturing the dynamics of NO and N2O build-up are key to understand mechanisms of N2O release. Here, we discuss novel technologies that allow experiments on NO and N2O formation at high temporal resolution, namely NO and N2O microelectrodes and the dynamic analysis of the isotopic signature of N2O with quantum cascade laser based absorption spectroscopy. In addition, we introduce other techniques that use the isotopic composition of N2O to distinguish production pathways and findings that were made with emerging molecular techniques in complex environments. Finally, we discuss how a combination of the presented tools might help to address important open questions on pathways and controls of nitrogen flow through complex microbial communities that eventually lead to N2O build-up.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of PDLLA/pyrite composite bone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polylactic acid; Chinese herbal medicine; pyrite; scaffold; bone regeneration; cell culture. 1. Introduction ... research focuses on the direct cellular level effect of pyrite on bone cells. ..... optimal scaffold from the results of this paper. Although the.

  1. In situ characterization of natural pyrite bioleaching using electrochemical noise technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo-bao; Yang, Hong-ying; Li, Hai-jun

    2016-02-01

    An in situ characterization technique called electrochemical noise (ECN) was used to investigate the bioleaching of natural pyrite. ECN experiments were conducted in four active systems (sulfuric acid, ferric-ion, 9k culture medium, and bioleaching solutions). The ECN data were analyzed in both the time and frequency domains. Spectral noise impedance spectra obtained from power spectral density (PSD) plots for different systems were compared. A reaction mechanism was also proposed on the basis of the experimental data analysis. The bioleaching system exhibits the lowest noise resistance of 0.101 MΩ. The bioleaching of natural pyrite is considered to be a bio-battery reaction, which distinguishes it from chemical oxidation reactions in ferric-ion and culture-medium (9k) solutions. The corrosion of pyrite becomes more severe over time after the long-term testing of bioleaching.

  2. Galvanic Interaction between Chalcopyrite and Pyrite with Low Alloy and High Carbon Chromium Steel Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Azizi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the galvanic interaction between pyrite and chalcopyrite with two types of grinding media (low alloy and high carbon chromium steel ball in grinding of a porphyry copper sulphide ore. Results indicated that injection of different gases into mill altered the oxidation-reduction environment during grinding. High carbon chromium steel ball under nitrogen gas has the lowest galvanic current, and low alloy steel ball under oxygen gas had the highest galvanic current. Also, results showed that the media is anodic relative to pyrite and chalcopyrite, and therefore pyrite or chalcopyrite with a higher rest potential acted as the cathode, whilst the grinding media with a lower rest potential acted as the anode, when they are electrochemically contacted. It was also found that low alloy steel under oxygen produced the highest amount of EDTA extractable iron in the slurry, whilst high carbon chromium steel under nitrogen atmosphere led to the lowest amount.

  3. Microbial utilization of low molecular weight organic substrates in soil depends on their carbon oxidation state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunina, Anna; Smith, Andrew; Jones, Davey; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    Removal of low molecular weight organic substances (LMWOS), originating from plants and microorganisms, from soil solution is regulated by microbial uptake. In addition to the concentration of LMWOS in soil solution, the chemical properties of each substance (e.g. C oxidation state, number of C atoms, number of -COOH groups) can affect their uptake and subsequent partitioning of C within the soil microbial community. The aim of this study was to trace the initial fate of three dominant classes of LMWOS in soil (sugars, carboxylic and amino acids), including their removal from solution and utilization by microorganisms, and to reveal the effect of substance chemical properties on these processes. Soil solution, spiked at natural abundance levels with 14C-labelled glucose, fructose, malate, succinate, formate, alanine or glycine, was added to the soil and 14C was traced in the dissolved organic carbon (DOC), CO2, cytosol and soil organic carbon (SOC) over 24 hours. The half-life time of all LMWOS in the DOC (T1 /2-solution) varied between 0.6-5.0 min showing extremely fast initial uptake of LMWOS. The T1 /2-solution of substances was dependent on C oxidation state, indicating that less oxidized organic substances (with C oxidation state "0") were retained longer in soil solution than oxidized substances. The LMWOS-C T1 /2-fast, characterizing the half-life time of 14C in the fast mineralization pool, ranged between 30 and 80 min, with the T1 /2-fast of carboxylic acids (malic acid) being the fastest and the T1 /2-fast of amino acids (glycine) being the slowest. An absence of correlation between T1 /2-fast and either C oxidation state, number of C atoms, or number of -COOH groups suggests that intercellular metabolic pathways are more important for LMWOS transformation in soil than their basic chemical properties. The CO2 release during LMWOS mineralization accounted for 20-90% of 14C applied. Mineralization of LMWOS was the least for sugars and the greatest for

  4. Pyritized ooids from the Arabian Sea basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.; Rao, Ch.M.; Reddy, N.P.C.

    Pyritized ooids in association with turbidites were observed in a box core collected at a depth of 3627 m from the Arabian Sea Basin. Ooids having a shallow water origin were transported to the present depth by turbidity currents or slumping...

  5. Nucleic acid interactions with pyrite surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateo-Marti, E.; Briones, C.; Rogero, C.; Gomez-Navarro, C.; Methivier, Ch.; Pradier, C.M.; Martin-Gago, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The study of the interaction of nucleic acid molecules with mineral surfaces is a field of growing interest in organic chemistry, origin of life, material science and biotechnology. We have characterized the adsorption of single-stranded peptide nucleic acid (ssPNA) on a natural pyrite surface, as well as the further adsorption of ssDNA on a PNA-modified pyrite surface. The characterization has been performed by means of reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. The N(1s) and S(2p) XPS core level peaks of PNA and PNA + DNA have been decomposed in curve-components that we have assigned to different chemical species. RAIRS spectra recorded for different concentrations show the presence of positive and negative adsorption bands, related to the semiconducting nature of the surface. The combination of the information gathered by these techniques confirms that PNA adsorbs on pyrite surface, interacting through nitrogen-containing groups of the nucleobases and the iron atoms of the surface, instead of the thiol group of the molecule. The strong PNA/pyrite interaction inhibits further hybridization of PNA with complementary ssDNA, contrary to the behavior reported on gold surfaces

  6. Nucleic acid interactions with pyrite surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateo-Marti, E. [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Ctra. Ajalvir, Km. 4, 28850-Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: mateome@inta.es; Briones, C.; Rogero, C. [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Ctra. Ajalvir, Km. 4, 28850-Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Gomez-Navarro, C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Cantoblanco, 28049-Madrid (Spain); Methivier, Ch.; Pradier, C.M. [Laboratoire de Reactivite de Surface, UMR CNRS 7609. Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4, Pl Jussieu, 75005-Paris (France); Martin-Gago, J.A. [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Ctra. Ajalvir, Km. 4, 28850-Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Cantoblanco, 28049-Madrid (Spain)

    2008-09-03

    The study of the interaction of nucleic acid molecules with mineral surfaces is a field of growing interest in organic chemistry, origin of life, material science and biotechnology. We have characterized the adsorption of single-stranded peptide nucleic acid (ssPNA) on a natural pyrite surface, as well as the further adsorption of ssDNA on a PNA-modified pyrite surface. The characterization has been performed by means of reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. The N(1s) and S(2p) XPS core level peaks of PNA and PNA + DNA have been decomposed in curve-components that we have assigned to different chemical species. RAIRS spectra recorded for different concentrations show the presence of positive and negative adsorption bands, related to the semiconducting nature of the surface. The combination of the information gathered by these techniques confirms that PNA adsorbs on pyrite surface, interacting through nitrogen-containing groups of the nucleobases and the iron atoms of the surface, instead of the thiol group of the molecule. The strong PNA/pyrite interaction inhibits further hybridization of PNA with complementary ssDNA, contrary to the behavior reported on gold surfaces.

  7. Influence of Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans on Initial Attachment and Pyrite Leaching by Thermoacidophilic Archaeon Acidianus sp. DSM 29099

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available At the industrial scale, bioleaching of metal sulfides includes two main technologies, tank leaching and heap leaching. Fluctuations in temperature caused by the exothermic reactions in a heap have a pronounced effect on the growth of microbes and composition of mixed microbial populations. Currently, little is known on the influence of pre-colonized mesophiles or moderate thermophiles on the attachment and bioleaching efficiency by thermophiles. The objective of this study was to investigate the interspecies interactions of the moderate thermophile Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans DSM 9293T and the thermophile Acidianus sp. DSM 29099 during initial attachment to and dissolution of pyrite. Our results showed that: (1 Acidianus sp. DSM 29099 interacted with S. thermosulfidooxidansT during initial attachment in mixed cultures. In particular, cell attachment was improved in mixed cultures compared to pure cultures alone; however, no improvement of pyrite leaching in mixed cultures compared with pure cultures was observed; (2 active or inactivated cells of S. thermosulfidooxidansT on pyrite inhibited or showed no influence on the initial attachment of Acidianus sp. DSM 29099, respectively, but both promoted its leaching efficiency; (3 S. thermosulfidooxidansT exudates did not enhance the initial attachment of Acidianus sp. DSM 29099 to pyrite, but greatly facilitated its pyrite dissolution efficiency. Our study provides insights into cell-cell interactions between moderate thermophiles and thermophiles and is helpful for understanding of the microbial interactions in a heap leaching environment.

  8. Applicability of anaerobic nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation to microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongbo; Carlson, Han K; Coates, John D

    2013-08-06

    Microbial processes that produce solid-phase minerals could be judiciously applied to modify rock porosity with subsequent alteration and improvement of floodwater sweep in petroleum reservoirs. However, there has been little investigation of the application of this to enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Here, we investigate a unique approach of altering reservoir petrology through the biogenesis of authigenic rock minerals. This process is mediated by anaerobic chemolithotrophic nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms that precipitate iron minerals from the metabolism of soluble ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) coupled to the reduction of nitrate. This mineral biogenesis can result in pore restriction and reduced pore throat diameter. Advantageously and unlike biomass plugs, these biominerals are not susceptible to pressure or thermal degradation. Furthermore, they do not require continual substrate addition for maintenance. Our studies demonstrate that the biogenesis of insoluble iron minerals in packed-bed columns results in effective hydrology alteration and homogenization of heterogeneous flowpaths upon stimulated microbial Fe(2+) biooxidation. We also demonstrate almost 100% improvement in oil recovery from hydrocarbon-saturated packed-bed columns as a result of this metabolism. These studies represent a novel departure from traditional microbial EOR approaches and indicate the potential for nitrate-dependent Fe(2+) biooxidation to improve volumetric sweep efficiency and enhance both the quality and quantity of oil recovered.

  9. Bioprocessing of coal - 10 - an application of microbial flotation to mineral processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, T. [and others] [CRIEPI, Abiko-shi (Japan). Abiko Research Lab.

    1996-09-01

    Microbial flotation for coal desulfurization is being developed. Pyrite in coal is removed by bacterial adhesion by changing the surface property of pyrite. The bacterial adhesion of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans to sulfide minerals (pyrite, galena, molybdenite, chalcocite and millerite), and pyrite removal from the mixture of these sulfide minerals by microbial flotation was investigated. To compare the adhesion of T. ferrooxidans to pyrite with that to the other four minerals mentioned, the surface areas of the minerals, where the bacterium could adhere, was measured. It was observed that the roughness on the mineral surfaces was much smaller than the size of the bacterial cells. Hence, it was suggested that the roughness did not affect the bacterial adhesion to mineral surfaces. Bacterial adhesion to pyrite was compared with that to the other minerals. The amount of adhering bacterium was estimated on the basis of the adherable surface area measured with microscopic method. The amount of adhering cells to pyrite was 421.6 x 10{sup 8} cells/cm{sup 2}. On the other hand, the amounts of adhering cells to the minerals, except for pyrite were in a range of 77.1 to 160.8 x 10{sup 8} cells/cm{sup 2}. The bacterium adheres more to pyrite than to the other minerals, and only adheres to pyrite even if the pyrite is mixed with other minerals. Hence, T. ferrooxidans could adhere selectively to pyrite. Pyrite removal from the mineral mixtures was investigated with microbial flotation. Pyrite removal was in a range of 83.7% to 95.1% and mineral recovery was 72.9% to 100%. The grade of recovered minerals was in a range of 79.2 to 86.0% and that of rejected pyrite was in a range of 78.7 to 90.0%. These results suggest that microbial flotation can be a novel technology for mineral processing.

  10. Pyrite nanoparticles as a Fenton-like reagent for in situ remediation of organic pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Gil-Lozano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Fenton reaction is the most widely used advanced oxidation process (AOP for wastewater treatment. This study reports on the use of pyrite nanoparticles and microparticles as Fenton reagents for the oxidative degradation of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc as a representative contaminant. Upon oxidative dissolution in water, pyrite (FeS2 particles can generate H2O2 at their surface while simultaneously promoting recycling of Fe3+ into Fe2+ and vice versa. Pyrite nanoparticles were synthesized by the hot injection method. The use of a high concentration of precursors gave individual nanoparticles (diameter: 20 nm with broader crystallinity at the outer interfaces, providing a greater number of surface defects, which is advantageous for generating H2O2. Batch reactions were run to monitor the kinetics of CuPc degradation in real time and the amount of H2O2. A markedly greater degradation of CuPc was achieved with nanoparticles as compared to microparticles: at low loadings (0.08 mg/L and 20 h reaction time, the former enabled 60% CuPc removal, whereas the latter enabled only 7% removal. These results confirm that the use of low concentrations of synthetic nanoparticles can be a cost effective alternative to conventional Fenton procedures for use in wastewater treatment, avoiding the potential risks caused by the release of heavy metals upon dissolution of natural pyrites.

  11. A grey box model of glucose fermentation and syntrophic oxidation in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Los Ángeles Fernandez, Maria; de Los Ángeles Sanromán, Maria; Marks, Stanislaw; Makinia, Jacek; Gonzalez Del Campo, Araceli; Rodrigo, Manuel; Fernandez, Francisco Jesus

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the fermentative and oxidative processes taking place in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) fed with glucose were studied and modeled. The model accounting for the bioelectrochemical processes was based on ordinary, Monod-type differential equations. The model parameters were estimated using experimental results obtained from three H-type MFCs operated at open or closed circuits and fed with glucose or ethanol. The experimental results demonstrate that similar fermentation processes were carried out under open and closed circuit operation, with the most important fermentation products being ethanol (with a yield of 1.81molmol(-1) glucose) and lactic acid (with a yield of 1.36molmol(-1) glucose). A peak in the electricity generation was obtained when glucose and fermentation products coexisted in the liquid bulk. However, almost 90% of the electricity produced came from the oxidation of ethanol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Metagenomic Assembly of the Dominant Zetaproteobacteria in an Iron-oxidizing Hydrothermal Microbial Mat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, C. L.; Fullerton, H.

    2013-12-01

    Iron is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust and is potentially one of the most abundant energy sources on the earth as an electron donor for chemolithoautotrophic growth coupled to Fe(II) oxidation. Despite the rapid abiotic oxidation rate of iron, many microbes have adapted to feeding off this fleeting energy source. One such bacterial class is the Zetaproteobacteria. Iron-dominated microbial mat material was collected with a small-scale syringe sampler from Loihi Seamount, Hawaii. From this sample, gDNA was extracted and prepared for paired-end Illumina sequencing. Reconstruction of SSU rDNA genes using EMERGE allowed for comparison to previous SSU rDNA surveys. Clone libraries and qPCR show these microbial mats to be dominated by Zetaproteobacteria. Results from our in silico reconstruction confirm these initial findings. RDP classification of the EMERGE reconstructed sequences resulted in 44% of the community being identified as Zetaproteobacteria. The most abundant SSU rDNA has 99% similarity to Zeta OTU-2, and only a 94% similarity to M. ferrooxidans PV-1. Zeta OTU-2 has been shown to be the most cosmopolitan population in iron-dominated hydrothermal systems from across Pacific Ocean. Metagenomic assembly has resulted in many contigs with high identity to M. ferrooxidans as identified, by BLAST. However, with large differences in SSU rRNA similarity, M. ferrooxidans PV-1 is not an adequate reference. Current work is focusing on reconstruction of the dominant microbial mat member, without the use of a reference genome through an iterative assembly approach. The resulting 'pan-genome' will be compared to other Zetaproteobacteria (at the class level) and the functional ecology of this cosmopolitan microbial mat community member will be extrapolated. Thus far, we have detected multiple housekeeping genes involved in DNA replication, transcription and translation. The most abundant metabolic gene we have found is Aconitase, a key enzyme in the

  13. Low Stress Mechanical Properties of Plasma-Treated Cotton Fabric Subjected to Zinc Oxide-Anti-Microbial Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Wai Kan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton fabrics are highly popular because of their excellent properties such as regeneration, bio-degradation, softness, affinity to skin and hygroscopic properties. When in contact with the human body, cotton fabrics offer an ideal environment for microbial growth due to their ability to retain oxygen, moisture and warmth, as well as nutrients from spillages and body sweat. Therefore, an anti-microbial coating formulation (Microfresh and Microban together with zinc oxide as catalyst was developed for cotton fabrics to improve treatment effectiveness. In addition, plasma technology was employed in the study which roughened the surface of the materials, improving the loading of zinc oxides on the surface. In this study, the low stress mechanical properties of plasma pre-treated and/or anti-microbial-treated cotton fabric were studied. The overall results show that the specimens had improved bending properties when zinc oxides were added in the anti-microbial coating recipe. Also, without plasma pre-treatment, anti-microbial-treatment of cotton fabric had a positive effect only on tensile resilience, shear stress at 0.5° and compressional energy, while plasma-treated specimens had better overall tensile properties even after anti-microbial treatment.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of a microbial fuel cell treating artificial dialysis wastewater using graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yuko; Yoshida, Naoko

    2016-02-01

    Artificial dialysis wastewater (ADWW) generally contains 800-2,200 mg L-1 of organic matter. Prior to its discharge to the sewage system, ADWW must be treated in order to reduce organic matter to less than 600 mg L-1. This study assesses the applicability of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to the reduction of organic matter in ADWW as an alternative pre-treatment system to aeration. In the MFC, conductive floccular aggregates microbially produced from graphene oxide (GO-flocs) were applied as an anode material in the MFC. The GO-flocs were obtained by anaerobic incubation of graphene oxide (GO) with microorganisms in ADWW at 28 °C for a minimum of 10 days. During incubation, GO in the mixture was transformed into black conductive floccular aggregates having 0.12 mS cm-1, suggesting the microbial reduction of GO to the reduced form. The produced GO-flocs were then used as the anode material in a cylindrical MFC, which was filled with ADWW and covered with a floating, platinum (Pt)-coated carbon cathode. The MFC was polarized via an external resistance of 10 Ω and applied for 120 days by replacing half of the supernatant of the MFC with fresh ADWW, every 6-9 days. As a result, the MFC achieved a 128 mg L-1 d-1 chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) removal rate. For example, the MFC contained 1,500 mg-CODCr L-1 just after replacement, with this concentration being reduced to 1,000 mg-CODCr L-1 after 6-9 days of incubation. At the same time, the MFC showed an average power density of 28 mW m-2 and a maximum power density of 291 mW m-2. These results suggest that a MFC packed with GO-flocs can be used as an alternative biotreatment system, replacing the energy-intensive aeration process.

  15. Effects of inorganic carbon on the nitrous oxide emissions and microbial diversity of an anaerobic ammonia oxidation reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjie; Wang, Dunqiu; Jin, Yue

    2018-02-01

    Inorganic carbon (IC) is important for anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). In this study, the effects of the IC concentration on N 2 O emissions and microbial diversity in an anammox reactor were investigated. N 2 O emissions were positively correlated with IC concentrations, and IC concentrations in the range of 55-130 mg/L were optimal, considering the nitrogen removal rate and N 2 O emissions. High IC concentrations resulted in the formation of CaCO 3 on the surface of anammox granules, which impacted the diffusion conditions of the substrate. Microbial community analysis indicated that high IC concentrations decreased the populations of specific bacteria, such as Achromobacter spanius strain YJART-7, Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain IHB B 6801, and Denitratisoma oestradiolicum clone 20b_15. D. oestradiolicum clone 20b_15 appeared to be the key contributor to N 2 O emissions. High N 2 O emissions may result from changes in organic carbon sources, which lead to denitrification by D. oestradiolicum clone 20b_15. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Microbially-mediated method for synthesis of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelps, Tommy J.; Lauf, Robert J.; Moon, Ji-Won; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad Edward; Madden, Andrew Stephen; Li, Yiliang; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Rawn, Claudia Jeanette

    2017-09-19

    The invention is directed to a method for producing non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, the method comprising: (a) subjecting a combination of reaction components to conditions conducive to microbially-mediated formation of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, wherein said combination of reaction components comprises i) anaerobic microbes, ii) a culture medium suitable for sustaining said anaerobic microbes, iii) a metal component comprising at least one type of metal ion, iv) a non-metal component comprising at least one non-metal selected from the group consisting of S, Se, Te, and As, and v) one or more electron donors that provide donatable electrons to said anaerobic microbes during consumption of the electron donor by said anaerobic microbes; and (b) isolating said non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, which contain at least one of said metal ions and at least one of said non-metals. The invention is also directed to non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticle compositions produced as above and having distinctive properties.

  17. Potential impact of microbial activity on the oxidant capacity and organic carbon budget in clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaïtilingom, Mickael; Deguillaume, Laurent; Vinatier, Virginie; Sancelme, Martine; Amato, Pierre; Chaumerliac, Nadine; Delort, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Within cloud water, microorganisms are metabolically active and, thus, are expected to contribute to the atmospheric chemistry. This article investigates the interactions between microorganisms and the reactive oxygenated species that are present in cloud water because these chemical compounds drive the oxidant capacity of the cloud system. Real cloud water samples with contrasting features (marine, continental, and urban) were taken from the puy de Dôme mountain (France). The samples exhibited a high microbial biodiversity and complex chemical composition. The media were incubated in the dark and subjected to UV radiation in specifically designed photo-bioreactors. The concentrations of H2O2, organic compounds, and the ATP/ADP ratio were monitored during the incubation period. The microorganisms remained metabolically active in the presence of ●OH radicals that were photo-produced from H2O2. This oxidant and major carbon compounds (formaldehyde and carboxylic acids) were biodegraded by the endogenous microflora. This work suggests that microorganisms could play a double role in atmospheric chemistry; first, they could directly metabolize organic carbon species, and second, they could reduce the available source of radicals through their oxidative metabolism. Consequently, molecules such as H2O2 would no longer be available for photochemical or other chemical reactions, which would decrease the cloud oxidant capacity.

  18. Microbially-mediated method for synthesis of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Tommy J.; Lauf, Robert J.; Moon, Ji Won; Rondinone, Adam J.; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad Edward; Madden, Andrew Stephen; Li, Yiliang; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Rawn, Claudia Jeanette

    2014-06-24

    The invention is directed to a method for producing non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, the method comprising: (a) subjecting a combination of reaction components to conditions conducive to microbially-mediated formation of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, wherein said combination of reaction components comprises i) anaerobic microbes, ii) a culture medium suitable for sustaining said anaerobic microbes, iii) a metal component comprising at least one type of metal ion, iv) a non-metal component containing at least one non-metal selected from the group consisting of S, Se, Te, and As, and v) one or more electron donors that provide donatable electrons to said anaerobic microbes during consumption of the electron donor by said anaerobic microbes; and (b) isolating said non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, which contain at least one of said metal ions and at least one of said non-metals. The invention is also directed to non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticle compositions produced as above and having distinctive properties.

  19. Microbial oxidation of lithospheric organic carbon in rapidly eroding tropical mountain soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Jordon D; Hilton, Robert G; Hovius, Niels; Eglinton, Timothy I; Haghipour, Negar; Wacker, Lukas; Chen, Meng-Chiang; Galy, Valier V

    2018-04-13

    Lithospheric organic carbon ("petrogenic"; OC petro ) is oxidized during exhumation and subsequent erosion of mountain ranges. This process is a considerable source of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to the atmosphere over geologic time scales, but the mechanisms that govern oxidation rates in mountain landscapes are poorly constrained. We demonstrate that, on average, 67 ± 11% of the OC petro initially present in bedrock exhumed from the tropical, rapidly eroding Central Range of Taiwan is oxidized in soils, leading to CO 2 emissions of 6.1 to 18.6 metric tons of carbon per square kilometer per year. The molecular and isotopic evolution of bulk OC and lipid biomarkers during soil formation reveals that OC petro remineralization is microbially mediated. Rapid oxidation in mountain soils drives CO 2 emission fluxes that increase with erosion rate, thereby counteracting CO 2 drawdown by silicate weathering and biospheric OC burial. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  20. Denitrifying bacterial communities affect current production and nitrous oxide accumulation in a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar-Sanz, Ariadna; Puig, Sebastià; García-Lledó, Arantzazu; Trias, Rosalia; Balaguer, M Dolors; Colprim, Jesús; Bañeras, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    The biocathodic reduction of nitrate in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) is an alternative to remove nitrogen in low carbon to nitrogen wastewater and relies entirely on microbial activity. In this paper the community composition of denitrifiers in the cathode of a MFC is analysed in relation to added electron acceptors (nitrate and nitrite) and organic matter in the cathode. Nitrate reducers and nitrite reducers were highly affected by the operational conditions and displayed high diversity. The number of retrieved species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) for narG, napA, nirS and nirK genes was 11, 10, 31 and 22, respectively. In contrast, nitrous oxide reducers remained virtually unchanged at all conditions. About 90% of the retrieved nosZ sequences grouped in a single OTU with a high similarity with Oligotropha carboxidovorans nosZ gene. nirS-containing denitrifiers were dominant at all conditions and accounted for a significant amount of the total bacterial density. Current production decreased from 15.0 A · m(-3) NCC (Net Cathodic Compartment), when nitrate was used as an electron acceptor, to 14.1 A · m(-3) NCC in the case of nitrite. Contrarily, nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation in the MFC was higher when nitrite was used as the main electron acceptor and accounted for 70% of gaseous nitrogen. Relative abundance of nitrite to nitrous oxide reducers, calculated as (qnirS+qnirK)/qnosZ, correlated positively with N2O emissions. Collectively, data indicate that bacteria catalysing the initial denitrification steps in a MFC are highly influenced by main electron acceptors and have a major influence on current production and N2O accumulation.

  1. Bioleaching of heavy metal polluted sediment: kinetics of leaching and microbial sulfur oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeser, C. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Lebenmitteltechnik und Bioverfahrenstechnik, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Zehnsdorf, A. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Umwelt- und Biotechnologisches Zentrum (UBZ), Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Goersch, K.; Seidel, H. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Department Bioremediation, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2005-12-01

    Remediation of heavy metal polluted sediment through bioleaching using elemental sulfur (S{sup 0}) as the leaching agent can be regarded as a two-step process: firstly, the microbial oxidation of the added S{sup 0} to sulfuric acid and, secondly, the reaction of the produced acid with the sediment. Here, both subprocesses were studied in detail independently: oxidized river sediment was either suspended in sulfuric acid of various strengths, or mixed with various amounts of finely ground S{sup 0} powder (diameter of the S{sup 0} particles between 1 and 175 {mu}m with a Rosin-Rammler-Sperling-Bennet (RRSB) distribution and an average diameter of 35 {mu}m) and suspended in water. The leaching process was observed by repeated analysis of the suspension concerning pH, soluble sulfate and metals, and remaining S{sup 0}. In the case of abiotic leaching with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, the reaction between the acid and the sediment resulted in a gradual increase in pH and a solubilization of sediment-borne heavy metals which required some time; 80 % of the finally solubilized heavy metals was dissolved after 1 h, 90 % after 10 h, and 100 % after 100 h. In the case of bioleaching, the rate of S{sup 0} oxidation was maximal at the beginning, gradually diminished with time, and was proportional to the initial amount of S{sup 0}. Due to its very low solubility in water, S{sup 0} is oxidized in a surface reaction catalyzed by attached bacteria. The oxidation let the particles shrink, their surface became smaller and, thus, the S{sup 0} oxidation rate gradually decreased. The shrinking rate was time-invariant and, at 30 C, amounted to 0.5 {mu}m/day (or 100 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}/day). Within 21 days, 90 % of the applied S{sup 0} was oxidized. Three models with a different degree of complexity have been developed that describe this S{sup 0} oxidation, assuming S{sup 0} particles of uniform size (I), using a measured particle size distribution (II), or applying an adapted RRSB distribution (III

  2. Degradation of Anthraquinone Dye Reactive Blue 4 in Pyrite Ash Catalyzed Fenton Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Becelic-Tomin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrite ash (PA is created by burning pyrite in the chemical production of sulphuric acid. The high concentration of iron oxide, mostly hematite, present in pyrite ash, gives the basis for its application as a source of catalytic iron in a modified Fenton process for anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 (RB4 degradation. The effect of various operating variables such as catalyst and oxidant concentration, initial pH and RB4 concentration on the abatement of total organic carbon, and dye has been assessed in this study. Here we show that degradation of RB4 in the modified Fenton reaction was efficient under the following conditions: pH=2.5; [PA]0=0.2 g L−1; [H2O2]0=5 mM and initial RB4 concentration up to 100 mg L−1. The pyrite ash Fenton reaction can overcome limitations observed from the classic Fenton reaction, such as the early termination of the Fenton reaction. Metal (Pb, Zn, and Cu content of the solution after the process suggests that an additional treatment step is necessary to remove the remaining metals from the water. These results provide basic knowledge to better understand the modified, heterogeneous Fenton process and apply the PA Fenton reaction for the treatment of wastewaters which contains anthraquinone dyes.

  3. Effect of ion exchange on the rate of aerobic microbial oxidation of ammonium in hyporheic zone sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ailan; Liu, Chongxuan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Xu, Fen

    2018-03-01

    Microbially mediated ammonium oxidation is a major process affecting nitrogen transformation and cycling in natural environments. This study investigated whether ion exchange process can affect microbially mediated aerobic oxidation of ammonium in a hyporheic zone (HZ) sediments from the Columbia River at US Department of Energy's Hanford site, Washington State. Experiments were conducted using synthetic groundwater and river water to investigate their effect on ammonium oxidation. Results indicated that ammonium sorption through ion exchange reactions decreased the rate of ammonium oxidation, apparently resulting from the influence of the ion exchange on dissolved ammonium concentration, thus decreasing the bioavailability of ammonium for microbial oxidation. However, with the decrease in dissolved ammonium concentration, the sorbed ammonium released back to aqueous phase, and became bioavailable so that all the ammonium in the suspensions were oxidized. Our results implied a dynamic change in ammonium oxidation rates in an environment such as at HZ where river water and groundwater with different chemical compositions exchange frequently that can affect ammonium sorption and desorption through ion exchange reactions.

  4. 40Ar/39Ar dating of pyrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, D.; Masliwec, A.; Kuybida, P.; Hanes, J.A.; Hall, C.M.; Kenyon, W.J.; Spooner, E.T.C.; Scott, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    To overcome difficulties encountered in the customary method of determining the age of mineralization of sulphide ore deposits by analysing silicate material, the sulphide minerals themselves have been examined to see if they contained sufficient potassium and argon for 40 Ar/ 39 Ar age determination. Initial results indicate that this is the case for pyrite from the Geco ore body in northwestern Ontario, Canada. (U.K.)

  5. Microprobe channeling analysis of pyrite crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, D.N.; Ryan, C.G.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear microprobe analysis has provided much useful information about the composition of microscopic inclusions in minerals, mainly through the use of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). However this technique, while powerful, does not provide any direct information about the chemical state, in particular the lattice location, of the elements in the mineral. This information is often of crucial importance in understanding the ore genesis. The technique of ion channeling may be used to identify lattice location, but many minerals occur as microscopic crystals. Therefore it is necessary to utilize a nuclear microprobe with the technique of Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM). As many minerals contain interesting trace elements, it is necessary to measure both the yield of backscattered particles and the induced x-rays to get a clear picture of the lattice location of the elements in the crystal. CCM with PIXE was used to analyse natural pyrite crystals containing a variety of substitutional and non-substitutional elements and natural pyrite crystals from a gold bearing ore. In the latter case, evidence was obtained for two habits for Au in the 400 μm crystals: one as inclusions of Au rich minerals, the other substituted on the pyrite lattice sites. 31 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  6. XAS studies on selenite reduction by pyrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Mingliang; Liu Chunli; Chen Fanrong; Charlet, Laurnet

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of aqueous Se (IV) with pyrite were systematically investigated in light of thermodynamic calculations and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). The results from the speciation study reveal that the reduction product is Se (O) when natural pyrite reacts with Se (N) at pH≤5.65, while small amount of FeSeO 3 or iron selenides may be formed at pH 6.1. At pH≥6.94, due to the precipitation of Fe (Ⅲ) -oxyhydroxide, the formation of the thermodynamically most stable species, FeSe 2 , is inhibited. However, when the reactive nanopyrite-greigite was used for reaction, the thermodynamically most stable species, FeSe 2 , was found for the first time as the predominant product in the present study, suggesting that 79 Se can be immobilized in its most insoluble form, FeSe 2 , in Fe (Ⅱ) -sulfide containing environment. This study confirms that pyrite can significantly attenuate the mobility of Se by reductive precipitation, and that the reaction process does not produce protons under acidic or neutral condition when Se (O) is formed. (authors)

  7. Evaluation of pyrite and pyrrhotite in concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Marcelino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is well known that aggregate characteristics can intensively interfere in concrete behavior especially when sulfides are presented in the aggregates. The lack of consensus to content limit value of these deleterious sulfur compounds in concrete structures for dams has motivated several investigations worldwide. Within this scenario, this work presents a methodology to evaluate the presence of pyrite and pyrrhotite in concretes produced with aggregates containing sulfides. For the study, rock samples from the Irapé hydroelectric power plant area in Minas Gerais (Brazil were used. This plant was built in a geological site where the rock presented sulfide levels of at least 3%. These rock samples were first ground and then used as aggregates in mortars, which were, during almost one year, subjected to three different exposed conditions: temperature of 23° ± 2°C and relative humidity of 95 to 100%; calcium hydroxide solution diluted in water kept at two different temperatures: room temperature and 50° C. The presence and amount of pyrrhotite were obtained from a leaching process of the material (aggregate or mortar in a solution of hydrochloric acid. This procedure allowed also the evaluation of the pyrite content. The results showed that the amount of pyrite has remained virtually constant over time in the three exposure situations. This finding indicates that sulfur limits in aggregates should be set according to the type of iron sulfide presented and not solely by the total amount of sulfur.

  8. Microbial Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation Under Iron Reducing Conditions, Alternative Electron Acceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Urigüen, M.; Jaffe, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    Autotrophic Acidimicrobiaceae-bacterium named A6 (A6), part of the Actinobacteria phylum have been linked to anaerobic ammonium (NH4+) oxidation under iron reducing conditions. These organisms obtain their energy by oxidizing NH4+ and transferring the electrons to a terminal electron acceptor (TEA). Under environmental conditions, the TEAs are iron oxides [Fe(III)], which are reduced to Fe(II), this process is known as Feammox. Our studies indicate that alternative forms of TEAs can be used by A6, e.g. iron rich clays (i.e. nontronite) and electrodes in bioelectrochemical systems such as Microbial Electrolysis Cells (MECs), which can sustain NH4+removal and A6 biomass production. Our results show that nontronite can support Feammox and promote bacterial cell production. A6 biomass increased from 4.7 x 104 to 3.9 x 105 cells/ml in 10 days. Incubations of A6 in nontronite resulted in up to 10 times more NH4+ removal and 3 times more biomass production than when ferrihydrite is used as the Fe(III) source. Additionally, Fe in nontronite can be reoxidized by aeration and A6 can reutilize it; however, Fe is still finite in the clay. In contrast, in MECs, A6 harvest electrons from NH4+ and use an anode as an unlimited TEA, as a result current is produced. We operated multiple MECs in parallel using a single external power source, as described by Call & Logan (2011). MECs were run with an applied voltage of 0.7V and different growing mediums always containing initial 5mM NH4+. Results show that current production is favored when anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), an electron shuttled, is present in the medium as it facilitates the transfer of electrons from the bacterial cell to the anode. Additionally, A6 biomass increased from 1 x 104 to 9.77 x 105cells/ml in 14 days of operation. Due to Acidimicrobiaceae-bacterium A6's ability to use various TEAs, MECs represent an alternative, iron-free form, for optimized biomass production of A6 and its application in NH4

  9. The Adsorption of Cu Species onto Pyrite Surface and Its Effect on Pyrite Flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of Cu species onto pyrite surface and its effect on flotation were investigated by using microflotation tests, first-principle calculations, and XPS surface analysis. The results indicated that the flotation of pyrite appears to be activated with CuSO4 only at alkaline pH, while being depressed at acidic and neutral pH. The adsorption of copper ions on pyrite surface was pH-dependent, and the adsorption magnitude of copper ions at alkaline pH is higher than that at acidic and neutral pH due to a strong interaction between O atom in Cu(OH2 and surface Fe atom except for the interaction between Cu atom and surface S atom. At acidic and neutral pH, there is only an interaction between Cu atom and surface S atom. The adsorption was relatively weak, and more copper ions in solution precipitated the collector and depressed the flotation of pyrite. XPS analysis confirmed that more copper ionic species (Cu(I and Cu(II are adsorbed on the pyrite surface at alkaline pH than that at acidic and neutral pH.

  10. Acid-base properties of a limed pyritic overburden during simulated weathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doolittle, J.J.; Hossner, L.R. [South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD (United States). Plant Science Dept.

    1997-11-01

    Surface-mine reclamation is often hindered by the formation of acid mine soil and acid mine drainage from FeS{sub 2} oxidation. Surface soils containing FeS{sub 2} are often treated with crushed limestone (predominately CaCO{sub 3}) to prevent aid minesoil formation. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of liming pyritic minesoil to prevent the formation of acid minesoil and acid mine drainage. Pyritic minesoils that did not receive lime became acidic very rapidly and produced acidic leachate. Almost all of the FeS{sub 2} in this treatment oxidized during the first 200 d. The addition of lime at a rate of 25% of the theoretical acid-base account (ABA) significantly slowed FeS{sub 2} oxidation, but rapid oxidation ensued after the added lime was neutralized. Treatments receiving a liming rate of 50% ABA or greater remained neutral to alkaline throughout the study. Acid-base values and residual FeS{sub 2}-CO{sub 3} data, however, indicate that the lime was dissolving from the system faster than the FeS{sub 2} was oxidizing, and all the treatments would eventually become acidic. The results indicate that the liming of a pyritic overburden to an ABA of 125% is not a sustainable solution to preventing acid minesoil and acid mine drainage. 25 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Productivity Contribution of Paleozoic Woodlands to the Formation of Shale-Hosted Massive Sulfide Deposits in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (Tharsis, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Remolar, David C.; Harir, Mourad; Carrizo, Daniel; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Amils, Ricardo

    2018-03-01

    The geological materials produced during catastrophic and destructive events are an essential source of paleobiological knowledge. The paleobiological information recorded by such events can be rich in information on the size, diversity, and structure of paleocommunities. In this regard, the geobiological study of late Devonian organic matter sampled in Tharsis (Iberian Pyrite Belt) provided some new insights into a Paleozoic woodland community, which was recorded as massive sulfides and black shale deposits affected by a catastrophic event. Sample analysis using TOF-SIMS (Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer), and complemented by GC/MS (Gas Chromatrograph/Mass Spectrometer) identified organic compounds showing a very distinct distribution in the rock. While phytochemical compounds occur homogeneously in the sample matrix that is composed of black shale, the microbial-derived organics are more abundant in the sulfide nodules. The cooccurrence of sulfur bacteria compounds and the overwhelming presence of phytochemicals provide support for the hypothesis that the formation of the massive sulfides resulted from a high rate of vegetal debris production and its oxidation through sulfate reduction under suboxic to anoxic conditions. A continuous supply of iron from hydrothermal activity coupled with microbial activity was strictly necessary to produce this massive orebody. A rough estimate of the woodland biomass was made possible by accounting for the microbial sulfur production activity recorded in the metallic sulfide. As a result, the biomass size of the late Devonian woodland community was comparable to modern woodlands like the Amazon or Congo rainforests.

  12. Quantum dots conjugated zinc oxide nanosheets: Impeder of microbial growth and biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Rajendra; Gholap, Haribhau; Warule, Sambhaji; Banpurkar, Arun; Kulkarni, Gauri; Gade, Wasudeo

    2015-01-01

    The grieving problem of the 21st century has been the antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic microorganisms to conventional antibiotics. Therefore, developments of novel antibacterial materials which effectively inhibit or kill such resistant microorganisms have become the need of the hour. In the present study, we communicate the synthesis of quantum dots conjugated zinc oxide nanostructures (ZnO/CdTe) as an impeder of microbial growth and biofilm. The as-synthesized nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The growth impedance property of ZnO and ZnO/CdTe on Gram positive organism, Bacillus subtilis NCIM 2063 and Gram negative, Escherichia coli NCIM 2931 and biofilm impedance activity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa O1 was found to occur due to photocatalytical action on the cell biofilm surfaces. The impedance in microbial growth and biofilm formation was further supported by ruptured appearances of cells and dettrered biofilm under field emission scanning electron and confocal laser scanning microscope. The ZnO/CdTe nanostructures array synthesized by hydrothermal method has an advantage of low growth temperature, and opportunity to fabricate inexpensive material for nano-biotechnological applications.

  13. Combination of microbial oxidation and biogenic schwertmannite immobilization: A potential remediation for highly arsenic-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhihui; Wu, Zijian; Liao, Yingping; Liao, Qi; Yang, Weichun; Chai, Liyuan

    2017-08-01

    Here, a novel strategy that combines microbial oxidation by As(III)-oxidizing bacterium and biogenic schwertmannite (Bio-SCH) immobilization was first proposed and applied for treating the highly arsenic-contaminated soil. Brevibacterium sp. YZ-1 isolated from a highly As-contaminated soil was used to oxidize As(III) in contaminated soils. Under optimum culture condition for microbial oxidation, 92.3% of water-soluble As(III) and 84.4% of NaHCO 3 -extractable As(III) in soils were removed. Bio-SCH synthesized through the oxidation of ferrous sulfate by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans immobilize As(V) in the contaminated soil effectively. Consequently, the combination of microbial oxidation and Bio-SCH immobilization performed better in treating the highly As-contaminated soil with immobilization efficiencies of 99.3% and 82.6% for water-soluble and NaHCO 3 -extractable total As, respectively. Thus, the combination can be considered as a green remediation strategy for developing a novel and valuable solution for As-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Importance of Microbial Iron Sulfide Oxidation for Nitrate Depletion in Anoxic Danish Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaclavkova, Sarka; Jacobsen, Ole Stig; Jørgensen, Christian Juncher

    2014-01-01

    of organic carbon in the sediment. An apparent salinity limitation to MISON was observed in the most brackish environment. Addition of high surface area synthetically precipitated iron sulfide (FeS x ) to the aquifer sediment with the lowest natural FeS x reactivity increased both the relative fraction of NO......Nitrate (NO3 −) reduction processes are important for depleting the NO3 − load from agricultural source areas before the discharge water reaches surface waters or groundwater aquifers. In this study, we experimentally demonstrate the co-occurrence of microbial iron sulfide oxidation by NO3 − (MISON......) and other NO3 −-depleting processes in a range of contrasting sediment types: sandy groundwater aquifer, non-managed minerotrophic freshwater peat and two brackish muddy sediments. Approximately 1/3 of the net NO3 − reduction was caused by MISON in three of the four environments despite the presence...

  15. Enriching acid rock drainage related microbial communities from surface-deposited oil sands tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Courtney; Xiao, Yeyuan; Roberts, Deborah J

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about the microbial communities native to surface-deposited pyritic oil sands tailings, an environment where acid rock drainage (ARD) could occur. The goal of this study was to enrich sulfur-oxidizing organisms from these tailings and determine whether different populations exist at pH levels 7, 4.5, and 2.5. Using growth-based methods provides model organisms for use in the future to predict potential activities and limitations of these organisms and to develop possible control methods. Thiosulfate-fed enrichment cultures were monitored for approximately 1 year. The results showed that the enrichments at pH 4.5 and 7 were established quicker than at pH 2.5. Different microbial community structures were found among the 3 pH environments. The sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms identified were most closely related to Halothiobacillus neapolitanus, Achromobacter spp., and Curtobacterium spp. While microorganisms related to Chitinophagaceae and Acidocella spp. were identified as the only possible iron-oxidizing and -reducing microbes. These results contribute to the general knowledge of the relatively understudied microbial communities that exist in pyritic oil sands tailings and indicate these communities may have a potential role in ARD generation, which may have implications for future tailings management.

  16. DFT study on the galvanic interaction between pyrite (100) and galena (100) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Baolin; Li, Yuqiong; Chen, Jianhua; Zhao, Cuihua; Chen, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Galvanic interaction is weakened with the increase of contact distance. • Electronic transfer mainly occurs on the contact layers. • Galvanic effect enhances nucleophilicity of galena and electrophilicity of pyrite. • Presence of H_2O increases the galvanic interaction. - Abstract: The galvanic interaction between pyrite and galena surface has been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) method. The calculated results show that galvanic interactions between pyrite and galena surface are decreased with the increase of contact distance. The galvanic interactions still occurs even the distance larger than the sum of two atoms radius (≈2.8 Å), and the limit distance of galvanic interaction between galena and pyrite surface is about 10 Å, which is consistent with the quantum tunneling effect. Through Mulliken charge population calculation, it is found that electrons transfer from galena to pyrite. For galena surface, Pb 6s and 6p states lose electrons and S 3p state loses a small amount of electrons, which causes the electron loss of galena. For pyrite surface, Fe 4p state obtains large numbers of electrons, resulting in the decrease of positive charge of Fe atom. However, the 3p state of S atom loses a small numbers of electrons. The reactivity of mineral surface has also been studied by calculating the frontier orbitals of minerals. Results suggest that the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) coefficients of galena are increased whereas those of pyrite are decreased with the enhancing galvanic interaction, indicating that the oxidation of galena surface would be enhanced due to the galvanic interaction. The Fukui indices and dual descriptor values of surface atoms suggest that the nucleophilicity of the galena surface increases, meanwhile, the electrophilicity of pyrite surface increases with the decrease of the contact distance. In addition, the density of states (DOS) of atoms results show that the

  17. Rapid biological oxidation of methanol in the tropical Atlantic: significance as a microbial carbon source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Dixon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Methanol is the second most abundant organic gas in the atmosphere after methane, and is ubiquitous in the troposphere. It plays a significant role in atmospheric oxidant chemistry and is biogeochemically active. Large uncertainties exist about whether the oceans are a source or sink of methanol to the atmosphere. Even less is understood about what reactions in seawater determine its concentration, and hence flux across the sea surface interface. We report here concentrations of methanol between 151–296 nM in parts of the oligotrophic North Atlantic, with corresponding microbial uptake rates between 2–146 nM d−1, suggesting turnover times as low as 1 day (1–25 days in surface waters of the oligotrophic tropical North East Atlantic. Methanol is mainly (≥97% used by microbes for obtaining energy in oligotrophic regions, which contrasts with shelf and coastal areas where between 20–50% can be used for cell growth. Comparisons of microbial methanol oxidation rates with parallel determinations of bacterial leucine uptake suggest that methanol contributes on average 13% to bacterial carbon demand in the central northern Atlantic gyre (maximum of 54%. In addition, the contribution that methanol makes to bacterial carbon demand varies as a power function of chlorophyll a concentrations; suggesting for concentrations <0.2 μg l−1 that methanol can make a significant contribution to bacterial carbon demand. However, our low air to sea methanol flux estimates of 7.2–13 μmol m−2 d−1 suggest that the atmosphere is not a major methanol source. We conclude that there must be a major, as yet unidentified, in situ oceanic methanol source in these latitudes which we suggest is sunlight driven decomposition of organic matter.

  18. Microbial community variation and functions to excess sludge reduction in a novel gravel contact oxidation reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Shanshan; Jin, Y.; Fu, L. [School of Urban and Environmental Science, Northeast Normal University, Changchun (China); Quan, C. [Jilin University, College of medicine, Changchun (China); Yang, Y.S., E-mail: yangy6@cf.ac.uk [Cardiff University, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff CF10 3YE (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    Excess biomass produced within the degradation processes of organic pollutants is creating environmental challenges. The gravel contact oxidation reactor (GCOR) filled with crushed stone globular aggregates as carriers, has been demonstrated capable of reducing the excess sludge effectively in some pilot and small-scale engineering studies. In order to evaluate the variation and structure of the microbial community and their functions to excess sludge reduction in GCOR, a conventional activated sludge reactor (ASR) was studied as a comparison. The 16S rDNA library of the universal bacteria was constructed, Shannon's diversity index (H) and Species evenness (E) were calculated with distance-based operational taxonomic unit and richness (DOTUR) for microbial diversity. Real-time quantity PCR and optical microscope were used for absolute bacterial DNA concentration and eukarya identification, respectively. Meanwhile, the suspended solid index in GCOR and ASR was detected for assessing the excess sludge production. The results indicated that the most abundant bacteria in GCOR were those related to the {beta}-Proteobacteria group, then {gamma}-Proteobacteria and to Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteriode (CFB). In the ASR samples major bacteria were in the closest match with {gamma}-Proteobacteria, then {beta}-Proteobacteria and CFB. Shannon's index (H) was higher (3.41) for diversity of bacteria extracted from the carrier samples in GCOR than that (2.71) from the sludge sample in ASR. Species evenness (E) for the isolates from GCOR and ASR samples was 0.97 and 0.96, respectively. Comparison of the universal bacteria population in GCOR and ASR shows that the total bacterial DNA concentration on the GCOR carriers were 8.98 x 10{sup 5} {mu}g/{mu}l, twice that in ASR of 4.67 x 10{sup 5} {mu}g/{mu}l under normal operation of two reactors. But the MLSS in GCOR was only 4.5 mg/L, 25 times less than that in ASR of 115.4 mg/L. The most representative eukarya were protozoa

  19. Microbial community variation and functions to excess sludge reduction in a novel gravel contact oxidation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shanshan; Jin, Y.; Fu, L.; Quan, C.; Yang, Y.S.

    2009-01-01

    Excess biomass produced within the degradation processes of organic pollutants is creating environmental challenges. The gravel contact oxidation reactor (GCOR) filled with crushed stone globular aggregates as carriers, has been demonstrated capable of reducing the excess sludge effectively in some pilot and small-scale engineering studies. In order to evaluate the variation and structure of the microbial community and their functions to excess sludge reduction in GCOR, a conventional activated sludge reactor (ASR) was studied as a comparison. The 16S rDNA library of the universal bacteria was constructed, Shannon's diversity index (H) and Species evenness (E) were calculated with distance-based operational taxonomic unit and richness (DOTUR) for microbial diversity. Real-time quantity PCR and optical microscope were used for absolute bacterial DNA concentration and eukarya identification, respectively. Meanwhile, the suspended solid index in GCOR and ASR was detected for assessing the excess sludge production. The results indicated that the most abundant bacteria in GCOR were those related to the β-Proteobacteria group, then γ-Proteobacteria and to Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteriode (CFB). In the ASR samples major bacteria were in the closest match with γ-Proteobacteria, then β-Proteobacteria and CFB. Shannon's index (H) was higher (3.41) for diversity of bacteria extracted from the carrier samples in GCOR than that (2.71) from the sludge sample in ASR. Species evenness (E) for the isolates from GCOR and ASR samples was 0.97 and 0.96, respectively. Comparison of the universal bacteria population in GCOR and ASR shows that the total bacterial DNA concentration on the GCOR carriers were 8.98 x 10 5 μg/μl, twice that in ASR of 4.67 x 10 5 μg/μl under normal operation of two reactors. But the MLSS in GCOR was only 4.5 mg/L, 25 times less than that in ASR of 115.4 mg/L. The most representative eukarya were protozoa both in GCOR (15 no. per 20 ml) and in ASR (15

  20. Antibiotics and Manure Effects on Microbial Communities Responsible for Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo, M.; Song, B.; Sparrer, T.; Crozier, C.; Tobias, C. R.; Phillips, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    Agroecosystems are major contributors of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Denitrification and nitrification are the primary pathways of N2O emission in soils. However, there is uncertainty regarding the organisms responsible for N2O production. Bacteria were previously considered the only microbial N2O source, however, current studies indicate that fungi also produce N2O by denitrification. Denitrifying bacteria can be a source or sink of N2O depending on the presence and expression of nitrous oxide reductase genes (nosZ), encoding for the enzyme converting N2O to N2. Fungal denitrification may produce only N2O as an end product due to missing the nosZ gene. Animal manures applied to agricultural fields can transfer antibiotics to soils as a result of antibiotic use in the livestock industry. These antibiotics target mostly bacteria and may promote fungal growth. The growth inhibition of denitrifying bacteria may favor fungal denitrifiers potentially enhancing N2O emissions. Our objective is to examine the effects of antibiotic exposure and manure fertilization on the microbial communities responsible for N2 and N2O production in grasslands. Soil slurry incubations were conducted with tetracycline at different concentrations. A mesocosm experiment was also performed with soil cores exposed to tetracycline and cow manure. Production of N2O and N2 was measured using gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), respectively. Antibiotic inhibition of soil N2 production was found to be dose dependent, reaching up to 80% inhibition with 1g Kg-1 of tetracycline treatment, while N2O production was enhanced up to 8 times. These results suggest higher fungal denitrification with a concomitant decrease in bacterial denitrification after antibiotic exposure. We also found higher N2O fluxes in the soil mesocosms treated with manure plus tetracycline. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) will be conducted to examine the changes in

  1. Trace Metal Requirements for Microbial Enzymes Involved in the Production and Consumption of Methane and Nitrous Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Jennifer B.; Orphan, Victoria J.

    2011-01-01

    Fluxes of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere are heavily influenced by microbiological activity. Microbial enzymes involved in the production and consumption of greenhouse gases often contain metal cofactors. While extensive research has examined the influence of Fe bioavailability on microbial CO2 cycling, fewer studies have explored metal requirements for microbial production and consumption of the second- and third-most abundant greenhouse gases, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). Here we review the current state of biochemical, physiological, and environmental research on transition metal requirements for microbial CH4 and N2O cycling. Methanogenic archaea require large amounts of Fe, Ni, and Co (and some Mo/W and Zn). Low bioavailability of Fe, Ni, and Co limits methanogenesis in pure and mixed cultures and environmental studies. Anaerobic methane oxidation by anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) likely occurs via reverse methanogenesis since ANME possess most of the enzymes in the methanogenic pathway. Aerobic CH4 oxidation uses Cu or Fe for the first step depending on Cu availability, and additional Fe, Cu, and Mo for later steps. N2O production via classical anaerobic denitrification is primarily Fe-based, whereas aerobic pathways (nitrifier denitrification and archaeal ammonia oxidation) require Cu in addition to, or possibly in place of, Fe. Genes encoding the Cu-containing N2O reductase, the only known enzyme capable of microbial N2O conversion to N2, have only been found in classical denitrifiers. Accumulation of N2O due to low Cu has been observed in pure cultures and a lake ecosystem, but not in marine systems. Future research is needed on metalloenzymes involved in the production of N2O by enrichment cultures of ammonia oxidizing archaea, biological mechanisms for scavenging scarce metals, and possible links between metal bioavailability and greenhouse gas fluxes in anaerobic environments where metals may be limiting due to sulfide

  2. Microbial production of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide in boreal peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regina, K.

    1998-12-31

    Soils are an important source of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and nitric oxide (NO). N{sub 2}O is a greenhouse gas participating in both warming of the climate and the destruction of ozone, and NO is active in tropospheric chemistry. The fluxes and formation mechanisms of these gases in boreal Finnish peatlands were studied by both laboratory and field techniques. Special attention was paid to factors regulating their production, e.g. height of the water table, pH, temperature, nutrient level and nitrification activity. Both N{sub 2}O and NO fluxes were detected in the peatlands, some of which were sources of these trace gases and some sinks. The flux rates of N{sub 2}O ranged from negative values to several milligrammes per square metre per day. Natural peatlands were the lowest sources of N{sub 2}O, often showing negative fluxes, whereas sites drained for forestry some decades ago had markedly higher fluxes. A site drained for agriculture (grassland) was the highest source found. NO fluxes were observed on the two drained sites studied, a forested fen and the same field of grass, but not on a natural fen with a high water table. NO fluxes amounted to 16-30 % of the N{sub 2}O flux rates. The importance of the water table in regulating N{sub 2}0 fluxes was demonstrated in field and laboratory studies. It was shown in the laboratory that even a short lowering of the water table, for 14 weeks at 20 deg C, induced N{sub 2}0 fluxes from the fens that normally acted as sinks or only low sources. Raising the water table in peat monoliths from drained sites reduced the flux of N{sub 2}O. Nutrient-rich peatlands had much higher capacities for N{sub 2}O and NO production than poorer ones. The addition of KNO{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}Cl or urea to minerotrophic peat further increased the fluxes of N{sub 2}O and NO, and also nitrogen mineralisation. There was a clear connection between the fluxes of N{sub 2}0 and NO and nitrification activity measured as the numbers of nitrite

  3. Microbial production of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide in boreal peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regina, K.

    1998-01-01

    Soils are an important source of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and nitric oxide (NO). N 2 O is a greenhouse gas participating in both warming of the climate and the destruction of ozone, and NO is active in tropospheric chemistry. The fluxes and formation mechanisms of these gases in boreal Finnish peatlands were studied by both laboratory and field techniques. Special attention was paid to factors regulating their production, e.g. height of the water table, pH, temperature, nutrient level and nitrification activity. Both N 2 O and NO fluxes were detected in the peatlands, some of which were sources of these trace gases and some sinks. The flux rates of N 2 O ranged from negative values to several milligrammes per square metre per day. Natural peatlands were the lowest sources of N 2 O, often showing negative fluxes, whereas sites drained for forestry some decades ago had markedly higher fluxes. A site drained for agriculture (grassland) was the highest source found. NO fluxes were observed on the two drained sites studied, a forested fen and the same field of grass, but not on a natural fen with a high water table. NO fluxes amounted to 16-30 % of the N 2 O flux rates. The importance of the water table in regulating N 2 0 fluxes was demonstrated in field and laboratory studies. It was shown in the laboratory that even a short lowering of the water table, for 14 weeks at 20 deg C, induced N 2 0 fluxes from the fens that normally acted as sinks or only low sources. Raising the water table in peat monoliths from drained sites reduced the flux of N 2 O. Nutrient-rich peatlands had much higher capacities for N 2 O and NO production than poorer ones. The addition of KNO 3 , NH 4 Cl or urea to minerotrophic peat further increased the fluxes of N 2 O and NO, and also nitrogen mineralisation. There was a clear connection between the fluxes of N 2 0 and NO and nitrification activity measured as the numbers of nitrite-oxidising bacteria, nitrification potential or in situ net

  4. Microbial production of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide in boreal peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regina, K

    1999-12-31

    Soils are an important source of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and nitric oxide (NO). N{sub 2}O is a greenhouse gas participating in both warming of the climate and the destruction of ozone, and NO is active in tropospheric chemistry. The fluxes and formation mechanisms of these gases in boreal Finnish peatlands were studied by both laboratory and field techniques. Special attention was paid to factors regulating their production, e.g. height of the water table, pH, temperature, nutrient level and nitrification activity. Both N{sub 2}O and NO fluxes were detected in the peatlands, some of which were sources of these trace gases and some sinks. The flux rates of N{sub 2}O ranged from negative values to several milligrammes per square metre per day. Natural peatlands were the lowest sources of N{sub 2}O, often showing negative fluxes, whereas sites drained for forestry some decades ago had markedly higher fluxes. A site drained for agriculture (grassland) was the highest source found. NO fluxes were observed on the two drained sites studied, a forested fen and the same field of grass, but not on a natural fen with a high water table. NO fluxes amounted to 16-30 % of the N{sub 2}O flux rates. The importance of the water table in regulating N{sub 2}0 fluxes was demonstrated in field and laboratory studies. It was shown in the laboratory that even a short lowering of the water table, for 14 weeks at 20 deg C, induced N{sub 2}0 fluxes from the fens that normally acted as sinks or only low sources. Raising the water table in peat monoliths from drained sites reduced the flux of N{sub 2}O. Nutrient-rich peatlands had much higher capacities for N{sub 2}O and NO production than poorer ones. The addition of KNO{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}Cl or urea to minerotrophic peat further increased the fluxes of N{sub 2}O and NO, and also nitrogen mineralisation. There was a clear connection between the fluxes of N{sub 2}0 and NO and nitrification activity measured as the numbers of nitrite

  5. Molecular characterization of anaerobic sulfur-oxidizing microbial communities in up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating municipal sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Azrina A; Hatamoto, Masashi; Yamamoto, Masamitsu; Ono, Shinya; Nakamura, Akinobu; Takahashi, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2014-11-01

    A novel wastewater treatment system consisting of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor with sulfur-redox reaction was developed for treatment of municipal sewage under low-temperature conditions. In the UASB reactor, a novel phenomenon of anaerobic sulfur oxidation occurred in the absence of oxygen, nitrite and nitrate as electron acceptors. The microorganisms involved in anaerobic sulfur oxidation have not been elucidated. Therefore, in this study, we studied the microbial communities existing in the UASB reactor that probably enhanced anaerobic sulfur oxidation. Sludge samples collected from the UASB reactor before and after sulfur oxidation were used for cloning and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the 16S rRNA genes of the bacterial and archaeal domains. The microbial community structures of bacteria and archaea indicated that the genus Smithella and uncultured bacteria within the phylum Caldiserica were the dominant bacteria groups. Methanosaeta spp. was the dominant group of the domain archaea. The T-RFLP analysis, which was consistent with the cloning results, also yielded characteristic fingerprints for bacterial communities, whereas the archaeal community structure yielded stable microbial community. From these results, it can be presumed that these major bacteria groups, genus Smithella and uncultured bacteria within the phylum Caldiserica, probably play an important role in sulfur oxidation in UASB reactors. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigating the formation of acid mine drainage of Toledo pyrite concentrate using column cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila, Diosa Marie

    2018-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is an inevitable problem in mining and has adverse effects in water quality. Studying AMD formation will be valuable in controlling the composition of mine waters and in planning the rehabilitation method for a mine. In this research, kinetics of AMD formation of Toledo pyrite was studied using two column experiments. The mechanisms of AMD formation and the effects of various factors on pH drop were first studied. Another column test was done for validation and to study the role of Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio in the change of leachate pH. The first experiment revealed that time and particle size are the most significant factors. It was also observed that the sudden pH drop during the starting hours was due to cracks formed from beneficiation, and the formation of Fe(OH)3. The laddered behavior of pH thereafter was due to decrease in formation of Fe(OH)3, and the precipitates in pyrite surface that lowered the surface area available for pyrite oxidation. The results of the second experiment validated the laddered behavior of pH. It was also observed that particle size distribution and pyrite surface were affected by the change in pH. Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio of leachate generally decreased as pH dropped.

  7. Efficient Low-pH Iron Removal by a Microbial Iron Oxide Mound Ecosystem at Scalp Level Run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grettenberger, Christen L; Pearce, Alexandra R; Bibby, Kyle J; Jones, Daniel S; Burgos, William D; Macalady, Jennifer L

    2017-04-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a major environmental problem affecting tens of thousands of kilometers of waterways worldwide. Passive bioremediation of AMD relies on microbial communities to oxidize and remove iron from the system; however, iron oxidation rates in AMD environments are highly variable among sites. At Scalp Level Run (Cambria County, PA), first-order iron oxidation rates are 10 times greater than at other coal-associated iron mounds in the Appalachians. We examined the bacterial community at Scalp Level Run to determine whether a unique community is responsible for the rapid iron oxidation rate. Despite strong geochemical gradients, including a >10-fold change in the concentration of ferrous iron from 57.3 mg/liter at the emergence to 2.5 mg/liter at the base of the coal tailings pile, the bacterial community composition was nearly constant with distance from the spring outflow. Scalp Level Run contains many of the same taxa present in other AMD sites, but the community is dominated by two strains of Ferrovum myxofaciens , a species that is associated with high rates of Fe(II) oxidation in laboratory studies. IMPORTANCE Acid mine drainage pollutes more than 19,300 km of rivers and streams and 72,000 ha of lakes worldwide. Remediation is frequently ineffective and costly, upwards of $100 billion globally and nearly $5 billion in Pennsylvania alone. Microbial Fe(II) oxidation is more efficient than abiotic Fe(II) oxidation at low pH (P. C. Singer and W. Stumm, Science 167:1121-1123, 1970, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.167.3921.1121). Therefore, AMD bioremediation could harness microbial Fe(II) oxidation to fuel more-cost-effective treatments. Advances will require a deeper understanding of the ecology of Fe(II)-oxidizing microbial communities and the factors that control their distribution and rates of Fe(II) oxidation. We investigated bacterial communities that inhabit an AMD site with rapid Fe(II) oxidation and found that they were dominated by two

  8. Thermal behaviors of mechanically activated pyrites by thermogravimetry (TG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Huiping; Chen Qiyuan; Yin Zhoulan; Zhang Pingmin

    2003-01-01

    The thermal decompositions of mechanically activated and non-activated pyrites were studied by thermogravimetry (TG) at the heating rate of 10 K min -1 in argon. Results indicate that the initial temperature of thermal decomposition (T di ) in TG curves for mechanically activated pyrites decreases gradually with increasing the grinding time. The specific granulometric surface area (S G ), the structural disorder of mechanically activated pyrites were analyzed by X-ray diffraction laser particle size analyzer, and X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. The results show that the S G of mechanically activated pyrites remains almost constant after a certain grinding time, and lattice distortions (ε) rise but the crystallite sizes (D) decrease with increasing the grinding time. All these results imply that the decrease of T di in TG curves of mechanically activated pyrites is mainly caused by the increase of lattice distortions ε and the decrease of the crystallite sizes D of mechanically activated pyrite with increasing the grinding time. The differences in the reactivity between non-activated and mechanically activated pyrites were observed using characterization of the products obtained from 1 h treatment of non-activated and mechanically activated pyrites at 713 K under inert atmosphere and characterization of non-activated and mechanically activated pyrites exposed to ambient air for a certain period

  9. Microbial diversity at the moderate acidic stage in three different sulfidic mine tailings dumps generating acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korehi, Hananeh; Blöthe, Marco; Schippers, Axel

    2014-11-01

    In freshly deposited sulfidic mine tailings the pH is alkaline or circumneutral. Due to pyrite or pyrrhotite oxidation the pH is dropping over time to pH values tailings are only scarcely studied. Here we investigated the microbial diversity via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis in eight samples (pH range 3.2-6.5) from three different sulfidic mine tailings dumps in Botswana, Germany and Sweden. In total 701 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a divergent microbial community between the three sites and at different tailings depths. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were overall the most abundant phyla in the clone libraries. Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Nitrospira occurred less frequently. The found microbial communities were completely different to microbial communities in tailings at

  10. Biochemistry and Ecology of Novel Cytochromes Catalyzing Fe(II) Oxidation by an Acidophilic Microbial Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, S. W.; Jeans, C. J.; Thelen, M. P.; Verberkmoes, N. C.; Hettich, R. C.; Chan, C. S.; Banfield, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    An acidophilic microbial community found in the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain, CA forms abundant biofilms in extremely acidic (pHindicated that several variants of Cyt579 were present in Leptospirillum strains. Intact protein MS analysis identified the dominant variants in each biofilm and documented multiple N-terminal cleavage sites for Cyt579. By combining biochemical, geochemical and microbiological data, we established that the sequence variation and N-terminal processing of Cyt579 are selected by ecological conditions. In addition to the soluble Cyt579, the second cytochrome appears as a much larger protein complex of ~210 kDa predominant in the biofilm membrane fraction, and has an alpha-band absorption at 572 nm. The 60 kDa cytochrome subunit, Cyt572, resides in the outer membrane of LeptoII, and readily oxidizes Fe(II) at low pH (0.95 - 3.0). Several genes encoding Cyt572 were localized within a recombination hotspot between two strains of LeptoII, causing a large range of variation in the sequences. Genomic sequencing and MS proteomic studies established that the variants were also selected by ecological conditions. A general mechanistic model for Fe(II) oxidation has been developed from these studies. Initial Fe(II) oxidation by Cyt572 occurs at the outer membrane. Cyt572 then transfers electrons to Cyt579, perhaps representing an initial step in energy flow to the biofilm community. Amino acid variations and post-translational modifications of these unique cytochromes may represent fine-tuning of function in response to local environmental conditions.

  11. A SIMS Study of Sulfur Isotopes of Accessory Pyrites Associated with Barites from Methane Cold Seeps in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, E. C.; Aharon, P.

    2017-12-01

    Bacteria and archaea associated with seeps can fix methane from sublimating gas hydrates through coupled bacterial sulfate reduction/ anaerobic methane oxidation (BSR/AMO) and prevent outgassing to the atmosphere. The occurrence of such microbial processes has been established on the basis of the sulfur isotope compositions of microbial byproducts (pyrites; FeS2) that reflect the degree of fractionation between SO4 and FeS2 via the production of the H2S intermediate phase. BSR/AMO coupling has been discerned in accessory sulfides associated with carbonates from gas hydrate sites. Whether BSR/AMO coupling is also active in barites, another ubiquitous product of gas hydrate sublimation, has so far been overlooked. Here we present results of a new sulfur isotope study of accessory sulfides in barites associated with gas hydrates at the threshold of stability occurring on the Gulf of Mexico slope. Using a fractionation factor of 1.009 and a seawater δ34SSO4 value of 20.3‰ and assuming a Rayleigh distillation closed system model for marine sulfide precipitation, pyrites from barite gas seeps are predicted to exhibit a range of δ34S values (about -1‰ to 20‰ CDT) as the pool of sulfate is continuously depleted. Actual δ34S values could fall outside of the predicted range because the system in question is likely only partially closed and kinetic fractionations are likely. δ34S of accessory pyrites from three Garden Banks Lease Block 382 (510 - 640m water depth) and one Mississippi Canyon Lease Block 929 (590m) barite samples have been determined using an ims-1290 Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (SIMS). Two Garden Banks samples and one Mississippi Canyon sample reveal a spread of values from 5.30 ± 0.04 to 25.90 ± 0.09 (‰ CDT), which follow the predicted trend for gas seeps and indicate the source of fractionation is likely from the coupled BSR/AMO process. One Garden Banks sample yields a wide spread of values from -26.2 ± 0.05 to 20.5 ± 0.4 (‰ CDT). The

  12. Unpacking paleoenvironmental change across OAE2 using paired d34S records of pyrite and organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, M. R.; Gomes, M.; Fike, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Pyrite sulfur isotopes have proven to be a powerful tool for reconstructing major changes in global redox state and the emergence of microbial metabolisms. Still, pyrite can be a challenging archive, as its formation depends on the availability of reactive iron species and can occur over multiple generations of sedimentary processes. Accordingly, pyrite δ34S records commonly have large point-to-point variability reflecting local processes. By pairing pyrite δ34S records with those of coexisting organic matter (OM), including both kerogens and extractable bitumens, we can begin to parse the various potential causes of this variability and gain greater insights into changes in the sedimentary paleoenvironment. Here, we present the first collection of records of OM δ34S for the Cretaceous, focusing on sections spanning Ocean Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2, 94 Mya), a period of globally widespread marine anoxia and carbon cycle disruption. In carbonates and shales from OAE2 in Pont d'Issole, France, pyrite and OM δ34S values vary in parallel throughout most of the section, consistent with their shared sulfide source. There are also distinct exceptions: In one interval, an excursion in pyrite δ34S is entirely absent from the organic sulfur record but associated with unusual organic sulfur redox speciation (by XAS), potentially reflecting later exposure to oxic porewaters. Across the core interval of shale deposition during OAE2, the offset between pyrite and OM δ34S values declines smoothly from +17.4 to -7.9‰, which we interpret in terms of changes in the speciation of detrital iron minerals that may have regional implications. We then compare these results with data for other well-characterized OAE2 sections, including Cismon (Italy), Tarfaya (Morocco), and the Demerara Rise (offshore Brazil), which represent environments with a variety of apparent redox states. These paired pyrite - OM δ34S profiles yield new information about how the local and global forcings

  13. Quantum dots conjugated zinc oxide nanosheets: Impeder of microbial growth and biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Rajendra [Department of Biotechnology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India); Gholap, Haribhau, E-mail: haribhau.gholap@fergusson.edu [Department of Physics, Fergusson College, Pune 411004 (India); Warule, Sambhaji [Department of Physics, Nowrosjee Wadia College, Pune 411001 (India); Banpurkar, Arun; Kulkarni, Gauri [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India); Gade, Wasudeo, E-mail: wngade@unipune.ac.in [Department of Biotechnology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India)

    2015-01-30

    Graphical abstract: The visible light upon incident on ZnO/CdTe initiate the phenomenon of photocatalytical impedance of biofilm. - Highlights: • Synthesis of efficient light photocatalyst ZnO/CdTe nanostructures by hydrothermal method. • ZnO/CdTe nanostructures show a good antibacterial activity by action on cell membrane. • ZnO/CdTe nanostructures show a good antibiofilm activity, and also act on the cells inside the biofilm. - Abstract: The grieving problem of the 21st century has been the antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic microorganisms to conventional antibiotics. Therefore, developments of novel antibacterial materials which effectively inhibit or kill such resistant microorganisms have become the need of the hour. In the present study, we communicate the synthesis of quantum dots conjugated zinc oxide nanostructures (ZnO/CdTe) as an impeder of microbial growth and biofilm. The as-synthesized nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The growth impedance property of ZnO and ZnO/CdTe on Gram positive organism, Bacillus subtilis NCIM 2063 and Gram negative, Escherichia coli NCIM 2931 and biofilm impedance activity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa O1 was found to occur due to photocatalytical action on the cell biofilm surfaces. The impedance in microbial growth and biofilm formation was further supported by ruptured appearances of cells and dettrered biofilm under field emission scanning electron and confocal laser scanning microscope. The ZnO/CdTe nanostructures array synthesized by hydrothermal method has an advantage of low growth temperature, and opportunity to fabricate inexpensive material for nano-biotechnological applications.

  14. Quantum dots conjugated zinc oxide nanosheets: Impeder of microbial growth and biofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Rajendra; Gholap, Haribhau; Warule, Sambhaji; Banpurkar, Arun; Kulkarni, Gauri; Gade, Wasudeo

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The visible light upon incident on ZnO/CdTe initiate the phenomenon of photocatalytical impedance of biofilm. - Highlights: • Synthesis of efficient light photocatalyst ZnO/CdTe nanostructures by hydrothermal method. • ZnO/CdTe nanostructures show a good antibacterial activity by action on cell membrane. • ZnO/CdTe nanostructures show a good antibiofilm activity, and also act on the cells inside the biofilm. - Abstract: The grieving problem of the 21st century has been the antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic microorganisms to conventional antibiotics. Therefore, developments of novel antibacterial materials which effectively inhibit or kill such resistant microorganisms have become the need of the hour. In the present study, we communicate the synthesis of quantum dots conjugated zinc oxide nanostructures (ZnO/CdTe) as an impeder of microbial growth and biofilm. The as-synthesized nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The growth impedance property of ZnO and ZnO/CdTe on Gram positive organism, Bacillus subtilis NCIM 2063 and Gram negative, Escherichia coli NCIM 2931 and biofilm impedance activity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa O1 was found to occur due to photocatalytical action on the cell biofilm surfaces. The impedance in microbial growth and biofilm formation was further supported by ruptured appearances of cells and dettrered biofilm under field emission scanning electron and confocal laser scanning microscope. The ZnO/CdTe nanostructures array synthesized by hydrothermal method has an advantage of low growth temperature, and opportunity to fabricate inexpensive material for nano-biotechnological applications

  15. Nano-graphene oxide incorporated into PMMA resin to prevent microbial adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Jo, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Dong-Ae; Patel, Kapil Dev; Kim, Hae-Won; Lee, Hae-Hyoung

    2018-04-01

    Although polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is widely used as a dental material, a major challenge of using this substance is its poor antimicrobial (anti-adhesion) effects, which increase oral infections. Here, graphene-oxide nanosheets (nGO) were incorporated into PMMA to introduce sustained antimicrobial-adhesive effects by increasing the hydrophilicity of PMMA. After characterizing nGO and nGO-incorporated PMMA (up to 2wt%) in terms of morphology and surface characteristics, 3-point flexural strength and hardness were evaluated. The anti-adhesive effects were determined for 4 different microbial species with experimental specimens and the underlying anti-adhesive mechanism was investigated by a non-thermal oxygen plasma treatment. Sustained antimicrobial-adhesive effects were characterized with incubation in artificial saliva for up to 28 days. The typical nanosheet morphology was observed for nGO. Incorporating nGO into PMMA roughened its surface and increased its hydrophilicity without compromising flexural strength or surface hardness. An anti-adhesive effect after 1h of exposure to microbial species in artificial saliva was observed in nGO-incorporated specimens, which accelerated with increasing levels of nGO without significant cytotoxicity to oral keratinocytes. Plasma treatment of native PMMA demonstrated that the antimicrobial-adhesive effects of nGO incorporation were at least partially due to increased hydrophilicity, not changes in the surface roughness. A sustained antimicrobial-adhesive property against Candida albicans was observed in 2% nGO for up to 28 days. The presence of sustained anti-adhesion properties in nGO-incorporated PMMA without loading any antimicrobial drugs suggests the potential usefulness of this compound as a promising antimicrobial dental material for dentures, orthodontic devices and provisional restorative materials. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of Oxygen and Nitrate on Fe (Hydr)oxide Mineral Transformation and Soil Microbial Communities during Redox Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Jacqueline; Roden, Eric E; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew

    2016-04-05

    Oscillations between reducing and oxidizing conditions are observed at the interface of anaerobic/oxic and anaerobic/anoxic environments, and are often stimulated by an alternating flux of electron donors (e.g., organic carbon) and electron acceptors (e.g., O2 and NO3(-)). In iron (Fe) rich soils and sediments, these oscillations may stimulate the growth of both Fe-reducing bacteria (FeRB) and Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB), and their metabolism may induce cycling between Fe(II) and Fe(III), promoting the transformation of Fe (hydr)oxide minerals. Here, we examine the mineralogical evolution of lepidocrocite and ferrihydrite, and the adaptation of a natural microbial community to alternating Fe-reducing (anaerobic with addition of glucose) and Fe-oxidizing (with addition of nitrate or air) conditions. The growth of FeRB (e.g., Geobacter) is stimulated under anaerobic conditions in the presence of glucose. However, the abundance of these organisms depends on the availability of Fe(III) (hydr)oxides. Redox cycling with nitrate results in decreased Fe(II) oxidation thereby decreasing the availability of Fe(III) for FeRB. Additionally, magnetite is detected as the main product of both lepidocrocite and ferrihydrite reduction. In contrast, introduction of air results in increased Fe(II) oxidation, increasing the availability of Fe(III) and the abundance of Geobacter. In the lepidocrocite reactors, Fe(II) oxidation by dissolved O2 promotes the formation of ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite, whereas in the ferrihydrite reactors we observe a decrease in magnetite stoichiometry (e.g., oxidation). Understanding Fe (hydr)oxide transformation under environmentally relevant redox cycling conditions provides insight into nutrient availability and transport, contaminant mobility, and microbial metabolism in soils and sediments.

  17. Assessing the impact of preload on pyrite-rich sediment and groundwater quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karikari-Yeboah, Ohene; Addai-Mensah, Jonas

    2017-02-01

    Pyrite-rich sediments would, invariably, undergo redox reactions which would lead to acidic aqueous environment containing solubilized toxic metal species. When such sediments are subjected to preload, a technique employed by geotechnical engineers to improve the load-bearing capacity of highly compressible formation, transient flow of pore water, accompanied by acidity transfer, would occur as a response. Despite the concomitant environmental and socio-economic significance, to date, there has been limited interdisciplinary research on the underpinning geotechnical engineering and geo-environmental science issues for pyrite-rich sediments under preload. In this study, we investigate the effect of pyrite-rich sediment pore water transfer under preload surcharge on the receiving environment and the impact on the groundwater speciation and quality. Sediment samples were obtained at close depth intervals from boreholes established within pristine areas and those subjected to the preload application. Soil and pore water samples were subjected to solid/solution speciation, moisture contents, soil pH and the Atterberg Limits' analyses using standard analytical techniques and methods. Standpipes were also installed in the boreholes for groundwater sampling and in situ monitoring of water quality parameters. It is shown that the imposition of preload surcharge over pyritic sediment created a reducing environment rich in SO 4 2- , iron oxide minerals and organic matter. This reducing environment fostered organic carbon catabolism to generate excess pyrite and bicarbonate alkalinity, which would invariably impact adversely on soil quality and plant growth. These were accompanied by increase in pH, dissolved Al, Ca, Mg and K species beneath the surcharge.

  18. Acclimation of a marine microbial consortium for efficient Mn(II) oxidation and manganese containing particle production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hao; Pan, Haixia; Xu, Jianqiang; Xu, Weiping; Liu, Lifen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An efficient Mn(II) oxidation marine sediments microbial community was obtained. • High-throughput sequencing indicated new Mn(II) oxidation associated genus. • Na_3MnPO_4CO_3 and MnCO_3 were synthesized by the consortium. • Consortium exhibited Mn(II) oxidation performance over a range of harsh conditions. - Abstract: Sediment contamination with metals is a widespread concern in the marine environment. Manganese oxidizing bacteria (MOB) are extensively distributed in various environments, but a marine microbial community containing MOB is rarely reported. In this study, a consortium of marine metal-contaminated sediments was acclimated using Mn(II). The shift in community structure was determined through high-throughput sequencing. In addition, the consortium resisted several harsh conditions, such as toxic metals (1 mM Cu(II) and Fe(III)), and exhibited high Mn(II) oxidation capacities even the Mn(II) concentration was up to 5 mM. Meanwhile, biogenic Mn containing particles were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and N_2 adsorption/desorption. Dye removal performance of the Mn containing particles was assayed using methylene blue, and 20.8 mg g"−"1 adsorption capacity was obtained. Overall, this study revealed several new genera associated with Mn(II) oxidation and rare biogenic Na_3MnPO_4CO_3_. Results suggested the complexity of natural microbe-mediated Mn transformation.

  19. Terrestrial sedimentary pyrites as a potential source of trace metal release to groundwater – A case study from the Emsland, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houben, Georg J.; Sitnikova, Maria A.; Post, Vincent E.A.

    2017-01-01

    Pyrite is a common minor constituent of terrestrial freshwater sediments and a sink for trace elements. Different amounts and morphological types (framboids and euhedral crystals) of sedimentary pyrites were found in the heavy mineral fraction of cores obtained from several drillholes located in the Emsland region, NW Germany. Their trace element contents were investigated to assess their potential for groundwater contamination after oxidation, e.g. induced by dewatering or autotrophic denitrification. Nickel, arsenic and cadmium were found in significant concentrations in pyrite. Geochemical modeling showed that elevated trace metal concentrations in groundwater, potentially exceeding drinking water standards, should preferentially occur in a less than 1 m thick zone situated around the depth of the redoxcline, where nitrate is reduced by pyrite. This was confirmed by depth-specific groundwater sampling in the Emsland and by previously published studies. The absolute concentration of released trace metals depends on their content in the pyrite but also strongly on the nitrate load of groundwater. - Highlights: • Pyrite from heavy mineral fraction of aquifer sediment analyzed for trace metal content. • Pyrites contain significant concentration of trace metals, such as nickel, arsenic, cadmium. • Trace elements are released by autotrophic denitrification. • Reactive transport model predicts small zone of trace element accumulation. • Release of trace elements strongly dependent on nitrate content of groundwater.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of PDLLA/pyrite composite bone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Polylactic acid; Chinese herbal medicine; pyrite; scaffold; bone regeneration; cell culture. ... Pyrite (FeS2, named as Zi-Ran-Tong in Chinese medicine), as a traditional Chinesemedicine, has been used in the Chinese population to treat bone diseases and to promote bone healing. The mechanical properties of ...

  1. Effect of Graphene-Graphene Oxide Modified Anode on the Performance of Microbial Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The inferior hydrophilicity of graphene is an adverse factor to the performance of the graphene modified anodes (G anodes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs. In this paper, different amounts of hydrophilic graphene oxide (GO were doped into the modification layers to elevate the hydrophilicity of the G anodes so as to further improve their performance. Increasing the GO doped ratio from 0.15 mg·mg−1 to 0.2 mg·mg−1 and 0.25 mg·mg−1, the static water contact angle (θc of the G-GO anodes decreased from 74.2 ± 0.52° to 64.6 ± 2.75° and 41.7 ± 3.69°, respectively. The G-GO0.2 anode with GO doped ratio of 0.2 mg·mg−1 exhibited the optimal performance and the maximum power density (Pmax of the corresponding MFC was 1100.18 mW·m−2, 1.51 times higher than that of the MFC with the G anode.

  2. Microbial Oxidation of Hg(0) - Its Effect on Hg Stable Isotope Fractionation and Methylmercury Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Nathan [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Barkay, Tamar [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Reinfelder, John [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-28

    Mercury (Hg) associated with mixed waste generated by nuclear weapons manufacturing has contaminated vast areas of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) has been formed from the inorganic Hg wastes discharged into headwaters of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Thus, understanding the processes and mechanisms that lead to Hg methylation along the flow path of EFPC is critical to predicting the impacts of the contamination and the design of remedial action at the ORR. In part I of our project, we investigated Hg(0) oxidation and methylation by anaerobic bacteria. We discovered that the anaerobic bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 can oxidize elemental mercury [Hg(0)]. When provided with dissolved elemental mercury, D. desulfuricans ND132 converts Hg(0) to Hg(II) and neurotoxic methylmercury [MeHg]. We also demonstrated that diverse species of subsurface bacteria oxidizes dissolved elemental mercury under anoxic conditions. The obligate anaerobic bacterium Geothrix fermentans H5, and the facultative anaerobic bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Cupriavidus metallidurans AE104 can oxidize Hg(0) to Hg(II) under anaerobic conditions. In part II of our project, we established anaerobic enrichment cultures and obtained new bacterial strains from the DOE Oak Ridge site. We isolated three new bacterial strains from subsurface sediments collected from Oak Ridge. These isolates are Bradyrhizobium sp. strain FRC01, Clostridium sp. strain FGH, and a novel Negativicutes strain RU4. Strain RU4 is a completely new genus and species of bacteria. We also demonstrated that syntrophic interactions between fermentative bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria in Oak Ridge saprolite mediate iron reduction via multiple mechanisms. Finally, we tested the impact of Hg on denitrification in nitrate reducing enrichment cultures derived from subsurface sediments from the Oak Ridge site, where nitrate is a major contaminant. We showed that there is an inverse

  3. Enhancement of Biofilm Formation on Pyrite by Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioleaching is the mobilization of metal cations from insoluble ores by microorganisms. Biofilms can enhance this process. Since Sulfobacillus often appears in leaching heaps or reactors, this genus has aroused attention. In this study, biofilm formation and subsequent pyrite dissolution by the Gram-positive, moderately thermophilic acidophile Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans were investigated. Five strategies, including adjusting initial pH, supplementing an extra energy source or ferric ions, as well as exchanging exhausted medium with fresh medium, were tested for enhancement of its biofilm formation. The results show that regularly exchanging exhausted medium leads to a continuous biofilm development on pyrite. By this way, multiply layered biofilms were observed on pyrite slices, while only monolayer biofilms were visible on pyrite grains. In addition, biofilms were proven to be responsible for pyrite leaching in the early stages.

  4. Selective separation of pyrite and chalcopyrite by biomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraprabha, M N; Natarajan, K A; Modak, Jayant M

    2004-09-01

    Selective separation of pyrite from other associated ferrous sulphides at acidic and neutral pH has been a challenging problem. This paper discusses the utility of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans for the selective flotation of chalcopyrite from pyrite. Consequent to interaction with bacterial cells, pyrite remained depressed even in the presence of potassium isopropyl xanthate collector while chalcopyrite exhibited significant flotability. However, when the minerals were conditioned together, the selectivity achieved was poor due to the activation of pyrite surface by the copper ions in solution. The selectivity was improved when the sequence of conditioning with bacterial cells and collector was reversed, since the bacterial cells were able to depress collector interacted pyrite effectively, while having negligible effect on chalcopyrite. The observed behaviour is analysed and discussed in detail. The separation obtained was significant both at acidic and alkaline pH. This selectivity achieved was retained when the minerals were interacted with both bacterial cells and collector simultaneously.

  5. Matrix composition and community structure analysis of a novel bacterial pyrite leaching community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Sibylle; Ackermann, Sonia; Majzlan, Juraj; Gescher, Johannes

    2009-09-01

    Here we describe a novel bacterial community that is embedded in a matrix of carbohydrates and bio/geochemical products of pyrite (FeS(2)) oxidation. This community grows in stalactite-like structures--snottites--on the ceiling of an abandoned pyrite mine at pH values of 2.2-2.6. The aqueous phase in the matrix contains 200 mM of sulfate and total iron concentrations of 60 mM. Micro-X-ray diffraction analysis showed that jarosite [(K,Na,H(3)O)Fe(3)(SO(4))(2)(OH)(6)] is the major mineral embedded in the snottites. X-ray absorption near-edge structure experiments revealed three different sulfur species. The major signal can be ascribed to sulfate, and the other two features may correspond to thiols and sulfoxides. Arabinose was detected as the major sugar component in the extracellular polymeric substance. Via restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, a community was found that mainly consists of iron oxidizing Leptospirillum and Ferrovum species but also of bacteria that could be involved in dissimilatory sulfate and dissimilatory iron reduction. Each snottite can be regarded as a complex, self-contained consortium of bacterial species fuelled by the decomposition of pyrite.

  6. Surface Chemical Characterisation of Pyrite Exposed to Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Associated Extracellular Polymeric Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sian M. La Vars

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A. ferrooxidans and their metabolic products have previously been explored as a viable alternative depressant of pyrite for froth flotation; however, the mechanism by which separation is achieved is not completely understood. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS and captive bubble contact angle measurements have been used to examine the surface physicochemical properties of pyrite upon exposure to A. ferrooxidans grown in HH medium at pH 1.8. C K-edge near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS spectra collected from PEEM images indicate hydrophilic lipids, fatty acids and biopolymers are formed at the mineral surface during early exposure. After 168 h, the spectra indicate a shift towards protein and DNA, corresponding to an increase in cell population and biofilm formation on the surface, as observed by SEM. The Fe L-edge NEXAFS show gradual oxidation of the mineral surface from Fe(II sulfide to Fe(III oxyhydroxides. The oxidation of the iron species at the pyrite surface is accelerated in the presence of A. ferrooxidans and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS as compared to HH medium controls. The surface chemical changes induced by the interaction with A. ferrooxidans show a significant decrease in surface hydrophobicity within the first 2 h of exposure. The implications of these findings are the potential use of EPS produced during early attachment of A. ferrooxidans, as a depressant for bioflotation.

  7. Preparation of Metallic Iron Powder from Pyrite Cinder by Carbothermic Reduction and Magnetic Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongming Long

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The reduction and magnetic separation procedure of pyrite cinder in the presence of a borax additive was performed for the preparation of reduced powder. The effects of borax dosage, reduction temperature, reduction time and grinding fineness were investigated. The results show that when pyrite cinder briquettes with 5% borax were pre-oxidized at 1050 °C for 10 min, and reduced at 1050 °C for 80 min, with the grinding fineness (<0.44 mm passing 81%, the iron recovery was 91.71% and the iron grade of the magnetic concentrate was 92.98%. In addition, the microstructures of the products were analyzed by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and mineralography, and the products were also studied by the X-ray powder diffraction technique (XRD to investigate the mechanism; the results show that the borax additive was approved as a good additive to improve the separation of iron and gangue.

  8. The Oxidative Metabolism of Fossil Hydrocarbons and Sulfide Minerals by the Lithobiontic Microbial Community Inhabiting Deep Subterrestrial Kupferschiefer Black Shale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Włodarczyk

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Black shales are one of the largest reservoirs of fossil organic carbon and inorganic reduced sulfur on Earth. It is assumed that microorganisms play an important role in the transformations of these sedimentary rocks and contribute to the return of organic carbon and inorganic sulfur to the global geochemical cycles. An outcrop of deep subterrestrial ~256-million-year-old Kupferschiefer black shale was studied to define the metabolic processes of the deep biosphere important in transformations of organic carbon and inorganic reduced sulfur compounds. This outcrop was created during mining activity 12 years ago and since then it has been exposed to the activity of oxygen and microorganisms. The microbial processes were described based on metagenome and metaproteome studies as well as on the geochemistry of the rock. The microorganisms inhabiting the subterrestrial black shale were dominated by bacterial genera such as Pseudomonas, Limnobacter, Yonghaparkia, Thiobacillus, Bradyrhizobium, and Sulfuricaulis. This study on black shale was the first to detect archaea and fungi, represented by Nitrososphaera and Aspergillus genera, respectively. The enzymatic oxidation of fossil aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons was mediated mostly by chemoorganotrophic bacteria, but also by archaea and fungi. The dissimilative enzymatic oxidation of primary reduced sulfur compounds was performed by chemolithotrophic bacteria. The geochemical consequences of microbial activity were the oxidation and dehydrogenation of kerogen, as well as oxidation of sulfide minerals.

  9. Greigite: a true intermediate on the polysulfide pathway to pyrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benning Liane G

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The formation of pyrite (FeS2 from iron monosulfide precursors in anoxic sediments has been suggested to proceed via mackinawite (FeS and greigite (Fe3S4. Despite decades of research, the mechanisms of pyrite formation are not sufficiently understood because solid and dissolved intermediates are oxygen-sensitive and poorly crystalline and therefore notoriously difficult to characterize and quantify. In this study, hydrothermal synchrotron-based energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (ED-XRD methods were used to investigate in situ and in real-time the transformation of mackinawite to greigite and pyrite via the polysulfide pathway. The rate of formation and disappearance of specific Bragg peaks during the reaction and the changes in morphology of the solid phases as observed with high resolution microscopy were used to derive kinetic parameters and to determine the mechanisms of the reaction from mackinawite to greigite and pyrite. The results clearly show that greigite is formed as an intermediate on the pathway from mackinawite to pyrite. The kinetics of the transformation of mackinawite to greigite and pyrite follow a zero-order rate law indicating a solid-state mechanism. The morphology of greigite and pyrite crystals formed under hydrothermal conditions supports this conclusion and furthermore implies growth of greigite and pyrite by oriented aggregation of nanoparticulate mackinawite and greigite, respectively. The activation enthalpies and entropies of the transformation of mackinawite to greigite, and of greigite to pyrite were determined from the temperature dependence of the rate constants according to the Eyring equation. Although the activation enthalpies are uncharacteristic of a solid-state mechanism, the activation entropies indicate a large increase of order in the transition state, commensurate with a solid-state mechanism.

  10. Microbial Synthesis of the Forskolin Precursor Manoyl Oxide in an Enantiomerically Pure Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Ranberg, Johan Andersen; Christensen, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    to cultivate. This may result in insufficient and unreliable supply leading to fluctuating and high sales prices. Hence, substantial efforts and resources have been invested in developing sustainable and reliable supply routes based on microbial cell factories. Here, we report microbial synthesis of (13R...

  11. Denitrification coupled with methane anoxic oxidation and microbial community involved identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Medici Frayne Cuba

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the biological denitrification associated with anoxic oxidation of methane and the microbial diversity involved were studied. Kinetic tests for nitrate (NO3- and nitrite (NO2- removal and methane uptake were carried out in 100 mL batch reactors incubated in a shaker (40 rpm at 30 ºC. Denitrificant/methanotrophic biomass was taken from a laboratory scale reactor fed with synthetic nitrified substrates (40 mgN L-1 of NO3- and subsequently NO2- and methane as carbon source. Results obtained from nitrate removal followed a first order reaction, presenting a kinetic apparent constant (kNO3 of 0.0577±0.0057d-1. Two notable points of the denitrification rate (0.12gNO3--N g-1 AVS d-1 and 0.07gNO3--N g-1 AVS d-1 were observed in the beginning and on the seventh day of operation. When nitrite was added as an electron acceptor, denitrification rates were improved, presenting an apparent kinetic constant (kNO2 of 0.0722±0.0044d-1, a maximum denitrification rate of 0.6gNO2--N g-1AVS d-1, and minimum denitrification rate of 0.1gNO2--N g-1AVS d-1 at the beginning and end of the test, respectively. Endogenous material supporting denitrification and methane concentration dissolved in the substrate was discarded from the control experiments in the absence of methane and seed, respectively. Methylomonas sp. was identified in the reactors fed with nitrate and nitrite as well as uncultured bacterium.

  12. The nanostructure of microbially-reduced graphene oxide fosters thick and highly-performing electrochemically-active biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virdis, Bernardino; Dennis, Paul G.

    2017-07-01

    Biofilms of electrochemically-active organisms are used in microbial electrochemical technologies (METs) to catalyze bioreactions otherwise not possible at bare electrodes. At present, however, achievable current outputs are still below levels considered sufficient for economic viability of large-scale METs implementations. Here, we report three-dimensional, self-aggregating biofilm composites comprising of microbial cells embedded with microbially-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanoparticles to form a thick macro-porous network with superior electrochemical properties. In the presence of metabolic substrate, these hybrid biofilms are capable of producing up to five times more catalytic current than the control biofilms. Cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, show that in spite of the increased thickness, the biofilms amended with GO display lower polarization/charge transfer resistance compared to the controls, which we ascribe to the incorporation of rGO into the biofilms, which (1) promotes fast electron transfer, yet conserving a macroporous structure that allows free diffusion of reactants and products, and (2) enhances the interfacial dynamics by allowing a higher load of microbial cells per electrode surface area. These results suggest an easy-to-apply and cost-effective method to produce high-performing electrochemically-active biofilms in situ.

  13. Waste pyritic coal as a raw material for energetic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasiorek, J. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Poznan (Poland). Dept. of Research and Technology

    1997-11-01

    Results are presented of large laboratory studies on coal desulphurisation with foam flotation method improved by application of bioadsorption of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans bacteria to the modification of superficial properties of pyrite particulates from hydrophobic to hydrophillic ones. Results of coal desulfurization with and without bioadsorption have been compared. Bioadsorption improved pyritic sulfur removal by 30% (for coal from `Sierza mine`, coal size 0.3 to 0.102 mm, S pyritic content 1.69%) after 6-week adaptation of bacteria and 30 min of bioadsorption. Bacteria concentration in 5% water suspension of coal reached 22 {mu}g of biomass cm{sup -3}. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Clay minerals and metal oxides strongly influence the structure of alkane-degrading microbial communities during soil maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Annelie; Schulz, Stefanie; Giebler, Julia; Schulz, Stephan; Pronk, Geertje J; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Harms, Hauke; Wick, Lukas Y; Schloter, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Clay minerals, charcoal and metal oxides are essential parts of the soil matrix and strongly influence the formation of biogeochemical interfaces in soil. We investigated the role of these parental materials for the development of functional microbial guilds using the example of alkane-degrading bacteria harbouring the alkane monooxygenase gene (alkB) in artificial mixtures composed of different minerals and charcoal, sterile manure and a microbial inoculum extracted from an agricultural soil. We followed changes in abundance and community structure of alkane-degrading microbial communities after 3 and 12 months of soil maturation and in response to a subsequent 2-week plant litter addition. During maturation we observed an overall increasing divergence in community composition. The impact of metal oxides on alkane-degrading community structure increased during soil maturation, whereas the charcoal impact decreased from 3 to 12 months. Among the clay minerals illite influenced the community structure of alkB-harbouring bacteria significantly, but not montmorillonite. The litter application induced strong community shifts in soils, maturated for 12 months, towards functional guilds typical for younger maturation stages pointing to a resilience of the alkane-degradation function potentially fostered by an extant 'seed bank'.

  15. Effects of straw incorporation along with microbial inoculant on methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gang; Yu, Haiyang [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ma, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Xu, Hua, E-mail: hxu@issas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Wu, Qinyan; Yang, Jinghui; Zhuang, Yiqing [Zhenjiang Institute of Agricultural Science of Hilly Regions in Jiangsu, Jurong 212400 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Incorporation of straw together with microbial inoculant (a microorganism agent, accelerating straw decomposition) is being increasingly adopted in rice cultivation, thus its effect on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions merits serious attention. A 3-year field experiment was conducted from 2010 to 2012 to investigate combined effect of straw and microbial inoculant on methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions, global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) in a rice field in Jurong, Jiangsu Province, China. The experiment was designed to have treatment NPK (N, P and K fertilizers only), treatment NPKS (NPK plus wheat straw), treatment NPKSR (NPKS plus Ruilaite microbial inoculant) and treatment NPKSJ (NPKS plus Jinkuizi microbial inoculant). Results show that compared to NPK, NPKS increased seasonal CH{sub 4} emission by 280–1370%, while decreasing N{sub 2}O emission by 7–13%. When compared with NPKS, NPKSR and NPKSJ increased seasonal CH{sub 4} emission by 7–13% and 6–12%, respectively, whereas reduced N{sub 2}O emission by 10–27% and 9–24%, respectively. The higher CH{sub 4} emission could be attributed to the higher soil CH{sub 4} production potential triggered by the combined application of straw and microbial inoculant, and the lower N{sub 2}O emission to the decreased inorganic N content. As a whole, the benefit of lower N{sub 2}O emission was completely offset by increased CH{sub 4} emission, resulting in a higher GWP for NPKSR (5–12%) and NPKSJ (5–11%) relative to NPKS. Due to NPKSR and NPKSJ increased rice grain yield by 3–6% and 2–4% compared to NPKS, the GHGI values for NPKS, NPKSR and NPKSJ were comparable. These findings suggest that incorporating straw together with microbial inoculant would not influence the radiative forcing of rice production in the terms of per unit of rice grain yield relative to the incorporation of straw alone. - Highlights: • This paper presents 3-year measurements of CH

  16. Acclimation of a marine microbial consortium for efficient Mn(II) oxidation and manganese containing particle production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hao, E-mail: zhouhao@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education), School of Food and Environment, Dalian University of Technology, Panjin 124221 (China); Pan, Haixia [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education), School of Food and Environment, Dalian University of Technology, Panjin 124221 (China); Xu, Jianqiang [School of Life Science and Medicine, Dalian University of Technology, Panjin 124221 (China); Xu, Weiping; Liu, Lifen [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education), School of Food and Environment, Dalian University of Technology, Panjin 124221 (China)

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • An efficient Mn(II) oxidation marine sediments microbial community was obtained. • High-throughput sequencing indicated new Mn(II) oxidation associated genus. • Na{sub 3}MnPO{sub 4}CO{sub 3} and MnCO{sub 3} were synthesized by the consortium. • Consortium exhibited Mn(II) oxidation performance over a range of harsh conditions. - Abstract: Sediment contamination with metals is a widespread concern in the marine environment. Manganese oxidizing bacteria (MOB) are extensively distributed in various environments, but a marine microbial community containing MOB is rarely reported. In this study, a consortium of marine metal-contaminated sediments was acclimated using Mn(II). The shift in community structure was determined through high-throughput sequencing. In addition, the consortium resisted several harsh conditions, such as toxic metals (1 mM Cu(II) and Fe(III)), and exhibited high Mn(II) oxidation capacities even the Mn(II) concentration was up to 5 mM. Meanwhile, biogenic Mn containing particles were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption. Dye removal performance of the Mn containing particles was assayed using methylene blue, and 20.8 mg g{sup −1} adsorption capacity was obtained. Overall, this study revealed several new genera associated with Mn(II) oxidation and rare biogenic Na{sub 3}MnPO{sub 4}CO{sub 3.} Results suggested the complexity of natural microbe-mediated Mn transformation.

  17. Soil carbon content and relative abundance of high affinity H2-oxidizing bacteria predict atmospheric H2 soil uptake activity better than soil microbial community composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khdhiri, Mondher; Hesse, Laura; Popa, Maria Elena; Quiza, Liliana; Lalonde, Isabelle; Meredith, Laura K.; Röckmann, Thomas; Constant, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Soil-atmosphere exchange of H2 is controlled by gas diffusion and the microbial production and oxidation activities in soil. Among these parameters, the H2 oxidation activity catalyzed by soil microorganisms harboring high affinity hydrogenase is the most difficult variable to parameterize because

  18. Archaeal diversity and the extent of iron and manganese pyritization in sediments from a tropical mangrove creek (Cardoso Island, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, X. L.; Lucheta, A. R.; Ferreira, T. O.; Huerta-Díaz, M. A.; Lambais, M. R.

    2014-06-01

    Even though several studies on the geochemical processes occurring in mangrove soils and sediments have been performed, information on the diversity of Archaea and their functional roles in these ecosystems, especially in subsurface environments, is scarce. In this study, we have analyzed the depth distribution of Archaea and their possible relationships with the geochemical transformations of Fe and Mn in a sediment core from a tropical mangrove creek, using 16S rRNA gene profiling and sequential extraction of different forms of Fe and Mn. A significant shift in the archaeal community structure was observed in the lower layers (90-100 cm), coinciding with a clear decrease in total organic carbon (TOC) content and an increase in the percentage of sand. The comparison of the archaeal communities showed a dominance of methanogenic Euryarchaeota in the upper layers (0-20 cm), whereas Crenarchaeota was the most abundant taxon in the lower layers. The dominance of methanogenic Euryarchaeota in the upper layer of the sediment suggests the occurrence of methanogenesis in anoxic microenvironments. The concentrations of Fe-oxyhydroxides in the profile were very low, and showed positive correlation with the concentrations of pyrite and degrees of Fe and Mn pyritization. Additionally, a partial decoupling of pyrite formation from organic matter concentration was observed, suggesting excessive Fe pyritization. This overpyritization of Fe can be explained either by the anoxic oxidation of methane by sulfate and/or by detrital pyrite tidal transportation from the surrounding mangrove soils. The higher pyritization levels observed in deeper layers of the creek sediment were also in agreement with its Pleistocenic origin.

  19. Chemical and sulphur isotope compositions of pyrite in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sulphide mineralization and their chemical evo- lution in relative .... properties and chemical compositions. Electron ..... from the sulphide lode provide clues to the chang- ing fluid ..... Raymond O L 1996 Pyrite composition and ore geneis in.

  20. Pyrite as a proxy for the identification of former coastal lagoons in semiarid NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Tiago O.; Nóbrega, Gabriel N.; Albuquerque, Antonia G. B. M.; Sartor, Lucas R.; Gomes, Irlene S.; Artur, Adriana G.; Otero, Xosé L.

    2015-10-01

    This work aimed to test the suitability of pyrite (FeS2) as a proxy for reconstructing past marine environmental conditions along the semiarid coast of Brazil. Morphological description combined with physicochemical analyses including Fe partitioning were conducted for soil depth profiles (30 and 60 cm depths) at three sites in two contrasting lagoons of the state of Ceará: a suspected former lagoon that would have been transformed into a freshwater "lake" at a site vegetated by Juncus effusus (site P1), and another lagoon with connection to the sea at sites vegetated by J. effusus (site P2) or Portulaca oleracea (site P3). Soil samples were collected in September 2010. Site P3 had more reducing conditions, reaching Eh values of -132 mV in the surface layer (0-10 cm), whereas minimum values for the P1 and P2 sites were +219 and +85 mV, respectively. Lower pyritic Fe values were found at site P1, with a degree of pyritization (DOP) ranging from 10 to 13%. At sites P2 and P3, DOP ranged from 9 to 67% and from 55 to 72%, respectively. These results are consistent with an interruption of tidal channels by eolian dune migration inducing strong changes in the hydrodynamics and physicochemical characteristics (lower salinity, oxidizing conditions) of these sites, causing the dieback of suspected former mangroves and a succession to freshwater marshes with an intermediate salt marsh stage. Together with other physicochemical signatures, pyrite can evidently serve as a useful proxy in tracking environmental changes in such ecotones, with implications for coastal management.

  1. Simulated aerobic pedogenesis in pyritic overburden with a positive acid-base account

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doolittle, J.J.; Hossner, L.R.; Wilding, L.P. (South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD (United States). Dept. of Plant Science)

    Reclamation of surface-mined land is often hindered by the excess salts and acidity produced by the weathering of pyritic overburden. This study was conducted to document the initial transformations that occur when pyritic overburden containing excess acid neutralizing potential is used as parent material in minesoil construction. An overburden containing 0.8% FeS[sub 2] (pyrite) and 1.6% inorganic carbonate (predominantly dolomite) was collected from the highwall of an active lignite surface mine in Panola County, Texas. The overburden was lightly crushed through a 13-mm sieve and packed into three replicate lysimeters (0.75 by 0.75 by 1.2 m). The lysimeters were leached monthly with 63.5 mm of deionized water for 24 mo. The initial material had a pH of 8.3 and an excess acid neutralizing potential. Progressive FeS[sub 2] oxidation released H[sub 2]SO[sub 4], and the pH decreased to 6.8. The dolomite dissolved, neutralizing the acidity, with subsequent release of Ca and Mg ions into solution. Leachate Ca[sup 2+] and SO[sub 4][sup 2-] concentrations exceeded the ion activity product of gypsum in the lower 60 cm of the lysimeters. Thin-section analysis revealed that gypsum crystals precipitated along margins of residual pyrite particles and in conductive vughs and channels. The continued accumulation of gypsum in minesoil development could eventually lead to the formation of a gypsic or a petrogypsic horizon. A restrictive layer such as this would decrease vertical movement of water and O[sub 2] which would reduce vegetative growth, increase runoff and erosion, and thus increase the probability of reclamation failure.

  2. Fundamental Insights into Propionate Oxidation in Microbial Electrolysis Cells Using a Combination of Electrochemical, Molecular biology and Electron Balance Approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Hari Ananda

    2016-11-01

    Increasing demand for freshwater and energy is pushing towards the development of alternative technologies that are sustainable. One of the realistic solutions to address this is utilization of the renewable resources like wastewater. Conventional wastewater treatment processes can be highly energy demanding and can fails to recover the full potential of useful resources such as energy in the wastewater. As a consequence, there is an urgent necessity for sustainable wastewater treatment technologies that could harness such resources present in wastewaters. Advanced treatment process based on microbial electrochemical technologies (METs) such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) have a great potential for the resources recovery through a sustainable wastewater treatment process. METs rely on the abilities of microorganisms that are capable of transferring electrons extracellularly by oxidizing the organic matter in the wastewater and producing electrical current for electricity generation (MFC) or H2 and CH4 production (MEC). Propionate is an important volatile fatty acid (VFA) (24-70%) in some wastewaters and accumulation of this VFA can cause a process failure in a conventional anaerobic digestion (AD) system. To address this issue, MECs were explored as a novel, alternative wastewater treatment technology, with a focus on a better understanding of propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs. Having such knowledge could help in the development of more robust and efficient wastewater treatment systems to recover energy and produce high quality effluents. Several studies were conducted to: 1) determine the paths of electron flow in the anode of propionate fed MECs low (4.5 mM) and high (36 mM) propionate concentrations; 2) examine the effect of different set anode potentials on the electrochemical performance, propionate degradation, electron fluxes, and microbial community structure in MECs fed propionate; and 3) examine the temporal

  3. Conjugated oligoelectrolyte represses hydrogen oxidation by Geobacter sulfurreducens in microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jia; Hou, Huijie; Chen, Xiaofen; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Kashima, Hiroyuki; Logan, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. A conjugated oligoelectrolyte (COE), which spontaneously aligns within cell membranes, was shown to completely inhibit H2 uptake by Geobacter sulfurreducens in microbial electrolysis cells. Coulombic efficiencies that were 490

  4. Microbial drivers of spatial heterogeneity of nitrous oxide pulse dynamics following drought in an experimental tropical rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. C.; Sengupta, A.; U'Ren, J.; Van Haren, J. L. M.; Meredith, L. K.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a long-lived, potent greenhouse gas with increasing atmospheric concentrations. Soil microbes in agricultural and natural ecosystems are the dominant source of N2O, which involves complex interactions between N-cycling microbes, metabolisms, soil properties, and plants. Tropical rainforests are the largest natural source of N2O, however the microbial and environmental drivers are poorly understood as few studies have been performed in these environments. Thus, there is an urgent need for further research to fill in knowledge gaps regarding tropical N-cycling, and the response of soil microbial communities to changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, nitrogen deposition, and land use. To address this data gap, we performed a whole-forest drought in the tropical rainforest biome in Biosphere 2 (B2) and analyzed connections between soil microbes, forest heterogeneity, and N2O emissions. The B2 rainforest is the hottest tropical rainforest on Earth, and is an important model system for studying the response of tropical forests to warming with controlled experimentation. In this study, we measured microbial community abundance and diversity profiles (16S rRNA and ITS2 amplicon sequencing) along with their association with soil properties (e.g. pH, C, N) during the drought and rewetting at five locations (3 depths), including regions that have been previously characterized with high and low N2O drought pulse dynamics (van Haren et al., 2005). In this study, we present the spatial distribution of soil microbial communities within the rainforest at Biosphere 2 and their correlations with edaphic factors. In particular, we focus on microbial, soil, and plant factors that drive high and low N2O pulse zones. As in the past, we found that N2O emissions were highest in response to rewetting in a zone hypothesized to be rich in nutrients from a nearby sugar palm. We will characterize microbial indicator species and nitrogen cycling genes to better

  5. Moessbauer investigation of gold-bearing pyrite-rich concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, F.E.; Harris, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    A gold-bearing pyrite-rich concentrate of a refractory ore from the Golden Bear mine, northwestern British Columbia, and a pyrite-rich concentrate from Newhawk's west zone, Brucejack Lake area, northern British Columbia, containing 38 and 316 ppm Au and 0.57% and 0.19% As, respectively, have been investigated using 197 Au and 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. In the Golden Bear sample, the gold is mainly chemically bound in the pyrite with minor amounts present as an Au-Ag alloy, whereas in the Newhawk sample, the gold occurs mainly as an Au-Ag alloy with a composition close to Au 0.5 Ag 0.5 and is only partly bound in the pyrite. Having mean isomer shifts of +3.2 and +4.0 mm/s with respect to a Pt metal source, the gold in pyrite exhibits shifts similar to those observed for gold in arsenopyrite. The nature of the lattice sites occupied by the gold in pyrite is discussed. (orig.)

  6. The effect of lizardite surface characteristics on pyrite flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Bo; Feng Qiming; Lu Yiping

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Two kinds of lizardite samples have different effect on the flotation of pyrite. ► Acid leaching changed the surface characteristics of lizardite mineral. ► The leached lizardite has less magnesium on its surface. ► The electro-kinetic behavior of lizardite aqueous suspensions is mainly a function of the Mg/Si atomic ratio on mineral surface. - Abstract: The effect of lizardite surface characteristics on pyrite flotation has been investigated through flotation tests, adsorption tests, zeta potential measurements, FTIR study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and sedimentation tests. The flotation results show that at pH value 9, where flotation of nickel sulfide ores is routinely performed, two kinds of lizardite samples (native lizardite and leached lizardite) have different effects on the flotation of pyrite. The native lizardite adheres to the surface of pyrite and reduces pyrite flotation recovery while the leached lizardite does not interfere with pyrite flotation. Infrared analyses and XPS tests illustrate that acid leaching changed the surface characteristics of lizardite mineral and the leached lizardite has less magnesium on its surface. It has been determined that the electro-kinetic behavior of lizardite aqueous suspensions is mainly a function of the Mg/Si atomic ratio on lizardite surface. So, the low isoelectric point observed in the leached sample has been linked to values of this ratio lower than that of the native lizardite.

  7. Spectral Induced Polarization of Disseminated Pyrite Particles in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, L. D.; Kessouri, P.; Seleznev, N. V.

    2017-12-01

    Disseminated metallic particles in soil, particularly pyrite, occur naturally or are enhanced by anthropogenic activities. Detecting their presence and quantifying their concentration and location is of interest for numerous applications such as remediation of hydrocarbon contamination, mine tailings assessment, detection of oil traps, and archaeological studies. Because pyrite is a semiconductor, spectral induced polarization (SIP) is a promising geophysical method for sensing it in porous media. Previous studies have identified relations between pyrite properties (e.g., volumetric content, grain size) and SIP parameters (e.g., chargeability, relaxation time). However, the effect of pyrite grains in porous media on the SIP response is not fully understood over the entire low-frequency range. We tested the relationship between the presence of pyrite grains and the change in electrical properties of the medium through an extended series of laboratory measurements: (1) variation of grain size, (2) variation of grain concentration, (3) variation of electrolyte conductivity, (4) change in the diffusion properties of the host medium. For the fourth set of measurements, we compared sand columns to agar gel columns. Our experimental design included more than 20 different samples with multiple repeats to ensure representative results. We confirm the strong relation between grain size and relaxation time and that between grain concentration and chargeability in both the sand and agar gel samples. Furthermore, our results shed light on the significance of the diffusion coefficient and the recently hypothesized role of pyrite grains as resistors at frequencies lower than the relaxation frequency.

  8. Study of phytochemical, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, and anti-cancer properties of Allium wallichii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Jaya; Muhammad, BushraTaj; Thapa, Pratiksha; Shrestha, Bhupal Govinda

    2017-02-08

    There is growing interest in the use of plants for the treatment and prevention of cancer. Medicinal plants are currently being evaluated as source of promising anticancer agents. In this paper, we have investigated the anticancer potential of plant Allium wallichii, a plant native to Nepal and growing at elevations of 2300-4800 m. This is the first study of its kind for the plant mentioned. The dried plant was extracted in aqueous ethanol. Phytochemical screening, anti-microbial assay, anti-oxidant assay, cytotoxicity assay and the flow-cytometric analysis were done for analyzing different phytochemicals present, anti-microbial activity, anti-oxidant activity and anti-cancer properties of Allium wallichii. We observed the presence of steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, reducing sugars and glycosides in the plant extract and the plant showed moderate anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activity. The IC 50 values of Allium wallichii in different cancer cell lines are 69.69 μg/ml for Prostate cancer (PC3) cell line, 55.29 μg/ml for Breast Cancer (MCF-7) cell line and 46.51 μg/ml for cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line as compared to Doxorubicin (0.85 μg/ml). The cell viability assay using FACS showed that the IC 50 value of Allium wallichii for Burkitt's lymphoma (B-Lymphoma) cell line was 3.817 ± 1.99 mg/ml. Allium wallichii can be an important candidate to be used as an anticancer agent. Separation of pure compounds with bioassay guided extraction, spectrometric analysis and subsequent cytotoxicity assay of the pure bioactive compounds from Allium wallichii is highly recommended as the crude extract itself showed promising cytotoxicity.

  9. Nanotubular MnO2/graphene oxide composites for the application of open air-breathing cathode microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnana Kumar, G; Awan, Zahoor; Suk Nahm, Kee; Xavier, J Stanley

    2014-03-15

    Nanotubular shaped α-MnO2/graphene oxide nanocomposites were synthesized via a simple, cost and time efficient hydrothermal method. The growth of hollow structured MnO2 nanotubes preferentially occurred along the [001] direction as evidenced from the morphological and structural characterizations. The tunnels of α-MnO2 nanotubes easily accommodated the molecular oxygen and exhibited excellent catalytic activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction over the rod structure and was further enhanced with the effective carbon support graphene oxide. The MnO2 nanotubes/graphene oxide nanocomposite modified electrode exhibited a maximum power density of 3359 mW m(-2) which is 7.8 fold higher than that of unmodified electrode and comparable with the Pt/C modified electrode. The microbial fuel cell equipped with MnO2 nanotubes/graphene oxide nanocomposite modified cathode exhibited quick start up and excellent durability over the studied electrodes and is attributed to the high surface area and number of active sites. These findings not only provide the fundamental studies on carbon supported low-dimensional transition-metal oxides but also open up the new possibilities of their applications in green energy devices. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Power generation using spinel manganese-cobalt oxide as a cathode catalyst for microbial fuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed; Gad-Allah, Tarek A; El-Khatib, K M; El-Gohary, Fatma

    2011-11-01

    This study focused on the use of spinel manganese-cobalt (Mn-Co) oxide, prepared by a solid state reaction, as a cathode catalyst to replace platinum in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) applications. Spinel Mn-Co oxides, with an Mn/Co atomic ratios of 0.5, 1, and 2, were prepared and examined in an air cathode MFCs which was fed with a molasses-laden synthetic wastewater and operated in batch mode. Among the three Mn-Co oxide cathodes and after 300 h of operation, the Mn-Co oxide catalyst with Mn/Co atomic ratio of 2 (MnCo-2) exhibited the highest power generation 113 mW/m2 at cell potential of 279 mV, which were lower than those for the Pt catalyst (148 mW/m2 and 325 mV, respectively). This study indicated that using spinel Mn-Co oxide to replace platinum as a cathodic catalyst enhances power generation, increases contaminant removal, and substantially reduces the cost of MFCs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Significance of Microbial Communities and Interactions in Safeguarding Reactive Mine Tailings by Ecological Engineering▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    N̆ancucheo, Ivan; Johnson, D. Barrie

    2011-01-01

    Pyritic mine tailings (mineral waste generated by metal mining) pose significant risk to the environment as point sources of acidic, metal-rich effluents (acid mine drainage [AMD]). While the accelerated oxidative dissolution of pyrite and other sulfide minerals in tailings by acidophilic chemolithotrophic prokaryotes has been widely reported, other acidophiles (heterotrophic bacteria that catalyze the dissimilatory reduction of iron and sulfur) can reverse the reactions involved in AMD genesis, and these have been implicated in the “natural attenuation” of mine waters. We have investigated whether by manipulating microbial communities in tailings (inoculating with iron- and sulfur-reducing acidophilic bacteria and phototrophic acidophilic microalgae) it is possible to mitigate the impact of the acid-generating and metal-mobilizing chemolithotrophic prokaryotes that are indigenous to tailing deposits. Sixty tailings mesocosms were set up, using five different microbial inoculation variants, and analyzed at regular intervals for changes in physicochemical and microbiological parameters for up to 1 year. Differences between treatment protocols were most apparent between tailings that had been inoculated with acidophilic algae in addition to aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria and those that had been inoculated with only pyrite-oxidizing chemolithotrophs; these differences included higher pH values, lower redox potentials, and smaller concentrations of soluble copper and zinc. The results suggest that empirical ecological engineering of tailing lagoons to promote the growth and activities of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria could minimize their risk of AMD production and that the heterotrophic populations could be sustained by facilitating the growth of microalgae to provide continuous inputs of organic carbon. PMID:21965397

  12. Electricity Recovery from Municipal Sewage Wastewater Using a Hydrogel Complex Composed of Microbially Reduced Graphene Oxide and Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Yoshida

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide (GO has recently been shown to be an excellent anode substrate for exoelectrogens. This study demonstrates the applicability of GO in recovering electricity from sewage wastewater. Anaerobic incubation of sludge with GO formed a hydrogel complex that embeds microbial cells via π-π stacking of microbially reduced GO. The rGO complex was electrically conductive (23 mS·cm−1 and immediately produced electricity in sewage wastewater under polarization at +200 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. Higher and more stable production of electricity was observed with rGO complexes (179–310 μA·cm−3 than with graphite felt (GF; 79–95 μA·cm−3. Electrochemical analyses revealed that this finding was attributable to the greater capacitance and smaller internal resistance of the rGO complex. Microbial community analysis showed abundances of Geobacter species in both rGO and GF complexes, whereas more diverse candidate exoelectrogens in the Desulfarculaceae family and Geothrix genus were particularly prominent in the rGO complex.

  13. Metagenomic Evidence for H2 Oxidation and H2 Production by Serpentinite-Hosted Subsurface Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazelton, William J.; Nelson, Bridget; Schrenk, Matthew O.

    2012-01-01

    Ultramafic rocks in the Earth’s mantle represent a tremendous reservoir of carbon and reducing power. Upon tectonic uplift and exposure to fluid flow, serpentinization of these materials generates copious energy, sustains abiogenic synthesis of organic molecules, and releases hydrogen gas (H2). In order to assess the potential for microbial H2 utilization fueled by serpentinization, we conducted metagenomic surveys of a marine serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal chimney (at the Lost City hydrothermal field) and two continental serpentinite-hosted alkaline seeps (at the Tablelands Ophiolite, Newfoundland). Novel [NiFe]-hydrogenase sequences were identified at both the marine and continental sites, and in both cases, phylogenetic analyses indicated aerobic, potentially autotrophic Betaproteobacteria belonging to order Burkholderiales as the most likely H2-oxidizers. Both sites also yielded metagenomic evidence for microbial H2 production catalyzed by [FeFe]-hydrogenases in anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria belonging to order Clostridiales. In addition, we present metagenomic evidence at both sites for aerobic carbon monoxide utilization and anaerobic carbon fixation via the Wood–Ljungdahl pathway. In general, our results point to H2-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria thriving in shallow, oxic–anoxic transition zones and the anaerobic Clostridia thriving in anoxic, deep subsurface habitats. These data demonstrate the feasibility of metagenomic investigations into novel subsurface habitats via surface-exposed seeps and indicate the potential for H2-powered primary production in serpentinite-hosted subsurface habitats. PMID:22232619

  14. Metagenomic evidence for h(2) oxidation and h(2) production by serpentinite-hosted subsurface microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazelton, William J; Nelson, Bridget; Schrenk, Matthew O

    2012-01-01

    Ultramafic rocks in the Earth's mantle represent a tremendous reservoir of carbon and reducing power. Upon tectonic uplift and exposure to fluid flow, serpentinization of these materials generates copious energy, sustains abiogenic synthesis of organic molecules, and releases hydrogen gas (H(2)). In order to assess the potential for microbial H(2) utilization fueled by serpentinization, we conducted metagenomic surveys of a marine serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal chimney (at the Lost City hydrothermal field) and two continental serpentinite-hosted alkaline seeps (at the Tablelands Ophiolite, Newfoundland). Novel [NiFe]-hydrogenase sequences were identified at both the marine and continental sites, and in both cases, phylogenetic analyses indicated aerobic, potentially autotrophic Betaproteobacteria belonging to order Burkholderiales as the most likely H(2)-oxidizers. Both sites also yielded metagenomic evidence for microbial H(2) production catalyzed by [FeFe]-hydrogenases in anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria belonging to order Clostridiales. In addition, we present metagenomic evidence at both sites for aerobic carbon monoxide utilization and anaerobic carbon fixation via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. In general, our results point to H(2)-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria thriving in shallow, oxic-anoxic transition zones and the anaerobic Clostridia thriving in anoxic, deep subsurface habitats. These data demonstrate the feasibility of metagenomic investigations into novel subsurface habitats via surface-exposed seeps and indicate the potential for H(2)-powered primary production in serpentinite-hosted subsurface habitats.

  15. Metagenomic evidence for H2 oxidation and H2 production by serpentinite-hosted subsurface microbial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Brazelton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultramafic rocks in the Earth’s mantle represent a tremendous reservoir of carbon and reducing power. Upon tectonic uplift and exposure to fluid flow, serpentinization of these materials generates copious energy, sustains abiogenic synthesis of organic molecules, and releases hydrogen gas (H2. In order to assess the potential for microbial H2 utilization fueled by serpentinization, we conducted metagenomic surveys of a marine serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal chimney (at the Lost City hydrothermal field and two continental serpentinite- hosted alkaline seeps (at the Tablelands Ophiolite, Newfoundland. Novel [NiFe]-hydrogenase sequences were identified at both the marine and continental sites, and in both cases, phylogenetic analyses indicated aerobic, potentially autotrophic Betaproteobacteria belonging to order Burkholderiales as the most likely H2-oxidizers. Both sites also yielded metagenomic evidence for microbial H2 production catalyzed by [FeFe]-hydrogenases in anaerobic Gram- positive bacteria belonging to order Clostridiales. In addition, we present metagenomic evidence at both sites for aerobic carbon monoxide utilization and anaerobic carbon fixation via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. In general, our results point to H2-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria thriving in shallow, oxic-anoxic transition zones and the anaerobic Clostridia thriving in anoxic, deep subsurface habitats. These data demonstrate the feasibility of metagenomic investigations into novel subsurface habitats via surface-exposed seeps and indicate the potential for H2- powered primary production in serpentinite-hosted subsurface habitats.

  16. Gelatin/DMSO. A new approach to enhancing the performance of a pyrite electrode in a lithium battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro, L.A.; Rosolen, J.M. [Department of Chemistry, FFCLRP-University of Sao Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2003-04-01

    We have studied the electrochemical behavior of natural pyrite (FeS{sub 1.9}, n-type semiconductor) treated nonaqueously with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solvent and also with a gelatin/DMSO solution. Composite electrodes (comprised of pyrite, polyvinilidene fluoride, polyethylene oxide and carbon) were characterized in a lithium cell at room temperature by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic measurements; the electrolyte used was LiPF{sub 6} in a solution of ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate (1 mol l{sup -1}). The gelatin/DMSO treatment greatly improved the reversible specific capacity of a pyrite electrode. For galvanostatic discharge/charge at a current density of 0.4 mA cm{sup -2} and between voltage limits of 3.2 and 1.1 V, its reversible specific capacity at the 15th cycle equaled 275 mA h g{sup -1}, an impressive value compared to less than 25 mA h g{sup -1} for a pristine pyrite electrode.

  17. Microbial, algal, and fungal strategies for manganese oxidation at a Shade Township coal mine, Somerset County, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, E.I.; Brant, D.L.; Ziemkiewicz, P.F.

    1999-01-01

    Successful designs to eliminate Mn from mine discharge are necessary for both restoring abandoned mine lands and permitting the mining of high sulfur coal in the eastern United States. A passive in-line system that meets Mn discharge limits was built at the discharge from the former Shade Township coal mine in south central Pennsylvania. Qualitative research on monthly changes in the microbial and algal community that removes Mn is underway. Epilithic attachment of microorganisms was analyzed on artificial (glass microscope slides) and natural substrates (limestone thin sections) that were immersed in surface water for one month periods over 6 months. Organisms attached to both glass and limestone substrates. Limestone became coated with 34--86% more Mn that did glass surfaces. Light microscopy revealed 12 different strategies are being used by bacteria, cyan bacteria, diatoms, green algae, and fungi to oxidize Mn. the dominant method used by the epilithic community to oxidize Mn is coating of holdfasts by the iron bacterium, Liptothrix discophora, and the green alga, Ulothrix sp. Other methods for Mn removal by oxidation include coating of individual cells, filaments/sheaths/hyphae, extracellular polysaccharides, and biofilms. The unplanned community at the site is multifaceted and extremely efficient in its Mn removal ability. Community interactions or complexity may play roles in the stability of the ecosystem and the efficiency of its Mn oxidizing ability

  18. Potential Impact of Microbial Activity on the Oxidant Capacity and the Organic Carbon Budget in Clouds (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delort, A.

    2013-12-01

    Within cloud water, microorganisms are metabolically active; so they are suspected to contribute to atmospheric chemistry. This paper is focused on the interactions between microorganisms and Reactive Oxygenated Species present in cloud water since these chemical compounds are driving the oxidant capacity of the cloud system. For this, real cloud waters with contrasting features (marine, continental, urban) were sampled at the puy de Dôme mountain (France). They exhibit high microbial biodiversity and complex chemical composition. These media were incubated in the dark and subjected to UV-light radiation in specifically designed photo-bio-reactors. The concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), organic compounds and the ATP/ADP ratio were monitored during the incubation period. Microorganisms remained metabolically active in the presence of hydroxyl radicals photo-produced from H2O2. This oxidant and major carbon compounds (formaldehyde and carboxylic acids) were biodegraded by the endogenous microflora. This work suggests that microorganisms could play a double role in atmospheric chemistry: first, they could directly metabolize organic carbon species; second they could reduce the available source of radicals due to their oxidative metabolism. Consequently, molecules such as H2O2 would be no longer available for photochemical or other chemical reactions, decreasing the cloud oxidant capacity.

  19. Long Term Performance of an Arsenite-Oxidizing-Chlorate-Reducing Microbial Consortium in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjie; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A.

    2011-01-01

    A chlorate (ClO3−) reducing microbial consortium oxidized arsenite (As(III)) to arsenate (As(V)) in an upflow anaerobic sludge-bed bioreactor over 550 d operation. As(III) was converted with high conversion efficiencies (>98%) at volumetric loadings ranging from 0.45 to 1.92 mmol As/(Lreactor d). The oxidation of As(III) was linked to the complete reduction of ClO3− to Cl− and H2O, as demonstrated by a molar ratio of approximately 3.0 mol As(III) oxidized per mole of Cl− formed and by the greatly lowered ClO3−-reducing capacity without As(III) feeding. An autotrophic enrichment culture was established from the bioreactor biofilm. A 16S rRNA gene clone library indicated that the culture was dominated by Dechloromonas, and Stenotrophomonas as well as genera within the family Comamonadaceae. The results indicate that the oxidation of As(III) to less mobile As(V) utilizing ClO3− as a terminal electron acceptor provides a sustainable bioremediation strategy for arsenic contamination in anaerobic environments. PMID:21333531

  20. Microbial, algal, and fungal strategies for manganese oxidation at a Shade Township coal mine, Somerset County, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, E.I.; Brant, D.L.; Ziemkiewicz, P.F.

    1999-07-01

    Successful designs to eliminate Mn from mine discharge are necessary for both restoring abandoned mine lands and permitting the mining of high sulfur coal in the eastern United States. A passive in-line system that meets Mn discharge limits was built at the discharge from the former Shade Township coal mine in south central Pennsylvania. Qualitative research on monthly changes in the microbial and algal community that removes Mn is underway. Epilithic attachment of microorganisms was analyzed on artificial (glass microscope slides) and natural substrates (limestone thin sections) that were immersed in surface water for one month periods over 6 months. Organisms attached to both glass and limestone substrates. Limestone became coated with 34--86% more Mn that did glass surfaces. Light microscopy revealed 12 different strategies are being used by bacteria, cyan bacteria, diatoms, green algae, and fungi to oxidize Mn. the dominant method used by the epilithic community to oxidize Mn is coating of holdfasts by the iron bacterium, Liptothrix discophora, and the green alga, Ulothrix sp. Other methods for Mn removal by oxidation include coating of individual cells, filaments/sheaths/hyphae, extracellular polysaccharides, and biofilms. The unplanned community at the site is multifaceted and extremely efficient in its Mn removal ability. Community interactions or complexity may play roles in the stability of the ecosystem and the efficiency of its Mn oxidizing ability.

  1. Pyritic ash-flow tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castor, S.B.; Tingley, J.V.; Bonham, H.F. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site is underlain by a 1,500-m-thick Miocene volcanic sequence that comprises part of the southwestern Nevada volcanic field. Rocks of this sequence, which consists mainly of ash-flow tuff sheets with minor flows and bedded tuff, host precious metal mineralization in several areas as near as 10 km from the site. In two such areas, the Bullfrog and Bare Mountain mining districts, production and reserves total over 60 t gold and 150 t silver. Evidence of similar precious metal mineralization at the Yucca Mountain site may lead to mining or exploratory drilling in the future, compromising the security of the repository. The authors believe that most of the pyrite encountered by drilling at Yucca Mountain was introduced as pyroclastic ejecta, rather than by in situ hydrothermal activity. Pyritic ejecta in ash-flow tuff are not reported in the literature, but there is no reason to believe that the Yucca Mountain occurrence is unique. The pyritic ejecta are considered by us to be part of a preexisting hydrothermal system that was partially or wholly destroyed during eruption of the tuff units. Because it was introduced as ejecta in tuff units that occur at depths of about 1,000 m, such pyrite does not constitute evidence of shallow mineralization at the proposed repository site; however, the pyrite may be evidence for mineralization deep beneath Yucca Mountain or as much as tens of kilometers from it

  2. Microbial biocatalytic preparation of 2-furoic acid by oxidation of 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... Growth experiments and biotransformation with N. corallina were performed in a ... The reaction mixture was acidified to pH 1 with 0.5 M HCl, then saturated with ... (aeration rate), can be correlated with the microbial growth.

  3. Novel mode of microbial energy metabolism: organic carbon oxidation coupled to dissimilatory reduction of iron or manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D R; Phillips, E J

    1988-06-01

    A dissimilatory Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-reducing microorganism was isolated from freshwater sediments of the Potomac River, Maryland. The isolate, designated GS-15, grew in defined anaerobic medium with acetate as the sole electron donor and Fe(III), Mn(IV), or nitrate as the sole electron acceptor. GS-15 oxidized acetate to carbon dioxide with the concomitant reduction of amorphic Fe(III) oxide to magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)). When Fe(III) citrate replaced amorphic Fe(III) oxide as the electron acceptor, GS-15 grew faster and reduced all of the added Fe(III) to Fe(II). GS-15 reduced a natural amorphic Fe(III) oxide but did not significantly reduce highly crystalline Fe(III) forms. Fe(III) was reduced optimally at pH 6.7 to 7 and at 30 to 35 degrees C. Ethanol, butyrate, and propionate could also serve as electron donors for Fe(III) reduction. A variety of other organic compounds and hydrogen could not. MnO(2) was completely reduced to Mn(II), which precipitated as rhodochrosite (MnCO(3)). Nitrate was reduced to ammonia. Oxygen could not serve as an electron acceptor, and it inhibited growth with the other electron acceptors. This is the first demonstration that microorganisms can completely oxidize organic compounds with Fe(III) or Mn(IV) as the sole electron acceptor and that oxidation of organic matter coupled to dissimilatory Fe(III) or Mn(IV) reduction can yield energy for microbial growth. GS-15 provides a model for how enzymatically catalyzed reactions can be quantitatively significant mechanisms for the reduction of iron and manganese in anaerobic environments.

  4. Environmental and microbial factors influencing methane and nitrous oxide fluxes in Mediterranean cork oak woodlands: trees make a difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvaleva, Alla; Siljanen, Henri M P; Correia, Alexandra; Costa E Silva, Filipe; Lamprecht, Richard E; Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel; Bicho, Catarina; Fangueiro, David; Anderson, Margaret; Pereira, João S; Chaves, Maria M; Cruz, Cristina; Martikainen, Pertti J

    2015-01-01

    Cork oak woodlands (montado) are agroforestry systems distributed all over the Mediterranean basin with a very important social, economic and ecological value. A generalized cork oak decline has been occurring in the last decades jeopardizing its future sustainability. It is unknown how loss of tree cover affects microbial processes that are consuming greenhouse gases in the montado ecosystem. The study was conducted under two different conditions in the natural understory of a cork oak woodland in center Portugal: under tree canopy (UC) and open areas without trees (OA). Fluxes of methane and nitrous oxide were measured with a static chamber technique. In order to quantify methanotrophs and bacteria capable of nitrous oxide consumption, we used quantitative real-time PCR targeting the pmoA and nosZ genes encoding the subunit of particulate methane mono-oxygenase and catalytic subunit of the nitrous oxide reductase, respectively. A significant seasonal effect was found on CH4 and N2O fluxes and pmoA and nosZ gene abundance. Tree cover had no effect on methane fluxes; conversely, whereas the UC plots were net emitters of nitrous oxide, the loss of tree cover resulted in a shift in the emission pattern such that the OA plots were a net sink for nitrous oxide. In a seasonal time scale, the UC had higher gene abundance of Type I methanotrophs. Methane flux correlated negatively with abundance of Type I methanotrophs in the UC plots. Nitrous oxide flux correlated negatively with nosZ gene abundance at the OA plots in contrast to that at the UC plots. In the UC soil, soil organic matter had a positive effect on soil extracellular enzyme activities, which correlated positively with the N2O flux. Our results demonstrated that tree cover affects soil properties, key enzyme activities and abundance of microorganisms and, consequently net CH4 and N2O exchange.

  5. Enriching distinctive microbial communities from marine sediments via an electrochemical-sulfide-oxidizing process on carbon electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiue-Lin eLi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfide is a common product of marine anaerobic respiration, and a potent reactant biologically and geochemically. Here we demonstrate the impact on microbial communities with the removal of sulfide via electrochemical methods. The use of differential pulse voltammetry revealed that the oxidation of soluble sulfide was seen at + mV (vs. SHE at all pH ranges tested (from pH = 4 to 8, while non-ionized sulfide, which dominated at pH = 4 was poorly oxidized via this process. Two mixed cultures (CAT and LA were enriched from two different marine sediments (from Catalina Island, CAT; from the Port of Los Angeles, LA in serum bottles using a seawater medium supplemented with lactate, sulfate, and yeast extract, to obtain abundant biomass. Both CAT and LA cultures were inoculated in electrochemical cells (using yeast-extract-free seawater medium as an electrolyte equipped with carbon-felt electrodes. In both cases, when potentials of +630 or 130 mV (vs. SHE were applied, currents were consistently higher at +630 then at 0 mV, indicating more sulfide being oxidized at the higher potential. In addition, higher organic-acid and sulfate conversion rates were found at +630 mV with CAT, while no significant differences were found with LA at different potentials. The results of microbial-community analyses revealed a decrease in diversity for both CAT and LA after electrochemical incubation. In addition, some bacteria (e.g., Clostridium and Arcobacter not well known to be capable of extracellular electron transfer, were found to be dominant in the electrochemical cells. Thus, even though the different mixed cultures have different tolerances for sulfide, electrochemical-sulfide removal can lead to major population changes.

  6. Abiotic pyrite reactivity versus nitrate, selenate and selenite using chemical and electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiadis, I.; Betelu, S.; Gaucher, E.; Tournassat, C.; Chainet, F.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. This work is part of ReCosy European project (www.recosy.eu), whose main objectives are the sound understanding of redox phenomena controlling the long-term release/retention of radionuclides in nuclear waste disposal and providing tools to apply the results to performance assessment/safety case. Redox is one of the main factor affecting speciation and mobility of redox-sensitive radionuclides. Thus, it is of a great importance to investigate the redox reactivity of the host radioactive waste formations, particularly when exposed to redox perturbations. Callovo-Oxfordian formation (COx), a clay rock known as an anoxic and reducing system, was selected in France as the most suitable location to store nuclear waste. Iron (II) sulfide, mostly constituted of pyrite (FeS 2 ), iron (II) carbonate, iron(II) bearing clays and organic matter are considered to account almost entirely for the total reducing capacity of the rock. We report here the redox reactivity of pyrite upon exposure to nitrate (N(V)), selenate (Se(VI)) and selenite (Se(IV)) that possibly occur in the nuclear storage. Both, chemical and electrochemical kinetic approaches were simultaneously conducted such as to (i) determine the kinetics parameters of the reactions and (ii) understand the kinetic mechanisms. In order to reach similar conditions that are encountered in the storage system, all experiments were realised in NaCl 0.1 M, near neutral pH solutions, and an abiotic glove box (O 2 less than 10 -8 M). Chemical approach has consisted to set in contact pyrite in grains with solutions containing respectively nitrate, selenate and selenite. Reactants and products chemical analyses, conducted at different contact times, allowed us to assess the kinetics of oxidant reduction. Electrochemical approach has consisted in the continuous or semi-continuous analysis of large surface pyrite electrodes immersed in solutions with or without oxidant (nitrate

  7. Mineralization and trace element distribution in pyrite using EMPA in exploration drill holes from Cheshmeh Zard gold district, Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alaminia

    2015-10-01

    -bearing pyrite stage with sericite, chalcedony and quartz. The pyrite isframboidal.. 4. Finally, a carbonate-dominated stage. The pyrite is euhedral to anhedral and coarse grained. The Au concentration in Stages 2 and 3 pyrite is higher than that in Stage 4 pyrite. Conclusions The gangue mineral assemblages of carbonate, chlorite, quartz, and minor sericite and potassium feldspar in the ore-forming process of the CheshmehZard gold district suggest that the pH value of the hydrothermal fluids was near neutral to slightly acid (approximately 4.5 to 5.3 under 250 to 300 °C and 1 kbar conditions and that gold would be transported mainly as Au(HS2- (Stefansson and Seward, 2004. Three types of pyrite based on the chemical composition have been investigated: As- bearing pyrite, Ti-V - bearing pyrite and pure or barren pyrite. EMPA analyses of the pyrite in gold veins show maximum concentrations of As (3.62 wt.%, Ti (3.91 wt.% and V (0.53 wt.% respectively. The occurrence of the gold is usually associated with arsenian pyrite and Ti-V - bearing pyrite. Veinlets of the Py1 coexisting with arseno-pyrite and gold Py2 implies the substitution of sulfur by arsenic. Gold precipitated under relatively reducing conditions in framboidal pyrite. Py3 formed prior to barren pyrite (IV. References Alaminia, Z., Karimpour, M.H., Homam, S.M. and Finger, F., 2013a. The magmatic record in the Arghash region, NE Iran, and tectonic implications. International Journal of Earth Sciences, 102(6:1603-1625. Ashrafpour, E., Ansdell, K.M. and Alirezaei, S., 2012. Hydrothermal fluid evolution and ore genesis in the Arghash epithermal gold prospect, northeastern Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 51(1:30–44. Butler, I.B. and Rickard, D., 2000. Framboidal pyrite formation via the oxidation of iron (II monosulfide by hydrogen sulphide. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 64(15: 2665–2672. Samadi, M., 2001. Exploration in Arghash Gold Prospect. Geological Survey of Iran, unpublished report, Tehran, 73 pp. (in

  8. Advanced Experimental Analysis of Controls on Microbial Fe(III) Oxide Reduction - Final Report - 09/16/1996 - 03/16/2001; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roden, Eric E.

    2001-01-01

    Considering the broad influence that microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction can have on subsurface metal/organic contaminant biogeochemistry, understanding the mechanisms that control this process is critical for predicting the behavior and fate of these contaminants in anaerobic subsurface environments. Knowledge of the factors that influence the rates of growth and activity of Fe(III) oxide-reducing bacteria is critical for predicting (i.e., modeling) the long-term influence of these organisms on the fate of contaminants in the subsurface, and for effectively utilizing Fe(III) oxide reduction and associated geochemical affects for the purpose of subsurface metal/organic contamination bioremediation. This research project will refine existing models for microbiological and geochemical controls on Fe(III) oxide reduction, using laboratory reactor systems that mimic, to varying degrees, the physical and chemical conditions of the subsurface. Novel experimental methods for studying the kinetics of microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction and measuring growth rates of Fe(III) oxide-reducing bacteria will be developed. These new methodologies will be directly applicable to studies on subsurface contaminant transformations directly coupled to or influenced by microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction

  9. HIGHLY MICROBIAL RESISTANT GRAPHEME OXIDE NANOPARTICLES: SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ITS ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Vijaylaxmee Mishra; Richa Sharma

    2014-01-01

    The present work deigned to prepare graphene oxide nanoparticles and their antimicrobial activity has been evaluated. Graphene oxide is a singal layer of carbon arranged in a hexagonal pattern the basal planes and the edges of graphene oxide nanoparticles contain functional exogenous groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl and epoxy group, which not only expand the interlayer distance but also make the atomic thick layer hydrophilic. Most important application in area related to transparent conduct...

  10. The flotation of gold, uranium, and pyrite from Witwatersrand ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, P.J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Witwatersrand reefs contain gold, uranium, and pyrite in the following average concentrations: 0,001 per cent, 0,02 per cent, and 1,7 per cent respectively. The paper discusses the flotation of pyrite to produce a sulphide concentrate, reviews work done on the production of gold concentrates, discusses attempts to produce maximum concentrates, and closes with a review of processes for the simultaneous flotation of these three species. It is concluded that high recoveries of all three species can be achieved only if a rougher concentrate of perhaps 20 per cent of the feed (by mass) is produced, and it is suggested that reverse leaching (leaching before cyanidation) of this concentrate, followed by a cleaning flotation step for the recovery of the pyrite, would be more efficient than the routes employed at present [af

  11. Isolation and characterization of bacteria on the drainage water from Ratones mine and its behaviour on pyrite; Aislamiento y caracterizacion de bacterias en aguas de la mina de ratones y su comportamiento con pirita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merino, J L; Saez, R M

    1974-07-01

    This paper describes some of the studies made about iron and sulfur oxidizing bacteria on the drainage water from Ratones mine. Different liquid and solid media were utilized as well as some energy sources, ferrous sulphate, thiosulfate and sulfur. Some experiment were al so realized on museum grade pyrite aimed at determining the possibilities of applying the mentioned bacteria on the leaching of pyrite and subsequently on the leaching of uranium ores. (Author) 27 refs.

  12. Impact of natural organic matter coatings on the microbial reduction of iron oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggenburg, Christine; Mikutta, Robert; Schippers, Axel; Dohrmann, Reiner; Guggenberger, Georg

    2018-03-01

    Iron (Fe) oxyhydroxides are important constituents of the soil mineral phase known to stabilize organic matter (OM) under oxic conditions. In an anoxic milieu, however, these Fe-organic associations are exposed to microbial reduction, releasing OM into soil solution. At present, only few studies have addressed the influence of adsorbed natural OM (NOM) on the reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides. This study therefore examined the impact of both the composition and concentration of adsorbed NOM on microbial Fe reduction with regard to (i) electron shuttling, (ii) complexation of Fe(II,III), (iii) surface site coverage and/or pore blockage, and (iv) aggregation. Adsorption complexes with varying carbon loadings were synthesized using different Fe oxyhydroxides (ferrihydrite, lepidocrocite, goethite, hematite, magnetite) and NOM of different origin (extracellular polymeric substances from Bacillus subtilis, OM extracted from soil Oi and Oa horizons). The adsorption complexes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N2 gas adsorption, electrophoretic mobility and particle size measurements, and OM desorption. Incubation experiments under anaerobic conditions were conducted for 16 days comparing two different strains of dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria (Shewanella putrefaciens, Geobacter metallireducens). Mineral transformation during reduction was assessed via XRD and FTIR. Microbial reduction of the pure Fe oxyhydroxides was controlled by the specific surface area (SSA) and solubility of the minerals. For Shewanella putrefaciens, the Fe reduction of adsorption complexes strongly correlated with the concentration of potentially usable electron-shuttling molecules for NOM concentrations <2 mg C L-1, whereas for Geobacter metallireducens, Fe reduction depended on the particle size and thus aggregation of the adsorption complexes. These diverging results suggest that

  13. Thermodynamic Cconstraints on Coupled Carbonate-Pyrite Weathering Dynamics and Carbon Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnick, M.; Maher, K.

    2017-12-01

    Chemical weathering within the critical zone regulates global biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric composition, and the supply of key nutrients to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Recent studies suggest that thermodynamic limits on solute production act as a first-order control on global chemical weathering rates; however, few studies have addressed the factors that set these thermodynamic limits in natural systems. In this presentation, we investigate the effects of soil CO2 concentrations and pyrite oxidation rates on carbonate dissolution and associated carbon fluxes in the East River watershed in Colorado, using concentration-discharge relationships and thermodynamic constraints. Within the shallow subsurface, soil respiration rates and moisture content determine the extent of carbonic acid-promoted carbonate dissolution through their modulation of soil pCO2 and the balance of open- v. closed-system weathering processes. At greater depths, pyrite oxidation generates sulfuric acid, which alters the approach to equilibrium of infiltrating waters. Through comparisons of concentration-discharge data and reactive transport model simulations, we explore the conditions that determine whether sulfuric acid reacts to dissolve additional carbonate mineral or instead reacts with alkalinity already in solution - the balance of which determines watershed carbon flux budgets. Our study highlights the importance of interactions between the chemical structure of the critical zone and the hydrologic regulation of flowpaths in determining concentration-discharge relationships and overall carbon fluxes.

  14. Analysis of microbial populations, denitrification, and nitrous oxide production in riparian buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffers are used extensively to protect water bodies from nonpoint source nitrogen pollution. However there is relatively little information on the impact of these buffers on production of nitrous oxide (N2O). In this study, we assessed nitrous oxide production in riparian buffers of the so...

  15. Microbial dynamics during and after in situ chemical oxidation of chlorinated solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, N.B.; Atashgahi, S.; Wal, van der J.; Wijn, G.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Smidt, H.; Rijnaarts, H.

    2015-01-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) followed by a bioremediation step is increasingly being considered as an effective biphasic technology. Information on the impact of chemical oxidants on organohalide respiring bacteria (OHRB), however, is largely lacking. Therefore, we used quantitative PCR (qPCR)

  16. Effects of reforestation on ammonia-oxidizing microbial community composition and abundance in subtropical acidic forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruo-Nan; Meng, Han; Wang, Yong-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2018-06-01

    Forest ecosystems have great ecological values in mitigation of climate change and protection of biodiversity of flora and fauna; re-forestry is commonly used to enhance the sequestration of atmospheric CO 2 into forest storage biomass. Therefore, seasonal and spatial dynamics of the major microbial players in nitrification, ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB), in acidic soils of young and matured revegetated forests were investigated to elucidate the changes of microbial communities during forest restoration, and compared to delineate the patterns of community shifts under the influences of environmental factors. AOA were more abundant than AOB in both young and matured revegetated forest soils in both summer and winter seasons. In summer, however, the abundance of amoA-AOA decreased remarkably (p < 0.01), ranging from 1.90 (± 0.07) × 10 8 copies per gram dry soil in matured forest to 5.04 (± 0.43) × 10 8 copies per gram dry soil in young forest, and amoA-AOB was below detection limits to obtain any meaningful values. Moreover, exchangeable Al 3+ and organic matter were found to regulate the physiologically functional nitrifiers, especially AOA abundance in acidic forest soils. AOB community in winter showed stronger correlation with the restoration status of revegetated forests and AOA community dominated by Nitrosotalea devanaterra, in contrast, was more sensitive to the seasonal and spatial variations of environmental factors. These results enrich the current knowledge of nitrification during re-forestry and provide valuable information to developmental status of revegetated forests for management through microbial analysis.

  17. Large cryoconite aggregates on a Svalbard glacier support a diverse microbial community including ammonia-oxidizing archaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarsky, Jakub D.; Stibal, Marek; Hodson, Andy; Sattler, Birgit; Schostag, Morten; Hansen, Lars H.; Jacobsen, Carsten S.; Psenner, Roland

    2013-09-01

    The aggregation of surface debris particles on melting glaciers into larger units (cryoconite) provides microenvironments for various microorganisms and metabolic processes. Here we investigate the microbial community on the surface of Aldegondabreen, a valley glacier in Svalbard which is supplied with carbon and nutrients from different sources across its surface, including colonies of seabirds. We used a combination of geochemical analysis (of surface debris, ice and meltwater), quantitative polymerase chain reactions (targeting the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid and amoA genes), pyrosequencing and multivariate statistical analysis to suggest possible factors driving the ecology of prokaryotic microbes on the surface of Aldegondabreen and their potential role in nitrogen cycling. The combination of high nutrient input with subsidy from the bird colonies, supraglacial meltwater flow and the presence of fine, clay-like particles supports the formation of centimetre-scale cryoconite aggregates in some areas of the glacier surface. We show that a diverse microbial community is present, dominated by the cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria, that are well-known in supraglacial environments. Importantly, ammonia-oxidizing archaea were detected in the aggregates for the first time on an Arctic glacier.

  18. Multi-Level Contact Oxidation Process Performance When Treating Automobile Painting Wastewater: Pollutant Removal Efficiency and Microbial Community Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufang Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study applied a multi-level contact oxidation process system in a pilot-scale experiment to treat automobile painting wastewater. The experimental wastewater had been pre-treated through a series of physicochemical methods, but the water still contained a high concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD and had poor biodegradability. After the biological treatment, the COD concentration of effluent could stay below 300 mg/L. The study analyzed the effects of hydraulic residence time (HRT on COD, ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N, and total nitrogen (TN. The optimal HRT was 8 h; at that time, removal efficiencies of COD, ammonia nitrogen, and total nitrogen were 83.8%, 86.3%, and 65%, respectively. The system also greatly reduced excess sludge production; the removal efficiency was 82.8% with a HRT of 8 h. The study applied high-throughput pyrosequencing technology to evaluate the microbial diversity and community structures in distinct stages of the biological reactor. The relevance between process performance and microbial community structure was analyzed at the phylum and class level. The abundant Firmicutes made a large contribution to improving the biodegradability of painting wastewater through hydrolysis acidification and reducing sludge production through fermentation in the biological reactor.

  19. Large cryoconite aggregates on a Svalbard glacier support a diverse microbial community including ammonia-oxidizing archaea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarsky, Jakub D; Sattler, Birgit; Psenner, Roland; Stibal, Marek; Schostag, Morten; Jacobsen, Carsten S; Hodson, Andy; Hansen, Lars H

    2013-01-01

    The aggregation of surface debris particles on melting glaciers into larger units (cryoconite) provides microenvironments for various microorganisms and metabolic processes. Here we investigate the microbial community on the surface of Aldegondabreen, a valley glacier in Svalbard which is supplied with carbon and nutrients from different sources across its surface, including colonies of seabirds. We used a combination of geochemical analysis (of surface debris, ice and meltwater), quantitative polymerase chain reactions (targeting the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid and amoA genes), pyrosequencing and multivariate statistical analysis to suggest possible factors driving the ecology of prokaryotic microbes on the surface of Aldegondabreen and their potential role in nitrogen cycling. The combination of high nutrient input with subsidy from the bird colonies, supraglacial meltwater flow and the presence of fine, clay-like particles supports the formation of centimetre-scale cryoconite aggregates in some areas of the glacier surface. We show that a diverse microbial community is present, dominated by the cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria, that are well-known in supraglacial environments. Importantly, ammonia-oxidizing archaea were detected in the aggregates for the first time on an Arctic glacier. (letter)

  20. Large cryoconite aggregates on a Svalbard glacier support a diverse microbial community including ammonia-oxidizing archaea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarsky, Jakub D; Sattler, Birgit; Psenner, Roland [Institute of Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck (Austria); Stibal, Marek; Schostag, Morten; Jacobsen, Carsten S [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Copenhagen (Denmark); Hodson, Andy [Department of Geography, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Hansen, Lars H, E-mail: j.zarsky@gmail.com [Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-09-15

    The aggregation of surface debris particles on melting glaciers into larger units (cryoconite) provides microenvironments for various microorganisms and metabolic processes. Here we investigate the microbial community on the surface of Aldegondabreen, a valley glacier in Svalbard which is supplied with carbon and nutrients from different sources across its surface, including colonies of seabirds. We used a combination of geochemical analysis (of surface debris, ice and meltwater), quantitative polymerase chain reactions (targeting the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid and amoA genes), pyrosequencing and multivariate statistical analysis to suggest possible factors driving the ecology of prokaryotic microbes on the surface of Aldegondabreen and their potential role in nitrogen cycling. The combination of high nutrient input with subsidy from the bird colonies, supraglacial meltwater flow and the presence of fine, clay-like particles supports the formation of centimetre-scale cryoconite aggregates in some areas of the glacier surface. We show that a diverse microbial community is present, dominated by the cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria, that are well-known in supraglacial environments. Importantly, ammonia-oxidizing archaea were detected in the aggregates for the first time on an Arctic glacier. (letter)

  1. Culture-Independent Identification of Manganese-Oxidizing Genes from Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Chemoautotrophic Ferromanganese Microbial Communities Using a Metagenomic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R.; Tebo, B. M.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial activity has long been recognized as being important to the fate of manganese (Mn) in hydrothermal systems, yet we know very little about the organisms that catalyze Mn oxidation, the mechanisms by which Mn is oxidized or the physiological function that Mn oxidation serves in these hydrothermal systems. Hydrothermal vents with thick ferromanganese microbial mats and Mn oxide-coated rocks observed throughout the Pacific Ring of Fire are ideal models to study the mechanisms of microbial Mn oxidation, as well as primary productivity in these metal-cycling ecosystems. We sampled ferromanganese microbial mats from Vai Lili Vent Field (Tmax=43°C) located on the Eastern Lau Spreading Center and Mn oxide-encrusted rhyolytic pumice (4°C) from Niua South Seamount on the Tonga Volcanic Arc. Metagenomic libraries were constructed and assembled from these samples and key genes known to be involved in Mn oxidation and carbon fixation pathways were identified in the reconstructed genomes. The Vai Lili metagenome assembled to form 121,157 contiguous sequences (contigs) greater than 1000bp in length, with an N50 of 8,261bp and a total metagenome size of 593 Mbp. Contigs were binned using an emergent self-organizing map of tetranucleotide frequencies. Putative homologs of the multicopper Mn-oxidase MnxG were found in the metagenome that were related to both the Pseudomonas-like and Bacillus-like forms of the enzyme. The bins containing the Pseudomonas-like mnxG genes are most closely related to uncultured Deltaproteobacteria and Chloroflexi. The Deltaproteobacteria bin appears to be an obligate anaerobe with possible chemoautotrophic metabolisms, while the Chloroflexi appears to be a heterotrophic organism. The metagenome from the Mn-stained pumice was assembled into 122,092 contigs greater than 1000bp in length with an N50 of 7635 and a metagenome size of 385 Mbp. Both forms of mnxG genes are present in this metagenome as well as the genes encoding the putative Mn

  2. In-situ studies of microbial CH4 oxidation efficiency in Arctic wetland soils. Applications of stable carbon isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preuss, Inken-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Arctic wetland soils are significant sources of the climate-relevant trace gas methane (CH 4 ). The observed accelerated warming of the Arctic is expected to cause deeper permafrost thawing followed by increased carbon mineralization and CH 4 formation in water-saturated permafrost-affected tundra soils thus creating a positive feedback to climate change. Aerobic CH 4 oxidation is regarded as the key process reducing CH 4 emissions from wetlands, but quantification of turnover rates has remained difficult so far. This study improved the in-situ quantification of microbial CH 4 oxidation efficiency in arctic wetland soils in Russia's Lena River Delta based on stable isotope signatures of CH 4 . In addition to the common practice of determining the stable isotope fractionation during oxidation, additionally the fractionation effect of diffusion, an important gas transport mechanism in tundra soils, was investigated for both saturated and unsaturated conditions. The isotopic fractionation factors α ox and α diff were used to calculate the CH 4 oxidation efficiency from the CH 4 stable isotope signatures of wet polygonal tundra soils of different hydrology. Further, the method was used to study the short-term effects of temperature increase with a climate manipulation experiment. For the first time, the stable isotope fractionation of CH 4 diffusion through water-saturated soils was determined with α diff = 1.001 ± 0.0002 (n = 3). CH 4 stable isotope fractionation during diffusion through air-filled pores of the investigated polygonal tundra soils was α diff = 1.013 ± 0.003 (n = 18). For the studied sites the fractionation factor for diffusion under saturated conditions α diff = 1.001 seems to be of utmost importance for the quantification of the CH 4 oxidation efficiency, since most of the CH 4 is oxidized in the saturated part at the aerobic-anaerobic interface. Furthermore, it was found that α ox differs widely between sites and horizons (mean α ox = 1

  3. Sulfur isotope evidence for the contemporary formation of pyrite in a coastal acid sulfate soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, R.T.; Sullivan, L.A.; Prince, K.; White, I.

    2000-01-01

    The sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite (FeS 2 ), greigite (Fe 3 S 4 ) and pore-water sulfate was determined for a typical coastal acid sulfate soil (ASS). Greigite occurs only in the partially oxidised upper-most pyrite sediments as blackish clusters within vertical fissures and other macro-pores. The concentration of pyrite was an order of magnitude greater than greigite in this layer, continuing through the underlying reduced estuarine sediments. δ 34 S of pyrite (0.45 per mil) associated with greigite accumulations were distinctly different to the bulk average for pyrite (-3.7 per mil), but similar to greigite (0.9 per mil). Greigite is meta-stable under reducing conditions, readily transforming to pyrite. The transformation of iron monosulfides (including greigite) to pyrite is a sulfur-isotope conservative process and therefore, these observations indicate that pyrite is forming from greigite at the oxic/anoxic boundary

  4. Three-dimensional Hierarchical Metal oxide-Carbon Electrode Material for High Efficient Microbial Electrosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Mengmeng; Nie, Huarong; Zhang, Tian

    2017-01-01

    pore structure in a microwave oven is demonstrated. Microwave pyrolysis of ferrocene using carbon felt as a microwave absorber, a method that is rapid (tens of seconds), does not require harsh conditions nor costly equipment is utilized, and can be readily scaled up. The produced material has a high...... specific surface area, a multi-length scale porous structure and a high conductivity, and is quite stable, making it promising for many practical applications. As an electrode in microbial electrosynthesis, the performance is improved by a factor of five and an optimal biofilm of the microorganism...

  5. Microbial Rechargeable Battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, Sam D.; Mol, Annemerel R.; Sleutels, Tom H.J.A.; Heijne, Ter Annemiek; Buisman, Cees J.N.

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems hold potential for both conversion of electricity into chemicals through microbial electrosynthesis (MES) and the provision of electrical power by oxidation of organics using microbial fuel cells (MFCs). This study provides a proof of concept for a microbial

  6. Pyrite sulfur isotopes reveal glacial-interglacial environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, Virgil; Sansjofre, Pierre; Rabineau, Marina; Revillon, Sidonie; Houghton, Jennifer; Fike, David A.

    2017-06-01

    The sulfur biogeochemical cycle plays a key role in regulating Earth’s surface redox through diverse abiotic and biological reactions that have distinctive stable isotopic fractionations. As such, variations in the sulfur isotopic composition (δ34S) of sedimentary sulfate and sulfide phases over Earth history can be used to infer substantive changes to the Earth’s surface environment, including the rise of atmospheric oxygen. Such inferences assume that individual δ34S records reflect temporal changes in the global sulfur cycle; this assumption may be well grounded for sulfate-bearing minerals but is less well established for pyrite-based records. Here, we investigate alternative controls on the sedimentary sulfur isotopic composition of marine pyrite by examining a 300-m drill core of Mediterranean sediments deposited over the past 500,000 y and spanning the last five glacial-interglacial periods. Because this interval is far shorter than the residence time of marine sulfate, any change in the sulfur isotopic record preserved in pyrite (δ34Spyr) necessarily corresponds to local environmental changes. The stratigraphic variations (>76‰) in the isotopic data reported here are among the largest ever observed in pyrite, and are in phase with glacial-interglacial sea level and temperature changes. In this case, the dominant control appears to be glacial-interglacial variations in sedimentation rates. These results suggest that there exist important but previously overlooked depositional controls on sedimentary sulfur isotope records, especially associated with intervals of substantial sea level change. This work provides an important perspective on the origin of variability in such records and suggests meaningful paleoenvironmental information can be derived from pyrite δ34S records.

  7. Semiconductor electrochemistry of coal pyrite. Final technical report, September 1990--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Wei, D.

    1996-01-01

    This project is concerned with the physiochemical processes occuring at the pyrite/aqueous interface, in the context of coal cleaning, desulfurization, and acid mine drainage. The use of synthetic particles of pyrite as model electrodes to investigate the semiconductor electrochemistry of pyrite is employed.

  8. Changes of microbial spoilage, lipid-protein oxidation and physicochemical properties during post mortem refrigerated storage of goat meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabow, Azad Behnan; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Aghwan, Zeiad Amjad; Zulkifli, Idrus; Goh, Yong Meng; Ab Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Kaka, Ubedullah; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda

    2016-06-01

    Examined was the effect of post mortem refrigerated storage on microbial spoilage, lipid-protein oxidation and physicochemical traits of goat meat. Seven Boer bucks were slaughtered, eviscerated and aged for 24 h. The Longissimus lumborum (LL) and Semitendinosus (ST) muscles were excised and subjected to 13 days post mortem refrigerated storage. The pH, lipid and protein oxidation, tenderness, color and drip loss were determined in LL while microbiological analysis was performed on ST. Bacterial counts generally increased with increasing aging time and the limit for fresh meat was reached at day 14 post mortem. Significant differences were observed in malondialdehyde (MDA) content at day 7 of storage. The thiol concentration significantly reduced as aging time increased. The band intensities of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and troponin-T significantly decreased as storage progressed, while actin remained relatively stable. After 14 days of aging, tenderness showed significant improvement while muscle pH and drip loss reduced with increase in storage time. Samples aged for 14 days had higher lightness (P goat meat. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Binder-free graphene and manganese oxide coated carbon felt anode for high-performance microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changyong; Liang, Peng; Yang, Xufei; Jiang, Yong; Bian, Yanhong; Chen, Chengmeng; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Huang, Xia

    2016-07-15

    A novel anode was developed by coating reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and manganese oxide (MnO2) composite on the carbon felt (CF) surface. With a large surface area and excellent electrical conductivity, this binder-free anode was found to effectively enhance the enrichment and growth of electrochemically active bacteria and facilitate the extracellular electron transfer from the bacteria to the anode. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) equipped with the rGO/MnO2/CF anode delivered a maximum power density of 2065mWm(-2), 154% higher than that with a bare CF anode. The internal resistance of the MFC with this novel anode was 79Ω, 66% lower than the regular one's (234Ω). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses affirmed that the rGO/MnO2 composite significantly increased the anodic reaction rates and facilitated the electron transfer from the bacteria to the anode. The findings from this study suggest that the rGO/MnO2/CF anode, fabricated via a simple dip-coating and electro-deposition process, could be a promising anode material for high-performance MFC applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Surface-oxidized cobalt phosphide used as high efficient electrocatalyst in activated carbon air-cathode microbial fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingting; Wang, Zhong; Li, Kexun; Liu, Yi; Liu, Di; Wang, Junjie

    2017-09-01

    Herein, we report a simplistic method to fabricate the surface-oxidized cobalt phosphide (CoP) nanocrystals (NCs), which is used as electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in microbial fuel cell (MFC) for the first time. The corallite-like CoP NCs are successfully prepared by a hydrothermal reaction following a phosphating treatment in N2 atmosphere. When used as an ORR catalyst, cobalt phosphide shows comparable onset potential, inferior resistance, as well as a small Tafel slope with long-term stability in neutral media. The maximum power density of MFC embellished with 10% CoP reached 1914.4 ± 59.7 mW m-2, which is 108.5% higher than the control. The four-electron pathway, observed by the RDE, plays a crucial role in electrochemical catalytic activity. In addition, material characterizations indicate that the surface oxide layer (CoOx) around the metallic CoP core is important and beneficial for ORR. Accordingly, it can be expected that the as-synthesized CoP will be a promising candidate of the non-precious metal ORR electrocatalysts for electrochemical energy applications.

  11. Bifunctional viscous nanovesicles co-loaded with resveratrol and gallic acid for skin protection against microbial and oxidative injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitonyte, Justina; Manca, Maria Letizia; Caddeo, Carla; Valenti, Donatella; Peris, Josè Esteban; Usach, Iris; Nacher, Amparo; Matos, Maria; Gutiérrez, Gemma; Orrù, Germano; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier; Fadda, Anna Maria; Manconi, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Resveratrol and gallic acid were co-loaded in phospholipid vesicles aiming at protecting the skin from external injuries, such as oxidative stress and microbial infections. Liposomes were prepared using biocompatible phospholipids dispersed in water. To improve vesicle stability and applicability, the phospholipids and the phenols were dispersed in water/propylene glycol or water/glycerol, thus obtaining PEVs and glycerosomes, respectively. The vesicles were characterized by size, morphology, physical stability, and their therapeutic efficacy was investigated in vitro. The vesicles were spherical, unilamellar and small in size: liposomes and glycerosomes were around 70nm in diameter, while PEVs were larger (∼170nm). The presence of propylene glycol or glycerol increased the viscosity of the vesicle systems, positively affecting their stability. The ability of the vesicles to promote the accumulation of the phenols (especially gallic acid) in the skin was demonstrated, as well as their low toxicity and great ability to protect keratinocytes and fibroblasts from oxidative damage. Additionally, an improvement of the antimicrobial activity of the phenols was shown against different skin pathogens. The co-loading of resveratrol and gallic acid in modified phospholipid vesicles represents an innovative, bifunctional tool for preventing and treating skin affections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Geochemistry and microbial community composition across a range of acid mine drainage impact and implications for the Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havig, Jeff R.; Grettenberger, Christen; Hamilton, Trinity L.

    2017-06-01

    Streams impacted by acid mine drainage (AMD, also known as acid rock drainage) represent local environmental and ecological disasters; however, they may also present an opportunity to study microbial communities in environments analogous to past conditions. Neoarchean continents had streams and rivers replete with detrital pyrites. Following the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis, Cyanobacteria colonized streams and rivers on continental surfaces. The combination of labile detrital pyrite grains and locally produced O2 generated by Cyanobacteria produced ideal conditions for pyrite oxidation similar to that found at modern AMD-impacted sites. To explore the connection of modern sites to ancient conditions, we sampled sites that exhibited a range of AMD-impact (e.g., pH from 2.1 to 7.9 [Fe2+] up to 5.2 mmol/L [SO42-] from 0.3 to 52.4 mmol/L) and found (i) nearly all analytes correlated to sulfate concentration; (ii) all sites exhibited the predominance of a single taxon most closely related to Ferrovum myxofaciens, an Fe-oxidixing betaproteoabacterium capable of carbon and nitrogen fixation, and (iii) signs of potential inorganic carbon limitation and nitrogen cycling. From these findings and building on the work of others, we present a conceptual model of continental surfaces during the Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic linking local O2 production to pyrite oxidation on continental surfaces to sulfate production and delivery to nearshore environments. The delivery of sulfate drives sulfate reduction and euxinia—favoring anoxygenic photosynthesis over cyanobacterial O2 generation in near-continent/shelf marine environments.

  13. Oxidation of metabolites highlights the microbial interactions and role of Acetobacter pasteurianus during cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moens, Frédéric; Lefeber, Timothy; De Vuyst, Luc

    2014-03-01

    Four cocoa-specific acetic acid bacterium (AAB) strains, namely, Acetobacter pasteurianus 386B, Acetobacter ghanensis LMG 23848(T), Acetobacter fabarum LMG 24244(T), and Acetobacter senegalensis 108B, were analyzed kinetically and metabolically during monoculture laboratory fermentations. A cocoa pulp simulation medium (CPSM) for AAB, containing ethanol, lactic acid, and mannitol, was used. All AAB strains differed in their ethanol and lactic acid oxidation kinetics, whereby only A. pasteurianus 386B performed a fast oxidation of ethanol and lactic acid into acetic acid and acetoin, respectively. Only A. pasteurianus 386B and A. ghanensis LMG 23848(T) oxidized mannitol into fructose. Coculture fermentations with A. pasteurianus 386B or A. ghanensis LMG 23848(T) and Lactobacillus fermentum 222 in CPSM for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) containing glucose, fructose, and citric acid revealed oxidation of lactic acid produced by the LAB strain into acetic acid and acetoin that was faster in the case of A. pasteurianus 386B. A triculture fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae H5S5K23, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B, using CPSM for LAB, showed oxidation of ethanol and lactic acid produced by the yeast and LAB strain, respectively, into acetic acid and acetoin. Hence, acetic acid and acetoin are the major end metabolites of cocoa bean fermentation. All data highlight that A. pasteurianus 386B displayed beneficial functional roles to be used as a starter culture, namely, a fast oxidation of ethanol and lactic acid, and that these metabolites play a key role as substrates for A. pasteurianus in its indispensable cross-feeding interactions with yeast and LAB during cocoa bean fermentation.

  14. Biofilms and Oxidizing Biocides; Evaluation of Disinfection and Removal Effects by Using Established Microbial Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Mariko

    2017-01-01

    The formation of bacterial biofilms and their disinfection and removal have been important subjects in the maintenance of water quality in areas such as public spas, swimming pools, food processing lines, industrial water systems, and in the hygienic control of medical devices, hospital procedures, etc. Presented here is an outline of biofilm formation, as well as studies on the disinfection and removal of biofilms by oxidizing biocides using established biofilms. These studies using established biofilms may increase the understanding of the variable response of biofilms to planktonic bacteria, and the unique aspects of oxidizing biocides in the disinfection and removal of biofilms.

  15. Conjugated oligoelectrolyte represses hydrogen oxidation by Geobacter sulfurreducens in microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jia

    2015-12-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. A conjugated oligoelectrolyte (COE), which spontaneously aligns within cell membranes, was shown to completely inhibit H2 uptake by Geobacter sulfurreducens in microbial electrolysis cells. Coulombic efficiencies that were 490±95%, due to H2 recycling between the cathode and microorganisms on the anode, were reduced to 86±2% with COE addition. The use of the COE resulted in a 67-fold increase in H2 gas recovery, and a 4.4-fold increase in acetate removal. Current generation, H2 recovery and COD removals by Geobacter metallireducens, which cannot use H2, were unaffected by COE addition. These results show that this COE is an effective H2 uptake inhibitor, and that it can enable improved and sustained H2 gas recovery in this bioelectrochemical system.

  16. Microbial synthesis of functional homo-, random, and block polyhydroxyalkanoates by β-oxidation deleted Pseudomonas entomophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shijun; Cai, Longwei; Wu, Linping

    2014-01-01

    -link with other PHA polymer chains. However, it has been very difficult to obtain structurally controllable functional homo-, random, or block PHA. For the first time, a β-oxidation deleted Pseudomonas entomophila was used to successfully synthesize random copolymers of 3-hydroxydodecanoate (3HDD) and 3-hydroxy-9...... be controlled to meet various requirements....

  17. The composition of pyrite in volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits as determined with the proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huston, D.L.; Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F.; Ryan, C.G.

    1993-01-01

    Pixeprobe analysis of pyrite from Australian volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits indicate significant levels of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ba, Ag, Sb, Bi (from inclusions), As, Tl, Mo, Au, In, Cd (from nonstoichiometric substitution), Co, Ni, Se and Te (from stoichiometric substitution). Pyrite in massive sulfide lenses is enriched in trace elements compared to that in the stringer zone owing to hydrothermal recrystallization. Metamorphic recrystallization also 'cleans' pyrite of trace elements. High Au values occur in pyrite with high As content. Pyrite in stringer zones is enriched in Se relative to the overlying massive sulfide lenses and the surrounding alteration zones. (orig.)

  18. Microbial communities from different subsystems in biological heap leaching system play different roles in iron and sulfur metabolisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yunhua; Liu, Xueduan; Ma, Liyuan; Liang, Yili; Niu, Jiaojiao; Gu, Yabing; Zhang, Xian; Hao, Xiaodong; Dong, Weiling; She, Siyuan; Yin, Huaqun

    2016-08-01

    The microbial communities are important for minerals decomposition in biological heap leaching system. However, the differentiation and relationship of composition and function of microbial communities between leaching heap (LH) and leaching solution (LS) are still unclear. In this study, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to assess the microbial communities from the two subsystems in ZiJinShan copper mine (Fujian province, China). Results of PCoA and dissimilarity test showed that microbial communities in LH samples were significantly different from those in LS samples. The dominant genera of LH was Acidithiobacillus (57.2 ∼ 87.9 %), while Leptospirillum (48.6 ∼ 73.7 %) was predominant in LS. Environmental parameters (especially pH) were the major factors to influence the composition and structure of microbial community by analysis of Mantel tests. Results of functional test showed that microbial communities in LH utilized sodium thiosulfate more quickly and utilized ferrous sulfate more slowly than those in LS, which further indicated that the most sulfur-oxidizing processes of bioleaching took place in LH and the most iron-oxidizing processes were in LS. Further study found that microbial communities in LH had stronger pyrite leaching ability, and iron extraction efficiency was significantly positively correlated with Acidithiobacillus (dominated in LH), which suggested that higher abundance ratio of sulfur-oxidizing microbes might in favor of minerals decomposition. Finally, a conceptual model was designed through the above results to better exhibit the sulfur and iron metabolism in bioleaching systems.

  19. Microbial degradation of high impact polystyrene (HIPS), an e-plastic with decabromodiphenyl oxide and antimony trioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekhar, Vini C.; Nampoothiri, K. Madhavan; Mohan, Arya J.; Nair, Nimisha R.; Bhaskar, Thallada; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodegradation of a high impact polystyrene e − plastic. • 12.4% (w/w) e plastic film lost using an isolate, Enterobacter sp. • Noted changes in the physico-chemical characteristics of degraded e-plastic film. • Polystyrene intermediates were detected in the degradation medium. • e-plastic degrading microbes displayed extracellular depolymerase activity. - Abstract: Accumulation of electronic waste has increased catastrophically and out of that various plastic resins constitute one of the leading thrown out materials in the electronic machinery. Enrichment medium, containing high impact polystyrene (HIPS) with decabromodiphenyl oxide and antimony trioxide as sole carbon source, was used to isolate microbial cultures. The viability of these cultures in the e-plastic containing mineral medium was further confirmed by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduction test. Four cultures were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Enterobacter sp., Citrobacter sedlakii, Alcaligenes sp. and Brevundimonas diminuta. Biodegradation experiments were carried out in flask level and gelatin supplementation (0.1% w/v) along with HIPS had increased the degradation rate to a maximum of 12.4% (w/w) within 30 days. This is the first report for this kind of material. The comparison of FTIR, NMR, and TGA analysis of original and degraded e-plastic films revealed structural changes under microbial treatment. Polystyrene degradation intermediates in the culture supernatant were also detected using HPLC analysis. The gravity of biodegradation was validated by morphological changes under scanning electron microscope. All isolates displayed depolymerase activity to substantiate enzymatic degradation of e-plastic.

  20. Silver nanoparticles: green synthesis using Phoenix dactylifera fruit extract, characterization, and anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Anas Ejaz; Satardekar, Kshitij Vasant; Khan, Rummana Rehman; Tarte, Nanda Amit; Barve, Siddhivinayak Satyasandha

    2018-03-01

    Hydro-alcoholic (2:8 v/v) extract of the pulp of Phoenix dactylifera fruit pulp obtained using Soxhlet extraction (70 °C, 6 h) was found to contain alkaloids, sterols, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, proteins, and carbohydrates. An aqueous solution (20% v/v) of the extract led to the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from 0.01 M AgNO3 solution as confirmed by the surface plasmon resonance at 445 nm determined using UV-visible spectroscopy after 24 h. The synthesized AgNPs were found to be mostly spherical and complexed with phytochemicals from the extract. The size of AgNPs ranged from 12.2-140.2 nm with mean diameter of 47.0 nm as characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The elemental composition of the AgNPs complexed with the phytochemicals was found to be 80.49% silver (Ag), 15.21% carbon (C), and 4.30% oxygen (O) on a weight basis by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Using the α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, an anti-oxidant activity of 89.15% for 1 µg L-1 ultrasonically homogenized ethanolic solution of complexed AgNPs was obtained (equivalent to 0.20 mg mL-1 gallic acid solution), while methanolic solution of plant extract possessed an EC50 value of 3.45% (v/v) (equivalent to 0.11 mg mL-1 gallic acid solution). The plant-nanosilver broth was also found to possess effective anti-microbial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 as assessed by the disc diffusion assay. However, the plant extract showed negligible anti-microbial activity.

  1. Microbial degradation of high impact polystyrene (HIPS), an e-plastic with decabromodiphenyl oxide and antimony trioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekhar, Vini C. [Biotechnology Division, CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), Trivandrum 695 019, Kerala (India); Nampoothiri, K. Madhavan, E-mail: madhavan85@hotmail.com [Biotechnology Division, CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), Trivandrum 695 019, Kerala (India); Mohan, Arya J.; Nair, Nimisha R. [Biotechnology Division, CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), Trivandrum 695 019, Kerala (India); Bhaskar, Thallada [Bio-Fuels Division (BFD), CSIR-Indian Institute of Petroleum (IIP), Dehradun, Uttarakhand 248005 (India); Pandey, Ashok [Biotechnology Division, CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), Trivandrum 695 019, Kerala (India)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Biodegradation of a high impact polystyrene e − plastic. • 12.4% (w/w) e plastic film lost using an isolate, Enterobacter sp. • Noted changes in the physico-chemical characteristics of degraded e-plastic film. • Polystyrene intermediates were detected in the degradation medium. • e-plastic degrading microbes displayed extracellular depolymerase activity. - Abstract: Accumulation of electronic waste has increased catastrophically and out of that various plastic resins constitute one of the leading thrown out materials in the electronic machinery. Enrichment medium, containing high impact polystyrene (HIPS) with decabromodiphenyl oxide and antimony trioxide as sole carbon source, was used to isolate microbial cultures. The viability of these cultures in the e-plastic containing mineral medium was further confirmed by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduction test. Four cultures were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Enterobacter sp., Citrobacter sedlakii, Alcaligenes sp. and Brevundimonas diminuta. Biodegradation experiments were carried out in flask level and gelatin supplementation (0.1% w/v) along with HIPS had increased the degradation rate to a maximum of 12.4% (w/w) within 30 days. This is the first report for this kind of material. The comparison of FTIR, NMR, and TGA analysis of original and degraded e-plastic films revealed structural changes under microbial treatment. Polystyrene degradation intermediates in the culture supernatant were also detected using HPLC analysis. The gravity of biodegradation was validated by morphological changes under scanning electron microscope. All isolates displayed depolymerase activity to substantiate enzymatic degradation of e-plastic.

  2. Genomic insights into microbial iron oxidation and iron uptake strategies in extremely acidic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefoy, Violaine; Holmes, David S

    2012-07-01

    This minireview presents recent advances in our understanding of iron oxidation and homeostasis in acidophilic Bacteria and Archaea. These processes influence the flux of metals and nutrients in pristine and man-made acidic environments such as acid mine drainage and industrial bioleaching operations. Acidophiles are also being studied to understand life in extreme conditions and their role in the generation of biomarkers used in the search for evidence of existing or past extra-terrestrial life. Iron oxidation in acidophiles is best understood in the model organism Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. However, recent functional genomic analysis of acidophiles is leading to a deeper appreciation of the diversity of acidophilic iron-oxidizing pathways. Although it is too early to paint a detailed picture of the role played by lateral gene transfer in the evolution of iron oxidation, emerging evidence tends to support the view that iron oxidation arose independently more than once in evolution. Acidic environments are generally rich in soluble iron and extreme acidophiles (e.g. the Leptospirillum genus) have considerably fewer iron uptake systems compared with neutrophiles. However, some acidophiles have been shown to grow as high as pH 6 and, in the case of the Acidithiobacillus genus, to have multiple iron uptake systems. This could be an adaption allowing them to respond to different iron concentrations via the use of a multiplicity of different siderophores. Both Leptospirillum spp. and Acidithiobacillus spp. are predicted to synthesize the acid stable citrate siderophore for Fe(III) uptake. In addition, both groups have predicted receptors for siderophores produced by other microorganisms, suggesting that competition for iron occurs influencing the ecophysiology of acidic environments. Little is known about the genetic regulation of iron oxidation and iron uptake in acidophiles, especially how the use of iron as an energy source is balanced with its need to take up

  3. A review of the fundamental studies of the copper activation mechanisms for selective flotation of the sulfide minerals, sphalerite and pyrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, A P; Gerson, A R

    2009-01-30

    A review of the considerable, but often contradictory, literature examining the specific surface reactions associated with copper adsorption onto the common metal sulfide minerals sphalerite, (Zn,Fe)S, and pyrite (FeS(2)), and the effect of the co-location of the two minerals is presented. Copper "activation", involving the surface adsorption of copper species from solution onto mineral surfaces to activate the surface for hydrophobic collector attachment, is an important step in the flotation and separation of minerals in an ore. Due to the complexity of metal sulfide mineral containing systems this activation process and the emergence of activation products on the mineral surfaces are not fully understood for most sulfide minerals even after decades of research. Factors such as copper concentration, activation time, pH, surface charge, extent of pre-oxidation, water and surface contaminants, pulp potential and galvanic interactions are important factors affecting copper activation of sphalerite and pyrite. A high pH, the correct reagent concentration and activation time and a short time delay between reagent additions is favourable for separation of sphalerite from pyrite. Sufficient oxidation potential is also needed (through O(2) conditioning) to maintain effective galvanic interactions between sphalerite and pyrite. This ensures pyrite is sufficiently depressed while sphalerite floats. Good water quality with low concentrations of contaminant ions, such as Pb(2+)and Fe(2+), is also needed to limit inadvertent activation and flotation of pyrite into zinc concentrates. Selectivity can further be increased and reagent use minimised by opting for inert grinding and by carefully choosing selective pyrite depressants such as sulfoxy or cyanide reagents. Studies that approximate plant conditions are essential for the development of better separation techniques and methodologies. Improved experimental approaches and surface sensitive techniques with high spatial

  4. Field tracer test for denitrification in a pyrite-bearing schist aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, H.; Kloppmann, W.; Foucher, J.-C.; Martelat, A.; Fritsche, V.

    1998-01-01

    A small-scale artificial tracer test performed on a schist aquifer in Brittany has helped clarify mechanisms and kinetics of in situ autotrophic denitrification. NO 3 was injected as a pulse simultaneously with a conservative tracer - Br - . During the test, which lasted 210 h, 73% of the injected Br - was recovered, as against only 47% of the NO 3 . The 26% difference in the recovery of the two injected species is interpreted as being the result of denitrification, in part due to the direct oxidation of pyrite present in the solid aquifer according to the reaction: 5FeS 2 +14NO 3 - +4H + approaches7N 2 +10SO 4 2- +5Fe 2+ +2H 2 O, and in part due to subsequent iron oxidation according to the reaction: NO 3 - +5Fe 2+ +6H + approaches1/2N 2 +5Fe 3+ +3H 2 O. Despite the potential increase in SO 4 and Fe resulting from denitrification through pyrite oxidation, the concentrations of these elements in the groundwater remain moderate due to the precipitation of minerals such as jarosite and/or natroalunite. Tracer transfer takes place in a heterogeneous medium which, according to the breakthrough curves, can be simplified to a dual-porosity aquifer comprising a high-permeability (fractures or large fissures) medium of low porosity from which only minor denitrification of circulating NO 3 -bearing water was observed and a low-permeability (small fissures) medium of high porosity which induces a higher denitrification rate in the circulating NO 3 -bearing water. The kinetics of the denitrification reaction are high compared with results obtained for other environments and can be described by a first-order model with a half life of 7.9 days for the low-porosity medium and only 2.1 days for the high-porosity medium. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. Textural and mineralogical characteristics of microbial fossils associated with modern and ancient iron (oxyhydr)oxides: terrestrial analogue for sediments in Gale Crater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter-McIntyre, Sally L; Chan, Marjorie A; McPherson, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Iron (oxyhydr)oxide microbial mats in modern to ∼100 ka tufa terraces are present in a cold spring system along Ten Mile Graben, southeastern Utah, USA. Mats exhibit morphological, chemical, and textural biosignatures and show diagenetic changes that occur over millennial scales. The Jurassic Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation in the Four Corners region of the USA also exhibits comparable microbial fossils and iron (oxyhydr)oxide biosignatures in the lacustrine unit. Both the modern spring system and Brushy Basin Member represent alkaline, saline, groundwater-fed systems and preserve diatoms and other similar algal forms with cellular elaboration. Two distinct suites of elements (1. C, Fe, As and 2. C, S, Se, P) are associated with microbial fossils in modern and ancient iron (oxyhydr)oxides and may be potential markers for biosignatures. The presence of ferrihydrite in ∼100 ka fossil microbial mats and Jurassic rocks suggests that this thermodynamically unstable mineral may also be a potential biomarker. One of the most extensive sedimentary records on Mars is exposed in Gale Crater and consists of non-acidic clays and sulfates possibly of lacustrine origin. These terrestrial iron (oxyhydr)oxide examples are a valuable analogue because of similar iron- and clay-rich host rock compositions and will help (1) understand diagenetic processes in a non-acidic, saline lacustrine environment such as the sedimentary rocks in Gale Crater, (2) document specific biomediated textures, (3) demonstrate how biomediated textures might persist or respond to diagenesis over time, and (4) provide a ground truth library of textures to explore and compare in extraterrestrial iron (oxyhydr)oxides, where future explorations hope to detect past evidence of life.

  6. Electricity generation by direct oxidation of glucose in mediatorless microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Swades K; Lovley, Derek R

    2003-10-01

    Abundant energy, stored primarily in the form of carbohydrates, can be found in waste biomass from agricultural, municipal and industrial sources as well as in dedicated energy crops, such as corn and other grains. Potential strategies for deriving useful forms of energy from carbohydrates include production of ethanol and conversion to hydrogen, but these approaches face technical and economic hurdles. An alternative strategy is direct conversion of sugars to electrical power. Existing transition metal-catalyzed fuel cells cannot be used to generate electric power from carbohydrates. Alternatively, biofuel cells in which whole cells or isolated redox enzymes catalyze the oxidation of the sugar have been developed, but their applicability has been limited by several factors, including (i) the need to add electron-shuttling compounds that mediate electron transfer from the cell to the anode, (ii) incomplete oxidation of the sugars and (iii) lack of long-term stability of the fuel cells. Here we report on a novel microorganism, Rhodoferax ferrireducens, that can oxidize glucose to CO(2) and quantitatively transfer electrons to graphite electrodes without the need for an electron-shuttling mediator. Growth is supported by energy derived from the electron transfer process itself and results in stable, long-term power production.

  7. Microbial oxidation of soluble sulfide in produced water from the Bakkeen Sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevertz, D.; Zimmerman, S. [Agouron Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States); Jenneman, G.E. [Phillips Petroleum Company, Bartlesville, OK (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The presence of soluble sulfide in produced water results in problems for the petroleum industry due to its toxicity, odor, corrosive nature, and potential for wellbore plugging. Sulfide oxidation by indigenous nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) present in brine collected from wells at the Coleville Unit (CVU) in Saskatchewan, Canada, was investigated. Sulfide oxidation took place readily when nitrate and phosphate were added to brine enrichment cultures, resulting in a decrease in sulfide levels of 99-165 ppm to nondetectable levels (< 3.3 ppm). Produced water collected from a number of producing wells was screened to determine the time required for complete sulfide oxidation, in order to select candidate wells for treatment. Three wells were chosen, based on sulfide removal in 48 hours or less. These wells were treated down the backside of the annulus with a solution containing 10 mM KNO{sub 3} and 100 {mu}M NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. Following a 24- to 72-hour shut-in, reductions in pretreatment sulfide levels of greater than 90% were observed for two of the wells, as well as sustained sulfide reductions of 50% for at least two days following startup. NRB populations in the produced brine were observed to increase significantly following treatment, but no significant increases in sulfate-reducing bacteria were observed. These results demonstrate the technical feasibility of stimulating indigenous populations of NRB to remediate and control sulfide in produced brine.

  8. Low-Light Anoxygenic Photosynthesis and Fe-S-Biogeochemistry in a Microbial Mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Sebastian; de Beer, Dirk; Klatt, Judith M; Fink, Artur; Rench, Rebecca McCauley; Hamilton, Trinity L; Meyer, Volker; Kakuk, Brian; Macalady, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    We report extremely low-light-adapted anoxygenic photosynthesis in a thick microbial mat in Magical Blue Hole, Abaco Island, The Bahamas. Sulfur cycling was reduced by iron oxides and organic carbon limitation. The mat grows below the halocline/oxycline at 30 m depth on the walls of the flooded sinkhole. In situ irradiance at the mat surface on a sunny December day was between 0.021 and 0.084 μmol photons m -2 s -1 , and UV light (97% sequence identity) of clones affiliated with Prosthecochloris , a genus within the green sulfur bacteria (GSB), which are obligate anoxygenic phototrophs. Typical photopigments of brown-colored GSB, bacteriochlorophyll e and (β-)isorenieratene, were abundant in mat samples and their absorption properties are well-adapted to harvest light in the available green and possibly even UV-A spectra. Sulfide from the water column (3-6 μmol L -1 ) was the main source of sulfide to the mat as sulfate reduction rates in the mats were very low (undetectable-99.2 nmol cm -3 d -1 ). The anoxic water column was oligotrophic and low in dissolved organic carbon (175-228 μmol L -1 ). High concentrations of pyrite (FeS 2 ; 1-47 μmol cm -3 ) together with low microbial process rates (sulfate reduction, CO 2 fixation) indicate that the mats function as net sulfide sinks mainly by abiotic processes. We suggest that abundant Fe(III) (4.3-22.2 μmol cm -3 ) is the major source of oxidizing power in the mat, and that abiotic Fe-S-reactions play the main role in pyrite formation. Limitation of sulfate reduction by low organic carbon availability along with the presence of abundant sulfide-scavenging iron oxides considerably slowed down sulfur cycling in these mats.

  9. Source of arsenic-bearing pyrite in southwestern Vermont, USA: Sulfur isotope evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mango, Helen, E-mail: helen.mango@castleton.edu [Department of Natural Sciences, Castleton State College, 233 South Street, Castleton, VT 05735 (United States); Ryan, Peter, E-mail: pryan@middlebury.edu [Department of Geology, Middlebury College, 276 Bicentennial Way, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Arsenic-bearing pyrite is the source of arsenic in groundwater produced in late Cambrian and Ordovician gray and black slates and phyllites in the Taconic region of southwestern Vermont, USA. The aim of this study is to analyze the sulfur isotopic composition of this pyrite and determine if a relationship exists between pyrite δ{sup 34}S and arsenic content. Pyrite occurs in both sedimentary/diagenetic (bedding-parallel layers and framboids) and low-grade metamorphic (porphyroblast) forms, and contains up to > 2000 ppm As. The sulfur isotopic composition of arsenic-bearing pyrite ranges from − 5.2‰ to 63‰. In the marine environment, the sulfur in sedimentary pyrite becomes increasingly enriched in {sup 34}S as the geochemical environment becomes increasingly anoxic. There is a positive correlation between δ{sup 34}S and arsenic content in the Taconic pyrite, suggesting that uptake of arsenic by pyrite increased as the environment became more reducing. This increased anoxia may have been due to a rise in sea level and/or tectonic activity during the late Cambrian and Ordovician. Low-grade metamorphism appears to have little effect on sulfur isotope composition, but does correlate with lower arsenic content in pyrite. New groundwater wells drilled in this region should therefore avoid gray and black slates and phyllites that contain sedimentary/diagenetic pyrite with heavy δ{sup 34}S values. - Highlights: • Pyrite is the source of arsenic in groundwater in the Taconic region of Vermont, USA. • As-bearing pyrite δ{sup 34}S = – 5.2 to 63‰ with higher {sup 34}S as environment becomes more anoxic. • High sea level, tectonic activity create anoxia, with incorporation of As into pyrite. • New wells should avoid slate/phyllite containing sedimentary pyrite with heavy δ{sup 34}S.

  10. Source of arsenic-bearing pyrite in southwestern Vermont, USA: Sulfur isotope evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mango, Helen; Ryan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic-bearing pyrite is the source of arsenic in groundwater produced in late Cambrian and Ordovician gray and black slates and phyllites in the Taconic region of southwestern Vermont, USA. The aim of this study is to analyze the sulfur isotopic composition of this pyrite and determine if a relationship exists between pyrite δ 34 S and arsenic content. Pyrite occurs in both sedimentary/diagenetic (bedding-parallel layers and framboids) and low-grade metamorphic (porphyroblast) forms, and contains up to > 2000 ppm As. The sulfur isotopic composition of arsenic-bearing pyrite ranges from − 5.2‰ to 63‰. In the marine environment, the sulfur in sedimentary pyrite becomes increasingly enriched in 34 S as the geochemical environment becomes increasingly anoxic. There is a positive correlation between δ 34 S and arsenic content in the Taconic pyrite, suggesting that uptake of arsenic by pyrite increased as the environment became more reducing. This increased anoxia may have been due to a rise in sea level and/or tectonic activity during the late Cambrian and Ordovician. Low-grade metamorphism appears to have little effect on sulfur isotope composition, but does correlate with lower arsenic content in pyrite. New groundwater wells drilled in this region should therefore avoid gray and black slates and phyllites that contain sedimentary/diagenetic pyrite with heavy δ 34 S values. - Highlights: • Pyrite is the source of arsenic in groundwater in the Taconic region of Vermont, USA. • As-bearing pyrite δ 34 S = – 5.2 to 63‰ with higher 34 S as environment becomes more anoxic. • High sea level, tectonic activity create anoxia, with incorporation of As into pyrite. • New wells should avoid slate/phyllite containing sedimentary pyrite with heavy δ 34 S

  11. Assessing Pyrite-Derived Sulfate in the Mississippi River with Four Years of Sulfur and Triple-Oxygen Isotope Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Bryan A; Bao, Huiming; Kohl, Issaku E

    2018-05-17

    Riverine dissolved sulfate (SO 4 2- ) sulfur and oxygen isotope variations reflect their controls such as SO 4 2- reduction and reoxidation, and source mixing. However, unconstrained temporal variability of riverine SO 4 2- isotope compositions due to short sampling durations may lead to mischaracterization of SO 4 2- sources, particularly for the pyrite-derived sulfate load. We measured the sulfur and triple-oxygen isotopes (δ 34 S, δ 18 O, and Δ' 17 O) of Mississippi River SO 4 2- with biweekly sampling between 2009 and 2013 to test isotopic variability and constrain sources. Sulfate δ 34 S and δ 18 O ranged from -6.3‰ to -0.2‰ and -3.6‰ to +8.8‰, respectively. Our sampling period captured the most severe flooding and drought in the Mississippi River basin since 1927 and 1956, respectively, and a first year of sampling that was unrepresentative of long-term average SO 4 2- . The δ 34 S SO4 data indicate pyrite-derived SO 4 2- sources are 74 ± 10% of the Mississippi River sulfate budget. Furthermore, pyrite oxidation is implicated as the dominant process supplying SO 4 2- to the Mississippi River, whereas the Δ' 17 O SO4 data shows 18 ± 9% of oxygen in this sulfate is sourced from air O 2 .

  12. Quantitative microbial community analysis of three different sulfidic mine tailing dumps generating acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Dagmar; Schippers, Axel

    2008-08-01

    The microbial communities of three different sulfidic and acidic mine waste tailing dumps located in Botswana, Germany, and Sweden were quantitatively analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), catalyzed reporter deposition-FISH (CARD-FISH), Sybr green II direct counting, and the most probable number (MPN) cultivation technique. Depth profiles of cell numbers showed that the compositions of the microbial communities are greatly different at the three sites and also strongly varied between zones of oxidized and unoxidized tailings. Maximum cell numbers of up to 10(9) cells g(-1) dry weight were determined in the pyrite or pyrrhotite oxidation zones, whereas cell numbers in unoxidized tailings were significantly lower. Bacteria dominated over Archaea and Eukarya at all tailing sites. The acidophilic Fe(II)- and/or sulfur-oxidizing Acidithiobacillus spp. dominated over the acidophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing Leptospirillum spp. among the Bacteria at two sites. The two genera were equally abundant at the third site. The acidophilic Fe(II)- and sulfur-oxidizing Sulfobacillus spp. were generally less abundant. The acidophilic Fe(III)-reducing Acidiphilium spp. could be found at only one site. The neutrophilic Fe(III)-reducing Geobacteraceae as well as the dsrA gene of sulfate reducers were quantifiable at all three sites. FISH analysis provided reliable data only for tailing zones with high microbial activity, whereas CARD-FISH, Q-PCR, Sybr green II staining, and MPN were suitable methods for a quantitative microbial community analysis of tailings in general.

  13. Effect of metal oxide nanoparticles on microbial community structure and function in two different soil types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Frenk

    Full Text Available Increased availability of nanoparticle-based products will, inevitably, expose the environment to these materials. Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs may thus find their way into the soil environment via wastewater, dumpsters and other anthropogenic sources; metallic oxide nanoparticles comprise one group of ENPs that could potentially be hazardous for the environment. Because the soil bacterial community is a major service provider for the ecosystem and humankind, it is critical to study the effects of ENP exposure on soil bacteria. These effects were evaluated by measuring bacterial community activity, composition and size following exposure to copper oxide (CuO and magnetite (Fe3O4 nanosized (<50 nm particles. Two different soil types were examined: a sandy loam (Bet-Dagan and a sandy clay loam (Yatir, under two ENP concentrations (1%, 0.1%. Results indicate that the bacterial community in Bet-Dagan soil was more susceptible to change due to exposure to these ENPs, relative to Yatir soil. More specifically, CuO had a strong effect on bacterial hydrolytic activity, oxidative potential, community composition and size in Bet-Dagan soil. Few effects were noted in the Yatir soil, although 1% CuO exposure did cause a significant decreased oxidative potential and changes to community composition. Fe3O4 changed the hydrolytic activity and bacterial community composition in Bet-Dagan soil but did not affect the Yatir soil bacterial community. Furthermore, in Bet-Dagan soil, abundance of bacteria annotated to OTUs from the Bacilli class decreased after addition of 0.1% CuO but increased with 1% CuO, while in Yatir soil their abundance was reduced with 1% CuO. Other important soil bacterial groups, including Rhizobiales and Sphingobacteriaceae, were negatively affected by CuO addition to soil. These results indicate that both ENPs are potentially harmful to soil environments. Furthermore, it is suggested that the clay fraction and organic matter in

  14. Lattice location of gold in natural pyrite crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besten, Jacinta den; Jamieson, David N.; Ryan, Chris G.

    1999-01-01

    The lattice location of gold atoms in naturally occurring Au-doped pyrite crystals has been investigated with a nuclear microprobe using ion channeling. The specimens consisted of 300-μm diameter pyrite crystals in veins embedded in a quartz matrix from the Emperor mine in Fiji. The specimens were prepared by standard geological specimen preparation techniques and the pyrite crystals were analysed in situ in the quartz matrix. Significant trace elements in the crystals, determined by Proton Induced X-ray Emission with a 3 MeV H + microprobe, were Cu, As, Mo, Zn, Te, Au and Pb. The Au concentration was about 0.2 wt%. By the use of 2 MeV He + ion channeling, the Miller indices of the lowest order crystal axes nearest to the normal were determined from backscattering yield maps from two-dimensional angular scanning and comparison of the resulting patterns with published gnomonic projections. Channeling angular yield curves were obtained from Fe, S, As and Au signals. The results indicate that at least 35% of the Au is substituted onto lattice sites

  15. Heterocoagulation of chalcopyrite and pyrite minerals in flotation separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Timothy K; Nguyen, Anh V; Evans, Geoffrey M

    2005-06-30

    Heterocoagulation between various fine mineral particles contained within a mineral suspension with different structural and surface chemistry can interfere with the ability of the flotation processes to selectively separate the minerals involved. This paper examines the interactions between chalcopyrite (a copper mineral) and pyrite (an iron mineral often bearing gold) as they approach each other in suspensions with added chemicals, and relates the results to the experimental data for the flotation recovery and selectivity. The heterocoagulation was experimentally studied using the electrophoretic light scattering (ELS) technique and was modelled by incorporating colloidal forces, including the van der Waals, electrostatic double layer and hydrophobic forces. The ELS results indicated that pyrite has a positive zeta potential (zeta) up to its isoelectric point (IEP) at approximately pH 2.2, while chalcopyrite has a positive zeta up to its IEP at approximately pH 5.5. This produces heterocoagulation of chalcopyrite with pyrite between pH 2.2 and pH 5.5. The heterocoagulation was confirmed by the ELS spectra measured with a ZetaPlus instrument from Brookhaven and by small-scale flotation experiments.

  16. Thermoluminescence kinetics of pyrite (FeS2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, A.N; Levy, P.W.; Kierstead, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Thermoluminescence of pyrite (FeS 2 ) has been investigated to study the kinetics of single peak glow curves. The material used normally exhibits one large and four small peaks. However a glow curve can be obtained with only the large single peak that is suitable for testing thermoluminescence kinetics. Glow curves from aliquots of a single natural pyrite crystal studied in detail contain two low intensity thermoluminescence (TL) peaks at ∼90 degree and ∼250 degree C, and two chemiluminescence (CL) peaks at ∼350 degree and ∼430 degree C. The CL peaks are largely removable by initially heating the sample chamber under vacuum, pumping through liquid nitrogen traps, and recording glow curves immediately after helium is introduced, procedures which reduce system contaminants that react with pyrite. The shape, the variation of the temperature of the peak maximum (T max ) with dose, and the retrapping to recombination cross section ratio σ of the large 250 degree C peak are better described by the general one trap (GOT) kinetic equation, the basic equation from which the 1st and 2nd order kinetic equations are obtained as special cases (see text), than by the 1st and 2nd order equations. 12 refs., 7 figs

  17. Microbial reduction of graphene oxide by Escherichia coli: a green chemistry approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Eppakayala, Vasuki; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2013-02-01

    Graphene and graphene related materials are an important area of research in recent years due to their unique properties. The extensive industrial application of graphene and related compounds has led researchers to devise novel and simple methods for the synthesis of high quality graphene. In this paper, we developed an environment friendly, cost effective, simple method and green approaches for the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using Escherichia coli biomass. In biological method, we can avoid use of toxic and environmentally harmful reducing agents commonly used in the chemical reduction of GO to obtain graphene. The biomass of E. coli reduces exfoliated GO to graphene at 37°C in an aqueous medium. The E. coli reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) was characterized with UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, particle analyzer, high resolution X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Besides the reduction potential, the biomass could also play an important role as stabilizing agent, in which synthesized graphene exhibited good stability in water. This method can open up the new avenue for preparing graphene in cost effective and large scale production. Our findings suggest that GO can be reduced by simple eco-friendly method by using E. coli biomass to produce water dispersible graphene. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ammonia-oxidizing activity and microbial community structure in acid tea (Camellia sinensis) orchard soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, K; Yamada, T; Hiraishi, A; Takanashi, A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ammonia-oxidizing activity and the phylogentic composition of microorganisms involved in acid tea (Camellia sinensis) orchard soil. All soil samples were collected from three sites located in Tahara and Toyohashi, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. The potential nitrification rate (PNR) was measured by the chlorate inhibition method. The soil pH of tea orchards studied ranged from 2.78 to 4.84, differing significantly from sample to sample, whereas that of meadow and unplanted fields ranged from 5.78 to 6.35. The PNR ranged from 0.050 to 0.193 μg NO 2 - -Ng -1 h -1 and were positively correlated with the soil pH (r 2 0.382, p 2 - -Ng -1 h -1 ) and subjected to PCR-aided clone library analyses targeting archaeal and bacterial amoA genes. The detected archaeal clones separated from the cluster of the 'Soil clones' and tightly clustered with the clones originating from other acidic soil environments including the Chinese tea orchard soil. These results suggest that the specific archaeal populations dominate as the ammonia oxidizers in acid tea-orchard soils and possibly other acid soils, independent of geographic locations, which results from the adaptation to specific ecological niches.

  19. Ammonia-oxidizing activity and microbial community structure in acid tea (Camellia sinensis) orchard soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, K.; Takanashi, A.; Yamada, T.; Hiraishi, A.

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ammonia-oxidizing activity and the phylogentic composition of microorganisms involved in acid tea (Camellia sinensis) orchard soil. All soil samples were collected from three sites located in Tahara and Toyohashi, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. The potential nitrification rate (PNR) was measured by the chlorate inhibition method. The soil pH of tea orchards studied ranged from 2.78 to 4.84, differing significantly from sample to sample, whereas that of meadow and unplanted fields ranged from 5.78 to 6.35. The PNR ranged from 0.050 to 0.193 μg NO2--Ng-1 h-1 and were positively correlated with the soil pH (r2 = 0.382, p<0.001). Bulk DNA was extracted from a tea orchard soil (pH 4.8; PNR, 0.078 μg NO2--Ng-1 h-1) and subjected to PCR-aided clone library analyses targeting archaeal and bacterial amoA genes. The detected archaeal clones separated from the cluster of the 'Soil clones' and tightly clustered with the clones originating from other acidic soil environments including the Chinese tea orchard soil. These results suggest that the specific archaeal populations dominate as the ammonia oxidizers in acid tea-orchard soils and possibly other acid soils, independent of geographic locations, which results from the adaptation to specific ecological niches.

  20. Distribution of microbial arsenic reduction, oxidation and extrusion genes along a wide range of environmental arsenic concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena V Escudero

    Full Text Available The presence of the arsenic oxidation, reduction, and extrusion genes arsC, arrA, aioA, and acr3 was explored in a range of natural environments in northern Chile, with arsenic concentrations spanning six orders of magnitude. A combination of primers from the literature and newly designed primers were used to explore the presence of the arsC gene, coding for the reduction of As (V to As (III in one of the most common detoxification mechanisms. Enterobacterial related arsC genes appeared only in the environments with the lowest As concentration, while Firmicutes-like genes were present throughout the range of As concentrations. The arrA gene, involved in anaerobic respiration using As (V as electron acceptor, was found in all the systems studied. The As (III oxidation gene aioA and the As (III transport gene acr3 were tracked with two primer sets each and they were also found to be spread through the As concentration gradient. Sediment samples had a higher number of arsenic related genes than water samples. Considering the results of the bacterial community composition available for these samples, the higher microbial phylogenetic diversity of microbes inhabiting the sediments may explain the increased number of genetic resources found to cope with arsenic. Overall, the environmental distribution of arsenic related genes suggests that the occurrence of different ArsC families provides different degrees of protection against arsenic as previously described in laboratory strains, and that the glutaredoxin (Grx-linked arsenate reductases related to Enterobacteria do not confer enough arsenic resistance to live above certain levels of As concentrations.

  1. Graphite coated with manganese oxide/multiwall carbon nanotubes composites as anodes in marine benthic microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yubin, E-mail: ffyybb@ouc.edu.cn; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Yelong; Meng, Yao

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • MnO{sub 2}/MWCNTs composites anode exhibits faster reaction kinetics. • The surfaces of MnO{sub 2}/MWCNTs composites anode exhibits better wettability. • A BMFC using the modified anode have excellent power output. - Abstract: Improving anode performance is of great significance to scale up benthic microbial fuel cells (BMFCs) for its marine application to drive oceanography instruments. In this study, manganese oxide (MnO{sub 2})/multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composites are prepared to be as novel anodes in the BMFCs via a direct redox reaction between permanganate ions (MnO{sub 4}{sup −}) and MWCNTs. The results indicate that the MnO{sub 2}/MWCNTs anode has a better wettability, greater kinetic activity and higher power density than that of the plain graphite (PG) anode. It is noted that the MnO{sub 2} (50% weight percent)/MWCNTs anode shows the highest electrochemical performance among them and will be a promising material for improving bioelectricity production of the BMFCs. Finally, a synergistic mechanism of electron transfer shuttle of Mn ions and their redox reactions in the interface between modified anode and bacteria biofilm are proposed to explain its excellent electrochemical performance.

  2. Evidence for nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation as a previously overlooked microbial methane sink in wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bao-lan; Shen, Li-dong; Lian, Xu; Zhu, Qun; Liu, Shuai; Huang, Qian; He, Zhan-fei; Geng, Sha; Cheng, Dong-qing; Lou, Li-ping; Xu, Xiang-yang; Zheng, Ping; He, Yun-feng

    2014-01-01

    The process of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) was recently discovered and shown to be mediated by “Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera” (M. oxyfera). Here, evidence for n-damo in three different freshwater wetlands located in southeastern China was obtained using stable isotope measurements, quantitative PCR assays, and 16S rRNA and particulate methane monooxygenase gene clone library analyses. Stable isotope experiments confirmed the occurrence of n-damo in the examined wetlands, and the potential n-damo rates ranged from 0.31 to 5.43 nmol CO2 per gram of dry soil per day at different depths of soil cores. A combined analysis of 16S rRNA and particulate methane monooxygenase genes demonstrated that M. oxyfera-like bacteria were mainly present in the deep soil with a maximum abundance of 3.2 × 107 gene copies per gram of dry soil. It is estimated that ∼0.51 g of CH4 m−2 per year could be linked to the n-damo process in the examined wetlands based on the measured potential n-damo rates. This study presents previously unidentified confirmation that the n-damo process is a previously overlooked microbial methane sink in wetlands, and n-damo has the potential to be a globally important methane sink due to increasing nitrogen pollution. PMID:24616523

  3. Anaerobic Methane-Oxidizing Microbial Community in a Coastal Marine Sediment: Anaerobic Methanotrophy Dominated by ANME-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Susma; Cassarini, Chiara; Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Egger, Matthias; Slomp, Caroline P; Zhang, Yu; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L

    2017-10-01

    The microbial community inhabiting the shallow sulfate-methane transition zone in coastal sediments from marine Lake Grevelingen (The Netherlands) was characterized, and the ability of the microorganisms to carry out anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to sulfate reduction was assessed in activity tests. In vitro activity tests of the sediment with methane and sulfate demonstrated sulfide production coupled to the simultaneous consumption of sulfate and methane at approximately equimolar ratios over a period of 150 days. The maximum sulfate reduction rate was 5 μmol sulfate per gram dry weight per day during the incubation period. Diverse archaeal and bacterial clades were retrieved from the sediment with the majority of them clustered with Euryarchaeota, Thaumarcheota, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the sediment from marine Lake Grevelingen contained anaerobic methanotrophic Archaea (ANME) and methanogens as archaeal clades with a role in the methane cycling. ANME at the studied site mainly belong to the ANME-3 clade. This study provides one of the few reports for the presence of ANME-3 in a shallow coastal sediment. Sulfate-reducing bacteria from Desulfobulbus clades were found among the sulfate reducers, however, with very low relative abundance. Desulfobulbus has previously been commonly found associated with ANME, whereas in our study, ANME-3 and Desulfobulbus were not observed simultaneously in clusters, suggesting the possibility of independent AOM by ANME-3.

  4. Electrochemically active microorganisms from an acid mine drainage-affected site promote cathode oxidation in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Claudia; Vargas, Ignacio T.; Bruns, Mary Ann; Regan, John M.

    2017-01-01

    The limited database of acidophilic or acidotolerant electrochemically active microorganisms prevents advancements on microbial fuel cells (MFCs) operated under low pH. In this study, three MFCs were used to enrich cathodic biofilms using acid mine drainage (AMD) sediments as inoculum. Linear sweep voltammetry showed cathodic current plateaus of 5.5 (± 0.7) mA at about − 170 mV vs Ag/AgCl and 8.5 (± 0.9) mA between − 500 mV to − 450 mV vs Ag/AgCl for biofilms developed on small graphite fiber brushes. After gamma irradiation, biocathodes exhibited a decrease in current density approaching that of abiotic controls. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed six-fold lower charge transfer resistance with viable biofilm. Pyrosequencing data showed that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes dominated the biofilms. Acidithiobacillus representatives were enriched in some biocathodes, supporting the potential importance of these known iron and sulfur oxidizers as cathodic biocatalysts. Other acidophilic chemolithoautotrophs identified included Sulfobacillus and Leptospirillum species. The presence of chemoautotrophs was consistent with functional capabilities predicted by PICRUSt related to carbon fixation pathways in prokaryotic microorganisms. Acidophilic or acidotolerant heterotrophs were also abundant; however, their contribution to cathodic performance is unknown. This study directs subsequent research efforts to particular groups of AMD-associated bacteria that are electrochemically active on cathodes.

  5. Electrochemically active microorganisms from an acid mine drainage-affected site promote cathode oxidation in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Claudia

    2017-08-03

    The limited database of acidophilic or acidotolerant electrochemically active microorganisms prevents advancements on microbial fuel cells (MFCs) operated under low pH. In this study, three MFCs were used to enrich cathodic biofilms using acid mine drainage (AMD) sediments as inoculum. Linear sweep voltammetry showed cathodic current plateaus of 5.5 (± 0.7) mA at about − 170 mV vs Ag/AgCl and 8.5 (± 0.9) mA between − 500 mV to − 450 mV vs Ag/AgCl for biofilms developed on small graphite fiber brushes. After gamma irradiation, biocathodes exhibited a decrease in current density approaching that of abiotic controls. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed six-fold lower charge transfer resistance with viable biofilm. Pyrosequencing data showed that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes dominated the biofilms. Acidithiobacillus representatives were enriched in some biocathodes, supporting the potential importance of these known iron and sulfur oxidizers as cathodic biocatalysts. Other acidophilic chemolithoautotrophs identified included Sulfobacillus and Leptospirillum species. The presence of chemoautotrophs was consistent with functional capabilities predicted by PICRUSt related to carbon fixation pathways in prokaryotic microorganisms. Acidophilic or acidotolerant heterotrophs were also abundant; however, their contribution to cathodic performance is unknown. This study directs subsequent research efforts to particular groups of AMD-associated bacteria that are electrochemically active on cathodes.

  6. Microbial resource management for the mitigation of nitrous oxide emissions from the Partial Nitritation- Anammox process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Jan-Michael

    Urban wastewater treatment plants are designed to remove pathogens and pollutants from wastewater in order to provide sanitation and to protect receiving water bodies from eutrophication. Reactive nitrogen, mainly in the form of ammonium, is one of the components in wastewater that is converted...... to dinitrogen gas during treatment. The Partial Nitritation-Anammox process (PNA) uses the capacity of autotrophic aerobic and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB and AnAOB) to perform this task. The process is mainly applied to treat ammonium-rich wastewater streams with low concentrations of organic...... with the specific ammonia removal rate, while during non-aerated phases net N2O production rates were positively correlated with the nitrite concentration (NO2-). Operation of PNA at reduced specific ammonia removal rates is, therefore, a feasible strategy to mitigate N2O emissions. However, when high ammonium...

  7. Iron oxides stimulate microbial monochlorobenzene in situ transformation in constructed wetlands and laboratory systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Marie; Wolfram, Diana; Birkigt, Jan; Ahlheim, Jörg; Paschke, Heidrun; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Nijenhuis, Ivonne

    2014-01-01

    Natural wetlands are transition zones between anoxic ground and oxic surface water which may enhance the (bio)transformation potential for recalcitrant chloro-organic contaminants due to the unique geochemical conditions and gradients. Monochlorobenzene (MCB) is a frequently detected groundwater contaminant which is toxic and was thought to be persistent under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, to date, no degradation pathways for anoxic MCB removal have been proven in the field. Hence, it is important to investigate MCB biodegradation in the environment, as groundwater is an important drinking water source in many European countries. Therefore, two pilot-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands, planted and unplanted, were used to investigate the processes in situ contributing to the biotransformation of MCB in these gradient systems. The wetlands were fed with anoxic MCB-contaminated groundwater from a nearby aquifer in Bitterfeld, Germany. An overall MCB removal was observed in both wetlands, whereas just 10% of the original MCB inflow concentration was detected in the ponds. In particular in the gravel bed of the planted wetland, MCB removal was highest in summer season with 73 ± 9% compared to the unplanted one with 40 ± 5%. Whereas the MCB concentrations rapidly decreased in the transition zone of unplanted gravel to the pond, a significant MCB removal was already determined in the anoxic gravel bed of the planted system. The investigation of hydro-geochemical parameters revealed that iron and sulphate reduction were relevant redox processes in both wetlands. In parallel, the addition of ferric iron or nitrate stimulated the mineralisation of MCB in laboratory microcosms with anoxic groundwater from the same source, indicating that the potential for anaerobic microbial degradation of MCB is present at the field site. - Highlights: • MCB removal in anoxic gravel bed of a planted and an unplanted constructed wetland was accompanied by iron

  8. Iron oxides stimulate microbial monochlorobenzene in situ transformation in constructed wetlands and laboratory systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Marie; Wolfram, Diana; Birkigt, Jan [Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Ahlheim, Jörg [Department of Groundwater Remediation, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Paschke, Heidrun [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Richnow, Hans-Hermann [Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Nijenhuis, Ivonne, E-mail: ivonne.nijenhuis@ufz.de [Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-02-01

    Natural wetlands are transition zones between anoxic ground and oxic surface water which may enhance the (bio)transformation potential for recalcitrant chloro-organic contaminants due to the unique geochemical conditions and gradients. Monochlorobenzene (MCB) is a frequently detected groundwater contaminant which is toxic and was thought to be persistent under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, to date, no degradation pathways for anoxic MCB removal have been proven in the field. Hence, it is important to investigate MCB biodegradation in the environment, as groundwater is an important drinking water source in many European countries. Therefore, two pilot-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands, planted and unplanted, were used to investigate the processes in situ contributing to the biotransformation of MCB in these gradient systems. The wetlands were fed with anoxic MCB-contaminated groundwater from a nearby aquifer in Bitterfeld, Germany. An overall MCB removal was observed in both wetlands, whereas just 10% of the original MCB inflow concentration was detected in the ponds. In particular in the gravel bed of the planted wetland, MCB removal was highest in summer season with 73 ± 9% compared to the unplanted one with 40 ± 5%. Whereas the MCB concentrations rapidly decreased in the transition zone of unplanted gravel to the pond, a significant MCB removal was already determined in the anoxic gravel bed of the planted system. The investigation of hydro-geochemical parameters revealed that iron and sulphate reduction were relevant redox processes in both wetlands. In parallel, the addition of ferric iron or nitrate stimulated the mineralisation of MCB in laboratory microcosms with anoxic groundwater from the same source, indicating that the potential for anaerobic microbial degradation of MCB is present at the field site. - Highlights: • MCB removal in anoxic gravel bed of a planted and an unplanted constructed wetland was accompanied by iron

  9. Quantification of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and soluble microbial product (SMP) production by a modified AOB-NOB-N2O-SMP model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, MinJeong; Wu, Guangxue; Yoo, ChangKyoo

    2017-03-01

    A modified AOB-NOB-N 2 O-SMP model able to quantify nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions and soluble microbial product (SMP) production during wastewater treatment is proposed. The modified AOB-NOB-N 2 O-SMP model takes into account: (1) two-step nitrification by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), (2) N 2 O production by AOB denitrification under oxygen-limited conditions and (3) SMP production by microbial growth and endogenous respiration. Validity of the modified model is demonstrated by comparing the simulation results with experimental data from lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). To reliably implement the modified model, a model calibration that adjusts model parameters to fit the model outputs to the experimental data is conducted. The results of this study showed that the modeling accuracy of the modified AOB-NOB-N 2 O-SMP model increases by 19.7% (NH 4 ), 51.0% (NO 2 ), 57.8% (N 2 O) and 16.7% (SMP) compared to the conventional model which does not consider the two-step nitrification and SMP production by microbial endogenous respiration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of advanced oxidation on N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation and microbial ecology during pilot-scale biological activated carbon filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Stanford, Ben; Dickenson, Eric; Khunjar, Wendell O; Homme, Carissa L; Rosenfeldt, Erik J; Sharp, Jonathan O

    2017-04-15

    Water treatment combining advanced oxidative processes with subsequent exposure to biological activated carbon (BAC) holds promise for the attenuation of recalcitrant pollutants. Here we contrast oxidation and subsequent biofiltration of treated wastewater effluent employing either ozone or UV/H 2 O 2 followed by BAC during pilot-scale implementation. Both treatment trains largely met target water quality goals by facilitating the removal of a suite of trace organics and bulk water parameters. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation was observed in ozone fed BAC columns during biofiltration and to a lesser extent in UV/H 2 O 2 fed columns and was most pronounced at 20 min of empty bed contact time (EBCT) when compared to shorter EBCTs evaluated. While microbial populations were highly similar in the upper reaches, deeper samples revealed a divergence within and between BAC filtration systems where EBCT was identified to be a significant environmental predictor for shifts in microbial populations. The abundance of Nitrospira in the top samples of both columns provides an explanation for the oxidation of nitrite and corresponding increases in nitrate concentrations during BAC transit and support interplay between nitrogen cycling with nitrosamine formation. The results of this study demonstrate that pretreatments using ozone versus UV/H 2 O 2 impart modest differences to the overall BAC microbial population structural and functional attributes, and further highlight the need to evaluate NDMA formation prior to full-scale implementation of BAC in potable reuse applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microbial activities in boreal soils: Biodegradation of organic contaminants at low temperature and ammonia oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurola, J. (University of Helsinki, Faculty of Biosciences, Department of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, Lahti (FI))

    2006-07-01

    This thesis deals with the response of biodegradation of selected anthropogenic organic contaminants and natural autochthonous organic matter to low temperature in boreal surface soils. Furthermore, the thesis describes activity, diversity and population size of autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in a boreal soil used for landfarming of oil-refinery wastes, and presents a new approach, in which the particular AOB were enriched and cultivated in situ from the landfarming soil onto cation exchange membranes. This thesis demonstrates that rhizosphere fraction of natural forest humus soil and agricultural clay loam soil from Helsinki Metropolitan area were capable of degrading of low to moderate concentrations (0.2 - 50 mug cm-3) of PCP, phenanthrene and 2,4,5-TCP at temperatures realistic to boreal climate (-2.5 to +15 deg C). At the low temperatures, the biodegradation of PCP, phenanthrene and 2,4,5-TCP was more effective (Q10-values from 1.6 to 7.6) in the rhizosphere fraction of the forest soil than in the agricultural soil. Q10-values of endogenous soil respiration (carbon dioxide evolution) and selected hydrolytic enzyme activities (acetate-esterase, butyrate-esterase and beta-glucosidase) in acid coniferous forest soil were 1.6 to 2.8 at temperatures from -3 to +30 deg C. The results indicated that the temperature dependence of decomposition of natural autochthonous soil organic matter in the studied coniferous forest was only moderate. The numbers of AOB in the landfarming (sandy clay loam) soil were determined with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and with Most Probable Number (MPN) methods, and potential ammonium oxidation activity was measured with the chlorate inhibition technique. The results indicated presence of large and active AOB populations in the heavily oil-contaminated and urea-fertilised landfarming soil. Assessment of the populations of AOB with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiling and sequence

  12. Microbial induced corrosion in French concept of nuclear waste underground disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feron, D.; Crusset, D.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give a short overview of how the bacteria, that may influence the corrosion behaviour of metals and alloys, are taken into account in the French concept of geological repository. It is important to underline that microbial induced corrosion is not a new corrosion phenomena but the presence of bacteria may modify (increase or decrease) anodic or cathodic corrosion reactions. In aerobic conditions, high corrosion rates may be obtained due to the bio-oxidation of pyrites. Under anaerobic conditions (longer period), bacteria may have negative (localised corrosion) or positive (consumption of hydrogen) effects. The mixed conditions (with and without oxygen) may be the most dangerous period for localised corrosion of metals and alloys due to the coupling and galvanic corrosion phenomena enhanced by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The first conclusions lead to consider that MIC is a 'short term' issue rather than a long term one. (authors)

  13. [Key microbial processes in nitrous oxide emissions of agricultural soil and mitigation strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Yang, Xiao-Ru; Xu, Hui-Juan; Jia, Yan

    2014-02-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful atmospheric greenhouse gas, which does not only have a strong influence on the global climate change but also depletes the ozone layer and induces the enhancement of ultraviolet radiation to ground surface, so numerous researches have been focused on global climate change and ecological environmental change. Soil is the foremost source of N2O emissions to the atmosphere, and approximately two-thirds of these emissions are generally attributed to microbiological processes including bacterial and fungal denitrification and nitrification processes, largely as a result of the application of nitrogenous fertilizers. Here the available knowledge concerning the research progress in N2O production in agricultural soils was reviewed, including denitrification, nitrification, nitrifier denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, and the abiotic (including soil pH, organic and inorganic nitrogen, organic matter, soil humidity and temperature) and biotic factors that have direct and indirect effects on N2O fluxes from agricultural soils were also summarized. In addition, the strategies for mitigating N2O emissions and the future research direction were proposed. Therefore, these studies are expected to provide valuable and scientific evidence for the study on mitigation strategies for the emission of greenhouse gases, adjustment of nitrogen transformation processes and enhancement of nitrogen use efficiency.

  14. Can microbial cells develop resistance to oxidative stress in antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashef, Nasim; Hamblin, Michael R

    2017-03-01

    Infections have been a major cause of disease throughout the history of humans on earth. With the introduction of antibiotics, it was thought that infections had been conquered. However, bacteria have been able to develop resistance to antibiotics at an exponentially increasing rate. The growing threat from multi-drug resistant organisms calls for intensive action to prevent the emergence of totally resistant and untreatable infections. Novel, non-invasive, non-antibiotic strategies are needed that act more efficiently and faster than current antibiotics. One promising alternative is antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (APDI), an approach that produces reactive oxygen species when dyes and light are combined. So far, it has been questionable if bacteria can develop resistance against APDI. This review paper gives an overview of recent studies concerning the susceptibility of bacteria towards oxidative stress, and suggests possible mechanisms of the development of APDI-resistance that should at least be addressed. Some ways to potentiate APDI and also to overcome future resistance are suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Gut Microbial Metabolite Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Is Present in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Del Rio

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO is a small organic molecule, derived from the intestinal and hepatic metabolism of dietary choline and carnitine. Although the involvement of TMAO in the framework of many chronic diseases has been recently described, no evidence on its putative role in the central nervous system has been provided. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether TMAO is present at detectable levels in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. CSF was collected for diagnostic purposes from 58 subjects by lumbar puncture and TMAO was quantified by using liquid chromatography coupled with multiple-reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. The molecule was detected in all samples, at concentrations ranging between 0.11 and 6.43 µmol/L. Further analysis on CSF revealed that a total of 22 subjects were affected by Alzheimer’s disease (AD, 16 were affected by non-AD related dementia, and 20 were affected by other neurological disorders. However, the stratification of TMAO levels according to the neurological diagnoses revealed no differences among the three groups. In conclusion, we provide the first evidence that TMAO can be assessed in human CSF, but the actual impact of this dietary metabolite in the patho-physiolgy of the central nervous system requires further study.

  16. Enhanced microbial decolorization of methyl red with oxidized carbon fiber as redox mediator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emilia Rios-Del Toro, E. [División de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sección, San Luis Potosí, SLP 78216 (Mexico); Celis, Lourdes B. [División de Geociencias Aplicadas, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sección, San Luis Potosí, SLP 78216 (Mexico); Cervantes, Francisco J. [División de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sección, San Luis Potosí, SLP 78216 (Mexico); Rangel-Mendez, J. Rene, E-mail: rene@ipicyt.edu.mx [División de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sección, San Luis Potosí, SLP 78216 (Mexico)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) act as redox mediator. • Electron accepting capacity increased with oxidation time of ACF. •ACFs increased 8-fold the reduction of methyl red in biological assays. •Biofilm formed on the ACFs partly blocked their redox mediator capacity. -- Abstract: The anaerobic degradation of azo dyes under anaerobic conditions is possible but at a slow rate. Redox mediators (quinones, activated carbon) are used to improve the reduction rate. The aim of this work was to use activated carbon fiber (ACF) as a redox mediator for the anaerobic reduction of the azo dye methyl red. ACF was chemically modified with 8 M HNO{sub 3} to increase its redox-mediating capacity and used in chemical and anaerobic biological batch assays for the reduction of methyl red. ACF increased its redox-mediating capacity up to 3-fold in chemical assays; in biological assays ACF increased the reduction rate up to 8-fold compared to controls without ACF. However, since the ACF served as support for biomass, a biofilm formed on the fiber significantly reduced its redox-mediating capacity; substrate consumption suggested that the electron transport from ACF to methyl red was the rate-limiting step in the process. These results are the first evidence of the role of ACF as a redox mediator in the reductive decolorization of methyl red, in addition to the effect of biofilm attached to ACF on methyl red reduction. Due to the versatile characteristics of ACF and its redox-mediating capacity, carbon fibers could be used in biological wastewater treatment systems to accelerate the reductive transformation of pollutants commonly found in industrial effluents.

  17. Enhanced microbial decolorization of methyl red with oxidized carbon fiber as redox mediator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emilia Rios-Del Toro, E.; Celis, Lourdes B.; Cervantes, Francisco J.; Rangel-Mendez, J. Rene

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) act as redox mediator. • Electron accepting capacity increased with oxidation time of ACF. •ACFs increased 8-fold the reduction of methyl red in biological assays. •Biofilm formed on the ACFs partly blocked their redox mediator capacity. -- Abstract: The anaerobic degradation of azo dyes under anaerobic conditions is possible but at a slow rate. Redox mediators (quinones, activated carbon) are used to improve the reduction rate. The aim of this work was to use activated carbon fiber (ACF) as a redox mediator for the anaerobic reduction of the azo dye methyl red. ACF was chemically modified with 8 M HNO 3 to increase its redox-mediating capacity and used in chemical and anaerobic biological batch assays for the reduction of methyl red. ACF increased its redox-mediating capacity up to 3-fold in chemical assays; in biological assays ACF increased the reduction rate up to 8-fold compared to controls without ACF. However, since the ACF served as support for biomass, a biofilm formed on the fiber significantly reduced its redox-mediating capacity; substrate consumption suggested that the electron transport from ACF to methyl red was the rate-limiting step in the process. These results are the first evidence of the role of ACF as a redox mediator in the reductive decolorization of methyl red, in addition to the effect of biofilm attached to ACF on methyl red reduction. Due to the versatile characteristics of ACF and its redox-mediating capacity, carbon fibers could be used in biological wastewater treatment systems to accelerate the reductive transformation of pollutants commonly found in industrial effluents

  18. Thermal stability and mechanism of decomposition of emulsion explosives in the presence of pyrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Qian [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Fu, Xiao-Qi, E-mail: xzx19820708@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • An exothermic reaction occurs at about 200 °C between pyrite and ammonium nitrate (emulsion explosives). • The essence of reaction between emulsion explosives and pyrite is reaction between ammonium nitrate and pyrite. • The excellent thermal stability of emulsion explosives does not mean it was also showed when pyrite was added. • A new overall reaction has been proposed as: • 14FeS{sub 2}(s) + 91NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}(s) → 52NO(g) + 26SO{sub 2}(g) + 6Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(s) + 78NH{sub 3}(g) + 26N{sub 2}O(g) + 2FeSO{sub 4}(s) + 65H{sub 2}O(g). - Abstract: The reaction of emulsion explosives (ammonium nitrate) with pyrite was studied using techniques of TG-DTG-DTA. TG–DSC–MS was also used to analyze samples thermal decomposition process. When a mixture of pyrite and emulsion explosives was heated at a constant heating rate of 10 K/min from room temperature to 350 °C, exothermic reactions occurred at about 200 °C. The essence of reaction between emulsion explosives and pyrite is the reaction between ammonium nitrate and pyrite. Emulsion explosives have excellent thermal stability but it does not mean it showed the same excellent thermal stability when pyrite was added. Package emulsion explosives were more suitable to use in pyrite shale than bulk emulsion explosives. The exothermic reaction was considered to take place between ammonium nitrate and pyrite where NO, NO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O gases were produced. Based on the analysis of the gaseous, a new overall reaction was proposed, which was thermodynamically favorable. The results have significant implication in the understanding of stability of emulsion explosives in reactive mining grounds containing pyrite minerals.

  19. Thermal stability and mechanism of decomposition of emulsion explosives in the presence of pyrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Qian; Fu, Xiao-Qi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An exothermic reaction occurs at about 200 °C between pyrite and ammonium nitrate (emulsion explosives). • The essence of reaction between emulsion explosives and pyrite is reaction between ammonium nitrate and pyrite. • The excellent thermal stability of emulsion explosives does not mean it was also showed when pyrite was added. • A new overall reaction has been proposed as: • 14FeS_2(s) + 91NH_4NO_3(s) → 52NO(g) + 26SO_2(g) + 6Fe_2O_3(s) + 78NH_3(g) + 26N_2O(g) + 2FeSO_4(s) + 65H_2O(g). - Abstract: The reaction of emulsion explosives (ammonium nitrate) with pyrite was studied using techniques of TG-DTG-DTA. TG–DSC–MS was also used to analyze samples thermal decomposition process. When a mixture of pyrite and emulsion explosives was heated at a constant heating rate of 10 K/min from room temperature to 350 °C, exothermic reactions occurred at about 200 °C. The essence of reaction between emulsion explosives and pyrite is the reaction between ammonium nitrate and pyrite. Emulsion explosives have excellent thermal stability but it does not mean it showed the same excellent thermal stability when pyrite was added. Package emulsion explosives were more suitable to use in pyrite shale than bulk emulsion explosives. The exothermic reaction was considered to take place between ammonium nitrate and pyrite where NO, NO_2, NH_3, SO_2 and N_2O gases were produced. Based on the analysis of the gaseous, a new overall reaction was proposed, which was thermodynamically favorable. The results have significant implication in the understanding of stability of emulsion explosives in reactive mining grounds containing pyrite minerals.

  20. Super gene alternation of magnetite and pyrite and the role of their alternation products in the fixation of uranium from the circulating media. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gemmizi, M A [Nuclear Materials Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    In most of the Egyptian altered radioactive granites, highly magnetic heavy particles were found to be radioactive. They are a mixture of several iron oxide minerals which are products of super gene alternation of the preexisting hypo gene iron-bearing minerals especially magnetite and pyrite. The end products of this super gene alternation are mainly hydrated iron oxide minerals limonite and/or goethite. During the alternation, deformation and defects in the mineral structure took place, thereby promoting diffusion of the substitutional and interstitial ions (uranium) towards these sites. The mechanism of the alternation of the hypo gene iron-bearing minerals, magnetite and pyrite to form the secondary mineral hematite, limonite and goethite; and the role of these secondary minerals in fixing uranium from the circulating media, and as indicators to the radioactivity of the host rocks are discussed. 2 figs.

  1. Super gene alternation of magnetite and pyrite and the role of their alternation products in the fixation of uranium from the circulating media. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gemmizi, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    In most of the Egyptian altered radioactive granites, highly magnetic heavy particles were found to be radioactive. They are a mixture of several iron oxide minerals which are products of super gene alternation of the preexisting hypo gene iron-bearing minerals especially magnetite and pyrite. The end products of this super gene alternation are mainly hydrated iron oxide minerals limonite and/or goethite. During the alternation, deformation and defects in the mineral structure took place, thereby promoting diffusion of the substitutional and interstitial ions (uranium) towards these sites. The mechanism of the alternation of the hypo gene iron-bearing minerals, magnetite and pyrite to form the secondary mineral hematite, limonite and goethite; and the role of these secondary minerals in fixing uranium from the circulating media, and as indicators to the radioactivity of the host rocks are discussed. 2 figs

  2. Silver/iron oxide/graphitic carbon composites as bacteriostatic catalysts for enhancing oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ming; You, Shijie; Gong, Xiaobo; Dai, Ying; Zou, Jinlong; Fu, Honggang

    2015-06-01

    Biofilms from anode heterotrophic bacteria are inevitably formed over cathodic catalytic sites, limiting the performances of single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Graphitic carbon (GC) - based nano silver/iron oxide (AgNPs/Fe3O4/GC) composites are prepared from waste pomelo skin and used as antibacterial oxygen reduction catalysts for MFCs. AgNPs and Fe3O4 are introduced in situ into the composites by one-step carbothermal reduction, enhancing their conductivity and catalytic activity. To investigate the effects of Fe species on the antibacterial and catalytic properties, AgNPs/Fe3O4/GC is washed with sulfuric acid (1 mol L-1) for 0.5 h, 1 h, and 5 h and marked as AgNPs/Fe3O4/GC-x (x = 0.5 h, 1 h and 5 h, respectively). A maximum power density of 1712 ± 35 mW m-2 is obtained by AgNPs/Fe3O4/GC-1 h, which declines by 4.12% after 17 cycles. Under catalysis of all AgNP-containing catalysts, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) proceeds via the 4e- pathway, and no toxic effects to anode microorganisms result from inhibiting the cathodic biofilm overgrowth. With the exception of AgNPs/Fe3O4/GC-5 h, the AgNPs-containing composites exhibit remarkable power output and coulombic efficiency through lowering proton transfer resistance and air-cathode biofouling. This study provides a perspective for the practical application of MFCs using these efficient antibacterial ORR catalysts.

  3. Comparison Analysis of Coal Biodesulfurization and Coal’s Pyrite Bioleaching with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-Fen Hong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. ferrooxidans was applied in coal biodesulfurization and coal’s pyrite bioleaching. The result showed that A. ferrooxidans had significantly promoted the biodesulfurization of coal and bioleaching of coal’s pyrite. After 16 days of processing, the total sulfur removal rate of coal was 50.6%, and among them the removal of pyritic sulfur was up to 69.9%. On the contrary, after 12 days of processing, the coal’s pyrite bioleaching rate was 72.0%. SEM micrographs showed that the major pyrite forms in coal were massive and veinlets. It seems that the bacteria took priority to remove the massive pyrite. The sulfur relative contents analysis from XANES showed that the elemental sulfur (28.32% and jarosite (18.99% were accumulated in the biotreated residual coal. However, XRD and XANES spectra of residual pyrite indicated that the sulfur components were mainly composed of pyrite (49.34% and elemental sulfur (50.72% but no other sulfur contents were detected. Based on the present results, we speculated that the pyrite forms in coal might affect sulfur biooxidation process.

  4. Comparison Analysis of Coal Biodesulfurization and Coal's Pyrite Bioleaching with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Fen-Fen; He, Huan; Liu, Jin-Yan; Tao, Xiu-Xiang; Zheng, Lei; Zhao, Yi-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. ferrooxidans) was applied in coal biodesulfurization and coal's pyrite bioleaching. The result showed that A. ferrooxidans had significantly promoted the biodesulfurization of coal and bioleaching of coal's pyrite. After 16 days of processing, the total sulfur removal rate of coal was 50.6%, and among them the removal of pyritic sulfur was up to 69.9%. On the contrary, after 12 days of processing, the coal's pyrite bioleaching rate was 72.0%. SEM micrographs showed that the major pyrite forms in coal were massive and veinlets. It seems that the bacteria took priority to remove the massive pyrite. The sulfur relative contents analysis from XANES showed that the elemental sulfur (28.32%) and jarosite (18.99%) were accumulated in the biotreated residual coal. However, XRD and XANES spectra of residual pyrite indicated that the sulfur components were mainly composed of pyrite (49.34%) and elemental sulfur (50.72%) but no other sulfur contents were detected. Based on the present results, we speculated that the pyrite forms in coal might affect sulfur biooxidation process. PMID:24288464

  5. Prevention of formation of acid drainage from high-sulfur coal refuse by inhibition of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms. 1. Preliminary experiments in controlled shaken flasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Changes of pH and sulfate concentration in high-sulfur coal refuse slurries are used as measurements of microbial pyrite oxidation in the laboratory. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), alkylbenzene sulfonate (ABS), benzoic acid (BZ) and combinations of SLS plus BZ and ABS plus BZ effectively inhibited formation of sulfate and acid when added in concentrations greater than 50 mg/l to inoculated 20 or 30% coal refuse slurries. Here 25 mg/l concentrations of SLS, ABS and ABS plus BZ stimulated acid production. Formic, hexanoic, oxalic, propionic, and pyruvic acids at 0.1% concentrations were also effective inhibitors. Four different lignin sulfonates were only slightly effective inhibitors at 0.1% concentrations. It was concluded that acid formation resulting from microbial oxidation in high-sulfur coal refuse can be inhibited. 22 references.

  6. Electrochemical Properties for Co-Doped Pyrite with High Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchao Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the hydrothermal method was adopted to synthesize nanostructure Co-doped pyrite (FeS2. The structural properties and morphology of the synthesized materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. Co in the crystal lattice of FeS2 could change the growth rate of different crystal planes of the crystal particles, which resulted in various polyhedrons with clear faces and sharp outlines. In addition, the electrochemical performance of the doping pyrite in Li/FeS2 batteries was evaluated using the galvanostatic discharge test, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that the discharge capacity of the doped material (801.8 mAh·g−1 with a doping ratio of 7% was significantly higher than that of the original FeS2 (574.6 mAh·g−1 because of the enhanced conductivity. Therefore, the doping method is potentially effective for improving the electrochemical performance of FeS2.

  7. Syntrophic interactions and mechanisms underpinning anaerobic methane oxidation: targeted metaproteogenomics, single-cell protein detection and quantitative isotope imaging of microbial consortia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orphan, Victoria Jeanne [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences

    2014-11-26

    Syntrophy and mutualism play a central role in carbon and nutrient cycling by microorganisms. Yet, our ability to effectively study symbionts in culture has been hindered by the inherent interdependence of syntrophic associations, their dynamic behavior, and their frequent existence at thermodynamic limits. Now solutions to these challenges are emerging in the form of new methodologies. Developing strategies that establish links between the identity of microorganisms and their metabolic potential, as well as techniques that can probe metabolic networks on a scale that captures individual molecule exchange and processing, is at the forefront of microbial ecology. Understanding the interactions between microorganisms on this level, at a resolution previously intractable, will lead to our greater understanding of carbon turnover and microbial community resilience to environmental perturbations. In this project, we studied an enigmatic syntrophic association between uncultured methane-oxidizing archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria. This environmental archaeal-bacterial partnership represents a globally important sink for methane in anoxic environments. The specific goals of this project were organized into 3 major tasks designed to address questions relating to the ecophysiology of these syntrophic organisms under changing environmental conditions (e.g. different electron acceptors and nutrients), primarily through the development of microanalytical imaging methods which enable the visualization of the spatial distribution of the partners within aggregates, consumption and exchange of isotopically labeled substrates, and expression of targeted proteins identified via metaproteomics. The advanced tool set developed here to collect, correlate, and analyze these high resolution image and isotope-based datasets from methane-oxidizing consortia has the potential to be widely applicable for studying and modeling patterns of activity and interactions across a broad range of

  8. Effect of Resistant Starch and β-Glucan Combination on Oxidative Stability, Frying Performance, Microbial Count and Shelf Life of Prebiotic Sausage During Refrigerated Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Amini Sarteshnizi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the performance of two types of prebiotic sausages formulated with resistant starch (RS and β-glucan (BG extract (in ratios of 2.22:1.33 and 2.75:1.88 during frying and chilled storage. The oxidative stability indices and microbial counts were determined. The incorporation of two types of prebiotic dietary fibre increased frying loss and oil absorption. However, the moisture content of prebiotic sausages after production was higher than of conventional sausages and it decreased significantly during storage. The use of sausage sample containing 2.22 % RS and 1.33 % BG as a recommended formulation can decrease fat oxidation of sausages during storage due to antioxidant properties of BG extract, but higher levels of RS and BG could not be used due to further increase in fat oxidation. Total viable count increased up to day 45 and decreased afterwards. The addition of BG extract improved the antioxidant properties of sausages. Additionally, the antimicrobial properties of BG and moisture reduction could inhibit microbial growth. Moreover, the addition of RS caused an increase in thiobarbituric acid and peroxide values.

  9. Effect of Resistant Starch and β-Glucan Combination on Oxidative Stability, Frying Performance, Microbial Count and Shelf Life of Prebiotic Sausage During
Refrigerated Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Summary This study aims to evaluate the performance of two types of prebiotic sausages formulated with resistant starch (RS) and β-glucan (BG) extract (in ratios of 2.22:1.33 and 2.75:1.88) during frying and chilled storage. The oxidative stability indices and microbial counts were determined. The incorporation of two types of prebiotic dietary fibre increased frying loss and oil absorption. However, the moisture content of prebiotic sausages after production was higher than of conventional sausages and it decreased significantly during storage. The use of sausage sample containing 2.22% RS and 1.33% BG as a recommended formulation can decrease fat oxidation of sausages during storage due to antioxidant properties of BG extract, but higher levels of RS and BG could not be used due to further increase in fat oxidation. Total viable count increased up to day 45 and decreased afterwards. The addition of BG extract improved the antioxidant properties of sausages. Additionally, the antimicrobial properties of BG and moisture reduction could inhibit microbial growth. Moreover, the addition of RS caused an increase in thiobarbituric acid and peroxide values. PMID:29540982

  10. Constraints on mechanisms and rates of anaerobic oxidation of methane by microbial consortia: process-based modeling of ANME-2 archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Orcutt

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM is the main process responsible for the removal of methane generated in Earth's marine subsurface environments. However, the biochemical mechanism of AOM remains elusive. By explicitly resolving the observed spatial arrangement of methanotrophic archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria found in consortia mediating AOM, potential intermediates involved in the electron transfer between the methane oxidizing and sulfate reducing partners were investigated via a consortium-scale reaction transport model that integrates the effect of diffusional transport with thermodynamic and kinetic controls on microbial activity. Model simulations were used to assess the impact of poorly constrained microbial characteristics such as minimum energy requirements to sustain metabolism and cell specific rates. The role of environmental conditions such as the influence of methane levels on the feasibility of H2, formate and acetate as intermediate species, and the impact of the abundance of intermediate species on pathway reversal were examined. The results show that higher production rates of intermediates via AOM lead to increased diffusive fluxes from the methane oxidizing archaea to sulfate reducing bacteria, but the build-up of the exchangeable species can cause the energy yield of AOM to drop below that required for ATP production. Comparison to data from laboratory experiments shows that under the experimental conditions of Nauhaus et al. (2007, none of the potential intermediates considered here is able to support metabolic activity matching the measured rates.

  11. Nano-scale investigation of the association of microbial nitrogen residues with iron (hydr)oxides in a forest soil O-horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiluweit, Marco; Bougoure, Jeremy J.; Zeglin, Lydia H.; Myrold, David D.; Weber, Peter K.; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Kleber, Markus; Nico, Peter S.

    2012-10-01

    Amino sugars in fungal cell walls (such as chitin) represent an important source of nitrogen (N) in many forest soil ecosystems. Despite the importance of this material in soil nitrogen cycling, comparatively little is known about abiotic and biotic controls on and the timescale of its turnover. Part of the reason for this lack of information is the inaccessibility of these materials to classic bulk extraction methods. To address this issue, we used advanced visualization tools to examine transformation pathways of chitin-rich fungal cell wall residues as they interact with microorganisms, soil organic matter and mineral surfaces. Our goal was to document initial micro-scale dynamics of the incorporation of 13C- and 15N-labeled chitin into fungi-dominated microenvironments in O-horizons of old-growth forest soils. At the end of a 3-week incubation experiment, high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging of hyphae-associated soil microstructures revealed a preferential association of 15N with Fe-rich particles. Synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray spectromicroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS) of the same samples showed that thin organic coatings on these soil microstructures are enriched in aliphatic C and amide N on Fe (hydr)oxides, suggesting a concentration of microbial lipids and proteins on these surfaces. A possible explanation for the results of our micro-scale investigation of chemical and spatial patterns is that amide N from chitinous fungal cell walls was assimilated by hyphae-associated bacteria, resynthesized into proteinaceous amide N, and subsequently concentrated onto Fe (hydr)oxide surfaces. If confirmed in other soil ecosystems, such rapid association of microbial N with hydroxylated Fe oxide surfaces may have important implications for mechanistic models of microbial cycling of C and N.

  12. Microbial iron mats at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and evidence that Zetaproteobacteria may be restricted to iron-oxidizing marine systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrod J Scott

    Full Text Available Chemolithoautotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria play an essential role in the global iron cycle. Thus far, the majority of marine iron-oxidizing bacteria have been identified as Zetaproteobacteria, a novel class within the phylum Proteobacteria. Marine iron-oxidizing microbial communities have been found associated with volcanically active seamounts, crustal spreading centers, and coastal waters. However, little is known about the presence and diversity of iron-oxidizing communities at hydrothermal systems along the slow crustal spreading center of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. From October to November 2012, samples were collected from rust-colored mats at three well-known hydrothermal vent systems on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Rainbow, Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse, and Snake Pit using the ROV Jason II. The goal of these efforts was to determine if iron-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria were present at sites proximal to black smoker vent fields. Small, diffuse flow venting areas with high iron(II concentrations and rust-colored microbial mats were observed at all three sites proximal to black smoker chimneys. A novel, syringe-based precision sampler was used to collect discrete microbial iron mat samples at the three sites. The presence of Zetaproteobacteria was confirmed using a combination of 16S rRNA pyrosequencing and single-cell sorting, while light micros-copy revealed a variety of iron-oxyhydroxide structures, indicating that active iron-oxidizing communities exist along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Sequencing analysis suggests that these iron mats contain cosmopolitan representatives of Zetaproteobacteria, but also exhibit diversity that may be uncommon at other iron-rich marine sites studied to date. A meta-analysis of publically available data encompassing a variety of aquatic habitats indicates that Zetaproteobacteria are rare if an iron source is not readily available. This work adds to the growing understanding of Zetaproteobacteria ecology and suggests

  13. Paleoredoc and pyritization of soft-bodied fossils in the Ordovician Frankfort Shale of New York

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, Una C.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Hammarlund, Emma U.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple beds in the Frankfort Shale (Upper Ordovician, New York State), including the original "Beecher's Trilobite Bed," yield fossils with pyritized soft-tissues. A bed-by-bed geochemical and sedimentological analysis was carried out to test previous models of soft-tissue pyritization...

  14. Thermal stability and mechanism of decomposition of emulsion explosives in the presence of pyrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Qian; Fu, Xiao-Qi

    2015-12-30

    The reaction of emulsion explosives (ammonium nitrate) with pyrite was studied using techniques of TG-DTG-DTA. TG-DSC-MS was also used to analyze samples thermal decomposition process. When a mixture of pyrite and emulsion explosives was heated at a constant heating rate of 10K/min from room temperature to 350°C, exothermic reactions occurred at about 200°C. The essence of reaction between emulsion explosives and pyrite is the reaction between ammonium nitrate and pyrite. Emulsion explosives have excellent thermal stability but it does not mean it showed the same excellent thermal stability when pyrite was added. Package emulsion explosives were more suitable to use in pyrite shale than bulk emulsion explosives. The exothermic reaction was considered to take place between ammonium nitrate and pyrite where NO, NO2, NH3, SO2 and N2O gases were produced. Based on the analysis of the gaseous, a new overall reaction was proposed, which was thermodynamically favorable. The results have significant implication in the understanding of stability of emulsion explosives in reactive mining grounds containing pyrite minerals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship between pyrite Stability and arsenic mobility during aquifer storage and recovery in southwest central Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gregg W; Pichler, Thomas

    2007-02-01

    Elevated arsenic concentrations are common in water recovered from aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) systems in west-central Florida that store surface water. Investigations of the Suwannee Limestone of the Upper Floridan aquifer, the storage zone for ASR systems, have shown that arsenic is highest in pyrite in zones of high moldic porosity. Geochemical modeling was employed to examine pyrite stability in limestone during simulated injections of surface water into wells open only to the Suwannee Limestone with known mineralogy and water chemistry. The goal was to determine if aquifer redox conditions could be altered to the degree of pyrite instability. Increasing amounts of injection water were added to native storage-zone water, and resulting reaction paths were plotted on pyrite stability diagrams. Native storage-zone water plotted within the pyrite stability field, indicating that conditions were sufficiently reducing to allow for pyrite stability. Thus, arsenic is immobilized in pyrite, and its groundwater concentration should be low. This was corroborated by analysis of water samples, none of which had arsenic concentrations above 0.036 microg/L. During simulation, however, as injection/native storage-zone water ratios increased, conditions became less reducing and pyrite became unstable. The result would be release of arsenic from limestone into storage-zone water.

  16. The leaching of base minerals from the calcines produced by the roasting of pyrite concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, M.J.; Filmer, A.O.

    1985-01-01

    A number of gold and uranium plants in South Africa concentrate the pyrite in the ore residue by flotation and roast the concentrate for the production of sulphuric acid. The calcine produced, which is predominantly hematite, is generally subjected to cyanidation for the recovery of gold and silver. The calcines often contain economically significant quantities of copper, nickel , cobalt and uranium. Prior treatment of the calcine for the recovery of these metals would be desirable in terms of the value of the products. Several processes for the leaching of the base metals from plant calcines have been investigated, and an important general conclusion is that an adequate recovery of the base metals requires that a large proportion of the iron should also be extracted. This observation led to a more extensive investigation of the kinetics of leaching of various iron oxides. The application of electrochemical theory and techniques resulted in a fuller understanding of the various factors that govern the rate of leaching of iron oxides. As a result of this fundamental work, alternative treatment schemes that should yield more efficient extraction from calcines were suggested. Several of these possibilities were investigated, and the most promising were found to require reducing conditions during the leach, or prior partial reduction of the calcine to magnetite or wustite

  17. Quantifying Fenton reaction pathways driven by self-generated H2O2 on pyrite surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Lozano, C.; Davila, A. F.; Losa-Adams, E.; Fairén, A. G.; Gago-Duport, L.

    2017-03-01

    Oxidation of pyrite (FeS2) plays a significant role in the redox cycling of iron and sulfur on Earth and is the primary cause of acid mine drainage (AMD). It has been established that this process involves multi-step electron-transfer reactions between surface defects and adsorbed O2 and H2O, releasing sulfoxy species (e.g., S2O32-, SO42-) and ferrous iron (Fe2+) to the solution and also producing intermediate by-products, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and other reactive oxygen species (ROS), however, our understanding of the kinetics of these transient species is still limited. We investigated the kinetics of H2O2 formation in aqueous suspensions of FeS2 microparticles by monitoring, in real time, the H2O2 and dissolved O2 concentration under oxic and anoxic conditions using amperometric microsensors. Additional spectroscopic and structural analyses were done to track the dependencies between the process of FeS2 dissolution and the degradation of H2O2 through the Fenton reaction. Based on our experimental results, we built a kinetic model which explains the observed trend of H2O2, showing that FeS2 dissolution can act as a natural Fenton reagent, influencing the oxidation of third-party species during the long term evolution of geochemical systems, even in oxygen-limited environments.

  18. Semiconductor electrochemistry of coal pyrite. Final technical report, September 1990--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Wei, Dawei

    1996-01-01

    This project seeks to advance the fundamental understanding of the physico-chemical processes occurring at the pyrite/aqueous interface, in the context of coal cleaning, coal desulfurization, and acid mine drainage. Central to this research is the use of synthetic microsize particles of pyrite as model microelectrodes to investigate the semiconductor electrochemistry of pyrite. The research focuses on: (a) the synthesis of microsize particles of pyrite in aqueous solution at room temperature, (b) the formation of iron sulfide complex, the precursor of FeS or FeS{sub 2}, and (c) the relationship between the semiconductor properties of pyrite and its interfacial electrochemical behavior in the dissolution process. In Chapter 2, 3 and 4, a suitable protocol for preparing microsize particles of pyrite in aqueous solution is given, and the essential roles of the precursors elemental sulfur and ``FeS`` in pyrite formation are investigated. In Chapter 5, the formation of iron sulfide complex prior to the precipitation of FeS or FeS{sub 2} is investigated using a fast kinetics technique based on a stopped-flow spectrophotometer. The stoichiometry of the iron sulfide complex is determined, and the rate and formation constants are also evaluated. Chapter 6 provides a summary of the semiconductor properties of pyrite relevant to the present study. In Chapters 7 and 8, the effects of the semiconductor properties on pyrite dissolution are investigated experimentally and the mechanism of pyrite dissolution in acidic aqueous solution is examined. Finally, a summary of the conclusions from this study and suggestions for future research are presented in Chapter 9.

  19. Metal oxides, clay minerals and charcoal determine the composition of microbial communities in matured artificial soils and their response to phenanthrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, Doreen; Ding, Guo-Chun; Pronk, Geertje Johanna; Heister, Katja; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Smalla, Kornelia

    2013-10-01

    Microbial communities in soil reside in a highly heterogeneous habitat where diverse mineral surfaces, complex organic matter and microorganisms interact with each other. This study aimed to elucidate the long-term effect of the soil mineral composition and charcoal on the microbial community composition established in matured artificial soils and their response to phenanthrene. One year after adding sterile manure to different artificial soils and inoculating microorganisms from a Cambisol, the matured soils were spiked with phenanthrene or not and incubated for another 70 days. 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer fragments amplified from total community DNA were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Metal oxides and clay minerals and to a lesser extent charcoal influenced the microbial community composition. Changes in the bacterial community composition in response to phenanthrene differed depending on the mineral composition and presence of charcoal, while no shifts in the fungal community composition were observed. The abundance of ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes was increased in phenanthrene-spiked soils except for charcoal-containing soils. Here we show that the formation of biogeochemical interfaces in soil is an ongoing process and that different properties present in artificial soils influenced the bacterial response to the phenanthrene spike. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Methane and nitrous oxide cycling microbial communities in soils above septic leach fields: Abundances with depth and correlations with net surface emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Baca, Cristina P; Truhlar, Allison M; Omar, Amir-Eldin H; Rahm, Brian G; Walter, M Todd; Richardson, Ruth E

    2018-05-31

    Onsite septic systems use soil microbial communities to treat wastewater, in the process creating potent greenhouse gases (GHGs): methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O). Subsurface soil dispersal systems of septic tank overflow, known as leach fields, are an important part of wastewater treatment and have the potential to contribute significantly to GHG cycling. This study aimed to characterize soil microbial communities associated with leach field systems and quantify the abundance and distribution of microbial populations involved in CH 4 and N 2 O cycling. Functional genes were used to target populations producing and consuming GHGs, specifically methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) and particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA) for CH 4 and nitric oxide reductase (cnorB) and nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) for N 2 O. All biomarker genes were found in all soil samples regardless of treatment (leach field, sand filter, or control) or depth (surface or subsurface). In general, biomarker genes were more abundant in surface soils than subsurface soils suggesting the majority of GHG cycling is occurring in near-surface soils. Ratios of production to consumption gene abundances showed a positive relationship with CH 4 emissions (mcrA:pmoA, p  0.05). Of the three measured soil parameters (volumetric water content (VWC), temperature, and conductivity), only VWC was significantly correlated to a biomarker gene, mcrA (p = 0.0398) but not pmoA or either of the N 2 O cycling genes (p > 0.05 for cnorB and nosZ). 16S rRNA amplicon library sequencing results revealed soil VWC, CH 4 flux and N 2 O flux together explained 64% of the microbial community diversity between samples. Sequencing of mcrA and pmoA amplicon libraries revealed treatment had little effect on diversity of CH 4 cycling organisms. Overall, these results suggest GHG cycling occurs in all soils regardless of whether or not they are associated with a leach field system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B

  1. Microbial Fe(II) oxidation at circumneutral pH: Reaction kinetics, mineral products, and distribution of neutrophilic iron oxidizers in wetland soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollrath, S.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple studies have shown that neutrophilic Fe(II) oxidizers can conserve energy from Fe(II) oxidation, however, it is still unclear how they can compete against the fast abiotic reaction at neutral pH, or to which extent these bacteria increase the overall Fe(II) oxidation rate. Similar to

  2. Illumina sequencing-based analysis of a microbial community enriched under anaerobic methane oxidation condition coupled to denitrification revealed coexistence of aerobic and anaerobic methanotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Luciene Alves Batista; Leite, Laura Rabelo; Oliveira, Guilherme; Chernicharo, Carlos Augusto Lemos; de Araújo, Juliana Calabria

    2017-07-01

    Methane is produced in anaerobic environments, such as reactors used to treat wastewaters, and can be consumed by methanotrophs. The composition and structure of a microbial community enriched from anaerobic sewage sludge under methane-oxidation condition coupled to denitrification were investigated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis retrieved sequences of Methylocaldum and Chloroflexi. Deep sequencing analysis revealed a complex community that changed over time and was affected by methane concentration. Methylocaldum (8.2%), Methylosinus (2.3%), Methylomonas (0.02%), Methylacidiphilales (0.45%), Nitrospirales (0.18%), and Methanosarcinales (0.3%) were detected. Despite denitrifying conditions provided, Nitrospirales and Methanosarcinales, known to perform anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification (DAMO) process, were in very low abundance. Results demonstrated that aerobic and anaerobic methanotrophs coexisted in the reactor together with heterotrophic microorganisms, suggesting that a diverse microbial community was important to sustain methanotrophic activity. The methanogenic sludge was a good inoculum to enrich methanotrophs, and cultivation conditions play a selective role in determining community composition.

  3. Shifts in the pelagic ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities along the eutrophic estuary of Yong River in Ningbo City, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Qiufang; Tang, Fang-Yuan; Zhou, Yang-Jing; Xu, Jirong; Chen, Heping; Wang, Ming-Juang; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aerobic ammonia oxidation plays a key role in the nitrogen cycle, and the diversity of the responsible microorganisms is regulated by environmental factors. Abundance and composition of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were investigated in the surface

  4. Effect of the oxidation rate and Fe(II) state on microbial nitrate-dependent Fe(III) mineral formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senko, John M.; Dewers , Thomas A.; Krumholz, Lee R.

    2005-01-01

    A nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium was isolated and used to evaluate whether Fe(II) chemical form or oxidation rate had an effect on the mineralogy of biogenic Fe(III) (hydr)oxides resulting from nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation. The isolate (designated FW33AN) had 99% 16S rRNA sequence similarity to Klebsiella oxytoca. FW33AN produced Fe(III) (hydr)oxides by oxidation of soluble Fe(II) [Fe(II)sol] or FeS under nitrate-reducing conditions. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fe(III) (hydr)oxide produced by oxidation of FeS was shown to be amorphous, while oxidation of Fe(II)sol yielded goethite. The rate of Fe(II) oxidation was then manipulated by incubating various cell concentrations of FW33AN with Fe(II)sol and nitrate. Characterization of products revealed that as Fe(II) oxidation rates slowed, a stronger goethite signal was observed by XRD and a larger proportion of Fe(III) was in the crystalline fraction. Since the mineralogy of Fe(III) (hydr)oxides may control the extent of subsequent Fe(III) reduction, the variables we identify here may have an effect on the biogeochemical cycling of Fe in anoxic ecosystems.

  5. Comparison of partial and full nitrification processes applied for treating high-strength nitrogen wastewaters: microbial ecology through nitrous oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Joon Ho; Kwan, Tiffany; Chandran, Kartik

    2011-04-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the microbial ecology, gene expression, biokinetics, and N2O emissions from a lab-scale bioreactor operated sequentially in full-nitrification and partial-nitrification modes. Based on sequencing of 16S rRNA and ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) genes, ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) populations during full- and partial-nitrification modes were distinct from one another. The concentrations of AOB (XAOB) and their respiration rates during full- and partial-nitrification modes were statistically similar, whereas the concentrations of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (XNOB) and their respiration rates declined significantly after the switch from full- to partial-nitrification. The transition from full-nitrification to partial nitrification resulted in a protracted transient spike of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions, which later stabilized. The trends in N2O and NO emissions correlated well with trends in the expression of nirK and norB genes that code for the production of these gases in AOB. Both the transient and stabilized N2O and NO emissions during partial nitrification were statistically higher than those during steady-state full-nitrification. Based on these results, partial nitrification strategies for biological nitrogen removal, although attractive for their reduced operating costs and energy demand, may need to be optimized against the higher carbon foot-print attributed to their N2O emissions.

  6. Flocculation of Pyrite Fines in Aqueous Suspensions with Corn Starch to Eliminate Mechanical Entrainment in Flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ge

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The hydrophilic flocculation of pyrite fines in aqueous suspensions with corn starch was studied by measuring particle size distribution, microscopy observation and micro-flotation. Furthermore, the interaction of corn starch with pyrite was investigated by determining the adsorption density and based on zeta potential measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS analysis in this work. The results of the particle size distribution measurement show that corn starch can effectively aggregate pyrite fines, and the pyrite floccules (flocs are sensitive to mechanical stirring. The micro-flotation results suggest that the mechanical entrainment of pyrite fines in flotation can be effectively eliminated through the formation of large-size flocs. The zeta potential of pyrite particles decreases with the addition of corn starch. The XPS results prove that carboxyl groups are generated on the digested corn starch, and both iron hydroxyl compounds and ferrous disulfide on the pyrite surface can chemically interact with the corn starch digested by sodium hydroxide.

  7. Particulate Pyrite Autotrophic Denitrification (PPAD) for Remediation of Nitrate-contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, S.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, L. C.; Henderson, M.; Feng, C.; Ergas, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid movement of human civilization towards urbanization, industrialization, and increased agricultural activities has introduced a large amount of nitrate into groundwater. Nitrate is a toxic substance discharged from groundwater to rivers and leads to decreased dissolved oxygen and eutrophication. For this experiment, an electron donor is needed to convert nitrate into non-toxic nitrogen gas. Pyrite is one of the most abundant minerals in the earth's crust making it an ideal candidate as an electron donor. The overall goal of this research was to investigate the potential for pyrite to be utilized as an electron donor for autotrophic denitrification of nitrate-contaminated groundwater. Batch studies of particulate pyrite autotrophic denitrification (PPAD) of synthetic groundwater (100 mg NO3--N L-1) were set up with varying biomass concentration, pyrite dose, and pyrite particle size. Reactors were seeded with mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (VSS) from a biological nitrogen removal wastewater treatment facility. PPAD using small pyrite particles (exhibited substantial nitrate removal rate, lower sulfate accumulation (5.46 mg SO42-/mg NO3--N) and lower alkalinity consumption (1.70 mg CaCO3/mg NO3--N) when compared to SOD (7.54 mg SO42-/mg NO3--N, 4.57 mg CaCO3/mg NO3--N based on stoichiometric calculation). This research revealed that the PPAD process is a promising technique for nitrate-contaminated groundwater treatment and promoted the utilization of pyrite in the field of environmental remediation.

  8. Explanation for many of the unusual features of the massive sulfide deposits of the Iberian pyrite belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M.; Tornos, F.; Gaspar, O. C.

    2002-01-01

    Newly published fluid-inclusion data from quartz in stockwork veins beneath seven massive sulfide lenses in the Iberian pyrite belt suggest that the lenses were formed from fluids that on reaching the sea reversed buoyancy and ponded in basins. Sulfides quenched in the resulting brine pool would have settled to form a sulfide mud. This process provides a relatively efficient trapping mechanism for metal in the fluids and effectively excludes ambient seawater, accounting for the deposits tending to have the characteristics of large size, sheet-like form, absence of relict chimney structures, and a mineral content characterized by pyrite-arsenopyrite, and absence or scarcity of barite, marcasite, and Fe oxides. If total S was less than total metals in the stockwork fluids, some or all of the more soluble Zn and Pb could have been swept from the basin at the overflow, accounting for the variable but generally low Zn and Pb contents of the ores. The lack of sedimentary source for the high salinities implicates magmatic intrusions, possibly similar to those related to Sn-W mineralization.

  9. Adsorção de xantatos sobre pirita Adsorption of xanthate on pyrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Garcia Penha

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of adsorption of xanthate with alkyl chain of two (C2XK, four (C4XK and eight (C8XK atoms of carbon, on pyrite from Santa Catarina, Brazil. The results showed that pyrite surface changes from hydrophilic to hydrophobic when xanthate is adsorbed increasing the contact angle to 35º for C2XK, and to 90º for C4XK and C8XK. The rate of flotation of pyrite particles after adsorption increases with the increase of the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain in agreement with the results of contact angle measurements.

  10. Redox zone II. Coupled modeling of groundwater flow, solute transport, chemical reactions and microbial processes in the Aespoe island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samper, Javier; Molinero, Jorge; Changbing Yang; Guoxiang Zhang [Univ. Da Coruna (Spain)

    2003-12-01

    The Redox Zone Experiment was carried out at the Aespoe HRL in order to study the redox behaviour and the hydrochemistry of an isolated vertical fracture zone disturbed by the excavation of an access tunnel. Overall results and interpretation of the Redox Zone Project were reported by Banwart et al. Later, Banwart presented a summary of the hydrochemistry of the Redox Zone Experiment. Coupled groundwater flow and reactive transport models of this experiment were carried out by Molinero who proposed a revised conceptual model for the hydrogeology of the Redox Zone Experiment which could explain simultaneously measured drawdown and salinity data. The numerical model was found useful to understand the natural system. Several conclusions were drawn about the redox conditions of recharge waters, cation exchange capacity of the fracture zone and the role of mineral phases such as pyrite, calcite, hematite and goethite. This model could reproduce the measured trends of dissolved species, except for bicarbonate and sulphate which are affected by microbially-mediated processes. In order to explore the role of microbial processes, a coupled numerical model has been constructed which accounts for water flow, reactive transport and microbial processes. The results of this model is presented in this report. This model accounts for groundwater flow and reactive transport in a manner similar to that of Molinero and extends the preliminary microbial model of Zhang by accounting for microbially-driven organic matter fermentation and organic matter oxidation. This updated microbial model considers simultaneously the fermentation of particulate organic matter by yeast and the oxidation of dissolved organic matter, a product of fermentation. Dissolved organic matter is produced by yeast and serves also as a substrate for iron-reducing bacteria. Model results reproduce the observed increase in bicarbonate and sulfaphe concentration, thus adding additional evidence for the possibility

  11. Redox zone II. Coupled modeling of groundwater flow, solute transport, chemical reactions and microbial processes in the Aespoe island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samper, Javier; Molinero, Jorge; Changbing Yang; Guoxiang Zhang

    2003-12-01

    The Redox Zone Experiment was carried out at the Aespoe HRL in order to study the redox behaviour and the hydrochemistry of an isolated vertical fracture zone disturbed by the excavation of an access tunnel. Overall results and interpretation of the Redox Zone Project were reported by Banwart et al. Later, Banwart presented a summary of the hydrochemistry of the Redox Zone Experiment. Coupled groundwater flow and reactive transport models of this experiment were carried out by Molinero who proposed a revised conceptual model for the hydrogeology of the Redox Zone Experiment which could explain simultaneously measured drawdown and salinity data. The numerical model was found useful to understand the natural system. Several conclusions were drawn about the redox conditions of recharge waters, cation exchange capacity of the fracture zone and the role of mineral phases such as pyrite, calcite, hematite and goethite. This model could reproduce the measured trends of dissolved species, except for bicarbonate and sulphate which are affected by microbially-mediated processes. In order to explore the role of microbial processes, a coupled numerical model has been constructed which accounts for water flow, reactive transport and microbial processes. The results of this model is presented in this report. This model accounts for groundwater flow and reactive transport in a manner similar to that of Molinero and extends the preliminary microbial model of Zhang by accounting for microbially-driven organic matter fermentation and organic matter oxidation. This updated microbial model considers simultaneously the fermentation of particulate organic matter by yeast and the oxidation of dissolved organic matter, a product of fermentation. Dissolved organic matter is produced by yeast and serves also as a substrate for iron-reducing bacteria. Model results reproduce the observed increase in bicarbonate and sulfaphe concentration, thus adding additional evidence for the possibility

  12. Coupled modeling of groundwater flow solute transport, chemical reactions and microbial processes in the 'SP' island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samper, Javier; Molinero, Jorg; Changbing, Yang; Zhang, Guoxiang

    2003-12-01

    The Redox Zone Experiment was carried out at the Aespoe HRL in order to study the redox behavior and the hydrochemistry of an isolated vertical fracture zone disturbed by the excavation of an access tunnel. Overall results and interpretation of the Redox Zone Project were reported by /Banwart et al, 1995/. Later, /Banwart et al, 1999/ presented a summary of the hydrochemistry of the Redox Zone Experiment. Coupled groundwater flow and reactive transport models of this experiment were carried out by /Molinero, 2000/ who proposed a revised conceptual model for the hydrogeology of the Redox Zone Experiment which could explain simultaneously measured drawdown and salinity data. The numerical model was found useful to understand the natural system. Several conclusions were drawn about the redox conditions of recharge waters, cation exchange capacity of the fracture zone and the role of mineral phases such as pyrite, calcite, hematite and goethite. This model could reproduce the measured trends of dissolved species, except for bicarbonate and sulfate which are affected by microbially-mediated processes. In order to explore the role of microbial processes, a coupled numerical model has been constructed which accounts for water flow, reactive transport and microbial processes. The results of this model is presented in this report. This model accounts for groundwater flow and reactive transport in a manner similar to that of /Molinero, 2000/ and extends the preliminary microbial model of /Zhang, 2001/ by accounting for microbially-driven organic matter fermentation and organic matter oxidation. This updated microbial model considers simultaneously the fermentation of particulate organic matter by yeast and the oxidation of dissolved organic matter, a product of fermentation. Dissolved organic matter is produced by yeast and serves also as a substrate for iron-reducing bacteria. Model results reproduce the observed increase in bicarbonate and sulfate concentration, thus

  13. Bacterial Oxidation and Reduction of Iron in the Processes of Creation and Treatment of Acid Mining Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kupka

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainages (AMDs arise at the weathering of sulphidic minerals. The occurrence of acidic streams is commonly associated with the human mining activities. Due to the disruption and excavation of sulphide deposits, the oxidation processes have initiated. Acidic products of sulphide oxidation accelerate the degradation of accompanying minerals. AMDs typically contain high concentrations of sulfuric acid and soluble metals and cause serious ecological problems due to the water pollution and the devastation of adjacent country. Microbial life in these extremely acidic environments may be considerably diverse. AMDs are abundant in bacteria capable to oxidize and/or to reduce iron. The rate of bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron released from pyrite surfaces is up to one million times faster than the chemical oxidation rate at low pH. Bacterial regeneration of ferric iron maintains the continuity of pyrite oxidation and the production of AMDs. Another group of microorganisms living in these environments are acidophilic ferric iron reducing bacteria. This group of microorganisms has been discovered only relatively recently. Acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria reduce ferric iron in either soluble or solid forms to ferrous iron. The reductive dissolution of ferric iron minerals brings about a mobilization of iron as well as associated heavy metals. The Bacterial oxidation and reduction of iron play an important role in the transformation of either crystalline or amorphous iron-containing minerals, including sulphides, oxides, hydroxysulfates, carbonates and silicates. This work discusses the role of acidophilic bacteria in the natural iron cycling and the genesis of acidic effluents. The possibilities of application of iron bacteria in the remediation of AMDs are also considered.

  14. Low temperature anaerobic bacterial diagenesis of ferrous monosulfide to pyrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Ravin; Southam, Gordon

    1999-07-01

    In vitro enrichment cultures of dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria precipitated FeS and catalyzed its transformation into FeS 2 at ambient temperature and pressure under anaerobic conditions. When compared to purely abiotic processes, the bacterially mediated transformation was shown to be more efficient in transforming FeS into FeS 2. This occurred due to the large, reactive surface area available for bacterially catalyzed diagenesis, where the biogenic FeS precursor was immobilized as a thin film (˜25 nm thick) on the μm-scale bacteria. The bacteria also contained the source(s) of sulfur for diagenesis to occur. Using a radiolabeled organic-sulfur tracer study, sulfur was released during cell autolysis and was immobilized at the bacterial cell surface forming FeS 2. The formation of FeS 2 occurred on both the inner and outer surfaces of the cell envelope and represented the first step of bacterial mineral diagenesis. Pyrite crystals, having linear dimensions of ˜1 μm, grew outward from the bacterial cell surfaces. These minerals were several orders of magnitude larger in volume than those originating abiotically.

  15. Novel Microbial Assemblages Dominate Weathered Sulfide-Bearing Rock from Copper-Nickel Deposits in the Duluth Complex, Minnesota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S; Lapakko, Kim A; Wenz, Zachary J; Olson, Michael C; Roepke, Elizabeth W; Sadowsky, Michael J; Novak, Paige J; Bailey, Jake V

    2017-08-15

    The Duluth Complex in northeastern Minnesota hosts economically significant deposits of copper, nickel, and platinum group elements (PGEs). The primary sulfide mineralogy of these deposits includes the minerals pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite, and cubanite, and weathering experiments show that most sulfide-bearing rock from the Duluth Complex generates moderately acidic leachate (pH 4 to 6). Microorganisms are important catalysts for metal sulfide oxidation and could influence the quality of water from mines in the Duluth Complex. Nevertheless, compared with that of extremely acidic environments, much less is known about the microbial ecology of moderately acidic sulfide-bearing mine waste, and so existing information may have little relevance to those microorganisms catalyzing oxidation reactions in the Duluth Complex. Here, we characterized the microbial communities in decade-long weathering experiments (kinetic tests) conducted on crushed rock and tailings from the Duluth Complex. Analyses of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts showed that differences among microbial communities correspond to pH, rock type, and experimental treatment. Moreover, microbial communities from the weathered Duluth Complex rock were dominated by taxa that are not typically associated with acidic mine waste. The most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were from the genera Meiothermus and Sulfuriferula , as well as from diverse clades of uncultivated Chloroflexi , Acidobacteria , and Betaproteobacteria Specific taxa, including putative sulfur-oxidizing Sulfuriferula spp., appeared to be primarily associated with Duluth Complex rock, but not pyrite-bearing rocks subjected to the same experimental treatment. We discuss the implications of these results for the microbial ecology of moderately acidic mine waste with low sulfide content, as well as for kinetic testing of mine waste. IMPORTANCE Economic sulfide mineral deposits in the Duluth Complex may represent the largest

  16. Pyrite: A blender plugin for visualizing molecular dynamics simulations using industry-standard rendering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendiran, Nivedita; Durrant, Jacob D

    2018-05-05

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provide critical insights into many biological mechanisms. Programs such as VMD, Chimera, and PyMOL can produce impressive simulation visualizations, but they lack many advanced rendering algorithms common in the film and video-game industries. In contrast, the modeling program Blender includes such algorithms but cannot import MD-simulation data. MD trajectories often require many gigabytes of memory/disk space, complicating Blender import. We present Pyrite, a Blender plugin that overcomes these limitations. Pyrite allows researchers to visualize MD simulations within Blender, with full access to Blender's cutting-edge rendering techniques. We expect Pyrite-generated images to appeal to students and non-specialists alike. A copy of the plugin is available at http://durrantlab.com/pyrite/, released under the terms of the GNU General Public License Version 3. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Selective separation of arsenopyrite from pyrite by biomodulation in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraprabha, M N; Natarajan, K A; Somasundaran, P

    2004-08-15

    Effective methods for selective separation using flotation or flocculation of arsenopyrite from pyrite by biomodulation using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans are presented here. Adhesion of the bacterium to the surface of arsenopyrite was very slow compared to that to pyrite, resulting in a difference in surface modification of the minerals subsequent to interaction with cells. The cells were able to effectively depress pyrite flotation in presence of collectors like potassium isopropyl xanthate and potassium amyl xanthate. On the other hand the flotability of arsenopyrite after conditioning with the cells was not significantly affected. The activation of pyrite by copper sulfate was reduced when the minerals were conditioned together, resulting in better selectivity. Selective separation could also be achieved by flocculation of biomodulated samples.

  18. Effect of inversion layer at iron pyrite surface on photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2018-03-01

    Iron pyrite has great potential as a thin-film solar cell material because it has high optical absorption, low cost, and is earth-abundant. However, previously reported iron pyrite solar cells showed poor photovoltaic characteristics. Here, we have numerically simulated its photovoltaic characteristics and band structures by utilizing a two-dimensional (2D) device simulator, ATLAS, to evaluate the effects of an inversion layer at the surface and a high density of deep donor defect states in the bulk. We found that previous device structures did not consider the inversion layer at the surface region of iron pyrite, which made it difficult to obtain the conversion efficiency. Therefore, we remodeled the device structure and suggested that removing the inversion layer and reducing the density of deep donor defect states would lead to a high conversion efficiency of iron pyrite solar cells.

  19. Pyrite Iron Sulfide Solar Cells Made from Solution Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Matt [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2017-03-21

    This document summarizes research done under the SunShot Next Generation PV II project entitled, “Pyrite Iron Sulfide Solar Cells Made from Solution,” award number DE-EE0005324, at the University of California, Irvine, from 9/1/11 thru 11/30/16. The project goal was to develop iron pyrite (cubic FeS2) as an absorber layer for solution-processible p-n heterojunction solar cells with a pathway to >20% power conversion efficiency. Project milestones centered around seven main Tasks: (1) make device-quality pyrite thin-films from solar ink; (2) develop an ohmic bottom contact with suitable low resistivity; (3) produce a p-n heterojunction with VOC > 400 mV; (4) make a solar cell with >5% power conversion efficiency; (5) use alloying to increase the pyrite band gap to ~1.2-1.4 eV; (6) produce a p-n heterojunction with VOC > 500 mV; and finally (7) make a solar cell with >10% power conversion efficiency. In response to project findings, the Tasks were amended midway through the project to focus particular effort on passivating the surface of pyrite in order to eliminate excessively-strong surface band bending believed to be responsible for the low VOC of pyrite diodes. Major project achievements include: (1) development and detailed characterization of several new solution syntheses of high-quality thin-film pyrite, including two “molecular ink” routes; (2) demonstration of Mo/MoS2 bilayers as good ohmic bottom contacts to pyrite films; (3) fabrication of pyrite diodes with a glass/Mo/MoS2/pyrite/ZnS/ZnO/AZO layer sequence that show VOC values >400 mV and as high as 610 mV at ~1 sun illumination, although these high VOC values ultimately proved irreproducible; (4) established that ZnS is a promising n-type junction partner for pyrite; (5) used density functional theory to show that the band gap of pyrite can be increased from ~1.0 to a more optimal 1.2-1.3 eV by alloying with oxygen; (6) through extensive measurements of ultrahigh

  20. Biotic conversion of sulphate to sulphide and abiotic conversion of sulphide to sulphur in a microbial fuel cell using cobalt oxide octahedrons as cathode catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Pritha; Ghangrekar, M M; Rao, Surampalli; Kumar, Senthil

    2017-05-01

    Varying chemical oxygen demand (COD) and sulphate concentrations in substrate were used to determine reaction kinetics and mass balance of organic matter and sulphate transformation in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). MFC with anodic chamber volume of 1 L, fed with wastewater having COD of 500 mg/L and sulphate of 200 mg/L, could harvest power of 54.4 mW/m 2 , at a Coulombic efficiency of 14%, with respective COD and sulphate removals of 90 and 95%. Sulphide concentration, even up to 1500 mg/L, did not inhibit anodic biochemical reactions, due to instantaneous abiotic oxidation to sulphur, at high inlet sulphate. Experiments on abiotic oxidation of sulphide to sulphur revealed maximum oxidation taking place at an anodic potential of -200 mV. More than 99% sulphate removal could be achieved in a MFC with inlet COD/sulphate of 0.75, giving around 1.33 kg/m 3  day COD removal. Bioelectrochemical conversion of sulphate facilitating sulphur recovery in a MFC makes it an interesting pollution abatement technique.

  1. Nitrate as an Oxidant in the Cathode Chamber of a Microbial Fuel Cell for Both Power Generation and Nutrient Removal Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Cheng; Min, Booki; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    with the operation without catalyst. Nitrate was reduced to nitrite and ammonia in the liquid phase at a ratio of 0.6% and 51.8% of the total nitrate amount. These results suggest that nitrate can be successfully used as an oxidant for power generation without aeration and also nitrate removal from water in MFC......Nitrate ions were used as the oxidant in the cathode chamber of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to generate electricity from organic compounds with simultaneous nitrate removal. The MFC using nitrate as oxidant could generate a voltage of 111 mV (1,000 Ω) with a plain carbon cathode. The maximum power...... density achieved was 7.2 mW m−2 with a 470 Ω resistor. Nitrate was reduced from an initial concentration of 49 to 25 mg (NO3−−N) L−1 during 42-day operation. The daily removal rate was 0.57 mg (NO3−–N) L−1 day−1 with a voltage generation of 96 mV. In the presence of Pt catalyst dispersed on cathode...

  2. Cu-As Decoupling in Hydrothermal Systems: A Link Between Pyrite Chemistry and Fluid Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, M.; Tardani, D.; Deditius, A.; Chryssoulis, S.; Wrage, J.; Sanchez-Alfaro, P.; Andrea, H.; Cinthia, J.

    2016-12-01

    Chemical zonations in pyrite have been recognized in most hydrothermal ore deposit types, showing in some cases marked oscillatory alternation of metals and metalloids in pyrite growth zones (e.g., of Cu-rich, As-(Au)-depleted zones and As-(Au)-rich, Cu-depleted zones). This decoupled geochemical behavior of Cu and As has been interpreted as a result of chemical changes in ore-forming fluids, although direct evidence connecting fluctuations in hydrothermal fluid composition with metal partitioning into pyrite growth zones is still lacking. Here we report a comprehensive trace element database of pyrite from an active hydrothermal system, the Tolhuaca Geothermal System (TGS) in southern Chile. We combined high-spatial resolution and X-ray mapping capabilities of electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) with low detection limits and depth-profiling capabilities of secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in a suite of pyrite samples retrieved from a 1 km drill hole that crosses the argillic and propylitic alteration zones of the geothermal system. We show that the concentrations of precious metals (e.g., Au, Ag), metalloids (e.g., As, Sb, Se, Te), and base and heavy metals (e.g., Cu, Co, Ni, Pb) in pyrite at the TGS are significant. Among the elements analyzed, arsenic, Cu and Co are the most abundant with concentrations that vary from sub-ppm levels to a few wt. %. Pyrites from the deeper propylitic zone do not show significant zonation and high Cu-(Co)-As concentrations correlate with each other. In contrast, well-developed zonations were detected in pyrite from the shallow argillic alteration zone, where Cu(Co)-rich, As-depleted cores alternate with Cu(Co)-depleted, As-rich rims. These microanalytical data were contrasted with chemical data of fluid inclusion in quartz veins (high Cu/Na and low As/Na) and borehole fluids (low Cu/Na and high As/Na) reported at the TGS, showing a clear correspondence between Cu and As concentrations in pyrite-forming fluids and chemical

  3. The complicated substrates enhance the microbial diversity and zinc leaching efficiency in sphalerite bioleaching system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yunhua; Xu, YongDong; Dong, Weiling; Liang, Yili; Fan, Fenliang; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Xian; Niu, Jiaojiao; Ma, Liyuan; She, Siyuan; He, Zhili; Liu, Xueduan; Yin, Huaqun

    2015-12-01

    This study used an artificial enrichment microbial consortium to examine the effects of different substrate conditions on microbial diversity, composition, and function (e.g., zinc leaching efficiency) through adding pyrite (SP group), chalcopyrite (SC group), or both (SPC group) in sphalerite bioleaching systems. 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis showed that microbial community structures and compositions dramatically changed with additions of pyrite or chalcopyrite during the sphalerite bioleaching process. Shannon diversity index showed a significantly increase in the SP (1.460), SC (1.476), and SPC (1.341) groups compared with control (sphalerite group, 0.624) on day 30, meanwhile, zinc leaching efficiencies were enhanced by about 13.4, 2.9, and 13.2%, respectively. Also, additions of pyrite or chalcopyrite could increase electric potential (ORP) and the concentrations of Fe3+ and H+, which were the main factors shaping microbial community structures by Mantel test analysis. Linear regression analysis showed that ORP, Fe3+ concentration, and pH were significantly correlated to zinc leaching efficiency and microbial diversity. In addition, we found that leaching efficiency showed a positive and significant relationship with microbial diversity. In conclusion, our results showed that the complicated substrates could significantly enhance microbial diversity and activity of function.

  4. Thermal stability and kinetics of decomposition of ammonium nitrate in the presence of pyrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunawan, Richard; Zhang Dongke

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between ammonium nitrate based industrial explosives and pyrite-rich minerals in mining operations can lead to the occurrence of spontaneous explosion of the explosives. In an effort to provide a scientific basis for safe applications of industrial explosives in reactive mining grounds containing pyrite, ammonium nitrate decomposition, with and without the presence of pyrite, was studied using a simultaneous Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermogravimetric Analyser (DSC-TGA) and a gas-sealed isothermal reactor, respectively. The activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of ammonium nitrate decomposition were determined to be 102.6 kJ mol -1 and 4.55 x 10 7 s -1 without the presence of pyrite and 101.8 kJ mol -1 and 2.57 x 10 9 s -1 with the presence of pyrite. The kinetics of ammonium nitrate decomposition was then used to calculate the critical temperatures for ammonium nitrate decomposition with and without the presence of pyrite, based on the Frank-Kamenetskii model of thermal explosion. It was shown that the presence of pyrite reduces the temperature for, and accelerates the rate of, decomposition of ammonium nitrate. It was further shown that pyrite can significantly reduce the critical temperature of ammonium nitrate decomposition, causing undesired premature detonation of the explosives. The critical temperature also decreases with increasing diameter of the blast holes charged with the explosive. The concept of using the critical temperature as indication of the thermal stability of the explosives to evaluate the risk of spontaneous explosion was verified in the gas-sealed isothermal reactor experiments.

  5. Thermal stability and kinetics of decomposition of ammonium nitrate in the presence of pyrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Richard; Zhang, Dongke

    2009-06-15

    The interaction between ammonium nitrate based industrial explosives and pyrite-rich minerals in mining operations can lead to the occurrence of spontaneous explosion of the explosives. In an effort to provide a scientific basis for safe applications of industrial explosives in reactive mining grounds containing pyrite, ammonium nitrate decomposition, with and without the presence of pyrite, was studied using a simultaneous Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermogravimetric Analyser (DSC-TGA) and a gas-sealed isothermal reactor, respectively. The activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of ammonium nitrate decomposition were determined to be 102.6 kJ mol(-1) and 4.55 x 10(7)s(-1) without the presence of pyrite and 101.8 kJ mol(-1) and 2.57 x 10(9)s(-1) with the presence of pyrite. The kinetics of ammonium nitrate decomposition was then used to calculate the critical temperatures for ammonium nitrate decomposition with and without the presence of pyrite, based on the Frank-Kamenetskii model of thermal explosion. It was shown that the presence of pyrite reduces the temperature for, and accelerates the rate of, decomposition of ammonium nitrate. It was further shown that pyrite can significantly reduce the critical temperature of ammonium nitrate decomposition, causing undesired premature detonation of the explosives. The critical temperature also decreases with increasing diameter of the blast holes charged with the explosive. The concept of using the critical temperature as indication of the thermal stability of the explosives to evaluate the risk of spontaneous explosion was verified in the gas-sealed isothermal reactor experiments.

  6. On the genesis of pyrite-polymetallic deposits of the Rudnyi Altai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchkov, E.V.; Najdenov, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Results of lead isotope composition measurements in pyrite-polymetallic deposits of the Rudnyi Altai are presented. Porphyr dating by zirconium has shown isochronous age of 552 million years. Lead of galenites of various generations and galenite form of lead of pyrit provide similar lead-isotope values with model age of 370 million years. The isotopic-geochemical data obtained are interpreted as applied to the deposit genesis

  7. The influence of pyrite on the solubility of minjingu and panda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effect of pyrite rock on the solubility of Minjingu and Panda phosphate rocks. The rocks were ground to 100 mesh (0.045 mm) after which each phosphate rock was mixed with pyrite at P:S ratios of 1:4, 1 :3, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1, and 3: 1. The mixtures were moistened and incubated ...

  8. Fibrous polyaniline@manganese oxide nanocomposites as supercapacitor electrode materials and cathode catalysts for improved power production in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Sajid Ali; Parveen, Nazish; Han, Thi Hiep; Ansari, Mohammad Omaish; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2016-04-07

    Fibrous Pani-MnO2 nanocomposite were prepared using a one-step and scalable in situ chemical oxidative polymerization method. The formation, structural and morphological properties were investigated using a range of characterization techniques. The electrochemical capacitive behavior of the fibrous Pani-MnO2 nanocomposite was examined by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements using a three-electrode experimental setup in an aqueous electrolyte. The fibrous Pani-MnO2 nanocomposite achieved high capacitance (525 F g(-1) at a current density of 2 A g(-1)) and excellent cycling stability of 76.9% after 1000 cycles at 10 A g(-1). Furthermore, the microbial fuel cell constructed with the fibrous Pani-MnO2 cathode catalyst showed an improved power density of 0.0588 W m(-2), which was higher than that of pure Pani and carbon paper, respectively. The improved electrochemical supercapacitive performance and cathode catalyst performance in microbial fuel cells were attributed mainly to the synergistic effect of Pani and MnO2 in fibrous Pani-MnO2, which provides high surface area for the electrode/electrolyte contact as well as electronic conductive channels and exhibits pseudocapacitance behavior.

  9. Effects of graphene oxide on the performance, microbial community dynamics and antibiotic resistance genes reduction during anaerobic digestion of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junya; Wang, Ziyue; Wang, Yawei; Zhong, Hui; Sui, Qianwen; Zhang, Changping; Wei, Yuansong

    2017-12-01

    The role of graphene oxide (GO) on anaerobic digestion (AD) of swine manure concerning the performance, microbial community and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) reduction was investigated. Results showed that methane production was reduced by 13.1%, 10.6%, 2.7% and 17.1% at GO concentration of 5mg/L, 50mg/L, 100mg/L and 500mg/L, respectively, but propionate degradation was enhanced along with GO addition. Both bacterial and archaeal community changed little after GO addition. AD could well reduce ARGs abundance, but it was deteriorated at the GO concentration of 50mg/L and 100mg/L and enhanced at 500mg/L, while no obvious changes at 5mg/L. Network and SEM analysis indicated that changes of each ARG was closely associated with variation of microbial community composition, environmental variables contributed most to the dynamics of ARGs indirectly, GO influenced the ARGs dynamics negatively and (heavy metal resistance genes (MRGs)) influenced the most directly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative effect of ethylene oxide and gamma irradiation on the chemical, sensory and microbial quality of ginger, cinnamon, fennel and fenugreek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toofanian, F.; Stegeman, H.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide fumigation on the microbiological and sensory properties and on the volatile oil content of ground cinnamon, ginger and fennel as well as on the sensory properties of fenugreek were investigated. It was found that for cinnamon and ginger a 6 kGy dose, for fennel 6-10 kGy and for fenugreek 6-8 kGy dose were equal in microbial effects to the commercially established fumigation process. No significant change in the volatile oil contents of the fumigated or irradiated cinnamon and fennel has been observed. Between the untreated, irradiated or fumigated spices no major differences in sensory properties were found. (author) 13 refs.; 1 fig.; 5 tabs

  11. In-situ studies of microbial CH{sub 4} oxidation efficiency in Arctic wetland soils. Applications of stable carbon isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preuss, Inken-Marie

    2013-07-05

    Arctic wetland soils are significant sources of the climate-relevant trace gas methane (CH{sub 4}). The observed accelerated warming of the Arctic is expected to cause deeper permafrost thawing followed by increased carbon mineralization and CH{sub 4} formation in water-saturated permafrost-affected tundra soils thus creating a positive feedback to climate change. Aerobic CH{sub 4} oxidation is regarded as the key process reducing CH{sub 4} emissions from wetlands, but quantification of turnover rates has remained difficult so far. This study improved the in-situ quantification of microbial CH{sub 4} oxidation efficiency in arctic wetland soils in Russia's Lena River Delta based on stable isotope signatures of CH{sub 4}. In addition to the common practice of determining the stable isotope fractionation during oxidation, additionally the fractionation effect of diffusion, an important gas transport mechanism in tundra soils, was investigated for both saturated and unsaturated conditions. The isotopic fractionation factors α{sub ox} and α{sub diff} were used to calculate the CH{sub 4} oxidation efficiency from the CH{sub 4} stable isotope signatures of wet polygonal tundra soils of different hydrology. Further, the method was used to study the short-term effects of temperature increase with a climate manipulation experiment. For the first time, the stable isotope fractionation of CH{sub 4} diffusion through water-saturated soils was determined with α{sub diff} = 1.001 ± 0.0002 (n = 3). CH{sub 4} stable isotope fractionation during diffusion through air-filled pores of the investigated polygonal tundra soils was α{sub diff} = 1.013 ± 0.003 (n = 18). For the studied sites the fractionation factor for diffusion under saturated conditions α{sub diff} = 1.001 seems to be of utmost importance for the quantification of the CH{sub 4} oxidation efficiency, since most of the CH{sub 4} is oxidized in the saturated part at the aerobic-anaerobic interface. Furthermore

  12. Source and Enrichment of Toxic Elements in Coal Seams around Mafic Intrusions: Constraints from Pyrites in the Yuandian Coal Mine in Anhui, Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei An

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pyrite, a mineral that can cause potential environmental issues in coal mining, is commonly found in coal seams around intrusions. In this paper, pyrites from the Yuandian Coal Mine (Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, Eastern China were studied using SEM, Raman and LA-ICP-MS. The pyrite morphologic and geochemical data suggest that (1 four pyrite generations are present (framboidal sedimentary pyrites (Py I in the original coal, coarse-grained magmatic pyrites (Py II in the intruding diabase, fine-grained metamorphic pyrites (Py III in the intrusive contact aureole, and spheroid/vein hydrothermal pyrites (Py IV in the cokeite; and (2 concentrations of cobalt, nickel, arsenic, selenium, lead and copper in the metamorphic pyrites are much higher than the other pyrite generations. We propose that mafic magmatism is the main contributor of the toxic elements to the intrusion-related cokeite at Yuandian.

  13. Some quantitative data on bacterial attachment to pyrite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florian, B.; Noël, N.; Thyssen, C.; Felschau, I.; Sand, W.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial attachment and biofilm formation are important for microbial bioleaching of metal sulfides, however, many details of the role played by bacteria are still unknown. Attachment as the first step in biofilm formation is critical. Our investigations are focused on these processes to control

  14. Monitoring the Extent of Contamination from Acid Mine Drainage in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain Using Hyperspectral Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuncion Riaza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring mine waste from sulfide deposits by hyperspectral remote sensing can be used to predict surface water quality by quantitatively estimating acid drainage and metal contamination on a yearly basis. In addition, analysis of the mineralogy of surface crusts rich in soluble salts can provide a record of annual humidity and temperature. In fact, temporal monitoring of salt efflorescence from mine wastes at a mine site in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (Huelva, Spain has been achieved using hyperspectral airborne Hymap data. Furthermore, climate variability estimates are possible based on oxidation stages derived from well-known sequences of minerals, by tracing sulfide oxidation intensity using archive spectral libraries. Thus, airborne and spaceborne hyperspectral remote sensing data can be used to provide a short-term record of climate change, and represent a useful set of tools for assessing environmental geoindicators in semi-arid areas. Spectral and geomorphological indicators can be monitored on a regular basis through image processing, supported by field and laboratory spectral data. In fact, hyperspectral image analysis is one of the methods selected by the Joint Research Centre of the European Community (Ispra, Italy to study abandoned mine sites, in order to assess the enforcement of the European Mine Waste Directive (2006/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council 15 March 2006 on the management of waste from extractive industries (Official Journal of the European Union, 11 April 2006. The pyrite belt in Andalucia has been selected as one of the core mission test sites for the PECOMINES II program (Cracow, November 2005, using imaging spectroscopy; and this technique is expected to be implemented as a monitoring tool by the Environmental Net of Andalucía (REDIAM, Junta de Andalucía, Spain.

  15. Nano Copper Oxide-Modified Carbon Cloth as Cathode for a Two-Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Feng; Zhang, Peng; Li, Kexun; Liu, Xianhua; Zhang, Pingping

    2016-01-01

    In this work, Cu2O nanoparticles were deposited on a carbon cloth cathode using a facile electrochemical method. The morphology of the modified cathode, which was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) tests, showed that the porosity and specific surface area of the cathode improved with longer deposition times. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) results showed that cupric oxide and cuprous oxide coexisted on the ca...

  16. Chalcopyrite Dissolution at 650 mV and 750 mV in the Presence of Pyrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubiao Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The dissolution of chalcopyrite in association with pyrite in mine waste results in the severe environmental issue of acid and metalliferous drainage (AMD. To better understand chalcopyrite dissolution, and the impact of chalcopyrite’s galvanic interaction with pyrite, chalcopyrite dissolution has been examined at 75 °C, pH 1.0, in the presence of quartz (as an inert mineral and pyrite. The presence of pyrite increased the chalcopyrite dissolution rate by more than five times at Eh of 650 mV (SHE (Cu recovery 2.5 cf. 12% over 132 days due to galvanic interaction between chalcopyrite and pyrite. Dissolution of Cu and Fe was stoichiometric and no pyrite dissolved. Although the chalcopyrite dissolution rate at 750 mV (SHE was approximately four-fold greater (Cu recovery of 45% within 132 days as compared to at 650 mV in the presence of pyrite, the galvanic interaction between chalcopyrite and pyrite was negligible. Approximately all of the sulfur from the leached chalcopyrite was converted to S0 at 750 mV, regardless of the presence of pyrite. At this Eh approximately 60% of the sulfur associated with pyrite dissolution was oxidised to S0 and the remaining 40% was released in soluble forms, e.g., SO42−.

  17. Nano Copper Oxide-Modified Carbon Cloth as Cathode for a Two-Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Feng; Zhang, Peng; Li, Kexun; Liu, Xianhua; Zhang, Pingping

    2016-12-09

    In this work, Cu₂O nanoparticles were deposited on a carbon cloth cathode using a facile electrochemical method. The morphology of the modified cathode, which was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) tests, showed that the porosity and specific surface area of the cathode improved with longer deposition times. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) results showed that cupric oxide and cuprous oxide coexisted on the carbon cloth, which improved the electrochemical activity of cathode. The cathode with a deposition time of 100 s showed the best performance, with a power density twice that of bare carbon cloth. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results revealed that moderate deposition of nano copper oxide on carbon cloth could dramatically reduce the charge transfer resistance, which contributed to the enhanced electrochemical performance. The mediation mechanism of copper oxide nanocatalyst was illustrated by the fact that the recycled conversion between cupric oxide and cuprous oxide accelerated the electron transfer efficiency on the cathode.

  18. Recrystallization Experiments of Pyrite From Circulating Hydrothermal Solution by Thermal Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Isobe, H.

    2005-12-01

    Pyrite is one of the most common accessory minerals in many rocks and generally occurs in hydrothermal deposit. However, pyrite morphology and association with other sulfide minerals is not well known with respect to the solution condition, especially with the hydrothermal solution under circulation. In this study, recrystallization experiments of pyrite from circulating hydrothermal solution by thermal convection were carried out. A rectangular circuit (42.6 cm by 17.3 cm) of SUS316 pressure tubing with 5 mm in inner diameter was used as a reaction vessel. The volume of the circuit is approximately 24 ml. Long sides of the rectangular circuit were held to be 20 degrees inclination. One of the long sides was heated by an electric furnace. Solution in the circuit evaporates in the high temperature tubing and the vapor condenses in room temperature tubing. The solution backs to the bottom of the high temperature tubing. Thus, thermal convection of the solution produces circulation in the circuit. Starting material was filled in the high temperature tubing. The lower half was filled with mixture of 2 g of powdered natural pyrite and 4 g of quartz grains. The upper half was filled with quartz grains only. 9 ml of 5 mol/l NH4Cl solution was sealed in the circuit with the starting material. Temperature gradient of the sample was monitored by 6 thermocouples. Maximum temperature was controlled at 350°C. Experimental durations are 3, 5, 10 and 30 days. After the experiments, the run products are fixed with resin and cut every 2 cm. Thin sections of vertical cross-sections are made and observed by microscope and SEM. Tiny pyrite crystals occurred at the upper outside of the furnace, where temperature should be much lower than 200°C. In the lower half of the starting material, pyrite decomposed and pyrrhotite formed around pyrite grains. At higher temperature area, pyrite decomposition and pyrrhotite formation is remarkable. Circulating sulfur-bearing solution provided by

  19. First-principles investigation of the electronic states at perovskite and pyrite hetero-interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, Safdar

    2012-09-01

    Oxide heterostructures are attracting huge interest in recent years due to the special functionalities of quasi two-dimensional quantum gases. In this thesis, the electronic states at the interface between perovskite oxides and pyrite compounds have been studied by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. Optimization of the atomic positions are taken into account, which is considered very important at interfaces, as observed in the case of LaAlO3/SrTiO3. The creation of metallic states at the interfaces thus is explained in terms of charge transfer between the transition metal and oxygen atoms near the interface. It is observed that with typical thicknesses of at least 10-12 °A the gases still extend considerably in the third dimension, which essentially determines the magnitude of quantum mechanical effects. To overcome this problem, we propose incorporation of highly electronegative cations (such as Ag) in the oxides. A fundamental interest is also the thermodynamic stability of the interfaces due to the possibility of atomic intermixing in the interface region. Therefore, different cation intermixed configurations are taken into account for the interfaces aiming at the energetically stable state. The effect of O vacancies is also discussed for both polar and non-polar heterostructures. The interface metallicity is enhanced for the polar system with the creation of O vacancies, while the clean interface at the non-polar heterostructure exhibits an insulating state and becomes metallic in presence of O vacancy. The O vacancy formation energies are calculated and explained in terms of the increasing electronegativity and effective volume of A the side cation. Along with these, the electronic and magnetic properties of an interface between the ferromagnetic metal CoS2 and the non-magnetic semiconductor FeS2 is investigated. We find that this contact shows a metallic character. The CoS2 stays quasi half metallic at the interface, while the

  20. Role of a unique population of lithotrophic, Fe-oxidizing bacteria in forming microbial Fe-mats at the Loihi Seamount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, D.; Rentz, J. A.; Moyer, C. L.

    2005-12-01

    The Loihi Seamount, located 30 km SE of the island of Hawai'i, is among the most active volcanos on Earth. The summit, at a depth of 1100m, includes a 250m deep caldera (Pele's Pit) formed by an eruption in 1996. The summit, and especially Pele's Pit, are the site of extensive low to intermediate temperature (10° to 65°C) hydrothermal venting, emanating both from diffuse fissures and orifices that have substantial flow rates. The vent fluid is characterized by a low sulfide content, high CO2 concentrations and Fe(II) amounts in the 10s to 100s of μM. Associated with all vents are extensive deposits of iron oxyhydroxides that typically have 107 to 108 bacterial cells/cc associated with them. The morphology of the Fe-oxides are indicative of biological origins. We have isolated microaerophilic, obligately lithotrophic Fe-oxidizing bacteria from Loihi and describe here `Mariprofundus ferroxydans' a unique bacterium that forms a filamentous iron oxide mineral. `M. ferroxydans' is the first cultured representative of a novel division of the Proteobacteria, known previously only from clones from different hydrothermal vent sites. Molecular evidence from Loihi mats based on clone libraries and terminal restriction length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicate that this lineage of Fe-oxidizing organisms are common inhabitants at Loihi. We speculate that this organism and its relatives form the basis of an active microbial mat community that owe their existence to the inherent gradients of Fe(II) and O2 that exist at the Loihi vents. In a geological context this is interesting because the Loihi summit and caldera are in an O2-minima zone; O2 concentrations in the bulk seawater are around 0.5 mg/l. In effect, Loihi could serve as a proxy for the late Archaean and early Proterozoic periods when the Earth's atmosphere went from reducing to oxidizing, and it is speculated that abundant Fe(II) in the Earth's oceans served as a major sink for O2 production

  1. Low-Light Anoxygenic Photosynthesis and Fe-S-Biogeochemistry in a Microbial Mat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Haas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We report extremely low-light-adapted anoxygenic photosynthesis in a thick microbial mat in Magical Blue Hole, Abaco Island, The Bahamas. Sulfur cycling was reduced by iron oxides and organic carbon limitation. The mat grows below the halocline/oxycline at 30 m depth on the walls of the flooded sinkhole. In situ irradiance at the mat surface on a sunny December day was between 0.021 and 0.084 μmol photons m-2 s-1, and UV light (<400 nm was the most abundant part of the spectrum followed by green wavelengths (475–530 nm. We measured a light-dependent carbon uptake rate of 14.5 nmol C cm-2 d-1. A 16S rRNA clone library of the green surface mat layer was dominated (74% by a cluster (>97% sequence identity of clones affiliated with Prosthecochloris, a genus within the green sulfur bacteria (GSB, which are obligate anoxygenic phototrophs. Typical photopigments of brown-colored GSB, bacteriochlorophyll e and (β-isorenieratene, were abundant in mat samples and their absorption properties are well-adapted to harvest light in the available green and possibly even UV-A spectra. Sulfide from the water column (3–6 μmol L-1 was the main source of sulfide to the mat as sulfate reduction rates in the mats were very low (undetectable-99.2 nmol cm-3 d-1. The anoxic water column was oligotrophic and low in dissolved organic carbon (175–228 μmol L-1. High concentrations of pyrite (FeS2; 1–47 μmol cm-3 together with low microbial process rates (sulfate reduction, CO2 fixation indicate that the mats function as net sulfide sinks mainly by abiotic processes. We suggest that abundant Fe(III (4.3–22.2 μmol cm-3 is the major source of oxidizing power in the mat, and that abiotic Fe-S-reactions play the main role in pyrite formation. Limitation of sulfate reduction by low organic carbon availability along with the presence of abundant sulfide-scavenging iron oxides considerably slowed down sulfur cycling in these mats.

  2. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide/SnO2 Nanocomposite for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Microbial Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garino, Nadia; Sacco, Adriano; Castellino, Micaela; Muñoz-Tabares, José Alejandro; Chiodoni, Angelica; Agostino, Valeria; Margaria, Valentina; Gerosa, Matteo; Massaglia, Giulia; Quaglio, Marzia

    2016-02-01

    We report on an easy, fast, eco-friendly, and reliable method for the synthesis of reduced graphene oxide/SnO2 nanocomposite as cathode material for application in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The material was prepared starting from graphene oxide that has been reduced to graphene during the hydrothermal synthesis of the nanocomposite, carried out in a microwave system. Structural and morphological characterizations evidenced the formation of nanocomposite sheets, with SnO2 crystals of few nanometers integrated in the graphene matrix. Physico-chemical analysis revealed the formation of SnO2 nanoparticles, as well as the functionalization of the graphene by the presence of nitrogen atoms. Electrochemical characterizations put in evidence the ability of such composite to exploit a cocatalysis mechanism for the oxygen reduction reaction, provided by the presence of both SnO2 and nitrogen. In addition, the novel composite catalyst was successfully employed as cathode in seawater-based MFCs, giving electrical performances comparable to those of reference devices employing Pt as catalyst.

  3. Comparative effect of ethylene oxide and gamma irradiation on the chemical sensory and microbial quality of ginger, cinnamon, fennel and fenugreek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toofanian, F.; Stegeman

    1986-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide fumigation on the microbiological and sensory properties of ground cinnamon, ginger, fennel and fenugreek, and on the volatile oil content of ground cinnamon, ginger and fennel was investigated. Ground ginger, cinnamon, fennel and fenugreek were obtained from a Dutch trade company. Ginger originated from China, cinnamon was produced in Indonesia and fennel and fenugreek were produced in India. The samples were ground by the trade companies and divided in three parts. One part was fumigated by the trade companies at ambient temperatures during eight hours with ethylene oxide (EO) at a concentration of 1500/m 3 . The second part was gamma irradiated at room temperature in aluminium/polyethylene bags at the 40 KCi cobalt-60 research source of the pilot plant for food irradiation in Wageningen. The untreated, fumigated and irradiated samples were stored in gas-impermeable packages. It was found that for cinnamon and ginger a 6 KGy dose, for fennel, 6-10 KGy and for fenugreek 6-8 KGy dose were equal in microbial effects to the commercial established fumigation process. No significant change in the volatile oil content of the fumigated or irradiated cinnamon and fennel has been observed. Irradiation of ginger with a dose of 5 KGy resulted in a slight decrease of 14% while fumigated ginger showed no significant loss in volatile oil content. Between the untreated irradiated or fumigated spices no major differences in sensory properties were found

  4. Action time effect of lime on its depressive ability for pyrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tichang Sun

    2004-01-01

    Two sample groups of bulk concentrates consisting mainly of pyrite and chalcopyrite from Daye and Chenghchao Mines in Hubei Province of China were used to investigate the effect of the action time of lime on its depressive ability for pyrite. The experimental results conducted with different samples and collectors showed that the action time between lime and pyrite markedly influences the depressive ability of lime. The depressive ability of lime increased with the action time increasing. It was also proved that the depressive results obtained at a large lime dosage after a shorter action time are similar to those obtained at a small lime dosage after a longer action time. The increase of depressive ability of lime after a longer action time is because that there are different mechanisms in different action time. The composition on the surface of pyrite acted for different time with lime was studied by using ESCA (Electron Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis). The results showed that iron hydroxide and calcium sulphate formed on the pyrite surface at the presence of lime in the pulp but the amounts of iron hydroxide and calcium sulphate were different at different action time. At the beginning action time the compound formed on the pyrite surface was mainly calcium sulphate and almost no iron hydroxide formed; but with the action time increasing, iron hydroxide formed. The longer the action time, the more iron hydroxide and the less calcium sulphate formed. It was considered that the stronger depressive ability of lime after a longer action time is because more iron hydroxide forms on the pyrite surface.

  5. Using Pure Cultures to Define the Site Preference of Nitrous Oxide Produced by Microbial Nitrification and Denitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutka, R. L.; Breznak, J. A.; Ostrom, N. E.; Ostrom, P. H.; Gandhi, H.

    2004-12-01

    Defining the site preference of nitrous oxide (N2O) produced in pure culture studies is crucial to interpreting field data. We have previously demonstrated that the intramolecular distribution of nitrogen isotopes (isotopomers) can be used to differentiate N2O produced by nitrifier denitrification and nitrification in cultures of Nitrosomonas europaea. Here, we have expanded on our initial results and evaluated the isotopomeric composition of N2O produced during nitrification and nitrifier denitrification with cultures of Nitrosospira multiformis. In addition, we have analyzed N2O produced during methanotrophic nitrification, denitrification, and fungal denitrification. To evaluate N2O production during nitrification and nitrifier denitrification, we compared the site preference of N2O formed as a result of nitrite reduction and hydroxylamine oxidation with Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosospira multiformis. The average site preference of N2O produced by hydroxylamine oxidation was similar for Nitrosomonas europaea (33.0 ± 3.5 ‰ ) and Nitrosospira multiformis (33.1 ± 4.2 ‰ ). Nitrous oxide produced by nitrifier-denitrification by Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosospira multiformis had a similar site preference of - 1.4 ± 4.4 ‰ and - 1.1 ± 2.6 ‰ respectively. The results indicate that it is possible to differentiate between N2O produced by nitrite reduction and hydroxylamine oxidation by ammonia oxidizing bacteria. Methanotrophic nitrification was evaluated by analyzing the N2O produced during hydroxylamine oxidation in concentrated cell suspensions of two methane oxidizing bacteria. The site preference of N2O produced by the two methane oxidizers, Methylococcus capsulatus Bath and Methylosinus trichosporium was 31.8 ± 4.7 ‰ and 33.0 ± 4.5 ‰ respectively. The results indicate that a site preference of 33 ‰ is applicable for nitrification regardless of whether a methane oxidizer or ammonia oxidizer is involved in the reaction. To determine the site

  6. Evaluation of anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activity of various essential oils in fresh chicken sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Heena; Mendiratta, S K; Agarwal, Ravi Kant; Kumar, Sudheer; Soni, Arvind

    2017-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate antimicrobial and antioxidant effect of essential oils on the quality of fresh (raw, ready to cook) chicken sausages. Several preliminary trials were carried out to optimize the level of four essential oils viz., clove oil, holybasil oil, thyme oil and cassia oil and these essential oils were incorporated at 0.25, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.125%, respectively in fresh chicken sausages. Quality evaluation and detailed storage stability studies were carried out for fresh chicken sausages for 20 days at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1 °C). Refrigerated storage studies revealed that TBARS of control was significantly higher than treatment products whereas, total phenolics and DPPH activity was significantly lower in control. Among treatments, clove oil products had significantly lower TBARS but higher total phenolic content and DPPH activity followed by cassia oil, thyme oil and holybasil oil products. Microbial count of essential oil incorporated products were significantly lower than control and remained well below the permissible limit of fresh meat products (log 10 7 cfu/g). Cassia oil products were observed with better anti-microbial characteristics than clove oil products at 0.25% level of incorporation, whereas, thyme oil products were better than holy basil oil products at 0.125% level. Storage studies revealed that clove oil (0.25%), holy basil oil (0.125%), cassia oil (0.25%) and thyme oil (0.125%) incorporated aerobically packaged and refrigerated fresh chicken sausages had approx. 4-5, 2-3, 5-6 and 2-3 days longer shelf life than control, respectively.

  7. Relative contributions of archaea and bacteria to microbial ammonia oxidation differ under different conditions during agricultural waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Jiachao; Chen, Yaoning; Yu, Zhen; Yu, Man; Li, Hui; Liu, Zhifeng; Chen, Ming; Lu, Lunhui; Hu, Chunxiao

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the relative contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) to nitrification during agricultural waste composting. The AOA and AOB amoA gene abundance and composition were determined by quantitative PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), respectively. The results showed that the archaeal amoA gene was abundant throughout the composting process, while the bacterial amoA gene abundance decreased to undetectable level during the thermophilic and cooling stages. DGGE showed more diverse archaeal amoA gene composition when the potential ammonia oxidation (PAO) rate reached peak values. A significant positive relationship was observed between the PAO rate and the archaeal amoA gene abundance (R²=0.554; Parchaea dominated ammonia oxidation during the thermophilic and cooling stages. Bacteria were also related to ammonia oxidation activity (R²=0.503; P=0.03) especially during the mesophilic and maturation stages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Microsensor Measurements of Sulfate Reduction and Sulfide Oxidation in Compact Microbial Communities of Aerobic Biofilms Rid A-1977-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    KUHL, M.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1992-01-01

    The microzonation of O2 respiration, H2S oxidation, and SO4(2-) reduction in aerobic trickling-filter biofilms was studied by measuring concentration profiles at high spatial resolution (25 to 100-mu-m) with microsensors for O2, S2-, and pH. Specific reaction rates were calculated from measured...

  9. Geochemistry of shale and sedimentary pyrite as a proxy for gold fertility in the Selwyn basin area, Yukon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Patrick J.; Large, Ross R.; Gregory, Daniel D.

    2018-01-01

    Selwyn basin area strata contain sedimentary pyrite with Au above background levels when analyzed by laser ablation-inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Hyland Group rocks contain framboidal pyrite contents of 670 ppb Au, 1223 ppm As, and 5.3 ppm Te; the mean of all types of sedimentary pyrite in the Hyland Group is 391 ppb Au, 1489 ppm As, and 3.8 ppm Te. These levels are similar to sedimentary pyrite in host lithologies from major orogenic gold districts in New Zealand and Australia. Comparison of whole rock and pyrite data show that rocks deposited in continental slope settings with significant terrigenous input contain pyrite that is consistently enriched in Au, As, Te, Co, and Cu. Although data are limited, whole rock samples of stratigraphic units containing Au-rich pyrite also contain high Au, indicating that most of the Au is within sedimentary pyrite. Based on geologic characteristics and comparison of pyrite chemistry data with whole rock chemistry, Selwyn basin area strata have the necessary ingredients to form orogenic gold deposits: Au-enriched source rocks, metamorphic conditions permissive of forming a metamorphic ore fluid, and abundant structural preparation for channeling fluids and depositing ore.

  10. Sulfur amino acids and alanine on pyrite (100) by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy: Surface or molecular role?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Arenillas, M.; Galvez-Martinez, S.; Mateo-Marti, E., E-mail: mateome@cab.inta-csic.es

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Surface annealing pretreatment on pyrite surfaces can select molecular adsorption. • Enriched monosulfide species on pyrite (100) surface favors NH{sub 2} adsorption form. • Enriching disulfide species on pyrite (100) surface promotes NH{sub 3}{sup +} adsorption form. • Unique structure of each aminoacid provides a particular fingerprint in the process. • Spectroscopy evidence, pretreatment surface processes drives molecular adsorption. - Abstract: This paper describes the first successful adsorption of the cysteine, cystine, methionine and alanine amino acids on the pyrite (100) surface under ultra-high vacuum conditions with crucial chemical adsorption parameters driving the process. We have demonstrated by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) that the surface pretreatment annealing process on pyrite surfaces is a critical parameter driving surface reactivity. The presence of enriched monosulfide species on the pyrite (100) surface favours the amino acid NH{sub 2} chemical form, whereas a longer annealing surface pretreatment of over 3 h repairs the sulfur vacancies in the pyrite, enriching disulfide species on the pyrite surface, which promotes NH{sub 3}{sup +} adsorption due to the sulfur vacancies in the pyrite being replaced by sulfur atom dimers (S{sub 2}{sup 2−}) on the surface. Furthermore, even if the surface chemistry (monosulfide or disulfide species enrichment) is the main factor promoting a partial conversion from NH{sub 2} to NH{sub 3}{sup +} species, the unique chemical structure of each amino acid provides a particular fingerprint in the process.

  11. Trace element mapping of pyrite from Archean gold deposits – A comparison between PIXE and EPMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agangi, A., E-mail: aagangi@uj.ac.za [University of Johannesburg, Department of Geology, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Przybyłowicz, W., E-mail: przybylowicz@tlabs.ac.za [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics & Applied Computer Science, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Hofmann, A., E-mail: ahofmann@uj.ac.za [University of Johannesburg, Department of Geology, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa)

    2015-04-01

    Chemical zoning of pyrites can record the evolution of mineralising fluids at widely varying P–T conditions ranging from diagenesis to medium-grade metamorphism. If preserved, zoning can reveal growth textures, brecciation and veining, resorption and recrystallisation events, thus shedding light on the processes that contributed to ore formation. Chemical zoning of sulfides is invisible in optical microscopy, but can be studied by chemical etching, high-contrast back-scattering electron images, and elemental imaging. In this study we compared micro-PIXE and WDS-EPMA elemental maps on the chemically zoned pyrites in mineralised vein-bearing samples from the Sheba and Fairview gold mines in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Elemental images show complex distribution of trace elements, suggesting multiple events of pyrite crystallisation and gold deposition. EPMA maps show fine-scale variations reflecting growth and recrystallisation textures marked, in particular, by variations of As, Ni, and Co. In PIXE maps, gold occurs both as finely-distributed and discrete inclusions, suggesting incorporation in the pyrite structure as solid solution, and deposition as electrum inclusions, respectively. Micro-PIXE and EPMA provide complementary information, forming together a powerful tool to obtain information on chemical zoning of pyrites in ore deposits.

  12. Induction of peroxisomal beta-oxidation by a microbial catabolite of cholic acid in rat liver and cultured rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimaki-Mogami, T; Takahashi, A; Toyoda, K; Hayashi, Y

    1993-01-01

    The capability of (4R)-4-(2,3,4,6,6a beta,7,8,9,9a alpha,9b beta-decahydro-6a beta-methyl-3-oxo-1H-cyclopental[f]quinolin-7 beta-yl)valeric acid (DCQVA), a catabolite of cholic acid produced by enterobacteria, to induce peroxisome proliferation in vivo and in vitro was studied. Rats given 0.3% DCQVA in the diet for 2 weeks showed marked increases in peroxisomal beta-oxidation, mitochondrial 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase and microsomal laurate omega-oxidation activities in the liver compared with control rats given the diet without DCQVA. Cultured rat hepatocytes treated with DCQVA for 72 h also exhibited greatly enhanced beta-oxidation activity. The increased activity was concentration-dependent and the effective concentrations were comparable with those of clofibric acid that produced the same degree of induction in the assay. The results demonstrate that DCQVA is a potent peroxisome proliferator that occurs naturally in rat intestine. PMID:8216219

  13. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nanostructured Manganese Oxide as Cathodic Catalyst in a Microbial Fuel Cell Fed with Leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haoran, Yuan; Lifang, Deng; Tao, Lu; Yong, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Much effort has been devoted to the synthesis of novel nanostructured MnO2 materials because of their unique properties and potential applications as cathode catalyst in Microbial fuel cell. Hybrid MnO2 nanostructures were fabricated by a simple hydrothermal method in this study. Their crystal structures, morphology, and electrochemical characters were carried out by FESEM, N2-adsorption-desorption, and CV, indicating that the hydrothermally synthesized MnO2 (HSM) was structured by nanorods of high aspect ratio and multivalve nanoflowers and more positive than the naturally synthesized MnO2 (NSM), accompanied by a noticeable increase in oxygen reduction peak current. When the HSM was employed as the cathode catalyst in air-cathode MFC which fed with leachate, a maximum power density of 119.07 mW/m2 was delivered, 64.68% higher than that with the NSM as cathode catalyst. Furthermore, the HSM via a 4-e pathway, but the NSM via a 2-e pathway in alkaline solution, and as 4-e pathway is a more efficient oxygen reduction reaction, the HSM was more positive than NSM. Our study provides useful information on facile preparation of cost-effective cathodic catalyst in air-cathode MFC for wastewater treatment. PMID:24723824

  14. Nitrous oxide reduction genetic potential from the microbial community of an intermittently aerated partial nitritation SBR treating mature landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarró, J; Hernández-Del Amo, E; Gich, F; Ruscalleda, M; Balaguer, M D; Colprim, J

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates the microbial community dynamics in an intermittently aerated partial nitritation (PN) SBR treating landfill leachate, with emphasis to the nosZ encoding gene. PN was successfully achieved and high effluent stability and suitability for a later anammox reactor was ensured. Anoxic feedings allowed denitrifying activity in the reactor. The influent composition influenced the mixed liquor suspended solids concentration leading to variations of specific operational rates. The bacterial community was low diverse due to the stringent conditions in the reactor, and was mostly enriched by members of Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes as determined by 16S rRNA sequencing from excised DGGE melting types. The qPCR analysis for nitrogen cycle-related enzymes (amoA, nirS, nirK and nosZ) demonstrated high amoA enrichment but being nirS the most relatively abundant gene. nosZ was also enriched from the seed sludge. Linear correlation was found mostly between nirS and the organic specific rates. Finally, Bacteroidetes sequenced in this study by 16S rRNA DGGE were not sequenced for nosZ DGGE, indicating that not all denitrifiers deal with complete denitrification. However, nosZ encoding gene bacteria was found during the whole experiment indicating the genetic potential to reduce N2O. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing marine microbial induced corrosion at Santa Catalina Island, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Antonio Ramírez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High iron and eutrophic conditions are reported as environmental factors leading to accelerated low-water corrosion, an enhanced form of near-shore microbial-induced corrosion. To explore this hypothesis, we deployed flow-through colonization systems in laboratory-based aquarium tanks under a continuous flow of surface seawater from Santa Catalina Island, California, USA, for periods of two and six months. Substrates consisted of mild steel – a major constituent of maritime infrastructure – and the naturally occurring iron sulfide mineral pyrite. Four conditions were tested: free-venting high-flux conditions; a stagnant condition; an active flow-through condition with seawater slowly pumped over the substrates; and an enrichment condition where the slow pumping of seawater was supplemented with nutrient rich medium. Electron microscopy analyses of the two-month high flux incubations document coating of substrates with twisted stalks, resembling iron oxyhydroxide bioprecipitates made by marine neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria. Six-month incubations exhibit increased biofilm and substrate corrosion in the active flow and nutrient enriched conditions relative to the stagnant condition. A scarcity of twisted stalks was observed for all six month slow-flow conditions compared to the high-flux condition, which may be attributable to oxygen concentrations in the slow-flux conditions being prohibitively low for sustained growth of stalk-producing bacteria. All substrates developed microbial communities reflective of the original seawater input, as based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Deltaproteobacteria sequences increased in relative abundance in the active flow and nutrient enrichment conditions, whereas Gammaproteobacteria sequences were relatively more abundant in the stagnant condition. These results indicate that i high-flux incubations with higher oxygen availability favor the development of biofilms with twisted stalks resembling those of

  16. Use of the Moessbauer effect for determining pyritic sulfur content in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerw, B; Sikora, T

    1986-10-01

    This paper discusses investigations into resonance absorption of gamma radiation. Standard equipment for measuring the Moessbauer effect in black coal consisting of a measuring head, the SM-4T spectrometer, a multichannel analyzer, the Standard electronic unit and a printer is evaluated. The MSP measuring system developed jointly by the EMAG Mine Automation Company and the Nuclear Research Institute in Swierk is described. The MSP equipment is used for measuring content of pyritic sulfur in coal. Its accuracy is satisfactory. Results of measuring pyritic and total sulfur content by means of quantitative chemical analysis and by the MSP resonance absorption method (Moessbauer effect) are compared. The mean standard deviation for pyritic sulfur is 0.14% and for total sulfur content 0.21%. 11 refs.

  17. Isotopic and elemental chemistry of sedimentary pyrite: A combined analytical and statistical approach to a novel planetary biosignature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, M. C.; Gregory, D. D.; Lyons, T. W.; Williford, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    Life processes affect trace element abundances in pyrite such that sedimentary and hydrothermal pyrite have significantly different trace element signatures. Thus, we propose that these biogeochemical data could be used to identify pyrite that formed biogenetically either early in our planet's history or on other planets, particularly Mars. The potential for this approach is elevated because pyrite is common in diverse sedimentary settings, and its trace element content can be preserved despite secondary overprints up to greenschist facies, thus minimizing the concerns about remobilization that can plague traditional whole rock studies. We are also including in-situ sulfur isotope analysis to further refine our understanding of the complex signatures of ancient pyrite. Sulfur isotope data can point straightforwardly to the involvement of life, because pyrite in sediments is inextricably linked to bacterial sulfate reduction and its diagnostic isotopic expressions. In addition to analyzing pyrite of known biological origin formed in the modern and ancient oceans under a range of conditions, we are building a data set for pyrite formed by hydrothermal and metamorphic processes to minimize the risk of false positives in life detection. We have used Random Forests (RF), a machine learning statistical technique with proven efficiency for classifying large geological datasets, to classify pyrite into biotic and abiotic end members. Coupling the trace element and sulfur isotope data from our analyses with a large existing dataset from diverse settings has yielded 4500 analyses with 18 different variables. Our initial results reveal the promise of the RF approach, correctly identifying biogenic pyrite 97 percent of the time. We will continue to couple new in-situ S-isotope and trace element analyses of biogenic pyrite grains from modern and ancient environments, using cutting-edge microanalytical techniques, with new data from high temperature settings. Our ultimately goal

  18. Pyrite-enhanced methylene blue degradation in non-thermal plasma water treatment reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benetoli, Luis Otavio de Brito, E-mail: luskywalcker@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Cadorin, Bruno Mena; Baldissarelli, Vanessa Zanon [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Geremias, Reginaldo [Departamento de Ciencias Rurais, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Curitibanos, SC (Brazil); Goncalvez de Souza, Ivan [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Debacher, Nito Angelo, E-mail: debacher@qmc.ufsc.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-10-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use O{sub 2} as the feed gas and pyrite was added to the non-thermal plasma reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The methylene blue removal by NTP increased in the presence of pyrite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The total organic carbon content decreased substantially. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The acute toxicity test showed that the treated solution is not toxic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dye degradation occurs via electron impact as well as successive hydroxylation. - Abstract: In this study, methylene blue (MB) removal from an aqueous phase by electrical discharge non-thermal plasma (NTP) over water was investigated using three different feed gases: N{sub 2}, Ar, and O{sub 2}. The results showed that the dye removal rate was not strongly dependent on the feed gas when the electrical current was kept the same for all gases. The hydrogen peroxide generation in the water varied according to the feed gas (N{sub 2} < Ar < O{sub 2}). Using O{sub 2} as the feed gas, pyrite was added to the reactor in acid medium resulting in an accentuated increase in the dye removal, which suggests that pyrite acts as a Fenton-like catalyst. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the dye solution decreased slightly as the plasma treatment time increased, but in the presence of the pyrite catalyst the TOC removal increased substantially. The acute toxicity test using Artemia sp. microcrustaceans showed that the treated solution is not toxic when Ar, O{sub 2} or O{sub 2}-pyrite is employed. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis (ESI-MS) of the treated samples indicated that the dye degradation occurs via high energy electron impact as well as successive hydroxylation in the benzene rings of the dye molecules.

  19. Bioleaching of low grade uranium ore containing pyrite using A. ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexey Borisovich Umanskii; Anton Mihaylovich Klyushnikov

    2013-01-01

    A process of uranium extraction from ore containing 3.1 % pyrite by bacterial leaching was investigated in shaken flasks during 90 days. The highest uranium recovery amounting to 85.1 % was obtained using binary mixture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans that was exceeding results obtained by traditional acid leaching technique up to 27 %. High uranium recovery was founded to be due to the high degree of pyrite dissolution that can be readily achieved by bacterial leaching (up to 98.0 %). (author)

  20. Treatment performance, nitrous oxide production and microbial community under low-ammonium wastewater in a CANON process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Weixing; Zhao, Jianqiang; Ding, Xiaoqian; Ge, Guanghuan; Zhao, Rixiang

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the characteristics of anaerobic ammonia oxidation for treating low-ammonium wastewater, a continuous-flow completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) biofilm reactor was studied. At a temperature of 32 ± 1 °C and a pH between 7.5 and 8.2, two operational experiments were performed: the first one fixed the hydraulic retention time (HRT) at 10 h and gradually reduced the influent ammonium concentrations from 210 to 50 mg L -1 ; the second one fixed the influent ammonium concentration at 30 mg L -1 and gradually decreased the HRT from 10 to 3 h. The results revealed that the total nitrogen removal efficiency exceeded 80%, with a corresponding total nitrogen removal rate of 0.26 ± 0.01 kg N m -3 d -1 at the final low ammonium concentration of 30 mg L -1 . Small amounts of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) up to 0.015 ± 0.004 kg m -3 d -1 at the ammonium concentration of 210 mg L -1 were produced in the CANON process and decreased with the decrease in the influent ammonium loads. High-throughput pyrosequencing analysis indicated that the dominant functional bacteria 'Candidatus Kuenenia' under high influent ammonium levels were gradually succeeded by Armatimonadetes_gp5 under low influent ammonium levels.

  1. Microbial stratification in low pH oxic and suboxic macroscopic growths along an acid mine drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Méndez-García, Celia; Mesa, Victoria; Sprenger, Richard Remko

    2014-01-01

    Macroscopic growths at geographically separated acid mine drainages (AMDs) exhibit distinct populations. Yet, local heterogeneities are poorly understood. To gain novel mechanistic insights into this, we used OMICs tools to profile microbial populations coexisting in a single pyrite gallery AMD (pH...

  2. Microbial stratification in low pH oxic and suboxic macroscopic growths along an acid mine drainage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Méndez-Garcia, C.; Mesa, V.; Sprenger, R.R.; Richter, M.; Suarez Diez, M.; Solano, J.; Bargiela, R.; Golyshina, O.V.; Manteca, A.; Ramos, J.L.; Gallego, J.R.; Llorente, I.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Jensen, O.N.; Paláez, A.I.; Sánchez, J.; Ferrer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Macroscopic growths at geographically separated acid mine drainages (AMDs) exhibit distinct populations. Yet, local heterogeneities are poorly understood. To gain novel mechanistic insights into this, we used OMICs tools to profile microbial populations coexisting in a single pyrite gallery AMD (pH

  3. Hidden diversity revealed by genome-resolved metagenomics of iron-oxidizing microbial mats from Lō'ihi Seamount, Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Heather; Hager, Kevin W; McAllister, Sean M; Moyer, Craig L

    2017-08-01

    The Zetaproteobacteria are ubiquitous in marine environments, yet this class of Proteobacteria is only represented by a few closely-related cultured isolates. In high-iron environments, such as diffuse hydrothermal vents, the Zetaproteobacteria are important members of the community driving its structure. Biogeography of Zetaproteobacteria has shown two ubiquitous operational taxonomic units (OTUs), yet much is unknown about their genomic diversity. Genome-resolved metagenomics allows for the specific binning of microbial genomes based on genomic signatures present in composite metagenome assemblies. This resulted in the recovery of 93 genome bins, of which 34 were classified as Zetaproteobacteria. Form II ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase genes were recovered from nearly all the Zetaproteobacteria genome bins. In addition, the Zetaproteobacteria genome bins contain genes for uptake and utilization of bioavailable nitrogen, detoxification of arsenic, and a terminal electron acceptor adapted for low oxygen concentration. Our results also support the hypothesis of a Cyc2-like protein as the site for iron oxidation, now detected across a majority of the Zetaproteobacteria genome bins. Whole genome comparisons showed a high genomic diversity across the Zetaproteobacteria OTUs and genome bins that were previously unidentified by SSU rRNA gene analysis. A single lineage of cosmopolitan Zetaproteobacteria (zOTU 2) was found to be monophyletic, based on cluster analysis of average nucleotide identity and average amino acid identity comparisons. From these data, we can begin to pinpoint genomic adaptations of the more ecologically ubiquitous Zetaproteobacteria, and further understand their environmental constraints and metabolic potential.

  4. On the mechanism of action of combination of thionocarbamates with xanthate during flotation of copper-molybdenum pyrite contained ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedosekina, T.V.; Glembotskij, A.V.; Bekhtle, G.A.; Novgorodova, Eh.Z.

    1985-01-01

    Investigation results of action mechanism of thionocarbamates combination with xanthate are described. It is established that these collectors are capable of co-adsorbing on pyrite surface, that is the reason for sharp increase of the floatability and disturbs the selectivity of copper-molybdenum pyrite-containing ore flotation

  5. Element migration of pyrites during ductile deformation of the Yuleken porphyry Cu deposit (NW-China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Tao; Xu, Xing-Wang; Gao, Jun; Peters, Stephen; Li, Jilei; Cao, Mingjian; Xiang, Peng; Wu, Chu; You, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The strongly deformed Yuleken porphyry Cu deposit (YPCD) occurs in the Kalaxiangar porphyry Cu belt (KPCB), which occupies the central area of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) between the Sawu’er island arc and the Altay Terrane in northern Xinjiang. The YPCD is one of several typical subduction-related deposits in the KPCB, which has undergone syn-collisional and post-collisional metallogenic overprinting. The YPCD is characterized by three pyrite-forming stages, namely a hydrothermal stage A (Py I), a syn-ductile deformation stage B (Py II) characterized by Cu-Au enrichment, and a fracture-filling stage C (Py III). In this study, we conducted systematic petrographic and geochemical studies of pyrites and coexist biotite, which formed during different stages, in order to constrain the physicochemical conditions of the ore formation. Euhedral, fragmented Py I has low Pb and high Te and Se concentration and Ni contents are low with Co/Ni ratios mostly between 1 and 10 (average 9.00). Py I is further characterized by enrichments of Bi, As, Ni, Cu, Te and Se in the core relative to the rim domains. Anhedral round Py II has moderate Co and Ni contents with high Co/Ni ratios >10 (average 95.2), and average contents of 46.5 ppm Pb and 5.80 ppm Te. Py II is further characterized by decreasing Bi, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag, Te, Mo, Sb and Au contents from the rim to the core domains. Annealed Py III has the lowest Co content of all pyrite types with Co/Ni ratios mostly <0.1 (average 1.33). Furthermore, Py III has average contents of 3.31 ppm Pb, 1.33 ppm Te and 94.6 ppm Se. In addition, Fe does not correlate with Cu and S in the Py I and Py III, while Py II displays a negative correlation between Fe and Cu as well as a positive correlation between Fe and S. Therefore, pyrites which formed during different tectonic regimes also have different chemical compositions. Biotite geothermometer and oxygen fugacity estimates display increasing temperatures and oxygen

  6. Iron and Sulfur Species and Sulfur Isotopic Compositions of Authigenic Pyrite in Gas Hydrate-Bearing Sediments from Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia Margin (ODP Leg 204): A Proposal of Conceptual Models to Indicate the Non-Steady State Depositional and Diagenetic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Jiang, S. Y.; Su, X.

    2017-12-01

    Two accretionary sediment sequences from Sites 1245 and 1252 recovered during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 204 at Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia Margin were investigated to explore the non-steady state depositional and diagenetic history. Five iron species and three sulfur species were chemically extracted, and their concentrations and the sulfur isotopic compositions of pyrite were determined. After the mineral recognitions of these species and detailed comparative analyses, the aerobic history of bottom seawater has been determined. The formation of pyrite is thought to be controlled by the limited production of hydrogen sulfide relative to the supply of reactive iron. Also, the intrusion of oxygen by bioturbation would oxidize the reduced sulfur species and further suppress pyritization. To explain the geochemical relationship between pyrite and siderite and the sulfur isotope characteristics of pyrite, we propose seven conceptual models based on the variations in depositional rate and methane flux, and the models succeed in explaining the geochemical results and are validated by the observed non-steady state events. These models may contribute to the reconstruction of the non-steady state processes in other research areas in the future.

  7. Distribution of sulfur and pyrite in coal seams from Kutai Basin (East Kalimantan, Indonesia): Implications for paleoenvironmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widodo, Sri [Department of Mining Engineering, Moslem University of Indonesia, Jln. Urip Sumoharjo, Makassar (Indonesia); Oschmann, Wolfgang [Institute of Geosciece, J.W. Goethe-University, Altenhoeferallee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany); Bechtel, Achim; Sachsenhofer, Reinhard F. [Department of Applied Geoscience and Geophysics, University of Leoben, Peter-Tunner-Str.5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Anggayana, Komang [Department of Mining Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jln. Ganesa 10, I-40132 Bandung (Indonesia); Puettmann, Wilhelm [Institute of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Dapartment of Analytical Enviromental Chemistry, J.W. Goethe-University, Altenhoeferallee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany)

    2010-03-01

    Thirteen Miocene coal samples from three active open pit and underground coal mines in the Kutai Basin (East Kalimantan, Indonesia) were collected. According to our microscopical and geochemical investigations, coal samples from Sebulu and Centra Busang coal mines yield high sulfur and pyrite contents as compared to the Embalut coal mine. The latter being characterized by very low sulfur (< 1%) and pyrite contents. The ash, mineral, total sulfur, iron (Fe) and pyrite contents of most of the coal samples from the Sebulu and Centra Busang coal mines are high and positively related in these samples. Low contents of ash, mineral, total sulfur, iron (Fe) and pyrite have been found only in sample TNT-32 from Centra Busang coal mine. Pyrite was the only sulfur form that we could recognize under reflected light microscope (oil immersion). Pyrite occurred in the coal as framboidal, euhedral, massive, anhedral and epigenetic pyrite in cleats/fractures. High concentration of pyrite argues for the availability of iron (Fe) in the coal samples. Most coal samples from the Embalut coal mine show lower sulfur (< 1 wt.%) and pyrite contents as found within Centra Busang and Sebulu coals. One exception is the coal sample KTD-38 from Embalut mine with total sulfur content of 1.41 wt.%. The rich ash, mineral, sulfur and pyrite contents of coals in the Kutai Basin (especially Centra Busang and Sebulu coals) can be related to the volcanic activity (Nyaan volcanic) during Tertiary whereby aeolian material was transported to the mire during or after the peatification process. Moreover, the adjacent early Tertiary deep marine sediment, mafic igneous rocks and melange in the center of Kalimantan Island might have provided mineral to the coal by uplift and erosion. The inorganic matter in the mire might also originate from the ground and surface water from the highland of central Kalimantan. (author)

  8. Preparation of natural pyrite nanoparticles by high energy planetary ball milling as a nanocatalyst for heterogeneous Fenton process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fathinia, Siavash [Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Laboratory of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathinia, Mehrangiz [Research Laboratory of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahmani, Ali Akbar [Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khataee, Alireza, E-mail: a_khataee@tabrizu.ac.ir [Research Laboratory of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pyrite nanoparticles were successfully produced by planetary ball milling process. • The physical and chemical properties of pyrite nanoparticles were fully examined. • The degradation of AO7 was notably enhanced by pyrite nanoparticles Fenton system. • The influences of basic operational parameters were investigated using CCD. - Abstract: In the present study pyrite nanoparticles were prepared by high energy mechanical ball milling utilizing a planetary ball mill. Various pyrite samples were produced by changing the milling time from 2 h to 6 h, in the constant milling speed of 320 rpm. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) linked with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) were performed to explain the characteristics of primary (unmilled) and milled pyrite samples. The average particle size distribution of the produced pyrite during 6 h milling was found to be between 20 nm and 100 nm. The catalytic performance of the different pyrite samples was examined in the heterogeneous Fenton process for degradation of C.I. Acid Orange 7 (AO7) solution. Results showed that the decolorization efficiency of AO7 in the presence of 6 h-milled pyrite sample was the highest. The impact of key parameters on the degradation efficiency of AO7 by pyrite nanoparticles catalyzed Fenton process was modeled using central composite design (CCD). Accordingly, the maximum removal efficiency of 96.30% was achieved at initial AO7 concentration of 16 mg/L, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration of 5 mmol/L, catalyst amount of 0.5 g/L and reaction time of 25 min.

  9. Environmental transcriptome analysis reveals physiological differences between biofilm and planktonic modes of life of the iron oxidizing bacteria Leptospirillum spp. in their natural microbial community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parro Víctor

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extreme acidic environments are characterized by their high metal content and lack of nutrients (oligotrophy. Macroscopic biofilms and filaments usually grow on the water-air interface or under the stream attached to solid substrates (streamers. In the Río Tinto (Spain, brown filaments develop under the water stream where the Gram-negative iron-oxidizing bacteria Leptospirillum spp. (L. ferrooxidans and L. ferriphilum and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans are abundant. These microorganisms play a critical role in bioleaching processes for industrial (biominery and environmental applications (acid mine drainage, bioremediation. The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological differences between the free living (planktonic and the sessile (biofilm associated lifestyles of Leptospirillum spp. as part of its natural extremely acidophilic community. Results Total RNA extracted from environmental samples was used to determine the composition of the metabolically active members of the microbial community and then to compare the biofilm and planktonic environmental transcriptomes by hybridizing to a genomic microarray of L. ferrooxidans. Genes up-regulated in the filamentous biofilm are involved in cellular functions related to biofilm formation and maintenance, such as: motility and quorum sensing (mqsR, cheAY, fliA, motAB, synthesis of cell wall structures (lnt, murA, murB, specific proteases (clpX/clpP, stress response chaperons (clpB, clpC, grpE-dnaKJ, groESL, etc. Additionally, genes involved in mixed acid fermentation (poxB, ackA were up-regulated in the biofilm. This result, together with the presence of small organic acids like acetate and formate (1.36 mM and 0.06 mM respectively in the acidic (pH 1.8 water stream, suggests that either L. ferrooxidans or other member of the microbial community are producing acetate in the acidophilic biofilm under microaerophilic conditions. Conclusions Our results indicate that the

  10. Environmental transcriptome analysis reveals physiological differences between biofilm and planktonic modes of life of the iron oxidizing bacteria Leptospirillum spp. in their natural microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Gómez, Manuel J; Arcas, Aida; Parro, Víctor

    2010-06-24

    Extreme acidic environments are characterized by their high metal content and lack of nutrients (oligotrophy). Macroscopic biofilms and filaments usually grow on the water-air interface or under the stream attached to solid substrates (streamers). In the Río Tinto (Spain), brown filaments develop under the water stream where the Gram-negative iron-oxidizing bacteria Leptospirillum spp. (L. ferrooxidans and L. ferriphilum) and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans are abundant. These microorganisms play a critical role in bioleaching processes for industrial (biominery) and environmental applications (acid mine drainage, bioremediation). The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological differences between the free living (planktonic) and the sessile (biofilm associated) lifestyles of Leptospirillum spp. as part of its natural extremely acidophilic community. Total RNA extracted from environmental samples was used to determine the composition of the metabolically active members of the microbial community and then to compare the biofilm and planktonic environmental transcriptomes by hybridizing to a genomic microarray of L. ferrooxidans. Genes up-regulated in the filamentous biofilm are involved in cellular functions related to biofilm formation and maintenance, such as: motility and quorum sensing (mqsR, cheAY, fliA, motAB), synthesis of cell wall structures (lnt, murA, murB), specific proteases (clpX/clpP), stress response chaperons (clpB, clpC, grpE-dnaKJ, groESL), etc. Additionally, genes involved in mixed acid fermentation (poxB, ackA) were up-regulated in the biofilm. This result, together with the presence of small organic acids like acetate and formate (1.36 mM and 0.06 mM respectively) in the acidic (pH 1.8) water stream, suggests that either L. ferrooxidans or other member of the microbial community are producing acetate in the acidophilic biofilm under microaerophilic conditions. Our results indicate that the acidophilic filaments are dynamic structures

  11. Pyrite-pyrrhotite intergrowths in calcite marble from Bistriški Vintgar, Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavašnik, J

    2016-01-01

    Roman marble quarry in Bistrica gorge in southern Pohorje Mt. (north-eastern Slovenia) is situated in a 20 m thick lens of layered marble, at the contact zone between granodiorite and metamorphites. Grey and yellowish non-homogenous calcite marble is heavily included by mica, quartz, feldspars, zoisite, pyrite and amphiboles. In the present research, we have studied numerous pyrite (FeS 2 ) crystals associated with yellowish-bronze non-stoichiometric pyrrhotite (Fe 1−x S), not previously reported from this locality. SEM investigation revealed unusual sequence of crystallisation: primary skeletal pyrrhotite matrix is sparsely overgrown by well-crystalline pyrite, both being overgrown by smaller, well-developed hexagonal pyrrhotite crystals of the second generation. With TEM we identify the pyrrhotite as 5T-Fe 1-x S phase, where x is about 0.1 and is equivalent to Fe 9 S 10 . The pyrite-pyrrhotite coexistence allows us a construction of fO 2 -pH diagram of stability fields, which reflects geochemical conditions at the time of marble re-crystallisation. (paper)

  12. Enhanced photoresponse of FeS2 films: the role of Marcasite-Pyrite phase junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, L.; Dzade, N.Y.; Gao, L.; Scanlon, D.O.; Öztürk, Z.; Hollingsworth, N.; Weckhuysen, B.M.; Hensen, E.J.M.; De Leeuw, N.H.; Hofmann, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial role of marcasite in iron-sulfide-based photo-electrochemical applications is reported for the first time. A spectacular improvement of the photoresponse observed experimentally for mixed pyrite/marcasite-FeS2 films can be ascribed to the presence of p/m phase junctions at the

  13. Enhanced Photoresponse of FeS2 Films : The Role of Marcasite–Pyrite Phase Junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Longfei; Dzade, N.Y.; Gao, L.; Scanlon, D. O.; Özturk, Zafer; Hollingsworth, N.; Weckhuysen, B.M.; Hensen, E. J. M.; de Leeuw, Nora H.; Hofmann, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial role of marcasite in iron sulfide-based photo-electrochemical applications is reported for the first time. A spectacular improvement of the photoresponse observed experimentally for mixed pyrite/marcasite-FeS2 films can be ascribed to the presence of p/m phase junctions at the

  14. The Influence of Pyrite on the Solubility of Minjingu and Panda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    28.5 million tons of sulphur. This study was ... bining PRs with elemental S, FYM ot 'and pyrite rock rere used.in this compost (Chien et al., ... Some of the possibility of using locally available the chemical properties of the rocks materials in ...

  15. Biological consilience of hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide in plants: Gases of primordial earth linking plant, microbial and animal physiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hideo; Cohen, Michael F

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is produced in the mammalian body through the enzymatic activities of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST). A growing number of studies have revealed that biogenic H2S produced in tissues is involved in a variety of physiological responses in mammals including vasorelaxation and neurotransmission. It is now evident that mammals utilize H2S to regulate multiple signaling systems, echoing the research history of the gaseous signaling molecules nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) that had previously only been recognized for their cytotoxicity. In the human diet, meats (mammals, birds and fishes) and vegetables (plants) containing cysteine and other sulfur compounds are the major dietary sources for endogenous production of H2S. Plants are primary producers in ecosystems on the earth and they synthesize organic sulfur compounds through the activity of sulfur assimilation. Although plant H2S-producing activities have been known for a long time, our knowledge of H2S biology in plant systems has not been updated to the extent of mammalian studies. Here we review recent progress on H2S studies, highlighting plants and bacteria. Scoping the future integration of H2S, NO and O2 biology, we discuss a possible linkage between physiology, ecology and evolutional biology of gas metabolisms that may reflect the historical changes of the Earth's atmospheric composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Physiological response of Cistus monspeliensis L. growing in two mine areas of the Iberian Pyrite Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas Lago, Daniel; Carvalho, Luisa C.; Santos, Erika S.; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Andrade, María Luisa

    2015-04-01

    São Domingos and Lousal mines, nowadays in abandoned state, are located in Portugal, in the Iberian Pyrite Belt, a world-class volcanic-hosted massive sulfide. As a result of the intense mining activity large volumes of wastes containing metal(loid)s were partly exposed to weathering realising potential hazardous elements contaminating waters, soils and sediments. In both mines, a great part of the contaminated areas is relatively covered by several wild species. These species have developed mechanisms of response to oxidative stress originated by high concentration of metal(loid)s in plant tissues, whose presence leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species, thus causing oxidative damage. The main objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the ecophysiological behaviour of Cistus monspeliensis L., which grows spontaneously in both mine areas, in soils containing high concentrations of metal(loid)s. With this purpose, the variation of some physiological parameters was analysed in order to identify which parameters can be indicators of the plant'sresponse to oxidative stress. Representative soils from rhizosphere and plants were sampled, in the same locations, in different areas of São Domingos and Lousal mines and in an uncontaminated area nearby São Domingos. Soils were characterized for the classic properties. Multielemental total concentration was analysed in soils and plants (shoots and roots), and multielemental concentration in the available fraction of soils. Pigments (chlorophylls, anthocyanins and carotenoids), glutathione, ascorbate, H2O2 and antioxidative enzyme activities were measured in plant shoots. In general, total and available concentrations (mg/kg) of Zn (total 149-463; available 2-16), As (total 62-3030; available 0.03-1.9), Cd (total 0.3-1.2; available 0.01-0.05), Cu (total 79-375; available 0.8-10) and Pb (total 95-9210; available 0.2-40) are significantly higher in mine soils than in uncontaminated soils Zn (total 92

  17. Pyrite deformation and connections to gold mobility: Insight from micro-structural analysis and trace element mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubosq, R.; Lawley, C. J. M.; Rogowitz, A.; Schneider, D. A.; Jackson, S.

    2018-06-01

    The metamorphic transition of pyrite to pyrrhotite results in the liberation of lattice-bound and nano-particulate metals initially hosted within early sulphide minerals. This process forms the basis for the metamorphic-driven Au-upgrading model applied to many orogenic Au deposits, however the role of syn-metamorphic pyrite deformation in controlling the retention and release of Au and related pathfinder elements is poorly understood. The lower amphibolite facies metamorphic mineral assemblage (Act-Bt-Pl-Ep-Alm ± Cal ± Qz ± Ilm; 550 °C) of Canada's giant Detour Lake deposit falls within the range of pressure-temperature conditions (450 °C) for crystal plastic deformation of pyrite. We have applied a complementary approach of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) mapping and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) 2D element mapping on pyrite from the Detour Lake deposit. Chemical element maps document an early generation of Au-rich sieve textured pyrite domains and a later stage of syn-metamorphic oscillatory-zoned Au-poor pyrite. Both pyrite types are cut by Au-rich fractures as a consequence of remobilization of Au with trace element enrichment of first-row transition elements, post-transition metals, chalcogens and metalloids during a late brittle deformation stage. However, similar enrichment in trace elements and Au can be observed along low-angle grain boundaries within otherwise Au-poor pyrite, indicating that heterogeneous microstructural misorientation patterns and higher strain domains are also relatively Au-rich. We therefore propose that the close spatial relationship between pyrite and Au at the microscale, features typical of orogenic Au deposits, reflects the entrapment of Au within deformation-induced microstructures in pyrite rather than the release of Au during the metamorphic transition from pyrite to pyrrhotite. Moreover, mass balance calculations at the deposit scale suggest that only a small percentage

  18. Microbially-induced Fe and Mn oxides in condensed pelagic sediments (Middle-Upper Jurassic, Western Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préat, A.; Mamet, B.; Di Stefano, P.; Martire, L.; Kolo, K.

    2011-06-01

    This article presents a petrographic comparison of the Rosso Ammonitico facies of Western Sicily and the original Rosso Ammonitico Veronese of Northern Italy based on a total of 27 sections. The Rosso Ammonitico has been the subject of numerous controversies that range from bathyal to shallow-water platform sedimentation. Therefore it seemed interesting to verify if the term Rosso Ammonitico has the same geologic connotation from region to region. The Middle-Upper Jurassic Rosso Ammonitico of Western Sicily is a condensed succession formed during a period of extensional synsedimentary tectonics related to the spreading of the Ionian Ocean. Slope-to-basin or pelagic carbonate deposits characterize the sedimentation which consists of reddish mudstones and wackestones. The abundant fauna is composed of radiolarians, protoglobigerinids, Saccocoma, Bositra associated with ammonites. A few ferruginous hardgrounds, Fe-Mn oxide crusts and Mn-coated condensation horizons are also present. The red matrices contain abundant Fe-Mn encrusted, microbored and bioeroded bioclasts. Sporadic Fe-Mn oncolites composed of amorphous Mn-minerals and goethite are also conspicuous. The matrix, as well as the shells and the fillings of the complex associated veinlets, are frequently altered into calcite microsparite. Submicronic iron bacterial and fungal filaments associated with mineralized extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are observed in the matrix. They record dysaerobic microenvironments at or near the sediment-water interfaces. Early mineralized discontinuities enhanced by subsequent pressure dissolution are reported in the succession. Mn-(Ni) bacterial filaments are exceptionally observed in the cortex of the Fe-Mn oncolites. As a consequence of an early lithification, the Mn filaments are poorly preserved. The pigmentation of the rock is due to the dispersion of submicronic oxyhydroxides (now goethite and amorphous iron) formed by bacterial mediation during early diagenesis

  19. Utilization of sup(32)P fixed in iron oxides and aluminium oxides for soil microbial biomass. Utilizacao de sup(32)P fixado em oxidos de ferro e de aluminio pela biomassa microbiana do solo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciel Neto, A; Salcedo, I H [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    1991-01-01

    The availability of P fixed in oxi-hydroxides of Fe and of Al for the microbial biomass of a P-deficient soil, was determined following addition of C sources. These oxides were impregnated in a support matrix of filter paper strips and then equilibrated with a P solution (1.5 * 1- sup(-5) M) containing sup(32)P. The strips where then incubated with soil without (control) or with additions of glicose+N (70 hs) or celulose+N (3 weeks), and the CO sub(2) evolved measured. After the incubation, the strips with Fe and Al incubated with soil+glicose had 0.004 and 0.008 {mu}moles cm sup(-2) of P less than the controls, respectively. Biomass activity dessorbed 100 to 200 more P than an exchange resin. The Fe strips incubated with soil+celulose dessorbed 0.002 {mu}moles cm sup(-2) more P than the control, while the Al ones did not differ from the control. In this last case, only about 50% of the cellulose had been decomposed, compared to approximately 85% of the cellulose in contact with the Fe strips. (author).

  20. Chemostratigraphy and trace element pattern of authigenic pyrite in a Frasnian-Fammenian transition section (Büdesheimer bach, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, F.; Berner, Z.; Neumann, T.; Stüben, D.

    2003-04-01

    Trace element contents in authigenic pyrite were investigated in relationship to the geochemistry of host rocks in a 160 m deep drilling at Büdesheimer Bach (Prümer Mulde, Germany), in order to put constrains on possible changes in depositional conditions and seawater composition related to the Kellwasser events (Frasnian/Fammenian transition). The approach is based on the observation that the trace element pattern of authigenic pyrite is controlled by genetic conditions (Stüben et al., 2002) and that the content of elements with generally high degree of pyritization (DTMP, degree of trace metal pyritization, like As, Mo, Co, Ni, etc.) depends on their availability at the site of pyrite formation (e.g. Huerta-Diaz and Morse, 1992). The distribution of trace elements in the bulk rock essentially reflects mineralogical composition and redox conditions which are mainly controlled by the flux of organic matter entering the sediment. The lower and upper Kellwasser horizons are marked by an increase in carbonate and organic carbon content (up to 2%), coupled with an increase in the degree of pyritization of Fe (DOP: 0.4-0.8), indicating a change from normal marine to suboxic/anoxic conditions. A simultaneous drop in the Ba content of the host lithology, which usually is used as a proxy for paleoproductivity, can be explained by the removal of Ba dissolved in pore water under anoxic conditions (McManus et al., 1998). While low in the host rock, the Ba content of authigenic pyrite is high in these horizons, suggesting that pyrite may preserve the initial composition of pore water even for some elements with generally low DTMP, like Ba. Consequently, Ba content in pyrite may serve as indicator for productivity even when the Ba content of sediment can not be used due to its poor preservation. During these anoxic episodes also a significant increase in the content of As, U, V was registered in pyrite. Opposite to these, others like Ni, Co, Ag show a decrease in their

  1. Deep subsurface microbial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    Information on the microbiology of the deep subsurface is necessary in order to understand the factors controlling the rate and extent of the microbially catalyzed redox reactions that influence the geophysical properties of these environments. Furthermore, there is an increasing threat that deep aquifers, an important drinking water resource, may be contaminated by man's activities, and there is a need to predict the extent to which microbial activity may remediate such contamination. Metabolically active microorganisms can be recovered from a diversity of deep subsurface environments. The available evidence suggests that these microorganisms are responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of organic matter coupled to a variety of electron acceptors just as microorganisms do in surface sediments, but at much slower rates. The technical difficulties in aseptically sampling deep subsurface sediments and the fact that microbial processes in laboratory incubations of deep subsurface material often do not mimic in situ processes frequently necessitate that microbial activity in the deep subsurface be inferred through nonmicrobiological analyses of ground water. These approaches include measurements of dissolved H2, which can predict the predominant microbially catalyzed redox reactions in aquifers, as well as geochemical and groundwater flow modeling, which can be used to estimate the rates of microbial processes. Microorganisms recovered from the deep subsurface have the potential to affect the fate of toxic organics and inorganic contaminants in groundwater. Microbial activity also greatly influences 1 the chemistry of many pristine groundwaters and contributes to such phenomena as porosity development in carbonate aquifers, accumulation of undesirably high concentrations of dissolved iron, and production of methane and hydrogen sulfide. Although the last decade has seen a dramatic increase in interest in deep subsurface microbiology, in comparison with the study of

  2. A novel bioreactor system for simultaneous mutli-metal leaching from industrial pyrite ash: Effect of agitation and sulphur dosage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sandeep; Akcil, Ata; Mishra, Srabani; Erust, Ceren

    2018-01-15

    Simultaneous multi-metal leaching from industrial pyrite ash is reported for the first time using a novel bioreactor system that allows natural diffusion of atmospheric O 2 and CO 2 along with the required temperature maintenance. The waste containing economically important metals (Cu, Co, Zn & As) was leached using an adapted consortium of meso-acidophilic Fe 2+ and S oxidising bacteria. The unique property of the sample supported adequate growth and activity of the acidophiles, thereby, driving the (bio) chemical reactions. Oxido-reductive potentials were seen to improve with time and the system's pH lowered as a result of active S oxidation. Increase in sulphur dosage (>1g/L) and agitation speed (>150rpm) did not bear any significant effect on metal dissolution. The consortium was able to leach 94.01% Cu (11.75% dissolution/d), 98.54% Co (12.3% dissolution/d), 75.95% Zn (9.49% dissolution/d) and 60.80% As (7.6% dissolution/d) at 150rpm, 1g/L sulphur, 30°C in 8days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Defective pyrite (100) surface: An ab initio study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, Andras; Bernasconi, Marco; Parrinello, Michele

    2007-01-01

    The structural and electronic properties of sulfur monomeric defects at the FeS 2 (100) surface have been studied by periodic density-functional calculations. We have shown that for a monomeric sulfur bound to an originally fivefold coordinated surface Fe site, the defect core features a triplet electronic ground state with unpaired spins localized on the exposed Fe-S unit. At this site, the iron and sulfur ions have oxidation states +4 and -2, respectively. This defect can be seen as produced via heterolytic bond breaking of the S-S sulfur dimer followed by a Fe-S redox reaction. The calculated sulfur 2p core-level shifts of the monomeric defects are in good agreement with experimental photoemission spectra, which allow a compelling assignment of the different spectroscopic features. The effect of water on the stability of the defective surface has also been studied, and it has been shown that the triplet state is stable against the wetting of the surface. The most important implications of the presence of the monomeric sulfur defect on the reactivity are also discussed

  4. The Effect of Water Vapor on the Thermal Decomposition of Pyrite in N2 Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrin BOYABAT

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of water vapor on the thermal decomposition of pyrite mineral in nitrogen atmosphere has been investigated in a horizontal tube furnace. Temperature, time and water vapor concentration were used as experimental parameters. According to the data obtained at nitrogen/ water vapor environment, it was observed that the water vapor on the decomposition of pyrite increased the decomposition rate. The decomposition reaction is well represented by the "shrinking core" model and can be divided into two regions with different rate controlling step. The rate controlling steps were determined from the heat transfer through the gas film for the low conversions, while it was determined from the mass transfer through product ash layer for the high conversions. The activation energies of this gas and ash film mechanisms were found to be 77 and 81 kJ/mol-1, respectively.

  5. Chemical vapour transport of pyrite (FeS 2) with halogen (Cl, Br, I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechter, S.; Mai, J.; Ennaoui, A.; Szacki, W.

    1986-12-01

    A systematic study of chemical vapour transport (CVT) of pyrite with halogen, hydrogen halides and ammonium halides as transporting agents has shown that the transport with chlorine and bromine in a temperature gradient Δ T = 920-820 K yields the highest transport rates (˜6 mg/h) with crystals up to 5 mm edge length. Computing thermochemical equilibria and flux functions in the system Fe-S-Hal (Hal = Cl, Br, I) it has been confirmed that the transport velocity of pyrite is limited by the concentration of FeHal 2 in the vapour phase, the equilibrium position between FeHal 2(g) and FeHal 3(g) and the flux directions of the iron gas species.

  6. Pyrite thermochemistry, ash agglomeration, and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akan-Etuk, A.; Diaz, R.; Niksa, S.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of the present work is to introduce an experimental program that will eventually lead to time-resolved iron ash composition over the technological operating domain. The preceding literature survey suggests two important stipulations on any such experimental program. The first stipulation is that good control must be established over the operating conditions, to accurately quantify their effects. The other is that data must be obtained rapidly, to thoroughly cover the important operating domain. This work presents a series of studies that has characterized the desulfurization of pyrite during the early stages of combustion. An experimental system was established and used to monitor the effects of oxygen, temperature, and residence time on the evolution of condensed phase products of the combustion of pure pyrite. (VC)

  7. Pyrite thermochemistry, ash agglomeration, and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akan-Etuk, A.; Diaz, R.; Niksa, S.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of the present work is to introduce an experimental program that will eventually lead to time-resolved iron ash composition over the technological operating domain. The preceding literature survey suggests two important stipulations on any such experimental program. The first stipulation is that good control must be established over the operating conditions, to accurately quantify their effects. The other is that data must be obtained rapidly, to thoroughly cover the important operating domain. This work presents a series of studies that has characterized the desulfurization of pyrite during the early stages of combustion. An experimental system was established and used to monitor the effects of oxygen, temperature, and residence time on the evolution of condensed phase products of the combustion of pure pyrite. (VC)

  8. Evaluation of pyritic mine tailings as a plant growth substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseby, Stuart J; Kopittke, Peter M; Mulligan, David R; Menzies, Neal W

    2017-10-01

    At the Kidston gold mine, Australia, the direct establishment of vegetation on tailings was considered as an alternative to the use of a waste rock cover. The tailings acid/base account was used to predict plant growth limitation by acidity, and thus methods capable of identifying tailings that would acidify to pH 4.5 or lower were sought. Total S was found to be poorly correlated with acid-generating sulfide, and total C was poorly correlated with acid-neutralizing carbonate, precluding the use of readily determined total S and C as predictors of net acid generation. Therefore, the selected approach used assessment of sulfide content as a predictor of acid generation, and carbonate content as a measure of the acid-neutralizing capacity available at pH 5 and above. Using this approach, the majority of tailings (67%) were found to be non-acid generating. However, areas of potentially acid-generating tailings were randomly distributed across the dam, and could only be located by intensive sampling. The limitations imposed by the large sample numbers, and costly analysis of sulfide and carbonate, make it impractical to identify and ameliorate acid-generating areas prior to vegetation establishment. However, as only a small proportion of the tailings will acidify, a strategy of re-treating acid areas following oxidation is suggested. The findings of the present study will assist in the selection of appropriate methods for the prediction of net acid generation, particularly where more conservative measurements are required to allow vegetation to be established directly in tailings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adaptation of chemical methods of analysis to the matrix of pyrite-acidified mining lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzsprung, P.; Friese, K.

    2000-01-01

    Owing to the unusual matrix of pyrite-acidified mining lakes, the analysis of chemical parameters may be difficult. A number of methodological improvements have been developed so far, and a comprehensive validation of methods is envisaged. The adaptation of the available methods to small-volume samples of sediment pore waters and the adaptation of sensitivity to the expected concentration ranges is an important element of the methods applied in analyses of biogeochemical processes in mining lakes [de

  10. Late Strunian age : a key time frame for VMS deposit exploration in the Iberian Pyrite Belt

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, João Xavier; Pereira, Zélia; Rosa, Carlos J. P.; Rosa, Diogo R. N.; Oliveira, José Tomás; Relvas, Jorge M. R. S.

    2011-01-01

    Estimate of geological environments favorable for the formation of massive sulphide deposits is an important goal to the exploration companies working in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), the main European VMS base metals province, with giant deposits such as Neves Corvo, Aljustrel (Portugal), Rio Tinto and Tharsis (Spain). Palynostratigraphic research programs using more than 40 exploration boreholes (>30 km length) allowed the dating of the sediments of the Volcano-Sedimentary Comp...

  11. An Insight into Flotation Chemistry of Pyrite with Isomeric Xanthates: A Combined Experimental and Computational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guihong Han

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The flotation chemistry between pyrite and isomeric xanthates (butyl xanthate and isobutyl xanthate was investigated by means of adsorption experiments, surface tension tests, and molecular dynamic simulations in this work. The flotation chemical results were confirmed and further interpreted by quantum chemical calculations. The experiment results demonstrated that the isobutyl xanthate exhibited superior adsorption capacity and surface activity than those of butyl xanthate in flotation chemistry. In addition, molecular dynamic simulations were simultaneously performed in constant number, constant volume and temperature (NVT, and constant number, constant volume, and pressure (NPT ensemble, indicating that the NPT ensemble was more suitable to the flotation system and the isobutyl xanthate was easier to be adsorbed on pyrite surface compared with butyl xanthate during an appropriate range of concentrations. Furthermore, the quantum chemical calculations elucidated that the isobutyl xanthate presented higher reactivity than that of the corresponding butyl xanthate based on the frontier molecular orbital theory of chemical reactivity, which was consistent with experimental and simulation results obtained. This work can provide theoretical guidance for an in-depth study of the flotation chemistry of pyrite with isomeric xanthates.

  12. In situ remediation of hexavalent chromium with pyrite fines : bench scale demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathum, S.; Wong, W.P.; Brown, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    An in situ remediation technique for chromium contaminated soil with pyrite fines was presented. Past industrial activities and lack of disposal facilities have contributed to a serious problem dealing with chromium, which cannot be eliminated from the environment because it is an element. Both bench-scale and laboratory testing was conducted to confirm the efficiency of the proposed process which successfully converted Cr(VI) into Cr(III) in soil and water. Cr(III) is less toxic and immobile in the environment compared to Cr(VI) which moves freely in the soil matrix, posing a risk to the groundwater quality. pH in the range of 2.0 to 7.6 has no effect on the reactivity of pyrite towards Cr(VI). The optimization of the bench-scale treatment resulted in a large volume of chromium waste, mostly from the control experiments and column hydrology testing. These waste streams were treated according to municipal guidelines before disposal to the environment. Samples of chromium waste before and after treatment were analyzed. Cr (VI) was completely mineralized to below guideline levels. It was determined that several conditions, including contact time between pyrite and Cr(VI), are crucial for complete mineralization of Cr(VI). 13 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs

  13. Sulfur amino acids and alanine on pyrite (100) by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy: Surface or molecular role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Arenillas, M.; Galvez-Martinez, S.; Mateo-Marti, E.

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes the first successful adsorption of the cysteine, cystine, methionine and alanine amino acids on the pyrite (100) surface under ultra-high vacuum conditions with crucial chemical adsorption parameters driving the process. We have demonstrated by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) that the surface pretreatment annealing process on pyrite surfaces is a critical parameter driving surface reactivity. The presence of enriched monosulfide species on the pyrite (100) surface favours the amino acid NH2 chemical form, whereas a longer annealing surface pretreatment of over 3 h repairs the sulfur vacancies in the pyrite, enriching disulfide species on the pyrite surface, which promotes NH3+ adsorption due to the sulfur vacancies in the pyrite being replaced by sulfur atom dimers (S22-) on the surface. Furthermore, even if the surface chemistry (monosulfide or disulfide species enrichment) is the main factor promoting a partial conversion from NH2 to NH3+ species, the unique chemical structure of each amino acid provides a particular fingerprint in the process.

  14. Acid drainages of the pyritic sterile from the Pocos de Caldas uranium mine: environmental interpretation and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Vicente Paulo de

    1995-12-01

    Considering the planned closure of the first uranium mine and milling plant operating in Brazil, located in the Pocos de Caldas Plateau, in the State of Minas Gerais, in the next two years, there is the need to obtain basic information for its decommissioning. Special attention has been directed to the following critical areas: open pit, tailing, dam and waste rock piles, because these are the main sources of acid drainage generation. These waters cannot be allowed to flow in the external environment because in addition to sulphuric acid, there is a number of elements in concentration above those allowed by regulations. Among the waste piles (bota-foras BF) two of them BF-4 and BF-8, are in a process of acid generation, thus requiring more attention. The objective of this work was to simulate at the laboratory scale the oxidation and the reduction zones of BF-4. The experiments were conducted in acrylic columns, where the waste sample was kept under aerated and saturated conditions, in different columns. The control of the chemical (solubilized chemical species), physico-chemical (redox potential, pH, conductivity) and biological (bacterial activity) parameters has been carried out on the acid solutions generated by the chemical and biological reactions that occur at the waste. Although the results refer to a four month period, some relevant points can be highlighted, which will serve as a basis for further research. The mineralogical characterization identified the existence of other sulphides associated to pyrite with lower oxidation potential than the latter. The results obtained with the biological characterization for the two conditions studied revealed that the bacterial activity is more intense in the region in contact with air, than in saturated region. (author)

  15. Microbial biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Yu; Chen, Wilfred; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2006-01-01

    A microbial biosensor is an analytical device that couples microorganisms with a transducer to enable rapid, accurate and sensitive detection of target analytes in fields as diverse as medicine, environmental monitoring, defense, food processing and safety. The earlier microbial biosensors used the respiratory and metabolic functions of the microorganisms to detect a substance that is either a substrate or an inhibitor of these processes. Recently, genetically engineered microorganisms based on fusing of the lux, gfp or lacZ gene reporters to an inducible gene promoter have been widely applied to assay toxicity and bioavailability. This paper reviews the recent trends in the development and application of microbial biosensors. Current advances and prospective future direction in developing microbial biosensor have also been discussed

  16. Geochemistry of Early Frasnian (Late Devonian) pyrite-ammonoid level in the Kostomłoty Basin, Poland, and a new proxy parameter for assessing the relative amount of syngenetic and diagenetic pyrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarzowska, Agnieszka; Berner, Zsolt A.; Racki, Grzegorz

    2014-07-01

    Pyrite geochemistry (isotope and trace element composition, degree of pyritization, S/Corg ratio) was used in context of selected lithogeochemical parameters (major and trace elements, including sulphur, organic carbon, and δ13C of carbonate carbon) to constrain fluctuations in depositional conditions during the Early to Middle Frasnian carbon isotopic perturbation (punctata Event) in the Kostomłoty Basin, Poland. Based on the ratio between the sum of oxyanionic elements and transition metals in pyrite, a new proxy parameter (index of syngenetic pyrite, ISYP) is proposed for assessing the relative amount of syngenetic pyrite in a sample. The distribution of the ISYP along the Kostomłoty - Małe Górki section (upper Szydłówek to the basal Kostomłoty beds) is in concert with conclusions inferred from paleoecologic data and other geochemical parameters (degree of pyritization, S/Corg, δ34Spyrite). According to these, the lower segment of the Szydłówek Beds was deposited in a normally oxygenated environment, but undergoing increasing primary productivity in surface water, as indicated by an increase in δ13Ccarb and in Cu/Zr ratio in bulk rock, which triggered the periodic deposition of sediments slightly enriched in organic matter, notably within the pyrite-ammonoid level (= Goniatite Level). Fluctuating, but in general high S/Corg ratios, DOPR values and ISYP values suggest that during this time - against the background of a generally dysoxic environment - shorter or longer lasting episodes of more restricted (anoxic and possibly even euxinic) bottom water conditions developed. Low sedimentation rates enabled a continuous and practically unlimited supply of sulphate during bacterial sulphate reduction (BSR), which in turn led to a strong depletion of pyrite sulphur in 34S in this interval (constantly around -29‰). In contrast, below and above the Goniatite Level, higher δ34S values (up to + 3‰), are compatible with closed system conditions and higher

  17. Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of Novel Phthalimide Derivatives as in Vitro Anti-Microbial, Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lamie, P.F.; Philoppes, J.N.; El-Gendy, A.O.; Rárová, Lucie; Grúz, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 9 (2015), s. 16620-16642 ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : synthesis * phthalimides * anti-microbial Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.465, year: 2015

  18. Strategies for Reduced Acid and Metalliferous Drainage by Pyrite Surface Passivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gujie Qian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Acid and metalliferous drainage (AMD is broadly accepted to be a major global environmental problem facing the mining industry, requiring expensive management and mitigation. A series of laboratory-scale kinetic leach column (KLC experiments, using both synthetic and natural mine wastes, were carried out to test the efficacy of our pyrite passivation strategy (developed from previous research for robust and sustainable AMD management. For the synthetic waste KLC tests, initial treatment with lime-saturated water was found to be of paramount importance for maintaining long-term circum-neutral pH, favourable for the formation and preservation of the pyrite surface passivating layer and reduced acid generation rate. Following the initial lime-saturated water treatment, minimal additional alkalinity (calcite-saturated water was required to maintain circum-neutral pH for the maintenance of pyrite surface passivation. KLC tests examining natural potentially acid forming (PAF waste, with much greater peak acidity than that of the synthetic waste, blended with lime (≈2 wt % with and without natural non-acid-forming (NAF waste covers, were carried out. The addition of lime and use of NAF covers maintained circum-neutral leachate pH up to 24 weeks. During this time, the net acidity generated was found to be significantly reduced by the overlying NAF cover. If the reduced rate of acidity production from the natural PAF waste is sustained, the addition of smaller (more economically-feasible amounts of lime, together with application of NAF wastes as covers, could be trialled as a potential cost-effective AMD mitigation strategy.

  19. The recovery of gold and pyrite from a residue dump at Crown Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keleghan, W.

    1976-01-01

    The application of ore-dressing methods to a residue dump at Crown Mines has been examined. The use of either single-stage or double-stage gravity concentration is advocated for the recovery of the gold. Flotation and wet high-intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS) are not recommended. The two-stage gravity process facilitates the recovery of most of the pyrite in the residue (over 70 per cent) at commercial grade (40 per cent sulphur), but sacrifices some of the gold obtainable by a single-stage operation. There is little prospect of the commercial recovery of uranium from the dump at Crown Mines

  20. Determination of the Content of Heavy Metals in Pyrite Contaminated Soil and Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Marić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Determination of a pyrite contaminated soil texture, content of heavy metals in the soil and soil pH, was the aim in the investigation. Acidification of damaged soil was corrected by calcium carbonate. Mineral nutrients and organic matter (NPK, dung, earthworm cast, straw and coal dust were added to damaged soil. Afterwards, the soil was used for oat production. Determination of total heavy metal contents (Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe in soil was performed by atomic absorption spectrofotometry. Plant material (stems, seeds was analysed, too. Total concentration of the heavy metals in the plant material were greater than in crop obtained in unaffected soil.

  1. Production of pyrite nanoparticles using high energy planetary ball milling for sonocatalytic degradation of sulfasalazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khataee, Alireza; Fathinia, Siavash; Fathinia, Mehrangiz

    2017-01-01

    Sonocatalytic performance of pyrite nanoparticles was evaluated by the degradation of sulfasalazine (SSZ). Pyrite nanoparticles were produced via a high energy mechanical ball milling (MBM) in different processing time from 2h to 6h, in the constant milling speed of 320rpm. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) confirmed the production of pyrite nanoparticles during 6h of ball milling with the average size distribution of 20-80nm. The effects of various operational parameters including pH value, catalyst amount (mg/L), SSZ concentration (mg/L), ultrasonic frequency (kHz) and reaction time on the SSZ removal efficiency were examined. The obtained results showed that the maximum removal efficiency of 97.00% was obtained at pH value of 4, catalyst dosage of 0.5g/L, SSZ concentration of 10mg/L and reaction time of 30min. Experimental results demonstrated that the kinetic of the degradation process can be demonstrated using Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) kinetic model. The effect of different inorganic ions such as Cl - , CO 3 2- and SO 4 2- was investigated on the L-H reaction rate (k r ) and adsorption (K s ) constants. Results showed that the presence of the mentioned ions significantly influenced the L-H constants. The impact of ethanol as a OH radical scavenger and some enhancers including H 2 O 2 and K 2 S 2 O 8 was investigated on the SSZ removal efficiency. Accordingly, the presence of ethanol suppressed SSZ degradation due to the quenching of OH radicals and the addition of K 2 S 2 O 8 and H 2 O 2 increased the SSZ removal efficiency, due to the formation of SO 4 - and additional OH radicals, respectively. Under the identical conditions of operating parameters, pyrite nanoparticles maintained their catalytic activity during four consecutive runs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Gold and trace element zonation in pyrite using a laser imaging technique: Implications for the timing of gold in orogenic and carlin-style sediment-hosted deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large, R.R.; Danyushevsky, L.; Hollit, C.; Maslennikov, V.; Meffre, S.; Gilbert, S.; Bull, S.; Scott, R.; Emsbo, P.; Thomas, H.; Singh, B.; Foster, J.

    2009-01-01

    Laser ablation ICP-MS imaging of gold and other trace elements in pyrite from four different sediment- hosted gold-arsenic deposits has revealed two distinct episodes of gold enrichment in each deposit: an early synsedimentary stage where invisible gold is concentrated in arsenian diagenetic pyrite along with other trace elements, in particular, As, Ni, Pb, Zn, Ag, Mo, Te, V, and Se; and a later hydrothermal stage where gold forms as either free gold grains in cracks in overgrowth metamorphic and/or hydrothermal pyrite or as narrow gold- arsenic rims on the outermost parts of the overgrowth hydrothermal pyrite. Compared to the diagenetic pyrites, the hydrothermal pyrites are commonly depleted in Ni, V, Zn, Pb, and Ag with cyclic zones of Co, Ni, and As concentration. The outermost hydrothermal pyrite rims are either As-Au rich, as in moderate- to high- grade deposits such as Carlin and Bendigo, or Co-Ni rich and As-Au poor as in moderate- to low-grade deposits such as Sukhoi Log and Spanish Mountain. The early enrichment of gold in arsenic-bearing syngenetic to diagenetic pyrite, within black shale facies of sedimentary basins, is proposed as a critical requirement for the later development of Carlin-style and orogenic gold deposits in sedimentary environments. The best grade sediment-hosted deposits appear to have the gold climax event, toward the final stages of deformation-related hydrothermal pyrite growth and fluid flow. ?? 2009 Society of Economic Geologists, Inc.

  3. Microbial glycoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Adnan; Anonsen, Jan Haug

    2017-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based "-omics" technologies are important tools for global and detailed mapping of post-translational modifications. Protein glycosylation is an abundant and important post translational modification widespread throughout all domains of life. Characterization of glycoproteins...... and research in this area is rapidly accelerating. Here, we review recent developments in glycoproteomic technologies with a special focus on microbial protein glycosylation....

  4. Soil pollution by a pyrite mine spill in Spain: evolution in time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, J.; Dorronsoro, C.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez, J.; Garcia, I.; Martin, F.; Simon, M.

    2004-01-01

    Soil pollution was studied after the spill of the Aznalcollar pyrite mine between 1998 and 2001, analyzing As, Zn, Cd, Cu and Pb both in total concentrations as well as in soluble and bioavailable forms. The main remediation measures were: clean-up of the tailings and polluted soils, plus application of amendment materials (liming). The results indicate that, after three years, 50-70% of the acidic soils and 25-30% of the basic soils are still highly polluted in total arsenic. The limit of 0.04 mg kg -1 for water-soluble arsenic is exceeded in 15-20% of all soils. The EDTA-extractable arsenic (bioavailable) exceeds the limit of 2 mg kg -1 only in the acidic sectors. After clean-up, the homogenization of the upper 20-25 cm of the soils appears to be the most recommended measure in the reduction of pollution. - Capsule: Remediation measures carried out after the Aznalcollar pyrite mine spill were effective in the reduction of the pollution, although three years after the accident many areas are still polluted by As

  5. Soil infiltration bioreactor incorporated with pyrite-based (mixotrophic) denitrification for domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhe; Li, Lu; Feng, Chuanping; Chen, Nan; Dong, Shanshan; Hu, Weiwu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an integrated two-stage soil infiltration bioreactor incorporated with pyrite-based (mixotrophic) denitrification (SIBPD) was designed for domestic wastewater treatment. Benefited from excellent adsorption ability and water-permeability, soil infiltration could avoid clogging, shorten operating time and lower maintenance cost. Respiration and nitrification were mostly engaged in aerobic stage (AES), while nitrate was majorly removed by pyrite-based mixotrophic denitrification mainly occurred in anaerobic stage (ANS). Fed with synthetic and real wastewater for 120days at 1.5h HRT, SIBPD demonstrated good removal performance showing 87.14% for COD, 92.84% for NH4(+)-N and 82.58% for TP along with 80.72% of nitrate removed by ANS. TN removal efficiency was 83.74% when conducting real wastewater. Compared with sulfur-based process, the effluent pH of SIBPD was maintained at 6.99-7.34 and the highest SO4(2-) concentration was only 64.63mgL(-1). This study revealed a promising and feasible application prospect for on-site domestic wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of the pyritized surfaces of the carbon steel components in heavy water production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulescu, Maria; Parvan, Ioana; Lucan, Dumitra; Fulger, Manuela; Dinu, Alice; Blanatui, A.

    1998-01-01

    The components used in the Girldler Sulfide (GS) process of heavy water production are made of carbon steel covered by iron sulfide layers of different compositions (mackinawite, troilite, pyrrhotite or pyrite) of variable thicknesses. The most protective layers which provide an acceptable corrosion resistance of the subjacent metal are the mixtures of pyrrhotite and pyrite. In the present work, the corrosion resistance of carbon steel samples covered by different types of sulfides was investigated by the following methods: X ray diffraction, metallography and electrochemical methods (potential-dynamical and electrochemical impedance). In order to carry out the electrochemical measurements in the same conditions as those of the operation of carbon steel components in D 2 O production facilities, the experiments were performed with Na 2 S solutions, at pH=4 - 13 and S 2- concentration value between 1 and 1000 mg/l. The dependence of corrosion rate kinetics on pH and S 2- concentration of the testing solution was investigated for sulfide covered samples comparatively with the uncovered ones. Corrosion rates determined gravimetrically were compared with those determined by electrochemical measurements. The uniformity and thickness of the sulfide layers were checked by metallographic methods. The composition of the sulfides formed in various environment conditions was established by X-ray diffraction. Reaction mechanisms specific for sulfide formation environments have been proposed. (authors)

  7. Efficient hydrogen evolution catalysis using ternary pyrite-type cobalt phosphosulphide

    KAUST Repository

    Cabán-Acevedo, Miguel

    2015-09-14

    The scalable and sustainable production of hydrogen fuel through water splitting demands efficient and robust Earth-abundant catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Building on promising metal compounds with high HER catalytic activity, such as pyrite structure cobalt disulphide (CoS 2), and substituting non-metal elements to tune the hydrogen adsorption free energy could lead to further improvements in catalytic activity. Here we present a combined theoretical and experimental study to establish ternary pyrite-type cobalt phosphosulphide (CoPS) as a high-performance Earth-abundant catalyst for electrochemical and photoelectrochemical hydrogen production. Nanostructured CoPS electrodes achieved a geometrical catalytic current density of 10 mA cm at overpotentials as low as 48mV, with outstanding long-term operational stability. Integrated photocathodes of CoPS on n -p-p silicon micropyramids achieved photocurrents up to 35 mA cm at 0 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), onset photovoltages as high as 450 mV versus RHE, and the most efficient solar-driven hydrogen generation from Earth-abundant systems.

  8. U-Pb isotope and trace element compositions of pyrites in the Black Reef: implications on their age and origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, E.S.

    1990-01-01

    In the Black Reef Quartzite Formation of the Transvaal Supergroup two gold-bearing conglomerate facies have been recognized. The source of gold in these reefs has long been a matter of speculation. Although some ascribe the gold and pyrite to a hydrothermal origin, the prevailing opinion favours a detrital origin. As a possible source, the reworked underlying sub-outcrops of the Kimberly Reef horizons in the Central Rand group have been proposed. An investigation was undertaken with the aim of defining the Pb-isotopic and trace element signatures of morphologically different pyrite populations within the two Black Reef facies as well as for the underlying Kimberly Reef. 2 tabs

  9. S/Se ratio of pyrite from eastern Australian VHMS deposits: implication of magmatic input into volcanogenic hydrothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huston, D L [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Sie, S H; Suter, G F [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience; Cooke, D R [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    The proton microprobe was used to determine the concentrations of over twenty trace elements in pyrite grains from four volcanic-hosted massive sulphide (VHMS) deposits in eastern Australia. Of the elements determined, Se has the most potential in resolving important problems in the genesis