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Sample records for microbial insults tenebrio

  1. Genetic dysbiosis: the role of microbial insults in chronic inflammatory diseases

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    Luigi Nibali

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of bacterial phylotypes colonise the human body and the host response to this bacterial challenge greatly influences our state of health or disease. The concept of infectogenomics highlights the importance of host genetic factors in determining the composition of human microbial biofilms and the response to this microbial challenge. We hereby introduce the term ‘genetic dysbiosis’ to highlight the role of human genetic variants affecting microbial recognition and host response in creating an environment conducive to changes in the normal microbiota. Such changes can, in turn, predispose to, and influence, diseases such as: cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, bacterial vaginosis and periodontitis. This review presents the state of the evidence on host genetic factors affecting dysbiosis and microbial misrecognition (i.e. an aberrant response to the normal microbiota and highlights the need for further research in this area.

  2. Microbial community assessment of mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor) and grasshoppers (Locusta migratoria migratorioides) sold for human consumption.

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    Stoops, J; Crauwels, S; Waud, M; Claes, J; Lievens, B; Van Campenhout, L

    2016-02-01

    In Western countries, the popularity of edible insects as an alternative animal protein source is increasing. Nevertheless, there is a lack of profound insight into the microbial safety and shelf life of living insects sold for human consumption. The purpose of this study was to characterise the microflora of fresh edible mealworm larvae and grasshoppers in a quantitative and qualitative way. Therefore, culture-dependent analyses (the total viable aerobic count, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and bacterial endospores) and next-generation sequencing (454amplicon pyrosequencing) were performed. High microbial counts were obtained for both insect species. Different insect batches resulted in quite similar microbial numbers, except for bacterial endospores. However, the bacterial community composition differed between both insect species. The most abundant operational taxonomic unit in mealworm larvae was Propionibacterium. Also members of the genera Haemophilus, Staphylococcus and Clostridium were found. Grasshoppers were mainly dominated by Weissella, Lactococcus and Yersinia/Rahnella. Overall, a variety of potential spoilage bacteria and food pathogens were characterised. The results of this study suggest that a processing step with a microbiocidal effect is required to avoid or minimize risks involved with the consumption of edible insects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbial counts of mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor) and crickets (Acheta domesticus and Gryllodes sigillatus) from different rearing companies and different production batches.

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    Vandeweyer, D; Crauwels, S; Lievens, B; Van Campenhout, L

    2017-02-02

    The rising interest in insects for human consumption and the changing regulations in Europe require a profound insight into the food safety of insects reared and sold in Western society. The microbial quality of edible insects has only been studied occasionally. This study aimed at generating an overview of intrinsic parameters (pH, water activity and moisture content) and microbial quality of fresh mealworm larvae and crickets for several rearing companies and for several batches per rearer. In total, 21 batches obtained from 7 rearing companies were subjected to analysis of intrinsic parameters, a range of plate counts and presence-absence tests for Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. The microbial counts of the fresh insects were generally high. Different rearing batches from a single rearing company showed differences in microbial counts which could not be explained by variations in intrinsic properties. The largest variations were found in numbers of bacterial endospores, psychrotrophs and fungi. Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were not detected in any of the samples. Altogether, our study shows that large variations were found between batches from individual rearers. As a consequence, no overall differences between rearers could be observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Is Housing a Health Insult?

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    Baker, Emma; Beer, Andrew; Lester, Laurence; Pevalin, David; Whitehead, Christine; Bentley, Rebecca

    2017-05-26

    In seeking to understand the relationship between housing and health, research attention is often focussed on separate components of people's whole housing 'bundles'. We propose in this paper that such conceptual and methodological abstraction of elements of the housing and health relationship limits our ability to understand the scale of the accumulated effect of housing on health and thereby contributes to the under-recognition of adequate housing as a social policy tool and powerful health intervention. In this paper, we propose and describe an index to capture the means by which housing bundles influence health. We conceptualise the index as reflecting accumulated housing 'insults to health'-an Index of Housing Insults (IHI). We apply the index to a sample of 1000 low-income households in Australia. The analysis shows a graded association between housing insults and health on all outcome measures. Further, after controlling for possible confounders, the IHI is shown to provide additional predictive power to the explanation of levels of mental health, general health and clinical depression beyond more traditional proxy measures. Overall, this paper reinforces the need to look not just at separate housing components but to embrace a broader understanding of the relationship between housing and health.

  5. Insults and face work in the Bible

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    John J. Pilch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Insults play a key role in social interaction in the agonistic culture of the Middle East. This article constructs a social scientific model of social interaction regarding face work and insults and then filters the Gospel of Matthew through that model to highlight the prevalence of insult in the biblical world.

  6. Trealose e trealase em tenebrio molitor L Trehalose and Trehalase in Tenebrio molitor L

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    Cristina Piedras Lopes

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a concentração em trealose e a atividade em trealase do Tenebrio molitor L. durante as tres fases da metamorfose (larva, ninfa, imago. Verificou-se que na larva e no adulto os valores são mais elevados conforme a curva da fig. 3. A trealose foi expressa em mg/g de Tenebrio e a trealose por µg de glicose/mg proteina.Trehalose and trehalase were determined in the Tenebrio molitor L., using larva, pupa and imago. A total number of 895 animals was analyzed. A growth curve up to the end of the larval stage was established (Fig. 1 and compared with the normal one obtained by Fraenkel. It was shown that trehalose and trehalase are more concentrated in the larva and imago presenting a curve with two arms as depicted in the Fig. 3. Trehalase was expressed in mg/g of Tenebrio and trehalase in µg of glucose /mg proteín.

  7. Intraoperative Secondary Insults During Orthopedic Surgery in Traumatic Brain Injury.

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    Algarra, Nelson N; Lele, Abhijit V; Prathep, Sumidtra; Souter, Michael J; Vavilala, Monica S; Qiu, Qian; Sharma, Deepak

    2017-07-01

    Secondary insults worsen outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, data on intraoperative secondary insults are sparse. The primary aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of intraoperative secondary insults during orthopedic surgery after moderate-severe TBI. We also examined the impact of intraoperative secondary insults on postoperative head computed tomographic scan, intracranial pressure (ICP), and escalation of care within 24 hours of surgery. We reviewed medical records of TBI patients 18 years and above with Glasgow Coma Scale score Secondary insults examined were: systemic hypotension (systolic blood pressurehypertension (ICP>20 mm Hg), cerebral hypotension (cerebral perfusion pressure40 mm Hg), hypocarbia (end-tidal CO2hypertension), hyperglycemia (glucose>200 mg/dL), hypoglycemia (glucose38°C). A total of 78 patients (41 [18 to 81] y, 68% male) met the inclusion criteria. The most common intraoperative secondary insults were systemic hypotension (60%), intracranial hypertension and cerebral hypotension (50% and 45%, respectively, in patients with ICP monitoring), hypercarbia (32%), and hypocarbia (29%). Intraoperative secondary insults were associated with worsening of head computed tomography, postoperative decrease of Glasgow Coma Scale score by ≥2, and escalation of care. After Bonferroni correction, association between cerebral hypotension and postoperative escalation of care remained significant (Psecondary insults were common during orthopedic surgery in patients with TBI and were associated with postoperative escalation of care. Strategies to minimize intraoperative secondary insults are needed.

  8. Enantioselective bioaccumulation of diniconazole in Tenebrio molitor larvae.

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    Liu, Chen; LV, Xiao Tian; Zhu, Wen Xue; QU, Hao Yang; Gao, Yong Xin; Guo, Bao Yuan; Wang, Hui Li

    2013-12-01

    The enantioselective bioaccumulation of diniconazole in Tenebrio molitor Linne larva was investigated with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry based on the ChiralcelOD-3R[cellulose tri-(3,5-dimethylphenyl carbamate)] column. In this study we documented the effects of dietary supplementation with wheat bran contaminated by racemic diniconazole at two dose levels of 20 mg kg(-1) and 2 mg kg(-1) (dry weight) in Tenebrio molitor. The results showed that both doses of diniconazole were taken up by Tenebrio molitor rapidly in the first few days, the concentrations of R-enantiomer and S-enantiomer at high doses reached the highest level of 0.55 mg kg(-1) and 0.48 mg kg(-1) , respectively, on the 1(st) d, and the concentrations of them obtained a maxima of 0.129 mg kg(-1) and 0.128 mg kg(-1) at low dose, respectively, on the 3(rd) d, which means that the concentration of diniconazole was proportional to the time of achieving the highest accumulated level. It afterwards attained equilibrium after a sharp decline at both 20 mg kg(-1) and 2 mg kg(-1) of diniconazole. The determination results from the feces of Tenebrio molitor demonstrated that the extraction recovery (ER) values of the high dose group were higher than that of the low dose group and the values were all above 1; therefore, it could be inferred that enantiomerization existed in Tenebrio molitor. Additionally, the biota accumulation factor was used to evaluate the bioaccumulation of diniconazole enantiomers, showing that the bioaccumulation of diniconazole in Tenebrio molitor was enantioselective with preferential accumulation of S-enantiomer. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Tenebrio beetles use magnetic inclination compass

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    Vácha, Martin; Drštková, Dana; Půžová, Tereza

    2008-08-01

    Animals that guide directions of their locomotion or their migration routes by the lines of the geomagnetic field use either polarity or inclination compasses to determine the field polarity (the north or south direction). Distinguishing the two compass types is a guideline for estimation of the molecular principle of reception and has been achieved for a number of animal groups, with the exception of insects. A standard diagnostic method to distinguish a compass type is based on reversing the vertical component of the geomagnetic field, which leads to the opposite reactions of animals with two different compass types. In the present study, adults of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor were tested by means of a two-step laboratory test of magnetoreception. Beetles that were initially trained to memorize the magnetic position of the light source preferred, during the subsequent test, this same direction, pursuant geomagnetic cues only. In the following step, the vertical component was reversed between the training and the test. The beetles significantly turned their preferred direction by 180°. Our results brought until then unknown original findings that insects, represented here by the T. molitor species, use—in contrast to another previously researched Arthropod, spiny lobster—the inclination compass.

  10. Enantiomerization and enantioselective bioaccumulation of metalaxyl in Tenebrio molitor larvae.

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    Gao, Yongxin; Wang, Huili; Qin, Fang; Xu, Peng; Lv, Xiaotian; Li, Jianzhong; Guo, Baoyuan

    2014-02-01

    The enantiomerization and enantioselective bioaccumulation of metalaxyl by a single dose of exposure to Tenebrio molitor larvae under laboratory condition were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS/MS) based on a ChiralcelOD-3R [cellulosetris-tris-(3, 5-dichlorophenyl-carbamate)] column. Exposure of enantiopure R-metalaxyl and S-metalaxyl in Tenebrio molitor larvae exhibited significant enantiomerization, with formation of the R enantiomers from the S enantiomers, and vice versa, which might be attributed to the chiral pesticide catalyzed by a certain enzyme in Tenebrio molitor larvae. Enantiomerization was not observed in wheat bran during the period of 21 d. In addition, bioaccumulation of rac-metalaxyl in Tenebrio molitor larvae was enantioselective with a preferential accumulation of S-metalaxyl. These results showed that enantioselectivity was caused not only by actual degradation and metabolism but also by enantiomerization, which was an important process in the environmental fate and behavior of metalaxyl enantiomers. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Morphometric analysis of instar variation in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

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    Measurements of head capsule, mandible, metanotum, and body weight were done on larvae of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionide) from the second to the last instar. Instar number varied from 14 to 18, but 15 or 16 instars were the most common. The value of dimensional measurements was evalua...

  12. Rapid bioassay to screen potential biopesticides in Tenebrio molitor larvae

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    A simplified assay was devised to evaluate the response of Tenebrio molitor larvae to potential insect control products. The assay incorporates punched disks of flattened whole-grain bread placed in 96-well plates, with treatments applied topically, and neonate larvae added to each well. To evalua...

  13. A nuptially transmitted Ichthyosproean symbiont of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

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    The yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, harbors a symbiont that has spores with a thick, laminated wall and infects the fat body and ventral nerve chord of adult and larval beetles. In adult males, there is heavy infection of the epithelial cells of the testes and between testes lobes with occasional...

  14. Establishing the Embryonic Axes: Prime Time for Teratogenic Insults

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    Thomas W. Sadler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A long standing axiom in the field of teratology states that the teratogenic period, when most birth defects are produced, occurs during the third to eighth weeks of development post-fertilization. Any insults prior to this time are thought to result in a slowing of embryonic growth from which the conceptus recovers or death of the embryo followed by spontaneous abortion. However, new insights into embryonic development during the first two weeks, including formation of the anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral, and left-right axes, suggests that signaling pathways regulating these processes are prime targets for genetic and toxic insults. Establishment of the left-right (laterality axis is particularly sensitive to disruption at very early stages of development and these perturbations result in a wide variety of congenital malformations, especially heart defects. Thus, the time for teratogenic insults resulting in birth defects should be reset to include the first two weeks of development.

  15. Insulte, disqualification, persuasion et tropes communicationnels : à qui l’insulte profite-t-elle ? Insult, Disqualification, Persuasion and “Communicational Trope”: Who would benefit from insults?

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    Geneviève Bernard Barbeau

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Partant d’une acception très large de l’argumentation, nous nous intéressons ici au lien entre insulte et persuasion afin de repenser la relation persuadeur / persuadé sous l’éclairage de celle d’insulteur / insulté. Cette conception fondamentalement interactionniste place au centre de l’analyse l’objet de persuasion et la (possibilité de satisfaction de l’acte, ainsi que toute la mise en scène, le décor et le public qui assiste à la représentation (pour reprendre la métaphore théâtrale de Goffman, sans négliger la dimension émotive de l’insulte. Insistant sur la dimension argumentative de l’insulte, nous tentons de montrer, à partir d’extraits de sites Internet d’évaluation de professionnels, que toute disqualification devant un tiers a comme visée de le persuader d’adhérer à la thèse implicite de la validité de la qualification péjorative, ce qui se manifeste, sur le plan perlocutoire, de deux manières : persuader de haïr (faire adhérer à la disqualification d’autrui et persuader d’agir (faire poser une action conséquente avec l’adhésion à la disqualification d’autrui.Starting from a very broad definition of argumentation, we are interested in the link between insult and persuasion, in order to rethink the persuader / persuaded relationship, under the light of the insulter / insulted relationship. This fundamentally interactionist concept analyses first and foremost the object of persuasion, and the (possibility of achievement of the action, as well as the staging, the set and the attending audience (to use again Goffman’s theatrical metaphor, without neglecting the emotional dimension, inherent to insult. We will attempt to demonstrate, based on excerpts taken from websites that enable users to post reviews of professionals, that any disqualification in the presence of third parties aims at persuading them to adhere to the implicit thesis supporting the validity of the

  16. Isolation of proteolytic bacteria from mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) exoskeletons to produce chitinous material.

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    da Silva, Fernanda Kerche Paes; Brück, Dieter W; Brück, Wolfram M

    2017-09-15

    The use of insects as a source of protein is becoming an important factor for feeding an increasing population. After protein extraction for food use, the insect exoskeleton may offer the possibility for the production of added value products. Here, the aim was to isolate bacteria from the surface of farmed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758) for the production of chitinous material from insect exoskeletons using microbial fermentation. Isolates were screened for proteases and acid production that may aid deproteination and demineralisation of insects through fermentation to produce chitin. Selected isolates were used single-step (isolated bacteria only) or two-step fermentations with Lactobacillus plantarum (DSM 20174). Two-step fermentations with isolates from mealworm exoskeletons resulted in a demineralisation of 97.9 and 98.5% from deproteinated mealworm fractions. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier- transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that crude chitin was produced. However, further optimisation is needed before the process can be upscaled. This is, to our knowledge, the first report using microbial fermentation for the extraction of chitin from insects. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Regulatory effects of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus on immunological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the results of experiments to test the effect of the larvae of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus on the immune systems of mice. Mice were given a decoction of T. molitor in water at doses of 1.87, 3.75 and 7.50 g/kg/d for four weeks, after which their immune function was studied. The results indicate that T. molitor ...

  18. Adding Insult to Imagery? Art Education and Censorship

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    Sweeny, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The "Adding Insult to Imagery? Artistic Responses to Censorship and Mass-Media" exhibition opened in January 16, 2006, Kipp Gallery on the Indiana University of Pennsylvania campus. Eleven gallery-based works, 9 videos, and 10 web-based artworks comprised the show; each dealt with the relationship between censorship and mass mediated…

  19. The bacterial biota of laboratory-reared edible mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.): From feed to frass.

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    Osimani, Andrea; Milanović, Vesna; Cardinali, Federica; Garofalo, Cristiana; Clementi, Francesca; Pasquini, Marina; Riolo, Paola; Ruschioni, Sara; Isidoro, Nunzio; Loreto, Nino; Franciosi, Elena; Tuohy, Kieran; Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Foglini, Martina; Gabucci, Claudia; Tonucci, Franco; Aquilanti, Lucia

    2018-05-02

    Tenebrio molitor represents one of the most popular species used for the large-scale conversion of plant biomass into protein and is characterized by high nutritional value. In the present laboratory study, the bacterial biota characterizing a pilot production chain of fresh T. molitor larvae was investigated. To this end, different batches of fresh mealworm larvae, their feeding substrate (wheatmeal) and frass were analyzed by viable microbial counts, PCR-DGGE and Illumina sequencing. Moreover, the occurrence of Coxiella burnetii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) was assessed through qualitative real-time PCR assays. Microbial viable counts highlighted low microbial contamination of the wheatmeal, whereas larvae and frass were characterized by high loads of Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, and several species of mesophilic aerobes. Spore-forming bacteria were detected to a lesser extent in all the samples. The combined molecular approach used to profile the microbiota confirmed the low microbial contamination of wheatmeal and allowed the detection of Enterobacter spp., Erwinia spp., Enterococcus spp. and Lactococcus spp. as dominant genera in both larvae and frass. Moreover, Klebsiella spp., Pantoea spp., and Xenorhabdus spp. were found to be in the minority. Entomoplasmatales (including Spiroplasma spp.) constituted a major fraction of the microbiota of one batch of larvae. From the real-time PCR assays, no sample was positive for either C. burnetii or STEC, whereas P. aeruginosa was detected in one sample of frass. Based on the overall results, two sources of microbial contamination were hypothesized, namely feeding with wheatmeal and vertical transmission of microorganisms from mother to offspring. Since mealworms are expected to be eaten as a whole, the overall outcomes collected in this laboratory study discourage the consumption of fresh mealworm larvae. Moreover, microbial loads and the absence of potential pathogens

  20. Insult-induced adaptive plasticity of the auditory system

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    Joshua R Gold

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The brain displays a remarkable capacity for both widespread and region-specific modifications in response to environmental challenges, with adaptive processes bringing about the reweighting of connections in neural networks putatively required for optimising performance and behaviour. As an avenue for investigation, studies centred around changes in the mammalian auditory system, extending from the brainstem to the cortex, have revealed a plethora of mechanisms that operate in the context of sensory disruption after insult, be it lesion-, noise trauma, drug-, or age-related. Of particular interest in recent work are those aspects of auditory processing which, after sensory disruption, change at multiple – if not all – levels of the auditory hierarchy. These include changes in excitatory, inhibitory and neuromodulatory networks, consistent with theories of homeostatic plasticity; functional alterations in gene expression and in protein levels; as well as broader network processing effects with cognitive and behavioural implications. Nevertheless, there abounds substantial debate regarding which of these processes may only be sequelae of the original insult, and which may, in fact, be maladaptively compelling further degradation of the organism’s competence to cope with its disrupted sensory context. In this review, we aim to examine how the mammalian auditory system responds in the wake of particular insults, and to disambiguate how the changes that develop might underlie a correlated class of phantom disorders, including tinnitus and hyperacusis, which putatively are brought about through maladaptive neuroplastic disruptions to auditory networks governing the spatial and temporal processing of acoustic sensory information.

  1. Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as an alternative host to study fungal infections.

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    de Souza, Patrícia Canteri; Morey, Alexandre Tadachi; Castanheira, Gabriel Marcondes; Bocate, Karla Paiva; Panagio, Luciano Aparecido; Ito, Fabio Augusto; Furlaneto, Márcia Cristina; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie; Costa, Idessânia Nazareth; Mora-Montes, Hector Manuel; Almeida, Ricardo Sergio

    2015-11-01

    Models of host–pathogen interactions are crucial for the analysis of microbial pathogenesis. In this context, invertebrate hosts, including Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode) and Galleria mellonella (moth), have been used to study the pathogenesis of fungi and bacteria. Each of these organisms offers distinct benefits in elucidating host–pathogen interactions. In this study,we present a newinvertebrate infection model to study fungal infections: the Tenebrio molitor (beetle) larvae. Here we performed T. molitor larvae infection with one of two important fungal human pathogens, Candida albicans or Cryptococcus neoformans, and analyzed survival curves and larva infected tissues.We showed that increasing concentrations of inoculum of both fungi resulted in increased mortality rates, demonstrating the efficiency of the method to evaluate the virulence of pathogenic yeasts. Additionally, following 12 h post-infection, C. albicans formsmycelia, spreading its hyphae through the larva tissue,whilst GMS stain enabled the visualization of C. neoformans yeast and theirmelanin capsule. These larvae are easier to cultivate in the laboratory than G. mellonella larvae, and offer the same benefits. Therefore, this insect model could be a useful alternative tool to screen clinical pathogenic yeast strainswith distinct virulence traits or different mutant strains.

  2. Mechanism of dealkylation of clionasterol in the insect Tenebrio molitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettler, P.; Lockley, W.J.S.; Rees, H.H.; Goodwin, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    25- 3 H- and 26- 14 C-labelled (24S)-24-ethylcholest-5-en-3 β-ol (clionasterol) were synthesized from (24S)-24-ethylcholesta-5,25-dien-3β-ol. These labelled substrates were mixed and administered, together with the hypocholesterolemic agent, triparanol citrate, to Tenebrio molitor larvae. The 3 H label from the clionasterol substrate was retained in both the desmosterol and the cholesterol isolated from the larvae. Location of this 3 H label in the desmosterol showed that dealkylation of the clionasterol involved 3 H migration from C-25 to C-24. A possible mechanism for dealkylation is presented. (author)

  3. Neuroprotective action of magneto-lasertherapy during the acute period of ischemic insult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samosyuk, N.I.; Ehkshi Il'ker

    2001-01-01

    New methods of ischemic insult treatment, in particular use of magneto-lasertherapy are described. Patients with different forms of ischemic insult were treated during acute period of it. Restoration of functions was registered in 80% of them. Clinical studies show considerable morphoprotective effect of this method and the expediency of its introduction in intensive ischemic insult therapy

  4. Rapid biodegradation of plastics by mealworms (larvae of Tenebrio molitor) brings hope to solve wasteplastic pollution

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    Wu, W.; Yang, S.; Brandon, A. M.; Yang, Y.; Flanagan, J. A.; Fan, H. Q.; Cai, S. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Din, L. Y.; Daliang, N.; Yang, J.; Ren, J.; Tao, H. C.; Phillips, D.; Ren, N. Q.; Zhou, J.; Waymouth, R.; Criddle, C. S.

    2016-12-01

    Pollution of waste plastics in soil, river, ocean, landfill and potentially groundwater has been a major environment concern for decades. They include polystyrene (PS), polyethylene (PE) and others. Plastic particles could penetrate into groundwater and become potential threats to our groundwater Our recent research demonstrated that mealworm (larvae of Tenebrio molitor ), which are commercially used as animal and bird food and insect protein, can biodegrade PS and convert it to CO2 up within 48% within 12-14 hrs in mealworm gut. PS degradation was performed initially via depolymerization and then degradation within the mealworm guts. Gut microbiota plays a major role in PS biodegradation because the degradation is nearly completely inhibited when mealworms were fed with antibiotics. Physical and chemical analysis as well 13C labeled tests confirmed the biodegradation and mineralization of PS. The generality of plastic eating behavior of mealworms and biodegradation has been observed by testing mealworms from 11 different sources in China and the USA. All of the mealworms tested consume PS although at different relative rates. At ambient temperature (20-24 oC), the average daily consumption rate of PS ranged from 0.01 to 0.3 mg per 100 mealworms when fed PS alone. The mealworms also consumed low density polyethylene (LDPE) foam as sole diet. When mealworms were fed PS alone, the consumption rate and total amount consumed increased slightly as a function of temperature from 20 to 30 oC. Supplementing the diet with normal food (bran) enhanced the PS consumption rate and the total PS mass consumed. Microbial community analysis indicated that the microbial structure changed significantly after the diet was switched from normal food bran to PS or PS plus bran. PS-degrading bacterial strains have isolated and characterized. Our discoveries brings hopes to prevent or solve potential microplastics threats to groundwater.

  5. Thermal effects on tenebrio molitor and lawn irradiated by high power centimeter wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jie; Han Lijun; Qi Hongxing; Chen Shude; Qiao Dengjiang

    2008-01-01

    A system of high power centimeter wave(HPCW) was built up. The temperature change of tenebrio molitor and lawn was sampled during HPCW irradiation. It is shown that the relationship between the temperature increase of tenebrio molitor and irradiation time is approximately linear, and the relationship between the temperature increase of lawn and irradiation time is nonlinear. It is also considered that the temperature of lawn increases faster than that of tenebrio molitor does during the earlier stage of irradiation. The death percentage of tenebrio molitor and injury rate of lawn irradiated by HPCW could be fitted by normal distribution. The fitting curves of relations between death rate and irradiation time and between death rate and temperature are presented. (authors)

  6. Methyltransferases mediate cell memory of a genotoxic insult.

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    Rugo, R E; Mutamba, J T; Mohan, K N; Yee, T; Chaillet, J R; Greenberger, J S; Engelward, B P

    2011-02-10

    Characterization of the direct effects of DNA-damaging agents shows how DNA lesions lead to specific mutations. Yet, serum from Hiroshima survivors, Chernobyl liquidators and radiotherapy patients can induce a clastogenic effect on naive cells, showing indirect induction of genomic instability that persists years after exposure. Such indirect effects are not restricted to ionizing radiation, as chemical genotoxins also induce heritable and transmissible genomic instability phenotypes. Although such indirect induction of genomic instability is well described, the underlying mechanism has remained enigmatic. Here, we show that mouse embryonic stem cells exposed to γ-radiation bear the effects of the insult for weeks. Specifically, conditioned media from the progeny of exposed cells can induce DNA damage and homologous recombination in naive cells. Notably, cells exposed to conditioned media also elicit a genome-destabilizing effect on their neighbouring cells, thus demonstrating transmission of genomic instability. Moreover, we show that the underlying basis for the memory of an insult is completely dependent on two of the major DNA cytosine methyltransferases, Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a. Targeted disruption of these genes in exposed cells completely eliminates transmission of genomic instability. Furthermore, transient inactivation of Dnmt1, using a tet-suppressible allele, clears the memory of the insult, thus protecting neighbouring cells from indirect induction of genomic instability. We have thus demonstrated that a single exposure can lead to long-term, genome-destabilizing effects that spread from cell to cell, and we provide a specific molecular mechanism for these persistent bystander effects. Collectively, our results impact the current understanding of risks from toxin exposures and suggest modes of intervention for suppressing genomic instability in people exposed to carcinogenic genotoxins.

  7. Pesticide contamination of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) for human consumption.

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    Houbraken, Michael; Spranghers, Thomas; De Clercq, Patrick; Cooreman-Algoed, Margot; Couchement, Tasmien; De Clercq, Griet; Verbeke, Sarah; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2016-06-15

    The use of pesticides contributes to the productivity and the quality of the cultivated crop. A large portion of the agricultural produce is not consumed as it is not an edible part or the quality of the product is too low. This waste of agricultural produce can be valorised as a substrate for the production of certain insects for human consumption. However, pesticides applied on the plants might accumulate during the life cycle of the insects fed on the waste materials and may cause a health risk to humans consuming the insects. Pesticide residues in larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, were investigated. We monitored the accumulation of pesticides in the larvae upon consumption of contaminated fresh produce. An increased uptake rate by the insects was found for pesticides with higher Kow-values. Excretion of pesticides by the insect was inversely related to the log(Kow) values of the pesticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A nuptially transmitted ichthyosporean symbiont of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Jeffrey C; Hartzer, Kris L; Kambhampati, Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    The yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, harbors a symbiont that has spores with a thick, laminated wall and infects the fat body and ventral nerve chord of adult and larval beetles. In adult males, there is heavy infection of the epithelial cells of the testes and between testes lobes with occasional penetration of the lobes. Spores are enveloped in the spermatophores when they are formed at the time of mating and transferred to the female's bursa copulatrix. Infection has not been found in the ovaries. The sequence of the nuclear small subunit rDNA indicates that the symbiont is a member of the Ichthyosporea, a class of protists near the animal-fungi divergence. © 2012 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2012 International Society of Protistologists.

  9. The studies on waste biodegradation by Tenebrio molitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożek Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As cities are growing in size with a rise in the population, the amount of plastic waste generated is increasing and becoming unmanageable. The treatment and disposal of plastic waste is an urgent need of our present and future. It has been proved recently that mealworms, the larvae of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, are able eat styrofoam, a common polystyrene product. Polystyrene is one of the most widely used plastics, the scale of its production being several million tons per year. Tenebrio molitor is one of the largest pests found in stored-grain products. The insect is indigenous to Europe, but is currently cosmopolitan in distribution. The styrofoam is efficiently degraded in the larval gut by microorganisms. We have used the larvae of T. molitor to biodegrade three types of food packaging plastics: polystyrene (PS, polyvinyl chloride (PVC and polylactide (PLA. PVC is a thermoplastic made of 57% chlorine (derived from industrial grade salt and 43% carbon (derived predominantly from oil /gas via ethylene. It is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, which is not biodegradable easily. On the other hand, PLA is an easily biodegradable and bioactive thermoplastic aliphatic polyester derived from corn and tapioca starch or sugarcane. Three groups of larvae were fed selected types of polymers as an only food, while a control population was fed on oatmeal. The mass loss, dry matter content and biochemical composition of mealworms were assessed in the performed laboratory experiments. The protein concentration in homogenates of the larvae was determined by the Bradford method. To determine the level of hydrolized carbohydrates we used anthrone method. The classical sulfo-phospho-vanillin assay (SPVA was used to quantitate total lipids in mealworms. The results allowed to compare the decomposition efficiency of selected polymer materials by mealworms and to recognize the mechanism of decomposition contributing to the future

  10. Word play, ritual insult, and volleyball in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Many gay men in the popular sectors of Lima, Peru participate in vóley callejero, or street volleyball. The ethnographic data presented in this article describes verbal and corporal mechanisms through which gay identity emerges within the particular context of the street volleyball game, ultimately highlighting the contextual nature of identity. The volleyball players are not just hitting a ball back and forth, they are engaging in a meaningful activity that illuminates intersections of language, sexuality, and identity. Through the manipulation of the street into a volleyball court, the volleyball players create a space conducive to the articulation of particular verbal and embodied practices that index gay identity. The challenge to the regulations of "proper" volleyball through the practice of ritual insulting and the cultivation of gay volleyball technique are playful reconfigurations of gendered practices prominent in the sites where fieldwork was carried out.

  11. CHORD simulation for insult assessment to the red bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.D.

    1976-09-01

    Critical Human Organ Radiation Dosimetry (CHORD) probability density functions for A-P, P-A, bilateral, rotational, and isotropic incidence, plus simple depth-dose data, permit the rapid estimation of the radiation insult to the active red bone marrow system of the ICRP Reference Man. The CHORD concept follows the variations in the microscopic processes of absorption, attenuation, and scattering on a macroscopic level so that it is not necessary to attempt detailed calculations for each and every case of interest. Similar techniques have been applied to reactor criticality calculations and the general logic of the CHORD process can be applied to any cause-response type situation which can be described in terms of variation with distance in the medium of interest. Doses to active bone marrow from exposures to photons and neutrons are presented and excellent agreement is shown with the few available experimental results

  12. Inducible defenses stay up late: temporal patterns of immune gene expression in Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Paul R; Makarova, Olga; Rolff, Jens

    2013-12-06

    The course of microbial infection in insects is shaped by a two-stage process of immune defense. Constitutive defenses, such as engulfment and melanization, act immediately and are followed by inducible defenses, archetypically the production of antimicrobial peptides, which eliminate or suppress the remaining microbes. By applying RNAseq across a 7-day time course, we sought to characterize the long-lasting immune response to bacterial challenge in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor, a model for the biochemistry of insect immunity and persistent bacterial infection. By annotating a hybrid de novo assembly of RNAseq data, we were able to identify putative orthologs for the majority of components of the conserved insect immune system. Compared with Tribolium castaneum, the most closely related species with a reference genome sequence and a manually curated immune system annotation, the T. molitor immune gene count was lower, with lineage-specific expansions of genes encoding serine proteases and their countervailing inhibitors accounting for the majority of the deficit. Quantitative mapping of RNAseq reads to the reference assembly showed that expression of genes with predicted functions in cellular immunity, wound healing, melanization, and the production of reactive oxygen species was transiently induced immediately after immune challenge. In contrast, expression of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides or components of the Toll signaling pathway and iron sequestration response remained elevated for at least 7 days. Numerous genes involved in metabolism and nutrient storage were repressed, indicating a possible cost of immune induction. Strikingly, the expression of almost all antibacterial peptides followed the same pattern of long-lasting induction, regardless of their spectra of activity, signaling possible interactive roles in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Johnston et al.

  13. An Analysis of Insults in Don Quixote from the Perspective of Social History of Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. Usunáriz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Daily use of insult, slander, in the societies of the Early Modern Age, is also present in the voices of the protagonists of Don Quixote. However, the Ingenious Gentleman and his squire, do not use the insult in the same way. This will depend on the social position of insulted and offender (noble or villain, and the circumstances surrounding it. However, social reality, collected in different court cases, shows that the insult did not respect, in the same way as in the novel, the stratified social structure.

  14. Effect of sexual coercion proclivity, insult and fantasy on emotional reactivity and appeal of sexual aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lindsey A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2012-08-01

    Fifty-nine heterosexual university males were assessed for Sexual Coercion Proclivity (SCP) and randomly assigned to one of three conditions: Insult/nonsexually coercive fantasy material; no insult/sexually coercive fantasy material; or, insult/sexually coercive fantasy material. Although not differing in terms of anger or anxiety, the high SCP became more frustrated than the low group, particularly when exposed to both insult and sexually coercive (SC) fantasy material. Changes in negative affect predicted anticipated likelihood of engaging in SC among the low SCP group and anticipated enjoyment of SC in the high SCP group. Acculturation accounted for differences observed between Caucasian and Chinese men.

  15. Recovery and techno-functionality of flours and proteins from two edible insect species: Meal worm (Tenebrio molitor and black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bußler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the species, edible insects are highly nutritious and thus represent a noteworthy alternative food and feed source. The current work investigates the protein extractability and techno-functionality of insect flour fractions recovered from Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens. T. molitor and H. illucens flours contained about 20% crude fat and 60% and 36 % crude protein, respectively. Defatting reduced the crude fat content to 2.8% (T. molitor and 8.8% (H. illucens and increased the crude protein content to 68% and 47%, respectively. To isolate proteins from the flours, protein solubility was optimized by varying the pH, the ionic strength, and the extraction temperature of the solvent. All products and by-products accumulated in the protein production process were characterized by composition, selected techno-functional properties, protein solubility, composition and structure as well as their microbial load.

  16. Recovery and techno-functionality of flours and proteins from two edible insect species: Meal worm (Tenebrio molitor) and black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bußler, Sara; Rumpold, Birgit A; Jander, Elisabeth; Rawel, Harshadrai M; Schlüter, Oliver K

    2016-12-01

    Depending on the species, edible insects are highly nutritious and thus represent a noteworthy alternative food and feed source. The current work investigates the protein extractability and techno-functionality of insect flour fractions recovered from Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens . T. molitor and H. illucens flours contained about 20% crude fat and 60% and 36 % crude protein, respectively. Defatting reduced the crude fat content to 2.8% ( T. molitor ) and 8.8% ( H. illucens ) and increased the crude protein content to 68% and 47%, respectively. To isolate proteins from the flours, protein solubility was optimized by varying the pH, the ionic strength, and the extraction temperature of the solvent. All products and by-products accumulated in the protein production process were characterized by composition, selected techno-functional properties, protein solubility, composition and structure as well as their microbial load.

  17. Enantiomerization and stereoselectivity in bioaccumulation of furalaxyl in Tenebrio molitor larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jing; Gao, Yongxin; Zhu, Feilong; Hao, Weiyu; Xu, Qi; Wang, Huili; Guo, Baoyuan

    2017-11-01

    Furalaxyl is a chiral pesticide and widely used in modern agriculture as racemate mixture. The enantiomerization and enantioselecive bioaccumulation by a single dose of furalaxyl to Tenebrio molitor larvae under laboratory conditions were studied using a high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy method based on a ChiralPAK IC column. Our results showed that a significant enantiomerization (interconversion between R-enantiomer and S-enantiomer) was observed in Tenebrio molitor larvae under R- or S-furalaxyl exposure. Though the two furalaxyl enantiomers exhibited low-capacity of bioaccumulation in Tenebrio molitor larvae, bioaccumulation of rac-furalaxyl was enantioselective with a preferential accumulation of S-furalaxyl at 10mg/kg dosage exposure. In addition, enantiomerization and enantioselective degradation of the two enantiomers was not observed in wheat bran. These results showed that enantioselectivtiy of furalaxyl enantiomers was an important process combined with degradation, metabolism and enatiomerization in organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanistic insight into neurotoxicity induced by developmental insults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamm, Christoffer; Ceccatelli, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological and/or experimental studies have shown that unfavorable prenatal environmental factors, such as stress or exposure to certain neurotoxic environmental contaminants, may have adverse consequences for neurodevelopment. Alterations in neurogenesis can have harmful effects not only for the developing nervous system, but also for the adult brain where neurogenesis is believed to play a role in learning, memory, and even in depression. Many recent advances in the understanding of the complex process of nervous system development can be integrated into the field of neurotoxicology. In the past 15 years we have been using cultured neural stem or progenitor cells to investigate the effects of neurotoxic stimuli on cell survival, proliferation and differentiation, with special focus on heritable effects. This is an overview of the work performed by our group in the attempt to elucidate the mechanisms of developmental neurotoxicity and possibly provide relevant information for the understanding of the etiopathogenesis of complex brain disorders. - Highlights: • The developing nervous system is highly sensitive to toxic insults. • Neural stem cells are relevant models for mechanistic studies as well as for identifying heritable effects due to epigenetic changes. • Depending on the dose, the outcome of exposure to neurotoxicants ranges from altered proliferation and differentiation to cell death. • The elucidation of neurotoxicity mechanisms is relevant for understanding the etiopathogenesis of developmental and adult nervous system disorders.

  19. Children's Executive Functions: Are They Poorer after Very Early Brain Insult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Vicki; Spencer-Smith, Megan; Coleman, Lee; Anderson, Peter; Williams, Jackie; Greenham, Mardee; Leventer, Richard J.; Jacobs, Rani

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally early brain insult (EBI) has been considered to have better outcome than later injury, consistent with the notion that the young brain is flexible and able to reorganize. Recent research findings question this view, suggesting that EBI might lead to poorer outcome than brain insult at any other age. Exploring this early vulnerability…

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of yellow meal worm (Tenebrio molitor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Na; Wang, Cheng-Ye

    2014-11-18

    The yellow meal worm (Tenebrio molitor L.) is an important resource insect typically used as animal feed additive. It is also widely used for biological research. The first complete mitochondrial genome of T. molitor was determined for the first time by long PCR and conserved primer walking approaches. The results showed that the entire mitogenome of T. molitor was 15 785 bp long, with 72.35% A+T content [deposited in GenBank with accession number KF418153]. The gene order and orientation were the same as the most common type suggested as ancestral for insects. Two protein-coding genes used atypical start codons (CTA in ND2 and AAT in COX1), and the remaining 11 protein-coding genes started with a typical insect initiation codon ATN. All tRNAs showed standard clover-leaf structure, except for tRNA(Ser) (AGN), which lacked a dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. The newly added T. molitor mitogenome could provide information for future studies on yellow meal worm.

  1. A digestive prolyl carboxypeptidase in Tenebrio molitor larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goptar, Irina A; Shagin, Dmitry A; Shagina, Irina A; Mudrik, Elena S; Smirnova, Yulia A; Zhuzhikov, Dmitry P; Belozersky, Mikhail A; Dunaevsky, Yakov E; Oppert, Brenda; Filippova, Irina Yu; Elpidina, Elena N

    2013-06-01

    Prolyl carboxypeptidase (PRCP) is a lysosomal proline specific serine peptidase that also plays a vital role in the regulation of physiological processes in mammals. In this report, we isolate and characterize the first PRCP in an insect. PRCP was purified from the anterior midgut of larvae of a stored product pest, Tenebrio molitor, using a three-step chromatography strategy, and it was determined that the purified enzyme was a dimer. The cDNA of PRCP was cloned and sequenced, and the predicted protein was identical to the proteomic sequences of the purified enzyme. The substrate specificity and kinetic parameters of the enzyme were determined. The T. molitor PRCP participates in the hydrolysis of the insect's major dietary proteins, gliadins, and is the first PRCP to be ascribed a digestive function. Our collective data suggest that the evolutionary enrichment of the digestive peptidase complex in insects with an area of acidic to neutral pH in the midgut is a result of the incorporation of lysosomal peptidases, including PRCP. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Molecular cloning, sequence characterization and expression analysis of a CD63 homologue from the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Kang, Seong Min; Seo, Gi Won; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Patnaik, Hongray Howrelia; Jo, Yong Hun; Tindwa, Hamisi; Lee, Yong Seok; Lee, Bok Luel; Kim, Nam Jung; Bang, In Seok; Han, Yeon Soo

    2013-10-15

    CD63, a member of the tetraspanin membrane protein family, plays a pivotal role in cell growth, motility, signal transduction, host-pathogen interactions and cancer. In this work, the cDNA encoding CD63 homologue (TmCD63) was cloned from larvae of a coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor. The cDNA is comprised of an open reading frame of 705 bp, encoding putative protein of 235 amino acid residues. In silico analysis shows that the protein has four putative transmembrane domains and one large extracellular loop. The characteristic "Cys-Cys-Gly" motif and "Cys188" residues are highly conserved in the large extracellular loop. Phylogenetic analysis of TmCD63 revealed that they belong to the insect cluster with 50%-56% identity. Analysis of spatial expression patterns demonstrated that TmCD63 mRNA is mainly expressed in gut and Malphigian tubules of larvae and the testis of the adult. Developmental expression patterns of CD63 mRNA showed that TmCD63 transcripts are detected in late larval, pupal and adult stages. Interestingly, TmCD63 transcripts are upregulated to the maximum level of 4.5 fold, in response to DAP-type peptidoglycan during the first 6 h, although other immune elicitors also caused significant increase to the transcript level at later time-points. These results suggest that CD63 might contribute to T. molitor immune response against various microbial pathogens.

  3. Molecular Cloning, Sequence Characterization and Expression Analysis of a CD63 Homologue from the Coleopteran Beetle, Tenebrio molitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Soo Han

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available CD63, a member of the tetraspanin membrane protein family, plays a pivotal role in cell growth, motility, signal transduction, host-pathogen interactions and cancer. In this work, the cDNA encoding CD63 homologue (TmCD63 was cloned from larvae of a coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor. The cDNA is comprised of an open reading frame of 705 bp, encoding putative protein of 235 amino acid residues. In silico analysis shows that the protein has four putative transmembrane domains and one large extracellular loop. The characteristic “Cys-Cys-Gly” motif and “Cys188” residues are highly conserved in the large extracellular loop. Phylogenetic analysis of TmCD63 revealed that they belong to the insect cluster with 50%–56% identity. Analysis of spatial expression patterns demonstrated that TmCD63 mRNA is mainly expressed in gut and Malphigian tubules of larvae and the testis of the adult. Developmental expression patterns of CD63 mRNA showed that TmCD63 transcripts are detected in late larval, pupal and adult stages. Interestingly, TmCD63 transcripts are upregulated to the maximum level of 4.5 fold, in response to DAP-type peptidoglycan during the first 6 h, although other immune elicitors also caused significant increase to the transcript level at later time-points. These results suggest that CD63 might contribute to T. molitor immune response against various microbial pathogens.

  4. Molecular Cloning, Sequence Characterization and Expression Analysis of a CD63 Homologue from the Coleopteran Beetle, Tenebrio molitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Kang, Seong Min; Seo, Gi Won; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Patnaik, Hongray Howrelia; Jo, Yong Hun; Tindwa, Hamisi; Lee, Yong Seok; Lee, Bok Luel; Kim, Nam Jung; Bang, In Seok; Han, Yeon Soo

    2013-01-01

    CD63, a member of the tetraspanin membrane protein family, plays a pivotal role in cell growth, motility, signal transduction, host-pathogen interactions and cancer. In this work, the cDNA encoding CD63 homologue (TmCD63) was cloned from larvae of a coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor. The cDNA is comprised of an open reading frame of 705 bp, encoding putative protein of 235 amino acid residues. In silico analysis shows that the protein has four putative transmembrane domains and one large extracellular loop. The characteristic “Cys-Cys-Gly” motif and “Cys188” residues are highly conserved in the large extracellular loop. Phylogenetic analysis of TmCD63 revealed that they belong to the insect cluster with 50%–56% identity. Analysis of spatial expression patterns demonstrated that TmCD63 mRNA is mainly expressed in gut and Malphigian tubules of larvae and the testis of the adult. Developmental expression patterns of CD63 mRNA showed that TmCD63 transcripts are detected in late larval, pupal and adult stages. Interestingly, TmCD63 transcripts are upregulated to the maximum level of 4.5 fold, in response to DAP-type peptidoglycan during the first 6 h, although other immune elicitors also caused significant increase to the transcript level at later time-points. These results suggest that CD63 might contribute to T. molitor immune response against various microbial pathogens. PMID:24132157

  5. Assessment of environmental insults on lymphoid cells as detected by computer assisted morphometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, G.B.; Bartels, P.H.

    1984-01-01

    Ability to detect and monitor specific environmental insults with great sensitivity prompted the following study - the use of splenocytes and PBL as indicator cells to detect, monitor and differentiate between physically, chemically and biologically induced environmental insults. To be tested in this study is the hypothesis that different types of chemical, physical and biologic insults cause distinctive changes in the nuclear chromatin of the exposed cells. Should this assumption be warranted, one could monitor water, soil, air and food samples for undesirable chemicals and biological vectors (viruses), monitor people living near nuclear energy sites and people in radiation-related professions, and monitor cell samples obtained from people exposed to viral injections

  6. Protein identification and in vitro digestion of fractions from Tenebrio molitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, Liya; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Boeren, Sjef; Lakemond, Catriona M.M.

    2016-01-01

    The nutritional value of insect protein is evaluated not only in amino acid composition, but also in protein digestibility. The general amino acid composition of Tenebrio molitor has been reported before, but limited knowledge is available on its digestibility. The objective of this study was to

  7. Immune function responds to selection for cuticular colour in Tenebrio molitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armitage, Sophie Alice Octavia; Siva-Jothy, M. T.

    2005-01-01

    Cuticular colour in the mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) is a quantitative trait, varying from tan to black. Population level variation in cuticular colour has been linked to pathogen resistance in this species and in several other insects: darker individuals are more resistant to pathogens...

  8. Study of the effect of microwaves on the tanning process in Tenebrio molitor L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Hing Tchao; Huet, Claude; Lenoir-Rousseau, J.-J.

    1977-01-01

    The anterior part of Tenebrio molitor releases enzymatic substances inducing the tanning process of the adult cuticle. These substances would be released before larval-pupal ecdysis. Their presence at a low rate enables the tanning process to occur normally although later [fr

  9. Use of nutrient self selection as a diet refining tool in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new method to refine existing dietary supplements for improving production of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), was tested. Self selected ratios of 6 dietary ingredients by T. molitor larvae were used to produce a dietary supplement. This supplement was compared...

  10. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 – an important digestive peptidase in Tenebrio molitor larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP 4) is a proline specific serine peptidase that plays an important role in different regulatory processes in mammals. In this report, we isolated and characterized a unique secreted digestive DPP 4 from the anterior midgut of a stored product pest, Tenebrio molitor larvae ...

  11. Impact of Adult Weight, Density, and Age on Reproduction of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of adult weight, age, and density on reproduction of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied. The impact of adult weight on reproduction was determined in two ways: 1) counting the daily progeny of individual adult pairs of known weight and analyzing the data with line...

  12. Parasitization by Scleroderma guani influences expression of superoxide dismutase genes in Tenebrio molitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme involved in detoxifying reactive oxygen species. In this study, we identified genes encoding the extracellular and intracellular copper-zinc SODs (ecCuZnSOD and icCuZnSOD) and a manganese SOD (MnSOD) in the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor....

  13. Functional analysis of C1 family cysteine peptidases in the larval gut of Tenebrio molitor and Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied protein digestion the tenebrionids Tenebrio molitor and Tribolium castaneum, pests of stored grains and grain products, to identify potential targets for biopesticide development. Tenebrionid larvae have highly compartmentalized guts, with primarily cysteine peptidases in the acidic anter...

  14. Policy for the treatment of insulting and sensitive lexical items in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: policy, treatment, insulting lexical items, sensitive lexical items, dictionary, woordeboek van die afrikaanse taal, simplexes, compounds, expressions, general usage criterion, labelling, synonyms, metalanguage, collocations, editorial usage examples, citations, advisors, racist lexical items, neutral lemmas, ...

  15. Is there a relationship between insect metabolic rate and mortality of mealworms Tenebrio molitor L. after insecticide exposure?

    OpenAIRE

    MALISZEWSKA, Justyna; TĘGOWSKA, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are known to affect insects metabolic rate and CO2 release patterns. In the presented paper metabolic rate and mortality of mealworms Tenebrio molitor L. exposed to four different insecticides was evaluated, to find out whether there is a relationship between mealworms sensitivity to pesticides and their metabolic rate. Tenebrio molitor mortality was determined after intoxication with pyrethroid, oxadiazine, neonicotinoid and organophosphate. Metabolic rate before and after intoxic...

  16. Endogenous egg immune defenses in the yellow mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Chris G C; Gallagher, Joe D; Evison, Sophie E F; Heckel, David G; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Vogel, Heiko

    2017-05-01

    In order to survive microbe encounters, insects rely on both physical barriers as well as local and systemic immune responses. Most research focusses on adult or larval defenses however, whereas insect eggs are also in need of protection. Lately, the defense of eggs against microbes has received an increasing amount of attention, be it through endogenous egg defenses, trans-generational immune priming (TGIP) or parental investment. Here we studied the endogenous immune response in eggs and adults of Tenebrio molitor. We show that many immune genes are induced in both adults and eggs. Furthermore, we show that eggs reach comparable levels of immune gene expression as adults. These findings show that the eggs of Tenebrio are capable of an impressive endogenous immune response, and indicate that such inducible egg defenses are likely common in insects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cloning and baculovirus expression of a desiccation stress gene from the beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, L A; Bendena, W G; Walker, V K

    1996-02-01

    The cDNA sequence encoding a novel desiccation stress protein (dsp28) found in the hemolymph of the common yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, has been determined. The sequence encodes a 225 amino acid protein containing a 20 amino acid signal peptide. Dsp28 shows no significant similarity to any known nucleic acid or protein sequence. Levels of dsp28 mRNA were found to increase approx 5-fold following desiccation. Dsp28 cDNA has been cloned into a baculovirus expression vector and the expressed protein was compared to native dsp28. Both dsp28 expressed by recombinant baculovirus and native dsp28 are glycosylated and N-terminally processed. Although dsp28 is induced by cold in addition to desiccation stress, it does not contribute to the freezing point depression (thermal hysteresis) observed in Tenebrio hemolymph.

  18. [Cloning, prokaryotic expression and antibacterial assay of Tenecin gene encoding an antibacterial peptide from Tenebrio molitor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Jiang, Yu-xin; Li, Chao-pin

    2011-12-01

    To clone tenecin gene, an antibacterial peptide gene, from Tenebrio molitor for its prokaryotic expression and explore the molecular mechanism for regulating the expression of antibacterial peptide in Tenebrio molitor larvae. The antibacterial peptide was induced from the larvae of Tenebrio molitor by intraperitoneal injection of Escherichia coli DH-5α (1×10(8)/ml). RT-PCR was performed 72 h after the injection to clone Tenecin gene followed by sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. The recombinant expression vector pET-28a(+)-Tenecin was constructed and transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) cells and the expression of tenecin protein was observed after IPTG induction. Tenecin expression was detected in transformed E.coli using SDS-PAGE after 1 mmol/L IPTG induction. Tenecin gene, which was about 255 bp in length, encoded Tenecin protein with a relative molecular mass of 9 kD. Incubation of E.coli with 80, 60, 40, and 20 µg/ml tenecin for 18 h resulted in a diameter of the inhibition zone of 25.1∓0.03, 20.7∓0.06, 17.2∓0.11 and 9.3∓0.04 mm, respectively. Tenecin protein possesses strong antibacterial activity against E. coli DH-5α, which warrants further study of this protein for its potential as an antibacterial agent in clinical application.

  19. Severe gonadotoxic insult manifests early in young girls treated for Ewing sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mörse, Helena; Elfving, Maria; Turkiewicz, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    We prospectively investigated anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as a measure of ovarian insult in young females during and after treatment for Wilms tumor (WT), osteosarcoma (OS), and Ewing sarcoma (ES).Twenty-one female childhood cancer patients, with a mean age of 7.9 years (range 0.6-17), entered...

  20. Local physeal widening on MR imaging: an incidental finding suggesting prior metaphyseal insult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laor, T.; Hartman, A.L.; Jaramillo, D.

    1997-01-01

    To offer a descriptive review which characterizes and evaluates the significance of local physeal widening, (cartilaginous signal extending from the physis into the adjacent metaphysis), identified on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. MR images (recollected from exams performed between 1988 and 1995) of 31 metaphyses in 22 children where we recognized local physeal widening were examined retrospectively. These areas of physeal widening were evaluated for morphology, depth, location, signal intensity, and the coexistence of epiphyseal alterations. The characteristics of the signal abnormalities were correlated with the duration and type of any identifiable insult to the adjacent metaphysis, and with the development of growth disturbance. Twenty-six metaphyses had identifiable insults (19 single event and 7 sustained or repetitive). The widened physes were of focal tongue (n = 15), broad band (n 10), or mixed (n = 6) morphology. Most (n = 27) areas of widening were isointense with the physeal cartilage on all sequences. Subsequent growth disturbance was more likely when the metaphyseal insult was a single event rather than sustained or repetitive (P = 0.023), with focal tongues (P = 0.029), and with centrally located lesions (P = 0.030). In five cases, the adjacent epiphysis showed signal abnormalities; all developed growth disturbance. Histologic examinations available in two limbs confirmed that the MR findings represented extensions of hypertrophic physeal chondrocytes into the metaphysis. Incidentally observed local physeal widening in a growing bone may represent the imprint of a previous or ongoing interference with endochondral ossification from a prior metaphyseal insult, rather than a primary metaphyseal disorder. Single event insults, physeal widening of focal tongue morphology, central distribution in the metaphysis, and concomitant epiphyseal signal abnormalities on MR imaging are significant predictors of subsequent growth disturbance. (orig.). With 9

  1. Insulte, injure et diffamation : de la linguistique au code pénal ? Insults, Abuse and Libel: From Linguistics to Penal Code?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Lagorgette

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available alors que la plupart des études de linguistique française sur l’insulte soulignent la confusion terminologique et théorique qui caractérise les définitions de ces deux actes de langage, la notion purement juridique de diffamation peut-elle éclairer ce long débat ? Le cœur du problème semble être, outre l’étymologie des termes, le statut de fait précis prouvable. Là où la linguistique réfute l’idée d’une valeur de vérité de l’insulte / injure, c’est au contraire pour la loi l’un des critères les plus probants pour analyser et éventuellement punir. Dans le cadre particulier du discours polémique humoristique, cette notion prend une densité particulière puisque ce qui fait rire est subjectif, mais aussi parce que ce type de discours polémique nécessite en soi une transgression afin de pouvoir opérer pleinement, comme l’illustrera le procès d’un groupe punk dont on étudiera les plaintes, les stratégies et les jugements.Considering that the terminological and theoretical confusion characterising the definitions of insults and the associated speech acts is underlined by most of French linguistics studies, to what extend could a concept such as “libel”, coming from a different research field (law studies, enlighten the debate? The core of the problem seems to be about providing evidence about particular facts, so that the linguistic offense can be named as such. While linguistics rejects the truth-conditionality of insults, the French law on the contrary bases its criteria on this very notion. When polemical humour is involved, these nuances become crucial, since laughter is clearly based on subjective perceptions, but also because this type of discourse needs to transgress in order to become effective, as a case study based on the trial of a punk band will illustrate..

  2. Nitrates and herbicides cause higher mortality than the traditional organic fertilizers on the grain beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, Aurora M; Dauwe, Tom; Mora, Isabel; Malone, Jim; Guitart, Raimon

    2010-01-01

    We examined experimentally whether fertilizers or herbicides commonly used by farmers affect mortality of the adult grain beetle Tenebrio molitor. After a period of 4 weeks in direct contact with all treatments, a higher percentage of mortality occurred in contact with nitrates than with pig manure or turkey litter. Herbicides (a mixture of glyphosate and 2,4-D: ) caused 100% mortality. Our results also indicate that more beetles escaped from the herbicides and nitrate treatments than from the others, suggesting some kind of behavioural avoidance of toxic environments. The traditional organic fertilizers appear to be less toxic than inorganic fertilizers for Tenebrio molitor.

  3. Aspects of cuticular sclerotization in the locust, Scistocerca gregaria, and the beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Svend Olav; Roepstorff, Peter

    2007-03-01

    The number of reactive amino groups in cuticular proteins decreases during the early period of insect cuticular sclerotization, presumably due to reaction with oxidation products of N-acetyldopamine (NADA) and N-beta-alanyldopamine (NBAD). We have quantitated the decrease in cuticular N-terminal amino groups and lysine epsilon-amino groups during the first 24h of sclerotization in adult locusts, Schistocerca gregaria, and in larval and adult beetles, Tenebrio molitor, as well as the increase in beta-alanine amino groups in Tenebrio cuticle. The results indicate that nearly all glycine N-terminal groups and a significant part of the epsilon-amino groups from lysine residues are involved in the sclerotization process in both locusts and Tenebrio. A pronounced increase in the amount of free beta-alanine amino groups was observed in cuticle from adult Tenebrio and to a lesser extent also in Tenebrio larval cuticle, but from locust cuticle no beta-alanine was obtained. Hydrolysis of sclerotized cuticles from locusts and Tenebrio by dilute hydrochloric acid released a large number of compounds containing amino acids linked to catecholic moieties. Products have been identified which contain histidine residues linked via their imidazole group to the beta-position of various catechols, such as dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-ethanol (DOPET), and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-acetaldehyde (DOPALD), and a ketocatecholic compound has also been identified composed of lysine linked via its epsilon-amino group to the alpha-carbon atom of 3,4-dihydroxyacetophenone. Some of the hydrolysis products have previously been obtained from sclerotized pupal cuticle of Manduca sexta [Xu, R., Huang, X., Hopkins, T.L., Kramer, K.J., 1997. Catecholamine and histidyl protein cross-linked structures in sclerotized insect cuticle. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 27, 101-108; Kerwin, J.L., Turecek, F., Xu, R., Kramer, K.J., Hopkins, T.L., Gatlin, C.L., Yates, J.R., 1999. Mass spectrometric analysis

  4. Desenvolvimento do predador Podisus nigrispinus alimentado com Spodoptera frugiperda e Tenebrio molitor Development of the predator Podisus nigrispinus fed on Spodoptera frugiperda and Tenebrio molitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley Nonato de Oliveira

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Ninfas de Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae têm sido criadas em laboratório com larvas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. No entanto, não existem relatos sobre a predação, no campo ou em laboratório, de P. nigrispinus em Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, uma das principais pragas de inúmeras culturas no Brasil. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento ninfal e características reprodutivas do percevejo predador P. nigrispinus em lagartas de S. frugiperda e em larvas de T. molitor, em laboratório. A presa S. frugiperda proporcionou ao predador menor longevidade, maior produção e viabilidade de ovos do que as larvas de T. molitor. Esses resultados demonstram que a lagarta S. frugiperda melhora as características reprodutivas de P. nigrispinus, de forma que a sua utilização como presa alternativa pode servir para incrementar a produção massal desse inimigo natural.Nymphys of Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae have been reared on Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, in laboratory conditions. However, there are no reports on P. nigrispinus predation, in field or laboratory, on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, one of the most damaging pests in crops in Brazil. This research had the objective to evaluate nymphal development and reproductive characteristics of the predator P. nigrispinus when reared on caterpillars of S. frugiperda and on larvae of T. molitor, in laboratory conditions. S. frugiperda provided a smaller longevity, higher egg production and viability to predator than T. molitor. The nutricional quality of this caterpillar improves the reproductive characteristics of the predator, so that its utilization as factitious host can increase mass production of this natural enemy.

  5. Effects of some sesquiterpenes on the stored-product insect Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae Efectos de algunos sesquiterpenos sobre el insecto de productos almacenados, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías García

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the allelochemical activity of some sesquiterpenes isolated from the native plant Tessaria absinthioides (Hook. et Arn. DC, and some semi synthetic derivatives against Tenebrio molitor L. larvae, we have developed bioassays directed to quantify repellency, larval mortality, and its effects on the development. Although costic aldehyde caused the maximum repellent effect, all the compounds showed a significant effect at some dose or time, indicating behavioral avoidance. The topical application of costic aldehyde produced the largest increase on the duration of the pupal stage. Tessaric acid exhibited the highest toxicity by topical application at the experiment closure. Both eremophilane-1(10,2,11(13-triene-12-oic, and -costic acids induced some morphological deformities.Con el objeto de evaluar sesquiterpenos aislados de la planta nativa Tessaria absinthioides (Hook et Arn y algunos derivados semisintéticos frente a larvas de Tenebrio molitor L., se desarrollaron bioensayos orientados a la cuantificación de la repelencia, mortalidad de larvas y efectos sobre el desarrollo. Aldehído cóstico produjo el mayor incremento en la duración del estado pupal por aplicación tópica. Acido tessárico exhibió el más alto porcentaje de mortalidad al finalizar el período de experimentación. Los productos eremophilan-1(10,2, 11(13-trien-12-oico y ácido -cóstico dieron lugar al mayor número de malformaciones. Si bien aldehído cóstico mostró la máxima actividad de repelencia, todos los compuestos evaluados produjeron efectos significativos en el ensayo de elección.

  6. Desenvolvimento do predador Podisus nigrispinus alimentado com Spodoptera frugiperda e Tenebrio molitor.

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA, H.N. de; PRATISSOLI, D.; PEDRUZZI, E.P.; ESPINDULA, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Ninfas de Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) têm sido criadas em laboratório com larvas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). No entanto, não existem relatos sobre a predação, no campo ou em laboratório, de P. nigrispinus em Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), uma das principais pragas de inúmeras culturas no Brasil. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento ninfal e características reprodutivas do percevejo predador P. nigrispinus em la...

  7. Development of the predator Podisus nigrispinus fed on Spodoptera frugiperda and Tenebrio molitor

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Harley Nonato de; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Pedruzzi, Eder Pin; Espindula, Marcelo Curitiba

    2004-01-01

    Ninfas de Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) têm sido criadas em laboratório com larvas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). No entanto, não existem relatos sobre a predação, no campo ou em laboratório, de P. nigrispinus em Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), uma das principais pragas de inúmeras culturas no Brasil. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento ninfal e características reprodutivas do percevejo predador P. nigrispinus em la...

  8. A Novel Tenebrio molitor Cadherin Is a Functional Receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa Toxin*

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrick, Jeff; Oppert, Cris; Lorenzen, Marcé D.; Morris, Kaley; Oppert, Brenda; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2009-01-01

    Cry toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis are effective biological insecticides. Cadherin-like proteins have been reported as functional Cry1A toxin receptors in Lepidoptera. Here we present data that demonstrate that a coleopteran cadherin is a functional Cry3Aa toxin receptor. The Cry3Aa receptor cadherin was cloned from Tenebrio molitor larval midgut mRNA, and the predicted protein, TmCad1, has domain structure and a putative toxin binding region similar to those in lepid...

  9. Podisus distinctus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) females are lighter feeding on Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) pupae subjected to ventral nerve cord transection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The movement observed in the Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) pupae can be a type of defense strategy. This makes it significant to study the development and reproduction of the predatory stinkbugs Asopinae with the immobilized pupae of this prey. The aim was to evaluate the per...

  10. Extracting Tenebrio molitor protein while preventing browning: effect of pH and NaCl on protein yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, L.; Boekel, van T.; Lakemond, C.M.M.

    2017-01-01

    The potential of insects as an alternative protein source for food applications was investigated by studying the effect of pH and NaCl on extraction yield of water-soluble proteins from Tenebrio molitor, while preventing browning due to polyphenol oxidation. Minimum protein solubility (29.6%) was at

  11. Degradation and excretion of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol by an edible insect, the Yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhoven, van S.; Mota Gutierrez, J.; Rijk, de T.C.; Nijs, de W.C.M.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Insects could provide an alternative and more sustainable source of animal protein compared to conventional livestock. Yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) can be grown on diets composed of organic by-products. However, these diets could be contaminated with mycotoxins. Thus far, little is

  12. Developmental plasticity in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): Analysis of Instar Variation in Number and Development Time under Different Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The variation in instar number and the pattern of sequential instar development time of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied under 4 different diet regimes. Addition of dietary supplements consisting of dry potato or a mix of dry potato and dry egg whites significantly reduced...

  13. Characteristic properties of proteins from pre-ecdysial cuticle of larvae and pupae of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Svend Olav

    2002-01-01

    Proteins extracted from the cuticle of pharate larvae and pupae of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor are more soluble at low temperatures than at higher temperatures, a behaviour characteristic of hydrophobic proteins. When the temperature of an unfractionated cuticular extract is raised from 4 to 25...... undergo plasticization during and/or immediately after ecdysis....

  14. Effects of interpretation training on hostile attribution bias and reactivity to interpersonal insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Kirsten A; Cougle, Jesse R

    2013-09-01

    Research suggests that individuals high in anger have a bias for attributing hostile intentions to ambiguous situations. The current study tested whether this interpretation bias can be altered to influence anger reactivity to an interpersonal insult using a single-session cognitive bias modification program. One hundred thirty-five undergraduate students were randomized to receive positive training, negative training, or a control condition. Anger reactivity to insult was then assessed. Positive training led to significantly greater increases in positive interpretation bias relative to the negative group, though these increases were only marginally greater than the control group. Negative training led to increased negative interpretation bias relative to other groups. During the insult, participants in the positive condition reported less anger than those in the control condition. Observers rated participants in the positive condition as less irritated than those in the negative condition and more amused than the other two conditions. Though mediation of effects via bias modification was not demonstrated, among the positive condition posttraining interpretation bias was correlated with self-reported anger, suggesting that positive training reduced anger reactivity by influencing interpretation biases. Findings suggest that positive interpretation training may be a promising treatment for reducing anger. However, the current study was conducted with a non-treatment-seeking student sample; further research with a treatment-seeking sample with problematic anger is necessary. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. BDNF heightens the sensitivity of motor neurons to excitotoxic insults through activation of TrkB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peter; Kalb, Robert G.; Walton, K. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    The survival promoting and neuroprotective actions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are well known but under certain circumstances this growth factor can also exacerbate excitotoxic insults to neurons. Prior exploration of the receptor through which BDNF exerts this action on motor neurons deflects attention away from p75. Here we investigated the possibility that BDNF acts through the receptor tyrosine kinase, TrkB, to confer on motor neurons sensitivity to excitotoxic challenge. We blocked BDNF activation of TrkB using a dominant negative TrkB mutant or a TrkB function blocking antibody, and found that this protected motor neurons against excitotoxic insult in cultures of mixed spinal cord neurons. Addition of a function blocking antibody to BDNF to mixed spinal cord neuron cultures is also neuroprotective indicating that endogenously produced BDNF participates in vulnerability to excitotoxicity. We next examined the intracellular signaling cascades that are engaged upon TrkB activation. Previously we found that inhibition of the phosphatidylinositide-3'-kinase (PI3'K) pathway blocks BDNF-induced excitotoxic sensitivity. Here we show that expression of a constitutively active catalytic subunit of PI3'K, p110, confers excitotoxic sensitivity (ES) upon motor neurons not incubated with BDNF. Parallel studies with purified motor neurons confirm that these events are likely to be occuring specifically within motor neurons. The abrogation of BDNF's capacity to accentuate excitotoxic insults may make it a more attractive neuroprotective agent.

  16. Physical and catalytic properties of alpha-amylase from Tenebrio molitor L. larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonocore, V; Poerio, E; Silano, V; Tomasi, M

    1976-01-01

    The amylase from Tenebrio molitor L. larvae (yellow mealworm) was characterized according to a number of its molecular and catalytic properties. The insect amylase is a single polypeptide chain with mol.wt. 68000, an isoelectric point of 4.0 and a very low content of sulphur-containing amino acids. The enzyme is a Ca2+-protein and behaves as an alpha-amylase. Removal of Ca2+ by exhaustive dialysis against water causes the irreversible inactivation of the enzyme. Moreover, the enzyme is activated by the presence in the assay mixture of Cl-, or some other inorganic anions that are less effective than Cl-, and is inhibited by F-. Optimal conditions of pH and temperature for the enzymic activity are 5.8 and 37 degrees C. The insect amylase exhibits an identical kinetic behaviour toward starch, amylose and amylopectin; the enzyme hydrolyses glycogen with a higher affinity constant. Compared with the non-insect alpha-amylases described in the literature, Tenebrio molitor amylase has a lower affinity for starch. PMID:942374

  17. Stereoselectivity in bioaccumulation and excretion of epoxiconazole by mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaotian; Liu, Chen; Li, Yaobin; Gao, Yongxin; Wang, Huili; Li, Jianzhong; Guo, Baoyuan

    2014-09-01

    Stereoselectivity in bioaccumulation and excretion of stereoisomers of epoxiconazole by mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) larvae through dietary exposure was investigated. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method that use a ChiralcelOD-3R[cellulosetris-Tris-(3, 5-dichlorophenyl-carbamate)] chromatography column was applied to carry out chiral separation of the stereoisomers. Wheat bran was spiked with racemic epoxiconazole at two dose levels of 20mg/kg and 2mg/kg (dry weight) to feed T. molitor larvae. The results showed that both the doses of epoxiconazole were taken up by Tenebrio molitor larvae rapidly at the initial stages. There was a significant trend of stereoselective bioaccumulation in the larvae with a preferential accumulation of (-)-epoxiconazole in the 20mg/kg dose. The stereoselectivity in bioaccumulation in the 2mg/kg dosage was not obvious compared to the 20mg/kg group. Results of excretion indicated an active excretion is an important pathway for the larvae to eliminate epoxiconazole which was a passive transport process with non stereoselectivity. The faster elimination might be the reason for the low accumulation of epoxiconazole, as measured by bioaccumulation factor (BAF). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioaccumulation and excretion of enantiomers of myclobutanil in Tenebrio molitor larvae through dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaotian; Liu, Chen; Li, Yaobin; Gao, Yongxin; Guo, Baoyuan; Wang, Huili; Li, Jianzhong

    2013-12-01

    The bioaccumulation and excretion of enantiomers of myclobutanil in Tenebrio molitor larvae through dietary exposure under laboratory conditions were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) based on a ChiralcelOD-3R [cellulosetris-tris-(3, 5-dichlorophenyl-carbamate)] column. The wheat bran fed to Tenebrio molitor larvae was spiked with racemic myclobutanil at two dose levels of 20 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg (dry weight). The results showed that there was a significant trend of enantioselective bioaccumulation in the larvae with a preferential accumulation of (-)-myclobutanil in 20 mg/kg dose exposure, but it was not obviously observed in the 2 mg/kg dose group. A kinetic model considering enantiomerization between the two enantiomers based on first-order reactions was built and the rate constants were estimated to discuss the kinetic reason for the different concentrations of individual enantiomers in the larvae. The approximations implied an inversion between the two enantiomers with a relatively higher rate of the inversion from (-)-myclobutanil to (+)-myclobutanil. Meanwhile, analysis of data of excretion samples suggested the active excretion is probably an important pathway for the insect to eliminate myclobutanil rapidly with nonenantioselectivity as a passive transport process, which was consistent with the low accumulation efficiency of myclobutanil measured by BAF (bioaccumulation factor). © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Simulación de un Robot Hexápodo Bioinspirado en el Tenebrio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Rodríguez-Calderón

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Los insectos son base fundamental en el estudio de la robótica reactiva ya que estos poseen características biológicas y motrices que son de interés para ser implementadas en robots bioinspirados, teniendo en cuenta el desempeño de éstos en diferentes áreas. Por otra parte los animales hexápodos poseen omnidireccionalidad y estabilidad, debido a la formación del trípode de apoyo, el cual se crea en sus patas al dar un paso, lo cual les permite sobrepasar diferentes obstáculos con facilidad y velocidad constante. En este proyecto se implementa el sistema locomotor del insecto Tenebrio debido a la facilidad con que se pueden apreciar sus movimientos. Se analiza el desplazamiento de las patas del insecto en diferentes trayectorias, vistas y terreno plano, posteriormente se encontraron los parámetros, ecuaciones y restricciones que limitan los diferentes eslabones de cada una de las patas del Tenebrio, esto se realizó por medio de un análisis de imágenes. Finalmente la información recogida se implementa en la plataforma MATLAB para determinar las características de movimiento, estabilidad y desplazamiento.

  20. EFEK EKSTRAK ETANOL SEMUT JEPANG (Tenebrio Sp TERHADAP PENURUNAN KADAR ASAM URAT DARAH TIKUS PUTIH JANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Pratiwi Sari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Every human has uric acid, because uric acid is a normal substance in the body. When the level exceeds the normal limit value is called hyperuricemia. Continuous hyperuricemia without treatment will develop into gout. The prevalence of incidence of uric acid disease (hyperuricemia is increasing from year to year, both in developed and developing countries. This study aims to determine the effect of decreased levels of uric acid in male white rat with ethanol extract of Semut Jepang (Tenebrio Sp. This research is an experimental research with pre test and post test with control group design. This study used 12 male rats which were randomly divided into 3 groups consisting of group I (negative control were given aquadest, group II (treatment group was given ethanol extract 2.3 mg / kgBB Japanese ants and group III ( positive controls were given Allopurinol 27.15 mg / kgBW orally. The test animals were induced with potassium oxonate 300mg / kgBW for 6 days intraperitoneally for 6 days before treatment. The levels of uric acid of the test animals were measured using a uric acid strip test. The results of this study showed that ethanol extract of Semut Jepang (Tenebrio Sp with a dosage of 2.3 mg / kgBW did not have the effect of decreasing uric acid levels in male white rats.

  1. Growth performance, blood profiles and carcass traits of Barbary partridge (Alectoris barbara) fed two different insect larvae meals (Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loponte, R.; Nizza, S.; Bovera, F.; De Riu, N.; Fliegerová, Kateřina; Lombardi, P.; Vassalotti, G.; Mastellone, V.; Nizza, A.; Moniello, G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 3 (2017), s. 183-188 ISSN 0034-5288 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Barbary partridge * Hermetia illucens * Tenebrio molitor Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 1.298, year: 2016

  2. L’insulte comme argument et outil de cadrage dans le mouvement « anti-Sarko » Insult as Argument and Framing Device in the “Anti-Sarko” Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eithan Orkibi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sur la base d’un vaste corpus relatif au mouvement « anti-Sarko » en France, cet article explore les significations et les fonctions de l’insulte dans la rhétorique de protestation. Exploitant les méthodes de l’analyse des cadres, l’article classifie d’abord les différentes catégories d’insultes qui caractérisent le genre humoristique « anti-Sarko », puis démontre comment ces catégories construisent ensemble l’argument « anti-Sarko » de base. L’article montre que les insultes jouent un rôle central dans le cadrage de la cause et des motifs du mouvement. La rhétorique des insultes permet à ce mouvement relativement fragmenté et divisé de se rassembler autour d’un ennemi commun, et de projeter une série de valeurs partagées avec lesquelles le « français moyen » peut facilement s’identifier.Drawing on a large corpus from the French “Anti-Sarko” movement, this article explores the meanings and functions of the insults in the rhetoric of protest. Using Frame Analysis methods, the article first classifies different categories of insults in the “anti-Sarko” humoristic genre, and then demonstrates how these categories form together the fundamental “anti-Sarko” argument. The article argues that the insults play a central role in the movement’s effort to frame its cause and motives. The rhetoric of insults also enables the relatively fragmented and divided movement to reunite against a common enemy, and to reflect a shared set of values with which the “average-French” could easily identify.

  3. Acute doxorubicin insult in the mouse ovary is cell- and follicle-type dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elon C Roti Roti

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI is one of the many unintended consequences of chemotherapy faced by the growing number of female cancer survivors. While ovarian repercussions of chemotherapy have long been recognized, the acute insult phase and primary sites of damage are not well-studied, hampering efforts to design effective intervention therapies to protect the ovary. Utilizing doxorubicin (DXR as a model chemotherapy agent, we defined the acute timeline for drug accumulation, induced DNA damage, and subsequent cellular and follicular demise in the mouse ovary. DXR accumulated first in the core ovarian stroma cells, then redistributed outwards into the cortex and follicles in a time-dependent manner, without further increase in total ovarian drug levels after four hours post-injection. Consistent with early drug accumulation and intimate interactions with the blood supply, stroma cell-enriched populations exhibited an earlier DNA damage response (measurable at 2 hours than granulosa cells (measurable at 4 hours, as quantified by the comet assay. Granulosa cell-enriched populations were more sensitive however, responding with greater levels of DNA damage. The oocyte DNA damage response was delayed, and not measurable above background until 10-12 hours post-DXR injection. By 8 hours post-DXR injection and prior to the oocyte DNA damage response, the number of primary, secondary, and antral follicles exhibiting TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive granulosa cells plateaued, indicating late-stage apoptosis and suggesting damage to the oocytes is subsequent to somatic cell failure. Primordial follicles accumulate significant DXR by 4 hours post-injection, but do not exhibit TUNEL-positive granulosa cells until 48 hours post-injection, indicating delayed demise. Taken together, the data suggest effective intervention therapies designed to protect the ovary from chemotherapy accumulation and induced insult

  4. Future Research Needed to Study the Response of an Explosive Assembly to Mechanical Insults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaugh, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-28

    HE ignition caused by shear localization is the principal concern for safety analyses of postulated mechanical insults to explosive assemblies. Although prompt detonation from shock is certainly a concern, insults that lead to prompt detonation are associated with high velocity, and correspondingly rare. For high-density HMX assemblies, an impact speed (by a steel object) of 400 m/s is needed to develop a detonation in a run distance less than 30 mm. To achieve a steady plane shock, which results in the shortest run distance to detonation for a given peak pressure, the impactor diameter must exceed 60 mm, and thickness approach 20 mm. Thinner plates and/or smaller diameter ones require even higher impact velocity. Ignitions from shear localization, however, have been observed from impacts less than 50 m/s in Steven tests, less than 30 m/s from spigot impact tests, and less than 10 m/s from various drop tests. This lower velocity range is much frequent in postulated mechanical insults. Preliminary computer simulations and analyses of a variety of such tests have suggested that although each is accompanied by shear localization, there are differing detailed mechanisms at work that cause the ignitions. We identify those mechanisms that may be at work in a variety of such tests, and suggest how models of shear ignition, such as HERMES, may be revised and calibrated to conform to experiment. We suggest combining additional experiments with computer simulations and model development to begin confirm or uncover mechanisms that may be at work in a specific postulated event.

  5. Acute Doxorubicin Insult in the Mouse Ovary Is Cell- and Follicle-Type Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roti Roti, Elon C.; Leisman, Scott K.; Abbott, David H.; Salih, Sana M.

    2012-01-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is one of the many unintended consequences of chemotherapy faced by the growing number of female cancer survivors. While ovarian repercussions of chemotherapy have long been recognized, the acute insult phase and primary sites of damage are not well-studied, hampering efforts to design effective intervention therapies to protect the ovary. Utilizing doxorubicin (DXR) as a model chemotherapy agent, we defined the acute timeline for drug accumulation, induced DNA damage, and subsequent cellular and follicular demise in the mouse ovary. DXR accumulated first in the core ovarian stroma cells, then redistributed outwards into the cortex and follicles in a time-dependent manner, without further increase in total ovarian drug levels after four hours post-injection. Consistent with early drug accumulation and intimate interactions with the blood supply, stroma cell-enriched populations exhibited an earlier DNA damage response (measurable at 2 hours) than granulosa cells (measurable at 4 hours), as quantified by the comet assay. Granulosa cell-enriched populations were more sensitive however, responding with greater levels of DNA damage. The oocyte DNA damage response was delayed, and not measurable above background until 10–12 hours post-DXR injection. By 8 hours post-DXR injection and prior to the oocyte DNA damage response, the number of primary, secondary, and antral follicles exhibiting TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling)-positive granulosa cells plateaued, indicating late-stage apoptosis and suggesting damage to the oocytes is subsequent to somatic cell failure. Primordial follicles accumulate significant DXR by 4 hours post-injection, but do not exhibit TUNEL-positive granulosa cells until 48 hours post-injection, indicating delayed demise. Taken together, the data suggest effective intervention therapies designed to protect the ovary from chemotherapy accumulation and induced insult in the ovary

  6. Effects of ischemic-like insult on myocardial 201Tl accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, S.Z.; Newell, J.B.; Alpert, N.M.; Andrews, E.; Pohost, G.M.; Ingwall, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Despite extensive clinical use of thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) for myocardial imaging, the effect of ischemia on myocardial accumulation and release of 201 Tl independent of flow has not been fully defined. Therefore, myocardial accumulation of 201 Tl in response to ischemic-like myocardial injury was assessed in vitro using the cultured fetal mouse heart preparation. Cultured fetal mouse hearts (n . 311) were subjected to injury simulating ischemia by deprivation of oxygen and oxidizable substrates for periods ranging from 15 minutes to 10 hours. The extent of irreversible injury was determined by the percentage of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) lost from the hearts to the culture medium during recovery from injury. Injury was essentially reversible at 1 hour of insult. The fraction of 201 Tl content in injured compared with control hearts was not significantly lower after 1 hour of insult. By 3 hours of insult, irreversible injury as assessed by loss of LDH was detectable and the extent of injury increased progressively through 10 hours. During the 3-10-hour period of irreversible injury, 201 Tl accumulation within injured hearts compared with controls was related in a monotonically decreasing fashion to the loss of LDH as described by a mathematical kinetic model that fit the observations closely (R2 greater than 0.99). These results indicate that in this organ culture preparation, in which there is effectively an unlimited reservoir of 201 Tl and no confounding effects of perfusion, the time-dependent 201 Tl accumulation is determined by the extent of irreversible injury

  7. Early life insults as determinants of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savran, Osman; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2018-01-01

    Background: Early life events may predispose to the development of chronic lung disease in adulthood. Aim: To provide an update on current knowledge of early nongenetic origins of COPD. Materials and methods: Systematic literature review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items...... in utero and early life is a risk factor for subsequent development of COPD. Furthermore, low birth weight, lower respiratory tract infections and asthma, including wheezy bronchitis, in childhood also seem to be important determinants for later development of COPD. Early life insults may, therefore...

  8. Protection of the female reproductive system from natural and artificial insults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilly, Jonathan L.; Kolesnick, Richard N.

    2010-12-14

    Described are methods for protecting the female reproductive system against natural and artificial insults by administering to women a composition comprising an agent that antagonizes one or more acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) gene products. Specifically, methods disclosed herein serve to protect women's germline from damage resulting from cancer therapy regimens including chemotherapy or radiotherapy. In one aspect, the method preserves, enhances, or revives ovarian function in women, by administering to women a composition containing sphingosine-1-phosphate, or an analog thereof. Also disclosed are methods to prevent or ameliorate menopausal syndromes and to improve in vitro fertilization techniques.

  9. Social cues trigger differential immune investment strategies in a non-social insect, Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Joe D; Siva-Jothy, Michael T; Evison, Sophie E F

    2018-02-01

    Social immunization (SI) is a horizontal transfer of immunity that protects naive hosts against infection following exposure to infected nestmates. While mainly documented in eusocial insects, non-social species also share similar ecological features which favour the development of group-level immunity. Here, we investigate SI in Tenebrio molitor by pairing naive females with a pathogen-challenged conspecific for 72 h before measuring a series of immune and fitness traits. We found no evidence for SI, as beetles who cohabited with a live pathogen-challenged conspecific were not better protected against bacterial challenge. However, exposure to a heat-killed-bacteria-challenged conspecific appeared to increase pathogen tolerance, which manifested in differential fitness investment. Our results together suggest that T. molitor do respond to immune-related cues in the social environment, despite not showing a classic immunization response as predicted. © 2018 The Author(s).

  10. A tapeworm molecule manipulates vitellogenin expression in the beetle Tenebrio molitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warr, E.; Meredith, J. M.; Nimmo, D. D.; Basu, S.; Hurd, H.; Eggleston, P.

    2006-01-01

    Metacestodes of Hymenolepis diminuta secrete a molecule that decreases vitellogenin (Vg) synthesis in the beetle host, Tenebrio molitor. The 5608 bp T. molitor Vg cDNA represents a single-copy gene encoding a single open reading frame of 1821 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 206 kDa. Northern blot analysis revealed detectable levels of transcripts only in adult females. In vivo, Vg mRNA abundance was significantly higher in fat bodies from infected females compared with control females at all but the earliest time point. In vitro, Vg mRNA abundance was significantly increased in fat bodies incubated with live stage I–II parasites. The apparent conflict between increased Vg mRNA abundance and decreased Vg protein in fat bodies from infected females is discussed. PMID:16907836

  11. Identification of candidate chemosensory genes in the antennal transcriptome of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Li, Mao-Ye; Feng, Ming-Feng; He, Meng-Zhu; Li, Shi-Guang

    2015-03-01

    We present the first antennal transcriptome sequencing information for the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Analysis of the transcriptome dataset obtained 52,216,616 clean reads, from which 35,363 unigenes were assembled. Of these, 18,820 unigenes showed significant similarity (E-value molitor OBPs and CSPs are closely related to those of T. castaneum. Real-time quantitative PCR assays showed that eight TmolOBP genes were antennae-specific. Of these, TmolOBP5, TmolOBP7 and TmolOBP16 were found to be predominantly expressed in male antennae, while TmolOBP17 was expressed mainly in the legs of males. Several other genes were identified that were neither tissue-specific nor sex-specific. These results establish a firm foundation for future studies of the chemosensory genes in T. molitor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Previous encapsulation response enhances within individual protection against fungal parasite in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krams, Indrikis; Daukste, Janina; Kivleniece, Inese; Krama, Tatjana; Rantala, Markus J

    2013-12-01

    Immune defenses of insects show either broad reactions or specificity and durability of induced protection against attacking parasites and pathogens. In this study, we tested whether encapsulation response against nylon monofilament increases between two attempts of activation of immune system in mealworm beetles Tenebrio molitor, and whether previous exposure to nylon monofilament may also increase protection against an entomopathogenic fungus. We found that survival of beetles subjected to immune activation by nylon implant and subsequent fungal exposure a week later was significantly higher than survival of beetles which had been subjected to fungal infection only. This result suggests that previous immune activation by the nylon implant may be considered as broad spectrum "immune priming" which helps to fight not only the same intruder but also other parasites. © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Intracellular survival of Staphylococcus aureus during persistent infection in the insect Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle, John E; Purves, Joanne; Rolff, Jens

    2016-06-01

    Survival of bacteria within host cells and tissues presents a challenge to the immune systems of higher organisms. Escape from phagocytic immune cells compounds this issue, as immune cells become potential vehicles for pathogen dissemination. However, the duration of persistence within phagocytes and its contribution to pathogen load has yet to be determined. We investigate the immunological significance of intracellular persistence within the insect model Tenebrio molitor, assessing the extent, duration and location of bacterial recovery during a persistent infection. Relative abundance of Staphylococcus aureus in both intracellular and extracellular fractions was determined over 21 days, and live S. aureus were successfully recovered from both the hemolymph and within phagocytic immune cells across the entire time course. The proportion of bacteria recovered from within phagocytes also increased over time. Our results show that to accurately estimate pathogen load it is vital to account for bacteria persisting within immune cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Modulating effect of weak combined magnetic fields on duration of mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor metamorphosis stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, V V; Sheĭman, I M; Iablokova, E V; Fesenko, E E

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that an exposure of pupae of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor to the combined static (42 μT) and very weak alternating (250 nT) magnetic fields exerts different influence, depending on the frequency of the alternating magnetic field, on duration of metamorphosis processes in these insects. For instance, an exposure of pupae to weak combined magnetic fields, adjusted to the frequency of ion cyclotron resonance for glutaminic acid (4,4 Hz), stimulates metamorphosis process--a transitional stage from pupae to imago lasts shorter. An inhibiting effect was observed when adjusted to the frequency of ion cyclotron resonance for Ca2 (32,2 Hz). At some frequencies this effect is not seen. For instance, an exposure at a frequency of ion cyclotron resonance for K+ (16,5 Hz) exerts no noticeable effect on the duration of the pupal metamorphosis stage.

  15. Effect of temperature and gamma radiation on pupae of tenebrio molitor LINNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula Bergamin

    2001-01-01

    Among insect pests of grains and stored products Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera : Tenebriodae) is one of the species of insects that attack flours, corn meal, rations, macaronis and damages grains. Chemical treatment is not always the remedy because it causes problems of residue on treated food. One alternative method of control is the application of ionization radiations as suggested by Hunter, some others recommended the use of gamma radiation to control insects that attack grains and stored products. Arthur and Wiendl reported that the sterilizing dose to adults of this species is 60 Gy. The effect of temperature after and before the gamma radiation to Laemophleous spp. Zabrotes subfasciatus and Sitophilus oryzae has been studied by many workers. Since no study with radiological effects in combination with temperature is reported on T. molitor, research work has been carried out to study the synergistic effects of gamma radiation and temperature on pupae of this insect

  16. Endocrine disruption of sexual selection by an estrogenic herbicide in the mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Malcolm L; Matlock, Makensey; Treas, Justin; Safi, Barroq; Sanson, Wendy; McCallum, Jamie L

    2013-12-01

    The role that endocrine disruption could play in sexual selection remains relatively untested, and although estrogens occur in insects, little information exists about their biological role in insect reproduction. Atrazine is a commonly applied herbicide that mimics estrogen in vertebrates. Tenebrio molitor were raised from egg to adult under a gradation of environmentally relevant atrazine exposures and a non-treated control. Atrazine was delivered in the drinking water ad libitum. Female T. molitor were provided with a choice between unrelated males raised under three levels of atrazine exposures. Female preference for males demonstrated a non-monotonic inverted U-shaped response to atrazine exposure. There was no significant difference between the control and the high exposure to atrazine. Excluding the control, female preference increased as exposure concentration increased. These results have important repercussions for nonlethal effects of endocrine disruption on populations, their capacity to interfere with sexual selection, and the role of estrogen in pheromone communication among insects.

  17. Distribution and sequence homogeneity of an abundant satellite DNA in the beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C A; Wyatt, G R

    1989-01-01

    The mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, contains an unusually abundant and homogeneous satellite DNA which constitutes up to 60% of its genome. The satellite DNA is shown to be present in all of the chromosomes by in situ hybridization. 18 dimers of the repeat unit were cloned and sequenced. The consensus sequence is 142 nt long and lacks any internal repeat structure. Monomers of the sequence are very similar, showing on average a 2% divergence from the calculated consensus. Variant nucleotides are scattered randomly throughout the sequence although some variants are more common than others. Neighboring repeat units are no more alike than randomly chosen ones. The results suggest that some mechanism, perhaps gene conversion, is acting to maintain the homogeneity of the satellite DNA despite its abundance and distribution on all of the chromosomes. Images PMID:2762148

  18. Cloning and expression of Tenebrio molitor antifreeze protein in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Chang-Wu; Zhang, Yi-Zheng

    2009-03-01

    A novel antifreeze protein cDNA was cloned by RT-PCR from the larva of the yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor. The coding fragment of 339 bp encodes a protein of 112 amino acid residues and was fused to the expression vectors pET32a and pTWIN1. The resulted expression plasmids were transformed into Escherischia coli strains BL21 (DE3), ER2566, and Origami B (DE3), respectively. Several strategies were used for expression of the highly disulfide-bonded beta-helix-contained protein with the activity of antifreeze in different expression systems. A protocol for production of refolded and active T. molitor antifreeze protein in bacteria was obtained.

  19. The Effect of Tenebrio obscurus on Elementary Preservice Teachers' Content Knowledge, Attitudes, and Self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinburgh, Molly

    2007-12-01

    This study explores the extent to which an activity used in an elementary science methods course affected the preservice teachers’ content knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy. The participants were 172 students enrolled in five sections of elementary science methods. Students participated in a 9-week investigation on life cycles using mealworms ( Tenebrio obscurus). Multiple data sources indicate that most of the students had limited prior content knowledge about mealworms, expressed neutral attitudes toward mealworms upon first exposure to them, and were uncomfortable with the idea of having to teach with and about them. At the end of 9 weeks, content knowledge on mealworms had greatly improved. The preservice teachers’ attitudes about mealworms and their self-efficacy about using mealworms with children had also improved.

  20. Effects of weak electromagnetic irradiation on various types of behavior in the mealworm Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheiman, I M; Kreshchenko, N D

    2010-10-01

    The effects of weak electromagnetic irradiation on simple forms of behavior were studied using adult Tenebrio molitor mealworms. The beetles' motor behavior was studied in conditions of different motivations, i.e., positive (food) and negative (avoidance of light), in otherwise identical experimental conditions. The beetles had to navigate a defined space to reach their target - potato or cover from light. Experiments consisted of one trial per day for five days. Target attainment time was measured in groups of beetles. Behavior in both cases developed as follows: an initial orientation reaction appeared and was followed by adaptation to the apparatus. Exposure to weak electromagnetic irradiation led to increases in the response time at the initial stages of the experiments. The effects of irradiation were seasonal in nature and differed in the two types of behavior.

  1. Isolation and identification of a cardioactive peptide from Tenebrio molitor and Spodoptera eridania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, K; Liao, S; Reynolds, S E; Ota, R B; Hackett, M; Schooley, D A

    1993-12-01

    We isolated several cardioactive peptides from extracts of whole heads of the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, and the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania, using a semi-isolated heart of Manduca sexta for bioassay. We have now isolated from each species the peptide with the strongest effect on rate of contraction of the heart. The peptides were identified using micro Edman sequencing and mass spectrometric methods. This cardioactive peptide has the same primary structure from both species: Pro-Phe-Cys-Asn-Ala-Phe-Thr-Gly-Cys-NH2, a cyclic nonapeptide which is identical to crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) originally isolated from the shore crab, Carcinus maenas, and subsequently isolated from Locusta migratoria and Manduca sexta. This is additional evidence that CCAP has widespread occurrence in arthropoda.

  2. Sustainable farming of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor for the production of food and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Thorben; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Joop, Gerrit

    2017-09-26

    The farming of edible insects is an alternative strategy for the production of protein-rich food and feed with a low ecological footprint. The industrial production of insect-derived protein is more cost-effective and energy-efficient than livestock farming or aquaculture. The mealworm Tenebrio molitor is economically among the most important species used for the large-scale conversion of plant biomass into protein. Here, we review the mass rearing of this species and its conversion into food and feed, focusing on challenges such as the contamination of food/feed products with bacteria from the insect gut and the risk of rapidly spreading pathogens and parasites. We propose solutions to prevent the outbreak of infections among farmed insects without reliance on antibiotics. Transgenerational immune priming and probiotic bacteria may provide alternative strategies for sustainable insect farming.

  3. Lymphocyte proliferative responses to mitogens in rats having an ancestry of a perinatal iodine-131 insult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.H.; Cheng, H.F.

    1987-01-01

    The possible existence of a genealogical memory consisting of altered lymphocyte proliferative responses to a perinatal iodine-131 insult has been investigated in two generations of inbred Fischer F344 rat offspring. The studies which involved exposure to the radioiodine during late pregnancy with concentrations ranging from 1.85 MBq (50 μCi) to 7.4 MBq (200 μCi) revealed that only the peripheral blood T lymphocytes of the first generation male animals were significantly affected. These animals were found to possess T lymphocytes which exhibited increased proliferative responses expressed toward the mitogens concanavalin A and phytohemagglutin; however, no significant changes were noticeable in their B cell population following exposure to lipopolysaccharide. Neither the first generation females nor the male and female offspring of the second generation developed through sibling interbreeding seemed to be affected, this was unlike the cellular, humoral, and natural immunity which had previously been observed to be changed in both the second and third generation animals. These observations suggest that the effects of the radiation insult upon immunocompetency as measured by lymphocyte proliferation do not appear to be inherited

  4. Neuroprotective Effects of Cannabidiol in Hypoxic Ischemic Insult. The Therapeutic Window in Newborn Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Nagat; Ceprian, Maria; Jimenez, Laura; Pazos, M Ruth; Martínez-Orgado, Jose

    2017-01-01

    A relevant therapeutic time window (TTW) is an important criterion for considering the clinical relevance of a substance preventing newborn hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain damage. To test the TTW of the neuroprotective effects of cannabidol (CBD), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid in a model of newborn HI brain damage. 9-10 day-old C57BL6 mice underwent a HI insult (10% oxygen for 90 min after left carotid artery electrocoagulation). Then, CBD 1 mg/kg or vehicle were administered s.c. 15 min, or 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 or 24 h after the end of the HI insult. Seven days later brain damage was assessed using T2W Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan (ipsilateral hemisphere volume loss, IVHL) and histological studies: Nissl staining (neuropathological score), TUNEL staining (apoptotic damage) and immunohistochemistry with glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocyte viability) or ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule (microglial activation). CBD administered up to 18 h after HI reduced IHVL and neuropathological score by 60%, TUNEL+ count by 90% and astrocyte damage by 50%. In addition, CBD blunted the HI-induced increase in microglial population. When CBD administration was delayed 24 h, however, the neuroprotective effect was lost in terms of IHVL, apoptosis or astrogliosis reduction. CBD shows a TTW of 18 h when administered to HI newborn mice, which represents a broader TTW than reported for other neuroprotective treatments including hypothermia. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. PPARs Link Early Life Nutritional Insults to Later Programmed Hypertension and Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin Tain

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is an important component of metabolic syndrome. Adulthood hypertension and metabolic syndrome can be programmed in response to nutritional insults in early life. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs serve as a nutrient-sensing signaling linking nutritional programming to hypertension and metabolic syndrome. All three members of PPARs, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, are expressed in the kidney and involved in blood pressure control. This review provides an overview of potential clinical applications of targeting on the PPARs in the kidney to prevent programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome, with an emphasis on the following areas: mechanistic insights to interpret programmed hypertension; the link between the PPARs, nutritional insults, and programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome; the impact of PPAR signaling pathway in a maternal high-fructose model; and current experimental studies on early intervention by PPAR modulators to prevent programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Animal studies employing a reprogramming strategy via targeting PPARs to prevent hypertension have demonstrated interesting results. It is critical that the observed effects on developmental reprogramming in animal models are replicated in human studies, to halt the globally-growing epidemic of metabolic syndrome-related diseases.

  6. Is there a relationship between insect metabolic rate and mortality of mealworms Tenebrio molitor L. after insecticide exposure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna MALISZEWSKA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are known to affect insects metabolic rate and CO2 release patterns. In the presented paper metabolic rate and mortality of mealworms Tenebrio molitor L. exposed to four different insecticides was evaluated, to find out whether there is a relationship between mealworms sensitivity to pesticides and their metabolic rate. Tenebrio molitor mortality was determined after intoxication with pyrethroid, oxadiazine, neonicotinoid and organophosphate. Metabolic rate before and after intoxication with insecticides was also determined. The highest CO2 production and mortality rate was observed after mealworms exposition to neonicotinoid insecticide. The results suggest that high CO2 release after intoxication is adequate to the intensity of the non-specific action of the xenobiotic (e.g. hyperactivity of neuromuscular system, rather than the intensity of detoxification processes, and it is correlated with mealworms mortality.

  7. Evaluation of Genotoxicity and 28-day Oral Dose Toxicity on Freeze-dried Powder of Tenebrio molitor Larvae (Yellow Mealworm)

    OpenAIRE

    Han, So-Ri; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Ji-Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Jeong, Eun Ju; Moon, Kyoung-Sik

    2014-01-01

    The larval form of Tenebrio molitor (T. molitor) has been eaten in many countries and provides benefits as a new food source of protein for humans. However, no information exists regarding its safety for humans. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxicity and repeated dose oral toxicity of the freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae. The genotoxic potential was evaluated by a standard battery testing: bacterial reverse mutation test, in vitro chromosome aberration tes...

  8. In vitro crude protein digestibility of Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens insect meals and its correlation with chemical composition traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Marono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the correlation between in vitro crude protein digestibility coefficients of insect meals from Tenebrio molitor (TI and Hermetia illucens (HI and their chemical composition traits as well as to develop regression equations able to estimate the in vitro crude protein digestibility (CPd from proximate analysis of insect meals. Twelve samples of insect meals (6 from TM larvae, TM 1-6 and 6 from HI larvae, HI 1-6 were obtained from different producers and analysed for chemical composition and in vitro crude protein digestibility by a two-step enzymatic method (digestion with pepsin and trypsin-enriched pancreatin. For both insect meal samples, CPd was negatively correlated to ADF and chitin contents, while just for HI there was a positive correlation (P<0.01 between CP percentage of the samples and CPd. For both insect meals the former variable chosen in the stepwise analysis was the chitin, explaining the 79.45% of CPd variability for Tenebrio molitor samples and the 98.30% for Hermetia illucens. In the second step, the amount of protein linked to ADF was added in the model for T. molitor and CP for H. illucens samples. The coefficients chitin is the main constituent of insect body able to affect the crude protein digestibility of Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens larvae meals estimated by an in vitro enzymatic method.

  9. Purification, composition, and physical properties of a thermal hysteresis "antifreeze" protein from larvae of the beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomchaney, A P; Morris, J P; Kang, S H; Duman, J G

    1982-02-16

    Proteins which produce a thermal hysteresis (difference between the freezing and melting points) in aqueous solution are well-known for their antifreeze activity in polar marine fishes. Much less is known about the biology and biochemistry of similar antifreeze proteins found in certain insects. A thermal hysteresis protein was purified from cold acclimated larvae of the beetle, Tenebrio molitor, by using ethanol fractionation, DEAE ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and high-pressure liquid chromatography. The purified protein had a molecular mass of 17 000 daltons and its N terminus was lysine. The amino acid composition of the antifreeze protein contained more hydrophilic amino acids than the fish antifreezes. This is consistent with the compositions of previously purified insect thermal hysteresis proteins. However, the percentage of hydrophilic amino acids in this Tenebrio antifreeze protein was considerably less than that of other insect thermal hysteresis proteins. The freezing point depressing activity of the Tenebrio antifreeze was less than that of fish proteins and glycoproteins at low protein concentrations but was greater at high protein concentrations.

  10. Crossing boundaries: women's gossip, insults and violence in sixteenth-century France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Suzannah

    2011-01-01

    Using evidence from cases recorded in the registers of the consistories of southern France, the author investigates the way in which Languedocian women policed each other's behaviour, enforcing a collective morality through gossip, sexual insult and physical confrontation. In contrast to case studies by other historians, it is argued here that gossip does appear to have been a peculiarly female activity, but far more than simply being an outlet for malice or prurience, it gave women a distinctive social role in the town. No less evident is the involvement of women in physical violence both against each other and against men, violence which, though less extreme than its male counterpart, nonetheless occupies a significant role in the proceedings of the consistories.

  11. p21-LacZ reporter mice reflect p53-dependent toxic insult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasey, Douglas B.; Wolf, C. Roland; MacArtney, Thomas; Brown, Ken; Whitelaw, C. Bruce A.

    2008-01-01

    There is an urgent need to discover less toxic and more selective drugs to treat disease. The use of transgenic mice that report on toxic insult-induced transcription can provide a valuable tool in this regard. To exemplify this strategy, we have generated transgenic mice carrying a p21-LacZ transgene. Transgene activity reflected endogenous p21 gene activation in various tissues, displayed compound-specific spatial expression signatures in the brain and immune tissues and enabled p53-dependent and p53-independent responses to be identified. We discuss the application of these mice in delineating the molecular events in normal cellular growth and disease and for the evaluation of drug toxicity

  12. Environmental insults in early life and submissiveness later in life in mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seico eBenner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dominant and subordinate dispositions are not only determined genetically but also nurtured by environmental stimuli during neuroendocrine development. However, the relationship between early life environment and dominance behavior remains elusive. Using the IntelliCage-based competition task for group-housed mice, we have previously described two cases in which environmental insults during the developmental period altered the outcome of dominance behavior later in life. First, mice that were repeatedly isolated from their mother and their littermates (early deprivation; ED, and second, mice perinatally exposed to an environmental pollutant, dioxin, both exhibited subordinate phenotypes, defined by decreased occupancy of limited resource sites under highly competitive circumstances. Similar alterations found in the cortex and limbic area of these two models are suggestive of the presence of neural systems shared across generalized dominance behavior.

  13. Progress in model development to quantify High Explosive Violent Response (HEVR) to mechanical insult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reaugh, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    The rapid release of chemical energy has found application for industrial and military purposes since the invention of gunpowder. Black powder, smokeless powder of various compositions, and pyrotechnics all exhibit the rapid release of energy without detonation when they are being used as designed. The rapidity of energy release for these materials is controlled by adjustments to the particle surface area (propellant grain configuration or powder particle size) in conjunction with the measured pressure-dependent burning rate, which is very subsonic. In this way a manufacturing process can be used to engineer the desired violence of the explosion. Detonations in molecular explosives, in contrast, propagate with a supersonic velocity that depends on the loading density, but is independent of the surface area. In ideal detonations, the reaction is complete within a small distance of the propagating shock front. Non-ideal detonations in molecular and composite explosives proceed with a slower velocity, and the reaction may continue well behind the shock front. We are developing models to describe the circumstances when molecular and composite explosives undergo a rapid release of energy without detonating. The models also apply to the behavior of rocket propellants subject to mechanical insult, whether for accidents (Hazards) or the suite of standardized tests used to assess whether the system can be designated an Insensitive Munition (IM). In the application described here, we are studying an HMX (1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane) explosive developed in the UK, which is 91% by weight HMX and 9% binder-plasticizer. Most explosives and propellants, when subjected to a mechanical insult, drop or impact that is well below the threshold for detonation have been observed to react violently. This behavior is known as High Explosive Violent Reaction (HEVR). The basis of our model is the observation that the mechanical insult produces damage in a volume of the

  14. Memory deficits with intact cognitive control in the methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) exposure model of neurodevelopmental insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Kally C; Perica, Maria I; Fenton, André A

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive impairments are amongst the most debilitating deficits of schizophrenia and the best predictor of functional outcome. Schizophrenia is hypothesized to have a neurodevelopmental origin, making animal models of neurodevelopmental insult important for testing predictions that early insults will impair cognitive function. Rats exposed to methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) at gestational day 17 display morphological, physiological and behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia. Here we investigate the cognitive abilities of adult MAM rats. We examined brain activity in MAM rats by histochemically assessing cytochrome oxidase enzyme activity, a metabolic marker of neuronal activity. To assess cognition, we used a hippocampus-dependent two-frame active place avoidance paradigm to examine learning and spatial memory, as well as cognitive control and flexibility using the same environment and evaluating the same set of behaviors. We confirmed that adult MAM rats have altered hippocampal morphology and brain function, and that they are hyperactive in an open field. The latter likely indicates MAM rats have a sensorimotor gating deficit that is common to many animal models used for schizophrenia research. On first inspection, cognitive control seems impaired in MAM rats, indicated by more errors during the two-frame active place avoidance task. Because MAM rats are hyperactive throughout place avoidance training, we considered the possibility that the hyperlocomotion may account for the apparent cognitive deficits. These deficits were reduced on the basis of measures of cognitive performance that account for motor activity differences. However, though other aspects of memory are intact, the ability of MAM rats to express trial-to-trial memory is delayed compared to control rats. These findings suggest that spatial learning and cognitive abilities are largely intact, that the most prominent cognitive deficit is specific to acquiring memory in the MAM

  15. Interaction of co-insult treatments wth cadmium chloride and gamma irradiation on lethality and blood indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were (1) to gain insight into sensitivities of vital organs systems after treatments with cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ), gamma ( 60 Co) radiation, and combined CdCl 2 -gamma radiation; (2) to determine physiological and cellular/molecular changes after these same treatments; and (3) to develop a summary of biochemical/hematological indicators for each insult individually, as well as for the co-insult treatment. Three lethality studies, Acute CdCl 2 , Chronic CdCl 2 , and Acute Radiation, wwere used to determine sublethal doses for the fourth study (Co-insult), which utilized various combinations of CdCl 2 and gamma radiation and from which the hematological and biochemical data were derived. Radiation groups exhibited statistically significant decreases in the total number of leukocytes, lymphocytes, and polyneutrophils. Significant increases were seen in serum iron, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase, and triglycerides. Cadmium groups had increased total numbers of leukocytes, polyneutrophils, and serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase (SGOT). Decreases were seen in lymphocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, total red blood cell counts, and total protein. When co-insult treatments were used, significant decreases were seen in the total number of leukocytes, polyneutrophils, lymphocytes, hemoglobin, total red blood cells, and serum iron

  16. Parasitization by Scleroderma guani influences expression of superoxide dismutase genes in Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Ze, Sang-Zi; Stanley, David W; Yang, Bin

    2014-09-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme involved in detoxifying reactive oxygen species. In this study, we identified genes encoding the extracellular and intracellular copper-zinc SODs (ecCuZnSOD and icCuZnSOD) and a manganese SOD (MnSOD) in the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor. The cDNAs for ecCuZnSOD, icCuZnSOD, and MnSOD, respectively, encode 24.55, 15.81, and 23.14 kDa polypeptides, which possess structural features typical of other insect SODs. They showed 20-94% identity to other known SOD sequences from Bombyx mori, Musca domestica, Nasonia vitripennis, Pediculus humanus corporis, and Tribolium castaneum. Expression of these genes was analyzed in selected tissues and developmental stages, and following exposure to Escherichia coli and parasitization by Scleroderma guani. We recorded expression of all three SODs in cuticle, fat body, and hemocytes and in the major developmental stages. Relatively higher expressions were detected in late-instar larvae and pupae, compared to other developmental stages. Transcriptional levels were upregulated following bacterial infection. Analysis of pupae parasitized by S. guani revealed that expression of T. molitor SOD genes was significantly induced following parasitization. We infer that these genes act in immune response and in host-parasitoid interactions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Interaction of Tenebrio Molitor Antifreeze Protein with Ice Crystal: Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, L; Ramakrishnan, Vigneshwar

    2016-07-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFP) observed in cold-adapting organisms bind to ice crystals and prevent further ice growth. However, the molecular mechanism of AFP-ice binding and AFP-inhibited ice growth remains unclear. Here we report the interaction of the insect antifreeze protein (Tenebrio molitor, TmAFP) with ice crystal by molecular dynamics simulation studies. Two sets of simulations were carried out at 263 K by placing the protein near the primary prism plane (PP) and basal plane (BL) of the ice crystal. To delineate the effect of temperatures, both the PP and BL simulations were carried out at 253 K as well. The analyses revealed that the protein interacts strongly with the ice crystal in BL simulation than in PP simulation both at 263 K and 253 K. Further, it was observed that the interactions are primarily mediated through the interface waters. We also observed that as the temperature decreases, the interaction between the protein and the ice increases which can be attributed to the decreased flexibility and the increased structuring of the protein at low temperature. In essence, our study has shed light on the interaction mechanism between the TmAFP antifreeze protein and the ice crystal. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The role of side chain conformational flexibility in surface recognition by Tenebrio molitor antifreeze protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Margaret E.; Sykes, Brian D.

    2003-01-01

    Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to investigate the flexibility of the threonine side chains in the β-helical Tenebrio molitor antifreeze protein (TmAFP) at low temperatures. From measurement of the 3Jαβ 1H-1H scalar coupling constants, the χ1 angles and preferred rotamer populations can be calculated. It was determined that the threonines on the ice-binding face of the protein adopt a preferred rotameric conformation at near freezing temperatures, whereas the threonines not on the ice-binding face sample many rotameric states. This suggests that TmAFP maintains a preformed ice-binding conformation in solution, wherein the rigid array of threonines that form the AFP-ice interface matches the ice crystal lattice. A key factor in binding to the ice surface and inhibition of ice crystal growth appears to be the close surface-to-surface complementarity between the AFP and crystalline ice, and the lack of an entropic penalty associated with freezing out motions in a flexible ligand. PMID:12824479

  19. The Effect of Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of Several Essential Oils on Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuegui; Hao, Qiang; Chen, Yiqu; Jiang, Surong; Yang, Qunfang; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The major chemical components of four essential oils (EOs) extracted from dry leaves of Citrus limonum, Cymbopogon citratus, Litsea cubeba, and Muristica fragrans were analyzed with gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and their fumigant, contact, and repellent activities against 10th instar and adults of Tenebrio molitor were also assayed. The results indicated that the major constituents of C. limonum and Cy. citrates were D-limonene (38.22%) and 3,7-dimethyl-6-octenal (26.21%), while which of L. cubeba and M. fragrans were (E)-3, 7-dimethyl-2, 6-octadienal (49.78%) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (79.31%), respectively. Contact activities of L. cubeba and C. limonum with LC50 values of 21.2 and 13.9 µg/cm(2) at 48 h and repellence activities (>89.0% repellence indexes) (P molitor compared with the control. The mainly active ingredients of L. cubeba and C. limonum, including D-limonene and β-pinene, were demonstrated to coinhibit the actives of AChE and enhance the toxicities on 10th instar of T. molitor. These results indicate that the EOs of L. cubeba and C. limonum could have great potential as botanical insecticides against T. molitor. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  20. Hydration behavior at the ice-binding surface of the Tenebrio molitor antifreeze protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midya, Uday Sankar; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2014-05-08

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been carried out at two different temperatures (300 and 220 K) to study the conformational rigidity of the hyperactive Tenebrio molitor antifreeze protein (TmAFP) in aqueous medium and the structural arrangements of water molecules hydrating its surface. It is found that irrespective of the temperature the ice-binding surface (IBS) of the protein is relatively more rigid than its nonice-binding surface (NIBS). The presence of a set of regularly arranged internally bound water molecules is found to play an important role in maintaining the flat rigid nature of the IBS. Importantly, the calculations reveal that the strategically located hydroxyl oxygens of the threonine (Thr) residues in the IBS influence the arrangements of five sets of ordered waters around it on two parallel planes that closely resemble the basal plane of ice. As a result, these waters can register well with the ice basal plane, thereby allowing the IBS to preferentially bind at the ice interface and inhibit its growth. This provides a possible molecular reason behind the ice-binding activity of TmAFP at the basal plane of ice.

  1. A Novel Tenebrio molitor Cadherin Is a Functional Receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa Toxin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrick, Jeff; Oppert, Cris; Lorenzen, Marcé D.; Morris, Kaley; Oppert, Brenda; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2009-01-01

    Cry toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis are effective biological insecticides. Cadherin-like proteins have been reported as functional Cry1A toxin receptors in Lepidoptera. Here we present data that demonstrate that a coleopteran cadherin is a functional Cry3Aa toxin receptor. The Cry3Aa receptor cadherin was cloned from Tenebrio molitor larval midgut mRNA, and the predicted protein, TmCad1, has domain structure and a putative toxin binding region similar to those in lepidopteran cadherin B. thuringiensis receptors. A peptide containing the putative toxin binding region from TmCad1 bound specifically to Cry3Aa and promoted the formation of Cry3Aa toxin oligomers, proposed to be mediators of toxicity in lepidopterans. Injection of TmCad1-specific double-stranded RNA into T. molitor larvae resulted in knockdown of the TmCad1 transcript and conferred resistance to Cry3Aa toxicity. These data demonstrate the functional role of TmCad1 as a Cry3Aa receptor in T. molitor and reveal similarities between the mode of action of Cry toxins in Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. PMID:19416969

  2. Inbreeding affects sexual signalling in males but not females of Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pölkki, Mari; Krams, Indrikis; Kangassalo, Katariina; Rantala, Markus J

    2012-06-23

    In many species of animals, individuals advertise their quality with sexual signals to obtain mates. Chemical signals such as volatile pheromones are species specific, and their primary purpose is to influence mate choice by carrying information about the phenotypic and genetic quality of the sender. The deleterious effects of consanguineous mating on individual quality are generally known, whereas the effect of inbreeding on sexual signalling is poorly understood. Here, we tested whether inbreeding reduces the attractiveness of sexual signalling in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, by testing the preferences for odours of inbred and outbred (control) individuals of the opposite sex. Females were more attracted to the odours produced by outbred males than the odours produced by inbred males, suggesting that inbreeding reduces the attractiveness of male sexual signalling. However, we did not find any difference between the attractiveness of inbred and outbred female odours, which may indicate that the quality of females is either irrelevant for T. molitor males or quality is not revealed through female odours.

  3. Trade-off between cellular immunity and life span in mealworm beetles Tenebrio molitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrikis KRAMS, Janīna DAUKŠTE, Inese KIVLENIECE, Ants KAASIK, Tatjana KRAMA, Todd M. REEBERG, Markus J. RANTALA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulation is a nonspecific, cellular response through which insects defend themselves against multicellular pathogens. During this immune reaction, haemocytes recognize an object as foreign and cause other haemocytes to aggregate and form a capsule around the object, often consisting of melanized cells. The process of melanisation is accompanied by the formation of potentially toxic reactive oxygen species, which can kill not only pathogens but also host cells. In this study we tested whether the encapsulation response is costly in mealworm beetles Tenebrio molitor. We found a negative relationship between the duration of implantation via a nylon monofilament and remaining life span. We also found a negative relationship between the strength of immune response and remaining life span, suggesting that cellular immunity is costly in T. molitor, and that there is a trade-off between immune response and remaining life span. However, this relationship disappeared at 31-32 hours of implantation at 25 ± 2℃. As the disappearance of a relationship between duration of implantation and lifespan coincided with the highest values of encapsulation response, we concluded that the beetles stopped investment in the production of melanotic cells, as the implant, a synthetic parasite, was fully isolated from the host’s tissues [Current Zoology 59 (3: 340–346, 2013].

  4. Prolidase is a critical enzyme for complete gliadin digestion in Tenebrio molitor larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchenkova, Valeriia F; Goptar, Irina A; Zhuzhikov, Dmitry P; Belozersky, Mikhail A; Dunaevsky, Yakov E; Oppert, Brenda; Filippova, Irina Yu; Elpidina, Elena N

    2017-08-01

    Prolidase is a proline-specific metallopeptidase that cleaves imidodipeptides with C-terminal Pro residue. Prolidase was purified and characterized from the Tenebrio molitor larval midgut. The enzyme was localized in the soluble fraction of posterior midgut tissues, corresponding to a predicted cytoplasmic localization of prolidase according to the structure of the mRNA transcript. Expression of genes encoding prolidase and the major digestive proline-specific peptidase (PSP)-dipeptidyl peptidase 4-were similar. The pH optimum of T. molitor prolidase was 7.5, and the enzyme was inhibited by Z-Pro, indicating that it belongs to type I prolidases. In mammals, prolidase is particularly important in the catabolism of a proline-rich protein-collagen. We propose that T. molitor larval prolidase is a critical enzyme for the final stages of digestion of dietary proline-rich gliadins, providing hydrolysis of imidodipeptides in the cytoplasm of midgut epithelial cells. We propose that the products of hydrolysis are absorbed from the luminal contents by peptide transporters, which we have annotated in the T. molitor larval gut transcriptome. The origin of prolidase substrates in the insect midgut is discussed in the context of overall success of grain feeding insects. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Parasitization by Scleroderma guani influences protein expression in Tenebrio molitor pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Wu, Guo-Xing; Ze, Sang-Zi; Stanley, David W; Yang, Bin

    2014-07-01

    Ectoparasitoid wasps deposit their eggs onto the surface and inject venom into their hosts. Venoms are chemically complex and they exert substantial impact on hosts, including permanent or temporary paralysis and developmental arrest. These visible venom effects are due to changes in expression of genes encoding physiologically relevant proteins. While the influence of parasitization on gene expression in several lepidopterans has been reported, the molecular details of parasitoid/beetle relationships remain mostly unknown. This shortcoming led us to pose the hypothesis that envenomation by the ectoparasitic ant-like bethylid wasp Scleroderma guani leads to changes in protein expression in the yellow mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor. We tested our hypothesis by comparing the proteomes of non-parasitized and parasitized host pupae using iTRAQ-based proteomics. We identified 41 proteins that were differentially expressed (32↑- and 9↓-regulated) in parasitized pupae. We assigned these proteins to functional categories, including immunity, stress and detoxification, energy metabolism, development, cytoskeleton, signaling and others. We recorded parallel changes in mRNA levels and protein abundance in 14 selected proteins following parasitization. Our findings support our hypothesis by documenting changes in protein expression in parasitized hosts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cloning and expression of a novel antifreeze protein AFP72 from the beetle Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qing-Hua; Yang, Li; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Hui-Rong; Shao, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    A novel antifreeze protein AFP72 cDNA (GenBbank accession No. AY929389) was obtained by RT-PCR from Tenebrio molitor. The 216 bp fragment encodes a protein of 72 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis revealed that the cDNA displays a high degree of homology with T. molitor antifreeze proteins, ranging up to 90.78%. Recombinant plasmids pMAL-p2X-afp72 and pMAL-c2X-afp72 were transferred into E. coil TBI to induce a MBP fusion protein by IPTG. The target fusion protein was released from the periplasm and cytoplasm by the cold osmotic shock procedure and sonication respectively. The content of the fusion protein came up to 38.9 and 41.5% of the total dissolved protein, respectively. The fusion protein was purified through an amylose affinity column, and incised by factor Xa. Molecular sieve chromatography was used to achieve a high state of purity of the target protein. The purified target protein displayed a single band in SDS-PAGE. The fusion protein was shown to increase resistance to low temperatures in bacteria. This finding could help in further investigations of the properties and function of antifreeze proteins.

  7. Rearing Tenebrio molitor in BLSS: Dietary fiber affects larval growth, development, and respiration characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leyuan; Stasiak, Michael; Li, Liang; Xie, Beizhen; Fu, Yuming; Gidzinski, Danuta; Dixon, Mike; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Rearing of yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) will provide good animal nutrition for astronauts in a bioregenerative life support system. In this study, growth and biomass conversion data of T. molitor larvae were tested for calculating the stoichiometric equation of its growth. Result of a respiratory quotient test proved the validity of the equation. Fiber had the most reduction in mass during T. molitor‧s consumption, and thus it is speculated that fiber is an important factor affecting larval growth of T. molitor. In order to further confirm this hypothesis and find out a proper feed fiber content, T. molitor larvae were fed on diets with 4 levels of fiber. Larval growth, development and respiration in each group were compared and analyzed. Results showed that crude-fiber content of 5% had a significant promoting effect on larvae in early instars, and is beneficial for pupa eclosion. When fed on feed of 5-10% crude-fiber, larvae in later instars reached optimal levels in growth, development and respiration. Therefore, we suggest that crude fiber content in feed can be controlled within 5-10%, and with the consideration of food palatability, a crude fiber of 5% is advisable.

  8. Gut microbiota of Tenebrio molitor and their response to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaejoon; Heo, Aram; Park, Yong Woo; Kim, Ye Ji; Koh, Hyelim; Park, Woojun

    2014-07-01

    A bacterial community analysis of the gut of Tenebrio molitor larvae was performed using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. A predominance of genus Spiroplasma species in phylum Tenericutes was observed in the gut samples, but there was variation found in the community composition between T. molitor individuals. The gut bacteria community structure was not significantly affected by the presence of antibiotics or by the exposure of T. molitor larvae to a highly diverse soil bacteria community. A negative relationship was identified between bacterial diversity and ampicillin concentration; however, no negative relationship was identified with the addition of kanamycin. Ampicillin treatment resulted in a reduction in the bacterial community size, estimated using the 16S rRNA gene copy number. A detailed phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Spiroplasma-associated sequences originating from the T. molitor larvae were distinct from previously identified Spiroplasma type species, implying the presence of novel Spiroplasma species. Some Spiroplasma species are known to be insect pathogens; however, the T. molitor larvae did not experience any harmful effects arising from the presence of Spiroplasma species, indicating that Spiroplasma in the gut of T. molitor larvae do not act as a pathogen to the host. A comparison with the bacterial communities found in other insects (Apis and Solenopsis) showed that the Spiroplasma species found in this study were specific to T. molitor.

  9. [Effects of venom from Sclerodermus sichuanensis Xiao on pupa of Tenebrio molitor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Zhi-Hang; Yang, Wei; Qin, Huan; Yang, Chun-Ping; Yang, Hua; Xu, Dan-Ping

    2013-11-01

    To explore the regulatory mechanisms of parasitism of Sclerodermus sichuanensis on Tenebrio molitor, the methods of natural parasitism and venom injection were adopted to investigate the effects of the venom from S. sichuanensis on the pupa of T. molitor in the parasitic process. Under venom injection, the paralytic degree of the pupa had a positive correlation with the concentration of injected venom, and the number of recovered pupa had a negative correlation with the injected venom concentration. The T. molitor pupa was in slight and reversible paralysis when injected with 0.01 VRE (venom reservoir equivalent) of venom, and in non-reversible and complete paralysis when 0.2 VRE was injected. The pupa died massively and appeared a wide range of melanization when injected with soil bacterial suspension alone, but the melanization delayed and the mortality declined significantly when the mixed liquor of bacterium and venom was injected. The bacteriostasis of the venom on Staphylococcus aureus was significantly stronger than that on Escherichia coli. Within a definite range of temperature, the paralytic activity decreased significantly with increasing temperature, the bacteriostasis on S. aureus increased significantly, while that on E. coli was opposite. This study showed that the venom from S. sichuanensis had the effects of paralysis, bacteriostasis, inhibiting exuviations, and delaying melanization.

  10. Tenebrio molitor Extracts Modulate the Response to Environmental Stressors and Extend Lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Seong-Min; Cha, Hye-Uk; Yi, Sun Shin; Kim, Sung-Jo; Park, Sang-Kyu

    2016-09-08

    Tenebrio molitor are large insects and their larvae are consumed as food in many countries. The nutritional composition of T. molitor has been studied and contains high amounts of proteins, unsaturated fatty acids, and valuable minerals. However, the bioactivity of T. molitor has not been fully understood. We examined the effects of T. molitor extracts on resistance to oxidative stress and organism's lifespan using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system. The response to heat shock and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was monitored in vivo. The extracts from T. molitor showed significant effects on resistance to oxidative stress and UV irradiation and extend both mean and maximum lifespan of C. elegans. The number of progeny produced significantly increased in animals supplemented with T. molitor extracts. In addition, the expression of hsp-16.2 and sod-3 was markedly upregulated by supplementation with T. molitor extracts. These findings suggest that T. molitor extracts can increase response to stressors and extend lifespan by the induction of longevity assurance genes in C. elegans.

  11. Quantity estimation based on numerical cues in the mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau eCarazo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used a biologically relevant experimental procedure to ask whether mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor are spontaneously capable of assessing quantities based on numerical cues. Like other insect species, mealworm beetles adjust their reproductive behaviour (i.e. investment in mate guarding according to the perceived risk of sperm competition (i.e. probability that a female will mate with another male. To test whether males have the ability to estimate numerosity based on numerical cues, we staged matings between virgin females and virgin males in which we varied the number of rival males the experimental male had access to immediately preceding mating as a cue to sperm competition risk (from 1 to 4. Rival males were presented sequentially, and we controlled for continuous cues by ensuring that males in all treatments were exposed to the same amount of male-male contact. Males exhibited a marked increase in the time they devoted to mate guarding in response to an increase in the number of different rival males they were exposed to. Since males could not rely on continuous cues we conclude that they kept a running tally of the number of individuals they encountered serially, which meets the requirements of the basic ordinality and cardinality principles of proto-counting. Our results thus offer good evidence of ‘true’ numerosity estimation or quantity estimation and, along with recent studies in honey-bees, suggest that vertebrates and invertebrates share similar core systems of non-verbal numerical representation.

  12. Novel direct factor Xa inhibitory compounds from Tenebrio molitor with anti-platelet aggregation activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonhwa; Kim, Mi-Ae; Park, InWha; Hwang, Jae Sam; Na, MinKyun; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2017-11-01

    Tenebrio molitor is an edible insect that has antimicrobial, anticancer, and antihypertensive effects. The aim of this study was to identify the unreported bioactive compounds from T. molitor larvae with inhibitory activities against factor Xa (FXa) and platelet aggregation. Isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-FXa and anti-platelet aggregation properties by monitoring clotting time, platelet aggregation, FXa activity, and thrombus formation. A diketopiperazine (1, cyclo( L -Pro- L -Tyr)) and a phenylethanoid (2, N-acetyltyramine) were isolated and inhibited the catalytic activity of FXa in a mixed inhibition model and inhibited platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and U46619. They inhibited ADP- and U46619-induced phosphorylation of myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) and the expression of P-selectin and PAC-1 in platelets. They also improved the production of nitric oxide and inhibited the oversecretion of endothelin-1 compared to that of the ADP- or U46619-treated group. In an animal model of arterial and pulmonary thrombosis, the isolated compounds showed enhanced antithrombotic effects. They also elicited anticoagulant effects in mice. Compounds 1-2 inhibited ADP-, collagen-, or U46619-induced platelet aggregation and showed similar anti-thrombotic efficacy to rivaroxaban, a positive control. Therefore, 1-2 could serve as candidates and provide scaffolds for the development of new anti-FXa and anti-platelet drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. PATHOGENICITY, DEVELOPMENT AND REPRODUCTION OF THE ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODE Steinernema sp., IN MEALWORM Tenebrio molitor

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    Yuliantoro Baliadi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenicity, development and reproduction of Steinernema sp., isolate Skpr-20/Str, were studied using Tenebrio molitor. Results revealed that pathogenicity, development and reproduction were significantly influenced by nematode doses. Although the number of invading IJs increased with increasing dose, percentage penetration declined. The IJs reached adulthood within 3 days. Females laid eggs from day 4-7. All eggs remaining inside uterus develop inside the maternal body. The first female bearing endotokia matricida was observed on day 5. In a sand-based assay, nematode was more pathogenic at lower dose instead of higher ones, where optimum dose was 80 nematodes per larva and average number of progeny per female was 5438. Under crowded conditions, development proceeds to IJ stage instead of the J3. The average length and width decreased with increasing of nematode doses. The IJ produced in cadavers infested with 640 nematodes per larva was significantly smaller (492 ± 6.4 µm than offspring from other doses. The number of days which nematodes first emerged from the cadavers decreased with increasing dose. IJ first emerged at the average of 10-13 days at high IJ densities. It is concluded that the wide experimental characteristic of EPNs is also true for Steinernema sp., isolate Skpr-20/Str.

  14. Reproduction of Trichospilus diatraeae in Diatraea saccharalis after three generations in Tenebrio molitor

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    Daniele Fabiana Glaeser

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The successive rearing of parasitoids in factitious hosts may affect its biological quality. Trichospilus diatraeae Cherian & Margabandhu, 1942 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae has been studied for the biological control of sugarcane borer [Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae]. This study aimed to evaluate whether the rearing of T. diatraeae for three generations in the factitious host Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae affects its reproductive performance, when subsequently reared in the natural host pupae D. saccharalis. Two groups of T. diatraeae were reared separately for three generations: one in pupae of T. molitor and the other in pupae of D. saccharalis. Subsequently, 20 pupae of D. saccharalis were exposed, for 72 hours, to the parasitism of T. diatraeae females reared earlier in pupae of T. molitor or D. saccharalis. The successive rearing of T. diatraeae in the factitious host did not affect the number of pupae parasitized and the number of pupae in which the emergence of parasitoids occurred in the natural host D. saccharalis, and increased the longevity of females and the sex ratio of T. diatraeae. The progeny, duration of developmental cycle (egg to adult, width of head capsule of males and females and longevity of males of T. diatraeae were similar on both treatments. T. diatraeae can be reared in the factitious host T. molitor for three generations without compromising its reproductive performance, when subsequently reared in the natural host D. saccharalis.

  15. Effects of inbreeding on potential and realized immune responses in Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Markus J; Viitaniemi, Heidi; Roff, Derek A

    2011-06-01

    Although numerous studies on vertebrates suggest that inbreeding reduces their resistance against parasites and pathogens, studies in insects have found contradictory evidence. In this study we tested the effect of 1 generation of brother-sister mating (inbreeding) on potential and realized immune responses and other life-history traits in Tenebrio molitor. We found that inbreeding reduced adult mass, pre-adult survival and increased development time, suggesting that inbreeding reduced the condition of the adults and thus potentially made them more susceptible to physiological stress. However, we found no significant effect of inbreeding on the potential immune response (encapsulation response), but inbreeding reduced the realized immune response (resistance against the entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana). There was a significant family effect on encapsulation response, but no family effect on the resistance against the entomopathogenic fungi. Given that this latter trait showed significant inbreeding depression and that the sample size for the family-effect analysis was small it is likely that the lack of a significant family effect is due to reduced statistical power, rather than the lack of a heritable basis to the trait. Our study highlights the importance of using pathogens and parasites in immunoecological studies.

  16. [Effects of fermented cattle dung on the growth and development of Tenebrio molitor larvae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiang-Wei; Wang, Xia; Guo, Li-Yue; Zhan, Li-Jie; Bo, Wen-Jing; Li, Zhan; Wu, Guang-Lei; Jiang, Gao-Ming

    2012-07-01

    In order to make use of and industrialize the animal dung from large cattle farms, this paper explored the feasibility of using Tenebrio molitor to digest and utilize cattle dung. Cattle dung was mixed with the conventional feed (65% wheat bran, 30% corn flour, and 5% bean pulp) of T. molitor in definite proportions, and fermented with effective microorganisms (EM). The fermented products containing 60% and 80% of cattle dung (FD1 and FD2, respectively) were selected to feed T. molitor larvae, and the effects of the fermented products on the growth curve, death rate, pupation rate, and antioxidant system of the larvae were compared. Compared with CK (conventional deed), the FD1 made the developmental duration of the larvae prolonged by 10 days and the larvae's death rate upraised somewhat, but made the single larva's total food intake, average body mass, crude fat content, and ratio of unsaturated to saturated fat acids increased by 49%, 28%, 26%, and 32%, respectively (P molitor larvae had weak adaptability to FD2. Our findings suggested that using FD1 to feed the 3rd instar of T. molitor larvae would have good practical prospects in industrializing cattle dung.

  17. A new biological recovery approach for PHA using mealworm, Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Paramasivam; Han, Lizhu; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Maurer, Frans H J; Sudesh, Kumar

    2016-12-10

    Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are expensive partly due to the recovery and purification processes. Thus, many studies have been carried out in order to minimize the cost. Here we report on the use of mealworm, which is the larva of mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) to recover PHA granules from Cupriavidus necator. Mealworms were shown to readily consume the freeze-dried C. necator cells and excrete the PHA granules in the form of whitish feces. Further purification using water, detergent and heat resulted in almost 100% pure PHA granules. Comparison with chloroform extraction showed no signs of reduction in the molecular weight and dispersion of the PHA molecules. Scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering measurements revealed that the biologically recovered PHA granules retained their native spherical morphology. The PHA granules were subjected to a battery of tests to determine their purity and properties in comparison to the chloroform extracted PHA. This study has demonstrated the possibility of using mealworms as a biological agent to partially purify the PHA granules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Toxic effects of two essential oils and their constituents on the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, L C; Plata-Rueda, A; Colares, H C; Campos, J M; Dos Santos, M H; Fernandes, F L; Serrão, J E; Zanuncio, J C

    2017-12-14

    The study identified insecticidal effects from the cinnamon and clove essential oils in Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90), lethal time, and repellent effect on larvae, pupae, and adults of T. molitor after exposure to six concentrations of each essential oil and toxic compounds were evaluated. The chemical composition of the cinnamon oil was also determined and primary compounds were eugenol (10.19%), trans-3-caren-2-ol (9.92%), benzyl benzoate (9.68%), caryophyllene (9.05%), eugenyl acetate (7.47%), α-phellandrene (7.18%), and α-pinene (6.92%). In clove essential oil, the primary compounds were eugenol (26.64%), caryophyllene (23.73%), caryophyllene oxide (17.74%), 2-propenoic acid (11.84%), α-humulene (10.48%), γ-cadinene (4.85%), and humulene oxide (4.69%). Cinnamon and clove essential oils were toxic to T. molitor. In toxic chemical compounds, eugenol have stronger contact toxicity in larvae, pupae, and adult than caryophyllene oxide, followed by α-pinene, α-phellandrene, and α-humulene. In general, the two essential oils were toxic and repellent to adult T. molitor. Cinnamon and clove essential oils and their compounds caused higher mortality and repellency on T. molitor and, therefore, have the potential for integrated management programs of this insect.

  19. Transformation of Beauveria bassiana to produce EGFP in Tenebrio molitor for use as animal feed additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Su; Choi, Jae Young; Lee, Se Jin; Lee, Ju Hyun; Fu, Zhenli; Skinner, Margaret; Parker, Bruce L; Je, Yeon Ho

    2013-07-01

    Efforts are underway to develop more effective and safer animal feed additives. Entomopathogenic fungi can be considered practical expression platforms of functional genes within insects which have been used as animal feed additives. In this work, as a model, the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) gene was expressed in yellow mealworms, Tenebrio molitor by highly infective Beauveria bassiana ERL1170. Among seven test isolates, ERL1170 treatment showed 57.1% and 98.3% mortality of mealworms 2 and 5 days after infection, respectively. The fungal transformation vector, pABeG containing the egfp gene, was inserted into the genomic DNA of ERL1170 using the restriction enzyme-mediated integration method. This resulted in the generation of the transformant, Bb-egfp#3, which showed the highest level of fluorescence. Bb-egfp#3-treated mealworms gradually turned dark brown, and in 7-days mealworm sections showed a strong fluorescence. This did not occur in the wild-type strain. This work suggests that further valuable proteins can be efficiently produced in this mealworm-based fungal expression platform, thereby increasing the value of mealworms in the animal feed additive industry. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The pacemaker activity generating the intrinsic myogenic contraction of the dorsal vessel of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, T; Theophilidis, G

    2000-11-01

    Combined intracellular and extracellular recordings from various parts of the isolated dorsal vessel of Tenebrio molitor revealed some of the following electrophysiological properties of the heart and the aorta. (i) The wave of depolarization causing forward pulsation of the dorsal vessel was always transmitted from posterior to anterior, with a conduction velocity of 0.014 m s(-1) in the heart and 0.001 m s(-1) in the aorta when the heart rate was 60 beats min(-1). (ii) There was no pacemaker activity in the aorta. (iii) The duration of the compound action potential in the aortic muscle depended on the duration of the pacemaker action potential generated in the heart. (iv) Isolated parts of the heart continued to contract rhythmically for hours, indicating powerful pacemaker activity in individual cardiac segments. (v) There was a direct relationship between action potential duration and the length of the preceding diastolic interval. (vi) The rhythmic wave of depolarization was dependent on the influx of Ca(2+). (vii) The recovery of the electrical properties of myocardial cells that had been disrupted by sectioning was rapid. (viii) In hearts sectioned into two halves, the rhythmic pacemaker action potentials recorded simultaneously from the two isolated halves eventually drifted out of phase, but they had the same intrinsic frequency. In the light of these data, we discuss two alternative models for the generation of spontaneous rhythmic pumping movements of the heart and aorta.

  1. Differences in critical thermal maxima and mortality across life stages of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorhees, Ashley S; Bradley, Timothy J

    2012-07-01

    Thermal limits to activity profoundly affect the abundance and distribution of ectothermic animals. Upper thermal limits to activity are typically reported as the critical thermal maximum (CT(max)), the temperature at which activity becomes uncontrolled. Thermolimit respirometry is a new technique that allows CT(max) to be quantified in small animals, such as insects, as the point of spiracular failure by measuring CO(2) release from the animal as temperature increases. Although prior studies have reported a characteristic pattern of CO(2) release for insects during thermolimit respirometry trials, no studies have been carried out to determine the universality of this pattern across development, or at what point death occurs along this pattern. Here, we compared the CT(max) and patterns of CO(2) release among three life stages of a beetle species, Tenebrio molitor, and mapped heat death onto these patterns. Our study is the first to report distinct patterns of CO(2) release in different life stages of an insect species during thermolimit respirometry. Our results show that CT(max) was significantly higher in adult beetles than in either larvae or pupae (P<0.001) and, similarly, death occurred at higher temperatures in adults than in larvae and pupae. We also found that death during heating closely follows CT(max) in these animals, which confirms that measuring the loss of spiracular control with thermolimit respirometry successfully identifies the point of physiological limitation during heat stress.

  2. Welfare of the mealworm (Tenebrio molitor breeding with regard to nutrition value and food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Adámková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Livestock welfare is an important condition for obtaining high-quality and safe food. According to the legislation edible insects are classified as livestock; and for this reason it is necessary to comply with the edible insect welfare conditions. This article focuses on selected welfare conditions for mealworm (Tenebrio molitor breeding, with special focus on the fat content influenced by different breeding temperature (17 °C, 23 °C and 28 °C. Maximum fat content 24.56% was observed at 23 °C. To obtain maximum fat content this appears to be the optimal breeding temperature. Another evaluated aspect was the nutritional stress and a way of killing, and their impact on fat content, which showed to decrease with the nutrient stress. The most decline was detected towards the end of the observation period. The analysis showed that in terms of preservation of the fat content, the best way is killing by freezing, due to the metabolism slowdown. We also analysed the content of heavy metals in a mealworm larvae using cyclic voltammetry with subsequent evaluation. In the measured sample concentrations of heavy metals did not exceed the maximum allowable concentration of heavy metals in this commodity. From this point of view mealworm appears to be a safe food.

  3. The human repeated insult patch test in the 21st century: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David A

    2009-01-01

    The human repeated insult patch test (HRIPT) is over half a century old, but is still used in several countries as a confirmatory test in the safety evaluation of skin sensitizers. This is despite the criticism it receives from an ethical perspective and regarding the scientific validity of such testing. In this commentary, the HRIPT is reviewed, with emphasis on ethical aspects and where the test can, and cannot, contribute in a scientifically meaningful manner to safety evaluation. It is concluded that where there is a specific rationale for testing, for example, to substantiate a no-effect level for a sensitizing chemical or to ensure that matrix effects are not making an unexpected contribution to sensitizing potency, then rigorous independent review may confirm that an HRIPT is ethical and scientifically justifiable. The possibility that sensitization may be induced in volunteers dictates that HRIPTs should be conducted rarely and in cases where the benefits overwhelmingly outweigh the risk. However, for the very large majority of HRIPTs conducted concerning the risk of skin sensitization, there is neither scientific justification nor any other merit.

  4. Laterization of epileptiform discharges in patients with epilepsy and precocious destructive brain insults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Ricardo A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral destructive brain lesions of early development can result in compensatory thickening of the ipsilateral cranial vault. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of these bone changes among patients with epilepsy and precocious destructive lesions, and whether a relationship exists between these changes and epileptiform discharges lateralization. Fifty-one patients had their ictal / interictal scalp EEG and skull thickness symmetry on MRI analyzed. Patients were divided into three main groups according to the topographic distribution of the lesion on the MRI: hemispheric (H (n=9; main arterial territory (AT (n=25; arterial borderzone (Bdz (n=17. The EEG background activity was abnormal in 26 patients and were more frequent among patients of group H (p= 0.044. Thickening of the skull was more frequent among patients of group H (p= 0.004. Five patients (9.8% showed discordant lateralization between epileptiform discharges and structural lesion (four of them with an abnormal background, and only two of them with skull changes. In one of these patients, ictal SPECT provided strong evidence for scalp EEG false lateralization. The findings suggest that compensatory skull thickening in patients with precocious destructive brain insults are more frequent among patients with unilateral and large lesions. However, EEG lateralization discordance among these patients seems to be more related to EEG background abnormalities and extent of cerebral damage than to skull changes.

  5. Development of Supputius cincticeps (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) fed with Zophobas confusa, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) and Musca domestica (Diptera, Muscidae) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Beserra, Eduardo B.; Zanuncio, Teresinha V.; Zanuncio, José C.; Santos, Germi P.

    1995-01-01

    Egg viability and nymphal development of the predatory bug Supputius cincticeps (Stål, 1860) were evaluated during two generations in the Biological Control Laboratory of the Núcleo de Biotecnologia Aplicada à Agropecuária (Bioagro/UFV) in Viçosa (Minas Gerais, Brazil) at 24.72±1.10ºC and photophase of 12 hours. Three treatments were represented by S. cincticeps fed with Zophobas confusa Gebien, 1906, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 and Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 larvae. Higher egg viabil...

  6. Impairment of the chemical defence of the beetle, Tenebrio molitor, by metacestodes (cysticeroids) of the tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankespoor, C L; Pappas, P W; Eisner, T

    1997-07-01

    The defensive glands of beetles, Tenebrio molitor, infected with metacestodes (cysticercoids) of Hymenolepis diminuta are everted less frequently upon stimulation, and contain less toluquinone (methylbenzoquinone) and m-cresol, than glands of uninfected controls. These differences, as shown in predation trials with wild rats, increase the likelihood that both cysticercoids and beetles will be ingested by the tapeworm's definitive host. This is the first documented case of a parasite inhibiting the chemical defence of an intermediate host, and one of only a few reports of parasite-induced manipulation of host biology supported by empirical evidence implicating facilitated parasite transmission between host species.

  7. Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larva ve pupasının yağ asidi bileşimi

    OpenAIRE

    TAŞKIN, Deniz; AKSOYLAR, M. Yaşar

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acid compositions of last instar larvae and pupae of Tenebrio molitor were analysed by gas chromatographic methods. It was determined that total fatty acid compositions of both stages were contituted C12:0-C18:2 fatty acids. Oleic acid was found as the major fatty acid. Palmitic and linoleic acids also were high pencentage fatty acids.

  8. A constitutively expressed antifungal peptide protects Tenebrio molitor during a natural infection by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maistrou, Sevasti; Paris, Véronique; Jensen, Annette Bruun

    2018-01-01

    -evolution they share. In this study, we investigated role of a constitutively expressed thaumatin-like peptide with antifungal activity expressed by the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor, named Tenecin 3, during a natural infection with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. We monitored the effect...

  9. SATB2 participates in regulation of menadione-induced apoptotic insults to osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jyh-Ding; Lin, Yi-Ling; Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Shieh, Hui-Shan; Lin, Pei-I; Ho, Wei-Pin; Chen, Ruei-Ming

    2012-07-01

    Special AT-rich sequence binding protein 2 (SATB2), a nuclear matrix attachment region-binding protein, can regulate embryonic development, cell differentiation, and cell survival. Previous studies showed that SATB2 is involved in osteoblast differentiation and skeletal development. In this study, we evaluated the role of SATB2 in oxidative stress-induced apoptotic insults to human osteoblast-like MG63 cells and mouse MC3T3-E1 cells. Exposure of MG63 cells to menadione increased intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Simultaneously, menadione-induced oxidative stress triggered cell shrinkage and decreased cell viability. In addition, treatment of MG63 cells with menadione time-dependently decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential but enhanced caspase-3 activity. As a result, menadione-induced DNA fragmentation and cell apoptosis. As to the mechanism, exposure of MG63 cells to menadione amplified SATB2 messenger (m)RNA and protein expression in a time-dependent manner. Knockdown of translation of SATB2 mRNA using RNA interference led to chromatin disruption and nuclear damage. When MG63 cells and MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with SATB2 small interfering RNA, menadione-induced cell apoptosis was increased. We conclude that menadione causes oxidative stress in human osteoblasts and induces cellular apoptosis via a mitochondrion-caspase protease pathway. In addition, SATB2 may play a crucial role in protecting against oxidative stress-induced osteoblast apoptosis. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  10. Implicit Forms of Ethnic Insult for Europeans (as Found in Rhyming Slang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta Y. Gorshunova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a sociocultural lingual description of ethnic labels created within rhyming slang (Rh.sl. and used to refer to Europeans. The study and description of ethnic stereotypes and labels have attracted attention of researchers due to the practical significance in regulating, controlling and manipulating the direct contacts and interaction between different ethnic groups. The authors have focused their attention on the so-called «hidden» or «implicit» forms of Rh.sl. Along with the explicit, direct, offensive and non-politically correct ethnic labels and nicknames there are quite a few with a deceptive, innocuous shape that conceals their offensive content. That's why they should be perceived as potentially (if not indeed offensive names. The authors put the ethnic labels produced in Rh.sl into this category. Since Rh.sl. is subject to a strong influence of the word play and its items are perceived as humorous and ironic nominations, they are not always discerned as offensive by the English speakers. The article contains a linguistic-and-socio-cultural analysis of some implicit forms of ethnic insult of the Germans, the French, the Italians, the Spaniards, the Portuguese and some other Europeans as well as the native inhabitants of the British Isles. The undertaken analysis of ethnic labels as used to name people from Europe has revealed a broad spectrum of Rh.sl. ethic labels. The description was based on extra-linguistic factors (geographical, demographic, social comprising the settlement and resettlement, compact presence on a certain territory, statehood. In this respect, there is an ethnic group that falls out - the gypsies (or Roma, as they are scattered across the world and still have a nomadic and semi-nomadic way of life.

  11. Effect of Larval Density on Food Utilization Efficiency of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe

    2015-10-01

    Crowding conditions of larvae may have a significant impact on commercial production efficiency of some insects, such as Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Although larval densities are known to affect developmental time and growth in T. molitor, no reports were found on the effects of crowding on food utilization. The effect of larval density on food utilization efficiency of T. molitor larvae was studied by measuring efficiency of ingested food conversion (ECI), efficiency of digested food conversion (EDC), and mg of larval weight gain per gram of food consumed (LWGpFC) at increasing larval densities (12, 24, 36, 48, 50, 62, 74, and 96 larvae per dm(2)) over four consecutive 3-wk periods. Individual larval weight gain and food consumption were negatively impacted by larval density. Similarly, ECI, ECD, and LWGpFC were negatively impacted by larval density. Larval ageing, measured as four consecutive 3-wk periods, significantly and independently impacted ECI, ECD, and LWGpFC in a negative way. General linear model analysis showed that age had a higher impact than density on food utilization parameters of T. molitor larvae. Larval growth was determined to be responsible for the age effects, as measurements of larval mass density (in grams of larvae per dm(2)) had a significant impact on food utilization parameters across ages and density treatments (in number of larvae per dm(2)). The importance of mass versus numbers per unit of area as measurements of larval density and the implications of negative effects of density on food utilization for insect biomass production are discussed. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Uptake of Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic by Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens from Contaminated Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Camenzuli, L; van der Lee, M K; Oonincx, D G A B

    2016-01-01

    Insects have potential as a novel source of protein in feed and food production in Europe, provided they can be used safely. To date, limited information is available on the safety of insects, and toxic elements are one of the potential hazards of concern. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the potential accumulation of cadmium, lead and arsenic in larvae of two insect species, Tenebrio molitor (yellow mealworm) and Hermetia illucens (black soldier fly), which seem to hold potential as a source of food or feed. An experiment was designed with 14 treatments, each in triplicate, per insect species. Twelve treatments used feed that was spiked with cadmium, lead or arsenic at 0.5, 1 and 2 times the respective maximum allowable levels (ML) in complete feed, as established by the European Commission (EC). Two of the 14 treatments consisted of controls, using non-spiked feed. All insects per container (replicate) were harvested when the first larva in that container had completed its larval stage. Development time, survival rates and fresh weights were similar over all treatments, except for development time and total live weight of the half of the maximum limit treatment for cadmium of the black soldier fly. Bioaccumulation (bioaccumulation factor > 1) was seen in all treatments (including two controls) for lead and cadmium in black soldier fly larvae, and for the three arsenic treatments in the yellow mealworm larvae. In the three cadmium treatments, concentrations of cadmium in black soldier fly larvae are higher than the current EC maximum limit for feed materials. The same was seen for the 1.0 and 2.0 ML treatments of arsenic in the yellow mealworm larvae. From this study, it can be concluded that if insects are used as feed materials, the maximum limits of these elements in complete feed should be revised per insect species.

  13. Myotropic Effects of Cholinergic Muscarinic Agonists and Antagonists in the Beetle Tenebrio molitor L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowanski, Szymon; Rosinski, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    In mammals, the cholinergic nervous system plays a crucial role in neuronal regulation of physiological processes. It acts on cells by two types of receptors - nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. Both signal transmission pathways also operate in the central and peripheral cholinergic nervous system of insects. In our pharmacological experiments, we studied the effects of two muscarinic agonists (carbachol, pilocarpine) and two muscarinic antagonists (atropine, scopolamine) on the muscle contractile activity of visceral organs in the beetle, Tenebrio molitor. Both antagonists, when injected to haemolymph at concentration 10-5 M, caused delayed and prolonged cardioinhibitory effects on heart contractility in ortho- and antidromic phases of heart activity in T. molitor pupa what was observed as negative chrono- and inotropic effects. Agonist of muscarinic receptors - carbachol evoked opposite effect and increased contraction rate but only in antidromic phase. Pilocarpine, the second agonist induced weak negative chronotropic effects in the antiand orthodromic phases of heart activity. However, neither agonists had an effect on semi-isolated beetle heart in vitro. Only atropine at the highest tested concentrations slightly decreased the frequency of myocardial contractions. These suggest the regulation of heart activity by muscarinic system indirectly. The tested compounds also affected the contractility of the oviduct and hindgut, but the responses of these organs were varied and depended on the concentration of the applied compounds. These pharmacological experiments suggest the possible modulation of insect visceral muscle contractility by the cholinergic nervous system and indirectly indicate the presence of muscarinic receptor(s) in the visceral organs of the beetle T. molitor. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Heritability of hsp70 expression in the beetle Tenebrio molitor: Ontogenetic and environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardies, Marco A; Arias, María Belén; Poupin, María Josefina; Bacigalupe, Leonardo D

    2014-08-01

    Ectotherms constitute the vast majority of terrestrial biodiversity and are especially likely to be vulnerable to climate warming because their basic physiological functions such as locomotion, growth, and reproduction are strongly influenced by environmental temperature. An integrated view about the effects of global warming will be reached not just establishing how the increase in mean temperature impacts the natural populations but also establishing the effects of the increase in temperature variance. One of the molecular responses that are activated in a cell under a temperature stress is the heat shock protein response (HSP). Some studies that have detected consistent differences among thermal treatments and ontogenetic stages in HSP70 expression have assumed that these differences had a genetic basis and consequently expression would be heritable. We tested for changes in quantitative genetic parameters of HSP70 expression in a half-sib design where individuals of the beetle Tenebrio molitor were maintained in constant and varying thermal environments. We estimated heritability of HSP70 expression using a linear mixed modelling approach in different ontogenetic stages. Expression levels of HSP70 were consistently higher in the variable environment and heritability estimates were low to moderate. The results imply that within each ontogenetic stage additive genetic variance was higher in the variable environment and in adults compared with constant environment and larvae stage, respectively. We found that almost all the genetic correlations across ontogenetic stages and environment were positive. These suggest that directional selection for higher levels of expression in one environment will result in higher expression levels of HSP70 on the other environment for the same ontogenetic stage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Involvement of phenoloxidase in browning during grinding of Tenebrio molitor larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Renske H; Lakemond, Catriona M M; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Renzone, Giovanni; Scaloni, Andrea; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Insects are investigated as alternative protein source to meet the increasing demand for proteins in the future. Enzymatic browning occurring during grinding of insect and subsequent extraction of proteins can influence the proteins' properties, but it is unclear which enzymes are responsible for this phenomenon. This study was performed on larvae of three commonly used insect species, namely Tenebrio molitor, Alphitobius diaperinus and Hermetia illucens. Oxygen consumption measurements on protein extracts showed activity on L-tyrosine, L-3,4-di-hydroxy-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) and L-dopamine, indicating phenoloxidase as a key player in browning. Furthermore, no reaction on 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) was observed, ruling out an important contribution of laccase to browning. The browning reaction was most prominent at pH 6 for T. molitor and A. diaperinus, and 7 for H. illucens. As the enzyme activity of H. illucens was the lowest with the darkest color formation, this was likely caused by another factor. The activity of phenoloxidase was confirmed for T. molitor and A. diaperinus by activity measurements after fractionation by anion-exchange chromatography. Color measurements showed the presence of activity on both L-DOPA and L-tyrosine in the same fractions. Both substrates were converted into dopachrome after incubation with enzyme-enriched fractions. No DOPA-decarboxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase and peroxidase activities were observed. By using native PAGE with L-DOPA as staining-solution, active T. molitor protein bands were resolved and characterized, identifying a tyrosinase/phenoloxidase as the active enzyme species. All together, these data confirmed that tyrosinase is an important enzyme in causing enzymatic browning in T. molitor and likely in A. diaperinus.

  16. Transcriptomic immune response of Tenebrio molitor pupae to parasitization by Scleroderma guani.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Ying Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Host and parasitoid interaction is one of the most fascinating relationships of insects, which is currently receiving an increasing interest. Understanding the mechanisms evolved by the parasitoids to evade or suppress the host immune system is important for dissecting this interaction, while it was still poorly known. In order to gain insight into the immune response of Tenebrio molitor to parasitization by Scleroderma guani, the transcriptome of T. molitor pupae was sequenced with focus on immune-related gene, and the non-parasitized and parasitized T. molitor pupae were analyzed by digital gene expression (DGE analysis with special emphasis on parasitoid-induced immune-related genes using Illumina sequencing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a single run, 264,698 raw reads were obtained. De novo assembly generated 71,514 unigenes with mean length of 424 bp. Of those unigenes, 37,373 (52.26% showed similarity to the known proteins in the NCBI nr database. Via analysis of the transcriptome data in depth, 430 unigenes related to immunity were identified. DGE analysis revealed that parasitization by S. guani had considerable impacts on the transcriptome profile of T. molitor pupae, as indicated by the significant up- or down-regulation of 3,431 parasitism-responsive transcripts. The expression of a total of 74 unigenes involved in immune response of T. molitor was significantly altered after parasitization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: obtained T. molitor transcriptome, in addition to establishing a fundamental resource for further research on functional genomics, has allowed the discovery of a large group of immune genes that might provide a meaningful framework to better understand the immune response in this species and other beetles. The DGE profiling data provides comprehensive T. molitor immune gene expression information at the transcriptional level following parasitization, and sheds valuable light on the molecular

  17. Recognition, survival and persistence of Staphylococcus aureus in the model host Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorling, Jack; Moraes, Caroline; Rolff, Jens

    2015-02-01

    The degree of specificity of any given immune response to a parasite is governed by the complexity and variation of interactions between host and pathogen derived molecules. Here, we assess the extent to which recognition and immuno-resistance of cell wall mutants of the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus may contribute to establishment and maintenance of persistent infection in the model insect host, Tenebrio molitor. The cell surface of S. aureus is decorated with various molecules, including glycopolymers such as wall teichoic acid (WTA). WTA is covalently bound to peptidoglycan (PGN) and its absence has been associated with increased recognition of PGN by host receptors (PGRPs). WTA is also further modified by other molecules such as D-alanine (D-alanylation). Both the level of WTA expression and its D-alanylation were found to be important in the mediation of the host-parasite interaction in this model system. Specifically, WTA itself was seen to influence immune recognition, while D-alanylation of WTA was found to increase immuno-resistance and was associated with prolonged persistence of S. aureus in T. molitor. These results implicate WTA and its D-alanylation as important factors in the establishment and maintenance of persistent infection, affecting different critical junctions in the immune response; through potential evasion of recognition by PGRPs and resistance to humoral immune effectors during prolonged exposure to the immune system. This highlights a mechanism by which specificity in this host-parasite interaction may arise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 - An important digestive peptidase in Tenebrio molitor larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchenkova, Valeriia F; Goptar, Irina A; Kulemzina, Irina A; Zhuzhikov, Dmitry P; Serebryakova, Marina V; Belozersky, Mikhail A; Dunaevsky, Yakov E; Oppert, Brenda; Filippova, Irina Yu; Elpidina, Elena N

    2016-09-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP 4) is a proline specific serine peptidase that plays an important role in different regulatory processes in mammals. In this report, we isolated and characterized a unique secreted digestive DPP 4 from the anterior midgut of a stored product pest, Tenebrio molitor larvae (TmDPP 4), with a biological function different than that of the well-studied mammalian DPP 4. The sequence of the purified enzyme was confirmed by mass-spectrometry, and was identical to the translated RNA sequence found in a gut EST database. The purified peptidase was characterized according to its localization in the midgut, and substrate specificity and inhibitor sensitivity were compared with those of human recombinant DPP 4 (rhDPP 4). The T. molitor enzyme was localized mainly in the anterior midgut of the larvae, and 81% of the activity was found in the fraction of soluble gut contents, while human DPP 4 is a membrane enzyme. TmDPP 4 was stable in the pH range 5.0-9.0, with an optimum activity at pH 7.9, similar to human DPP 4. Only specific inhibitors of serine peptidases, diisopropyl fluorophosphate and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, suppressed TmDPP 4 activity, and the specific dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitor vildagliptin was most potent. The highest rate of TmDPP 4 hydrolysis was found for the synthetic substrate Arg-Pro-pNA, while Ala-Pro-pNA was a better substrate for rhDPP 4. Related to its function in the insect midgut, TmDPP 4 efficiently hydrolyzed the wheat storage proteins gliadins, which are major dietary proteins of T. molitor. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Occurrence of transferable antibiotic resistances in commercialized ready-to-eat mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osimani, Andrea; Cardinali, Federica; Aquilanti, Lucia; Garofalo, Cristiana; Roncolini, Andrea; Milanović, Vesna; Pasquini, Marina; Tavoletti, Stefano; Clementi, Francesca

    2017-12-18

    The present study aimed to assess the occurrence of transferable determinants conferring resistance to tetracyclines, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B, vancomycin, beta-lactams, and aminoglycosides in 40 samples of commercialized edible mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) purchased from European Union (EU) and non-EU producers. A high prevalence of tet(K) was observed in all of the samples assayed, with percentages of PCR-based positivity that ranged from 80% (samples from Thailand) to 100% (samples from the Netherlands, Belgium and France). For macrolides, erm(B) prevailed, being detected in 57.5% of the samples assayed, whereas erm(A) and erm(C) were detected with lower frequencies. Genes for resistance to vancomycin were only detected in samples produced in France and Belgium, with 90% and 10% of the samples being positive for vanA, respectively. Beta-lactamase genes were found with low occurrence, whereas the gene aac-aph, conferring high resistance to aminoglycosides, was found in 40% of the samples produced in the Netherlands and Belgium and 20% of the samples produced in Thailand. The results of Principal Coordinate Analysis and Principal Component Analysis depicted a clean separation of the samples collected from the four producers based on the distribution of the 12 AR determinants considered. Given the growing interest on the use of mealworms as a novel protein source, AR detection frequencies found in the present study suggest further investigation into the use of antibiotics during rearing of this insect species and more extensive studies focused on the factors that can affect the diffusion of transferable ARs in the production chain. Until such studies are completed, prudent use of antibiotics during rearing of edible insects is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Geometric analysis of nutrient balancing in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Myung Suk; Lee, Kwang Pum

    2014-12-01

    Geometric analysis of the nutritional regulatory responses was performed on an omnivorous mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to test whether this beetle had the capacity to balance the intake of protein and carbohydrate. We also identified the pattern of ingestive trade-off employed when the insect was forced to balance the costs of over- and under-ingesting macronutrients. When allowed to mix their diet from two nutritionally imbalanced but complementary foods (protein-biased food: p35:c7 or p28:c5.6; carbohydrate-biased food: p7:c35 or p5.6:c28), beetles of both sexes actively regulated their intake of protein and carbohydrate to a ratio of 1:1. When confined to one of seven nutritionally imbalanced foods (p0:c42, p7:c35, p14:c28, p21:c21, p28:c14, p35:c7 or p42:c0), beetles over-ingested the excessive nutrient from these foods to such an extent that all the points of protein-carbohydrate intake aligned linearly in the nutrient space, a pattern that is characteristic of generalist feeders and omnivores. Under the restricted feeding conditions, males ate more nutrients but were less efficient at retaining their body lipids than females. Body lipid content was higher on carbohydrate-rich foods and was positively correlated with starvation resistance. Our results are consistent with the prediction based on the nutritional heterogeneity hypothesis, which links the nutritional regulatory responses of insects to their diet breadth and feeding ecology. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Transcriptomic immune response of Tenebrio molitor pupae to parasitization by Scleroderma guani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Yang, Pu; Zhang, Zhong; Wu, Guo-Xing; Yang, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Host and parasitoid interaction is one of the most fascinating relationships of insects, which is currently receiving an increasing interest. Understanding the mechanisms evolved by the parasitoids to evade or suppress the host immune system is important for dissecting this interaction, while it was still poorly known. In order to gain insight into the immune response of Tenebrio molitor to parasitization by Scleroderma guani, the transcriptome of T. molitor pupae was sequenced with focus on immune-related gene, and the non-parasitized and parasitized T. molitor pupae were analyzed by digital gene expression (DGE) analysis with special emphasis on parasitoid-induced immune-related genes using Illumina sequencing. In a single run, 264,698 raw reads were obtained. De novo assembly generated 71,514 unigenes with mean length of 424 bp. Of those unigenes, 37,373 (52.26%) showed similarity to the known proteins in the NCBI nr database. Via analysis of the transcriptome data in depth, 430 unigenes related to immunity were identified. DGE analysis revealed that parasitization by S. guani had considerable impacts on the transcriptome profile of T. molitor pupae, as indicated by the significant up- or down-regulation of 3,431 parasitism-responsive transcripts. The expression of a total of 74 unigenes involved in immune response of T. molitor was significantly altered after parasitization. obtained T. molitor transcriptome, in addition to establishing a fundamental resource for further research on functional genomics, has allowed the discovery of a large group of immune genes that might provide a meaningful framework to better understand the immune response in this species and other beetles. The DGE profiling data provides comprehensive T. molitor immune gene expression information at the transcriptional level following parasitization, and sheds valuable light on the molecular understanding of the host-parasitoid interaction.

  2. Enantiomerization and enantioselective bioaccumulation of benalaxyl in Tenebrio molitor larvae from wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongxin; Chen, Jinhui; Wang, Huili; Liu, Chen; Lv, Xiaotian; Li, Jianzhong; Guo, Baoyuan

    2013-09-25

    The enantiomerization and enatioselecive bioaccumulation of benalaxyl by dietary exposure to Tenebrio molitor larvae under laboratory conditions were studied by HPLC-MS/MS. Exposure of enantiopure R-benalaxyl and S-benalaxyl in T. molitor larvae revealed significant enantiomerization with formation of the R enantiomers from the S enantiomers, and vice versa. Enantiomerization was not observed in wheat bran during the period of 21 days. For the bioaccumulation experiment, the enantiomer fraction in T. molitor larvae was maintained approximately at 0.6, whereas the enantiomer fraction in wheat bran was maintained at 0.5; in other words, the bioaccumulation of benalaxyl was enantioselective in T. molitor larvae. Mathematical models for a process of uptake, degradation, and enantiomerization were developed, and the rates of uptake, degradation, and enantiomerization of R-benealaxyl and S-benealaxyl were estimated, respectively. The results were that the rate of uptake of R-benalaxyl (kRa = 0.052 h(-1)) was slightly lower than that of S-benalaxyl (kSa = 0.061 h(-1)) from wheat bran; the rate of degradation of R-benalaxyl (kRd = 0.285 h(-1)) was higher than that of S-benalaxyl (kSd = 0.114 h(-1)); and the rate of enantiomerization of R-benalaxyl (kRS = 0.126 h(-1)) was higher than that of S-benalaxyl (kSR = 0.116 h(-1)). It was suggested that enantioselectivtiy was caused not only by actual degradation and metabolism but also by enantiomerization, which was an important process in the environmental fate and behavior of chiral pesticides.

  3. Transcriptomic Immune Response of Tenebrio molitor Pupae to Parasitization by Scleroderma guani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Yang, Pu; Zhang, Zhong; Wu, Guo-Xing; Yang, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Background Host and parasitoid interaction is one of the most fascinating relationships of insects, which is currently receiving an increasing interest. Understanding the mechanisms evolved by the parasitoids to evade or suppress the host immune system is important for dissecting this interaction, while it was still poorly known. In order to gain insight into the immune response of Tenebrio molitor to parasitization by Scleroderma guani, the transcriptome of T. molitor pupae was sequenced with focus on immune-related gene, and the non-parasitized and parasitized T. molitor pupae were analyzed by digital gene expression (DGE) analysis with special emphasis on parasitoid-induced immune-related genes using Illumina sequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings In a single run, 264,698 raw reads were obtained. De novo assembly generated 71,514 unigenes with mean length of 424 bp. Of those unigenes, 37,373 (52.26%) showed similarity to the known proteins in the NCBI nr database. Via analysis of the transcriptome data in depth, 430 unigenes related to immunity were identified. DGE analysis revealed that parasitization by S. guani had considerable impacts on the transcriptome profile of T. molitor pupae, as indicated by the significant up- or down-regulation of 3,431 parasitism-responsive transcripts. The expression of a total of 74 unigenes involved in immune response of T. molitor was significantly altered after parasitization. Conclusions/Significance obtained T. molitor transcriptome, in addition to establishing a fundamental resource for further research on functional genomics, has allowed the discovery of a large group of immune genes that might provide a meaningful framework to better understand the immune response in this species and other beetles. The DGE profiling data provides comprehensive T. molitor immune gene expression information at the transcriptional level following parasitization, and sheds valuable light on the molecular understanding of the host

  4. Involvement of phenoloxidase in browning during grinding of Tenebrio molitor larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske H Janssen

    Full Text Available Insects are investigated as alternative protein source to meet the increasing demand for proteins in the future. Enzymatic browning occurring during grinding of insect and subsequent extraction of proteins can influence the proteins' properties, but it is unclear which enzymes are responsible for this phenomenon. This study was performed on larvae of three commonly used insect species, namely Tenebrio molitor, Alphitobius diaperinus and Hermetia illucens. Oxygen consumption measurements on protein extracts showed activity on L-tyrosine, L-3,4-di-hydroxy-phenylalanine (L-DOPA and L-dopamine, indicating phenoloxidase as a key player in browning. Furthermore, no reaction on 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid was observed, ruling out an important contribution of laccase to browning. The browning reaction was most prominent at pH 6 for T. molitor and A. diaperinus, and 7 for H. illucens. As the enzyme activity of H. illucens was the lowest with the darkest color formation, this was likely caused by another factor. The activity of phenoloxidase was confirmed for T. molitor and A. diaperinus by activity measurements after fractionation by anion-exchange chromatography. Color measurements showed the presence of activity on both L-DOPA and L-tyrosine in the same fractions. Both substrates were converted into dopachrome after incubation with enzyme-enriched fractions. No DOPA-decarboxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase and peroxidase activities were observed. By using native PAGE with L-DOPA as staining-solution, active T. molitor protein bands were resolved and characterized, identifying a tyrosinase/phenoloxidase as the active enzyme species. All together, these data confirmed that tyrosinase is an important enzyme in causing enzymatic browning in T. molitor and likely in A. diaperinus.

  5. Effects of dietary Tenebrio molitor meal inclusion in free-range chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasato, I; De Marco, M; Rotolo, L; Renna, M; Lussiana, C; Dabbou, S; Capucchio, M T; Biasibetti, E; Costa, P; Gai, F; Pozzo, L; Dezzutto, D; Bergagna, S; Martínez, S; Tarantola, M; Gasco, L; Schiavone, A

    2016-12-01

    Insects are currently being considered as a novel protein source for animal feeds, because they contain a large amount of protein. The larvae of Tenebrio molitor (TM) have been shown to be an acceptable protein source for broiler chickens in terms of growth performance, but till now, no data on histological or intestinal morphometric features have been reported. This study has had the aim of evaluating the effects of dietary TM inclusion on the performance, welfare, intestinal morphology and histological features of free-range chickens. A total of 140 medium-growing hybrid female chickens were free-range reared and randomly allotted to two dietary treatments: (i) a control group and (ii) a TM group, in which TM meal was included at 75 g/kg. Each group consisted of five pens as replicates, with 14 chicks per pen. Growth performance, haematological and serum parameters and welfare indicators were evaluated, and the animals were slaughtered at the age of 97 days. Two birds per pen (10 birds/treatment) were submitted to histological (liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, kidney, heart, glandular stomach and gut) and morphometric (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) investigations. The inclusion of TM did not affect the growth performance, haematological or serum parameters. The morphometric and histological features were not significantly affected either, thus suggesting no influence on nutrient metabolization, performance or animal health. Glandular stomach alterations (chronic flogosis with epithelial squamous metaplasia) were considered paraphysiological in relation to free-range farming. The observed chronic intestinal flogosis, with concomitant activation of the lymphoid tissue, was probably due to previous parasitic infections, which are very frequently detected in free-range chickens. In conclusion, the findings of this study show that yellow mealworm inclusion does not affect the welfare, productive performances or morphological features of free-range chickens

  6. Purification and characterization of tenecin 4, a new anti-Gram-negative bacterial peptide, from the beetle Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jun-Ho; Kurokawa, Kenji; So, Young-In; Hwang, Hyun Ok; Kim, Min-Su; Park, Ji-Won; Jo, Yong-Hun; Lee, Yong Seok; Lee, Bok Luel

    2012-03-01

    The biochemical characterization of novel antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and the determination of ligand molecules that induce AMP production are essential for understanding the host innate immune response in insects. Here, we purified a new 14-kDa AMP, named tenecin 4, from the larval hemolymph of the beetle Tenebrio molitor. Tenecin 4 contains 14% glycine residues and has moderate similarities both to the C-terminal region of Drosophila attacin and to silk-moth gloverin proteins. Purified tenecin 4 showed bactericidal activity against Gram-negative Escherichia coli but not against Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis or the fungus Candida albicans. Tenecin 4 production was induced by Toll cascade-activating ligands, such as β-1,3-glucan, lysine-type peptidoglycan and active Spätzle, and by the probable Imd pathway-activating ligand monomeric meso-diaminopimelic acid-type peptidoglycan. Taken together, these data show that tenecin 4 is a defense protein against Gram-negative pathogens and is induced by multiple ligands in Tenebrio larvae. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Microbial biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Yu; Chen, Wilfred; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2006-01-01

    A microbial biosensor is an analytical device that couples microorganisms with a transducer to enable rapid, accurate and sensitive detection of target analytes in fields as diverse as medicine, environmental monitoring, defense, food processing and safety. The earlier microbial biosensors used the respiratory and metabolic functions of the microorganisms to detect a substance that is either a substrate or an inhibitor of these processes. Recently, genetically engineered microorganisms based on fusing of the lux, gfp or lacZ gene reporters to an inducible gene promoter have been widely applied to assay toxicity and bioavailability. This paper reviews the recent trends in the development and application of microbial biosensors. Current advances and prospective future direction in developing microbial biosensor have also been discussed

  8. NUTRITION BASED ON DIFFERENT ORIGIN OF FATS AS A RISK FACTOR FOR CEREBROVASCULAR INSULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Petrović-Oggiano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrovascular insult (CVI is one of leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with significant influence of lifestyle on its development.The aim of this study was to investigate the different risk factors and their impact on hyperlipidaemia in two ethnic groups of patients who were hospitalized after CVI during two years.The total of 230 patients, 35-65 years old, with the ischemic CVI who had been hospitalized and treated at the Clinical Center Priština were included in our study. The patients were divided into two groups: group A (n=130- Muslim patients, and group S (n=100 – Orthodox patients. Their antropometric and serum lipid parameters were measured and nutritional habits were assessed by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ.The patients from both groups were classified as adipose, with BMI in males around 33, and in females 28-30. Percentage of body fat was also high in both groups, especially in women (p<0.001, without significant difference between groups A and S. Physical activity was very low in both studied groups. In the group A, 86.92% patients with CVI were physically inactive, while in the group S the percentage amounted to 92% (p<0.001. The number of smokers was rather high in both groups, particularly in group S (89% and more than a half (53% of examinees had been smoking for more than 10 years. Almost all smokers consumed more than 20 cigarettes per day (83%. In group A, there were 35% of non-smokers (p<0.001.The average diastolic blood pressure value in the groups A and S (Table 6,7 was 97.97±4.75 mmHg and 100.82±6.71 mmHg, respectively, while systolic pressure was 174.27±3.18 mmHg in group A and 183.73±11.39 mmHg in group S. In spite of different lifestyles in both groups, the studied risk factors were proved to have significant influence on the onset of hyperlipidemia. The S group patients whose diet was predominantly based on animal fats had significantly higher risk in comparison to the group whose diet

  9. Palmitic Acid Curcumin Ester Facilitates Protection of Neuroblastoma against Oligomeric Aβ40 Insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhangyang; Wu, Meihao; Fu, Yun; Huang, Tengfei; Wang, Tingting; Sun, Yanjie; Feng, Zhibo; Li, Changzheng

    2017-01-01

    constants for free P-curcumin and curcumin were 7.66 × 104 M-1 and 7.61 × 105 M-1, respectively. In the liposome-trapped state, the association constants were 3.71 × 105 M-1 for P-curcumin and 1.44× 106 M-1 for curcumin. With this data, the thermodynamic constants of P-curcumin association with soluble Aβ (ΔH, ΔS, and ΔG) were also determined. Cultivated curcumin weakened the direct interaction between Aβ and cell membranes and showed greater neuroprotective effects against Aβ insult than free curcumin. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Palmitic Acid Curcumin Ester Facilitates Protection of Neuroblastoma against Oligomeric Aβ40 Insult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangyang Qi

    2017-11-01

    and P-curcumin was determined. The association constants for free P-curcumin and curcumin were 7.66 × 104 M-1 and 7.61 × 105 M-1, respectively. In the liposome-trapped state, the association constants were 3.71 × 105 M-1 for P-curcumin and 1.44× 106 M-1 for curcumin. With this data, the thermodynamic constants of P-curcumin association with soluble Aβ (ΔH, ΔS, and ΔG were also determined. Conclusion: Cultivated curcumin weakened the direct interaction between Aβ and cell membranes and showed greater neuroprotective effects against Aβ insult than free curcumin.

  11. HEAT INDUCIBLE EXPRESSION OF ANTIFREEZE PROTEIN GENES FROM THE BEETLES Tenebrio molitor AND Microdera punctipennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jieqiong; Ma, Wenjing; Ma, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) play important roles in protecting poikilothermic organisms from cold damage. The expression of AFP genes (afps) is induced by low temperature. However, it is reported that heat can influence the expression of afps in the desert beetle Microdera punctipennis. To further detect whether heat also induce the expression of afps in other insects, and to determine the expression profiling of insect afps at different temperatures. The expression of antifreeze protein genes in the two beetles, Microdera punctipennis and Tenebrio molitor that have quite different living environment, under different temperatures were studied by using real-time quantitative PCR. Mild low temperatures (5~15 degree C), high temperature (38~47 degree C for M. punctipennis, or 37~42 degree C for T. molitor) and temperature difference (10~30 degree C) all stimulated strongly to the expression of AFP genes (Mpafps) in M. punctipennis which lives in the wild filed in desert. The mRNA level of Mpafps after M. punctipennis were exposed to these temperatures for 1h~5h was at least 30-fold of the control at 25 degree C. For T. molitor which is breeding in door with wheat bran all these temperatures stimulated significantly to the expression of Tmafps, while the extent and degree of the temperature stimulation on Tmafps expression were much lower than on Mpafps. After T. molitor were exposed to 5 degree C and 15 degree C for 1h~5h, the mRNA level of Tmafps was over 6-fold and 45-fold of the control at 25 degree C. High temperature (37~42 degree C) for 1h~3h treatments increased Tmafps mRNA level 4.8-fold of the control. Temperature difference of 10 degree C was effective in stimulating Tmafps expression. The expression of insect antifreeze protein genes both in M. punctipennis and T. molitor was induced by heat, suggesting that this phenomenon may be common in insects; the extent and degree of the influence differ in species that have different living conditions. The heat

  12. Yellow mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor, L.) as a possible alternative to soybean meal in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovera, F; Piccolo, G; Gasco, L; Marono, S; Loponte, R; Vassalotti, G; Mastellone, V; Lombardi, P; Attia, Y A; Nizza, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with Tenebrio molitor larvae (TML) meal in broiler diets. A total of 80 30-d-old male Shaver brown broilers were divided into two groups fed on two isoproteic and isoenergetic diets differing for protein source (SBM vs. TML). Up to 62 d of age, body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly and body weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and European efficiency factor (EEF) were calculated. At 62 d, blood samples were collected from 16 birds/group for evaluation of blood profiles. Feed intake was not different between groups considering the entire period of the trial. The FCR was more favourable in the TML than SBM group from 46 d of age and in the entire period of the trial (4.13 vs. 3.62). The PER was higher in the SBM than in the TML group (1.92 vs. 1.37) while the EEF was higher in broilers fed on the TML diet (132.6 vs. 156.2). Albumin-to-globulin ratio was higher in broilers fed on SBM than in the other group (0.44 vs. 0.30). aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were higher in TML than SBM (195.1 vs. 178.6 U/l and 82.07 vs. 46.71 U/l, respectively). Uric acid was higher in broilers fed on SBM than TML (5.40 vs. 4.16 mg/dl). TML did not affect feed intake and growth rate of broilers from 30 to 62 d of age when compared to an isoproteic and isoenergetic SBM diet, but FCR of the TML group was more favourable than that of the SBM group. The lowest albumin-to-globulin ratio in broilers fed on TML suggests a higher immune response, probably due to the prebiotic effects of chitin.

  13. A study of the female produced sex pheromone of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangat, Jaswinder

    Mating behaviour in the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor , is mediated by several pheromones, including the female-produced 4-methylnonanol (4-MNol). Mating causes a decline in the titre of 4-MNol. The overall goal of this study was to determine the biochemical mechanism(s) responsible for this decline: i.e., whether the decline was due to an inhibition of pheromone biosynthesis and/or a stimulation of pheromone degradation; whether the decline was caused by the physical effect of mating or was due to the transfer of a factor from the male; and to conduct a preliminary investigation of the regulatory and signal transduction mechanisms involved in the regulation of 4-MNol production. In vitro radioassays for 4-MNol biosynthesis and degradation were developed and used to compare the levels of 4-MNol biosynthesis and degradation in virgin and mated females. Mating caused an inhibition of 4-MNol biosynthesis within 2 hours, but did not affect the rate of pheromone degradation. Decapitation of virgin females caused an inhibition of pheromone biosynthesis and did not prevent the inhibitory effect of mating. The inhibitory effect of mating was mimicked in females that were artificially inseminated with male reproductive tract homogenates (MRTH), but not in females similarly "inseminated" with water, saline, or air. Furthermore, 4-MNol biosynthesis could be inhibited in vitro by the addition of MRTH. These findings indicate that the male transferred one or more pheromonostatic factor(s) to the female during copulation that acted directly on the pheromone-producing tissue (the ovaries). In order to investigate the biochemical basis for the inhibition of pheromone biosynthesis after mating, the role of calcium was determined by modulating the level of calcium (using a calcium chelator, an ionophore, and calcium). However, due to the precipitation of calcium with the phosphate present in the buffer solution, we were unable to determine the role of calcium in the

  14. Inclusive Fitness Affects Both Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior: Target Gender and Insult Domain Moderate the Link between Genetic Relatedness and Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda N. Gesselman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Although prior research has examined the relationship between genetic relatedness and helping behavior (Burnstein, Crandall, and Kitayama, 1994, less is known about its role in aggressive responses to insults (Fitzgerald and Ketterer, 2011. Drawing on inclusive fitness theory (Hamilton, 1964 and the Kinship, Acceptance, and Rejection Model of Altruism and Aggression (KARMAA; Webster, 2008; Webster et al., 2012, we designed a 2 (participant gender × 2 (target gender × 2 (insult: status vs. reproductive × 3 (relatedness: stranger vs. cousin vs. sibling between-person experiment in which 489 participants (a read vignettes in which a stranger, cousin, or sibling was insulted and (b reported their emotional reaction and retaliation likelihood (six-item α= .91 in response to the insult. Consistent with theory and prior research, men were significantly more aggressive than women, and people were significantly more aggressive responding to insults against kin than non-kin. These findings support theoretically-derived, dynamic, and domain-specific links among insults, gender, relatedness, and aggression.

  15. Lysine and arginine reduce the effects of cerebral ischemic insults and inhibit glutamate-induced neuronal activity in rats

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    Takashi Kondoh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous administration of arginine was shown to be protective against cerebral ischemic insults via nitric oxide production and possibly via additional mechanisms. The present study aimed at evaluating the neuroprotective effects of oral administration of lysine (a basic amino acid, arginine, and their combination on ischemic insults (cerebral edema and infarction and hemispheric brain swelling induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion in rats. Magnetic resonance imaging and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining were performed two days after ischemia induction. In control animals, the major edematous areas were observed in the cerebral cortex and striatum. The volumes associated with cortical edema were significantly reduced by lysine (2.0 g/kg, arginine (0.6 g/kg, or their combined administration (0.6 g/kg each. Protective effects of these amino acids on infarction were comparable to the inhibitory effects on edema formation. Interestingly, these amino acids, even at low dose (0.6 g/kg, were effective to reduce hemispheric brain swelling. Additionally, the effects of in vivo microiontophoretic (juxtaneuronal applications of these amino acids on glutamate-evoked neuronal activity in the ventromedial hypothalamus were investigated in awake rats. Glutamate-induced neuronal activity was robustly inhibited by microiontophoretic applications of lysine or arginine onto neuronal membranes. Taken together, our results demonstrate the neuroprotective effects of oral ingestion of lysine and arginine against ischemic insults (cerebral edema and infarction, especially in the cerebral cortex, and suggest that suppression of glutamate-induced neuronal activity might be the primary mechanism associated with these neuroprotective effects.

  16. "Trans-generational immune priming": specific enhancement of the antimicrobial immune response in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Yannick

    2006-06-07

    Encounters with parasites and pathogens are often unpredictable in time. However, experience of an infection may provide the host with reliable cues about the future risk of infection for the host itself or for its progeny. If the parental environment predicts the quality of the progeny's environment, then parents may further enhance their net reproductive success by differentially providing their offspring with phenotypes to cope with potential hazards such as pathogen infection. Here, I test for the occurrence of such an adaptive transgenerational phenotypic plasticity in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor. A pathogenic environment was mimicked by injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharides for two generations of insects. I found that parental challenge enhanced offspring immunity through the inducible production of antimicrobial peptides in the haemolymph.

  17. Determination of haemolymph volume of irradiated and normal males and females of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.Y.Y.; Kloft, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    The haemolymph volume of Tenebrio molitor L. adults was determined by a radioisotope dilution technique. Two myl (14)C-inulin were injected into the haemolymph with a micro-syringe. After sufficient time for through mixing, the labelled haemolymph was collected individually under separation of sexes. Total haemolymph was calculated by a conventional formula for radioisotope dilution. The mean haemolymph volume of normal newly emerged males was 61.1+-14.2 myl and remained constant between day 2 (61.2 +-2.1) and day 3 (55.6+-9.2) after emergence. In comparison newly emerged females had a volume of 53.5+-2.3 myl which increased to 69.4+-11.7 myl day 2 resp. 64.0+-16.7 myl by day 3. The haemolymph volume of X-irradiated (5000 R) males remains almost constant. However in case of irradiated females the haemolymph volume also remains constant in contrast to unirradiated individuals

  18. Infection increases the value of nuptial gifts, and hence male reproductive success, in the Hymenolepis diminuta-Tenebrio molitor association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Hilary; Ardin, Richard

    2003-01-01

    During copulation, male insects pass accessory gland components to the female with the spermatophore. These gifts can affect female reproductive behaviour, ovulation and oviposition. Here, we show that female mealworm beetles, Tenebrio molitor, mated with males infected with metacestodes of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, produced significantly more offspring than those mated with uninfected males. There is a significant positive relationship between parasite intensity in the male and reproductive output in the female. Infection results in a significant increase in bean-shaped accessory gland (BAG) size. We suggest that infected males pass superior nuptial gifts to females and discuss the confounding effects of infection in male and female beetles upon overall fitness costs of infection for the host and the likelihood that the parasite is manipulating host investment in reproduction. PMID:14667373

  19. Nitrogen-to-Protein Conversion Factors for Three Edible Insects: Tenebrio molitor, Alphitobius diaperinus, and Hermetia illucens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Renske H; Vincken, Jean-Paul; van den Broek, Lambertus A M; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Lakemond, Catriona M M

    2017-03-22

    Insects are considered a nutritionally valuable source of alternative proteins, and their efficient protein extraction is a prerequisite for large-scale use. The protein content is usually calculated from total nitrogen using the nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor (Kp) of 6.25. This factor overestimates the protein content, due to the presence of nonprotein nitrogen in insects. In this paper, a specific Kp of 4.76 ± 0.09 was calculated for larvae from Tenebrio molitor, Alphitobius diaperinus, and Hermetia illucens, using amino acid analysis. After protein extraction and purification, a Kp factor of 5.60 ± 0.39 was found for the larvae of three insect species studied. We propose to adopt these Kp values for determining protein content of insects to avoid overestimation of the protein content.

  20. A behavioral study of the beetle Tenebrio molitor infected with cysticercoids of the rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheiman, I. M.; Shkutin, M. F.; Terenina, N. B.; Gustafsson, M. K. S.

    2006-06-01

    The host-parasite relationship, Tenebrio molitor- Hymenolepis diminuta, was analyzed. The learning behavior of infected and uninfected (control) beetles in a T-maze was compared. The infected beetles moved much slower in the T-maze than the controls. The infected beetles reached the same level of learning as the controls. However, they needed more trials than the controls. The effect of the infection was already distinct after the first week and even higher after the second week. This indicates that the initial phase of infection caused stress in the beetles. Longer infection did not worsen their ability to learn. Thus, the parasites clearly changed the behavior of their intermediate host and probably made them more susceptible to their final host, the rat.

  1. Identification and expression analysis of a novel R-type lectin from the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Seo, Gi Won; Kang, Seong Min; Lee, Yong Seok; Lee, Bok Luel; Han, Yeon Soo

    2013-11-01

    We have identified novel ricin-type (R-type) lectin by sequencing of random clones from cDNA library of the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor. The cDNA sequence is comprised of 495 bp encoding a protein of 164 amino acid residues and shows 49% identity with galectin of Tribolium castaneum. Bioinformatics analysis shows that the amino acid residues from 35 to 162 belong to ricin-type beta-trefoil structure. The transcript was significantly upregulated after early hours of injection with peptidoglycans derived from Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria, beta-1, 3 glucan from fungi and an intracellular pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes suggesting putative function in innate immunity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. ‘Trans-generational immune priming’: specific enhancement of the antimicrobial immune response in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Yannick

    2006-01-01

    Encounters with parasites and pathogens are often unpredictable in time. However, experience of an infection may provide the host with reliable cues about the future risk of infection for the host itself or for its progeny. If the parental environment predicts the quality of the progeny's environment, then parents may further enhance their net reproductive success by differentially providing their offspring with phenotypes to cope with potential hazards such as pathogen infection. Here, I test for the occurrence of such an adaptive transgenerational phenotypic plasticity in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor. A pathogenic environment was mimicked by injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharides for two generations of insects. I found that parental challenge enhanced offspring immunity through the inducible production of antimicrobial peptides in the haemolymph. PMID:16777729

  3. Process optimization for the preparation of straw feedstuff for rearing yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) in BLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leyuan; Liu, lh64. Hong

    2012-07-01

    It has been confirmed in our previous work that in bioregenerative life support systems, feeding yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) using fermented straw has the potential to provide good animal protein for astronauts, meanwhile treating with plant wastes. However, since the nitrogen content in straw is very low, T. molitor larvae can not obtain sufficient nitrogen, which results in a relatively low growth efficiency. In this study, wheat straw powder was mixed with simulated human urine before fermentation. Condition parameters, e.g. urine:straw ratio, moisture content, inoculation dose, fermentation time, fermentation temperature and pH were optimized using Taguchi method. Larval growth rate and average individual mass of mature larva increased significantly in the group of T. molitor larvae fed with feedstuff prepared with the optimized process.

  4. A constitutively expressed antifungal peptide protects Tenebrio molitor during a natural infection by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maistrou, Sevasti; Paris, Véronique; Jensen, Annette B; Rolff, Jens; Meyling, Nicolai V; Zanchi, Caroline

    2018-09-01

    Antimicrobial peptides have been well studied in the context of bacterial infections. Antifungal peptides have received comparatively less attention. Fungal pathogens of insects and their hosts represent a unique opportunity to study host-pathogen interactions due to the million of years of co-evolution they share. In this study, we investigated role of a constitutively expressed thaumatin-like peptide with antifungal activity expressed by the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor, named Tenecin 3, during a natural infection with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. We monitored the effect of the expression of Tenecin 3 on the survival of infected hosts as well as on the progression of the fungal infection inside the host. Finally, we tested the activity of Tenecin 3 against B. bassiana. These findings could help improving biocontrol strategies and help understanding the evolution of antifungal peptides as a defense mechanism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of various diets on the calcium and phosphorus composition of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) and superworms (Zophobas morio larvae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latney, La'Toya V; Toddes, Barbara D; Wyre, Nicole R; Brown, Dorothy C; Michel, Kathryn E; Briscoe, Johanna A

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the nutritive quality of Tenebrio molitor larvae and Zophobas morio larvae, which are commonly cultured as live food sources, is influenced by 4 commercially available diets used as nutritional substrates; identify which diet best improved calcium content of larvae; and identify the feeding time interval that assured the highest calcium intake by larvae. ANIMALS 2,000 Zophobas morio larvae (ie, superworms) and 7,500 Tenebrio molitor larvae (ie, mealworms). PROCEDURES Larvae were placed in control and diet treatment groups for 2-, 7-, and 10-day intervals. Treatment diets were as follows: wheat millings, avian hand feeding formula, organic avian mash diet, and a high-calcium cricket feed. Control groups received water only. After treatment, larvae were flash-frozen live with liquid nitrogen in preparation for complete proximate and mineral analyses. Analyses for the 2-day treatment group were performed in triplicate. RESULTS The nutrient composition of the high-calcium cricket feed groups had significant changes in calcium content, phosphorus content, and metabolizable energy at the 2-day interval, compared with other treatment groups, for both mealworms and superworms. Calcium content and calcium-to-phosphorus ratios for larvae in the high-calcium cricket feed group were the highest among the diet treatments for all treatment intervals and for both larval species. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A 2-day interval with the high-calcium cricket feed achieved a larval nutrient composition sufficient to meet National Research Council dietary calcium recommendations for nonlactating rats. Mealworm calcium composition reached 2,420 g/1,000 kcal at 48 hours, and superworm calcium composition reached 2,070g/1,000 kcal at 48 hours. These findings may enable pet owners, veterinarians, insect breeders, and zoo curators to optimize nutritive content of larvae fed to insectivorous animals.

  6. Microbial glycoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Adnan; Anonsen, Jan Haug

    2017-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based "-omics" technologies are important tools for global and detailed mapping of post-translational modifications. Protein glycosylation is an abundant and important post translational modification widespread throughout all domains of life. Characterization of glycoproteins...... and research in this area is rapidly accelerating. Here, we review recent developments in glycoproteomic technologies with a special focus on microbial protein glycosylation....

  7. Effect of Lactation on myocardial vulnerability to ischemic insult in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Sahar; Imani, Alireza; Sadeghipour, Hamidreza; Faghihi, Mahdieh; Edalatyzadeh, Zohreh; Choopani, Samira; Karimi, Nasser; Fatima, Sulail

    2017-05-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality and long-term disability worldwide. Various studies have suggested a protective effect of lactation in reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. This study was designed to assess the effects of pregnancy and lactation on the vulnerability of the myocardium to an ischemic insult. Eighteen female rats were randomly divided into three groups: ischemia-reperfusion (IR), in which the hearts of virgin rats underwent IR (n = 6); lactating, in which the rats nursed their pups for 3 weeks and the maternal hearts were then submitted to IR (n = 6); and non-lactating, in which the pups were separated after birth and the maternal hearts were submitted to IR (n = 6). Outcome measures included heart rate (HR), left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), rate pressure product (RPP), ratio of the infarct size to the area at risk (IS/AAR %), and ventricular arrhythmias - premature ventricular contraction (PVC) and ventricular tachycardia (VT). The IS/AAR was markedly decreased in the lactating group when compared with the non-lactating group (13.2 ± 2.5 versus 39.7 ± 3.5, p < 0.001) and the IR group (13.2 ± 2.5 versus 34.0 ± 4.7, p < 0.05). The evaluation of IR-induced ventricular arrhythmias indicated that the number of compound PVCs during ischemia, and the number and duration of VTs during ischemia and in the first 5 minutes of reperfusion in the non-lactating group were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those in the lactating and IR groups. Lactation induced early-onset cardioprotective effects, while rats that were not allowed to nurse their pups were more susceptible to myocardial IR injury. As doenças cardiovasculares são a principal causa de mortalidade e invalidez a longo prazo a nível mundial. Diversos estudos têm sugerido um efeito protetor da lactação na redução do risco para doenças cardiovasculares. Este estudo foi desenvolvido para avaliar os efeitos da gestação e da lactação sobre a

  8. Recovery and techno-functionality of flours and proteins from two edible insect species: Meal worm (Tenebrio molitor) and black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Bu?ler, Sara; Rumpold, Birgit A.; Jander, Elisabeth; Rawel, Harshadrai M.; Schl?ter, Oliver K.

    2016-01-01

    Depending on the species, edible insects are highly nutritious and thus represent a noteworthy alternative food and feed source. The current work investigates the protein extractability and techno-functionality of insect flour fractions recovered from Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens. T. molitor and H. illucens flours contained about 20% crude fat and 60% and 36 % crude protein, respectively. Defatting reduced the crude fat content to 2.8% (T. molitor) and 8.8% (H. illucens) and increas...

  9. Morphological changes on development of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in rearing room system, free air CO2 enrichment system and open roof ventilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nur Hasyimah; Yaakop, Salmah

    2018-04-01

    Tenebrio molitor known as darkling beetle is burrowing insects and can be found all over the world. Tenebrio molitor samples were put in Open Roof Ventilation System, Free Air CO2 Enrichment and Rearing Room system. The development of Tenebrio molitor adult parents (P) and first generation (F1) that more exposed to high level of CO2 were studied. As the results, parent and first generation (F1) of T. molitor shows that there are no significant effects of CO2 on their development. But, decreased development pattern showed between parent and F1 can be used to estimate that prolonged exposure of CO2 will change their development. The highest development of parent showed by OFVSP (0.1708±0.0013) mm, while the lowest showed by FACEP (0.1686±0.0013) mm. For F1, the highest development showed by OFVS F1 (0.1705±0.0015) mm, while RR F1 becomes the lowest (0.1649±0.0023) mm. No significant difference shown by ANOVA test. Unfortunately, the data cannot be used to prove that the development of parent and F1 were affected by CO2 because no significant difference recorded between them. Correlation coefficient analysis of OFVSP and OFVS F1 presented to support the results. It shows that the correlation coefficient among characters from parents and F1 are different. Further study should be done in future to increase our knowledge of the climate change on insects.

  10. Microbial xanthophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, Prakash; Bernstein, Paul S

    2005-09-01

    Xanthophylls are oxygenated carotenoids abundant in the human food supply. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and cryptoxanthin are major xanthophyll carotenoids in human plasma. The consumption of these xanthophylls is directly associated with reduction in the risk of cancers, cardiovascular disease, age-related macular degeneration, and cataract formation. Canthaxanthin and astaxanthin also have considerable importance in aquaculture for salmonid and crustacean pigmentation, and are of commercial interest for the pharmaceutical and food industries. Chemical synthesis is a major source for the heavy demand of xanthophylls in the consumer market; however, microbial producers also have potential as commercial sources. In this review, we discuss the biosynthesis, commercial utility, and major microbial sources of xanthophylls. We also present a critical review of current research and technologies involved in promoting microbes as potential commercial sources for mass production.

  11. Brain parenchyma PO2, PCO2, and pH during and after hypoxic, ischemic brain insult in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, B A; Morris, W P; Parmley, C L; Butler, B D

    1996-11-01

    1) The investigation of fiberoptic PO2, PCO2, and pH sensor technology as a monitor of brain parenchyma during and after brain injury, and 2) the comparison of brain parenchyma PO2, PCO2, and pH with intracranial pressure during and after hypoxic, ischemic brain insult. Prospective, controlled, animal study in an acute experimental preparation. Physiology laboratory in a university medical school. Fourteen mongrel dogs (20 to 35 kg), anesthetized, room-air ventilated. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental and maintained after intubation using 1% to 1.5% halothane in room air (FiO2 0.21). Mechanical ventilation was established to maintain end-tidal PCO2 approximately 35 torr (-4.7 kPa). Intravenous, femoral artery, and pulmonary artery catheters were placed. The common carotid arteries were surgically exposed, and ultrasonic blood flow probes were applied. A calibrated intracranial pressure probe was placed through a right-side transcranial bolt, and a calibrated intracranial chemistry probe with optical sensors for PO2, PCO2, and pH was placed through a left-side bolt into brain parenchyma. Brain insult was induced in the experimental group (n = 6) by hypoxia (FiO2 0.1), ischemia (bilateral carotid artery occlusion), and hypotension (mean arterial pressure [MAP] approximately 40 mm Hg produced with isoflurane approximately 4%). After 45 mins, carotid artery occlusion was released, FiO2 was reset to 0.21, and anesthetic was returned to halothane (approximately 1.25%). The control group (n = 5) had the same surgical preparation and sequence of anesthetic agent exposure but no brain insult. Monitored variables included brain parenchyma PO2, PCO2, and pH, which were monitored at 1-min intervals, and intracranial pressure, MAP, arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation (by pulse oximetry), end-tidal PCO2, and carotid artery blood flow rate, for which data were collected at 15-min intervals for 7 hrs. Arterial and mixed venous blood gas analyses were done at approximately 1

  12. Laughter as a social rejection cue: gelotophobia and transient cardiac responses to other persons' laughter and insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papousek, Ilona; Aydin, Nilüfer; Lackner, Helmut K; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Bühner, Markus; Schulter, Günter; Charlesworth, Canice; Freudenthaler, H Harald

    2014-11-01

    Other persons' laughter, normally perceived as a signal that persons are friendly and inviting others to approach, can also be perceived as a cue of social rejection. In this study, prerecorded laughter was placed in a realistic and personally relevant context, and participants' responses were related to gelotophobia, a trait predisposing to perceiving laughter as a cue of social rejection. Individuals with gelotophobia showed marked heart rate deceleration in response to the laughter stimulus, possibly indicating a "freezing-like" response. Moreover, cardiac responses to anger provocation by overtly insulting statements indicated heightened aggressive anger in response to cumulated social threat. The study adds to recent research showing specific cardiac responses to social rejection and to the literature on social rejection sensitivity by demonstrating the value of using well interpretable physiological measures in this research context. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  13. Peptidylarginine deiminases: novel drug targets for prevention of neuronal damage following hypoxic ischemic insult (HI) in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Sigrun; Rocha-Ferreira, Eridan; Thei, Laura; Mawjee, Priyanka; Bennett, Kate; Thompson, Paul R; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Nicholas, Anthony P; Peebles, Donald; Hristova, Mariya; Raivich, Gennadij

    2014-08-01

    Neonatal hypoxic ischaemic (HI) injury frequently causes neural impairment in surviving infants. Our knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms is still limited. Protein deimination is a post-translational modification caused by Ca(+2) -regulated peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs), a group of five isozymes that display tissue-specific expression and different preference for target proteins. Protein deimination results in altered protein conformation and function of target proteins, and is associated with neurodegenerative diseases, gene regulation and autoimmunity. In this study, we used the neonatal HI and HI/infection [lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation] murine models to investigate changes in protein deimination. Brains showed increases in deiminated proteins, cell death, activated microglia and neuronal loss in affected brain areas at 48 h after hypoxic ischaemic insult. Upon treatment with the pan-PAD inhibitor Cl-amidine, a significant reduction was seen in microglial activation, cell death and infarct size compared with control saline or LPS-treated animals. Deimination of histone 3, a target protein of the PAD4 isozyme, was increased in hippocampus and cortex specifically upon LPS stimulation and markedly reduced following Cl-amidine treatment. Here, we demonstrate a novel role for PAD enzymes in neural impairment in neonatal HI Encephalopathy, highlighting their role as promising new candidates for drug-directed intervention in neurotrauma. Hypoxic Ischaemic Insult (HI) results in activation of peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) because of calcium dysregulation. Target proteins undergo irreversible changes of protein bound arginine to citrulline, resulting in protein misfolding. Infection in synergy with HI causes up-regulation of TNFα, nuclear translocation of PAD4 and change in gene regulation as a result of histone deimination. Pharmacological PAD inhibition significantly reduced HI brain damage. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry

  14. Microbial effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, V.J.

    1985-10-01

    The long term safety and integrity of radioactive waste disposal sites proposed for use by Ontario Hydro may be affected by the release of radioactive gases. Microbes mediate the primary pathways of waste degradation and hence an assessment of their potential to produce gaseous end products from the breakdown of low level waste was performed. Due to a number of unknown variables, assumptions were made regarding environmental and waste conditions that controlled microbial activity; however, it was concluded that 14 C and 3 H would be produced, albeit over a long time scale of about 1500 years for 14 C in the worst case situation

  15. Tenebrio molitor meal in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss diets: effects on animal performance, nutrient digestibility and chemical composition of fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Belforti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of diets containing Tenebrio molitor (TM larvae meal on growth performances, somatic indexes, nutrient digestibility, dorsal muscle proximate and fatty acid (FA compositions of rainbow trout. Three hundred sixty fish were randomly divided into three groups with four replicates each. The groups were fed diets differing in TM inclusion: 0% (TM0, 25% (TM25 and 50% (TM50 as fed weight basis. Weight gain was not affected by treatment. Feeding rate was significantly higher in TM0 than TM50. Feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in TM0 than TM25 and TM50, while an opposite trend was observed for protein efficiency ratio and specific growth rate. The survival rate was significantly lower in TM0 than TM25 and TM50. The apparent digestibility of protein was significantly lower in the TM50 group than the other groups, while the apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and lipids was unaffected by treatment. If compared to control, the protein and lipid contents of fillets were respectively increased and decreased following TM inclusion in the diet. The Σn3/Σn6 FA ratio of fish dorsal muscle was linearly (TM0>TM25>TM50 reduced by TM inclusion in the diet. Results suggested that TM could be used during the growing phase in trout farming; however, additional studies on specific feeding strategies and diet formulations are needed to limit its negative effects on the lipid fraction of fillets.

  16. Expression, purification and activity determination of the beetle tenebrio molitor antifreeze protein afp84c in escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Q.; Feng, H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: A cDNA encoding antifreeze protein (AFP84c) was cloned by RT-PCR from the larva of the yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor. The coding fragment of 252 bp encodes a protein of 84 amino acid residues and was fused to the expression vectors pMAL-c2X and pMAL-p2X. The expression plasmids pMAL-c2X-afp84c and pMAL-p2X-afp84c were constructed and transformed into Escherischia coli strains TBI, respectively. Strategy of optimization of induction conditions were used for expression of the highly disulfide-bonded beta-helix-contained protein with the activity of antifreeze in pMALTM expression system. The target fusion protein was released from the cytoplasm and periplasm by sonication and cold osmotic shock procedure respectively. Recombinant AFP84c was purified by amylose affinity column. The purified target protein displayed a single band in SDS-PAGE. Expressed AFP84c exhibits to increase low temperature resistance of bacteria. (author)

  17. [Polyadenylated RNA and mRNA export factors in extrachromosomal nuclear domains of vitellogenic oocytes of the insect Tenebrio molitor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoliubov, D S; Kiselev, A M; Shabel'nikov, S V; Parfenov, V N

    2012-01-01

    The nucleus ofvitellogenic oocytes of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, contains a karyosphere that consists of the condensed chromatin embedded in an extrachromosomal fibrogranular material. Numerous nuclear bodies located freely in the nucleoplasm are also observed. Amongst these bodies, counterparts of nuclear speckles (= interchromatin granule clusters, IGCs) can be identified by the presence of the marker protein SC35. Microinjections of fluorescently tagged methyloligoribonucleotide probes 2'-O-Me(U)22, complementary to poly(A) tails of RNAs, revealed poly(A)+ RNA in the vast majority of IGCs. We found that all T. molitor oocyte IGCs contain heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) core protein Al that localizes to IGCs in an RNA-dependent manner. The extrachromosomal material of the karyosphere and a part of nucleoplasmic IGCs also contain the adapter protein Aly that is known to provide a link between pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA export. The essential mRNA export factor/receptor NXF1 was observed to colocalize with Aly. In nucleoplasmic IGCs, NXF1 was found to localize in an RNA-dependent manner whereas it is RNA-independently located in the extrachromosomal material of the karyosphere. We believe our data suggest on a role of the nucleoplasmic IGCs in mRNA biogenesis and retention in a road to nuclear export.

  18. Dietary fatty acids influence the growth and fatty acid composition of the yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreassi, Elena; Cito, Annarita; Zanfini, Assunta; Materozzi, Lara; Botta, Maurizio; Francardi, Valeria

    2017-03-01

    Fat is the second most abundant component of the nutrient composition of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) that represents also an interesting source of PUFA, especially n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, involved in prevention of cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated the possibility of modifying the fat content and the FA composition of yellow mealworms through feeding and how this would be influenced by developmental stages, pupal sex, and generation with the future aim of applying this coleopteran as a diet supplement for human health. Growth rate and cumulative mortality percentage on the different feeding substrates were also evaluated to select the optimal conditions for a mass-raising of this insect species. Despite the different fat content in the six different breeding substrates used, T. molitor larvae and pupae contained a constant fat percentage (>34% in larvae and >30% in pupae). A similar total fat content was found comparing larvae and male and female pupae of the second generation to those of the first generation. On the contrary, FA composition differed both in larvae and pupae reared on the different feeding substrates. However, the exemplars reared on the diets based on 100% bread and 100% oat flour showed SFA, PUFA percentages, and an n-6/n-3 ratio more suitable for human consumption; the diet based on beer yeast, wheat flour, and oat flour resulted in a contemporary diet that most satisfied the balance between a fat composition of high quality and favorable growth conditions.

  19. Aflatoxin B1 Tolerance and Accumulation in Black Soldier Fly Larvae (Hermetia illucens) and Yellow Mealworms (Tenebrio molitor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Guido; Fels-Klerx, H J van der; Rijk, Theo C de; Oonincx, Dennis G A B

    2017-06-02

    Crops contaminated with fungal mycotoxins such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are often downgraded or removed from the food chain. This study aimed to evaluate the tolerance and accumulation of AFB1 in two insect species to determine whether they could be used to retain condemned mycotoxin contaminated crops in the food chain. First, instar black soldier fly larvae ( Hermetia illucens , BSF) and yellow mealworm ( Tenebrio molitor , YMW) were fed poultry feed spiked with AFB1 and formulated to contain levels of 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.10, 0.25, and up to 0.5 mg/kg dry feed. Poultry feed without any additions and feed with only the solvent added served as controls. The AFB1 in the feed did not affect survival and body weight in the BSF and YMW larvae ( p > 0.10), indicating a high tolerance to aflatoxin B1 in both species. Furthermore, AFB1 and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) were below the detection limit (0.10 µg/kg) in BSF larvae, whereas the YMW had AFB1 levels that were approximately 10% of the European Union's legal limit for feed materials and excreted AFM1. It is concluded that both BSF larvae and YMW have a high AFB1 tolerance and do not accumulate AFB1.

  20. Immunomodulatory effects of supercritical fluid CO2 extracts from freeze-dried powder of Tenebrio molitor larvae (yellow mealworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QingFeng TANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to take full advantage of Tenebrio molitor larvae (yellow mealworm resources, the supercritical CO2 fluid freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae (fdTML extraction on the immune systems of mice was carried out. The results about the effects of supercritical CO2 fluid fdTML extraction on carbon expurgation and phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages experiments of mice indicated that the fdTML extraction enhanced observably carbon expurgatory index, phagocytic rate and phagocytic index. The fdTML extraction could stimulate response of delayed hypersensitivity. The proliferation of ConA-induced mitogenic reponse for spleen lymphocyte was also increased. The amount of hemolytic antibody in mice serum increased compared with those of the control group mice. The half of hemolysis values in serum of treated mice increased compared to the control group. Furthermore, serum NO content in all treatment groups was higher than that of the control group whereas acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activity was only significantly higher relative to the control group. Our findings suggest that supercritical CO2 fluid the fdTML extraction has potential as a health food supplement.

  1. Oleic acid and linoleic acid from Tenebrio molitor larvae inhibit BACE1 activity in vitro: molecular docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Kumju; Yun, Eun-Young; Lee, Jinhyuk; Kim, Ji-Young; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Jeong, Woo-Sik; Jun, Mira

    2014-02-01

    In our ongoing research to find therapeutic compounds for Alzheimer's disease (AD) from natural resources, the inhibitory activity of the BACE1 enzyme by Tenebrio molitor larvae and its major compounds were evaluated. The T. molitor larvae extract and its fractions exhibited strong BACE1 suppression. The major components of hexane fraction possessing both high yield and strong BACE1 inhibition were determined by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. A remarkable composition of unsaturated long chain fatty acids, including oleic acid and linoleic acid, were identified. Oleic acid, in particular, noncompetitively attenuated BACE1 activity with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) value of 61.31 μM and Ki value of 34.3 μM. Furthermore, the fatty acids were stably interacted with BACE1 at different allosteric sites of the enzyme bound with the OH of CYS319 and the NH₃ of TYR320 for oleic acid and with the C=O group of GLN304 for linoleic acid. Here, we first revealed novel pharmacophore features of oleic acids and linoleic acid to BACE1 by in silico docking studies. The present findings would clearly suggest potential guidelines for designing novel BACE1 selective inhibitors.

  2. Cloning, characterization and effect of TmPGRP-LE gene silencing on survival of Tenebrio molitor against Listeria monocytogenes infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindwa, Hamisi; Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Kim, Dong Hyun; Mun, Seulgi; Jo, Yong Hun; Lee, Bok Luel; Lee, Yong Seok; Kim, Nam Jung; Han, Yeon Soo

    2013-11-14

    Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are a family of innate immune molecules that recognize bacterial peptidoglycan. PGRP-LE, a member of the PGRP family, selectively binds to diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-type peptidoglycan to activate both the immune deficiency (Imd) and proPhenoloxidase (proPO) pathways in insects. A PGRP-LE-dependent induction of autophagy to control Listeria monocytogenes has also been reported. We identified and partially characterized a novel PGRP-LE homologue, from Tenebrio molitor and analyzed its functional role in the survival of the insect against infection by a DAP-type PGN containing intracellular pathogen, L. monocytogenes. The cDNA is comprised of an open reading frame (ORF) of 990 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 329 residues. TmPGRP-LE contains one PGRP domain, but lacks critical residues for amidase activity. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed a broad constitutive expression of the transcript at various stages of development spanning from larva to adult. RNAi mediated knockdown of the transcripts, followed by a challenge with L. monocytogenes, showed a significant reduction in survival rate of the larvae, suggesting a putative role of TmPGRP-LE in sensing and control of L. monocytogenes infection in T. molitor. These results implicate PGRP-LE as a defense protein necessary for survival of T. molitor against infection by L. monocytogenes.

  3. The influence of synthetic food additives and surfactants on the body weight of larvae of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Martynov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The broad spectrum of negative effects of food additives and surfactants on living organisms and the environment in general indicate a necessity of a detailed study on this issue. The aim of this article is to evaluate the impact of food additives and surfactants in a concentration of 350 mg/kg of fodder on the body weight of third age Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae larvae. A significant change in the body weight of T. molitor larvae was observed when they consumed a diet containing 350 mg/kg of sodium glutamate, sodium cyclamate and sodium benzoate. We observed a tendency towards increase in body weight after addition of the food colouring Allura Red, saccharin, benzoic acid, betaine, emulsifying wax, AOS and SLES, and also we observed a decrease in body weight after addition of Tartrazine and Indigo Carmine in the same concentration. Out of the 18 tested food additives, 3 significantly stimulated an increase in the body weight of third age T. molitor larvae, and 3 manifested the same effect at the level of tendency (stimulated an increase in mass on average by 43–58% over the 14-day experiment, and 2 caused decrease in the body weight of larvae. Also, the 4 studied surfactants manifested a tendency towards increase in the body weight of T. molitor. This study on the impact of food additives and surfactants on organisms of insects is of great significance for protecting rare species of insects.

  4. Insecticidal activity of garlic essential oil and their constituents against the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Santos, Marcelo Henrique Dos; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of garlic, Allium sativum Linnaeus (Amaryllidaceae) essential oil and their principal constituents on Tenebrio molitor. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl sulfide oil were used to compare the lethal and repellent effects on larvae, pupae and adults of T. molitor. Six concentrations of garlic essential oil and their principal constituents were topically applied onto larvae, pupae and adults of this insect. Repellent effect and respiration rate of each constituent was evaluated. The chemical composition of garlic essential oil was also determined and primary compounds were dimethyl trisulfide (19.86%), diallyl disulfide (18.62%), diallyl sulfide (12.67%), diallyl tetrasulfide (11.34%), and 3-vinyl-[4H]-1,2-dithiin (10.11%). Garlic essential oil was toxic to T. molitor larva, followed by pupa and adult. In toxic compounds, diallyl disulfide was the most toxic than diallyl sulfide for pupa > larva > adult respectively and showing lethal effects at different time points. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide and diallyl sulfide induced symptoms of intoxication and necrosis in larva, pupa, and adult of T. molitor between 20–40 h after exposure. Garlic essential oil and their compounds caused lethal and sublethal effects on T. molitor and, therefore, have the potential for pest control. PMID:28425475

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of a highly specific serpin from the beetle Tenebrio molitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Hee; Piao, Shunfu; Kwon, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Eun-Hye; Lee, Bok Luel; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2010-01-01

    The Toll signalling pathway, which is crucial for innate immunity, is transduced in insect haemolymph via a proteolytic cascade consisting of three serine proteases. The proteolytic cascade is downregulated by a specific serine protease inhibitor (serpin). Recently, the serpin SPN48 was found to show an unusual specific reactivity towards the terminal serine protease, Spätzle-processing enzyme, in the beetle Tenebrio molitor. In this study, the mature form of SPN48 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The purified SPN48 protein was crystallized using 14% polyethylene glycol 8000 and 0.1 M 2-(N-morpho­lino)ethanesulfonic acid pH 6.0 as the precipitant. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.1 Å resolution and were suitable for structure determination. The crystals belonged to space group P21. The crystal structure will provide information regarding how SPN48 achieves its unusual specificity for its target protease. PMID:20124722

  6. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa protoxin intoxication of Tenebrio molitor induces widespread changes in the expression of serine peptidase transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppert, Brenda; Martynov, Alexander G; Elpidina, Elena N

    2012-09-01

    The yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, is a pest of stored grain products and is sensitive to the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry3Aa toxin. As digestive peptidases are a determining factor in Cry toxicity and resistance, we evaluated the expression of peptidase transcripts in the midgut of T. molitor larvae fed either a control or Cry3Aa protoxin diet for 24 h (RNA-Seq), or in larvae exposed to the protoxin for 6, 12, or 24 h (microarrays). Cysteine peptidase transcripts (9) were similar to cathepsins B, L, and K, and their expression did not vary more than 2.5-fold in control and Cry3Aa-treated larvae. Serine peptidase transcripts (48) included trypsin, chymotrypsin and chymotrypsin-like, elastase 1-like, and unclassified serine peptidases, as well as homologs lacking functional amino acids. Highly expressed trypsin and chymotrypsin transcripts were severely repressed, and most serine peptidase transcripts were expressed 2- to 15-fold lower in Cry3Aa-treated larvae. Many serine peptidase and homolog transcripts were found only in control larvae. However, expression of a few serine peptidase transcripts was increased or found only in Cry3Aa-treated larvae. Therefore, Bt intoxication significantly impacted the expression of serine peptidases, potentially important in protoxin processing, while the insect maintained the production of critical digestive cysteine peptidases. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Evaluation of Genotoxicity and 28-day Oral Dose Toxicity on Freeze-dried Powder of Tenebrio molitor Larvae (Yellow Mealworm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, So-Ri; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Ji-Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Jeong, Eun Ju; Moon, Kyoung-Sik

    2014-06-01

    The larval form of Tenebrio molitor (T. molitor) has been eaten in many countries and provides benefits as a new food source of protein for humans. However, no information exists regarding its safety for humans. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxicity and repeated dose oral toxicity of the freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae. The genotoxic potential was evaluated by a standard battery testing: bacterial reverse mutation test, in vitro chromosome aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus test. To assess the repeated dose toxicity, the powder was administered once daily by oral gavage to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at dose levels of 0, 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. The parameters which were applied to the study were mortality, clinical signs, body and organ weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum chemistry, gross findings and histopathologic examination. The freezedried powder of T. molitor larvae was not mutagenic or clastogenic based on results of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays. Furthermore, no treatment-related changes or findings were observed in any parameters in rats after 28 days oral administration. In conclusion, the freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae was considered to be non-genotoxic and the NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) was determined to be 3000 mg/kg/day in both sexes of SD rats under our experimental conditions.

  8. Changes in the amino acid profiles and free radical scavenging activities of Tenebrio molitor larvae following enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yujiao; Debnath, Trishna; Choi, Eun-Ju; Kim, Young Wook; Ryu, Jung Pyo; Jang, Sejin; Chung, Sang Uk; Choi, Young-Jin; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2018-01-01

    Tenebrio molitor (T. molitor) larvae provide food at low environmental cost and contribute positively to livelihoods. In this research, we compared the amino acids compositions and antioxidant activities of various extracts of T. molitor to enhance their quality as food. For the comparison, distilled water extracts, enzymatic hydrolysates, and condensed enzymatic hydrolysates of T. molitor larvae were prepared. Their amino acids (AAs) profiles and antioxidant activities, including ferric-reducing antioxidant power, oxygen radical absorption capacity, and DPPH, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging properties assay were analyzed. DW extracts had the lowest AAs contents and antioxidant activity compared with enzymatic extracts. Condensed hydrolysates with a combination of alcalase and flavourzyme (C-A+F) exhibited the highest levels of total free AAs (11.1759 g/100 g). C-A+F produced higher total hydrolyzed AAs (32.5292 g/100 g) compared with the other groups. The C-A+F possessed the strongest antioxidant activity. Notably, the antioxidant activities of the hydrolysates and the total hydrolyzed AAs amount were correlated. Taken together, our findings showed that C-A+F was a promising technique for obtaining extracts of T. molitor larvae with antioxidant activity as potential nutritious functional food.

  9. Cloning, Characterization and Effect of TmPGRP-LE Gene Silencing on Survival of Tenebrio Molitor against Listeria monocytogenes Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Soo Han

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs are a family of innate immune molecules that recognize bacterial peptidoglycan. PGRP-LE, a member of the PGRP family, selectively binds to diaminopimelic acid (DAP-type peptidoglycan to activate both the immune deficiency (Imd and proPhenoloxidase (proPO pathways in insects. A PGRP-LE-dependent induction of autophagy to control Listeria monocytogenes has also been reported. We identified and partially characterized a novel PGRP-LE homologue, from Tenebrio molitor and analyzed its functional role in the survival of the insect against infection by a DAP-type PGN containing intracellular pathogen, L. monocytogenes. The cDNA is comprised of an open reading frame (ORF of 990 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 329 residues. TmPGRP-LE contains one PGRP domain, but lacks critical residues for amidase activity. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed a broad constitutive expression of the transcript at various stages of development spanning from larva to adult. RNAi mediated knockdown of the transcripts, followed by a challenge with L. monocytogenes, showed a significant reduction in survival rate of the larvae, suggesting a putative role of TmPGRP-LE in sensing and control of L. monocytogenes infection in T. molitor. These results implicate PGRP-LE as a defense protein necessary for survival of T. molitor against infection by L. monocytogenes.

  10. Female Choice Reveals Terminal Investment in Male Mealworm Beetles, Tenebrio molitor, after a Repeated Activation of the Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krams, I; Daukšte, J; Kivleniece, I; Krama, T; Rantala, MJ; Ramey, G; Šauša, L

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that secondary sexual traits reflect immunocompetence of males in many animal species. This study experimentally investigated whether a parasite-like immunological challenge via a nylon implant affects sexual attractiveness of males in Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Although a single immunological challenge significantly reduced sexual attractiveness and locomotor activity of males, it had no adverse effect on their survival. A second immune challenge of the same males increased their attractiveness. However, it was found that the repeated challenge significantly reduced locomotor activity of males and caused higher mortality. This result indicates terminal investment on sexual signaling, which is supposedly based on a trade-off between pheromone production and energy expenditures needed for such activities as recovery of immune system and locomotor activity. When the third implantation was carried out in the same group of males, melanization of nylon implants was found to be lower in more attractive than in less attractive males. This suggests that males that became sexually attractive after the second immune challenge did not invest in recovery of their immune system. PMID:21864151

  11. Evaluation of Genotoxicity and 28-day Oral Dose Toxicity on Freeze-dried Powder of Tenebrio molitor Larvae (Yellow Mealworm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, So-Ri; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Ji-Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Jeong, Eun Ju

    2014-01-01

    The larval form of Tenebrio molitor (T. molitor) has been eaten in many countries and provides benefits as a new food source of protein for humans. However, no information exists regarding its safety for humans. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxicity and repeated dose oral toxicity of the freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae. The genotoxic potential was evaluated by a standard battery testing: bacterial reverse mutation test, in vitro chromosome aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus test. To assess the repeated dose toxicity, the powder was administered once daily by oral gavage to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at dose levels of 0, 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. The parameters which were applied to the study were mortality, clinical signs, body and organ weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum chemistry, gross findings and histopathologic examination. The freezedried powder of T. molitor larvae was not mutagenic or clastogenic based on results of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays. Furthermore, no treatment-related changes or findings were observed in any parameters in rats after 28 days oral administration. In conclusion, the freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae was considered to be non-genotoxic and the NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) was determined to be 3000 mg/kg/day in both sexes of SD rats under our experimental conditions. PMID:25071922

  12. Increasing the calcium content of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) to improve their nutritional value for bone mineralization of growing chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasing, K C; Thacker, P; Lopez, M A; Calvert, C C

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine the husbandry variables that optimize the Ca content of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) and to determine the bioavailability of this Ca for bone mineralization in chicks that consume the mealworms. To determine the optimal level of Ca in the substrates used in short-term (mealworms and to determine the length of time that mealworms should be exposed to high-Ca substrates, mealworms were placed in either a wheat bran or a chicken starter substrate supplemented with 0, 4, 8, or 12% Ca from CaCO3. The mealworms were harvested after 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, or 14 days. The Ca content of the mealworms was greatest with the use of chicken starter and increased linearly with the Ca content of the substrate. In general, the Ca content of the mealworms increased during the first 24 hr and decreased after > or = 1 wk, especially at the higher levels of Ca supplementation. The chicken starter also resulted in higher levels of vitamin D in mealworms. Mealworms held in wheat bran with 8% Ca were fed to growing chicks. Ca bioavailability was calculated from the chicks' bone ash. The Ca in these mealworms was 76% as bioavailable as the Ca in oyster shell.

  13. Insecticidal activity of garlic essential oil and their constituents against the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Santos, Marcelo Henrique Dos; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2017-04-20

    This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of garlic, Allium sativum Linnaeus (Amaryllidaceae) essential oil and their principal constituents on Tenebrio molitor. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl sulfide oil were used to compare the lethal and repellent effects on larvae, pupae and adults of T. molitor. Six concentrations of garlic essential oil and their principal constituents were topically applied onto larvae, pupae and adults of this insect. Repellent effect and respiration rate of each constituent was evaluated. The chemical composition of garlic essential oil was also determined and primary compounds were dimethyl trisulfide (19.86%), diallyl disulfide (18.62%), diallyl sulfide (12.67%), diallyl tetrasulfide (11.34%), and 3-vinyl-[4H]-1,2-dithiin (10.11%). Garlic essential oil was toxic to T. molitor larva, followed by pupa and adult. In toxic compounds, diallyl disulfide was the most toxic than diallyl sulfide for pupa > larva > adult respectively and showing lethal effects at different time points. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide and diallyl sulfide induced symptoms of intoxication and necrosis in larva, pupa, and adult of T. molitor between 20-40 h after exposure. Garlic essential oil and their compounds caused lethal and sublethal effects on T. molitor and, therefore, have the potential for pest control.

  14. Nutritional valuse of edible coleoptera (Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas morio and Alphitobius diaperinus reared reared in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Adámková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Edible insects have gained the status of highly nutritious food with high protein and fat content. However, nutritional value of insects is not constant. It could be affected by species, developmental stage, rearing technology, nutrition or sex. This study's goal is to determine the protein and fat contents of three edible beetle species (giant mealworm - larvae of Zophobas morio, mealworm - larvae of Tenebrio molitor and, lesser mealworm - larvae of Alphitobius diaperinus bred in the Czech Republic. Based on the obtained results, all investigated species could be considered as a reasonable source of lipids and two of them (mealworm and lesser mealworm are also an excellent source of protein. Crude protein content of mealworm (630 g. kg-1 DM was found to be higher than in other studies. The investigated species of lesser mealworm contained 600 g of crude protein/kg DM, which was equal to the results of other authors. Most authors report a higher content of nitrogen in the giant mealworm than were the values measured by this experiment (390 g.kg-1 DM. The lipid content in the tested samples was found in a range of 170 - 390 g.kg-1 DM. The highest lipid content was found in the larvae of giant mealworm and the lowest lipid content was found in the larvae of mealworm. The determined fat content of lesser mealworms was 290 g.kg-1. The fatty acid profiles of all samples were also determined.

  15. Supra- and Sub-Baseline Phosphocreatine Recovery in Developing Brain after Transient Hypoxia-Ischaemia: Relation to Baseline Energetics, Insult Severity and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Osuke; Iwata, Sachiko; Bainbridge, Alan; De Vita, Enrico; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Cady, Ernest B.; Robertson, Nicola J.

    2008-01-01

    Following hypoxia-ischaemia (HI), an early biomarker of insult severity is desirable to target neuroprotective therapies to patients most likely to benefit; currently there are no biomarkers within the "latent phase" period before the establishment of secondary energy failure. Brief transient phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery overshoot (measured…

  16. Effect of appreciation for Indigenous cultures and exposure to racial insults on alcohol and drug use initiation among multiethnic Argentinean youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, Ethel; Gregorich, Steven E; Monteban, Madalena; Kaplan, Celia P; Mejia, Raul; Livaudais-Toman, Jennifer; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of factors reflecting appreciation of Indigenous culture and racial insults on alcohol and drug use initiation among multi-ethnic youth in Jujuy, Argentina. Students were surveyed from 27 secondary schools that were randomly selected to represent the province. A total of 3040 eligible students in 10th grade, age 14 to 18years were surveyed in 2006 and 2660 of these same students completed surveys in 11th grade in 2007. Multivariate logistic regression models assessed the effect of appreciation for Indigenous cultures and reported exposure to racial insults in 10th grade on incident current alcohol drinking in previous 30days, binge drinking (≥5 drinks at one sitting), and lifetime drug use (marijuana, inhalants or cocaine) in 11th grade among students not reporting these behaviors in 2006. In 2006, 63% of respondents reported high appreciation for Indigenous cultures and 39% had ever experienced racial insults. In 2007, incident current drinking was 24.4%, binge drinking 14.8%, and any drug use initiation was 4.1%. Exposure to racial insults increased the likelihood of binge drinking (OR=1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1) but was not significant for any drug use. Appreciation for Indigenous cultures reduced the risk of any drug use initiation (OR=0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.7) but had no effect for alcohol drinking outcomes. These effects were independent of Indigenous ethnicity. Enhancing appreciation for Indigenous cultures and decreasing racial insults are achievable goals that can be incorporated into programs to prevent youth substance use. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Effectiveness of the Entomopathogenic Nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema feltiae against Tenebrio molitor (Yellow Mealworm) Larvae in Different Soil Types at Different Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    SUSURLUK, Alper

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema feltiae Tur-S3 and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Tur-H2, isolated in Turkey, against larvae of Tenebrio molitor L. was investigated in different soil type and temperature conditions. Sterilized and non-sterilized silver sand, clay-loam soil, and compost soil were tested, each at 12, 18, and 24 ºC. Temperature had the greatest effect on the mortality of T. molitor larvae caused by both nematode species. The efficiency of the 2 nemato...

  18. Reproduction and longevity of Supputius cincticeps (Het.: Pentatomidae) fed with larvae of Zophobas confusa, Tenebrio molitor (Col.: Tenebrionidae) or Musca domestica (Dip.: Muscidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Zanuncio,José Cola; Beserra,Eduardo Barbosa; Molina-Rugama,Adrián José; Zanuncio,Teresinha Vinha; Pinon,Tobias Baruc Moreira; Maffia,Vanessa Pataro

    2005-01-01

    Reproduction and longevity of Supputius cincticeps (Stål) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) fed on Zophobas confusa Gebien, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) or Musca domestica (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae were studied during two generations at 24.7 ± 1.1ºC, 70 ± 10% R.H. and 12 h of photophase. Body weight of newly-emerged adults, oviposition period, number of egg masses, total number of eggs and longevity of S. cincticeps were higher when fed on Z. confusa or T. mol...

  19. The sensitization potential of sunscreen after ablative fractional skin resurfacing using modified human repeated insult patch test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonchai, Waranya; Sathaworawong, Angkana; Wongpraparut, Chanisada; Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima

    2015-10-01

    Ablative fractional skin resurfacing has become popular and proven to be useful in treating scars, photoaging and wrinkles. Although post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) is the most common complication especially in dark-skinned patients like Asian. Several modalities have been used to overcome the PIH. To determine the sensitization potential of sunscreen applied immediately after ablative fractional skin resurfacing. Sixty volunteers were recruited. Of these 30 subjects were from previous ablative fractional skin resurfacing study who applied broad-spectrum sunscreen containing anti-inflammatory agent starting on the first day after resurfacing and another 30 non-resurfacing subjects had applied the same sunscreen on the intact skin. All subjects were patch/photopatch tested for sensitization study by using modified human repeated insult patch test (HRIPT). There were significantly higher sensitization rate of UV-filter, octocrylene and the sunscreen in resurfacing group than in non-resurfacing group. Early application of sunscreen after ablative fractional skin resurfacing has increased the incidence of sensitization potential of sunscreen. The sunscreen is recommended to start using from D3 after fractional ablative skin resurfacing to ensure the complete recovery of skin barrier and minimize the risk of sensitization.

  20. Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep Prior to a Noxious Inflammatory Insult Influence Characteristics and Duration of Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanini, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient sleep and chronic pain are public health epidemics. Sleep loss worsens pain and predicts the development of chronic pain. Whether previous, acute sleep loss and recovery sleep determine pain levels and duration remains poorly understood. This study tested whether acute sleep deprivation and recovery sleep prior to formalin injection alter post-injection pain levels and duration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48) underwent sleep deprivation or ad libitum sleep for 9 hours. Thereafter, rats received a subcutaneous injection of formalin or saline into a hind paw. In the recovery sleep group, rats were allowed 24 h between sleep deprivation and the injection of formalin. Mechanical and thermal nociception were assessed using the von Frey test and Hargreaves' method. Nociceptive measures were performed at 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17 and 21 days post-injection. Formalin caused bilateral mechanical hypersensitivity (allodynia) that persisted for up to 21 days post-injection. Sleep deprivation significantly enhanced bilateral allodynia. There was a synergistic interaction when sleep deprivation preceded a formalin injection. Rats allowed a recovery sleep period prior to formalin injection developed allodynia only in the injected limb, with higher mechanical thresholds (less allodynia) and a shorter recovery period. There were no persistent changes in thermal nociception. The data suggest that acute sleep loss preceding an inflammatory insult enhances pain and can contribute to chronic pain. The results encourage studies in a model of surgical pain to test whether enhancing sleep reduces pain levels and duration. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  1. Adding insult to injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebele, Elaine

    New predictions and observations suggest that global warming will exact the highest costs on developing countries. A recent economic analysis of global climate change indicates that developed countries, the primary emitters of carbon dioxide, would benefit by $82 billion per year from a 2°C increase in global mean temperature, while underdeveloped countries would lose $40 billion per year.For the economic analysis, global climate predictions were combined with economic data (for agriculture, forestry, coastal resources, energy, and tourism), but natural climate variability, including frosts, droughts, or severe thunderstorms, was not included. Countries predicted to suffer the greatest economic losses from global warming are island nations, said Michael Schlesinger, a University of Illinois atmospheric scientist who performed the economic analysis with colleagues from Yale University and Middlebury College. “These countries have long coast lines, sensitive tourism industries, and small, undeveloped economies.”

  2. Microbial micropatches within microbial hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Renee J.; Tobe, Shanan S.; Paterson, James S.; Seymour, Justin R.; Oliver, Rod L.; Mitchell, James G.

    2018-01-01

    The spatial distributions of organism abundance and diversity are often heterogeneous. This includes the sub-centimetre distributions of microbes, which have ‘hotspots’ of high abundance, and ‘coldspots’ of low abundance. Previously we showed that 300 μl abundance hotspots, coldspots and background regions were distinct at all taxonomic levels. Here we build on these results by showing taxonomic micropatches within these 300 μl microscale hotspots, coldspots and background regions at the 1 μl scale. This heterogeneity among 1 μl subsamples was driven by heightened abundance of specific genera. The micropatches were most pronounced within hotspots. Micropatches were dominated by Pseudomonas, Bacteroides, Parasporobacterium and Lachnospiraceae incertae sedis, with Pseudomonas and Bacteroides being responsible for a shift in the most dominant genera in individual hotspot subsamples, representing up to 80.6% and 47.3% average abundance, respectively. The presence of these micropatches implies the ability these groups have to create, establish themselves in, or exploit heterogeneous microenvironments. These genera are often particle-associated, from which we infer that these micropatches are evidence for sub-millimetre aggregates and the aquatic polymer matrix. These findings support the emerging paradigm that the microscale distributions of planktonic microbes are numerically and taxonomically heterogeneous at scales of millimetres and less. We show that microscale microbial hotspots have internal structure within which specific local nutrient exchanges and cellular interactions might occur. PMID:29787564

  3. Effects of gamma radiation on various stages in the life cycle of meal worm, Tenebrio molitor Lin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiravathanapong, S.; Segsarnviriya, S.

    1984-12-01

    Effect of gamma radiation on each growth stage of meal worm (Tenebrio molitor Lin.) were conducted at 27+-2 0 C and 75+-2% relative humidity. LD 50 and LD 99 of 5-day old eggs at 5 days after irradiation were 76 and 367 gray. The survived larvae could live no longer than 5 days and seldom moved or without feeding. LD 50 and LD 99 of last instar larvae at 10 days after irradiation were 662 and 1,367 gray. No pupation occurred in larvae after irradiation. Dead larvae caused by radiation turned blackish, liquid oozed out from the body, and survived no longer than 5 days. Some irradiated larvae had incomplete molting and died. LD 50 and LD 99 of 6-day-old pupae at 3 days after irradiation were 874 and 1,492 gray. Abnormal irradiated pupae, some abnormal pupae were underdeveloped wing and abdominal pupal characteristic was still remained. Pupal legs could develop to adult legs only and could survive no longer than 1 week. Unfortunately pupae irradiated at low dosage of radiation would develop to be complete adult head, but could survive no longer than 2 weeks with slow movement and no oviposition. LD 50 of male adults and female adults was checked in 7 days postirradiation and it was estimated as 788 and 786 gray while LD 99 was estimated as 1,375 and 1,350 gray respectively. Results of male adults and female adults checking in 10 days post-irradiation found that LD 50 was estimated as 533 and 598 gray and LD 99 was estimated as 1,227 and 1,229 gray respectively. The remained survivors of both sexes could survive no longer than 10 days without feeding and mating

  4. Active subsite properties, subsite residues and targeting to lysosomes or midgut lumen of cathepsins L from the beetle Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Ticiane F; Dias, Renata O; de Oliveira, Juliana R; Salinas, Roberto K; Juliano, Maria A; Ferreira, Clelia; Terra, Walter R

    2017-10-01

    Cathepsins L are the major digestive peptidases in the beetle Tenebrio molitor. Two digestive cathepsins L (TmCAL2 and TmCAL3) from it had their 3D structures solved. The aim of this paper was to study in details TmCAL3 specificity and properties and relate them to its 3D structure. Recombinant TmCAL3 was assayed with 64 oligopeptides with different amino acid replacements in positions P2, P1, P1' and P2'. Results showed that TmCAL3 S2 specificity differs from the human enzyme and that its specificities also explain why on autoactivation two propeptide residues remain in the enzyme. Data on free energy of binding and of activation showed that S1 and S2' are mainly involved in substrate binding, S1' acts in substrate binding and catalysis, whereas S2 is implied mainly in catalysis. Enzyme subsite residues were identified by docking with the same oligopeptide used for kinetics. The subsite hydrophobicities were calculated from the efficiency of hydrolysis of different amino acid replacements in the peptide and from docking data. The results were closer for S1 and S2' than for S1' and S2, indicating that the residue subsites that were more involved in transition state binding are different from those binding the substrate seen in docking. Besides TmCAL1-3, there are nine other cathepsins L, most of them more expressed at midgut. They are supposed to be directed to lysosomes by a Drosophila-like Lerp receptor and/or motifs in their prodomains. The mannose 6-phosphate lysosomal sorting machinery is absent from T. molitor transcriptome. Cathepsin L direction to midgut contents seems to depend on overexpression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutritional Value of Pupae Versus Larvae of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as Food for Rearing Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe; Shelby, Kent S; Coudron, Thomas A

    2016-04-01

    Life-table analysis yielded demographic parameter values that indicate that Tenebrio molitor (L.) pupae are potentially more suitable factitious prey to mass-produce the predator Podisus maculiventris (Say) and are more suitable prey than the larvae. P. maculiventris developed faster (23.2 vs. 25.5 d), weighed more (females 80.9 vs. 66.6 mg and males 64.7 vs. 53.7 mg), and had a higher survival rate (0.88 vs. 0.7), fecundity, and reproductive output (87.1 vs. 22.8 eggs/female) when reared on pupae compared with larvae of T. molitor. The total protein content and soluble protein content were significantly higher in pupae (60.2 and 23%, respectively) than larvae (53.1 and 14.4%, respectively). Lipid content was significantly lower in pupae (32.1%) than larvae (35.9%), and larvae had more polyunsaturated fatty acids (83.6 vs. 56.6 mg/g) and less oleic (0.1 mg/g) and steric (6.1 mg/g) acids than pupae (37.3 and 12.3 mg/g, respectively). The total sugar content was not significantly different between pupae and larvae. However, larvae had significantly more fructose than pupae, but pupae had more galactose, glucosamine, glucose, mannose, and trehalose than larvae. Differences in nutritional composition and its impact on predator demographic parameters are potential factors that make the pupal stage a better food source.

  6. The natural insect peptide Neb-colloostatin induces ovarian atresia and apoptosis in the mealworm Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarniewska, Elżbieta; Rosiński, Grzegorz; Gabała, Elżbieta; Kuczer, Mariola

    2014-01-30

    The injection of Neb-colloostatin into T. molitor females causes gonadoinhibitory effects on ovarian development. This peptide inhibits intercellular space formation (patency) in follicular epithelium and results in slowed vitellogenesis, delayed ovulation, reduced number of eggs laid and presumably cell death in the terminal follicles. However, as does the form of cell death in the terminal follicle, the mode of action of Neb-colloostatin remains unknown. We tested Neb-colloostatin for a sterilizing effect on females of Tenebrio molitor. We report that injection of nanomolar doses of Neb-colloostatin induce ovarian follicle atresia in 4-day old females during their first gonadotropic cycle. Light microscope observations revealed morphological changes in the ovary: after Neb-colloostatin injection the terminal oocytes are significantly smaller and elicit massive follicle resorption, but the control terminal follicles possess translucent ooplasm in oocytes at different stages of vitellogenesis. A patency is visible in follicular epithelium of the control vitellogenic oocytes, whereas peptide injection inhibits intercellular space formation and, in consequence, inhibits vitellogenesis. Confocal and electron microscope examination showed that peptide injection causes changes in the morphology indicating death of follicular cells. We observed F-actin cytoskeleton disorganization, induction of caspase activity, changes in chromatin organization and autophagic vacuole formation. Moreover, the apical cytoplasm of follicular cells is filled with numerous free ribosomes, probably indicating a higher demand for protein biosynthesis, especially in preparation for autophagic vacuole formation. On the other hand, the process of polyribosomes formation is inhibited, indicating the contributing effect of this hormone. Neb-colloostatin induces atresia in the mealworm ovary. Degeneration of T. molitor follicles includes changes in morphology and viability of follicular cells, and

  7. Self-selection of two diet components by Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae and its impact on fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, J A; Rojas, M G; Shapiro-Ilan, D I; Tedders, W L

    2011-10-01

    We studied the ability of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to self-select optimal ratios of two dietary components to approach nutritional balance and maximum fitness. Relative consumption of wheat bran and dry potato flakes was determined among larvae feeding on four different ratios of these components (10, 20, 30, and 40% potato). Groups of early instars were provided with a measured amount of food and the consumption of each diet component was measured at the end of 4 wk and again 3 wk later. Consumption of diet components by T. molitor larvae deviated significantly from expected ratios indicating nonrandom self-selection. Mean percentages of dry potato consumed were 11.98, 19.16, 19.02, and 19.27% and 11.89, 20.48, 24.67, and 25.97% during the first and second experimental periods for diets with 10, 20, 30, and 40% potato, respectively. Life table analysis was used to determine the fitness of T. molitor developing in the four diet mixtures in a no-choice experiment. The diets were compared among each other and a control diet of wheat bran only. Doubling time was significantly shorter in groups consuming 10 and 20% potato than the control and longer in groups feeding on 30 and 40% potato. The self-selected ratios of the two diet components approached 20% potato, which was the best ratio for development and second best for population growth. Our findings show dietary self-selection behavior in T. molitor larvae, and these findings may lead to new methods for optimizing dietary supplements for T. molitor.

  8. The 3D structure and function of digestive cathepsin L-like proteinases of Tenebrio molitor larval midgut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beton, Daniela; Guzzo, Cristiane R; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Farah, Chuck S; Terra, Walter R

    2012-09-01

    Cathepsin L-like proteinases (CAL) are major digestive proteinases in the beetle Tenebrio molitor. Procathepsin Ls 2 (pCAL2) and 3 (pCAL3) were expressed as recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli, purified and activated under acidic conditions. Immunoblot analyses of different T. molitor larval tissues demonstrated that a polyclonal antibody to pCAL3 recognized pCAL3 and cathepsin L 3 (CAL3) only in the anterior two-thirds of midgut tissue and midgut luminal contents of T. molitor larvae. Furthermore, immunocytolocalization data indicated that pCAL3 occurs in secretory vesicles and microvilli in anterior midgut. Therefore CAL3, like cathepsin L 2 (CAL2), is a digestive enzyme secreted by T. molitor anterior midgut. CAL3 hydrolyses Z-FR-MCA and Z-RR-MCA (typical cathepsin substrates), whereas CAL2 hydrolyses only Z-FR-MCA. Active site mutants (pCAL2C25S and pCAL3C26S) were constructed by replacing the catalytic cysteine with serine to prevent autocatalytic processing. Recombinant pCAL2 and pCAL3 mutants (pCAL2C25S and pCAL3C26S) were prepared, crystallized and their 3D structures determined at 1.85 and 2.1 Å, respectively. While the overall structure of these enzymes is similar to other members of the papain superfamily, structural differences in the S2 subsite explain their substrate specificities. The data also supported models for CAL trafficking to lysosomes and to secretory vesicles to be discharged into midgut contents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Melanization and Pathogenicity in the Insect, Tenebrio molitor, and the Crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, by Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonin, Chadanat; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Söderhäll, Irene; Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M.; Söderhäll, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common Aeromonas species causing infections in human and other animals such as amphibians, reptiles, fish and crustaceans. Pathogenesis of Aeromonas species have been reported to be associated with virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), bacterial toxins, bacterial secretion systems, flagella, and other surface molecules. Several mutant strains of A. hydrophila AH-3 were initially used to study their virulence in two animal species, Pacifastacus leniusculus (crayfish) and Tenebrio molitor larvae (mealworm). The AH-3 strains used in this study have mutations in genes involving the synthesis of flagella, LPS structures, secretion systems, and some other factors, which have been reported to be involved in A. hydrophila pathogenicity. Our study shows that the LPS (O-antigen and external core) is the most determinant A. hydrophila AH-3 virulence factor in both animals. Furthermore, we studied the immune responses of these hosts to infection of virulent or non-virulent strains of A. hydrophila AH-3. The AH-3 wild type (WT) containing the complete LPS core is highly virulent and this bacterium strongly stimulated the prophenoloxidase activating system resulting in melanization in both crayfish and mealworm. In contrast, the ΔwaaE mutant which has LPS without O-antigen and external core was non-virulent and lost ability to stimulate this system and melanization in these two animals. The high phenoloxidase activity found in WT infected crayfish appears to result from a low expression of pacifastin, a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme inhibitor, and this gene expression was not changed in the ΔwaaE mutant infected animal and consequently phenoloxidase activity was not altered as compared to non-infected animals. Therefore we show that the virulence factors of A. hydrophila are the same regardless whether an insect or a crustacean is infected and the O-antigen and external core is essential for activation of the proPO system

  10. [Expression optimization and characterization of Tenebrio molitor antimicrobiol peptides TmAMP1m in Escherichia coli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimu, Reyihanguli; Mao, Xinfang; Liu, Zhongyuan

    2013-06-01

    To improve the expression level of tmAMP1m gene from Tenebrio molitor in Escherichia coli, we studied the effects of expression level and activity of the fusion protein HIS-TmAMP1m by conditions, such as culture temperature, inducing time and the final concentration of inductor Isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). We analyzed the optimum expression conditions by Tricine-SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, meanwhile, detected its antibacterial activity by using agarose cavity diffusion method. The results suggest that when inducing the recombinant plasmid with a final IPTG concentration of 0.1 mmol/L at 37 degrees C for 4 h, there was the highest expression level of fusion protein HIS-TmAMP1m in Escherichia coli. Under these conditions, the expression of fusion protein accounted for 40% of the total cell lysate with the best antibacterial activity. We purified the fusion protein HIS-TmAMPlm with nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) metal-affinity chromatography matrices. Western blotting analysis indicates that the His monoclonal antibody could be specifically bound to fusion protein HIS-TmAMPlm. After expression by inducing, the fusion protein could inhibit the growth of host cell transformed by pET30a-tmAMP1m. The fusion protein HIS-TmAMP1m had better stability and remained higher antibacterial activities when incubated at 100 degrees C for 10 h, repeated freeze thawing at -20 degrees C, dissolved in strong acid and alkali, or treated by organic solvents and protease. Moreover, the minimum inhibitory concentration results demonstrated that the fusion protein HIS-TmAMP1m has a good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus sp., Corynebacterium glutamicum, Bacillus thuringiensis, Corynebacterium sp. This study laid the foundation to promote the application of insect antimicrobial peptides and further research.

  11. Balanced intake of protein and carbohydrate maximizes lifetime reproductive success in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Myung Suk; Lee, Kwang Pum

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in insect gerontological and nutritional research have suggested that the dietary protein:carbohydrate (P:C) balance is a critical determinant of lifespan and reproduction in many insects. However, most studies investigating this important role of dietary P:C balance have been conducted using dipteran and orthopteran species. In this study, we used the mealworm beetles, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), to test the effects of dietary P:C balance on lifespan and reproduction. Regardless of their reproductive status, both male and female beetles had the shortest lifespan at the protein-biased ratio of P:C 5:1. Mean lifespan was the longest at P:C 1:1 for males and at both P:C 1:1 and 1:5 for females. Mating significantly curtailed the lifespan of both males and females, indicating the survival cost of mating. Age-specific egg laying was significantly higher at P:C 1:1 than at the two imbalanced P:C ratios (1:5 or 5:1) at any given age throughout their lives, resulting in the highest lifetime reproductive success at P:C 1:1. When given a choice, beetles actively regulated their intake of protein and carbohydrate to a slightly carbohydrate-biased ratio (P:C 1:1.54-1:1.64 for males and P:C 1:1.3-1:1.36 for females). The self-selected P:C ratio was significantly higher for females than males, reflecting a higher protein requirement for egg production. Collectively, our results add to a growing body of evidence suggesting the key role played by dietary macronutrient balance in shaping lifespan and reproduction in insects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The natural insect peptide Neb-colloostatin induces ovarian atresia and apoptosis in the mealworm Tenebrio molitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The injection of Neb-colloostatin into T. molitor females causes gonadoinhibitory effects on ovarian development. This peptide inhibits intercellular space formation (patency) in follicular epithelium and results in slowed vitellogenesis, delayed ovulation, reduced number of eggs laid and presumably cell death in the terminal follicles. However, as does the form of cell death in the terminal follicle, the mode of action of Neb-colloostatin remains unknown. Results We tested Neb-colloostatin for a sterilizing effect on females of Tenebrio molitor. We report that injection of nanomolar doses of Neb-colloostatin induce ovarian follicle atresia in 4-day old females during their first gonadotropic cycle. Light microscope observations revealed morphological changes in the ovary: after Neb-colloostatin injection the terminal oocytes are significantly smaller and elicit massive follicle resorption, but the control terminal follicles possess translucent ooplasm in oocytes at different stages of vitellogenesis. A patency is visible in follicular epithelium of the control vitellogenic oocytes, whereas peptide injection inhibits intercellular space formation and, in consequence, inhibits vitellogenesis. Confocal and electron microscope examination showed that peptide injection causes changes in the morphology indicating death of follicular cells. We observed F-actin cytoskeleton disorganization, induction of caspase activity, changes in chromatin organization and autophagic vacuole formation. Moreover, the apical cytoplasm of follicular cells is filled with numerous free ribosomes, probably indicating a higher demand for protein biosynthesis, especially in preparation for autophagic vacuole formation. On the other hand, the process of polyribosomes formation is inhibited, indicating the contributing effect of this hormone. Conclusion Neb-colloostatin induces atresia in the mealworm ovary. Degeneration of T. molitor follicles includes changes in morphology and

  13. Melanization and pathogenicity in the insect, Tenebrio molitor, and the crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, by Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadanat Noonin

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common Aeromonas species causing infections in human and other animals such as amphibians, reptiles, fish and crustaceans. Pathogenesis of Aeromonas species have been reported to be associated with virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS, bacterial toxins, bacterial secretion systems, flagella, and other surface molecules. Several mutant strains of A. hydrophila AH-3 were initially used to study their virulence in two animal species, Pacifastacus leniusculus (crayfish and Tenebrio molitor larvae (mealworm. The AH-3 strains used in this study have mutations in genes involving the synthesis of flagella, LPS structures, secretion systems, and some other factors, which have been reported to be involved in A. hydrophila pathogenicity. Our study shows that the LPS (O-antigen and external core is the most determinant A. hydrophila AH-3 virulence factor in both animals. Furthermore, we studied the immune responses of these hosts to infection of virulent or non-virulent strains of A. hydrophila AH-3. The AH-3 wild type (WT containing the complete LPS core is highly virulent and this bacterium strongly stimulated the prophenoloxidase activating system resulting in melanization in both crayfish and mealworm. In contrast, the ΔwaaE mutant which has LPS without O-antigen and external core was non-virulent and lost ability to stimulate this system and melanization in these two animals. The high phenoloxidase activity found in WT infected crayfish appears to result from a low expression of pacifastin, a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme inhibitor, and this gene expression was not changed in the ΔwaaE mutant infected animal and consequently phenoloxidase activity was not altered as compared to non-infected animals. Therefore we show that the virulence factors of A. hydrophila are the same regardless whether an insect or a crustacean is infected and the O-antigen and external core is essential for activation of the

  14. Insect growth regulatory effects of some extracts and sterols from Myrtillocactus geometrizans (Cactaceae) against Spodoptera frugiperda and Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes, Carlos L; Salazar, J Rodrigo; Martínez, Mariano; Aranda, Eduardo

    2005-10-01

    A methanol extract from the roots and aerial parts of Myrtillocactus geometrizans (Cactaceae) yielded peniocerol 1, macdougallin 2, and chichipegenin 3. The natural products 1, 2 their mixtures, MeOH and CH(2)Cl(2) extracts showed insecticidal and insect growth regulatory activity against fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)], an important insect pest of corn, and [Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera)], a pest of stored grains in Mexico. The most active compounds were 1, 2, and a mixture (M(2)) of 1 and 2 (6:4). All these extracts, compounds and the mixture had insect growth regulating (IGR) activity between 5.0 and 50.0 ppm and insecticidal effects between 50 and 300 ppm in diets. The extracts were insecticidal to larvae, with lethal doses between 100 and 200 ppm. These compounds appear to have selective effects on the pre-emergence metabolism of Coleoptera, because in all treatments of the larvae of T. molitor, pupation were shortened and this process show precociousness in relation to controls. In contrast to S. frugiperda larvae, onset of pupation was noticeably delayed. Emergence in both cases was drastically diminished. In both pupae and in the few adults that were able to emerge, many deformations were observed. The results of these assays indicated that the compounds were more active than other known natural insect growth inhibitors such as gedunin and methanol extracts of Cedrela salvadorensis and Yucca periculosa. Peniocerol, macdougallin and chichipegenin, as well as mixtures of these substances, may be useful as natural insecticidal agents.

  15. Reproduction and longevity of Supputius cincticeps (Het.: Pentatomidae fed with larvae of Zophobas confusa, Tenebrio molitor (Col.: Tenebrionidae or Musca domestica (Dip.: Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cola Zanuncio

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction and longevity of Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed on Zophobas confusa Gebien, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae or Musca domestica (L. (Diptera: Muscidae larvae were studied during two generations at 24.7 ± 1.1ºC, 70 ± 10% R.H. and 12 h of photophase. Body weight of newly-emerged adults, oviposition period, number of egg masses, total number of eggs and longevity of S. cincticeps were higher when fed on Z. confusa or T. molitor larvae than on M. domestica larvae. Regardless of diet, S. cincticeps showed better reproduction and longevity in the second generation in laboratory conditions.Foram avaliadas, em duas gerações, a reprodução e a longevidade de Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae alimentado com larvas de Zophobas confusa Gebien, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae ou Musca domestica (L. (Diptera: Muscidae a 24,7 ± 1,1ºC, 70 ± 10% de U.R. e fotofase de 12 h. O peso de adultos recém emergidos, o período de oviposição, o número de posturas, de ovos totais e a longevidade de fêmeas de S. cincticeps foram maiores com larvas de Z. confusa ou T. molitor que com M. domestica. Independentemente do tipo de presa, S. cincticeps mostrou melhor performance reprodutiva e longevidade na segunda geração.

  16. Estradiol pretreatment ameliorates impaired synaptic plasticity at synapses of insulted CA1 neurons after transient global ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Koichi; Yang, Yupeng; Takayasu, Yukihiro; Gertner, Michael; Hwang, Jee-Yeon; Aromolaran, Kelly; Bennett, Michael V.L.; Zukin, R. Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Global ischemia in humans or induced experimentally in animals causes selective and delayed neuronal death in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampal CA1. The ovarian hormone estradiol administered before or immediately after insult affords histological protection in experimental models of focal and global ischemia and ameliorates the cognitive deficits associated with ischemic cell death. However, the impact of estradiol on the functional integrity of Schaffer collateral to CA1 (Sch-CA1) pyramidal cell synapses following global ischemia is not clear. Here we show that long term estradiol treatment initiated 14 days prior to global ischemia in ovariectomized female rats acts via the IGF-1 receptor to protect the functional integrity of CA1 neurons. Global ischemia impairs basal synaptic transmission, assessed by the input/output relation at Sch-CA1 synapses, and NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long term potentiation (LTP), assessed at 3 days after surgery. Presynaptic function, assessed by fiber volley and paired pulse facilitation, is unchanged. To our knowledge, our results are the first to demonstrate that estradiol at near physiological concentrations enhances basal excitatory synaptic transmission and ameliorates deficits in LTP at synapses onto CA1 neurons in a clinically-relevant model of global ischemia. Estradiol-induced rescue of LTP requires the IGF-1 receptor, but not the classical estrogen receptors (ER)-α or β. These findings support a model whereby estradiol acts via the IGF-1 receptor to maintain the functional integrity of hippocampal CA1 synapses in the face of global ischemia. PMID:25463028

  17. Nanoparticles prepared from the water extract of Gusuibu (Drynaria fortunei J. Sm. protects osteoblasts against insults and promotes cell maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu C-K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Chung-King Hsu1,2, Mei-Hsiu Liao3, Yu-Tyng Tai4, Shing-Hwa Liu5, Keng-Liang Ou6, Hsu-Wei Fang7, I-Jung Lee8, Ruei-Ming Chen2,31Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, 2Cell Physiology and Molecular Image Research Center, Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Medical Center, 3Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Taipei Medical University, 4Department of Anesthesiology, Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Medical Center, 5Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, 6Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, 7Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, 8Division of Information and Herbarium, National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: Our previous study showed that Gusuibu (Drynaria fortunei J. Sm. can stimulate osteoblast maturation. This study was further designed to evaluate the effects of nanoparticles prepared from the water extract of Gusuibu (WEG on osteoblast survival and maturation. Primary osteoblasts were exposed to 1, 10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL nanoparticles of WEG (nWEG for 24, 48, and 72 hours did not affect morphologies, viability, or apoptosis of osteoblasts. In comparison, treatment of osteoblasts with 1000 µg/mL WEG for 72 hours decreased cell viability and induced DNA fragmentation and cell apoptosis. nWEG had better antioxidant bioactivity in protecting osteoblasts from oxidative and nitrosative stress-induced apoptosis than WEG. In addition, nWEG stimulated greater osteoblast maturation than did WEG. Therefore, this study shows that WEG nanoparticles are safer to primary osteoblasts than are normal-sized products, and may promote better bone healing by protecting osteoblasts from apoptotic insults, and by promoting osteogenic maturation.Keywords: Gusuibu, nanoparticles, cell protection, osteoblast maturation

  18. Intermittent cardiac overload results in adaptive hypertrophy and provides protection against left ventricular acute pressure overload insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago; Fonseca, Hélder; Ferreira, Rita; Padrão, Ana Isabel; Santa, Cátia; Vieira, Sara; Silva, Ana Filipa; Amado, Francisco; Leite-Moreira, Adelino; Duarte, José Alberto

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to test whether a chronic intermittent workload could induce an adaptive cardiac phenotype Chronic intermittent workload induced features of adaptive hypertrophy This was paralleled by protection against acute pressure overload insult The heart may adapt favourably to balanced demands, regardless of the nature of the stimuli. The present study aimed to test whether submitting the healthy heart to intermittent and tolerable amounts of workload, independently of its nature, could result in an adaptive cardiac phenotype. Male Wistar rats were subjected to treadmill running (Ex) (n = 20), intermittent cardiac overload with dobutamine (ITO) (2 mg kg(-1) , s.c.; n = 20) or placebo administration (Cont) (n = 20) for 5 days week(-1) for 8 weeks. Animals were then killed for histological and biochemical analysis or subjected to left ventricular haemodynamic evaluation under baseline conditions, in response to isovolumetric contractions and to sustained LV acute pressure overload (35% increase in peak systolic pressure maintained for 2 h). Baseline cardiac function was enhanced only in Ex, whereas the response to isovolumetric heartbeats was improved in both ITO and Ex. By contrast to the Cont group, in which rats developed diastolic dysfunction with sustained acute pressure overload, ITO and Ex showed increased tolerance to this stress test. Both ITO and Ex developed cardiomyocyte hypertrophy without fibrosis, no overexpression of osteopontin-1 or β-myosin heavy chain, and increased expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) protein. Regarding hypertrophic pathways, ITO and Ex showed activation of the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway but not calcineurin. Mitochondrial complex IV and V activities were also increased in ITO and Ex. Chronic submission to controlled intermittent cardiac overload, independently of its nature, results in an adaptive cardiac phenotype. Features of the cardiac overload, such as the duration and

  19. Nitric oxide from both exogenous and endogenous sources activates mitochondria-dependent events and induces insults to human chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gong-Jhe; Chen, Tyng-Guey; Chang, Huai-Chia; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Chang, Chia-Chen; Chen, Ruei-Ming

    2007-08-15

    During inflammation, overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) can damage chondrocytes. In this study, we separately evaluated the toxic effects of exogenous and endogenous NO on human chondrocytes and their possible mechanisms. Human chondrocytes were exposed to sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor, or a combination of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) as the exogenous and endogenous sources of NO, respectively. Administration of SNP or a combination of LPS and IFN-gamma in human chondrocytes increased cellular NO levels but decreased cell viability. Exposure to exogenous or endogenous NO significantly induced apoptosis of human chondrocytes. When treated with exogenous or endogenous NO, the mitochondrial membrane potential time-dependently decreased. Exposure to exogenous or endogenous NO significantly enhanced cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) levels. Administration of exogenous or endogenous NO increased caspase-3 activity and consequently induced DNA fragmentation. Suppression of caspase-3 activation by Z-DEVD-FMK decreased NO-induced DNA fragmentation and cell apoptosis. Similar to SNP, exposure of human chondrocytes to S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), another NO donor, caused significant increases in Cyt c levels, caspase-3 activity, and DNA fragmentation, and induced cell apoptosis. Pretreatment with N-monomethyl arginine (NMMA), an inhibitor of NO synthase, significantly decreased cellular NO levels, and lowered endogenous NO-induced alterations in cellular Cyt c amounts, caspase-3 activity, DNA fragmentation, and cell apoptosis. Results of this study show that NO from exogenous and endogenous sources can induce apoptotic insults to human chondrocytes via a mitochondria-dependent mechanism.

  20. The antioxidant effects of vitamin C on liver enzymes: aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotranferease, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase activities in rats under Paraquat insult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Nnamdi Okolonkwo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat (PQ is a bipyridylium herbicide; applied around trees in orchards and between crop rows to control broad-leaved and grassy weeds. Its oxidation results in the formation of superoxides which causes damage to cellular components. In this study, we determined the antioxidant effect vitamin C has on the liver enzymes [aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT, alanine aminotranferease (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT] of rats under this toxic insult. Male rats in groups (A, B, C and D were intraperitoneally injected with different sublethal increasing doses (0, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 g/kg body weigh of PQ respectively on monthly basis. Subsequently, the subgroups (A2, B2, C2 and D2 were given orally, 200 mg/L vitamin C, while the subgroups A1, B1, C1, and D1, received only water. Four animals per subgroup were decapitated on monthly basis and blood samples taken for enzyme assay. The parameters studied were - SGOT, SGPT, ALP and GGT - liver enzymes. The dose and time dependent PQ toxicity effect resulted in highly elevated Liver enzymes activities. The subgroups on vitamin C had significantly lower enzyme activities when compared to the same subgroups on only PQ insult. But the values were high when compared to the control subgroups (A1 and A2. These results were indication that vitamin C when given at moderate doses and maintained for a longer period could be a life saving adjunct to toxic insult.

  1. 11 Soil Microbial Biomass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    186–198. Insam H. (1990). Are the soil microbial biomass and basal respiration governed by the climatic regime? Soil. Biol. Biochem. 22: 525–532. Insam H. D. and Domsch K. H. (1989). Influence of microclimate on soil microbial biomass. Soil Biol. Biochem. 21: 211–21. Jenkinson D. S. (1988). Determination of microbial.

  2. Molecular microbial ecology manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalchuk, G.A.; Bruijn, de F.J.; Head, I.M.; Akkermans, A.D.L.

    2004-01-01

    The field of microbial ecology has been revolutionized in the past two decades by the introduction of molecular methods into the toolbox of the microbial ecologist. This molecular arsenal has helped to unveil the enormity of microbial diversity across the breadth of the earth's ecosystems, and has

  3. Microbial Rechargeable Battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, Sam D.; Mol, Annemerel R.; Sleutels, Tom H.J.A.; Heijne, Ter Annemiek; Buisman, Cees J.N.

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems hold potential for both conversion of electricity into chemicals through microbial electrosynthesis (MES) and the provision of electrical power by oxidation of organics using microbial fuel cells (MFCs). This study provides a proof of concept for a microbial

  4. Childhood microbial keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah G Al Otaibi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Children with suspected microbial keratitis require comprehensive evaluation and management. Early recognition, identifying the predisposing factors and etiological microbial organisms, and instituting appropriate treatment measures have a crucial role in outcome. Ocular trauma was the leading cause of childhood microbial keratitis in our study.

  5. Successful single treatment with ziv-aflibercept for existing corneal neovascularization following ocular chemical insult in the rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Ariel; Horwitz, Vered; Cohen, Maayan; Gutman, Hila; Cohen, Liat; Gez, Rellie; Kadar, Tamar; Dachir, Shlomit

    2018-03-13

    To evaluate the efficacy of ziv-aflibercept as a treatment for established corneal neovascularization (NV) and to compare its efficacy to that of bevacizumab following ocular chemical insult of sulfur mustard (SM) in the rabbit model. Chemical SM burn was induced in the right eye of NZW rabbits by vapor exposure. Ziv-aflibercept (2 mg) was applied once to neovascularized eyes by subconjunctival injection while subconjunctival bevacizumab (5 mg) was administered twice a week, for 3 weeks. Non-treated exposed eyes served as a control. A clinical follow-up employed by slit-lamp microscope, was performed up to 12 weeks following exposure and digital photographs of the cornea were taken for measurement of blood vessels length using the image analysis software. Eyes were taken for histological evaluation 2, 4 and 8 weeks following treatment for general morphology and for visualization of NV, using H&E and Masson Trichrome stainings, while conjunctival goblet cell density was determined by PAS staining. Corneal NV developed, starting as early as two weeks after exposure. A single subconjunctival treatment of ziv-aflibercept at 4 weeks post exposure, significantly reduced the extent of existing NV already one week following injection, an effect which lasted for at least 8 weeks following treatment, while NV in the non-treated exposed eyes continued to advance. The extensive reduction in corneal NV in the ziv-aflibercept treated group was confirmed by histological evaluation. Bevacizumab multiple treatment showed a benefit in NV reduction, but to a lesser extent compared to the ziv-aflibercept treatment. Finally, ziv-aflibercept increased the density of conjunctival goblet cells as compared to the exposed non-treated group. Subconjunctival ziv-aflibercept single treatment presented a highly efficient long-term therapeutic benefit in reducing existing corneal NV, following ocular sulfur mustard exposure. These findings show the robust anti-angiogenic efficacy of ziv

  6. Transcriptome profiling of the intoxication response of Tenebrio molitor larvae to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa protoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppert, Brenda; Dowd, Scot E; Bouffard, Pascal; Li, Lewyn; Conesa, Ana; Lorenzen, Marcé D; Toutges, Michelle; Marshall, Jeremy; Huestis, Diana L; Fabrick, Jeff; Oppert, Cris; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal (Cry) proteins are effective against a select number of insect pests, but improvements are needed to increase efficacy and decrease time to mortality for coleopteran pests. To gain insight into the Bt intoxication process in Coleoptera, we performed RNA-Seq on cDNA generated from the guts of Tenebrio molitor larvae that consumed either a control diet or a diet containing Cry3Aa protoxin. Approximately 134,090 and 124,287 sequence reads from the control and Cry3Aa-treated groups were assembled into 1,318 and 1,140 contigs, respectively. Enrichment analyses indicated that functions associated with mitochondrial respiration, signalling, maintenance of cell structure, membrane integrity, protein recycling/synthesis, and glycosyl hydrolases were significantly increased in Cry3Aa-treated larvae, whereas functions associated with many metabolic processes were reduced, especially glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and fatty acid synthesis. Microarray analysis was used to evaluate temporal changes in gene expression after 6, 12 or 24 h of Cry3Aa exposure. Overall, microarray analysis indicated that transcripts related to allergens, chitin-binding proteins, glycosyl hydrolases, and tubulins were induced, and those related to immunity and metabolism were repressed in Cry3Aa-intoxicated larvae. The 24 h microarray data validated most of the RNA-Seq data. Of the three intoxication intervals, larvae demonstrated more differential expression of transcripts after 12 h exposure to Cry3Aa. Gene expression examined by three different methods in control vs. Cry3Aa-treated larvae at the 24 h time point indicated that transcripts encoding proteins with chitin-binding domain 3 were the most differentially expressed in Cry3Aa-intoxicated larvae. Overall, the data suggest that T. molitor larvae mount a complex response to Cry3Aa during the initial 24 h of intoxication. Data from this study represent the largest genetic sequence dataset for T. molitor

  7. Supplementation of Dried Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood Profiles in Weaning Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X. H.; Heo, P. S.; Hong, J. S.; Kim, N. J.; Kim, Y. Y.

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dried mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood profiles in weaning pigs. A total of 120 weaning pigs (28±3 days and 8.04±0.08 kg of body weight) were allotted to one of five treatments, based on sex and body weight, in 6 replicates with 4 pigs per pen by a randomized complete block design. Supplementation level of dried mealworm was 0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, or 6.0% in experimental diet as treatment. Two phase feeding programs (phase I from 0 day to 14 day, phase II from 14 day to 35 day) were used in this experiment. All animals were allowed to access diet and water ad libitum. During phase I, increasing level of dried mealworm in diet linearly improved the body weight (p<0.01), average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.01). During phase II, ADG also tended to increase linearly when pigs were fed higher level of dried mealworm (p = 0.08). In addition, increasing level of dried mealworm improved the ADG (p<0.01), ADFI (p<0.05) and tended to increase gain to feed ratio (p = 0.07) during the whole experimental period. As dried mealworm level was increased, nitrogen retention and digestibility of dry matter as well as crude protein were linearly increased (p = 0.05). In the results of blood profiles, decrease of blood urea nitrogen (linear, p = 0.05) and increase of insulin-like growth factor (linear, p = 0.03) were observed as dried mealworm was increased in diet during phase II. However, there were no significant differences in immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG concentration by addition of dried mealworm in the growth trial. Consequently, supplementation of dried mealworm up to 6% in weaning pigs’ diet improves growth performance and nutrient digestibility without any detrimental effect on immune responses. PMID:27282974

  8. Insect midgut α-mannosidases from family 38 and 47 with emphasis on those of Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Nathalia R; Cardoso, Christiane; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Ferreira, Clelia; Terra, Walter R

    2015-12-01

    α-Mannosidases are enzymes which remove non-reducing terminal residues from glycoconjugates. Data on both GH47 and GH38 (Golgi and lysosomal) enzymes are available. Data on insect midgut α-mannosidases acting in digestion are preliminary and do not include enzyme sequences. Tenebrio molitor midgut α-mannosidases were separated by chromatography into two activity peaks: a major (Man1) and a minor (Man2). An antibody generated against a synthetic peptide corresponding to a sequence of α-mannosidase fragment recognizes Man2 but not Man1. That fragment was later found to correspond to TmMan2 (GenBank access KP892646), showing that the cDNA coding for Man2 is actually TmMan2. TmMan2 codes for a mature α-mannosidase with 107.5 kDa. Purified Man2 originates after SDS-PAGE one band of about 72 kDa and another of 51 kDa, which sums 123 kDa, in agreement with gel filtration (123 kDa) data. These results suggest that Man2 is processed into peptides that remain noncovalently linked within the functional enzyme. The physical and kinetical properties of purified Man1 and Man2 are similar. They have a molecular mass of 123 kDa (gel filtration), pH optimum (5.6) and response to inhibitors like swainsonine (Man1 Ki, 68 nM; Man2 Ki, 63 nM) and deoxymannojirimycin (Man1 Ki, 0.12 mM; Man2 Ki, 0.15 mM). Their substrate specificities are a little different as Man2 hydrolyzes α-1,3 and α-1,6 bonds better than α-1,2, whereas the contrary is true for Man1. Thus, they pertain to Class II (GH38 α-mannosidases), that are catabolic α-mannosidases similar to lysosomal α-mannosidase. However, Man2, in contrast to true lysosomal α-mannosidase, is secreted (immunocytolocalization data) into the midgut contents. There, Man2 may participate in digestion of fungal cell walls, known to have α-mannosides in their outermost layer. The amount of family 38 α-mannosidase sequences found in the transcriptome (454 pyrosequencing) of the midgut of 9 insects pertaining to 5 orders is

  9. Subcellular partitioning of cadmium and zinc in mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) larvae exposed to metal-contaminated flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarska, Agnieszka J; Świątek, Zuzanna

    2016-11-01

    By studying the internal compartmentalization of metals in different subcellular fractions we are able to better understand the mechanisms of metal accumulation in organisms and the transfer of metals through trophic chains. We investigated the internal compartmentalization of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) larvae by breeding them in flour contaminated with either Cd at 100, 300 and 600mgkg(-1), or Zn at 1000 and 2000mgkg(-1). We separated the cellular components of the larvae into 3 fractions: the S1 or cytosolic fraction containing organelles, heat-sensitive and heat-stable proteins, the S2 or cellular debris fraction and the G or metal-rich granule fraction. The concentration of Cd and Zn in each fraction was measured at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days of being fed the flour. The concentration of Cd in the flour affected the concentration of Cd measured in each larval subcellular fraction (p≤0.0001), while the concentration of Zn in the flour only affected the Zn concentration in the S2 and G fractions (p≤0.02). Both Cd and Zn concentrations in mealworms remained relatively constant during the exposure (days 7, 14 and 21) in all three fractions, but the Cd concentrations were much higher than those found in larvae before the exposure (day 0). The concentration of Cd in the flour, however, did not affect the percentage of Cd in the S1 fraction. The contribution of Cd in the G fraction to the total Cd amount was similar (30-40%) in all Cd treatments. The percentage of Zn in all three fractions was not affected by the concentration of Zn in the flour and the relative contributions of each subcellular fraction to the total burden of Zn remained generally constant for both control and treated larvae. In general, larvae sequestered approximately 30% of Cd and Zn in the S1 fraction, which is important for the transport of metals to higher trophic levels in a food web. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Active site characterization and molecular cloning of Tenebrio molitor midgut trehalase and comments on their insect homologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Ana; Cardoso, Christiane; Genta, Fernando A; Terra, Walter R; Ferreira, Clélia

    2013-08-01

    The soluble midgut trehalase from Tenebrio molitor (TmTre1) was purified after several chromatographic steps, resulting in an enzyme with 58 kDa and pH optimum 5.3 (ionizing active groups in the free enzyme: pK(e1) = 3.8 ± 0.2 pK(e2) = 7.4 ± 0.2). The purified enzyme corresponds to the deduced amino acid sequence of a cloned cDNA (TmTre1-cDNA), because a single cDNA coding a soluble trehalase was found in the T. molitor midgut transcriptome. Furthermore, the mass of the protein predicted to be coded by TmTre1-cDNA agrees with that of the purified enzyme. TmTre1 has the essential catalytic groups Asp 315 and Glu 513 and the essential Arg residues R164, R217, R282. Carbodiimide inactivation of the purified enzyme at different pH values reveals an essential carboxyl group with pKa = 3.5 ± 0.3. Phenylglyoxal modified a single Arg residue with pKa = 7.5 ± 0.2, as observed in the soluble trehalase from Spodoptera frugiperda (SfTre1). Diethylpyrocarbonate modified a His residue that resulted in a less active enzyme with pK(e1) changed to 4.8 ± 0.2. In TmTre1 the modified His residue (putatively His 336) is more exposed than the His modified in SfTre1 (putatively His 210) and that affects the ionization of an Arg residue. The architecture of the active site of TmTre1 and SfTre1 is different, as shown by multiple inhibition analysis, the meaning of which demands further research. Trehalase sequences obtained from midgut transcriptomes (pyrosequencing and Illumina data) from 8 insects pertaining to 5 different orders were used in a cladogram, together with other representative sequences. The data suggest that the trehalase gene went duplication and divergence prior to the separation of the paraneopteran and holometabolan orders and that the soluble trehalase derived from the membrane-bound one by losing the C-terminal transmembrane loop. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of temperature on growth and metabolic rate in the tenebrionid beetles Alphitobius diaperinus and Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørge, Julie Dahl; Overgaard, Johannes; Malte, Hans; Gianotten, Natasja; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

    2018-03-10

    Insects are increasingly used as a dietary source for food and feed and it is therefore important to understand how rearing conditions affect growth and development of these agricultural animals. Temperature is arguably the most important factor affecting metabolism and growth rate in insects. Here, we investigated how rearing temperature affected growth rate, growth efficiency and macronutrient composition in two species of edible beetle larvae: Alphitobius diaperinus and Tenebrio molitor. Growth rates of both species were quantified at temperatures ranging from 15.2 to 38.0 °C after which we measured protein and lipid content of the different treatment groups. Metabolic rate was measured in a similar temperature range by measuring the rate of O 2 consumption (V·O 2 ) and CO 2 production (V·CO 2 ) using repeated measures closed respirometry. Using these measurements, we calculated the growth efficiency of mealworms by relating the energy assimilation rate to the metabolic rate. Maximum daily growth rates were 18.3% and 16.6% at 31 °C, for A. diaperinus and T. molitor respectively, and we found that A. diaperinus was better at maintaining growth at high temperatures while T. molitor had superior growth at lower temperatures. Both species had highest efficiencies of energy assimilation in the temperature range of 23.3-31.0 °C, with values close to 2 J assimilated/J metabolised in A. diaperinus and around 4 J assimilated/J metabolised in T. molitor. Compared to "conventional" terrestrial livestock, both species of insects were characterised by high growth rates and very high energy conversion efficiency at most experimental temperatures. For A. diaperinus, lipid content was approximately 30% of dry mass and protein content approximately 50% of dry mass across most temperatures. Temperature had a greater influence on the body composition of T. molitor. At 31.0 °C the lipid and protein content was measured to 47.4% and 37.9%, respectively but lipid

  12. Transcriptome profiling of the intoxication response of Tenebrio molitor larvae to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa protoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Oppert

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt crystal (Cry proteins are effective against a select number of insect pests, but improvements are needed to increase efficacy and decrease time to mortality for coleopteran pests. To gain insight into the Bt intoxication process in Coleoptera, we performed RNA-Seq on cDNA generated from the guts of Tenebrio molitor larvae that consumed either a control diet or a diet containing Cry3Aa protoxin. Approximately 134,090 and 124,287 sequence reads from the control and Cry3Aa-treated groups were assembled into 1,318 and 1,140 contigs, respectively. Enrichment analyses indicated that functions associated with mitochondrial respiration, signalling, maintenance of cell structure, membrane integrity, protein recycling/synthesis, and glycosyl hydrolases were significantly increased in Cry3Aa-treated larvae, whereas functions associated with many metabolic processes were reduced, especially glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and fatty acid synthesis. Microarray analysis was used to evaluate temporal changes in gene expression after 6, 12 or 24 h of Cry3Aa exposure. Overall, microarray analysis indicated that transcripts related to allergens, chitin-binding proteins, glycosyl hydrolases, and tubulins were induced, and those related to immunity and metabolism were repressed in Cry3Aa-intoxicated larvae. The 24 h microarray data validated most of the RNA-Seq data. Of the three intoxication intervals, larvae demonstrated more differential expression of transcripts after 12 h exposure to Cry3Aa. Gene expression examined by three different methods in control vs. Cry3Aa-treated larvae at the 24 h time point indicated that transcripts encoding proteins with chitin-binding domain 3 were the most differentially expressed in Cry3Aa-intoxicated larvae. Overall, the data suggest that T. molitor larvae mount a complex response to Cry3Aa during the initial 24 h of intoxication. Data from this study represent the largest genetic sequence

  13. Effects of dietary Tenebrio molitor meal on the growth performance, immune response and disease resistance of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jingzhi; Gong, Yulong; Cao, Shenping; Lu, Fei; Han, Dong; Liu, Haokun; Jin, Junyan; Yang, Yunxia; Zhu, Xiaoming; Xie, Shouqi

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of diets containing mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) meal in partial substitution of fishmeal on growth performance and immune responses of juvenile yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). Four diets were formulated to contain 0 (the control diet), 9, 18 and 27 g mealworm meal per 100 g diet with 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% of fishmeal replacement, respectively. Yellow catfish were randomly divided into 4 groups with 3 replicates in each group. The fish in each group were fed with one of the four experimental diets for 5 weeks. Growth performance, plasma parameters (SOD, MDA, IgM, C3, lysozyme) and immune related genes (MHC II, IL-1, CypA, IgM, HE) of yellow catfish were determined at the end of the feeding trial, as well as 24 h post bacterial (Edwardsiella ictaluri) challenge. The present results showed that dietary inclusion of mealworm meal (MW) had no negative effects on the growth performance of the juvenile yellow catfish, compared to the control group. At the end of the feeding trial, plasma MDA contents of MW supplemented groups were significant lower than the control group. Plasma SOD activities increased significantly with the increasing dietary MW contents at the end of feeding trial (pre-challenge) and 24 h post challenge with E. ictaluri. Significant increase of plasma lysozyme activity was found in MW supplemented groups compared to the control group 24 h post bacterial challenge. Plasma IgM levels increased significantly with the increasing dietary MW contents at the end of feeding trial. Compared with the control group, the immune related genes of MHC II, IL-1, IgM and HE of the fish in the MW supplemented groups significantly upregulated pre-challenge or 24 h post bacterial challenge. Finally, it was observed that the survival rate of the 27% MW group was significant higher (P < 0.05) than the control group but was not significantly differed from the 18% MW group. The present results indicated that dietary

  14. Genetic and phenotypic relationships between immune defense, melanism and life-history traits at different temperatures and sexes in Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokkola, J; Roff, D; Kärkkäinen, T; Krams, I; Rantala, M J

    2013-08-01

    Insect cuticle melanism is linked to a number of life-history traits, and a positive relationship is hypothesized between melanism and the strength of immune defense. In this study, the phenotypic and genetic relationships between cuticular melanization, innate immune defense, individual development time and body size were studied in the mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) using three different temperatures with a half-sib breeding design. Both innate immune defense and cuticle darkness were higher in females than males, and a positive correlation between the traits was found at the lowest temperature. The effect of temperature on all the measured traits was strong, with encapsulation ability and development time decreasing and cuticle darkness increasing with a rise in temperature, and body size showing a curved response. The analysis showed a highly integrated system sensitive to environmental change involving physiological, morphological and life-history traits.

  15. Intraventricular administration of Tenebrio molitor larvae extract regulates food intake and body weight in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Minchul; Kim, Jongwan; Moon, Seong-Su; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Kim, Mi-Ae

    2017-08-01

    We recently reported the in vitro and in vivo antiobesity effects of Tenebrio molitor larvae, a traditional food in many countries, but it remains unknown how the larvae affect appetite regulation in mice with diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that the extract of T molitor larvae mediates appetite by regulating neuropeptide expression. We investigated T molitor larvae extract's (TME's) effects on anorexigenesis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced orexigenic neuropeptide expression in the hypothalami of obese mice. Intracerebroventricular TME administration suppressed feeding by down-regulating the expression of the orexigenic neuropeptides neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein. T molitor larvae extract significantly reduced the expression of ER stress response genes. These results suggest that TME and its bioactive components are potential therapeutics for obesity and ER stress-driven disease states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Tenebrio molitor GPI-anchored alkaline phosphatase is involved in binding of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa to brush border membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga-Navarrete, Fernando; Gómez, Isabel; Peña, Guadalupe; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2013-03-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins recognizes their target cells in part by the binding to glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) anchored proteins such as aminopeptidase-N (APN) or alkaline phosphatases (ALP). Treatment of Tenebrio molitor brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) with phospholipase C that cleaves out GPI-anchored proteins from the membranes, showed that GPI-anchored proteins are involved in binding of Cry3Aa toxin to BBMV. A 68 kDa GPI-anchored ALP was shown to bind Cry3Aa by toxin overlay assays. The 68 kDa GPI-anchored ALP was preferentially expressed in early instar larvae in comparison to late instar larvae. Our work shows for the first time that GPI-anchored ALP is important for Cry3Aa binding to T. molitor BBMV suggesting that the mode of action of Cry toxins is conserved in different insect orders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Density-dependent prophylaxis in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): cuticular melanization is an indicator of investment in immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, A I; Siva-Jothy, M T

    2000-01-01

    If there are costs involved with the maintenance of pathogen resistance, then higher investment in this trait is expected when the risk of pathogenesis is high. One situation in which the risk of pathogenesis is elevated is at increased conspecific density. This paper reports the results of a study of density-dependent polyphenism in pathogen resistance and immune function in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor. Beetles reared at high larval densities showed lower mortality when exposed to a generalist entomopathogenic fungus and a higher degree of cuticular melanization than those reared solitarily. The degree of cuticular melanization was a strong indicator of resistance, with darker beetles being more resistant than lighter ones regardless of rearing density. No differences were found between rearing densities in the levels of phenoloxidase, an enzyme key to the insect immune response. The results show that pathogen resistance is phenotypically plastic in T. molitor, suggesting that the maintenance of this trait is costly. PMID:10687824

  18. The influence of a static, homogenous magnetic field (B=320mT) on extracardiac pulsations of Tenebrio molitor pupae (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vácha, M

    1997-10-01

    While investigating and describing interactions among living organisms and magnetic fields (MFs) it is imperative to lay great emphasis on independent reproducibility of published experimental results. Mutual confrontation of existing theoretical models with reliable data obtained under comparable conditions can aid gradual mapping of this hitherto badly organized and understood discipline of biology. The objective of our experiment, based on analysing extracardiac pulsations of the pupae of Tenebrio molitor under the influence of a MF, was to verify published data on allegedly accelerated development induced by a MF employing a different procedure. The obtained data are in agreement with a hypothesis of increased pupal metabolism during the period of MF activity. Furthermore, some dependence on the age of the pupae cannot be ruled out.

  19. Pengaruh pemberian pakan berupa campuran pelet ikan, ulat tepung (Tenebrio molitor, dan ganggang merah (Gracilaria foliifera terhadap pertumbuhan dan kelulushidupan ikan sidat (Anguilla bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD A. AZIZ HENDITAMA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Henditama MAA, Harini M, Budiharjo A. 2015. The effect of giving mixtured feed of fish pellet, mealworm (Tenebrio molitor and red algae (Gracilaria foliifera to the growth and survival rate of eel (Anguilla bicolor. Bioteknologi 12: 22-28. High demand of eels (Anguilla bicolor in the world has not followed by the capability of domestic production. The purpose of this research are to determine the effect and the precise composition of the feed mixture in the form of fish pellets, mealworms (Tenebrio molitor, red algae (Gracilaria foliifera to the growth and survival rate of eels. This research used completely randomized design with four variations of mixtured feed in the form of fish pellet, mealworms, and red algae specifically P1 (100% ; 0% ; 0%, P2 (75% ; 20% ; 5%, P3 (50% ; 45% ; 5%, P4 (25% ; 70% ; 5%. This research also has been done in 90 days with feeding in twice a day. The data of growth, survival rate, and water quality was collected once a week. The data result has been analized by ANOVA. The data result showed that have a real different to continue to the next analysis of DMRT with test level 5% to locate the differences between treatments. The eels growth after feeding a mixture feed in the form of fish pellets, mealworms, and red alga, specifically: P1 (K 26.3167 gram; P2 20.3167 gram; P3 28.2500 gram; and P4 22.0000 gram. The eels survival rate, specifically P1 (K 26.67%; P2 33.33%; P3 30%; dan P4 26.67%. Furthemore, the exact composition that give the best effect of growth and survival rate to eels is 50% fish pellets, 45% mealworms and 5% red alga.

  20. Microbial electrosynthetic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Harold D.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Labelle, Edward V.

    2018-01-30

    Methods are provided for microbial electrosynthesis of H.sub.2 and organic compounds such as methane and acetate. Method of producing mature electrosynthetic microbial populations by continuous culture is also provided. Microbial populations produced in accordance with the embodiments as shown to efficiently synthesize H.sub.2, methane and acetate in the presence of CO.sub.2 and a voltage potential. The production of biodegradable and renewable plastics from electricity and carbon dioxide is also disclosed.

  1. La « marmitte renversée » : construction discursive et fonctionnement argumentatif d’une insulte dans les polémiques des guerres de religion (1560-1600 The “Overturned Pot”: Discursive Construction and Polemic Use of an Insult during the French Religious Wars (1560-1600

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Alexis Mellet

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available L’article propose de montrer comment le motif de la marmite, courant dans la culture de la Renaissance, se spécialise dans un sens politique pour constituer une insulte dans le contexte précis de la polémique opposant pamphlets catholiques et protestants pendant les guerres de religion. En effet, le motif de la marmite, objet central de la cuisine, condense héritage biblique (Ezechiel XI et XXIV, tradition littéraire (Plaute et culture populaire (telle que Rabelais s’en fait l’écho, pour constituer une critique des présumés péchés du clergé (concupiscence, gourmandise, pacte avec le diable, etc.. A travers l’étude de plusieurs pamphlets (Thomas Beaux-Amis, Théodore de Bèze, etc. se répondant dans le cadre d’une polémique centrée sur les rites chrétiens, nous mettons en évidence la dynamique discursive permettant la réappropriation du motif dans une valeur d’insulte. Nous étudions en particulier les processus argumentatifs utilisés au fil des pamphlets par chaque camp pour renvoyer l’insulte à l’autre. Il est alors possible de suivre le cheminement discursif de la construction d’une insulte. Il s’agit enfin de souligner la force argumentative de l’image satirique dont la fonction est bien sûr pour les deux Eglises de conforter la confession et pour les catholiques d’éviter la conversion au protestantisme.This article shows how the motif of the cooking pot, recurrent in Renaissance culture, was, in the particular context of the polemics which raged between Catholic and Protestant pamphleteers during the French religious wars, converted into an elaborate political insult. A central element of culinary life, the cooking pot was also loaded with biblical heritage (Ezekiel 11 and 24, literary tradition (Plautus and popular culture (such as that propounded by Rabelais, which made of it a concise symbol of the supposed sins of the clergy (concupiscence, gourmandise, pact with the devil, etc.. Through the

  2. Evidence for heterogeneity of astrocyte de-differentiation in vitro: astrocytes transform into intermediate precursor cells following induction of ACM from scratch-insulted astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Qian, Xin-Hong; Cong, Rui; Li, Jing-wen; Yao, Qin; Jiao, Xi-Ying; Ju, Gong; You, Si-Wei

    2010-04-01

    Our previous study definitely demonstrated that the mature astrocytes could undergo a de-differentiation process and further transform into pluripotential neural stem cells (NSCs), which might well arise from the effect of diffusible factors released from scratch-insulted astrocytes. However, these neurospheres passaged from one neurosphere-derived from de-differentiated astrocytes possessed a completely distinct characteristic in the differentiation behavior, namely heterogeneity of differentiation. The heterogeneity in cell differentiation has become a crucial but elusive issue. In this study, we show that purified astrocytes could de-differentiate into intermediate precursor cells (IPCs) with addition of scratch-insulted astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM) to the culture, which can express NG2 and A2B5, the IPCs markers. Apart from the number of NG2(+) and A2B5(+) cells, the percentage of proliferative cells as labeled with BrdU progressively increased with prolonged culture period ranging from 1 to 10 days. Meanwhile, the protein level of A2B5 in cells also increased significantly. These results revealed that not all astrocytes could de-differentiate fully into NSCs directly when induced by ACM, rather they generated intermediate or more restricted precursor cells that might undergo progressive de-differentiation to generate NSCs.

  3. Microbial accumulation of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Dong Faqin; Dai Qunwei

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of microbial accumulation of uranium and the effects of some factors (including pH, initial uranium concentration, pretreatment of bacteria, and so on) on microbial accumulation of uranium are discussed briefly. The research direction and application prospect are presented. (authors)

  4. MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A novel microbial fuel cell construction for the generation of electrical energy. The microbial fuel cell comprises: (i) an anode electrode, (ii) a cathode chamber, said cathode chamber comprising an in let through which an influent enters the cathode chamber, an outlet through which an effluent...

  5. Microbial control of pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, J C; Gadd, G M; Herbert, R A; Jones, C W; Watson-Craik, I A [eds.

    1992-01-01

    12 papers are presented on the microbial control of pollution. Topics covered include: bioremediation of oil spills; microbial control of heavy metal pollution; pollution control using microorganisms and magnetic separation; degradation of cyanide and nitriles; nitrogen removal from water and waste; and land reclamation and restoration.

  6. Evolution of microbial pathogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DiRita, Victor J; Seifert, H. Steven

    2006-01-01

    ... A. Hogan vvi ■ CONTENTS 8. Evolution of Pathogens in Soil Rachel Muir and Man-Wah Tan / 131 9. Experimental Models of Symbiotic Host-Microbial Relationships: Understanding the Underpinnings of ...

  7. Synthetic Electric Microbial Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-10

    domains and DNA-binding domains into a single protein for deregulation of down stream genes of have been favored [10]. Initially experiments with... Germany DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited.   Talk title: “Synthetic biology based microbial biosensors for the...toolbox” in Heidelberg, Germany Poster title: “Anaerobic whole cell microbial biosensors” Link: http://phdsymposium.embl.org/#home   September, 2014

  8. Microbial bioinformatics 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallen, Mark J

    2016-09-01

    Microbial bioinformatics in 2020 will remain a vibrant, creative discipline, adding value to the ever-growing flood of new sequence data, while embracing novel technologies and fresh approaches. Databases and search strategies will struggle to cope and manual curation will not be sustainable during the scale-up to the million-microbial-genome era. Microbial taxonomy will have to adapt to a situation in which most microorganisms are discovered and characterised through the analysis of sequences. Genome sequencing will become a routine approach in clinical and research laboratories, with fresh demands for interpretable user-friendly outputs. The "internet of things" will penetrate healthcare systems, so that even a piece of hospital plumbing might have its own IP address that can be integrated with pathogen genome sequences. Microbiome mania will continue, but the tide will turn from molecular barcoding towards metagenomics. Crowd-sourced analyses will collide with cloud computing, but eternal vigilance will be the price of preventing the misinterpretation and overselling of microbial sequence data. Output from hand-held sequencers will be analysed on mobile devices. Open-source training materials will address the need for the development of a skilled labour force. As we boldly go into the third decade of the twenty-first century, microbial sequence space will remain the final frontier! © 2016 The Author. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Tenebrio molitor Larvae Inhibit Adipogenesis through AMPK and MAPKs Signaling in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and Obesity in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Minchul; Goo, Tae-Won; Chung, Mi Yeon; Baek, Minhee; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Kim, Mi-Ae; Yun, Eun-Young

    2017-02-28

    Despite the increasing interest in insect-based bioactive products, the biological activities of these products are rarely studied adequately. Larvae of Tenebrio molitor , the yellow mealworm, have been eaten as a traditional food and provide many health benefits. Therefore, we hypothesized that T. molitor larvae might influence adipogenesis and obesity-related disorders. In the present study, we investigated the anti-adipogenic and antiobesity effects of T. molitor larvae in vitro and in vivo. The lipid accumulation and triglyceride content in mature adipocytes was reduced significantly (up to 90%) upon exposure to an ethanol extract of T. molitor larvae, without a reduction in cell viability. Exposure also resulted in key adipogenic and lipogenic transcription factors. Additionally, in adipogenic differentiation medium the extract induced phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Daily oral administration of T. molitor larvae powder to obese mice fed high-fat diet attenuated body weight gain. We also found that the powder efficiently reduced hepatic steatosis as well as aspartate and alanine transaminase enzyme levels in mice fed a high-fat diet. Our results suggest that T. molitor larvae extract has an antiobesity effect when administered as a food supplement and has potential as a therapeutic agent for obesity.

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of autophagy-related gene TmATG8 in Listeria-invaded hemocytes of Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindwa, Hamisi; Jo, Yong Hun; Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Lee, Yong Seok; Kang, Sang Sun; Han, Yeon Soo

    2015-07-01

    Macroautophagy (hereinafter called autophagy) is a highly regulated process used by eukaryotic cells to digest portions of the cytoplasm that remodels and recycles nutrients and disposes of unwanted cytoplasmic constituents. Currently 36 autophagy-related genes (ATG) and their homologs have been characterized in yeast and higher eukaryotes, including insects. In the present study, we identified and functionally characterized the immune function of an ATG8 homolog in a coleopteran insect, Tenebrio molitor (TmATG8). The cDNA of TmATG8 comprises of an ORF of 363 bp that encodes a protein of 120 amino acid residues. TmATG8 transcripts are detected in all the developmental stages analyzed. TmAtg8 protein contains a highly conserved C-terminal glycine residue (Gly116) and shows high amino acid sequence identity (98%) to its Tribolium castaneum homolog, TcAtg8. Loss of function of TmATG8 by RNAi led to a significant increase in the mortality rates of T. molitor larvae against Listeria monocytogenes. Unlike dsEGFP-treated control larvae, TmATG8-silenced larvae failed to turn-on autophagy in hemocytes after injection with L. monocytogenes. These data suggest that TmATG8 play a role in mediating autophagy-based clearance of Listeria in T. molitor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. TmCactin plays an important role in Gram-negative and -positive bacterial infection by regulating expression of 7 AMP genes in Tenebrio molitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yong Hun; Jung Kim, Yu; Beom Park, Ki; Hwan Seong, Jeong; Gon Kim, Soo; Park, Soyi; Young Noh, Mi; Seok Lee, Yong; Soo Han, Yeon

    2017-01-01

    Cactin was originally identified as an interactor of the Drosophila IκB factor Cactus and shown to play a role in controlling embryonic polarity and regulating the NF-κB signaling pathway. While subsequent studies have identified the roles for Cactin in the mammalian immune response, the immune function of Cactin in insects has not been described yet. Here, we identified a Cactin gene from the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (TmCactin) and characterized its functional role in innate immunity. TmCactin was highly expressed in prepupa to last instar stages, and its expression was high in the integument and Malpighian tubules of last instar larvae and adults. TmCactin was induced in larvae after infection with different pathogens and detectable within 3 hours of infection. The highest levels of TmCactin expression were detected at 9 hours post infection. TmCactin RNAi significantly decreased the survival rates of larvae after challenge with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, but had no significant effect after challenge with Candida albicans. Furthermore, TmCactin RNAi significantly reduced the expression of seven antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs) after bacterial challenge. Our results suggest that TmCactin may serve as an important regulator of innate immunity, mediating AMP responses against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in T. molitor. PMID:28418029

  12. Tobacco plants transformed with the bean. alpha. ai gene express an inhibitor of insect. alpha. -amylase in their seeds. [Nicotiana tabacum; Tenebrio molitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altabella, T.; Chrispeels, M.J. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds contain a putative plant defense protein that inhibits insect and mammalian but not plant {alpha}-amylases. We recently presented strong circumstantial evidence that this {alpha}-amylase inhibitor ({alpha}Al) is encoded by an already-identified lectin gene whose product is referred to as lectin-like-protein (LLP). We have now made a chimeric gene consisting of the coding sequence of the lectin gene that encodes LLP and the 5{prime} and 3{prime} flanking sequences of the lectin gene that encodes phytohemagglutinin-L. When this chimeric gene was expressed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), we observed in the seeds a series of polypeptides (M{sub r} 10,000-18,000) that cross-react with antibodies to the bean {alpha}-amylase inhibitor. Most of these polypeptides bind to a pig pancreas {alpha}-amylase affinity column. An extract of the seeds of the transformed tobacco plants inhibits pig pancreas {alpha}-amylase activity as well as the {alpha}-amylase present in the midgut of Tenebrio molitor. We suggest that introduction of this lectin gene (to be called {alpha}ai) into other leguminous plants may be a strategy to protect the seeds from the seed-eating larvae of Coleoptera.

  13. Tenebrio molitor Larvae Inhibit Adipogenesis through AMPK and MAPKs Signaling in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and Obesity in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minchul Seo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing interest in insect-based bioactive products, the biological activities of these products are rarely studied adequately. Larvae of Tenebrio molitor, the yellow mealworm, have been eaten as a traditional food and provide many health benefits. Therefore, we hypothesized that T. molitor larvae might influence adipogenesis and obesity-related disorders. In the present study, we investigated the anti-adipogenic and antiobesity effects of T. molitor larvae in vitro and in vivo. The lipid accumulation and triglyceride content in mature adipocytes was reduced significantly (up to 90% upon exposure to an ethanol extract of T. molitor larvae, without a reduction in cell viability. Exposure also resulted in key adipogenic and lipogenic transcription factors. Additionally, in adipogenic differentiation medium the extract induced phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP-activated protein kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Daily oral administration of T. molitor larvae powder to obese mice fed high-fat diet attenuated body weight gain. We also found that the powder efficiently reduced hepatic steatosis as well as aspartate and alanine transaminase enzyme levels in mice fed a high-fat diet. Our results suggest that T. molitor larvae extract has an antiobesity effect when administered as a food supplement and has potential as a therapeutic agent for obesity.

  14. Identification, molecular cloning and expression analysis of a HORMA domain containing Autophagy-related gene 13 (ATG13 from the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hee eLee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a process that is necessary during starvation as it replenishes metabolic precursors by eliminating damaged organelles. Autophagy is mediated by more than 35 autophagy-related (Atg proteins that manifest in the nucleation, elongation, and curving of autophagosome membrane. We isolated a homolog of an ATG13 gene from the transcriptome database of the larva of the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (designated as TmATG13. The sequence analysis showed that TmATG13 cDNA comprises of 1,176 bp open reading frame that encodes a protein of 391 amino acids. Analyses of the structure-specific features of TmAtg13 showed an intrinsically disordered middle and C-terminal region, rich in regulatory phosphorylation sites. The N-terminal Atg13 domain show a HORMA (Hop1, Rev7, and Mad2 fold containing conserved amino acid residues across the Atg13 orthologs in insects. qRT-PCR revealed that TmATG13 was expressed ubiquitously in all the developmental stages of insect. TmATG13 mRNA expression was high in fat body and gut of the larval and adult stages of the insect. During ovary development and maturation, the TmATG13 transcripts showed high expression until six days of development, followed by a significant decline. The prospective functions mediated by TmAtg13 during autophagy will be clarified by further studies in the near future.

  15. Potential of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as a bioassay probe for Metarhizium brunneum (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) activity against Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Anuja; Stafford, Kirby C

    2011-12-01

    The yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L., has been used to indicate qualitatively the presence of entomopathogenic fungi in the soil or as a model for evaluating stress and other factors on fungal activity. Although this beetle appears highly susceptible to many of these fungi, little quantitative information is available on the sensitivity of T. molitor to a specific fungus and, therefore, fungal presence or as an indicator for pathogenicity to other species. The purpose of this study was to establish the suitability of T. molitor larvae as a bioassay probe for Metarhizium brunneum for comparison against the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Nine concentrations of M. brunneum strain F52 ranging from 1.0 x 10(1) to 8.4 x 10(8) conidial/ml were simultaneously tested against T. molitor larvae and I. scapularis adults. Larvae of yellow mealworm were less sensitive to M. brunneum than I. scapularis adults (LC50's 4.4 x 10(7) and 1.7 x 10(5) conidia/ml, respectively, 4-wk post-treatment). The greater sensitivity of I. scapularis to the fungus suggests that the detection of fungal mycosis in mealworms would indicate sufficient inoculum to be pathogenic to I. scapularis and make this insect a suitable probe for evaluation of the presence and activity of M. brunneum against the blacklegged tick in field applications.

  16. Genomic organization, sequence characterization and expression analysis of Tenebrio molitor apolipophorin-III in response to an intracellular pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Ju Young; Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Tindwa, Hamisi; Seo, Gi Won; Kim, Dong Hyun; Patnaik, Hongray Howrelia; Jo, Yong Hun; Lee, Yong Seok; Lee, Bok Luel; Kim, Nam Jung; Han, Yeon Soo

    2014-01-25

    Apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) is a well-known hemolymph protein having a functional role in lipid transport and immune response of insects. We cloned full-length cDNA encoding putative apoLp-III from larvae of the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor (TmapoLp-III), by identification of clones corresponding to the partial sequence of TmapoLp-III, subsequently followed with full length sequencing by a clone-by-clone primer walking method. The complete cDNA consists of 890 nucleotides, including an ORF encoding 196 amino acid residues. Excluding a putative signal peptide of the first 20 amino acid residues, the 176-residue mature apoLp-III has a calculated molecular mass of 19,146Da. Genomic sequence analysis with respect to its cDNA showed that TmapoLp-III was organized into four exons interrupted by three introns. Several immune-related transcription factor binding sites were discovered in the putative 5'-flanking region. BLAST and phylogenetic analyses reveal that TmapoLp-III has high sequence identity (88%) with Tribolium castaneum apoLp-III but shares little sequence homologies (molitor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Silencing of a 14-3-3ɛ Homolog in Tenebrio molitor Leads to Increased Antimicrobial Activity in Hemocyte and Reduces Larval Survivability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Gi Won; Jo, Yong Hun; Seong, Jeong Hwan; Park, Ki Beom; Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Tindwa, Hamisi; Kim, Sun-Am; Lee, Yong Seok; Kim, Yu Jung; Han, Yeon Soo

    2016-08-20

    The 14-3-3 family of phosphorylated serine-binding proteins acts as signaling molecules in biological processes such as metabolism, division, differentiation, autophagy, and apoptosis. Herein, we report the requirement of 14-3-3ɛ isoform from Tenebrio molitor (Tm14-3-3ɛ) in the hemocyte antimicrobial activity. The Tm14-3-3ɛ transcript is 771 nucleotides in length and encodes a polypeptide of 256 amino acid residues. The protein has the typical 14-3-3 domain, the nuclear export signal (NES) sequence, and the peptide binding residues. The Tm14-3-3ɛ transcript shows a significant three-fold expression in the hemocyte of T. molitor larvae when infected with Escherichia coli Tm14-3-3ɛ silenced larvae show significantly lower survival rates when infected with E. coli. Under Tm14-3-3ɛ silenced condition, a strong antimicrobial activity is elicited in the hemocyte of the host inoculated with E. coli. This suggests impaired secretion of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) into the hemolymph. Furthermore, a reduction in AMP secretion under Tm14-3-3ɛ silenced condition would be responsible for loss in the capacity to kill bacteria and might explain the reduced survivability of the larvae upon E. coli challenge. This shows that Tm14-3-3ɛ is required to maintain innate immunity in T. molitor by enabling antimicrobial secretion into the hemolymph and explains the functional specialization of the isoform.

  18. Digestion of Starch Granules from Maize, Potato and Wheat by Larvae of the the Yellow Mealworm, Tenebrio molitor and the Mexican Bean Weevil, Zabrotes subfasciatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meireles, Elaine A.; Carneiro, Cíntia N. B.; DaMatta, Renato A.; Samuels, Richard I.; Silva, Carlos P.

    2009-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy images were taken of starch granules from different sources following exposure in vivo and in vitro to gut α-amylases isolated from Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Zabrotes subfasciatus Boheman (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). One α-amylase was isolated from whole larval midguts of T. molitor using non-denaturing SDS-PAGE, while two other α-amylase fractions were isolated from whole larval midguts of Z. subfasciatus using hydrophobic interaction chromatography., Digested starch granules from larvae fed on maize, potato or wheat were isolated from midgut contents. Combinations of starch granules with isolated α-amylases from both species showed similar patterns of granule degradation. In vitro enzymatic degradation of maize starch granules by the three different α-amylase fractions began by creating small holes and crater-like areas on the surface of the granules. Over time, these holes increased in number and area resulting in extensive degradation of the granule structure. Granules from potato did not show formation of pits and craters on their surface, but presented extensive erosion in their interior. For all types of starch, as soon as the interior of the starch granule was reached, the inner layers of amylose and amylopectin were differentially hydrolyzed, resulting in a striated pattern. These data support the hypothesis that the pattern of starch degradation depends more on the granule type than on the α-amylase involved. PMID:19619014

  19. Efficacy of condensed tannins against larval Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda) in vitro and in the intermediate host Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Suraj; Meyling, Nicolai V; Williams, Andrew R; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Fryganas, Christos; Kapel, Christian M O; Fredensborg, Brian L

    2015-01-15

    Natural anti-parasitic compounds in plants such as condensed tannins (CT) have anthelmintic properties against a range of gastrointestinal nematodes, but for other helminths such effects are unexplored. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of CT from three different plant extracts in a model system employing the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, in its intermediate host, Tenebrio molitor. An in vitro study examined infectivity of H. diminuta cysticercoids (excystation success) isolated from infected beetles exposed to different concentrations of CT extracts from pine bark (PB) (Pinus sps), hazelnut pericarp (HN) (Corylus avellana) or white clover flowers (WC) (Trifolium repens), in comparison with the anthelmintic drug praziquantel (positive control). In the in vitro study, praziquantel and CT from all three plant extracts had dose-dependent inhibitory effects on cysticercoid excystation. The HN extract was most effective at inhibiting excystation, followed by PB and WC. An in vivo study was carried out on infected beetles (measured as cysticercoid establishment) fed different doses of PB, HN and praziquantel. There was a highly significant inhibitory effect of HN on cysticercoid development (p=0.0002). Overall, CT showed a promising anti-cestodal effect against the metacestode stage of H. diminuta. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin domain II loop 1 as the binding site of Tenebrio molitor cadherin repeat CR12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga-Navarrete, Fernando; Gómez, Isabel; Peña, Guadalupe; Amaro, Itzel; Ortíz, Ernesto; Becerril, Baltazar; Ibarra, Jorge E; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins exert their toxic effect by specific recognition of larval midgut proteins leading to oligomerization of the toxin, membrane insertion and pore formation. The exposed domain II loop regions of Cry toxins have been shown to be involved in receptor binding. Insect cadherins have shown to be functionally involved in toxin binding facilitating toxin oligomerization. Here, we isolated a VHH (VHHA5) antibody by phage display that binds Cry3Aa loop 1 and competed with the binding of Cry3Aa to Tenebrio molitor brush border membranes. VHHA5 also competed with the binding of Cry3Aa to a cadherin fragment (CR12) that was previously shown to be involved in binding and toxicity of Cry3Aa, indicating that Cry3Aa binds CR12 through domain II loop 1. Moreover, we show that a loop 1 mutant, previously characterized to have increased toxicity to T. molitor, displayed a correlative enhanced binding affinity to T. molitor CR12 and to VHHA5. These results show that Cry3Aa domain II loop 1 is a binding site of CR12 T. molitor cadherin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Silencing of a 14-3-3ɛ Homolog in Tenebrio molitor Leads to Increased Antimicrobial Activity in Hemocyte and Reduces Larval Survivability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi Won Seo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The 14-3-3 family of phosphorylated serine-binding proteins acts as signaling molecules in biological processes such as metabolism, division, differentiation, autophagy, and apoptosis. Herein, we report the requirement of 14-3-3ɛ isoform from Tenebrio molitor (Tm14-3-3ɛ in the hemocyte antimicrobial activity. The Tm14-3-3ɛ transcript is 771 nucleotides in length and encodes a polypeptide of 256 amino acid residues. The protein has the typical 14-3-3 domain, the nuclear export signal (NES sequence, and the peptide binding residues. The Tm14-3-3ɛ transcript shows a significant three-fold expression in the hemocyte of T. molitor larvae when infected with Escherichia coli Tm14-3-3ɛ silenced larvae show significantly lower survival rates when infected with E. coli. Under Tm14-3-3ɛ silenced condition, a strong antimicrobial activity is elicited in the hemocyte of the host inoculated with E. coli. This suggests impaired secretion of antimicrobial peptides (AMP into the hemolymph. Furthermore, a reduction in AMP secretion under Tm14-3-3ɛ silenced condition would be responsible for loss in the capacity to kill bacteria and might explain the reduced survivability of the larvae upon E. coli challenge. This shows that Tm14-3-3ɛ is required to maintain innate immunity in T. molitor by enabling antimicrobial secretion into the hemolymph and explains the functional specialization of the isoform.

  2. Effects of host nutrition on virulence and fitness of entomopathogenic nematodes: Lipid- and protein-based supplements in Tenebrio molitor diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David; Rojas, M. Guadalupe; Morales-Ramos, Juan A.; Lewis, Edwin E.; Tedders, W. Louis

    2008-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes, Heterorhabditis indica and Steinernema riobrave, were tested for virulence and reproductive yield in Tenebrio molitor that were fed wheat bran diets with varying lipid- and protein-based supplements. Lipid supplements were based on 20% canola oil, peanut, pork or salmon, or a low lipid control (5% canola). Protein treatments consisted of basic supplement ingredients plus 0, 10, or 20% egg white; a bran-only control was also included. Some diet supplements had positive effects on nematode quality, whereas others had negative or neutral effects. All supplements with 20% lipids except canola oil caused increased T. molitor susceptibility to H. indica, whereas susceptibility to S. riobrave was not affected. Protein supplements did not affect host susceptibility, and neither lipid nor protein diet supplements affected reproductive capacity of either nematode species. Subsequently, we determined the pest control efficacy of progeny of nematodes that had been reared through T. molitor from different diets against Diaprepes abbreviatus and Otiorhynchus sulcatus. All nematode treatments reduced insect survival relative to the control (water only). Nematodes originating from T. molitor diets with the 0% or 20% protein exhibited lower efficacy versus D. abbreviatus than the intermediate level of protein (10%) or bran-only treatments. Nematodes originating from T. molitor lipid or control diets did not differ in virulence. Our research indicates that nutritional content of an insect host diet can affect host susceptibility to entomopathogenic nematodes and nematode fitness; therefore, host media could conceivably be optimized to increase in vivo nematode production efficiency. PMID:19259513

  3. Feasibility of feeding yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) in bioregenerative life support systems as a source of animal protein for humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, LeYuan; Zhao, ZhiRuo; Liu, Hong

    2013-11-01

    In bioregenerative life support systems, using inedible plant biomass to feed animals can provide animal protein for astronauts, while at the same time treating with wastes so as to increase the degree of system closure. In this study, the potential of yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) as an animal candidate in the system was analyzed. The feasibility of feeding T. molitor with inedible parts of wheat and vegetable was studied. To improve the feed quality of wheat straw, three methods of fermentation were tested. A feeding regime was designed to contain a proper proportion of bran, straw and old leaves. The results showed that T. molitor larvae fed on the plant waste diets grew healthily, their fresh and dry weight reached 56.15% and 46.76% of the larvae fed on a conventional diet (control), respectively. The economic coefficient of the larvae was 16.07%, which was 88.05% of the control. The protein and fat contents of the larvae were 76.14% and 6.44% on dry weigh basis, respectively. Through the processes of facultative anaerobic fermentation and larval consumption, the straw lost about 47.79% of the initial dry weight, and its lignocellulose had a degradation of about 45.74%. Wheat germination test indicated that the frass of T. molitor needs a certain treatment before the addition to the cultivation substrate.

  4. Ganho de peso e comportamento de oviposição de Podisus nigrispinus utilizando lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda e larvas de Tenebrio molitor como presas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Harley Nonato de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho avaliou o efeito de diferentes presas e da combinação destas sobre percevejo Podisus nigrispinus. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos e 60 repetições. No tratamento um (T1, os percevejos receberam como alimento, lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda, de 4o estádio, durante todo o seu ciclo de vida, no tratamento dois (T2, larvas de Tenebrio molitor, também durante o todo ciclo, enquanto que, no tratamento três (T3, foram oferecidas lagartas de S. frugiperda do 2masculine ao 4masculine estádios, e larvas de T. molitor do 4masculine estádio até o final do ciclo de vida. O ganho de peso em todas as fases ninfais e em adultos de até terceiro dia mostrou valores semelhantes de incremento, para todas as dietas utilizadas. No entanto, para os percevejos alimentados, com S. frugiperda (T1, observaram-se uma maior produção de ovos num menor período, com 80% dos ovos até 31masculine dia, enquanto que, no tratamento com larvas de T. molitor (T2, os mesmos 80% foram conseguidos somente no 45masculine dia, e no tratamento com a combinação de presas (T3, no 48masculine dia.

  5. 浮萍饲喂黄粉虫的效益分析%Effects and profits of feeding Tenebrio molitor with Lemna minor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑燕玲; 赖锦洪; 杨靖; 谢思; 羊海军

    2015-01-01

    以传统饲料配方为对照,测试添加不同用量浮萍(Lemna minor)对黄粉虫(Tenebrio molitor)幼虫生长发育及蛋白、粗脂肪含量等指标的影响.结果表明,黄粉虫幼虫对新鲜浮萍适口性良好;新鲜浮萍投饲比例大于80%,对黄粉虫幼虫的生长发育有阻滞,但对其蛋白、粗脂肪含量无显著影响(P>0.05);以鲜浮萍∶麦麸质量百分比为65%∶35%配置,可使饲料成本降低33.95%,且不影响黄粉虫的饲喂周期、产量和质量.利用新鲜浮萍饲喂黄粉虫幼虫是可行的,通过构建“浮萍-黄粉虫”食物链,可显著降低养殖成本,增加经济效益和生态效益,促进黄粉虫养殖行业发展.

  6. Safety assessment of freeze-dried powdered Tenebrio molitor larvae (yellow mealworm) as novel food source: Evaluation of 90-day toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, So-Ri; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Jung, Kyung-Jin; Yu, Hee-Jin; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Moon, Kyoung-Sik

    2016-06-01

    Worldwide demand for novel food source has grown and edible insects are a promising food sources for humans. Tenebrio molitor, as known as yellow mealworm, has advantages of being rich in protein, and easy to raise as a novel food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate subchronic toxicity, including potential hypersensitivity, of freeze-dried powdered T. molitor larvae (fdTML) in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The fdTML was administered orally once daily at dose levels of 0, 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg/day for 90 days. A toxicological assessment was performed, which included mortality, clinical signs, body and organ weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum chemistry, gross findings, histopathologic examination and allergic reaction. There were no fdTML- related findings in clinical signs, urinalysis, hematology and serum chemistry, gross examination, histopathologic examination or allergic reaction. In conclusion, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for fdTML was determined to be in excess of 3000 mg/kg/day in both sexes of rats under the experimental conditions of this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rearing Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleptera: Tenebrionidae) in the "Lunar Palace 1" during a 105-day multi-crew closed integrative BLSS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leyuan; Xie, Beizhen; Dong, Chen; Hu, Dawei; Wang, Minjuan; Liu, Guanghui; Liu, Hong

    2015-11-01

    Yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) is one of the animal candidates for space bioregenerative life support systems. In this study, T. molitor was involved in a 105-day multi-crew closed integrative BLSS experiment for a tentative rearing study. The results showed that the overall bioconversion rate (ratio of T. molitor gained to the total feed consumed) of T. molitor reared in the closed system was 8.13%, while 78.43% of the feed was excreted as frass. T. molitor reared in the closed system had a good nutritional composition. The eight essential amino acids (EAAs) in T. molitor larvae accounted for 41.30% of its total amino acids, and most EAA contents were higher than the suggested amino acid pattern recommended by the FAO/WHO. T. molitor sample obtained in this work was high in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and low in saturated fatty acids, indicating that the composition of fatty acids was beneficial to human health. In the open environment outside the experimental system, we simultaneously reared three parallel groups of larval T. molitor using the same feeding regime and temperature condition. Compared with T. molitor reared in the open environment, larvae reared in the closed system grew slower. With the course of time t, the growth rate of T. molitor in the open environment was 0.839e0.017t times that of larvae in the closed system. This paper can provide data for future design and improvement of BLSS containing a T. molitor rearing unit.

  8. Deep subsurface microbial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    Information on the microbiology of the deep subsurface is necessary in order to understand the factors controlling the rate and extent of the microbially catalyzed redox reactions that influence the geophysical properties of these environments. Furthermore, there is an increasing threat that deep aquifers, an important drinking water resource, may be contaminated by man's activities, and there is a need to predict the extent to which microbial activity may remediate such contamination. Metabolically active microorganisms can be recovered from a diversity of deep subsurface environments. The available evidence suggests that these microorganisms are responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of organic matter coupled to a variety of electron acceptors just as microorganisms do in surface sediments, but at much slower rates. The technical difficulties in aseptically sampling deep subsurface sediments and the fact that microbial processes in laboratory incubations of deep subsurface material often do not mimic in situ processes frequently necessitate that microbial activity in the deep subsurface be inferred through nonmicrobiological analyses of ground water. These approaches include measurements of dissolved H2, which can predict the predominant microbially catalyzed redox reactions in aquifers, as well as geochemical and groundwater flow modeling, which can be used to estimate the rates of microbial processes. Microorganisms recovered from the deep subsurface have the potential to affect the fate of toxic organics and inorganic contaminants in groundwater. Microbial activity also greatly influences 1 the chemistry of many pristine groundwaters and contributes to such phenomena as porosity development in carbonate aquifers, accumulation of undesirably high concentrations of dissolved iron, and production of methane and hydrogen sulfide. Although the last decade has seen a dramatic increase in interest in deep subsurface microbiology, in comparison with the study of

  9. Effect of household cooking techniques on the microbiological load and the nutritional quality of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L. 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparros Megido, Rudy; Poelaert, Christine; Ernens, Marjorie; Liotta, Marisa; Blecker, Christophe; Danthine, Sabine; Tyteca, Eva; Haubruge, Éric; Alabi, Taofic; Bindelle, Jérôme; Francis, Frédéric

    2018-04-01

    Mealworms are new food products in Europe, but consumers do not know how to cook them. Although cooking could increase the safety, acceptability, palatability, and digestibility of insects, the heating process could have deleterious effects on protein and lipid quality. Therefore, this study characterized the effects of different household cooking methods (boiling, pan-frying, vacuum cooking, and oven cooking) on the microbial load and nutritive value of mealworms, with a focus on protein digestibility and fatty acid composition. Boiling and cooking under vacuum were the most efficient techniques to reduce microbial load while maintaining the high levels of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids of mealworms. Cooking method-related changes were very low on macronutrients content except for pan-fried mealworms which exhibited the highest lipid content. Cooking slightly changed fatty acid composition of mealworms by principally decreasing their level of saturated fatty acids but also increased the in vitro crude protein digestibility of mealworms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbial conversion technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, P. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Bioconversion and Sustainable Development

    2006-07-01

    Microbes are a biomass and an valuable resource. This presentation discussed microbial conversion technologies along with background information on microbial cells, their characteristics and microbial diversity. Untapped opportunities for microbial conversion were identified. Metagenomic and genome mining approaches were also discussed, as they can provide access to uncultivated or unculturable microorganisms in communal populations and are an unlimited resource for biocatalysts, novel genes and metabolites. Genome mining was seen as an economical approach. The presentation also emphasized that the development of microbial biorefineries would require significant insights into the relevant microorganisms and that biocatalysts were the ultimate in sustainability. In addition, the presentation discussed the natural fibres initiative for biochemicals and biomaterials. Anticipated outputs were identified and work in progress of a new enzyme-retting cocktail to provide diversity and/or consistency in fibre characteristics for various applications were also presented. It was concluded that it is necessary to leverage understanding of biological processes to produce bioproducts in a clean and sustainable manner. tabs., figs.

  11. EVA Suit Microbial Leakage Investigation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to collect microbial samples from various EVA suits to determine how much microbial contamination is typically released during...

  12. Molecular ecology of microbial mats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, H.; Cretoiu, M.S.; Stal, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats are ideal model systems for ecological and evolutionary analysis of highly diverse microbial communities. Microbial mats are small-scale, nearly closed, and self-sustaining benthic ecosystems that comprise the major element cycles, trophic levels, and food webs. The steep

  13. Effect of activation of canonical Wnt signaling by the Wnt-3a protein on the susceptibility of PC12 cells to oxidative and apoptotic insults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, E.M.; Gleichmann, M.; Yshii, L.M.; Sá Lima, L. de; Mattson, M.P.; Scavone, C.

    2011-01-01

    Wnt proteins are involved in tissue development and their signaling pathways play an important role during embryogenesis. Wnt signaling can promote cell survival, which is beneficial for neurons, but could also lead to tumor development in different tissues. The present study investigated the effects of a Wnt protein on the susceptibility of a neural tumor cell line (PC12 cells) to the cytotoxic compounds ferrous sulfate (10 mM), staurosporine (100 and 500 nM), 3-nitropropionic acid (5 mM), and amyloid β-peptide (Aβ 25-35 ; 50 µM). Cells (1 × 10 6 cells/mL) were treated with the Wnt-3a recombinant peptide (200 ng/mL) for 24 h before exposure to toxic insults. The Wnt-3a protein partially protected PC12 cells, with a 6-15% increase in cell viability in the presence of toxic agents, similar to the effect measured using the MTT and lactate dehydrogenase cell viability assays. The Wnt-3a protein increased protein expression of β-catenin by 52% compared to control. These findings suggest that Wnt signaling can protect neural cells against apoptosis induced by toxic agents, which are relevant to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases

  14. Anaerobic microbial dehalogenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidt, H.; Vos, de W.M.

    2004-01-01

    The natural production and anthropogenic release of halogenated hydrocarbons into the environment has been the likely driving force for the evolution of an unexpectedly high microbial capacity to dehalogenate different classes of xenobiotic haloorganics. This contribution provides an update on the

  15. Diazotrophic microbial mats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severin, I.; Stal, L.J.; Seckbach, J.; Oren, A.

    2010-01-01

    Microbial mats have been the focus of scientific research for a few decades. These small-scale ecosystems are examples of versatile benthic communities of microorganisms, usually dominated by phototrophic bacteria (e.g., Krumbein et al., 1977; Jørgensen et al., 1983). They develop as vertically

  16. Microbial Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Merry [American Society for Microbiology (ASM), Washington, DC (United States); Wall, Judy D. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2006-10-01

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium March 10-12, 2006, in San Francisco, California, to discuss the production of energy fuels by microbial conversions. The status of research into various microbial energy technologies, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches, research needs in the field, and education and training issues were examined, with the goal of identifying routes for producing biofuels that would both decrease the need for fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the choices for providing energy are limited. Policy makers and the research community must begin to pursue a broader array of potential energy technologies. A diverse energy portfolio that includes an assortment of microbial energy choices will allow communities and consumers to select the best energy solution for their own particular needs. Funding agencies and governments alike need to prepare for future energy needs by investing both in the microbial energy technologies that work today and in the untested technologies that will serve the world’s needs tomorrow. More mature bioprocesses, such as ethanol production from starchy materials and methane from waste digestors, will find applications in the short term. However, innovative techniques for liquid fuel or biohydrogen production are among the longer term possibilities that should also be vigorously explored, starting now. Microorganisms can help meet human energy needs in any of a number of ways. In their most obvious role in energy conversion, microorganisms can generate fuels, including ethanol, hydrogen, methane, lipids, and butanol, which can be burned to produce energy. Alternatively, bacteria can be put to use in microbial fuel cells, where they carry out the direct conversion of biomass into electricity. Microorganisms may also be used some day to make oil and natural gas technologies more efficient by sequestering carbon or by assisting in the recovery of oil and

  17. Microbial electrosynthesis of biochemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bajracharya, S.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is an electricity-driven production of chemicals from low-value waste using microorganisms as biocatalysts. MES from CO2 comprises conversion of CO2 to multi-carbon compounds employing microbes at the cathode which use electricity as an energy source. This thesis

  18. Ganancia de peso del depredador Podisus distinctus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae en combinaciones de las presas Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae y Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto da Costa Matos Neto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre las ninfas de los asopíneos usados para el control de gusanos desfoliadores en plantaciones de eucalipto, Podisus distinctus (Stal (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae representa un potencial agente de control biológico, sin embargo esta especie ha sido poco estudiada. El presente trabajo evaluó el efecto de las diferentes combinaciones de las presas Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae y Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae sobre el peso de ninfas de P. distinctus. El experimento se realizó en laboratorio do "Instituto de Biotecnologia Aplicada à Agropecuaria (BIOAGRO", a 25 ± 0.5ºC, 60 ± 10% de humedad relativa y 14 horas de fotoperiodo. Las ninfas de P. distinctus fueron individualizadas en cajas de Petri y alimentadas de acuerdo con los siguientes tratamientos: T1- larvas de M. domestica durante toda la fase ninfal; T2- larvas de M. domestica en el II estadio y de T. molitor en los III, IV y V estadios; T3- larvas de M. domestica en el II y III estadios y de T. molitor en los IV y V estadios; T4- larvas de M. domestica en el II, III y IV estadios y de T. molitor en el V estadio; T5- larvas de T. molitor en todos los estadios. Los mejores resultados de peso y ganancia de peso fueron encontrados cuando P. distinctus fue alimentado alternadamente con larvas de M. domestica y T. molitor. Cuando esse depredador fue solamente alimentado con larvas de M. domestica, presentó pesos menoresLitlle is known about Podisus distinctus (Stal (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae one of the Asopinae species with good possibilities for mass rearing and releasing against defoliator caterpillars in eucalyptus reforested areas in Brazil. We evaluated the impact of prey combinations on weight of nymphs and adults of P. distinctus. The prey were Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae and Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. The experiment was developed under 25 ± 0.5ºC, 60 ± 10% R.H. and photophase of 14 hr, with nymphs of P. distinctus

  19. Gene structure, cDNA characterization and RNAi-based functional analysis of a myeloid differentiation factor 88 homolog in Tenebrio molitor larvae exposed to Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Patnaik, Hongray Howrelia; Seo, Gi Won; Jo, Yong Hun; Lee, Yong Seok; Lee, Bok Luel; Han, Yeon Soo

    2014-10-01

    Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), an intracellular adaptor protein involved in Toll/Toll-like receptor (TLR) signal processing, triggers activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) transcription factors. In the present study, we analyzed the gene structure and biological function of MyD88 in a coleopteran insect, Tenebrio molitor (TmMyD88). The TmMyD88 gene was 1380 bp in length and consisted of five exons and four introns. The 5'-flanking sequence revealed several putative transcription factor binding sites, such as STAT-4, AP-1, cJun, cfos, NF-1 and many heat shock factor binding elements. The cDNA contained a typical death domain, a conservative Toll-like interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain, and a C-terminal extension (CTE). The TmMyD88 TIR domain showed three significantly conserved motifs for interacting with the TIR domain of TLRs. TmMyD88 was grouped within the invertebrate cluster of the phylogenetic tree and shared 75% sequence identity with the TIR domain of Tribolium castaneum MyD88. Homology modeling of the TmMyD88 TIR domain revealed five parallel β-strands surrounded by five α-helices that adopted loop conformations to function as an adaptor. TmMyD88 expression was upregulated 7.3- and 4.79-fold after 12 and 6h, respectively, of challenge with Staphylococcus aureus and fungal β-1,3 glucan. Silencing of the TmMyD88 transcript by RNA interference led to reduced resistance of the host to infection by S. aureus. These results indicate that TmMyD88 is required for survival against Staphylococcus infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Activity changes of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae infected by the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis beicherriana (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingyue; Liu, Qizhi; Lewis, Edwin E; Tarasco, Eustachio

    2016-12-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) of the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are lethal parasites of many insect species. To investigate defensive mechanisms towards EPNs in relation to antioxidative and detoxifying enzymes, we chose Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as experimental insect. We studied the activity changes of superoxide dismutases (SODs), peroxidases (PODs), and catalases (CATs), as well as tyrosinase (TYR), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CarE), and glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) for 40 h in T. molitor larvae infected with Heterorhabditis beicherriana infective juveniles (IJs) at 5 rates (0, 20, 40, 80, and 160 IJs/larva). We found that when T. molitor larvae infected with H. beicherriana at higher rates (80 and 160 IJs/larva), SOD activity quickly increased to more than 70 % higher than that control levels. The activities of POD and CAT increased after 24 h. TYR activity increased slowly at lower rates of infection for 16 h, followed by a slight decrease, and then increasing from 32 to 40 h. The other detoxifying enzymes (GST, CarE, and AChE) were enhanced at lower infection rates, but were inhibited at higher rates. Our results suggested that host antioxidative response and detoxification reactions played a central role in the defensive reaction to EPNs, and that this stress which was reflected by the higher level enzymes activity contributed to the death of hosts. Further study should explore the exact function of these enzymes using different species of EPNs and investigate the links between enzyme activity and host susceptibility to EPNs.

  1. Effect of fungal colonization of wheat grains with Fusarium spp. on food choice, weight gain and mortality of meal beetle larvae (Tenebrio molitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Guo

    Full Text Available Species of Fusarium have significant agro-economical and human health-related impact by infecting diverse crop plants and synthesizing diverse mycotoxins. Here, we investigated interactions of grain-feeding Tenebrio molitor larvae with four grain-colonizing Fusarium species on wheat kernels. Since numerous metabolites produced by Fusarium spp. are toxic to insects, we tested the hypothesis that the insect senses and avoids Fusarium-colonized grains. We found that only kernels colonized with F. avenaceum or Beauveria bassiana (an insect-pathogenic fungal control were avoided by the larvae as expected. Kernels colonized with F. proliferatum, F. poae or F. culmorum attracted T. molitor larvae significantly more than control kernels. The avoidance/preference correlated with larval feeding behaviors and weight gain. Interestingly, larvae that had consumed F. proliferatum- or F. poae-colonized kernels had similar survival rates as control. Larvae fed on F. culmorum-, F. avenaceum- or B. bassiana-colonized kernels had elevated mortality rates. HPLC analyses confirmed the following mycotoxins produced by the fungal strains on the kernels: fumonisins, enniatins and beauvericin by F. proliferatum, enniatins and beauvericin by F. poae, enniatins by F. avenaceum, and deoxynivalenol and zearalenone by F. culmorum. Our results indicate that T. molitor larvae have the ability to sense potential survival threats of kernels colonized with F. avenaceum or B. bassiana, but not with F. culmorum. Volatiles potentially along with gustatory cues produced by these fungi may represent survival threat signals for the larvae resulting in their avoidance. Although F. proliferatum or F. poae produced fumonisins, enniatins and beauvericin during kernel colonization, the larvae were able to use those kernels as diet without exhibiting increased mortality. Consumption of F. avenaceum-colonized kernels, however, increased larval mortality; these kernels had higher enniatin

  2. Cloning, expression analysis, and RNA interference study of a HORMA domain containing autophagy-related gene 13 (ATG13) from the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Hee; Jo, Yong Hun; Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Park, Ki Beom; Tindwa, Hamisi; Seo, Gi Won; Chandrasekar, Raman; Lee, Yong Seok; Han, Yeon Soo

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a process that is necessary during starvation, as it replenishes metabolic precursors by eliminating damaged organelles. Autophagy is mediated by more than 35 autophagy-related (Atg) proteins that participate in the nucleation, elongation, and curving of the autophagosome membrane. In a pursuit to address the role of autophagy during development and immune resistance of the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, we screened ATG gene sequences from the whole-larva transcriptome database. We identified a homolog of ATG13 gene in T. molitor (designated as TmATG13) that comprises a cDNA of 1176 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 391 amino acids. Analyses of the structure-specific features of TmAtg13 showed an intrinsically disordered middle and C-terminal region that was rich in regulatory phosphorylation sites. The N-terminal Atg13 domain had a HORMA (Hop1, Rev7, and Mad2) fold containing amino acid residues conserved across the Atg13 insect orthologs. A quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that TmATG13 was expressed ubiquitously during all developmental stages of the insect. TmATG13 mRNA expression was high in the fat body and gut of the larval and adult stages of the insect. The TmATG13 transcripts were expressed at a high level until 6 days of ovarian development, followed by a significant decline. Silencing of ATG13 transcripts in T. molitor larvae showed a reduced survivability of 39 and 38% in response to Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus infection. Furthermore, the role of TmAtg13 in initiating autophagy as a part of the host cell autophagic complex of the host cells against the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is currently under study and will be critical to unfold the structure-function relationships. PMID:26136688

  3. Depletion of autophagy-related genes ATG3 and ATG5 in Tenebrio molitor leads to decreased survivability against an intracellular pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindwa, Hamisi; Jo, Yong Hun; Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Noh, Mi Young; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Iksoo; Han, Yeon Soo; Lee, Yong Seok; Lee, Bok Luel; Kim, Nam Jung

    2015-01-01

    Macroautophagy (autophagy) is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process involved in physiological and developmental processes including cell survival, death, and innate immunity. Homologues of most of 36 originally discovered autophagy-related (ATG) genes in yeast have been characterized in higher eukaryotes including insects. In this study, the homologues of ATG3 (TmATG3) and ATG5 (TmATG5) were isolated from the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor by expressed sequence tag and RNAseq approaches. The cDNA of TmATG3 and TmATG5 comprise open-reading frame sizes of 963 and 792 bp encoding polypeptides of 320 and 263 amino acid residues, respectively. TmATG3 and TmATG5 mRNA are expressed in all developmental stages, and mainly in fat body and hemocytes of larvae. TmATG3 and TmATG5 showed an overall sequence identity of 58-95% to other insect Atg proteins. There exist clear one-to-one orthologs of TmATG3 and TmATG5 in Tribolium and that they clustered together in the gene tree. Depletion of TmATG3 and TmATG5 by RNA interference led to a significant reduction in survival ability of T. molitor larvae against an intracellular pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes. Six days post-Listeria challenge, the survival rate in the dsEGFP-injected (where EGFP is enhanced green fluorescent protein) control larvae was significantly higher (55%) compared to 4 and 3% for TmATG3 and TmATG5 double-stranded RNA injected larvae, respectively. These data suggested that TmATG3 and TmATG5 may play putative role in mediating autophagy-based clearance of Listeria in T. molitor model. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effect of Fungal Colonization of Wheat Grains with Fusarium spp. on Food Choice, Weight Gain and Mortality of Meal Beetle Larvae (Tenebrio molitor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiqing; Döll, Katharina; Dastjerdi, Raana; Karlovsky, Petr; Dehne, Heinz-Wilhelm; Altincicek, Boran

    2014-01-01

    Species of Fusarium have significant agro-economical and human health-related impact by infecting diverse crop plants and synthesizing diverse mycotoxins. Here, we investigated interactions of grain-feeding Tenebrio molitor larvae with four grain-colonizing Fusarium species on wheat kernels. Since numerous metabolites produced by Fusarium spp. are toxic to insects, we tested the hypothesis that the insect senses and avoids Fusarium-colonized grains. We found that only kernels colonized with F. avenaceum or Beauveria bassiana (an insect-pathogenic fungal control) were avoided by the larvae as expected. Kernels colonized with F. proliferatum, F. poae or F. culmorum attracted T. molitor larvae significantly more than control kernels. The avoidance/preference correlated with larval feeding behaviors and weight gain. Interestingly, larvae that had consumed F. proliferatum- or F. poae-colonized kernels had similar survival rates as control. Larvae fed on F. culmorum-, F. avenaceum- or B. bassiana-colonized kernels had elevated mortality rates. HPLC analyses confirmed the following mycotoxins produced by the fungal strains on the kernels: fumonisins, enniatins and beauvericin by F. proliferatum, enniatins and beauvericin by F. poae, enniatins by F. avenaceum, and deoxynivalenol and zearalenone by F. culmorum. Our results indicate that T. molitor larvae have the ability to sense potential survival threats of kernels colonized with F. avenaceum or B. bassiana, but not with F. culmorum. Volatiles potentially along with gustatory cues produced by these fungi may represent survival threat signals for the larvae resulting in their avoidance. Although F. proliferatum or F. poae produced fumonisins, enniatins and beauvericin during kernel colonization, the larvae were able to use those kernels as diet without exhibiting increased mortality. Consumption of F. avenaceum-colonized kernels, however, increased larval mortality; these kernels had higher enniatin levels than F

  5. Rearing Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleptera: Tenebrionidae) in the "Lunar Palace 1" during a 105-day multi-crew closed integrative BLSS experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leyuan; Xie, Beizhen; Dong, Chen; Hu, Dawei; Wang, Minjuan; Liu, Guanghui; Liu, Hong

    2015-11-01

    Yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) is one of the animal candidates for space bioregenerative life support systems. In this study, T. molitor was involved in a 105-day multi-crew closed integrative BLSS experiment for a tentative rearing study. The results showed that the overall bioconversion rate (ratio of T. molitor gained to the total feed consumed) of T. molitor reared in the closed system was 8.13%, while 78.43% of the feed was excreted as frass. T. molitor reared in the closed system had a good nutritional composition. The eight essential amino acids (EAAs) in T. molitor larvae accounted for 41.30% of its total amino acids, and most EAA contents were higher than the suggested amino acid pattern recommended by the FAO/WHO. T. molitor sample obtained in this work was high in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and low in saturated fatty acids, indicating that the composition of fatty acids was beneficial to human health. In the open environment outside the experimental system, we simultaneously reared three parallel groups of larval T. molitor using the same feeding regime and temperature condition. Compared with T. molitor reared in the open environment, larvae reared in the closed system grew slower. With the course of time t, the growth rate of T. molitor in the open environment was 0.839e(0.017t) times that of larvae in the closed system. This paper can provide data for future design and improvement of BLSS containing a T. molitor rearing unit. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The introduction of yellow mealworm (Tenebrio Molitor L.) into BLSS as a source of animal protein for humans: experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leyuan; Liu, lh64. Hong; Ruo Zhao, Zhi

    2012-07-01

    In bioregenerative life support systems, using inedible plant biomass to feed animals can provide animal protein for astronauts, while at the same time treating with wastes so as to increase the degree of system closure and the efficiency of material cycling. In this study, an analysis and demonstration on the potential of yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) as an animal candidate in the system was presented. The feasibility of feeding T. molitor with inedible parts of wheat and vegetables was studied. Moreover, a process for straw fermentation was selected. T. molitor was fed on wheat bran for the first 10 days, and then gradually, fermented straw was added. Old leaves of Chinese cabbage were used as supplementary feedstuff. The results showed that T. molitor larvae fed on this diet survived and grew normally, their fresh and dry weight achieved 56.15% and 46.76% of the larvae fed on a conventional diet, respectively. The bioconversion rate of the larvae was 16.07%, which was 88.05% of the conventional diet group. The protein and fat contents were 76.14% and 6.44% on dry weigh, respectively. Through the processes of anaerobic fermentation and mealworm consumption, the straw lost about 47.79% of the initial dry weight, and its lignocellulose had a degradation of about 45.74%. Wheat germination test indicated that the frass of T. molitor has the potential to be utilized as plant cultivation substrate after certain treatment. Stoichiometric modeling of BLSS containing T. molitor was also conducted.

  7. Effect of fungal colonization of wheat grains with Fusarium spp. on food choice, weight gain and mortality of meal beetle larvae (Tenebrio molitor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiqing; Döll, Katharina; Dastjerdi, Raana; Karlovsky, Petr; Dehne, Heinz-Wilhelm; Altincicek, Boran

    2014-01-01

    Species of Fusarium have significant agro-economical and human health-related impact by infecting diverse crop plants and synthesizing diverse mycotoxins. Here, we investigated interactions of grain-feeding Tenebrio molitor larvae with four grain-colonizing Fusarium species on wheat kernels. Since numerous metabolites produced by Fusarium spp. are toxic to insects, we tested the hypothesis that the insect senses and avoids Fusarium-colonized grains. We found that only kernels colonized with F. avenaceum or Beauveria bassiana (an insect-pathogenic fungal control) were avoided by the larvae as expected. Kernels colonized with F. proliferatum, F. poae or F. culmorum attracted T. molitor larvae significantly more than control kernels. The avoidance/preference correlated with larval feeding behaviors and weight gain. Interestingly, larvae that had consumed F. proliferatum- or F. poae-colonized kernels had similar survival rates as control. Larvae fed on F. culmorum-, F. avenaceum- or B. bassiana-colonized kernels had elevated mortality rates. HPLC analyses confirmed the following mycotoxins produced by the fungal strains on the kernels: fumonisins, enniatins and beauvericin by F. proliferatum, enniatins and beauvericin by F. poae, enniatins by F. avenaceum, and deoxynivalenol and zearalenone by F. culmorum. Our results indicate that T. molitor larvae have the ability to sense potential survival threats of kernels colonized with F. avenaceum or B. bassiana, but not with F. culmorum. Volatiles potentially along with gustatory cues produced by these fungi may represent survival threat signals for the larvae resulting in their avoidance. Although F. proliferatum or F. poae produced fumonisins, enniatins and beauvericin during kernel colonization, the larvae were able to use those kernels as diet without exhibiting increased mortality. Consumption of F. avenaceum-colonized kernels, however, increased larval mortality; these kernels had higher enniatin levels than F

  8. The study of the peptide composition of the supernatants from mealworm Tenebrio molitor larvae and goldfish Carassius auratus during cold acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. К. Гулевский

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The molecular-mass distribution of peptides from supernatants, obtained from the tissues of larvae Tenebrio molitor and goldfish Carassius auratus during cold acclimation, has been determined by chromatography. The results showed that peptide spectrum of the supernatants from larvae T. molitor and C. auratus varied during cold acclimation. The supernatants from non-acclimated larvae of T. molitor and deacclimated fish possessed the highest number of peptide fractions. Furthermore, the cold-acclimated larvae of T. molitor had the peptide fractions of the low molecular weight (ca. 5.4×102 ÷22.6×102 Da, and non-acclimated insects had the peptides of the high molecular weight (ca. 46.8×102÷66×102 Da. Next, the organ-specific changes of the peptide composition of the goldfish during winter deacclimation have been revealed. Specifically, the low molecular weight peptides (ca. (14.1 ± 0.3×102 and (6.75 ± 0.25×102 Da, have been detected in the C. auratus muscles, and both the high (ca. (67.83 ± 0.21×102 ( ca. 64.16 ± 0.26×102 Da and low (ca. (34.1 ± 1.0×102 and (14.29 ± 0.15×102 Da molecular weight peptides have been detected in the liver. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the peptide spectra from supernatants of the T. molitor and C. auratus during cold acclimation could be one of the mechanisms of their natural adaptation to low temperatures.

  9. A novel role for maternal stress and microbial transmission in early life programming and neurodevelopment

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    Eldin Jašarević

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Perturbations in the prenatal and early life environment can contribute to the development of offspring stress dysregulation, a pervasive symptom in neuropsychiatric disease. Interestingly, the vertical transmission of maternal microbes to offspring and the subsequent bacterial colonization of the neonatal gut overlap with a critical period of brain development. Therefore, environmental factors such as maternal stress that are able to alter microbial populations and their transmission can thereby shape offspring neurodevelopment. As the neonatal gastrointestinal tract is primarily inoculated at parturition through the ingestion of maternal vaginal microflora, disruption in the vaginal ecosystem may have important implications for offspring neurodevelopment and disease risk. Here, we discuss alterations that occur in the vaginal microbiome following maternal insult and the subsequent effects on bacterial assembly of the neonate gut, the production of neuromodulatory metabolites, and the developmental course of stress regulation.

  10. Rumen microbial genomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, M.; Nelson, K.E.

    2005-01-01

    Improving microbial degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides remains one of the highest priority goals for all livestock enterprises, including the cattle herds and draught animals of developing countries. The North American Consortium for Genomics of Fibrolytic Ruminal Bacteria was created to promote the sequencing and comparative analysis of rumen microbial genomes, offering the potential to fully assess the genetic potential in a functional and comparative fashion. It has been found that the Fibrobacter succinogenes genome encodes many more endoglucanases and cellodextrinases than previously isolated, and several new processive endoglucanases have been identified by genome and proteomic analysis of Ruminococcus albus, in addition to a variety of strategies for its adhesion to fibre. The ramifications of acquiring genome sequence data for rumen microorganisms are profound, including the potential to elucidate and overcome the biochemical, ecological or physiological processes that are rate limiting for ruminal fibre degradation. (author)

  11. Microbial Genomes Multiply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    2002-01-01

    The publication of the first complete sequence of a bacterial genome in 1995 was a signal event, underscored by the fact that the article has been cited more than 2,100 times during the intervening seven years. It was a marvelous technical achievement, made possible by automatic DNA-sequencing machines. The feat is the more impressive in that complete genome sequencing has now been adopted in many different laboratories around the world. Four years ago in these columns I examined the situation after a dozen microbial genomes had been completed. Now, with upwards of 60 microbial genome sequences determined and twice that many in progress, it seems reasonable to assess just what is being learned. Are new concepts emerging about how cells work? Have there been practical benefits in the fields of medicine and agriculture? Is it feasible to determine the genomic sequence of every bacterial species on Earth? The answers to these questions maybe Yes, Perhaps, and No, respectively.

  12. Degradation of microbial polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P

    2004-08-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), one of the largest groups of thermoplastic polyesters are receiving much attention as biodegradable substitutes for non-degradable plastics. Poly(D-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is the most ubiquitous and most intensively studied PHA. Microorganisms degrading these polyesters are widely distributed in various environments. Although various PHB-degrading microorganisms and PHB depolymerases have been studied and characterized, there are still many groups of microorganisms and enzymes with varying properties awaiting various applications. Distributions of PHB-degrading microorganisms, factors affecting the biodegradability of PHB, and microbial and enzymatic degradation of PHB are discussed in this review. We also propose an application of a new isolated, thermophilic PHB-degrading microorganism, Streptomyces strain MG, for producing pure monomers of PHA and useful chemicals, including D-3-hydroxycarboxylic acids such as D-3-hydroxybutyric acid, by enzymatic degradation of PHB.

  13. Global Microbial Identifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielinga, Peter; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2017-01-01

    ) will likely also enable a much better understanding of the pathogenesis of the infection and the molecular basis of the host response to infection. But the full potential of these advances will only transpire if the data in this area become transferable and thereby comparable, preferably in open-source...... of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect outbreaks and emerging pathogens. To harness the full potential of WGS, a shared global database of genomes linked to relevant metadata and the necessary software tools needs to be generated, hence the global...... microbial identifier (GMI) initiative. This tool will ideally be used in amongst others in the diagnosis of infectious diseases in humans and animals, in the identification of microorganisms in food and environment, and to track and trace microbial agents in all arenas globally. This will require...

  14. Cell cycle inhibitor, p19INK4d, promotes cell survival and decreases chromosomal aberrations after genotoxic insult due to enhanced DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scassa, María E; Marazita, Mariela C; Ceruti, Julieta M; Carcagno, Abel L; Sirkin, Pablo F; González-Cid, Marcela; Pignataro, Omar P; Cánepa, Eduardo T

    2007-05-01

    Genome integrity and cell proliferation and survival are regulated by an intricate network of pathways that includes cell cycle checkpoints, DNA repair and recombination, and programmed cell death. It makes sense that there should be a coordinated regulation of these different processes, but the components of such mechanisms remain unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that p19INK4d expression enhances cell survival under genotoxic conditions. By using p19INK4d-overexpressing clones, we demonstrated that p19INK4d expression correlates with the cellular resistance to UV treatment with increased DNA repair activity against UV-induced lesions. On the contrary, cells transfected with p19INK4d antisense cDNA show reduced ability to repair DNA damage and increased sensitivity to genotoxic insult when compared with their p19INK4d-overexpressing counterparts. Consistent with these findings, our studies also show that p19INK4d-overexpressing cells present not only a minor accumulation of UV-induced chromosomal aberrations but a lower frequency of spontaneous chromosome abnormalities than p19INK4d-antisense cells. Lastly, we suggest that p19INK4d effects are dissociated from its role as CDK4/6 inhibitor. The results presented herein support a crucial role for p19INK4d in regulating genomic stability and overall cell viability under conditions of genotoxic stress. We propose that p19INK4d would belong to a protein network that would integrate DNA repair, apoptotic and checkpoint mechanisms in order to maintain the genomic integrity.

  15. Presence of proNGF-Sortilin Signaling Complex in Nigral Dopamine Neurons and Its Variation in Relation to Aging, Lactacystin and 6-OHDA Insults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Kam-Lin Yung

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence has shown that proNGF-p75NTR-sortilin signaling might be a crucial factor in neurodegeneration, but it remains unclear if it may function in nigral neurons under aging and disease. The purpose of this study is to examine and quantify proNGF and sortilin expression in the substantia nigra and dynamic changes of aging in lactacystin and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA rat models of Parkinson’s disease using immunofluorescence, electronic microscopy, western blot and FLIVO staining methods. The expression of proNGF and sortilin was abundantly and selectively identified in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-containing dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. These proNGF/TH, sortilin/TH-positive neurons were densely distributed in the ventral tier, while they were less distributed in the dorsal tier, where calbindin-D28K-containing neurons were numerously located. A correlated decrease of proNGF, sortilin and TH was also detected during animal aging process. While increase of proNGF, sortilin and cleaved (active caspase-3 expression was found in the lactacystin model, dynamic proNGF and sortilin changes along with dopamine neuronal loss were demonstrated in the substantia nigra of both the lactacystin and 6-OHDA models. This study has thus revealed the presence of the proNGF-sortilin signaling complex in nigral dopamine neurons and its response to aging, lactacystin and 6-OHDA insults, suggesting that it might contribute to neuronal apoptosis or neurodegeneration during pathogenesis and disease progression of Parkinson’s disease; the underlying mechanism and key signaling pathways involved warrant further investigation.

  16. Immunothrombotic Activity of Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns and Extracellular Vesicles in Secondary Organ Failure Induced by Trauma and Sterile Insults

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    John Eppensteiner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant improvements in injury prevention and emergency response, injury-related death and morbidity continues to increase in the US and worldwide. Patients with trauma, invasive operations, anti-cancer treatment, and organ transplantation produce a host of danger signals and high levels of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic mediators, such as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs and extracellular vesicles (EVs. DAMPs (e.g., nucleic acids, histone, high-mobility group box 1 protein, and S100 are molecules released from injured, stressed, or activated cells that act as endogenous ligands of innate immune receptors, whereas EVs (e.g., microparticle and exosome are membranous vesicles budding off from plasma membranes and act as messengers between cells. DAMPs and EVs can stimulate multiple innate immune signaling pathways and coagulation cascades, and uncontrolled DAMP and EV production causes systemic inflammatory and thrombotic complications and secondary organ failure (SOF. Thus, DAMPs and EVs represent potential therapeutic targets and diagnostic biomarkers for SOF. High plasma levels of DAMPs and EVs have been positively correlated with mortality and morbidity of patients or animals with trauma or surgical insults. Blocking or neutralizing DAMPs using antibodies or small molecules has been demonstrated to ameliorate sepsis and SOF in animal models. Furthermore, a membrane immobilized with nucleic acid-binding polymers captured and removed multiple DAMPs and EVs from extracellular fluids, thereby preventing the onset of DAMP- and EV-induced inflammatory and thrombotic complications in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we will summarize the current state of knowledge of DAMPs, EVs, and SOF and discuss potential therapeutics and preventive intervention for organ failure secondary to trauma, surgery, anti-cancer therapy, and allogeneic transplantation.

  17. Tat-antioxidant 1 protects against stress-induced hippocampal HT-22 cells death and attenuate ischaemic insult in animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Mi; Hwang, In Koo; Yoo, Dae Young; Eum, Won Sik; Kim, Dae Won; Shin, Min Jea; Ahn, Eun Hee; Jo, Hyo Sang; Ryu, Eun Ji; Yong, Ji In; Cho, Sung-Woo; Kwon, Oh-Shin; Lee, Keun Wook; Cho, Yoon Shin; Han, Kyu Hyung; Park, Jinseu; Choi, Soo Young

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) are responsible for various neuronal diseases. Antioxidant 1 (Atox1) regulates copper homoeostasis and promotes cellular antioxidant defence against toxins generated by ROS. The roles of Atox1 protein in ischaemia, however, remain unclear. In this study, we generated a protein transduction domain fused Tat-Atox1 and examined the roles of Tat-Atox1 in oxidative stress-induced hippocampal HT-22 cell death and an ischaemic injury animal model. Tat-Atox1 effectively transduced into HT-22 cells and it protected cells against the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced toxicity including increasing of ROS levels and DNA fragmentation. At the same time, Tat-Atox1 regulated cellular survival signalling such as p53, Bad/Bcl-2, Akt and mitogen-activate protein kinases (MAPKs). In the animal ischaemia model, transduced Tat-Atox1 protected against neuronal cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region. In addition, Tat-Atox1 significantly decreased the activation of astrocytes and microglia as well as lipid peroxidation in the CA1 region after ischaemic insult. Taken together, these results indicate that transduced Tat-Atox1 protects against oxidative stress-induced HT-22 cell death and against neuronal damage in animal ischaemia model. Therefore, we suggest that Tat-Atox1 has potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced ischaemic damage. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  18. Desenvolvimento de Supputius cincticeps (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae alimentado com larvas de Zophobas confusa, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae e Musca domestica (Diptera, Muscidae Development of Supputius cincticeps (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae fed with Zophobas confusa, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae and Musca domestica (Diptera, Muscidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo B. Beserra

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Egg viability and nymphal development of the predatory bug Supputius cincticeps (Stål, 1860 were evaluated during two generations in the Biological Control Laboratory of the Núcleo de Biotecnologia Aplicada à Agropecuária (Bioagro/UFV in Viçosa (Minas Gerais, Brazil at 24.72±1.10ºC and photophase of 12 hours. Three treatments were represented by S. cincticeps fed with Zophobas confusa Gebien, 1906, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 and Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 larvae. Higher egg viability of this predator was found when the preys were Z. confusa and T. molitor, 74.46% and 80.91 %, than in M. domestica, 57.02%, but incubation period showed no differences between preys. Shorter nymphal development and higher nymphal viability were found with Z. confusa and T. molitor than with M. domestica. Higher weight increase was found for nymphs which originated males and females in the second generation specialy with the first two preys.

  19. Synthetic microbial ecology and the dynamic interplay between microbial genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinšek, Jan; Goldschmidt, Felix; Johnson, David R

    2016-11-01

    Assemblages of microbial genotypes growing together can display surprisingly complex and unexpected dynamics and result in community-level functions and behaviors that are not readily expected from analyzing each genotype in isolation. This complexity has, at least in part, inspired a discipline of synthetic microbial ecology. Synthetic microbial ecology focuses on designing, building and analyzing the dynamic behavior of ‘ecological circuits’ (i.e. a set of interacting microbial genotypes) and understanding how community-level properties emerge as a consequence of those interactions. In this review, we discuss typical objectives of synthetic microbial ecology and the main advantages and rationales of using synthetic microbial assemblages. We then summarize recent findings of current synthetic microbial ecology investigations. In particular, we focus on the causes and consequences of the interplay between different microbial genotypes and illustrate how simple interactions can create complex dynamics and promote unexpected community-level properties. We finally propose that distinguishing between active and passive interactions and accounting for the pervasiveness of competition can improve existing frameworks for designing and predicting the dynamics of microbial assemblages.

  20. Microbial Cell Dynamics Lab (MCDL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Microbial Cell Dynamics Laboratory at PNNL enables scientists to study the molecular details of microbes under relevant environmental conditions. The MCDL seeks...

  1. TmSR-C, scavenger receptor class C, plays a pivotal role in antifungal and antibacterial immunity in the coleopteran insect Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Gon; Jo, Yong Hun; Seong, Jeong Hwan; Park, Ki Beom; Noh, Mi Young; Cho, Jun Ho; Ko, Hye Jin; Kim, Chang Eun; Tindwa, Hamisi; Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Bang, In Seok; Lee, Yong Seok; Han, Yeon Soo

    2017-10-01

    Scavenger receptors (SRs) constitute a family of membrane-bound receptors that bind to multiple ligands. The SR family of proteins is involved in removing cellular debris, oxidized low-density lipoproteins, and pathogens. Specifically, class C scavenger receptors (SR-C) have also been reported to be involved in phagocytosis of gram-positive and -negative bacteria in Drosophila and viruses in shrimp. However, reports are unavailable regarding the role of SR-C in antifungal immune mechanisms in insects. In this study, a full-length Tenebrio molitor SR-C (TmSR-C) sequence was obtained by 5'- and 3'-Rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR). The TmSR-C full-length cDNA comprised 1671 bp with 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions of 23- and 107-bp, respectively. TmSR-C encodes a putative protein of 556 amino acid residues that is constitutively expressed in all tissues of late instar larvae and 2-day-old adults, with the highest transcript levels observed in hemocytes of larvae and adults. TmSR-C mRNA showed a 2.5-fold and 3-fold increase at 24 and 6 h after infection with Candida albicans and β-glucan, respectively. Immunoassay with TmSR-C polyclonal antibody showed induction of the putative protein in the cytosols of hemocytes at 3 h after inoculation of C. albicans. RNA interference (RNAi)-based gene silencing and phagocytosis assays were used to understand the role of TmSR-C in antifungal immunity. Silencing of TmSR-C transcripts reduced the survivability of late instar larvae at 2 days post-inoculation of C. albicans, Escherichia coli, or Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, in TmSR-C-silenced larvae, there was a decline in the rate of microorganism phagocytosis. Taken together, results of this study suggest that TmSR-C plays a pivotal role in phagocytosing not only fungi but also gram-negative and -positive bacteria in T. molitor. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The effects of acclimation and rates of temperature change on critical thermal limits in Tenebrio molitor (Tenebrionidae) and Cyrtobagous salviniae (Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jessica L; Clusella-Trullas, Susana; Chown, Steven L

    2012-05-01

    Critical thermal limits provide an indication of the range of temperatures across which organisms may survive, and the extent of the lability of these limits offers insights into the likely impacts of changing thermal environments on such survival. However, investigations of these limits may be affected by the circumstances under which trials are undertaken. Only a few studies have examined these effects, and typically not for beetles. This group has also not been considered in the context of the time courses of acclimation and its reversal, both of which are important for estimating the responses of species to transient temperature changes. Here we therefore examine the effects of rate of temperature change on critical thermal maxima (CT(max)) and minima (CT(min)), as well as the time course of the acclimation response and its reversal in two beetle species, Tenebrio molitor and Cyrtobagous salviniae. Increasing rates of temperature change had opposite effects on T. molitor and C. salviniae. In T. molitor, faster rates of change reduced both CT(max) (c. 2°C) and CT(min) (c. 3°C), while in C. salviniae faster rates of change increased both CT(max) (c. 6°C) and CT(min) (c. 4°C). CT(max) in T. molitor showed little response to acclimation, while the response to acclimation of CT(min) was most pronounced following exposure to 35°C (from 25°C) and was complete within 24 h. The time course of acclimation of CT(max) in C. salviniae was 2 days when exposed to 36°C (from c. 26°C), while that of CT(min) was less than 3 days when exposed to 18°C. In T. molitor, the time course of reacclimation to 25°C after treatments at 15°C and 35°C at 75% RH was longer than the time course of acclimation, and varied from 3-6 days for CT(max) and 6 days for CT(min). In C. salviniae, little change in CT(max) and CT(min) (molitor and C. salviniae may be restricted in their ability to respond to transient temperature changes at short-time scales, and instead may have to rely on

  3. Characterization of a beta-glycosidase highly active on disaccharides and of a beta-galactosidase from Tenebrio molitor midgut lumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Alexandre H P; Terra, Walter R; Ferreira, Clélia

    2003-02-01

    The midgut of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae has four beta-glycosidases. The properties of two of these enzymes (betaGly1 and betaGly2) have been described elsewhere. In this paper, the characterization of the other two glycosidases (betaGly3 and betaGly4) is described. BetaGly3 has one active site, hydrolyzes disaccharides, cellodextrins, synthetic substrates and beta-glucosides produced by plants. The enzyme is inhibited by amygdalin, cellotriose, cellotetraose and cellopentaose in high concentrations, probably due to transglycosylation. betaGly3 hydrolyzes beta 1,4-glycosidic linkages with a catalytic rate independent of the substrate polymerization degree (k(int)) of 11.9 s(-1). Its active site is formed by four subsites, where subsites +1 and -1 bind glucose residues with higher affinity than subsite +2. The main role of betaGly3 seems to be disaccharide hydrolysis. BetaGly4 is a beta-galactosidase, since it has highest activity against beta-galactosides. It can also hydrolyze fucosides, but not glucosides, and has Triton X-100 as a non-essential activator (K(a)=15 microM, pH 4.5). betaGly4 has two active sites that can hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl beta-galactoside (NPbetaGal). The one hydrolyzing NPbetaGal with more efficiency is also active against methylumbellipheryl beta-D-galactoside and lactose. The other active site hydrolyzes NPbetaFucoside and binds NPbetaGal weakly. BetaGly4 hydrolyzes hydrophobic substrates with high catalytical efficiency and is able to bind octyl-beta-thiogalactoside in its active site with high affinity. The betaGly4 physiological role is supposed to be the hydrolysis of galactolipids that are found in membranes from vegetal tissues. As the enzyme has a hydrophobic site where Triton X-100 can bind, it might be activated by membrane lipids, thus becoming fully active only at the surface of cell membranes.

  4. Effect of naloxone hydrochloride on c-fos protein expression in brain and plasma beta-endorphin level in rats with diffuse brain injury and secondary brain insult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-jie JING

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the changes of c-fos protein expression in brain and beta-endorphin (β-EP level in blood plasma in rats with diffuse brain injury (DBI and secondary brain insult (SBI after intraperitoneal injection of naloxone hydrochloride, and explore the role of c-fos andβ-EP in development of SBI in rats. Methods Seventy health male SD rats were enrolled in the present study and randomly divided into group A (intraperitoneally injected with 0.9% saline after DBI and SBI model was reproduced, group B (injected intraperitoneally with 1.0mg/kg naloxone hydrochloride after DBI and SBI model was reproduced, and group C (intraperitoneally injected with 1.0mg/kg naloxone hydrochloride after DBI and before SBI model was reproduced. The animals were sacrificed 3, 24 and 48 hours after injury, and the number of c-fos positive cells in brain and content of β-EP in blood plasma were determined by immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay respectively, the water content and number of injured neurons in brain tissue were measured by pathomorphological observation of the brain tissue. Results No significant difference was observed between group B and C for all the detection parameters. In group B and C, the water content in brain tissue at 3h and 24h was found to be decreased, while the number of injured neurons at 24h and 48h increased, number of c-fos positive cells in brain at 3h, 24h and 48h decreased, and content of β-EP in blood plasma at 3h and 24h decreased when compared with group A(P < 0.05. Conclusion Naloxone hydrochloride could decrease the c-fos expression in brain and β-EP level in blood plasma, alleviate the nerve injury, and protect neural function. The therapeutic effect of naloxone administered either after DBI and SBI or after DBI and before SBI was similar.

  5. Microbial products II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pape, H; Rehm, H J [eds.

    1986-01-01

    The present volume deals mainly with compounds which have been detected as natural microbial products. Part 1 of this volume introduces the general aspects of the overproduction of metabolites and the concepts and genetics of secondary metabolism. Compounds such as nucleosides, nucleotides, coenzymes, vitamins and lipids are dealt with in part 2. Part 3 then is devoted to products and antibiotics with uses im medicine, veterinary medicine, plant protection and metabolites with antitumor activity. Several secondary metabolites have found uses in human and animal health care. With 244 figs., 109 tabs.

  6. Microbial bebop: creating music from complex dynamics in microbial ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Larsen

    Full Text Available In order for society to make effective policy decisions on complex and far-reaching subjects, such as appropriate responses to global climate change, scientists must effectively communicate complex results to the non-scientifically specialized public. However, there are few ways however to transform highly complicated scientific data into formats that are engaging to the general community. Taking inspiration from patterns observed in nature and from some of the principles of jazz bebop improvisation, we have generated Microbial Bebop, a method by which microbial environmental data are transformed into music. Microbial Bebop uses meter, pitch, duration, and harmony to highlight the relationships between multiple data types in complex biological datasets. We use a comprehensive microbial ecology, time course dataset collected at the L4 marine monitoring station in the Western English Channel as an example of microbial ecological data that can be transformed into music. Four compositions were generated (www.bio.anl.gov/MicrobialBebop.htm. from L4 Station data using Microbial Bebop. Each composition, though deriving from the same dataset, is created to highlight different relationships between environmental conditions and microbial community structure. The approach presented here can be applied to a wide variety of complex biological datasets.

  7. Microbial bebop: creating music from complex dynamics in microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Peter; Gilbert, Jack

    2013-01-01

    In order for society to make effective policy decisions on complex and far-reaching subjects, such as appropriate responses to global climate change, scientists must effectively communicate complex results to the non-scientifically specialized public. However, there are few ways however to transform highly complicated scientific data into formats that are engaging to the general community. Taking inspiration from patterns observed in nature and from some of the principles of jazz bebop improvisation, we have generated Microbial Bebop, a method by which microbial environmental data are transformed into music. Microbial Bebop uses meter, pitch, duration, and harmony to highlight the relationships between multiple data types in complex biological datasets. We use a comprehensive microbial ecology, time course dataset collected at the L4 marine monitoring station in the Western English Channel as an example of microbial ecological data that can be transformed into music. Four compositions were generated (www.bio.anl.gov/MicrobialBebop.htm.) from L4 Station data using Microbial Bebop. Each composition, though deriving from the same dataset, is created to highlight different relationships between environmental conditions and microbial community structure. The approach presented here can be applied to a wide variety of complex biological datasets.

  8. Microbial ecology of phototrophic biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeselers, G.

    2007-01-01

    Biofilms are layered structures of microbial cells and an extracellular matrix of polymeric substances, associated with surfaces and interfaces. Biofilms trap nutrients for growth of the enclosed microbial community and help prevent detachment of cells from surfaces in flowing systems. Phototrophic

  9. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate......-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude......; the beating flagellum is simply unable to draw enough water through the fine filter. We find similar discrepancies for other choanoflagellate species, highlighting an apparent paradox. Our observations motivate us to suggest a radically different filtration mechanism that requires a flagellar vane (sheet...

  10. Chemical composition and fumigant effect of essentialoil of Lippia sidoides Cham. and monoterpenes against Tenebrio molitor (L. (coleoptera: tenebrionidae Composição química e efeito fumigante do óleo essencial de Lippia sidoides Cham. e monoterpenos sobre Tenebrio molitor (L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Karin Lima

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of Lippia sidoides essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation was characterized and quantified by GC/MS and their insecticidal activity by fumigation test was assayed against Tenebrio molitor. Moreover, the toxicity of monoterpenes carvacrol, 1,8-cineol and thymol were also evaluated when applied alone or in binary (1:1 or tertiary (1:1:1 mixture. The essential oil of L. sidoides has as major constituents carvacrol (31.68%, ρ-cymene (19.58%, 1,8-cineole (9.26% and ϒ-terpinene (9.21%, from a 21 compounds identified, being 92.53% of total. Both compounds have insecticidal activity against T. molitor, being the degree of toxicity of carvacrol > 1,8-cineole > L. sidoides essential oil > thymol, and its respectively LC50 at 24h were 5.53; 5.71; 8.04 and 14.71 µL/L air. When the different mixture of carvacrol, 1,8-cineole and thymol was assayed against T. molitor, the synergism among them was observed. For the mixture of carvacrol:1,8-cineole LC50 was 5.34 µL/L air; carvacrol:thymol 7.67 µL/L air; 1,8-cineole:thymol 7.51 µL/L air and carvacrol:1,8-cineole:thymol 6.34 µL/L air. Mainly, the monoterpene thymol had a synergic effect, which increased the toxicity of carvacrol and 1,8-cineole, both in binary mixture like carvacrol:thymol and 1,8-cineole:thymol.A composição química do óleo essencial de Lippia sidoides obtido por hidrodestilação foi caracterizada e quantificada por GC/MS, bem como sua atividade inseticida por teste de fumigação foi avaliada sobre Tenebrio molitor. Além disso, a toxicidade dos monoterpenos carvacrol, 1,8-cineol e timol, também foi avaliada quando esses compostos foram aplicados isoladamente, ou em misturas binárias (1:1, ou terciárias (1:1:1. O óleo essencial de L. sidoides tem como principais constituintes o carvacrol (31,68%, ρ-cimeno (19,58%, 1,8-cineol (9,26% e ϒ-terpineno (9,21%, em 21 compostos identificados, sendo 92,53% do total. Ambos os compostos possuem atividade

  11. Propriedade inseticida dos óleos essenciais de Piper hispidinervum C. DC.; Piper aduncum L. e Tanaecium nocturnum (Barb. Rodr. Bur. & K. Shum sobre Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 Insecticidal properties of essential oils of Piper hispidinervum C. DC.; Piper aduncum L. and Tanaecium nocturnum (Barb. Rodr. Bur. & K. Shum against Tenebrio molitor L., 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Fazolin

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Óleos essenciais das piperáceas Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C. DC. e da bignoniácea Tanaecium nocturnum (Barb. Rodr. Bur. & K. Shum foram avaliados para o controle de larvas de Tenebrio molitor L., 1758. Para a avaliação do efeito por contato em superfície contaminada, foram utilizados papéis-filtro impregnados com diferentes quantidades dos óleos essenciais. Para a avaliação do efeito tópico foram aplicados 5 mL de soluções com diferentes concentrações dos óleos sobre larvas de quinto instar do inseto. A taxa de mortalidade foi a variável utilizada para avaliar os experimentos. Todos os óleos essenciais apresentaram efeito inseticida sobre larvas de T. molitor, sendo que as respostas variaram em função da concentração utilizada, assim como do método de exposição do inseto. A toxicidade dos óleos essenciais foi elevada apresentando os seguintes valores de CL50: 0,045; 0,033 e 1,515 mL de óleo cm-2 para exposição por contato (papel filtro aos óleos de P. hispidinervum,P. aduncum e T. nocturnum, respectivamente. Para a aplicação tópica, os valores da DL50 foram de: 0,000025; 0,009 e 0,000015 mL de óleo mg de inseto -1 para os óleos essenciais de P. hispidinervum,P. aduncum e T. nocturnum, respectivamente. Resultados promissores para o emprego desses óleos essenciais como inseticidas foram obtidos utilizando-se concentrações acima de 3,0% (v v-1 para P. hispidinervum e 2,5% (v v-1 para P. aduncum e T. nocturnum.Essential oils from Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C. DC. (Piperaceae and Tanaecium nocturnum (Barb. Rodr. Bur.& K. Shum (Bignoniaceae were tested against Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 larvaes. Filter paper with different amounts of oils were employed for contact toxicity effects study. For topical effect study, aliquots of 5 mL of oils at different concentrations were applied on larvaes of the fifth instar. Mortality rate was used to evaluate the assays. All essential oils possessed

  12. Monitoring Microbially Influenced Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    and diffusional effects and unreliable corrosion rates, when biofilm and ferrous sulphide corrosion products cover the steel surface. Corrosion rates can be overestimated by a factor of 10 to 100 by electrochemical techniques. Weight loss coupons and ER are recommended as necessary basic monitoring techniques......Abstract Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon steel may occur in media with microbiological activity of especially sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The applicability and reliability of a number of corrosion monitoring techniques for monitoring MIC has been evaluated in experiments....... EIS might be used for detection of MIC as the appearance of very large capacitances can be attributed to the combined ferrous sulphide and biofilm formation. Capacitance correlates directly with sulphide concentration in sterile sulphide media. Keywords: Corrosion monitoring, carbon steel, MIC, SRB...

  13. New microbial growth factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, S. H.; Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A screening procedure was used to isolate from soil a Penicillium sp., two bacterial isolates, and a Streptomyces sp. that produced a previously unknown microbial growth factor. This factor was an absolute growth requirement for three soil bacteria. The Penicillium sp. and one of the bacteria requiring the factor, an Arthrobacter sp., were selected for more extensive study concerning the production and characteristics of the growth factor. It did not seem to be related to the siderochromes. It was not present in soil extract, rumen fluid, or any other medium component tested. It appears to be a glycoprotein of high molecular weight and has high specific activity. When added to the diets for a meadow-vole mammalian test system, it caused an increased consumption of diet without a concurrent increase in rate of weight gain.

  14. The maturing of microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas M

    2006-09-01

    A.J. Kluyver and C.B. van Niel introduced many scientists to the exceptional metabolic capacity of microbes and their remarkable ability to adapt to changing environments in The Microbe's Contribution to Biology. Beyond providing an overview of the physiology and adaptability of microbes, the book outlined many of the basic principles for the emerging discipline of microbial ecology. While the study of pure cultures was highlighted, provided a unifying framework for understanding the vast metabolic potential of microbes and their roles in the global cycling of elements, extrapolation from pure cultures to natural environments has often been overshadowed by microbiologists inability to culture many of the microbes seen in natural environments. A combination of genomic approaches is now providing a culture-independent view of the microbial world, revealing a more diverse and dynamic community of microbes than originally anticipated. As methods for determining the diversity of microbial communities become increasingly accessible, a major challenge to microbial ecologists is to link the structure of natural microbial communities with their functions. This article presents several examples from studies of aquatic and terrestrial microbial communities in which culture and culture-independent methods are providing an enhanced appreciation for the microbe's contribution to the evolution and maintenance of life on Earth, and offers some thoughts about the graduate-level educational programs needed to enhance the maturing field of microbial ecology.

  15. Global microbialization of coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Andreas F; Fairoz, Mohamed F M; Kelly, Linda W; Nelson, Craig E; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Edwards, Robert A; Giles, Steve; Hatay, Mark; Hisakawa, Nao; Knowles, Ben; Lim, Yan Wei; Maughan, Heather; Pantos, Olga; Roach, Ty N F; Sanchez, Savannah E; Silveira, Cynthia B; Sandin, Stuart; Smith, Jennifer E; Rohwer, Forest

    2016-04-25

    Microbialization refers to the observed shift in ecosystem trophic structure towards higher microbial biomass and energy use. On coral reefs, the proximal causes of microbialization are overfishing and eutrophication, both of which facilitate enhanced growth of fleshy algae, conferring a competitive advantage over calcifying corals and coralline algae. The proposed mechanism for this competitive advantage is the DDAM positive feedback loop (dissolved organic carbon (DOC), disease, algae, microorganism), where DOC released by ungrazed fleshy algae supports copiotrophic, potentially pathogenic bacterial communities, ultimately harming corals and maintaining algal competitive dominance. Using an unprecedented data set of >400 samples from 60 coral reef sites, we show that the central DDAM predictions are consistent across three ocean basins. Reef algal cover is positively correlated with lower concentrations of DOC and higher microbial abundances. On turf and fleshy macroalgal-rich reefs, higher relative abundances of copiotrophic microbial taxa were identified. These microbial communities shift their metabolic potential for carbohydrate degradation from the more energy efficient Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway on coral-dominated reefs to the less efficient Entner-Doudoroff and pentose phosphate pathways on algal-dominated reefs. This 'yield-to-power' switch by microorganism directly threatens reefs via increased hypoxia and greater CO2 release from the microbial respiration of DOC.

  16. Microbial biosensors for environmental monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David VOGRINC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biosensors are analytical devices capable of sensing substances in the environment due to the specific biological reaction of the microorganism or its parts. Construction of a microbial biosensor requires knowledge of microbial response to the specific analyte. Linking this response with the quantitative data, using a transducer, is the crucial step in the construction of a biosensor. Regarding the transducer type, biosensors are divided into electrochemical, optical biosensors and microbial fuel cells. The use of the proper configuration depends on the selection of the biosensing element. With the use of transgenic E. coli strains, bioluminescence or fluorescence based biosensors were developed. Microbial fuel cells enable the use of the heterogeneous microbial populations, isolated from wastewater. Different microorganisms are used for different pollutants – pesticides, heavy metals, phenolic compounds, organic waste, etc. Biosensing enables measurement of their concentration and their toxic or genotoxic effects on the microbes. Increasing environmental awareness has contributed to the increase of interest for biomonitoring. Although technologies, such as bioinformatics and genetic engineering, allow us to design complex and efficient microbial biosensors for environmental pollutants, the transfer of the laboratory work to the field still remains a problem to solve.

  17. Microbial electrode sensor for alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikuma, M [Ajinomoto Co., Inc., Kawasaki, Japan; Kubo, T; Yasuda, T; Karube, I; Suzuki, S

    1979-10-01

    A microbial electrode consisting of immobilized microorganisms, a gas permeable Teflon membrane, and an oxygen electrode was prepared for the continuous determination of methyl and ethyl alcohols. Immobilized Trichosporon brassicae was employed for a microbial electrode sensor for ethyl alcohol. When a sample solution containing ethyl alcohol was injected into a microbial electrode system, the current of the electrode decreased markedly with time until a steady state was reached. The response time was within 10 min by the steady state method and within 6 min by the pulse method. A linear relationship was observed between the current decrease and the concentration of ethyl alcohol below 22.5 mg/liter. The current was reproducible within +- 6% of the relative error when a sample solution containing 16.5 mg/liter ethyl alcohol. The standard deviation was 0.5 mg/liter in 40 experiments. The selectivity of the microbial electrode sensor for ethyl alcohol was satisfactory. The microbial electrode sensor was applied to a fermentation broth of yeasts and satisfactory comparative results were obtained (correlation coefficient 0.98). The current output of the microbial electrode sensor was almost constant for more than three weeks and 2100 assays. A microbial electrode sensor using immobilized bacteria for methyl alcohol was also described.

  18. The microbial ecology of permafrost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Janet; Tas, Neslihan

    2014-01-01

    Permafrost constitutes a major portion of the terrestrial cryosphere of the Earth and is a unique ecological niche for cold-adapted microorganisms. There is a relatively high microbial diversity in permafrost, although there is some variation in community composition across different permafrost......-gas emissions. This Review describes new data on the microbial ecology of permafrost and provides a platform for understanding microbial life strategies in frozen soil as well as the impact of climate change on permafrost microorganisms and their functional roles....

  19. Defining Disturbance for Microbial Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Craig J

    2017-08-01

    Disturbance can profoundly modify the structure of natural communities. However, microbial ecologists' concept of "disturbance" has often deviated from conventional practice. Definitions (or implicit usage) have frequently included climate change and other forms of chronic environmental stress, which contradict the macrobiologist's notion of disturbance as a discrete event that removes biomass. Physical constraints and disparate biological characteristics were compared to ask whether disturbances fundamentally differ in microbial and macroorganismal communities. A definition of "disturbance" for microbial ecologists is proposed that distinguishes from "stress" and other competing terms, and that is in accord with definitions accepted by plant and animal ecologists.

  20. Microbial ecology-based engineering of Microbial Electrochemical Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Christin; Korth, Benjamin; Harnisch, Falk

    2018-01-01

    Microbial ecology is devoted to the understanding of dynamics, activity and interaction of microorganisms in natural and technical ecosystems. Bioelectrochemical systems represent important technical ecosystems, where microbial ecology is of highest importance for their function. However, whereas aspects of, for example, materials and reactor engineering are commonly perceived as highly relevant, the study and engineering of microbial ecology are significantly underrepresented in bioelectrochemical systems. This shortfall may be assigned to a deficit on knowledge and power of these methods as well as the prerequisites for their thorough application. This article discusses not only the importance of microbial ecology for microbial electrochemical technologies but also shows which information can be derived for a knowledge-driven engineering. Instead of providing a comprehensive list of techniques from which it is hard to judge the applicability and value of information for a respective one, this review illustrates the suitability of selected techniques on a case study. Thereby, best practice for different research questions is provided and a set of key questions for experimental design, data acquisition and analysis is suggested. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Microbial Cell Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Sullivan, Claretta [Eastern Virginia Medical School; Mortensen, Ninell P [ORNL; Allison, David P [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    limitation on the maximum scan size (roughly 100 x 100 {mu}m) and the restricted movement of the cantilever in the Z (or height) direction. In most commercial AFMs, the Z range is restricted to roughly 10 {mu}m such that the height of cells to be imaged must be seriously considered. Nevertheless, AFM can provide structural-functional information at nanometer resolution and do so in physiologically relevant environments. Further, instrumentation for scanning probe microscopy continues to advance. Systems for high-speed imaging are becoming available, and techniques for looking inside the cells are being demonstrated. The ability to combine AFM with other imaging modalities is likely to have an even greater impact on microbiological studies. AFM studies of intact microbial cells started to appear in the literature in the 1990s. For example, AFM studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae examined buddings cars after cell division and detailed changes related to cell growth processes. Also, the first AFM studies of bacterial biofilms appeared. In the late 1990s, AFM studies of intact fungal spores described clear changes in spore surfaces upon germination, and studies of individual bacterial cells were also described. These early bacterial imaging studies examined changes in bacterial morphology due to antimicrobial peptides exposure and bacterial adhesion properties. The majority of these early studies were carried out on dried samples and took advantage of the resolving power of AFM. The lack of cell mounting procedures presented an impediment for cell imaging studies. Subsequently, several approaches to mounting microbial cells have been developed, and these techniques are described later. Also highlighted are general considerations for microbial imaging and a description of some of the various applications of AFM to microbiology.

  2. MICROBIAL MATS - A JOINT VENTURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANGEMERDEN, H

    Microbial mats characteristically are dominated by a few functional groups of microbes: cyanobacteria, colorless sulfur bacteria, purple sulfur bacteria, and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Their combined metabolic activities result in steep environmental microgradients, particularly of oxygen and

  3. Microbial production of gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hideo

    1987-10-20

    Microbial production of ethylene, isobutane and a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture was described. Microbial ethylene production was studied with Penicillium digitatum IFO 9372 and a novel pathway of the ethylene biosynthesis through alpha-ketoglutarate was proposed. Rhodotorula minuta IFO 1102 was selected for the microbial production of isobutane and the interesting actions of L-leucine and L-phenylalanine for the isobutane production were found. It was finally presented about the microbial production of a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture with Rhizopus japonicus IFO 4758 was described. A gas mixture was produced through a chemical reaction of SH compounds and some cellular component such as squalene under aerobic conditions. (4 figs, 7 tabs, 41 refs)

  4. Seasonality in ocean microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannoni, Stephen J; Vergin, Kevin L

    2012-02-10

    Ocean warming occurs every year in seasonal cycles that can help us to understand long-term responses of plankton to climate change. Rhythmic seasonal patterns of microbial community turnover are revealed when high-resolution measurements of microbial plankton diversity are applied to samples collected in lengthy time series. Seasonal cycles in microbial plankton are complex, but the expansion of fixed ocean stations monitoring long-term change and the development of automated instrumentation are providing the time-series data needed to understand how these cycles vary across broad geographical scales. By accumulating data and using predictive modeling, we gain insights into changes that will occur as the ocean surface continues to warm and as the extent and duration of ocean stratification increase. These developments will enable marine scientists to predict changes in geochemical cycles mediated by microbial communities and to gauge their broader impacts.

  5. Microbial safety of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandekar, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in hygiene, consumer knowledge and food treatment and processing, food-borne diseases have become one of the most widespread public health problems in the world to-day. About two thirds of all outbreaks are traced to microbial contaminated food - one of the most hazardous being Clostridium botulinum, E. coli 0157: H7 and Salmonella. The pathogens can be introduced in the food products anywhere in the food chain and hence it is of prime important to have microbial vigilance in the entire food chain. WHO estimates that food-borne and water-borne diarrhoeal diseases taken together kill about 2.2 million people annually. The infants, children, elderly and immune-compromised people are particularly susceptible to food-borne diseases. Unsafe food causes many acute and life-long diseases, ranging from diarrhoeal diseases to various forms of cancer. A number of factors such as emergence of new food-borne pathogens, development of drug resistance in the pathogens, changing life style, global trade of food etc. are responsible for the continued persistence of food-borne diseases. Due to consumer demand, a number of Ready-To-Eat (RTE) minimally processed foods are increasingly marketed. However, there is increased risk of food-borne diseases with these products. The food-borne disease outbreaks due to E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and Campylobacter are responsible for recall of many foods resulting in heavy losses to food industry. The development of multi drug resistant pathogens due to indiscriminate use of antibiotics is also a major problem. Food Technology Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre has been working on food-borne bacterial pathogens particularly Salmonella, Campylobacter, Vibrio and Aeromonas species, their prevalence in export quality seafood as well in foods sold in retail market such as poultry, fish, sprouts and salads. These pathogens from Indian foods have been characterized for the presence of virulence genes

  6. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  7. Contaminant immobilization via microbial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    The aim of this study was to search the literature to identify biological techniques that could be applied to the restoration of contaminated groundwaters near uranium milling sites. Through bioremediation it was hypothesized that the hazardous heavy metals could be immobilized in a stable, low-solubility form, thereby halting their progress in the migrating groundwater. Three basic mechanisms were examined: reduction of heavy metals by microbially produced hydrogen sulfide; direct microbial mediated reduction; and biosorption

  8. Microbial genomes: Blueprints for life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Relman, David A.; Strauss, Evelyn

    2000-12-31

    Complete microbial genome sequences hold the promise of profound new insights into microbial pathogenesis, evolution, diagnostics, and therapeutics. From these insights will come a new foundation for understanding the evolution of single-celled life, as well as the evolution of more complex life forms. This report is an in-depth analysis of scientific issues that provides recommendations and will be widely disseminated to the scientific community, federal agencies, industry and the public.

  9. Chronic alcoholism and microbial keratitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Ormerod, L. D.; Gomez, D. S.; Schanzlin, D. J.; Smith, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    In a series of 227 consecutive, non-referred patients with microbial keratitis an analysis of the accumulated hospital records showed that one-third were associated with chronic alcoholism. The diagnosis of alcoholism was usually unsuspected on admission to hospital. The microbial pathogenesis in these patients was distinctive; coagulase-negative staphylococci, alpha- and beta-streptococci, moraxellae, enteric Gram-negative bacilli, and polymicrobial infections were unusually prominent. Pseud...

  10. In-Drift Microbial Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Jolley

    2000-11-09

    As directed by written work direction (CRWMS M and O 1999f), Performance Assessment (PA) developed a model for microbial communities in the engineered barrier system (EBS) as documented here. The purpose of this model is to assist Performance Assessment and its Engineered Barrier Performance Section in modeling the geochemical environment within a potential repository drift for TSPA-SR/LA, thus allowing PA to provide a more detailed and complete near-field geochemical model and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This model and its predecessor (the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document, CRWMS M and O 1998a) was developed to respond to the applicable KTIs. Additionally, because of the previous development of the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a), the M and O was effectively able to resolve a previous KTI concern regarding the effects of microbial processes on seepage and flow (NRC 1998). This document supercedes the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a). This document provides the conceptual framework of the revised in-drift microbial communities model to be used in subsequent performance assessment (PA) analyses.

  11. In-Drift Microbial Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, D.

    2000-01-01

    As directed by written work direction (CRWMS M and O 1999f), Performance Assessment (PA) developed a model for microbial communities in the engineered barrier system (EBS) as documented here. The purpose of this model is to assist Performance Assessment and its Engineered Barrier Performance Section in modeling the geochemical environment within a potential repository drift for TSPA-SR/LA, thus allowing PA to provide a more detailed and complete near-field geochemical model and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This model and its predecessor (the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document, CRWMS M and O 1998a) was developed to respond to the applicable KTIs. Additionally, because of the previous development of the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a), the M and O was effectively able to resolve a previous KTI concern regarding the effects of microbial processes on seepage and flow (NRC 1998). This document supercedes the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a). This document provides the conceptual framework of the revised in-drift microbial communities model to be used in subsequent performance assessment (PA) analyses

  12. Microbial production of biovanillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Converti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This review aims at providing an overview on the microbial production of vanillin, a new alternative method for the production of this important flavor of the food industry, which has the potential to become economically competitive in the next future. After a brief description of the applications of vanillin in different industrial sectors and of its physicochemical properties, we described the traditional ways of providing vanillin, specifically extraction and chemical synthesis (mainly oxidation and compared them with the new biotechnological options, i.e., biotransformations of caffeic acid, veratraldehyde and mainly ferulic acid. In the second part of the review, emphasis has been addressed to the factors most influencing the bioproduction of vanillin, specifically the age of inoculum, pH, temperature, type of co-substrate, as well as the inhibitory effects exerted either by excess substrate or product. The final part of the work summarized the downstream processes and the related unit operations involved in the recovery of vanillin from the bioconversion medium.

  13. Microbial production of biovanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converti, A; Aliakbarian, B; Domínguez, J M; Bustos Vázquez, G; Perego, P

    2010-07-01

    This review aims at providing an overview on the microbial production of vanillin, a new alternative method for the production of this important flavor of the food industry, which has the potential to become economically competitive in the next future. After a brief description of the applications of vanillin in different industrial sectors and of its physicochemical properties, we described the traditional ways of providing vanillin, specifically extraction and chemical synthesis (mainly oxidation) and compared them with the new biotechnological options, i.e., biotransformations of caffeic acid, veratraldehyde and mainly ferulic acid. In the second part of the review, emphasis has been addressed to the factors most influencing the bioproduction of vanillin, specifically the age of inoculum, pH, temperature, type of co-substrate, as well as the inhibitory effects exerted either by excess substrate or product. The final part of the work summarized the downstream processes and the related unit operations involved in the recovery of vanillin from the bioconversion medium.

  14. Microbial Propionic Acid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Axayacatl Gonzalez-Garcia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Propionic acid (propionate is a commercially valuable carboxylic acid produced through microbial fermentation. Propionic acid is mainly used in the food industry but has recently found applications in the cosmetic, plastics and pharmaceutical industries. Propionate can be produced via various metabolic pathways, which can be classified into three major groups: fermentative pathways, biosynthetic pathways, and amino acid catabolic pathways. The current review provides an in-depth description of the major metabolic routes for propionate production from an energy optimization perspective. Biological propionate production is limited by high downstream purification costs which can be addressed if the target yield, productivity and titre can be achieved. Genome shuffling combined with high throughput omics and metabolic engineering is providing new opportunities, and biological propionate production is likely to enter the market in the not so distant future. In order to realise the full potential of metabolic engineering and heterologous expression, however, a greater understanding of metabolic capabilities of the native producers, the fittest producers, is required.

  15. Effects of growth, development and reproduction of Tenebrio molitor by feeding Lemna minor%饲喂浮萍对黄粉虫生长发育及繁殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王清春; 刘玉升; 方加兴

    2017-01-01

    为探索浮萍Lemna minor生物质利用新途径,解决浮萍在污水中引起的二次污染现象,本研究利用黄粉虫Tenebrio molitor L食性杂,易饲养,可转化利用多种有机生物质资源的的特性,将浮萍烘干、磨碎后,与麦麸配制成50%浮萍∶50%麦麸,60%浮萍∶40%麦麸,70%浮萍∶30%麦麸,80%浮萍∶20%麦麸不同比例的混合饲料(加水使饲料含水量保持为18%)来饲养黄粉虫幼虫(以纯麦麸为对照组);同时以浮萍替代豆饼作为添加料,按照白菜∶麦麸∶浮萍=10∶4∶1做成混合饲料饲养成虫,来研究浮萍对黄粉虫生长发育及繁殖的影响.结果显示:与纯麦麸相比,幼虫试验中各处理组的生物量增长率、饲料利用率均降低,死亡率增高,而饲喂“50%浮萍∶50%麦麸”饲料的黄粉虫幼虫的各指标与对照组差异不显著,为最佳浮萍饲料配比;在成虫试验中,以浮萍为添加料的成虫单雌产卵量为586.33±6.84粒,成虫寿命为105.5 ±1.43 d,均显著高于以豆饼为添加料的对照组.本研究对利用黄粉虫转化处理浮萍的效果做出了初步评价,即黄粉虫取食转化浮萍是可行的,为浮萍的生物质利用提供参考.%In order to explore the utilization of Lemna minor biomass in new ways,and to solve the second pollution phenomenon caused by it in wastewater.In the study,we make use of some characteristics of Tenebrio molitor L.,such as omnivorous,easy to breed and can utilizate of a variety of organic biomass resources,to transform and utilize Lemna minor.First,we dried Lemna minor to constant weight and mixed with wheat bran in different proportions (add water to keep the water content of these artificial diet at 18%):"50% Lemna minor∶ 50%wheat bran","60% Lemna minor:40% wheat bran","70% Lemna minor∶30% wheat bran","80% Lemna minor∶20% wheat bran" to feed Tenebrio molitor larvae (pure wheat bran as the control group);Then,we use Lemna

  16. [Characterization and microbial community shifts of rice strawdegrading microbial consortia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunfang; Ma, Shichun; Huang, Yan; Liu, Laiyan; Fan, Hui; Deng, Yu

    2016-12-04

    To study the relationship between microbial community and degradation rate of rice straw, we compared and analyzed cellulose-decomposing ability, microbial community structures and shifts of microbial consortia F1 and F2. We determined exoglucanase activity by 3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid colorimetry. We determined content of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in rice straw by Van Soest method, and calculated degradation rates of rice straw by the weight changes before and after a 10-day incubation. We analyzed and compared the microbial communities and functional microbiology shifts by clone libraries, Miseq analysis and real time-PCR based on the 16S rRNA gene and cel48 genes. Total degradation rate, cellulose, and hemicellulose degradation rate of microbial consortia F1 were significantly higher than that of F2. The variation trend of exoglucanase activity in both microbial consortia F1 and F2 was consistent with that of cel48 gene copies. Microbial diversity of F1 was complex with aerobic bacteria as dominant species, whereas that of F2 was simple with a high proportion of anaerobic cellulose decomposing bacteria in the later stage of incubation. In the first 4 days, unclassified Bacillales and Bacillus were dominant in both F1 and F2. The dominant species and abundance became different after 4-day incubation, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were dominant phyla of F1 and F2, respectively. Although Petrimonas and Pusillimonas were common dominant species in F1 and F2, abundance of Petrimonas in F2 (38.30%) was significantly higher than that in F1 (9.47%), and the abundance of Clostridiales OPB54 in F2 increased to 14.85% after 8-day incubation. The abundance of cel48 gene related with cellulose degradation rate and exoglucanase activity, and cel48 gene has the potential as a molecular marker to monitor the process of cellulose degradation. Microbial community structure has a remarkable impact on the degradation efficiency of straw cellulose, and Petrimonas

  17. Biotechnological Aspects of Microbial Extracellular Electron Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Souichiro

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular electron transfer (EET) is a type of microbial respiration that enables electron transfer between microbial cells and extracellular solid materials, including naturally-occurring metal compounds and artificial electrodes. Microorganisms harboring EET abilities have received considerable attention for their various biotechnological applications, in addition to their contribution to global energy and material cycles. In this review, current knowledge on microbial EET and its application to diverse biotechnologies, including the bioremediation of toxic metals, recovery of useful metals, biocorrosion, and microbial electrochemical systems (microbial fuel cells and microbial electrosynthesis), were introduced. Two potential biotechnologies based on microbial EET, namely the electrochemical control of microbial metabolism and electrochemical stimulation of microbial symbiotic reactions (electric syntrophy), were also discussed. PMID:26004795

  18. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia; Walther, Jens H; Kiørboe, Thomas; Andersen, Anders

    2017-08-29

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate amounts of water. Also, the trade-off in the filter spacing remains unexplored, despite its simple formulation: A filter too coarse will allow suitably sized prey to pass unintercepted, whereas a filter too fine will cause strong flow resistance. We quantify the feeding flow of the filter-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude; the beating flagellum is simply unable to draw enough water through the fine filter. We find similar discrepancies for other choanoflagellate species, highlighting an apparent paradox. Our observations motivate us to suggest a radically different filtration mechanism that requires a flagellar vane (sheet), something notoriously difficult to visualize but sporadically observed in the related choanocytes (sponges). A CFD model with a flagellar vane correctly predicts the filtration rate of D. grandis , and using a simple model we can account for the filtration rates of other microbial filter feeders. We finally predict how optimum filter mesh size increases with cell size in microbial filter feeders, a prediction that accords very well with observations. We expect our results to be of significance for small-scale biophysics and trait-based ecological modeling.

  19. MICROBIAL SURFACTANTS IN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Pirog

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It was shown literature and own experimental data concerning the use of microbial surface active glycolipids (rhamno-, sophoro- and trehalose lipids and lipopeptides for water and soil purification from oil and other hydrocarbons, removing toxic heavy metals (Cu2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, degradation of complex pollution (oil and other hydrocarbons with heavy metals, and the role of microbial surfactants in phytoremediation processes. The factors that limit the use of microbial surfactants in environmental technologies are discussed. Thus, at certain concentrations biosurfactant can exhibit antimicrobial properties and inhibit microorganisms destructing xenobiotics. Microbial biodegradability of surfactants may also reduce the effectiveness of bioremediation. Development of effective technologies using microbial surfactants should include the following steps: monitoring of contaminated sites to determine the nature of pollution and analysis of the autochthonous microbiota; determining the mode of surfactant introduction (exogenous addition of stimulation of surfactant synthesis by autochthonous microbiota; establishing an optimal concentration of surfactant to prevent exhibition of antimicrobial properties and rapid biodegradation; research both in laboratory and field conditions.

  20. What is microbial community ecology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Allan

    2009-11-01

    The activities of complex communities of microbes affect biogeochemical transformations in natural, managed and engineered ecosystems. Meaningfully defining what constitutes a community of interacting microbial populations is not trivial, but is important for rigorous progress in the field. Important elements of research in microbial community ecology include the analysis of functional pathways for nutrient resource and energy flows, mechanistic understanding of interactions between microbial populations and their environment, and the emergent properties of the complex community. Some emergent properties mirror those analyzed by community ecologists who study plants and animals: biological diversity, functional redundancy and system stability. However, because microbes possess mechanisms for the horizontal transfer of genetic information, the metagenome may also be considered as a community property.

  1. Microbial processes in coastal pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capone, D.G.; Bauer, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors describe the nature and range of some of the interactions that can occur between the microbiota and environmental contaminants in coastal areas. The implications of such interactions are also discussed. Pollutant types include inorganic nutrients, heavy metals, bulk organics, organic contaminants, pathogenic microorganisms and microbial pollutants. Both the effects of pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons on natural microbial populations and the mitigation of contaminant effects by complexation and biodegradation are considered. Finally, several areas of emerging concerns are presented that involve a confluence of biogeochemistry, microbial ecology and applied and public health microbiology. These concerns range in relevance from local/regional to oceanic/global scales. 308 ref

  2. Soil microbial activities and its relationship with soil chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fields assessed are organically managed Soils (OMS), Inorganically Managed Soils (IMS) and an Uncultivated Land having grass coverage (ULS). Soil Microbial Respiration (SMR), Microbial Biomass Carbon (MBC), Microbial Biomass Nitrogen (MBN) and Microbial Biomass Phosphorus (MBP) were analyzed.

  3. Advanced Microscopy of Microbial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Regenberg, Birgitte; Sternberg, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Growing awareness of heterogeneity in cells of microbial populations has emphasized the importance of advanced microscopy for visualization and understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cell-to-cell variation. In this review, we highlight some of the recent advances in confocal...... microscopy, super-resolution optical microscopy (STED, SIM, PALM) as well as atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Using examples of bistability in microbial populations as well as biofilm development and differentiation in bacterial and yeast consortia, we demonstrate the importance of microscopy...

  4. Systems biology of Microbial Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navid, A; Ghim, C; Fenley, A; Yoon, S; Lee, S; Almaas, E

    2008-04-11

    Microbes exist naturally in a wide range of environments, spanning the extremes of high acidity and high temperature to soil and the ocean, in communities where their interactions are significant. We present a practical discussion of three different approaches for modeling microbial communities: rate equations, individual-based modeling, and population dynamics. We illustrate the approaches with detailed examples. Each approach is best fit to different levels of system representation, and they have different needs for detailed biological input. Thus, this set of approaches is able to address the operation and function of microbial communities on a wide range of organizational levels.

  5. Microbial Heat Recovery Cell (MHRC) System Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    This factsheet describes a project that aimed to develop a microbial heat recovery cell (MHRC) system that combines a microbial reverse electrodialysis technology with waste heat recovery to convert industrial effluents into electricity and hydrogen.

  6. Microbial quality of a marine tidal pool

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the source of microbial pollution to a tidal pool was investigated. Both adjacent seawater which could contribute to possible faecal pollution and potential direct bather pollution were studied. The microbial quality of the marine...

  7. Marine Microbial Systems Ecology: Microbial Networks in the Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijzer, G.; Stal, L.J.; Cretoiu, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing of DNA has revolutionized microbial ecology. Using this technology, it became for the first time possible to analyze hundreds of samples simultaneously and in great detail. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, metagenomics and metatranscriptomics became available to determine the

  8. Microbial stratification and microbially catalyzed processes along a hypersaline chemocline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, A.; Joye, S. B.; Teske, A.

    2017-12-01

    Orca Basin is the largest deep hypersaline anoxic basin in the world, covering over 400 km2. Located at the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico, this body of water reaches depths of 200 meters and is 8 times denser (and more saline) than the overlying seawater. The sharp pycnocline prevents any significant vertical mixing and serves as a particle trap for sinking organic matter. These rapid changes in salinity, oxygen, organic matter, and other geochemical parameters present unique conditions for the microbial communities present. We collected samples in 10m intervals throughout the chemocline. After filtering the water, we used high-throughput bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize the changing microbial community along the Orca Basin chemocline. The results reveal a dominance of microbial taxa whose biogeochemical function is entirely unknown. We then used metagenomic sequencing and reconstructed genomes for select samples, revealing the potential dominant metabolic processes in the Orca Basin chemocline. Understanding how these unique geochemical conditions shape microbial communities and metabolic capabilities will have implications for the ocean's biogeochemical cycles and the consequences of expanding oxygen minimum zones.

  9. Microbial community structure elucidates performance of Glyceria maxima plant microbial fuel cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, R.A.; Rothballer, M.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Engel, M.; Schulz, M.; Hartmann, A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2012-01-01

    The plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) is a technology in which living plant roots provide electron donor, via rhizodeposition, to a mixed microbial community to generate electricity in a microbial fuel cell. Analysis and localisation of the microbial community is necessary for gaining insight into

  10. Microbial incorporation of nitrogen in stream detritus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane M. Sanzone; Jennifer L. Tank; Judy L. Meyer; Patrick J. Mulholland; Stuart E.G. Findlay

    2001-01-01

    We adapted the chloroform fumigation method to determine microbial nitrogen (N) and microbial incorporation of 15N on three common substrates [leaves, wood and fine benthic organic matter (FBOM)] in three forest streams. We compared microbial N and 15 content of samples collected during a 6-week15N-NH...

  11. Microbially produced phytotoxins and plant disease management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nowadays, these evaluation techniques are becoming an important complement to classical breeding methods. The knowledge of the inactivation of microbial toxins has led to the use of microbial enzymes to inactivate phytotoxins thereby reducing incidence and severity of disease induced by microbial toxins. Considering ...

  12. Microbial communities in blueberry soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial communities thrive in the soil of the plant root zone and it is clear that these communities play a role in plant health. Although blueberry fields can be productive for decades, yields are sometimes below expectations and fields that are replanted sometimes underperform and/or take too lo...

  13. Advanced Microscopy of Microbial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Regenberg, Birgitte; Sternberg, Claus

    2011-01-01

    microscopy, super-resolution optical microscopy (STED, SIM, PALM) as well as atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Using examples of bistability in microbial populations as well as biofilm development and differentiation in bacterial and yeast consortia, we demonstrate the importance of microscopy...

  14. Toward Understanding, Managing, and Protecting Microbial Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodelier, Paul L. E.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial communities are at the very basis of life on earth, catalyzing biogeochemical reactions driving global nutrient cycles. However, unlike for plants and animals, microbial diversity is not on the biodiversity–conservation agenda. The latter, however, would imply that microbial diversity is not under any threat by anthropogenic disturbance or climate change. This maybe a misconception caused by the rudimentary knowledge we have concerning microbial diversity and its role in ecosystem functioning. This perspective paper identifies major areas with knowledge gaps within the field of environmental microbiology that preclude a comprehension of microbial ecosystems on the level we have for plants and animals. Opportunities and challenges are pointed out to open the microbial black box and to go from descriptive to predictive microbial ecology. PMID:21747797

  15. Towards understanding, managing and protecting microbial ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eBodelier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities are at the very basis of life on earth, catalysing biogeochemical reactions driving global nutrient cycles. However, unlike for plants and animals, microbial diversity is not on the biodiversity conservation agenda. The latter, however, would imply that microbial diversity is not under any threat by anthropogenic disturbance or climate change. This maybe a misconception caused by the rudimentary knowledge we have concerning microbial diversity and its role in ecosystem functioning. This perspective paper indentifies major areas with knowledge gaps within the field of environmental microbiology that preclude a comprehension of microbial ecosystems on the level we have for plants and animals. Opportunities and challenges are pointed out to open the microbial black box and to go from descriptive to predictive microbial ecology.

  16. Toward understanding, managing, and protecting microbial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodelier, Paul L E

    2011-01-01

    Microbial communities are at the very basis of life on earth, catalyzing biogeochemical reactions driving global nutrient cycles. However, unlike for plants and animals, microbial diversity is not on the biodiversity-conservation agenda. The latter, however, would imply that microbial diversity is not under any threat by anthropogenic disturbance or climate change. This maybe a misconception caused by the rudimentary knowledge we have concerning microbial diversity and its role in ecosystem functioning. This perspective paper identifies major areas with knowledge gaps within the field of environmental microbiology that preclude a comprehension of microbial ecosystems on the level we have for plants and animals. Opportunities and challenges are pointed out to open the microbial black box and to go from descriptive to predictive microbial ecology.

  17. Microbial Metabolism in Serpentinite Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Medina, M.; Brazelton, W. J.; Twing, K. I.; Kubo, M.; Hoehler, T. M.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    Serpentinization is the process in which ultramafic rocks, characteristic of the upper mantle, react with water liberating mantle carbon and reducing power to potenially support chemosynthetic microbial communities. These communities may be important mediators of carbon and energy exchange between the deep Earth and the surface biosphere. Our work focuses on the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory (CROMO) in Northern California where subsurface fluids are accessible through a series of wells. Preliminary analyses indicate that the highly basic fluids (pH 9-12) have low microbial diversity, but there is limited knowledge about the metabolic capabilities of these communties. Metagenomic data from similar serpentine environments [1] have identified Betaproteobacteria belonging to the order Burkholderiales and Gram-positive bacteria from the order Clostridiales as key components of the serpentine microbiome. In an effort to better characterize the microbial community, metabolism, and geochemistry at CROMO, fluids from two representative wells (N08B and CSWold) were sampled during recent field campaigns. Geochemical characterization of the fluids includes measurements of dissolved gases (H2, CO, CH4), dissolved inorganic and organic carbon, volatile fatty acids, and nutrients. The wells selected can be differentiated in that N08B had higher pH (10-11), lower dissolved oxygen, and cell counts ranging from 105-106 cells mL-1 of fluid, with an abundance of the betaproteobacterium Hydrogenophaga. In contrast, fluids from CSWold have slightly lower pH (9-9.5), DO, and conductivity, as well as higher TDN and TDP. CSWold fluid is also characterized for having lower cell counts (~103 cells mL-1) and an abundance of Dethiobacter, a taxon within the phylum Clostridiales. Microcosm experiments were conducted with the purpose of monitoring carbon fixation, methanotrophy and metabolism of small organic compounds, such as acetate and formate, while tracing changes in fluid

  18. Key Concepts in Microbial Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, B. C.; Achilles, K.; Walker, G.; Weersing, K.; Team, A

    2008-12-01

    The Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education (C-MORE) is a multi-institution Science and Technology Center, established by the National Science Foundation in 2006. C-MORE's research mission is to facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the diverse assemblages of microorganisms in the sea, ranging from the genetic basis of marine microbial biogeochemistry including the metabolic regulation and environmental controls of gene expression, to the processes that underpin the fluxes of carbon, related bioelements, and energy in the marine environment. The C-MORE education and outreach program is focused on increasing scientific literacy in microbial oceanography among students, educators, and the general public. A first step toward this goal is defining the key concepts that constitute microbial oceanography. After lengthy discussions with scientists and educators, both within and outside C-MORE, we have arrived at six key concepts: 1) Marine microbes are very small and have been around for a long time; 2) Life on Earth could not exist without microbes; 3) Most marine microbes are beneficial; 4) Microbes are everywhere: they are extremely abundant and diverse; 5) Microbes significantly impact our global climate; and 6) There are new discoveries every day in the field of microbial oceanography. A C-MORE-produced brochure on these six key concepts will be distributed at the meeting. Advanced copies may be requested by email or downloaded from the C-MORE web site(http://cmore.soest.hawaii.edu/downloads/MO_key_concepts_hi-res.pdf). This brochure also includes information on career pathways in microbial oceanography, with the aim of broadening participation in the field. C-MORE is eager to work in partnership to incorporate these key concepts into other science literacy publications, particularly those involving ocean and climate literacy. We thank the following contributors and reviewers: P Chisholm, A Dolberry, and A Thompson (MIT); N Lawrence

  19. Enhancing microbial production of biofuels by expanding microbial metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping; Chen, Xingge; Li, Peng

    2017-09-01

    Fatty acid, isoprenoid, and alcohol pathways have been successfully engineered to produce biofuels. By introducing three genes, atfA, adhE, and pdc, into Escherichia coli to expand fatty acid pathway, up to 1.28 g/L of fatty acid ethyl esters can be achieved. The isoprenoid pathway can be expanded to produce bisabolene with a high titer of 900 mg/L in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Short- and long-chain alcohols can also be effectively biosynthesized by extending the carbon chain of ketoacids with an engineered "+1" alcohol pathway. Thus, it can be concluded that expanding microbial metabolic pathways has enormous potential for enhancing microbial production of biofuels for future industrial applications. However, some major challenges for microbial production of biofuels should be overcome to compete with traditional fossil fuels: lowering production costs, reducing the time required to construct genetic elements and to increase their predictability and reliability, and creating reusable parts with useful and predictable behavior. To address these challenges, several aspects should be further considered in future: mining and transformation of genetic elements related to metabolic pathways, assembling biofuel elements and coordinating their functions, enhancing the tolerance of host cells to biofuels, and creating modular subpathways that can be easily interconnected. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Microbial Flocculant for Nature Soda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Peiyong; Zhang, Tong; Chen, Cuixian

    2004-03-31

    Microbial flocculant for nature soda has been studied. Lactobacillus TRJ21, which was able to produce an excellent biopolymer flocculant for nature soda, was obtained in our lab. The microbial flocculant was mainly produced when the bacteria laid in stationary growth phase. Fructose or glucose, as carbon sources, were more favorable for the bacterial growth and flocculant production. The bacteria was able to use ammonium sulfate or Urea as nitrogen to produce flocculant, but was not able to use peptone effectively. High C/N ratio was more favorable to Lactobacillus TRJ21 growth and flocculant production than low C/N ratio. The biopolymer flocculant was mainly composed of polysaccharide and protein with a molecular weight 1.38x106 by gel permeation chromatography. It was able to be easily purified from the culture medium by acetone. Protein in the flocculant was tested for the flocculating activity ingredient by heating the flocculant.

  1. Subsurface microbial habitats on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, P. J.; Mckay, C. P.

    1991-01-01

    We developed scenarios for shallow and deep subsurface cryptic niches for microbial life on Mars. Such habitats could have considerably prolonged the persistence of life on Mars as surface conditions became increasingly inhospitable. The scenarios rely on geothermal hot spots existing below the near or deep subsurface of Mars. Recent advances in the comparatively new field of deep subsurface microbiology have revealed previously unsuspected rich aerobic and anaerobic microbal communities far below the surface of the Earth. Such habitats, protected from the grim surface conditions on Mars, could receive warmth from below and maintain water in its liquid state. In addition, geothermally or volcanically reduced gases percolating from below through a microbiologically active zone could provide the reducing power needed for a closed or semi-closed microbial ecosystem to thrive.

  2. Microbial activity at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, J.M.; Meike, A.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the containment and storage of commercially generated spent fuel and defense high-level nuclear waste. There is growing recognition of the role that biotic factors could play in this repository, either directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC), or indirectly by altering the chemical environment or contributing to the transport of radionuclides. As a first step toward describing and predicting these processes, a workshop was held on April 10-12, 1995, in Lafayette, California. The immediate aims of the workshop were: (1) To identify microbially related processes relevant to the design of a radioactive waste repository under conditions similar to those at Yucca Mountain. (2) To determine parameters that are critical to the evaluation of a disturbed subterranean environment. (3) To define the most effective means of investigating the factors thus identified

  3. Microbial activity at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J.M.; Meike, A.

    1995-09-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the containment and storage of commercially generated spent fuel and defense high-level nuclear waste. There is growing recognition of the role that biotic factors could play in this repository, either directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC), or indirectly by altering the chemical environment or contributing to the transport of radionuclides. As a first step toward describing and predicting these processes, a workshop was held on April 10-12, 1995, in Lafayette, California. The immediate aims of the workshop were: (1) To identify microbially related processes relevant to the design of a radioactive waste repository under conditions similar to those at Yucca Mountain. (2) To determine parameters that are critical to the evaluation of a disturbed subterranean environment. (3) To define the most effective means of investigating the factors thus identified.

  4. Laser engineering of microbial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusupov, V. I.; Gorlenko, M. V.; Cheptsov, V. S.; Minaev, N. V.; Churbanova, E. S.; Zhigarkov, V. S.; Chutko, E. A.; Evlashin, S. A.; Chichkov, B. N.; Bagratashvili, V. N.

    2018-06-01

    A technology of laser engineering of microbial systems (LEMS) based on the method of laser-induced transfer of heterogeneous mixtures containing microorganisms (laser bioprinting) is described. This technology involves laser printing of soil microparticles by focusing near-infrared laser pulses on a specially prepared gel/soil mixture spread onto a gold-coated glass plate. The optimal range of laser energies from the point of view of the formation of stable jets and droplets with minimal negative impact on living systems of giant accelerations, laser pulse irradiation, and Au nanoparticles was found. Microsamples of soil were printed on glucose-peptone-yeast agar plates to estimate the LEMS process influence on structural and morphological microbial diversity. The obtained results were compared with traditionally treated soil samples. It was shown that LEMS technology allows significantly increasing the biodiversity of printed organisms and is effective for isolating rare or unculturable microorganisms.

  5. Theory of microbial genome evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonin, Eugene

    Bacteria and archaea have small genomes tightly packed with protein-coding genes. This compactness is commonly perceived as evidence of adaptive genome streamlining caused by strong purifying selection in large microbial populations. In such populations, even the small cost incurred by nonfunctional DNA because of extra energy and time expenditure is thought to be sufficient for this extra genetic material to be eliminated by selection. However, contrary to the predictions of this model, there exists a consistent, positive correlation between the strength of selection at the protein sequence level, measured as the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates, and microbial genome size. By fitting the genome size distributions in multiple groups of prokaryotes to predictions of mathematical models of population evolution, we show that only models in which acquisition of additional genes is, on average, slightly beneficial yield a good fit to genomic data. Thus, the number of genes in prokaryotic genomes seems to reflect the equilibrium between the benefit of additional genes that diminishes as the genome grows and deletion bias. New genes acquired by microbial genomes, on average, appear to be adaptive. Evolution of bacterial and archaeal genomes involves extensive horizontal gene transfer and gene loss. Many microbes have open pangenomes, where each newly sequenced genome contains more than 10% `ORFans', genes without detectable homologues in other species. A simple, steady-state evolutionary model reveals two sharply distinct classes of microbial genes, one of which (ORFans) is characterized by effectively instantaneous gene replacement, whereas the other consists of genes with finite, distributed replacement rates. These findings imply a conservative estimate of at least a billion distinct genes in the prokaryotic genomic universe.

  6. Microbial terroir for wine grapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, J. A.; van der Lelie, D.; Zarraonaindia, I.

    2013-12-05

    The viticulture industry has been selectively growing vine cultivars with different traits (grape size, shape, color, flavor, yield of fruit, and so forth) for millennia, and small variations in soil composition, water management, climate, and the aspect of vineyards have long been associated with shifts in these traits. As such, many different clonal varieties of vines exist, even within given grape varieties, such as merlot, pinot noir, and chardonnay. The commensal microbial flora that coexists with the plant may be one of the key factors that influence these traits. To date, the role of microbes has been largely ignored, outside of microbial pathogens, mainly because the technologies did not exist to allow us to look in any real depth or breadth at the community structure of the multitudes of bacterial and fungal species associated with each plant. In PNAS, Bokulich et al. (1) used next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer ribosomal sequence to determine the relative abundances of bacteria and fungi, respectively, from grape must (freshly pressed grape juice, containing the skins and seeds) from plants in eight vineyards representing four of the major wine growing regions in California. The authors show that the microbiomes (bacterial and fungal taxonomic structure) associated with this early fermentation stage show defined biogeography, illustrating that different wine-growing regions maintain different microbial communities, with some influences from the grape variety and the year of production.

  7. « Base Phrygian Turk! »  Injures et « espèces de… » : analyse microscopique d’un étrange spécimen shakespearien ‘Base Phrygian Turk!’: Micro-analysis of a Strange Shakespearean Insult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Vienne-Guerrin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers an interpretation of the strange term “base Phrygian Turk” that Pistol uses to insult Falstaff in The Merry Wives of Windsor. If the spectators understand why Slender is called “latten bilbo” (1.1.150 or “Banbury Cheese” (2.2.120, and why Falstaff is called “whale” (2.1.56, “hodge pudding” (5.5.150 or “bag of flax” (5.5.150, this “Base Phrygian Turk” is less transparent and resists interpretation. Using Evelyne Larguèche’s theoretical work on the insulting effect (“l’effet injure”, we ask the question whether there is meaning behind these abusive words or whether their meaning only resides in the speech-act that consists in insulting. Studying the representation of the Islamic world in Elizabethan society and theatre, we show that far from being a mere “pistolism”, this insult suggests that Falstaff “turns Turk” in this play.

  8. Specialized microbial databases for inductive exploration of microbial genome sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabau Cédric

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The enormous amount of genome sequence data asks for user-oriented databases to manage sequences and annotations. Queries must include search tools permitting function identification through exploration of related objects. Methods The GenoList package for collecting and mining microbial genome databases has been rewritten using MySQL as the database management system. Functions that were not available in MySQL, such as nested subquery, have been implemented. Results Inductive reasoning in the study of genomes starts from "islands of knowledge", centered around genes with some known background. With this concept of "neighborhood" in mind, a modified version of the GenoList structure has been used for organizing sequence data from prokaryotic genomes of particular interest in China. GenoChore http://bioinfo.hku.hk/genochore.html, a set of 17 specialized end-user-oriented microbial databases (including one instance of Microsporidia, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, a member of Eukarya has been made publicly available. These databases allow the user to browse genome sequence and annotation data using standard queries. In addition they provide a weekly update of searches against the world-wide protein sequences data libraries, allowing one to monitor annotation updates on genes of interest. Finally, they allow users to search for patterns in DNA or protein sequences, taking into account a clustering of genes into formal operons, as well as providing extra facilities to query sequences using predefined sequence patterns. Conclusion This growing set of specialized microbial databases organize data created by the first Chinese bacterial genome programs (ThermaList, Thermoanaerobacter tencongensis, LeptoList, with two different genomes of Leptospira interrogans and SepiList, Staphylococcus epidermidis associated to related organisms for comparison.

  9. Tenebrio molitor Gram-negative-binding protein 3 (TmGNBP3) is essential for inducing downstream antifungal Tenecin 1 gene expression against infection with Beauveria bassiana JEF-007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Ting; Lee, Mi Rong; Lee, Se Jin; Kim, Sihyeon; Nai, Yu-Shin; Kim, Jae Su

    2017-05-23

    The Toll signaling pathway is responsible for defense against both Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Gram-negative binding protein 3 (GNBP3) has a strong affinity for the fungal cell wall component, β-1,3-glucan, which can activate the prophenoloxidase (proPO) cascade and induce the Toll signaling pathway. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an intracellular adaptor protein involved in the Toll signaling pathway. In this study, we monitored the response of 5 key genes (TmGNBP3, TmMyD88, and Tenecin 1, 2, and 3) in the Toll pathway of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor immune system against the fungus Beauveria bassiana JEF-007 using RT-PCR. TmGNBP3, Tenecin 1, and Tenecin 2 were significantly upregulated after fungal infection. To better understand the roles of the Toll signaling pathway in the mealworm immune system, TmGNBP3 and TmMyD88 were knocked down by RNAi silencing. Target gene expression levels decreased at 2 d postknockdown and were dramatically reduced at 6 d post-dsRNA injection. Therefore, mealworms were compromised by B. bassiana JEF-007 at 6 d post-dsRNA injection. Silencing of TmMyD88 and TmGNBP3 resulted in reduced resistance of the host to fungal infection. Particularly, reducing TmGNBP3 levels obviously downregulated Tenecin 1 and Tenecin 2 expression levels, whereas silencing TmMyD88 expression resulted in decreased Tenecin 2 expression. These results indicate that TmGNBP3 is essential to induce downstream antifungal peptide Tenecin 1 expression against B. bassiana JEF-007. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Microbial Endocrinology: An Ongoing Personal Journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyte, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The development of microbial endocrinology is covered from a decidedly personal perspective. Specific focus is given to the role of microbial endocrinology in the evolutionary symbiosis between man and microbe as it relates to both health and disease. Since the first edition of this book series 5 years ago, the role of microbial endocrinology in the microbiota-gut-brain axis is additionally discussed. Future avenues of research are suggested.

  11. Microbial community structure elucidates performance of Glyceria maxima plant microbial fuel cell

    OpenAIRE

    Timmers, R.A.; Rothballer, M.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Engel, M.; Schulz, M.; Hartmann, A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2012-01-01

    The plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) is a technology in which living plant roots provide electron donor, via rhizodeposition, to a mixed microbial community to generate electricity in a microbial fuel cell. Analysis and localisation of the microbial community is necessary for gaining insight into the competition for electron donor in a PMFC. This paper characterises the anode-rhizosphere bacterial community of a Glyceria maxima (reed mannagrass) PMFC. Electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) w...

  12. Microbial community structure elucidates performance of Glyceria maxima plant microbial fuel cell

    OpenAIRE

    Timmers, Ruud A.; Rothballer, Michael; Strik, David P. B. T. B.; Engel, Marion; Schulz, Stephan; Schloter, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Hamelers, Bert; Buisman, Cees

    2012-01-01

    The plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) is a technology in which living plant roots provide electron donor, via rhizodeposition, to a mixed microbial community to generate electricity in a microbial fuel cell. Analysis and localisation of the microbial community is necessary for gaining insight into the competition for electron donor in a PMFC. This paper characterises the anode–rhizosphere bacterial community of a Glyceria maxima (reed mannagrass) PMFC. Electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) w...

  13. Electricity production and microbial characterization of thermophilic microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Kun; Wen, Jun-Li; Zhang, Fang; Ma, Xi-Wen; Cui, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Qi; Zhao, Ting-Jia; Zeng, Raymond J

    2017-11-01

    Thermophilic microbial fuel cell (TMFC) offers many benefits, but the investigations on the diversity of exoelectrogenic bacteria are scarce. In this study, a two-chamber TMFC was constructed using ethanol as an electron donor, and the microbial dynamics were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing and 16S rRNA clone-library sequencing. The open-circuit potential of TMFC was approximately 650mV, while the maximum voltage was around 550mV. The maximum power density was 437mW/m 2 , and the columbic efficiency in this work was 20.5±6.0%. The Firmicutes bacteria, related to the uncultured bacterium clone A55_D21_H_B_C01 with a similarity of 99%, accounted for 90.9% of all bacteria in the TMFC biofilm. This unknown bacterium has the potential to become a new thermophilic exoelectrogenic bacterium that is yet to be cultured. The development of TMFC-involved biotechnologies will be beneficial for the production of valuable chemicals and generation of energy in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Microbial Regulation in Gorgonian Corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D. Mydlarz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gorgonian corals possess many novel natural products that could potentially mediate coral-bacterial interactions. Since many bacteria use quorum sensing (QS signals to facilitate colonization of host organisms, regulation of prokaryotic cell-to-cell communication may represent an important bacterial control mechanism. In the present study, we examined extracts of twelve species of Caribbean gorgonian corals, for mechanisms that regulate microbial colonization, such as antibacterial activity and QS regulatory activity. Ethanol extracts of gorgonians collected from Puerto Rico and the Florida Keys showed a range of both antibacterial and QS activities using a specific Pseudomonas aeruginosa QS reporter, sensitive to long chain AHLs and a short chain N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL biosensor, Chromobacterium violaceium. Overall, the gorgonian corals had higher antimicrobial activity against non-marine strains when compared to marine strains. Pseudopterogorgia americana, Pseusopterogorgia acerosa, and Pseudoplexuara flexuosa had the highest QS inhibitory effect. Interestingly, Pseudoplexuara porosa extracts stimulated QS activity with a striking 17-fold increase in signal. The stimulation of QS by P. porosa or other elements of the holobiont may encourage colonization or recruitment of specific microbial species. Overall, these results suggest the presence of novel stimulatory QS, inhibitory QS and bactericidal compounds in gorgonian corals. A better understanding of these compounds may reveal insight into coral-microbial ecology and whether a therapeutic potential exists.

  15. Designing the Microbial Research Commons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlir, Paul F. [Board on Research Data and Information Policy and Global Affairs, Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Recent decades have witnessed an ever-increasing range and volume of digital data. All elements of the pillars of science--whether observation, experiment, or theory and modeling--are being transformed by the continuous cycle of generation, dissemination, and use of factual information. This is even more so in terms of the re-using and re-purposing of digital scientific data beyond the original intent of the data collectors, often with dramatic results. We all know about the potential benefits and impacts of digital data, but we are also aware of the barriers, the challenges in maximizing the access, and use of such data. There is thus a need to think about how a data infrastructure can enhance capabilities for finding, using, and integrating information to accelerate discovery and innovation. How can we best implement an accessible, interoperable digital environment so that the data can be repeatedly used by a wide variety of users in different settings and with different applications? With this objective: to use the microbial communities and microbial data, literature, and the research materials themselves as a test case, the Board on Research Data and Information held an International Symposium on Designing the Microbial Research Commons at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC on 8-9 October 2009. The symposium addressed topics such as models to lower the transaction costs and support access to and use of microbiological materials and digital resources from the perspective of publicly funded research, public-private interactions, and developing country concerns. The overall goal of the symposium was to stimulate more research and implementation of improved legal and institutional models for publicly funded research in microbiology.

  16. Patent protection for microbial technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherkow, Jacob S

    2017-11-01

    Microbial technologies often serve as the basis of fundamental research tools in molecular biology. These present a variety of ethical, legal and social issues concerning their patenting. This commentary presents several case studies of these issues across three major microbiological tools: CRISPR, viral vectors and antimicrobial resistance drugs. It concludes that the development of these technologies-both scientifically and commercially-depend, in part, on the patent regime available for each, and researchers' willingness to enforce those patents against others. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Raman Spectroscopy of Microbial Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Oren, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a rapid nondestructive technique providing spectroscopic and structural information on both organic and inorganic molecular compounds. Extensive applications for the method in the characterization of pigments have been found. Due to the high sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy for the detection of chlorophylls, carotenoids, scytonemin, and a range of other pigments found in the microbial world, it is an excellent technique to monitor the presence of such pigments, both in pure cultures and in environmental samples. Miniaturized portable handheld instruments are available; these instruments can be used to detect pigments in microbiological samples of different types and origins under field conditions. PMID:24682303

  18. Hydrogen production from microbial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Caroline S; Rey, Federico E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention is directed to a method of screening microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. This method involves inoculating one or more microbes in a sample containing cell culture medium to form an inoculated culture medium. The inoculated culture medium is then incubated under hydrogen producing conditions. Once incubating causes the inoculated culture medium to produce hydrogen, microbes in the culture medium are identified as candidate microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. Methods of producing hydrogen using one or more of the microbial strains identified as well as the hydrogen producing strains themselves are also disclosed.

  19. Microbial Forensics: A Scientific Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keim, Paul

    2003-02-17

    Microorganisms have been used as weapons in criminal acts, most recently highlighted by the terrorist attack using anthrax in the fall of 2001. Although such ''biocrimes'' are few compared with other crimes, these acts raise questions about the ability to provide forensic evidence for criminal prosecution that can be used to identify the source of the microorganisms used as a weapon and, more importantly, the perpetrator of the crime. Microbiologists traditionally investigate the sources of microorganisms in epidemiological investigations, but rarely have been asked to assist in criminal investigations. A colloquium was convened by the American Academy of Microbiology in Burlington, Vermont, on June 7-9, 2002, in which 25 interdisciplinary, expert scientists representing evolutionary microbiology, ecology, genomics, genetics, bioinformatics, forensics, chemistry, and clinical microbiology, deliberated on issues in microbial forensics. The colloquium's purpose was to consider issues relating to microbial forensics, which included a detailed identification of a microorganism used in a bioattack and analysis of such a microorganism and related materials to identify its forensically meaningful source--the perpetrators of the bioattack. The colloquium examined the application of microbial forensics to assist in resolving biocrimes with a focus on what research and education are needed to facilitate the use of microbial forensics in criminal investigations and the subsequent prosecution of biocrimes, including acts of bioterrorism. First responders must consider forensic issues, such as proper collection of samples to allow for optimal laboratory testing, along with maintaining a chain of custody that will support eventual prosecution. Because a biocrime may not be immediately apparent, a linkage must be made between routine diagnosis, epidemiological investigation, and criminal investigation. There is a need for establishing standard operating

  20. Non-microbial sources of microbial volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyunok; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf

    2016-07-01

    The question regarding the true sources of the purported microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) remains unanswered. To identify microbial, as well as non-microbial sources of 28 compounds, which are commonly accepted as microbial VOCs (i.e. primary outcome of interest is Σ 28 VOCs). In a cross-sectional investigation of 390 homes, six building inspectors assessed water/mold damage, took air and dust samples, and measured environmental conditions (i.e., absolute humidity (AH, g/m(3)), temperature (°C), ventilation rate (ACH)). The air sample was analyzed for volatile organic compounds (μg/m(3)) and; dust samples were analyzed for total viable fungal concentration (CFU/g) and six phthalates (mg/g dust). Four benchmark variables of the underlying sources were defined as highest quartile categories of: 1) the total concentration of 17 propylene glycol and propylene glycol ethers (Σ17 PGEs) in the air sample; 2) 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol monoisobutyrate (TMPD-MIB) in the air sample; 3) semi-quantitative mold index; and 4) total fungal load (CFU/g). Within severely damp homes, co-occurrence of the highest quartile concentration of either Σ17 PGEs or TMPD-MIB were respectively associated with a significantly higher median concentration of Σ 28 VOCs (8.05 and 13.38μg/m(3), respectively) compared to the reference homes (4.30 and 4.86μg/m(3), respectively, both Ps ≤0.002). Furthermore, the homes within the highest quartile range for Σ fungal load as well as AH were associated with a significantly increased median Σ 28 VOCs compared to the reference group (8.74 vs. 4.32μg/m(3), P=0.001). Within the final model of multiple indoor sources on Σ 28 VOCs, one natural log-unit increase in summed concentration of Σ17 PGEs, plus TMPD-MIB (Σ 17 PGEs + TMPD-MIB) was associated with 1.8-times (95% CI, 1.3-2.5), greater likelihood of having a highest quartile of Σ 28 VOCs, after adjusting for absolute humidity, history of repainting at least one room

  1. Manipulatiaon of Biofilm Microbial Ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhalter, R.; Macnaughton, S.J.; Palmer, R.J.; Smith, C.A.; Whitaker, K.W.; White, D.C.; Zinn, M.; kirkegaard, R.

    1998-08-09

    The Biofilm mode of growth provides such significant advantages to the members of the consortium that most organisms in important habitats are found in biofilms. The study of factors that allow manipulation of biofilm microbes in the biofilm growth state requires that reproducible biofilms by generated. The most effective monitoring of biofilm formation, succession and desquamation is with on-line monitoring of microbial biofilms with flowcell for direct observation. The biofilm growth state incorporates a second important factor, the heterogeneity in the distribution in time and space of the component members of the biofilm consortium. This heterogeneity is reflected not only in the cellular distribution but in the metabolic activity within a population of cells. Activity and cellular distribution can be mapped in four dimensions with confocal microscopy, and function can be ascertained by genetically manipulated reporter functions for specific genes or by vital stains. The methodology for understanding the microbial ecology of biofilms is now much more readily available and the capacity to manipulate biofilms is becoming an important feature of biotechnology.

  2. Manipulation of Biofilm Microbial Ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.C.; Palmer, R.J., Jr.; Zinn, M.; Smith, C.A.; Burkhalter, R.; Macnaughton, S.J.; Whitaker, K.W.; Kirkegaard, R.D.

    1998-08-15

    The biofilm mode of growth provides such significant advantages to the members of the consortium that most organisms in important habitats are found in biofilms. The study of factors that allow manipulation of biofilm microbes in the biofilm growth state requires that reproducible biofilms be generated. The most effective monitoring of biofilm formation, succession and desaturation is with on-line monitoring of microbial biofilms with flowcell for direct observation. The biofilm growth state incorporates a second important factor, the heterogeneity in distribution in time and space of the component members of the biofilm consortium. This heterogeneity is reflected not only in the cellular distribution but in the metabolic activity within a population of cells. Activity and cellular distribution can be mapped in four dimensions with confocal microscopy, and function can be ascertained by genetically manipulated reporter functions for specific genes or by vital stains. The methodology for understanding the microbial ecology of biofilms is now much more readily available and the capacity to manipulate biofilms is becoming an important feature of biotechnology.

  3. An Affymetrix Microarray Design for Microbial Genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    les échantillons qui ne se prêtent pas aux méthodes culturales de la microbiologie classique. La puce à ADN est une technologie qui permet la... area of microbial genotyping there are multiple platforms that can identify one or a few microbial targets in a single assay iteration. For most

  4. [Advances in microbial genome reduction and modification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianli; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2013-08-01

    Microbial genome reduction and modification are important strategies for constructing cellular chassis used for synthetic biology. This article summarized the essential genes and the methods to identify them in microorganisms, compared various strategies for microbial genome reduction, and analyzed the characteristics of some microorganisms with the minimized genome. This review shows the important role of genome reduction in constructing cellular chassis.

  5. Microbial Biosensors for Selective Detection of Disaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven microbial strains were screened for their ability to detect disaccharides as components of Clark-type oxygen biosensors. Sensors responded to varying degrees to maltose, cellobiose, sucrose, and melibiose, but none responded strongly to lactose. Although microbial sensors are relatively nons...

  6. Microbial population changes in tropical agricultural soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... Microbial degradation is known to be an efficient process in the in ..... exhibited a great impact on the ecology of the soil by causing drastic ... city of the soil (Dibble and Bartha, 1979). Hydrocarbon .... Atlas RM (1991). Microbial ...

  7. Dynamics of culturable soil microbial communities during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecological zones impacted significantly (P < 0.05) on bacterial proliferation, but not on fungal growth. Sampling period significantly (P < 0.05) affected microbial density and the semi-arid agroecozone was more supportive of microbial proliferation than the arid zone. A total of nine predominant fungal species belonging to ...

  8. Uses of antimicrobial genes from microbial genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorek, Rotem; Rubin, Edward M.

    2013-08-20

    We describe a method for mining microbial genomes to discover antimicrobial genes and proteins having broad spectrum of activity. Also described are antimicrobial genes and their expression products from various microbial genomes that were found using this method. The products of such genes can be used as antimicrobial agents or as tools for molecular biology.

  9. Microbial composition of guava (Psidium guajava), hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial composition of guava (Psidium guajava), hibiscus (Hibiscus-rosa sinensis), mango (Mangifera indica) and pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook) ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The microbial genera isolated from this study showed that, both human and plant pathogens can colonize plants' phyllosphere.

  10. Screening of complex thermophilic microbial community and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening of complex thermophilic microbial community and application during municipal solid waste aerobic composting. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Complex microbial community HP83 and HC181 were applied during municipal solid waste aerobic composting that was carried out in a composting reactor under ...

  11. Microbial growth and substrate utilization kinetics | Okpokwasili ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial growth on and utilization of environmental contaminants as substrates have been studied by many researchers. Most times, substrate utilization results in removal of chemical contaminant, increase in microbial biomass and subsequent biodegradation of the contaminant. These are all aimed at detoxification of the ...

  12. [Sanitary-hygienic assessment of microbial biofertilizer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipchenko, N A; Akhtemava, G A; Lebedeva, T V; Voronina, A A; Makhan'kova, T I; Pavlova, M M; Shteĭntsaĭg, T A

    1991-10-01

    Biological treatment of sewage from pig-breeding complexes allowed to produce microbial biomass and primary sediments. The mixture of these components (1:1) after rendering harmless and drying out become the high effective biofertilizer. The results of chronic experiment on sanitary status of soil (microbial and helminthological indexes) under this biofertilizer usage are discussed, and the harmlessness of it is demonstrated.

  13. Insult to Injury: Disability, Earnings, and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Perry

    2012-01-01

    This study measures the longitudinal effect of disability on earnings, marriage, and divorce. The data come from the Survey of Income and Program Participation matched to administrative data on longitudinal earnings. Using event-study methods, the results show that the onset of a work-preventing disability is associated with a precipitous decline…

  14. Protandim Protects Oligodendrocytes against an Oxidative Insult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie L. Lim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Oligodendrocyte damage and loss are key features of multiple sclerosis (MS pathology. Oligodendrocytes appear to be particularly vulnerable to reactive oxygen species (ROS and cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF, which induce cell death and prevent the differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs. Here, we investigated the efficacy of sulforaphane (SFN, monomethyl fumarate (MMF and Protandim to induce Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzyme expression, and protect oligodendrocytes against ROS-induced cell death and ROS-and TNF-mediated inhibition of OPC differentiation. OLN-93 cells and primary rat oligodendrocytes were treated with SFN, MMF or Protandim resulting in significant induction of Nrf2-driven (antioxidant proteins heme oygenase-1, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-1 and p62/SQSTM1, as analysed by Western blotting. After incubation with the compounds, oligodendrocytes were exposed to hydrogen peroxide. Protandim most potently promoted oligodendrocyte cell survival as measured by live/death viability assay. Moreover, OPCs were treated with Protandim or vehicle control prior to exposing them to TNF or hydrogen peroxide for five days, which inhibited OPC differentiation. Protandim significantly promoted OPC differentiation under influence of ROS, but not TNF. Protandim, a combination of five herbal ingredients, potently induces antioxidants in oligodendrocytes and is able to protect oligodendrocytes against oxidative stress by preventing ROS-induced cell death and promoting OPC differentiation.

  15. Protandim Protects Oligodendrocytes against an Oxidative Insult

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, Jamie L; van der Pol, Susanne M A; Baron, Wia; McCord, Joe M; de Vries, Helga E; van Horssen, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Oligodendrocyte damage and loss are key features of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology. Oligodendrocytes appear to be particularly vulnerable to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), which induce cell death and prevent the differentiation of

  16. Reducing Secondary Insults in Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    could more reliably document the frequency of these events and help us understand the causes. Understand- ing the causes wi ll allow us to design...hypoperfusion. J Trauma 2003; 54(2): 312-9. 12. Manley G, Knudson MM, Morabito D, Damron S, Erickson V, Pitts L: Hypotension , hypoxia, and head injury

  17. Cytotoxic endocrinopathy: a legacy of insults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalet, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    A review is given of the types of endocrine function impairment observed in patients having received radiotherapy or chemotherapy in cancer treatment. These include anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies as a result of external radiotherapy to the hypothalamopituitary axis, thyroid cancer, thyroid dysfunction, hyperparathyroidism, precocious puberty, and radiation-induced and chemotherapy-induced gonadal damage. (UK)

  18. Rank hypocrisies the insult of the REF

    CERN Document Server

    Sayer, Derek

    2015-01-01

    "The REF is right out of Havel's and Kundera's Eastern Europe: a state-administered exercise to rank academic research like hotel chains dependent on the active collaboration of the UK professoriate. In crystalline text steeped in cold rage, Sayer takes aim at the REF's central claim, that it is a legitimate process of expert peer review. He critiques university and national-level REF processes against actual practices of scholarly review as found in academic journals, university presses, and North American tenure procedures. His analysis is damning. If the REF fails as scholarly review, how can academics and universities continue to participate? And how can government use its rankings as a basis for public policy?" - Tarak Barkawi, Reader in the Department of International Relations, London School of Economics "Many academics across the world have come to see the REF as an arrogant attempt to raise national research standards that has resulted in a variety of self-inflicted wounds to UK higher education. Der...

  19. Cytotoxic endocrinopathy: a legacy of insults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalet, S.M. [Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Inst., Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    A review is given of the types of endocrine function impairment observed in patients having received radiotherapy or chemotherapy in cancer treatment. These include anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies as a result of external radiotherapy to the hypothalamopituitary axis, thyroid cancer, thyroid dysfunction, hyperparathyroidism, precocious puberty, and radiation-induced and chemotherapy-induced gonadal damage. (UK).

  20. Microbial biofilms: biosurfactants as antibiofilm agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banat, Ibrahim M; De Rienzo, Mayri A Díaz; Quinn, Gerry A

    2014-12-01

    Current microbial inhibition strategies based on planktonic bacterial physiology have been known to have limited efficacy on the growth of biofilm communities. This problem can be exacerbated by the emergence of increasingly resistant clinical strains. All aspects of biofilm measurement, monitoring, dispersal, control, and inhibition are becoming issues of increasing importance. Biosurfactants have merited renewed interest in both clinical and hygienic sectors due to their potential to disperse microbial biofilms in addition to many other advantages. The dispersal properties of biosurfactants have been shown to rival those of conventional inhibitory agents against bacterial and yeast biofilms. This makes them suitable candidates for use in new generations of microbial dispersal agents and for use as adjuvants for existing microbial suppression or eradication strategies. In this review, we explore aspects of biofilm characteristics and examine the contribution of biologically derived surface-active agents (biosurfactants) to the disruption or inhibition of microbial biofilms.

  1. Statistical Physics Approaches to Microbial Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Pankaj

    The unprecedented ability to quantitatively measure and probe complex microbial communities has renewed interest in identifying the fundamental ecological principles governing community ecology in microbial ecosystems. Here, we present work from our group and others showing how ideas from statistical physics can help us uncover these ecological principles. Two major lessons emerge from this work. First, large, ecosystems with many species often display new, emergent ecological behaviors that are absent in small ecosystems with just a few species. To paraphrase Nobel laureate Phil Anderson, ''More is Different'', especially in community ecology. Second, the lack of trophic layer separation in microbial ecology fundamentally distinguishes microbial ecology from classical paradigms of community ecology and leads to qualitative different rules for community assembly in microbes. I illustrate these ideas using both theoretical modeling and novel new experiments on large microbial ecosystems performed by our collaborators (Joshua Goldford and Alvaro Sanchez). Work supported by Simons Investigator in MMLS and NIH R35 R35 GM119461.

  2. Microbial heterotrophic metabolic rates constrain the microbial carbon pump

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Robinson, C.; Ramaiah, N.

    (2008). 10. P.A. del Giorgio, J. J. Cole, in MicrobialEcologyoftheOceans D. L. Kirchman Ed. (JohnWiley & Sons, Inc. NewYork ed. 1. 2000),pp. 289–325. 11. A. B. Burd etal., DeepSeaRes.II 57, 1557 (2010). 12. S. Martinez-García, E. Fernández, M.... R.A. Straza, D. L. Kirchman, Aquat.Microb.Ecol. 62, 267(2011). 16. O. Hoegh-Guldberg, J. F. Bruno, Science 328,1523 (2010). 17. J. Piontek, M. Lunau, N. Handel, C. Borchard, M.Wurst,A. Engel, Biogeosciences 7, 1615 (2010). 18. J. K.Apple, P.A. del...

  3. Microbial populations in contaminant plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    Efficient biodegradation of subsurface contaminants requires two elements: (1) microbial populations with the necessary degradative capabilities, and (2) favorable subsurface geochemical and hydrological conditions. Practical constraints on experimental design and interpretation in both the hydrogeological and microbiological sciences have resulted in limited knowledge of the interaction between hydrogeological and microbiological features of subsurface environments. These practical constraints include: (1) inconsistencies between the scales of investigation in the hydrogeological and microbiological sciences, and (2) practical limitations on the ability to accurately define microbial populations in environmental samples. However, advances in application of small-scale sampling methods and interdisciplinary approaches to site investigations are beginning to significantly improve understanding of hydrogeological and microbiological interactions. Likewise, culture-based and molecular analyses of microbial populations in subsurface contaminant plumes have revealed significant adaptation of microbial populations to plume environmental conditions. Results of recent studies suggest that variability in subsurface geochemical and hydrological conditions significantly influences subsurface microbial-community structure. Combined investigations of site conditions and microbial-community structure provide the knowledge needed to understand interactions between subsurface microbial populations, plume geochemistry, and contaminant biodegradation. La biodégradation efficace des polluants souterrains requiert deux éléments: des populations microbiennes possédant les aptitudes nécessaires à la dégradation, et des conditions géochimiques et hydrologiques souterraines favorables. Des contraintes pratiques sur la conception et l'interprétation des expériences à la fois en microbiologie et en hydrogéologie ont conduit à une connaissance limitée des interactions entre les

  4. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, M.R.; Arnold, R.G.; Stephanopoulos, G.

    1989-11-14

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry. 11 figs.

  5. Growth Mechanism of Microbial Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Minhui; Martini, K. Michael; Kim, Neil H.; Sherer, Nicholas; Lee, Jia Gloria; Kuhlman, Thomas; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    Experiments on nutrient-limited E. coli colonies, growing on agar gel from single cells reveal a power-law distribution of sizes, both during the growth process and in the final stage when growth has ceased. We developed a Python simulation to study the growth mechanism of the bacterial population and thus understand the broad details of the experimental findings. The simulation takes into account nutrient uptake, metabolic function, growth and cell division. Bacteria are modeled in two dimensions as hard circle-capped cylinders with steric interactions and elastic stress dependent growth characteristics. Nutrient is able to diffuse within and between the colonies. The mechanism of microbial colony growth involves reproduction of cells within the colonies and the merging of different colonies. We report results on the dynamic scaling laws and final state size distribution, that capture in semi-quantitative detail the trends observed in experiment. Supported by NSF Grant 0822613.

  6. Conditioning biomass for microbial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodie, Elizabeth A; England, George

    2015-03-31

    The present invention relates to methods for improving the yield of microbial processes that use lignocellulose biomass as a nutrient source. The methods comprise conditioning a composition comprising lignocellulose biomass with an enzyme composition that comprises a phenol oxidizing enzyme. The conditioned composition can support a higher rate of growth of microorganisms in a process. In one embodiment, a laccase composition is used to condition lignocellulose biomass derived from non-woody plants, such as corn and sugar cane. The invention also encompasses methods for culturing microorganisms that are sensitive to inhibitory compounds in lignocellulose biomass. The invention further provides methods of making a product by culturing the production microorganisms in conditioned lignocellulose biomass.

  7. Microbial life in geothermal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sand, W. [Universitaet Hamburg (Germany). Mikrobiologie

    2003-12-01

    Geothermal waters usually contain many salts, often in varying concentrations. Some of these salts, especially if they are oxidizable or reducible, may be subject to microbial conversion and/or (bio)precipitation. Microorganisms can oxidize, sometimes even under anoxic (absence of oxygen) conditions, reduced sulfur compounds, iron (II) ions, and manganese (II) ions, to mention just a few of the most important. On the other hand, partially or fully oxidized compounds can be reduced by microorganisms, for example sulfur compounds, iron (III) ions, manganese (IV) ions, nitrogen oxides such as nitrite and nitrate, and, finally, bicarbonate and carbonate ions. If organic compounds are present, these may also be oxidized or reduced. A multitude of these microorganisms are able to perform such a metabolism under aerobic or anoxic conditions. All these (bio)processes allow bacteria to grow and proliferate. The consequences include biocorrosion and biodeterioration. The growth requirements and the biodeterioration mechanisms will be discussed in this review. (author)

  8. Antibiotic tolerance and microbial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Anders

    Increased tolerance to antimicrobial agents is thought to be an important feature of microbes growing in biofilms. We study the dynamics of antibiotic action within hydrodynamic flow chamber biofilms of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using isogenic mutants and fluorescent gene...... expression reporters and we address the question of how biofilm organization affects antibiotic susceptibility. The dynamics of microbial killing is monitored by viable count determination, and confocal laser microscopy. Our work shows that the apparent increased antibiotic tolerance is due to the formation...... of antibiotic tolerant subpopulations within the biofilm. The formation of these subpopulations is highly variable and dependent on the antibiotic used, the biofilm structural organization and the induction of specific tolerance mechanisms....

  9. Theoretical microbial ecology without species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Mikhail

    2017-09-01

    Ecosystems are commonly conceptualized as networks of interacting species. However, partitioning natural diversity of organisms into discrete units is notoriously problematic and mounting experimental evidence raises the intriguing question whether this perspective is appropriate for the microbial world. Here an alternative formalism is proposed that does not require postulating the existence of species as fundamental ecological variables and provides a naturally hierarchical description of community dynamics. This formalism allows approaching the species problem from the opposite direction. While the classical models treat a world of imperfectly clustered organism types as a perturbation around well-clustered species, the presented approach allows gradually adding structure to a fully disordered background. The relevance of this theoretical construct for describing highly diverse natural ecosystems is discussed.

  10. Molecular biology of microbial hydrogenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignais, P M; Colbeau, A

    2004-07-01

    Hydrogenases (H2ases) are metalloproteins. The great majority of them contain iron-sulfur clusters and two metal atoms at their active center, either a Ni and an Fe atom, the [NiFe]-H2ases, or two Fe atoms, the [FeFe]-H2ases. Enzymes of these two classes catalyze the reversible oxidation of hydrogen gas (H2 2 H+ + 2 e-) and play a central role in microbial energy metabolism; in addition to their role in fermentation and H2 respiration, H2ases may interact with membrane-bound electron transport systems in order to maintain redox poise, particularly in some photosynthetic microorganisms such as cyanobacteria. Recent work has revealed that some H2ases, by acting as H2-sensors, participate in the regulation of gene expression and that H2-evolving H2ases, thought to be involved in purely fermentative processes, play a role in membrane-linked energy conservation through the generation of a protonmotive force. The Hmd hydrogenases of some methanogenic archaea constitute a third class of H2ases, characterized by the absence of Fe-S cluster and the presence of an iron-containing cofactor with catalytic properties different from those of [NiFe]- and [FeFe]-H2ases. In this review, we emphasise recent advances that have greatly increased our knowledge of microbial H2ases, their diversity, the structure of their active site, how the metallocenters are synthesized and assembled, how they function, how the synthesis of these enzymes is controlled by external signals, and their potential use in biological H2 production.

  11. Microbial ecology of watery kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung, Kyu Hang; Medina Pradas, Eduardo; Kim, Song Gun; Lee, Yong Jae; Kim, Kyong Ho; Choi, Jin Joo; Cho, Joo Hyong; Chung, Chang Ho; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Breidt, Frederick

    2015-05-01

    The biochemistry and microbial ecology of 2 similar types of watery (mul) kimchi, containing sliced and unsliced radish and vegetables (nabak and dongchimi, respectively), were investigated. Samples from kimchi were fermented at 4, 10, and 20 °C were analyzed by plating on differential and selective media, high-performance liquid chromatography, and high-throughput DNA sequencing of 16S rDNA. Nabak kimchi showed similar trends as dongchimi, with increasing lactic and acetic acids and decreasing pH for each temperature, but differences in microbiota were apparent. Interestingly, bacteria from the Proteobacterium phylum, including Enterobacteriaceae, decreased more rapidly during fermentation at 4 °C in nabak cabbage fermentations compared with dongchimi. Although changes for Proteobacterium and Enterobacteriaceae populations were similar during fermentation at 10 and 20 °C, the homolactic stage of fermentation did not develop for the 4 and 10 °C samples of both nabak and dongchimi during the experiment. These data show the differences in biochemistry and microbial ecology that can result from preparation method and fermentation conditions of the kimchi, which may impact safety (Enterobacteriaceae populations may include pathogenic bacteria) and quality (homolactic fermentation can be undesirable, if too much acid is produced) of the product. In addition, the data also illustrate the need for improved methods for identifying and differentiating closely related lactic acid bacteria species using high-throughput sequencing methods. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®. This article has been contributed by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Fifty important research questions in microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwis, Rachael E; Griffiths, Sarah M; Harrison, Xavier A; Aranega-Bou, Paz; Arce, Andres; Bettridge, Aimee S; Brailsford, Francesca L; de Menezes, Alexandre; Devaynes, Andrew; Forbes, Kristian M; Fry, Ellen L; Goodhead, Ian; Haskell, Erin; Heys, Chloe; James, Chloe; Johnston, Sarah R; Lewis, Gillian R; Lewis, Zenobia; Macey, Michael C; McCarthy, Alan; McDonald, James E; Mejia-Florez, Nasmille L; O'Brien, David; Orland, Chloé; Pautasso, Marco; Reid, William D K; Robinson, Heather A; Wilson, Kenneth; Sutherland, William J

    2017-05-01

    Microbial ecology provides insights into the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of microbial communities underpinning every ecosystem on Earth. Microbial communities can now be investigated in unprecedented detail, although there is still a wealth of open questions to be tackled. Here we identify 50 research questions of fundamental importance to the science or application of microbial ecology, with the intention of summarising the field and bringing focus to new research avenues. Questions are categorised into seven themes: host-microbiome interactions; health and infectious diseases; human health and food security; microbial ecology in a changing world; environmental processes; functional diversity; and evolutionary processes. Many questions recognise that microbes provide an extraordinary array of functional diversity that can be harnessed to solve real-world problems. Our limited knowledge of spatial and temporal variation in microbial diversity and function is also reflected, as is the need to integrate micro- and macro-ecological concepts, and knowledge derived from studies with humans and other diverse organisms. Although not exhaustive, the questions presented are intended to stimulate discussion and provide focus for researchers, funders and policy makers, informing the future research agenda in microbial ecology. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Microbial amylases in the production of alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, H J

    1970-01-01

    This book is based on experiments carried out in the experimental distillery of the University of Hohenheim on the use of microbial enzyme preparations for processing wheat and maize, with particular reference to comparison of green and cured malts. The subject is divided into the following chapters: introduction (pp. -14); raw materials (pp. 5-6); enzymic dextrinizing and saccharification agents (pp. 6-10); technology of alcohol production with microbial amylses (pp. 11-27); experiments into, results of and discussion on special problems of the mashing and fermentation process with reference to application of microbial amylases (pp. 28-45); Analytical methods (pp. 46-51); and Resume (pp. 5254).

  14. Mathematical modeling of microbial growth in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhony Tiago Teleken

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model to predict microbial growth in milk was developed and analyzed. The model consists of a system of two differential equations of first order. The equations are based on physical hypotheses of population growth. The model was applied to five different sets of data of microbial growth in dairy products selected from Combase, which is the most important database in the area with thousands of datasets from around the world, and the results showed a good fit. In addition, the model provides equations for the evaluation of the maximum specific growth rate and the duration of the lag phase which may provide useful information about microbial growth.

  15. Microbial biogeography: putting microorganisms on the map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiny, Jennifer B Hughes; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Brown, James H; Colwell, Robert K; Fuhrman, Jed A; Green, Jessica L; Horner-Devine, M Claire; Kane, Matthew; Krumins, Jennifer Adams; Kuske, Cheryl R; Morin, Peter J; Naeem, Shahid; Ovreås, Lise; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise; Smith, Val H; Staley, James T

    2006-02-01

    We review the biogeography of microorganisms in light of the biogeography of macroorganisms. A large body of research supports the idea that free-living microbial taxa exhibit biogeographic patterns. Current evidence confirms that, as proposed by the Baas-Becking hypothesis, 'the environment selects' and is, in part, responsible for spatial variation in microbial diversity. However, recent studies also dispute the idea that 'everything is everywhere'. We also consider how the processes that generate and maintain biogeographic patterns in macroorganisms could operate in the microbial world.

  16. Biotechnological Processes in Microbial Amylase Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Subash C B; Anbu, Periasamy; Arshad, M K Md; Lakshmipriya, Thangavel; Voon, Chun Hong; Hashim, Uda; Chinni, Suresh V

    2017-01-01

    Amylase is an important and indispensable enzyme that plays a pivotal role in the field of biotechnology. It is produced mainly from microbial sources and is used in many industries. Industrial sectors with top-down and bottom-up approaches are currently focusing on improving microbial amylase production levels by implementing bioengineering technologies. The further support of energy consumption studies, such as those on thermodynamics, pinch technology, and environment-friendly technologies, has hastened the large-scale production of the enzyme. Herein, the importance of microbial (bacteria and fungi) amylase is discussed along with its production methods from the laboratory to industrial scales.

  17. Biotechnological Processes in Microbial Amylase Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash C. B. Gopinath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amylase is an important and indispensable enzyme that plays a pivotal role in the field of biotechnology. It is produced mainly from microbial sources and is used in many industries. Industrial sectors with top-down and bottom-up approaches are currently focusing on improving microbial amylase production levels by implementing bioengineering technologies. The further support of energy consumption studies, such as those on thermodynamics, pinch technology, and environment-friendly technologies, has hastened the large-scale production of the enzyme. Herein, the importance of microbial (bacteria and fungi amylase is discussed along with its production methods from the laboratory to industrial scales.

  18. EVALUATION OF MICROBIAL SURVIVAL IN EXTRATERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül BULUÇ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the space environments where microbial terrestrial life could form and evolve in, were evaluted with the base of the physical and chemical properties. In addition, Earthial microbial life formation conditions in the interstellar medium and the other planets are investigated and the survival of microorganisms in the space environments are questioned. As a result, considering the aspects of terrestrial microbial life, we suggest that the space environment and other planets could not be a habitat for Earthial microorganisms.

  19. Phosphorus fractions, microbial biomass and enzyme activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potohar, northern Punjab, Pakistan in September, 2008 and analysed for P fractions and microbial parameters including microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, microbial biomass P, and activities of dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes. The average size of different P fractions (% of total P) in the soils ...

  20. Evolving Microbial Communities in Cellulose-Fed Microbial Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Toczyłowska-Mamińska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of cellulosic wastes make them attractive source of energy for producing electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs. However, electricity production from cellulose requires obligate anaerobes that can degrade cellulose and transfer electrons to the electrode (exoelectrogens, and thus most previous MFC studies have been conducted using two-chamber systems to avoid oxygen contamination of the anode. Single-chamber, air-cathode MFCs typically produce higher power densities than aqueous catholyte MFCs and avoid energy input for the cathodic reaction. To better understand the bacterial communities that evolve in single-chamber air-cathode MFCs fed cellulose, we examined the changes in the bacterial consortium in an MFC fed cellulose over time. The most predominant bacteria shown to be capable electron generation was Firmicutes, with the fermenters decomposing cellulose Bacteroidetes. The main genera developed after extended operation of the cellulose-fed MFC were cellulolytic strains, fermenters and electrogens that included: Parabacteroides, Proteiniphilum, Catonella and Clostridium. These results demonstrate that different communities evolve in air-cathode MFCs fed cellulose than the previous two-chamber reactors.

  1. Microbial diversity arising from thermodynamic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großkopf, Tobias; Soyer, Orkun S

    2016-01-01

    The microbial world displays an immense taxonomic diversity. This diversity is manifested also in a multitude of metabolic pathways that can utilise different substrates and produce different products. Here, we propose that these observations directly link to thermodynamic constraints that inherently arise from the metabolic basis of microbial growth. We show that thermodynamic constraints can enable coexistence of microbes that utilise the same substrate but produce different end products. We find that this thermodynamics-driven emergence of diversity is most relevant for metabolic conversions with low free energy as seen for example under anaerobic conditions, where population dynamics is governed by thermodynamic effects rather than kinetic factors such as substrate uptake rates. These findings provide a general understanding of the microbial diversity based on the first principles of thermodynamics. As such they provide a thermodynamics-based framework for explaining the observed microbial diversity in different natural and synthetic environments. PMID:27035705

  2. Microbial diversity arising from thermodynamic constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großkopf, Tobias; Soyer, Orkun S

    2016-11-01

    The microbial world displays an immense taxonomic diversity. This diversity is manifested also in a multitude of metabolic pathways that can utilise different substrates and produce different products. Here, we propose that these observations directly link to thermodynamic constraints that inherently arise from the metabolic basis of microbial growth. We show that thermodynamic constraints can enable coexistence of microbes that utilise the same substrate but produce different end products. We find that this thermodynamics-driven emergence of diversity is most relevant for metabolic conversions with low free energy as seen for example under anaerobic conditions, where population dynamics is governed by thermodynamic effects rather than kinetic factors such as substrate uptake rates. These findings provide a general understanding of the microbial diversity based on the first principles of thermodynamics. As such they provide a thermodynamics-based framework for explaining the observed microbial diversity in different natural and synthetic environments.

  3. Genome engineering for microbial natural product discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Si-Sun; Katsuyama, Yohei; Bai, Linquan; Deng, Zixin; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Kim, Eung-Soo

    2018-03-03

    The discovery and development of microbial natural products (MNPs) have played pivotal roles in the fields of human medicine and its related biotechnology sectors over the past several decades. The post-genomic era has witnessed the development of microbial genome mining approaches to isolate previously unsuspected MNP biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) hidden in the genome, followed by various BGC awakening techniques to visualize compound production. Additional microbial genome engineering techniques have allowed higher MNP production titers, which could complement a traditional culture-based MNP chasing approach. Here, we describe recent developments in the MNP research paradigm, including microbial genome mining, NP BGC activation, and NP overproducing cell factory design. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Innovative Microbial Surface Sampler, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The QS Team will develop an Innovative Microbial Surface Sampling (IMSS) device design and provide prototype kits for use in the International Space Station (ISS)....

  5. Procedures For Microbial-Ecology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Timothy L.

    1993-01-01

    Microbial Ecology Laboratory Procedures Manual provides concise and well-defined instructions on routine technical procedures to be followed in microbiological laboratory to ensure safety, analytical control, and validity of results.

  6. Guiding bioprocess design by microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Jan; Schmid, Andreas; Bühler, Bruno

    2015-06-01

    Industrial bioprocess development is driven by profitability and eco-efficiency. It profits from an early stage definition of process and biocatalyst design objectives. Microbial bioprocess environments can be considered as synthetic technical microbial ecosystems. Natural systems follow Darwinian evolution principles aiming at survival and reproduction. Technical systems objectives are eco-efficiency, productivity, and profitable production. Deciphering technical microbial ecology reveals differences and similarities of natural and technical systems objectives, which are discussed in this review in view of biocatalyst and process design and engineering strategies. Strategies for handling opposing objectives of natural and technical systems and for exploiting and engineering natural properties of microorganisms for technical systems are reviewed based on examples. This illustrates the relevance of considering microbial ecology for bioprocess design and the potential for exploitation by synthetic biology strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Microfluidics expanding the frontiers of microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Garren, Melissa; Stocker, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidics has significantly contributed to the expansion of the frontiers of microbial ecology over the past decade by allowing researchers to observe the behaviors of microbes in highly controlled microenvironments, across scales from a single cell to mixed communities. Spatially and temporally varying distributions of organisms and chemical cues that mimic natural microbial habitats can now be established by exploiting physics at the micrometer scale and by incorporating structures with specific geometries and materials. In this article, we review applications of microfluidics that have resulted in insightful discoveries on fundamental aspects of microbial life, ranging from growth and sensing to cell-cell interactions and population dynamics. We anticipate that this flexible multidisciplinary technology will continue to facilitate discoveries regarding the ecology of microorganisms and help uncover strategies to control microbial processes such as biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance.

  8. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment Tutorial - Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides a Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) primer that organizes QMRA tutorials. The tutorials describe functionality of a QMRA infrastructure, guide the user through software use and assessment options, provide step-by-step instructions for implementi...

  9. Impact of microbial distributions on food safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassett, J.; Jackson, T.; Jewell, K.; Jongenburger, I.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    This document discusses mechanisms impacting on physical distributions of microorganisms in foods, characteristics and suitability of frequency distributions employed to model microbial distributions, and the impact of both physical and frequency distributions on illness risk and food safety

  10. Oral chlorhexidine and microbial contamination during endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donatsky, Anders Meller; Holzknecht, Barbara Juliane; Arpi, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the biggest concerns associated with transgastric surgery is contamination and risk of intra-abdominal infection with microbes introduced from the access route. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral decontamination with chlorhexidine on microbial contamin......BACKGROUND: One of the biggest concerns associated with transgastric surgery is contamination and risk of intra-abdominal infection with microbes introduced from the access route. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral decontamination with chlorhexidine on microbial...... contamination of the endoscope. METHODS: In a prospective, randomized, single-blinded, clinical trial the effect of chlorhexidine mouth rinse was evaluated. As a surrogate for the risk of intra-abdominal contamination during transgastric surgery, microbial contamination of the endoscope during upper endoscopy...... microbial contamination of the endoscope, but micro-organisms with abscess forming capabilities were still present. PPI treatment significantly increased CFU and should be discontinued before transgastric surgery....

  11. Glycoside Hydrolases across Environmental Microbial Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Berlemont

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Across many environments microbial glycoside hydrolases support the enzymatic processing of carbohydrates, a critical function in many ecosystems. Little is known about how the microbial composition of a community and the potential for carbohydrate processing relate to each other. Here, using 1,934 metagenomic datasets, we linked changes in community composition to variation of potential for carbohydrate processing across environments. We were able to show that each ecosystem-type displays a specific potential for carbohydrate utilization. Most of this potential was associated with just 77 bacterial genera. The GH content in bacterial genera is best described by their taxonomic affiliation. Across metagenomes, fluctuations of the microbial community structure and GH potential for carbohydrate utilization were correlated. Our analysis reveals that both deterministic and stochastic processes contribute to the assembly of complex microbial communities.

  12. Exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, A.J.M.; Bok, de F.A.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Eekert, van M.H.A.; Dolfing, J.; Schraa, G.

    2006-01-01

    Exocellular electron transfer plays an important role in anaerobic microbial communities that degrade organic matter. Interspecies hydrogen transfer between microorganisms is the driving force for complete biodegradation in methanogenic environments. Many organic compounds are degraded by obligatory

  13. Center for Advancing Microbial Risk Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Advancing Microbial Risk Assessment (CAMRA), based at Michigan State University and jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and the...

  14. Microbial transformation of xenobiotics for environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial transformation of xenobiotics for environmental bioremediation. ... anaerobic and reductive biotransformation by co-metabolic processes and an overview of ... of xenobiotic compounds in context to the modern day biotechnology.

  15. Microbial contamination associated with the processing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anihouvi Gildas

    2013-05-01

    May 1, 2013 ... tchachanga investigated, but different processing methods had significant changes in the microbial ... placed on wooden skewers and cooked on the embers of charcoal .... processing place, including the use of dirty jute bags,.

  16. Microbial hydrocarbon degradation - bioremediation of oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlas, R M [Louisville Univ., KY (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1991-01-01

    Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of oil-polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradative activities. Bioremediation of petroleum pollutants overcomes the factors limiting rates of microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation. Often this involves using the enzymatic capabilities of the indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations and modifying environmental factors, particularly concentrations of molecular oxygen, fixed forms of nitrogen and phosphate to achieve enhanced rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation. Biodegradation of oily sludges and bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites has been achieved by oxygen addition-e.g. by tilling soils in landfarming and by adding hydrogen peroxide or pumping oxygen into oiled aquifers along with addition of nitrogen- and phosphorous-containing fertilizers. The success of seeding oil spills with microbial preparations is ambiguous. Successful bioremediation of a major marine oil spill has been achieved based upon addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. (author).

  17. Microbial biotransformation of bioactive flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Chen, Xiaoqing; Jassbi, Amir Reza; Xiao, Jianbo

    2015-01-01

    The bioactive flavonoids are considered as the most important phytochemicals in food, which exert a wide range of biological benefits for human being. Microbial biotransformation strategies for production of flavonoids have attracted considerable interest because they allow yielding novel flavonoids, which do not exist in nature. In this review, we summarize the existing knowledge on the production and biotransformation of flavonoids by various microbes. The main reactions during microbial biotransformation are hydroxylation, dehydroxylation, O-methylation, O-demethylation, glycosylation, deglycosylation, dehydrogenation, hydrogenation, C ring cleavage of the benzo-γ-pyrone system, cyclization, and carbonyl reduction. Cunninghamella, Penicillium, and Aspergillus strains are very popular to biotransform flavonoids and they can perform almost all the reactions with excellent yields. Aspergillus niger is one of the most applied microorganisms in the flavonoids' biotransformation; for example, A. niger can transfer flavanone to flavan-4-ol, 2'-hydroxydihydrochalcone, flavone, 3-hydroxyflavone, 6-hydroxyflavanone, and 4'-hydroxyflavanone. The hydroxylation of flavones by microbes usually happens on the ortho position of hydroxyl group on the A ring and C-4' position of the B ring and microbes commonly hydroxylate flavonols at the C-8 position. The microorganisms tend to hydroxylate flavanones at the C-5, 6, and 4' positions; however, for prenylated flavanones, dihydroxylation often takes place on the C4α=C5α double bond on the prenyl group (the side chain of A ring). Isoflavones are usually hydroxylated at the C-3' position of the B ring by microorganisms. The microbes convert flavonoids to their 7-O-glycosides and 3-O-glycosides (when flavonoids have a hydroxyl moiety at the C-3 position). The demethylation of multimethoxyl flavonoids by microbes tends to happen at the C-3' and C-4' positions of the B ring. Multimethoxyl flavanones and isoflavone are demethylated at

  18. Microbial keratitis in West and East Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Vanitha Ratnalingam; Thiageswari Umapathy; Kala Sumugam; Hanida Hanafi; Shamala Retnasabapathy

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the epidemiological and etiological factors of microbial keratitis seen in tertiary hospitals in West and East Malaysia.METHODS: A total of 207 patients were enrolled. Patients referred for microbial keratitis to Sungai Buloh Hospital and Kuala Lumpur Hospital in West Malaysia and Queen Elizabeth Hospital and Kuching General Hospital in East Malaysia were recruited. Risk factors were documented. Corneal scrapings for microscopy and culture were performed.RESULTS: The most com...

  19. Microbial interactions in drinking water biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Lúcia C.; Simões, M.; Vieira, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Drinking water distribution networks may be viewed as a large reactor where a number of chemical and microbiological processes are taking place. Control of microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) often achieved through the addition of disinfectants, is essential to limit the spread of waterborne pathogens. However, microorganisms can resist disinfection through protection within biofilms and resistant host cells. Recent studies into the microbial ecology ...

  20. La langue qui fâche : quand la norme qui lâche suscite l’insulte When norms loosen, abuse pops up and language offends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Rosier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article nous proposons d’étudier les titres de groupes facebook dont les dénominations visent à dévaloriser les locuteurs qui ne maîtrisent pas la norme linguistique. On verra que lorsqu’il s’agit de la maîtrise de la langue, les internautes stigmatisent les accrocs à la norme et peuvent adopter des attitudes d’une extrême violence : les fautes sont considérées comme insultantes pour ceux qui maîtrisent la langue. La violence verbale observée trouverait sa légitimité dans le fait qu’il y a « outrage à la langue » : les locuteurs « censeurs » seraient dès lors autorisés à produire un discours violent « outrageant » vis-à-vis des faiseurs de fautes. Nos analyses montreront que l’appel au regroupement contre les « locuteurs-fauteurs » repose sur une doxa commune (l’importance de la maîtrise de la langue plutôt que sur une argumentation explicite. Nous verrons comment se manifeste linguistiquement la violence verbale dans notre corpus (phénomènes énonciatifs, processus interactionnel,… et où se situent les dénominations facebookiennes sur une échelle graduée de violence.In this article, we study the names of facebook groups which aim at reducing the value of the speakers who do not control linguistic norms. The internet users stigmatize tears in norm and can adopt attitudes of an extreme violence: errors are considered as insulting for those who master the language. The “offense to the language” is supposed to legitimize verbal violence: the speakers “censors” would since then be authorized to produce a violent speech "offending" in relation to the miracle-workers of errors. Our analyses will show that the call to grouping against the “speakers-troublemakers” rests on a common doxa (the importance of the workmanship of the language rather than on a definite argumentation. We will examine the various manifestations of verbal violence (on the level on enunciation

  1. Microbial changes during pregnancy, birth and infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meital Nuriel-Ohayon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Several healthy developmental processes such as pregnancy, fetal development and infant development include a multitude of physiological changes: weight gain, hormonal and metabolic changes, as well as immune changes. In this review we present an additional important factor which both influences and is affected by these physiological processes- the microbiome. We summarize the known changes in microbiota composition at a variety of body sites including gut, vagina, oral cavity and placenta, throughout pregnancy, fetal development and early childhood. There is still a lot to be discovered; yet several pieces of research point to the healthy desired microbial changes. Future research is likely to unravel precise roles and mechanisms of the microbiota in gestation; perhaps linking the metabolic, hormonal and immune changes together. Although some research has started to link microbial dysbiosis and specific microbial populations with unhealthy pregnancy complications, it is important to first understand the context of the natural healthy microbial changes occurring. Until recently the placenta and developing fetus were considered to be germ free, containing no apparent microbiome. We present multiple study results showing distinct microbiota compositions in the placenta and meconium, alluding to early microbial colonization. These results may change dogmas and our overall understanding of the importance and roles of microbiota from the beginning of life. We further review the main factors shaping the infant microbiome- modes of delivery, feeding, weaning, and exposure to antibiotics. Taken together, we are starting to build a broader understanding of healthy vs. abnormal microbial alterations throughout major developmental time-points.

  2. New directions in coral reef microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garren, Melissa; Azam, Farooq

    2012-04-01

    Microbial processes largely control the health and resilience of coral reef ecosystems, and new technologies have led to an exciting wave of discovery regarding the mechanisms by which microbial communities support the functioning of these incredibly diverse and valuable systems. There are three questions at the forefront of discovery: What mechanisms underlie coral reef health and resilience? How do environmental and anthropogenic pressures affect ecosystem function? What is the ecology of microbial diseases of corals? The goal is to understand the functioning of coral reefs as integrated systems from microbes and molecules to regional and ocean-basin scale ecosystems to enable accurate predictions of resilience and responses to perturbations such as climate change and eutrophication. This review outlines recent discoveries regarding the microbial ecology of different microenvironments within coral ecosystems, and highlights research directions that take advantage of new technologies to build a quantitative and mechanistic understanding of how coral health is connected through microbial processes to its surrounding environment. The time is ripe for natural resource managers and microbial ecologists to work together to create an integrated understanding of coral reef functioning. In the context of long-term survival and conservation of reefs, the need for this work is immediate. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Microbial Signatures of Cadaver Gravesoil During Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Sheree J; Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Robertson, B K; Javan, Gulnaz T

    2016-04-01

    Genomic studies have estimated there are approximately 10(3)-10(6) bacterial species per gram of soil. The microbial species found in soil associated with decomposing human remains (gravesoil) have been investigated and recognized as potential molecular determinants for estimates of time since death. The nascent era of high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the conserved 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene region of gravesoil microbes is allowing research to expand beyond more subjective empirical methods used in forensic microbiology. The goal of the present study was to evaluate microbial communities and identify taxonomic signatures associated with the gravesoil human cadavers. Using 16S rRNA gene amplicon-based sequencing, soil microbial communities were surveyed from 18 cadavers placed on the surface or buried that were allowed to decompose over a range of decomposition time periods (3-303 days). Surface soil microbial communities showed a decreasing trend in taxon richness, diversity, and evenness over decomposition, while buried cadaver-soil microbial communities demonstrated increasing taxon richness, consistent diversity, and decreasing evenness. The results show that ubiquitous Proteobacteria was confirmed as the most abundant phylum in all gravesoil samples. Surface cadaver-soil communities demonstrated a decrease in Acidobacteria and an increase in Firmicutes relative abundance over decomposition, while buried soil communities were consistent in their community composition throughout decomposition. Better understanding of microbial community structure and its shifts over time may be important for advancing general knowledge of decomposition soil ecology and its potential use during forensic investigations.

  4. Stay connected: Electrical conductivity of microbial aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Lesnik, Keaton Larson; Liu, Hong

    2017-11-01

    The discovery of direct extracellular electron transfer offers an alternative to the traditional understanding of diffusional electron exchange via small molecules. The establishment of electronic connections between electron donors and acceptors in microbial communities is critical to electron transfer via electrical currents. These connections are facilitated through conductivity associated with various microbial aggregates. However, examination of conductivity in microbial samples is still in its relative infancy and conceptual models in terms of conductive mechanisms are still being developed and debated. The present review summarizes the fundamental understanding of electrical conductivity in microbial aggregates (e.g. biofilms, granules, consortia, and multicellular filaments) highlighting recent findings and key discoveries. A greater understanding of electrical conductivity in microbial aggregates could facilitate the survey for additional microbial communities that rely on direct extracellular electron transfer for survival, inform rational design towards the aggregates-based production of bioenergy/bioproducts, and inspire the construction of new synthetic conductive polymers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Microbial effects on colloidal agglomeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersman, L.

    1995-11-01

    Colloidal particles are known to enhance the transport of radioactive metals through soil and rock systems. This study was performed to determine if a soil microorganism, isolated from the surface samples collected at Yucca Mountain, NV, could affect the colloidal properties of day particles. The agglomeration of a Wyoming bentonite clay in a sterile uninoculated microbial growth medium was compared to the agglomeration in the medium inoculated with a Pseudomonas sp. In a second experiment, microorganisms were cultured in the succinate medium for 50 h and removed by centrifugation. The agglomeration of the clay in this spent was compared to sterile uninoculated medium. In both experiments, the agglomeration of the clay was greater than that of the sterile, uninoculated control. Based on these results, which indicate that this microorganism enhanced the agglomeration of the bentonite clay, it is possible to say that in the presence of microorganisms colloidal movement through a rock matrix could be reduced because of an overall increase in the size of colloidal particle agglomerates. 32 refs

  6. Halitosis: An oral microbial faction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Saini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Halitosis is a widespread condition and believed to affect one-quarter of the population around the world; also, most people have this condition from time to time. Breath malodour may be an important factor in social communication, and therefore may be the origin of concern not only for a possible health condition but also for frequent psychological alterations, leading to social and personal isolation. The most conspicuous malodorous compounds are termed volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs, with hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulphide accounting for roughly 90% of the VSCs. A number of oral bacteria, especially Gram-negative anaerobic species found in the subgingival plaque, produce a diverse array of malodorous compounds as byproducts of their metabolism, including VSCs and short-chain organic acids. Assessment and management of halitosis is of paramount importance in enhancing the overall health; moreover, dentists play a significant role in combating halitosis by reducing the oral microbial stack. Thus, the aim of the present review was to describe the aetiological factors, assessment tools, and therapeutic approaches related to halitosis.

  7. Microbial contamination in industrial tofu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Teresa Brandão Cavalheiro Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the microbiological quality of tofu sold in supermarkets in Porto Alegre/Brazil. Bacteria counts were performed for Bacillus cereus , mesophilic, coliforms and Staphylococcus coagulase positive and negative. The presence of Listeria sp. was also evaluated. Two different brands of tofu (A and B were collected, one lot per month, for six months. Five samples from each lot were analyzed. All lots presented mesophilic aerobic counts above 4.3x105CFU g-1. Four of the six lots from brand A and all lots from brand B showed E. coli and/or Staphylococcus coagulase positive counts above the Brazilian law accepted limits. The Staphylococcus coagulase negative counts were higher than those of coagulase positive in all lots. In all lots where Staphylococcus coagulase positive counts were above the legal limit, there were counts of coagulase negative above 104CFU g-1. B. cereus and Listeria sp. were not found in either brand. The majority of lots of brand A and all lots of brand B were unsuitable for human consumption. Our results showed that there are problems in tofu manufacturing in both industries analyzed. There is a need of improvement on its microbial quality to avoid problems of food-borne illness, and finally the need of a better control by the Brazilian inspection services.

  8. MICROBIAL CELL-SURFACE HYDROPHOBICITY - THE INVOLVEMENT OF ELECTROSTATIC INTERACTIONS IN MICROBIAL ADHESION TO HYDROCARBONS (MATH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GEERTSEMADOORNBUSCH, GI; VANDERMEI, HC; BUSSCHER, HJ

    Microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) is the most commonly used method to determine microbial cell surface hydrophobicity. Since, however, the assay is based on adhesion, it is questionable whether the results reflect only the cell surface hydrophobicity or an interplay of hydrophobicity and

  9. Towards the understanding of microbial metabolism in relation to microbial enhanced oil recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Bacillus licheniformis 421 was used as a model organism to understand the effects of microbial cell growth and metabolite production under anaerobic conditions in relation to microbial enhanced oil recovery. The bacterium was able to grow anaerobically on different carbon compounds...

  10. The Microbial DNA Index System (MiDIS): A tool for microbial pathogen source identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velsko, S. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-09

    The microbial DNA Index System (MiDIS) is a concept for a microbial forensic database and investigative decision support system that can be used to help investigators identify the sources of microbial agents that have been used in a criminal or terrorist incident. The heart of the proposed system is a rigorous method for calculating source probabilities by using certain fundamental sampling distributions associated with the propagation and mutation of microbes on disease transmission networks. This formalism has a close relationship to mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal human DNA forensics, and the proposed decision support system is somewhat analogous to the CODIS and SWGDAM mtDNA databases. The MiDIS concept does not involve the use of opportunistic collections of microbial isolates and phylogenetic tree building as a basis for inference. A staged approach can be used to build MiDIS as an enduring capability, beginning with a pilot demonstration program that must meet user expectations for performance and validation before evolving into a continuing effort. Because MiDIS requires input from a a broad array of expertise including outbreak surveillance, field microbial isolate collection, microbial genome sequencing, disease transmission networks, and laboratory mutation rate studies, it will be necessary to assemble a national multi-laboratory team to develop such a system. The MiDIS effort would lend direction and focus to the national microbial genetics research program for microbial forensics, and would provide an appropriate forensic framework for interfacing to future national and international disease surveillance efforts.

  11. Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide and Salinity on the Microbial Diversity in Lithifying Microbial Mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Ahrendt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2 are rising at an accelerated rate resulting in changes in the pH and carbonate chemistry of the world’s oceans. However, there is uncertainty regarding the impact these changing environmental conditions have on carbonate-depositing microbial communities. Here, we examine the effects of elevated CO2, three times that of current atmospheric levels, on the microbial diversity associated with lithifying microbial mats. Lithifying microbial mats are complex ecosystems that facilitate the trapping and binding of sediments, and/or the precipitation of calcium carbonate into organosedimentary structures known as microbialites. To examine the impact of rising CO2 and resulting shifts in pH on lithifying microbial mats, we constructed growth chambers that could continually manipulate and monitor the mat environment. The microbial diversity of the various treatments was compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The results indicated that elevated CO2 levels during the six month exposure did not profoundly alter the microbial diversity, community structure, or carbonate precipitation in the microbial mats; however some key taxa, such as the sulfate-reducing bacteria Deltasulfobacterales, were enriched. These results suggest that some carbonate depositing ecosystems, such as the microbialites, may be more resilient to anthropogenic-induced environmental change than previously thought.

  12. Microbial bioenergetics of coral-algal interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ty N.F. Roach

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human impacts are causing ecosystem phase shifts from coral- to algal-dominated reef systems on a global scale. As these ecosystems undergo transition, there is an increased incidence of coral-macroalgal interactions. Mounting evidence indicates that the outcome of these interaction events is, in part, governed by microbially mediated dynamics. The allocation of available energy through different trophic levels, including the microbial food web, determines the outcome of these interactions and ultimately shapes the benthic community structure. However, little is known about the underlying thermodynamic mechanisms involved in these trophic energy transfers. This study utilizes a novel combination of methods including calorimetry, flow cytometry, and optical oxygen measurements, to provide a bioenergetic analysis of coral-macroalgal interactions in a controlled aquarium setting. We demonstrate that the energetic demands of microbial communities at the coral-algal interaction interface are higher than in the communities associated with either of the macroorganisms alone. This was evident through higher microbial power output (energy use per unit time and lower oxygen concentrations at interaction zones compared to areas distal from the interface. Increases in microbial power output and lower oxygen concentrations were significantly correlated with the ratio of heterotrophic to autotrophic microbes but not the total microbial abundance. These results suggest that coral-algal interfaces harbor higher proportions of heterotrophic microbes that are optimizing maximal power output, as opposed to yield. This yield to power shift offers a possible thermodynamic mechanism underlying the transition from coral- to algal-dominated reef ecosystems currently being observed worldwide. As changes in the power output of an ecosystem are a significant indicator of the current state of the system, this analysis provides a novel and insightful means to quantify

  13. Non-microbial methane emissions from soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Hou, Longyu; Liu, Wei; Wang, Zhiping

    2013-12-01

    Traditionally, methane (CH4) is anaerobically formed by methanogenic archaea. However, non-microbial CH4 can also be produced from geologic processes, biomass burning, animals, plants, and recently identified soils. Recognition of non-microbial CH4 emissions from soils remains inadequate. To better understand this phenomenon, a series of laboratory incubations were conducted to examine effects of temperature, water, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on CH4 emissions under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions using autoclaved (30 min, 121 °C) soils and aggregates (>2000 μm, A1; 2000-250 μm, A2; 250-53 μm, M1; and A2 > A1 > M2 and C-based emission an order of M2 > M1 > A1 > A2, demonstrating that both organic carbon quantity and property are responsible for CH4 emissions from soils at the scale of aggregate. Whole soil-based order of A2 > A1 > M1 > M2 suggests that non-microbial CH4 release from forest soils is majorly contributed by macro-aggregates (i.e., >250 μm). The underlying mechanism is that organic matter through thermal treatment, photolysis, or reactions with free radicals produce CH4, which, in essence, is identical with mechanisms of other non-microbial sources, indicating that non-microbial CH4 production may be a widespread phenomenon in nature. This work further elucidates the importance of non-microbial CH4 formation which should be distinguished from the well-known microbial CH4 formation in order to define both roles in the atmospheric CH4 global budget.

  14. Combining microbial cultures for efficient production of electricity from butyrate in a microbial electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, Joseph F.; Garcia-Peña, Ines; Parameswaran, Prathap; Torres, César I.; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Butyrate is an important product of anaerobic fermentation; however, it is not directly used by characterized strains of the highly efficient anode respiring bacteria (ARB) Geobacter sulfurreducens in microbial electrochemical cells. By combining a butyrate-oxidizing community with a Geobacter rich culture, we generated a microbial community which outperformed many naturally derived communities found in the literature for current production from butyrate and rivaled the highest performing natural cultures in terms of current density (~11 A/m2) and Coulombic efficiency (~70%). Microbial community analyses support the shift in the microbial community from one lacking efficient ARB in the marine hydrothermal vent community to a community consisting of ~80% Geobacter in the anode biofilm. This demonstrates the successful production and adaptation of a novel microbial culture for generating electrical current from butyrate with high current density and high Coulombic efficiency, by combining two mixed micro bial cultures containing complementing biochemical pathways. PMID:25048958

  15. Anode microbial communities produced by changing from microbial fuel cell to microbial electrolysis cell operation using two different wastewaters

    KAUST Repository

    Kiely, Patrick D.; Cusick, Roland; Call, Douglas F.; Selembo, Priscilla A.; Regan, John M.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    Conditions in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) differ from those in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) due to the intrusion of oxygen through the cathode and the release of H2 gas into solution. Based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, anode communities in reactors fed acetic acid decreased in species richness and diversity, and increased in numbers of Geobacter sulfurreducens, when reactors were shifted from MFCs to MECs. With a complex source of organic matter (potato wastewater), the proportion of Geobacteraceae remained constant when MFCs were converted into MECs, but the percentage of clones belonging to G. sulfurreducens decreased and the percentage of G. metallireducens clones increased. A dairy manure wastewater-fed MFC produced little power, and had more diverse microbial communities, but did not generate current in an MEC. These results show changes in Geobacter species in response to the MEC environment and that higher species diversity is not correlated with current. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Microbial hotspots and hot moments in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyakov, Yakov; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia

    2015-04-01

    Soils are the most heterogeneous parts of the biosphere, with an extremely high differentiation of properties and processes within nano- to macroscales. The spatial and temporal heterogeneity of input of labile organics by plants creates microbial hotspots over short periods of time - the hot moments. We define microbial hotspots as small soil volumes with much faster process rates and much more intensive interactions compared to the average soil conditions. Such hotspots are found in the rhizosphere, detritusphere, biopores (including drilosphere) and on aggregate surfaces, but hotspots are frequently of mixed origin. Hot moments are short-term events or sequences of events inducing accelerated process rates as compared to the averaged rates. Thus, hotspots and hot moments are defined by dynamic characteristics, i.e. by process rates. For this hotspot concept we extensively reviewed and examined the localization and size of hotspots, spatial distribution and visualization approaches, transport of labile C to and from hotspots, lifetime and process intensities, with a special focus on process rates and microbial activities. The fraction of active microorganisms in hotspots is 2-20 times higher than in the bulk soil, and their specific activities (i.e. respiration, microbial growth, mineralization potential, enzyme activities, RNA/DNA ratio) may also be much higher. The duration of hot moments in the rhizosphere is limited and is controlled by the length of the input of labile organics. It can last a few hours up to a few days. In the detritusphere, however, the duration of hot moments is regulated by the output - by decomposition rates of litter - and lasts for weeks and months. Hot moments induce succession in microbial communities and intense intra- and interspecific competition affecting C use efficiency, microbial growth and turnover. The faster turnover and lower C use efficiency in hotspots counterbalances the high C inputs, leading to the absence of strong

  17. Design and construction of synthetic microbial consortia in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Zhu Ding

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of synthetic biology enables the design, construction and optimization of synthetic microbial consortia to achieve specific functions. In China, the “973” project-“Design and Construction of Microbial Consortia” was funded by the National Basic Research Program of China in January 2014. It was proposed to address the fundamental challenges in engineering natural microbial consortia and reconstructing microbial consortia to meet industrial demands. In this review, we will introduce this “973” project, including the significance of microbial consortia, the fundamental scientific issues, the recent research progresses, and some case studies about synthetic microbial consortia in the past two and a half years.

  18. Microbial syntrophy: interaction for the common good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brandon E L; Henneberger, Ruth; Huber, Harald; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2013-05-01

    Classical definitions of syntrophy focus on a process, performed through metabolic interaction between dependent microbial partners, such as the degradation of complex organic compounds under anoxic conditions. However, examples from past and current scientific discoveries suggest that a new, simple but wider definition is necessary to cover all aspects of microbial syntrophy. We suggest the term 'obligately mutualistic metabolism', which still focuses on microbial metabolic cooperation but also includes an ecological aspect: the benefit for both partners. By the combined metabolic activity of microorganisms, endergonic reactions can become exergonic through the efficient removal of products and therefore enable a microbial community to survive with minimal energy resources. Here, we explain the principles of classical and non-classical syntrophy and illustrate the concepts with various examples. We present biochemical fundamentals that allow microorganism to survive under a range of environmental conditions and to drive important biogeochemical processes. Novel technologies have contributed to the understanding of syntrophic relationships in cultured and uncultured systems. Recent research highlights that obligately mutualistic metabolism is not limited to certain metabolic pathways nor to certain environments or microorganisms. This beneficial microbial interaction is not restricted to the transfer of reducing agents such as hydrogen or formate, but can also involve the exchange of organic, sulfurous- and nitrogenous compounds or the removal of toxic compounds. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ischemic Stroke Due to Middle Cerebral Artery M1 Segment Occlusion: Latvian Stroke Register Data / Išēmisks Insults Sakarā ar Arteria Cerebri Media M1 Segmenta Oklūziju: Insulta Reģistra Dati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valante Ramona

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Išēmisks insults visbiežāk notiek vidējās cerebrālās artērijas apasiņošanas baseinā. Tika veikts retrospektīvs Insulta reģistra datu pētījums. Pētījumam tika atlasīti un apstrādāti pacientu dati laika periodā no 2013. gada janvāra līdz 2014. decembrim. Datu analīzei tika atlasīti 478 pacienti, kuriem ar angiogrāfijas metodi, bija apstiprināta ACM oklūzija. Puse no pacientiem bija vīrieši 237 (49,6% ar vidējo vecumu 69,51 gadi, sievietēm vidējais vecums bija 74,58 gadi. Biežākais insulta cēlonis bija kardioembolija - 294 (61, 5% gadījumos. Sīko asinsvadu saslimšana nebija kā cēlonis ACM M1 segmenta oklūzijas gadījumā. Reperfūzijas terapiju saņēma 209 (43,7% pacienti. Iestājoties neiroloģiskais stāvoklis abās grupās bija līdzīgs, taču izrakstoties lielāks uzlabojums bija reperfūzijas terapijas grupā NIHSS 6,82 salīdzinot ar konservatīvas terapijas grupu - NIHSS 8,2 (SD ± 6,23 (p < 0,05. Izrakstoties pacientu funkcionālais stāvoklis bija labāks reperfūzijas grupā, mRS 0-2 bija 39,2% gadījumu, kā arī slikts funkcionālais iznākums (mRS 4-5 bija sastopams retāk - tikai 34,5% gadījumu. Mirstība arī bija zemāka reperfūzijas grupā - 7,6%, salīdzinot ar konservatīvās terapijas grupu - 13,4%. Biežākais cēlonis ACM M1 segmenta oklūzijas insultam ir kardioembolija. Pacientiem ir liela atkārtotu insultu incidence. Iestājoties reperfūzijas terapijas un konservatīvas terapijas grupu pacientiem neiroloģiskais stāvoklis bija līdzīgs. Taču reperfūzijas grupā pacientiem izrakstoties bija ievērojamāks uzlabojums novērtējot neiroloģisko stāvokli. Arī funkcionālais stāvoklis izrakstoties bija labāks pacientiem, kas saņēma reperfūzijas terapiju.

  20. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Jónsson, Hákon

    2014-01-01

    the specimen of interest, but instead reflect environmental organisms that colonized the specimen after death. Here, we characterize the microbial diversity recovered from seven c. 200- to 13 000-year-old horse bones collected from northern Siberia. We use a robust, taxonomy-based assignment approach...... to identify the microorganisms present in ancient DNA extracts and quantify their relative abundance. Our results suggest that molecular preservation niches exist within ancient samples that can potentially be used to characterize the environments from which the remains are recovered. In addition, microbial...... community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens using...

  1. Microbial stress tolerance for biofuels. Systems biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zonglin Lewis (ed.) [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, USDA-ARS, Peoria, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The development of sustainable and renewable biofuels is attracting growing interest. It is vital to develop robust microbial strains for biocatalysts that are able to function under multiple stress conditions. This Microbiology Monograph provides an overview of methods for studying microbial stress tolerance for biofuels applications using a systems biology approach. Topics covered range from mechanisms to methodology for yeast and bacteria, including the genomics of yeast tolerance and detoxification; genetics and regulation of glycogen and trehalose metabolism; programmed cell death; high gravity fermentations; ethanol tolerance; improving biomass sugar utilization by engineered Saccharomyces; the genomics on tolerance of Zymomonas mobilis; microbial solvent tolerance; control of stress tolerance in bacterial host organisms; metabolomics for ethanologenic yeast; automated proteomics work cell systems for strain improvement; and unification of gene expression data for comparable analyses under stress conditions. (orig.)

  2. The information science of microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Aria S; Konwar, Kishori M; Louca, Stilianos; Hanson, Niels W; Hallam, Steven J

    2016-06-01

    A revolution is unfolding in microbial ecology where petabytes of 'multi-omics' data are produced using next generation sequencing and mass spectrometry platforms. This cornucopia of biological information has enormous potential to reveal the hidden metabolic powers of microbial communities in natural and engineered ecosystems. However, to realize this potential, the development of new technologies and interpretative frameworks grounded in ecological design principles are needed to overcome computational and analytical bottlenecks. Here we explore the relationship between microbial ecology and information science in the era of cloud-based computation. We consider microorganisms as individual information processing units implementing a distributed metabolic algorithm and describe developments in ecoinformatics and ubiquitous computing with the potential to eliminate bottlenecks and empower knowledge creation and translation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Pseudomonas putida as a microbial cell factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigneswaran, Vinoth

    for sustainable production of chemicals, which can be achieved by microbial cell factories. The work presented in this PhD thesis elucidates the application of Pseudomonas putida as a microbial cell factory for production of the biosurfactant rhamnolipid. The rhamnolipid production was achieved by heterologous...... phase. The genomic alterations were identified by genome sequencing and revealed parallel evolution. Glycerol was also shown to be able to support biofilm growth and as a result of this it can be used as an alternative substrate for producing biochemicals in conventional and biofilm reactors. The use...... of biofilm as a production platform and the usage of glycerol as a feedstock show the potential of using microbial cell factories in the transition toward sustainable production of chemicals. Particularly, the applicability of biofilm as a production platform can emerge as a promising alternative...

  4. Microbial ecology of hot desert edaphic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Valverde, Angel; Gunnigle, Eoin; Frossard, Aline; Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Cowan, Don A

    2015-03-01

    A significant proportion of the Earth's surface is desert or in the process of desertification. The extreme environmental conditions that characterize these areas result in a surface that is essentially barren, with a limited range of higher plants and animals. Microbial communities are probably the dominant drivers of these systems, mediating key ecosystem processes. In this review, we examine the microbial communities of hot desert terrestrial biotopes (including soils, cryptic and refuge niches and plant-root-associated microbes) and the processes that govern their assembly. We also assess the possible effects of global climate change on hot desert microbial communities and the resulting feedback mechanisms. We conclude by discussing current gaps in our understanding of the microbiology of hot deserts and suggest fruitful avenues for future research. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A great leap forward in microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Satoshi; Oshiki, Mamoru; Kamagata, Yoichi; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Toyofuku, Masanori; Yawata, Yutaka; Tashiro, Yosuke; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Ohkuma, Moriya; Hiraishi, Akira; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2010-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence-based molecular techniques emerged in the late 1980s, which completely changed our general view of microbial life. Coincidentally, the Japanese Society of Microbial Ecology (JSME) was founded, and its official journal "Microbes and Environments (M&E)" was launched, in 1985. Thus, the past 25 years have been an exciting and fruitful period for M&E readers and microbiologists as demonstrated by the numerous excellent papers published in M&E. In this minireview, recent progress made in microbial ecology and related fields is summarized, with a special emphasis on 8 landmark areas; the cultivation of uncultured microbes, in situ methods for the assessment of microorganisms and their activities, biofilms, plant microbiology, chemolithotrophic bacteria in early volcanic environments, symbionts of animals and their ecology, wastewater treatment microbiology, and the biodegradation of hazardous organic compounds.

  6. Microbial Ecology: Where are we now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughner, Lisa A; Singh, Pallavi

    2016-11-01

    Conventional microbiological methods have been readily taken over by newer molecular techniques due to the ease of use, reproducibility, sensitivity and speed of working with nucleic acids. These tools allow high throughput analysis of complex and diverse microbial communities, such as those in soil, freshwater, saltwater, or the microbiota living in collaboration with a host organism (plant, mouse, human, etc). For instance, these methods have been robustly used for characterizing the plant (rhizosphere), animal and human microbiome specifically the complex intestinal microbiota. The human body has been referred to as the Superorganism since microbial genes are more numerous than the number of human genes and are essential to the health of the host. In this review we provide an overview of the Next Generation tools currently available to study microbial ecology, along with their limitations and advantages.

  7. Smoking cessation alters subgingival microbial recolonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullmer, S C; Preshaw, P M; Heasman, P A; Kumar, P S

    2009-06-01

    Smoking cessation improves the clinical manifestations of periodontitis; however, its effect on the subgingival biofilm, the primary etiological agent of periodontitis, is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate, longitudinally, if smoking cessation altered the composition of the subgingival microbial community, by means of a quantitative, cultivation-independent assay for bacterial profiling. Subgingival plaque was collected at baseline, and 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment from smokers who received root planing and smoking cessation counseling. The plaque was analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP). Microbial profiles differed significantly between smokers and quitters at 6 and 12 months following smoking cessation. The microbial community in smokers was similar to baseline, while quitters demonstrated significantly divergent profiles. Changes in bacterial levels contributed to this shift. These findings reveal a critical role for smoking cessation in altering the subgingival biofilm and suggest a mechanism for improved periodontal health associated with smoking cessation.

  8. DNA metabarcoding of microbial communities for healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaets I. Ye.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput sequencing allows obtaining DNA barcodes of multiple species of microorganisms from single environmental samples. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS-based profiling provides new opportunities to evaluate the human health effect of microbial community members affiliated to probiotics. The DNA metabarcoding may serve to a quality control of microbial communities, comprising complex probiotics and other fermented foods. A detailed inventory of complex communities is a pre-requisite of understanding their functionality as whole entities that makes it possible to design more effective bio-products by precise replacement of one community member by others. The present paper illustrates how the NGS-based DNA metabarcoding aims at the profiling of both wild and hybrid multi-microbial communities with the example of kombucha probiotic beverage fermented by yeast-bacterial partners.

  9. Microbial enhanced oil recovery and compositions therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Rebecca S.

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for microbial enhanced oil recovery, wherein a combination of microorganisms is empirically formulated based on survivability under reservoir conditions and oil recovery efficiency, such that injection of the microbial combination may be made, in the presence of essentially only nutrient solution, directly into an injection well of an oil bearing reservoir having oil present at waterflood residual oil saturation concentration. The microbial combination is capable of displacing residual oil from reservoir rock, which oil may be recovered by waterflooding without causing plugging of the reservoir rock. Further, the microorganisms are capable of being transported through the pores of the reservoir rock between said injection well and associated production wells, during waterflooding, which results in a larger area of the reservoir being covered by the oil-mobilizing microorganisms.

  10. Microbial Profiling Of Cyanobacteria From VIT Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Singh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The application of molecular biological methods to study the diversity and ecology of micro-organisms in natural environments has been practice in mid-1980. The aim of our research is to access the diversity composition and functioning of complex microbial community found in VIT Lake. Molecular ecology is a new field in which microbes can be recognized and their function can be understood at the DNA or RNA level which is useful for constructing genetically modified microbes by recombinant DNA technology for reputed use in the environment. In this research first we will isolate cyanobacteria in lab using conventional methods like broth culture and spread plate method then we will analyze their morphology using various staining methods and DNA and protein composition using electrophoresis method. The applications of community profiling approaches will advance our understanding of the functional role of microbial diversity in VIT Lake controls on microbial community composition.

  11. MBGD update 2013: the microbial genome database for exploring the diversity of microbial world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Ikuo; Mihara, Motohiro; Nishide, Hiroyo; Chiba, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    The microbial genome database for comparative analysis (MBGD, available at http://mbgd.genome.ad.jp/) is a platform for microbial genome comparison based on orthology analysis. As its unique feature, MBGD allows users to conduct orthology analysis among any specified set of organisms; this flexibility allows MBGD to adapt to a variety of microbial genomic study. Reflecting the huge diversity of microbial world, the number of microbial genome projects now becomes several thousands. To efficiently explore the diversity of the entire microbial genomic data, MBGD now provides summary pages for pre-calculated ortholog tables among various taxonomic groups. For some closely related taxa, MBGD also provides the conserved synteny information (core genome alignment) pre-calculated using the CoreAligner program. In addition, efficient incremental updating procedure can create extended ortholog table by adding additional genomes to the default ortholog table generated from the representative set of genomes. Combining with the functionalities of the dynamic orthology calculation of any specified set of organisms, MBGD is an efficient and flexible tool for exploring the microbial genome diversity.

  12. Proceedings of the 8. International Symposium on Microbial Ecology : microbial biosystems : new frontiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, C.R.; Brylinsky, M.; Johnson-Green, P.

    2000-01-01

    A wide range of disciplines were presented at this conference which reflected the importance of microbial ecology and provided an understanding of the factors that determine the growth and activities of microorganisms. The conference attracted 1444 delegates from 54 countries. The research emerging from the rapidly expanding frontier of microbial ecosystems was presented in 62 oral presentation and 817 poster presentations. The two volumes of these proceedings presented a total of 27 areas in microbial ecology, some of which included terrestrial biosystems, aquatic, estuarine, surface and subsurface microbial ecology. Other topics included bioremediation, microbial ecology in industry and microbial ecology of oil fields. Some of the papers highlighted the research that is underway to determine the feasibility of using microorganisms for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Research has shown that microbial EOR can increase production at lower costs than conventional oil recovery. The use of bacteria has also proven to be a feasible treatment method in the biodegradation of hydrocarbons associated with oil spills. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Microbial ecology of terrestrial Antarctica: Are microbial systems at risk from human activities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.

    1996-08-01

    Many of the ecological systems found in continental Antarctica are comprised entirely of microbial species. Concerns have arisen that these microbial systems might be at risk either directly through the actions of humans or indirectly through increased competition from introduced species. Although protection of native biota is covered by the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, strict measures for preventing the introduction on non-native species or for protecting microbial habitats may be impractical. This report summarizes the research conducted to date on microbial ecosystems in continental Antarctica and discusses the need for protecting these ecosystems. The focus is on communities inhabiting soil and rock surfaces in non-coastal areas of continental Antarctica. Although current polices regarding waste management and other operations in Antarctic research stations serve to reduce the introduction on non- native microbial species, importation cannot be eliminated entirely. Increased awareness of microbial habitats by field personnel and protection of certain unique habitats from physical destruction by humans may be necessary. At present, small-scale impacts from human activities are occurring in certain areas both in terms of introduced species and destruction of habitat. On a large scale, however, it is questionable whether the introduction of non-native microbial species to terrestrial Antarctica merits concern.

  14. Research of radiation-resistant microbial organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongho; Lim, Sangyong; Joe, Minho; Park, Haejoon; Song, Hyunpa; Im, Seunghun; Kim, Haram; Kim, Whajung; Choi, Jinsu; Park, Jongchun

    2012-01-15

    Many extremophiles including radiation-resistant bacteria Deinococcus radiodurans have special characteristics such as novel enzymes and physiological active substances different from known biological materials and are being in the spotlight of biotechnology science. In this research, basic technologies for the production of new genetic resources and microbial strains by a series of studies in radiation-resistant microbial organisms were investigated and developed. Mechanisms required for radiation-resistant in Deinococcus radiodurans were partly defined by analyzing the function of dinB, pprI, recG, DRA{sub 0}279, pprM, and two-component signal transduction systems. To apply genetic resource and functional materials from Deinococcus species, omics analysis in response to cadmium, construction of macroscopic biosensor, and characterization of carotenoids and chaperon protein were performed. Additionally, potential use of D. geothermalis in monosaccharide production from non-biodegradable plant materials was evaluated. Novel radiation resistant yeasts and bacteria were isolated and identified from environmental samples to obtain microbial and genomic resources. An optimal radiation mutant breeding method was set up for efficient and rapid isolation of target microbial mutants. Furthermore, an efficient ethanol producing mutant strain with high production yield and productivity was constructed using the breeding method in collaboration with Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology. Three Deinococcal bioindicators for radiation dosage confirmation after radiation sterilization process were developed. These results provide a comprehensive information for novel functional genetic elements, enzymes, and physiological active substances production or application. Eventually, industrial microbial cell factories based on radiation resistant microbial genomes can be developed and the technologies can be diffused to bioindustry continuously by this project.

  15. Systems biology of microbial exopolysaccharides production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem eAtes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides (EPS produced by diverse group of microbial systems are rapidly emerging as new and industrially important biomaterials. Due to their unique and complex chemical structures and many interesting physicochemical and rheological properties with novel functionality, the microbial EPSs find wide range of commercial applications in various fields of the economy such as food, feed, packaging, chemical, textile, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry, agriculture and medicine. EPSs are mainly associated with high-value applications and they have received considerable research attention over recent decades with their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and both environmental and human compatibility. However only a few microbial EPSs have achieved to be used commercially due to their high production costs. The emerging need to overcome economic hurdles and the increasing significance of microbial EPSs in industrial and medical biotechnology call for the elucidation of the interrelations between metabolic pathways and EPS biosynthesis mechanism in order to control and hence enhance its microbial productivity. Moreover a better understanding of biosynthesis mechanism is a significant issue for improvement of product quality and properties and also for the design of novel strains. Therefore a systems-based approach constitutes an important step towards understanding the interplay between metabolism and EPS biosynthesis and further enhances its metabolic performance for industrial application. In this review, primarily the microbial EPSs, their biosynthesis mechanism and important factors for their production will be discussed. After this brief introduction, recent literature on the application of omics technologies and systems biology tools for the improvement of production yields will be critically evaluated. Special focus will be given to EPSs with high market value such as xanthan, levan, pullulan and dextran.

  16. Microbial activity in bentonite buffers. Literature study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratto, M.; Itavaara, M.

    2012-07-01

    The proposed disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes involves storing the wastes underground in copper-iron containers embedded in buffer material of compacted bentonite. Hydrogen sulphide production by sulphate-reducing prokaryotes is a potential mechanism that could cause corrosion of waste containers in repository conditions. The prevailing conditions in compacted bentonite buffer will be harsh. The swelling pressure is 7-8 MPa, the amount of free water is low and the average pore and pore throat diameters are small. This literature study aims to assess the potential of microbial activity in bentonite buffers. Literature on the environmental limits of microbial life in extreme conditions and the occurrence of sulphatereducing prokaryotes in extreme environments is reviewed briefly and the results of published studies characterizing microbes and microbial processes in repository conditions or in relevant subsurface environments are presented. The presence of bacteria, including SRBs, has been confirmed in deep groundwater and bentonite-based materials. Sulphate reducers have been detected in various high-pressure environments, and sulphate-reduction based on hydrogen as an energy source is considered a major microbial process in deep subsurface environments. In bentonite, microbial activity is strongly suppressed, mainly due to the low amount of free water and small pores, which limit the transport of microbes and nutrients. Spore-forming bacteria have been shown to survive in compacted bentonite as dormant spores, and they are able to resume a metabolically active state after decompaction. Thus, microbial sulphide production may increase in repository conditions if the dry density of the bentonite buffer is locally reduced. (orig.)

  17. Systems Biology of Microbial Exopolysaccharides Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by diverse group of microbial systems are rapidly emerging as new and industrially important biomaterials. Due to their unique and complex chemical structures and many interesting physicochemical and rheological properties with novel functionality, the microbial EPSs find wide range of commercial applications in various fields of the economy such as food, feed, packaging, chemical, textile, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry, agriculture, and medicine. EPSs are mainly associated with high-value applications, and they have received considerable research attention over recent decades with their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and both environmental and human compatibility. However, only a few microbial EPSs have achieved to be used commercially due to their high production costs. The emerging need to overcome economic hurdles and the increasing significance of microbial EPSs in industrial and medical biotechnology call for the elucidation of the interrelations between metabolic pathways and EPS biosynthesis mechanism in order to control and hence enhance its microbial productivity. Moreover, a better understanding of biosynthesis mechanism is a significant issue for improvement of product quality and properties and also for the design of novel strains. Therefore, a systems-based approach constitutes an important step toward understanding the interplay between metabolism and EPS biosynthesis and further enhances its metabolic performance for industrial application. In this review, primarily the microbial EPSs, their biosynthesis mechanism, and important factors for their production will be discussed. After this brief introduction, recent literature on the application of omics technologies and systems biology tools for the improvement of production yields will be critically evaluated. Special focus will be given to EPSs with high market value such as xanthan, levan, pullulan, and dextran.

  18. Research of radiation-resistant microbial organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dongho; Lim, Sangyong; Joe, Minho; Park, Haejoon; Song, Hyunpa; Im, Seunghun; Kim, Haram; Kim, Whajung; Choi, Jinsu; Park, Jongchun

    2012-01-01

    Many extremophiles including radiation-resistant bacteria Deinococcus radiodurans have special characteristics such as novel enzymes and physiological active substances different from known biological materials and are being in the spotlight of biotechnology science. In this research, basic technologies for the production of new genetic resources and microbial strains by a series of studies in radiation-resistant microbial organisms were investigated and developed. Mechanisms required for radiation-resistant in Deinococcus radiodurans were partly defined by analyzing the function of dinB, pprI, recG, DRA 0 279, pprM, and two-component signal transduction systems. To apply genetic resource and functional materials from Deinococcus species, omics analysis in response to cadmium, construction of macroscopic biosensor, and characterization of carotenoids and chaperon protein were performed. Additionally, potential use of D. geothermalis in monosaccharide production from non-biodegradable plant materials was evaluated. Novel radiation resistant yeasts and bacteria were isolated and identified from environmental samples to obtain microbial and genomic resources. An optimal radiation mutant breeding method was set up for efficient and rapid isolation of target microbial mutants. Furthermore, an efficient ethanol producing mutant strain with high production yield and productivity was constructed using the breeding method in collaboration with Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology. Three Deinococcal bioindicators for radiation dosage confirmation after radiation sterilization process were developed. These results provide a comprehensive information for novel functional genetic elements, enzymes, and physiological active substances production or application. Eventually, industrial microbial cell factories based on radiation resistant microbial genomes can be developed and the technologies can be diffused to bioindustry continuously by this project

  19. Microbial synthesis of alka(enes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua eWang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Alka(enes are the predominant constituents of gasoline, diesel, and jet fuels. They can be produced naturally by a wide range of microorganisms. Bio- alka(enes can be used as drop-in biofuels. To date, five microbial pathways that convert free fatty acids or fatty acid derivatives into alka(enes have been identified or reconstituted. The discoveries open a door to achieve microbial production of alka(enes with high efficiency. The modules derived from these alka(ene biosynthetic pathways can be assembled as biological parts and synthetic biology strategies can be employed to optimize the metabolic pathways and improve alka(ene production.

  20. Gluconic Acid: Properties, Applications and Microbial Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitra Ramachandran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Gluconic acid is a mild organic acid derived from glucose by a simple oxidation reaction. The reaction is facilitated by the enzyme glucose oxidase (fungi and glucose dehydrogenase (bacteria such as Gluconobacter. Microbial production of gluconic acid is the preferred method and it dates back to several decades. The most studied and widely used fermentation process involves the fungus Aspergillus niger. Gluconic acid and its derivatives, the principal being sodium gluconate, have wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. This article gives a review of microbial gluconic acid production, its properties and applications.